Two thousand five hundred and thirty two (2,532) males, aged 25 – 50 years potential blood donors were randomly selected from the total number of volunteer blood donors who satisfied the initial screening criteria for donating blood, and were screened for HIV using Immunocomb II (HIV 1 and 2 Bispot) and Recombigen ...
Li, Ling; Li, Ka Yi; Yan, Ke; Ou, Guojin; Li, Wenhui; Wang, Jue; Song, Ning; Tian, Li; Ji, Xin; Chen, Yongjun; Liang, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhong; Wu, Yanyun
Since the establishment of People's Republic of China in 1949, the Chinese government has encountered several catastrophes related to transfusion transmitted diseases. The government's increasing attention to blood safety has prompted the initiation of a series of policies and measures that have enhanced the level of safety for the blood supply and met the basic clinical demands of blood for 1.3 billion people in the country. Blood donation screening strategies in China predominantly comprise donor screening and donor testing. Donor screening includes selection of low-risk blood donors by the use of a donor history questionnaire, predonation physical examination, and initial rapid donor testing. Donor testing includes direct pathogen detection and serology tests. The year 1998 marked the most transformative change in blood donor selection and screening policies in China. Before 1998, paid donation was the predominant mode of blood donation. Donor screening and donor testing were conducted before donation, and only those who were eligible were allowed to donate. To ensure the safety of blood, donor testing was performed again after donation. After the implementation of the Blood Donation Law in 1998, to promote voluntary and unpaid donation, predonation donor testing was eliminated to reduce the amount of waiting time and to provide a more convenient donation experience for blood donors. However, it is the national requirement that donated blood should undergo 2 rounds of testing using different equipment or reagents, conducted by different personnel. Donor selection has transitioned from paid donation and obligatory donation to voluntary donation with fixed volunteer groups, as the latter mode of donation provides the lowest risks. Donations are currently screened for syphilis, hepatitis C virus, HIV, and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Units, previously typed only for ABO, are now routinely tested for both ABO and Rh(D). Innovations in testing technologies and methods
Apr 3, 2006 ... Department of Physiology, Obafemi Awolowo College of Health Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching. Hospital ... screening volunteer donors by initial criteria alone does not fully eliminate all HIV positive donors. The prevalence of HIV ... HIV test criteria alone to qualify for blood donation in the.
Cai, Li-Na; Chen, Bao-An
With increasing application of blood transfusion, the research of side-effects such as transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) became more and more important. Up to the 90's of the 20th century, the first blood donor screening for pathogens transfected from blood transfusion entirely depended on serological test. At this time, the detection of virus were performed mainly by using method of detecting antibody, except hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be detected by hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Now, the molecular technologies, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), have been used in clinic. These technologic methods can provide capability of detection for blood donor screening and reduced possibility of infection from blood transfusion. This review summarises the development of nucleic acid amplification technology and describes its current state.
Ashfaq, A.; Ejaz, A.; Abbas, G.
To determine serum neopterin levels in blood donors of local population and its association with transfusion ransmitted infections. Study Design: A cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study:Department of Physiology, Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College (LNHMC) in collaboration with Basic Medical Sciences Institute (BMSI) and Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC), Blood Bank, Karachi, Pakistan, from January to June 2015. Methodology: During this period, a total of 174 blood donors were selected through random sampling technique. All participants fulfilling the inclusion criteria involving apparently healthy blood donors of either gender within the age bracket of 18 - 60 years and consenting to participate were selected. The participants were screened for transfusion transmitted infections as per WHO recommendations through the standard procedures used for screening at the JPMC blood bank. The demographic profile, anthropometric measurements and vitals were recorded for every participant. Serum neopterin was measured using ELISA kits. Data was analysed on SPSS version 21. ANOVA and chi-square tests were applied as tests of significance at a p-value of <0.05. Results: The neopterin content in the sera of disease negative blood donors was 6.23 +-2.19 nmol/l as compared to disease positive blood donors, in whom the neopterin level was increased to 15.10 +-4.93 nmol/l (p =0.001). Conclusion: The neopterin assay has the potential to detect a number of transfusion transmissible viral diseases; which may, or may not be revealed by the usually employed battery of routine tests. We conclude that the risk of transfusion transmitted pathogens in our population can be reduced significantly, using neopterin assay as a routine in blood banks. (author)
Alfaresi, Mubarak S.; Alzaabi, Azza S.; Islam, Adeel A.; Elkoush, Abida A.; Elnazer, Ayat M.
To investigate the rate of infection caused by Torque teno virus (TTV) in United Arab Emirates (UAEs) healthy population as a pilot study in detecting TTV DNA in 100 healthy blood donors. We randomly choose a total of 100 healthy blood donors who attended Zayed Military Hospital, Abu Dhabi, UAE from January 20 to May 30, 2005. We carried out a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect TTV DNA. Real-time for TTV was positive in 75 (75%) donors. Eight (73%) non-UAE donors were TTV positive while 67 (75%) were UAEs. Among these donors, 72 (77%) were males and 3 (50%) were females. Our results demonstrated a high prevalence of TTV in UAE. (author)
Silva-Malta, M C F; Araujo, N C Fidélis; Vieira, O V Neves; Schmidt, L Cayres; Gonçalves, P de Cassia; Martins, M Lobato
In this study, we present a strategy for RHD gene screening based on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using dried blood spots of pooled samples. Molecular analysis of blood donors may be used to detect RHD variants among the presumed D-negative individuals. RHD genotyping using pooled samples is a strategy to test a large number of samples at a more reasonable cost. RHD gene detection based on real-time PCR using dried blood spots of pooled samples was standardised and used to evaluate 1550 Brazilian blood donors phenotyped as RhD-negative. Positive results were re-evaluated by retesting single samples using real-time PCR and conventional multiplex PCR to amplify five RHD-specific exons. PCR-sequence-specific primers was used to amplify RHDψ allele. We devised a strategy for RHD gene screening using dried blood spots of five pooled samples. Among 1550 serologically D-negative blood donors, 58 (3.74%) had the RHD gene. The non-functional RHDψ allele was detected in 47 samples (3.02%). The present method is a promising strategy to detect the RHD gene among presumed RhD-negative blood donors, particularly for populations with African ancestry. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.
Dahl Jørgensen, Simon Mark; Erikstrup, Christian; Dinh, Khoa Manh
As the use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has gained momentum, an increasing need for continuous access to healthy feces donors has developed. Blood donors constitute a healthy subset of the general population and may serve as an appropriate group for recruitment. In this study, we...... investigated the suitability of blood donors as feces donors. In a prospective cohort study, we recruited blood donors onsite at a public Danish blood bank. Following their consent, the blood donors underwent a stepwise screening process: First, blood donors completed an electronic pre-screening questionnaire...... to rule out predisposing risk factors. Second, eligible blood donors had blood and fecal samples examined. Of 155 blood donors asked to participate, 137 (88%) completed the electronic pre-screening questionnaire, 16 declined, and 2 were excluded. Of the 137 donors who completed the questionnaire, 79 (58...
Sarkodie, F; Ullum, H; Owusu-Dabo, E
not happen at all; or the use of non-specific screening tests, which have high false positive rates, results in many donations being discarded unnecessarily. This can have a critical effect on already inadequate blood supplies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood donors were screened at the time of donation......OBJECTIVE: To implement and describe a novel syphilis screening strategy for blood donors. BACKGROUND: The seroprevalence of syphilis in blood donors is often high in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) although the proportion of infectious donations is probably low. Syphilis screening may...... with an anti-treponemal rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and blood collected irrespective of the result. Units screening negative for syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B and C were released to stock. RDT screen-positive units were re-tested with rapid plasma reagin (RPR) - units testing...
Seck, M; Dièye, B; Guèye, Y B; Faye, B F; Senghor, A B; Toure, S A; Dieng, N; Sall, A; Toure, A O; Dièye, T N; Diop, S
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of medical screening to retain blood donors in window period by comparing the seroprevalence of infectious agents (HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis) in deferred versus accepted blood donors. This prospective and transversal study was performed during 4 months in the National Blood Transfusion Center in Dakar (Senegal). We conducted a convenience sampling comparing the seroprevalence of infectious agents (HIV, HBsAg, HCV and syphilis) in deferred versus accepted blood donors after medical selection. In total, 8219 blood donors were included. Medical selection had authorized 8048 donors (97.92%) and deferred donors were 171 (2.08%). The prevalence of HIV was higher in the deferred than in accepted blood donors (1.75% vs. 0.05%) (P=0.0003; OR=35.91), as well as for HBsAg (12.87% vs. 7.35%) (P=0.006; OR=1.86). HCV antibodies were present in 0.71% of accepted blood donors and 0.58% in deferred blood donors (P=0.65; OR=0.82). Only accepted donors had brought the infection of syphilis (0.34%) (P=0.56; OR=0). Medical selection is efficient to exclude blood donors at high risk of HIV transmission and to a lesser extent of HBV. However, current medical screening procedures do not allow us to exclude donors asymptomatic carriers of HCV and syphilis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
To determine the seroprevalence of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus-1/2 (HTLV-1/2) in blood donors in Northern Pakistan. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Transfusion, Rawalpindi, from July to August 2013. Methodology:A total of 2100 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies during the study period, in a pool of six, on a highly sensitive, Chemiluminiscent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA) based system. The screening test reactive donors were recalled, counseled and interviewed, and a fresh sample was obtained for confirmatory testing. Confirmation was performed using additional immunoassays including Line Immunoassay (LIA); with additional testing for HTLV-1 pvDNAPCR. Frequency and percentages were determined. Results: Four donors (0.19%) were repeatedly screening test-reactive and were subsequently confirmed to be HTLV-1 infected by line immunoassay and HTLV-1 pvDNAPCR. All four donors were male with mean age of 27 ± 6.27 years. Two (50%) of the positive donors gave history of Multiple Sexual Partners (MSP). Conclusion: HTLV-1 seroprevalence in Northern Pakistan blood donors was determined to be 0.19%. Large scale studies, including the cost effectiveness of screening blood donations for anti-HTLV-1/2 in Pakistan, are recommended. (author)
Andréa Tieko Kinoshita-Yanaga
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate, through blood culture and PCR, the results of the ELISA for Chagas' disease in the screening of blood donors in the public blood-supply network of the state of Paraná, Brazil, and to map the epidemiological profile of the donors with respect to their risk of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. The negative and positive results of the ELISA were confirmed by blood culture and PCR for 190/191 individuals (99.5%. For one individual (0.5%, the ELISA was inconclusive, blood culture and IIF were negative, and IHA and PCR positive. Three individuals (1.6% were positive for T. cruzi on all the tests. Donors were predominantly female, and natives of Paraná, of rural origin, had observed or been informed of the presence of the vector in the municipalities where they resided, had never received a blood transfusion, had donated blood 1 to 4 times, and reported no cases of Chagas' disease in their families. We concluded that PCR and blood culturing have excellent potential for confirming the results of the ELISA, and that candidate blood donors with negative or positive tests have a similar risk of infection by T. cruzi, indicating that the ELISA test is sufficiently safe for screening blood prior to use.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, pela hemocultura e PCR, os resultados do teste ELISA utilizado para doença de Chagas na triagem de doadores de sangue na rede pública do Estado do Paraná, Brasil, e traçar o perfil epidemiológico dos doadores quanto ao risco de infecção pelo Trypanosoma cruzi. Os resultados negativos e positivos do ELISA foram confirmados pela hemocultura e PCR em 190/191 indivíduos (99,5%. Para um indivíduo (0,5%, o teste de ELISA foi inconclusivo, hemocultura e IFI foram negativas, HAI e PCR foram positivas. Três indivíduos (1,6% foram positivos para T. cruzi em todos os testes. A maioria dos doadores era do sexo feminino, oriundos do Estado do Paraná, de origem rural, tinham
Sérgio de A. Nishioka
Full Text Available Having a tattoo has been associated with serological evidence of hepatitis B and C viruses, as well as human immunodeficiency virus infections and syphilis; all of these are known to be transmissible by blood transfusion. These associations are of higher magnitude for individuals with nonprofessionally-applied tattoos and with two or more tattoos. Tattoos are common among drug addicts and prisoners, conditions that are also associated with transfusion-transmitted diseases. We examined the implications of these associations for the screening of blood donors in Brazil. Numbers of individuals who would be correctly or unnecessarily deferred from blood donation on the basis of the presence of tattoos, and on their number and type, were calculated for different prevalence situations based on published odds ratios. If having a tattoo was made a deferral criterion, cost savings (due to a reduced need for laboratory testing and subsequent follow-up would accrue at the expense of the deferral of appropriate donors. Restricting deferral to more `at-risk' sub-groups of tattooed individuals would correctly defer less individuals and would also reduce the numbers of potential donors unnecessarily deferred. Key factors in balancing cost savings and unnecessary deferrals include the magnitude of the pool of blood donors in the population, the prevalence of individuals with tattoos and the `culture' of tattoos in the population. Tattoos can therefore be an efficient criterion for the screening of blood donors in certain settings, a finding that requires corroboration from larger population-based studies.
Jimenez, Alexandra; Shaz, Beth H; Kessler, Debra; Bloch, Evan M
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is the focus of an ongoing pandemic. ZIKV is notable for its severe neurologic sequelae in babies born to infected mothers. High rates of subclinical infection, as evidenced by the finding of ZIKV RNA in asymptomatic donors, raise concerns of risk to the blood supply. To date, a total of four suspected cases of transfusion-transmitted ZIKV have been reported (all in Brazil), none of which were associated with clinical infection in the transfusion recipients. In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a guidance mandating national blood donor screening for ZIKV in the United States. Five days after implementation of donor screening at our facility, we encountered a ZIKV-positive donor. We provide a practical approach to donor, recipient, and blood product management in the setting of a positive donor ZIKV result. Such has been informed by the challenges we faced in the workup of a ZIKV-reactive donation and recipient lookback. © 2017 AABB.
evaluation of persons who screen positive in the future. 59th Medical Wing (59th MOW) Institutional Review Board (IRB) 59th Clinical Research Division...59 MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 31 JULY2017 Your paper, entitled Follow-up Evaluation of Air Force Blood Donors Screening...Hall Ambulatory Surgical Center (WHASC) internship and residency programs. Please know that if you are a Graduate Health Sciences Education student and
Deelert, Suparat; Thippayaboon, Pattrawan; Sriwai, Wimolpak; Sriwanitchrak, Pramote; Tubrod, Jintana; Kupatawintu, Pawinee; Nathalang, Oytip
The Jk(a-b-) phenotype is rare in most populations and often detected after transfusion or pregnancy. After immunisation, anti-Jk3 forms and it can be difficult to find compatible Jk(a-b-) donors. Using anti-Jk(a) and anti-Jk(b) in a conventional tube method is unsuitable for identifying Jk(a-b-) in mass screening of blood donors. Jk(a-b-) phenotypes are associated with the absence of urea transporters on erythrocytes, making red blood cells (RBC) resistant to lysis by 2M urea, while Jk(a+b-), Jk(a-b+) and Jk(a+b+) phenotypes are susceptible to lysis. We screened for Jk(a-b-) phenotypes in blood donors by the urea lysis test using a 96-well microplate. The Jk(a-b-) phenotypes were confirmed by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). Altogether, 20,163 blood samples from Thai blood donors were tested and only RBC from five samples were resistant to lysis by 2M urea, while 20,158 samples were completely lysed within 5 min. In an IAT, both anti-Jk(a) and anti-Jk(b) failed to agglutinate RBC from all five samples. Using a micro-titre plate, the direct urea lysis test, costs * 0.01, about 480 times less than IAT. Moreover, the test time for each plate (94 samples) is about 18 times less than that for IAT. Jk(a-b-) phenotype screening by the direct urea lysis test on samples in a micro-titre plate is simple, cost-effective and practical for mass screening of blood donors.
Deelert, Suparat; Thippayaboon, Pattrawan; Sriwai, Wimolpak; Sriwanitchrak, Pramote; Tubrod, Jintana; Kupatawintu, Pawinee; Nathalang, Oytip
Background The Jk(a−b−) phenotype is rare in most populations and often detected after transfusion or pregnancy. After immunisation, anti-Jk3 forms and it can be difficult to find compatible Jk(a−b−) donors. Using anti-Jka and anti-Jkb in a conventional tube method is unsuitable for identifying Jk(a−b−) in mass screening of blood donors. Jk(a−b−) phenotypes are associated with the absence of urea transporters on erythrocytes, making red blood cells (RBC) resistant to lysis by 2M urea, while Jk(a+b−), Jk(a−b+) and Jk(a+b+) phenotypes are susceptible to lysis. Materials and methods. We screened for Jk(a−b−) phenotypes in blood donors by the urea lysis test using a 96-well microplate. The Jk(a−b−) phenotypes were confirmed by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). Results Altogether, 20,163 blood samples from Thai blood donors were tested and only RBC from five samples were resistant to lysis by 2M urea, while 20,158 samples were completely lysed within 5 min. In an IAT, both anti-Jka and anti-Jkb failed to agglutinate RBC from all five samples. Using a micro-titre plate, the direct urea lysis test, costs • 0.01, about 480 times less than IAT. Moreover, the test time for each plate (94 samples) is about 18 times less than that for IAT. Conclusion Jk(a−b−) phenotype screening by the direct urea lysis test on samples in a micro-titre plate is simple, cost-effective and practical for mass screening of blood donors. PMID:20104274
Michel Alves da Silva
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and one of the main factors in the clinical deferral of blood donors. This fact prompted the current study that aimed to determine the prevalence and etiology of anemia in blood donor candidates and to evaluate the hematological screening technique used for the exclusion of these donors. METHODS: This was a prospective study that compared two groups (Anemic and Non-anemic. Initially screening for anemia was performed by manually measuring hemoglobin (Bioclin® Kit; the results were subsequently compared with an automated screening method (Coulter T-890. The etiology was investigated by hemoglobin electrophoresis in alkaline and acid pH, Hb A2 dosage and measurement of the ferritin concentration by immunoagglutination. Differences and associations of interest were analyzed using the Yates and McNemar's Chi-square tests and the Fisher, Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. RESULTS: The deferral rate due to anemia was 4.2%; iron deficiency was identified in 37.5% and beta thalassemia in 9.3% of the excluded candidates. There was a significant discrepancy between the two techniques used to measure hemoglobin with 38.1% of initially deferred donors presenting normal hemoglobin levels by the automated method. CONCLUSION: The results show a high rate of blood donors being deferred for anemia and confirm that iron deficiency is the most prevalent cause. The discrepancies found by comparing screening methods suggest that hemoglobin and hematocrit levels should be confirmed before deferring a donor due to anemia; this may increase supplies in blood banks.
Background: In countries where malaria is endemic, its transmission is a hazard of blood transfusion and could lead to serious if not fatal complications. To assess the likely importance of transfusion induced malaria in Sudan; a descriptive cross sectional facility based study was carried out. Material and Methods: A total ...
Full Text Available Rajendra Chaudhary,1 Anju Dubey,2 Atul Sonker3 1Department of Transfusion Medicine, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, 2Department of Transfusion Medicine, T.S. Misra Medical College and Hospital, 3Department of Transfusion Medicine, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India Abstract: Blood donor hemoglobin (Hb estimation is an important donation test that is performed prior to blood donation. It serves the dual purpose of protecting the donors’ health against anemia and ensuring good quality of blood components, which has an implication on recipients’ health. Diverse cutoff criteria have been defined world over depending on population characteristics; however, no testing methodology and sample requirement have been specified for Hb screening. Besides the technique, there are several physiological and methodological factors that affect accuracy and reliability of Hb estimation. These include the anatomical source of blood sample, posture of the donor, timing of sample and several other biological factors. Qualitative copper sulfate gravimetric method has been the archaic time-tested method that is still used in resource-constrained settings. Portable hemoglobinometers are modern quantitative devices that have been further modified to reagent-free cuvettes. Furthermore, noninvasive spectrophotometry was introduced, mitigating pain to blood donor and eliminating risk of infection. Notwithstanding a tremendous evolution in terms of ease of operation, accuracy, mobility, rapidity and cost, a component of inherent variability persists, which may partly be attributed to pre-analytical variables. Hence, blood centers should pay due attention to validation of test methodology, competency of operating staff and regular proficiency testing of the outputs. In this article, we have reviewed various regulatory guidelines, described the variables that affect the measurements and compared the validated
Lenhard, M James; Maser, Raelene E; Kolm, Paul; Healy, Michael J; Seshadri, Prakash
The objective was to determine if a free, voluntary diabetes screening program as a part of the blood donation process might be cost-effective. During the first 6 months of the program, 26,415 donors were screened using a single random plasma glucose (RPG) level. All donors were asked to eat before donation. Low-, moderate-, and high-risk groups were formed based on RPG levels (200 mg/dL). Contact with a telephone questionnaire was made with 139 of 178 (78%) of the persons in the high-risk group with 33 new cases of diabetes diagnosed by the donor's physician and 26 donors indicating that they were not diagnosed with diabetes. Sex- and age-matched donors in the low- and moderate-risk groups were contacted and administered the same questionnaire. The three risk groups were similar, except for body mass index (28.1 ± 5.4 kg/m2 vs. 29.9 ± 5.5 kg/m2 vs. 32.7 ± 5.6 kg/m2 , p RPG cutoff of 200 mg/dL, sensitivity was 100%, specificity was 82%, and positive predictive value was 56%. Cost analyses showed that the mean cost to screen, per donor, was less than $1. Cost per case identified was estimated to be less than $500 for a RPG cutoff of 200 mg/dL. Screening during the blood donation process appears to be accurate, convenient, and inexpensive. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.
Anastassia Ya. Antipova
Full Text Available Parvovirus B19 (PV B19 replicates predominantly in progenitor cells of human erythrocytes and is transmitted by an airborne, vertical through and through blood or infected tissues. At-risk are pregnant women, people with immunodeficiency of different nature and individuals who need blood transfusions or organ transplantation. The available data indicate a high risk of infection through transfusion of blood containing the DNA of parvovirus B19, with viral load 105 copies/ml and above (Hourfar M.K. et al., 2011. According to the requirements of national regulations, the production of therapeutic drugs from plasma assumes the use of raw materials, free from viruses or with minimal viral load (Filatova E.C. et al., 2011. In some foreign countries a study of donor blood for the presence of DNA PV B19 is required; in our country the need for such screening is discussed (Giburt E.B. et al., 2013. Due to the fact that parvovirus is resistant to the methods of blood products desinfection, it is especially important to assess the quality of donor blood. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of the two markers parvovirus infection (IgG and PV B19 DNA in blood samples from one of the blood centers at St. Petersburg. Plasma samples from 100 blood donors from Military Medical Academy blood centre were tested by ELISA for the presence of IgG antibodies of parvovirus B19. Positive samples were tested by PCR for the DNA of parvovirus B19. ELISA test system recomWell Parvovirus B19 IgG (Microgen GmbH, Germany and diagnostic kits of Federal State Institution of Science «Central research Institute for epidemiology» of Rospotrebnadzor (Moscow, Russia which are approved for use in RF was used according to the manufacturers instructions. It was shown that 78 out of 100 donors aged 18 to 58 years had IgG-antibodies.76 positive blood plasma samples were investigated by PCR, with the 19 donors have found DNA of parvovirus B19 (25%. Viral load of one donor was 106
Sommese, Linda; Paolillo, Rossella; Sabia, Chiara; Costa, Dario; De Pascale, Maria Rosaria; Iannone, Carmela; Esposito, Antonella; Schiano, Concetta; Napoli, Claudio
Serological assays are still considered the most useful tests in the diagnosis of syphilis. Since no single serological assay is able to provide a satisfactory result, in our laboratory we have evaluated the usefulness of a commercially-available immunoblot to diagnose syphilis infection among blood donors. From October 2012 to June 2013, 4572 blood donors were screened for syphilis with an automated chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). To confirm the presence of treponemal antibodies, CMIA-reactive sera were tested by standard Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA). In addition, an alternative confirmatory test - the immunoblot INNO-LIA assay was introduced in our laboratory. Since two additional positives among CMIA-reactive-TPHA-negative samples were found, we concluded that the INNO-LIA immunoblot allowed a better detection of syphilis compared to TPHA. A confirmatory strategy based on the use of two treponemal assays could meet the screening requirements for blood donors as well as in our centre. © The Author(s) 2015.
Dong, Jie; Wu, Yaling; Zhu, Hong; Li, Gan; Lv, Mengen; Wu, Daxiao; Li, Xiaotao; Zhu, Faming; Lv, Hangjun
Background Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) is not yet obligatory in China for blood donor screening and the risk of enzyme immunoassay (EIA)-negative, NAT-reactive donations in Chinese blood donors has rarely been reported. The aim of this study was to screen a population of Chinese blood donors using a triplex individual-donation (ID)-NAT assay and assess the safety benefits of implementing NAT. Materials and methods Between 1st August, 2010 and 31st December, 2011 all donations at a Chinese blood centre were screened individually using the Procleix® Ultrio® assay, a multiplex NAT assay for the detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA, hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA and human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) RNA. All donations were also screened for HBsAg, anti-HIV and anti-HCV using two different EIA for each marker. Samples with discordant results between NAT and EIA were further tested with an alternative NAT assay (Cobas® TaqMan®). Potential yield cases (serologically negative/NAT-reactive donors) were further evaluated when possible. Results During the study period a total of 178,447 donations were screened by NAT and EIA, among which 169 HBV NAT yield cases (0.095%) were detected. No N AT yield cases were found for HIV-1 or HCV. For the HBV NAT yield cases, follow-up results showed that 11 (6.51%) were probable or confirmed HBV window period infections, 5 (2.96%) were chronic HBV carriers and 153 (90.53%) were probable or confirmed occult HBV infections. There was a statistically significant difference between the NAT-positive rates for first-time vs repeat donations (0.472% vs 0.146%, respectively; P<0.001). Discussion Our data demonstrate that the potential HBV yield rate was 1:1,056 for blood donations in the Zhejiang province of China. Implementation of NAT will provide a significant increment in safety relative to serological screening alone. PMID:24333061
Snežana Levičnik Stezinar
Among screened donors, the anti-HBc incidence rate was 179/5959 (3.00 %. Therewere 55 samples that were anti-HBc positive only (69.83 % of anti-HBc pos, 0.90 % of alldonations. The number of units positive for both antibodies was 124 (2.10 % of all testeddonations. No significant difference was noted in the prevalence between male (3.00 %and female (2.99 %. As expected, there was a raise in frequency from 0.78 % in a group of18–29 years to 5.82 % in a group 50–65 years. In the study group there was one donorwho was HBsAg carrier.Conclusion According to the results of this study, Slovenia is ranged among the countries with mediumanti-HBc prevalence rate. Screening of donors would additionally contribute to the higherblood safety. The higher cost due to testing and destroying units is not acceptable, especiallyafter the implementation of screening for HBV DNA and excluding the units that are reallyinfectious
Slot, Ed; Hogema, Boris M.; Molier, Michel; Bart, Aldert; Zaaijer, Hans L.
Blood donors unaware of Trypanosoma cruzi infection may donate infectious blood. Risk factors and the presence of T. cruzi antibodies in at-risk Dutch blood donors were studied to assess whether specific blood safety measures are warranted in the Netherlands. Birth in a country endemic for Chagas
Pervaiz, A.; Sipra, F.S.; Rana, T.H.; Qadeer, I.
Prisoners as a high risk group are never recommended for blood donations. In Pakistan, prisoners are legally allowed to donate blood and get thirty days extra remission. Inspectorate of prisons allowed Alizaib Foundation for blood donation camps subject to pre-donation screening of volunteer prisoner blood donor against infectious diseases. This study was conducted to identify the potential benefits of pre-donation screening. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in October, 2009 in Punjab. Intending volunteer prisoner blood donors from January, 2007 to September, 2009 from prisons of Punjab were included. Physically fit were tested for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and B Virus (HBV) by Rapid test kit before bleeding. Data was analysed by Epi-Info. Results: A total of 5894 male volunteer prisoner donors were screened and 1038 (17.6%) were rejected. The mean age was 28 years (range: 17-70 years). Of 5894, 857 (14.5%) were HCV positive and 222 (3.8%) were HBV positive. HCV and HBV co-infection was present among 41 (0.7%). Being convicted prisoner blood donor is significantly associated with higher seroprevalence for HCV (OR 1.35, 95% C.I. 1.17-1.57) and being under trial prisoner is significantly associated with higher seroprevalence for HBV (OR 1.40, 95% C.I. 1.06-1.85). Conclusion: Hepatitis B and C viruses were responsible for almost 18% prisoner blood donor rejection. Pre-donation screening of blood donors is an effective intervention to improve the safety and limit the cost of blood. Treatment of identified cases may contribute to public health. In the international scenario this study findings necessitate the amendments in the relevant prison rules. (author)
Bryant, Barbara J; Yau, Yu Ying; Arceo, Sarah M; Hopkins, Julie A; Leitman, Susan F
Pica and restless legs syndrome (RLS) are associated with iron depletion and deficiency. The presence of pica and RLS was prospectively assessed in blood donors. During a 39-month period, 1236 donors deferred for fingerstick hemoglobin (Hb) level of less than 12.5 g/dL and 400 nondeferred "control" donors underwent health screening and laboratory testing (complete blood count, ferritin, iron, transferrin). Pica and RLS were assessed by direct questioning. Deferred donors and iron-deficient control donors were given 325 mg of ferrous sulfate daily for 60 days. Reassessments were performed and additional iron tablets dispensed at subsequent visits. Pica was reported in 11% of donors with iron depletion or deficiency, compared with 4% of iron-replete donors (p Pagophagia (ice pica) was most common and often of extraordinary intensity. Female sex, younger age, and lower mean cell volume and transferrin saturation values were strongly associated with pica. Donors with pica given iron reported a marked reduction in the desire to consume the nonnutritive substance by Days 5 to 8 of therapy, with disappearance of symptoms by Days 10 to 14. RLS was reported in 16% of subjects with iron depletion or deficiency compared with 11% of iron-replete donors (p = 0.012). Iron replacement generally resulted in improvement of RLS symptoms; however, at least 4 to 6 weeks of iron therapy was necessary. The presence of pica is associated with a high probability of iron depletion or deficiency in blood donors; however, RLS lacks a strong correlation in this population. Screening questions for pagophagia may be useful in the ascertainment of iron deficiency in donors and may identify those who would benefit from oral iron. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.
Sandes, V S; Silva, S G C; Motta, I J F; Velarde, L G C; de Castilho, S R
We propose to analyse the positive and false-positive results of treponemal and nontreponemal tests in blood donors from Brazil and to evaluate possible factors associated with the results of treponemal tests. Treponemal tests have been used widely for syphilis screening in blood banks. The introduction of these tests in donor screening has caused an impact and a loss of donors who need to be assessed. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of syphilis screening and confirmatory test results of blood donors that were obtained before and after adopting a chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA). A comparative analysis was performed using a second sample drawn from positive donors. The possible factors associated with CLIA-positive or CLIA-false-positive results were investigated in a subgroup. Statistical tests were used to compare the proportions and adjusted estimates of association. The reactivity rate increased from 1·01% (N = 28 158) to 2·66% (N = 25 577) after introducing the new test. Among Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL)- and CLIA-confirmed results, the false-positive rates were 40·5% (N = 180) and 37·4% (N = 359), respectively (P = 0·5266). Older donors (OR = 1·04; P = 0·0010) and donors with lower education levels (OR = 6·59; P = 0·0029) were associated with a higher risk of positivity for syphilis. CLIA represents an improvement in blood bank serological screening. However, its use in a healthy population appears to result in high rates of false positives. Identifying which characteristics can predict false positives, however, remains a challenge. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.
Slot, Ed; Hogema, Boris M.; Molier, Michel; Zaaijer, Hans L.
The Netherlands experienced major Q fever outbreaks from 2007 through 2009. An increasing number of human chronic Q fever cases has been reported in the affected area. Blood donors unaware of chronic Coxiella burnetii infection might be infectious for transfusion recipients. Local blood donations
Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of microcytosis in donors and Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA and Beta-Thalassemia trait (BTT in microcytic and non-microcytic donors has not been studied in India. The present study aims at finding the same. Materials and Methods: Initially 925 donor samples were evaluated on cell-counter. Of these, 50 were found to be microcytic. These were subjected to Ferritin and HbA2 determination. Subsequently, an additional 51, age-and-sex matched non-microcytic donor samples were selected to serve as controls. These were subjected to the same tests. Results: The prevalence of microcytosis was 5.4% (50/925. Among the microcytic donors, 52% were IDA, 36% BTT, 8% both, and 4% none. In case of non-microcytic donors 29.4% were IDA, 3.9% BTT, and 66.7% none. Conclusions: The study revealed a high prevalence of IDA and BTT in blood donors and a higher probability of finding these in the microcytic samples. This prompted authors to suggest an algorithm for screening of blood donors for IDA and BTT. The algorithm recommends doing an hemogram on all donor samples, routinely. Ferritin could be done only in microcytic samples. At levels lower than15 ng/ml, it is diagnosed as IDA, and therefore, HPLC is performed only for non-IDA samples with Ferritin levels higher than 15 ng/ml. By employing this algorithm, a substantial number of IDA and BTT could be diagnosed while keeping the number of Ferritin tests small and the number of HPLC tests even smaller and thus making it cost efficient.
Full Text Available Backgroud. Strongyloides stercoralis is a ubiquitous nematode that is present also in Italy in a hypoendemic form, especially in the Po Valley. It is responsable for strongyloidiasis, an intestinal parasitosis usually asymptomatic or paucy-symptomatic that occasionally can cause a hyperinfestation syndrome and disseminated disease. Objectives. To determine the presence of S. stercoralis in asympomatic people afferent to the Cremona hospital by serological screening and direct microscopic search. Study Design. In the period from December 1, 2010 to June 30, 2011 we screened 154 donors with absolute eosinophilia >500/μL and percentage of eosinophils 9%. The research of anti-S. stercoralis antibodies was performed through an ELISA method (S.ratti Bordier Products. Donors positive to the screening test were tested for direct parasite search through with phormol-ethyl acetate stool concentration (FEA and culture on S. stercoralis Agar (Biolife, Milan. Results. 13 donors were positive to the screening test (8.4%. 10 of these 13 donors performed coproparassitologic examination. S. stercoralis was identified in the stools of 3/10 tested patients through culture and in 2/10 through FEA. Conclusions. The study results are in line with the data reported in the literature for similar geographic areas. Among the risk factors are to be counted the type of job (agriculture, and the domicile in the rural environment. The culture in S. stercoralis Agar has proved much more sensitive than FEA. The serological diagnosis represent a valuable contribution to traditional coproparassitologic examination, particularlywhen screening asymptomatic individuals at risk.
Olotu, Amadin A; Oyelese, Adesola O; Salawu, Lateef; Audu, Rosemary A; Okwuraiwe, Azuka P; Aboderin, Aaron O
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission through blood transfusion is reduced by screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). However this method cannot detect the presence of occult hepatitis B virus infection. This study sought to determine the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. For the first time in Nigeria we employed an automated real-time PCR- method to investigate the prevalence of occult HBV in blood donors. Blood donors screened with HBsAg immunochromatographic rapid test kits at the blood transfusion units of two hospitals and found to be negative were recruited into the study. Questionnaires to elicit risk factors for HBV infection were administered and then 10 ml of blood was collected from each donor. Plasma samples obtained from these HBsAg negative blood donors were screened again for HBsAg using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, and those found negative were screened for the presence of total antibody to the HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) using ELISA method. Those positive to anti-HBc were then tested for HBV DNA, using an automated real-time PCR method. Five hundred and seven blood donors found HBsAg negative by immunochromatographic rapid test kits at both blood transfusion units, were tested for HBsAg using ELISA and 5 (1 %) were HBsAg positive. The 502 found negative were tested for anti-HBc and 354 (70.5 %) were found positive implying previous exposure to HBV and 19 (5.4 %) of the 354 anti-HBc positive had HBV DNA signifying occult HBV infection. No risk factors were found to be associated with the presence of HBV DNA among those who tested positive. Occult HBV infection exists in blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria and the use of HBsAg alone for screening prospective donors will not eliminate the risk of HBV transmission in blood transfusion or stem cell transplantation.
Full Text Available
Background: Transfusion-associated hepatitis B viral infection continues to be a major problem in India even after adoption of mandatory screening for HBsAg by ELISA method. The high incidence of TAHBV is reported in patients receiving multiple transfusions.
Objective: To study the seroprevalence of hepatitis B core antibody among healthy voluntary blood donors
Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Transfusion Medicine of a tertiary care referral hospital. A total of 12,232 volunteers after passing through the stringent criteria were selected for blood donation. Donor samples were tested for all mandatory transfusion transmissible infections and anti HBc IgM (Monolisa HBc IgM PLUS:BIO-RAD, France. Reactive results were confirmed by repeat testing in duplicate. Donor data was analyzed using SPSS software and Chi-square test was used to calculate the significance of difference between the groups.
Results:A total of 12,232 healthy voluntary blood donors were recruited. Majority (93.4% were males. Median age of donor population was 26 years (range: 18-60 years. Eighty six (0.7% were positive for HBsAg, which comes under “low prevalence (<2% zone” as per WHO. On screening for HBcAg Ig M, 15 (0.1% were found to be positive and none were HBsAg reactive. There was no significance of difference in the mean age between reactive and non-reactive donors.
Conclusion:Evaluating the usefulness of anti-HBc screening is critical. Anti HBcAg IgM screening may be included in routine screening of donors as it is an indicator of occult HBV during window period. The cost and the unnecessary wastage of the blood units when they are positive for anti HBsAg along with the core antibody need to be studied.
Wagner, Franz F
SCREENING BLOOD DONORS FOR RARE ANTIGEN CONSTELLATIONS HAS BEEN IMPLEMENTED USING SIMPLE PCR METHODS: PCR with enzyme digestion has been used to type donor cohorts for Dombrock antigens, and PCR with sequence-specific priming to identify donors negative for antigens of high frequency. The advantages and disadvantages of the methods as well as their current state is discussed.
Wednesday 13 November 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs will be held a blood donors campaign, organized by the Etablissement de Transfusion de Haute-Savoie If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.
Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.
A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.
A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion d'Annemasse will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.
A blood donors campaign, organized by the Établissement de Transfusion de Rhône-Alpes will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2000 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.
Sarkodie, F; Hassall, O; Owusu-Dabo, E; Owusu-Ofori, S; Bates, I; Bygbjerg, I C; Owusu-Ofori, A; Harritshøj, L H; Ullum, H
Syphilis testing conventionally relies on a combination of non-treponemal and treponemal tests. The primary objective of this study was to describe the positive predictive value (PPV) of a screening algorithm in a combination of a treponemal rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Ghana. From February 2014 to January 2015, 5 mL of venous blood samples were taken from 16 016 blood donors and tested with a treponemal RDT; 5 mL of venous blood was taken from 526 consenting initial syphilis sero-reactive blood donors. These RDT reactive samples were confirmed with an algorithm, applying the Vitros ® /Abbott-Architect ® algorithm as gold standard. A total of 478 of 526 RDT reactive donors were confirmed positive for syphilis, making a PPV of 90·9%. Of the 172 (32·7%) donors who were also RPR positive, 167 were confirmed, resulting in a PPV of 97·1%. The PPV of the combined RDT and RPR (suspected active syphilis) testing algorithm was highest among donors at an enhanced risk of syphilis, family/replacement donors (99·9%), and among voluntary donors above 25 years (98·6%). Screening of blood donors by combining syphilis RDT and RPR with relatively good PPV may provide a reasonable technology for LMIC that has a limited capacity for testing and can contribute to the improvement of blood safety with a minimal loss of donors. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.
Sarkodie, Francis; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Hassall, Oliver; Bates, Imelda; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Ullum, Henrik
To describe the recalled medical history, clinical manifestations, and treatment of yaws and syphilis by syphilis seroreactive blood donors in Kumasi, Ghana. Of the blood donors at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana tested with the syphilis rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and later by rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, 526 were seroreactive. Four hundred and seventy-one (89.5%) of these subjects were confirmed with the Ortho-Vitros Syphilis TP test as the gold standard and were interviewed to determine past or present clinical manifestations of yaws and syphilis. Of the 471 respondent donors, 28 (5.9%) gave a history of skin lesions and sores; four (14.3%) of these subjects, who were all male and RPR-positive, recalled a diagnosis of syphilis. All four reported having had skin lesions/bumps with slow-healing sores, but only one of them had had these symptoms before the age of 15 years. A small proportion of confirmed seroreactive donors in this sample had any recall of symptoms or treatment for yaws or syphilis. These data suggest that clinical questioning adds little further information to the current screening algorithm. The relative contribution of yaws and syphilis to frequent positive tests in endemic areas remains speculative. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
The performance of the multiplex Procleix Ultrio Elite assay as individual donor nucleic acid test (ID-NAT) for the detection of HIV-1, HIV-2, HCV, and HBV was evaluated in a retrospective, single center study. ID-NAT results of 21,181 blood donors, 984 tissue donors, 293 hematopoietic stem cell donors and 4 organ donors were reviewed in synopsis with results of serological screening and additional discriminatory and repetitive NAT in case of positive donors. Specificity of the initial Procleix Ultrio Elite assay was 99.98% and after discriminatory testing 100.00%. Initially invalid results were observed in 75 of 21,181 blood donors (0.35%) but 16 of 984 tissue donors (1.62%, p donors. All these had valid negative ID-NAT results after repeated testing or testing of 1:5 diluted specimens in case of tissue donors. Occult hepatitis B (defined here as HBV DNAemia without HBsAg detection) was demonstrated by ID-NAT in two anti-HBc-positive tissue donors and suspected in two other tissue donors, where a definite diagnosis was not achieved due to the insufficient sample volumes available. The Procleix Ultrio Elite assay proved to be specific, robust and rapid. Therefore, routine ID-NAT may also be feasible for organ and granulocyte donors.
Veldhuisen, B.; van der Schoot, C. E.; de Haas, M.
Blood group antigens, present on the cell membrane of red blood cells and platelets, can be defined either serologically or predicted based on the genotypes of genes encoding for blood group antigens. At present, the molecular basis of many antigens of the 30 blood group systems and 17 human
Sarkodie, F.; Hassall, O.; Owusu-Dabo, E.
reagin (RPR) test at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Ghana. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From February 2014 to January 2015, 5 mL of venous blood samples were taken from 16 016 blood donors and tested with a treponemal RDT; 5 mL of venous blood was taken from 526 consenting initial syphilis sero...... of blood donors by combining syphilis RDT and RPR with relatively good PPV may provide a reasonable technology for LMIC that has a limited capacity for testing and can contribute to the improvement of blood safety with a minimal loss of donors.......BACKGROUND: Syphilis testing conventionally relies on a combination of non-treponemal and treponemal tests. The primary objective of this study was to describe the positive predictive value (PPV) of a screening algorithm in a combination of a treponemal rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasma...
Sarkodie, Francis; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Hassall, Oliver
Objective:To describe the recalled medical history, clinical manifestations, and treatment of yaws and syphilis by syphilis seroreactive blood donors in Kumasi, Ghana. Methods: Of the blood donors at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana tested with the syphilis rapid diagnostic test (RDT......) and later by rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, 526 were seroreactive. Four hundred and seventy-one (89.5%) of these subjects were confirmed with the Ortho-Vitros Syphilis TP test as the gold standard and were interviewed to determine past or present clinical manifestations of yaws and syphilis. Results......: Of the 471 respondent donors, 28 (5.9%) gave a history of skin lesions and sores; four (14.3%) of these subjects, who were all male and RPR-positive, recalled a diagnosis of syphilis. All four reported having had skin lesions/bumps with slow-healing sores, but only one of them had had these symptoms before...
Chevalier, Michelle S; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Basavaraju, Sridhar V; Ocfemia, M Cheryl Bañez; Alsina, Jose O; Climent-Peris, Consuelo; Moseley, Robin R; Chung, Koo-Whang; Rivera-García, Brenda; Bello-Pagán, Melissa; Pate, Lisa L; Galel, Susan A; Williamson, Phillip; Kuehnert, Matthew J
Puerto Rico has been heavily impacted by Zika virus, a mosquitoborne flavivirus that emerged in the Americas during 2015. Although most persons with Zika virus show no symptoms, the virus can cause neurologic and other complications, including fetal microcephaly. Local Zika virus transmission in Puerto Rico has been reported since December 2015. To prevent transfusion-associated transmission, local blood collection ceased in March 2016 but resumed in April 2016 after Zika virus screening of blood donations became available. Using data from screening of blood donations collected by the 2 largest blood centers in Puerto Rico during April 3-August 12, 2016, and assuming a 9.9-day duration of viremia, we estimated that 469,321 persons in Puerto Rico were infected during this period, for an estimated cumulative incidence of 12.9%. Results from blood donation screening during arboviral outbreaks can supplement routine clinical and surveillance data for improved targeting of prevention efforts.
Rigas, A S; Pedersen, O B; Magnussen, K
and menopausal status are the strongest predictors of iron deficiency. Only little information on the health effects of iron deficiency in blood donors exits. Possibly, after a standard full blood donation, a temporarily reduced physical performance for women is observed. However, iron deficiency among blood...... donors is not reflected in a reduced self-perceived mental and physical health. In general, the high proportion of iron-deficient donors can be alleviated either by extending the inter-donation intervals or by guided iron supplementation. The experience from Copenhagen, the Capital Region of Denmark......, is that routine ferritin measurements and iron supplementation are feasible and effective ways of reducing the proportion of donors with low haemoglobin levels....
Rivera-López, María Rebeca F; Arenas-Esqueda, Alfonso; Ambriz-Fernández, Raúl
A syphilis test is performed in blood donors because the national transfusion law makes it mandatory, nevertheless the blood has not been found as an important vehicle of transmission for Treponema pallidum infection. Our objective was to know the prevalence of syphilis in blood donors. we reviewed tests from blood donors of the "Banco Central de Sangre del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI" in two periods, the first from July 2001 to April 2003, and the second from March 2005 to June 2006. Both groups went through screening tests, such as VDRL or USR. and a second test for confirmation, FTA-ABS for the first group and TPHA for the second group. in the first group 111 030 blood donors were included. In this group the positive results from VDRL or USR tests were 471 (0.42 %). One hundred and ninety six were confirmed (0.17 %) with FTA-ABS. In the second group results from 80 578 blood donors were included; the positive results from VDRL or USR tests were 279 (0.34 %). In this group, only 0.08 % were confirmed for a syphilis infection.
Objectives: To determine the Seroprevalence of Treponema pallidum in Donor blood at University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin City. Materials and Method: This is a descriptive hospital based study. Donor blood supplied to the hospital blood bank was screened for syphilis. The study was conducted between February ...
Rahman, M.; Khan, S.A.
To determine the percentage of false positive testing for transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) using immunochromatographic test (ICT) as first line of screening tests and its effect on loss of volunteer blood donors. Over a period of three months, samples from blood bags of donors undergoing phlebotomy at teaching hospital blood banks in Lahore were screened for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) by immunochromatographic tests. Those found positive on initial screening were re-tested by ELISA method at the screening laboratory of the Institute of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Service, Punjab. Lahore. Out of a total of 62090 voluntary blood donors, 469 donors were found to be initially reactive for either HIV, HBV or HCV. Amongst these 96 (0.15%) blood donors were found to have tested falsely positive for HIV, HBV or HCV as compared to testing by ELISA. False positive testing rate of 0.15% or 96 out of a total of 62090 donors is rather small in terms of loss of voluntary donors and appropriate utilization of available resources. Although immunochromatographic testing is not the gold standard, however it serves an important purpose of initial donor screening. (author)
Diekamp, Ulrich; Gneißl, Johannes; Rabe, Angela; Kießig, Stephan T.
Background Reports on unexpected events (UEs) during blood donation (BD) inadequately consider the role of technical UEs. Methods Defined local and systemic UEs were graded by severity; technical UEs were not graded. On January 1, 2008, E.B.P.S.-Logistics (EBPS) installed the UE module for plasma management software (PMS). Donor room physicians entered UEs daily into PMS. Medical directors reviewed entries quarterly. EBPS compiled data on donors, donations, and UEs from January 1, 2008 to June 30, 2011. Results 6,605 UEs were observed during 166,650 BDs from 57,622 donors for a corrected incidence of 4.30% (0.66% local, 1.59% systemic, 2.04% technical UEs). 2.96% of BDs were accompanied by one UE and 0.45% by >1 UE (2-4). 6.3% of donors donating blood for their first time, 3.5% of those giving blood for their second time, and 1.9% of donors giving their third or more BD experienced UEs. Most common UEs were: discontinued collections due to venous access problems, repeated venipuncture, and small hematomas. Severe circulatory UEs occurred at a rate of 16 per 100,000 BDs. Conclusions Technical UEs were common during BD. UEs accompanied first and second donations significantly more often than subsequent donations. PMID:26195932
A five-year retrospective study on the distribution of HIV infection among blood donors was conducted at the Nigerian Christian Hospital, Onicha Ngwa. A total of 8862 prospective blood donors (comprising of 6504 males and 2358 females) were screened for HIV using the ELISA technique. Nine hundred and thirty five ...
... of Blood Donors and Blood and Blood Components Based on Screening Tests for Syphilis; Availability... Management of Blood Donors and Blood and Blood Components Based on Screening Tests for Syphilis,'' dated... for Screening, Testing, and Management of Blood Donors and Blood and Blood Components Based on...
Rahman, M.U.; Akhtar, G.N.; Lodhi, Y.
Objective: To assess the prevalence of anti HCV antibodies in blood donors. Design: The retrospective sero-epidemiological data of the institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion Service, Punjab over a period of one year after starting HCV screening, was analyzed to estimate the percentage prevalence. Setting; The data was obtained regularly from the blood units established by this institute at the pablic sector hospitals and retesting on initially reactive serum sample by EIA was done at the Institute. Subjects: A total of 166183 directed first time donors or replacement blood donors aged 18-60 years who donated blood at these blood banks or at mobile sessions have been included in the study. All initially reactive donors who tested non-reactive on EIA were excluded from the study. Main outcome Measures: Assessment of prevalence of HCV in blood donors. Results: 4.45% of the total donors intially tested reactive of these 0.36 % were atsety reactive on intial screening. Further testing by EIA, 4.1%. Conclusions: The blood transfusion service started screening for HCV in April 2000 and the prevalence of HCV, amongst the transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) being screened for in the Punjab, is the highest. It is almost double the prevalence of HBV and several thousand time that of HIV. Meticulous and total screening coverage is needed to curtail impending catastrophe. With experience, the choice of testing methodology might have to be reviewed. (author)
Kotze, Sebastian Ranzi; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S
BACKGROUND: It is well known that blood donors are at increased risk of iron deficiency and subsequent development of iron deficiency anemia. We aimed to investigate the effect of factors influencing hemoglobin (Hb) levels. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Initiated in 2010, the Danish Blood Donor Study...... measurement as a method of risk assessment among blood donors....
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to search for the partial D phenotype in Moroccan blood donors with weak D expression. The study included 32 samples with weak D phenotype, and partial D category red blood cells were detected with the D-Screen Diagast kit, which consists in 9 monoclonal anti-D antibodies specific for the most common categories of partial D. Among the 32 samples studied, we identified 13 specific reactions to a partial D antigen (3 DVI, 2 DVa, 2 DIII(a,b,c, and 6 DVII, with 8 reactions suggesting a weak D and 11 reactions providing no formal argument in favor of a partial D antigen. This work can be used to validate the performance of the anti-D reagent and to improve the safety of transfusion of red blood cells from donors expressing the partial D antigen by integrating the finding into the recipient file with a recommendation concerning the appropriate care.
Garg, Neeraj; Sharma, Tanya; Singh, Bharat
To evaluate the prevalence of the anti-red blood cell antibodies among healthy blood donors. Antibody screening of all voluntary blood donor serum was performed as routine immunohematological procedure. Positive sera were further investigated to identify the specificity of irregular erythrocyte antibody by commercially available red cell panel (ID-Dia Panel, Diamed-ID Microtyping System). A total of 47,450 donors were screened for the presence of irregular erythrocyte antibodies. A total of forty-six donors showed presence of alloantibodies in their serum (46/47,450%, 0.09%), yielding a prevalence of 0.09%. Most frequent alloantibodies identified were of MNS blood group system. The results showed statistically a higher prevalence of RBC alloantibodies in females than in males. Screening for presence of alloantibodies in donor blood is important to provide compatible blood products and to avoid transfusion reactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Laursen, A H; Bjerrum, O W; Friis-Hansen, L
of hyperferritinaemia in the blood donor population and explore the value of extensive HH mutational analyses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-nine consecutive donors (f = 6, m = 43) were included prospectively from the Capital Regional Blood Center. Inclusion criteria were a single ferritin value >1000 μg/l or repeated......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the obligate iron loss from blood donation, some donors present with hyperferritinaemia that can result from a wide range of acute and chronic conditions including hereditary haemochromatosis (HH). The objective of our study was to investigate the causes...... four donors had apparent alternative causes of hyperferritinaemia. CONCLUSION: HH-related mutations were the most frequent cause of hyperferritinaemia in a Danish blood donor population, and it appears that several different HH-genotypes can contribute to hyperferritinaemia. HH screening in blood...
Tatikonda, Vamsi Krishna; El-Ocla, Hosam
Milanović, Mirjana Krga; Bujandrić, Nevenka; Knezević, Natasa Milosavljević
Blood groups are inherited biological characteristics that do not change throughout life in healthy people. Blood groups represent antigens found on the surface of red blood cells. Kell blood group system consists of 31 antigens. Kell antigen (K) is present in 0.2% of the population (the rare blood group). Cellano antigen is present in more than 99% (the high-frequency antigen). These antigens have a distinct ability to cause an immune response in the people after blood transfusion or pregnancy who, otherwise, did not have them before. This paper presents a blood donor with a rare blood group, who was found to have an irregular antibody against red blood cells by indirect antiglobulin test. Further testing determined the specificity of antibody to be anti-Cellano. The detected antibody was found in high titers (1024) with erythrocyte phenotype Kell-Cellano+. The blood donor was found to have a rare blood group KellKell. This donor was excluded from further blood donation. It is difficult to find compatible blood for a person who has developed an antibody to the high-frequency antigen. The donor's family members were tested and Cellano antigen was detected in her husband and child. A potential blood donor was not found among the family members. There was only one blood donor in the Register of blood donors who was compatible in the ABO and Kell blood group system. For the successful management of blood transfusion it is necessary to establish a unified national register of donors of rare blood groups and cooperate with the International Blood Group Reference Laboratory in Bristol with the database that registers donors of rare blood groups from around the world.
Torres, Kátia Luz; Dos Santos Moresco, Mônica Nascimento; Sales, Luciane Rodrigues; da Silva Abranches, Josilene; Araújo Alexandre, Márcia Almeida; Malheiro, Adriana
With 99% of the cases in Brazil, malaria is endemic in the Amazon region. Transfusion-transmitted malaria, an important risk in endemic areas, has been reported. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological profile of blood donor candidates at the Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Amazonas and evaluate the efficacy of rapid diagnostic tests used for malaria screening of blood donors within endemic regions. Between May 2008 and May 2009, 407 blood donor candidates were selected and grouped based on the Malaria Annual Parasite Index of the geographic area in which they originated: Group 1 (eligible donors - n=265) originated from areas of low to medium risk of exposure to malaria and Group 2 (ineligible donors - n=142) originated from high-risk areas. All samples were concurrently screened using two immunochromatic antigen-based rapid tests and by the thick smear test. All samples were negative by all three methods. The demographic profile indicated that the majority of participants were male, ages ranged from 18 to 39 years and less than half the candidates had only elementary schooling. Two issues need to be addressed: one is the ineligibility of donors and its impact on blood donor centers as, in this study, 22.7% of the donors were considered ineligible. The other is the limited sensitivity of the parasitological tests used, allowing a risk of false-negative results. New methods are needed to ensure transfusion safety without rejecting potential donors, which would ensure safe transfusion without harming the blood supply. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Fasola, Foluke A
The existence and sustenance of the blood bank depends on blood donors. It is imperative that the donation experience is satisfactory for the donors. Therefore this study was carried out to determine the frequency of undesirable events experienced by the blood donor as part of donor haemovigilance. This was a retrospective descriptive study of the events that occurred amongst the blood donors of the blood bank of a tertiary institution. The blood donor incident book was reviewed for the period of six months. Negative undesirable events occurred in 2% of the donor populations, of which 45.8% could not complete the blood donation process while only 16.7% completed the blood donation process. Mild vasovagal attack occurred in 0.2% of the donor population. Undisclosed deferrable risk factors/ behaviours were identified by the phlebotomist in the bleeding room which made donors unfit for donation even though they had passed the donor screening criteria. This accounted for 20.8% of those with negative experience. Guidelines are required to identify donors that are not likely to complete donation to avoid wastage of time, blood, resources and reduce undesirable experiences.
Kitchen, A D; Newham, J A; Gillan, H L
A comprehensive and effective screening programme is essential to support the banking of tissues from deceased donors. However, the overall quality of the samples obtained from deceased donors, quantity and condition, is often not ideal, and this may lead to problems in achieving accurate and reliable results. Additionally a significant percentage of referrals are still rejected upon receipt as unsuitable for screening. We are actively involved in improving the overall quality of deceased donor screening outcomes, and have specifically evaluated and validated both serological and molecular assays for this purpose, as well as developing a specific screening strategy to minimise the specificity issues associated with serological screening. Here we review the nature and effectiveness of the deceased donor screening programme implemented by National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT), the organisation with overall responsibility for the supply of tissue products within England. Deceased donor screening data, serological and molecular, from August 2007 until May 2012 have been collated and analysed. Of 10,225 samples referred for serology screening, 5.5 % were reported as reactive; of 2,862 samples referred for molecular screening, 0.1 % were reported as reactive/inhibitory. Overall 20 % of the serological and 100 % of the molecular screen reactivity was confirmed as reflecting true infection. The use of a sequential serology screening algorithm has resulted in a marked reduction of tissues lost unnecessarily due to non-specific screen reactivity. The approach taken by NHSBT has resulted in the development of an effective and specific approach to the screening of deceased tissue donors.
Theodoropoulos, Nicole; Jaramillo, Andrés; Penugonda, Sudhir; Wasik, Carol; Brooks, Katarzyna; Ladner, Daniela P; Jendrisak, Martin D; Ison, Michael G
Current U.S. policy requires screening of all deceased organ donors for syphilis infection. To date, information on syphilis test performance in this population is limited. All donors with a positive rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and matched donors with negative RPR who were evaluated by one organ procurement organization from January 1, 2000, to September 30, 2012, were retrospectively tested, using retained, residual serum, with two alternate RPR tests and four treponemal-specific tests: A fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test, a microhemagglutination test, a chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA), and a Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TP-PA) test. Thirty-two of 3,555 (0.9%) potential deceased organ donors screened during the study period showed a positive RPR; 61 RPR-negative matched donor samples were studied as well. Thirteen (40.6%) of the RPR-positive donors were found to be false-positive based on confirmatory TP-PA. As compared to TP-PA, the sensitivity of the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption, microhemagglutination, and CLIA was 87.5%, 91.7% and 100%, respectively. The CLIA and TP-PA results were 100% concordant. Only 17 (53.1%) of the RPR-positive donors had a total of 46 organs recovered for transplantation. Current screening of deceased organ donors by RPR yields a significant number of false-positive results. Use of alternative tests or the routine use of confirmatory tests may reduce the frequency of false-positive results in deceased organ donors.
The present study was designed to investigate incidences of both Hepatitis B and C Virus and serum activity of alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) amongst professional blood donors. For this study, 100 professional blood donors participated. Using blood samples collected from each donor, screening for HBV and HCV ...
Nevertheless, they also reported on the acceptability of unprotected sex with sexual partners perceived to be HIV negative. Social status ascribed to blood donors, and mandatory HIV screening of donated blood, were protective against risky sexual behaviour. However, socio-economic and cultural factors may override this.
Luiza Helena Urso Pitassi
Full Text Available Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%. Sixteen donors (3.2% were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions.
Douglas D. Garba; Joseph B. Ameh; Clement M.Z. Whong; Maryam Aminu-Mukhtar
Background: Transmission of malaria parasites through blood transfusion is a well-known serious risk. Screening of blood donors for malaria as recommended by WHO is currently not included in the protocols of many Nigerian blood banks. Presence of asymptomatic Plasmodium species carriers (APCs) in some northern parts of the state has already been demonstrated using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and microscopic examination of Giemsa stained blood films. This research was undertaken to determine...
Shah, S.M.A.; Ali, A.
After the introduction of blood banks and better storage techniques blood is more widely used in patients for various indications. In Pakistan more than 1.5 million pints of blood are collected each year. Hepatitis B and C virus infections are known to occur in the general population and due to their mode of transmission through blood and blood products, it has made safe blood transfusion difficult and screening of blood absolutely necessary. Objectives of this study were to estimate frequency of Hepatitis B and C in blood donors of local area and recommend measures for safe blood transfusion. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conduced at the Blood Bank, Department of Pathology, Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar from January 01, 2007 to December 31, 2008. It was carried out on 32,042 voluntary, non-remunerated healthy blood donors. They were screened for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-hepatitis C antibodies (anti-HCV antibodies) by ELISA. The patients' age ranged from 18-52 years. They were all males. Results: Out of 32,042 donors, 632 (1.97%) patients were positive for HBsAg, and 502 (1.57%).were positive for anti-HCV antibodies. Conclusion: Incidence of Hepatitis B and C is varying in different areas. It is recommended that properly screened blood only, using a reliable method like ELISA, be transfused to the patients. (author)
Mar 3, 2005 ... Objectives: To determine the status of blood donor haematology in two regional sites in Kenya and to assess the potential role of automated haematology in National blood bank process control. Design: A cross sectional descriptive study. Setting: Two regional blood banks - Nairobi and its environs (Blood ...
Background In 2009 Malawi introduced a new protocol to screen potential blood donors for anaemia, using the WHO Haemoglobin Colour Scale (HCS) for initial screening. Published studies of the accuracy of the HCS to screen potential blood donors show varying levels of accuracy and opinion varies whether this is an ...
Full Text Available Erythrovirus B19 infection is usually benign but may have serious consequences in patients with hemolytic anemia (transient aplastic crisis, immunodeficiency (in whom persistent infection can lead to chronic bone marrow failure with anemia, or who are in the first or second trimester of gestation (spontaneous abortion, hydrops fetalis, and fetal death. Being non-enveloped, B19 resists most inactivation methods and can be transmitted by transfusion. B19 is difficult to cultivate and native virus is usually obtained from viremic blood. As specific antibodies may be absent, and there is no reliable immunological method for antigen detection, hybridization or polymerase chain reaction are needed for detecting viremia. A rapid method, gel hemagglutination (Diamed ID-Parvovirus B19 Antigen Test, can disclose highly viremic donations, whose elimination lessens the viral burden in pooled blood products and may even render them non-infectious. In order to obtain native antigen and to determine the frequency of viremic donors, we applied this test to blood donors in a period of high viral activity in our community. Positive or indeterminate results were re-tested by dot-blot hybridization. We tested 472 donors in 1998 and 831 ones in 1999. One viremic donor was found in 1999. We suggest that in periods of high community viral activity the gel hemagglutination test may be useful in avoiding highly viremic blood being added to plasma pools or directly transfused to patients under risk.
Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood were collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff wish to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.
Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood was collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff want to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.
1 These safety procedures refer to the small preliminary donation made on site. This is firstly cross-matched for compatibility with the intended recipient, if the donor is suitable the blood sample is then screened for the listed infectious agents. It is only those individuals who are clear of infection and compatible with the.
Full Text Available Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were recruited for thalassemia and Hb E screening by red blood cell indices/dichlorophenolindophenol precipitation test. β-Thalassemia and Hb E were then identified by high performance liquid chromatography and 4 common α-thalassemia deletions were characterized by a single tube-multiplex gap-polymerase chain reaction. Overall frequency of hemoglobinopathies was 12.9%, classified as follows: homozygous α-thalassemia 2 (1.7%, heterozygous α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%, heterozygous β-thalassemia without α-thalassemia (0.9%, heterozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (5.2%, double heterozygotes for Hb E/α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%, homozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (0.9%, and homozygous Hb E with heterozygous α-thalassemia 2 (0.9%. The usefulness of thalassemia screening is not only for receiving highly effective red blood cells in the recipients but also for encouraging the control and prevention program of thalassemia in blood donors.
Blood group and Rhesus antigens among Blood donors attending the Central Blood Bank, Sudan. WM Shahata, HB Khalil, A-E Abass, I Adam, SM Hussien. Abstract. Background: It is well known that the Rhesus system remains the second most clinically important blood group system after the ABO. There is no published ...
Maple, Peter A C; Beard, Stuart; Parry, Ruth P; Brown, Kevin E
Human parvovirus 4 (ParV4), a newly described member of the family Parvoviridae, like B19V, has been found in pooled plasma preparations. The extent, and significance, of ParV4 exposure in UK blood donors remain to be determined and reliable detection of ParV4 immunoglobulin (Ig)G, using validated methods, is needed. With ParV4 virus-like particles a ParV4 IgG time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA) was developed. There is no gold standard or reference assay for measuring ParV4 IgG and the utility of the TRFIA was first examined using a panel of sera from people who inject drugs (PWIDS)--a high-prevalence population for ParV4 infection. Western blotting was used to confirm the specificity of TRFIA-reactive sera. Two cohorts of UK blood donor sera comprising 452 sera collected in 1999 and 156 sera collected in 2009 were tested for ParV4 IgG. Additional testing for B19V IgG, hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV), and ParV4 DNA was also undertaken. The rate of ParV4 IgG seroprevalence in PWIDS was 20.7% and ParV4 IgG was positively associated with the presence of anti-HCV with 68.4% ParV4 IgG-positive sera testing anti-HCV-positive versus 17.1% ParV4 IgG-negative sera. Overall seropositivity for ParV4 IgG, in 608 UK blood donors was 4.76%. The ParV4 IgG seropositivity for sera collected in 1999 was 5.08%, compared to 3.84% for sera collected in 2009. No ParV4 IgG-positive blood donor sera had detectable ParV4 DNA. ParV4 IgG has been found in UK blood donors and this finding needs further investigation. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.
Niazi, Saifullah Khan; Alam, Maqbool; Yazdani, Muhammad Sajid; Ghani, Eijaz; Rathore, Muhammad Ali
The study was planned to determine the presence of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in Pakistani blood donors, using Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAT). The blood donors for study were selected on the basis of the standard questionnaire and routine screening results. Six donors were pooled using an automated pipettor and NAT for WNV was performed on Roche Cobas s 201 NAT system. The reactive pools were resolved in Individual Donation-NAT (ID-NAT) format and a sample from FFP bags of reactive donations was retrieved. NAT was again performed on retrieved plasma bag (RPB) sample to confirm the reactive donations. The donors were also recalled and interviewed about history of illness related to recent WNV infection. After serological screening of 1929 donors during the study period, 1860 donors were selected for NAT test for WNV detection. The mean age of the donors was 28±8.77 (range: 18-57 years). 1847 (99.3%) donors were male and 13 (0.7%) were female. NAT for WNV identified six initially reactive pools (0.32%). On follow-up testing with RPB samples, 4 donors (0.21%) were found confirmed reactive for WNV RNA (NAT yield of 1 in 465 blood donors). WNV is a threat to safety of blood products in Pakistan. A screening strategy can be implemented after a large-scale study and financial considerations. One of the reduced cost screening strategies is seasonal screening of blood donors for WNV, with pooling of samples.
Trimmel, Michael; Lattacher, Helene; Janda, Monika
To establish if voluntary whole-blood donors and compensated platelet donors and plasma donors may differ in their motivation to donate, altruism, aggression and autoaggression. Whole-blood (n=51), platelet (n=52) and plasma donors (n=48) completed a battery of validated questionnaires while waiting to donate. Bivariate and multivariate analyses of variance and t-tests were performed to detect differences between groups as noted. Altruism (mean=40.2) was slightly higher in whole-blood donors than in platelet (mean=38.3) and plasma donors (mean=39.1) (p=0.07). Blood donors (mean=2.8) scored lower in the spontaneous aggression measure than platelet (mean=4.1) and plasma donors (mean=4.4) (p=0.01). Plasma donors (mean=4.9) had higher auto-aggression than whole-blood donors and platelet donors (mean for both groups=3.4) (p=0.01). Differences between the three groups were mediated by sociodemographic variables (MANCOVA). Whole-blood donors donated to help others, platelet and plasma donors mostly to receive the compensation. However, those platelet and plasma donors, who would continue to donate without compensation were similar in altruism and aggression to whole-blood donors. While most platelet donors and plasma donors were motivated by the compensation, those who stated that they would continue to donate without compensation had altruism and aggression scores similar to voluntary whole-blood donors.
Zeiler, T; Kretschmer, V
Remuneration for blood donors, in the way as presently handled by governmental and communal blood transfusion services in Germany, is not generally accepted. It is feared that donors are recruited with increased risk to transmit infectious diseases, especially AIDS. Alternative incentives are discussed. After the so-called AIDS scandal in Germany, a change in the donor motivation was to be expected, associated with an increased willingness to renounce remuneration. Therefore, we performed the present survey, in which we evaluated the donor's willingness to renounce remuneration, possibilities of cashless remuneration and other alternative incentives. During March and April 1994, a total of 1,157 blood donors of the University Blood Bank Marburg were questioned anonymously by a questionnaire in the framework of whole-blood donations. Beside the above-mentioned aspects demoscopic data were included (age, sex, profession, journey). Cutting of remuneration without any other compensation was refused by 86.1% of the donors, 77% would not want to further donate blood in this case. Transfer of money to a bank account instead of cash payment was accepted by 78.6%, the use of non-negotiable cheques by 68.7%. Alternative compensation by tickets for theater, concert, cinema or coupons for restaurants met with the approval of only 27.3%; under these circumstances, 36.9% would be willing to continue blood donation. With increasing age and number of donations, but largely independent of social status, donors attached greater importance to retention of remuneration. Cutting of remuneration would result in a considerable reduction of the willingness to donate blood within the population of donors of the governmental and communal blood transfusion services. However, an increase of virus safety of the blood products would not be reached in this way, since especially the long-term donors would be driven away. Considerable bottlenecks, particularly in the specific blood supply of
Because of the high incidence of HCV, blood safety presents a serious challenge in Egypt. Given the constrained economy which limits the implementation of nucleic acid amplification technology, proper recruitment of blood donors becomes of paramount importance. To evaluate the effectiveness of blood donor recruitment strategies, the seroprevalence of positive infectious markers among blood donors was studied. Donors' records covering the period from 2006-2012 were reviewed. Blood donations were screened for HCV antibodies, HBs antigen (HBsAg), HIV-1 and 2 and syphilis antibodies. Of 308,762 donors, 63.4% were voluntary donors (VD). VD of 2011-2012 were significantly younger than family replacement donors (RD) .The overall prevalences of HCV antibodies, HBsAg, HIV and syphilis antibodies were 4.3%, 1.22%, 0.07%, and 0.13%, respectively. All tested markers (except HIV) were significantly higher among RD, when compared to VD (P<0.0001). A consistent steady trend for decrease in HCV seropositivity was observed in RD and VD from 8.9% and 4.2% to 3.8% and 1.5%, respectively. A trend for decrease in HBsAg was demonstrated in VD from 1.2% to 0.53%. The decreasing trends in HCV antibody and HBs antigen is promising and may reflect the improved donor selection criteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tara E Power
Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate hemochromatosis patients' suitability as blood donors as well as their perceptions and experience with the current public donation system. Participants were gathered from a list of current hemochromatosis patients (n=120 and members of the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society (n=1000. Of the 1120 surveys mailed out to these groups, 801 surveys were returned completed. The sample respondents had a mean age of 57.44 years (SD=12.73; range 19 to 87 years, and 57% were men. It was found that 20% (160 of the respondents have donated blood since their diagnosis; however, only 12% of the respondents indicated that they use voluntary blood donation as a means of maintaining their iron levels. Forty per cent of the respondents indicated that they had been refused from voluntary donation. Despite the fact that in May 2001 the Canadian Blood Services, in collaboration with the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society, began a promotion campaign to encourage hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary blood donors, the present study found that 15% of the respondents reported having been refused from the voluntary blood donation service due to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. With respect to quality of life, it was found that individuals who donate blood were generally healthier with respect to physical functioning and bodily pain, however, these findings may indicate that hemochromatosis patients who are healthier are better able to donate at public blood banks, rather than that voluntary blood donation has an effect on the donors' physical functioning over phlebotomy clinic users. These study findings suggest that although there may be other medical factors limiting individuals from donating, hemochromatosis patients are interested in being voluntary blood donors and this potential resource is currently under-used.
Ullum, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads
investigated the relation between blood donation frequency and mortality within a large cohort of blood donors. In addition, our analyses also took into consideration the effects of presumed health differences linked to donation behavior. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the Scandinavian Donation......BACKGROUND: Studies have repeatedly demonstrated that blood donors experience lower mortality than the general population. While this may suggest a beneficial effect of blood donation, it may also reflect the selection of healthy persons into the donor population. To overcome this bias, we...... and Transfusion database (SCANDAT), we assessed the association between annual number of donations in 5-year windows and donor mortality by means of Poisson regression analysis. The analyses included adjustment for demographic characteristics and for an internal healthy donor effect, estimated among elderly...
Zaaijer, H. L.; Koppelman, M. H. G. M.; Farrington, C. P.
Blood, donated by asymptomatic donors, may contain and transmit parvovirus B19. To investigate the dynamics of parvovirus viraemia in asymptomatic blood donors, we studied the amounts of parvovirus DNA in pools of donor plasma, the prevalence of parvovirus antibodies among blood donors in relation
A study of the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among blood donors in the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State, was carried out between December, 2003 and April, 2004. A total of 500 blood samples were collected from blood donors consisting of 262 commercial donors and 238 relation-donors, using ...
Jamilu Abdullahi Faruk; Gboye Olufemi Ogunrinde; Aisha Indo Mamman
Background. Asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia has been documented in donor blood in West Africa. However, donated blood is not routinely screened for malaria parasites (MPs). The present study therefore aimed to document the frequency of blood transfusion-induced donor-recipient malaria parasitaemia patterns, in children receiving blood transfusion in a tertiary health-centre. Methodology. A cross-sectional, observational study involving 140 children receiving blood transfusion was carried ou...
Amor, David J; Kerr, Annabelle; Somanathan, Nandini; McEwen, Alison; Tome, Marianne; Hodgson, Jan; Lewis, Sharon
Gamete and embryo donors undergo genetic screening procedures in order to maximise the health of donor-conceived offspring. In the era of genomic medicine, expanded genetic screening may be offered to donors for the purpose of avoiding transmission of harmful genetic mutations. The objective of this study was to explore the attitudes of donors and recipients toward the expanded genetic screening of donors. Qualitative interview study with thematic analysis, undertaken in a tertiary fertility centre. Semi-structured in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with eleven recipients and nine donors from three different cohorts (sperm, egg and embryo donors/recipients). Donors and recipients acknowledged the importance of genetic information and were comfortable with the existing level of genetic screening of donors. Recipients recognised some potential benefits of expanded genetic screening of donors; however both recipients and donors were apprehensive about extended genomic technologies, with concerns about how this information would be used and the ethics of genetic selectivity. Participants in donor programs support some level of genetic screening of donors, but are wary of expanding genetic screening beyond current levels.
Infections due to these parasites can be asymptomatic; this asymptomatic infection has been one of the factors which has maintained transmission of these parasites, through many ways, including blood donation and transfusion. The effects of heamoparasites on donors age, sex, blood group and PCV within Plateau State, ...
France, Christopher R; Kowalsky, Jennifer M; France, Janis L; Himawan, Lina K; Kessler, Debra A; Shaz, Beth H
Evidence indicates that donor identity is an important predictor of donation behavior; however, prior studies have relied on diverse, unidimensional measures with limited psychometric support. The goals of this study were to examine the application of self-determination theory to blood donor motivations and to develop and validate a related multidimensional measure of donor identity. Items were developed and administered electronically to a sample of New York Blood Center (NYBC) donors (n=582) and then to a sample of Ohio University students (n=1005). Following initial confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on the NYBC sample to identify key items related to self-determination theory's six motivational factors, a revised survey was administered to the university sample to reexamine model fit and to assess survey reliability and validity. Consistent with self-determination theory, for both samples CFAs indicated that the best fit to the data was provided by a six-motivational-factor model, including amotivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, integrated regulation, and intrinsic regulation. The Blood Donor Identity Survey provides a psychometrically sound, multidimensional measure of donor motivations (ranging from unmotivated to donate to increasing levels of autonomous motivation to donate) that is suitable for nondonors as well as donors with varying levels of experience. Future research is needed to examine longitudinal changes in donor identity and its relationship to actual donation behavior. © 2014 AABB.
Mohammadali, Fatemeh; Pourfathollah, Aliakbar
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis infections in blood donors referred to Tehran Blood Transfusion Center (TBTC), and determine any association between blood groups and blood- borne infections between the years of 2005 and 2011. This was a retrospective study conducted at TBTC. All of the donor serum samples were screened for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis by using third generation ELISA kits and RPR test. Initial reactive samples were tested in duplicate. Confirmatory tests were performed on all repeatedly reactive donations. Blood group was determined by forward and reverse blood grouping. The results were subjected to chi square analysis for determination of statistical difference between the values among different categories according to SPSS program. Overall, 2031451 donor serum samples were collected in 2005-2011. Totally, 10451 were positive test for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis. The overall seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV, and syphilis was 0.39%, 0.11%, 0.005%, and 0.010%, respectively. Hepatitis B and HIV infections were significantly associated with blood group of donors (P blood group "A" and percentage of HBs Ag was lower in donors who had blood group O. There was no significant association between Hepatitis C and syphilis infections with ABO and Rh blood groups (P>0.05). Compared with neighboring countries and the international standards, prevalence of blood-borne infections is relatively low.
Nébié, K Y; Olinger, C M; Kafando, E; Dahourou, H; Diallo, S; Kientega, Y; Domo, Y; Kienou, K; Ouattara, S; Sawadogo, I; Ky, L; Muller, C P
The measures recommended to reduce TTD include clinical selection of donors, based on a standardized questionnaire which aims to find out antecedents and behaviours predicting transmitted diseases within donors. The effectiveness of this measure is well established in the industrialized countries where the level of education of the population may support a greater receptivity of donors about this procedure. What is happening in developing one? This study was carried out to assess knowledge attitude and behaviours among blood donors regarding blood and transfusion safety in Burkina Faso. A cross sectional study was carried out in the blood bank of the teaching hospital of Ouagadougou. In addition to the routine questionnaire, 544 included blood donors were subjected to additional questions seeking to specify their behaviours, knowledge and attitude towards TTD diseases and screening. Donors were from 16 to 57 years of age (mean age : 28+/-7.9 years). The majority of donors were male (71.2%). Family donors represent 52% and first time donors 55%. About 30.8% were illiterate or of primary school level. A percentage of 14.4 donate to access HIV testing and 30.7% will donate blood immediately to check any contamination in case of exposure. There was no difference between donors having been informed about their HIV status in the past and the other donors regarding HIV, HBs Ag and VHC results. This study suggests that there is some great need for donors' education on transfusion safety. There is also need for staff training in donors' management.
H Salman Roughani
Introduction: There are multiple reports of Acute Hepatitis B after blood transfusion inspite of good screening for Hepatitis B before transfusion. Therefore, occult hepatitis B is a serious concern for Blood transfusion. There is a lot of evidence that positive HBCAb in seronegative HBSAg blood donors is associated with occult Hepatitis B. Aim: Evaluation of the prevalence of HBCAb in seronegative HBSAg blood donors. Method: In a cross sectional descriptive study, we evaluated the serum of 1...
O'Brien, S F; Ram, S S; Yi, Q-L; Goldman, M
Predonation screening questions about sexual risk factors should provide an extra layer of safety from recently acquired infections that may be too early to be detected by testing. Donors are required to read a definition of sex as it applies to predonation screening questions each time they come to donate, but how well donors apply such definitions has not been evaluated. We aimed to determine how donors define sex when answering screening questions. In total, 1297 whole blood donors were asked in a private interview to select from a list of sexual activities which ones they believed were being asked about in sexual background questions. Donors' definitions were coded as under-inclusive, correct or over-inclusive in relation to the blood services' definition. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 21 donors to understand reasoning behind definitions. Most donors had an over-inclusive definition (58.7%) or the correct definition (31.9%). Of the 9.4% of donors who had an under-inclusive definition, 95% included both vaginal and anal sex, but not oral sex. About 9% in each group were first-time donors (P > 0.05) who had never read the definition. The qualitative interviews indicated that donors reason their definition based on their own concept of transmissible disease risk. Donors apply a range of definitions of sex when answering questions about their sexual background. This may be due to different concepts of risk activities, and required reading of the definition has little impact.
Full Text Available Abstract Hepatitis B virus (HBV is prevalent in China and screening of blood donors is mandatory. Up to now, ELISA has been universally used by the China blood bank. However, this strategy has sometimes failed due to the high frequency of nucleoside acid mutations. Understanding HBV evolution and strain diversity could help devise a better screening system for blood donors. However, this kind of information in China, especially in the northwest region, is lacking. In the present study, serological markers and the HBV DNA load of 11 samples from blood donor candidates from northwest China were determined. The HBV strains were most clustered into B and C genotypes and could not be clustered into similar types from reference sequences. Subsequent testing showed liver function impairment and increasing virus load in the positive donors. This HBV evolutionary data for China will allow for better ELISA and NAT screening efficiency in the blood bank of China, especially in the northwest region.
Suryaprasad, A; Basavaraju, S V; Hocevar, S N; Theodoropoulos, N; Zuckerman, R A; Hayden, T; Forbi, J C; Pegues, D; Levine, M; Martin, S I; Kuehnert, M J; Blumberg, E A
Nucleic acid testing (NAT) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is recommended for screening of organ donors, yet not all donor infections may be detected. We describe three US clusters of HCV transmission from donors at increased risk for HCV infection. Donor's and recipients' medical records were reviewed. Newly infected recipients were interviewed. Donor-derived HCV infection was considered when infection was newly detected after transplantation in recipients of organs from increased risk donors. Stored donor sera and tissue samples were tested for HCV RNA with high-sensitivity quantitative PCR. Posttransplant and pretransplant recipient sera were tested for HCV RNA. Quasispecies analysis of hypervariable region-1 was used to establish genetic relatedness of recipient HCV variants. Each donor had evidence of injection drug use preceding death. Of 12 recipients, 8 were HCV-infected-6 were newly diagnosed posttransplant. HCV RNA was retrospectively detected in stored samples from donor immunologic tissue collected at organ procurement. Phylogenetic analysis showed two clusters of closely related HCV variants from recipients. These investigations identified the first known HCV transmissions from increased risk organ donors with negative NAT screening, indicating very recent donor infection. Recipient informed consent and posttransplant screening for blood-borne pathogens are essential when considering increased risk donors. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Niazi, S.K.; Alam, M.
Background: The study was planned to determine the presence of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in Pakistani blood donors, using Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAT). Methods: The blood donors for study were selected on the basis of the standard questionnaire and routine screening results. Six donors were pooled using an automated pipettor and NAT for WNV was performed on Roche Cobas s 201 NAT system. The reactive pools were resolved in Individual Donation-NAT (ID-NAT) format and a sample from FFP bags of reactive donations was retrieved. NAT was again performed on retrieved plasma bag (RPB) sample to confirm the reactive donations. The donors were also recalled and interviewed about history of illness related to recent WNV infection. Results: After serological screening of 1929 donors during the study period, 1860 donors were selected for NAT test for WNV detection. The mean age of the donors was 28±8.77 (range: 18–57 years). 1847 (99.3%) donors were male and 13 (0.7%) were female. NAT for WNV identified six initially reactive pools (0.32%). On follow-up testing with RPB samples, 4 donors (0.21%) were found confirmed reactive for WNV RNA (NAT yield of 1 in 465 blood donors). Conclusion: WNV is a threat to safety of blood products in Pakistan. A screening strategy can be implemented after a large-scale study and financial considerations. One of the reduced cost screening strategies is seasonal screening of blood donors for WNV, with pooling of samples. (author)
Full Text Available Background: Despite the wide range of methods available for measurement of hemoglobin, no single technique has emerged as the most appropriate and ideal for a blood donation setup. Materials and Methods: A prospective study utilizing 1014 blood samples was carried out in a blood donation setting for quality evaluation of four methods of hemoglobin estimation along with cost analysis: Hematology cell analyzer (reference, HCS, CuSO4 method and HemoCue. Results: Mean value of HemoCue (mean ± SD = 14.7 ± 1.49 g/dl was higher by 0.24 compared to reference (mean ± SD = 13.8 ± 1.52 g/dl but not statistically significant ( P > 0.05. HemoCue proved to be the best technique (sensitivity 99.4% and specificity 84.4% whereas HCS was most subjective with 25.2% incorrect estimations. CuSO4 proved to be good with 7.9% false results. Comparative cost analysis of each method was calculated to be 35 INR/test for HemoCue, 0.76 INR /test for HCS and 0.06-0.08 INR /test for CuSO4. Conclusion: CuSO4 method gives accurate results, if strict quality control is applied. HemoCue is too expensive to be used as a primary screening method in an economically restricted country like India.
Okocha, E C; Ibeh, C C; Ele, P U; Ibeh, N C
The present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among blood donors and to determine the possible risk of transmission of malaria parasite to recipients of blood in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State. Four hundred and forty-four subjects were selected randomly and EDTA added blood was collected for screening malaria parasites using Giemsa stain. The data were subjected to chi2 analysis. Prevalence of malaria was 30.2% among blood donors and showed bimodal distribution with significant variation in different months. Due to high prevalence of asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia in this region, all blood samples should be screened for malaria parasites (post-donor screening) and administered with a curative dose of antimalarials prophylactically to all patients transfused with malaria parasite positive blood.
Guarnaccia, Cinzia; Giannone, Francesca; Falgares, Giorgio; Caligaris, Aldo Ozino; Sales-Wuillemin, Edith
Both donors and non-donors have a positive image of blood donation, so donors and non-donors do not differ regarding their views on donation but do differ in converting their opinion into an active deed of donation. Several studies have identified altruism and empathy as the main factors underlying blood donation. However, a mixture of various motivational factors mould the complex behaviour of donation. This paper presents an exploratory study on differences of social representations of blood donation between blood donors and non-donors, in order to understand the reasons that bring someone to take the decision to become a blood donor. Participants filled in the Adapted Self-Report Altruism Scale, Toronto Empathy Questionnaire and answered a test of verbal association. Descriptive and correlation analyses were carried out on quantitative data, while a prototypic analysis was used for qualitative data. The study was carried out on a convenience sample of 786 individuals, 583 donors (mean age: 35.40 years, SD: 13.01 years; 39.3% female) and 203 non-donors (mean age: 35.10 years, SD: 13.30 years; 67.5% female). Social representations of donors seem to be more complex and articulated than those of non-donors. The terms that appear to be central were more specific in donors (life, needle, blood, help, altruism were the words most associated by non-donors; life, aid, altruism, solidarity, health, love, gift, generosity, voluntary, control, needed, useful, needle were the words most associated by donors). Furthermore, non-donors associated a larger number of terms referring to negative aspects of blood donation. Aspects related to training and the accuracy of any information on blood donation seem to be important in the decision to become a donor and stabilise the behaviour of donation over time, thus ensuring the highest levels of quality and safety in blood establishments.
Faruk, Jamilu Abdullahi; Ogunrinde, Gboye Olufemi; Mamman, Aisha Indo
Asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia has been documented in donor blood in West Africa. However, donated blood is not routinely screened for malaria parasites (MPs). The present study therefore aimed to document the frequency of blood transfusion-induced donor-recipient malaria parasitaemia patterns, in children receiving blood transfusion in a tertiary health-centre. A cross-sectional, observational study involving 140 children receiving blood transfusion was carried out. Blood donor units and patients' blood samples were obtained, for the determination of malaria parasites (MPs). Giemsa staining technique was used to determine the presence of malaria parasitaemia. Malaria parasites were detected in 7% of donor blood and in 8.3% of the recipients' pretransfusion blood. The incidence of posttransfusion MPs was 3%, but none of these were consistent with blood transfusion-induced malaria, as no child with posttransfusion parasitaemia was transfused with parasitized donor blood. Majority of the blood transfusions (89.4%) had no MPs in either donors or recipients, while 6.8% had MPs in both donors and recipients, with the remaining 3.8% showing MPs in recipients alone. In conclusion, the incidence of posttransfusion malaria parasitaemia appears low under the prevailing circumstances.
Each year, a relevant proportion of the invited blood donors is eventually deferred from donation because of low hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Deferrals are meant to protect donors from developing iron deficiency anemia after a blood donation, however, they may increase the risk of donor lapse, even
Donors having the blood group O were more infected (60.70%) than the other blood groups and the lowest was blood group AB (5.40%). This result shows that there is a relatively high prevalence of malaria parasite among the blood donors in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. It is, therefore, recommended that malaria parasite ...
Materials and methods: A prospective study was conducted and data collected from January 2006 to December 2012 at the National Blood Transfusion Centre in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. In this centre, all blood donors are voluntary and blood donation is only of whole blood. All donor events and ...
This study aimed to determine the haemoglobin variants among voluntary blood donors in Jos. METHOD: Records of the age, sex, Haemoglobin level, and the haemoglobin genotype of all voluntary blood donors who donated blood at the National Blood Transfusion Service Centre, Jos, Nigeria between January 2011 and ...
The study was conducted at Ile – Ife, in Osun State Southwest Nigeria between March and September, 2009 with a view to determine the prevalence of blood filariasis among blood donors. The blood samples of 250 blood donors were parasitologically examined directly with wet preparation, while the thick and thin films ...
Perera D. A. K.
Full Text Available Abstract Blood and blood component transfusion is one of the major therapeutic practices throughout the world. National Blood Transfusion Service NBTS in Sri Lanka requires approximately 300000 blood units annually. After initiating mobile donor programme there have been two types of blood donation programs in Sri Lanka since 1980. Since second half of first decade of 21st century Sri Lanka shifted to 100 non-replacement blood transfusion policy. That means whole blood and blood component requirement of NBTS has to be collected through mobile blood donor program and voluntary In-house blood donor program. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine the factors affecting the blood donors of selecting blood donor program in Western province Sri Lanka. Methodology This was a cross sectional descriptive study. The study composed of two components. .First the factors that cause the blood donor to select a blood donor programme second the facility survey of blood banks In-house donation. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 410 Mobile blood donors. Facility survey was done using a checklist. The dependant variables were the attendance of the blood donors to Mobile blood donation and In-house blood donation. Independent variables included were the factors related to socio demography service quality accessibility availability and intrinsic extrinsic motivation. The analytical statistics applied for testing the association of factors with the blood donor programme was chi-square test. The study has shown some important findings. There was significant association between income level and donating blood. Only 3.3 of In-house blood donor population was female. Majority of In-house population belonged to 30-41 age group. A statistically significant association exists between age and repeat blood donation. The female blood donors tendency of becoming repeat donors was very low. Distance problem and non
Beltrán-Durán, Mauricio; Berrío-Pérez, Maritza; Bermúdez-Forero, María I; Cortés-Buelvas, Armando D; Molina-Guevara, Gloria C; Camacho-Rodríguez, Bernardo A; Forero-Matiz, Sonia P
To assess the serological profiles for HBV in blood donors that were anti-HBc reactive and non-reactive to HBsAg in four Colombian cities. A prospective transversal study was conducted during 17 months, applying a complete serological profile for HBV in samples from blood donors that were anti-HBc reactive and non-reactive to HBsAg, results were analyzed employing descriptive statistics using Microsoft Excel and Epiinfo V. 3.5.1. From donors reactive to anti-HBc, 75.0 % shown some additional infection marker for HBV. 1.3 % of blood donors had serological markers for chronical infection with hepatitis B, and a case had reactivity only for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). 6.1 % of donors showed a vaccination serological profile, only with reactivity to anti-HBsAg antibodies. With this study, anti-HBc blood screening importance was confirmed.
BACKGROUND: Syphilis is one of the mandatory transfusion transmissible infections to be tested for in any unit of blood for homologous transfusion. The paucity of voluntary blood donors in Nigeria has compelled health care providers to rely on paid and family replacement donors for blood. AIMS: This study was carried ...
Kitchen, A D; Gillan, H L
The overall effectiveness of the NHSBT screening programme for infectious agents in deceased tissue donors is examined and evaluated in terms of current outcomes and how to improve upon these outcomes. The screening results and any subsequent confirmatory results from a total of 1659 samples from NHSBT deceased donors referred to NTMRL for screening for infectious agents were included in the analysis. Overall 1566/1659 (94.4%) of the samples were screen negative. A total of 93 were repeat reactive on screening for one or more of the mandatory markers screened for, of which only 12 (13%) were subsequently confirmed to be positive on confirmatory testing. The majority of the repeat reactive samples were demonstrating non-specific reactivity with the screening assays in use. Overall, the NHSBT screening programme for infectious agents in deceased tissue donors is very effective with a relatively low overall loss of donors because of non-specific reactivity. However, unnecessary loss of tissue products is not acceptable, and although this programme compares favourably with the outcomes of other such programmes, the confirmatory results obtained demonstrate both the need and the potential for improving the outcomes. This is particularly important as one donor may donate more than one product, and can be achieved very easily with a change to the screening algorithm followed, using the confirmatory data obtained to support and validate this change. CONTENTS SUMMARY: Critical analysis of the NHSBT screening programme for infectious agents in deceased tissue donors and a strategy involving the design and use of a different screening algorithm to improve these outcomes.
Rangrao H. Deshpande
Full Text Available Aims & Objectives: Blood transfusion can cause the transmission of infections to recipients. This is an important mode of infection. The aim of study was to assess the prevalence of such type of infections among blood donors and to compare the seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted diseases in voluntary donors and replacement donors. Retrospective study of five years from Jan. 2007 to Dec. 2011 was done. This study was conducted at Blood bank, MIMSR Medical College Latur, Govt. Medical College, Latur and Bhalchandra Blood bank, Latur. Material & Methods: Total 10, 4925 donors were tested. Donors were screened for seroprevalence of HIV, HBC, HCV and Syphilis. Screening of HIV, HBV & HCV was done by ELISA method & Syphilis was screened by RPR type. Results: The comparison of seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV & Syphilis in voluntary donors and replacement donors showed significant difference only for HIV in the years 2007, 2010, and 2011. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted diseases in the study is very low or negligible in voluntary donors as compared to replacement donors. There was a declining trend of seroprevalence for all the disease screened. But in our study the difference is not significant, which indicates that the selection of donors is of low quality. The selection of high quality voluntary donors should be achieved by creation of awareness by education of the prospective donor populations.
Nuinoon, Manit; Kruachan, Kwanta; Sengking, Warachaya; Horpet, Dararat; Sungyuan, Ubol
Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E) are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were ...
Zaller, Nickolas; Nelson, Kenrad E.; Aladashvili, Malvina; Badridze, Nino; Rio, Carlos del; Tsertsvadze, Tengiz
Background: Growing awareness about the importance of blood safety for controlling the transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has helped to decrease the spread of this virus in many settings. This study was conducted in order to evaluate potential risk factors for HCV infection among blood donors in Georgia. Methods: The study population consisted of 553 blood donors in three major Georgian cities; Tbilisi, the capital city and Batumi and Poti, naval port cities. Risk factors were examined using a behavior questionnaire. All blood samples were initially tested using 3rd generation anti-HCV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and confirmed using recombinant immunoblot assays and nucleic acid testing. Results: Forty-three blood donors, 7.8%, were confirmed HCV positive. Significant risk factors included: drug injection ever (OR: 42; 95% CI: 3.2-550.7); history of hepatitis (OR: 25.9; 95% CI: 4.6-145.5); history of a previous surgical procedure (OR: 148.4; 95% CI: 26.9-817.4); blood transfusion (OR: 25.9; 95% CI: 3.2-210.9). Conclusions: This study found a very high prevalence of HCV among blood donors in Georgia. The main risk factor for HCV infection in this population of blood donors was previous contact with contaminated blood or blood products. Reliable screening of donors and their blood is critical for controlling the further spread of HCV in Georgia
Vaezjalali, Maryam; Rashidpour, Shabnam; Rezaee, Hanieh; Hajibeigi, Bashir; Zeidi, Majid; Gachkar, Latif; Aghamohamad, Shadi; Najafi, Ronak; Goudarzi, Hossein
Background Presence of occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) renders HBs antigen (HBsAg) undetectable by ELISA. Therefore it is valuable to evaluate the frequency of OBI among healthy blood donors to improve and perhaps change the strategies of blood screening to reduce the risk of HBV transmission. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the presence of HBcAb and HBV DNA among Iranian HBsAg negative healthy blood donors who donated their blood to the Tehran Blood Transfusion Center du...
De Clippel, Dorien; Baeten, Martine; Torfs, Anneleen; Emonds, Marie-Paule; Feys, Hendrik B; Compernolle, Veerle; Vandekerckhove, Philippe
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is known as a life-threatening complication of transfusion. HLA and HNA antibodies have been associated with the immune pathway of TRALI. Since donors with a history of transfusion and/or pregnancy are presumed to have an increased risk of carrying such antibodies, we investigated the association of a history of transfusion or pregnancy with the occurrence of HLA alloimmunization in our donor population. A total of 1018 female plateletpheresis donors and male plateletpheresis donors with a history of transfusion were enrolled in the study. Included donors were systematically screened, using Luminex technology, for anti-HLA Class I and II. The association of donor history with HLA alloimmunization status was analyzed. The overall alloimmunization rate was 20.2%. In 0.0% of the nulliparous transfused female donors and in 1.3% of the transfused male donors, anti-HLA were detected. Thirty-one percent of the parous women versus 4.2% of the nulliparous women screened positive for anti-HLA. The rate of HLA alloimmunization increased with parity. Our data indicate that a history of transfusion is a minor risk factor for immunization against HLA antigens. In contrast, former pregnancies constitute a major risk factor for the development of HLA antibodies. Since HLA alloimmunization rate increases with parity, TRALI risk reduction measures should focus on this particular donor population. Repeated testing of female plateletpheresis donors after each pregnancy is implemented in our blood service. © 2014 AABB.
A total of 12,540 homologous donors seen between 1993 and 1999 at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (U.M.T.H) blood bank were analysed with respect to the frequency of viral infectivity markers (HBsAg and HIV antibodies) as it relates to donor categories. Fifteen percent and 4.07% of voluntary donors were ...
Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Simonsen, Jacob; Sundby, Anna
in Denmark in 2010. METHODS: The study population comprised all Danes in the age range eligible for blood donation (N = 3,236,753) at the end of 2010. From the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT) register, we identified 174,523 persons who donated blood in Danish blood banks at least once......BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion is an essential component of a modern healthcare system. Because knowledge about blood donor demography may inform the design of strategies for donor recruitment and retention, we used nationwide registers to characterize the entire population of blood donors...... in 2010. The association between sociodemographic characteristics and blood donor prevalence was examined using regression models. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of blood donation was 5.4% among both women and men. The age-specific prevalence of blood donation peaked at 25 years of age (6.8%) for women...
Ab) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test used in the current screening of blood donors at the National Blood Transfusion Service centres has limited ability to detect HIV Ag/Ab during the first two weeks of the window period.
Full Text Available Background: HIV/AIDS pandemic brought into focus the importance of safe blood donor pool. Aims: To analyze true seroprevalence of HIV infection in our blood donors and devise an algorithm for donor recall avoiding unnecessary referrals to voluntary counseling and testing centre (VCTC. Materials and Methods: 39,784 blood units were screened for anti-HIV 1/2 using ELISA immunoassay (IA-1. Samples which were repeat reactive on IA-1 were further tested using two different immunoassays (IA-2 and IA-3 and Western blot (WB. Based on results of these sequential IAs and WB, an algorithm for recall of true HIV seroreactive blood donors is suggested for countries like India where nucleic acid testing or p24 antigen assays are not mandatory and given the limited resources may not be feasible. Results: The anti-HIV seroreactivity by repeat IA-1, IA-2, IA-3 and WB were 0.16%, 0.11%, 0.098% and 0.07% respectively. Of the 44 IA-1 reactive samples, 95.2% (20/21 of the seroreactive samples by both IA-2 and IA-3 were also WB positive and 100% (6/6 of the non-reactive samples by these IAs were WB negative. IA signal/cutoff ratio was significantly low in biological false reactive donors. WB indeterminate results were largely due to non-specific reactivity to gag protein (p55. Conclusions: HIV seroreactivity by sequential immunoassays (IA-1, IA-2 and IA-3; comparable to WHO Strategy-III prior to donor recall results in decreased referral to VCTC as compared to single IA (WHO Strategy-I being followed currently in India. Moreover, this strategy will repose donor confidence in our blood transfusion services and strengthen voluntary blood donation program.
Cohen, Sabine; Manat, Aurélie; Dumont, Benoit; Bévalot, Fabien; Manchon, Monique; Berny, Claudette
In order to overcome the stop marketing by Biorad company of automated high performance liquid chromatograph with UV detection (Remedi), we developed a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect and to give an approximation of the overdose of molecules frequently encountered in drug intoxications. Therefore two hundred eighty seventeen blood samples were collected over a period of one year and allowed us to evaluate and compare the performance of these two techniques. As identification, GC-MS does not identify all molecules detected by Remedi in 24.2% of cases; there is a lack of sensitivity for opiates and the systematic absence of certain molecules such as betablockers. However, in 75.8% of cases the GC-MS detects all molecules found by Remedi and other molecules such as meprobamate, paracetamol, benzodiazepines and phenobarbital. The concentrations obtained are interpreted in terms of overdose showed 15.7% of discrepancy and 84.3% of concordance between the two techniques. The GC-MS technique described here is robust, fast and relatively simple to implement; the identification is facilitated by macro commands and the semi quantification remains manual. Despite a sequence of cleaning the column after each sample, carryover of a sample to the next remains possible. This technique can be used for toxicologic screening in acute intoxications. Nevertheless it must be supplemented by a HPLC with UV detection if molecules such as betablockers are suspected.
Yin Shihua; Song Shiyun; Li Kelin; Chen Guanglian; Liu Fengmin
Serum β 2 -microglobulin (β 2 -MG) was tested by radioimmunoassay in 149 donors' and 54 healthy volunteers' blood. The results were 203 +- 33.0 nmol/l and 176 +- 26.2 nmol/l, respectively. There was significant difference statistically between them (P 2 -MG content. In order to increase the quality of donated blood and to keep the health of blood donor, it is suggested that the high content of serum β 2 -MG is the indicator of too frequent blood donating. The results also showed that the content of β 2 -MG in donor's blood is not a normal reference value
Yousef Abd El Galil Ahmed Sarah
Full Text Available Objective: To detect the seropositivity of transfusion transmitted infections among healthy blood donors in Hail Region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: In the study, about 361 blood donors from different nationalities and ages were tested. Serum samples were collected and tested by ELISA for detection of HIV, HTLV-I/II, hepatitis B virus, syphilis and hepatitis C virus (HCV. Results: Out of 361 donors, 26 were found to be positive for HCV in a percentage of 7.2% while 17 (4.7% of them were infected with HIV. There were eight donors infected with HTLV-I/II, and three donors infected with syphilis. Hepatitis B surface antigen was detected in 10% of donors while hepatitis B surface antibody and hepatitis B core antibody were positive in thirty-one blood donors. Conclusions: The obtained data revealed that the seropositivity of hepatitis B virus, HCV, syphilis, HTLV-I/II, and HIV in Hail Region during the period under study were 8.6%, 7.2%, 4.7%, 2.2% and 0.8%, respectively. It is recommended to continue screening blood donors with highly specific and sensitive tests, to counsel donors who are positive to transfusion transmitted infections.
Background: In a health-care setting in which group-identical donor blood is not always available for transfusion, group O whole blood, in the obsolete concept of its being a universal donor, is sometimes given to group A and B recipients without necessary precautions. Objectives: The objective is to draw attention to the ...
Aims: To determine the seroprevalence of HIV and Hepatitis B viruses in directed blood donors in Nguru and also to see if there is co-infection of these viruses in this category of donor population. Method: This is a prospective study carried out at the blood bank of the Federal Medical Centre Nguru, Yobe State between ...
Background: The presence of high titres of haemolysins (lytic antibodies) in the sera of donors could predispose to adverse blood transfusion reactions. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of haemolysins among blood donors at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State. Methodology: A ...
Background: The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among blood donors in Ilorin has not been documented. In this study, we determined the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among blood donors in Ilorin, as well as, the sociodemographic and other factors associated with it. Method: This was a hospital- based cross ...
Objectives: To estimate HIV prevalence in various blood donor populations, to identity sociodemographic risk factors associated with prevalent HIV and to assess the feasibility of offering routine voluntary counselling services to blood donors. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Thyolo district, Malawi. Methods: Data ...
Sachin A Badge
Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The incidence of ABO and rhesus (Rh groups varies markedly in different races, ethnic groups, and socioeconomic groups in different parts of the world. The frequencies of ABO and Rh blood groups vary from one population to another and time to time in the same region. The present study was carried out to find the distribution of blood group in rural and tribal populations of Bastar district of Chhattisgarh. Materials and Methods: The present retrospective study was carried out at late Shri Baliram Kashyap Memorial Government Medical College and Maharani Hospital blood bank, Jagdalpur, Bastar district, Chhattisgarh, India, during the 2-year period from January 2014 to December 2015. The blood collections were taken from the voluntary donors at outdoor blood donation camp and in-house blood bank as well as from replacement donors at blood bank. Totally 12,852 donors were considered medically fit and accepted for blood donation during the study period. Results: Out of the total 12,852 donors, most of the donors, i.e., 3996 (31.09% were with blood Group O followed by B (30.44%, A (24.95%, and AB (13.52%. Out of the 12,852 blood donors, majority, i.e., 12,779 (99.43% were male and 73 (0.57% were female. Maximum blood donors, i.e., 12,777 (99.42% were Rh positive while only 75 (0.58% were Rh negative. Conclusion: The knowledge of distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups at local and regional levels is helpful in effective management of blood banks and safe blood transfusion services.
Jungbauer, C; Hourfar, M K; Stiasny, K; Aberle, S W; Cadar, D; Schmidt-Chanasit, J; Mayr, W R
Eastern Austria is neighbouring regions with ongoing West Nile virus (WNV) transmissions. Three human WNV infections had been diagnosed during the past decade in Austria. The Austrian Red Cross Blood Service (ARC-BS) started a first voluntary screening for WNV in blood donors from Eastern Austria by Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) in June 2014. This is also the most extensive WNV surveillance programme in humans in Austria so far. In August 2014, one autochthonous WNV infection was detected in a blood donor from Vienna. By now, one in 67,800 whole blood donations was found to be positive for WNV RNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: To identify sero-prevalence of brucellosis among blood donors in Ahvaz city, Southwest Iran. Methods: A total number of 1 450 serum samples from blood donation were collected and were screened for the presence of brucella antibody. Rose Bengal Plate Test, Standard Agglutination Test (SAT, and 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME agglutination were tested in the sample. SAT dilution ≥1/80 and 2ME agglutination ≥1/40 were considered positive. Results: Sero-prevalence of brucellosis among the blood donors was 0.70%, 0.34%, and 0.20% by Rose Bengal Plate Test, SAT, and 2ME respectively. Conclusions: Considering the 1/80 titer of SAT as the criteria of contamination with brucella, routine screening of sero-prevalence of brucella in blood donors is not recommended in this area.
Vaezjalali, Maryam; Rashidpour, Shabnam; Rezaee, Hanieh; Hajibeigi, Bashir; Zeidi, Majid; Gachkar, Latif; Aghamohamad, Shadi; Najafi, Ronak; Goudarzi, Hossein
Presence of occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) renders HBs antigen (HBsAg) undetectable by ELISA. Therefore it is valuable to evaluate the frequency of OBI among healthy blood donors to improve and perhaps change the strategies of blood screening to reduce the risk of HBV transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of HBcAb and HBV DNA among Iranian HBsAg negative healthy blood donors who donated their blood to the Tehran Blood Transfusion Center during 2011. 1000 serum specimens negative for HBsAg, HCV antibody and HIV antibody were collected from healthy blood donors and tested for HBcAb. Presence of hepatitis B viral DNA was checked in HBcAb positive samples by nested PCR with two sets of primers to amplify part of HBV S gene. There were 64 women and 936 men in the population under study. The mean ± SD age of the donors was 38 ± 11 years. 80 out of 1000 samples (8%) were found to be positive for HBcAb. HBV DNA was detected in 50% of HBcAb positive specimens. The mean ± SD age of donors without HBV DNA was 37.7 ± 10.5 years and for donors with HBV DNA was 40.9 ± 11.2 years (P = 0.05). OBI was prevalent among 50% of HBcAb positive healthy blood donors. The frequency of positive HBcAb among healthy HBsAg negative blood donors was comparable to previous studies reported from Iran. On the other hand, the frequency of HBV DNA in HBsAg negative blood donors was higher than previous reports.
Makroo, R.N.; Hegde, Vikas; Chowdhry, Mohit; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Rosamma, N.L.
Background & objectives: Hepatitis B virus (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis infections pose a great threat to blood safety. This study was undertaken to investigate the seroprevalence of serologic markers for transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) among blood donors at a hospital based blood centre in north India over a period of nine years. Methods: The results of serologic markers for TTIs (HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and syphilis) of all blood donations (both voluntary and replacement) at our hospital from January 2005 to December 2013 were screened. Additional analysis was conducted to examine the prevalence trends associated with each of the positive marker. Results: The data of 180,477 donors [173,019 (95.86%) males and 7,458 (4.13%) females] were analyzed. Replacement donations [174,939 (96.93%)] represented the majority whereas, only 5,538 (3.06%) donations were from the voluntary donors. The risk of blood being reactive was three times higher in male donors when compared with the female donors. The risk of blood being reactive for one or more infectious markers was 2.1 times higher in replacement donors when compared with the voluntary donors. Seropositivity of HIV, HBsAg, HBcAb, syphilis showed a significant decreasing trend (P<0.05) while there was an increasing trend in HCV infection which was insignificant. Interpretation & conclusions: This study reflects that the risk of TTIs has been decreased over time with respect to HIV, HBV and syphilis, but the trends for HCV remains almost the same in blood donors. Blood transfusion remains a risk factor for the spread of blood-borne infections. Therefore, improvements are needed to strengthen both safety and availability of blood. PMID:26458348
R N Makroo
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Hepatitis B virus (HBV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and syphilis infections pose a great threat to blood safety. This study was undertaken to investigate the seroprevalence of serologic markers for transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs among blood donors at a hospital based blood centre in north India over a period of nine years. Methods: The results of serologic markers for TTIs (HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and syphilis of all blood donations (both voluntary and replacement at our hospital from January 2005 to December 2013 were screened. Additional analysis was conducted to examine the prevalence trends associated with each of the positive marker. Results: The data of 180,477 donors [173,019 (95.86% males and 7,458 (4.13% females] were analyzed. Replacement donations [174,939 (96.93%] represented the majority whereas, only 5,538 (3.06% donations were from the voluntary donors. The risk of blood being reactive was three times higher in male donors when compared with the female donors. The risk of blood being reactive for one or more infectious markers was 2.1 times higher in replacement donors when compared with the voluntary donors. Seropositivity of HIV, HBsAg, HBcAb, syphilis showed a significant decreasing trend (P<0.05 while there was an increasing trend in HCV infection which was insignificant. Interpretation & conclusions: This study reflects that the risk of TTIs has been decreased over time with respect to HIV, HBV and syphilis, but the trends for HCV remains almost the same in blood donors. Blood transfusion remains a risk factor for the spread of blood-borne infections. Therefore, improvements are needed to strengthen both safety and availability of blood.
Magnussen, K; Hasselbalch, H C; Ullum, H
Background and Objectives The literature contains little on the prevalence and causes of high predonation haemoglobin levels among blood donors. This study aimed to characterize and develop an algorithm to manage would-be donors with polycythaemia. Materials and Methods Between November 2009...... and November 2011, we offered haematology consultations to blood donors with repeated haemoglobin concentration (Hb) above the WHO limit for polycythaemia vera (PV) (10·2 and 11·5 mm/16·5 and 18·5 g/dl for women and men, respectively). Investigation of such donors included Hb, haematocrit, mean cell volume...
Gonçalez, Thelma T; Di Lorenzo Oliveira, Claudia; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Barbara F; Moreno, Elizabeth C; Miranda, Carolina; Larsen, Nina; Wright, David; Leão, Silvana; Loureiro, Paula; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Lopes, Maria-Inês; Proietti, Fernando A; Custer, Brian; Sabino, Ester
Studies analyzing motivation factors that lead to blood donation have found altruism to be the primary motivation factor; however, social capital has not been analyzed in this context. Our study examines the association between motivation factors (altruism, self-interest, and response to direct appeal) and social capital (cognitive and structural) across three large blood centers in Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 7635 donor candidates from October 15 through November 20, 2009. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographics, previous blood donation, human immunodeficiency virus testing and knowledge, social capital, and donor motivations. Enrollment was determined before the donor screening process. Among participants, 43.5 and 41.7% expressed high levels of altruism and response to direct appeal, respectively, while only 26.9% expressed high levels of self-interest. More high self-interest was observed at Hemope-Recife (41.7%). Of participants, 37.4% expressed high levels of cognitive social capital while 19.2% expressed high levels of structural social capital. More high cognitive and structural social capital was observed at Hemope-Recife (47.3 and 21.3%, respectively). High cognitive social capital was associated with high levels of altruism, self-interest, and response to direct appeal. Philanthropic and high social altruism were associated with high levels of altruism and response to direct appeal. Cognitive and structural social capital and social altruism are associated with altruism and response to direct appeal, while only cognitive social capital is associated with self-interest. Designing marketing campaigns with these aspects in mind may help blood banks attract potential blood donors more efficiently. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.
and Allied Sciences, Mwanza, Tanzania. Abstract. Background: Blood transfusion saves life of patients with severe anaemia. However, blood transfusion can transmit blood-borne parasites. Despite malaria being endemic in Tanzania, there is limited information on asymptomatic malaria among blood donors. This study ...
Objectives: To determine the status of blood donor haematology in two regional sites in Kenya and to assess the potential role of automated haematology in National blood bank process control. Design: A cross sectional descriptive study. Setting: Two regional blood banks - Nairobi and its environs (Blood Transfusion ...
Karacan, Eda; Cengiz Seval, Guldane; Aktan, Zeynep; Ayli, Meltem; Palabiyikoglu, Refia
Donations in Turkey are insufficient to cover the high transfusion needs arising from large numbers of thalassemia and sickle cell anemia patients and increasing demands for blood due to advanced surgery and cancer treatment. The most acceptable means to get blood is voluntary blood donation and the blood donor system in Turkey mostly depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The main aim of this study is to explore the motivations of Turkish voluntary blood donors toward blood donation and to determine predictors of blood donation motivation. A cross-sectional sample survey of active blood donors in Ankara, Turkey was conducted. The sample consisted of 189 male volunteer blood donor adults. Donors filled in a self-administered questionnaire including the measures of demographic information, empathetic concern, altruism, social responsibility and blood donation motivation questionnaire during donation. Factor analysis of Blood Donation Motivation Measure with varimax rotation revealed a three-factor solution named as "values and moral duty", "positive feelings and esteem" and "self-benefit and external reasons". The results with regression analyses showed that only social responsibility had an significant effect independent of age, income, and education on blood donation motivation. These result reflects that blood donation motivation not only linked to a high degree of altruistic reasons, but also to a combination of some self-regarding motives. Additionally, feelings of empathy or altruism may be less strong at the time the decision to help, other factors may have a larger influence on helping decisions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adriana de Fátima Lourençon
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To convert first-time blood donors into regular volunteer donors is a challenge to transfusion services. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to estimate the return rate of first time donors of the Ribeirão Preto Blood Center and of other blood centers in its coverage region. METHODS: The histories of 115,553 volunteer donors between 1996 and 2005 were analyzed. Statistical analysis was based on a parametric long-term survival model that allows an estimation of the proportion of donors who never return for further donations. RESULTS: Only 40% of individuals return within one year after the first donation and 53% return within two years. It is estimated that 30% never return to donate. Higher return rates were observed among Black donors. No significant difference was found in non-return rates regarding gender, blood type, Rh blood group and blood collection unit. CONCLUSIONS: The low percentage of first-time donors who return for further blood donation reinforces the need for marketing actions and strategies aimed at increasing the return rates.
Sabino, Ester C; Gonçalez, Thelma T; Salles, Nanci A; Silva, Guilherme R; Chamone, Dalton F
Screening of blood donors for Chagas' disease is mandatory in Brazil. Data about the prevalence of Chagas' disease among first-time blood donors has not been previously reported. The objective of this study was to report the trends in the prevalence of Chagas' disease among first-time blood donors in São Paulo, Brazil according to gender, age, and type of donation. The data was obtained at Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro de São Paulo during the period of 1996 to 2001. Samples were considered positive if they were reactive to the three serologic tests used at screening (indirect immunofluorescence, indirect hemagglutination, and EIA). The prevalence of Chagas' disease was two times higher among replacement blood donors than among altruistic donors (52 vs. 25 cases/10,000). The overall prevalence among blood donors decreased at a rate of 1.86 cases per 10,000 per year. An increase in the proportion of altruistic donors and a decrease in the prevalence primarily among younger donors were observed. The prevalence of Chagas' disease is decreasing in the São Paulo population. Differences in the socioeconomic level between altruistic and replacement donors may be the reason for the differences in the prevalence among these groups. It will be important to target for study the population of young seroreactive blood donors to better understand how new infections are occurring.
Gonçalez, Thelma T.; Di Lorenzo Oliveira, Claudia; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Barbara F.; Moreno, Elizabeth C.; Miranda, Carolina; Larsen, Nina; Wright, David; Leão, Silvana; Loureiro, Paula; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Lopes, Maria-Inês; Proietti, Fernando A.; Custer, Brian; Sabino, Ester
Background Studies analyzing motivation factors that lead to blood donation have found altruism to be the primary motivation factor; however social capital has not been analyzed in this context. Our study examines the association between motivation factors (altruism, self-interest and response to direct appeal) and social capital (cognitive and structural) across three large blood centers in Brazil. Study Design and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 7,635 donor candidates from October 15 through November 20, 2009. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographics, previous blood donation, HIV testing and knowledge, social capital and donor motivations. Enrollment was determined prior to the donor screening process. Results Among participants, 43.5% and 41.7% expressed high levels of altruism and response to direct appeal respectively, while only 26.9% expressed high levels of self-interest. More high self-interest was observed at Hemope-Recife (41.7%). Of participants, 37.4% expressed high levels of cognitive social capital while 19.2% expressed high levels of structural social capital. More high cognitive and structural social capital was observed at Hemope-Recife (47.3% and 21.3%, respectively). High cognitive social capital was associated with high levels of altruism, self-interest and response to direct appeal. Philanthropic and high social altruism was associated with high levels of altruism and response to direct appeal. Conclusion Cognitive and structural social capital and social altruism are associated with altruism and response to direct appeal, while only cognitive social capital is associated with self-interest. Designing marketing campaigns with these aspects in mind may help blood banks attract potential blood donors more efficiently. PMID:22998740
The samples were further tested for dengue virus RNA using RT-PCR. Dengue virus IgG was positive for 43.6% of all the 188 blood donor samples tested but all donors were negative for anti-dengue IgM antibody and dengue virus RNA. The rate of dengue virus total antibody exposure did not differ statistically between ...
Mohammed, Yusuf; Bekele, Alemayehu
A transfusion transmissible infection (TTI) is any infection that is transmissible from person to- person through parenteral administration of blood or blood products. The magnitude of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI) varies from country to country depending on TTI's load in that particular population. Measuring their severity, WHO (World Health Organization) has recommended pre-transfusion blood test for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Syphilis as mandatory. The aim of the current study was to assess the trend and prevalence of TTI among blood donors in Jijiga Blood Bank between 2010 and 2013. A Retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted by reviewing the records from 2010 to 2013 at Jijiga Blood Bank. All blood donors who presented to the blood bank and screened for TTI during the study period were included. The data was collected, entered and analyzed using Epi Info 3.5.1 & Microsoft Excel 2007. The descriptive statistics were determined in means of percentages. Chi-square was used for trend analysis and p-value was used to declare the statistical significance between the variable. There were a total of 4224 people donated blood during study period. Males formed the majority of the donor population accounting for 4171 (98.7%). Majority 4139 (98%) of donors were Replacement donors. The overall prevalence of transfusion-transmitted infection was 487/4224 (11.5%). The prevalence for HBsAg, HCV, HIV, & Syphilis antibodies was 460 (10. 9%), 17 (0.4%), 6 (0.1%) and 4 (0.1%) respectively. Majority 460/487 (94.5%) of infection was HBsAg. Statistically significant difference was observed in number of donation as well as sero-positivity from year 2010 to 2013 (Chi-square 9.24, p value = 0.02), in Trends of HBsAg from year to year (Chi-square 11.14, p value = 0.01), HIV virus was seen as the age of donors increases (Chi-square 8.37, p value = 0.01) and There was also statistically significance
Background: Blood serves as a vehicle for transmission of blood-borne pathogens rincluding hepatitis viruses and Y hemoparasities. In northern parts of Ethiopia, screening of blood for blood-borne pathogens do not fulﬁll the standard protocols and screening 'for malaria parasites is not practiced. Determination of the ...
respectively. Blood group O positive had the highest percentage 58.1 % (n=50) and was the commonest group. Conclusion. In this study, HIV prevalence is very high among blood donors at the Juba Teaching Hospital blood bank. The Republic of South Sudan has emerged from war in the past 9 years. These were years of ...
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency and relevant factors in frequent and first time female blood donors at Casablanca blood transfusion centre, Morocco. Methods: Between November 2005 and April 2006, twenty-one female first time and twenty-one frequent female blood ...
The risk of transmission of malaria parasites through blood transfusion has been noted. A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and intensity of malaria on healthy blood donors who attended Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi, from April to May 2002. Blood samples were collected ...
Waller, Daniel; Thijsen, Amanda; Garradd, Allira; Hayman, Jane; Smith, Geoff
Each year, a large number of individuals in Australia are deferred from donating blood. A deferral may have a negative impact on donor satisfaction and subsequent word-of-mouth communication. The Australian Red Cross Blood Service (the Blood Service) is, therefore, investigating options for managing service interactions with deferred donors to maintain positive relationships. While public research institutes in Australia have established independent research donor registries, other countries provide programmes allowing deferred donors to donate blood for research via blood collection agencies. This study examined attitudes towards donating blood for research use in a sample of permanently deferred Australian donors. Donors permanently deferred because of a risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (n=449) completed a postal survey that examined attitudes towards research donation. The majority of participants were interested in donating blood for research (96%), and joining a registry of research donors (93%). Participants preferred to donate for transfusion or clinical research, and were willing to travel large distances. Results indicated that positive attitudes towards the Blood Service would be extended if the opportunity to donate blood was provided. These findings indicate a desire for continued engagement with the Blood Service despite deferral. Donating blood for research is a potential way of maintaining positive relationships with permanently deferred donors which also benefits the health research community. Through maintaining positive relationships with deferred donors, positive word-of-mouth activity can be stimulated. Further work is needed to determine the feasibility of implementing research donation through the Blood Service in Australia.
Lieshout-Krikke, R. W.; Molenaar-de Backer, M. W. A.; van Swieten, P.; Zaaijer, H. L.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) is a reliable marker for HBV infection, but HBsAg-negative forms of HBV infection occur. The introduction of HBV DNA screening of Dutch blood donors, which were not preselected for absence of HBV core antibodies, enabled the characterization of
The prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), one of the causative agents of viral hepatitis was investigated. One hundred and sixty-seven (167) blood samples from donors which were sero-negative to hepatitis B virus markers were screened for presence of HCV IgM antibodies using a third generation. ELISA kit. Out of the ...
Kranenburg, Floris J; Kreuger, Aukje L; Arbous, M Sesmu; Laeijendecker, Daphne; van Kraaij, Marian G J
The purpose of World Blood Donor Day (WBDD) is to raise awareness for the importance of blood donation. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of WBDD on digital information seeking and donor recruitment. Google Trends data were used to quantify seeking behavior on "blood donation" and "blood donor." Differences in relative search volume (RSV) between the 3 weeks surrounding WBDD and the rest of the year were calculated. Second, mean differences in RSV were compared to assess the additional effect of hosting using translated search terms. Third, we compared the period around WBDD with the control period regarding page views of the Sanquin website and Facebook likes and number of newly registered donors in 2016. The mean RSV for "blood donation" in the period of interest was 78.6, compared to 72.1 in the control period (difference, 6.5; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.2-11.8). For "blood donor" this was 78.9 compared to 65.9 (difference, 12.9; 95% CI, 8.1-17.8). We found no additional effect of hosting. In the period of interest, the website of Sanquin was visited 6862 times a day and 4293 times in the control period (difference, 2569; 95% CI, 1687-3451). In June 2016, 54.6% (95% CI, 53.0-56.2) more new donors were registered compared to the control period. An international campaign like WBDD raises the awareness of blood donation and is effective in convincing people to register as blood donors. © 2017 AABB.
Kouriba, B; Diarra, A B; Douyon, I; Diabaté, D T; Kamissoko, F; Guitteye, H; Baby, M; Guindo, M A; Doumbo, O K
Malaria parasite is usually transmitted to humans by Anopheles mosquitoes but it can also be transmitted through blood transfusion. Usually malaria transmission is low in African urban settings. In West Africa where the P. falciparum is the most predominant malaria species, there are limited measures to reduce the risk of blood transfusion malaria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of P. falciparum malaria carriage among blood donors in the National Blood Center of Bamako, capital city of Mali. The study was conducted using a random sample of 946 blood donors in Bamako, Mali, from January to December 2011. Screening for malaria was performed by thick smear and rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Blood group was typed by Beth-Vincent and Simonin techniques. The frequency of malaria infection was 1.4% by thick smear and 0.8% by the RDT. The pick prevalence of P. falciparum malaria was in rainy season, indicating a probable high seasonal risk of malaria by blood transfusion, in Mali. The prevalence of P. falciparum infection was 2% among donors of group O the majority being in this group. There is a seasonal prevalence of malaria among blood donors in Bamako. A prevention strategy of transfusion malaria based on the combination of selection of blood donors through the medical interview, promoting a voluntary low-risk blood donation and screening all blood bags intended to be transfused to children under 5, pregnant women and immune-compromised patients during transmission season using thick smear will reduce the risk of transfusion malaria in Mali. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
H Salman Roughani
Full Text Available Introduction: There are multiple reports of Acute Hepatitis B after blood transfusion inspite of good screening for Hepatitis B before transfusion. Therefore, occult hepatitis B is a serious concern for Blood transfusion. There is a lot of evidence that positive HBCAb in seronegative HBSAg blood donors is associated with occult Hepatitis B. Aim: Evaluation of the prevalence of HBCAb in seronegative HBSAg blood donors. Method: In a cross sectional descriptive study, we evaluated the serum of 1230 Blood donors for HBCAb, HCVAb and Aminotranferase levels. HBSAg or AntiHIV Ab positive cases were excluded from the study. Detection of Anti HBSAb was done in HBCAb positive patients and liver biopsy was performed in all HCVAb positive cases. Results: 15.1% of blood donors were positive for HBCAb and 51.6% of them had Anti HBSAb. Aminotranferase levels were normal in all people who were positive for HBCAb ,but about 50% of HCVAb positive persons had elevated aminotransferase levels and liver biopsy of all these patients showed inflammation Conclusion: Prevalence of HBCAb is high in our seronegative HBSAg Blood donors and biomolecular studies such as PCR for HBV DNA is indicated in HBCAb positive people, especially in people with isolated HBCAb .
Full Text Available Purpose: In India, HIV-2 epidemic is alongside with HIV-1. Blood banks are introducing nucleic acid testing (NAT for screening. The limitation of NAT systems is the inability to detect HIV-2. Materials and Method : An analysis of HIV screening of a blood bank at a tertiary care center from 1998 to 2007 was carried out. Results : A total of 175026 donors were screened by serological assays and 789 were reactive for HIV antibody. Only 478 (61% were confirmed positive by Western blot/immunoblot. There were 465 (97.2% donations positive for HIV-1, 6 (1.3% for HIV-2 (monotypic infection and 7 (1.5% for HIV-1 and HIV-2 (dual infection. Conclusion : We show the presence of HIV-2 infection among the blood donors and the need for incorporating HIV-2 detection also in the NAT systems.
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Blood donation from glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient and sickle cell trait (SCT donors might alter the quality of the donated blood during processing, storage or in the recipient′s circulatory system. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and SCT among blood donors coming to King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH in Riyadh. It was also reviewed the benefits and risks of transfusing blood from these blood donors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1150 blood samples obtained from blood donors that presented to KKUH blood bank during the period April 2006 to May 2006. All samples were tested for Hb-S by solubility test, alkaline gel electrophoresis; and for G6PD deficiency, by fluorescent spot test. Results: Out of the 1150 donors, 23 (2% were diagnosed for SCT, 9 (0.78% for G6PD deficiency and 4 (0.35% for both conditions. Our prevalence of SCT and G6PD deficiency is higher than that of the general population of Riyadh. Conclusion: We recommend to screen all units for G6PD deficiency and sickle cell trait and to defer donations from donors with either of these conditions, unless if needed for special blood group compatibility, platelet apheresis or if these are likely to affect the blood bank inventory. If such blood is to be used, special precautions need to be undertaken to avoid complications in high-risk recipients.
Adams, Zachary; Morris, Gail; Campbell, Todd; Mostert, Karen; Dibdin, Nicholas; Fearon, Margaret; Elmoazzen, Heidi; Mercer, Dena; Young, Kimberly; Allan, David
Zika virus has emerged as a potential threat to the Canadian blood supply system. Stem cell donors within Canadian Blood Services' Cord Blood Bank (CBB) and OneMatch Stem Cell and Marrow Network (OM) now undergo screening measures designed to reduce the risk of Zika virus transmission. The impact these screening measures have on cord blood and unrelated adult stem cell donations is currently unknown. Among 146 donor workups initiated by OM between July 2016 and May 2017, 102 were completed and 44 workups were canceled. There were 17 potential donors (11.6%) with a risk of Zika virus exposure identified by the donor questionnaire (13 completed, 4 canceled workups). None of the workups involved a donor diagnosed with confirmed Zika virus within the past 6 months. Only 1 of the 44 canceled workups (and only 1 of 4 cases with a risk of Zika transmission) was canceled because of the risk of Zika transmission, and a backup donor was selected. Canadian Blood Services' CBB identified 25 of 875 cord blood units (2.9%) from women who donated their infants' cord blood and underwent screening that otherwise met the initial cell number thresholds for banking and had at least 1 risk factor for exposure to Zika virus. No women were diagnosed with Zika virus at any point of their pregnancy. All 25 units were discarded. Unrelated donors at OM have a higher incidence of a risk of exposure to Zika virus compared with cord blood donors. Only rarely did transplant centers cancel donor workups due to potential Zika virus exposure. The impact of screening for Zika virus exposure risk on cord blood banking was minor. Continued vigilance and surveillance is recommended. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sarkodie, Francis; Hassall, Oliver; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to compare laboratory practices for screening blood donors for syphilis at blood transfusion facilities in Ghana with the recommendations of the World Health Organization and the National Blood Service, Ghana (NBSG). The prevalence of syphilis...... antibodies in blood donors in Ghana was also estimated. METHODS: Over an 11-month period, from February 2014 to January 2015, a semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 122 laboratory technical heads out of a total of 149 transfusion facilities in Ghana. The response rate was 81.9%. RESULTS: A total.......9%, compared to 4.0% in family donations (p=0.001). Only 6.9% of the health facilities were using standard operating procedures (SOPs). CONCLUSIONS: Despite international and national recommendations, more than half of the studied health facilities that provide blood transfusions in Ghana are not screening...
Sinclair, Kadian S; Campbell, Tavis S; Carey, Patricia M; Langevin, Eric; Bowser, Brent; France, Christopher R
Blood donors may hold conflicting thoughts about future donation. While they may perceive the direct benefit to themselves and others, they often report compelling reasons not to give again. As a result the standard encouragements to return may not be sufficient to motivate some donors. This study examined the effects of a postdonation adapted motivational interview (AMI) on blood donor attitudes and repeat donation behavior. Donors (n = 215) were randomly assigned to either an AMI or a no-interview control group. Approximately 1 month after their index donation, donors in the AMI group completed a brief telephone interview to clarify individual-specific motivations and values concerning blood donation and address potential barriers. They were then asked to complete questionnaires regarding donation attitudes, anxiety, self-efficacy, and intention to donate. Donors in the control group were also contacted 1 month after donation and asked to complete the same series of questionnaires. Donors in the AMI group reported greater intention to provide a future donation (F = 8.13, p < 0.05), more positive donation attitudes (F = 4.59, p < 0.05), and greater confidence in their ability to avoid adverse reactions (F = 10.26, p < 0.01). Further, AMI was associated with higher rates of attempted donation at 12 months (odds ratio, 2.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-4.87). Application of an AMI may be an effective strategy to increase the donor pool by enhancing retention of existing donors. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.
Goncalez, T.T.; Sabino, E. C.; Schlumpf, K.S.; Wright, D.J.; Mendrone, A.; Lopes, M.I.; Leão, Silvana; Miranda, Carolina; Capuani, Ligia; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Barbara F.; Basques, Fernando; Ferreira, JE; Busch, M.; Custer, B.
Background The safety of the blood supply is ensured through several procedures from donor selection to testing of donated units. Examination of the donor deferrals at different centers provides insights into the role that deferrals play in transfusion safety. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study of prospective allogeneic blood donors at three large blood centers located in São Paulo, Belo Horizonte and Recife, Brazil from August 2007 to December 2009 was conducted. Deferrals were grouped into similar categories across the centers, and within each center frequencies out of all presentations were determined. Results Of 963,519 prospective blood donors at the three centers, 746,653 (77.5%) were accepted and 216,866 (22.5%) were deferred. Belo Horizonte had the highest overall deferral proportion of 27%, followed by Recife (23%) and Sao Paulo (19%). Females were more likely to be deferred than males (30% versus 18%, respectively). The three most common deferral reasons were low hematocrit/hemoglobin (Ht/Hb), medical diagnoses and higher-risk behavior. Conclusion The types and frequencies of deferral vary substantially among the three blood centers. Factors that may explain the differences include demographic characteristics, the order in which health history and vital signs are taken, the staff training, an the way deferrals are coded by the centers among other policies. The results indicate that blood donor deferral in Brazil has regional aspects that should be considered when national policies are developed. PMID:22845775
Anita A Tendulkar
Full Text Available The threat of hepatitis E is being felt in blood banks in recent times. The disease is usually self-limiting, but may progress to a fulminant fatal form. We report a unique case of a hepatitis E virus (HEV-positive asymptomatic blood donor who later developed jaundice and informed the blood bank. A blood donor passed all eligibility criteria tests and donated blood. After 20 days, the blood bank was informed by the donor that he had developed vomiting and jaundice 1 day postdonation. He was investigated by a local laboratory 1 day postdonation for liver profile, which was high. There had been a major outbreak in his community of similar symptoms during the same period. HEV IgM antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was positive. Silent infections may be lurking in apparently healthy donors. Donors need to be encouraged to revert in case of any significant developments after donation and maintain open channels of communication.
Japhet, Margaret Oluwatoyin; Adewumi, Moses Olubusuyi; Adesina, Olufisayo Adeyemi; Donbraye, Emmanuel
Blood transfusion service centers in Nigeria screen donated blood for markers of HIV infection using antibody- (Ab) based rapid test and in some centers, positives are re-tested using Ab-based ELISA. Paucity of data exists on p24 antigen prevalence among HIV Ab-negative donors in Nigeria. This study aims at detecting HIV p24 antigen among prospective blood donors in Osun State, Nigeria. Prospective blood donors negative for HIV antibodies using Determine test kit were re-tested using BIORAD GENSCREEN Ultra Ag-Ab ELISA kit, a fourth-generation ELISA kit that detects HIV antibodies/p24 antigen. Of the 169 HIV Ab-negative prospective donors, 10 (5.9%) were positive for HIV p24 antigen and 70% (7/10) of them were in the age range 18-30 years. Results of this study show that blood transfusion is still one of the major routes of HIV transmission in Nigeria and a higher proportion is among youth. Inclusion of p24 antigen testing into the blood donor screening will help reduce transfusion associated HIV in Nigeria if Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) of all blood donor samples is not affordable; also, HIV enlightenment programs tailored toward youth may help reduce this rate among donors since more young people donate blood in low/middle-income countries than in high-income countries.
OBJECTIVE: The study was aimed to determine the seroprevalence of PVB19 in blood donors and sickle cell anaemia (SCA) patients and to evaluate its association with blood transfusion in SCA patients. METHODS: This is a cross sectional study conducted at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos Nigeria.
Background/Aim: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. In developing countries, blood transfusion is still a major route of its transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HCV infection among blood donors and to determine some of the risk factors for the ...
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between March and April 2016 among blood donors without any symptoms of malaria. During blood donation, samples were collected from each participant. Malaria parasites were detected microscopically from Giemsa stained thin and thick smears and by the use of malaria ...
Apt B, Werner; Heitmann G, Ingrid; Jercic L, M Isabel; Jotré M, Leonor; Muñoz C del V, Patricia; Noemí H, Isabel; San Martin V, Ana M; Sapunar P, Jorge; Torres H, Marisa; Zulantay A, Inés
In this chapter it is emphasized the importance to guarantee safety and high quality blood transfusions. Besides, the following topics are analyzed: the importance of Trypanosoma cruzi infection acquired by blood transfusions, the obligatory screening implemented in Chilean blood banks and serological diagnostic techniques used that for, the seroprevalence observed, the importance to confirm results and methods recommended in this purpose and, to notify the donor once the infection is confirmed. In addition a facsímil of a letter used to notify the positive donor is included as guidelines to make advice after, attaching a pro-forma of clinical-epidemiological registration to refer the donor to medical evaluation and treatment.
Full Text Available Introduction: Partial phenotyping of voluntary blood donors has vital role in transfusion practice, population genetic study and in resolving legal issues.The Rh blood group is one of the most complex and highly immunogenic blood group known in humans. The Kell system, discovered in 1946, is the third most potent system at triggering hemolytic transfusion reactions and consists of 25 highly immunogenic antigens. Knowledge of Rh & Kell phenotypes in given population is relevant for better planning and management of blood bank; the main goal is to find compatible blood for patients needing multiple blood transfusions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Rh & Kell phenotype of voluntary donors in Gujarat state. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted by taking 5670 samples from random voluntary blood donors coming in blood donation camp. Written consent was taken for donor phenotyping. The antigen typing of donors was performed by Qwalys-3(manufacturer: Diagast by using electromagnetic technology on Duolys plates. Results: Out of 5670 donors, the most common Rh antigen observed in the study population was e (99.07% followed by D (95.40%, C (88.77%, c (55.89% and E (17.88%. The frequency of the Kell antigen (K was 1.78 %. Discussion: The antigen frequencies among blood donors from Gujarat were compared with those published for other Indian populations. The frequency of D antigen in our study (95.4% and north Indian donors (93.6 was significantly higher than in the Caucasians (85% and lower than in the Chinese (99%. The frequencies of C, c and E antigens were dissimilar to other ethnic groups while the ′e′ antigen was present in high frequency in our study as also in the other ethnic groups. Kell antigen (K was found in only 101 (1.78 % donors out of 5670. Frequency of Kell antigen in Caucasian and Black populations is 9% & 2% respectively. The most common Kell phenotype was K-k+, not just in Indians (96.5% but
Full Text Available Backdround: Emerging infectious diseases pose threats to the general human population; including recipients of blood transfusions. Dengue is spreading rapidly to new areas and with increasing frequency of major outbreaks. Screening blood for dengue antigens in dengue-endemic countries would be costly and should, therefore, be recommended only after careful assessment of risk for infection and cost. Aim: A prospective study was conducted to establish the magnitude of the threat that dengue poses to blood safety where it is sporadic with seasonal variations, to quantify risk and to assess that whether screening is feasible and cost-effective. Materials and Methods: Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 antigen test was done on 1709 donations during dengue outbreak in the months August to November 2013 as an additional test using Bio-Rad Platelia Dengue NS1AG test kit which is one step sandwich format microplate enzyme immunoassay using murine monoclonal antibodies for capture and revelation. Chi-square test was used to find statistical significance. Results and Conclusions: Majority cases were whole blood, replacement, male donors with 76.10% donors in <35 years age group. About 17.85% were single donor platelet donations. NS1 antigen in all donors was negative. In the past, dengue affected mainly children who do not donate blood. With the changing trend, mean age of infection increased affecting the population that does donate blood, further reducing blood donation pool. Further studies need to be done in different geographic regions of the country during dengue transmission season to establish maximum incidence of viremic donations, rates of transfusion transmission and clinical consequences in recipients. If risk is found to be substantial, decision will be taken by the policymakers at what threshold screening should be instituted to ensure safe blood transfusion.
Contreras, M; Hewitt, P E; Barbara, J A; Mochnaty, P Z
The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) occurs most commonly in homosexual men. This group carries the greatest risk of transmitting AIDS by blood transfusion. Both promiscuous and nonpromiscuous male homosexuals should refrain from giving blood. A leaflet stating this advice was prepared by the Department of Health and Social Security, United Kingdom. In July 1984 a questionnaire was given to all donors attending a blood donor clinic in the west end of London, England. 53% were male. Donors were given a leaflet on AIDS and a questionnaire to complete in private. Those who considered themselves to be in a high risk group were asked to designate their blood for research purposes only. Serum samples from donors who confirmed that they were in the high risk category were tested for antihepatitis B core antigen and anti-human T lymphotropic virus type III (anti-HTLV-III) in addition to the routine screening of donors for hepatitis B surface antigen and syphilis. All high risk donors were men. Homosexuality was the only high risk factor. Of 5000 questionnaires administered between July and October, 614 were not completed or had ambiguous answers. 38 donors who completed the questionnaire beonged to a high risk group. Of these, 7 were positive for antihepatitis B core antigen; none were positive for anti-HTLV-III, T pallidum hemagglatination, or hepatits B surface antigen. Although the homosexual donors had a much lower incidence of sexually transmitted disease than those attending special clinics, this should not encourage complacency. All possible measures must be taken to prevent homosexuals from donating blood.
Hoque, M M; Adnan, S D; Karim, S; Al-Mamun, M A; Faruki, M A; Islam, K; Nandy, S
Blood donation results in a substantial iron loss and subsequent mobilization from body stores. Chronic iron deficiency is a well-recognized complication of regular blood donation. The present study conducted to compare the level of serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and percentage transferrin saturation in different ABO and Rhesus type blood groups among the voluntary blood donors of Bangladesh. The present prospective study included 100 healthy voluntary donors attending at Department of Blood Transfusion, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka between the periods of July 2013 to Jun 2014. From each donor 10mL venous blood sample was taken and divided into heparinized and non-heparinized tubes for determination of hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), serum iron (SI), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and serum ferritin by standard laboratory methods. Percentage of transferrin saturation (TS) calculated from serum iron and TIBC. Data were analyzed with SPSS (version 16) software and comparisons between groups were made using student's t-test and one way ANOVA. In the present study mean±SD of age of the respondents was 27.2±6.5 years with a range of 18 to 49 years and 81.0% were male and 19.0% were female. Among the donors 18.0% had blood group A, 35.0% had blood group B, 14.0% had blood group AB and 33.0% had blood group O. Among the donors 91.0% had rhesus positive and 9.0% had rhesus negative. Donors with blood group O had lowest haemoglobin, serum iron and transferring saturation levels. Donors with blood group A had highest TIBC level. Donors with blood group B had lowest serum ferritin level. An independent samples 't' test showed statistically significant difference in serum ferritin and percentage transferrin saturation between blood group AB and blood group O and in percentage transferrin saturation between blood group B and blood group O. One way ANOVA showed that there is no significant difference in haemoglobin, serum iron, serum
Ul-Hassan, Zahoor; Al-Bahrani, Ahmad T; Panhotra, Bodh R
Human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I and type II (HTLV-I/II) infections can be transfusion associated, leading to tropical paraparesis, myelopathy and other neurological disorders. The aim of this study is to circumvent the risk of transmission through blood transfusion and to describe the prevalence of HTLV-I/II antibody among blood donors of Al-Hasa region and the cost effectiveness of screening blood donors. The study was conducted at the Department of Laboratory and Blood Bank, King Fahad Hospital, Al-Hofuf, Al-Hasa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period of 1997 to 2003. A total of 47426 blood donors were screened for HTLV-I/II antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test, during the 7 years of study period. The positive samples were confirmed by western blot analysis. Overall, HTLV-I antibody positivity (confirmed by western blot) was 3/47426 (0.006%). Out of 3 donors positive for HTLV-I antibody during 1997 to 1998, 2 were expatriates (Indian) and one was native Saudi donor. Human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I antibody positivity among the native Saudi donors was 1/47426 (0.002%) (2/100000 blood donors). None of the donor were positive for HTLV-II antibody. During the last 5 consecutive years of the study period (1999-2003), none of the donor was positive for HTLV-I/II antibody. Al-Hasa region is non-endemic for HTLV-I/II virus infections. Screening of native Saudi blood donors for these viruses does not appear to be cost effective.
The Serologic Screening for Celiac Disease in the General Population (Blood Donors) and in Some High-Risk Groups of Adults (Patients with AutoimmuneDiseases, Osteoporosis and Infertility) in the Czech Republic
Vančíková, Z.; Chlumecký, Vít; Sokol, Dan; Horáková, Dana; Hamšíková, E.; Fučíková, T.; Janatková, T.; Ulčová-Gallová, Z.; Štěpán, J.; Límanová, Z.; Dvořák, M.; Kocna, P.; Sánchez, Daniel; Tučková, Ludmila; Tlaskalová, Helena
Roč. 47, č. 6 (2002), s. 753-758 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/01/0933; GA ČR GA303/01/1380; GA AV ČR IBS5020203; GA MZe QD1023 Keywords : blood donors * osteoporosis * infertility Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.979, year: 2002
Vollmer, Tanja; Diekmann, Juergen; Eberhardt, Matthias; Knabbe, Cornelius; Dreier, Jens
Asymptomatic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been found in blood donors from various European countries, but the natural course is rarely specified. Here, we compared the progression of HEV viraemia, serostatus and liver-specific enzymes in 10 blood donors with clinically asymptomatic genotype 3 HEV infection, measuring HEV RNA concentrations, plasma concentrations of alanine/aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase and bilirubin and anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies. RNA concentrations ranged from 77.2 to 2.19×10(5) IU/mL, with viraemia lasting from less than 10 to 52 days. Donors showed a typical progression of a recent HEV infection but differed in the first detection of anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG and seropositivity of the antibody classes. The diagnostic window between HEV RNA detection and first occurrence of anti-HEV antibodies ranged from eight to 48 days, depending on the serological assay used. The progression of laboratory parameters of asymptomatic HEV infection was largely comparable to the progression of symptomatic HEV infection, but only four of 10 donors showed elevated liver-specific parameters. Our results help elucidate the risk of transfusion-associated HEV infection and provide a basis for development of screening strategies. The diagnostic window illustrates that infectious blood donors can be efficiently identified only by RNA screening. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.
Blatyta, Paula Fraiman; Custer, Brian; Gonçalez, Thelma Terezinha; Birch, Rebecca; Lopes, Maria Esther; Ferreira, Maria Ines Lopes; Proietti, Anna Barbara Carneiro; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; Page, Kimberly; de Almeida Neto, Cesar
Background HIV risk factor screening among blood donors remains a cornerstone for the safety of blood supply and is dependent on prospective donor self-disclosure and an attentive predonation interview. Residual risk of HIV transmission through blood transfusion is higher in Brazil than in many other countries. Audio computer-assisted structured-interview (ACASI) has been shown to increase self-reporting of risk behaviors. Study design and methods This cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2009 and March 2011 at four Brazilian blood centers to identify the population of HIV-negative eligible blood donors that answered face-to-face interviews without disclosing risks, but subsequently disclosed deferrable risk factors by ACASI. Compared to the donor interview, the ACASI contained expanded content on demographics, sexual behavior and other HIV risk factors questions. Results 901 HIV-negative blood donors were interviewed. On the ACASI, 13% of donors (N=120) declared a risk factor that would have resulted in deferral that was not disclosed during the face-to-face assessment. The main risk factors identified were recent unprotected sex with an unknown or irregular partner (49 donors), sex with a person with exposure to blood/ fluids (26 donors), multiple sexual partners (19 donors), and male-male sexual behavior (10 donors). Independent factors associated with the disclosure of any risk factor for HIV were age (≥40 years vs. 18–25 years, AOR=0.45; 95% CI 0.23–0.88) and blood center (Hemope vs. Hemominas, AOR=2.51; 95% CI 1.42–4.44). Conclusion ACASI elicited increased disclosure of HIV risk factors among blood donors. ACASI may be a valuable modality of interview to be introduced in Brazilian blood banks. PMID:23521083
Liao, Qiao; Shan, Zhengang; Wang, Min; Huang, Jieting; Xu, Ru; Huang, Ke; Tang, Xi; Zhang, Weiyun; Nelson, Kenrad; Li, Chengyao; Fu, Yongshui; Rong, Xia
In 2014, an outbreak of dengue virus (DENV) infection led to 45 171 clinical cases diagnosed in Guangdong province, Southern China. However, the potential risk of blood donors asymptomatically infected with DENV has not been evaluated . In the current study we detected anti-DENV IgG antibody and RNA in volunteer Chinese blood donors. We found that anti-DENV IgG antibody was positively detected in 3.4% (51/1500) and two donors were detected as being DENV RNA positive out of 3000 blood samples. We concluded that the presence of potential DENV in blood donors might be potential risk for blood safety. Therefore, screening for DENV infection should be considered in blood donations during a period of dengue outbreak in high epidemic area of China. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rivera-López, María Rebeca F; Zavala-Méndez, Celia; Arenas-Esqueda, Alfonso
Despite utilizing different actions to render blood safe for transfusions, we continue to have the risk of transmitting some viral infections. For this reason, it is important to determine prevalence of infections due to HIV and hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses in blood donors. Previous studies from Mexico indicate that HIV prevalence is 0.01 to 0.13%, while it is 0.11 to 1.22% for hepatitis B, and for hepatitis C, prevalence is 0.47 to 1.47%. We are checking the results of the screening tests (ELISA 3rd generation and chemiluminescent immunoassays) from blood donors studied at the Central Blood Bank (Banco Central de Sangre) at the Mexican Institute of Social Security's (IMSS) Twentieth First Century National Medical Center in Mexico City from 1995 to 2002. Reactive results were studied by confirmatory tests, Western Blot for HIV, AgHBs neutralization test for hepatitis B, and RIBA-HCV3.0 for hepatitis C. Reactive results from 513,062 blood donors confirmed for HV were 0.07%, reactive results and confirmation of hepatitis B from 511,733 blood donors were 0.13%, and reactive results and confirmation of hepatitis C from 511,115 blood donors were 0.31%. Rates obtained are low when compared with results of previous studies in Mexico for HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. It may be possible than these low rates indicate the positive impact obtained from preventive actions, better strategies of detection of blood donors with high risk, and the advantage of working with a fully automated test system with state-of-the-art technology.
Bryant, Barbara J; Hopkins, Julie A; Arceo, Sarah M; Leitman, Susan F
Apheresis donors are routinely evaluated with a complete blood count (CBC). Low red blood cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV) values (or=12.5 g/dL) could be due to iron deficiency or hemoglobinopathy. The etiology of a low MCV in a healthy apheresis donor population was assessed. Predonation samples for CBC were obtained from 1162 consecutive apheresis donors. Donors with a MCV of less than 80 fL were evaluated by CBC, iron studies (ferritin, serum iron, transferrin, percentage of transferrin saturation), and hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis. Iron deficiency was defined as a ferritin value below the reference range. Beta chain Hb variants were determined by Hb electrophoresis. Alpha thalassemia trait was presumed if the red blood cell (RBC) count was elevated, no variant Hbs were detected, and the iron studies were within normal ranges. In a 19-month period, 33 of 1162 apheresis donors had low MCV values. Iron deficiency was present in 64%; 49% had isolated iron deficiency and 15% had iron deficiency plus hemoglobinopathy. Hemoglobinopathy without concomitant iron deficiency was found in the remaining 36%. Iron deficiency is present in the majority of apheresis donors with repeatedly low MCV values and Hb levels of 12.5 g/dL or more. Hemoglobinopathy is also commonly present but may not be easily recognized in the setting of iron deficiency. The MCV is a useful screening tool to detect iron deficiency and hemoglobinopathy. Low MCV values should be investigated to determine if iron replacement therapy is indicated.
Holm, Dorte K; Moessner, Belinda K; Engle, Ronald E
BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of reported hepatitis E cases in Europe has focused attention on hepatitis E virus (HEV) and the risk of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis E. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antibodies to HEV (anti-HEV) among Danish blood donors...... in 2013 and to compare it to previous studies in Denmark. In addition we wanted to compare the relative reactivity of two different assays. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Samples from 504 blood donors were collected and analyzed for anti-HEV with an in-house assay developed at the National Institutes of Health...... (NIH). In addition the samples were analyzed with the Wantai anti-HEV assay. Demographic information and possible HEV exposure was collected by self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: Using the NIH assay the prevalence of anti-HEV among Danish blood donors was 10.7% and with the Wantai assay...
Tafesse, Tadesse Bekele; Gebru, Addis Adera; Gobalee, Semgne; Belay, Gosaye Degu; Belew, Molla Teferi; Ataro, Demelash; Ebrahim, Belay Ali; Shebeshi, Getachew Mekonnon; Yimam, Yonas
Blood transfusion is one of the most important therapeutic options of life-saving intervention for recipients who are in diseased or non-diseased conditions with severe blood loss. However, it is associated with certain risks which can lead to adverse consequences that may cause acute or delayed complications and bring the risk of transfusion-transmissible infections including HIV, Hepatitis B & C and Syphilis. So, there might be a fatal risk instead of life saving. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive and reliable tabulation of available data on seroprevalence and diagnosis of HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis infections among blood donors. We searched studies reporting the prevalence rate of HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis infections among blood donors that were published between October 2009 and June 2016, using databases of PubMed, Scopus, MEDLINE, Elsevier, ScienceDirect, EBSCO, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and Web of Science with keywords: ``Hepatitis C Virus'', ``Hepatitis B Virus'', ``HIV'', ``Syphilis'', ``Seroprevalence'', and ``blood donor''. The seroprevalence of HBV and HCV was highest in African countries as compared to others continents, predominantly the West African region with a range of 10.0% to 14.96% and 1.5% to 8.69%, respectively, while the overall seropositivity of HIV and syphilis infection show a significant declining pattern through successive years globally, even though relatively higher prevalence rate was observed among older age and those with low level of education. There is a problem during selection, diagnoses and screening process in developing nations primarily due to shortage of sensitive screening test kits, highly qualified human resource and lack of proper standard operating procedures and hence, the safety of blood and blood products are the primary threats in the region. Proper clinical diagnosis and screening method should be applied during blood donation and therefore, all the donated blood should be screened properly for
Kaur, Daljit; Bains, Lovenish; Kandwal, Manoj; Parmar, Indu
The ultimate aim of pretransfusion testing is the acceptable survival of donor red cells in recipient's body and antibody detection plays a critical role in achieving the same. The cornerstone of antibody detection method is detecting an unexpected antibody as against the expected antibodies of ABO blood group system. Autoantibodies can also interfere with the detection of clinically significant alloantibodies. To study the frequency of alloantibodies and autoantibodies in the healthy blood donors and patient population visiting our hospital. The Column Agglutination Technology (CAT) was used for ABO RhD blood grouping, Direct Antiglobulin Test (DAT), Autocontrol (AC), Indirect Antiglobulin Test (IAT) and red cell antibody screening and the unexpected reactions in any of these tests were recorded for further evaluation. Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid (EDTA) blood samples were used for all these tests for both blood donors and admitted patients. The CAT was exercised for the blood grouping (using ABD-Reverse Diluent cassettes) and antibody screening (using 0.8% Surgiscreen, Ortho Clinical Diagnostics Limited, USA and Low Ionic Strength Saline Ortho BLISS with AHG cassettes) on the automated immunohaematology platform ORTHO AutoVue ® Innova system (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics Limited, USA). Among all blood donors (n=6350), seven (0.11%) donors had showed unexpected reaction. Of these, four had positive antibody screen (three having naturally occuring antibodies 2=anti-M, 1=anti-Le a and 1=inconclusive) and the other three had positive DAT. Of all the patient samples (n=6136) screened for irregular red cell antibodies, four (0.06%) patients were found to have unexpected reaction revealing one (0.02%) with anti-M antibody and the other three (0.05%) had autoantibodies in their serum. The combined prevalence for both blood donor and recipient population (n=12,486) was found to be 0.11% at our center. The alloimmunisation among patient population was found to be
Johansson, P. I.; Ullum, H.; Jensen, Kurt
(36 962 males), and 3.9% of the males had a blood hemoglobin above 10.5 mM, equalling a hematocrit of 51% and, 1.6% of the females had hemoglobin above 9.7 mM, corresponding to a hematocrit above 47%. One thousand four hundred and six rowers (1116 males) were investigated and 10.4% of the males and 8......To investigate the distribution of blood hemoglobin levels in healthy blood donors and elite athletes, a retrospective cohort study from 2001 to 2005 of candidate blood donors and elite rowers in Denmark was performed. Eighty-five thousand eight hundred and forty-six blood donors were identified.......3% of the females demonstrated values above the recommended limit for athletic competition. Thus, the prevalence of a high hemoglobin value was greater in the rowers, of both gender, than in the candidate blood donors (Phemoglobin levels in blood are seen regularly in normal...
Of the 20 who were anti-HBc positive, seven had tattoo/traditional marks on their body and one had previous history of blood transfusion. Conclusion: This study has shown that some potential blood units containing HBV are being transfused to patients unknowingly by screening for HBsAg only. Screening for other markers ...
Sarkar, R S; Philip, Joseph; Mallhi, R S; Yadav, Pramod
The Rh system is the major blood group system besides ABO system. Even after proper blood grouping and cross matching there is a possibility of alloimmunization and antibody production in the recipients against the Rh or minor blood group antigens like Kell, MNSs, Duffy etc. Keeping in view the heavy financial burden of complete phenotyping of blood; the determination of only Rh phenotypes can play a major role in preventing alloimmunization and adverse events in multitransfusion cases. To determine the proportion of Rh phenotypes in voluntary blood donors with a view to generate blood bank data for constitution of panel of blood donors for multipurpose utilities. Identification of Rhesus factors (Rh) was done by the antigen antibody agglutination test by the test tube method on 10,133 healthy voluntary donors. The phenotypic frequencies of Rh blood groups in the studied population were D-92.25%, C-87.55%, E-26.55%, c-51.06% and e-98.42%. Thus 'e' was the most common and E was the least common of all the Rh types. Phenotypically DCCee group was the most common phenotype and dccee was least common type. Determination of Rh phenotypes can play a major role in preventing alloimmunization and avoiding adverse events in multitransfusion cases.
Dec 2, 2009 ... therapy and recipients of organ and haemopoetic cell transplants, CMV infections is associated with serious morbidity and a high mortality rate. Infection may result in hepatitis, retinitis, and multisystem failure. (8-11). Susceptible patients should therefore receive. CMV safe blood products, which should ...
Fejza, Hajrullah; Telaku, Skender
Hepatitis is disease of the liver caused by the infectious and non-infectious agents. The aim of study was to analyze the prevalence of HBV and HCV among voluntary blood donors in Kosovo, during 2000–2003. The data from National Center for Blood Transfusion of Kosovo were collected and analyzed through descriptive and comparative epidemiological method of retrospective study. All samples were tested by ELISA test. Out of 70348 samples of the blood donors, 3145 were positive. From overall positive samples, 2939 were HBV positive, 192 HCV positive while 14 samples were positive for both viruses. The HBV prevalence among the blood donors of Kosovo is 4.2%, which range Kosovo to the second zone according to the CDC classification of the geographical spread of the HBV infection. The HCV prevalence among the blood donors in Kosovo is 0.3%. Compared to the other European countries this level of prevalence is relatively low. Age group 30–39 years old was presented with 34.8% of cases. The higher number was among the workers, 842 or 26.8%. Based on the results we can conclude that Kosovo have the similar prevalence for HBV and HCV infections as other South East European countries. PMID:19216773
Bassily, S; Hyams, K C; Fouad, R A; Samaan, M D; Hibbs, R G
To determine the prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among Egyptian blood donors, 188 consecutive adult blood donors from four hospitals and one temporary donor center located in Cairo, Egypt were evaluated. Sera were tested for HCV antibodies (anti-HCV) using second-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kits. Sera that were repeatedly reactive by ELISA were further verified by a second-generation recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). Antibodies to HCV were detected by RIBA in 26.6% of the blood donors, which is higher than the 10-19% prevalence of antibody found in other studies of Egyptian blood donors. A history of selling blood (odds ratio [OR] = 12.1) and the use of illicit parenteral drugs (OR = 2.5) were significantly associated with anti-HCV seropositivity after controlling for age and gender. These data indicate that the use of illicit drugs may be one reason for high levels of reported HCV infection among Egyptian blood donors. These findings also indicate that Egyptian blood donors should be screened for anti-HCV and individuals who have a history of drug abuse should be deferred from donating blood.
Mørkeberg, J; Belhage, B; Ashenden, M
The ratio between the amount of hemoglobin in the mature erythrocyte population and the reticulocytes (RBCHb:RetHb ratio) has previously been suggested as a marker to screen for EPO-abuse. We speculated that the reinfusion of blood would lead to a marked increase in this ratio, making it a valuable...... parameter in the screening for autologous blood doping. Three bags of blood (approximately 201+/-11 g of Hb) were withdrawn from 16 males and stored at either -80 degrees C (-80 T, n=8) or +4 degrees C (+4 T, n=8) and reinfused 10 weeks or 4 weeks later, respectively. Seven subjects served as controls...... week wash-out period were identified as 'suspicious', and 18.8% (-80 T) and 4.3% (+4 T) as 'positive'. In total, 7 out of 16 (43.8%) subjects had at least one sample exceeding 182.9. Compared to the currently used indirect parameters, the RBCHb:RetHb ratio is the best indicator of autologous blood...
Background: ABO blood group antigens are the most important in blood transfusion service. Everyone over six months has naturally acquired antibody against the corresponding antigen absent on their red blood cell membrane. Safe blood transfusion includes the transfusion of group specific compatible units to recipients.
Ates, Sezen Canim; Bagirova, Malahat; Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Baydar, Serap Yesilkir; Koc, Rabia Cakir; Elcicek, Serhat; Abamor, Emrah Sefik; Oztel, Olga Nehir
According to the WHO, only 5-20% of the total cases of leishmaniasis are symptomatic leishmaniasis; the other cases are identified as asymptomatic leishmaniasis. In recent studies, it has been demonstrated that donor blood plays an important role in the epidemiology of asymptomatic leishmaniasis. However, the number of the studies on this subject is still insufficient. Additionally, donor blood samples obtained from Istanbul, which is the biggest metropolitan area in Turkey, have not been investigated with regard to Leishmania. Moreover, there is no information about the sensitivity of noninvasive serological methods that are used in the detection of leishmaniasis donor blood samples. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the presence of antileishmanial antibodies in blood samples obtained from blood bank donors in Istanbul, by using different serologic methods, and to determine the most sensitive detection method. Blood samples were taken from 188 healthy blood bank donors to the Capa Turkish Red Crescent Blood Bank (Istanbul, Turkey), and the presence of antileishmanial antibodies was measured by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT), ELISA, immunochromatographic dipstick rapid test, and western blot (WB). Antileishmanial antibodies were determined in 12 out of 188 samples by IFAT (6.4%), and six out of these 12 donors were found to be positive at diagnostic titer 1:128 (3.2%). One hundred and eighty eight samples were investigated by ELISA and one (0.5%) of them gave a positive result. None of 188 samples provided a positive result by immunochromatographic test. WB applied to the 12 seroreactive donors showed that three out of 12 donors were positive. In this study, the presence of antileishmanial antibodies in blood samples of blood bank donors from Istanbul has been demonstrated by using feasible and low-cost serological methods. Additionally, in comparison with other simple and low-cost detection methods, WB was used for confirmation. IFAT
Syed Mohammad Irfan
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Hepatitis-B, Hepatitis-C and Human Immunodeficiency infections in replacement blood donors. METHODS: From January 2004 to December 2011, 108,598 apparently healthy donors donated blood at our Blood Bank. Screening was done by Microparticle Enzyme Immuno Assay (MEIA method on Axsym System (Abbott Diagnostic, USA and in year 2011 by Chemiluminescent Immunoassay (CIA method on Architect i2000 (Abbott Diagnostic, USA. From 2010 onward, HIV reactive donors were advised for confirmatory tests and reported back with the results. RESULTS: Of the 108,598 total donors, 108,393 (99.8% were replacement donors with a mean age of 28.92 (17-55 years. Of this, only 164 (0.15% were females. Among the replacement donors, 4,906 (4.5% were found to be reactive for Hepatitis-B, C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus. All the reactive patients, except one, were males. HbsAg was positive in 2,068 (1.90% and anti-HCV in 2832 (2.61% donors, while 111 (0.10% were positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Co-infectivity was observed in 103 (0.09% cases. The prevalence appeared to be higher in younger age group (17-30 yrs. Only 16.6% cases should be patients returned with results of the confirmatory tests for HIV and were found positive. CONCLUSION: Hepatitis-B and C sero-prevalence in our series of replacement donors appears high compared to most studies from neighboring countries and relatively low in comparison to earlier studies from Pakistan. Prevalence of HIV, however, appears low and turn out of HIV positive cases for confirmatory tests is low.
Apr 26, 2011 ... the cold or sweating stage, headache and physically detected anaemia, shivering, pain at body joints, weakness and vomiting. The donors were also .... menstruation, pregnancy, lactation and iron deficiency anaemia often hinder women from donating blood. Sierra Leone J Biomed Res 2011| Vol. 3 No. 1.
Objectives. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is found worldwide in all geographical locations and socio-economic groups and is the virus most frequently transmitted to a developing child before birth. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for CMV antibodies among healthy blood donors at Lagos University ...
Background: One of the greatest values of serological test for syphilis is as a surrogate marker for lifestyle known to be associated with high risk of HIV and HCV infections. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of syphilis among blood donors in Ilorin and also the relationship between seropositivity and ...
Rigas, Andreas S; Ejsing, Benedikte H; Sørensen, Erik; Pedersen, Ole B; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian; Ullum, Henrik
Studies confirm that calcium inhibits iron absorption. Danish tap water comes from groundwater, which contains varying amounts of calcium depending on the subsoil. We investigated the association of calcium in drinking water with iron levels in Danish blood donors. We used data on Danish blood donors including dietary and lifestyle habits, blood donation history, and physiologic characteristics including measures of ferritin levels along with information on area of residence from The Danish Blood Donor Study. Data on calcium levels in groundwater ("water hardness") were obtained through the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland. We performed multiple linear and logistic regression analyses to evaluate the effect of water hardness on ferritin levels and risk of having iron deficiency (defined as ferritin levels water hardness and ferritin levels in both men and women. Risk of iron deficiency was correspondingly increased in both men (odds ratio [OR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-2.12) and women (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.03-1.40) with increasing water hardness. In analyses restricted to individuals who received supplemental iron tablets no significant association between groundwater hardness and ferritin levels was observed. As measured by ferritin levels, residential drinking water calcium content is associated with blood donors- iron levels and risk of iron deficiency. However, effect sizes are small. © 2018 AABB.
Umolu, Patience Idia; Okoror, Lawrence Ehis; Orhue, Philip
Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B virus are blood borne pathogens that can be transmitted through blood transfusion and could pose a huge problem in areas where mechanisms of ensuring blood safety are suspect. This study became necessary in a population where most of the blood for transfusion is from commercial blood donors. A total of 130 donors comprising 120 commercial donors and 10 voluntary donors were tested for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B surface antigen in Benin city using Immunocomb HIV - 1 and 2 Biospot kit and Quimica Clinica Aplicada direct latex agglutination method respectively. Thirteen (10%) samples were HIV seropositive and 7(5.8%) were HBsAg positive. The age bracket 18 - 25years had the highest numbers of donors and also had the highest number of HBsAg positive cases (7.8%) while the age group 29 - 38years had highest number of HIV seropositive cases. High prevalence of HIV antibodies and Hepatitis B surface antigen was found among commercial blood donors. Appropriate and compulsory screening of blood donors using sensitive methods, must be ensured to prevent post transfusion hepatitis and HIV.
Fischer-Fröhlich, C L; Stoll, T; Hanfland, P
Increasing performance figures and the necessity to save expenses oblige transfusion services to automatize their donors' laboratory examination. Sufficient hard- and software for sample distribution and processing is now available. Following aspects should be regarded when switching to automatic serial screening: The identity of blood-donor, donation and laboratory result will be achieved by machine readable labeling and on-line communication between working-stations and central administration. Flexibility: Easy automatic selective laboratory screening will be possible using special barcodes including sample identification and working orders. A modular hardware concept with easily accessible programming control allows it to implement new devices or methods. Ergonomy: Automatic sample processing including selective screening and simultaneous operating robotic sample processors increase working quality, sample output and time benefits. Economy: Improved working conditions will result in saving reagents and compensating staff limitations.
Ma, Ting; Yang, Jiangcun; Song, Yaojun; Wang, Wenhua; Xie, Xinxin; Chen, Ping; Yang, Yingqun; Chang, Jingyan; Wang, Miaoni
Objective To investigate the distribution characteristics of Rh blood group in 51 283 cases of inpatients and voluntary blood donors. Methods Micro-column gel test was used to detect RhD, RhE, Rhe, RhC, Rhc antigen in 31 818 cases of hospitalized patients and 19 465 cases of voluntary blood donors. Results There were significant differences in Rh blood type distribution between inpatients and voluntary blood donors. The mainly phenotype of Rh blood group in the inpatients were DCCee (41.64%) and DCcEe (36.58%), and Rh blood type in voluntary blood donors were DCCee (41.11%) and DCcEe (37.11%). There were noticeable differences in Rh blood group and ABO phenotype between inpatients and voluntary blood donors. The mainly phenotype of the RhD positive patients were CcEe (36.58%) and CCee (41.64%). However, the mainly phenotype of RhD negative patients were ccee (54.30%) and Ccee (30.86%). Additionally, obvious difference of Rh blood group was seen between patients in haematology department and all patients. The voluntary blood donors from different areas including Hefei, Guangzhou, Nanning and Xi'an showed significant different Rh blood group distribution. On the contrary, no obvious difference of Rh blood group was found between Xianyang and Xi'an. Conclusion The differences of Rh blood group distribution have been found in different populations, departments and areas, which make it extremely important to detect Rh blood group in clinical transfusion.
Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Nørgaard, Astrid; Burcharth, Jakob
Adverse effects to transfusion with red donor blood cells are potentially life-threatening. Due to screening, transmission of infectious diseases has decreased; however, the risk is still present. Various immune reactions are common including simple allergic reactions as well as devastating...... conditions such as transfusion-related acute lung injury and circulatory overload in patients with heart disease. Knowledge of the clinical signs of transfusion-related complications is important for clinicians in order to provide the best possible treatment....
Background: The ABO is a blood group system that is responsible for most blood transfusion reactions, transplant rejections and determining some forensic cases. The ABO and Rhesus blood group systems have been shown to show variations in different part of the world and race. Aim: The study is to show the frequency of.
Background: The ABO is a blood group system that is responsible for most blood transfusion reactions, transplant rejections and determining some forensic cases. The ABO and Rhesus blood group systems have been shown to show variations in different part of the world and race. Aim: The study is to show the frequency of ...
Tullen, E; De Saussure, P; Soulier-Lauper, M
Determine the risk factors in blood donors with anti hepatitis C antibodies (anti-HCV ab) possible liver involvement and evaluation of their infectious potential by a search for viral RNA in blood. Between July 1990 and October 1991, 19,632 blood donors were screened for hepatitis C. Antibodies to HCV were detected in 74 donors (2nd generation ELISA, Abbott). We evaluated the risk factors, determined ALAT levels and looked for circulating RNA virus by amplification of the non-coding region of the viral genome (RTPCR) in 68 of these 74 donors screened. A control was chosen arbitrarily from 103 donors with high ALAT levels, but with no antibodies to HCV nor detectable circulating viral DNA. The prevalence of anti-HCV ab in blood donors in 0.37%. No risk factor was found in 29 donors (43%). Parenteral exposure (former i.v. drug addiction and history of transfusions) was found to be the mode of transmission of hepatitis C in 23 donors (34%). History of NANB jaundice (non-post transfusion) was reported in 1 donor (1%). The remaining 15 donors (22%) were found to have minor risk factors - either isolated or in combination (exposure, tatoos, multiple sexual partners). Former i.v. drug addiction (p = 0.0000006) as well as a history of transfusions (p = 0.0071) are significantly more frequent in the group of donors with antibodies to HCV. None of the 35 sexual partners of the tested donors proved to be positive. 21 donors (30%) had high ALAT (+2 SD). Viral RNA was detected in blood of 26 donors (38%). The proportion of cases with positive viral RNA was 61% if only those donors with high ALAT levels were taken into consideration (13 positive of 21). Risk factors were found in 39 donors (57%) with antibodies to HCV. History of parenteral exposure was found to be significantly more frequent than in the control group (p = 0.0000054). Sexual transmission within couples was not demonstrated in the population tested. A positive PCR test is a probable indicator of a continuous
O'Brien, Sheila F; Delage, Gilles; Scalia, Vito; Lindsay, Robbin; Bernier, France; Dubuc, Sophie; Germain, Marc; Pilot, Gerry; Yi, Qi-Long; Fearon, Margaret A
Human babesiosis, caused by the intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite Babesia microti, is primarily transmitted by tick bites and is also transmitted by transfusion. Infections have been identified in U.S. blood donors close to Canadian borders. We aimed to assess the risk of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis in Canada by examining infections in ticks and seroprevalence in blood donors. Passive surveillance (receipt of ticks submitted by the public) was used to identify regions for tick drag sampling (active surveillance, 2009-2014). All ticks were tested for B. microti using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay (Imugen, Inc.). Between July and December 2013, blood donations from selected sites (southern Manitoba, Ontario, Québec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia) near endemic U.S. regions were tested for antibody to B. microti. Donors completed a questionnaire about risk travel and possible tick exposure. Of approximately 12,000 ticks submitted, 14 were B. microti positive (10 in Manitoba, one in Ontario, one in Québec, two in New Brunswick). From active tick surveillance, six of 361 ticks in Manitoba were positive (1.7%), three of 641 (0.5%) in Québec, and none elsewhere. There were 26,260 donors at the selected sites of whom 13,993 (53%) were tested. None were positive for antibody to B. microti. In 2013, 47% of donors visited forested areas in Canada, and 41% traveled to the United States. The data do not suggest that laboratory-based testing is warranted at this time. However, there are indicators that B. microti may be advancing into Canada and ongoing monitoring of tick populations and donor seroprevalence is indicated. © 2015 AABB.
The problem is even worse if the blood group is rare. In this paper, we explore the possibility of using location-aware computing to track blood donors in Mauritius and locate the nearest donor in cases of emergencies and whenever fresh blood is required. A number of blood donor management systems exist but none of ...
Makroo, Raj Nath; Rajput, Saroj; Agarwal, Soma; Chowdhry, Mohit; Prakash, Bindu; Karna, Prashant
Alloantibodies may be detected in blood donors who have either been transfused previously or female donors with previous obstetric events. These antibodies can occasionally cause severe transfusion reaction, if a large amount of plasma or whole blood is transfused, as in massive transfusions and pediatric patients. The present study aims to assess the prevalence of red cell antibodies in healthy blood donors at a tertiary care hospital-based blood bank in India. A total of 82,153 donor samples were screened for irregular red cell antibodies between January 2012 and December 2015 at the Department of Transfusion Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, New Delhi. Antibody screening was performed by solid phase method using Immucor Capture-R ready screen (pooled cells) on fully automated immunohematology analyzer Galileo Neo (Immucor Inc., Norcross, GA, USA). Positive tests were further confirmed using Capture-R ready screen (4 cell panel). Advanced investigations to identify the antibody/ies were performed on confirmed positive samples. Antibody identification was conducted using various cell panels (Immucor Capture-R Ready-ID, Panocell-10, Ficin Treated). An advanced technique such as adsorption and elution was performed as per requirement. Screening with pooled cells and 4 cell panel was positive in 227 donors (0.27%), 150 of these donors had autoantibodies, 1 had autoantibodies with underlying alloantibody anti-Jk a (0.001%), and 76 had alloantibodies (0.09%) alone in their plasma. Anti-M was the most common antibody (43 donors) identified, followed by anti-D (21 donors). Anti-N was detected in 4; anti-Jk a , anti-C, and anti-E in two donors each followed by anti-P1 and anti-Le b in 1 donor. Antibodies against red cells can be present in healthy donors detection of which is important in providing safe blood to the patient. The prevalence of red blood cell antibody in healthy donors in this study was found to be 0.27%, while the prevalence of alloantibodies was 0
Alfieri, Sara; Guiddi, Paolo; Marta, Elena; Saturni, Vincenzo
The economic crisis has exasperated people's feelings of loneliness; job instability often does not allow people to commit to voluntary work. The present work proposes to examine whether the motivations to donate blood have changed before and during the period of economic crisis, taking into consideration donors' gender. We adopted Omoto & Snyder's functionalist approach, which states that blood donation serves different functions for any one person, who may have different motivations from those held by other people. We compared six-year pre-post (t1 "pre-crisis": 2008 - t2 "during the crisis": 2014) data on a sample of blood donors in a single blood donation center situated in Northern Italy. T-test was used for data analysis. Three hundred thirty donors (age range 18-60, M = 32.6, SD = 9.53; 54.5% male) were administered a survey at t1 and 444 (age range 18-60, M = 37.8, SD = 10.16; 68% male) six years later at t2. In both surveys, participants were administered a questionnaire with socio-demographic items and a version of Omoto & Snyder's Motivations to Volunteer scale adapted to blood donation. Donors' motivation priorities did not vary over time. Values and Self-enhancement motivations are the most prevalent. Knowledge and Ego-protection motivations decreased with the upsurge of the crisis. Women, in general, report higher mean values than men do for Values and Ego-protection motivations. These results can offer valuable clues for the agencies that manage blood collection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available In recent years various studies showed, that hepatitis E virus (HEV is a growing public health problem in many developed countries. Therefore, HEV infections might bear a transmission risk by blood transfusions. The clinical relevance still requires further investigations. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of acute HEV infections in Upper Austrian blood donors as well as a risk estimation of this transfusion-related infection.A total of 58,915 blood donors were tested for HEV RNA using a commercial HEV RT-PCR Kit. 7 of these donors (0.01% were PCR-positive with normal laboratory parameters in absence of clinical signs of hepatitis. Viral load determined by quantitative real-time PCR showed a HEV nucleic acid concentration of 2,217 293,635 IU/ml. At follow-up testing (2-11 weeks after donation all blood donors had negative HEV RNA results. Additionally, genotyping was performed by amplification and sequencing of the ORF1 or ORF2 region of the HEV genome. All HEV RNA positive donor samples revealed a genotype 3 isolate. For the antibody screening, anti-HEV IgM and IgG were detected by ELISA. Follow up serological testing revealed that no donor was seropositive for HEV IgM or IgG antibodies at time of donation. Moreover, we verified the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG in 1,203 of the HEV RNA negative tested blood donors. Overall 13.55% showed positive results for anti-HEV IgG.In the presented study, we investigated HEV infections in blood donations of Upper Austria over 1 year. We concluded that 1 out of 8,416 blood donations is HEV RNA positive. Seroprevalence of anti HEV IgG results in an age-related increase of 13.55%. Therefore, based on this data, we recommend HEV-PCR screening to prevent transmission of hepatitis E virus by transfusion.
Antonio L Ribeiro
Full Text Available Blood donor screening leads to large numbers of new diagnoses of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, with most donors in the asymptomatic chronic indeterminate form. Information on electrocardiogram (ECG findings in infected blood donors is lacking and may help in counseling and recognizing those with more severe disease.To assess the frequency of ECG abnormalities in T.cruzi seropositive relative to seronegative blood donors, and to recognize ECG abnormalities associated with left ventricular dysfunction.The study retrospectively enrolled 499 seropositive blood donors in São Paulo and Montes Claros, Brazil, and 483 seronegative control donors matched by site, gender, age, and year of blood donation. All subjects underwent a health clinical evaluation, ECG, and echocardiogram (Echo. ECG and Echo were reviewed blindly by centralized reading centers. Left ventricular (LV dysfunction was defined as LV ejection fraction (EF<0.50%.Right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block, isolated or in association, were more frequently found in seropositive cases (p<0.0001. Both QRS and QTc duration were associated with LVEF values (correlation coefficients -0.159,p<0.0003, and -0.142,p = 0.002 and showed a moderate accuracy in the detection of reduced LVEF (area under the ROC curve: 0.778 and 0.790, both p<0.0001. Several ECG abnormalities were more commonly found in seropositive donors with depressed LVEF, including rhythm disorders (frequent supraventricular ectopic beats, atrial fibrillation or flutter and pacemaker, intraventricular blocks (right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block and ischemic abnormalities (possible old myocardial infarction and major and minor ST abnormalities. ECG was sensitive (92% for recognition of seropositive donors with depressed LVEF and had a high negative predictive value (99% for ruling out LV dysfunction.ECG abnormalities are more frequent in seropositive than in seronegative blood donors
Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Sabino, Ester C.; Marcolino, Milena S.; Salemi, Vera M. C.; Ianni, Barbara M.; Fernandes, Fábio; Nastari, Luciano; Antunes, André; Menezes, Márcia; Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Sachdev, Vandana; Carrick, Danielle M.; Busch, Michael P.; Murphy, Eduard L.
Background Blood donor screening leads to large numbers of new diagnoses of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, with most donors in the asymptomatic chronic indeterminate form. Information on electrocardiogram (ECG) findings in infected blood donors is lacking and may help in counseling and recognizing those with more severe disease. Objectives To assess the frequency of ECG abnormalities in T.cruzi seropositive relative to seronegative blood donors, and to recognize ECG abnormalities associated with left ventricular dysfunction. Methods The study retrospectively enrolled 499 seropositive blood donors in São Paulo and Montes Claros, Brazil, and 483 seronegative control donors matched by site, gender, age, and year of blood donation. All subjects underwent a health clinical evaluation, ECG, and echocardiogram (Echo). ECG and Echo were reviewed blindly by centralized reading centers. Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction was defined as LV ejection fraction (EF)<0.50%. Results Right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block, isolated or in association, were more frequently found in seropositive cases (p<0.0001). Both QRS and QTc duration were associated with LVEF values (correlation coefficients −0.159,p<0.0003, and −0.142,p = 0.002) and showed a moderate accuracy in the detection of reduced LVEF (area under the ROC curve: 0.778 and 0.790, both p<0.0001). Several ECG abnormalities were more commonly found in seropositive donors with depressed LVEF, including rhythm disorders (frequent supraventricular ectopic beats, atrial fibrillation or flutter and pacemaker), intraventricular blocks (right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block) and ischemic abnormalities (possible old myocardial infarction and major and minor ST abnormalities). ECG was sensitive (92%) for recognition of seropositive donors with depressed LVEF and had a high negative predictive value (99%) for ruling out LV dysfunction. Conclusions ECG abnormalities are more frequent in
Eloísa Tedeschi Dauar
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Deferral of blood donors due to low hematocrit and iron depletion is commonly reported in blood banks worldwide. This study evaluated the risk factors for low hematocrit and iron depletion among prospective blood donors in a large Brazilian blood center.METHOD: A case-control study of 400 deferred donors due to low hematocrit and 456 eligible whole blood donors was conducted between 2009 and 2011. Participants were interviewed about selected risk factors for anemia, and additional laboratory tests, including serum ferritin, were performed. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the association between predictors and deferral due to low hematocrit in the studied population and iron depletion in women.RESULTS: Donors taking aspirins or iron supplementation, those who reported stomachache, black tarry stools or hematochezia, and women having more than one menstrual period/month were more likely to be deferred. Risk factors for iron depletion were repeat donation and being deferred at the hematocrit screening. Smoking and lack of menstruation were protective against iron depletion.CONCLUSION: This study found some unusual risk factors related to gastrointestinal losses that were associated with deferral of donors due to low hematocrit. Knowledge of the risk factors can help blood banks design algorithms to improve donor notification and referral.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I infection is considered as a public health challenge in endemic areas. The virus is associated with severe diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. One of the major routes of the HTLV-I transmission includes blood transfusion. Sabzevar is located in the endemic region of HTLV-I infection. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of HTLV-I infection in the blood donors in Sabzevar. Materials and Methods: A total of 35,067 blood donors in Sabzevar from March 2009 to April 2012 who were screened with HTLV-I on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay screening test were included in this survey. Reactive samples that confirmed by western blot were considered to be seropositive cases. The required data were obtained from blood donors′ database of blood transfusion service. Results: The overall prevalence of HTLV-1 based on the positive result of western blot test was 0.14%. The seropositive donors aged 17-59 years with a mean age of 38.10 ± 11.82. The prevalence rates of HTLV-I infection in 3 years of study were 0.19%, 0.14%, and 0.09%, respectively. A significant relation between age, sex, educational level, and history of blood donation was observed with seropositivity of HTLV-I. Conclusion: The improvement of donor selection and laboratory screening caused a decline in the prevalence of infection in blood donors. Given the lower prevalence of infection in regular donors with lower age and higher educational level, more efforts should be done to attract blood donors from these populations.
Stewart, R D; Hake, C L; Wu, A; Stewart, T A; Kalbfleisch, J H
An 18% reduction in the carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) saturation in nonsmoking Chicago blood donors occurred between 1970 and 1974, indicating that current donors are being exposed to a lower average carbon monoxide (CO) concentration than had been experienced by 1970 donors. In contrast to the situation in 1970, when it was discovered that 74% of the nonsmokers in Chicago were being exposed to CO in excess of the amount permitted by the federal air quality standards, in 1974 only 41% of the nonsmokers were being overexposed. The observed reduction in HbCO correlates well with both the ambient CO levels recorded at the air monitoring stations and the reduction in CO emission from automobiles. If the current trend continues, Chicago should reach compliance with air quality standards for CO by 1985. The measurement of HbCO in a representative urban population is an accurate index of actual CO exposure and supplements the air pollution data provided by air monitoring stations.
Johansson, P.I.; Ullum, H.; Jensen, K.
.3% of the females demonstrated values above the recommended limit for athletic competition. Thus, the prevalence of a high hemoglobin value was greater in the rowers, of both gender, than in the candidate blood donors (P
Mansour, Wael; Bollahi, Mohamed-Abdellahi; Hamed, Cheikh-Tijani; Brichler, Ségolène; Le Gal, Frédéric; Ducancelle, Alexandra; Lô, Baidy; Gordien, Emmanuel; Rosenheim, Michel; Lunel, Françoise
In Mauritania, some authors have described a possible high prevalence of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection in the 1990s in studies of small-size samples. The aims of our study were to assess the prevalence of HDV in HBsAg positive blood donors in Mauritania, to identify the main risk factors for HDV transmission and to analyze genetic diversity of HDV strains. From October 2008 to December 2009, 11,100 consecutive blood donors were considered in this study. Among them, 1700 (15.3%) were HBsAg positive and 455 accepted to participate in this study. Demographic, epidemiological, ethnical, clinical and biological data were recorded. HDV screening, i.e., antibodies (HDVAb) and RNA (HDV-RNA) detection, was performed for all of them as well as HDV and HBV genotyping. Ninety/455 (19.78%) donors were HDVAb positive and HDV-RNA was detectable in 56 (62.2%) of them. HDV infection was significantly associated with older age, number of marriages, military profession, residence in the desert and a history of hospitalization. The HDV genotypes of the circulating strains were HDV-1 (89.3%) and HDV-5 (10.7%). HDV is highly endemic in Mauritanian blood donors indicating that a high number of them will develop chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Associated risk factors support nosocomial transmission of HDV. These data underline the need to reinforce HBV vaccination in newborns and in blood donors without HBV markers, together with screening for HDV in HBV-infected individuals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years with introduction of better screening tests, the risk of infection with transfusion-transmitted viruses has been reduced remarkably, although obtaining a zero-risk blood supply still remains international blood transfusion services goal. The routine test for detection of HBV infected blood samples is examination of HBsAg with ELISA method but in occult HBV infection, HBsAg is not detectable by ELISA. Therefore, a more sensitive or complementary test is needed. Some international blood transfusion services have introduced anti-HBc screening as a surrogate test for the presence of HBV infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of occult HBV infection in Isfahanian blood donors and the potential value of anti-HBc testing of donors as a screening test to detect occult HBV infection. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 545 blood units were collected (from Isfahan blood center and tested by HBsAg ELISA kit from April to June 2004 and then all HBsAg negative samples were tested by anti-HBc ELISA kit. To detect occult HBV infection, all HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive samples were tested by PCR method. Results: All samples were negative for HBsAg while 43 blood units were anti-HBc positive (8%. These HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive blood units were tested for HBV DNA of which five units (%11.6 were HBV DNA positive. Conclusion: Occult HBV infection is a clinical form of HBV infection that cannot be detected by usual method (ELISA for HBsAg and therefore more sensitive techniques are needed for detection of HBV infection. PCR is a sensitive technique that detects HBV DNA even in a trace mounts. Our results identified that more sensitive and complementary tests such as, PCR and anti-HBc, are essential and helpful to ensure safety of blood units.
Davidson, F; Lycett, C; Jarvis, L M; Kerr, D; Lumley, S; Petrik, J; Dow, B C
Positive samples identified during routine serological screening for HCV (hepatitis C virus), HBV (hepatitis B virus) and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) are confirmed by nucleic acid testing in the SNBTS (Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service) PCR Reference laboratory. Serological screening for HTLV-I (human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I) and -II was implemented in Scotland in November 2002, at which time a PCR assay was not available for confirmation. Our aim was to develop a real-time PCR assay that could be used for the confirmation of samples showing HTLV-I serological positive or indeterminate reactivity and to investigate whether a serologically silent carrier status exists ('Tax' only) in the Scottish donor population. A real-time HTLV PCR was devised using a lymphoblastoid cell line which has HTLV-I sequence integrated in the genome (C8166 cells). These were spiked into peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The assay was evaluated on archived serologically confirmed HTLV-positive samples and new positives identified since implementation of screening. HTLV-I and -II were detected in cells and plasma from stored donations and a serological positive donation identified in routine screening. HTLV DNA can also be amplified from the plasma obtained from plasma preparation tubes. There was no evidence of a carrier status ('Tax' only) in 100 serologically negative blood donors tested. The PCR assay developed is reliable and sensitive, capable of identifying one copy of HTLV-I. The HTLV PCR is a useful addition for HTLV confirmation, especially in serologically indeterminate samples and for look-back studies. HTLV PCR confirmation will provide additional useful information for donor medical staff for counselling donors.
Fawaz, Naglaa A; Tamim, Hala; Almawi, Wassim Y
The seroprevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-I/II was assessed in 13,443 consecutive blood donors in eastern Saudi Arabia between 1998 and 2001. Screening by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmation by Western blot resulted in 8 (0.060%) positive cases, of which 5 (0.056%) belonged to Saudi and 3 (0.113%) to non-Saudi donors. The majority of the HTLV-positive donations (6/8) were for patients, and none had a history of known risk factor for HTLV-I/II transmission. Although the very low prevalence of HTLV-I/II among Saudi donors does not support routine screening, screening of donors from other nationalities may be initiated, especially those from HTLV-I/II endemic areas.
Atsma, Femke; Veldhuizen, Ingrid; de Vegt, Femmie; Doggen, Carine; de Kort, Wim
Within blood establishments little comparative information is available about donors versus the general population. In this study, a description of the donor pool was made in terms of demographic factors and cardiovascular risk factors. The general Dutch population was used as a reference group. The Donor InSight study provided information on donors. Extensive information has been gathered by a self-administered questionnaire addressing various topics, like demographics, lifestyle, and health. Aggregated donor responses were compared with general population summary data. The study population consisted of 15,076 donors. The median age was 46.3 years and 47.3% were men. Donors were more likely to be highly educated (34.6%), married (71.7%), and of Dutch origin (97.4%), when compared to the general population. Donors were less often smokers (donors, 17.1%; general population, 31.8%), more often moderate drinkers (donors, 82.8%; general population, 74.7%), and physically more active (donors, 2.0 hr/week; general population, 1.0 hr/week). Male donors were more often moderately overweight (47.7%) than men from the general population (39.9%). In donors, 0.9% reported to have Type 2 diabetes versus 1.9% in the general population. In donors, 3.4% reported high cholesterol versus 4.6% in the general population. The study provided important knowledge about demographic distributions and cardiovascular risk factors within donors. A proper understanding of demographic characteristics of donors will help us to focus recruitment and retention strategies. The reported beneficial cardiovascular profile suggests a need for further research on the role of blood donation in cardiovascular risk reduction. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.
Men, Shou-Shan; Lv, Lian-Zhi; Chen, Yuan-Feng; Han, Chun-Hua; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yan, Yan
To investigate the blood test patterns for blood donors after nucleic acid detection in blood center. The collected blood samples after voluntary blood donors first were detected by conventional ELISA, then 31981 negative samples were detected via HBV/HCV/HIV combined nucleic acid test of 6 mixed samples(22716 cases) or single samples(9265 cases) by means of Roche cobas s201 instrument. The combined detection method as follows: the blood samples were assayed by conventional nucleic acid test of 6 mixed samples, at same time, 6 mixed samples were treated with polyethylene glycol precipitation method to concentrate the virus, then the nucleic acid test of blood samples was performed; the single detection method as follows: firstly the conventional nucleic acid test of single sample was performed, then the positive reactive samples after re-examination were 6-fold diluted to simulate the nucleic acid test of 6-mixed samples. The positive rate of positive samples detected by combined nucleic acid test, positive samples detected by nucleic acid test of mixed virus concentration and positive samples detected by single nucleic acid test was statistically analyzed. In addition, for HBV + persons the serological test yet should be performed. In 22 716 samples detected by nucleic acid test of 6 mixed samples (MP-6-NAT) , 9 cases were HBV + (0.40‰, 9/22716); at same time, the detection of same samples by nucleic acid test of mixed sample virus concentration showed 29 cases of HBV + (1.28‰, 29/22716). In 9265 samples detected by single nucleic acid test(ID-NAT) 12 cases showed HBV + (1.30‰, 12/9265), meanwhile the detection of these 12 samples with HBV + by 6-fold dilution for virus concentration found only 4 samples with HBV + . In serological qualified samples, ID-NAT unqualified rate was 1.28‰, which was higher than that of MP-6-NAT(0.4‰) (χ 2 =8.11, P0.05). In 41 samples with HBsAg - HBV DNA + detected by ELISA, 36 samples were confirmed to be occult HBV
Full Text Available Adewumi Adediran,1 Ebele I Uche,2 Titilope A Adeyemo,1 Dapus O Damulak,3 Akinsegun A Akinbami,4 Alani S Akanmu1 1Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria; 2Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria; 3Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria; 4Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, Lagos State University, Ikeja, Nigeria Background: Apart from challenging the bone marrow to increase its red cell production, thereby producing more blood for the donor, regular blood donation has been shown to have several benefits, one of which is preventing accumulation of body iron which can cause free radical formation in the body. This study was carried out to assess body iron stores in regular blood donors. Methods: A total of 52 regular (study and 30 first-time (control volunteer blood donors were studied prospectively. Twenty milliliters of venous blood was drawn from each subject, 5 mL of which was put into sodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid specimen bottles for a full blood count, including red blood cell indices. The remaining sample was allowed to clot in a plain container, and the serum was then retrieved for serum ferritin, serum iron, and serum transferrin receptor measurement by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Mean hemoglobin and packed cell volume in the study group (13.47 ± 2.36 g/dL and 42.00 ± 7.10, respectively, P = 0.303 were not significantly higher than in the control group (12.98 ± 1.30 g/dL and 39.76 ± 4.41, respectively, P = 0.119. Mean serum ferritin was 102.46 ± 80.26 ng/mL in the control group and 41.46 ± 40.33 ng/mL in the study group (P = 0.001. Mean serum ferritin for women in the study group (28.02 ± 25.00 ng/mL was significantly lower than for women in the control group (56.35 ± 34.03 ng/mL, P = 0.014. Similarly, men in the study group had a lower
Full Text Available Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. The survey instrument asked the students to rate several potential motivating factors in their importance in the decision to donate blood and several potential deterring factors in their future decision whether or not to donate blood again. The survey also asked the students to rate the desirability of several potential incentives. Results. Motivating factors that reflected prosocial, empathetic, and altruistic thoughts and beliefs were rated highly by students. Pain from phlebotomy was most commonly chosen as potential deterrent. Movie tickets and cookies/snacks at the drive were rated as the most attractive incentives. Conclusion. High school aged blood donors are similar to other donor groups in their expressed motives for donating blood. This group may be unique in the factors that deter them from donating and in their preferences for different incentives.
Finck, Rachel; Ziman, Alyssa; Hoffman, Matthew; Phan-Tang, Michelle; Yuan, Shan
Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. The survey instrument asked the students to rate several potential motivating factors in their importance in the decision to donate blood and several potential deterring factors in their future decision whether or not to donate blood again. The survey also asked the students to rate the desirability of several potential incentives. Results. Motivating factors that reflected prosocial, empathetic, and altruistic thoughts and beliefs were rated highly by students. Pain from phlebotomy was most commonly chosen as potential deterrent. Movie tickets and cookies/snacks at the drive were rated as the most attractive incentives. Conclusion. High school aged blood donors are similar to other donor groups in their expressed motives for donating blood. This group may be unique in the factors that deter them from donating and in their preferences for different incentives.
Sommese, Linda; Sabia, Chiara; Esposito, Antonella; Iannone, Carmela; Montesano, Maria Lourdes; Napoli, Claudio
The recrudescence of syphilis is leading to the development of new serological tests. The goal of this study was to compare the performance of the more recent Elecsys Syphilis assay, the Electro Chemiluminescence Immunoassay (ECLIA), with the former Architect Syphilis TP assay, the Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA), for the detection of antibodies against Treponema pallidum in blood donors. Serum samples of 5543 voluntary blood donors were screened in parallel with two tests. All repeatedly reactive (RR) samples by one or both assays were further analysed for confirmation by immmunoblot INNO-LIA and TPHA. Of 32 RR samples by CMIA, 21 were confirmed positive; of 21 RR samples by ECLIA, 20 were confirmed positive. The sensitivities of CMIA and ECLIA were 100% and 95.24% (95% CI = 85.71-100), respectively, not significant (p > 0.05). The specificity and predictive positive value (PPV) of CMIA were 99.86% (95% CI = 99.74-99.94) and 72.41%, respectively, while the specificity and PPV of ECLIA were both 100%, being statistically significant (p = 0.01 for both). The overall agreement was 99.80% and the Cohen's kappa coefficients was 0.79. In conclusion, the recent Elecsys Syphilis assay could represent another reliable assay for blood donor screening.
Fukutani, Kiyoshi F; Figueiredo, Virgínia; Celes, Fabiana S; Cristal, Juqueline R; Barral, Aldina; Barral-Netto, Manoel; de Oliveira, Camila I
Visceral Leishmaniasis is endemic to Brazil, where it is caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi). Following parasite inoculation, individuals may experience asymptomatic infection, raising the possibility of parasite transmission through the transfusion of contaminated blood products. In the present work, we evaluated the prevalence of asymptomatic Leishmania infection among blood donors in Salvador, northeastern Brazil. Peripheral blood was collected from 700 blood donors attending the Blood Bank of Bahia (HEMOBA/SESAB), from January to September 2010. We evaluated anti-Leishmania serology by ELISA, employing Soluble Leishmania Antigen (sensitivity 90% and specificity 95%). The presence of parasite DNA was determined by qPCR, targeting a single copy gene (G6PD), and by end-point PCR, targeting multiple targets, namely a segment located in the Leishmania rRNA locus (ITS) and the conserved region of kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA) minicircles. The blood-donor population was comprised of 74.5% of males with a mean age of 34 years. Anti-Leishmania serology by ELISA was positive in 5.4% (38/700) individuals. One individual was also positive for Chagas' disease and another tested positive for Syphilis. Employing qPCR, parasite DNA was not found in any of 38 seropositive samples. However, by ITS PCR, 8/38 (21%) samples were positive and this positivity increased to 26/38 (68%) when we targeted kDNA amplification. Agreement between both techniques (ITS and kDNA PCR) was fair (kappa = 0.219). These results indicate that asymptomatic infection is present among the blood donor population of Salvador, a finding that warrants a broader discussion regarding the need to implement specific screening strategies.
Goncalez, T. T.; Sabino, E. C.; Schlumpf, K.S.; Wright, D.J.; Leao, S.; Sampaio, D.; Takecian, P. L.; Carneiro-Proietti, AB; Murphy, E.; Busch, M.; Custer, B.
Background In Brazil little is known about adverse reactions during donation and the donor characteristics that may be associated with such events. Donors are offered snacks and fluids prior to donating and are required to consume a light meal after donation. For these reasons the frequency of reactions may be different than those observed in other countries. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted of eligible whole blood donors at three large blood centers located in Brazil between July 2007 and December 2009. Vasovagal reactions (VVRs) along with donor demographic and biometric data were collected. Reactions were defined as any presyncopal or syncopal event during the donation process. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of VVRs. Results Of 724,861 donor presentations, 16,129 (2.2%) VVRs were recorded. Rates varied substantially between the three centers: 53, 290 and 381 per 10,000 donations in Recife, São Paulo and Belo Horizonte, respectively. Although the reaction rates varied, the donor characteristics associated with VVRs were similar [younger age (18–29), replacement donors, first time donors, low estimated blood volume (EBV)]. In multivariable analysis controlling for differences between the donor populations in each city younger age, first-time donor status and lower EBV were the factors most associated with reactions. Conclusion Factors associated with VVRs in other locations are also evident in Brazil. The difference in VVR rates between the three centers might be due to different procedures for identifying and reporting the reactions. Potential interventions to reduce the risk of reactions in Brazil should be considered. PMID:22073941
Alshayea, Areej I; Eid, Gamal E; El-Hazmi, Malak M; Alhetheel, Abdulkarim F
To evaluate the prevalence of occult hepatitis B viral infections (OBIs) among blood donors considering the clinical and epidemiological importance of identifying OBIs. A cross-sectional study conducted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January 2011 and January 2012. Blood donors (n=8501) were screened for Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core antibodies (HBcAb). All HBsAg-negative and HBcAb-positive samples were tested further for hepatitis B surface antibodies (HBsAb), hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA, and HBV genotyping. Of the 8501 serum samples tested, 56 (0.7%) were positive and 8445 (99.3%) were negative for HBsAg. Among the HBsAg-negative samples, 198 (2.3%) were positive for HBcAb and these patients were suspected to have OBIs. Among the HBcAb-positive samples, 119 (60.1%) were positive while 79 (39.9%) were negative for HBsAb. Analysis of HBV-DNA for the suspected OBIs showed that 17 out of 198 samples (8.6%) yielded positive results, and all of them were HBsAb-negative. The viral load was low (less than 20-186 IU/mL) in all OBIs. Hepatitis B virus genotyping showed that 15 out of 17 samples (88.2%) were genotype D, and the other 2 samples (11.8%) were genotype E. The prevalence of OBIs among blood donors in Riyadh was 0.2%. Therefore, it is recommended that HBV molecular testing should be incorporated with serological assays for screening of blood donors.
Furuta, Rika A; Sakamoto, Hirotaka; Kuroishi, Ayumu; Yasiui, Kazuta; Matsukura, Harumichi; Hirayama, Fumiya
In Japanese Red Cross (JRC) blood centers, blood collected from donors with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels of more than 60 U/L are disqualified even if serologically negative for transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs). To assess potential risks of TTIs in plasma with elevated serum ALT levels in the current donor screening program of the JRC, we conducted a metagenomic analysis (MGA) of virome profiles in the plasma of blood donors with or without elevated serum ALT levels. Based on serum ALT levels, donors were classified into three groups: "high," more than 79 U/L; "middle," 61 to 79 U/L; and "low," less than 61 U/L. We individually analyzed 100 plasma samples from each group by MGA, employing shotgun sequencing. Viral sequences detected using MGA were partly confirmed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Donors with high and middle ALT levels were significantly younger than those with low ALT levels, and more than 90% were males. Herpesviridae, Anelloviridae, Picornaviridae, and Flaviviridae sequences were identified in plasma samples, and their distribution and frequency were not significantly different among the three groups. The serum ALT test may be unsuitable for monitoring for additional risks of TTIs in blood donors who were negative for typical TTIs using serologic and nucleic acid tests. Although MGA is less sensitive than PCR, it remains the best technology to detect known viruses in these donors. © 2015 AABB.
Calzada-Contreras, Adriana; Moreno-Hernández, Manuel; Castillo-Torres, Noemi Patricia; Souto-Rosillo, Guadalupe; Hernández-Juárez, Jesús; Ricardo-Moreno, María Tania; Sánchez-Fernández, Maria Guadalupe de Jesús; García-González, América; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham
The blood coagulation system maintains the blood in a liquid state and bleeding and thrombosis are the manifestations of its malfunction. Blood coagulation laboratory evaluates the physiology of this system. To establish both, the reference values for several tests performed at the blood coagulation laboratory as well as the utility of the pooled plasma to perform these assays. MATERIAL AND: In this descriptive, cross-sectional, randomized study, we collected plasma from Mexican Mestizos. Each pooled plasma was prepared with the plasma from at least 20 blood donors. We performed screening and special tests and the Levey-Jennings graphs were built and interpreted after each pass. Results of the tests were analyzed and their distribution was established using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. To establish the reference values we used 95% confidence intervals. We collected 72 pooled plasmas. The distribution for PT, APTT, and TT tests was abnormal. Although the PT test showed a bimodal distribution it was normal for factor VII. The reference values for the hemostatic, anticoagulant, and fibrinolytic factors were different from those suggested by the manufacturers. We established the reference values for the blood coagulation tests in the adult Mexican population. We have shown that the pooled plasma must be used for the screening tests. We suggest that each clinical laboratory should establish its own reference values (at least for the screening tests). To reach this objective, we encourage the use of the pooled plasma.
Tagny, Claude T; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Fopa, Diderot; Ashu, Celestin; Tante, Estel; Ngo Balogog, Pauline; Donfack, Olivier; Mbanya, Dora; Laperche, Syria; Murphy, Edward
In sub-Saharan Africa improving the deferral of at-risk blood donors would be a cost-effective approach to reducing transfusion-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. We performed a pilot case-control study to identify the risk factors for HIV infection and to develop an adapted donor history questionnaire (DHQ) for sub-Saharan Africa. We recruited 137 HIV-positive donors (cases) and 256 HIV-negative donors (controls) and gathered risk factor data using audio computer-assisted self-interview. Variables with univariate associations were entered into a logistic regression model to assess independent associations. A scoring scheme to distinguish between HIV-positive and HIV-negative donors was developed using receiver operating characteristics curves. We identified 16 risk factors including sex with sex worker, past history or treatment for sexually transmitted infections, and having a partner who used injected or noninjected illegal drugs. Two novel risks were related to local behavior: polygamy (odds ratio [OR], 22.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.9-86.7) and medical or grooming treatment on the street (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0-3.0). Using the 16 selected items the mean scores (>100) were 82.6 ± 6.7 (range, 53.2-95.1) and 85.1 ± 5.2 for HIV-negative donors versus 77.9 ± 6.8 for HIV-positive ones (p = 0.000). Donors who scored between 80 and 90 were more likely to be HIV negative than those who scored less (OR, 31.4; 95% CI, 3.1-313.9). We identified both typical and novel HIV risk factors among Cameroonian blood donors. An adapted DHQ and score that discriminate HIV-negative donors may be an inexpensive means of reducing transfusion-transmitted HIV through predonation screening. © 2017 AABB.
Full Text Available Diagnosis of hepatitis B is routinely based on of serological assay of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg. Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is generally defined as the detection of HBV -DNA in the serum or tissues of subjects who have negative test for HBsAg. Transmission of HBV infection has been documented from HBsAg negative, anti-HBc positive blood and organ donors. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of occult HBV infection among HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive blood donors of Rafsanjan blood transfusion center. Sera from 270 healthy blood donors who were negative for both HBsAg and anti-HCV, were tested for anti-HBc antibodies by use of ELISA technique. The samples that were negative for HBsAg but positive for anti-HBc markers also examined for the presence of HBV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Out of 270 HBsAg negative blood samples, 14 samples (5.18% were positive for anti-HBc antibodies. HBV-DNA was detected in 4/14 (28.57% of HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive samples. Moreover, anti-HBs antibody was detected in 2/4 (50% of HBV-DNA positive samples. These results indicated that HBV-DNA found in the majority of HBsAg negative and anti-HBc-positive donors. In addition, the present study recommend the incorporation of routine anti-HBc screening of blood as a surrogate marker of occult HBV infection to prevent some transfusion-transmitted HBV infections.
Rasouli, Mahboubeh; Pourmokhtar, Mojgan; Sarkardeh, Shaghayegh
Background: Development of locally-derived hematological reference intervals is necessary for improving the quality of health care and clinical trials. However hematological reference intervals are affected by several variables including age, gender and environmental factors. Therefore this study was conducted to determine the gender and age-specific hematological reference intervals of healthy Iranian blood donors. Materials and Methods: Selected hematological indices of 394 healthy blood donor volunteers, donating blood at Tehran Blood Transfusion Center were analyzed. Hematological reference intervals, stratified by age and gender were compared. The results of current study were also compared with those of US population. Results: There were significant gender-related differences for mean values of hematological indices, with males having higher mean values of RBC, HCG, HCT and MCV than females. While the mean of PLT and MCH were higher in women. Age-related differences for mean values of RBC and MCH were also significant. The comparison of reference intervals, stratified by both gender and age showed that RBC, HGB and HCT values were higher in males than females in all age groups. But MCH values of females in all age groups and WBC and PLT counts in females older than 30 years were higher compared to the males in the same age group. The results of this study showed some similarity with US population, with narrower intervals. Conclusion: This study suggests that gender and age-specific, locally derived hematological reference intervals should be referred to, before interpretation of any laboratory test result.
Bernadette Catalan Soares
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Blood donors in Brazil have been routinely screened for HTLV-I/II since 1993. A study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HTLV-I/II infection in a low risk population and to better understand determinants associated with seropositivity. METHODS: HTLV-I/II seropositive (n=135, indeterminate (n=167 and seronegative blood donors (n=116 were enrolled in an open prevalence prospective cohort study. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of positive, indeterminate and seronegative HTLV-I/II subjects was conducted to assess behavioral and environmental risk factors for seropositivity. HTLV-I/II serological status was confirmed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA and Western blot (WB. RESULTS: The three groups were not homogeneous. HTLV-I/II seropositivity was associated to past blood transfusion and years of schooling, a marker of socioeconomic status, and use of non-intravenous illegal drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The study results reinforce the importance of continuous monitoring and improvement of blood donor selection process.
Márcia Poinho EncarnaçÃo de Morais
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2 is endemic in Brazil, but few studies have investigated the seroprevalence of HTLV and its subtypes among blood donors in the capital city Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. Aim: To estimate the seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 and to identify circulating subtypes among blood donors in Manaus. Materials and Methods: Blood donors (2001-2003 were screened for HTLV-1/2 antibodies by ELISA. Positive results were confirmed and subtyped by Western blot assays. Prevalence rates were calculated and compared with demographic data. Results: Among the 87,402 individuals screened, 116 (0.13% were seropositive for HTLV-1/2. A second sample (76/116 was collected and retested by HTLV-1/2 ELISA, of which only 41/76 were positive. Western blot confirmed HTLV infection in 24/41 retested blood donors [HTLV-1 (n=16, HTLV-2 (n=5 and HTLV-untypable (n=3]. Discussion: HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are prevalent among blood donors in Manaus. However, additional studies are needed to comprehend the epidemiology of HTLV-1/2 in Amazonas not only to understand the pathophysiology of the disease providing adequate medical assistance, but also to reduce or block virus transmission.
Morais, Márcia Poinho EncarnaçÃo de; Gato, Cynara Melo; Maciel, Lucinei Alves; Lalwani, Pritesh; Costa, Cristóvão Alves; Lalwani, Jaila Dias Borges
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) is endemic in Brazil, but few studies have investigated the seroprevalence of HTLV and its subtypes among blood donors in the capital city Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. To estimate the seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 and to identify circulating subtypes among blood donors in Manaus. Blood donors (2001-2003) were screened for HTLV-1/2 antibodies by ELISA. Positive results were confirmed and subtyped by Western blot assays. Prevalence rates were calculated and compared with demographic data. Among the 87,402 individuals screened, 116 (0.13%) were seropositive for HTLV-1/2. A second sample (76/116) was collected and retested by HTLV-1/2 ELISA, of which only 41/76 were positive. Western blot confirmed HTLV infection in 24/41 retested blood donors [HTLV-1 (n=16), HTLV-2 (n=5) and HTLV-untypable (n=3)]. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are prevalent among blood donors in Manaus. However, additional studies are needed to comprehend the epidemiology of HTLV-1/2 in Amazonas not only to understand the pathophysiology of the disease providing adequate medical assistance, but also to reduce or block virus transmission.
Yu. V. Ostankova
Full Text Available The prevalence of HBV infection is estimated by the frequency of occurrence of HBsAg and varies depending on the geographic region. Chronic infection is characterized by a stable presence of HBsAg for 6 months, with the exception of the occult form of the disease, characterized by the absence of HBsAg, an extremely low level of HBV DNA in the blood serum. The problem of identifying occult HBV (ocHBV is especially relevant because of the development of transplantology and transfusiology. However, serological screening of donor blood used in the Russian Federation and Central Asian countries does not reveal HBV seronegative donors. Since HBV infection is possible with the introduction of small doses of the virus, the importance of using complex molecular methods for detecting donor ocHBV is obvious, despite the low viral load, since donor blood is used predominantly in patients with severe course of various diseases characterized by increased susceptibility to HBV because of immunosuppression. The aim of our work was to study the characteristics of the genetic structure of the ocHBV in donors in Astana, Kazakhstan. A total of 500 blood plasma samples from HBsAg-negative donors were obtained in 2012 from residents of Kazakhstan, Astana. Using the method, we proposed to detect HBV DNA with a low viral load, HBV was detected in 9.4% of donors. Serological markers were found in 12.7% of patients with HBV DNA, 8.5% had HBcor IgG antibodies, 4.2% had HBcor IgG and HBe IgG antibodies at the same time. Thus, in 41 (87.3% of the blood donor, ocHBV was seronegative. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the 47 isolates showed that the HBV of genotype D (95.75% prevails in the examined group in comparison with HBV of genotype A (4.25%. HBV subgenotypes are represented in the following ratios: D1 — 46.8%, D2 — 17.05%, D3 — 31.9%, A2 — 4.25%. In a comparative analysis, the distribution of HBV subgenotypes in the group with ocHBV and in the case of the
Magnussen, Karin; Ladelund, Steen
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency and blood donors with low hemoglobin (Hb) concentration are well-known challenges in any blood bank setting. In the Capital Region of Denmark, a new approach was adopted that centralized measurement of Hb, initiated ferritin (F) measurement, and established a center...... for donor Hb and iron. An algorithm was created based on Hb and F levels, which drove decisions on outreach by the donor Hb and iron resource team to the donor, including whether to provide iron supplementation or, on rare occasions, a referral to the donor's general practitioner. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS......: The change in Hb for repeat donors was followed during the first 2 years of the intervention strategy, which included measurements of F and offering intermittent iron supplementation to some of the donors. RESULTS: In 2 years, 62,663 blood donors donated 193,288 units of blood and 318 donors gave 754...
Truong, Hong-Ha M; Blatyta, Paula F; Santos, Fernanda M; Montebello, Sandra; Esposti, Sandra P D; Hangai, Fatima N; Salles, Nanci Alves; Mendrone, Alfredo; Sabino, Ester C; McFarland, Willi; Gonçalez, Thelma T
HIV test-seeking behavior among blood donors has been observed worldwide and may pose a threat to the safety of the blood supply. We evaluated current test-seeking motivations and prior alternative HIV testing experiences among blood donors in São Paulo, Brazil. All candidate or potential blood donors were consecutively approached and recruited to participate in the study upon presentation at Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro, the largest blood bank in Brazil. Participants were recruited between August 2012 and May 2013 after they were screened for donor eligibility. Questionnaires were administered through audio computer-assisted self-interview. Among 11,867 donors, 38 % previously tested for HIV apart from blood donation, of whom 47.7 % tested at public facilities and 2.7 % acknowledged getting tested for HIV as the primary reason for donating. Dissatisfaction with prior alternative testing experience was reported by 2.5 % of donors. Current test-seeking motivation was associated with dissatisfaction with prior alternative testing experience and testing at a public alternative facility. The most common reasons for dissatisfaction were too long of a wait to get tested and for results, counseling was too long, lack of privacy, and low confidence in the equipment and accuracy of the test. Lack of awareness about the availability of free and confidential public HIV testing services as well as dissatisfaction with past HIV testing and counseling experiences motivate some individuals to test at blood banks. Test-seeking behavior among blood donors may be best addressed by improving alternative testing programs, particularly with respect to time delays, privacy and perceptions about test accuracy. Educational campaigns on safe blood donation and HIV testing for diagnosis, risk counseling and referral to care are also needed for the general public and for health care providers.
... disease? Why are blood banks now screening for Chagas disease? The transmission of Chagas disease via blood ... How does the screening test protect people from Chagas disease? The blood screening test allows blood banks ...
France, Christopher R; France, Janis L; Carlson, Bruce W; Frye, Victoria; Duffy, Louisa; Kessler, Debra A; Rebosa, Mark; Shaz, Beth H
The Blood Donor Competency, Autonomy, and Relatedness Enhancement (Blood Donor CARE) project was designed as a practical application of self-determination theory to encourage retention of first-time donors. Self-determination theory proposes that people are more likely to persist with behaviors that are internally-motivated, and that externally-motivated behavior can evolve and become internalized given the appropriate socio-environmental conditions. According to self-determination theory, motivation to engage in blood donation may become increasingly self-determined if the behavior satisfies fundamental human needs for competence (a sense of self-efficacy to achieve specific goals), autonomy (a sense of volitional control over one's behavior), and relatedness (a sense of connection to a larger group). The primary aim of this randomized controlled trial is to examine the effect of competence, autonomy, and/or relatedness interventions on donor retention. Using a full factorial design, first-time donors will be assigned to a control condition or one of seven intervention conditions. Donation competence, autonomy, and relatedness, along with additional constructs associated with return donation, will be assessed before and after the intervention using online surveys, and donation attempts will be tracked for one-year using blood center donor databases. We hypothesize that, compared to the control condition, the interventions will increase the likelihood of a subsequent donation attempt. We will also examine intervention-specific increases in competence, autonomy, and relatedness as potential mediators of enhanced donor retention. By promoting first-time donor competence, autonomy, and relatedness our goal is to enhance internal motivation for giving and in so doing increase the likelihood of future donation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objectives. We estimated seroprevalence and correlates of selected infections in pregnant women and blood donors in a resource-limited setting. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of laboratory seroprevalence data from pregnant women and voluntary blood donors from facilities in Cameroon in 2014. Rapid tests were performed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen, syphilis treponemal antibodies, and HIV-1/2 antibodies. Blood donations were also tested for hepatitis C and malaria. Results. The seroprevalence rates and ranges among 7069 pregnant women were hepatitis B 4.4% (1.1–9.6%, HIV 6% (3.0–10.2%, and syphilis 1.7% (1.3–3.8% with significant variability among the sites. Correlates of infection in pregnancy in adjusted regression models included urban residence for hepatitis B (aOR 2.9, CI 1.6–5.4 and HIV (aOR 3.5, CI 1.9–6.7. Blood donor seroprevalence rates and ranges were hepatitis B 6.8% (5.0–8.8%, HIV 2.2% (1.4–2.8%, syphilis 4% (3.3–4.5%, malaria 1.9%, and hepatitis C 1.7% (0.5–2.5%. Conclusions. Hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis infections are common among pregnant women and blood donors in Cameroon with higher rates in urban areas. Future interventions to reduce vertical transmission should include universal screening for these infections early in pregnancy and provision of effective prevention tools including the birth dose of univalent hepatitis B vaccine.
Atsma, Femke; Veldhuizen, Ingrid; de Vegt, Femmie; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria; de Kort, Wim
BACKGROUND: Within blood establishments little comparative information is available about donors versus the general population. In this study, a description of the donor pool was made in terms of demographic factors and cardiovascular risk factors. The general Dutch population was used as a
Atsma, F.; Veldhuizen, I.; Vegt, F. de; Doggen, C.J.; Kort, W. de
BACKGROUND: Within blood establishments little comparative information is available about donors versus the general population. In this study, a description of the donor pool was made in terms of demographic factors and cardiovascular risk factors. The general Dutch population was used as a
Ringwald, Juergen; Zimmermann, Robert; Eckstein, Reinhold
Because of demographic changes, the worldwide shortage of blood will likely be aggravated in the foreseeable future. Hence, the retention of already active blood donors (BDs) is becoming more and more important. Moreover, a substantial increase in blood donations could be achieved by a relatively small increase in BD return. Blood donation services are therefore well advised to understand their BDs' motivations to become regular and committed BDs and to consider this in planning BD retention programs. Focusing on the published literature of the last decade, we summaries some key recommendations in considering BD retention strategies. Whereas starting a career as a BD is mainly driven by external stimuli, becoming a committed BD needs a well-developed identity role; that is, a BD with a high level of intrinsic motivation. Active communications with the BD right from the beginning, introducing distinct measures to support the development of a BD's distinct identity, increasing convenience of the blood donation process, having well-trained and motivated staff, applying distinct measures to reduce anxiety as well as adverse events, making BDs satisfied with their blood donation experience, appropriate use of incentives, quickly recapturing temporarily deferred BDs, and appealing to BDs' personal motivations and moral norms--all of these are major keys to achieving this important aim. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Three hundred and sixty eight (368) blood donors were examined for blood parasitic infection; 95.9% were males while 4.1% were females. Gametocytes and trophozoites of Plasmodium falciparum were observed in the blood samples examined. 10.1% of the blood donors were infected with malaria; 6.5% had Hepatitis B ...
Background: Although blood transfusion is one of the known therapeutic interventions that cuts across a number of clinical disciplines. It is necessary to test all intending blood donors for HIV infection before donation. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV among blood donors at Dessie Blood Bank, ...
Edgren, Gustaf; Tran, Trung Nam; Hjalgrim, Henrik
BACKGROUND: Transfusion safety rests heavily on the health of blood donors. Although they are perceived as being healthier than average, little is known about their long-term disease patterns and to which extent the blood banks' continuous efforts to optimize donor selection has resulted...... in improvements. Mortality and cancer incidence among blood donors in Sweden and Denmark was investigated. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: All computerized blood bank databases were compiled into one database, which was linked to national population and health data registers. With a retrospective cohort study design, 1......,110,329 blood donors were followed for up to 35 years from first computer-registered blood donation to death, emigration, or December 31, 2002. Standardized mortality and incidence ratios expressed relative risk of death and cancer comparing blood donors to the general population. RESULTS: Blood donors had...
le Fichoux, Yves; Quaranta, Jean-François; Aufeuvre, Jean-Pierre; Lelievre, Alain; Marty, Pierre; Suffia, Isabelle; Rousseau, Deborah; Kubar, Joanna
Visceral leishmaniosis (VL) due to Leishmania infantum (L. chagasi) is a lethal disease if untreated, but asymptomatic L. infantum infections have been reported previously. A better understanding of parasite transmission, dissemination, and survival in the human host is needed. The purpose of this study was to assess whether L. infantum circulated in peripheral blood of subjects with no history of VL. Sera from 565 blood donors were screened by Western blotting to detect Leishmania-specific antibodies and identify individuals with probable past exposure to Leishmania. Seropositivity was found in 76 donors whose buffy coats were examined by PCR and direct culture. The parasite minicircle kinetoplast DNA was amplified from blood samples of nine donors. Promastigotes were detected by culture in blood samples from nine donors. Only two donors were PCR and culture positive. These results indicate that L. infantum circulates intermittently and at low density in the blood of healthy seropositive individuals, who thus appear to be asymptomatic carriers. Implications for the safety of blood transfusion are discussed. PMID:10325353
Alabdullatif, Meshari; Boujezza, Imen; Mekni, Mohamed; Taha, Mariam; Kumaran, Dilini; Yi, Qi-Long; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Ramirez-Arcos, Sandra
Effective donor skin disinfection is essential in preventing bacterial contamination of blood components with skin flora bacteria like Staphylococcus epidermidis. Cell aggregates of S. epidermidis (biofilms) are found on the skin and are resistant to the commonly used donor skin disinfectants chlorhexidine-gluconate and isopropyl alcohol. It has been demonstrated that essential oils synergistically enhance the antibacterial activity of chlorhexidine-gluconate. The objective of this study was to test plant-extracted essential oils in combination with chlorhexidine-gluconate or chlorhexidine-gluconate plus isopropyl alcohol for their ability to eliminate S. epidermidis biofilms. The composition of oils extracted from Artemisia herba-alba, Lavandula multifida, Origanum marjoram, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Thymus capitatus was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A rabbit model was used to assess skin irritation caused by the oils. In addition, the anti-biofilm activity of the oils used alone or in combination with chlorhexidine-gluconate or chlorhexidine-gluconate plus isopropyl alcohol was tested against S. epidermidis biofilms. Essential oil concentrations 10%, 20%, and 30% were chosen for anti-biofilm assays, because skin irritation was observed at concentrations greater than 30%. All oils except for O. marjoram had anti-biofilm activity at these three concentrations. L. multifida synergistically enhanced the anti-biofilm activity of chlorhexidine-gluconate and resulted in the highest anti-biofilm activity observed when combined with chlorhexidine-gluconate plus isopropyl alcohol. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that the main component contributing to the activity of L. multifida oil was a natural terpene alcohol called linalool. The anti-biofilm activity of chlorhexidine-gluconate plus isopropyl alcohol can be greatly enhanced by L. multifida oil or linalool. Therefore, these components could potentially be used to improve blood
Makroo, R N; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Gupta, Richa; Phillip, Jessy
Little data are available regarding the frequencies of the blood group antigens other than ABO and RhD in the Indian population. Knowledge of the antigen frequencies is important to assess risk of antibody formation and to guide the probability of finding antigen-negative donor blood, which is especially useful when blood is required for a patient who has multiple red cell alloantibodies. This study was carried out to determine the frequencies of the D, C, c, E, e, K, k, Fy(a), Fy(b), Jk(a), Jk(b), M, N, S and s antigens in over 3,000 blood donors. Samples from randomly selected blood donors from Delhi and nearby areas (both voluntary and replacement) were collected for extended antigen typing during the period January 2009 to January 2010. Antigens were typed via automated testing on the Galileo instrument using commercial antisera. A total of 3073 blood samples from donors were phenotyped. The prevalence of these antigens was found to be as follows in %: D: 93.6, C: 87, c: 58, E: 20, e: 98, K: 3.5, k: 99.97, F(a) : 87.4, Fy(b) : 57.6, Jk(a) : 81.5, Jk(b) : 67.4, M: 88.7, N: 65.4, S: 54.8 and s: 88.7. This study found the prevalence of the typed antigens among Indian blood donors to be statistically different to those in the Caucasian, Black and Chinese populations, but more similar to Caucasians than to the other racial groups.
Saghafi, Shiva; Pourpak, Zahra; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Pourfathollah, Ali Akbar; Samadian, Azam; Farghadan, Maryam; Attarchi, Zohreh; Zeidi, Majid; Asgaripour, Fariba; Rajabi, Tajbakhsh; Kardar, Gholam Ali; Moin, Mostafa
Selective deficiency of immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the most frequent primary hypogammaglobulinemia. As some IgA-deficient patients have IgA antibodies in their plasma which may cause anaphylactic reactions, blood centers usually maintain a list of IgA-deficient blood donors to prepare compatible blood components. In this study we determined the incidence of selective IgA deficiency (SIgAD) in normal adult Iranian population. 13022 normal Iranian blood donors were included in this study. The assay which we used was adapted to the manual pipetting system and ELISA reader was used for screening. Other classes of immunoglobulins (G, M), as well as secretory IgA and IgG subclasses were tested in IgA deficient cases by ELISA. SPSS was used for statistical analysis.Among 13022 studied cases, 11608 blood donors were males (89.14%) and 1414 were females (10.86%). Their mean (+/-SD) age and weight were 38.5+/-11 years and 82+/-12 Kg respectively. Twenty of the screened samples were found by means of ELISA to be IgA-deficient (less than 5mg/dl), (frequency; 1:651). The data could indicate a compensation for IgA deficiency by serum IgM in one of our IgA deficient cases (Patient 5). We observed a correlation between IgG3 and serum IgA in deficient cases (r=0.498, P=0.025). Our results indicate that in present study the prevalence of S IgA D is in agreement with data from other Caucasians populations (from 1:300 to 1:700). In conclusion, Selective IgA Deficiency could be almost asymptomatic in most cases in general population. Our study suggests that; due to high frequency of IgA deficiency in Iran, it seems necessary to measure IgA levels for every blood donor and blood recipient to find IgA deficient cases.
Full Text Available Abstract Background When selecting blood donors in transfusion centres, one important problem is to identify, during screening, individuals with infectious diseases that can be transmitted by blood, such as malaria, especially when the parasite densities are very low. This problem is particularly severe in endemic areas, such as the Brazilian Amazon. In the present study, molecular diagnostic (real-time PCR of Plasmodium vivax was used to identify blood donors infected with malaria parasites. Methods Samples from 595 blood donors were collected in seven haemotherapy centres in northern Brazil located in areas at risk for malaria transmission, and the analyses were performed by real-time PCR with TaqMan probes on 7500 Real-Time PCR Systems, to genotype the mitochondrial DNA region specific to P. vivax. The experiment was designed for hybridization of the cytochrome c oxidase genes of the mitochondrial genome (GenBank GI63022502. The serological data were obtained using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay - ELISA (Anti-HIV, Anti-HTLV I-II; Anti-HVC, HBsAg, Anti-HBc, Chagas disease and VDRL (Syphilis from the Blood Bank System of the Haematology and Haemotherapy Centre of Pará. Results The assay identified eight individuals in the sample (1.34% infected with P. vivax at the time of blood donation. This percentage was higher than the altered serological results (reactive or inconclusive of the prevalence of anti-HIV (0.67%, anti-hepatitis C virus (0.34%, anti-hepatitis B surface antigen (0.67%, anti-human T-lymphotropic virus I/II (1.18%, anti-Chagas disease (0.17% and syphilis (VDRL (0.50%, but not higher than anti-hepatitis B core antigen antibodies (4.37%. This result indicates the need to use more sensitive methods of diagnosing malaria in blood banks. Conclusion The real-time PCR with TaqMan probes enabled the identification of P. vivax in a high proportion of clinically healthy donors, highlighting the potential risk for transfusion
Harritshøj, Lene H.; Holm, Dorte K.; Sækmose, Susanne G.
was investigated among Danish blood donors, and the prevalence of HEV transfusion-transmitted infection (TTI) was investigated among recipients. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Samples from 25,637 consenting donors collected during 1 month in 2015 were screened retrospectively using an individual-donation HEV RNA......BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus genotype-3 (HEV-gt-3) causes autochthonous infections in western countries, with a primary reservoir in animals, especially pigs. HEV transfusion transmission has been reported, and HEV-gt-3 prevalence is high in some European countries. The prevalence of HEV RNA...... nucleic acid test with a 95% detection probability of 7.9 IU/mL. HEV-positive samples were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction and genotyped. Transmission was evaluated among recipients of HEV RNA-positive blood components. Phylogenetic analyses compared HEV sequences from blood donors...
Patel, Abhilasha J.; Wesley, Robert; Leitman, Susan F.; Bryant, Barbara J.
Background and Objectives To determine the accuracy of fingerstick hemoglobin assessment in blood donors, the performance of a portable hemoglobinometer (HemoCue Hb 201+) was prospectively compared with that of an automated hematology analyzer (Cell-Dyn 4000). Hemoglobin values obtained by the latter were used as the “true” result. Material and Methods Capillary fingerstick samples were assayed by HemoCue in 150 donors. Fingerstick samples from two sites, one on each hand, were obtained from a subset of 50 subjects. Concurrent venous samples were tested using both HemoCue and Cell-Dyn devices. Results Capillary hemoglobin values (HemoCue) were significantly greater than venous hemoglobin values (HemoCue), which in turn were significantly greater than venous hemoglobin values by Cell-Dyn (mean ± SD: 14.05 ± 1.51, 13.89 ± 1.31, 13.62 ± 1.23, respectively; phemoglobin screening criteria (≥12.5 g/dL) by capillary HemoCue, but were deferred by Cell-Dyn values (false-pass). Five donors (3%) were deferred by capillary sampling, but passed by Cell-Dyn (false-fail). Substantial variability in repeated fingerstick HemoCue results was seen (mean hemoglobin 13.72 vs. 13.70 g/dL, absolute mean difference between paired samples 0.76 g/dL). Hand dominance was not a factor. Conclusions Capillary samples assessed via a portable device yielded higher hemoglobin values than venous samples assessed on an automated analyzer. False-pass and false-fail rates were low and acceptable in the donor screening setting, with “true” values not differing by a clinically significant degree from threshold values used to assess acceptability for blood donation. PMID:23294266
Al Shaer L
Full Text Available Laila Al Shaer,1 Ranjita Sharma,2 Mahera AbdulRahman2 1College of Medicine, Mohammed Bin Rashid University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dubai, UAE; 2Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, UAE Background: To ensure an adequate and safe blood supply, it is crucial to select suitable donors according to stringent eligibility criteria. Understanding the reasons for donor deferral can help in planning more efficient recruitment strategies and evaluating donor selection criteria. This study aims to define donor pre-donation deferral rates, causes of deferral, and characteristics of deferred donors in Dubai.Materials and methods: This retrospective study was conducted on all donors who presented for allogeneic blood donation between January 1, 2010, until June 30, 2013, in Dubai Blood Donation Centre, accredited by the American Association of Blood Banks. The donation and deferral data were analyzed to determine the demographic characteristics of accepted and deferred donors, and frequency analyses were also conducted.Results: Among 142,431 individuals presenting during the study period, 114,827 (80.6% were accepted for donation, and 27,604 (19.4% were deferred. The overall proportion of deferrals was higher among individuals less than 21 years old (35%, P<0.000, females (44% were deferred compared to 15% of males, P<0.0001, and first-time donors (22% were deferred vs 14% of repeat donors, P<0.0001. The main causes for a temporary deferral were low hemoglobin and high blood pressure.Discussion: The deferral rate among blood donors in Dubai is relatively high compared to the internationally reported rates. This rate was higher among first-time donors and females, with low hemoglobin as the major factor leading to a temporary deferral of donors. Strategies to mitigate deferral and improve blood donor retention are urged in Dubai to avoid additional stress on the blood supply. Keywords: blood donation, blood safety, donor deferral, selection criteria
Capuani, Ligia; Bierrenbach, Ana Luiza; Abreu, Fatima; Takecian, Pedro Losco; Ferreira, João Eduardo; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira
The probabilistic record linkage (PRL) is based on a likelihood score that measures the degree of similarity of several matching variables. Screening test results for different diseases are available for the blood donor population. In this paper, we describe the accuracy of a PRL process used to track blood donors from the Fundação Pró-Sangue (FPS) in the Mortality Information System (SIM), in order that future studies might determine the blood donor's cause of death. The databases used for linkage were SIM and the database made up of individuals that were living (200 blood donors in 2007) and dead (196 from the Hospital das Clinicas de São Paulo that died in 2001-2005). The method consists of cleaning and linking the databases using three blocking steps comparing the variables "Name/Mother's Name/ Date of Birth" to determine a cut-off score. For a cut-off score of 7.06, the sensitivity and specificity of the method is 94.4% (95%CI: 90.0-97.0) and 100% (95%CI: 98.0-100.0), respectively. This method can be used in studies that aim to track blood donors from the FPS database in SIM.
Kahabi Ganka Isangula
Full Text Available Introduction Collection, processing and distribution of safe blood in Tanzania occurs within a free-for-service context, that is, a collection from non-remunerated blood donors and distributing freely to the needy people through health facilities. The safe blood services in the country appear to be crippled with many challenges and cannot meet the demand for blood and its products. As such, a need for rethinking collection methods, financial models and possible mechanisms for donor remuneration is evident. Methods In this paper, we venture on multi-stakeholder meetings and ongoing discussions regarding the internal mechanisms of safe blood transfusion financing. The intent is to offer a perspective on the considerations for self- sustaining safe blood services in the country and the extent to which they may be implemented or not. Results We suggest that despite huge demand, the external donor dependent financing mechanisms for safe blood services in the country are ineffective. Therefore, we discuss two potential ‘internal’ financing mechanisms that have been identified in recent shareholders forums 1 introducing a blood processing fee accompanied by policy change to allow direct charging of either recipients or hospitals or 2 influencing the introduction of ‘blood services’ within the current insurance schemes. Conclusion We conclude that there is a need for constructing alternative financial mechanisms to sustain the demand of safe blood in the country. We discuss two cost recovery mechanisms, blood processing fee and insurance schemes; however, warning is noted that their implementation warrants structural adjustments, massive community sensitization and optimum stakeholder engagement to maximize acceptability within the country.
Asamoah-Akuoko, Lucy; Hassall, Oliver W; Bates, Imelda
Achieving an adequate blood supply in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) through donor mobilization and retention is crucial. Factors that motivate or deter blood donors vary according to beliefs and social norms. Understanding the factors that influence blood donation behaviour in SSA is vital to developing...
Prevalence of weak RhD phenotype in the blood donor population of Nairobi Regional Blood Transfusion Centre - Kenya. ... Methods: Donor blood samples were typed by mixing monoclonal anti D with red cell saline suspensions in microtitre plates which were then spun at 2000 rpm for 1 minute. RhD negative samples ...
... blood components intended for transfusion, with recommendations for a requalification method or process...] Guidance for Industry: Requalification Method for Reentry of Blood Donors Deferred Because of Reactive Test... availability of a document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Requalification Method for Reentry of Blood Donors...
... premenopausal female donors, can develop iron deficiency, with or without anemia, from blood donation. Improved... levels and reduce iron deficiency that can result from blood donation. Different strategies to minimize iron deficiency in blood donors (e.g., testing for iron stores, adjusting the donation interval, or...
Merz, Eva-Maria; van den Hurk, Katja; de Kort, Wim L A M
In the Netherlands, there is a constant shortage in donor organs, resulting in long waiting lists. The decision to register as organ donor is associated with several demographic, cultural, and personal factors. Previous research on attitudes and motivations toward blood and organ donations provided similar results. The current study investigated demographic, cultural, and personal determinants of organ donation registration among current Dutch blood donors. We used data from Donor InSight (2012; N = 20 063), a cohort study among Dutch blood donors, to test whether age, gender, religious and political preferences, donor attitude, and altruism predicted organ donor registration among current blood donors. Organ donors were more often represented in the blood donor population compared to the general Dutch population. Women showed a higher propensity to be registered as organ donor. Higher education as well as higher prosocial value orientation, prosocial behavior, that is, doing volunteer work, and awareness of need significantly associated with being registered as organ donor. Religious denomination negatively predicted organ donation registration across all faiths. Results are discussed in light of cultural context, and possible implications for improving information provision and recruitment are mentioned.
Fadeyi, Emmanuel A; Stratta, Robert J; Farney, Alan C; Pomper, Gregory J
To report a successful unintentional transplantation of a deceased donor kidney from an "incompatible" A1B donor into a recipient who was blood group A2B with unsuspected preformed anti-A1 antibodies. The donor and recipient were both typed for ABO antigens. The recipient was tested for ABO and non-ABO antibodies. The recipient was typed for HLA class I and class II antigens, including HLA antibody screen. The T-and B-flow cytometry crossmatch test was performed using standard protocol. The donor-recipient pair was a complete six-antigen human leukocyte antigen mismatch, but final T- and B-flow cytometry cross-match tests were compatible. The recipient was a 65-year-old woman with a medical history of end-stage renal disease secondary to diabetic nephropathy who underwent kidney transplantation from a 46-year-old brain-dead standard criteria donor. The recipient's RBCs were negative with A1 lectin, and the recipient was thus typed as an A2 subgroup. Anti-A1 could be demonstrated in the recipient's plasma. The donor's RBCs were positive with A1 lectin, thereby conferring an A1 blood type. It is safe to transplant across the A1/A2 blood group barrier provided that the preformed antibodies are not reactive at 37°C and with anti-human globulin.
Vulcano, Francesca; Milazzo, Luisa; Volpi, Sabrina; Battista, Mara Maria; Barca, Alessandra; Hassan, Hamisa Jane; Pimpinelli, Fulvia; Giampaolo, Adele
The detection of syphilis among blood donors may reveal high-risk sexual behavior, which can go unreported at the time of donor selection and compromise the safety of the donated blood. In Italy, blood is collected, tested, and distributed by transfusion services (TSs), which also perform outpatient transfusions. Although the TSs must screen for syphilis by law, there are no indications of the specific type of method to be used, generating discrepancies in the results obtained by the different TSs. To determine the proficiency of the TSs in screening for syphilis, we performed an external quality assessment (EQA). The EQA was based on two shipments of serum panels; 133 and 118 of the 326 existing TSs participated in the first and second shipments, respectively. Each panel consisted of both positive and negative serum samples. The results confirmed that the use of a single nontreponemal test (the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory [VDRL] and the rapid plasma reagin [RPR] tests) is the least sensitive means of identifying samples that are positive for syphilis antibodies. We also found that the interpretation of the results of manual techniques, such as the RPR test, the VDRL test, the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA) assay, and the T. pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay, can vary greatly among different TSs and operators. Total Ig enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) are the most sensitive. However, the determination of syphilis on the basis of the results of a single test is not sufficient for an accurate screening; and all blood units should thus be assessed by two distinct treponemal tests, that is, a total Ig EIA and the TPHA or the TPPA assay.
Foroutan-Rad, Masoud; Majidiani, Hamidreza; Dalvand, Sahar; Daryani, Ahmad; Kooti, Wesam; Saki, Jasem; Hedayati-Rad, Faezeh; Ahmadpour, Ehsan
Transfusion-transmissible infections include pathogens that may cause severe and debilitating diseases. Toxoplasmosis is a cosmopolitan neglected parasitic infection that can lead to severe complications including death in immune-compromised patients or following infection in utero. Multiple studies have demonstrated the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii by blood transfusion. The objective of this review was to comprehensively assess the seroprevalence rate of Toxoplasma in blood donors from a worldwide perspective. Seven electronic databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane, Ovid, and Google Scholar) were searched using medical subject headings terms. A total of 43 records met the inclusion criteria in which 20,964 donors were tested during the period from January 1980 to June 2015. The overall weighted prevalence of exposure to toxoplasmosis in blood donors was 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 28%-39%). The seroprevalences of immunoglobulin (Ig)M and both IgG and IgM antibodies were 1.8% (95% CI, 1.1%-2.4%) and 1.1% (95% CI, 0.3%-1.8%), respectively. The highest and the lowest seroprevalences of toxoplasmosis were observed in Africa (46%; 95% CI, 14%-78%) and in Asia (29%; 95% CI, 23%-35%), respectively. Brazil (75%) and Ethiopia (73%) were identified as countries with high seroprevalence. Because positive serology does not imply infectiousness and because seroprevalence is high in some nations, a positive serology test result alone cannot be used as an effective method for donor screening. Future research for methods to prevent transfusion-transmitted toxoplasmosis may derive benefit from studies conducted in areas of high endemicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sriwanitchrak, Pramote; Sriwanitchrak, Kanchana; Tubrod, Jintana; Kupatawintu, Pawinee; Kaset, Chollanot; Nathalang, Oytip
Background The Kidd (JK) blood group antigens are encoded by the JK gene. The rare Jk(a−b−) phenotype can be caused by homozygosity for a silent JK allele. Currently, JKnull alleles have been identified among different populations; however, information on its presence among Thais is not available. Materials and methods Screening for the Jk(a−b−) phenotype by the urea lysis test was performed in 25,340 blood samples from Thai blood donors. The Jk(a−b−) phenotypes were confirmed by an indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). Additionally, polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequence analysis of the JK gene were performed using previously described methods. Results Five samples were confirmed as having a Jk(a−b−) phenotype by a urea lysis test and IAT; four of these samples were investigated. Two samples of JK*02 alleles were homozygous for a g>a mutation at the 3′ acceptor splice site of intron 5 of the JK gene, as in previous studies in Asians and Polynesians. Moreover, one sample of JK*02 alleles was homozygous for an 896G>A mutation at exon 9 (Gly299Glu), as in a previous study in Polynesians. Interestingly, missense dual mutations of JK*01 alleles from a female blood donor were identified. The first mutation was 956C>T (Thr319Met) in exon 10, as in a recent study in African-Americans. The second mutation was 130G>A (Glu44Lys) at exon 4, as in previous studies among Caucasians. Conclusion There are various different molecular bases of the Jk(a−b−) phenotype. This is the first report of JKnull alleles among Thais. The information presented in this study could be beneficial in planning genotyping strategies for blood donors and patients. PMID:22153692
Sriwanitchrak, Pramote; Sriwanitchrak, Kanchana; Tubrod, Jintana; Kupatawintu, Pawinee; Kaset, Chollanot; Nathalang, Oytip
The Kidd (JK) blood group antigens are encoded by the JK gene. The rare Jk(a-b-) phenotype can be caused by homozygosity for a silent JK allele. Currently, JK(null) alleles have been identified among different populations; however, information on its presence among Thais is not available. Screening for the Jk(a-b-) phenotype by the urea lysis test was performed in 25,340 blood samples from Thai blood donors. The Jk(a-b-) phenotypes were confirmed by an indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). Additionally, polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequence analysis of the JK gene were performed using previously described methods. Five samples were confirmed as having a Jk(a-b-) phenotype by a urea lysis test and IAT; four of these samples were investigated. Two samples of JK*02 alleles were homozygous for a g>a mutation at the 3' acceptor splice site of intron 5 of the JK gene, as in previous studies in Asians and Polynesians. Moreover, one sample of JK*02 alleles was homozygous for an 896G>A mutation at exon 9 (Gly299Glu), as in a previous study in Polynesians. Interestingly, missense dual mutations of JK*01 alleles from a female blood donor were identified. The first mutation was 956C>T (Thr319Met) in exon 10, as in a recent study in African-Americans. The second mutation was 130G>A (Glu44Lys) at exon 4, as in previous studies among Caucasians. There are various different molecular bases of the Jk(a-b-) phenotype. This is the first report of JK(null) alleles among Thais. The information presented in this study could be beneficial in planning genotyping strategies for blood donors and patients.
Sheppard, Chelsea A; Bolen, Nicole L; Eades, Beth
CONCLUSIONS: Molecular genotyping platforms provide a quick, high-throughput method for identifying red blood cell units for patients on extended phenotype-matching protocols, such as those with sickle cell disease or thalassemia. Most of the antigen prevalence data reported are for non-Hispanic ......CONCLUSIONS: Molecular genotyping platforms provide a quick, high-throughput method for identifying red blood cell units for patients on extended phenotype-matching protocols, such as those with sickle cell disease or thalassemia. Most of the antigen prevalence data reported are for non......-Hispanic populations. Therefore, this study sought to determine the phenotype prevalence in a single blood center's Hispanic population and to compare those results with previously reported rates in non-Hispanic donor populations. We performed a retrospective review of all serologic and molecular typing from donors....... The most prevalent probable Rh phenotypes were R1r (26.6%), R1R2 (21.5%), and R1R1 (20.7%); rr was found in 7.8 percent of donors tested. The percentage of K+ donors in this population was 2.8 percent. The most prevalent Duffy phenotypes were Fy(a+b+) (35.9%), Fy(a+b-) (35.6%), and Fy(a-b+) (27...
Merz, E-M; Zijlstra, B J H; de Kort, W L A M
Show behaviour after invitation to donate varies considerably across donors. More insight into this variation is important for blood banks in achieving stable stocks. This study examined individual factors determining intended show behaviour. Most importantly, however, this study is the first study to account for variation in donor behaviour across different collection sites. We applied a multilevel approach to data from Donor InSight, including 11 889 donors from 257 fixed and mobile collection sites in the Netherlands. The aim of the multilevel models was to account for variance at two levels, that is donors and collection sites. We estimated the likelihood of showing after invitation based on individual predictors, including demographics, donation history and attitude. At the collection site level, we included satisfaction with the blood bank aggregated from individual responses by donors who donate at this site, opening hours and collection site type, that is fixed/mobile. Most importantly, show behaviour varied considerably across collection sites and depended on characteristics of these sites. Moreover, women, older and more experienced donors had higher odds of showing after invitation than men, younger and less experienced donors. Donors higher on warm glow, self-efficacy and donor identity more likely showed after an invitation. Higher aggregate satisfaction and donating at fixed collection sites increased the odds of show. In addition to individual factors, collection site characteristics are important in explaining variation in donor show behaviour, thus presenting clues for blood bank policies and interventions to improve donor show. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.
Ankouane, F; Noah Noah, D; Atangana, M M; Kamgaing Simo, R; Guekam, P R; Biwolé Sida, M
Prevention of blood transfusion-transmitted infections includes blood donor screening and effective infectious markers screening for donated blood. This study had two main objectives: to determine seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis in blood donors of the Yaoundé Central Hospital and to study sociodemographic factors of blood donors. A retrospective study of consecutive blood donors' records from January to December 2013 was conducted. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency viruses and syphilis were determined in 9024 whole blood donations collected in the Yaoundé Central Hospital in the centre region, Cameroon using Elisa kits. Mean age of donors was 28 years. The male to female ratio was 14.8. Most of blood donors were replacement donors (97.2%) and first-time donors (76.8%). Up to 19.3% of the donors tested positive for at least one infectious agent, in which 0.1% presented a positive test for three viruses (HIV, HCV and HBV). The overall seroprevalence in blood donors was 12.6% for HBsAg, 3.2% for hepatitis C antibody, 3.3% for HIV-1/2 antibodies and 0.2% for syphilis. The prevalence of HBsAg was significantly higher in men (P=0.001), among first-time donors (P=0.003), in blood group A (P=0.01) and those with the rhesus positive blood (P=0.01). The prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly higher among first-time donors (P=0.05). The prevalence of anti-HIV was significantly higher in first-time donors (3.7% vs 2.2%, P=0.02). First-time blood donors and replacement donors are the two types of donors in Cameroon. Replacement donors are considered as having a major risk of transmission of infections to recipients. The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis among these donors is high and reflects how much these agents are present in Cameroon. Effective infectious markers screening and organization of blood donors into an association of volunteer's donors are necessary to secure blood transfusion in Cameroon
Full Text Available Iatrogenous transmission of Trypanosoma cruziby blood transfusion was suggested as a potential risk by Pellegrino (1949. Seropositive blood donors in Mexico were first reported in 1978, however, limited information is available due to small sampling, the use of heterogeneous serologic assays, and geographically limited studies. A wide survey carried out in 18 out of the 32 states of Mexico, showed a national mean of 1.6% seropositive among 64,969 donors, ranging from 0.2 to 2.8%. In the present study, we have screened 43,048 voluntary blood donors in a period of five years at the Instituto Nacional de Cardiología I. Chávez, a concentration hospital located in Mexico city which serves mainly the metropolitan area and accepts from all over the country. Standardized ELISA and IIF were used to identify seropositive individuals in addition to hemoculture, PCR and standard 12 lead ECG tests that were applied to a group of seropositive patients (29/161. The result showed a seropositivity of 0.37% (161/43,048. From the group of seropositive individuals 40% (12/29 were potential carriers of T. cruzi at the donation time and 5/29 had subclinical ECG abnormalities. Parasitological tests performed in 70 erythrocyte and platelet fractions from seropositive units (70/161 showed negative results. Our findings strongly support T. cruzi screening in the transfusion medicine practice and identify subclinical heart disease among seropositive blood donors.
Ashish Chandra Shrestha
Full Text Available Background: HIV, HBV, Syphilis and HCV share common modes of transmission. Objective: The study was aimed to determine the co-infection rate of HIV, HBV and Syphilis among HCV seropositive identified blood donors. Methods: The study was conducted on blood samples screened as HCV seropositive at Nepal Red Cross Society, Central Blood Transfusion Service, Kathmandu, Nepal. HCV seropositive samples were further tested for HIV, HBV and Syphilis. Results: Eight co-infections were observed in 139 HCV seropositives with total co-infection rate of 5.75% (95% CI = 2.52-11.03. Conclusion: Co-infection of HIV, HBV and Syphilis with HCV is prevalent in the healthy looking blood donors of Kathmandu, Nepal.
Zameer, M.; Shahzad, F.; Khan, F.S.; Farooq, M.; Ali, H.; Saeed, U.
Objective: To determine the frequency of HIV, HBV, HCV, syphilis and malaria in blood donors at Children Hospital and Institute of Child Health (ICH), Lahore and compare with other local and international published data. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: This was conducted at the blood bank of Children's Hospital and ICH, Lahore from October 2015 to February 2016. Patient and Methods: All adult male blood donors who had donated blood during above mentioned period, between 18 to 55 years of age were included in this study. Each and every donor was subjected to a predetermined, prepared questionnaire to find out their eligibility for donation. All blood donors' serum samples were screened for HBsAg, Anti-HCV, syphilis, HIV and malaria by immuno chromatography technique according to manufacturer instruction. Results: Statistical analysis showed that out of 10,048 blood donors, 7.94 percent (n=798) were infected with any one of the above mentioned diseases and 92.05 percent (n=9,250) had no infection. The overall frequency of HBsAg, HCV, HIV, syphilis and malaria were found to be 1.59 percent, 3.75 percent, 0.11 percent, 2.08 percent and 0.39 percent respectively. The co-infections of HCV + Syphilis, HBsAg + HCV, HBsAg + Syphilis, HCV + malarial parasite (M.P) and HBsAg + HIV + syphilis was 0.12 percent, 0.11 percent, 0.01 percent and 0.0099 percent respectively. Conclusion: There is a decreasing trend of HBsAg, HCV infections but increasing trend of HIV and syphilis infections in blood donors that is an alarming situation. (author)
Richer, G; Desrochers, M; Guevin, R; Turgeon, F; Viallet, A
In 1971 the Canadian Red Cross blood tranfusion service instituted routine screening for HBAg of all blood donors, using nationwide a standardized counterimmunoelectrophoretic technique. The prevalence of carriers in the Province of Québec is unusually high (0.51%), being 3 to 12 times higher than in the other nine provinces. Among the carriers found in the Montréal area 289 volunteered to be seen by our group for an extensive interview and a series of laboratory tests. There were 243 men and 46 women; their ages ranged from 18 to 55, 90% being less than 40. Twenty-nine were of foreign origin and 260 were born in Canada. The epidemiologic data revealed that the reservoir of HBAg carriers among the blood donors of the Montréal area was found predominantly in the autochthonous population of French origin. Moreover, it appeared that 149 (52%) had lived in institution when they were infants or children: 127 were orphans and had been placed in institutions as newborns or babies, and 22 others had lived in institutions for at least 1 year between the ages of 5 and 10. This was by far the most important single epidemiologic factor that could contribute to the explanation of the abnormally high prevalence of HBAg carriers in the population studied.
ALEX J.L. TORRES
Full Text Available The reference intervals for leukocytes and lymphocytes currently used by most clinical laboratories present limitations as they are primarily derived from individuals of North American and European origin. The objective this study was to determine reference values for peripheral blood B lymphocytes, T lymphocyte subsets (CD4+, CD8+, naïve, memory, regulatory, TCRαβ and TCRγδ+ and NK cells from blood donors in Salvador-Bahia, Brazil. Results: The proportion of included male subjects was 73.7% and the median ages of males (34 and females (35 were found to be similar. Absolute counts total lymphocytes subsets to both gender was 1,956 (1,060-4,186 cells and relative values 34%. The T CD4+ and T CD8+ lymphocytes relative values was 51% (20-62 and 24% (9-28, respectively. The most statistically significant finding observed was a higher percentage of B lymphocytes (p=0.03 in females. Commonly cited subset reference intervals were found to be consistent with values in several populations from different geographic areas.
Pouget, T; Garcia-Hejl, C; Bouzard, S; Roche, C; Sailliol, A; Martinaud, C
The French Military Blood Institute is responsible for the entire blood supply chain in the French Armed Forces. Considering, the high exposition rate of military to malaria risk, blood donation screening of plasmodium infection must be as efficient as possible. The main aim of our study was to assess our malaria testing strategy based on a single Elisa test compared with a two-step strategy implying immunofluorescence testing as confirmation test. The second goal was to describe characteristic of malaria Elisa positive donors. We conducted a prospective study: every malaria Elisa positive test was implemented by immunofluorescence testing and demographical data were recorded as usual by our medical software. We showed a significant risk of malaria ELISA positive tests among donor born in endemic area and we estimate the number of abusively 3-year rejected donors. However, based on our estimations, the two-step strategy is not relevant since the number of additionally collected blood products will be low. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Cable, Ritchard G; Birch, Rebecca J; Spencer, Bryan R; Wright, David J; Bialkowski, Walter; Kiss, Joseph E; Rios, Jorge; Bryant, Barbara J; Mast, Alan E
Donor behaviors in STRIDE (Strategies to Reduce Iron Deficiency), a trial to reduce iron deficiency, were examined. Six hundred ninety-two frequent donors were randomized to receive either 19 or 38 mg iron for 60 days or an educational letter based on their predonation ferritin. Compliance with assigned pills, response to written recommendations, change in donation frequency, and future willingness to take iron supplements were examined. Donors who were randomized to receive iron pills had increased red blood cell donations and decreased hemoglobin deferrals compared with controls or with pre-STRIDE donations. Donors who were randomized to receive educational letters had fewer hemoglobin deferrals compared with controls. Of those who received a letter advising of low ferritin levels with recommendations to take iron supplements or delay future donations, 57% reported that they initiated iron supplementation, which was five times as many as those who received letters lacking a specific recommendation. The proportion reporting delayed donation was not statistically different (32% vs. 20%). Of donors who were assigned pills, 58% reported taking them "frequently," and forgetting was the primary reason for non-compliance. Approximately 80% of participants indicated that they would take iron supplements if provided by the center. Donors who were assigned iron pills had acceptable compliance, producing increased red blood cell donations and decreased low hemoglobin deferrals compared with controls or with pre-STRIDE rates. The majority of donors assigned to an educational letter took action after receiving a low ferritin result, with more donors choosing to take iron than delay donation. Providing donors with information on iron status with personalized recommendations was an effective alternative to directly providing iron supplements. © 2017 AABB.
Koppelman, M. H. G. M.; Zaaijer, H. L.
Two considerations led us to study the genetic diversity and origin of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Dutch blood donors. Firstly, an HBV-infected Dutch blood donor was found negative by four assays used commonly for detection of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). How variable is HBsAg among HBV infected
Hepatitis B and C Viral Infections Among Blood Donors from Rural Ghana. B Nkrumah, M Owusu, HO Frempong, P Averu. Abstract. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Hepatitis B and C infections and co-infections among blood donors in a rural community of Ghana. Design: A retrospective study. Method: Samples ...
Information is scarce on the prevalence of Hepatitis-B Virus (HBV) infection among blood donors in Taraba State. Hepatitis-B surface antigen (HBsAg) ELISA [Gudans Industrial Hong 2 Kou, China] was used to determine the prevalence of HBsAg among 804 blood donors aged between 11 and 65 years in Federal Medical ...
Aims. To establish the true incidence of HCV infection in volunteer blood donors in the Western Gape, and compare risk factors and clinical and biochemical features of viraemic and non-viraemic subjects. Methods. All donors attending the Western Province. Blood Transfusion Service between December 1992 and.
In this paper, we explore the possibility of using location-aware computing to track blood donors in Mauritius and locate the nearest donor in cases of emergencies and whenever fresh blood is ... Keywords: Context-awareness, location-awareness, mobile and ubiquitous computing, location sensing technique, real-time.
Rodolfo D. Cançado
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a freqüência da deficiência de ferro em doadoras de sangue do Hemocentro da Santa Casa de São Paulo segundo o tipo de doador, o número total de doações anteriores e a freqüência de doações realizadas nos últimos 12 meses. No período de 05 a 20 de outubro de 2004 foram estudadas 100 doadoras de sangue utilizando-se a determinação da ferritina sérica e dos índices eritrocitários. A freqüência de doadoras de sangue que apresentavam deficiência de ferro foi de 16,0 %. Para as doadoras de primeira vez, 10,5% delas já apresentavam deficiência de ferro à primeira doação de sangue e, para aquelas que não eram de primeira vez, essa freqüência foi de 17,7% (pThe aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors at the Santa Casa Blood Bank and to establish the frequency of iron deficient blood donors according to first-time and multiple donors, the total number of lifetime donations and the frequency of donations per year. Between 5th and 20th October 2004, one hundred blood donors were studied using the biochemical measurement of serum ferritin and red blood cell indices. The frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors was 16.0%. The frequency of iron deficiency was higher in non-first-time than in first-time female blood donors (10.5% versus 17.7%; p<0.05. The frequency of iron deficiency was higher in the multiple blood donors and this difference was statistically significative in female blood donors after more than four donations (p<0.05 and among female blood donors with two or more donations per year (p<0.05. We conclude that blood donation is a very important factor of iron deficiency in female blood donors, particularly in multiple donors. The high frequency of blood donors with iron deficiency found in this study suggests the necessity for more accurate laboratory screening, as the hemoglobin or hematocrit measurements alone are insufficient to
Rigas, A S; Skytthe, A; Erikstrup, C
of life in donors than in non-donors. METHODS: The Short Form-12 data from the Danish Twin Registry (DTR) was compared with the data from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS). Data on age, sex and smoking status were included in the analyses. The multivariable linear regression analysis was stratified......AIMS: This study aimed at quantifying the healthy donor effect by comparing self-perceived mental and physical health between blood donors and non-donors. BACKGROUND: In theory, the selection process known as the healthy donor effect should result in better self-perceived, health-related quality......-perceived mental health was associated with a blood donor. With the increase in age, better self-perceived physical health was associated with blood donation....
Kleinman, Steven; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Edward L; Shan, Hua; Ness, Paul; Glynn, Simone A.
Background The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study -III (REDS-III) is a 7-year multicenter transfusion safety research initiative launched in 2011 by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Study design The domestic component involves 4 blood centers, 12 hospitals, a data coordinating center, and a central laboratory. The international component consists of distinct programs in Brazil, China, and South Africa which involve US and in-country investigators. Results REDS-III is using two major methods to address key research priorities in blood banking/transfusion medicine. First, there will be numerous analyses of large “core” databases; the international programs have each constructed a donor/donation database while the domestic program has established a detailed research database that links data from blood donors and their donations, the components made from these donations, and data extracts from the electronic medical records of the recipients of these components. Secondly, there are more than 25 focused research protocols involving transfusion recipients, blood donors, or both that are either in progress or scheduled to begin within the next 3 years. Areas of study include transfusion epidemiology and blood utilization; transfusion outcomes; non-infectious transfusion risks; HIV-related safety issues (particularly in the international programs); emerging infectious agents; blood component quality; donor health and safety; and other donor issues. Conclusions It is intended that REDS-III serve as an impetus for more widespread recipient and linked donor-recipient research in the US as well as to help assure a safe and available blood supply in the US and in international locations. PMID:24188564
Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection (OBI among the volunteer blood donors in Tangshan, China. MethodsEnzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect serum HBV markers in the blood donors. Nucleic acid test (NAT was performed in the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg-negative blood samples to detect HBV DNA, and Roche reagent was used to measure the viral load of HBV DNA in NAT-positive samples. ResultsAmong the HBsAg-negative blood samples of 116 741 blood donors, 39 (0.033% had positive results in NAT, and 35 (0.029% were confirmed with OBI. The viral load of HBV DNA was less than 102 IU/ml in 97.1% of the blood donors with OBI. Of the blood donors with OBI, 27 (77.1% were positive for at least one of hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb, hepatitis B e antigen, hepatitis B e antibody, and hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb, and 8 (22.9% were negative for all serum HBV markers. Of the 27 positive blood donors, 22 (81.5% were positive for HBcAb, and 15 (55.6% were positive for HBsAb. ConclusionOBI occurs in some HBsAg-negative blood donors in Tangshan, and the viral load of HBV DNA is low. NAT is effective in increasing the detection rate of HBV infection.
Waleska Mayara Gomes de Lima
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is difficulty in gathering data on the prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus in blood donors as confirmatory testing is not mandatory in Brazil. This suggests there may be an underreporting of the prevalence. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 in donors of a blood bank in Caruaru, Brazil. METHODS: This was an observational, epidemiological, descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective study with information about the serology of donors of the Caruaru Blood Center, Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia de Pernambuco (Hemope from May 2006 to December 2010. The data were analyzed using the Excel 2010 computer program (Microsoft Office(r. RESULTS: Of 61,881 donors, 60 (0.096% individuals were identified as potential carriers of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2. Of these, 28 (0.045% were positive and 32 (0.051% had inconclusive results in the serological screening. Forty-five (0.072% were retested; 17 were positive (0.027% and 3 inconclusive (0.005%. After confirmatory tests, 8 were positive (0.013%. Six (75% of the confirmed cases were women. CONCLUSION: Epidemiological surveys like this are very important in order to create campaigns to attract donors and reduce the costs of laboratory tests.
de Lima, Waleska Mayara Gomes; Esteves, Fabrício Andrade Martins; Torres, Maria do Carmo Morais Rodrigues; Pires, Edna Suely Feitosa
There is difficulty in gathering data on the prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus in blood donors as confirmatory testing is not mandatory in Brazil. This suggests there may be an underreporting of the prevalence. To estimate the prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 in donors of a blood bank in Caruaru, Brazil. This was an observational, epidemiological, descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective study with information about the serology of donors of the Caruaru Blood Center, Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia de Pernambuco (Hemope) from May 2006 to December 2010. The data were analyzed using the Excel 2010 computer program (Microsoft Office(®)). Of 61,881 donors, 60 (0.096%) individuals were identified as potential carriers of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2. Of these, 28 (0.045%) were positive and 32 (0.051%) had inconclusive results in the serological screening. Forty-five (0.072%) were retested; 17 were positive (0.027%) and 3 inconclusive (0.005%). After confirmatory tests, 8 were positive (0.013%). Six (75%) of the confirmed cases were women. Epidemiological surveys like this are very important in order to create campaigns to attract donors and reduce the costs of laboratory tests.
Vigil, Karen J.; Vey, Elana; Arduino, Roberto C.; Kimata, Jason T.
Background Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) has been found in the prostatic tissue of prostate cancer patients and in the blood of chronic fatigue syndrome patients. However, numerous studies have found little to no trace of XMRV in different human cohorts. Based on evidence suggesting common transmission routes between XMRV and HIV-1, HIV-1 infected individuals may represent a high-risk group for XMRV infection and spread. Methodology/Principal Findings DNA was isolated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 179 HIV-1 infected treatment naïve patients, 86 of which were coinfected with HCV, and 54 healthy blood donors. DNA was screened for XMRV provirus with two sensitive, published PCR assays targeting XMRV gag and env and one sensitive, published nested PCR assay targeting env. Detection of XMRV was confirmed by DNA sequencing. One of the 179 HIV-1 infected patients tested positive for gag by non-nested PCR whereas the two other assays did not detect XMRV in any specimen. All healthy blood donors were negative for XMRV proviral sequences. Sera from 23 HIV-1 infected patients (15 HCV+) and 12 healthy donors were screened for the presence of XMRV-reactive antibodies by Western blot. Thirteen sera (57%) from HIV-1+ patients and 6 sera (50%) from healthy donors showed reactivity to XMRV-infected cell lysate. Conclusions/Significance The virtual absence of XMRV in PBMCs suggests that XMRV is not associated with HIV-1 infected or HIV-1/HCV coinfected patients, or blood donors. Although we noted isolated incidents of serum reactivity to XMRV, we are unable to verify the antibodies as XMRV specific. PMID:22348082
Arendrup, M; Hansen, J E; Clausen, H
for virus neutralization by the monoclonal antibody (MAb) AH16 directed against the blood group A epitope. MAb AH16 was previously shown to inhibit cell-free virus infection using HTLV-IIIB propagated in H9 cells. AH16 showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of the HTLV-IIIB/lyA isolate but did...... not inhibit the HTLV-IIIB/lyB or the HTLV-IIIB/lyO isolate. Specificity of the MAb-mediated inhibition was shown using A-antigen (tetrasaccharide). Thus, HIV infection of PBMC from donors with blood type A appears to induce expression of host-cell-encoded carbohydrate blood group A epitope on HIV which can......Three virus isolates HTLV-IIIB/lyA, HTLV-IIIB/lyB and HTLV-IIIB/lyO, obtained by passaging and propagating the HTLV-IIIB/H9 isolate in three separate cultures of mixed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from donors of blood type A, B or O, respectively, were tested for susceptibility...
Zákutná, Ľubica; Dorko, Erik; Rimárová, Kvetoslava; Kizeková, Marianna
The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of three zoonotic infections among healthy blood donors/volunteers in Eastern Slovakia. Sera from 124 blood donors were investigated for the presence of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, Francisella tularensis and Leptospira pomona. The participants also completed the questionnaire about demographic, exposure and epidemiological characteristics. Two serological methods were used for the diagnosis: the enzyme linked protein A/G assay (ELPAGA) and the Western blot (WB). First, sera were screened by ELPAGA (except for leptospirosis). The observed seroprevalence was 15% for Lyme borreliosis (LB) and 4% for tularaemia (TUL). The results were confirmed by WB. Positive IgG antibodies (WB method) were detected only in 1.6% of examined for LB and 0.8% for TUL. Our results did not identify any antibodies against Leptospira pomona agent in the examined healthy blood donors group. ELPAGA seroprevalence for TUL was significantly higher in blood donors working in the agricultural area in the direct contact with hay, straw, manure, and agricultural land. Our outputs determine tick bite as a significant risk factor for LB. The study confirms the explosion of tick-borne diseases in the healthy population of people. The exposure risk for leptospirosis seems to be minimal. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.
Marcusa, Daniel P; Schaubel, Douglas E; Woodside, Kenneth J; Sung, Randall S
We report our experience with metabolic syndrome screening for obese living kidney donor candidates to mitigate the long-term risk of CKD. We retrospectively reviewed 814 obese (BMI≥30) and 993 nonobese living kidney donor evaluations over 12 years. Using logistic regression, we explored interactions between social/clinical variables and candidate acceptance before and after policy implementation. Obese donor candidate acceptance decreased after metabolic syndrome screening began (56.3%, 46.3%, p metabolic syndrome, there was no significant change in how age, sex, race, or BMI affected a donor candidate's probability of acceptance. Metabolic syndrome screening is a simple stratification tool for centers with liberal absolute BMI cut-offs to exclude potentially higher-risk obese candidates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Batool, Z.; Durrani, S.H.; Tariq, S.
Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to find out the frequency of Hepatitis B Hepatitis C, Syphilis, HIV and malaria in apparently healthy blood donors and to find out any association between ABO and Rh blood groups. Methods: It was a descriptive study carried out at Rehman Medical Institute laboratory. All blood donors who volunteered for blood donation from Jan 2008 to Dec 2014 were reviewed for blood groups and screening tests. Those who were eligible were then screened for Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, HIV, syphilis and malaria on Architect 8200i through chemiluminescent immunoassay whereas malaria was screened by a thin film. Blood group was determined by both forward and reverse grouping. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS software and expressed as frequencies. Results: A total of 41033 apparently healthy donors were included in the study. All of them were voluntary donors. Their age ranged from 18-70 years with a mean age of 38+-10.5 years. Out of these 41033, 40245 (98.3%) were males and 788(1.9%) were females. The most frequent blood group was B positive followed by O positive. Out of 41033 donors 961 (2.30%) had Hepatitis B, 566 (1.30%) had Hepatitis C, 363 (0.90%) had syphilis, 311 (0.76%) had malaria and 30 (0.07%) had HIV. There is a significant association between A blood group and HIV and hepatitis B. Donors with blood group O had no significant association with any blood transmitted infection. Conclusion: Blood group O may have some influence in protecting against blood transmitted infection. People having Blood group A are more prone to get Hepatitis B and HIV. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection in blood donors could represent a risk for transmission in blood recipients. There is scarce information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in blood donors in Mexico. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics in a population of healthy blood donors of Durango City, Mexico. Methods Four hundred and thirty two blood donors in two public blood banks of Durango City, Mexico were examined for T. gondii infection between August to September 2006. Blood donors were tested for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by using enzyme-linked immunoassays (Diagnostic Automation Inc., Calabasas, CA, USA. Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics from each participant were also obtained. Results Thirty two (7.4% of 432 blood donors had IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies. Eight (1.9% of them had also IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies. Multivariate analysis using logic regression showed that T. gondii infection was associated with the presence of cats at home (adjusted OR = 3.81; 95% CI: 1.45–10.01. The age group of 45–60 years showed a significantly higher frequency of T. gondii infection than the group of 25–34 years (p = 0.02. Blood donors without education had a significantly higher frequency of infection (15.8% than those with 13–19 years of education (4.5% (p = 0.04. Other characteristics of blood donors including male gender, consumption of undercooked meat or blood transfusion did not show an association with infection. Conclusion The prevalence of T. gondii infection in healthy blood donors of Durango City, Mexico is lower than those reported in blood donors of south and central Mexico, and is one of the lowest reported in blood donors worldwide. T. gondii infection in our blood donors was most likely acquired by contact with cats. Prevalence of infection increased with age and decreased
Marjani, Abdoljalal; Mehrpouya, Masoumeh; Pourhashem, Zeinab
Measure of liver enzymes may help to increase safety of blood donation for both blood donor and recipient. Determination of liver enzymes may prepare valuable clinical information. To assess serum γ-Glutamyltransferase (GGT), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) activities in healthy blood donors in different ethnic groups in Gorgan. This study was performed in 450 healthy male blood donors, in three ethnic groups (Fars, Sistanee and Turkman) who attended Gorgan blood transfusion center. Liver enzymes (GGT, ALT and AST) were determined. Serum AST and ALT in three ethnic groups were significant except for serum GGT levels. There was significant correlation between family histories of liver disease and systolic blood pressure and AST in Fars, and GGT in Sistanee ethnic groups. Several factors, such as age, family history of diabetes mellitus, family history of liver disease and smoking habit had no effect on some liver enzymes in different ethnic groups in this area. Variation of AST, ALT, and GGT enzyme activities in healthy subjects was associated with some subjects in our study groups. According to our study, it suggests that screening of AST and GGT enzymes in subjects with family history of liver disease is necessary in different ethnic groups.
Background: Blood donors are categorized into voluntary, paid, family replacement, autologous, directed and therapeutic. Superior safety has long been identified with voluntary and autologous blood donations. The setting up of the centralized blood transfusion service centre is to source blood from prospective voluntary ...
Ferreira, S C; de Almeida-Neto, C; Nishiya, A S; Di-Lorenzo-Oliveira, C; Ferreira, J E; Alencar, C S; Levi, J E; Salles, N A; Mendrone-Junior, A; Sabino, E C
The presence of Treponema pallidum DNA was assessed by real-time PCR in samples of blood donors with reactive serologic tests for syphilis. Treponema pallidum DNA was detected in two (1·02%) of 197 samples of VDRL>8, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ donors, and in no sample from 80 VDRL−, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ donors. Donors VDRL−, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ lack demonstrable T. pallidum DNA in their blood and are unlike to transmit syphilis. Donors VDRL>8, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ carry the risk of syphilis infectivity even in concomitance to antibodies detection. Serologic screening for syphilis may still play a role to prevent its transfusion transmission.
Mössner, Belinda K; Staugaard, Benjamin; Jensen, Janne
to a combined nucleic acid test (NAT) for HBV DNA, HCV RNA and HIV RNA. RESULTS: Samples from 404 subjects were screened (85 CHB, 116 CHC, 114 HIV and 99 blood donors). DBS had a sensitivity of > 96% and a specificity of > 98% for the detection of all three infections. NAT testing did not improve sensitivity...
Bani, Marco; Strepparava, Maria Grazia
The literature contains numerous reports on motivation in blood donors, although none of these are specific to blood donation in Italy and almost all of them focus on altruism and the desire to help others. Altruism is important, but a comprehensive analysis of donor motivation should examine all the factors affecting the decision to donate, including commitment to voluntary blood donor organizations. The aims of this paper are to verify if the motivational factors that influence the choice to donate blood in Italy are generally consistent with the findings from other countries reported in the literature and to focus on commitment to donor organizations as an additional factor. A sample of 895 whole blood donors completed a self-report questionnaire containing questions about: reasons for beginning to donate, people who influenced this choice, and level of commitment to voluntary blood donor organizations. The most frequently reported reasons for giving blood for the first time were "to help others" (56%), "influence of family/friends" (22%), and "social/moral obligation" (11.2%); commitment did not vary as a function of the leading motivation reported. Differences emerged between males, who more frequently reported having been influenced by parents and friends, and females, who referred more often to altruistic motives. The opportunity to check one's own state of health also played an important role (6.9%), especially for male donors. Overall, however, the decision to donate was primarily a personal choice (41.3%), although influence was also attributed to relatives (21.8%), friends (22.3%), and voluntary blood donor organizations (21.8%). The reported level of commitment to the donor organization was positively correlated with the number of total and annual donations made and number of new donors recruited.
Meena, Monika; Jindal, Tarun; Hazarika, Anjali
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are important transfusion-transmissible infections. This study was performed to assess the prevalence of HBV and HCV seropositivity among blood donors at a tertiary care hospital-based blood bank in India. The blood donation records over 5 years (2005-2009) were reviewed, retrospectively, for the prevalence and yearly trends of HBV and HCV seropositivity. A total of 94,716 donations were received. The overall number of HBV-seropositive donations was 1353 and that for HCV was 537, with the prevalence rates of 1.43% for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 0.57% for HCV. The seropositivity rate was higher in the replacement donors compared to the voluntary donors. The annual rates showed decreasing trends in case of HBsAg, but in case of HCV, there was a linear increase. Our study raises serious concerns regarding the HBV and HCV prevalence in our country. Although HBV showed decreasing trends, it cannot be relied upon because the donors were screened only for HBsAg. HCV is clearly on the rise. Stringent measures need to be taken on urgent basis including dissemination of information, strict screening of blood, inclusion of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen and other sensitive markers to the screening protocol, and better donor recruitment. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.
Faddy, Helen M; Tran, Thu V; Hoad, Veronica C; Seed, Clive R; Viennet, Elvina; Chan, Hiu-Tat; Harley, Robert; Hewlett, Elise; Hall, Roy A; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Flower, Robert L P; Prow, Natalie A
Emerging transfusion-transmissible pathogens, including arboviruses such as West Nile, Zika, dengue, and Ross River viruses, are potential threats to transfusion safety. The most prevalent arbovirus in humans in Australia is Ross River virus (RRV); however, prevalence varies substantially around the country. Modeling estimated a yearly risk of 8 to 11 potentially RRV-viremic fresh blood components nationwide. This study aimed to measure the occurrence of RRV viremia among donors who donated at Australian collection centers located in areas with significant RRV transmission during one peak season. Plasma samples were collected from donors (n = 7500) who donated at the selected collection centers during one peak season. Viral RNA was extracted from individual samples, and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed. Regions with the highest rates of RRV transmission were not areas where donor centers were located. We did not detect RRV RNA among 7500 donations collected at the selected centers, resulting in a zero risk estimate with a one-sided 95% confidence interval of 0 to 1 in 2019 donations. Our results suggest that the yearly risk of collecting a RRV-infected blood donation in Australia is low and is at the lower range of previous risk modeling. The majority of Australian donor centers were not in areas known to be at the highest risk for RRV transmission, which was not taken into account in previous models based on notification data. Therefore, we believe that the risk of RRV transfusion transmission in Australia is acceptably low and appropriately managed through existing risk management, including donation restrictions and recall policies. © 2018 AABB.
Lancini, Daniel V; Faddy, Helen M; Ismay, Sue; Chesneau, Stuart; Hogan, Chris; Flower, Robert L
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) can lead to severe disease in high-risk subpopulations. To prevent transfusion-transmitted CMV in these patient groups, the Australian Red Cross Blood Service maintains inventories of CMV-seronegative fresh blood components. Donor demographic data and CMV seroscreening results for all blood donations and blood components issued in Australia between financial years (FYs) 2008/09 to 2012/13 inclusive were obtained. Population estimates were also extracted for the calculation of age-weighted seroprevalence estimates. Linear regression was used to model trends in red blood cell (RBC) component acquisition and demand. The estimated age-weighted seroprevalence of CMV in 20- to 69-year old Australians was 76.12 ± 0.13%, with higher seroprevalence in females and older age groups. Seroprevalence decreased over the study period, while the demand for CMV-seronegative RBC components increased. It was predicted that component acquisition may be insufficient by FY 2017/18 if current trends persist. These findings represent an evaluation of CMV seroepidemiology in Australia and form a basis to predict the future status of CMV-seronegative RBC component inventories. The results will serve to guide Blood Service operations and inform current international debate on CMV-safe blood components. © 2016 AABB.
Trotter, Patrick B; Summers, Dominic M; Robb, Matthew; Hulme, William; Ushiro-Lumb, Ines; Watson, Christopher J E; Neuberger, James; Bradley, J Andrew
Deceased organ donors are routinely screened for behaviors that increase the risk of transmissible blood-borne viral (BBV) infection, but the impact of this information on organ donation and transplant outcome is not well documented. Our aim was to establish the impact of such behavior on organ donation and utilization, as well transplant recipient outcomes. We identified all UK deceased organ donors from 2003 to 2015 with a disclosed history of increased risk behavior (IRB) including intravenous drug use (IVDU), imprisonment and increased risk sexual behavior. Of 17 262 potential donors, 659 (3.8%) had IRB for BBV and 285 (1.7%) were seropositive for BBV, of whom half had a history of IRB (mostly IVDU [78.5%]). Of actual donors with IRB, 393 were seronegative for viral markers at time of donation. A history of recent IVDU was associated with fewer potential donors proceeding to become actual organ donors (64% vs 75%, P = 0.007). Donors with IRB provided 1091 organs for transplantation (624 kidneys and 467 other organs). Transplant outcome was similar in recipients of organs from donors with and without IRB. There were 3 cases of unexpected hepatitis C virus transmission, all from an active IVDU donor who was hepatitis C virus seronegative at time of donation, but was found to be viremic on retrospective testing. Donors with a history of IRB provide a valuable source of organs for transplantation with good transplant outcomes and there is scope for increasing the use of organs from such donors.
Xie, Dong-De; Li, Jian; Chen, Jiang-Tao; Eyi, Urbano Monsuy; Matesa, Rocio Apicante; Obono, Maximo Miko Ondo; Ehapo, Carlos Sala; Yang, Li-Ye; Yang, Hui; Yang, Hui-Tian; Lin, Min
Regular screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs), such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HBV and HCV, respectively), and Treponema pallidum, in blood donors is essential to guaranteeing clinical transfusion safety. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of four TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (EG). A retrospective survey of blood donors from January 2011 to April 2013 was conducted to assess the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum. The medical records were analyzed to verify the seroprevalence of these TTIs among blood donations stratified by gender, age and geographical region. Of the total 2937 consecutive blood donors, 1098 (37.39%) had a minimum of one TTI and 185 (6.29%) harbored co-infections. The general seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were 7.83%, 10.01%, 3.71% and 21.51%, respectively. The most frequent TTI co-infections were HBV-T. pallidum 60 (2.04%) and HIV-T. pallidum 46 (1.57%). The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were highest among blood donors 38 to 47 years, 18 to 27 years and ≥ 48 years age, respectively (P<0.05). The seroprevalence of TTIs varied according to the population from which the blood was collected on Bioko Island. Our results firstly provide a comprehensive overview of TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island. Strict screening of blood donors and improved hematological examinations using standard operating procedures are recommended.
Yang, Shuguo; Jiao, Danmei; Liu, Changjun; Lv, Ming; Li, Shan; Chen, Zongyun; Deng, Yao; Zhao, Yanqing; Li, Jian
Ordinary screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) among blood donors is essential for blood transfusion. Although there is several TTIs studies focus on human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses, and Treponema pallidum infections in China, it is no data to illustrate any firm conclusion from Shiyan City, Central China. It aims to verify the seroprevalence of TTIs among blood donors at Shiyan. A retrospective analysis of blood donors' information was conducted for the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum. Logistic regression analysis was used to demonstrate risk factors including age, gender and occupation associated with them. The variation tendency in seroprevalence of these TTIs over the study period was evaluated by Cochran-Armitage trend test. Of 211 639 blood donors, 2 858 (1.35 %) had serological evidence of TTIs. The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were 0.08 %, 0.51 %, 0.20 % and 0.57 %, respectively. However, the co-infection prevalence of TTIs has not been detected. The HIV seropositivity significantly increased among female donors (OR = 1.63, P pallidum seroprevalence was notably increased among female (OR = 1.54, P pallidum (Z = -1.36, P < 0.01) seropositivity were observed over the study period. It originally offers a substantial prevalence of TTIs among blood donors at Shiyan, Central China. Severe blood donor selection and all-inclusive screening of blood are highly recommended. It might be helpful for developing and updating guidance for blood safety. Retrospectively registered.
Chen, Jiang-Tao; Eyi, Urbano Monsuy; Matesa, Rocio Apicante; Obono, Maximo Miko Ondo; Ehapo, Carlos Sala; Yang, Li-Ye; Yang, Hui; Yang, Hui-Tian; Lin, Min
Background Regular screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs), such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HBV and HCV, respectively), and Treponema pallidum, in blood donors is essential to guaranteeing clinical transfusion safety. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of four TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (EG). Methods A retrospective survey of blood donors from January 2011 to April 2013 was conducted to assess the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum. The medical records were analyzed to verify the seroprevalence of these TTIs among blood donations stratified by gender, age and geographical region. Results Of the total 2937 consecutive blood donors, 1098 (37.39%) had a minimum of one TTI and 185 (6.29%) harbored co-infections. The general seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were 7.83%, 10.01%, 3.71% and 21.51%, respectively. The most frequent TTI co-infections were HBV-T. pallidum 60 (2.04%) and HIV-T. pallidum 46 (1.57%). The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were highest among blood donors 38 to 47 years, 18 to 27 years and ≥ 48 years age, respectively (P<0.05). The seroprevalence of TTIs varied according to the population from which the blood was collected on Bioko Island. Conclusions Our results firstly provide a comprehensive overview of TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island. Strict screening of blood donors and improved hematological examinations using standard operating procedures are recommended. PMID:26448460
Full Text Available Regular screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HBV and HCV, respectively, and Treponema pallidum, in blood donors is essential to guaranteeing clinical transfusion safety. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of four TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (EG.A retrospective survey of blood donors from January 2011 to April 2013 was conducted to assess the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum. The medical records were analyzed to verify the seroprevalence of these TTIs among blood donations stratified by gender, age and geographical region.Of the total 2937 consecutive blood donors, 1098 (37.39% had a minimum of one TTI and 185 (6.29% harbored co-infections. The general seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were 7.83%, 10.01%, 3.71% and 21.51%, respectively. The most frequent TTI co-infections were HBV-T. pallidum 60 (2.04% and HIV-T. pallidum 46 (1.57%. The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were highest among blood donors 38 to 47 years, 18 to 27 years and ≥ 48 years age, respectively (P<0.05. The seroprevalence of TTIs varied according to the population from which the blood was collected on Bioko Island.Our results firstly provide a comprehensive overview of TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island. Strict screening of blood donors and improved hematological examinations using standard operating procedures are recommended.
Full Text Available Blood grouping is a vital test in pre-transfusion testing. Both tube and gel agglutination assays are used for ABO grouping. The main object of this study was to compare ABO grouping and D typing on tube and gel agglutination assay in order to assess the efficacy of each technique. A total of 100 healthy blood donors irrespective of age and sex were included in this study. Results showed that there is no significant difference between these two techniques. However, in 10 samples it was detected that the reaction strength in serum ABO grouping by gel agglutination assay is varied by only one grade when compared to tube agglutination assay. Due to numerous positive effects of gel assay it is more beneficial to implement this technique in the setups where blood banks bear heavy routine work load.
Oluwole, S.F.; Iga, C.; Lau, H.; Hardy, M.A.
The effect of donor-specific blood transfusion was compared to that of UVB-irradiated donor-specific blood transfusion on heart allograft survival in inbred rats with major histocompatibility differences. In one series ACI rats received heterotopic heart grafts from Lewis rats and 1 mL transfusion of donor-type blood at 1, 2, and 3 weeks prior to the transplantation. Fifty percent of the grafts were permanently accepted (survival greater than 200 days). Following UVB-irradiated donor-specific blood transfusion, 55% of the grafts survived indefinitely. In a mixed lymphocyte reaction ACI lymphocytes are weak responders to Lewis lymphocytes. In another series, Lewis rats received ACI hearts. Donor-specific transfusions at 1, 2, and 3 weeks prior to transplantation did not significantly alter the survival of heart allografts. Lewis lymphocytes react strongly to ACI stimulator cells in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. However, when the donor blood was UVB-irradiated prior to transfusion, the ACI allograft survival was significantly prolonged in this ACI-to-Lewis strain combination. When Lewis rats received W/F hearts following either donor-specific or UVB-irradiated donor-specific transfusions, the hearts' survival was similarly and significantly prolonged, but did not become permanent. Mixed lymphocyte reaction reveals that the stimulation index of Lewis lymphocytes against W/F lymphocytes is greater than that of ACI versus Lewis, but is less than that between Lewis responder cells against ACI stimulators
Full Text Available The systemic complications of blood donation are the first reasons why patients fail to return for further blood donation. This study was designed to determine the frequency of these complications and their associated risk factors among blood donors in Tehran. Also, we aimed to provide suitable methods to decrease the frequency of these adverse events, thereby eliminating the most important causes of withdrawal, while maintaining the health of the donors. This analytical descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 554 blood donors who had donated blood from February 2005 through September 2005 in four fixed blood donation bases and four mobile blood collection buses. Each base was considered as a stratum, and a stratified random sampling proportional to size was done to select the donors. Results showed donor reaction rate to be 13.4%, the most common of which were blackout of vision (7%, dizziness (6.3%, fatigue (6.1% and nausea (1.8%. There was no significant relationship between the incidence of these complications and type of base blood donation or fasting at the time of blood donation. Logistic Regression analysis showed that sex, condition of blood donor, exercise or walking, duration of donation, and practice to recommendation had significant effects on the odds ratio of systemic complication. Regarding the frequency values derived for the different systemic complications it can be concluded that attention to risk factors of these complications and their control can help encourage donors to become repeated donors as well as to prevent their withdrawal for further blood donation.
Replacement of HIV p24 Ag test by a multiplex RT-PCR method for primary screening of blood donors Substituição do teste de p24 Ag (HIV por um RT-PCR multiplex na triagem primária de doadores de sangue
José Eduardo Levi
Full Text Available Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT as a tool for primary screening of blood donors became a reality in the end of the 1990 decade. We report here the development of an "in-house" RT-PCR method that allows the simultaneous (multiplex detection of HCV and HIV-RNA in addition to an artificial RNA employed as an external control. This method detects all HIV group M subtypes, plus group N and O, with a detection threshold of 500 IU/mL. After validation, the method replaced p24 Ag testing, in use for blood donation screening since 1996 at our services. From July 2001 to February 2006, 102,469 donations were tested and 41 (0.04% were found HIV-RNA reactive. One NAT-only reactive donation (antibody non-reactive was observed, with subsequent seroconversion of the implied donor, giving a yield of 1:102,469. This rate is in contrast to the international experience that reports a detection of approximately 1:600,000 - 1:3,100,000 of isolated HIV-RNA donations.O uso de testes de ácidos nucleicos (NAT na rotina de triagem de doadores de sangue tornou-se uma realidade ao final da década de 1990. Descreve-se aqui uma metodologia de RT-PCR multiplex "in-house" que permite a detecção simultânea dos RNAs dos vírus HIV e HCV além de uma molécula artificial de RNA usada como controle externo. O método detecta todos os subtipos de HIV do grupo M e também do grupo N e O, com uma sensibilidade de 500 UI/mL. Após validação, este teste substituiu o do antígeno p24, até então na rotina de triagem em nosso laboratório, desde 1996. De julho de 2001 a fevereiro de 2006 foram testadas 102.469 doações e 41 (0.04% foram NAT reativas. Uma doação NAT isoladamente reativa (anticorpo não-reativa foi detectada com soroconversão subseqüente do doador, portanto, o rendimento do NAT nesta população até o presente momento é de 1:102.469. Este número contrasta com a experiência obtida internacionalmente, onde taxas de 1:600.000 - 1:3.100.000 foram descritas.
Edgren, Gustaf; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Reilly, Marie
BACKGROUND: Although mechanisms for detection of short-term complications after blood transfusions are well developed, complications with delayed onset, notably transmission of chronic diseases such as cancer, have been difficult to assess. Our aim was to investigate the possible risk of cancer...... transmission from blood donors to recipients through blood transfusion. METHODS: We did a register-based retrospective cohort study of cancer incidence among patients who received blood from donors deemed to have a subclinical cancer at the time of donation. These precancerous donors were diagnosed......, and essentially complete, population and health-care registers. The risk of cancer in exposed recipients relative to that in recipients who received blood from non-cancerous donors was estimated with multivariate Poisson regression, adjusting for potential confounding factors. FINDINGS: Of the 354 094 transfusion...
Aldamiz-Echevarria, Covadonga; Aguirre-Garcia, Maria Soledad
analyze and propose a theoretical model that describes blood donor decisions to help staff working in blood banks (nurses and others) in their efforts to capture and retain donors. analysis of several studies on the motivations to give blood in Spain over the last six years, as well as past literature on the topic, the authors' experiences in the last 25 years in over 15 Non Governmental Organizations with different levels of responsibilities, their experiences as blood donors and the informal interviews developed during those 25 years. a model is proposed with different internal and external factors that influence blood donation, as well as the different stages of the decision-making process. the knowledge of the donation process permits the development of marketing strategies that help to increase donors and donations.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: analyze and propose a theoretical model that describes blood donor decisions to help staff working in blood banks (nurses and others in their efforts to capture and retain donors.METHODS: analysis of several studies on the motivations to give blood in Spain over the last six years, as well as past literature on the topic, the authors' experiences in the last 25 years in over 15 Non Governmental Organizations with different levels of responsibilities, their experiences as blood donors and the informal interviews developed during those 25 years.RESULTS: a model is proposed with different internal and external factors that influence blood donation, as well as the different stages of the decision-making process.CONCLUSION: the knowledge of the donation process permits the development of marketing strategies that help to increase donors and donations.
Sørensen, Erik; Rigas, Andreas S; Thørner, Lise W
AND METHODS: The effect of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on ferritin levels in 14,126 blood donors were investigated in four genes: in Human Hemochromatosis Protein gene (HFE; rs1800562 and rs179945); in Transmembrane Protease gene, Serine 6 (TMPRSS6-regulating hepcidin; rs855791); in BTB domain......BACKGROUND: Many biologic functions depend on sufficient iron levels, and iron deficiency is especially common among blood donors. Genetic variants associated with iron levels have been identified, but the impact of genetic variation on iron levels among blood donors remains unclear. STUDY DESIGN...
Levi, José Eduardo; Nascimento, Maria Claudia; Sumita, Laura Masami; de Souza, Vanda Akico Ueda Fick; Freire, Wilton S.; Mayaud, Philippe; Pannuti, Claudio S.
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is the etiologic agent of all forms of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and the plasmablastic cell variant of multicentric Castleman disease. In endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa, blood transfusions have been associated with a substantial risk of HHV-8 transmission. By contrast, several studies among healthy blood donors from North America have failed to detect HHV-8 DNA in samples of seropositive individuals. In this study, using a real-time PCR assay, we investigated the presence of HHV-8 DNA in whole-blood samples of 803 HHV-8 blood donors from three Brazilian states (São Paulo, Amazon, Bahia) who tested positive for HHV-8 antibodies, in a previous multicenter study. HHV-8 DNA was not detected in any sample. Our findings do not support the introduction of routine HHV-8 screening among healthy blood donors in Brazil. (WC = 140). PMID:21858163
Buhari Hauwa Ali
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with iron deficiency anaemia among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria using a combination of haemoglobin haematocrit and serum ferritin measurements. Methods: One hundred and fifty consecutively recruited whole blood donors, comprising of 148 (98.7% family replacement donors and 2 (1.3% voluntary non-remunerated donors aged 18-60 years and mean age 39±21 years constituted the subjects for this study. The full blood count was carried out using Mythic 22 CT fully automated haematology analyser (Orphee SA, Switzerland. Serum was tested for ferritin using a human ferritin enzyme immunoassay kitACCU Diag™ ELISA Ferritin kit (Diagnostic Automation/Cortez Diagnostic Inc. California, USA. Results: The prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin<11.0 g/dL was evident in 24 (16% and iron deficiency anaemia (serum ferritin<12 ng/mL+haemoglobin<11 g/dL in 5 (10% of donors. The haemoglobin and ferritin levels was significantly lower among regular voluntary remunerated blood donors (13.50±0.00 and 34.88±0.00 compared to family replacement donors (14.10±2.40 and 74.12±45.20 respectively (P=0.01 and 0.05 respectively. The mean haemoglobin and ferritin level was compared among donors based on gender. The haemoglobin and ferritin was significantly higher among male donors (14.20±2.00, 78.02±49.10 compared to female donors (12.35±2.5 and 42.20±32.13 (P=0.01. The mean haemoglobin and ferritin level was compared among donors based on occupational groups. The haemoglobin and ferritin was significantly higher among civil servants compared to farmers and students (P=0.01. Conclusions: Iron deficiency anaemia is prevalent among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria. There is need to include routine ferritin in the blood donor testing protocol in the area to enable the diagnosis of donors with latent iron deficiency anaemia to facilitate iron supplementation for
Chassé, Michaël; McIntyre, Lauralyn; Tinmouth, Alan; Acker, Jason; English, Shane W; Knoll, Greg; Forster, Alan; Shehata, Nadine; Wilson, Kumanan; van Walraven, Carl; Ducharme, Robin; Fergusson, Dean A
When used appropriately, transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) is a necessary life-saving therapy. However, RBC transfusions have been associated with negative outcomes such as infection and organ damage. Seeking explanations for the beneficial and deleterious effects of RBC transfusions is necessary to ensure the safe and optimal use of this precious resource. This study will create a framework to analyse the influence of blood donor characteristics on recipient outcomes. We will conduct a multisite, longitudinal cohort study using blood donor data routinely collected by Canadian Blood Services, and recipient data from health administrative databases. Our project will include a thorough validation of primary data, the linkage of various databases into one large longitudinal database, an in-depth epidemiological analysis and a careful interpretation and dissemination of the results to assist the decision-making process of clinicians, researchers and policymakers in transfusion medicine. Our primary donor characteristic will be age of blood donors and our secondary donor characteristics will be donor-recipient blood group compatibility and blood donor sex. Our primary recipient outcome will be a statistically appropriate survival analysis post-RBC transfusion up to a maximum of 8 years. Our secondary recipient outcomes will include 1-year, 2-year and 5-year mortality; hospital and intensive care unit length of stay; rehospitalisation; new cancer and cancer recurrence rate; infection rate; new occurrence of myocardial infarctions and need for haemodialysis. Our results will help determine whether we need to tailor transfusion based on donor characteristics, and perhaps this will improve patient outcome. Our results will be customised to target the different stakeholders involved with blood transfusions and will include presentations, peer-reviewed publications and the use of the dissemination network of blood supply organisations. We obtained approval from the
Filariasis transmission occurs during blood transfusion which poses a serious menace to the recipient of the blood and reduces blood availability in ... harbor filarial worms in their blood and there is a tendency to infect the recipients through blood transfusion thereby spreading ..... a topic in tropical medicine Blood Transfus.
Kelly, Victoria R; Jones, Susan P; Sammartino, Holly L; Arocena, Dennis Ian S; Madore, Steven J
Biorepository processing includes nucleic acid extractions in batch mode from a large number of blood samples from many different donors. Handling such a large number of biospecimens presents the challenge of ensuring that samples are not switched or mislabeled during processing. One approach for confirming donor identity from DNA samples is the use of multiplexed fluorescent PCR for detecting Short Tandem Repeat (STR) allelic-size polymorphisms for a set of common autosomal loci. While donor identity of DNA extracted directly from blood collected in standard tubes containing anticoagulants can be easily verified by generating STR profiles, RNA from blood collected in PAXgene Blood RNA tubes (PAXgene RNA tubes) is depleted of DNA and is not amenable to STR fingerprinting for donor identity verification. We investigated the feasibility of isolating DNA directly from blood collected in PAXgene RNA tubes for use as template for STR DNA fingerprinting for blood donor identity verification. We determined that DNA extraction can be performed manually with the QIAamp DNA Blood Minikit or on the QIAxtractor instrument with minimal pre-processing protocol additions, and that DNA isolated from blood collected in PAXgene RNA tubes is of sufficient quantity and quality for successful STR fingerprint analysis. Adaptation of quality assurance methods such as the PAXgene RNA tube DNA extraction/STR fingerprinting assay described here is a good practice that ensures that biobanking collections provide scientists with high quality, donor-verified biomaterial.
Riera, Cristina; Fisa, Roser; López-Chejade, Paulo; Serra, Teresa; Girona, Enrique; Jiménez, Mteresa; Muncunill, José; Sedeño, Matilde; Mascaró, Martín; Udina, Maria; Gállego, Montserrrat; Carrió, Jaume; Forteza, Alejandro; Portús, Montserrat
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum is a zoonotic disease endemic throughout the Mediterranean basin. The existence of asymptomatic human infection entails the risk of transmission by blood transfusion. The prevalence of Leishmania infection was studied in 1437 blood donors from the Balearic Islands (Majorca, Formentera, and Minorca) using immunologic (Western blot [WB] and delayed-type hypersensitivity [DTH]), parasitologic (culture), and molecular (nested polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) methods. In addition, the efficiency of leukoreduction by filtration to remove the parasite was tested by nested PCR in the red blood cell (RBC) units. Leishmania antibodies were detected in 44 of the 1437 blood donors tested (3.1%). A sample of 304 donors from Majorca was selected at random. L. infantum DNA was amplified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) in 18 of the 304 (5.9%), and cultures were positive in 2 of the 304 (0.6%). DTH was performed on 73 of the 304 donors and was positive for 8 of them (11%). Of the 18 donors with positive L. infantum nested PCR, only 2 were seropositive. All the RBC samples tested (13 of 18) from donors with a positive PBMNC nested PCR yielded negative nested PCR results after leukodepletion. Cryptic Leishmania infection is highly prevalent in blood donors from the Balearic Islands. DTH and L. infantum nested PCR appear to be more sensitive to detect asymptomatic infection than the serology. The use of leukodepletion filters appears to remove parasites from RBC units efficiently.
Engle, Ronald E; Bukh, Jens; Alter, Harvey J
BACKGROUND: The true incidence of transfusion-associated hepatitis (TAH) before blood screening is unknown. Our aims were to reevaluate blood recipients receiving unscreened blood and analyze hepatitis viruses circulating more than 45 years ago. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Cryopreserved serum samples...... from 66 patients undergoing open heart surgery in the 1960s were reevaluated with modern diagnostic tests to determine the incidence of TAH and its virologic causes. RESULTS: In this heavily transfused population receiving a mean of 20 units per patient of predominantly paid-donor blood, 30 of 66 (45...... there was no evidence to suggest that an additional hepatitis agent existed undetected in the blood supply....
Farshadpour, Fatemeh; Taherkhani, Reza; Tajbakhsh, Saeed; Gholizadeh Tangestani, Marziyeh; Hajiani, Gholamreza; Sharifi, Nasrin; Taherkhani, Sakineh; Nejadbolkheyr, Abdolreza
Background Blood transfusion is considered a potential risk factor for transmission of life-threatening viral infections, including HIV, HCV and HBV infections. This study was performed to find out the prevalence and trends of these infections among blood donors in Southern Iran. Methods The blood donor data recorded in twelve regional blood transfusion centers from 2004 to 2014 were analyzed in an anonymous way with respect to the results of serological screening for HBV, HCV, and HIV infections. Overall, 293454 donors were screened for viral infections. Results Most of the donors were male, married, aged between 20–40 years, educated, and regular donors. The overall seroprevalence rates of HBV, HCV and HIV were 0.15%, 0.1% and 0.004%, respectively. The highest seroprevalence was found for HBV, followed by HCV and HIV. These infections were more prevalent in male, low educated and first time donors. The highest HCV seroprevalence was observed among donors aged 20 to 40 years, while HBV seroprevalence increased with age. The seroprevalence rates of HBV and HCV from 2004 to 2014 showed significant decreasing trends from 0.460% to 0.060% (P transfusion-transmissible viral infections in blood donations indicate that the attempts of IBTO were successful in improving the safety of the blood supply, since the prevalence rates of viral infections have been reduced to very low levels in blood donations over the years. However, still more effective techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are needed to guarantee blood safety. PMID:27309959
Sinclair, Kadian S.; Campbell, Tavis S.; Carey, Patricia M.; Langevin, Eric; Bowser, Brent; France, Christopher R.
Background Blood donors may hold conflicting thoughts about future donation. While they may perceive the direct benefit to themselves and others, they often report compelling reasons not to give again. As a result the standard encouragements to return may not be sufficient to motivate some donors. The present study examined the effects of a post-donation adapted motivational interview on blood donor attitudes and repeat donation behavior. Study Design and Methods Donors (n=215) were randomly assigned to either an adapted motivational interview (AMI) or a no-interview control group. Approximately one month after their index donation, donors in the AMI group completed a brief telephone interview to clarify individual-specific motivations and values concerning blood donation and address potential barriers. They were then asked to complete questionnaires regarding donation attitudes, anxiety, self-efficacy and intention to donate. Donors in the control group were also contacted one month post-donation and asked to complete the same series of questionnaires. Results Donors in the AMI group reported greater intention to provide a future donation, F = 8.13, p motivational interview may be an effective strategy to increase the donor pool by enhancing retention of existing donors. PMID:20456674
Ben Amor, I; Krichene, C; Rekik, H; Rekik, T; Menif, H; Gargouri, J
In Tunisia, blood donation is voluntary, anonymous and non-remunerated. The aim of the study is to analyze donor motivation and sociology in the regional center of transfusion of Sfax. Between 14 May 2007 and 23 June 2007, a total of 903 Tunisian blood donors filled a questionnaire. Among the donors, 81.8% were men and have a mean age of 34.2 years and the majority of them have an age between 18 and 29 years. The middle social class was majority (77.8%) as well as the liberal profession (65.1%). Primary and secondary education were dominant (79.3%). Among the blood donors, 41.6% were new donors and 28.6% had a history of a single donation, 50.3% were voluntary and 49.7% replacement donors. The reasons motivating the voluntary donation were solidarity (69.9%), religion (21.2%), health benefit (3.6%) and insurance for the family (5.2%). The replacement donors refuse the voluntary donation for not obvious reasons (51%), lack of availability (13.3%), difficulties of accessibility of the sites of collection (7.6%), phobia of the blood and the stings (4.02%) or by refusal of blood donation (1.79%). The information and the raising awareness of the replacement donors could change in a near future their attitudes to become voluntary and regular donors. The implication of donor associations in the organization of the collections and the promotion of the blood donation would be of considerable contribution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Smith, André; Matthews, Ralph; Fiddler, Jay
This study approaches the decision to donate blood as a dynamic process involving interplay between blood donors' personal motives, donors' social contexts, and the donor recruitment and retention activities of blood collection agencies. Data were gathered from four blood donation clinics using in-depth interviews with Canadian Blood Services employees, donors, and nondonors in 25 organizations participating in Life Link, a donor recruitment program that supports organizations to educate employees about the benefits of blood donation. Further data were obtained from ethnographic observations of blood collection and donor recruitment activities. Thematic analysis resulted in three umbrella themes: leveraging social networks, embedding the clinic in the community, and donating blood and social reciprocity. Donor recruitment activities at all four clinics enhanced awareness of blood donation in the workplace by using experienced donors to motivate their coworkers in making a first-time donation. Clinic employees reported varying success in improving awareness of blood donation in the broader community, in part because of varying employee engagement in community-wide activities and celebrations. Altruistic motives were mentioned by experienced donors, who also identified a desire to reciprocate to their community as another strong motive. This study contextualizes donor recruitment and retention as involving activities that tie blood donation to meaningful aspects of donors' social networks and community. The findings point to the need for further analyses of the institutional dimensions of blood donation to develop effective strategies beyond appeals to altruism. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.
Merz, E.M.; van den Hurk, Katja; De Kort, Wim L.A.M.
Introduction: In the Netherlands, there is a constant shortage in donor organs, resulting in long waiting lists. The decision to register as organ donor is associated with several demographic, cultural, and personal factors. Previous research on attitudes and motivations toward blood and organ
Merz, Eva-Maria; van den Hurk, Katja; de Kort, Wim L. A. M.
Introduction: In the Netherlands, there is a constant shortage in donor organs, resulting in long waiting lists. The decision to register as organ donor is associated with several demographic, cultural, and personal factors. Previous research on attitudes and motivations toward blood and organ
Stoll, T; Fischer-Fröhlich, C L; Mayer, G; Hanfland, P
A comprehensive computer-aided administration-system for blood-donors is presented. Ciphered informations of barcode-labels allow the automatic and nevertheless selective pipetting of samples by pipetting-robots. Self-acting analysis-results are transferred to a host-computer in order to actualize a donor data-base.
Evaluation of the use of real-time PCR for human T cell lymphotropic virus 1 and 2 as a confirmatory test in screening for blood donors Análise do uso da PCR em tempo real para HTLV-1 e 2 como teste confirmatório na triagem de doadores de sangue
Rafaela Gomes Andrade
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: HTLV-1/2 screening among blood donors commonly utilizes an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA, followed by a confirmatory method such as Western blot (WB if the EIA is positive. However, this algorithm yields a high rate of inconclusive results, and is expensive. METHODS: Two qualitative real-time PCR assays were developed to detect HTLV-1 and 2, and a total of 318 samples were tested (152 blood donors, 108 asymptomatic carriers, 26 HAM/TSP patients and 30 seronegative individuals. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of PCR in comparison with WB results were 99.4% and 98.5%, respectively. PCR tests were more efficient for identifying the virus type, detecting HTLV-2 infection and defining inconclusive cases. CONCLUSIONS: Because real-time PCR is sensitive and practical and costs much less than WB, this technique can be used as a confirmatory test for HTLV in blood banks, as a replacement for WB.INTRODUÇÃO: A triagem para HTLV-1/2 em doadores de sangue geralmente utiliza imunoensaio enzimático, seguido de um método confirmatório como Western blot quando o EIA é positivo, mas este algoritmo mostra alta taxa de resultados inconclusivos, e elevado custo. MÉTODOS: Dois ensaios qualitativos de PCR em tempo real foram desenvolvidos para detectar HTLV-1 e 2 e um total de 318 amostras foram testadas por PCR (152 de doadores de sangue, 108 de portadores assintomáticos, 26 de pacientes HAM/TSP e 30 de indivíduos soronegativos. RESULTADOS: A sensibilidade e especificidade das PCR em relação aos resultados de WB foram de 99,4% e 98,5%, respectivamente. As PCR foram mais eficientes em identificar o tipo viral, a infecção pelo HTLV-2 e úteis para definir casos inconclusivos. CONCLUSÕES: Por serem sensíveis, práticas e de custo muito inferior ao do WB, as técnicas de PCR em tempo real podem ser usadas como teste confirmatório do HTLV em bancos de sangue, em substituição ao WB.
Otani, Marcia M; Salles, Nanci A; Barreto, Angela M E; Barreto, Claudia C; Chamone, Dalton F; Sabino, Ester C
In 1998, the Brazilian Ministry of Health made it mandatory for all blood banks in the country to screen donated blood for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) concomitantly using two different enzyme immunoassay (EIA) tests. Concerned with the best use of available resources, our objective with this study was to evaluate the usefulness of conducting two EIA screening tests instead of just one. We analyzed data from 1999 through 2001 obtained by testing 698 191 units of donated blood using two EIA HIV screening tests concomitantly at the Pro-Blood Foundation/Blood Center of São Paulo (Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro de São Paulo), which is a major blood center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. All samples reactive in at least one of the two EIA tests were submitted for confirmation by a Western blot (WB) test, and the persons who had donated those samples were also asked to return and provide a follow-up sample. Out of the 698 191 blood units that were donated, 2 718 of them (0.4%) had to be discarded because they were reactive to at least one of the EIA tests. There were two WB-positive donation samples that were reactive in only one HIV EIA screening test. On their follow-up samples, both donors tested WB-negative. These cases were considered false positive results at screening. Of the 2 718 donors who were asked to return and provide a follow-up sample, 1 576 of them (58%) did so. From these 1 576 persons, we found that there were two individuals who had been reactive to only one of the two EIA screening tests and who had also been negative on the WB at screening but who were fully seroconverted on the follow-up sample. We thus estimated that, in comparison to the use of a single EIA screening test, the use of two EIA screening tests would detect only one extra sample out of 410 700 units of blood. Our data do not support the use of two different, concomitant EIA screening tests for HIV. The great majority of HIV-positive donors have already seroconverted and
Muñoz, Manuela; Carvalho, Santiago; Donado, Jorge Hernando; Barco, Gloria Eugenia; Jaramillo, Sergio
The human-T cell lymphotropic virus is a retrovirus with various types known so far. HTLV-I and HTLV-II are of clinically importance as they cause different diseases such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, tropical spastic paraparesis, and human T-lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy (HAM). To estimate the prevalence of presumptive and confirmatory reactivity to HTLV-I/II in blood donors of Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe Blood Bank between 2014 and 2015. The information was obtained from the Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe Blood Bank database. We analyzed age, sex, place of origin, and place of residence of donors, and the reactivity using the screening test (ELISA) as well as the confirmatory test (immunoblot). The donor population studied included 6,275 men and 8,148 women, for a total of 14,423 donors recruited between March 1, 2014, and June 30, 2015. Of all tested donors, 25 were positive for HTLV-I/II by the screening test (ELISA). After performing the confirmatory test (immunoblot), only nine patients were positive for HTLV-I/II (36%), of whom eight were reactive to HTLV-I (32%) and one to HTLV-II (4%), for a global seroprevalence of 0.06% (CI 95%: 0.10-0.25). Our findings were consistent with those found in similar studies in non-endemic areas of the country and with those from studies at international level reported in the literature.
Aranda, Lorena I; Smith, Linda A; Jones, Scott; Beddard, Rachel
Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and Scianna. Donors tested to be group 0 or A were serologically tested for the Rh (C, E, c, e) antigens. Those that tested as presumably R1R1, R2R2, or Ror were then genotyped. Donors constituted three major ethnicities: black (18.3%), Hispanic (36.3%), and Caucasian (41.1%); ethnicities comprised of Asian, American Indian, multiracial, and other accounted for the remaining donors (4.3%). The most likely common Rh phenotype for each ethnicity is as follows: black -Ror (44.4%), Hispanic -R1R1 (59.0%), and Caucasian -R1R1 (38.9%). The prevalence of Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group system antigens in black and Caucasian donors is comparable with published reports for the entire U.S. The black South Texas donor population had an 8.8 percent increase in prevalence of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype as compared with these published reports; the Hispanic South Texas donor population had a prevalence of 36.1 percent of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype. Regarding the Diego blood group system, the Hispanic donor population in South Texas had a prevalence of 93.5 percent for the Di(a-b+) phenotype as compared with published reports for the entire U.S. (>99.9%). The Hispanic population had a prevalence of 7.9 percent of donors testing as M-N+S-s+ as compared with 20.2 percent and 15.6 percent for black and Caucasian donors, respectively. This study helped us determine the prevalence of each of the blood group antigens in the South Texas donor population to establish and maintain adequate rare inventory of
Background: HTLV type I/II is a blood borne infection that can be transmitted via blood transfusion. Objective: To determine the seroprevalence of human T – lymphotropic virus among blood donors in Osogbo, Nigeria. Methods: Diagnosis of Human T. Lymphotropic virus antigen was carried out on 372 serum samples ...
Sep 3, 2017 ... Cite as: Sharew B, Mulu A, Teka B, Tesfaye T. HIV Sero- prevalence trend among blood donors in NorthEast Ethiopia. Afri Health Sci. 2017;17(3): ... ensure the safety of all blood and blood products to the recipients.2. Sub-Saharan ... On the other hand, significantly declining fashion of. HIV seroprevalence ...
Full Text Available To detect Platelets count in apparently healthy male donors, to establish safety for both donors and recipient and also to transfuse safe blood and blood products. To perform platelets count for donors using automated machine (Blood cell counter. Venous blood samples were taken from 500 apparently healthy males donors and the platelets count was measured using an automated cell counter (sysmex KN21, accompanied by peripheral blood films were assessed to detect any abnormalities. The study revealed that the mean values of the platelets counts were 215.15 x 109 /L +/-68.367 with minimum count 9 x 109 /L and maximum 689 x 109 /L and 67donors presented with platelets count less than 150 which comprise 13.4 % of the cases, may be due to asymptomatic parasitism (e.g. malaria, no prominent aggregation or giant forms detected in all cases of thrombocytopenia. Thrombocytosis occurred in 7donors with platelet count more than 400 (1.4% of cases accompanied by low MCV and low MCH (suggestive of iron deficiency which the one of causes of thrombocytosis. The study revealed thata significant number of donors with low & high platelets count
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The adequacy of blood depends on blood donation rates and numbers of blood donors. To prepare adequate blood supplies, it is essential to investigate the barriers and factors that stop individuals from donating. This study aimed to identify the causes of lapsed donation at our center. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study of volunteer blood donors in Shiraz, Iran. METHODS: We selected 850 donors who had donated between January 1, 2005 and June 1, 2005, but had not donated again by June 2008. The participants were recruited by letter and telephone, and were interviewed using a specially designed questionnaire that contained items on demographic characteristics, donor motivations and reasons for not returning to donate. We used the chi-square test to identify associations between lapsed donor characteristics and reasons for declining to donate. RESULTS: The greatest motivation for donation was altruism. The most frequent reasons for lapsed donation were lack of time because of work and self-exclusion for medical reasons. Among first-time donors, the most frequent reasons were unsuitability for donation and lack of time. CONCLUSIONS: The reasons for not returning to donate are varied and may correlate with demographic characteristics. In this study, the main reason for not returning was lack of time. Changing donation hours so that donors can donate after work, providing mobile teams at workplaces, and shortening the duration of the donation process may help increase repeat donation rates.
Full Text Available Introduction: Deferrals lead to loss of precious whole blood donors (WBD and blood units available for transfusion purposes. Knowledge of rate and causes of donor deferral can guide the recruitment strategy for WBD. Aim: To find the incidence and causes of deferral in Indian WBD and apply relevant findings to modify recruitment strategy for blood donors. Materials and Methods: Data for WBD presenting for donation in a blood center and outdoor camps over one and half year were analyzed retrospectively. National guidelines were used for selection and deferral of WBD. Result: 736 (11.6% WBD were deferred out of 6357 presenting for donation during the study period. Most (69.8% of the donors were deferred on physical examination and hemoglobin (Hb testing. Most common reasons for deferral were low Hb (55.8%, abnormal blood pressure (11.1%, medication (6.9% and underweight donors (2.9%. Significantly more volunteers were deferred than relative donors (13.97% vs 5.80%; P<0.000. Females were found to have higher deferral rate than males (53.5% vs 6.9%; P=0.000 and higher odds ratio for deferral (15.4. Donors older than 40 years of age had significantly higher chance of being deferred (P<0.05. Discussion and Conclusion: It is important to determine the rate and causes of WBD deferral to guide the recruitment and retention efforts at local, regional, and national level.
Merz, E.M.; Zijlstra, Bonne; De Kort, Wim L.A.M.
Background and Objectives Show behaviour after invitation to donate varies considerably across donors. More insight into this variation is important for blood banks in achieving stable stocks. This study examined individual factors determining intended show behaviour. Most importantly, however, this
chromatographic test), ELISA and RT-. PCR. Out of the 7148 blood donors, ... B may eventually cause liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. (Chang, 2007). ... either at Hayat Abad Medical Complex (HMC) or at the Institute of. Biotechnology and ...
Krog, Grethe Risum; Clausen, Frederik Banch; Berkowicz, Adela
Avoiding immunization with clinically important antibodies is a primary objective in transfusion medicine. Therefore, it is central to identify the extent of D antigens that escape routine RhD typing of blood donors and to improve methodology if necessary.......Avoiding immunization with clinically important antibodies is a primary objective in transfusion medicine. Therefore, it is central to identify the extent of D antigens that escape routine RhD typing of blood donors and to improve methodology if necessary....
Why do people donate blood? Altruism is the common answer. However, altruism is a complex construct and to answer this question requires a systematic analysis of the insights from the biology, economics and psychology of altruism. I term this the mechanism of altruism (MOA) approach and apply it here for understanding blood donor motivation. The answer also has enormous implications for the type of interventions we choose to adopt as a society. A MOA approach so far shows that blood donors are a mixture of (i) warm-glow givers (donation is emotionally rewarding) and (ii) reluctant altruists (cooperate rather than defect when free-riding is high). Donors also show 'saintly sinning' with the extra 'moral currency' form blood donation allowing them to be less generous in other contexts. The MOA approach suggests why financial incentives, in terms of gifts/lottery tickets, are effective and suggests a number of novel interventions for donor recruitment: 'voluntary reciprocal altruism' and 'charitable incentivisation'. The MOA approach also highlights the need for an intervention developed specifically for recipients to allow them to show their gratitude to donors and for society to celebrate blood donation. It is suggests a 'Monument to Blood Donors' will achieve this. The approach suggests a number of novel research questions into (i) donor self-selection effects, (ii) conditional cooperation and (iii) construct overlap with Theory of Planned Behaviour (e.g. affective attitudes and warm-glow). The MOA offers a powerful way to understand blood donor motivations around altruism and develop theoretically driven interventions. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.
Sumbu, B M M; Longo-Mbenza, B; Ahuka-Mundeke, S; Muwonga, J M; Mvumbi-Lelo, G; Maphana, H M; Kayembe Nzongola-Nkasu, D; Kalumbu, F M
The screening of anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus antibodies is mandatory in every blood donor admitted to the Blood Bank of Kinshasa University Clinics since 1984. However, no compiled data are available to date. The objective of this study was to establish the trend, prevalence, viral co-infections, and determinants of Human Immunodeficiency anti-Virus serology in blood donors admitted between 2003-2006 and 2008-2013. A retrospective analysis was carried out at University Kinshasa Clinics, using blood donors' records during 2003-2006 and 2008-2013. The prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus per year, age, sex and type of blood donors were estimated. Independent predictors of human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity were also identified. Out of 26,341 blood donors, 2.2% (n=576/26,341) were seropositive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Age<25 years (OR=1.7; 95% CI: 1.4-2; P<0.0001) and Hepatitis C virus seropositivity (OR=3; 95% CI; 1.8-4.9; P<0.001) emerged as independent predictors of Human Immunodeficiency Virus seropositivity. This study shows a strong association between the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and hepatitis C and younger age respectively. Further studies are needed to ensure safety of Blood donation in Democratic Republic of Congo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Background: Blood and blood products are scarce commodities. The demand often outweighs the supply. This study is directed at investigating the blood procurement sources and the risk of viral transfusion transmissible infection. Materials and Methods: The records of the blood transfusion unit of a tertiary health facility in ...
Domanović, Dragoslav; Tedder, Richard; Blümel, Johannes; Zaaijer, Hans; Gallian, Pierre; Niederhauser, Christoph; Sauleda Oliveras, Silvia; O'Riordan, Joan; Boland, Fiona; Harritshøj, Lene; Nascimento, Maria São José; Ciccaglione, Anna Rita; Politis, Constatina; Adlhoch, Cornelia; Flan, Benoit; Oualikene-Gonin, Wahiba; Rautmann, Guy; Strengers, Paul; Hewitt, Patricia
The public health implications of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Europe have changed due to increasing numbers of hepatitis E cases and recent reports of chronic, persistent HEV infections associated with progression to cirrhosis in immunosuppressed patients. The main infectious risk for such immunosuppressed patients is exposure to undercooked infected pork products and blood transfusion. We summarised the epidemiology of HEV infections among blood donors and also outlined any strategies to prevent transfusion-transmitted HEV, in 11 European countries. In response to the threat posed by HEV and related public and political concerns, most of the observed countries determined seroprevalence of HEV in donors and presence of HEV RNA in blood donations. France, Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom (UK) reported cases of transfusion-transmitted HEV. Ireland and the UK have already implemented HEV RNA screening of blood donations; the Netherlands will start in 2017. Germany and France perform screening for HEV RNA in several blood establishments or plasma donations intended for use in high-risk patients respectively and, with Switzerland, are considering implementing selective or universal screening nationwide. In Greece, Portugal, Italy and Spain, the blood authorities are evaluating the situation. Denmark decided not to implement the HEV screening of blood donations. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.
Wang, Ning; Lu, Ping; Ling, Bing; Zhu, Ziyan; Hammarström, Lennart
Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (IgAD) is the most common primary immunodeficiency in Caucasians with a prevalence of 1:600. However, the prevalence of IgAD is markedly lower in East Asian countries but no genetic studies have been performed on IgAD individuals in the Mongoloid population. We investigated the prevalence of IgAD in a large number of Chinese blood donors (n = 39,015) in Shanghai, China. We measured immunoglobulin class, IgG subclass and anti-IgA serum levels among the IgAD donors. These donors were subsequently tissue typed and the allele frequency was compared with the Shanghai bone marrow donor HLA registry. Seventeen IgAD Chinese blood donors were identified, giving a prevalence of 1: 2,295. Two previously identified IgAD blood donor samples were added in the subsequent tests. Most IgAD donors had serum IgG levels above the normal range with no major IgG subclass deficiency and one donor was weakly positive for anti-IgA. Two-thirds of the Chinese IgAD donors carried Caucasian IgAD associated risk haplotypes, including DRB1*0301-DQB1*0201, DRB1*0701-DQB1*0202 and DRB1*0102-DQB1*0501, giving a significantly higher frequency of these haplotypes as compared to the Shanghai bone marrow donor HLA registry. The prevalence of IgAD in Chinese in this study is markedly lower than in Caucasians. This is the first study to investigate the genetics of IgAD in the Mongoloid population and two-thirds of the Chinese IgAD donors showed a mixture of Caucasian IgAD risk haplotypes. The low prevalence of IgAD could potentially be due to the low frequency of the disease associated risk haplotypes in China.
Triagem de hemoglobinopatias em doadores de sangue de Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: prevalência em área de colonização italiana Screening for hemoglobinopathies in blood donors from Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: prevalence in an Italian colony
Cristina Lucia Alberti Lisot
Full Text Available A alta prevalência de beta-talassemia em italianos e a participação dos mesmos na formação étnica da cidade de Caxias do Sul e arredores, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, conduziram-nos à investigação de hemoglobinopatias em uma amostra de 608 doadores de sangue do Hemocentro Regional de Caxias do Sul. Apesar da influência étnica, encontramos 1,81% de hemoglobinas anormais (0,16% Hb AC, 0,99%, Hb AS e 0,66% Hb AH, um padrão similar com o estudo do interior do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul para alterações qualitativas. Para as talassemias, as técnicas mais comuns, cruzadas com seqüenciamento de DNA, em nossas mãos, não foram capazes de esclarecer anormalidades quantitativas da hemoglobina. Esse resultado pode ser atribuído a alterações genéticas ainda não conhecidas, a limitações técnicas ou, mais simplesmente, à miscigenação.The high prevalence of beta thalassemia among Italians and their participation in the ethnic formation of Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and neighboring cities prompted us to investigate hemoglobinopathies in 608 blood donors at the Caxias do Sul Regional Blood Center. Despite the ethnic influence, abnormal hemoglobin levels were found in only 1.81% of the donors (0.16% Hb AC, 0.99% Hb AS, and 0.66% Hb AH, similar to the levels observed in a study on qualitative disorders conducted in the rural area of Rio Grande do Sul. In our setting, the most commonly used screening tests for thalassemia, combined with DNA sequencing, were unable to detect quantitative hemoglobin synthesis disorders. This may be attributable to still-unknown genetic disorders, technical limitations, or simply to miscegenation.
de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Mendrone-Junior, Alfredo; Custer, Brian; Liu, Jing; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Bárbara; Carneiro Leão, Silvana A.; Wright, David J.; Murphy, Edward L.; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira
Background In Brazil, most of donations come from repeat donors, but there is little data on return behavior of donors. Material and Methods Donors who made at least one whole blood donation in 2007 were followed for two years using a large multicenter research database. Donation frequency, inter-donation intervals and their association with donor demographics, status, and type of donation were examined among three large blood centers in Brazil, two in the Southeast and one in the Northeast. Results In 2007 out of 306,770 allogeneic donations, 38.9% came from 95,127 first-time and 61.1% from 149,664 repeat donors. Through December 31, 2009, 28.1% of first-time and 56.5% of repeat donors had donated again. Overall, the median inter-donation interval was about six months. Among men it was 182 and 171 days for first-time and repeat donors and among women 212 and 200 days. Predictors of return behavior among first-time donors were male sex (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.13–1.20), community donation (OR, 2.26; 95% CI, 2.20–2.33) and age ≤ 24 years (OR range 0.62–0.89 for donors ≥ 25 years). Among repeat donors predictors were male sex (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.32–1.39), age ≥ 35 years (OR range 1.08–1.18 vs. <= 24 years), and community donation (OR, 2.39; 95% CI 2.33–2.44). Differences in return by geographic region were evident with higher return rates in the Northeast of Brazil. Conclusion These data highlight the need to develop improved communication strategies for first-time and replacement donors to convert them into repeat community donors. PMID:21981543
all assays were calculated as a percentage of the mean of. TABLE I. RESULTS OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN ASSAYS OF tOO WHITE, tOO ASIATIC AND 100 BANTU DONORS, EXPRESSED AS A. PERCENTAGE OF A CONTROL SERUM. Parameter. Range. Mean. Variance. Standard deviation. CoefI. of variation.
... defined in paragraph (b) of this section, will then inform the donors that they may need medical care and... safeguards contained in paragraph (g) of this section. (f) SSA refusal to furnish address. If we determine... or may be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus that they may need medical care and...
Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Felsted, N; Mikkelsen, Susan
collection facilities when new projects are initiated. CONCLUSION: The digital platform is a faster, cost-effective and more flexible solution to collect valid data from participating donors compared to paper-based questionnaires. The overall system can be used around the world by the use of Internet...... connection, but the level of security depends on the sensitivity of the data to be collected....
Zhu, Jian-Ying; Lan, Jiong-Cai; Luo, Hong-Qing
The study was purposed to analyze the frequency and distribution of irregular antibodies in Shaoguan area. Screening 15 033 random donor antibodies in Shaoguan area by screening cells, polybrene and antiglobulin tests. The results indicated that the irregular antibodies were found in 42 samples. The frequency of irregular antibodies in female was higher than that in male (P antibodies such as anti-D, anti-E, and anti-Ec C were common (47.6%). 2 samples of Le antibodies were failed to be found by polybrene test. 2 samples of irregular antibodies with titer 2 were undiscovered by screening test of 10 pooled samples. In conclusion, because of irregular antibodies resulting in hemolytic transfusion reaction, the investigation of frequency and distribution of irregular antibodies is very important for safe transfusion. Antibody screening must be done for female donors, and especially for massive plasma transfusion of patients with severe and dangerous illness and infants so as to ensure safety.
Sørensen, Erik; Grau, Katrine; Berg, Trine
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency is a frequent side effect of blood donation. In recent years, several studies have described genetic variants associated with iron concentrations. However, the impact of these variants on iron levels is unknown in blood donors. Knowledge of genetic variants...... that predispose donors to iron deficiency would allow bleeding frequency and iron supplementation to be tailored to the individual donor. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The genotypes of five specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three genes that have been previously associated with iron status and....../or restless leg syndrome (RLS) were investigated in two groups of female blood donors. The first group had low iron stores (serum ferritin ≤ 12 µg/L, n = 657), and the second group had normal to high iron stores (serum ferritin > 30 µg/L, n = 645). Genotype distribution for each of the SNPs was compared...
Edgren, Gustaf; Reilly, Marie; Hjalgrim, Henrik
plasma donors (> 25 vs 0 donations, OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.22 to 3.74). CONCLUSIONS: Repeated blood donation was not associated with increased or decreased risk of cancer overall. The lack of consistency across latency periods casts doubt on an apparent association between reduced cancer risk and iron......BACKGROUND: Long-term deleterious effects of repeated blood donations may be masked by the donors' healthy lifestyle. To investigate possible effects of blood donation and iron loss through blood donation on cancer incidence while minimizing "healthy donor effects," we made dose...... = 107140) were individually matched on sex, age, and county of residence. Using conditional logistic regression, we estimated relative risks of cancer according to number of blood donations made or estimated iron loss 3-12 years before a case patient was diagnosed with cancer. All statistical tests were...
Rouka, E; Kyriakou, D
Human Herpesviruses (HHVs) maintain life-long latent persistence in the majority of the adult population including blood donors. The necessity for their study resides in the potential risk of transfusion-associated infection and the subsequent complications in the immunocompromised host. We aimed to assess the prevalence of HHVs types 1-6 and 8 among healthy blood donors of Thessaly prefecture in order to evaluate the frequency distribution of HHVs in Greek population and to ascertain possible correlations with demographic factors. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of HHVs DNA was determined in 401 randomly selected consecutive blood donors of Central Greece. Epidemiological data were recorded through a well structured questionnaire. The overall PCR positivity for HHVs was 25·4%. HHVs types 1-3 were not detected in any donor sample. A specimen with high level of HHV-6 DNA (1,580,400 copies per mL) was recorded. HHV-4 DNA positivity was significantly associated with rural residency. HHV-4 DNA is commonly detected in whole blood specimens of healthy individuals. HHVs types 5, 6 and 8 are rarely detected. However, the existence of a donor sample with high HHV-6 viral load raises questions regarding the potential risk of HHV-6 blood-borne infection and the safety of blood products. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.
Wevers, A.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Hurk, K. van den; Baaren, R.B. van; Veldhuizen, I.J.T.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Most blood donors stop donating blood at the beginning of their donor career. This intervention study aims to increase first-time return behaviour of newly registered donors using implementation intentions and explicit commitment techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Newly
Wevers, A.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Hurk, K. van den; Baaren, R.B. van; Veldhuizen, I.J.T.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Most blood donors stop donating blood at the beginning of their donor career. This intervention study aims to increase first-time return behaviour of newly registered donors using implementation intentions and explicit commitment techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Newly
Brijesh Thakur; Sanjay Kaushik; Sanjeev Kishore; Rajnish Kuma; Anil Rajput
BACKGROUND Blood group plays a vital role in transfusion safety, understanding genetics, inheritance pattern and disease susceptibility. This study is aimed to determine distribution pattern of ABO and Rh blood group, incidence and identification of irregular antibodies among blood donors of Uttarakhand. METHOD ABO/Rh blood grouping was performed by test tube agglutination method (both cell and serum grouping) using antisera A, B and Rh from Tulip and Orthodiagnostics. Do...
Duquesnoy, Alice; Danic, Bruno; Santos, Aurélie; Martinaud, Christophe; Woimant, Geneviève; Laperche, Syria; Tiberghien, Pierre; Jauffret-Roustide, Marie; Pillonel, Josiane
In France, information collected during postdonation interviews showed that a majority of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected donors were not eligible to donate as per donor selection criteria. In the interest of blood safety, this study aimed to explore the mechanisms of noncompliance with blood donor selection criteria, notably the permanent deferral of men who have sex with men (MSM). Semistructured individual interviews were conducted with 32 blood donors found positive for HIV between mid-2011 and 2014. Topics such as the experience and motivations for donating blood, understanding of selection criteria, sexual risk management, and opinions on donor selection were discussed. Transcripts were analyzed inductively. More than 50% of study participants were noncompliant with donor selection criteria. Reasons for nondisclosure of risk factors in the predonation questionnaire or the predonation interview included stigma, test-seeking motivations, symbolic attachment to blood donation, and context of donation. Compliance to donor criteria was seen as secondary by donors who reaped personal benefits from the symbolism of their donation. Donors lacked self-reflexivity in their assessment of risky sexual behavior. The "window period" and the underlying epidemiologic arguments for donor selection criteria were poorly understood. Nearly all participants disapproved of the permanent ban on blood donations from MSM. This study demonstrated the need for more communication on the epidemiologic basis for donor selection criteria and on the window period to facilitate donor compliance. These findings have already advanced improvements to predonation documents, in a larger context of 2016 donor selection criteria revision. © 2017 AABB.
Moritz, Erin D; Winton, Colleen S; Tonnetti, Laura; Townsend, Rebecca L; Berardi, Victor P; Hewins, Mary-Ellen; Weeks, Karen E; Dodd, Roger Y; Stramer, Susan L
Babesia microti, a tickborne intraerythrocytic parasite that can be transmitted by means of blood transfusion, is responsible for the majority of cases of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis in the United States. However, no licensed test exists for screening for B. microti in donated blood. We assessed data from a large-scale, investigational product-release screening and donor follow-up program. From June 2012 through September 2014, we performed arrayed fluorescence immunoassays (AFIAs) for B. microti antibodies and real-time polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assays for B. microti DNA on blood-donation samples obtained in Connecticut, Massachusetts, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. We determined parasite loads with the use of quantitative PCR testing and assessed infectivity by means of the inoculation of hamsters and the subsequent examination for parasitemia. Donors with test-reactive samples were followed. Using data on cases of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis, we compared the proportions of screened versus unscreened donations that were infectious. Of 89,153 blood-donation samples tested, 335 (0.38%) were confirmed to be positive, of which 67 (20%) were PCR-positive; 9 samples were antibody-negative (i.e., 1 antibody-negative sample per 9906 screened samples), representing 13% of all PCR-positive samples. PCR-positive samples were identified all through the year; antibody-negative infections occurred from June through September. Approximately one third of the red-cell samples from PCR-positive or high-titer AFIA-positive donations infected hamsters. Follow-up showed DNA clearance in 86% of the donors but antibody seroreversion in 8% after 1 year. In Connecticut and Massachusetts, no reported cases of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis were associated with screened donations (i.e., 0 cases per 75,331 screened donations), as compared with 14 cases per 253,031 unscreened donations (i.e., 1 case per 18,074 unscreened donations) (odds ratio, 8.6; 95% confidence interval
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the storage properties of red blood cell (RBC concentrates of umbilical cord blood (UCB and adult donor blood (ADB, and to evaluate the feasibility of UCB-RBC concentrate as an autologous source for blood transfusion in very low birth weight (VLBW preterm neonates. METHODS: In all, 30 newborn (10 preterm, 20 full term UCB and 31 ADB units were collected. RBC concentrates were stored and compared with regard to pH, potassium (K+, 2,3-biphosphoglycerate (2-3-BPG, adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP, plasma Hb, and bacterial contamination on d 1, 21, and 35 of storage. RESULTS: The K+ level increased with time and differed significantly between storage d 1 and 21, and between storage d 1 and 35 in both the UCB and ADB units. Initial and d 21 K+ levels were higher in the UCB units than in the ADB units. The 2,3-BPG level did not differ significantly between the UCB-PRC and ADB-PRC samples. After 35 d of storage both UCB-PRC and ADB-PRC samples exhibited significant differences from the initial free Hb, intracellular ATP, and pH values. Significant differences in intracellular ATP and pH were also observed between the UCB-PRC and ADB-PRC samples. CONCLUSION: The volume of harvested and prepared UCB-PRC can be used for some of the blood transfusions required during the neonatal period and thus may decrease the number of allogeneic transfusions, especially in preterm newborns. The hematological and biochemical changes that occurred in UCB during storage were comparable with those observed in ADB, and do not pose a risk to the immature metabolism of neonates. UCB-RPC prepared and stored under standard conditions can be a safe alternative RBC source for transfusions in VLBW newborns.
aged over 18 years, at Malawi Blood Transfusion Service in. Blantyre, Malawi. Capillary blood samples were analysed using the. HCS and HemoCue, independent of each other. The sensitivity and specificity of correctly identifying ineligible blood donors. (Hb≤12g/dL) were calculated. Results. From 242 participants 234 ...
The age specific prevalence was highest in the age group 30-39 years (2.2%) followed by 40. – 49 (1.4%). HIV sero-prevalence was ... tissue donors in the United States, the incidence of. HIV infection was estimated to be 40,000 ..... single and homeless; they could be at high risk to practice unsafe sex. On the other hand, ...
Patavino, Giuseppina Maria; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Liu, Jing; Wright, David J.; Mendrone-Junior, Alfredo; Ferreira, Maria Inês Lopes; de Freitas Carneiro, Anna Bárbara; Custer, Brian; Ferreira, João Eduardo; Busch, Michael P.; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira
BACKGROUND Brazilian blood centers ask candidate blood donors about the number of sexual partners in the last 12 months. Candidates who report a number over the limit are deferred. We studied the implications of this practice on blood safety. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed demographic characteristics, number of heterosexual partners, and disease marker rates among 689,868 donations from three Brazilian Centers between July 2007 and December 2009. Donors were grouped based on maximum number of partners allowed in the last 12 months for each center. Chi-square and logistic regression analysis were conducted to examine associations between demographic characteristics, number of sex partners, and individual and overall positive markers rates for HIV, HTLV-1/2, HBV, HCV, and syphilis. RESULTS First-time, younger and more educated donors were associated with a higher number of recent sexual partners, as was male gender in São Paulo and Recife (p <0.001). Serologic markers for HIV, syphilis and overall were associated with multiple partners in São Paulo and Recife (p<0.001), but not in Belo Horizonte (p= 0.05, 0.94, 0.75, respectively). In logistic regression analysis, number of recent sexual partners were associated with positive serologic markers (AOR=1.2–1.5) especially HIV (AOR=1.0–4.4). CONCLUSIONS Number of recent heterosexual partners was associated with HIV positivity and overall rates of serological markers of sexually transmitted infections. The association was not consistent across centers, making it difficult to define the best cut-off value. These findings suggest the use of recent heterosexual contacts as a potentially important deferral criterion to improve blood safety in Brazil. PMID:21756264
Full Text Available CONTEXT: The hemoglobin (Hb level is the most-used parameter for screening blood donors for the presence of anemia, one of the most-used methods for measuring Hb levels is based on photometric detection of cyanmetahemoglobin, as an alternative to this technology, HemoCue has developed a photometric method based on the determination of azide metahemoglobin. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of three methods for hemoglobin (Hb determination in a blood bank setting. DESIGN: Prospective study utilizing blood samples to compare methods for Hb determination. SETTING: Hemotherapy Service of the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, a private institution in the tertiary health care system. SAMPLE: Serial blood samples were collected from 259 individuals during the period from March to June 1996. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Test performances and their comparisons were assessed by the analysis of coefficients of variation (CV, linear regression and mean differences. RESULTS: The CV for the three methods were: Coulter 0.68%, Cobas 0.82% and HemoCue 0.69%. There was no difference between the mean Hb determination for the three methods (p>0.05. The Coulter and Cobas methods showed the best agreement and the HemoCue method gave a lower Hb determination when compared to both the Coulter and Cobas methods. However, pairs of methods involving the HemoCue seem to have narrower limits of agreement (± 0.78 and ± 1.02 than the Coulter and Cobas combination (± 1.13. CONCLUSION: The three methods provide good agreement for hemoglobin determination.
van Hoeven, Loan R; Hooftman, Babette H; Janssen, Mart P; de Bruijne, Martine C; de Vooght, Karen M K; Kemper, Peter; Koopman, Maria M W
Blood transfusion has health-related, economical and safety implications. In order to optimise the transfusion chain, comprehensive research data are needed. The Dutch Transfusion Data warehouse (DTD) project aims to establish a data warehouse where data from donors and transfusion recipients are linked. This paper describes the design of the data warehouse, challenges and illustrative applications. Quantitative data on blood donors (eg, age, blood group, antibodies) and products (type of product, processing, storage time) are obtained from the national blood bank. These are linked to data on the transfusion recipients (eg, transfusions administered, patient diagnosis, surgical procedures, laboratory parameters), which are extracted from hospital electronic health records. Expected scientific contributions are illustrated for 4 applications: determine risk factors, predict blood use, benchmark blood use and optimise process efficiency. For each application, examples of research questions are given and analyses planned. The DTD project aims to build a national, continuously updated transfusion data warehouse. These data have a wide range of applications, on the donor/production side, recipient studies on blood usage and benchmarking and donor-recipient studies, which ultimately can contribute to the efficiency and safety of blood transfusion. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Background: West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus that circulates among avians, but can also affect other species, particularly humans and horses. The virus is transmissible via blood transfusion. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of the West Nile virus among blood donors in Nigeria. Materials and ...
There was an association between Sexually transmitted Diseases (STD) and previous blood transfusion with HTLV positivity. No pregnant women tested positive to HTLV. There were no cases of co-infection of HIV with HTLV. Conclusion: The results suggest low prevalence of HTLV in blood donors and pregnant women in ...
All processes and inputs were evaluated and costs calculated for predonation testing by simple rapid techniques and post donation screening by ELISA. Results: 5000 prospective donors were tested in the study period. The cost of single rapid Pre-donation testing was less than that of single ELISA Postdonation screen.
Gonçalez, Thelma; Sabino, Ester C; Chamone, Dalton F
To describe the trends in the profile of blood donors from 1995 through 2001 at a large blood center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, particularly following the initiation in 1998 of marketing strategies aimed at substituting replacement donors with altruistic repeat donors. Using an information system that had been established at the Pro-Blood Foundation/Blood Center of São Paulo (Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro de São Paulo) in 1994, we collected information on sex, age, and type of donation for the years 1995-2001. We classified blood donors as either replacement blood donors (if they stated that the reason for donating was that they had a friend or relative in the hospital) or as altruistic donors. First-time blood donors were those who had not donated in our institution since the establishment of the information system. The percentage of repeat altruistic blood donors increased over time as first-time replacement donors declined for both genders. The proportion of altruistic donors climbed from 20% of all blood donors in 1995 to 57% in 2001. In 2001, first-time blood donors represented only 52% of all donors, as contrasted to 88% in 1995. Female donors increased from 20% to 37% of the donors over the period studied. Our data provide evidence that the São Paulo population has responded well to the marketing strategies that have been introduced in our institution. We believe that similar promotional efforts elsewhere in Brazil would produce comparable, positive results.
Tagny, Claude Tayou; Kouao, Maxime Diané; Touré, Hamane; Gargouri, Jalel; Fazul, Ahamada Said; Ouattara, Siaka; Anani, Ludovic; Othmani, Habiba; Feteke, Lochina; Dahourou, Honorine; Mbensa, Guy Olivier; Molé, Simplice; Nébié, Yacouba; Mbangue, Madeleine; Toukam, Michel; Boulahi, Mahommed Ould; Andriambelo, Lalatiana Valisoa; Rakoto, Olivat; Baby, Mounirou; Yahaya, Rakia; Bokilo, Amelia; Senyana, Florent; Mbanya, Dora; Shiboski, Caroline; Murphy, Edward L; Lefrère, Jean Jacques
The goal of selecting a healthy blood donor is to safeguard donors and reduce the risks of infections and immunologic complications for recipients. To evaluate the blood donor selection process, a survey was conducted in 28 blood transfusion centers located in 15 francophone African countries. Data collected included availability of blood products, risk factors for infection identified among blood donor candidates, the processing of the information collected before blood collection, the review process for the medical history of blood donor candidates, and deferral criteria for donor candidates. During the year 2009, participating transfusion centers identified 366,924 blood donor candidates. A mean of 13% (range, 0%-36%) of the donor candidates were excluded based solely on their medical status. The main risk factors for blood-borne infections were having multiple sex partners, sexual intercourse with occasional partners, and religious scarification. Most transfusion centers collected this information verbally instead of having a written questionnaire. The topics least addressed were the possible complications relating to the donation, religious scarifications, and history of sickle cell anemia and hemorrhage. Only three centers recorded the temperature of the blood donors. The deferral criteria least reported were sickle cell anemia, piercing, scarification, and tattoo. The medical selection process was not performed systemically and thoroughly enough, given the regional epidemiologic risks. It is essential to identify the risk factors specific to francophone African countries and modify the current medical history questionnaires to develop a more effective and relevant selection process. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.
Full Text Available Vere Borra,1 Giovani Vandewalle,1 Hans Van Remoortel,1 Veerle Compernolle,1,2 Emmy De Buck,1 Philippe Vandekerckhove1–31Belgian Red Cross-Flanders, Mechelen, 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Ghent, Ghent, 3Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine, KU Leuven, Leuven, BelgiumAbstract: Donor selection remains an important part in the safety of the blood supply all over the world. Yet, donor deferral criteria seem to be strongly based on the precautionary principle protecting safety and quality, and on supply and expense considerations. This review therefore provides an overview of the available evidence on donor exclusion criteria, as well as on their cost-effectiveness, for the most frequent reasons of donor deferral in our region. PubMed was queried to retrieve primary research studies, systematic reviews, and health technology assessments (HTAs concerning donor exclusion criteria. With a similar approach, HTAs about the different blood-banking safety interventions were included. Reasons for donor deferral were recorded via the blood bank information system of the Belgian Red Cross-Flanders. Seven systematic reviews were identified: four on donor safety (hypotension, hypertension/type 2 diabetes, epilepsy, and higher age and three on recipient safety (hemochromatosis, men who have sex with men, and endoscopy. Forty-three low-quality observational studies were included, as well as 16 HTAs: three about donor exclusion criteria and 13 cost-utility analyses about blood-banking safety interventions. In general, the available evidence for deferral reasons was of low quality, and for 60% of the top 30 reasons for excluding donors, no evidence was found. Blood banking shows its unique position as many safety measures far exceed the normally accepted cost of €50,000/quality-adjusted life-years. The historical model based on the precautionary principle and on supply and expense considerations provides adequate supplies of
Goncalez, Thelma T.; Sabino, Ester C.; Chen, Sanny; Salles, Nanci Alves; Chamone, Dalton A. F.; McFarland, Willi; Murphy, Edward L.
Recruiting safe, volunteer blood donors requires understanding motivations for donating and knowledge and attitudes about HIV. We surveyed 1,600 persons presenting for blood donation at a large blood bank in São Paulo, Brazil using a self-administered, structured questionnaire, and classified motivations into three domains as well as categorizing persons by HIV test-seeking behavior. Motivations, in descending order, and their significant associations were: “altruism”: female gender, volunteer donor and repeat donor status; “direct appeal”: female gender, repeat donor status and age 21–50 years; “self-interest”: male gender, age under 20 years, first-time donor status and lower education. HIV test-seekers were more likely to give incorrect answers regarding HIV risk behavior and blood donation and the ability of antibody testing to detect recent HIV infections. Altruism is the main motivator for blood donation in Brazil; other motivators were associated with specific demographic subgroups. HIV test-seeking might be reduced by educational interventions. PMID:18389356
Dr Oboro VO
Sickle cell disease (SCD), haemophilia and haemodialysis are risk factors due to the need for repeated transfusion with blood and blood products (4, 5). The seroprevalence of HCV antibodies ranges from. 1.1% to 6.7% (7) in the West African sub-region. Liver disease of variable course is the most common manifestation of ...
Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the hepatitis agents known to be transmitted through blood and blood products. Hepatitis C virus has been implicated as a major cause of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. This study was, therefore, undertaken with the objective of determining the ...
France, Christopher R; France, Janis L; Carlson, Bruce W; Himawan, Lina K; Kessler, Debra A; Rebosa, Mark; Shaz, Beth H; Madden, Katrala; Carey, Patricia M; Slepian, P Maxwell; Ankawi, Brett; Livitz, Irina E; Fox, Kristen R
Based on the hypothesis that self-determined motivation is associated with an increased likelihood of future behavior, the present study examined the ability of a motivational interview to promote internal motivation for giving blood and future donation attempts. A sample of 484 recent whole-blood and double red blood cell donors (62.4% female; age = 30.2 ± 11.8 years) were randomly assigned to either a telephone-delivered motivational interview or a control call approximately 6 weeks after donating. Several weeks before the call and again 1 week after the call, participants completed the Blood Donor Identity Survey, a multidimensional measure of donor motivation, to derive indices of amotivation, external motivation, and internal motivation to give blood. Repeat donation attempts were tracked using blood center records. Relative to controls, participants in the motivational interview group showed a shift toward more self-determined motivation, as indicated by significant decreases in amotivation (p = 0.01) and significant increases in external (p = 0.009) and internal (p = 0.002) motivation. Furthermore, those with initially high levels of autonomous motivation were more likely to make a donation attempt in the subsequent year if they completed the motivational interview (71.1%) versus the control call (55.1%). Motivational interviewing is a potentially useful strategy to enhance retention of existing blood donors, particularly among those who express a greater sense of internal motivation for giving. © 2017 AABB.
Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the response rate of transfusion-transmissible infection (TTI-reactive donors after notification of their abnormal test results for the year 2012. Materials and Methods: This study is an observational descriptive study performed in our department over a period of 1 year. We evaluated the response rate of TTI-reactive donors after notification of their abnormal test results over 1 year as per the existing strategy (three telephonic and two postal communications. Results: During the study period, among the annual donation of 15,322 units, 464 blood donors were found to be seroreactive. Of these 464 seroreactive cases, 47 were HIV positive, 284 were reactive for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, 49 were Hepatitis C (HCV positive and 84 were VDRL reactive. The TTI-reactive donors (464 for various markers were contacted: 229 (49.4% telephonically and the remaining 235 (50.6% not contacted on phone were informed by post. Of the 229 contacted donors, the response rate was 98.2% as only 225 donors reported (221 on the first, three on second and one on the third call for one to one counseling. The remaining four non-responders were - one HIV and three HBsAg reactive. The remaining 235 (50.6% reactive donors did not respond to any communication. Conclusion: Donor notification and post-donation counseling are an essential aspect of the blood bank that entails provision of information on serological status, assess the impact of test results on the donor and finally referral for medical care. As in our data only 49.4% of the blood donors could be contacted successfully, incomplete demographic details was the major limiting factor in communicating with rest. Of the 229 contacted donors, the response rate was 98.2%. A large majority (94.75% of the notified donors in our study contacted their health care provider when given clear instructions to do so. These results are encouraging because they indicate that a major element of the
Furuta, Rika A; Ma, Guangyong; Matsuoka, Masao; Otani, Satoshi; Matsukura, Harumichi; Hirayama, Fumiya
Recently, Japanese Red Cross blood centers have changed the confirmatory test method from an indirect immunofluorescence (IF) technique to Western blotting (WB) for antibodies against human T-cell leukemia virus Type 1 (HTLV-1). In this study, these HTLV-1 tests were assessed using another sensitive method, that is, a luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS), to identify a better confirmatory test for HTLV-1 infection. Plasma samples from 54 qualified donors and 114 HTLV-1 screening-positive donors were tested by LIPS for antibodies against HTLV-1 Gag, Tax, Env, and HBZ recombinant proteins. The donors were categorized into six groups, namely, (Group I) qualified donors, screening positive; (Group II) IF positive; (Group III) IF negative; (Group IV) WB positive; (Group V) WB negative; and (Group VI) screening positive in the previous blood donation, but WB-indeterminate during this study period. In Groups II and IV, all plasma samples tested positive by LIPS for antibodies against Gag and Env proteins. In Group V, all samples tested negative by LIPS, whereas some Group III samples reacted with single or double antigens in LIPS. In Group VI, the LIPS test identified a donor with suspected HTLV-1 infection. The first case of a blood donor with plasma that reacted with HBZ was identified by LIPS. Reevaluation of the current HTLV-1 screening method using the LIPS test showed that both confirmatory tests had similar sensitivity and specificity only when WB indeterminate results were eliminated. LIPS is a promising method for detecting and characterizing HTLV-1 antibodies. © 2014 AABB.
Ferguson, Eamonn; France, Christopher R; Abraham, Charles; Ditto, Blaine; Sheeran, Paschal
Increasing blood donor recruitment and retention is of key importance to transfusion services. Research within the social and behavioral science traditions has adopted separate but complementary approaches to addressing these issues. This article aims to review both of these types of literature, examine theoretical developments, identify commonalities, and offer a means to integrate these within a single intervention approach. The social and behavioral science literature on blood donor recruitment and retention focusing on theory, interventions, and integration is reviewed. The role of emotional regulation (anticipated anxiety and vasovagal reactions) is central to both the behavioral and the social science approaches to enhancing donor motivation, yet although intentions are the best predictor of donor behavior, interventions targeting enactment of intentions have not been used to increase donation. Implementation intentions (that is, if-then plans formed in advance of acting) provide a useful technique to integrate findings from social and behavioral sciences to increase donor recruitment and retention. After reviewing the literature, implementation intention formation is proposed as a technique to integrate the key findings and theories from the behavioral and social science literature on blood donor recruitment and retention.
V. V. Moroz
Full Text Available Objective: to study changes in the surface of red blood cell membranes of donor blood at the macro- and ultrastructural level during its storage for 30 days and to evaluate the functional state of the red blood cell membrane during the whole storage period. Material and methods. The investigation was conducted on human whole blood and packed red blood cells placed in the specialized packs containing the preservative CPDA-1, by using calibrated electroporation and atomic force microscopy and measuring plasma pH. Conclusion. The long-term, up to 30-day, storage of whole blood and packed red blood cells at 4°C was attended by lower plasma pH and increased hemolysis rate constant during calibrated electroporation and by the development of oxidative processes. The hemolysis rate constant was also higher in the packed red blood cells than that in the whole blood. On days 5—6, the membrane structure showed defects that developed, as the blood was stored, and caused irreversible cell membrane damage by day 30. Key words: donor blood, red blood cell membranes, atomic force microscopy.
N. Tabarestani; R. F. Hosseini; ِA. Ajami
SummaryBackground and purpose: HTL-I/II viruses of the Retroviridae family are known to be the causes of various diseases. They are transmitted by blood transfusion, sexual contact and breast milk. As of contaminated mothers. These viral infections are endemic in certain regions, Epidemiological studies appear to be necessary in the country. Blood donors from different transfusion Centers were investigated in a pilot study.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, blood samples of 180...
Bakonyi, Tamás; Jungbauer, Christof; Aberle, Stephan W; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Dimmel, Katharina; Stiasny, Karin; Allerberger, Franz; Nowotny, Norbert
Between July and August 2017, seven of 12,047 blood donations from eastern Austria, reacted positive to West Nile virus (WNV) in the cobas test (Roche). Follow-up investigations revealed Usutu virus (USUV) nucleic acid in six of these. Retrospective analyses of four blood donors diagnosed as WNV-infected in 2016 showed one USUV positive. Blood transfusion services and public health authorities in USUV-endemic areas should be aware of a possible increase of human USUV infections.
Salles, Nanci A; Sabino, Ester C; Barreto, Claudia C; Barreto, Angela M E; Otani, Marcia M; Chamone, Dalton F
To analyze the changes in the proportion of blood units discarded from 1991 through 2001 at the Pro-Blood Foundation/Blood Center of São Paulo (Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro de São Paulo), which is the largest blood bank in Latin America, and to determine the prevalence of infectious diseases among donors at the Blood Center in November 2001. We compiled data concerning the discarding of blood units due to the presence of serological markers for communicable diseases at the Blood Center during the period from 1991 through 2001. To determine the prevalence of infectious diseases, 9 942 screened samples were analyzed in November 2001; all reactive samples underwent confirmatory tests. Over the study period there was a significant decrease in the percentage of units discarded, from 20% in 1991 to 9% in 2001. In November 2001 the prevalence of infectious diseases among donors was: 0.04% for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 0.21% for hepatitis C virus (HCV), 0.06% for human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV), 0.14% for Chagas' disease, and 1.10% for syphilis. For hepatitis B virus, the prevalences found were: 0.14% for anti-HBc and HBsAg, 1.68% for anti-HBc and anti-HBs, and 1.67% for isolated anti-HBc. The decrease in the discarding of blood units and in infectious diseases among donors at the Blood Center of São Paulo reflects the increase in the Center's percentage of repeat donors.
Grégoire, Y; Germain, M; Delage, G
Since 25 May 2010, all donors at our blood centre who tested false-positive for HIV, HBV, HCV or syphilis are eligible for re-entry after further testing. Donors who have a second false-positive screening test, either during qualification for or after re-entry, are deferred for life. This study reports on factors associated with the occurrence of such deferrals. Rates of second false-positive results were compared by year of deferral, transmissible disease marker, gender, age, donor status (new or repeat) and testing platform (same or different) both at qualification for re-entry and afterwards. Chi-square tests were used to compare proportions. Cox regression was used for multivariate analyses. Participation rates in the re-entry programme were 42·1%: 25·6% failed to qualify for re-entry [different platform: 2·7%; same platform: 42·9% (P entry, rates of deferral for second false-positive results were 8·4% after 3 years [different platform: 1·8%; same platform: 21·4% (P entry, was lower for donors deferred on a different platform; this risk was higher for HIV, HCV and syphilis than for HBV and for new donors if tested on the same platform. Re-entry is more often successful when donors are tested on a testing platform different from the one on which they obtained their first false-positive result. © 2018 International Society of Blood Transfusion.
Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas' Disease, is a widely spread protozoa in America. Blood transfusion is the secondly most important way of acquiring the infection. In blood banks, tests are performed to eliminate potentially infected blood. This study aimed to evaluate the positivity for T. cruzi in blood samples of donor's candidates in Southern Brazil. The study was based on a sampling containing all blood donors of Hemopel - a Pelotas City Blood Center, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, from 2004 to 2005. Serological study was performed using ELISA Chagatest. Sampling containing values ± 20% cut off were evaluated using ELISA Chagatek, ELISA Alka/Adaltis, IHA Chagatest and IIF Imunocruzi. TESA-Blot was used as a confirmatory procedure in situations where blood samples showed conflicting results. From 4,482 samples collected in 2004 and 2005, the reactivity for anti-T. cruzi was 0.96% (43. Among those, 21 cases (0.47% were confirmed as positive - most of them were female, with low school level and averaging 47.2% years old. Interestingly, the blood donors are not aware of being contaminated and this fact makes it difficult for controlling the disease. Chagas' Disease was one of the main reasons for discarding blood bags through serological control in Southern Brazil. Sampling reactivity showed variation among the different techniques used for anti-T. cruzi research. In order to obtaining more secure and conclusive results, more than one diagnostic technique must be used.
Full Text Available Background: The magnitude of transfusion transmitted infections (TTI varies from country to country depending on TTI’s load in that particular population. The aim of the study was to study the trend and prevalence of sero-markers among blood donors in one of the tertiary health center in south India. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed from 2004 to 2010 in a blood bank of teaching hospital in South India. All blood donors who presented to blood bank during the study period were included. Data regarding demography and serological tests were collected on predesigned proforma. Results: There were a total of 6939 blood donors during study period. Out of these, 94(1.35% were positive for sero-markers for TTIs. The number of blood donors as well as sero-positivity increased from year 2004 to 2010. Conclusions: Trend and sero-prevalence of TTIs increased over period of time. Sero-positivity for TTIs decreased from year 2004 to 2010. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v2i3.6022 JPN 2012; 2(3: 203-206
Ashshi, Ahmed Mohamed
Transmission of dengue virus (DENV) through blood transfusion has been documented and hence screening for DENV during blood donation has been recently recommended by the American Association of Blood Banks and Centres of Disease Control and Prevention. DENV is endemic in the Western province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and serotypes 1, 2 and 3, but not 4, have been detected. However, little is known regarding the rates of DENV during blood donation in the kingdom. The aim of this study was therefore to measure the prevalence of dengue virus and its serotypes in eligible Saudi blood donors in the endemic Western region of KSA. This was a cross-sectional study and serum samples were collected from 910 eligible Saudi male blood donors. DENV IgM and IgG antibodies were measured serologically by ELISA while viral serotypes were detected by a single step IVD CE certified multiplex RT-PCR kit. The overall prevalence was 39 and 5.5% for IgG+ and IgM+, respectively. There were 12 (1.3%) with exclusively IgM+, 317 (34.8%) exclusively IgG+ and 38 (4.2%) with dual IgM+/IgG+ donors. The overall prevalence was 3.2% (n = 29) and 2.3% (n = 21) for primary and secondary infections. PCR was positive in 5.5% (n = 50) and, DENV-2 (n = 24; 48%) was the most frequent serotype and was significantly higher than DENV-1 (20%; P = 0.02) and DENV-3 (2%; P = 0.1 × 10 -5 ) but not DENV-4 (30%; P = 0.2). There was no significant difference between both DENV-4 and DENV-1 (P = 0.4). The combination of the PCR and serology findings showed that 22 (2.4%) and 28 (3.1%) donors had primary and secondary viremic infections, respectively. The detected rates of DENV by PCR suggest a potential high risk of viral transmission by blood transfusion. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report the detection of DENV-4 serotype in Saudi Arabia. More studies are required to measure the precise prevalence of DENV serotypes and their potential
Lima, Giselle F M C; Arroyo Sanchez, Maria C; Levi, José E; Fujimori, Mahyumi; Da Cruz Caramelo, Luiza; Sanchez, Arianni Rondelli; Ramos-Sanchez, Eduardo M; Inoue, Juliana; De Jesus Costa-Nascimento, Maria; Mendrone Junior, Alfredo; Di Santi, Silvia M
Transfusion-transmitted malaria due to asymptomatic Plasmodium infections is a challenge for blood banks. There is a lack of data on the prevalence of asymptomatic infected blood donors and the incidence of transfusion-transmitted malaria in low endemicity areas worldwide. We estimated the frequency of blood donors harbouring Plasmodium in an area in which asymptomatic infections have been reported. To estimate the frequency of blood donors harbouring Plasmodium we used microscopy and molecular tools. Serological tests were applied to measure the exposure of candidates to Plasmodium antigens. Venous blood was collected from 91 candidates attending the "Pró-Sangue" Blood Centre Foundation in São Paulo, who lived in the municipality of Juquitiba, São Paulo, Brazil, where sporadic autochthonous cases of malaria have been described. Blood samples were used for parasitological, molecular and serological studies. Among the 91 samples examined, rare Plasmodium forms were observed in two donors. Genus real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated Plasmodium amplification in three candidates and species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction identified P. malariae in two. ELISA-IgG was reactive in 42.9% of samples for P. vivax (Pv-MSP1 19 ) and in 6.6% for P. falciparum (Pf-Zw). ELISA-IgM was reactive in 2.2% of samples for P. vivax and in 4.4% for P. falciparum. An indirect immunofluorescence assay was reactive for P. malariae in 15.4% of cases. Reservoirs of Plasmodium represent a challenge for blood banks, since studies have shown that high levels of submicroscopic infections can occur in low transmission areas. The risk of transfusion-transmitted malaria presented here points to the need to conduct molecular investigations of candidate donors with any positive malarial antibody test.
Alencar, CS; Sabino, EC; Carvalho, SMF; Leao, S; Carneiro- Proietti, AB; Capuani, L; Oliveira, CL; Carrick, D; Birch, RJ; Gonçalez, TT; Keating, S; Swanson, P; Hackett, J; Busch, MP
Background There are few surveillance studies analyzing genotypes or primary (transmitted) drug resistance in HIV-infected blood donors in Brazil. The aim of this study was to characterize patterns of HIV genotypes and primary resistance among HIV seropositive donors identified at 4 geographically dispersed blood centers in Brazil. Methods All HIV-infected donors who returned for counseling at the 4 REDS-II Hemocenters in Brazil from January 2007–March 2011 were invited to participate in a case-control study involving a questionnaire on risk factors. Viral sequencing was also offered to positive cases to assign genotypes and to detect and characterize primary resistance to RT and protease inhibitors according to WHO guidelines. Results Of the 341 HIV seropositive donors who consented to participate in the risk-factor and genetics study, pol sequences were obtained for 331 (97%). Clade B was predominant (76%) followed by F (15%) and C (5%). Primary resistance was present in 36 (12.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 8.2,15.5) of the 303 individuals not exposed to antiretroviral therapy (ART), varying from 8.2% (95%CI 2,7,13.6) in Recife to 19.4% in São Paulo (95%CI 9.5,29.2); there were no significant correlations with other demographics or risk factors. Conclusion Although subtype B remains the most prevalent genotype in all 4 areas, increasing rates of subtype C in Sao Paulo and F in Recife were documented relative to earlier reports. Transmitted drug resistance was relatively frequent, particularly in the city of Sao Paulo which showed an increase compared to previous HIV seropositive donor data from 10 years ago. PMID:23507660
Full Text Available Background: Lack of awareness and community motivation, compounded with fragmented blood transfusion services in our country, Often leads to shortage of blood. Donor recruitment and retention are essential for ensuring adequate blood supply. However, adverse events (AEs in donors have a negative impact on donor return. Aims and Objectives: The present study was aimed to assess the frequency of AEs in whole blood donors and analyze the predisposing factors for AEs. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on allogeneic whole blood donors over a period of 14 months, i.e., from January 2002 to February 2003. A total of 37,896 donors were monitored for any AEs: 22587 (59.6% were voluntary donors (VD and 15,309 (40.4% were replacement donors (RD. Results: Overall reaction rate was 2.5% with vasovagal reactions constituting 63.5% and hematomas 35.0% of all reactions. Vasovagal reactions showed a significant association with young age, lower weight, first time donation status, female gender, and nature of blood donation camps. Amongst male donors, RDs had more reactions (P=0.03 than VDs. Majority of donors (85% with vasovagal reactions admitted to some fear or anxiety prior to donation. Hematoma formation occurred significantly more when less trained staff performed phlebotomy. Conclusion: Donor safety is an essential prerequisite to increase voluntary blood donation. AE analysis helps in identifying the blood donors at risk of donor reactions and adopting appropriate donor motivational strategies, pre-donation counseling, and care during and after donation.
Tiwari, Aseem K; Pandey, Prashant; Sharma, Jyoti; Shailja, Kumari; Dixit, Surbhi; Raina, Vimarsh
Since there is scarce data available on incidence and type of irregular antibodies in patients and donors in India, a study was undertaken to find the incidence of irregular antibodies in patients and irregular antibodies and a positive Direct Antiglobulin Test (DAT) in blood donors. Antibody screening was performed using commercial pooled "O" cells and three-cell panel for donors and patients respectively and an 11-cell panel for identification using Column Agglutination Technology (CAT) with Low-Ionic-Strength Saline-Indirect Antiglobulin Test (LISS-IAT) technique (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, Johnson & Johnson, USA). The cassettes used were Anti-human Globulin (AHG) type. DAT on donors was also performed using the AHG cassettes. Cumulative incidence of irregular antibodies amongst patients (n=32,560) and donors (n=31,367) were 0.12-0.009%, respectively. In patients, the commonest antibodies were from Rh system with anti-D being the most common antibody type (14/40; 35%) while in donors it was the MNS system with anti M (2/3) being the most common. Incidence of a positive DAT amongst the healthy blood donors was 0.04% (n=13/32,560). Incidence of irregular antibodies in patients at 0.12% was slightly lower than published reports and could be because of the fact that the patient population studied comprised largely of surgical patients many of whom have never received blood transfusion. This data could also be more representative since the number of patients studied was much higher as compared to the previous Indian studies (32,560 vs. 531-2026). The report on incidence of irregular antibodies and DAT (0.009-0.04%) in blood donors was first such attempt in India. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bäckman, Sari; Ångerman-Haasmaa, Susanne; Jousi, Milla; Siitonen, Sanna; Salmela, Katja
Blood transfusion through the intraosseous route is gaining popularity in emergency medicine. Pretransfusion peripheral blood (PB) samples are usually not available in these patients, leading to discrepancies in blood group typing and a possible delay in transferring to group-specific blood products. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of ABO and D typing and red blood cell alloantibody screening in marrow (BM) samples. Direct and reverse ABO typing, D typing, and a two-cell alloantibody screen were performed in EDTA-anticoagulated BM samples with standard manual column agglutination techniques. EDTA-anticoagulated PB samples were used as controls. The mean age of the study subjects (n = 71) was 47 years (range, 1-82 years). All ABO groups and both D+ and D- types were represented. In all subjects, concordant results were observed for all analyses in BM and PB samples. In 15 (21%) of the samples, a discrepancy of one reaction strength step (1+) was observed in at least one of the analyses (Cohen's weighted κ = 0.993); this did not affect interpretation of the results. Blood group typing and alloantibody screening are feasible in BM samples, providing proof-of-concept that intraosseous samples for blood group serologic analyses can be collected from emergency patients before intraosseous blood transfusion. This will enable a timely transfer to group-specific blood products and enable conservation of the valuable universal-donor blood products. © 2018 AABB.
Hammer, J H; Mynster, T; Reimert, C M
Leucocyte filtration has been suggested to improve transfusion products. We studied the effect of prestorage versus bedside leucofiltration on reduction of bioactive substances and leucocyte content in donor blood. Forty-five units of whole blood from healthy blood donors were studied...... leucofiltration, and analysed by ELISA and RIA methods for extracellular content of myeloperoxidase (MPO), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), histamine (HIS) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Leucocyte content was counted in all samples. In non-filtered blood extracellular MPO, ECP, HIS and PAI-1...... period of time. Prestorage and bedside leucofiltration on day 7 reduced the leucocyte content to less than 0.5x10(6)/L, whereas the median content in blood stored for 21 or 35 d was only reduced to 32.0 and 52.2x10(6)/L, respectively. Prestorage leucofiltration may thus be advantageous to bedside...
Rigas, Andreas Stribolt; Sørensen, Cecilie Juul; Pedersen, Ole Birger
. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In the Danish Blood Donor Study, we assessed the effect of blood donation frequency, physiologic factors, lifestyle and supplemental factors, and dietary factors on ferritin levels. We used multiple linear and logistic regression analyses stratified by sex and menopausal status......BACKGROUND: Dietary studies show a relationship between the intake of iron enhancers and inhibitors and iron stores in the general population. However, the impact of dietary factors on the iron stores of blood donors, whose iron status is affected by blood donations, is incompletely understood...... of blood donations in a 3-year period, and the time since last donation. Other significant factors included weight, age, intensity of menstruation, iron tablets, vitamin pills, and consumption of meat and wine. CONCLUSION: The study confirms iron deficiency as an important problem, especially among...
Allain, Jean-Pierre; Mihaljevic, Ivanka; Gonzalez-Fraile, Maria Isabel
BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) is identified in 1:1000 to 1:50,000 European blood donations. This study intended to determine the infectivity of blood products from OBI donors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Recipients of previous donations from OBI donors were investigated...... blood cells [RBCs], p transfusion-transmitted infection in 10 cases and excluded it in one case. CONCLUSION: Blood......-recipients pairs carried antibodies to HBV core (anti-HBc) as evidence of previous HBV infection. Subtracting 15% of anti-HBc population background, the adjusted transmission rate was 28%. Anti-HBc prevalence increased to 28 of 44 (63.8%) in unvaccinated recipients receiving anti-HBs-negative OBI blood products...
Hammer, J H; Mynster, T; Reimert, C M
were accumulated in a storage time-dependent manner, while prestorage leucofiltration prevented this accumulation. Leucofiltration after storage for 7, 21 or 35 d did not significantly reduce the accumulated bioactive substances, which were similar to levels in non-filtered blood stored for the same......Leucocyte filtration has been suggested to improve transfusion products. We studied the effect of prestorage versus bedside leucofiltration on reduction of bioactive substances and leucocyte content in donor blood. Forty-five units of whole blood from healthy blood donors were studied....... Of these units, 9 were stored under standard conditions for 35 d, 9 were leucofiltered after donation and then stored for 35 d, and 3x9 units were stored for 7, 21 and 35 d, respectively, before leucofiltration. Samples were collected from blood units immediately after donation, and before and after...
Hammer, J H; Mynster, T; Reimert, C M
leucofiltration, and analysed by ELISA and RIA methods for extracellular content of myeloperoxidase (MPO), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), histamine (HIS) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Leucocyte content was counted in all samples. In non-filtered blood extracellular MPO, ECP, HIS and PAI-1...... were accumulated in a storage time-dependent manner, while prestorage leucofiltration prevented this accumulation. Leucofiltration after storage for 7, 21 or 35 d did not significantly reduce the accumulated bioactive substances, which were similar to levels in non-filtered blood stored for the same......Leucocyte filtration has been suggested to improve transfusion products. We studied the effect of prestorage versus bedside leucofiltration on reduction of bioactive substances and leucocyte content in donor blood. Forty-five units of whole blood from healthy blood donors were studied...
Ferguson, Eamonn; Atsma, Femke; de Kort, Wim; Veldhuizen, Ingrid
Using constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior and theories of altruism, this article explores how multiple motivations and beliefs for blood donation are clustered and change across the donor career. In so doing important distinctions, for blood donation, between impure altruism, pure altruism, and warm glow are explored. Measures of intentions, cognitive and affective attitudes, role merger, pure altruism, trust, self-efficacy, subjective and moral norms, and habit formation were assessed in a sample of 12,580 whole blood donors. Analyses showed that a distinction between first-time, novice (one to four donations), and experienced donors (five or more donations) is justified. Principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analytic Multiple-Indicator Multiple-Causal models were used to compare models across these groups. A cognition-behavior (CB) factor, including intentions, was common to all groups. First-time and novice donors were marked by a newly identified motivational factor: "reluctant altruism" (i.e., the motivation to donate because of a lack of trust in others). First-time donors exhibited an impure altruism factor whereas for experienced donors warm glow and pure altruism factors were observed. For first-time donors impure altruism and reluctant altruism were both associated with the CB factor in females and impure altruism only in males. For both sexes reluctant altruism was associated of the CB factor in novice donors and warm glow and pure altruism for experienced donors. New avenues for intervention are suggested by the emergence of reluctant altruism for novice donors and warm glow for experienced donors. The importance of distinguishing aspects of altruism is highlighted. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.
van Hoeven, Loan R; Hooftman, Babette H; Janssen, Mart P; de Bruijne, Martine C; de Vooght, Karen M K; Kemper, Peter; Koopman, Maria M W
Introduction Blood transfusion has health-related, economical and safety implications. In order to optimise the transfusion chain, comprehensive research data are needed. The Dutch Transfusion Data warehouse (DTD) project aims to establish a data warehouse where data from donors and transfusion recipients are linked. This paper describes the design of the data warehouse, challenges and illustrative applications. Study design and methods Quantitative data on blood donors (eg, age, blood group, antibodies) and products (type of product, processing, storage time) are obtained from the national blood bank. These are linked to data on the transfusion recipients (eg, transfusions administered, patient diagnosis, surgical procedures, laboratory parameters), which are extracted from hospital electronic health records. Applications Expected scientific contributions are illustrated for 4 applications: determine risk factors, predict blood use, benchmark blood use and optimise process efficiency. For each application, examples of research questions are given and analyses planned. Conclusions The DTD project aims to build a national, continuously updated transfusion data warehouse. These data have a wide range of applications, on the donor/production side, recipient studies on blood usage and benchmarking and donor–recipient studies, which ultimately can contribute to the efficiency and safety of blood transfusion. PMID:27491665
Full Text Available The national blood transfusion policies have been changed significantly in recent years in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV in blood donors at the Red Crescent Center in Istanbul and to evaluate the effect of changes in the national blood transfusion policies on the prevalence of these infections. The screening results of 72695 blood donations at the Red Crescent Center in Istanbul between January and December 2007 were evaluated retrospectively. HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV-1/2 were screened by microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA method. Samples found to be positive for anti-HIV 1/2 and anti-HCV were confirmed by Inno-Lia HCV Ab III and Inno-Lia HIV I/II Score, respectively. The seropositivity rates for HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV-1/2 were determined as 1.76%, 0.07%, and 0.008%, respectively. Compared to the previously published data from Red Crescent Centers in Turkey, it was found that HBV and HCV seroprevalances decreased and HIV seroprevalance increased in recent years. In conclusion, we believe that the drop in HBV and HCV prevalence rates are likely multifactorial and may have resulted from more diligent donor questioning upon screening, a higher level of public awareness on viral hepatitis as well as the expansion of HBV vaccination coverage in Turkey. Another factor to contribute to the decreased prevalence of HCV stems from the use of more sensitive confirmation testing on all reactive results, thereby eliminating a fair amount of false positive cases. Despite similar transmission routes, the increase in HIV prevalence in contrast to HBV and HCV may be linked to the increase in AIDS cases in Turkey in recent years.
Background: The Rh antigens have been reported to cause acute and delayed haemolytic transfusion reactions apart from the dreadful Haemolytic Disease of the Newborn. The aim of this study was determine the prevalence of Rh phenotypes that would serve as a baseline data towards provision of safe blood transfusion ...
Miskulin, Maja; Puntaric, Dinko; Bozikov, Jadranka; Miskulin, Ivan; Ruzman, Natasa
The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of blood donors positive for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), to identify the patterns of sexual risk behavior responsible for HSV-2 positivity and to assess the reliability of HSV-2 positivity as a marker of sexual risk behavior in the study population. This cross-sectional study included 423 blood donors of both sexes from eastern Croatia. Their blood samples were tested by ELISA IgG test kit for HSV-2 IgG and Western blot. Data on sexual risk behavior were collected by use of an anonymous questionnaire. Western blot testing showed HSV-2 IgG antibodies in 14 of 423 (3.3%) donor blood samples. The most common patterns of sexual risk behavior potentially associated with test positivity were irregular condom use during sexual intercourse with new partners (294/423; 69.5%) and > or = 5 sexual partners during lifetime (213/423; 50.4%). The population of blood donors from eastern Croatia included subgroups of subjects characterized by sexual risk behavior. Study results pointed to a relationship between various forms of sexual risk behavior and HSV-2 positivity, which could therefore serve as a reliable marker of sexual risk behavior in the study population.
Full Text Available Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV has been detected in 80% of Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC. In the host, the MCPyV reservoir remains elusive. MCPyV DNA sequences were revealed in blood donor buffy coats. In this study, MCPyV DNA sequences were investigated in the sera (n = 190 of healthy blood donors. Two MCPyV DNA sequences, coding for the viral oncoprotein large T antigen (LT, were investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods and DNA sequencing. Circulating MCPyV sequences were detected in sera with a prevalence of 2.6% (5/190, at low-DNA viral load, which is in the range of 1–4 and 1–5 copies/μl by real-time PCR and droplet digital PCR, respectively. DNA sequencing carried out in the five MCPyV-positive samples indicated that the two MCPyV LT sequences which were analyzed belong to the MKL-1 strain. Circulating MCPyV LT sequences are present in blood donor sera. MCPyV-positive samples from blood donors could represent a potential vehicle for MCPyV infection in receivers, whereas an increase in viral load may occur with multiple blood transfusions. In certain patient conditions, such as immune-depression/suppression, additional disease or old age, transfusion of MCPyV-positive samples could be an additional risk factor for MCC onset.
Full Text Available Introduction: Young people, who tend to be healthy, idealistic, and motivated, are an excellent pool of potential voluntary unpaid blood donors. Recruiting and retaining young blood donors improves the long term safety and sufficiency of a country′s blood supply. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV should play an important role in prevention of disease transmission. Materials and Methods: This study was a questionnaire based survey, conducted to explore the levels of knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about HIV in young college student blood donors. Results: The results showed that the proportion of participants with comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission was lesser than expected. Increase in education level and male gender was found to be significantly associated with high HIV-related knowledge. The responses on the different aspects of HIV-related attitude were also varied and there is still stigma associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS even in the educated groups. Discussion: There was a spectrum of myths and misperceptions emphasizing the need of education that recognizes the social context of attitude towards HIV. Results from this study may contribute to the development of appropriate educational and training material for this group of donors which in turn, may assist in achieving the elusive goal of safe blood supply in future.
Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Chen, Virginia; Sidhu, Keerat; Lin, David; Ng, Raymond T; Balshaw, Robert; Cohen-Freue, Gabriela V; Ignaszewski, Andrew; Imai, Carol; Kaan, Annemarie; Tebbutt, Scott J; Wilson-McManus, Janet E; McMaster, Robert W; Keown, Paul A; McManus, Bruce M
Acute rejection in cardiac transplant patients remains a contributory factor to limited survival of implanted hearts. Currently, there are no biomarkers in clinical use that can predict, at the time of transplantation, the likelihood of post-transplant acute cellular rejection. Such a development would be of great value in personalizing immunosuppressive treatment. Recipient age, donor age, cold ischemic time, warm ischemic time, panel-reactive antibody, gender mismatch, blood type mismatch and human leukocyte antigens (HLA-A, -B and -DR) mismatch between recipients and donors were tested in 53 heart transplant patients for their power to predict post-transplant acute cellular rejection. Donor transplant biopsy and recipient pre-transplant blood were also examined for the presence of genomic biomarkers in 7 rejection and 11 non-rejection patients, using non-targeted data mining techniques. The biomarker based on the 8 clinical variables had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.53. The pre-transplant recipient blood gene-based panel did not yield better performance, but the donor heart tissue gene-based panel had an AUC = 0.78. A combination of 25 probe sets from the transplant donor biopsy and 18 probe sets from the pre-transplant recipient whole blood had an AUC = 0.90. Biologic pathways implicated include VEGF- and EGFR-signaling, and MAPK. Based on this study, the best predictive biomarker panel contains genes from recipient whole blood and donor myocardial tissue. This panel provides clinically relevant prediction power and, if validated, may personalize immunosuppressive treatment and rejection monitoring. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ironside James W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-clinical variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD infection and reports of vCJD transmission through blood transfusion emphasise the need for blood screening assays to ensure the safety of blood and transplanted tissues. Most assays aim to detect abnormal prion protein (PrPSc, although achieving required sensitivity is a challenge. Methods We have used innovative Atomic Dielectric Resonance Spectroscopy (ADRS, which determines dielectric properties of materials which are established by reflectivity and penetration of radio/micro waves, to analyse blood samples from patients and controls to identify characteristic ADR signatures unique to blood from vCJD and to sCJD patients. Initial sets of blood samples from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases and normal healthy adults (blood donors were screened as training samples to determine group-specific ADR characteristics, and provided a basis for classification of blinded sets of samples. Results Blood sample groups from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases and normal healthy adults (blood donors screened by ADRS were classified with 100% specificity and sensitivity, discriminating these by a co-variance expert analysis system. Conclusion ADRS appears capable of recognising and discriminating serum samples from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases, and normal healthy adults, and might be developed to provide a system for primary screening or confirmatory assay complementary to other screening systems.
Fagge, Timothy J; Barclay, G Robin; Stove, G Colin; Stove, Gordon; Robinson, Michael J; Head, Mark W; Ironside, James W; Turner, Marc L
Background Sub-clinical variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) infection and reports of vCJD transmission through blood transfusion emphasise the need for blood screening assays to ensure the safety of blood and transplanted tissues. Most assays aim to detect abnormal prion protein (PrPSc), although achieving required sensitivity is a challenge. Methods We have used innovative Atomic Dielectric Resonance Spectroscopy (ADRS), which determines dielectric properties of materials which are established by reflectivity and penetration of radio/micro waves, to analyse blood samples from patients and controls to identify characteristic ADR signatures unique to blood from vCJD and to sCJD patients. Initial sets of blood samples from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases and normal healthy adults (blood donors) were screened as training samples to determine group-specific ADR characteristics, and provided a basis for classification of blinded sets of samples. Results Blood sample groups from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases and normal healthy adults (blood donors) screened by ADRS were classified with 100% specificity and sensitivity, discriminating these by a co-variance expert analysis system. Conclusion ADRS appears capable of recognising and discriminating serum samples from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases, and normal healthy adults, and might be developed to provide a system for primary screening or confirmatory assay complementary to other screening systems. PMID:17760958
Magnussen, Karin; Bork, Nanna; Asmussen, Lisa
Iron deficiency leading to low hemoglobin concentration (cHb) is a common problem for blood donors as well as for blood banks. A standardized protocol offering iron supplementation based on P-ferritin determination may help to reduce the problem and retain donors. This was a prospective study where 879 blood donors, presenting with cHb at or below the limit of acceptance for donation, were included. The predonation cHb result was read after donation. The donors received 50 iron tablets (JernC or Ferrochel, 100 or 25 mg elemental iron, respectively), and samples for P-ferritin, mean corpuscular volume, and control of cHb were secured. Based on a P-ferritin level of less than 60 microg per L, 20 iron tablets were offered after all following donations. Mean cHb was 7.6 mmol per L (122 g/L) and 8.2 mmol per L (132 g/L) in women and men, respectively. In 80 percent of the women and 48 percent of the men, iron stores were low (P-ferritin protocol offering iron supplementation and simple oral and written advice based on P-ferritin measurements is effective in normalizing cHb and retaining donors presenting with cHb at or below the limit of acceptance for donation.
Recovery of Unrelated Donors of Peripheral Blood Stem Cells versus Recovery of Unrelated Donors of Bone Marrow: A Prespecified Analysis from the Phase III Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network Protocol 0201.
Burns, Linda J; Logan, Brent R; Chitphakdithai, Pintip; Miller, John P; Drexler, Rebecca; Spellman, Stephen; Switzer, Galen E; Wingard, John R; Anasetti, Claudio; Confer, Dennis L
We report a comparison of time to recovery, side effects, and change in blood counts from baseline to after donation from unrelated donors who participated in the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network phase III randomized, multicenter trial (0201) in which donor-recipient pairs were randomized to either peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) or bone marrow (BM) donation. Of the entire cohort, 262 donated PBSC and 264 donated BM; 372 (71%) donors were from domestic and 154 (29%) were from international centers (145 German and 9 Canadian). PBSC donors recovered in less time, with a median time to recovery of 1 week compared with 2.3 weeks for BM donors. The number of donors reporting full recovery was significantly greater for donors of PBSC than of BM at 1, 2, and 3 weeks and 3 months after donation. Multivariate analysis showed that PBSC donors were more likely to recover at any time after donation compared with BM donors (hazard ratio, 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.73 to 2.50; P hemoglobin. This analysis provided an enhanced understanding of donor events as product donated was independent of physician bias or donor preference. Copyright © 2016 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Seropositivity rates of HBsAg, anti-HCV Ab, anti-HIV Ab and anti-treponemal Ab were 0.63%, 0.20%, 0.19% and 0.02%, respectively. Even with the implementation of effective preventive strategies, there is significant risk of transmission of infectious agents in India. Efforts to ensure an adequate and safe blood supply should ...
Nkrumah, B; Owusu, M; Frempong, H O; Averu, P
To investigate the prevalence of Hepatitis B and C infections and co-infections among blood donors in a rural community of Ghana. A retrospective study. Samples of blood donated between January 2007 and December 2008 were screen for Hepatitis B and C viruses at the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital. The prevalence of Hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection was highest in females 21.4% (95% CI: 11.6-34.4) in 2006 than males in the same year 13.2% (95% CI: 10.8-15.9). Hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection was highest among males at 11.6% (95% CI: 9.5-13.8) in 2007. HBV and HCV co-infection was higher in males 2.6% (95% CI: 1.6-3.8) than females 1.3% (95% CI: 0-7.0) in 2007. The overall prevalence of HBV and HCV was 13.8% (95% CI: 11.4-16.4) and 9.4% (95% CI: 7.4-11.6) respectively in 2006. The rate of co-infection of HBV and HCV however increased from 1.6% (95% CI: 0.8-2.7) in 2006 to 2.2% (95% CI: 1.3-3.2) in 2008 in males and from 0% (95% CI: 0-6.4) in 2006 to 1.2% (95% CI: 0-6.5) in 2008 in females. The single infections of HBV and HCV reduced but co-infection of these transfusion transmitted infections (TTI) increased. Measures such as more sensitive techniques and education must be employed in these areas.
Resultados de un programa de control de calidad externo del tamizaje serológico de anticuerpos contra Trypanosoma cruzi en donantes de sangre de Brasil The results of an external quality control program for serological screening for antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi in blood donors in Brazil
panel of sera was sent to each participating institution. Each panel consisted of 24 serum samples with different reactivities for the markers for which the serological screening of blood donors is obligatory in Brazil; among the 24 samples were some negative ones. The participants had 60 days to complete their testing and send in their results for evaluation. Later, each participant received an answer key for the sera panel, to use in self-evaluation. RESULTS: The three tests that the participants used most frequently were enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, indirect hemagglutination (IHA, and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF. Of these three, the ELISA was used most often, ranging from 92% to 98% of the laboratories for the eight programs. The screening strategy that was most often used was a combination of an ELISA test and an IHA test (ranging from 58% to 83% of the laboratories for the eight programs. In the various programs, the large majority of participating laboratories (range, 83.6%-98.1% obtained accurate results without any false negative results. Of the 5 406 tests carried out during the eight programs using positive anti-T. cruzi sera samples, 85 (1.6% were reported as negative in 58 laboratories. However, only 14 of those laboratories were unable to identify one or more positive samples after using all their screening tests. There were no significant differences found between the blood banks in the eight programs (P = 0.5936. No association was found between false negative results and any particular sample or any specific diagnostic kit. IHA testing had the highest proportion of false negatives, ranging from 0.7% to 7.9% for the eight programs. Of 32 855 tests performed during the eight programs using negative anti-T. cruzi sera, 106 (0.32% were reported as false positives. The percentage of participating laboratories that had one false positive result per program varied from 1% to 16%, and between 0% and 4% of the labs per program had more than one
Bhatti, Farhat Abbas; Ullah, Zia; Salamat, Nuzhat; Ayub, Muhammad; Ghani, Ejaz
The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBc) and the impact of its testing along with other markers of hepatitis B, hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA, hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV), and syphilis in Pakistani blood donors. The study design was cross-sectional. A total of 966 donors were selected randomly for testing of anti-HBc and HBV markers, including HBV DNA, of 94,177 blood donors who were routinely screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HCV, human immunodeficiency virus antibody (anti-HIV), Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA), and malarial parasites from 2003 to October 2005. The seroprevalence of various infectious markers was as follows: HBsAg, 2.16 percent; anti-HCV, 4.16 percent; anti-HIV, 0.004 percent; TPHA, 0.75 percent; and malaria, 0.002 percent. Anti-HBc prevalence in HBsAg-negative, HBV DNA-negative blood donors was 167 of 966 (17.28%), with 76 percent demonstrating anti-HBs positivity. Younger donors with mean age of 25 years were exposed to HBV to a lesser extent compared to those with a mean age of 29 years. Anti-HBc positivity was significantly higher in anti-HCV-reactive individuals. HBV DNA was detectable in 5 blood donors who were HBsAg-, anti-HBc-positive and were categorized as having occult HBV infection. The study shows that more than 17 percent of healthy, young blood donors in Pakistan are already exposed to HBV, with two-thirds showing anti-HBs levels of greater than 100 mIU per mL. One in 200 blood donors who are HBsAg-, anti-HBc-positive, however, have occult HBV infection, with likelihood of transmission of hepatitis B in recipients of blood components derived from them. HBsAg-negative individuals who are anti-HBc-negative and those who are anti-HBc-positive, anti-HBs-positive, and HBV DNA-negative should be selected as regular blood donors to minimize transmission due to occult hepatitis B infection.
Evans, R; Ferguson, E
While blood donation is traditionally described as a behaviour motivated by pure altruism, the assessment of altruism in the blood donation literature has not been theoretically informed. Drawing on theories of altruism from psychology, economics and evolutionary biology, it is argued that a theoretically derived psychometric assessment of altruism is needed. Such a measure is developed in this study that can be used to help inform both our understanding of the altruistic motives of blood donors and recruitment intervention strategies. A cross-sectional survey (N = 414), with a 1-month behavioural follow-up (time 2, N = 77), was designed to assess theoretically derived constructs from psychological, economic and evolutionary biological theories of altruism. Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) variables and co-operation were also assessed at time 1 and a measure of behavioural co-operation at time 2. Five theoretical dimensions (impure altruism, kinship, self-regarding motives, reluctant altruism and egalitarian warm glow) of altruism were identified through factor analyses. These five altruistic motives differentiated blood donors from non-donors (donors scored higher on impure altruism and reluctant altruism), showed incremental validity over TPB constructs to predict donor intention and predicted future co-operative behaviour. These findings show that altruism in the context of blood donation is multifaceted and complex and, does not reflect pure altruism. This has implication for recruitment campaigns that focus solely on pure altruism. © 2013 The Authors. Vox Sanguinis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. on behalf of International Society of Blood Transfusion.
Felipe Augusto Constantino Seabra da Cruz
Full Text Available The transfusion of blood components is common in a veterinary clinic; however, the safety of this therapeutic measure cannot always be guaranteed. Studies show a high risk of haemoparasite transmission during blood transfusion in canines. These parasites include Leishmania chagasi, Anaplasma platys, and Ehrlichia canis, which are endemic to the city of Cuiabá. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of L. chagasi, Trypanosoma cruzi, Babesia (canis vogeli, A. platys, and E. canis in canine blood donor candidates, and identify possible factors associated with the infection of these agents. Sixty-six canines were evaluated using serologic and molecular tests, for the presence of the Leishmania species. While one canine sample showed a positive result for L. chagasi with indirect fluorescent antibody test, with titer of 1:40, and seven canine samples were positive using DPP, all other samples were negative when using PCR and ELISA. All canines were negative for T. cruzi when using PCR. The B. (c. vogeli infection was identified in one canine and A. platys was identified in six canines. E. canis was identified in 17 canines, with a prevalence of 25.7%. There were no significant factors associated with the infection of the pathogens investigated. Given the observation of infection, even in the absence of clinical symptoms, emphasis must be placed on the need for the use of more sensitive and specific diagnostic methods for the screening of donor canines.
A. V. Chechetkin
Full Text Available The aim of organizational aspects of preventing the transmission of hepatitis C virus with donor blood and its components.Materials and methods. An activity of the blood service establishments in Russia for the prevention of HCV infection through transfusion of blood and its components on the basis of the analysis of sectoral statistical surveys was studied.Results. The frequency of detection of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in blood donors and its components during 2009–2013 decreased by more than 1,5 times. The percentage of donors who have identified markers of hepatitis C virus was significantly different in different regions: from 0,51% to 1,36%. The activity of the blood service implemented method of plasma quarantine resulting annually rejected from 0,32% to 0,23% as a result of the identified markers of HCV. Pathogen inactivated plasma volume increased in 3 times, the platelet concentrate in 3,2 times.Conclusion. To ensure the safety of donated blood and its components in the blood service effectively the modern technology use for to prevention transmission of the HCV: quarantine of plasma, donor selection and development, inactivation of pathogens. The degree of implementation in practice of nonpaid voluntary blood transfusions significantly increased and is characterized by regional features in recent years .
Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Dengue Virus Transmission by Blood Stem Cell Donor after Travel to Sri Lanka; Germany, 2013. Created: 9/22/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 10/8/2014.
Zaaijer, H. L.; Torres, P.; Ontañón, A.; Ponte, L. González; Koppelman, M. H. G. M.; Lelie, P. N.; Hemert, F. J. van; Boot, H. J.
Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is characterized by the presence of HBV DNA while the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) remains undetectable. The HBV genomes in five asymptomatic blood donors with occult HBV infection and low viremia ( <10 to 1,000 HBV DNA copies/mL, genotype D) were studied. An
Vairo, Francesco; Nicastri, Emanuele; Yussuf, Salma Masauni; Cannas, Angela; Meschi, Silvia; Mahmoud, Mwanakheir A A; Mohamed, Azza H; Maiko, Paul Mohamed; De Nardo, Pasquale; Bevilacqua, Nazario; Castilletti, Concetta; Di Caro, Antonino; Racalbuto, Vincenzo; Ippolito, Giuseppe
We conducted a seroprevalence survey among 500 healthy adult donors at Zanzibar National Blood Transfusion Services. Dengue virus IgG seroprevalence was 50.6% and independently associated with age and urban residence. These data will aid in building a surveillance, preparedness, and response plan for dengue virus infections in the Zanzibar Archipelago.
The frequency of human herepes virus type 8 among blood donors and postkidney transplant patients in two specialized centers in Khartoum. ... Abstract. Background: Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is an opportunistic virus proved to be the cause of AIDS associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Based on the emergence of HIV and ...
van Hoeven, Loan R; Hooftman, Babette H; Janssen, Mart P; de Bruijne, Martine C; de Vooght, Karen M K; Kemper, Peter; Koopman, Maria M W
INTRODUCTION: Blood transfusion has health-related, economical and safety implications. In order to optimise the transfusion chain, comprehensive research data are needed. The Dutch Transfusion Data warehouse (DTD) project aims to establish a data warehouse where data from donors and transfusion
Merz, E.-M.; Zijlstra, B. J. H.; de Kort, W. L. A. M.
Background and ObjectivesShow behaviour after invitation to donate varies considerably across donors. More insight into this variation is important for blood banks in achieving stable stocks. This study examined individual factors determining intended show behaviour. Most importantly, however, this
Alvarez-Muñoz, M T; Bustamante-Calvillo, M E; Guiscafré-Gallardo, J P; Muñoz, O
41 volunteer blood donors and his relatives were studied in order to know about the prevalence of hepatitis B and D virus infections in selected groups. Frequency of HBsAg+ carriers was 0.34 per cent in the Centro Nacional de la Transfusión Sanguínea and 0.15 per cent in the Banco Central de Sangre, IMSS. Most of the HBsAg+ blood donors were 21 to 40 years old (87.8%); 21.9 per cent had IgM antibodies against HBc and just 2.4 per cent were HBeAg positive. Forty one (26.9%) of 152 relatives had one or more of the HBV markers, 3.9 per cent were HBsAg carriers and 1.3 per cent were HBeAg positive. In the infected relatives group 36.6 per cent were ancestory or brothers and just 14.6 per cent of wives were infected. None of the HBsAg+ blood donors or his relatives had antibodies against delta agent. These results support the fact that the frequency of asymptomatic carriers of HBsAg in the volunteer blood donors group is similar to he frequency in the general population and identifies the group of relatives as those with the highest risk to acquire HBV infection.
Christensen, Peer B; Engle, Ronald E; Hjort, Charlotte
BACKGROUND: Antibody to hepatitis E virus (anti-HEV) is prevalent in Western countries, where clinical hepatitis E is rarely reported. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-HEV among Danish blood donors and Danish farmers. In addition, we compared the prevalence among 2 sets...... of serum samples obtained from blood donors 20 years apart. METHODS: Samples from 291 Danish farmers and 169 blood donors that were collected in 1983 and samples from 461 blood donors that were collected in 2003 were tested for anti-HEV. Relevant information on HEV exposure was collected by self......-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: Anti-HEV testing was performed on samples after 20 years of storage at -20 degrees C. The prevalence of anti-HEV was 50.4% among farmers and 32.9% among donors in 1983 and 20.6% among donors in 2003 (P
Ashish C. Shrestha
Full Text Available Abstract Background As one of the causative agents of viral hepatitis, hepatitis E virus (HEV has gained public health attention globally. HEV epidemics occur in developing countries, associated with faecal contamination of water and poor sanitation. In industrialised nations, HEV infections are associated with travel to countries endemic for HEV, however, autochthonous infections, mainly through zoonotic transmission, are increasingly being reported. HEV can also be transmitted by blood transfusion. Nepal has experienced a number of HEV outbreaks, and recent earthquakes resulted in predictions raising the risk of an HEV outbreak to very high. This study aimed to measure HEV exposure in Nepalese blood donors after large earthquakes. Methods Samples (n = 1,845 were collected from blood donors from Kathmandu, Chitwan, Bhaktapur and Kavre. Demographic details, including age and sex along with possible risk factors associated with HEV exposure were collected via a study-specific questionnaire. Samples were tested for HEV IgM, IgG and antigen. The proportion of donors positive for HEV IgM or IgG was calculated overall, and for each of the variables studied. Chi square and regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with HEV exposure. Results Of the donors residing in earthquake affected regions (Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Kavre, 3.2% (54/1,686; 95% CI 2.7–4.0% were HEV IgM positive and two donors were positive for HEV antigen. Overall, 41.9% (773/1,845; 95% CI 39.7–44.2% of donors were HEV IgG positive, with regional variation observed. Higher HEV IgG and IgM prevalence was observed in donors who reported eating pork, likely an indicator of zoonotic transmission. Previous exposure to HEV in Nepalese blood donors is relatively high. Conclusion Detection of recent markers of HEV infection in healthy donors suggests recent asymptomatic HEV infection and therefore transfusion-transmission in vulnerable patients is a risk in
van Wijk, Marja J.; Maas, D. Willemijn; Renders, Nicole H. M.; Hermans, Mirjam H. A.; Zaaijer, Hans L.; Hogema, Boris M.
After the largest outbreaks of Q fever ever recorded in history occurred in the Netherlands, concern arose that Coxiella may be transmitted via donated tissues of latent or chronically infected donors. The Dutch Health Council recently advised to screen tissue donors, donating high risk tissues, for
Vasan, Senthil K; Rostgaard, Klaus; Majeed, Ammar; Ullum, Henrik; Titlestad, Kjell-Einar; Pedersen, Ole B V; Erikstrup, Christian; Nielsen, Kaspar Rene; Melbye, Mads; Nyrén, Olof; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Edgren, Gustaf
ABO blood groups have been shown to be associated with increased risks of venous thromboembolic and arterial disease. However, the reported magnitude of this association is inconsistent and is based on evidence from small-scale studies. We used the SCANDAT2 (Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions) database of blood donors linked with other nationwide health data registers to investigate the association between ABO blood groups and the incidence of first and recurrent venous thromboembolic and arterial events. Blood donors in Denmark and Sweden between 1987 and 2012 were followed up for diagnosis of thromboembolism and arterial events. Poisson regression models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios as measures of relative risk. A total of 9170 venous and 24 653 arterial events occurred in 1 112 072 individuals during 13.6 million person-years of follow-up. Compared with blood group O, non-O blood groups were associated with higher incidence of both venous and arterial thromboembolic events. The highest rate ratios were observed for pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism (incidence rate ratio, 2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.77-2.79), deep vein thrombosis (incidence rate ratio, 1.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.80-2.05), and pulmonary embolism (incidence rate ratio, 1.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.71-1.88). In this healthy population of blood donors, non-O blood groups explain >30% of venous thromboembolic events. Although ABO blood groups may potentially be used with available prediction systems for identifying at-risk individuals, its clinical utility requires further comparison with other risk markers. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Gundrajukuppam, Deepthi Krishna; Vijaya, Sreedhar Babu Kinnera; Rajendran, Arun; Sarella, Jothibai Dorairaj
Rhesus (Rh) antigen was discovered in 1940 by Karl Landsteiner and Wiener. Due to its immunogenicity along with A, B antigens, Rh D antigen testing was made mandatory in pre-transfusion testing. Presently there are more than 50 antigens in Rh blood group system but major ones are D, C, E, c, and e. Very few reports are available regarding their prevalence in India and no reports are available from Andhra Pradesh. To study the prevalence of principal Rh blood group antigens like D, C, E, c & e in the voluntary blood donors attending our blood bank. A prospective cross-sectional non interventional study was carried out on 1000 healthy blood donors from August 2013 to July 2014 at our blood bank. Donors were grouped and typed for ABO and Rh major antigens using monoclonal blood grouping reagents as per the manufacturer's instructions. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 16. Comparison of categorical data between antigen positive and negative individuals was done using Chi-square test. Descriptive statistics for the categorical variables were performed by computing the frequencies (percentages) in each category. Incidence was given in proportion with 95% confidence interval. A total of 1000 blood samples from donors were phenotyped. Among Rh antigens, e was the most common antigen (98.4%), followed by D-94.1%, C-88%, c-54.9% and E-18.8% with DCe/DCe (R1R1) (43.4%) being the most common phenotype and the least common phenotype is r'r' (0.1%). Database for antigen frequency to at least Rh blood group system in local donors helps to provide antigen negative blood to patients with multiple alloantibodies, minimize alloimmunization rate, and thereby improve blood safety.
Cristina Lika Uezima
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In preterm newborn infants transfused with erythrocytes stored up to 28 days, to compare the reduction of blood donor exposure in two groups of infants classified according to birth weight. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with preterm infants with birth weight <1000g (Group 1 and 1000-1499g (Group 2, born between April, 2008 and December, 2009. Neonates submitted to exchange transfusions, emergency erythrocyte transfusion, or those who died in the first 24 hours of life were excluded. Transfusions were indicated according to the local guideline using pediatric transfusion satellite bags. Demographic and clinical data, besides number of transfusions and donors were assessed. . Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors associated with multiple transfusions. RESULTS: 30 and 48 neonates were included in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. The percentage of newborns with more than one erythrocyte transfusion (90 versus 11%, the median number of transfusions (3 versus 1 and the median of blood donors (2 versus 1 were higher in Group 1 (p<0.001, compared to Group 2. Among those with multiple transfusions, 14 (82% and one (50% presented 50% reduction in the number of blood donors, respectively in Groups 1 and 2. Factors associated with multiple transfusions were: birth weight <1000g (OR 11.91; 95%CI 2.14-66.27 and presence of arterial umbilical catheter (OR 8.59; 95%CI 1.94-38.13, adjusted for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of pediatrics satellites bags on blood donor reduction was higher in preterm infants with birth weight <1000g.
Full Text Available The Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS program was established in the United States in 1989 with the purpose of increasing blood transfusion safety in the context of the HIV/AIDS and human T-lymphotropic virus epidemics. REDS and its successor, REDS-II were at first conducted in the US, then expanded in 2006 to include international partnerships with Brazil and China. In 2011, a third wave of REDS renamed the Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS-III was launched. This seven-year research program focuses on both blood banking and transfusion medicine research in the United States of America, Brazil, China, and South Africa. The main goal of the international programs is to reduce and prevent the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other known and emerging infectious agents through transfusion, and to address research questions aimed at understanding global issues related to the availability of safe blood. This article describes the contribution of REDS-II to transfusion safety in Brazil. Articles published from 2010 to 2013 are summarized, including database analyses to characterize blood donors, deferral rates, and prevalence, incidence and residual risk of the main blood-borne infections. Specific studies were developed to understand donor motivation, the impact of the deferral questions, risk factors and molecular surveillance among HIV-positive donors, and the natural history of Chagas disease. The purpose of this review is to disseminate the acquired knowledge and briefly summarize the findings of the REDS-II studies conducted in Brazil as well as to introduce the scope of the REDS-III program that is now in progress and will continue through 2018.
Reeve-Johnson, Mia K; Rand, Jacquie S; Vankan, Dianne; Anderson, Stephen T; Marshall, Rhett; Morton, John M
Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the reference interval for screening blood glucose in senior cats, to apply this to a population of obese senior cats, to compare screening and fasting blood glucose, to assess whether screening blood glucose is predicted by breed, body weight, body condition score (BCS), behaviour score, fasting blood glucose and/or recent carbohydrate intake and to assess its robustness to changes in methodology. Methods The study included a total of 120 clinically healthy client-owned cats aged 8 years and older of varying breeds and BCSs. Blood glucose was measured at the beginning of the consultation from an ear/paw sample using a portable glucose meter calibrated for cats, and again after physical examination from a jugular sample. Fasting blood glucose was measured after overnight hospitalisation and fasting for 18-24 h. Results The reference interval upper limit for screening blood glucose was 189 mg/dl (10.5 mmol/l). Mean screening blood glucose was greater than mean fasting glucose. Breed, body weight, BCS, behaviour score, fasting blood glucose concentration and amount of carbohydrate consumed 2-24 h before sampling collectively explained only a small proportion of the variability in screening blood glucose. Conclusions and relevance Screening blood glucose measurement represents a simple test, and cats with values from 117-189 mg/dl (6.5-10.5 mmol/l) should be retested several hours later. Cats with initial screening blood glucose >189 mg/dl (10.5 mmol/l), or a second screening blood glucose >116 mg/dl (6.4 mmol/l) several hours after the first, should have fasting glucose and glucose tolerance measured after overnight hospitalisation.
Alharbi, Abdullah; Hassan, Salwa Bakr; Al-Momen, Abdul-Kareem; Al-Saleh, Khalid; Nasr, Rasheed; Kohgear, Haitham; Owaidah, Tarek
: Von Willebrand disease is a common bleeding disorder. The wide variation in von Willebrand factor (VWF) levels between and within normal individuals highlights the clinical challenge of defining its cutoff value. Although studies on the influence of ethnicity on ABO phenotypes and the levels of VWF have been carried out on different ethnicities, there is a lack of such data among Arab population. We aimed to evaluate the correlation of ABO phenotypes with all the parameters of the minimal test panel of VWF including VWF antigen, VWF activity using the ristocetin cofactor and the collagen binding activity assays, and factor VIII coagulant activity (VWF:Ag, VWF:RCo, VWF:CB and FVIII:C) tested in a normal Arab population, and to estimate ABO-specific normal reference range. Blood samples were collected from 87 healthy donors in Riyadh to determine levels of factor VIII and VWF panel between the various ABO phenotypes. The highest mean values of factor VIII : C (128 U/dl), VWF : Ag (125 U/dl), VWF : RCo (109 U/dl) and VWF : CB (91 U/dl) were observed with type AB and the lowest mean values of factor VIII : C (81 U/dl), VWF : Ag (85 U/dl), VWF : RCo (73 U/dl) and VWF : CB (70 U/dl) corresponded to type O. ABO phenotypes significantly influence plasma levels of VWF parameters in Arab nations as seen with other ethnicity. Hence, ABO-specific normal ranges of the minimal test panel of VWF and factor VIII : C are essential for the appropriate prediction of mild von Willebrand disease. Further study including a larger categorized sample size is required to generalize the test panel on the Arab population.
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Sep 1, 2014 ... All processes and inputs were evaluated and costs calculated for pre- donation testing by simple rapid techniques and post donation screening by ELISA. Results: 5000 prospective donors were tested in the study period. The cost of single rapid Pre-donation testing was less than that of single ELISA Post-.
Full Text Available This study defined the normal variation range for different subsets of T-lymphocyte cells count in two different Brazilian regions. We analysed the T-lymphocytes subpopulations (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ in blood donors of two Brazilian cities, located in North (Belem, capital state of Para, indian background and Northeast (Salvador, capital state od Bahia, African background regions of Brazil. Results were compared according to gender, stress level (sleep time lower than 8 hours/day, smoking, and alcohol intake. Lymphocytes subpopulations were measured by flow cytometry. Five hundred twenty-six blood donors from two Brazilians cities participated in the study: 450 samples from Bahia and 76 samples from Pará. Most (60% were men, 59% reported alcohol intake, 12% were smokers, and 80% slept at least 8 h/day. Donors from Bahia presented with significantly higher counts for all parameters, compared with Para. Women had higher lymphocytes levels, in both states, but only CD4+ cells count was significantly higher than men's values. Smokers had higher CD4+ counts, but sleep time had effect on lymphocytes levels only for Para's donors (higher CD3+ and CD4+ counts. That state had also, a higher proportion of donors reporting sleep time <8 h/day. The values for CD3, CD4 and CD8+ cells count were significantly higher in blood donors from Bahia than among those from Pará. Female gender, alcohol intake, stress level, and smoking were associated with higher lymphocyte counts. The use of a single reference range for normal lymphocytes count is not appropriate for a country with such diversity, like Brazil is.
Gargouri, J; Elleuch, H; Karray, H; Rekik, H; Hammami, A
Detection of anti-CMV antibodies was carried out in sera of healthy blood donors, divided into groups of 20 according to age and sex. Sera were tested for anti-CMV by an ELISA test (Enzygnost anti-CMV/IgG-Behring). Among 280 sera, 272 were positive for IgG to CMV (97.14%). The prevalence of those antibodies was high in all age stratum (95-100%) but was higher in women than in men (98.57% versus 95.71%). The titre of IgG to CMV was superior to 12 Ul/ml in 56.43% of CMV positive donors. So, the leucocyte removal is the only alternative for the prevention of post-transfusional CMV infection. The high percentage of donors with anti-CMV antibodies level more than to 12 Ul/ml allow to consider the use of plasmapheresis for preparing specific immunoglobulins to CMV.
de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; Liu, Jing; Blatyta, Paula Fraiman; Mendrone-Junior, Alfredo; Salles, Nanci Alves; Leão, Silvana Carneiro; Wright, David J.; Basques, Fernando Valadares; Ferreira, João Eduardo; Busch, Michael P.; Murphy, Edward L.
Background We evaluate the current prevalence of serological markers for HBV and HCV in blood donors and estimated HCV incidence and residual transfusion-transmitted risk at three large Brazilian blood centers. Material and Methods Data on whole blood and platelet donations were collected from January through December 2007 and analyzed by center, donor type (replacement vs. community), age, sex, donation status (first-time vs. repeat), and serological results for HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HCV. HBV (HBsAg+/anti-HBc+) and HCV (anti-HCV) prevalence rates were calculated for all first time donations. HCV incidence was derived including inter-donation intervals that preceded first repeat donations given during the study and HCV residual risk was estimated for transfusions derived from repeat donors. Results There were 307,354 donations from January through December 2007. Overall prevalence of concordant HBsAg and anti-HBc reactivity was 289 per 100,000 donations and of anti-HCV confirmed reactivity 191 per 100,000 donations. There were significant associations between older age and hepatitis markers, especially for HCV. HCV incidence was 3.11 (95% CI 0.77-7.03) per 100,000 person-years, and residual risk of HCV window-phase infections was estimated at 5.0 per million units transfused. Conclusion Improvement in blood donor selection, socioeconomic conditions and preventive measures, implemented over time, may have helped to decrease prevalence of hepatitis B and C viruses, relative to previous reports. Incidence and residual risk of HCV are also diminishing. Ongoing monitoring of hepatitis B and C viral markers among Brazilian blood donors should help guide improved recruitment procedures, donor selection, laboratory screening methods and counseling strategies. PMID:22882510
ALMEIDA NETO Cesar de
Full Text Available The clinical significance of isolated anti-HBc is still a challenge. To elucidate the real importance of this finding in our blood donors, an investigation algorithm was tested. One hundred and twelve isolated anti-HBc seropositive blood donors underwent clinical evaluation and retesting of HBV markers. Those who presented repeatedly reactive isolated anti-HBc, received a single dose of hepatitis B recombinant vaccine to verify anti-HBs early response. A HBV-DNA determination by PCR was done for those who did not test positive to anti-HBs after vaccine. The level of anti-HBc was recorded as a ratio of the sample-to-cut-off values (S:C ratio in 57 candidates at donation. Comparing true and false-positive anti-HBc results, the different S:C ratios of them were statistically significant and when less than 2, implying in a false-positive result probability over 80%. A high percent of false-positive results (16.07% was verified after anti-HBc retesting. HBV immunity was characterized in 49.11%, either by anti-HBs detection in retesting (15.18%, or after a single dose HBV vaccination (33.93%. HBV-DNA was negative in all tested donors. In conclusion, this algorithm was useful to clarify the meaning of isolated anti-HBc in most of our blood donors.
Ferguson, E.; Atsma, F.; Kort, W. de; Veldhuizen, I.
BACKGROUND: Using constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior and theories of altruism, this article explores how multiple motivations and beliefs for blood donation are clustered and change across the donor career. In so doing important distinctions, for blood donation, between impure altruism,
Païssé, Sandrine; Valle, Carine; Servant, Florence; Courtney, Michael; Burcelin, Rémy; Amar, Jacques; Lelouvier, Benjamin
Recent studies have revealed that the blood of healthy humans is not as sterile as previously supposed. The objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of the microbiome present in different fractions of the blood of healthy individuals. The study was conducted in 30 healthy blood donors to the French national blood collection center (Établissement Français du Sang). We have set up a 16S rDNA quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay as well as a 16S targeted metagenomics sequencing pipeline specifically designed to analyze the blood microbiome, which we have used on whole blood as well as on different blood fractions (buffy coat [BC], red blood cells [RBCs], and plasma). Most of the blood bacterial DNA is located in the BC (93.74%), and RBCs contain more bacterial DNA (6.23%) than the plasma (0.03%). The distribution of 16S DNA is different for each fraction and spreads over a relatively broad range among donors. At the phylum level, blood fractions contain bacterial DNA mostly from the Proteobacteria phylum (more than 80%) but also from Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. At deeper taxonomic levels, there are striking differences between the bacterial profiles of the different blood fractions. We demonstrate that a diversified microbiome exists in healthy blood. This microbiome has most likely an important physiologic role and could be implicated in certain transfusion-transmitted bacterial infections. In this regard, the amount of 16S bacterial DNA or the microbiome profile could be monitored to improve the safety of the blood supply. © 2016 AABB.
Cantey, Paul T; Stramer, Susan L; Townsend, Rebecca L; Kamel, Hany; Ofafa, Karen; Todd, Charles W; Currier, Mary; Hand, Sheryl; Varnado, Wendy; Dotson, Ellen; Hall, Chris; Jett, Pamela L; Montgomery, Susan P
Screening US blood donors for Trypanosoma cruzi infection is identifying autochthonous, chronic infections. Two donors in Mississippi were identified through screening and investigated as probable domestically acquired vector-borne infections, and the US T. cruzi Infection Study was conducted to evaluate the burden of and describe putative risk factors for vector-borne infection in the United States. Blood donors who tested enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay repeat reactive and positive by radioimmunoprecipitation assay, and whose mode of infection could not be identified, were evaluated with a questionnaire to identify possible sources of infection and by additional serologic and hemoculture testing for T. cruzi infection. Of 54 eligible donors, 37 (69%) enrolled in the study. Fifteen (41%) enrollees had four or more positive serologic tests and were considered positive for T. cruzi infection; one was hemoculture positive. Of the 15, three (20%) donors had visited a rural area of an endemic country, although none had stayed for 2 or more weeks. All had lived in a state with documented T. cruzi vector(s) or infected mammalian reservoir(s), 13 (87%) reported outdoor leisure or work activities, and 11 (73%) reported seeing wild reservoir animals on their property. This report adds 16 cases, including one from the Mississippi investigation, of chronic T. cruzi infection presumably acquired via vector-borne transmission in the United States to the previously reported seven cases. The estimated prevalence of autochthonous infections based on this study is 1 in 354,000 donors. Determining US foci of vector-borne transmission is needed to better assess risk for infection. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.
Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic, zoonotic pathogen with a worldwide distribution. There are large variations in the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in different regions of the world. Although toxoplasmosis became a notifiable communicable disease in Taiwan in 2007, little is known about its epidemiology among the general population. This cross-sectional study aimed to survey the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection and its risk factors among healthy blood donors in Taiwan. Through collaborating with the Taiwan Blood Services Foundation, a total of 1,783 healthy blood donors from all six-branch blood service centers participated in this study. The blood samples were tested for the presence of T. gondii antibodies and DNA using enzyme immunoassays and real-time PCR, respectively. Structured questionnaires were used to gather information on risk factors for T. gondii infection. Of the 1,783 participants, 166 (9.3% tested positive for anti-Toxoplasma IgG, while 5 (0.28% tested positive for anti-Toxoplasma IgM. The five IgM positive donors had high avidity antibodies suggestive of past infection. No active parasitemia was detected by real-time PCR assays. Multivariate logistic regression showed that undercooked pork meat consumption (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-6.5, raw mussels consumption (adjusted OR = 5.3; 95% CI: 1.5-19.1, having a cat in the household (adjusted OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2-3.2, a lower education level (adjusted OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-2.3, and donation place in eastern Taiwan (adjusted OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.6-3.9 were independent risk factors for Toxoplasma seropositivity. These findings provide information on the seroprevalence and epidemiology of T. gondii infection among healthy blood donors in Taiwan.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate the proportion of individuals seronegative for measles antibody among blood donors from a blood bank in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and to describe their social and demographic characteristics, with the goal of exploring the potential use of plasma banks to supplement serological surveillance with relevant data in order to support the program of measles elimination in the city of Rio de Janeiro and elsewhere. METHODS: Plasma samples from 1 101 consecutive blood donations made in November 2000 at HEMORIO, the largest blood bank in the state of Rio de Janeiro, were tested for measles immunoglobulin G, using a commercial enzyme immunoassay and a plaque reduction neutralization test. We calculated the proportion (and 95% confidence interval (CI of samples seronegative for measles antibody for the total sample of blood donors and also for subgroups categorized by age, sex, neighborhood of residence, education, and occupation. We used the chi-square test to assess the statistical significance of differences in proportions and linear trends in proportions. RESULTS: Of the total group of blood donors, 6.9% of them (95% CI: 5.4%8.4% were seronegative for measles. Women had a higher proportion (10.1%; 95% CI: 6.8%13.4% of seronegative results than did men (5.6%; 95% CI: 4.0%7.2%. In terms of age, 86.8% of seronegative individuals were born between 1971 and 1982. Seronegativity was inversely proportional to age (chi-square = 58.0; P < 0.0001. With regard to occupation, students had the highest proportion of seronegative individuals (17.8%. In terms of education, most of the susceptible persons were in the categories of "incomplete university degree" or "incomplete high school." For the various areas of residence the proportions ranged from 2.1% to 11.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Blood bank plasma may constitute a useful and convenient source of complementary data for serological surveillance in adults of measles and other
Carneiro-Proietti, AB; Sabino, EC; Sampaio, D; Proietti, FA; Gonçalez, TT; Oliveira, CDL; Ferreira, JE; Liu, J; Custer, B; Schreiber, GB; Murphy, EL; Busch, MP
BACKGROUND The profile of blood donors changed dramatically in Brazil over the past 20 years, from remunerated to non-remunerated and then from replacement to community donors. Donor demographic data from three major blood centers establish current donation profiles in Brazil, serving as baseline for future analyses and tracking longitudinal changes in donor characteristics. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Data were extracted from the blood center, compiled in a data warehouse, and then sent to a coordinating center for analysis. Population data were obtained from Brazilian census. RESULTS During 2007–2008 there were 615,379 blood donations from 410,423 donors. 426,142 (69.2%) were from repeat (Rpt) and 189,237 (30.8%) from first time donors (FT). 20% of FT returned to donate in the period. FT were more likely to be younger, and Rpt to be community donors. All were predominantly male. Differences in gender, age, and community/replacement status by blood center were significant. Mean percentage of the potentially apt general population who were donors was 1.3% for the three centers (FPS=0.9%, FH-MG=1.8% and FH-PE=3.4%). Adjusting for the catchment’s area, FPS and FH-MG were comparable (approximately 2%). CONCLUSION Donors in the three Brazilian centers tended to be younger with a higher proportion of males than in the general population. Donation rates were lower than desirable, with variability among the three centers. Replacement donors still represent 50% of FT and 30% of the Rpt donors. Studies on the safety, donation frequencies and motivations of donors are in progress to orient efforts to enhance the availability of blood. PMID:20003051
Boreland, Frances; Lyle, David
Introduction: Although it is important that children at risk of developing elevated blood lead receive regular screening, attendance at screening programs is variable. A literature review was undertaken to better understand the factors that affect carers' decisions about whether or not to take their children for blood lead screening. Method: Electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Psychinfo) were searched to identify relevant publications, supported by reviewing reference lists of identified articles and searching with internet-based search engines. Results: Thirty-four published studies dealing with blood lead screening rates were identified, of which only seven papers focused specifically on parent's attitudes to blood lead screening. The barriers to and enablers of screening for elevated blood lead levels appear to be similar to those identified for other screening programs. Discussion: It is recommended that attendance at screening be routinely monitored, and that where participation is suboptimal further research be undertaken, in close co-operation with affected communities or sub-groups, to determine how best to encourage screening and to protect children from lead. It is important to minimize stigma and to ensure, as far as possible, that practical barriers such as lack of transport do not restrict access to screening programs
Collenberg, Ellen; Ouedraogo, Thierry; Ganamé, Jean; Fickenscher, Helmut; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Becher, Heiko; Kouyaté, Bocar; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Sangaré, Lassana; Tebit, Denis M
A seroprevalence study was carried out of six different human pathogenic viruses, namely human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8), and dengue virus among pregnant women and blood donors from rural (Nouna) and urban (Ouagadougou) Burkina Faso, West Africa. A total of 683 samples from blood donors (n = 191) and pregnant women (n = 492) were collected from both sites and screened for the different virus infection markers resulting in the following prevalence values for Nouna or Ouagadougou, respectively: HIV 3.6/4.6, anti-HBV core (anti-HBc) 69.6/76.4, HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)14.3/17.3, HCV 2.2/1.5, HTLV 1.4/0.5, HHV-8 11.5/13.5, dengue virus 26.3/36.5. Individuals aged > or =25 years were more likely to be infected with HIV than those below 24 years (P dengue virus prevalence was relatively lower in rural (26.3%) than in urban (36.5%) Burkina Faso. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Otani Marcia M.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In 1998, the Brazilian Ministry of Health made it mandatory for all blood banks in the country to screen donated blood for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV concomitantly using two different enzyme immunoassay (EIA tests. Concerned with the best use of available resources, our objective with this study was to evaluate the usefulness of conducting two EIA screening tests instead of just one. METHODS: We analyzed data from 1999 through 2001 obtained by testing 698 191 units of donated blood using two EIA HIV screening tests concomitantly at the Pro-Blood Foundation/Blood Center of São Paulo (Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro de São Paulo, which is a major blood center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. All samples reactive in at least one of the two EIA tests were submitted for confirmation by a Western blot (WB test, and the persons who had donated those samples were also asked to return and provide a follow-up sample. RESULTS: Out of the 698 191 blood units that were donated, 2 718 of them (0.4% had to be discarded because they were reactive to at least one of the EIA tests. There were two WB-positive donation samples that were reactive in only one HIV EIA screening test. On their follow-up samples, both donors tested WB-negative. These cases were considered false positive results at screening. Of the 2 718 donors who were asked to return and provide a follow-up sample, 1 576 of them (58% did so. From these 1 576 persons, we found that there were two individuals who had been reactive to only one of the two EIA screening tests and who had also been negative on the WB at screening but who were fully seroconverted on the follow-up sample. We thus estimated that, in comparison to the use of a single EIA screening test, the use of two EIA screening tests would detect only one extra sample out of 410 700 units of blood. CONCLUSIONS: Our data do not support the use of two different, concomitant EIA screening tests for HIV. The great
Percivalle, Elena; Sassera, Davide; Rovida, Francesca; Isernia, Paola; Fabbi, Massimo; Baldanti, Fausto; Marone, Piero
Usutu virus (USUV), a member of the genus Flavivirus, is known to circulate at low prevalence in Northern Italy, and has been reported to cause overt infection. USUV was first reported in Europe in 2001, but a retrospective study showed that it has been present in Italy at least since 1996. Seroprevalence data for USUV antibodies in sera are being collected in different European countries, showing circulation at low prevalence in human populations. Interestingly, two consecutive studies in Northern Italy indicate a possible increase in the presence of the virus, from 0% to 0.23% seroprevalence in blood donors. In this study, antibodies against USUV were measured in 3 consecutive blood samples collected from October 2014 to December 2015 from 33 forestry workers in the Po river valley, while samples from 200 blood donors from the same geographical area were tested in parallel. Neutralizing and IgG antibodies were found in six forestry workers (18.1%) and in two blood donors (1%). Our results indicate that USUV circulation in the examined area, part of a highly populated region in Northern Italy, is higher than expected. Healthy subjects exhibit a higher prevalence than what was found in a previous report in an adjoining region (0.23%), while the population at risk shows a much higher prevalence value (18.1%).
Naeimi, Behrouz; Mazloom Kalimani, Farnaz; Pourfatolah, Ali Akbar; Azimzadeh, Masoud; Mankhian, Alireza; Akbarzadeh, Samad; Hajiani, Gholamreza; Kooshesh, Faramarz; Khamisipour, Gholamreza
Although so far several studies have determined the hepatitis E virus (HEV) prevalence in some parts of Iran, no data exists regarding the HEV seroprevalence in Bushehr province as the southernmost point in Iran yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG among the blood donors in Bushehr. A total of 628 blood donor samples were collected from September to October 2013, after obtaining informed written consents, and analyzed for the presence of anti-HEV IgG using commercial HEV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. All the samples were tested by two ELISA kits and evaluated for liver function test. Overall, 105 (16.7%) blood samples were positive for HEV-specific-IgG antibodies, while 523 (83.8%) were negative. The presence of anti-HEV IgG was not associated with gender; however, it was correlated with age. It was indicated that the anti-HEV prevalence increases by age and there was a significant difference between the age groups regarding HEV seropositivity. High HEV seroprevalence (16.7%) was observed among the blood donors in Bushehr province. It appears that exposure to HEV increases with age; although, more people should be examined.
Hauck-Dlimi, B; Hammon, K; Eckstein, R; Ott, S; Zimmermann, R; Dengler, T; Ringwald, J
Exposition to allogenic human platelet antigens (HPAs) can lead to antibody formation causing neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT), post-transfusion purpura or platelet (PLT) transfusion refractoriness. The frequencies of HPA differ between ethnical groups which could be associated with different potential alloimmunization risk. The Turkish population is the largest ethnic minority group living in Germany. However, no data are available about the HPA frequency among Turkish population. We compared the frequency of HPA between Caucasian and Turkish blood donors. DNA from blood samples of 119 Caucasian and 117 Turkish blood donors was isolated. The genotype of HPA-1, -2, -3 -4, -5 and -15 was determined using a commercialized polymerase chain reaction kit with sequence-specific primers. In Turkish blood donors, the gene frequencies of HPA-1a/1b, -2a/2b, -3a/3b, -4a/4b, -5a/5b and -15a/15b were 0.863/0.137, 0.868/0.133, 0.607/0.393, 0.996/0.004, 0.893/0.107 and 0.474/0.256, respectively. In Caucasians, we observed 0.798/0.202, 0.908/0.092, 0.567/0.432, 1.000/0.000, 0.916/0.084 and 0.517/0.483 for HPA-1a/1b, -2a/2b, -3a/3b, -4a/4b, -5a/5b and -15a/15b, respectively. No statistically significant difference between genotypes in these populations could be observed. Due to the similar distribution of HPA genotypes in both ethnical groups, no increased risk of NAIT for children of mixed couples or of post-transfusion purpura or PLT transfusion refractoriness secondary to antibodies to HPAs for recipients of PLT concentrates from blood donors of the other ethnicity is given. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Bar-Lev, S.K.; Blanc, J.P.C.; Boxma, O.J.; Janssen, G.; Perry, D.
We study a blood testing procedure for detecting viruses like HIV, HBV and HCV. In this procedure, blood samples go through two screening steps. The first test is ELISA (antibody Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay). The portions of blood which are found not contaminated in this first phase are
Chien, Yu-Wen; Shu, Yu-Chen; Chuang, Kun-Ta; Yeh, Chun-Yin; Ko, Wen-Chien; Ko, Nai-Ying; Perng, Guey-Chuen
Southern Taiwan experienced a severe dengue epidemic in 2015. Adult asymptomatic cases would raise concerns on transfusion-transmitted dengue virus (DENV) infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the magnitude of such a risk in Tainan City during this epidemic. The daily prevalence of asymptomatic dengue viremia in blood donors in Tainan City and in selected high-incidence districts during the 2015 dengue epidemic was estimated by an established mathematical model. Duration of viremia, duration of viremia before symptom onset, apparent-to-inapparent infection ratio, and reporting-to-underreporting ratio were four main parameters used in the model. The estimated maximal and mean daily prevalence of asymptomatic dengue viremia in blood donors in Tainan during this dengue epidemic was 74.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 60.8-88.0) and 15.0 (95% CI, 12.3-17.7) per 10,000, respectively. In the district with the highest incidence, the maximal and mean daily prevalence of asymptomatic viremia was 328.8 (95% CI, 271.1-386.2) and 55.3 (95% CI, 43.4-63.3) per 10,000, respectively. Approximately 234 (95% CI, 191-276) blood components containing DENV were produced during the epidemic. Although dengue is currently not endemic in Taiwan, physicians need to be aware of the risk of transfusion-transmitted DENV infection. Our results suggest that screening measures to ensure blood safety should be evaluated and implemented during dengue epidemics even in nonendemic areas. Timely estimation of daily asymptomatic viremia prevalence by districts can help to select high-risk areas for such measures and to evaluate cost-effectiveness. © 2017 AABB.
Lemmens, K P H; Abraham, C; Ruiter, R A C; Veldhuizen, I J T; Dehing, C J G; Bos, A E R; Schaalma, H P
Understanding blood donation motivation among non-donors is prerequisite to effective recruitment. Two studies explored the psychological antecedents of blood donation motivation and the generalisability of a model of donation motivation across groups differing in age and educational level. An older well-educated population and a younger less well-educated population were sampled. The studies assessed the role of altruism, fear of blood/needles and donation-specific cognitions including attitudes and normative beliefs derived from an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Across both samples, results showed that affective attitude, subjective norm, descriptive norm, and moral norm were the most important correlates of blood donation intentions. Self-efficacy was more important among the younger less well-educated group. Altruism was related to donation motivation but only indirectly through moral norm. Similarly, fear of blood/needles only had an indirect effect on motivation through affective attitude and self-efficacy. Additional analyses with the combined data set found no age or education moderation effects, suggesting that this core model of donation-specific cognitions can be used to inform future practical interventions recruiting new blood donors in the general population.
L. N. Fedjanina
Full Text Available Abstract. Salmon soft roe DNA influence on healthy donors blood cells secretion of early hemopoietic factors (IL-3, GM-CSF, TNFα as well as biologically active substance influence on cytokine balance of Тh1 and Тh2 responses (IFNγ, IL-10 in vitro was studied. It is established, that DNA has modulatory effect on secretion of all investigated cytokines - IL-3, GM-CSF, TNFα, INFγ and IL-10 by blood cells of healthy donors, increases their initially low concentration, reduces initially high and does not have essential influence at an average level of their secretion. Under action of DNA IFNγ level (stimulation index=3,3 increases more significantly than IL-10 level (stimulation index =1,9. Thus, salmon soft roe DNA possesses immunomodulatory properties.
Garg, Parul; Upadhyay, Saloni; Chufal, Sanjay Singh; Hasan, Yuman; Tayal, Ishwer
Backround: ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood group antigens are hereditary characters and are useful in population genetic studies, in resolving medico-legal issues and more importantly for the immunologic safety of blood during transfusion. This study is aimed to determine the distribution pattern of the ABO and Rh blood groups among blood donors in Kumaon region of Uttarakhand and compare it with other data from similar studies within the India and all over the world. It is a retrospective study carried out at blood bank of Shushila Tewari Hospital of Government Medical College, Haldwani from January 2012 to December 2013. The study was conducted on 12,701 blood donors. ABO and Rh typing was done using slide agglutination method with antisera ABO and Rh (Tulip diagnostics ltd). Doubtful cases were confirmed by tube agglutination method and reverse grouping using known pooled A and B cells. The age group and sex of donors, frequency of ABO and Rh blood groups were reported in simple percentages. The predominant donors belonged to age group between 18-35years (84.28%). Male donors were more than female donors, ratio being 352:1. Replacement donors (99.71%) were much more than voluntary donors (0.91%). The most common blood group was B (32.07%) and least common being AB (10.53%). Blood group 'O' and 'A' had same frequency. The prevalence of Rhesus positive and negative distribution in the studied population was 94.49% and 5.51% respectively. Blood group frequency with respect to ABO and Rhesus positive was found to be shown by formula B> O>A >AB. The frequency for ABO and Rhesus negative was given by the formula B>A>O>AB. Knowledge of frequencies of the different blood groups is very important for blood banks and transfusion service policies that could contribute significantly to the National Health System.
Bamaga, Mohammad S.; Bokhari, Fawzi F.; Aboud, Abdulrehman M.; Al-Malki, M.; Alenzi, Faris Q.
To investigate the performance of the commercial Roche COBAS AmpliScreen assay, and demonstrate whether the COBAS AmpliScreen human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) test, v1.5, and COBAS AmpliScreen hepatitis C virus (HCV) v 2.0 for screening for HIV-1 and HCV RNA in the donated blood units from which plasma mini pools were collected, by nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT), could detect the positive pools and reduce the risk of transmission of infections for those routinely tested by serological assays. The study was performed on 3288 plasma samples collected from blood donors in a period of 13 months, from August 2004 to August 2005, at Al-Hada Armed Forces Hospital, Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The samples were tested by the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after RNA extraction (this represents the major method in NAT assays), in parallel with the routine serological testing to detect qualitatively for HIV-1 and HCV. The NAT assays that include an automated COBAS AmpliPrep system for RNA extraction and COBAS Amplicor Analyzer using AmpliScreen kits for RT-PCR assays, and the routine serological screening assays for the detection of the HIV-1 and HCV RNA in the plasma samples from the blood donors have shown to be a reliable combination that would meet our requirements. The collected data further confirms the results from the serological assays and enables us to decrease the residual risk of transmission to a minimum with the finding of no seronegative window period donation. The results demonstrate that out of 3288 samples, the percentages of RT-PCR (NAT) negative blood donations that were also confirmed as seronegative were 99% for HCV, and 99.1% for HIV-1. The modified combined systems (automated COBAS AmpliPrep system for RNA extraction and COBAS Amplicor Analyzer using AmpliScreen kits for RT-PCR assays) for NAT screening assays has allowed the release of all blood donations supplied in the
Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne protozoan that can be transmitted through infected blood containing tachyzoite form of the parasite. The current study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of T. gondii infection and related risk factors among healthy blood donors in Boyer-Ahmad County, southwest Iran. Blood samples were taken from 285 healthy blood donors who voluntarily agreed to participate in this study. Sera and buffy coat were isolated from the blood samples for serological and molecular evaluations. The sera were tested for anti-T. gondii antibodies (both IgG and IgM, using a commercial ELISA kit. The buffy coat of seropositive cases was evaluated for detection of T. gondii DNA by PCR. Moreover, a structured questionnaire, containing socioepidemiological data and possible risk factors, was filled out by each participant during sample collection. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were detected in sera of 48/285 (16.8% participants. Only two of the subjects (0.7% were seropositive for both IgG and IgM antibodies. T. gondii DNA was not detected in buffy coat of any of the seropositive cases. Risk factors such as contact with soil (OR, 9.7; 95% CI, 4.9–19.4 and consumption of semicooked meat (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2–5.03 were statistically associated with seropositivity to T. gondii. The seroprevalence rate of T. gondii antibodies in the blood donors of Boyer-Ahmad County was not high in comparison with other regions in Iran. In this study, consumption of undercooked meats, job, and contact with soil were independent risk factors associated with T. gondii infection, which can be considered as potential sources of T. gondii infection.
Nabae, Koji; Satoh, Hiroshi; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Taya, Keiko; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Oishi, Kazunori; Matsumoto, Kunichika; Hasegawa, Tomonori
Seroepidemiological study of parvovirus B19 has not taken place for some 20 years in Japan. To estimate the risk of parvovirus B19 infection in Japan among blood donors and pregnant women in this century, a seroepidemiological survey and statistical modeling of the force of infection were conducted. The time- and age-specific seroprevalence data were suggestive of strong age-dependency in the risk of infection. Employing a piecewise constant model, the highest forces of infection of 0.05 and 0.12 per year were observed among those aged 0-4 and 5-9 years, respectively, while estimates among older individuals were less than 0.01 per year. Analyzing the antigen detection data among blood donors, the age-specific proportion positive was highest among those aged 30-39 years, agreeing with the presence of dip in seroprevalence in this age-group. Among pregnant women, up to 107 fetal deaths and 21 hydrops fetalis were estimated to have occurred annually across Japan. Seroepidemiological profiles of PVB19 infection in Japan was characterized with particular emphasis on the risk of infection in blood donors and the burden of infection among pregnant women. When a vaccine becomes available in the future, a similar seroepidemiological study is expected to play a key role in planning the appropriate immunization policy.
Boushab, Boushab Mohamed; Mohamed Limame, Ould Cheikh Melaïnine; Fatim Zahra, Fall-Malick; Mamoudou, Savadogo; Roseline Darnycka, Belizaire Marie; Saliou, Sow Mamadou
To estimating the seroprevalence of HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis among blood donors in the Aïoun hospital. This is a retrospective study from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2015. On the five-year study period, 1,123 donors were collected. Of these, 182 were HIV-positive, an overall prevalence of 16.2% with predominance in male with a sex ratio Man/Woman of 5.2. The average age of donors was 32.7 ± 10 years (range 17-73 years). The most represented that age group 21-30 years (40.5%). The seroprevalence found were 1.2% for HIV, 11.8% for HBV, HCV 0.2% and 3% for syphilis. Co-infection was found in 0.7% of which 0.5% of dual HIV HBV/Syphilis and 0.2% in HBV/HIV. The transmission of infectious agents related to transfusion represents the greatest threat to transfusion safety of the recipient. Therefore, a rigorous selection and screening of blood donors are highly recommended to ensure blood safety for the recipient.
Grijalva, M J; Chiriboga, R; Racines, J R; Escalante, L; Rowland, E C
The status of Chagas' disease in Ecuador is not clear. In response to reports suggesting the possibility of transfusion-associated transmission of Chagas' disease in the blood bank in Quito, the Ecuadorian Red Cross in collaboration with the Instituto Nacional de Higiene, Zona Norte and the Tropical Disease Institute of Ohio University implemented a pilot Chagas' disease screening of the donated blood in the Quito blood bank. The results of the screening showed a low incidence of seropositivity among the donors (0.01% in 1994, 0.04% in 1995, and 0.02% in 1996) to the Quito blood bank and a higher seropositivity in samples donated to smaller blood banks (0.4% in 1994, 0.28% in 1995, and 0.13% in 1996) located in areas considered endemic, as well as from at least two areas previously considered nonendemic for Chagas' disease. This report highlights the need for a comprehensive evaluation of the prevalence and distribution of Chagas' disease in Ecuador.
Moloney, Gail; Hayman, Jane; Gamble, Marguerite; Smith, Geoff; Hall, Rob
Retaining blood donors is a cost-effective way of ensuring a safe blood supply, yet despite the plethora of research, only 5.1% of the eligible population in Australia donate blood and 40% of these do not make a second donation. We offer an alternative to traditional approaches by conceptualizing blood donation within social representations theory as socially derived symbolic knowledge with a specific focus on cognitive polyphasia and Guimelli's (1998) normative and functional dimensions. An online survey, completed by 703 residents from NSW Australia, comprised a blood donation word association task, Likert-style questions constructed from previous word association data and contextualized blood donation statements. Individual difference scaling analysis revealed all donor groups (including non-donors) associated blood donation with a few central, albeit contradictory ideas/beliefs. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis performed on a split data set of the Likert-style items reiterated this finding. Interpreted through Guimelli's dichotomy, all donor groups were aware of these contradictory normative and functional ideas/beliefs but when explicitly asked, it was the functional aspect that differentiated the groups. We argue the key to retaining donors is understanding the interdependence between how blood donation is socially understood at the societal level of discourse and donor behaviour. Translational strategies for recruitment and retention are discussed. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Geyer, Maria Elena
With the emergence of e-mail as a common form of communication, it is important to understand the role and impact e-mail can have on acquiring and retaining whole-blood donors. Whole-blood donors who opted in to receive e-mail communications (n = 43,232) from the Puget Sound Blood Center (PSBC) and as a result participated in one or more of five e-mail marketing campaigns between July 2002 and March 2003 were studied. New donors with e-mail addresses grew by 74 percent over the measurement period compared with 2 percent growth of those without e-mail addresses. Nearly 15,000 prospective donors were reached as a result of donors passing along e-mails they received from PSBC to friends and family. Nearly 5 percent of PSBC e-mail campaign recipients registered to donate online. PSBC e-mail campaigns have outperformed e-mail marketing industry mean open rates by 44 percent and click-through rates by 36 percent. E-mail is now a mainstream communication medium. It has proven to be an effective method of reaching new donors and generating new donation registrations. Donors respond more favorably to e-mail communications from PSBC compared with e-mail they receive from other organizations. Deeper understanding of how different segments of blood donors use e-mail may help blood centers adjust their donor acquisition and retention programs. New recruitment methods are needed to grow the overall donor base, and e-mail appears to have the potential to make a significant contribution to meeting this objective.
Bontekoe, Ido J; Scharenberg, John; Schonewille, Henk; Zwaginga, Jaap Jan; Brand, Anneke; van der Meer, Pieter F; de Korte, Dirk
Severe hemolytic anemia of the fetus, caused by maternal red blood cell (RBC) alloantibodies, is treated with intrauterine transfusion (IUT) of RBCs. Because IUT is associated with additional antibody formation, RBCs with the closest match between donor and mother are preferred. Because one fetus needs a median of three IUTs, finding such RBCs is complicated. Collection of repeated low-volume donations from one selected donor during the entire IUT treatment period would reduce donor exposure and possibly IUT-associated alloimmunization. Whole blood (WB) donations of 100 and 200 mL were diluted with saline, filtered, centrifuged, and separated to prepare experimental RBCs. Before and after gamma irradiation, the RBCs were sampled for comparison of in vitro quality with standard RBCs for IUT. An additional washing procedure was investigated to remove anti-A/-B. Experimental RBCs were leukoreduced to levels conforming with current guidelines and had final volumes of 44 (n = 12) and 84 (n = 8) mL with hematocrit levels between 0.80 and 0.88 L/L. Hemolysis was lower (0.12% vs. 0.42%), potassium leakage comparable, adenosine triphosphate levels lower (4.8 µmol/g Hb vs. 6.1 µmol/g Hb), and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels higher (10.3 µmol/g Hb vs 7.7 µmol/g Hb) at 6 hours after irradiation (product expiration time) compared to standard RBCs for IUT (n = 3). Anti-A/-B titers decreased substantially by the washing procedure. RBCs for IUT can be prepared from 100- or 200-mL WB donations, showing the potential of this new blood product to reduce donor exposure. A washing procedure is recommended to remove anti-A/-B. © 2015 AABB.
Marília Lage Alencar
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Celiac disease is a permanent enteropathy caused by the ingestion of gluten, which leads to an immunemediated inflammation of the small intestine mucosa. The prevalence of celiac disease varies among different nations and ethnic backgrounds, and its diversity is determined by genetic and environmental factors. São Paulo city is one of the largest cities in the world, with a vast population and an important history of internal migratory flow from other Brazilian regions, as well as immigration from other, primarily European, countries, resulting in significant miscegenation. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of adults with undiagnosed celiac disease among blood donors of São Paulo by collecting information on the ancestry of the population studied. METHODS: The prevalence of celiac disease was assessed by screening for positive IgA transglutaminase and IgA endomysium antibodies in 4,000 donors (volunteers in the Fundação Pró-Sangue Blood Center of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. The antibody-positive subjects were asked to undergo a small bowel biopsy. RESULTS: Of the 4,000 subjects, twenty-four had positive tests, although both antibody tests were not always concordant. For example, ten subjects were positive for IgA tissue transglutaminase only. In twenty-one positive patients, duodenal biopsies were performed, and the diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed in fourteen patients (Marsh criteria modified by Oberhuber. In this group, 67% claimed to have European ancestry, mainly from Italy, Portugal and Spain. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of celiac disease is at least 1:286 among supposedly healthy blood bank volunteers in São Paulo, Brazil.
Alencar, Marília Lage; Ortiz-Agostinho, Carmen Lucia; Nishitokukado, Lêda; Damião, Adérson O M C; Abrantes-Lemos, Clarice P; Leite, André Zonetti de Arruda; Brito, Thales de; Chamone, Dalton de Alencar Fischer; Silva, Maria Elizabeth Rossi da; Giannella-Neto, Daniel; Sipahi, Aytan Miranda
Celiac disease is a permanent enteropathy caused by the ingestion of gluten, which leads to an immunemediated inflammation of the small intestine mucosa. The prevalence of celiac disease varies among different nations and ethnic backgrounds, and its diversity is determined by genetic and environmental factors. São Paulo city is one of the largest cities in the world, with a vast population and an important history of internal migratory flow from other Brazilian regions, as well as immigration from other, primarily European, countries, resulting in significant miscegenation. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of adults with undiagnosed celiac disease among blood donors of São Paulo by collecting information on the ancestry of the population studied. The prevalence of celiac disease was assessed by screening for positive IgA transglutaminase and IgA endomysium antibodies in 4,000 donors (volunteers) in the Fundação Pró-Sangue Blood Center of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. The antibody-positive subjects were asked to undergo a small bowel biopsy. Of the 4,000 subjects, twenty-four had positive tests, although both antibody tests were not always concordant. For example, ten subjects were positive for IgA tissue transglutaminase only. In twenty-one positive patients, duodenal biopsies were performed, and the diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed in fourteen patients (Marsh criteria modified by Oberhuber). In this group, 67% claimed to have European ancestry, mainly from Italy, Portugal and Spain. The prevalence of celiac disease is at least 1:286 among supposedly healthy blood bank volunteers in São Paulo, Brazil.
Alencar, Marília Lage; Ortiz-Agostinho, Carmen Lucia; Nishitokukado, Iêda; Damião, Adérson O.M.C.; Abrantes-Lemos, Clarice P.; de Arruda Leite, André Zonetti; de Brito, Thales; de Alencar Fischer Chamone, Dalton; da Silva, Maria Elizabeth Rossi; Giannella-Neto, Daniel; Sipahi, Aytan Miranda
OBJECTIVE: Celiac disease is a permanent enteropathy caused by the ingestion of gluten, which leads to an immune-mediated inflammation of the small intestine mucosa. The prevalence of celiac disease varies among different nations and ethnic backgrounds, and its diversity is determined by genetic and environmental factors. São Paulo city is one of the largest cities in the world, with a vast population and an important history of internal migratory flow from other Brazilian regions, as well as immigration from other, primarily European, countries, resulting in significant miscegenation. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of adults with undiagnosed celiac disease among blood donors of São Paulo by collecting information on the ancestry of the population studied. METHODS: The prevalence of celiac disease was assessed by screening for positive IgA transglutaminase and IgA endomysium antibodies in 4,000 donors (volunteers) in the Fundação Pró-Sangue Blood Center of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. The antibody-positive subjects were asked to undergo a small bowel biopsy. RESULTS: Of the 4,000 subjects, twenty-four had positive tests, although both antibody tests were not always concordant. For example, ten subjects were positive for IgA tissue transglutaminase only. In twenty-one positive patients, duodenal biopsies were performed, and the diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed in fourteen patients (Marsh criteria modified by Oberhuber). In this group, 67% claimed to have European ancestry, mainly from Italy, Portugal and Spain. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of celiac disease is at least 1:286 among supposedly healthy blood bank volunteers in São Paulo, Brazil. PMID:23018296
Sosa-Jurado, Francisca; Santos-López, Gerardo; Guzmán-Flores, Belinda; Ruiz-Conde, Julia I; Meléndez-Mena, Daniel; Vargas-Maldonado, Martín T; Martínez-Laguna, Ygnacio; Contreras-Mioni, Laura; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica; Reyes-Leyva, Julio
Worldwide, 130 million persons are estimated to be infected with HCV. Puebla is the Mexican state with the highest mortality due to hepatic cirrhosis. Therefore, it is imperative to obtain epidemiological data on HCV infection in asymptomatic people of this region. The objective of present study was to analyze the prevalence of antibodies and genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in blood donors from Puebla, Mexico. The overall prevalence was 0.84% (515/61553). Distribution by region was: North, 0.86% (54/6270); Southeast, 1.04% (75/7197); Southwest, 0.93% (36/3852); and Central, 0.79% (350/44234). Ninety-six donors were enrolled for detection and genotyping of virus, from which 37 (38.5%) were HCV-RNA positive. Detected subtypes were: 1a (40.5%), 1b (27.0%), mixed 1a/1b (18.9%), undetermined genotype 1 (5.4%), 2a (2.7%), 2b (2.7%), and mixed 1a/2a (2.7%). All recovered donors with S/CO > 39 were HCV-RNA positive (11/11) and presented elevated ALT; in donors with S/CO Puebla is similar to other Mexican states. The most prevalent genotype is 1, of which subtype 1a is the most frequent.
Background Worldwide, 130 million persons are estimated to be infected with HCV. Puebla is the Mexican state with the highest mortality due to hepatic