Sample records for blood donation safe

  1. Improving Safe Blood Donation in Nigeria: The Roles of the Mass Media (United States)

    Oriji, Christian Chigozi


    The study discusses improving safe blood donation in Nigeria and the roles of the mass media in achieving same in Nigerian hospitals. In this regard, it answers the questions: What is blood? What is blood donation? And is safe blood donation adequate in Nigeria? Beyond the relevant answers given on the above questions, it also explains the roles…

  2. Blood Donation (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Blood donation By Mayo Clinic Staff Blood donation is a voluntary procedure. You agree to have blood drawn so that it can ... have a disease that requires blood components. Blood donation makes all of this possible. There are several ...

  3. Blood Transfusion and Donation (United States)

    ... receiving the blood transfusion. To keep blood safe, blood banks carefully screen donated blood. The risk of catching ... one or more times before the surgery. A blood bank will store your blood for your use. NIH: ...

  4. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department


    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...


    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit


    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  6. Special Blood Donation Procedures (United States)

    ... takes about 10 minutes. Double red blood cell donation In the so-called double red blood cell ... can be cured with apheresis. Directed or designated donation Family members or friends can donate blood specifically ...

  7. Blood donation before surgery (United States)

    ... page: // Blood donation before surgery To use the sharing features on ... described here. Blood From the Public (Volunteer Blood Donation) The most common source of blood given during ...

  8. Types of Blood Donations (United States)

    ... blood' every 56 days. Back to Top Platelet Apheresis Platelet donations are collected at select American Red ... about Platelet Apheresis Donations » Back to Top Plasma Apheresis Plasma is collected simultaneously with a platelet donation ...

  9. Donating Blood (United States)

    ... can't get an infection or disease from giving blood. The needles and other equipment used are sterile ... part of blood (plasma) within 72 hours after giving blood. It generally takes about 4–8 weeks to ...

  10. [Blood donation in urban areas]. (United States)

    Charpentier, F


    Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes.

  11. Blood Donation Process (United States)

    ... types, such as platelets, red cells or plasma ( apheresis donations ) can take up to 2 hours. When ... Disease Testing Reimbursement Resources Educational Resources PACS Therapeutic Apheresis Our Supporters Blood App HS Leadership Program SleevesUp ...

  12. What Happens to Donated Blood? (United States)

    ... week. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  13. Blood and Bone Marrow Donation (United States)

    ... waiting for a stem cell transplant. Bone marrow donation The most serious risk associated with donating bone ... you feel fully recovered. Peripheral blood stem cell donation The risks of this type of stem cell ...

  14. The heritability of blood donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Birger; Axel, Skytthe; Rostgaard, Klaus


    BACKGROUND: Voluntary blood donation is believed to be mostly motivated by altruism. Because studies have suggested that altruistic personality is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, we speculated that willingness to donate blood could also be governed by constitutional factors...... active Danish blood donors from 2002 to 2012, to establish blood donor status for Danish twins, who at age 17 years became eligible for donation in 2002 or later. Casewise concordance in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were presented and heritability was estimated in Mx by variance component...... to donate blood, respectively. CONCLUSION: Becoming a volunteer blood donor is determined by both genetic and environmental factors shared within families....

  15. [Blood donation: a marketing perspective]. (United States)

    Ludwig, Silvia Terra; Rodrigues, Alziro César de Morais


    This paper emphasizes how marketing can make a difference in repeat donations by volunteer blood donors, since the greatest challenge for health institutions is to maintain and increase blood donation. In this context, understanding volunteer donors' motivations is highly important, and the studies reported here demonstrate that several variables are relevant to blood donation. The huge number of patients in need of blood transfusions and the lack of sufficient blood and blood products justify the interest in this study, considering both donors' and blood banks' perspectives. Moreover, recognition of the importance of actions and orientation for donors is fundamental for developing a marketing strategy. It is thus relevant for health institutions to identify donors' actual needs and wishes.

  16. FAQ: Blood Donation and Organ Transplant (United States)

    ... Surveillance Software Health Education Public Service Videos Blood Donation & Organ Transplant Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... giving blood, you should tell your blood center. Donation centers try to ensure that donors who recently ...

  17. Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Blood Donation in Rural Puducherry, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umakant G Shidam, Subitha Lakshminarayanan, Suman Saurabh, Gautam Roy


    Conclusion: Though the awareness regarding blood donation was high, the practice of voluntary blood donation was remarkably low. Education and motivation through various media is recommended to eliminate misbelieves and to reinforce positive attitudes towards blood donation."

  18. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Motivations towards Blood Donation among King Abdulaziz Medical City Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najd Alfouzan


    Full Text Available Background. Blood donation is remarkably safe medical procedure. However, attitudes, beliefs, and level of knowledge may affect it. Objectives. To measure the level of knowledge regarding blood donation, find out positive and negative attitudes, identify the obstacles, and suggest some motivational factors. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC. Participants were selected by convenient nonrandom sampling technique. A self-created questionnaire was used for data collection. Results. The study included 349 individuals. About 45.8% of the participants claimed that they have a history of blood donation. Reported causes for not donating blood were blood donation not crossing their mind (52.4%, no time for donation (45%, and difficulty in accessing blood donation center (41.3%. Reported motivating factors for donating blood were one day off (81.4%, mobile blood donation caravans in public areas (79.1%, token gifts (31.5%, and finally paying money (18.9%. Conclusion. People in the age group 31–50 years, males, higher education and military were more likely to donate blood as well as People who showed higher knowledge level and positive attitude towards blood donation. More educational programs to increase the awareness in specific targeted populations and also to focus on some motivational factors are recommended.

  19. [Blood donation: mechanic solidarity versus organic solidarity]. (United States)

    Pereima, Rosane Suely May Rodrigues; Reibnitz, Kenya Schmidt; Martini, Jussara Gue; Nitschke, Rosane Gonçalves


    The article offers a reflection of blood donation in an hemocenter of Santa Catarina, with a mechanic and organic solidarity approach. It discuss the way of life in contemporary globalization and the cult of speed in a context pervaded by uncertainties and adversities. People live in a fast world, making social interaction difficult, contributing to the weakening of values and attitudes that could improve the quality of life. Considering the difficulties of everyday contemporary society, concerning Brazilian hemotherapy history on blood donation, there is a perception that attitudes and values, such as solidarity, have been modifying in subtle ways with a background of current events. It searches for understanding of blood donation as mechanic and organic solidarity.

  20. Results of the 24 July blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service


    "Bravo! A huge success! A big thanks to everyone involved for their valuable participation this summer," says Ms. Troillet, the nurse responsible for the Transfusion Centre (CTS) at HUG.   During the 24 July blood donation, blood was collected from 109 of the 150 people who attended (including 53 new donors). This excellent result is particularly noteworthy, since blood supplies are at their lowest levels in hospitals during the summer season. The CERN Medical Service joins CTS in thanking all donors for their generous gesture and Ms. Vuattaz, manager of the restaurant NOVAE No. 2 and her team, for their collaboration. Upcoming blood donations:           Wednesday 16 October 2013           Thursday 3 April 2014           Wednesday 23 July 23 2014

  1. Transfusion and blood donation in comic strips. (United States)

    Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Danic, Bruno


    The representation of blood transfusion and donation of blood in the comic strip has never been studied. The comic strip, which is a relatively recent art, emerged in the 19th century before becoming a mass medium during the 20th century. We have sought, by calling on collectors and using the resources of Internet, comic strips devoted, wholly or in part, to the themes of transfusion and blood donation. We present some of them here in chronologic order, indicating the title, country of origin, year of publication, and names of authors. The theme of the superhero using transfusion to transmit his virtues or his powers is repeated throughout the 20th century in North American comic strips. More recently, comic strips have been conceived from the outset with a promotional aim. They perpetuate positive images and are directed toward a young readership, wielding humor to reduce the fear of venipuncture. Few comic strips denounce the abuse of the commercialization of products derived from the human body. The image of transfusion and blood donation given by the comic strips is not to be underestimated because their readership is primarily children, some of whom will become blood donors. Furthermore, if some readers are transfused during their lives, the impact of a memory more or less conscious of these childhood readings may resurface, both in hopes and in fears.

  2. [Marketing in the world of blood donation]. (United States)

    Daigneault, Sylvie


    Public and non-profit organizations have long debated how marketing concepts and management styles apply to their sector of activity as they are largely derived from principles of consumerism and economic decision-making proper to the private sector. The arrival of marketing in the world of blood donation is no exception. The purpose of this article is to illustrate concretely how marketing techniques can contribute in achieving the objectives of a blood donation program: a marketing model that is adapted to the realities of blood donation in Quebec. Although types of marketing are as varied as the fields they are used in, the major marketing activities of this program fall under positioning, operational or relationship marketing. The process is presented in the form of a cycle that includes four major phases containing all marketing functions, that is, raising public awareness, acquiring a clientele, client retention and loyalty building, and establishing the relationship. Finally, the information and effective management of information are at the heart of the marketing process. In fact, research, understanding our customers and their expectations, and measuring our performance are essential for the success of any marketing initiative.

  3. FDA Recommends All Blood Donations Be Tested for Zika (United States)

    ... FDA Recommends All Blood Donations Be Tested for Zika Updated guidance provides further protection for U.S. blood ... entire blood supply be routinely screened for the Zika virus. In February, the FDA recommended testing of ...

  4. Attitudes and practices of health science students regarding blood donation


    Abdul-Monim Batiha; Mohammed ALBashtawy


    Background: Blood is fundamental to saving lives and is considered to be the force that sustains our bodies. Objective: To assess the attitudes and practices of health science students regarding blood donation. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was employed to assess the attitudes and practices of health science students regarding blood donation. 453 students (56.7% male) from the four health faculties (Pharmacy, Genetic engineering, Nursing, and Hospital administration) were surveyed...

  5. Solving shortage in a priceless market: Insights from blood donation. (United States)

    Sun, Tianshu; Lu, Susan Feng; Jin, Ginger Zhe


    Shortage is common in many markets, such as those for human organs or blood, but the problem is often difficult to solve through price adjustment, given safety and ethical concerns. In this paper, we study two non-price methods that are often used to alleviate shortage for human blood. The first method is informing existing donors of a current shortage via a mobile message and encouraging them to donate voluntarily. The second method is asking the patient's family or friends to donate in a family replacement (FR) program at the time of shortage. Using 447,357 individual donation records across 8 years from a large Chinese blood bank, we show that both methods are effective in addressing blood shortage in the short run but have different implications for total blood supply in the long run. We compare the efficacy of these methods and discuss their applications under different scenarios to alleviate shortage.

  6. Time course for the recovery of physical performance, blood hemoglobin, and ferritin content after blood donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegler, Andreas K; Grand, Johannes; Stangerup, Ida;


    BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that blood donation negatively affects endurance performance, but data on physical recovery after a standard blood donation are scarce. This study aimed to elucidate the temporary impact of blood donation on endurance performance, measured as peak oxygen uptake (VO......2peak ) and time trial (TT) performance. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: VO2peak , TT performance, blood, iron, and anthropometric variables were determined before (baseline) and 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after blood donation in 19 healthy men. RESULTS: VO2peak was reduced by 6.5% from 49.7 ± 2 m......L/kg/min at baseline to 46.3 ± 2 mL/kg/min on Day 3 (p blood donation. Blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration declined 7.9% from 9.3 ± 0.11 mmol...

  7. Blood donation and blood donor mortality after adjustment for a healthy donor effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads;


    and mortality. The magnitude of the association was reduced after adjustment for an estimate of self-selection in the donor population. Our observations indicate that repeated blood donation is not associated with premature death, but cannot be interpreted as conclusive evidence of a beneficial health effect.......BACKGROUND: Studies have repeatedly demonstrated that blood donors experience lower mortality than the general population. While this may suggest a beneficial effect of blood donation, it may also reflect the selection of healthy persons into the donor population. To overcome this bias, we...... investigated the relation between blood donation frequency and mortality within a large cohort of blood donors. In addition, our analyses also took into consideration the effects of presumed health differences linked to donation behavior. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the Scandinavian Donation...

  8. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Adult Population towards Blood Donation in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulugeta Melku


    Full Text Available Background. Though World Health Organization recommends 100% voluntary blood donation, the percentage of blood collected from voluntary blood donors and the average annual blood collection rate are extremely low in Ethiopia. The role of adults is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. Thus, this study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of adult population towards blood donation in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 768 adults. Multistage sampling technique together with simple random and systematic random sampling technique was employed. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis and bivariate correlation analysis were done. Result. About 436 (56.8%, 630 (82%, and 141 (18.4% study participants had adequate knowledge, good attitude, and experience of blood donation, respectively. Secondary and higher educational statuses were significantly associated with adequate knowledge towards blood donation. Participants who were protestant by religion were more likely to have good attitude towards blood donation. Age, self-perceived health status, and religion were significantly associated with blood donation practice. Conclusion. Knowledge and attitude towards blood donation are high. However, the level of practice is low. District and national blood banks and transfusion agency should design strategies that promote and motivate the communities to donate blood.

  9. Donating blood for research: a potential method for enhancing customer satisfaction of permanently deferred blood donors (United States)

    Waller, Daniel; Thijsen, Amanda; Garradd, Allira; Hayman, Jane; Smith, Geoff


    Background Each year, a large number of individuals in Australia are deferred from donating blood. A deferral may have a negative impact on donor satisfaction and subsequent word-of-mouth communication. The Australian Red Cross Blood Service (the Blood Service) is, therefore, investigating options for managing service interactions with deferred donors to maintain positive relationships. While public research institutes in Australia have established independent research donor registries, other countries provide programmes allowing deferred donors to donate blood for research via blood collection agencies. This study examined attitudes towards donating blood for research use in a sample of permanently deferred Australian donors. Materials and methods Donors permanently deferred because of a risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (n=449) completed a postal survey that examined attitudes towards research donation. Results The majority of participants were interested in donating blood for research (96%), and joining a registry of research donors (93%). Participants preferred to donate for transfusion or clinical research, and were willing to travel large distances. Results indicated that positive attitudes towards the Blood Service would be extended if the opportunity to donate blood was provided. These findings indicate a desire for continued engagement with the Blood Service despite deferral. Discussion Donating blood for research is a potential way of maintaining positive relationships with permanently deferred donors which also benefits the health research community. Through maintaining positive relationships with deferred donors, positive word-of-mouth activity can be stimulated. Further work is needed to determine the feasibility of implementing research donation through the Blood Service in Australia. PMID:26674813

  10. 77 FR 35408 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Opinions and Perspectives About the Current Blood Donation... (United States)


    ... Perspectives About the Current Blood Donation Policy for Men Who Have Sex With Men SUMMARY: Under the... federal blood donation policy for men who have sex with men. Two of the written comments supported the...: Opinions and Perspectives about the Current Blood Donation Policy for Men Who Have Sex with Men. Type...

  11. Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices, and Factors Associated with Voluntary Blood Donation among University Students in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania (United States)

    Elias, Elionora; Philemon, Rune N.; Damian, Damian J.; Msuya, Sia E.


    Background. Understanding the knowledge and awareness of blood donation among potential blood donors in the population, like young people, and the associated attitudes and practices is important. Methodology. This was a cross-sectional study whereby a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information from the consenting participants. Results. A total of 422 participants were enrolled. Their mean age was 24.2 (SD 3.6) years. Of the 422, 30% have ever donated blood. 55% of those who had ever donated were repeated blood donors. Majority of the participants (93%) had positive attitudes towards blood donation and 88% were willing to donate in the future. Factors that were significantly associated with ever donating blood were male gender, knowing a person who has donated blood, knowledge of the amount of blood donated, willingness to donate in the future, and not expecting any postdonation reward. Discussion. High awareness, positive attitude, and high intention to donate in the future should be used to underscore the need to educate the young people on the value of blood donation in saving lives and to give them correct information on overall requirements for blood donation. PMID:28070449

  12. Procedure for action in the donation of umbilical cord blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Herrera Gómez


    Full Text Available Stem cells are candidates for donation and transplantation in certain diseases, such as treatment of choice. Stem cells from umbilical cord blood are of particular interest as a gift, for many reasons. It should be noted that the umbilical cord blood is a single, limited source of hematopoietic progenitor cells, and the eventual success of a transplant, cellular viability and retained sample are critical, so the extraction process transport and cryopreservation must be performed under strict quality control criteria. Objective: To describe the procedure extacción umbilical cord blood to be carried out in units of delivery, to ensure quality results.

  13. Blood hero: An application for encouraging the blood donation by applying gamification. (United States)

    Domingos, Daniela C L; Lima, Luis F S G; Messias, Thiago F; Feijo, Jose V L; Diniz, Anthony A R; Soares, Heliana B


    There is a strong need for actions to supply the blood demand in the World. Based on this fact, it was designed an application, named `Blood Hero', by applying the `gamification' concept, which allows users to be rewarded by social acts related to the blood donation. It takes advantage of the application of mobile devices, implementing a specific social network, to attract and retain blood donators. This application makes possible an interaction between users and blood centers, and is being tested aiming at evaluating its acceptance and impact in bloodstocks.

  14. Factors associated with positive attitude towards blood donation among medical students. (United States)

    Gazibara, Tatjana; Kovacevic, Nikolina; Maric, Gorica; Kurtagic, Ilma; Nurkovic, Selmina; Kisic-Tepavcevic, Darija; Pekmezovic, Tatjana


    The aim of this study was to assess attitudes and practice of blood donation among medical students. Medical students were recruited at Medical Faculty, University of Belgrade, Serbia. Of 973 students, 38.4% of freshmen and 41.4% of final year students have donated blood (χ(2) = 0.918, p = 0.186). Blood donors had significantly more positive attitude towards some aspects of blood donation. Being female, residing in a city other than the capital and previous blood donation experience were independent predictors of positive attitude towards being a blood donor to an unknown person. Efforts are required to augment blood donor pool among future physicians.

  15. Drones a Safe Way to Transport Blood (United States)

    ... page: Drones a Safe Way to Transport Blood: Study Finding ... t seem to suffer damage when transported by drones, researchers report. The findings lend support to advocates ...

  16. How safe is blood, really? (United States)

    Klein, Harvey G


    Blood is safer than it has ever been, however the progression of transfusion from dangerous intervention to reliable supportive care been non-linear. Disparities resulting from geography, economy, and social class persist. Some risks are known, others are unknown but predictable, and still others may be totally unpredictable. Among the known risks are infectious and immunologic events that can be calculated per unit of blood transfused. These risks vary by component. Among the unknown risks are the potential for emerging pathogens transmitted by blood and for processing or storage lesions to result in short or long-term toxicity. National registries provide some reassurance that transfusion may not affect mortality significantly beyond the first few weeks after administration. Nevertheless, transmission of novel pathogens, repeated allogeneic stimulation, and infusion of cytokines or chemokines may have unrecognized consequences. Blood safety can be effected dramatically with small investment in developing countries. In the developed world, technologies such as pathogen inactivation, antigen camouflage, component substitutes, or cell expansion promise relatively small advances in safety at substantial cost. No strategy guarantees zero-risk.

  17. Motivating Factors and Potential Deterrents to Blood Donation in High School Aged Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Finck


    Full Text Available Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. The survey instrument asked the students to rate several potential motivating factors in their importance in the decision to donate blood and several potential deterring factors in their future decision whether or not to donate blood again. The survey also asked the students to rate the desirability of several potential incentives. Results. Motivating factors that reflected prosocial, empathetic, and altruistic thoughts and beliefs were rated highly by students. Pain from phlebotomy was most commonly chosen as potential deterrent. Movie tickets and cookies/snacks at the drive were rated as the most attractive incentives. Conclusion. High school aged blood donors are similar to other donor groups in their expressed motives for donating blood. This group may be unique in the factors that deter them from donating and in their preferences for different incentives.

  18. The ethics of blood donation: does altruism suffice? (United States)

    Campbell, Alastair V; Tan, Cecilia; Boujaoude, F Elias


    Is the recommendation of the WHO, endorsed by all member states, that all blood donations should be voluntary and non-compensated ethically coherent and realizable in practice? In a recent paper, Farrugia et al have argued for a plurality of both compensated and non-compensated systems, claiming that, from both an ethical and practical perspective, the classical concept of the 'the gift relationship', advocated over 40 years ago by Richard Titmuss, is unnecessary and inadequate. This paper focuses on the ethical aspects of this debate, considering the concepts of altruism, reciprocity and social solidarity as they apply to the procurement of blood and blood products, as well as evidence regarding safety of different sources of blood and the motivations of regular donors. It concludes with a discussion of the view summarized in a recent publication by Campbell (2009), that, although the body may be monetized, doing so would result in a loss of human value.

  19. Ethical challenges in voluntary blood donation in Kerala, India. (United States)

    Choudhury, L P; Tetali, S


    The National Blood Policy in India relies heavily on voluntary blood donors, as they are usually assumed to be associated with low levels of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs). In India, it is mandatory to test every unit of blood collected for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS, syphilis and malaria. Donors come to the blood bank with altruistic intentions. If donors test positive to any of the five infections, their blood is discarded. Although the blood policy advocates disclosure of TTI status, donors are not, in practice, informed about their results. The onus is on the donor to contact the blood bank. Out of approximately 16 000 donations in the past 2 years, 438 tested positive for TTI, including 107 for HIV. Only 20% of the donors contacted the blood bank; none of them were HIV positive. Disclosure by blood banks of TTI status by telephone or mail has resulted in serious consequences for some donors. Health providers face an ethical dilemma, in the absence of proper mechanisms in place for disclosure of test results, regarding notification to donors who may test positive but remain ignorant of their TTI status. Given the high cost of neglecting to notify infected donors, the authors strongly recommend the use of rapid tests before collecting blood, instead of the current practice, which takes 3 h to obtain results, and disclosure of results directly to the donor by a counsellor, to avoid dropouts and to ensure confidentiality.

  20. Legal and ethical issues in safe blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaram Chandrashekar


    Full Text Available Legal issues play a vital role in providing a framework for the Indian blood transfusion service (BTS, while ethical issues pave the way for quality. Despite licensing of all blood banks, failure to revamp the Drugs and Cosmetic Act (D and C Act is impeding quality. Newer techniques like chemiluminescence or nucleic acid testing (NAT find no mention in the D and C Act. Specialised products like pooled platelet concentrates or modified whole blood, therapeutic procedures like erythropheresis, plasma exchange, stem cell collection and processing technologies like leukoreduction and irradiation are not a part of the D and C Act. A highly fragmented BTS comprising of over 2500 blood banks, coupled with a slow and tedious process of dual licensing (state and centre is a hindrance to smooth functioning of blood banks. Small size of blood banks compromises blood safety. New blood banks are opened in India by hospitals to meet requirements of insurance providers or by medical colleges as this a Medical Council of India (MCI requirement. Hospital based blood banks opt for replacement donation as they are barred by law from holding camps. Demand for fresh blood, lack of components, and lack of guidelines for safe transfusion leads to continued abuse of blood. Differential pricing of blood components is difficult to explain scientifically or ethically. Accreditation of blood banks along with establishment of regional testing centres could pave the way to blood safety. National Aids Control Organisation (NACO and National Blood Transfusion Council (NBTC deserve a more proactive role in the licensing process. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA needs to clarify that procedures or tests meant for enhancement of blood safety are not illegal.

  1. A Jurisprudential Study on Blood and Organ Donation after Execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Reza Mohaghegh


    Full Text Available Organ transplantation and blood donation are the only way of life for many patients. They are considered as philanthropic methods and important indices for social obligation and participation. The issue of blood and organ donation of a person sentenced to death has close relation with the principles of Islamic jurisprudence. It is a lawful act for a Muslim to transplant by using his organs or the organs of animals and alive corpse of non-Muslim (provided that his life will not be in danger or he is satisfied in order to treat himself or to keep his life. But it is not a lawful act to use corpse of a Muslim except in emergencies so that it can save the life of another Muslim. According to religious and legal regulations, amputation of an alive human in order to transplant the amputated organ to his body or another persons` body is a lawful act provided that the donor of organ is satisfied or it is impossible to prepare an organ from other sources or transplantation is done wisely without any possibility of general breakdown or death. Execution of death penalty through organ donation is a new but influential issue to keep human life and health. Legitimacy of using this method requires exploring among jurisprudential decisions and thoughts. Famous Shi`as jurists believe that the method of execution of death penalty is not relevant and it should be done so that the least amount of suffering imposed on the body of malefactor. On the contrary, some other jurists believe that equivalence and resemblance in method of executing the judgment is depended on the committed crimes. These jurists believe that corporal integrity of the murderer will be fully authorized in the hands of blood avengers after commission of crime and they are fully authorized in execution of death penalty with regards to characteristics of committed crime. By accepting the viewpoint of these famous jurists, the necessity of equivalence and resemblance in circumstances of punishment

  2. Geographical differences in blood donation and philanthropy in the Netherlands : what role for social capital?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René; Veldhuizen, Ingrid


    The key question addressed in this paper is whether geographical differences in blood donation and philanthropy reflect differences in social capital. We do find considerable spatial variation in blood donation and philanthropy between municipalities in the Netherlands. But we do not find that blood

  3. "They don't want our blood": social inclusion and blood donation among African migrants in Australia. (United States)

    Polonsky, Michael Jay; Brijnath, Bianca; Renzaho, André M N


    The current study examines how feelings of social inclusion influence migrant communities' predisposition to donate blood, focusing specifically on Sub-Saharan African communities in Australia. We begin by explicating the theoretical links between social inclusion, citizenship and blood donation before discussing local and international perspectives of blood donation among African migrant communities. Using qualitative methods comprising nine focus group discussions, held between March and April 2010, we argue that blood donation intentions are mediated by whether or not individuals feel included in their new host society. Real and perceived discrimination experienced by African migrants in their everyday social interactions or in institutional settings can act as a barrier to blood donation. We conclude that removing such barriers, thereby increasing rates of donation in migrant communities, will help to build social capital and inclusion. Strategies for how this can be achieved are outlined.

  4. Modulation of cardiac autonomic tone in non-hypotensive hypovolemia during blood donation. (United States)

    Yadav, Kavita; Singh, Akanksha; Jaryal, Ashok Kumar; Coshic, Poonam; Chatterjee, Kabita; Deepak, K K


    Non-hypotensive hypovolemia, observed during mild haemorrhage or blood donation leads to reflex readjustment of the cardiac autonomic tone. In the present study, the cardiac autonomic tone was quantified using heart rate and blood pressure variability during and after non-hypotensive hypovolemia of blood donation. 86 voluntary healthy male blood donors were recruited for the study (age 35 ± 9 years; weight 78 ± 12 kg; height 174 ± 6 cms). Continuous lead II ECG and beat-to-beat blood pressure was recorded before, during and after blood donation followed by offline time and frequency domain analysis of HRV and BPV. The overall heart rate variability (SDNN and total power) did not change during or after blood donation. However, there was a decrease in indices that represent the parasympathetic component (pNN50 %, SDSD and HF) while an increase was observed in sympathetic component (LF) along with an increase in sympathovagal balance (LF:HF ratio) during blood donation. These changes were sustained for the period immediately following blood donation. No fall of blood pressure was observed during the period of study. The blood pressure variability showed an increase in the SDNN, CoV and RMSSD time domain measures in the post donation period. These results suggest that mild hypovolemia produced by blood donation is non-hypotensive but is associated with significant changes in the autonomic tone. The increased blood pressure variability and heart rate changes that are seen only in the later part of donation period could be because of the progressive hypovolemia associated parasympathetic withdrawal and sympathetic activation that manifest during the course of blood donation.

  5. Donation frequency, iron loss, and risk of cancer among blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Reilly, Marie; Hjalgrim, Henrik


    BACKGROUND: Long-term deleterious effects of repeated blood donations may be masked by the donors' healthy lifestyle. To investigate possible effects of blood donation and iron loss through blood donation on cancer incidence while minimizing "healthy donor effects," we made dose......-response comparisons within a cohort of Swedish and Danish blood donors. METHODS: We used a nested case-control study design, in which case patients were defined as all donors who were diagnosed with a malignancy between their first recorded blood donation and study termination (n = 10866). Control subjects (n...... = 107140) were individually matched on sex, age, and county of residence. Using conditional logistic regression, we estimated relative risks of cancer according to number of blood donations made or estimated iron loss 3-12 years before a case patient was diagnosed with cancer. All statistical tests were...

  6. Knowledge, attitude and practices of people towards voluntary blood donation in Uttarakhand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Agrawal


    Full Text Available Introduction: Blood transfusions form a crucial and irreplaceable part in the medical management of many diseases. The collection of blood from voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors from low risk populations is an important measure for ensuring the availability and safety of blood transfusion. In a state like Uttarakhand which is visited by lakhs of visitors during pilgrimage season and where natural calamities and accidents are very common, the availability of blood is of utmost importance. Aim: To find out knowledge, attitude and practices of people towards voluntary blood donation to comprehend the situation and find ways to enhance voluntary blood donation in the state of Uttarakhand. Materials and Methods: Multi stage methodology was designed to target population including general population, influencers (doctors and supporting organizations (camp organizers, State AIDS Control Society Officials who were subjected to in-depth interview using pre-structured questionnaires to assess knowledge/awareness about voluntary blood donation, factors preventing and source of knowledge about voluntary blood donation. Result: The sample population consisted of mostly men (67% in the age-group of 26-35 years. Requirement of blood and the measures to promote voluntary blood donation have a direct relationship with the total population and literacy level of the population. Awareness about blood donation, source of knowledge about blood donation, reasons for not donating blood are particularly stressed. With increase in educational level, the awareness level was also found to increase. While among illiterates 81 percent of the respondents knew about blood donation, among the post graduates the same ratio was found to be almost cent-percent. Among various reasons cited for not donating blood, lack of awareness being the most common reason. People gathered information about blood donation from several different sources with electronic media being the most

  7. Practice and Experience to Carry out Mutual Blood Donation in A City%某市互助献血工作的实践与体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彬; 廖燕; 李丽兰; 申卫东


    Mutual blood donation aid is a special blood donation model to ensure the needs of emergency and clinical medicine. The harmonization of health administrative departments, hospital transfusion departments and blood banks are needed to jointly improve the policy advocacy and mobilization of mutual donation, to develop work -flow and to implement rigorous testing of blood to ensure blood quality and safe use of blood.%互助献血是保障急救和临床医疗用血需求的一种特殊模式.需要卫生行政部门、医院输血科、血站等协调统一,共同做好互助献血的宣传与动员,并制定互助献血流程,实施血液严格检测,以确保血液质量与用血安全.

  8. Road blocks in achieving a 100% voluntary blood donation rate in the South Asian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodfield Graeme


    Full Text Available Voluntary blood donation rates are not high in the South Asian region, except in a few countries. The reasons for this are outlined and the roadblocks for improvement of the situation noted. The need for increased planning, both regionally and nationally, is emphasized and some factors that inhibit voluntary blood donation are mentioned. There is a real need to move from a system of reliance on ′replacement′ donors to a fully nonremunerated voluntary blood donation system, and the examples and lessons from successful countries should be carefully studied.

  9. A study on attitude towards blood donation among people in a rural district, Thailand. (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, V


    Blood and blood components are important in many situations. At present, there is only a donation system for blood banks to get blood in Thailand. Although the blood bank process has been founded in Thailand for many years, there is still an insufficient amount of blood for use. There are misguided attitudes on blood donation among the people in the rural areas. This study has been designed as a cross-sectional descriptive study to study attitude towards blood donation among the people in Bang Sapan District, Prachuab Kiri Khan Province, Thailand. Data from self-administered questionnaires were collected and statistical analysis was performed. We found that people in that area had a rather good attitude but this was still found in less than 50%. We found the attitude of the subjects only significantly correlated with the level of education. We concluded that improving the people's attitude on blood donation is important. We suggest that every blood bank should design a program for providing knowledge in order to improve the attitude of the people in that area. We also suggest that knowledge on blood donation should be repeatedly taught at any education level including the school system. This study can provided preliminary results for other studies.

  10. [Social marketing of blood donation: an analysis of new donors' predisposition]. (United States)

    Barboza, Stephanie Ingrid Souza; Costa, Francisco José da


    This article aims to understand the motivational factors that influence individuals to donate blood, in order to support the social marketing measures for recruiting new donors. Based on theoretical research, a structural model was developed to analyze influences and interactions of constructs in individuals' intentions to donate blood. A field survey used a structured questionnaire with a sample of 346 individuals. The analysis included descriptive analysis, evaluation of psychometric consistency, and structural equation modeling with partial least squares estimation. Fear showed a negative influence and the reference group a positive influence on individual predisposition to donate blood. This indicated that social marketing for blood donation can be more effective in encouraging new donors if it remains focused on these two factors.

  11. Whole blood and apheresis donors in Quebec, Canada: Demographic differences and motivations to donate. (United States)

    Charbonneau, Johanne; Cloutier, Marie-Soleil; Carrier, Élianne


    This study sought to compare demographics and donation motivations among plasma/platelet donors (PPDs) and whole blood donors (WBDs), in a voluntary and non-remunerated context. Motives to donate blood and demographic characteristics were collected through questionnaires completed by 795 WBDs and 473 PPDs. Comparison of WBDs and PPDs under chi-square tests showed that 17 out of 23 motivators were statistically different according to various demographic variables. These results demonstrate the existence of specific donor profiles both for WBDs and PPDs. Agencies should develop new recruitment strategies tailored to these donors, especially if they wish to convince WBDs to convert to apheresis donation.

  12. Tax policy as a lifeline: encouraging blood and organ donation through tax credits. (United States)

    Clamon, Joseph B


    This article, the second concerning the organ donation crisis, proposes the use of tax policy to encourage blood and organ donation. After critiquing the ethical and logistical problems posed by other commercial and non-commercial solutions, the author demonstrates how tax credits can be used as an effective and ethical solution to address the shortage of donors. The author also offers two model statutes that provide guidance as to how a nonrefundable tax credit for blood and organ donation might operate in the tax code.

  13. Changes in hematological indices and lymphocyte subsets in response to whole blood donation in healthy male donors. (United States)

    Borai, Anwar; Livingstone, Callum; Alsobhi, Enaam; Al Sofyani, Abeer; Balgoon, Dalal; Farzal, Anwar; Almohammadi, Mohammed; Al-Amri, Abdulafattah; Bahijri, Suhad; Alrowaili, Daad; Bassiuni, Wafaa; Saleh, Ayman; Alrowaili, Norah; Abdelaal, Mohamed


    Whole blood donation has immunomodulatory effects, and most of these have been observed at short intervals following blood donation. This study aimed to investigate the impact of whole blood donation on lymphocyte subsets over a typical inter-donation interval. Healthy male subjects were recruited to study changes in complete blood count (CBC) (n = 42) and lymphocyte subsets (n = 16) before and at four intervals up to 106 days following blood donation. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to compare quantitative variables between different visits. Following blood donation, changes in CBC and erythropoietin were as expected. The neutrophil count increased by 11.3% at 8 days (p donation, there are transient changes in lymphocyte subsets. The effect of BMI on lymphocyte subsets and the effect of this immunomodulation on the immune response merit further investigation.

  14. Effect of autologous blood donation on the central venous pressure, blood loss and blood transfusion during living donor left hepatectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bruno Jawan; Shih-Hor Wang; Chih-Che Lin; Tsan-Shiun Lin; Yueh-Wei Liu; Chao-Long Chen; Yu-Fan Cheng; Chia-Chi Tseng; Yaw-Sen Chen; Chih-Chi Wang; Tung-Liang Huang; Hock-Liew Eng; Po-Ping Liu; King-Wah Chiu


    AIM: Autologous blood donation (ABD) is mainly used to reduce the use of banked blood. In fact, ABD can be regarded as acute blood loss. Would ABD 2-3 d before operation affect the CVP level and subsequently result in less blood loss during liver resection was to be determined.METHODS: Eighty-four patients undergoing living donor left hepatectomy were retrospectively divided as group Ⅰ (GⅠ)and group Ⅱ (GⅡ) according to have donated 250-300 mL blood 2-3 d before living donor hepatectomy or not. The changes of the intraoperative CVP, surgical blood loss,blood products used and the changes of perioperative hemoglobin (Hb) between groups were analyzed and compared by using Mann-Whitney Utest.RESULTS: The results show that the intraoperative CVP changes between GⅠ (n = 35) and GⅡ (n = 49) up to graft procurement were the same, subsequently the blood loss,but ABD resulted in significantly lower perioperative Hb levels in GⅠ.CONCLUSION: Since none of the patients required any blood products perioperatively, all the predonated bloods were discarded after the patients were discharged from the hospital, It indicates that ABD in current series had no any beneficial effects, in term of cost, lowering the CVP, blood loss and reduce the use of banked blood products, but resulted in significant lower Hb in perioperative period.

  15. [Voluntariness and blood donation: Proceedings of an ethics seminar held at the National Institute for Blood Transfusion]. (United States)

    Garraud, O; Danic, B; Cartron, J-P; Chiaroni, J; Clavier, B; Cuneo, B; Guimelchain-Bonnet, M; Hermitte, M-A; Mackowiak, S; Monsellier, M; Moreau, S; Papa, K; Pelletier, B; Pottier, R; Praile, R; Saillol, A; Tissot, J-D; Vernant, J-P; Hervé, C


    Voluntariness stands for one of the four pillars of ethics in blood donation; it is, however, more related to tradition than to legislation. Because it seems necessary to apply "marketing" techniques to blood collection in order to meet the needs in blood components, both in terms of quantity and quality, one wonders if this may be at the expense of this principle of voluntariness. This seminar-belonging actually to a series of seminars in Ethics in Transfusion Medicine-aimed at questioning the possible weakness of voluntariness in the field of blood donation. To achieve this goal, specialists of numerous disciplines in medical sciences, law and humanities gathered to discuss all related issues to voluntariness in blood donation.

  16. 77 FR 10756 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Opinions and Perspectives About the Current Blood Donation... (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Opinions and... public comment on proposed data collection projects, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI...-compliance with the current MSM policy and assessing motivations for blood donation in the U.S....

  17. Response to post-donation counseling is still a challenge in outdoor voluntary blood donation camps: A survey from a tertiary care regional blood center in Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Mukherjee


    Full Text Available Background: Blood transfusion carries the risk of transmission of several infectious agents. The latest method for blood screening, nucleic acid testing is not affordable in developing countries. Aim: The study was aimed to find response to post-donation counseling for reactive markers among the voluntary blood donors donating in blood donation camps. Material and Methods: This 1 year study was conducted in 2011. Transfusion transmitted infections testing was performed by routine enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. The initial human immunodeficiency virus (HIV reactive donors who returned back to the blood bank were confidentially counseled and referred to the Integrated Counseling Cum Testing Center (ICTC. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV reactive donors were referred to the gastroenterology department for confirmation by qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR, Roche Diagnostics, Germany and followed-up. Results: Twenty seven thousand two hundred forty six 27,246 units were collected during the survey. One hundred twenty nine129 units were reactive for HIV 1 and 2, 99 were reactive for HCV, 206 for hepatitis B virus (HBV. Of these reactive donors, 138 could be personally communicated. Out of 47, 27 donors who returned for counseling were initially reactive for HIV 1 and 2, 8 for HBsAg and 12 for anti-HCV. Two were positive for HBV deoxyribonucleic acid and one was positive for HCV ribonucleic acid. The HIV positivity was detected in 1 of 27 donors at ICTC. Conclusion: The response to the post-donation counseling appears in this study to be only 34% (47/138, which is still a challenge.

  18. High Blood Pressure and Cold Remedies: Which Are Safe? (United States)

    ... counter cold remedies safe for people who have high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M. ... remedies aren't off-limits if you have high blood pressure, but it's important to make careful ...

  19. Study of knowledge and attitude among college-going students toward voluntary blood donation from north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra SK


    Full Text Available Shailesh Kumar Mishra,1 Suchet Sachdev,1 Neelam Marwaha,1 Ajit Avasthi21Department of Transfusion Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, IndiaIntroduction: The study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of college-going students toward voluntary blood donation and to bring out and compare the reasons for donating or not donating blood.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,000 college-going students after taking their consent for participation using a prevalidated, self-administered, structured questionnaire after its content and construct validation.Results: The difference in the means of the level of knowledge among the donor (mean: 14.71±2.48 and nondonor students (mean: 11.55±2.82 was statistically significant. There was significant impact of previous blood donation on the level of knowledge in donor students. The attitude toward blood donation was more positive among blood donor as compared to nondonor students, and the difference in their means was statistically significant. About one in two (45.8% college-going students fear that either they are not fit enough to donate blood (26.8% or that they will become weak (19% after blood donation. Almost one in four (27.4% have fear of needle pain; therefore, they do not come forward for blood donation.Interpretation and conclusion: The most significant reason hindering blood donation comes out to be related to health of the individual donor. The findings of this study conclude that the national targets of voluntary blood donation could be better met with specific blood donor information, education, motivation, and recruitment strategies focusing on the myths and misconceptions prevalent in the donor demographic area of that particular region, specifically targeting high-school children in countries developing a volunteer donor base.Keywords: knowledge, attitude, voluntary blood

  20. Effect of blood donation-mediated volume reduction on regional right ventricular deformation in healthy subjects. (United States)

    Açar, Göksel; Alizade, Elnur; Avci, Anıl; Cakir, Hakan; Efe, Suleyman Cagan; Kalkan, Mehmet Emin; Tabakci, Mehmet Mustafa; Toprak, Cuneyt; Tanboğa, Ibrahim Halil; Esen, Ali Metin


    Strain (S) and strain rate (SR) are known to be altered in diseases associated with right ventricular (RV) pressure/volume overload and RV myocardial dysfunction; however determinants of S/SR are incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of blood donation-mediated volume reduction on regional RV deformation in healthy young adults. Study population was composed of 61 consecutive healthy subjects who were volunteers for blood donation. All underwent standard echocardiography and two-dimensional S and SR imaging by speckle tracking before and after 450 mL blood donation. We found no change in RV lateral wall SR in all three segments. However, the S in the apical and mid segments of the RV lateral wall immediately decreased after blood donation [-26.2 ± 3.3 vs. -23.2 ± 3.3 % (p subjects caused a regional difference in RV longitudinal deformation with the lower mid and apical S that was related to parameters of volume load severity. However, RV systolic SR was found to be resistant to the effects of volume depletion.

  1. Blood Donation and Citizenship Education. An approach from service learning and the Theory of Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. PUIG ROVIRA


    Full Text Available The altruistic donation of blood recommended by the World Health Organisation and carried out through blood banks not only contributes to providing the health system with an indispensable therapeutic element, it is also a means of fostering social integration and educating for citizenship. Within this general context, the article begins by arguing why altruistic donation is better than buying and selling blood and why the gift theory – developed by sociology on the basis of the work by Marcel Mauss – more than justifies the possibility of meeting the demand for blood in this way. On the basis of these considerations it can be said that blood banks are social institutions that perform three basic functions: technical, civic and educational. The article continues by examining the educational project undertaken by the Blood and Tissue Bank of Catalonia, which consists in a programme based on the methodology of service learning and which invites young people to cultivate and develop a communicative approach to promoting the altruistic donation of blood in their neighbourhood. The article concludes by evaluating the consolidation, effectiveness and degree of satisfaction of the project, and suggesting that this model can be used to form the basis of ideas for educational proposals of other social institutions.

  2. Possibility of enhanced risk of retinal neovascularization in repeated blood donors: blood donation and retinal alteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastmanesh R


    Full Text Available Reza RastmaneshDepartment of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Tehran, IranAbstract: Repeated blood donors manifest clinical, subclinical, and biochemical signs of iron deficiency anemia, have significantly higher erythropoietin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF concentrations, and decreased tissue oxygen saturation, oxygenated tissue hemoglobin, and regional cerebral oxygen saturation. Erythropoietin and VEGF are potent retinal angiogenic factors which may initiate and promote the retinal angiogenesis process independently or simultaneously. Increases in circulating levels of erythropoietin and VEGF are proportionate to the levels of hematocrit, hypoxemia, and tissue hypoxia. It is suggested that higher erythropoietin production following iron deficiency anemia-induced chronic hypoxemia/hypoxia may, hypothetically, enhance the risk of retinal angiogenesis and/or neovascularization, possibly by inducing hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha, which consequently upregulates genes stimulating angiogenesis, resulting in formation of a new vasculature, possibly by modulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling in the retina. Implications of this hypothesis cover erythropoietin doping, chronic hypoxia, and hypoxemic situations, such as angiogenesis-related cardiac and pulmonary diseases.Keywords: repeated blood donation, erythropoietin, retinal neovascularization, vascular endothelial growth factor, hypoxia

  3. [Digital marketing: what place does it have in blood donation?]. (United States)

    Guedj, A


    Blood transfusion arose from the actions of medical doctors and has to answer to the increasing evolution of the blood product. To answer this vital need, marketing intervenes with the implementation of strategy and a multi-channel campaign. The emergence, acquisition and evolution of new information technologies in today's society require that marketing and communication professionals use of digital marketing in their relational initiatives and the promotion of the gift of life.

  4. Behavior of the hepatitis C in blood donaters in the Sancti Spiritus province. 2008 -2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Quesada Concepción


    Full Text Available Considering the importance of the viral hepatitis type C (VHC as a health problem in the world and in Cuba and its transmission that include as a fundamental way the blood. A descriptive reseach was done with the objective of determining the behaviour of the blood donaters carrier of the hepatitis C virus in the Provincial Blood Bank of Sancti Spiritus in the period between January 1st, 2006 to december 31st, 2008. The sample was conformed by 312 donaters with positive diagnosis of Hepatitis C. Different variables were used such as: prevailing, age, sex, race and residence municipality. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus was of (8,95 x 1000 donants, it prevailed the male sex (95,5 %, the age group between 36-40 years (22,6 % and the white race (55,9%; Sancti Spiritus municipality was which gave more cases. The prevailing of viral hepatitis type c was high in blood donaters of Sanct Spiritus province wich constituted a real health problem.

  5. Umbilical cord blood banking: from personal donation to international public registries to global bioeconomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrini C


    Full Text Available Carlo Petrini Italian National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy Abstract: The procedures for collecting voluntarily and freely donated umbilical cord blood (UCB units and processing them for use in transplants are extremely costly, and the capital flows thus generated form part of an increasingly pervasive global bioeconomy. To place the issue in perspective, this article first examines the different types of UCB biobank, the organization of international registries of public UCB biobanks, the optimal size of national inventories, and the possibility of obtaining commercial products from donated units. The fees generally applied for the acquisition of UCB units for transplantation are then discussed, and some considerations are proposed regarding the social and ethical implications raised by the international network for the importation and exportation of UCB, with a particular emphasis on the globalized bioeconomy of UCB and its commerciality or lack thereof. Keywords: cord blood banking, economy, ethics, stem cells, transplantation

  6. The effects of information, social and financial incentives on voluntary undirected blood donations: evidence from a field experiment in Argentina. (United States)

    Iajya, Victor; Lacetera, Nicola; Macis, Mario; Slonim, Robert


    In many low- and middle-income countries blood donations per capita are substantially lower than in advanced economies. In these countries blood supply is mostly collected through directed donations from relatives and friends to individuals needing transfusions or to replace blood used in emergencies. The World Health Organization considers this method of blood supply inefficient compared to undirected voluntary donations. To examine methods to motivate undirected voluntary donations, we ran a large-scale, natural field experiment in Argentina, testing the effectiveness of information, social and financial incentives. We find that only higher-valued financial incentives generated more donations, increasing with the value of the reward. These incentives did not create adverse selection in the safety or usability of the donated blood. We discuss the implications of our findings for researchers interested in understanding motivations for pro-social behavior and for health agencies and policymakers concerned with the current and growing shortages in blood supply in low- and middle-income countries.

  7. Impact of Elevated Hemoglobin and Serum Protein on Vasovagal Reaction from Blood Donation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Odajima

    Full Text Available We conducted a cross-sectional study to elucidate factors contributing to vasovagal reaction (VVR, the most frequent side effect following whole blood and apheresis donations. Complications recorded at the collection sites after voluntary donations by the Japanese Red Cross Tokyo Blood Center (JRC, in the 2006 and 2007 fiscal years, were analyzed by both univariate analysis and the multivariate conditional logistic regression model. Of 1,119,716 blood donations over the full two years, complications were recorded for 13,320 donations (1.18%, among which 67% were VVR. There were 4,303 VVR cases which had sufficient information and could be used for this study. For each VVR case, two sex- and age-matched controls (n = 8,606 were randomly selected from the donors without complications. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI, predonation blood pressure, pulse and blood test results, including total protein, albumin, and hemoglobin, were compared between the VVR group and the control group. In univariate analysis, the VVR group was significantly younger, with a lower BMI, higher blood pressure and higher blood protein and hemoglobin levels than the control group (p<0.001. Furthermore, blood protein and hemoglobin levels showed dose-dependent relationships with VVR incidences by the Cochran-Armitage trend test (p<0.01. For both sexes, after adjusting for confounders with the multivariate conditional logistic regression model, the higher than median groups for total protein (male: OR 1.97; 95%CI 1.76,-2.21; female: OR 2.29; 95%CI 2.05-2.56, albumin (male: 1.75; 1.55-1.96; female: 1.76; 1.57-1.97 and hemoglobin (male: 1.98; 1.76-2.22; female: 1.62; 1.45-1.81 had statistically significant higher risk of VVR compared to the lower than median groups. These elevated serum protein and hemoglobin levels might offer new indicators to help understand VVR occurrence.

  8. Impact of Elevated Hemoglobin and Serum Protein on Vasovagal Reaction from Blood Donation (United States)

    Tanba, Taiko; Yoshinaga, Kentaro; Motoji, Toshiko; Munakata, Masaya; Nakajima, Kazunori; Minami, Mutsuhiko


    We conducted a cross-sectional study to elucidate factors contributing to vasovagal reaction (VVR), the most frequent side effect following whole blood and apheresis donations. Complications recorded at the collection sites after voluntary donations by the Japanese Red Cross Tokyo Blood Center (JRC), in the 2006 and 2007 fiscal years, were analyzed by both univariate analysis and the multivariate conditional logistic regression model. Of 1,119,716 blood donations over the full two years, complications were recorded for 13,320 donations (1.18%), among which 67% were VVR. There were 4,303 VVR cases which had sufficient information and could be used for this study. For each VVR case, two sex- and age-matched controls (n = 8,606) were randomly selected from the donors without complications. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), predonation blood pressure, pulse and blood test results, including total protein, albumin, and hemoglobin, were compared between the VVR group and the control group. In univariate analysis, the VVR group was significantly younger, with a lower BMI, higher blood pressure and higher blood protein and hemoglobin levels than the control group (p<0.001). Furthermore, blood protein and hemoglobin levels showed dose-dependent relationships with VVR incidences by the Cochran-Armitage trend test (p<0.01). For both sexes, after adjusting for confounders with the multivariate conditional logistic regression model, the higher than median groups for total protein (male: OR 1.97; 95%CI 1.76,-2.21; female: OR 2.29; 95%CI 2.05–2.56), albumin (male: 1.75; 1.55–1.96; female: 1.76; 1.57–1.97) and hemoglobin (male: 1.98; 1.76–2.22; female: 1.62; 1.45–1.81) had statistically significant higher risk of VVR compared to the lower than median groups. These elevated serum protein and hemoglobin levels might offer new indicators to help understand VVR occurrence. PMID:26894814

  9. 献血者献血意愿及献血服务的Logistic回归研究%Donate willingness of blood donors and logistic regression to study blood donation service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    ObjectiveExplore the donors of blood donation willingness and blood stations of zaozhuang services,to promote the sustainable development of unpaid blood donation.MethodsWith the method of questionnaire survey,from March to August in 2015,the basic situation of blood donors,blood donation,blood donors intend,source of information for blood donation knowledge,attitude to blood donation behavior,such as blood donation service for questionnaire survey. ResultsThis study as a sample,a total of 2 860 blood donors for the questionnaire survey,get 2 759 valid questionnaire responses received. Blood donors different gender,age,educational level,occupation,monthly income(yuan),the number of blood donation form than have significant difference(P<0.05)."Compassion" is the main blood donors will. Blood donation knowledge information sources are mainly "radio and television". Logistic regression analysis showed that sex,blood donation willingness,attitude,service is the main reason affecting the blood donors and respectively. ConclusionZaozhuang gender and blood donors blood donation willingness is the main reason for the effect of blood donation,blood stations staff service attitude is also the main reason for the effect of blood donation and blood environment.%目的:探讨献血者意愿和血站的献血服务,推动无偿献血工作的可持续发展。方法采用问卷调查的方式,于2015年3月—8月对来我站献血者的基本情况、献血经历、献血者意愿、获取献血知识的信息来源、献血服务等方面进行问卷调查。结果本研究共抽取2860献血者作为样本进行了问卷调查,得到2759份有效问卷。献血者不同性别、年龄、文化程度、职业、人月收入(元)、献血次数的构成比有显著性差异(P<0.05)。“奉献爱心”是献血者最主要的意愿。获取献血知识信息来源主要是“广播电视”。Logistic回归分析表明,性别、献血意愿、服务态度

  10. Evaluation of Intervention on Voluntary Blood Donation among 1st Prof Medical and Dental Students of Index Medical College, Indore (MP, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Bachhotiya, V K Arora, Piyusha Mahashabde


    Methods: Among 209 students (125 MBBS, 84 BDS a questionnaire was administered followed by participants’ visit to the hospital blood donation centre where a short interactive awareness session was organized. The willingness to donate blood was noted at the end of the session. Results: All the participants had lack of knowledge regarding blood donation with no difference between male and female. The proportion of male blood donors was 36 (36.7% while 9 (8.2% female students had donated blood so far. At first, a total of 88 students were willing to donate blood, including those 45 who had earlier done it. Out of the 164 students who did not donate blood earlier, 24 (14.6% had no support from family, 16 (9.75% were afraid of needle prick, 34 (20.7% had fear of becoming weak after blood donation and 8 (4.8% were afraid of contracting any disease through needle prick. After the awareness session, a total of 196 students (93.77% showed willingness to donate blood and the change was statistically significant. Conclusion: The knowledge and practice of voluntary blood donation among the study participants was found much better than the results of previous studies [7] and the awareness session-cum-visit to the blood donation centre fetched very high level of willingness. This implies the im-portance of regular intervention which can be most easily and successfully carried out by the teaching faculties in the medical college.

  11. [Antipublic antibodies and pregnancy: use of iron sucrose in autologous blood donation with cryopreservation]. (United States)

    Bayoumeu, F; Vial, F; Zaccabri, A; Agullès, O; Laxenaire, M C


    An autologous blood donation with cryopreservation in a pregnant woman with natural antibody against a high frequency alloantigen is reported. A natural anti Gerbich antibody and a rare erythrocyte phenotype at high risk of polyimmunization was discovered during the third month of pregnancy. This leads to recommend the constitution of an autologous blood reserve. Before first sampling a moderate iron deficiency anaemia (10.3 g.dL-1) was treated with 600 mg of intravenous iron sucrose. Four blood packs of 350 mL were taken; after every sampling 200 mg of iron sucrose were injected intravenously. No maternal or foetal adverse effects occurred. Five weeks before delivery, an autologous blood reserve consisting in 4 cryopreserved red cells packs and 4 fresh frozen plasma was constituted. Epidural analgesia was used for delivery. No haemorrhage occurred. The reserve was not used and remained available for future use (one year for fresh frozen plasma and without limit for red cells).

  12. Applying self-determination theory to the blood donation context: The blood donor competence, autonomy, and relatedness enhancement (Blood Donor CARE) trial. (United States)

    France, Christopher R; France, Janis L; Carlson, Bruce W; Frye, Victoria; Duffy, Louisa; Kessler, Debra A; Rebosa, Mark; Shaz, Beth H


    The Blood Donor Competency, Autonomy, and Relatedness Enhancement (Blood Donor CARE) project was designed as a practical application of self-determination theory to encourage retention of first-time donors. Self-determination theory proposes that people are more likely to persist with behaviors that are internally-motivated, and that externally-motivated behavior can evolve and become internalized given the appropriate socio-environmental conditions. According to self-determination theory, motivation to engage in blood donation may become increasingly self-determined if the behavior satisfies fundamental human needs for competence (a sense of self-efficacy to achieve specific goals), autonomy (a sense of volitional control over one's behavior), and relatedness (a sense of connection to a larger group). The primary aim of this randomized controlled trial is to examine the effect of competence, autonomy, and/or relatedness interventions on donor retention. Using a full factorial design, first-time donors will be assigned to a control condition or one of seven intervention conditions. Donation competence, autonomy, and relatedness, along with additional constructs associated with return donation, will be assessed before and after the intervention using online surveys, and donation attempts will be tracked for one-year using blood center donor databases. We hypothesize that, compared to the control condition, the interventions will increase the likelihood of a subsequent donation attempt. We will also examine intervention-specific increases in competence, autonomy, and relatedness as potential mediators of enhanced donor retention. By promoting first-time donor competence, autonomy, and relatedness our goal is to enhance internal motivation for giving and in so doing increase the likelihood of future donation.

  13. [Introducing marketing strategies and techniques into the field of voluntary blood donation, to meet the rise in blood demand]. (United States)

    Pesavento, S; Bégué, L


    Social marketing uses marketing principles and techniques to induce a target audience to voluntary accept, reject, change or abandon a behaviour for the benefit of individuals, groups, or society as a whole. Thus, individual or societal gain is the primary goal of social marketing. This kind of marketing is frequently used in the United States or in Canada in several fields such as healthcare, social work, or the environment. In 2008, we introduced these strategies and techniques in the field of blood donation in France. This article describes what has been achieved in the last three years and outlines the main steps in the social marketing planning process: analyzing the social marketing environment, defining target audiences and objectives, building and implementing strategies and action plans, evaluating and monitoring. On the way to self-sufficiency, while respecting donors, social marketing is additional to the work done by the blood collection staffs, communication teams, and volunteers. Social marketing is a complementary tool to the work done by the blood collection staff, communication teams and blood donation organizations and can help to meet the challenge of self-sufficiency while still allowing for the privacy and rights of donors.

  14. Screening of Blood Donations for Zika Virus Infection - Puerto Rico, April 3-June 11, 2016. (United States)

    Kuehnert, Matthew J; Basavaraju, Sridhar V; Moseley, Robin R; Pate, Lisa L; Galel, Susan A; Williamson, Phillip C; Busch, Michael P; Alsina, Jose O; Climent-Peris, Consuelo; Marks, Peter W; Epstein, Jay S; Nakhasi, Hira L; Hobson, J Peyton; Leiby, David A; Akolkar, Pradip N; Petersen, Lyle R; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda


    Transfusion-transmitted infections have been documented for several arboviruses, including West Nile and dengue viruses (1). Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that has been identified as a cause of congenital microcephaly and other serious brain defects (2), became recognized as a potential threat to blood safety after reports from a 2013-2014 outbreak in French Polynesia. Blood safety concerns were based on very high infection incidence in the population at large during epidemics, the high percentage of persons with asymptomatic infection, the high proportion of blood donations with evidence of Zika virus nucleic acid upon retrospective testing, and an estimated 7-10-day period of viremia (3). At least one instance of transfusion transmission of Zika virus has been documented in Brazil after the virus emerged there, likely in 2014 (4). Rapid epidemic spread has followed to other areas of the Americas, including Puerto Rico.

  15. Low transfusion transmission of hepatitis E among 25,637 single-donation, nucleic acid-tested blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harritshøj, Lene H.; Holm, Dorte K.; Sækmose, Susanne G.;


    nucleic acid test with a 95% detection probability of 7.9 IU/mL. HEV-positive samples were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction and genotyped. Transmission was evaluated among recipients of HEV RNA-positive blood components. Phylogenetic analyses compared HEV sequences from blood donors...... was investigated among Danish blood donors, and the prevalence of HEV transfusion-transmitted infection (TTI) was investigated among recipients. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Samples from 25,637 consenting donors collected during 1 month in 2015 were screened retrospectively using an individual-donation HEV RNA...... immune response could not be excluded. Phylogenetic analysis showed relatively large sequence differences between HEV from donors, symptomatic patients, and swine. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an HEV RNA prevalence of 0.04% in Danish blood donations, all HEV-positive donations carried low viral loads...

  16. Interviews with anti-HIV-positive individuals detected through the systematic screening of blood donations: consequences on predonation medical interview. (United States)

    Lefrère, J J; Elghouzzi, M H; Paquez, F; N'Dalla, J; Nubel, L


    This study is based upon interviews with 74 individuals found to be human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive through the screening of blood donations between January 1988 and December 1990. The donation history and the risk factor of HIV infection were established. Questions about the use of blood donation as a diagnostic test and on the notion of a predonation medical interview evoking the risk factor were asked. The majority of the individuals had a risk factor of HIV infection and had given their blood for serological testing. This data can help to adapt the predonation medical interview to the present epidemiological context of HIV infection. The improvement of this interview will contribute to the decrease of the residual transfusional risk of HIV infection.

  17. Viable Bacteria Associated with Red Blood Cells and Plasma in Freshly Drawn Blood Donations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian; Magnussen, Karin; Enevold, Christian;


    the oral cavity, and to determine the distribution of bacteria revealed in plasma and in the red blood cell (RBC)-fraction. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Blood were separated into plasma and RBC-suspensions, which were incubated anaerobically or aerobically for 7 days on trypticase soy blood agar (TSA......OBJECTIVES: Infection remains a leading cause of post-transfusion mortality and morbidity. Bacterial contamination is, however, detected in less than 0.1% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from......) or blue lactose plates. For identification colony PCR was performed using primers targeting 16S rDNA. SETTING: Blood donors attending Capital Region Blood Bank, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Hvidovre, Denmark, October 29th to December 10th 2013. PARTICIPANTS: 60 donors (≥50 years old...

  18. Investigation and Analysis of Mutual Blood Donation in A City%某市互助献血情况调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁日美; 李彬; 曾少红; 姚琳


    According to" Mutual blood donation registration form of Nanning", we intended to investigate the development of mutual blood donoation in Nanning City. The mutual blood donation is a beneficial supplement to voluntary unpaid blood donation. Blood center should be strictly control the direction of mutual assistance, regulate flow of mutual blood donation in order to ensure blood safety.%依据,了解南宁市互助献血开展情况.指出互助献血是志愿无偿献血的有益补充.血站应严格把握互助献血方向,规范互助献血流程,以确保血液安全.

  19. “Well done, CERN!” A big thank you to all those who donated their blood

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department


    The blood donation clinic held on 27 July resulted in a total of 147 units collected from 171 volunteers, including 64 first-time donors. The Swiss blood bank CTS is grateful for the support and dedication of the CERN personnel, particularly as blood stocks tend to be at their lowest during the summer period. The CTS and the Medical Service wish to express their gratitude to all the donors for their generosity, and to Novae (Restaurant 1) for the refreshments it provided free of charge for the donors. Forthcoming dates for blood collection at CERN are: 2 November 2011, 15 March 2012 and 25 July 2012.

  20. Survey and Analysis of Willingness of Blood Donation without Payment in Public%对公众无偿献血意愿的调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:了解公众对无偿献血的意愿和需求,为采供血机构制订宣传和招募方案提供参考。方法分别设计针对单位和个人的A、B两种问卷调查表,向该市的大部分企事业单位和12000名个人发放,包括已献过血的和从未献过血的,调查其已往献血的目的或不曾献血的原因及今后的献血意愿。结果大部分已献血单位的目的是“为完成指令性献血任务”,占71.4%;公众个人的献血目的以“为完成单位组织的献血任务”和“为他人奉献爱心、拯救生命”为主,分别占38.5%和37.7%。而许多单位不曾组织献血的主要原因是“工作忙抽不出献血时间”和“献血会影响本单位的正常工作”;公众个人不曾献血的原因主要是“献血可能影响本人身体健康”和“采血针穿刺时,怕痛”。结论已献过血的单位团体和个人,大部分仍会继续献血,而从未献过血的单位和个人献血意愿却不强,以观望者居多,有待针对性的宣传和动员。%Objective To know the willingness and demands of public for blood donation without payment and provide refer-ence for making the publicity and recruitment programs of the blood bank. Methods The questionnaires of A and B respec-tively aiming at unit and individual were designed, and issued to most enterprises and institutions and 12000 individuals in our city, including the persons with blood donation and without blood donation, and the blood donation aim, causes of failing to donate blood and the future blood donation willingness were surveyed. Results The aim of most blood donation unites was to complete the directive blood donation task, accounting for 71.4%, while the aim of individual is to complete the blood do-nation task organized by units and dedicate love to others and save lives, respectively accounting for 38.5%and 37.7%, and the main reasons that many units had never organized the blood donation were

  1. Giving blood donors something to drink before donation can prevent fainting symptoms: is there a physiological or psychological reason? (United States)

    Vavic, Nataša; Pagliariccio, Antonella; Bulajic, Milica; Dinić, Radovan; Marinozzi, Maria


    The vasovagal reaction has been widely studied but its anatomic and physiological nature remains uncertain. The mechanisms underlying vasovagal reaction related to blood donation are not completely understood either. Does its occurrence depend on the blood donors' physical characteristics and health variables or psychological factors? On the basis that a psychological approach considerably prevents donor reactions, the effect of fruit juice ingestion was studied in a group of 1849 first-time high-school students as a simple strategy to avoid systemic reactions at blood donation. The reasons for the psychological effect of this hydration protocol are stressed also in light of previous physiological studies on the hemodynamic effects of water or carbohydrate drinks.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness of Blood Donation Screening for Trypanosoma cruzi in Mexico (United States)

    Sánchez-González, Gilberto; Figueroa-Lara, Alejandro; Elizondo-Cano, Miguel; Wilson, Leslie; Novelo-Garza, Barbara; Valiente-Banuet, Leopoldo; Ramsey, Janine M.


    An estimated 2 million inhabitants are infected with Chagas disease in Mexico, with highest prevalence coinciding with highest demographic density in the southern half of the country. After vector-borne transmission, Trypanosoma cruzi is principally transmitted to humans via blood transfusion. Despite initiation of serological screening of blood donations or donors for T. cruzi since 1990 in most Latin American countries, Mexico only finally included mandatory serological screening nationwide in official Norms in 2012. Most recent regulatory changes and segmented blood services in Mexico may affect compliance of mandatory screening guidelines. The objective of this study was to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for total compliance of current guidelines from both Mexican primary healthcare and regular salaried worker health service institutions: the Secretary of Health and the Mexican Institute for Social Security. We developed a bi-modular model to analyze compliance using a decision tree for the most common screening algorithms for each health institution, and a Markov transition model for the natural history of illness and care. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio based on life-years gained is US$ 383 for the Secretary of Health, while the cost for an additional life-year gained is US$ 463 for the Social Security Institute. The results of the present study suggest that due to incomplete compliance of Mexico’s national legislation during 2013 and 2014, the MoH has failed to confirm 15,162 T. cruzi infections, has not prevented 2,347 avoidable infections, and has lost 333,483 life-years. Although there is a vast difference in T. cruzi prevalence between Bolivia and Mexico, Bolivia established mandatory blood screening for T.cruzi in 1996 and until 2002 detected and discarded 11,489 T. cruzi -infected blood units and prevented 2,879 potential infections with their transfusion blood screening program. In the first two years of Mexico

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of Blood Donation Screening for Trypanosoma cruzi in Mexico. (United States)

    Sánchez-González, Gilberto; Figueroa-Lara, Alejandro; Elizondo-Cano, Miguel; Wilson, Leslie; Novelo-Garza, Barbara; Valiente-Banuet, Leopoldo; Ramsey, Janine M


    An estimated 2 million inhabitants are infected with Chagas disease in Mexico, with highest prevalence coinciding with highest demographic density in the southern half of the country. After vector-borne transmission, Trypanosoma cruzi is principally transmitted to humans via blood transfusion. Despite initiation of serological screening of blood donations or donors for T. cruzi since 1990 in most Latin American countries, Mexico only finally included mandatory serological screening nationwide in official Norms in 2012. Most recent regulatory changes and segmented blood services in Mexico may affect compliance of mandatory screening guidelines. The objective of this study was to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for total compliance of current guidelines from both Mexican primary healthcare and regular salaried worker health service institutions: the Secretary of Health and the Mexican Institute for Social Security. We developed a bi-modular model to analyze compliance using a decision tree for the most common screening algorithms for each health institution, and a Markov transition model for the natural history of illness and care. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio based on life-years gained is US$ 383 for the Secretary of Health, while the cost for an additional life-year gained is US$ 463 for the Social Security Institute. The results of the present study suggest that due to incomplete compliance of Mexico's national legislation during 2013 and 2014, the MoH has failed to confirm 15,162 T. cruzi infections, has not prevented 2,347 avoidable infections, and has lost 333,483 life-years. Although there is a vast difference in T. cruzi prevalence between Bolivia and Mexico, Bolivia established mandatory blood screening for T.cruzi in 1996 and until 2002 detected and discarded 11,489 T. cruzi -infected blood units and prevented 2,879 potential infections with their transfusion blood screening program. In the first two years of Mexico's mandated

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of Blood Donation Screening for Trypanosoma cruzi in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Sánchez-González


    Full Text Available An estimated 2 million inhabitants are infected with Chagas disease in Mexico, with highest prevalence coinciding with highest demographic density in the southern half of the country. After vector-borne transmission, Trypanosoma cruzi is principally transmitted to humans via blood transfusion. Despite initiation of serological screening of blood donations or donors for T. cruzi since 1990 in most Latin American countries, Mexico only finally included mandatory serological screening nationwide in official Norms in 2012. Most recent regulatory changes and segmented blood services in Mexico may affect compliance of mandatory screening guidelines. The objective of this study was to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for total compliance of current guidelines from both Mexican primary healthcare and regular salaried worker health service institutions: the Secretary of Health and the Mexican Institute for Social Security. We developed a bi-modular model to analyze compliance using a decision tree for the most common screening algorithms for each health institution, and a Markov transition model for the natural history of illness and care. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio based on life-years gained is US$ 383 for the Secretary of Health, while the cost for an additional life-year gained is US$ 463 for the Social Security Institute. The results of the present study suggest that due to incomplete compliance of Mexico's national legislation during 2013 and 2014, the MoH has failed to confirm 15,162 T. cruzi infections, has not prevented 2,347 avoidable infections, and has lost 333,483 life-years. Although there is a vast difference in T. cruzi prevalence between Bolivia and Mexico, Bolivia established mandatory blood screening for T.cruzi in 1996 and until 2002 detected and discarded 11,489 T. cruzi -infected blood units and prevented 2,879 potential infections with their transfusion blood screening program. In the first two years

  5. Blood iron stores reduction affects lipoprotein status – a potential benefit of blood donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivoj Jadrić


    Full Text Available Aim To determine the lipoprotein proile of voluntary blood donors, and on the basis of parameters to evaluate the risk of atherosclerosis. Methods The study included voluntary blood donors of both sexes. Participants were divided into two groups. The irst group of subjects consisted of men and women in menopause (BD1. Thesecond group consisted of women in reproductive age (BD2. Analysisof concentration of lipoproteins was performed by direct determination of total cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C. From the totalserum cholesterol and concentration of lipoproteins ratios of totalcholesterol/ HDL-C ratio and LDL-C/HDL-C were calculated. Results Signiicantly higher concentration of LDL-C was obtained in the serum of BD 1, compared to LDL-C in the serum of BD 2, within the reference range. Mean concentration of HDL-C in the serum of BD 2 group was higher than the values measured in the BD group 1, without signiicant difference. The ratio of total cholesterol / HDL-C showed signiicantly higher values in the BD 1 group compared with results in the BD 2 group. Signiicantly higher values in the BD group 1 were observed for the ratio of LDL-C/HDL-C. Obtained results showed that all voluntary blood donors had a concentration of individual lipoprotein fractions in a lower risk range for atherosclerosis development. Conclusion Female voluntary blood donors in reproductive age have a more favorable lipid status in relation to the voluntary blood donors, men and women in menopause, indicating that this population of women is exposed to lower risk of developing atherosclerosis.

  6. Platelet Donation (United States)

    ... For Hospitals Home > Platelet Donation Printable Version Platelet Donation Sign Up to Donate Platelets Everything you need ... Platelets Explained in Two Minutes Why Your Platelet Donation Matters Cassie Brabb descibes how it felt to ...

  7. Attitudes, perceptions and knowledge among men who have sex with men towards the blood donation deferral policy in Israel (United States)

    Olmer, Liraz; Livnat, Yuval; Yanko, Adir; Shinar, Eilat


    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) are permanently deferred from donating blood in Israel. Pressure to change this policy exists, despite data showing higher prevalence and incidence of HIV in MSM. A survey was conducted to evaluate current knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and compliance if deferral was changed. Study design and methods Anonymous survey was published in a gay-oriented website, collecting demographic information, history of blood donation, attitudes, knowledge and compliance with permanent versus temporary deferral. Responses were analyzed given 1 point for every "yes" response (0–7 points). Student’s t-test was applied to compare differences between continuous variables. Correlations were described with the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results Responses from 492 MSM were analyzed. Average age was 31±9 years. 76% donated blood at least once, mostly for social solidarity (score of 3.2 on 1–5 scale). Tests seeking or protest scores were 1.7 and 1.6, respectively. 66% were unaware of the higher risk of HIV transmission by MSM, or the potential to infect 3 recipients. Knowledge regarding HIV transmission by blood positively correlated with knowledge regarding other routes of HIV transmission (r = 0.11; p = 0.03), age (r = 0.10; p = 0.04), and higher rate of non-compliance with the current deferral policy (OR = 1.9; p = 0.02). Activism for LGBT rights was associated with lower risk for non-adherence (OR = 0.5; p = 0.03). If temporary deferral is introduced 66% will comply with the new policy, but 23% will continue to donate as long as MSM deferral policy is in place. Conclusion A high proportion of MSM do not comply with the current lifetime deferral. This may partially change if temporary deferral is introduced. PMID:28152072

  8. Doação de sangue: uma visão de marketing Blood donation: a marketing perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Terra Ludwig


    Full Text Available Este trabalho enfatiza como o marketing pode fazer diferença no retorno do doador de sangue voluntário, pois o maior desafio enfrentado pelas instituições de saúde é manter e incrementar a doação de sangue. Nesse contexto, compreender a motivação do doador voluntário é de suma importância e os estudos apresentados demonstram que diversas variáveis são importantes na doação de sangue. O grande número de pacientes necessitados de transfusão de sangue e a carência de sangue no setor justificam o interesse por este estudo, não só do ponto de vista do doador, mas, sobretudo, das instituições. Além disso, o reconhecimento da importância das ações e da orientação para o doador é fundamental quando se pensa em estratégia de marketing. Dessa maneira, torna-se relevante para as instituições de saúde a identificação das reais necessidades e desejos do doador.This paper emphasizes how marketing can make a difference in repeat donations by volunteer blood donors, since the greatest challenge for health institutions is to maintain and increase blood donation. In this context, understanding volunteer donors' motivations is highly important, and the studies reported here demonstrate that several variables are relevant to blood donation. The huge number of patients in need of blood transfusions and the lack of sufficient blood and blood products justify the interest in this study, considering both donors' and blood banks' perspectives. Moreover, recognition of the importance of actions and orientation for donors is fundamental for developing a marketing strategy. It is thus relevant for health institutions to identify donors' actual needs and wishes.

  9. U.S. Blood Supply Safe from Zika Virus, Officials Say (United States)

    ... fullstory_164519.html U.S. Blood Supply Safe From Zika Virus, Officials Say They detail steps being taken ... to protect America's blood supply from possible new Zika virus outbreaks during the upcoming mosquito season. A ...

  10. Exploring the dynamics of the theory of planned behavior in the context of blood donation: does donation experience make a difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, I.; Ferguson, E.; Kort, W. de; Donders, R.; Atsma, F.


    BACKGROUND: This study investigates the influence of different variables from the theory of planned behavior (TPB) on intention within multiple donation categories, covering the entire range of lifetime number of donations (LND). Does the same set of variables predict intention equally strong throug

  11. 无偿献血者血液筛查策略探讨%To Explore the Screening Algorithm for Non-remunerate Voluntary Blood Donations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇宁; 阮玉琦; 苏志华


    目的 评估不同血液筛查模式对筛查效果的影响,为适应新版《血站技术操作规程》,制订适合本地区的献血者血液筛查策略提供依据.方法 选择2010~2011年上海市奉贤区血站37 136例无偿献血标本,其中预约献血标本13 693例,预约后采血标本10 389例,无预约采血标本13 054例.同时在无预约采血者中选择了2 705例在采血前先行ALT快速法,合格后再采血,分析不同的采血模式对筛查不合格率的影响.结果 无论是预约还是无预约献血,ALT为主要不合格原因.预约后献血者所有检测指标不合格率(2.70%)明显较无预约者低(5.62%),采血前筛查ALT能有效降低ALT不合格率(从6.33%降为2.88%),而预约后采血能显著降低HBsAg和抗-HCV等其他指标的不合格率(从1.85%降为0.73%).结论 对于计划性的团体无偿献血者的血液筛查,以预约献血结合采血前ALT干化学法筛查的策略为佳.%Objective To assess the effect of different blood screening algorithms on the screening results, to stipulate for a proper blood screening policy under the guidance of the new version of Blood Bank Technique Regulations of China. Methods Blood screening results of 37 136 ran-remunerate voluntary blood donations from Shanghai Fengxian Blood Bank in 2010 to 2011 were selected, among which 13 693 were pre-donated blood samples from appointment blood donors, 10 398 were donation samples from appointment blood donors, and 13 054 were donation samples from un-appointment blood donors. 2 705 donation samples from un-appointment donors with ALT pre-screened were also been selected. The blood screening results were analyzed to enclose the effect of different screening algorithms. Results Abnormal ALT were the main unqualified reasons both in appointment and in un-appointment blood donations. The unqualified rate of appointment donations (2. 70%) was significant lower than that of un-appointment donations (5. 62%). ALT

  12. 临床医护人员无偿献血知识培训针对性调查%Clinical Nurses Knowledge of Blood Donation of Training Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的了解医护人员无偿献血知识认知现状,提高对医护人员无偿献血培训的针对性,促进无偿献血事业进一步发展。方法抽取辖区内二级以上综合性医院医护人员,对其进行问卷调查,用Excel录入并进行统计分析。结果接受调查的医护人员对无偿献血基本知识掌握较差,特别是对互助献血、用血退费、血液收费知识等尤其欠缺。结论应进一步加强医护人员无偿献血知识针对性培训,改变培训重点,促进血站与医疗机构的有效沟通和合作等。%Objective To understand the cognitive status of nurses of blood donation knowledge, improve the pertinence of medical personnel training to promote voluntary blood donation, blood donation to further the development. Methods Doctors and nurses were selected more than two general hospitals, on the questionnaire survey, statistical analysis and Excel. Results Survey of medical staf on voluntary blood donation knowledge is poor, especial y for the mutual blood donation, blood, blood charges refund especial y lack of knowledge. Conclusion Should further strengthen the medical staf for training of unpaid blood donation knowledge, change the training focus, promote ef ective communication and cooperation with medical institutions such as blood.

  13. Research Progress of Preoperative Autologous Blood Donation%贮存式自体输血的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章健萍(综述); 郭建荣; 金孝岠(审校)


    随着对异体输血风险认识加深,自体输血越来越受关注。贮存式自体输血作为一种重要的血液保护策略应用于临床,它不仅能够避免异体输血带来的风险,还能够缓解我国临床用血紧张的局面。贮存式自体输血的适应证、采血原则以及其对机体重要功能的影响一直是医学界关注的焦点,积极探索其应用前景,可以使更多患者受益。%With the recognition of the risk of allogeneic blood transfusion , autologous blood transfusion has drawn more and more attention.As an important kind of blood protection strategy used in clinical ,preop-erative autologous blood donation(PABD) can not only avoid the risk caused by allogeneic blood transfusion, but also relieve the tension of clinical blood reserve in China .Indication and blood collection principle of PABD,and its effect on the body′s important function are the focus in the world medical science , and the active exploration of the application prospect will benefit more patients .

  14. Era of blood component therapy: time for mandatory pre-donation platelet count for maximizing donor safety and optimizing quality of platelets. (United States)

    Das, Sudipta Sekhar; Zaman, R U; Biswas, Dipak


    Blood bank regulatory agencies including the Drug and Cosmetics Act (DCA) of India do not mandate a predonation platelet count in whole blood donation. Mandating such practice will definitely optimize the quality of random donor platelets (RDP) in terms of platelet yield and patient therapeutic benefit. We observed poor platelet yield in RDP concentrates prepared at our center with a significant number not meeting the DCA guideline of ≥ 4.5 × 10(10) per bag processed from 450 ml of whole blood. Therefore we planned this study to evaluate the pre-donation hematological values in our blood donor population and effect of these values on the quality of platelet concentrates. The prospective study included 221 blood donors eligible for donating 450 ml of whole blood (WB). Following the departmental standard operating procedure (SOP) RDPs were prepared using the 'Top & Bottom' quadruple bag system and automated component extractor. Quality of RDP was assessed as per departmental protocol. All results were recorded and subsequently transcribed to SPSS working sheet. A significant (pblood counts has been observed after WB donation. Mean donor Hb and platelets reduced by 0.72 g/dl and 22.1 × 10(6)/ml respectively. Quality of RDPs in terms of platelet yield was significantly better (pcount was >200 × 10(6)/ml. Although platelet yield significantly correlated with the donor platelet count however quality of RDPs in terms of red cell contamination showed no correlation with the donor hematocrit. Platelet yield in random donor platelets is a concern in Eastern India. A platelet yield of 4.5 × 10(10) per bag as mandated by the DCA of India was only achieved when the donor platelet count was >200 × 10(6)/ml. Posttransfusion platelet recovery (PPR) was unsatisfactory in the transfused patient. Introduction of pre-donation platelet count in whole blood donation will maximize donor safety and optimize patient platelet transfusion management.

  15. Application of psychological consultation technique in blood donation%浅谈心理咨询技能在无偿献血工作中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Blood donors have various degrees of fears which produce an effect on their blood donation. The application of psychological consultation technique can help blood donors set up their blood donation concept. It’s vital to ensure the blood safety by effecting psychological nursing for blood donors, providing excellent blood collection service and developing more blood donors with low risk. This paper simply states the application of psychological consultation technique in blood donation.%在无偿献血的工作中,献血者有着不同程度的恐惧心理,严重影响献血行为。因此,运用心理咨询技术,帮助献血者树立正确的献血观念。对无偿献血者实施有效的心理护理,提供优质的采血服务,发展低危无偿献血者。不断建立和扩大自愿无偿献血者队伍,对保证血液安全至关重要。本文就心理咨询技能在无偿献血中的应用体会作简单地阐述。

  16. Organ Donation (United States)

    Organ donation takes healthy organs and tissues from one person for transplantation into another. Experts say that the organs ... and bone marrow Cornea Most organ and tissue donations occur after the donor has died. But some ...

  17. Blood warming, pump heating and haemolysis in low-flow extracorporeal life support; an in vitro study using freshly donated human blood. (United States)

    Kusters, R W J; Simons, A P; Lancé, M D; Ganushchak, Y M; Bekers, O; Weerwind, P W


    Low-flow extracorporeal life support can be used for cardiopulmonary support of paediatric and neonatal patients and is also emerging as a therapy for patients suffering from exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, pump heating and haemolysis have proven to negatively affect the system and outcome. This in vitro study aimed at gaining insight into blood warming, pump heating and haemolysis related to the performance of a new low-flow centrifugal pump. Pump performance in the 400-1,500 ml/min flow range was modulated using small-sized dual-lumen catheters and freshly donated human blood. Measurements included plasma free haemoglobin, blood temperature, pump speed, pump pressure, blood flow and thermographic imaging. Blood warming (ΔTmax=0.5°C) had no relationship with pump performance or haemolysis (R(2)max=0.05). Pump performance-related parameters revealed no relevant relationships with haemolysis (R(2)max=0.36). Thermography showed no relevant heat zones in the pump (Tmax=36°C). Concerning blood warming, pump heating and haemolysis, we deem the centrifugal pump applicable for low-flow extracorporeal circulation.

  18. Nucleic acid testing: Is it the only answer for safe Blood in India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Naidu


    Full Text Available Background: With the implementation of NAT in countries around the world, there is a growing pressure on the transfusion services in India to adopt NAT testing. India has about 2545 licensed Blood Centres. The Transfusion Services in India are fragmented, poorly regulated and the quality standards are poorly implemented. Blood Centres are still dependent on replacement/family donors and in most places laboratory testing for Transfusion transmitted infections is not quality assured, laboratory equipment are not calibrated and maintained, and validation of results is not carried out. Against the current scenario introducing NAT for screening of blood donors in India would pose a challenge. Aim: To study the prudence of universal NAT testing in India. Materials and Methods : A retrospective study of 5 years from 2008-2012 was undertaken to study the true reactivity of donors using WHO strategy II and III and therefore the true seroprevalence of TTI infections in the donor populations. Results : The true reactivity of the donors was much less as compared to the initially reactive donors due to the use of a well designed testing algorithm. In addition having a total voluntary blood collection along with good pre-donation counseling program also reduces the transmission of infections. Conclusions : What India essentially needs to do is religiously implement the strategies outlined in the WHO Aide-memoire. The blood should be collected only from voluntary non remunerative and repeat donors , there should be stringent donor selection with pre-donation counseling instituted. Strict implementation of quality management system, development of well defined testing startegies and strong haemovigilance system could take us a step in the right direction.

  19. Survey on Blood Donation Knowledge and Behavior among Residents in Shijiazhuang%石家庄市居民献血知识与行为调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋任浩; 何二龙; 张丽娟; 何路军; 常缨


    Objective: To find out the blood donation consciousness and behavior among Shijiazhuang residents and establish the most appropriate method for recruiting blood donors. Methods; The self-designed questionnaire survey of Shijiazhuang residents was carried out anonymously. Results; Shijiazhuang residents' knowledge on "blood donor health inspection requirement" and "blood component and function" cognitive level is relatively low The percentage of knowledge of the people in Shijiazhuang Culture Square had donated blood was higher than railway station citizen, there was the cognitive difference in different educational crowd.74.5% of the residents had donating plan; 78.3% of the residents had an idea that the blood donation motive is "cure patents"; "Blood donation guide" and "the blood donation knowledge" is the main demand of the residents. The blood donation behavior and knowledge sources have certain relevance. Conclusion; The knowledge of the related blood donation knew less, Most residents had the positive attitude and motivation. The blood center should further strengthen blood donation propaganda,improve service quality and satisfaction.%目的:了解石家庄市民献血知识与行为,为改进献血者招募工作提供参考依据.方法:采用自行设计的调查问卷对石家庄市民进行匿名调查.结果:石家庄市民对“献血者健康检查要求”和“血液组成及其功能”认知程度较低;文化广场市民对献血知识的认知程度高于火车站市民(x2=71.88,P<0.01);市民年龄与献血知识的认知呈正相关(x2=17.60,P<0.01);不同教育程度认知有差异(x2=98.60,P<0.01);有献血经历者认知程度高于无献血经历者(x2=17.83,P<0.01).74.5%的市民有献血的打算;78.3%的市民认为献血的动机是“治病救人”;“献血指引”和“献血知识”是市民主要的献血需求,献血行为与知识来源有一定相关性.结论:石家庄市民献血相关知识知晓

  20. Blood donation in China: sustaining efforts and challenges in achieving safety and availability. (United States)

    Yin, Yong-Hua; Li, Chang-Qing; Liu, Zhong


    China has entered a new phase in blood safety and availability through persistent efforts in the past decades. Based on national data from 2008 to 2012, we present a comprehensive review on the blood services ranging from policy and organization, supply, donors, screening and processing, and clinical use to government response in contemporary China. Current evidence suggests that the Chinese blood industries, after continual efforts in reforms on the legal framework and national management system, have been in a relatively steady but bottleneck stage. Although the blood industries have had an impressive track record on management and resolving problems, such as low availability, limited donors, deficient laboratory tests, shortage of blood products, and unnecessary clinical usage of blood still exist nationwide. While medical technology and services have seen a rapid increase in progress in recent years, they have not coordinated with the development of the national health care system. This article presents an analysis with detailed data, rich contents, and recent response from the Chinese government, allowing readers to appreciate how China, a country with more than 19.13% of the world's population, has long endeavored to improve safety and availability of blood. Meantime, the article sincerely welcomes the guidance on policymaking and technical assistance from the international community. Data in this article do not include those of Hong Kong, Macao, or Taiwan.

  1. 延续护理对单采血小板献血者持续献血的效果研究%Study on effects of continuing nursing on sustained blood donation of apheresis platelets donators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢丽霞; 龙雪芳; 骆小青; 林巧核


    Objective:To discuss effects of continuing nursing on sustained blood donation of first - time apheresis platelets donators. Methods:Selected 120 first - time apheresis platelets donators in our hospital from August 2014 to August 2015,and randomly divided these study objects into control group and experimental group equally;control group donors received usual nursing while experimental group donors received intervention nursing under the continuing nursing mode,which included cognitive intervention,mental intervention and behavioral intervention. Sustained blood donation conditions of both groups were assessed within one year after the interventions. The assessed fields included number of platelet donors,number of volunteers,number of successfully recruited blood donors,number of donors who donated whole - blood and platelets alternately and number of donors who no longer donated platelets. Then changes in life styles of both group donors and their masteries of relevant knowledge were observed through analysis reports,so as to know about intervention effects. Results:Within 1 year after interventions,experimental group had more sustained apheresis platelets donator,volunteers,successfully recruited do-nors,but fewer donors who donated whole - blood and platelets alternately and donors who no longer donated platelets,the differences had statistical signifi-cances(P < 0. 05). Cognitive behaviors of donors,masteries of relevant knowledge and changes in life styles were compared between both groups,and the comparisons had statistical differences(P < 0. 05). Conclusion:Continuing nursing can encourage sustained blood donations of apheresis platelets donators, help them to change unhealthy living habits and increase their compliances. It plays an active role in recruitment,call back and conservation of donors.%目的:探讨延续护理对首次单采血小板献血者持续献血的效果。方法:选取我院2014年8月~2015年8月120名首次单采血小板献血

  2. 法国无偿献血见闻及启示%Work Experience and Enlightenment of Voluntary Blood Donation in France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏鹏; 梁文飚


    The paper presented some successful work experience of French voluntary blood donation, explored the establishment of long - term mechanism of blood work oriented by government and participated in by all social sectors, as well as that of model on centralized management of blood bank, educated, mobilized and recruited the fixed blood donation team in order to promote the sustainable development of voluntary blood donation.%结合法国无偿献血工作制度见闻,介绍了法国无偿献血的先进经验:有全国统一、规范的输血服务体系;有政府的强力推动;有社会力量的广泛参与;有一套行之有效的工作方法;有独立的通联部门.并就其对我国的启示进行了总结.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of HIV screening of blood donations in Accra (Ghana)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, Marinus; Sagoe, Kwamena W. C.; Vermande, Jacobien E.; van der Schaaf, Ido P.; Adriani, Willem P. A. van der Tuuk; Torpey, Kwasi; Ansah, Justina; Mingle, Julius A. A.; Sibinga, Cees Th. Smit; Postma, Maarten J.


    Objectives: Areas with high HIV-incidence rates compared to the developed world may benefit from additional testing in blood banks and may show more favorable cost-effectiveness ratios. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of adding p24 antigen, mini pool nucleic acid amplification testing (MP-NAT),

  4. Analysis of Psychological Needs of Blood Donation and Intervention Measures for Blood Donors%献血者献血心理需求分析及干预对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟炽辉; 吴严竣; 李丽颜; 徐华馨; 陈庆恺; 何子毅


    目的:探讨献血者心理活动特点,采取合理干预措施以提高献血者招募成功率和重复献血者的比例率。方法通过随机发放调查问卷的方式收集献血者的心理活动数据,分析其心理特点及顾虑。结果在献血目的方面,首次献血者有62.73%以“功利心理”为主,重复献血者则有76.01%以“奉献心理”为主;在献血顾虑方面,首次献血者中以关注“献血安全”为主,占72.69%,重复献血者以关注“献血服务质量”为主,占77.91%。结论重视献血者心理需求和顾虑,两类献血者的献血心态有所差异,各有侧重,应针对不同类型的献血者采取不同的心理干预策略,满足他们的需求,消除其顾虑,可有效地提高献血者招募的成功率和重复献血者的比例率。%Objective To investigate the characteristics of blood donors’psychological activity,take reasonable intervention measures to improve the success rate of blood donation recruitment and the ratio of repeated blood donation.Methods The data of blood donors’psychological activity was collected by distributing questionnaires randomly,and the psychological characteristics and worries were analysed.Results In terms of the blood donation purpose,there were 62.73% of the blood donors who donate blood for the first time and take the“utility psychological”as the principal thing.There were 76.01% of the blood donors who donate blood repeatedly and take the“dedication psychological”as the principal thing.In terms of wor-ries,there was 72.69% of the blood donors who donate blood for the first time and take the“safety of blood donation”as the principal thing.There was 77.91% of the blood donors who donate blood repeatedly and take the “service quality of blood donation”as the principal thing.Conclusion The success rate of blood donation recruitment and the ratio of repeated blood donation could be effectively improved by

  5. Blood Donation and Prevalence of Bloodborne Infections in a Clinic in Luanda, Angola Donación de sangre y prevalencia de infecciones transmitidas por la sangre en una clínica de Luanda, Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Dámaso Fernádez Águila


    Full Text Available

    Background: Many African countries lack an adequate supply of safe blood and have no reliable records on the prevalence of bloodborne infections. Objectives: To characterize blood donation in a clinic in Luanda and to determine the cause of rejection of candidates to blood donation and the prevalence among them of infections to be researched. Methods: A retrospective and descriptive study was conducted at the Multiprofile Clinic in Angola. We included 8 043 candidates to blood donation who performed this activity between 2005 and 2010. The variables analyzed were: type of donor, results of laboratory tests and donor’s assessment and causes of rejection. We applied the chi-square test to determine differences between the values ​​of frequency, with a confidence interval of 95% (p <0.05. Results: 9.7% of donations were voluntary and the rest were provided by relatives. There were significant differences between the rates of rejection of candidates to donate by type of donation: 29.9% for relatives and 6.8% for volunteers. The most common cause of rejection was the positive result of the surface antigen test for hepatitis B both in relatives and in occasional volunteers. Among regular volunteers malaria and non-infectious causes prevailed. Differences in the prevalence of infections in different types of donors were demonstrated. Conclusions: The prevalence of infections that can be transmitted through blood is high. Volunteer donors present the lowest risk but they are also the smallest group of donors and the hardest to find.

    Fundamento: muchos países africanos carecen de un suministro adecuado de sangre segura y no tienen  registros fiables sobre la prevalencia de infecciones transmitidas por la sangre. Objetivos: caracterizar la donación de sangre en una clínica, determinar las causas de rechazo de candidatos


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubenilson Caldas Valois


    Full Text Available This study evaluated epidemiological factors for HCV infection associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments among candidates for blood donation (CBD in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazilian Amazon. Two definitions of HCV infection cases were used: anti-HCV positivity shown by EIA, and HCV-RNA detection by PCR. Infected and uninfected CBD completed a questionnaire about possible risk factors associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments. The information was evaluated using simple and multiple logistic regressions. Between May and November 2010, 146 (1.1% persons with anti-HCV antibodies and 106 (0.8% with HCV-RNA were detected among 13,772 CBD in Belém. Risk factors associated with HCV infection based on the EIA (model 1 and PCR (model 2 results were: use of needles and syringes sterilized at home; shared use of razors at home, sharing of disposable razors in barbershops, beauty salons etc.; and sharing manicure and pedicure material. The models of HCV infection associated with sharing perforating and cutting instruments should be taken into account by local and regional health authorities and by those of other countries with similar cultural practices, in order to provide useful information to guide political and public strategies to control HCV transmission.

  7. Blood Types (United States)

    ... maternity. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  8. [Body donation versus organ donation]. (United States)

    Reis, Ria


    There appears to be a discrepancy between the oversupply of donated bodies 'for science' in anatomical institutions in the Netherlands and the shortage of donated organs. However, organ donation is not as straightforward as it seems, mainly because of its strict conditions, e.g. with respect to age and the required hospital setting of the dying. Since Dutch body donors are mainly elderly men, their attitudes to their body, death and science should be explored from a generational perspective.

  9. Comparative study of Treponemal and non-Treponemal test for screening of blood donated at a blood center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinder Kaur Naidu


    Full Text Available The non-Treponemal tests such as Rapid Plasma Reagin test (RPR or the Venereal Disease Reference Laboratory test are the most commonly used test for screening of syphilis in the blood centers in India. Now, with the availability of Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and Immunochromatographic assays in the market, we decided to evaluate these assays in comparison with Treponema pallidum Haemagglutination Assay (TPHA which was considered as a gold standard for this study. A total of 8 685 samples of voluntary blood donors were tested on Trepolisa 3.0 and then the initially reactive samples were retested in duplicate on the same assay as well as on Omega Pathozyme, RPR, RAPHA (Rapid Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay, and TPHA. Of the 158 initially reactive samples, 104 were repeatedly reactive on the same assay, 85 were reactive with RPR, 77 were reactive with RAPHA, 60 were reactive on Omega, and 53 were confirmed reactive on TPHA. 48 (56.4% of the results on RPR were biological false positive, while 21.9% of results were false negative on RPR. We evaluated that Omega Pathozyme was quite in agreement with TPHA as compared with Trepolisa 3.0, RAPHA, and RPR. We concluded that Omega Pathozyme (ELISA can be considered as a suitable test for screening of syphilis in a blood center.

  10. Can latent heat safely warm blood? – in vitro testing of a portable prototype blood warmer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwen Mark P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma/retrieval patients are often in shock and hypothermic. Treatment of such patients usually involves restoring their blood volume with transfusion of blood (stored at 2°C – 6°C and/or crystalloids or colloids (stored at ambient temperature. Rapid infusion of these cold fluids can worsen or even induce hypothermia in these patients. Warming of intravenous fluids at accident sites has traditionally been difficult due to a lack of suitable portable fluid warmers that are not dependent on mains electrical or battery power. If latent heat, the heat released when a liquid solidifies (an inherently temperature limiting process can warm intravenous fluids, portable devices without a reliance on electrical energy could be used to reduce the incidence of hypothermia in trauma patients. Methods Rapid infusion of red cells into patients was timed to sample typical clinical flow rates. An approved dry heat blood warmer was compared with a prototype blood warmer using a supercooled liquid latent heat storage material, to warm red cells whilst monitoring inlet and outlet temperatures. To determine the effect of warming on red cell integrity compared to the normal storage lesion of blood, extracellular concentrations of potassium, lactate dehydrogenase and haemoglobin were measured in blood which had been warmed after storage at 2°C – 6°C for 1 to 42 days. Results A prototype latent heat fluid warmer consistently warmed red cells from approximately 4°C to approximately 35°C at typical clinical flow rates. Warming of stored blood with latent heat did not affect red cell integrity more than the approved dry heat blood warmer. Conclusion Using latent heat as an energy source can satisfactorily warm cold blood or other intravenous fluids to near body temperature, without any adverse affects.

  11. 某市无偿献血人群构成调查与分析%Study on Composition of Population for Voluntary Blood Donation in A City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To investigate composition of voluntary blood donors to carry out pertinent blood donation promotion.Method We analyzed the gender, age, educational level, occupation, blood type of blood donors from 2005 to 2009. Result The distribution of blood type was O > B > A > AB. The majority of blood donors was front - line staff in production and transportation ( 38.27% ), followed by other free employees (36.08%); with age mainly from 30 to 40 years old ( 37.58% ), followed by 18 to 25 years (26.03 % ) ; males were more than females, with the male to female ratio was 1.5:1. Conclusion To better promote the sustainable development of voluntary blood donation, we should innovate the concept of blood donation promotion, actively mobilize government office, institutions and rural population to take part in blood donation.%目的 了解自愿无偿献血人群的构成,以便有针对性地进行无偿献血宣传.方法 对2005年~2009年献血者的性别、年龄、文化程度、职业、血型等进行统计与分析.结果 无偿献血者血型分布O>B>A>AB;职业以生产、运输一线工作人员(38.27%)为主,其次是其他自由职业人员(36.08%);年龄以30~40岁为主(37.58%),其次是18~25岁(26.03%);男性多于女性,男女之比为1.5:1.结论 创新无偿献血宣传理念,积极动员政府机关、事业单位及农村人口等参与无偿献血,可更好地推动无偿献血事业的可持续发展.

  12. [Donation of bodies to science]. (United States)

    Delmas, V


    Teaching and research in anatomy is mainly based on cadaveric dissection. Unclaimed bodies is no more the origin of cadavers, but body donation programs. The dissection is an important part in the anatomical curses of medical students and for anatomical research and special courses devoted to the surgeons. A body donation center was created in Paris in 1953 with the purpose of obtaining bodies for dissection. Donation is a clear will made by people free and informed. Donation is most often by altruism, conferrins life on another. Body donation is regulated by various act or reglementar text according to each country. One of the problem with the body gift is biological hazard, specially in research and clinical courses, but the rule is to consider unembalmed material as contaminated and to use all precautions with barrier for blood and bodily fluid. Body donation is one of the modern expression of solidarity.

  13. A Simple, Inexpensive and Safe Method for DNA Extraction of Frigid and Clotted Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Mohammadi


    Full Text Available Background: Extraction of blood genomicDNAis one of the main approaches for clinical and molecular biology studies. Although several methods have been developed for extraction of blood genomic DNA, most of these methods consume long time and use expensive chemicals such as proteinase K and toxic organic solvent such as phenol and chloroform. The objective of this study was to developed easy and safe method forDNAextraction from clotted and frozen whole blood. This method has many advantages: time reducing, using inexpensive materials, without phenol and chloroform, achieving of high molecular weight and good quality genomicDNA.Materials and Methods: DNA extraction was performed by two methods (new and phenol-chloroform method. Then quantity and quality parameters were evaluated by 1% agarose gel electrophoresis, Nano drop analysis and efficiency of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR.Results: Extracted DNA from 500μL of blood samples were 457.7ng/μl and 212ng/μL and their purity (OD260/OD280 were 1.8 and 1.81 for new recommended and phenol–chloroform methods respectively. The PCR results indicated that D16S539 and CSF1PO loci were amplified.Conclusion: These results shown that this method is simple, fast, safe and most economical.

  14. Blood Donation Process (United States)

    ... Hemovigilance Membership AABB HUB Membership Directory Corporate Supporters Advertise Copyright © AABB. Privacy Statement | Terms of Use | About AABB | Contact Us Facebook Twitter Youtube LinkedIn

  15. Where to Donate Blood (United States)

    ... Hemovigilance Membership AABB HUB Membership Directory Corporate Supporters Advertise Copyright © AABB. Privacy Statement | Terms of Use | About AABB | Contact Us Facebook Twitter Youtube LinkedIn

  16. 宜昌市公民无偿献血动机分析及应对策略%Motivations and Strategies of Voluntary Unpaid Blood Donation among Yichang Citizens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:调查宜昌市公民无偿献血动机,分析其影响因素,制定针对性的应对策略。方法:在宜昌市城区及所属县市区7个固定采血点采取偶遇抽样法,对无偿献血者及同时间段内经过献血点且年龄符合献血要求的未献血者进行现场问卷调查。结果:利他主义、获得荣誉、享受用血优待是促进人们参加无偿献血的主要原因;抽不出时间、怕痛和担心献血影响身体、亲友的阻止等因素是阻碍人们献血的主要原因。结论:针对公民献血动机多元化的特点,建立科学的无偿献血招募体系,巩固积极动机的激励作用,消除和减弱消极动机,制定出科学合理的应对策略,以满足日益增长的临床用血需求。%Objective: Exploring the influencing factors through an investigation on Yichang citizens'motivations of voluntary unpaid blood donation, then we establish the targeted coping strategy.Methods: At seven different blood -donating stations in urban areas and counties of Yichang, we occasionally selected voluntary blood donors and the passing pedestrians which were suitable for blood donation and did not donate during the same time period to do the investigation by questionnaires.Result:The survey shows that the main reasons why people would do blood donation are altruism, gain honor and the preferential treatment in blood, and the main reasons which prevent people from donating blood would be: lack of time, fear of pain, worry about health influenced by blood donation and the stop from relatives and friends.Conclusion:According to the diversification of the citizens'blood donation motivations, we must build a scientific recruitment system of voluntary unpaid blood donation to consolidate the incentive effect of positive motivation and eliminate the negative motivation , and also work out a scientific and reasonable strategy to satisfy the increasing demand of clinical blood use.

  17. 多次捐献机采血小板后献血者外周血象的变化%The changes of peripheral blood indexes in donors donating blood several times for apheresis platelet concentrates*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛健民; 赵宏祥; 任素玲; 袁秀珍


    Objective To study the changes of peripheral blood several times indexes in donors donating blood for apheresis platelet concentrates. Methods 20 donors who donated blood for apheresis platelet concentrates 10 38 times (interval: 1- 2 months), were enrolled and detected for peripheral blood indexes respectively before the first and the last time for donating platelet,and the results were analyzed. Results Of all enrolled donors, the platelet number, red blood cell number, white blood cell number and haemoglobin concentrates and the average value before the last donating blood were not statistical different with those before the first donating(P>0.05) ,but mean platelet volume and platelet large cell rate were decreased(P<0.01). Conclusion Blood do nation could promote hematopoiesis of the bone marrow,and might not be harmful to the body health.%目的 研究多次捐献机采血小板后献血者外周血象的变化情况.方法 选择20名自愿捐献机采血小板达10~38次的献血者(每次间隔期为1~2个月),在首次和末次采集血小板前分别进行外周血象的检测,进行统计分析.结果 多次捐献机采血小板的献血者,末次采集前外周血小板数(PLT)与首次采集前PLT、正常值均数相比,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),外周血中的红细胞数(RBC)、白细胞数(WBC)、血红蛋白浓度(Hb)并未发生明显的变化,但血小板分布宽度(PDW)增加,血小板平均体积(MPV)、大形血小板比例(P-LCR)下降,且差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 献血可以促进骨髓的造血功能,对机体并无明显不利的影响.

  18. [The development of the assortment and requirements of the tissue bank of the District Institute for Blood Donation and Transfusion Leipzig]. (United States)

    Frank, K; Müller, C


    Since the foundation of the tissue bank at the District Institute for Blood Donation--and Transfusion Service of Leipzig in 1966 the range of production and the assortment of nonvital tissue transplants has considerably increased. The amount of clinical establishments and their requirements is considerably increased, in which the realization of demands is not always possible without waiting periods. The main tissue conservation method is the cryo-drying. Besides the extreme cooling and cryo-preservation were used. Problems of transportation of cooled tissue conserves were discussed.

  19. Barriers to Timely and Safe Blood Transfusion for PPH Patients: Evidence from a Qualitative Study in Dhaka, Bangladesh (United States)

    Akhter, Sadika; Anwar, Iqbal; Akter, Rashida; Kumkum, Feroza Akhter; Nisha, Monjura Khatun; Ashraf, Fatema; Islam, Ferdousi; Begum, Nazneen; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Austin, Anne; Islam, Syed Shariful; Rahman, Aminur


    Background and Objectives In Bangladesh, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality accounting for 31% of all blood transfusions in the country. Although safe blood transfusion is one of the 8 signal functions of Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric Care (CEmOC) strategy, most of the designated public sector CEmOC facilities do not have on-site blood storage system. Emergent blood is mainly available from external blood banks. As a result, emergent patients are to rely on an unregulated network of brokers for blood which may raise question about blood safety. This study explored lived experiences of patients’ attendants, managers, providers, and blood brokers before and after the implementation of an on-line Blood Information and Management Application (BIMA) in regards to barriers and facilitators of blood transfusion for emergent patients. Methods Data were collected at Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH), a tertiary-level teaching hospital before (January 2014) and after (March 2015) the introduction of an online BIMA system. Data collection methods included 24 key informant interviews (KIIs) and 40 in-depth interviews (IDIs). KIIs were conducted with formal health service providers, health managers and unlicensed blood brokers. IDIs were conducted with the relatives and husbands of women who suffered PPH, and needed emergency blood. Results Patients’ attendants were unaware of patients’ blood type and availability of blood in emergency situation. Newly introduced online BIMA system could facilitate blood transfusion process for poor patients at lower cost and during any time of day and night. However, service providers and service recipients were heavily dependent on a network of unlicensed blood brokers for required blood for emergent PPH patients. Blood collected through unlicensed blood brokers is un-screened, unregulated and probably unsafe. Blood brokers feel that they are providing a needed service, acknowledged a

  20. Clausura grupal e identificación de necesidades en las donaciones de sangre y órganos Group closure and needs identification in blood and organ donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Casado-Neira


    Full Text Available La acción de dar sin compromiso, el altruismo y la solidaridad están en el centro de la donación de sangre y órganos con fines terapéuticos. Según se hace ver las personas hacen una entrega desinteresada y transcendental: ‘la sangre salva vidas’. El altruismo y la solidaridad son aquí ineludibles, pero la donación está sometida a los principios de la reciprocidad. La captación y fidelización de donantes se enfrenta a veces a crisis o dificultades que se pueden explicar en parte por cómo los donantes interpretan la reciprocidad. Recurriendo a entrevistas y al análisis de contenido de campañas de captación de donantes de sangre y órganos identificamos dos tipos de reciprocidad (según sea el tipo de destino y concepción de la comunidad: focalizada o difusa. La focalizada es característica de sistemas sociales basados en relaciones personales estrechas (reales o virtuales. La difusa responde a una concepción individualista y anónima de la vida social. En la donación esto va a ser fundamental porque la reciprocidad focalizada es difícilmente compatible con la donación terapéutica, que es voluntaria, altruista y anónima. Lo que dificulta la donación es el intercambio restrictivo de la reciprocidad focalizada, no que este grupo comparta sangre o herencia biológica común que deseen preservar.Three moral values are within the blood and organ donation with therapeutical purpose: giving without obligation, altruism and solidarity. It seems than for donors unselfishness is something transcendental: blood save lives. Altruism and solidarity are present, but spending is under the pattern of reciprocity. Recruiting and keeping blood and organ spenders is an uncertain and complex process. How spenders live reciprocity can help us to understand rejections to donation. The research work is based on personal interviews and on the analyses of the material used in recruitment actions of blood and organ donors. Two kinds of

  1. Money for Blood and Markets for Blood. (United States)

    Derpmann, Simon; Quante, Michael


    Ontario's Bill 178 proposing a Voluntary Blood Donations Act declares the offer or acceptance of payment for the donation of blood a legal offence and makes it subject to penalty. The bill reinvigorates a fundamental debate about the ethical problems associated with the payment of money for blood. Scarcity of blood donors is a recurring problem in most health systems, and monetary remuneration of the willingness to donate blood is regularly discussed--and sometimes practiced--as a means to overcome scarcity in blood. However, making blood an object of economic exchange has long aroused ethical concerns that often refer to the specific meaning of blood. From the perspective of a modern understanding of money as a metric of economic value, the exchange of money for blood--shed or given--is seen as ethically troubling, because it appears to imply a commensurability of the value of human life and economic wealth. In this paper, we begin with a general taxonomy of the types of arguments that speak in favour or against compensating donors for giving blood. We then describe the context in which the discussion about payment for blood arises, and of the specific aims and concerns that are brought forward in this context. This is used to reconstruct the normative background that supports the rejection of payment for blood as it is envisaged in Bill 178 and the aims of the proposal. We then argue that while a payment indeed changes the nature of a blood donation in an ethically considerable way, we do not believe that decisive arguments against the monetary remuneration of blood donations can be substantiated, at least not independently of assuming specific societal circumstances. Thus it may be possible to establish a stable and safe blood supply through just gratification while at the same time taking strong provisions against social disconnection, injustice, exploitation or heteronomy.

  2. 关于境内机构捐赠外汇管理有关问题的通知%Circular of the SAFE on Relevant Issues Concerning the Administration of Donations in Foreign Exchange by Domestic Institutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ For the purpose of realizing the adminiswation of donations in foreign exchange and facilitating the receipt and payment of donations in foreign exchange,and pursuant to the Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Foreign Exchange Administration and other relevant laws and regulations, the relevant issues concerning administration of donations in foreign exchange by domestic institutions are hereby promulgated:

  3. The causes and coping manners in the blood donation reaction of the apheresis platelet%机采血小板献血反应的原因分析与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林菊; 桑列勇; 杜冬芬; 李素娥


    Objective To investigate the causes and the treatments in the blood donation reaction of the apheresis platelet. Methods The intervention and nursing measures of 9 903 cases of apheresis platelet donors from January 2012 to November 2015 were summarized. A total of 53 blood donation responders′ data such as gender were collected, and the data were analyzed. Results From January 2012 to November 2015 blood donation reaction rate was 0.54% (53/903), which was lower than that reported in the literature. Among them, 41 cases were female and 12 were male, female blood donation reaction rate was higher than the male (χ2=78.36,P0.05). Blood donation reactions occurred in 34 cases within 5 minutes before the end of the program, accounting for 64.2%(34/53) of the total. Conclusions The sex and blood cell separator and coping of blood volume and the spiritual factors are related to blood donation reaction. Providing quality nursing and services, and creating a good environment for blood donors are conducive to prevent and reduce the occurrence of blood donation reaction.%目的:探讨机采血小板献血反应的发生原因及对策。方法总结2012年1月至2015年11月9903人次机采血小板献血者的干预及护理方法,收集53人次献血反应者性别等资料进行统计分析。结果2012年1月至2015年11月献血反应发生率为0.54%(53/9903);其中男12人次,女41人次,女性献血反应发生率高于男性(χ2=78.36,P0.05)。程序运行结束前5 min内发生献血反应34人次占64.2%。结论献血反应与性别、分离机型、处理血量、精神因素等有关,为献血者提供优质护理和服务,创造良好的献血环境,有利于预防和减少献血反应的发生。

  4. Blood Donation, Being Asian, and a History of Iron Deficiency Are Stronger Predictors of Iron Deficiency than Dietary Patterns in Premenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L. Beck


    Full Text Available This study investigated dietary patterns and nondietary determinants of suboptimal iron status (serum ferritin < 20 μg/L in 375 premenopausal women. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, determinants were blood donation in the past year [OR: 6.00 (95% CI: 2.81, 12.82; P<0.001], being Asian [OR: 4.84 (95% CI: 2.29, 10.20; P<0.001], previous iron deficiency [OR: 2.19 (95% CI: 1.16, 4.13; P=0.016], a “milk and yoghurt” dietary pattern [one SD higher score, OR: 1.44 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.93; P=0.012], and longer duration of menstruation [days, OR: 1.38 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.68; P=0.002]. A one SD change in the factor score above the mean for a “meat and vegetable” dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status by 79.0% [OR: 0.21 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.50; P=0.001] in women with children. Blood donation, Asian ethnicity, and previous iron deficiency were the strongest predictors, substantially increasing the odds of suboptimal iron status. Following a “milk and yoghurt” dietary pattern and a longer duration of menstruation moderately increased the odds of suboptimal iron status, while a “meat and vegetable” dietary pattern reduced the odds of suboptimal iron status in women with children.

  5. 献血者机采血小板后外周血细胞的变化分析%Analysis of the changes of peripheral blood cells of apheresis platelet donors before and after donation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾春媛; 赵庆伟; 庞桂芝


    目的:分析机采血小板后献血者外周血细胞的变化情况,保障捐献者安全。方法随机选择51名机采血小板捐献者,对比分析机采血小板前后捐献者外周血液中WBC、RBC、Hct、HGB、RKW、PLT、MPV、PKW等指标。结果机采血小板后献血者WBC、RBC、Hct、HGB、PLT降低,MPV变大,PKW、RKW升高,但都在不影响捐献者个体健康的可控范围内,并且10 d后上述指标基本上都恢复到献血前的水平。结论机采血小板献血不会影响捐献者身体健康,可以促进骨髓的造血功能和血液的新陈代谢。%Objective To analyze the changes of peripheral blood cells of apheresis platelet donors before and after donation for protecting the safety of donors. Methods Fifty -one healthy donors were selected and detected WBC,RBC,Hct,HGB, RKW,PLT,MPV,PKW before and after donation. Results WBC, RBC,Hct,HGB and PLT were decreased,MPV,PKW and RKW of all enrolled donors were increased after donation. But it did not affect donors’health within a controllable range,and peripher-al blood indexes restored to pre-donation levels at 10th day after donation. Conclusion Apheresis platelet donation has no bad effect on the health of individuals and can promote hematopoiesis of the bone marrow and the metabolism of blood.

  6. 犬血型与安全输血研究进展%Research Advance in Canine Blood Group and Safe Blood Transfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁晓麟; 温海; 贺星亮; 张汇东


    This paper reviews the research progress in the safe blood transfusion of dog, including canine blood group system, identification of blood group, cross matching, selection of the donor, transfusion reaction and so on, systematically explores how to conduct the safe and effective blood transfusion of dog, and discusses the current existent problems.%综述了犬血型系统、血型鉴定、交叉配血、供血犬选择以及输血反应等与安全输血相关的各方面的研究进展,系统探讨了临床上如何对犬进行安全、有效输血以及当前存在问题.

  7. In Blood Taking Some Problems Being Paid Attention to For the Gratuitous Donators of Blood%为无偿献血者采血时需注意的若干问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Our medical personnl engaged in blood bank must be paid attention to every detailed problem in blood taking for the gratuitous donators of blood.Because they get up a panic when most of them are in their first blood taking.They lack experience to cooperate in blood taking.We must work patiently and selflessly in order to ensure safety and successfully for everybody in blood taking.%我们从事血库工作的医务人员,要特别注意为无偿献血者采血时的每一个细节问题,因为目前他们中绝大多数人是第一次来献血,心理上不免有些惶恐感,在整个采血过程中需要作哪些配合还缺少经验。为确保安全、顺利地采好每一人次的血,需要我们做许多耐心、细致的具体工作。

  8. The effect of pneumatic tube system on complete blood count parameters and thrombocyte donation in healthy donors. (United States)

    Sari, Ismail; Arslan, Aliriza; Ozlu, Can; Hacioglu, Sibel; Dogu, Mehmet Hilmi; Isler, Kamil; Keskin, Ali


    This paper is the first report whether or not pneumatic tube system affects the selection of apheresis donors according to the results of complete blood count. According to the apheresis guidelines, hemoglobin level must be ≥12.5g/dL and platelet level ≥150/μL to be a donor. Paired blood samples of 26 healthy volunteers were transported by either hand delivered or a pneumatic tube system to the laboratory. No statistically significant differences were observed in order to mean values of routine complete blood cell count and white cell differential parameters that were send for selection of apheresis donor before the procedure. Therefore, all healthy volunteers decided as a donor according to the laboratory results independent from transport method.

  9. The estimation of prevalence, incidence, and residual risk of transfusion-transmitted human hepatitis B infection from blood donated at the Anhui blood center, China, from 2009 to 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuping Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV among the Chinese population poses a threat to blood safety; however, few studies have examined epidemiological data regarding HBV infection of Chinese blood donors. The present study investigated the demographic characteristics of blood donors at the Anhui blood center in China, the prevalence, incidence, and residual risk (RR associated with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg expression in terms of transfusion transmitted HBV (TTHBV infections. METHODS: The demographic characteristics and HBV status of people who donated blood at the Anhui blood center between 2009 and 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. The incidence of HBV was estimated through HBsAg yield approach. The window period model was then used to estimate the RR of TTHBV infection. RESULTS: The typical donor at the Anhui blood center was a first-time volunteer, aged less than 25 years, unmarried, of Han ethnicity, and with an education below high school level. The prevalence of HBV infection among repeat donors, first-time donors, and all donors was 28.9, 127.2 and 82.1 per 100,000, respectively. The incidence estimate was 333.9 per 10(5 person-years. Using an infectious window period of 59 days, the RR for HBV was estimated to be 1 in 1853 between 2009 and 2011. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence and RR of HBV in Chinese blood donors are much higher than those of donors in developed countries. This is because sensitive ELISAs and nucleic acid tests are not available in China. Further work is needed to improve both the safety and availability of blood products in China.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sh. Khubutiya


    Full Text Available It provided data on the prevalence, clinical signifi cance and methods of laboratory diagnostics for occult forms of blood-borne viral infections (BBVIs. It considered causes of such forms of infection and their signifi cance for clinical transplantation. We analyzed the existing algorithm of laboratory screening of a potential organ donor for BBVIs in Russia. It is shown that the current screening algorithm doesn’t allow detecting hidden forms of BBVIs.

  11. Intra-Family Gamete Donation: A Solution to Concerns Regarding Gamete Donation in China? (United States)

    Liao, Juhong; Devolder, Katrien


    Gamete donation from third parties is controversial in China as it severs blood ties, which are considered of utmost importance in Confucian tradition. In recent years, infertile couples are increasingly demonstrating a preference for the use of gametes donated by family members to conceive children-known as "intra-family gamete donation." The main advantage of intra-family gamete donation is that it maintains blood ties between children and both parents. To date there is no practice of intra-family gamete donation in China. In this paper, we investigate intra-family adoption in China in order to illustrate that intra-family gamete donation is consistent with Confucian tradition regarding the importance of maintaining blood ties within the family. There are several specific ethical issues raised by intra-family gamete donation. It may, for example, result in consanguinity and the semblance of incest, lead to confused family relationships, and raise concerns about possible coercion of familial donors. Confucian tradition provides a new approach to understand and deal with these ethical issues in a way that Western tradition does not. As a result, we suggest intra-family gamete donation could be an acceptable solution to the problem of infertility in China. However, further discussion and open debates on the ethical issues raised by intra-family gamete donation are needed in China.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪维芬; 刘璇璇; 缪维芳; 董俐坤; 韩东颖; 何金奎; 闫振宇


    目的 了解医学大学生对无偿献血的认知、态度及影响因素,以便更好地推动无偿献血工作的开展.方法 采用自行设计医学大学生无偿献血认知、态度和行为调查问卷,选取医学大学生1 072名进行问卷调查.结果 ①医学大学生对于无偿献血相关知识了解不够全面;②对于无偿献血的态度不积极;③女生对无偿献血的知识、态度得分高于男生(P<0.05);④有献血经历的医学生无偿献血相关知识知晓程度、献血态度均高于未献过血的学生(P<0.05).结论 ①医学大学生对无偿献血的认知程度较差、态度良好率偏低;②医学大学生对无偿献血的认知、态度受性别、是否有献血经历的影响;③医学大学生参加无偿献血的主要原因是无偿奉献心理.%Objective To study the knowledge and attitude to voluntary blood donation among medical undergraduates and explore the influencing factors for promoting blood donation.Methods We designed the questionnaire on knowledge,attitude and behavior of blood donation in medical undergraduates' blood donation.Then investigated the knowledge and attitude to the voluntary blood donation among 1072 Tangshan medical undergraduates and its influencing factors using stratified cluster sampling method.Results The medical undergraduates didn't understand the knowledge blood donation very well,and their attitude for blood donation needs to be strengthened.The awareness rate and the attitude scores of medical female undergraduates were higher than medical male undergraduates.The awareness rate of medical undergraduates who had blood donation history was higher than who hadn't blood donation history on blood donation knowledge;the attitude scores to blood donation of medical undergraduates who had blood donation history were higher than who hadn't blood donation history.Conclusions The medical undergraduates should learn more knowledge of blood donation and correct the attitude

  13. 无偿献血者核酸检测实施效果评价%Effect Evaluation of Nucleic Acid Test Applied in Donator's Blood Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢瑾; 周健欣; 余晋林; 朱业华


    目的 通过分析无偿献血者全血标本的核酸检测(NAT)和血清学检测的结果,探讨NAT在筛查乙型肝炎病毒(HBV),丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)和人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)“窗口期”感染者或者隐匿性肝炎的患者中的作用.方法 选择2011年7月至12月于佛山市中心血站采集的无偿献血者全血样本13 126份作为研究对象.对无偿献血者全血标本同时进行血清学检测和NAT.使用诺华诊断血液筛查系统对标本进行单人份NAT.对于NAT联检和鉴别试验阳性而血清学试验阴性的献血者,进一步检测乙型肝炎血清标志物5项指标.结果 13 126份标本中,NAT联检试验阳性为128例(0.98%),其中95例为酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)双试剂阳性,4例为ELISA单试剂阳性,29例为ELISA阴性.对NAT联检试验和鉴别试验结果皆呈阳性的8例献血者做进一步追踪,6例行乙型肝炎血清标志物5项指标检测的结果显示,1例抗-HBs和抗-HBc呈阳性,3例仅抗-HBc呈阳性,2例呈全阴性.结论 NAT作为一种检测原理完全与ELISA不同的方法,能够在一定程度上弥补ELISA方法的局限性,有效缩短“窗口期”.NAT与ELISA两种检测方法能够互为补充,共同降低经输血途径传播病毒的风险.%Objective To explore the role of nucleic acid test (NAT) in screening the "window period" or occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) blood donators by comparing the results of NAT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of the blood samples.Methods Form July to December 2011,A total of 13 126 blood samples from volunteer blood donors in Foshan blood center were included in this study.All of this samples were tested by NAT using procleix TIGRIS system and ELISA simultaneously.Five markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) of donators who were positive tested by ProcleixUltrio and Discrimination but negative tested by ELISA were detected.Results Among all the samples,128 (0.98%) cases were NAT positive.Among the

  14. Safe surgery: how accurate are we at predicting intra-operative blood loss?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)


    Introduction Preoperative estimation of intra-operative blood loss by both anaesthetist and operating surgeon is a criterion of the World Health Organization\\'s surgical safety checklist. The checklist requires specific preoperative planning when anticipated blood loss is greater than 500 mL. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of surgeons and anaesthetists at predicting intra-operative blood loss. Methods A 6-week prospective study of intermediate and major operations in an academic medical centre was performed. An independent observer interviewed surgical and anaesthetic consultants and registrars, preoperatively asking each to predict expected blood loss in millilitre. Intra-operative blood loss was measured and compared with these predictions. Parameters including the use of anticoagulation and anti-platelet therapy as well as intra-operative hypothermia and hypotension were recorded. Results One hundred sixty-eight operations were included in the study, including 142 elective and 26 emergency operations. Blood loss was predicted to within 500 mL of measured blood loss in 89% of cases. Consultant surgeons tended to underestimate blood loss, doing so in 43% of all cases, while consultant anaesthetists were more likely to overestimate (60% of all operations). Twelve patients (7%) had underestimation of blood loss of more than 500 mL by both surgeon and anaesthetist. Thirty per cent (n = 6\\/20) of patients requiring transfusion of a blood product within 24 hours of surgery had blood loss underestimated by more than 500 mL by both surgeon and anaesthetist. There was no significant difference in prediction between patients on anti-platelet or anticoagulation therapy preoperatively and those not on the said therapies. Conclusion Predicted intra-operative blood loss was within 500 mL of measured blood loss in 89% of operations. In 30% of patients who ultimately receive a blood transfusion, both the surgeon and anaesthetist significantly underestimate

  15. 1000例献血者献血前健康检查结果的分析%The analysis of health examination results of 1000 cases of blood donors before donation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To study the health examination results of 1000 donors before blood donation.Methods The health examination results of 1000 donors who donate blood from June to December 2014 were analyzed.Results Voluntary, unpaid blood donors for 850 cases, family mutual blood donation or replacement donations are for 150 cases, the first-time blood donors in 250 cases, 750 cases of again or repeated blood donors, and for the first time in blood donors in the passing rate of 30%(228/760) was significantly lower than 60%of 144/240 again in blood donors in, significant difference has statistical significance (P<0.05), blood before the elimination rate was 16%(160/1000). Conclusion In the blood before, on all blood donors give health examination can keep abreast of blood donors health status, disease and potentially dangerous, to keep the donors health, choose the safety and health of blood donors blood donation, to ensure the blood quality and blood of security, which is helpful to improve the quality of blood.%目的:对1000例献血者献血前健康检查结果给予探讨。方法:随机对本站献血屋2014年6月至12月1000例献血者献血前健康检查结果给予分析。结果:自愿无偿献血者为850例,家庭互助献血或替代献血者为150例,其中首次献血者250例,再次或多次献血者750例,且首次献血人群的合格率30%(228/760)为明显低于再次献血人群的60%(144/240),差异显著,具有统计学意义(P<0.05),献血前淘汰率为16%(160/1000)。结论:在献血前,对所有献血者给予健康检查,可以及时了解献血者的健康状态,发现相关疾病及潜在危险,保障献血者的身体健康,选择健康安全的献血者献血,确保血液质量和受血者的安全,有助于提高血液质量。

  16. Quality control and evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus antibody assays used for screening donated blood in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    During 2004, a total of 124 batches of HIV antibody ELISAs from domestic and overseas manufacturers, comprising approximately 60 million tests, were tested for quality and released for screening blood in China. The inter- and intra-batch variation, specificity, and sensitivity were evaluated using a laboratory panel and clinical samples. The inter-batch variation was less than 15% and only 2 of 12 assays had intra-batch variation of less than 20% for 4 dilutions of a control specimen.257 samples confirmed positive for HIV antibody and 4826 negative samples from different regions in China were used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the assays. The results showed that the sensitivity is in the range from 93.7% to 100% for assays sampled directly from the manufacturers,and 91.4%-99.6% for those retrieved from the consumers; the specificity was in the range from 97.88% to 99.97%. The testing environment may vary in different regions of China. Therefore, manufacturers should provide robust assays to satisfy the requirements of these diverse environments, and especially reduce the intra-assay variation and improve the stability of the kits.

  17. Renal Blood Oxygenation Level-dependent Imaging in Longitudinal Follow-up of Donated and Remaining Kidneys. (United States)

    Seif, Maryam; Eisenberger, Ute; Binser, Tobias; Thoeny, Harriet C; Krauer, Fabienne; Rusch, Aurelia; Boesch, Chris; Vogt, Bruno; Vermathen, Peter


    Purpose To determine renal oxygenation changes associated with uninephrectomy and transplantation in both native donor kidneys and transplanted kidneys by using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) MR imaging. Materials and Methods The study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee. Thirteen healthy kidney donors and their corresponding recipients underwent kidney BOLD MR imaging with a 3-T imager. Written informed consent was obtained from each subject. BOLD MR imaging was performed in donors before uninephrectomy and in donors and recipients 8 days, 3 months, and 12 months after transplantation. R2* values, which are inversely related to tissue partial pressure of oxygen, were determined in the cortex and medulla. Longitudinal R2* changes were statistically analyzed by using repeated measures one-way analysis of variance with post hoc pair-wise comparisons. Results R2* values in the remaining kidneys significantly decreased early after uninephrectomy in both the medulla and cortex (P kidneys, R2* remained stable during the first year after transplantation, with no significant change. Among donors, cortical R2* was found to be negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (R = -0.47, P kidneys. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  18. Blood transfusions (United States)

    ... this page: // Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this ... several sources of blood which are described below. Blood From the Public (Volunteer Blood Donation) The most ...

  19. Volunteer bias in recruitment, retention, and blood sample donation in a randomised controlled trial involving mothers and their children at six months and two years: a longitudinal analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Jordan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The vulnerability of clinical trials to volunteer bias is under-reported. Volunteer bias is systematic error due to differences between those who choose to participate in studies and those who do not. METHODS AND RESULTS: This paper extends the applications of the concept of volunteer bias by using data from a trial of probiotic supplementation for childhood atopy in healthy dyads to explore 1 differences between a trial participants and aggregated data from publicly available databases b participants and non-participants as the trial progressed 2 impact on trial findings of weighting data according to deprivation (Townsend fifths in the sample and target populations. 1 a Recruits (n = 454 were less deprived than the target population, matched for area of residence and delivery dates (n = 6,893 (mean [SD] deprivation scores 0.09[4.21] and 0.79[4.08], t = 3.44, df = 511, p<0.001. b i As the trial progressed, representation of the most deprived decreased. These participants and smokers were less likely to be retained at 6 months (n = 430[95%] (OR 0.29,0.13-0.67 and 0.20,0.09-0.46, and 2 years (n = 380[84%] (aOR 0.68,0.50-0.93 and 0.55,0.28-1.09, and consent to infant blood sample donation (n = 220[48%] (aOR 0.72,0.57-0.92 and 0.43,0.22-0.83. ii Mothers interested in probiotics or research or reporting infants' adverse events or rashes were more likely to attend research clinics and consent to skin-prick testing. Mothers participating to help children were more likely to consent to infant blood sample donation. 2 In one trial outcome, atopic eczema, the intervention had a positive effect only in the over-represented, least deprived group. Here, data weighting attenuated risk reduction from 6.9%(0.9-13.1% to 4.6%(-1.4-+10.5%, and OR from 0.40(0.18-0.91 to 0.56(0.26-1.21. Other findings were unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Potential for volunteer bias intensified during the trial, due to non-participation of the most

  20. Safe extension of red blood cell storage life at 4{degree}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitensky, M.; Yoshida, Tatsuro


    The project sought to develop methods to extend the storage life of red blood cells. Extended storage would allow donor to self or autologous transfusion, expand and stabilize the blood supply, reduce the cost of medical care and eliminate the risk of transfusion related infections, including a spectrum of hepatitides (A, B and C) and HIV. The putative cause of red blood cell spoilage at 4 C has been identified as oxidative membrane damage resulting from deoxyhemoglobin and its denaturation products including hemichrome, hemin and Fe{sup 3+}. Trials with carbon monoxide, which is a stabilizer of hemoglobin, have produced striking improvement of red blood cell diagnostics for cells stored at 4 C. Carbonmonoxy hemoglobin is readily converted to oxyhemoglobin by light in the presence of oxygen. These findings have generated a working model and an approach to identify the best protocols for optimal red cell storage and hemoglobin regeneration.

  1. 攀枝花市机采血小板互助献血研究%Study on Apheresis Platelets under Mutual Assistance Blood Donation Pat-tern in Panzhihua City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To investigate the advantages and disadvantages of blood donation pattern of mutual assistance for apheresis platelet in Panzhihua City and provide basis for recruitment strategy on apheresis platelet. Methods The situations of 1089 cases of apheresis platelet blood donation from 2008 to 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Results The retest failure rate for the 476 case of apheresis platelet blood donation under mutual assistance pattern was 3.15%, and that for the 613 cases under voluntary pattern was 0.82%. The former is significantly higher than the latter (χ2=8.107,P<0.01), among which the difference in anti-TP failure rate was statistically significant (χ2=10.379,P<0.005). The initial blood donation ratio for mutual assistance blood donation pattern reached 71.46%(341/476), while that for the voluntary apheresis platelet blood donation pattern was 0.98%(6/613), which differed significantly (χ2=616.180,P<0.001). Conclusion Blood donation pattern of mutual assistance for apheresis platelet relieves the shortage situation in platelet by certain degree, but also brings some hidden safety hazards.%目的:研究攀枝花市机采血小板互助献血模式的利弊,为机采血小板招募策略提供依据。方法对2008-2013年1089人次机采血小板献血情况进行回顾性分析。结果机采互助献血者476人次复检不合格率3.15%,自愿机采献血者613人次复检不合格率0.82%,前者明显大于后者(χ2=8.107,P<0.01),其中抗-TP不合格率差异有显著意义(χ2=10.379,P<0.005)。机采互助献血中初次献血率达71.64%(341/476),自愿机采献血中初次献血率仅0.98%(6/613),两种献血者的初次献血率差异有显著意义(χ2=616.180,P<0.001)。结论机采血小板互助献血在一定程度上缓解了血小板紧缺的状况,也带来一些安全隐患。

  2. Volume-dependent hemodynamic effects of blood collection in canine donors - evaluation of 13% and 15% of total blood volume depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background: There is no consensus regarding the blood volume that could be safely donated by dogs, ranging from 11 to 25% of its total blood volume (TBV. No previous studies evaluated sedated donors.Aim: To evaluate the hemodynamic effects of blood collection from sedated and non-sedated dogs and to understand if such effects were volume-dependent.Materials and Methods: Fifty three donations of 13% of TBV and 20 donations of 15% TBV were performed in dogs sedated with diazepam and ketamine. Additionally, a total of 30 collections of 13% TBV and 20 collections of 15% TBV were performed in non-sedated dogs. Non-invasive arterial blood pressures and pulse rates were registered before and 15 min after donation. Results: Post-donation pulse rates increased significantly in both sedated groups, with higher differences in the 15% TBV collections. Systolic arterial pressures decreased significantly in these groups, while diastolic pressures increased significantly in 13% TBV donations. Non-sedated groups revealed a slight, but significant, SBP decrease. No clinical signs related to donations were registered.Conclusion: These results suggest that the collection of 15% TBV in sedated donors induces hemodynamic variations that may compromise the harmlessness of the procedure, while it seems to be a safe procedure in non-sedated dogs.

  3. 危机管理视角下的无偿献血长效机制的建立%Set up long-term mechanism of voluntary blood donation under the view of crisis management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Voluntary blood donation has been rapidly developed in Kunshan city in recent years, but there is large difference which compare with other developed countries. It analyzes the crisis by crisis management theory from current situation of voluntary blood donation, combined with the requests suggested by WHO, as well as the "blood supply shortage" phenomenon appeared in some capital cities. It suggests that to build the long-term mechanism of voluntary blood donation through crisis prevention, plan ahead so as to further guarantee people's health and life safety and promote society’s harmony and stability.%近年来,昆山市无偿献血工作取得了较快发展,但是与国外一些发达国家相比还存在着较大差距。笔者从昆山市无偿献血现状,结合WHO提出的要求和一些省会城市出现的“血荒”现象,应用危机管理理论,分析存在的危机,通过危机预防,提出构建无偿献血的长效机制,做到未雨绸缪,防患未然,从而进一步保障人民群众的身体健康和生命安全,促进社会和谐稳定。

  4. Bibliometric analysis on the exploring of the effective promotion of unpaid blood donation%基于文献计量分析的无偿献血有效宣传探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅媛媛; 林振平; 王晖; 赵轶伦; 蔡旭兵


    Objective: To probe into the effective promotion of unpaid blood donation in China. Methods:Unpaid blood donation advocacy papers were analyzed by bibliometric analysis method. Results: A total of 110 papers involved 19 provinces and cities were selected. 85.45% authors' affiliations were blood collection agencies. 32.73%papers came from “Chin J Blood Transfusion”. The ratio of qualitative research was 52.73%. The target audiences were college students and migrants in the street accounted for 58.89%. The ratio of effective evaluation was 47.83%. The proportion of effective evaluation of the mass media was 32.00%. Conclusion: The promotion of blood donation is receiving more and more attention. The top three evaluation of effective promotion are celebrity events, heroic deeds of donation reports and special date. The top three of media are advertising, TV news and billboards.%目的:探讨我国无偿献血的有效宣传情况。方法:采用文献计量分析法对无偿献血宣传期刊文献进行分析。结果:110篇文献涉及19个省市,作者单位是采供血机构占85.45%。期刊来自《中国输血杂志》占32.73%,以定性研究为主占52.73%。宣传对象是在校大学生和街头流动人群占58.89%,宣传活动有效评价比例为47.83%,宣传媒体有效评价比例为32.00%。结论:无偿献血宣传研究日益受到重视,评价有效宣传活动位居前3位的是名人效应活动、献血英雄事迹报道、特殊日期活动,评价有效宣传媒体位居前3位的是广告、电视新闻、宣传栏。

  5. Translation strategies, contradiction, and the theory of social representations: Why discussing needles may improve blood donor retention. (United States)

    Moloney, Gail; Hayman, Jane; Gamble, Marguerite; Smith, Geoff; Hall, Rob


    Retaining blood donors is a cost-effective way of ensuring a safe blood supply, yet despite the plethora of research, only 5.1% of the eligible population in Australia donate blood and 40% of these do not make a second donation. We offer an alternative to traditional approaches by conceptualizing blood donation within social representations theory as socially derived symbolic knowledge with a specific focus on cognitive polyphasia and Guimelli's (1998) normative and functional dimensions. An online survey, completed by 703 residents from NSW Australia, comprised a blood donation word association task, Likert-style questions constructed from previous word association data and contextualized blood donation statements. Individual difference scaling analysis revealed all donor groups (including non-donors) associated blood donation with a few central, albeit contradictory ideas/beliefs. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis performed on a split data set of the Likert-style items reiterated this finding. Interpreted through Guimelli's dichotomy, all donor groups were aware of these contradictory normative and functional ideas/beliefs but when explicitly asked, it was the functional aspect that differentiated the groups. We argue the key to retaining donors is understanding the interdependence between how blood donation is socially understood at the societal level of discourse and donor behaviour. Translational strategies for recruitment and retention are discussed.

  6. Volunteer Bias in Recruitment, Retention, and Blood Sample Donation in a Randomised Controlled Trial Involving Mothers and Their Children at Six Months and Two Years: A Longitudinal Analysis (United States)

    Jordan, Sue; Watkins, Alan; Storey, Mel; Allen, Steven J.; Brooks, Caroline J.; Garaiova, Iveta; Heaven, Martin L.; Jones, Ruth; Plummer, Sue F.; Russell, Ian T.; Thornton, Catherine A.; Morgan, Gareth


    Background The vulnerability of clinical trials to volunteer bias is under-reported. Volunteer bias is systematic error due to differences between those who choose to participate in studies and those who do not. Methods and Results This paper extends the applications of the concept of volunteer bias by using data from a trial of probiotic supplementation for childhood atopy in healthy dyads to explore 1) differences between a) trial participants and aggregated data from publicly available databases b) participants and non-participants as the trial progressed 2) impact on trial findings of weighting data according to deprivation (Townsend) fifths in the sample and target populations. 1) a) Recruits (n = 454) were less deprived than the target population, matched for area of residence and delivery dates (n = 6,893) (mean [SD] deprivation scores 0.09[4.21] and 0.79[4.08], t = 3.44, df = 511, pprobiotics or research or reporting infants’ adverse events or rashes were more likely to attend research clinics and consent to skin-prick testing. Mothers participating to help children were more likely to consent to infant blood sample donation. 2) In one trial outcome, atopic eczema, the intervention had a positive effect only in the over-represented, least deprived group. Here, data weighting attenuated risk reduction from 6.9%(0.9–13.1%) to 4.6%(−1.4–+10.5%), and OR from 0.40(0.18–0.91) to 0.56(0.26–1.21). Other findings were unchanged. Conclusions Potential for volunteer bias intensified during the trial, due to non-participation of the most deprived and smokers. However, these were not the only predictors of non-participation. Data weighting quantified volunteer bias and modified one important trial outcome. Trial Registration This randomised, double blind, parallel group, placebo controlled trial is registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials Register, Number (ISRCTN) 26287422. Registered title: Probiotics in the

  7. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles as smart and safe devices for regulating blood biomolecule levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Stimuli-responsive end-capped MSN materials are promising drug carriers that securely deliver a large payload of drug molecules without degradation or premature release. A general review of the recent progress in this field is presented, including a summary of a series of hard and soft caps for drug encapsulation and a variety of internal and external stimuli for controlled release of different therapeutics, a discussion of the biocompatibility of MSN both in vitro and in vivo, and a description of the sophisticated stimuli-responsive systems with novel capping agents and controlled release mechanism. The unique internal and external surfaces of MSN were utilized for the development of a glucose-responsive double delivery system end-capped with insulin. This unique system consists of functionalized MSNs capable of releasing insulin when the concentration of sugar in blood exceeds healthy levels. The insulin-free nanoparticles are then up taken by pancreatic cells, and release inside of them another biomolecule that stimulates the production of more insulin. The in vivo application of this system for the treatment of diabetes requires further understanding on the biological behaviors of these nanoparticles in blood vessels. The research presented in this dissertation demonstrated the size and surface effects on the interaction of MSNs with red blood cell membranes, and discovered how the surface of the nanoparticles can be modified to improve their compatibility with red blood cells and avoid their dangerous side effects. In order to optimize the properties of MSN for applying them as efficient intracellular drug carriers it is necessary to understand the factors that can regulate their internalization into and exocytosis out of the cells. The correlation between the particle morphology and aggregation of MSNs to the effectiveness of cellular uptake is discussed and compared with different cell lines. The differences in the degree of exocytosis of MSNs between

  8. Cost effectiveness of adding nucleic acid testing to hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus screening of blood donations in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Mapako, Tonderai; Khoza, Star; Emmanuel, Jean C.; Marowa, Lucy; Mvere, David; Postma, Maarten J.; van Hulst, Marinus


    BACKGROUNDThe aim of this study was to assess the cost effectiveness of introducing individual-donation nucleic acid testing (ID-NAT), in addition to serologic tests, compared with the exclusive use of serologic tests for the identification of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hu

  9. Reason for Blood Shortage---Based on a survey of undergraduates′non-remunerated blood donation in a certain university in west Guangdong Province%缘何血荒?*--以粤西某高校在校大学生无偿献血为例的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勤; 王嘉文


    基于粤西某高校在校大学生无偿献血的问卷调查发现,作为公益意识较高的社会成员,在校大学生的无偿献血存在差序格局、态度与行为的不一致,且组织主体单一乏力和献血体制的较低信任度等表征。据现有条件,相关组织可以通过拓展使用差序格局,改进献血组织方式,强化献血者自组织和重建机构信任等措施,建设无偿献血的长效机制,系统和统筹地应对血荒。%Based on an investigation about undergraduate volunteer blood in one university , it is found that volunteer blood donation cannot effectively solve serious blood shortage .As a group of society with high moral , undergraduate volun-teer blood donors show some characteristics which include a structure of grade diversity , deviation of attitude and behav-iour, simplicity and weakness of organization bodies , and credit crisis of donation system .According to existing conditions , organizations of blood donation should solve those problems through expanded usage of structure of grade , improving organi-zing methods , rebuilding volunteer donors′self-organization and public confidence in volunteer blood donation system so as to solve blood shortage systematically .

  10. Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator Can Be Safely Given without Complete Blood Count Results Back (United States)

    Dong, Yi; Yang, Lumeng; Ren, Jinma; Nair, Deepak S.; Parker, Sarah; Jahnel, Jan L.; Swanson-Devlin, Teresa G.; Beck, Judith M.; Mathews, Maureen; McNeil, Clayton J.; Ling, Yifeng; Cheng, Xin; Gao, Yuan; Dong, Qiang; Wang, David Z.


    Introduction It is well known that the efficacy of intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is time-dependent when used to treat patients with acute ischemic strokes. Aim Our study examines the safety issue of giving IV tPA without complete blood count (CBC) resulted. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective observational study by examining the database from Huashan Hospital in China and OSF/INI Comprehensive Stroke Center in United States. Patient data collected included demographics, occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, door to needle intervals, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scores on admission, CBC results on admission and follow-up modified Rankin Scale scores. Linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to identify factors that would have an impact on door-to-needle intervals. Results Our study included120 patients from Huashan Hospital and 123 patients from INI. Among them, 36 in Huashan Hospital and 51in INI received IV tPA prior to their CBC resulted. Normal platelet count was found in 98.8% patients after tPA was given. One patient had thrombocytopenia but no hemorrhagic event. A significantly shorter door to needle interval (DTN) was found in the group without CBC resulted. There was also a difference in treatment interval between the two hospitals. Door to needle intervals had a strong correlation to onset to treatment intervals and NIHSS scores on admission. Conclusion In patients presented with acute ischemic stroke, the risk of developing hemorrhagic event is low if IV tPA is given before CBC has resulted. The door to needle intervals can be significantly reduced. PMID:26147994

  11. Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator Can Be Safely Given without Complete Blood Count Results Back.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Dong

    Full Text Available It is well known that the efficacy of intravenous (i.v. tissue plasminogen activator (tPA is time-dependent when used to treat patients with acute ischemic strokes.Our study examines the safety issue of giving IV tPA without complete blood count (CBC resulted.This is a retrospective observational study by examining the database from Huashan Hospital in China and OSF/INI Comprehensive Stroke Center in United States. Patient data collected included demographics, occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, door to needle intervals, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scores on admission, CBC results on admission and follow-up modified Rankin Scale scores. Linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to identify factors that would have an impact on door-to-needle intervals.Our study included 120 patients from Huashan Hospital and 123 patients from INI. Among them, 36 in Huashan Hospital and 51 in INI received i.v. tPA prior to their CBC resulted. Normal platelet count was found in 98.8% patients after tPA was given. One patient had thrombocytopenia but no hemorrhagic event. A significantly shorter door to needle interval (DTN was found in the group without CBC resulted. There was also a difference in treatment interval between the two hospitals. Door to needle intervals had a strong correlation to onset to treatment intervals and NIHSS scores on admission.In patients presented with acute ischemic stroke, the risk of developing hemorrhagic event is low if i.v. tPA is given before CBC has resulted. The door to needle intervals can be significantly reduced.

  12. 血液病毒核酸检测单独阳性标本研究%Study on NAT yield cases of donation blood specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田耘博; 黄霞; 秦伟斐; 李维; 毛伟; 廖红文; 段恒英; 何涛


    Objective To study nucleic acid testing (NAT) yield cases and to evaluate the different NAT methods. Methods Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) and NAT by transcription mediated amplification(TMA) were applied to test the blood of donation samples simultaneously. The NAT yield cases were rechecked with discriminated test (TMA) ,Hepatitis B serological markers detection and NAT by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Among 47004 specimens,108 NAT yield cases were screened out with negative ELISA test. Forty out of 108 cases were discriminated as HBV without HIV or HCV infection ,which ac-count for the NAT yield rate of 0.85‰. Nine out of 13 cases of HBV owned the same results with TMA and NAT. Two out of 30 cases without HBV infection were confirmed positive HBV infection by means of NAT(PCR) method. Moreover ,43 cases of positive HBV infection accepted the tests of various Hepatitis B serological markers ,which revealed the highest positive rate of HBcAb and uncertainty results of HBsAg on the contrary. Conclusion Most of NAT yield specimens had the chance to be occult HBV infec-tion (OBI),which might cause some differences in different NAT tests.%目的:对酶联免疫吸附检测(ELISA)阴性而核酸检测(NAT)阳性的NAT单独阳性献血标本进行研究分析,评价不同NAT方法检测结果的差异。方法对献血标本进行ELISA的同时,采用转录介导扩增技术(TMA)进行NAT。对NAT单独阳性标本分别进行NAT(TMA)鉴别检测,乙肝血清学标志物检测,HBsAg确证实验和基于聚合酶链式反应(PCR)的NAT。结果在47004例献血标本中,NAT(TMA)联检(HBV、HIV、HCV)出ELISA阴性的NAT阳性标本108例,其中40例鉴别检测为HBV,68例为鉴别阴性,未发现HIV和HCV,HBV的NAT的单阳性率为0.85‰。选取13例NAT(TMA)鉴别为HBV的标本中有9例NAT(PCR)也为HBV;选取30例NAT(TMA)鉴别阴性标本中有2例NAT(PCR)为HBV。选取鉴别阳性13

  13. 中原地区某村既往有偿献血人群艾滋病发病和死亡规律%Study on AIDS incidence and death in previous paid blood-donated population, central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱新义; 崔兆麟; 黄祚军; 朱伯健; 汪宁


    Objective To study incidence and death among previous paid blood-donated AIDS sufferers.Methods A retrospective cohort study was adopted to study incidence and death of 373 previous paid blood-donated HIV sufferers and its effect factors.Results Previous paid blood-donated HIV infection was serious and the infection rate in blood-donated crowd was 35.87%(373/1040);the mean incubation period of AIDS was 8.87 years(95%CI:8.76-8.99,Kaplan-Meier method):the cumulative incidence of AIDS(10 years)was 92.23%(344/373),and the incidence of total sufferers was 11.64/100 person-year;the cumulative probability of survival of one-year,three-year,five-year AIDS sufferers was separately 94.48% (325/344),85.76%(295/344)and 83.14%(286/344),median survival time was over 5 years;the anti-virotic treatment days(960.29±486.38),infection age(33.39±9.08)disease age(41.98±8.88)had significant effects on AIDS sufferers' survival time/survival rate(x2=61.355,P=0.000;x2=6.555,P=0.010;x2=3.969,P=0.046).Conclusion The survival time of previous paid blood-donated HIV cases was longer,and their survival rate was hisher,remarkably higher than the UNAIDS'research findings.%目的 研究既往有偿献血人群获得性免疫缺陷综合征(acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,AIDS)发病和死亡规律.方法 采用回顾性队列研究方法,对373例既往有偿献血感染人类免疫缺陷病毒(human immunodeficiency virus,HIV)者的发病、死亡规律及其影响因素进行研究.结果 既往有偿献血人群HIV感染率为35.87%(373/1040),AIDS平均潜伏期为8.87年(95%CI:8.76~8.99,Kaplan-Meier法);感染后10年累计发病率为92.23%(344/373),总人时发病率为11.64/100人年;艾滋病患者1年、3年、5年累计生存率分别为94.48%(325/344)、85.76%(295/344)和83.14%(286/344),中位生存时间超过5年;抗病毒治疗天数[(960.29±486.38)d]、感染年龄[(33.39±9.08)岁]和发病年龄[(41.98±8.88)岁]对艾滋病患者生存时间

  14. Effect of preoperative donation of autologous blood on venous thromboembolism disease after total hip replacement%术前自体血采集预防髋关节置换术后血栓性疾病的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁宁; 杨阳; Alejandro González Della Valle; Eduardo A.Salvati


    Objective:To evaluate the effect of preoperative donation of autologous bood on venous thromboembolism (VTE) after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Methods:Between Jan. 2007 and March. 2010,912 consecutive patients who had THAs performed in Hosptal for Special Surgery were collected,excluded patients with thrombocytopenia or pre-exising bleeding diathesis and patients for whom epidural analgesia was not possible. Among them, there were 428 males and 484 females with an average age of (65.28±11.90) years (ranged from 24 to 93 years). Among them, 835 cases (91.3%) had osteoarthritis, 32 cases (3.6%) had osteonerrosis,20 cases (2.3%) had dysplasia,20 cases (2.2%) had rheumatoid arthritis,and 5 cases (0.6%) had other diagnoses. The surgeries were performed under hypotensive epidural anestheisa (mean arterial pressure between 45 to 55 mm Hg) and through a posterolateral approach,minimizing the duration of femoral vein obstruction and reducing the load of intramedullary content to the venous system by repeated pulsatile lavage and aspiration of the femoral canal. The lower extremity was in the neutral position while working on the acetabulum and flexed and internally rotated while working on the femur. Whenever possible, the lower extremity was extended to a neutral position to restore femoral venous flow. Patients received one bolus of unfractionated intravenous heparin (10 to 15 U/kg), 1 to 2 minutes before femoral canal preparation. All patients were followed up at least 3 months postoperatively. No patient was lost to followed-up. Results: Seven hundreds and fifty-two patients donated autologous blood before THA, 160 did not donate autologoud blood. The incidence of clinical symop-tomatic VTE was 1.3 %(11/912). Among the 11 patients with clinical symoptomatic VTE,5 donated blood pre - operation (0.66%,5/752) and 6 did not donate pre-operation (3.8%,6/160). The rate ofVTE after THA between autologous blood donation and no blood donation was statistically significant (

  15. BEHIND THE Donation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Zhao Benshan, regarded as the "King of Xiaopin" in China, carried out his skit, The Donation, during the CCTV Spring Festival Gala on Feb-ruary 13, Chinese Spring Festival Eve for the Year of the Tiger. The skit was mainly about Zhao's donation of 30,000 Yuan (by a mistake, as he initially wanted to donate 3,000 Yuan) to a local village student whose single mother can't afford his university tuition, This play brought hot discussion after-wards, mainly focusing on the story, which was not as funny as the huge audience expected it to be.

  16. Awareness of Knowledge of Blood Donation among College Students and Civil Servants in Lianyungang City%连云港市在校大学生和公务员对无偿献血相关知识的知晓情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    [Objective]To understand the blood donation status among college students and civil servants in Lianyungang City so as to promote the development of blood donation. [Methods]Self-administered questionnaire survey was performed on awareness of voluntary blood donation and the way of learning voluntary blood donation ,the results were statistically analyzed. [ Results]Through investigation, the awareness rate of basic knowledge about blood donation was 78,7% , awareness of proper amount blood donation having no harm on health was not significantly different between genders ( χ2 = 1 . 07, P > 0.25), awareness of proper amount blood donation of 200 ~400ml was significantly different between genders(χ2 =14. 16,P < 0.05). [Conclusion]Publicity of Blood donation requires sustained advocacy, the form of publicity and the carrier should be diversified, comprehensive, sustained and innovative.%目的 了解连云港市在校大学生和公务员对义务献血相关知识的知晓现况,从而推进无偿献血的发展.方法 通过以自填方式发放问卷调查,对获得无偿献血知识的掌握情况和途径进行统计分析.结果 通过调查,对无偿献血基本知识总知晓率为78.7%,男女适量献血对健康无害知晓率,经统计学检验差异无统计学意义(x2=1、07,P>0.05);适量献血量为200~400ml的知晓率,经统计学检验性差异有统计学意义(x2=14.16,P<0.01).结论 无偿献血需要持之以恒的宣传,宣传的形式和载体应多元化,做到全面、持续、新颖.

  17. Real-time, transcranial monitoring of safe blood-brain barrier opening in non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Marquet

    Full Text Available The delivery of drugs to specific neural targets faces two fundamental problems: (1 most drugs do not cross the blood-brain barrier, and (2 those that do, spread to the entire brain. To date, there exists only one non-invasive methodology with the potential to solve these problems: selective blood-brain barrier (BBB opening using micro-bubble enhanced focused ultrasound. We have recently developed a single-element 500-kHz spherical transducer ultrasound setup for targeted BBB opening in the non-human primate that does not require simultaneous MRI monitoring. So far, however, the targeting accuracy that can be achieved with this system has not been quantified systematically. In this paper, the accuracy of this system was tested by targeting caudate nucleus and putamen of the basal ganglia in two macaque monkeys. The average lateral targeting error of the system was ∼2.5 mm while the axial targeting error, i.e., along the ultrasound path, was ∼1.5 mm. We have also developed a real-time treatment monitoring technique based on cavitation spectral analysis. This technique also allowed for delineation of a safe and reliable acoustic parameter window for BBB opening. In summary, the targeting accuracy of the system was deemed to be suitable to reliably open the BBB in specific sub-structures of the basal ganglia even in the absence of MRI-based verification of opening volume and position. This establishes the method and the system as a potentially highly useful tool for brain drug delivery.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eSteenbergen


    Full Text Available The link between serotonin (5-HT and one of the most important elements of prosocial behavior, charity, has remained largely uninvestigated. In the present study, we tested whether charitable donating can be promoted by administering the food supplement L-Tryptophan (TRP, the biochemical precursor of 5-HT. Participants were compared with respect to the amount of money they donated when given the opportunity to make a charitable donation. As expected, compared to a neutral placebo, TRP appears to increase the participants’ willingness to donate money to a charity. This result supports the idea that the food we eat may act as a cognitive enhancer modulating the way we think and perceive the world and others.

  19. 75 FR 8080 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Investigating the Causes of Post Donation Information (PDI... (United States)


    ... Causes of Post Donation Information (PDI): Errors in the Donor Screening Process SUMMARY: In compliance...: Investigating the causes of post donation information (PDI): Errors in the donor screening process. Type of... donor and recipient prior to blood donation. However, the health history process is known to be...

  20. Organ Donation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya; Reid


    CHINA’S first voluntary organ donation system is in the midst of its trial run. The program is being tested in 11 pilot regions around the country, having harvested organs from more than 100 donors in this inaugural year. Overseen by the Red Cross Society of China and the country’s Ministry of Health, the system follows cardiac death standards in organ donation

  1. Blood Transfusion (United States)

    ... to their work or home. The availability of plastic bags that can have one or more satellite bags ... in preparing the donated blood. The use of plastic bags allows the blood center to make a variety ...

  2. Blood Donation Population Human Platelet Antigen of 1~5 System Gene Polymorphism Distribution Characteristics%献血人群人类血小板抗原1~5系统基因多态性分布特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:探讨献血人群人类血小板抗原1~5系统基因多态性分布特点。方法采用聚合酶链-序列特异性引物技术(PCR-SSP)对200例无血缘关系的健康献血者进行HPA-1-5系统基因分型,分别计算献血人群的基因型及基因频率,分析其基因的多态性分布特点。结果该研究中献血人群HPA-1a、2a、3a、4a、5a基因频率分别为:0.942、0.741、0.926、0.945、0.773,HPA-1b、2b、3b、4b、5b基因频率分别为:0.058、0.286、0.084、0.045、0.227,各系统均呈多态性分布, ab杂合子依次为64和30例,-2bb4例;HPA-3和-15高度杂合,aa基因型依次为112和80例,很多献血人群属于bb基因型。结论该地区献血人群HPA-1-5系统基因均呈多态性分布,以HPA-3、-2和-5的a与b基因杂合率较高。%Objective To investigate the blood donation population human platelet antigen of 1 ~ 5 system gene polymorphism distribution characteristics.Methods Polymerase chain - sequence specific primers (PCR SSP) technology to the health of 200 cases of unrelated donors to HPA genotyping-1-5 system, gene frequency and genotype of the blood donation population are calculated respectively, analyze its gene polymorphism distribution characteristics.Results The study of blood donation population HPA - 1 a、2 a、3 a、4 a、5 a gene frequency are: 0.942、0.741、0.926、 0.741、0.926,HPA - 1 b、2 b、3 b、4 b、5 b gene frequencies are: 0.058、 0.286、0.084、0.286、0.084, are distributed in each system are polymorphism, ab heterozygous for 64 and 30 cases, in turn - 2 bb4 cases; HPA - 3 and 15 highly heterozygous, aa genotype was followed by 242 and 210, many line but people belong to the bb genotype. Conclusion This area crowd HPA - 1-5 blood donation system in gene polymorphism distribution of HPA - 3, 2 and 5 a and b gene hybrid rate is higher.

  3. The importance of education in the promotion of organ donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taise Ribeiro Morais


    .The profile of the opponent to organ donation is: man or woman over the age of 45 years, with low schooling, who does not know the concept of brain death and has a partner also against organ donation, is not conducive to blood donation and fears the manipulation of the body after death. The main reasons for not accepting the donation is the lack of knowledge of how to become a donor and the fear of misdiagnosis of death(7.Facing this reality, health professionals should act as educators, to modify public opinion regarding the misconceptions. However, unfavorable beliefs can be modified only if educators are well prepared for that, so that the population is prompted to participate in debates on organ transplants and legislation.Modifying the existing reality means developing programs planned and evaluated in an ongoing educational process, supported by theoretical background and scientifically recognized models, for all segments of the community, along with incorporating the knowledge of thanatology in the formation of health professionals, with better appreciation of religious principles, to avoid making an aggressive approach to the families of potential donors. The preparation of families should be taken into consideration, to prevent the false idea that death is being expected in order to save others’ lives, because every family wants their patient to have the opportunity to live. Therefore, the government is to be exhorted to realize that the lack of support to the practice of organ donation is a real problem, and to include educational activities regarding transplants in priority governmental programs and in public policies of health care.Since organ donation in Brazil depends exclusively on the family permission, campaigns that seek to increase the understanding of the concept of brain death among the population, and, most of all, to encourage people to express their desire to be a donor and to discuss their decision with family are important strategies to tackle this

  4. Ex-vivo expansion of red blood cells: How real for transfusion in humans?


    Migliaccio, Anna Rita; Masselli, Elena; Varricchio, Lilian; Whitsett, Carolyn


    Blood transfusion is indispensable for modern medicine. In developed countries, the blood supply is adequate and safe but blood for alloimmunized patients is often unavailable. Concerns are increasing that donations may become inadequate in the future as the population ages prompting a search for alternative transfusion products. Improvements in culture conditions and proof-of-principle studies in animal models have suggested that ex-vivo expanded red cells may represent such a product. Compa...

  5. Positivity of HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in patients enrolled in a confidential self-exclusion system of blood donation: a cross-sectional analytical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Kasraian

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Selection of healthy blood donors is essential to ensure blood safety. A confidential self-exclusion (CSE system was designed so that high-risk donors could confidentially exclude their blood from use in transfusions. This study aimed to compare the demographic characteristics and the results from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B surface (HBS and hepatitis C virus (HCV screening tests on donors who opted to get into and out of CSE. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study on all volunteer donors at Shiraz Blood Transfusion Organization from March 21, 2006, to March 21, 2008. METHODS: The results from the abovementioned tests were compared between donors who opted into and out of CSE. RESULTS: 100,148 donors in 2006 and 104,271 in 2007 gave blood. Among these donors, respectively, 829 (0.82% and 592 (0.57% opted for the CSE. The prevalence of HIV antibodies, HBS antigens and HCV antibodies in CSE donors was significantly higher than in donors who did not choose CSE (p < 0.05. The prevalence of at least one of these three infections among CSE donors was 3.12% in 2006 and 3.04% in 2007, and was significantly higher than the prevalence among non-CSE donors (0.58% and 0.57%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Because of the higher prevalence of HBS, HCV and HIV positivity in blood donors who chose the CSE option, offering CSE to blood donors could be a potentially useful method for improving blood safety, since it could increase the detection of infected blood during the window period.

  6. Dengue viremia in blood donors in Northern India: Challenges of emerging dengue outbreaks to blood transfusion safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhana Mangwana


    Full Text Available Backdround: Emerging infectious diseases pose threats to the general human population; including recipients of blood transfusions. Dengue is spreading rapidly to new areas and with increasing frequency of major outbreaks. Screening blood for dengue antigens in dengue-endemic countries would be costly and should, therefore, be recommended only after careful assessment of risk for infection and cost. Aim: A prospective study was conducted to establish the magnitude of the threat that dengue poses to blood safety where it is sporadic with seasonal variations, to quantify risk and to assess that whether screening is feasible and cost-effective. Materials and Methods: Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 antigen test was done on 1709 donations during dengue outbreak in the months August to November 2013 as an additional test using Bio-Rad Platelia Dengue NS1AG test kit which is one step sandwich format microplate enzyme immunoassay using murine monoclonal antibodies for capture and revelation. Chi-square test was used to find statistical significance. Results and Conclusions: Majority cases were whole blood, replacement, male donors with 76.10% donors in <35 years age group. About 17.85% were single donor platelet donations. NS1 antigen in all donors was negative. In the past, dengue affected mainly children who do not donate blood. With the changing trend, mean age of infection increased affecting the population that does donate blood, further reducing blood donation pool. Further studies need to be done in different geographic regions of the country during dengue transmission season to establish maximum incidence of viremic donations, rates of transfusion transmission and clinical consequences in recipients. If risk is found to be substantial, decision will be taken by the policymakers at what threshold screening should be instituted to ensure safe blood transfusion.

  7. Where are We on Organ Donation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öznur Uludağ


    Full Text Available Objective: It was aimed to present the acceptance rate of organ donation of cases that were diagnosed with brain death and evaluated in terms of their demographic and clinical properties retrospectively in Adıyaman University Training and Research Hospital. Material and Method: In the intensive care unit of our hospital, cases that were diagnosed with brain death between the dates of January 2008 and December 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Cases were evaluated in terms of age, sex, cause of brain death, blood groups, donation status, reasons for acceptance or rejection of donation, cardiac arrest, vasopressin treatment, laboratory test results, arterial blood gas values before and after the apnea test, intensive care unit follow-up durations, apnea test, seasonal and annual distribution. Also, potential donors and recipients were analyzed in accordance with their demographic characteristics. Results: The diagnosis of brain death was made in totally 57 cases; of those, 34 (59.6% were men and 23 (40.4% were women. The most common causes for brain death were traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH and intracerebral hematoma. Most of the cases had A Rh+ blood type (n=18, 31.5% and the rate of brain death was 4.7 times higher in Rh (+ patients in comparison to Rh (- patients. The rate of incidence of cardiac arrest was 12.3% (n=7, and it was more common in traumatic SAH patients. The rate of receiving vasopressor therapy was 21.1% (n=12, and the mean duration of therapy was 1.3±0.8 days. It was more commonly used in traumatic SAH patients (n=10. The follow-up period was 2.7±3.2 (minimum: 1, maximum: 17 days. Five patients were considered to be organ donors. The most common reason for acceptance of donation was the effect of organ transplantation coordinator during family interviews (n=3, 60%. In total, 4 livers, 5 kidneys and 1 heart transplantation operations were performed to 10 patients. Conclusion: Due to problems in organ donation

  8. 大连地区居民志愿无偿献血相关知识知晓情况调查%Investigation on the cognition level of voluntary blood donation among Dalian residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高勇; 齐峥; 顾彦; 刘健娣; 孙笑然


    /8 037,39.02%)、献血屋宣传(2 677/8 037,33.31%)、互联网(2 177/8 037,27.09%)、广播(2 157/8 037,26.84%)等方式获取,且获得献血相关知识途径为电视的被调查者献血行为存在差异(x2=14.67,P<0.05).从未献血被调查者的不同志愿无偿献血相关知识获取途径存在差异(x2=45.26,P<0.01).④本研究调查中,志愿无偿献血动机居前3位的分别为“帮助他人”(3 043/3 224,94.38%),认为志愿无偿献血“无损健康”(2 000/3 224,62.03%)及“学校及单位组织”(1 227/3 224,38.06%).结论 各采供血机构应加大志愿无偿献血相关知识宣传力度,以提高居民志愿无偿献血率.%Objective To investigate the cognition level and motivation of voluntary blood donation among residents in Dalian,in order to provide scientific theoretical direction for the publicity and sustainable development of voluntary blood donation work.Methods A total of 9 000 residents were selected from 10 districts,4 universities and 4 institutions through stratified random sampling method from January to June 2014 in Dalian.The questionnaire was self-designed according to "Blood Donation Law of the People's Republic of China" and blood physiological knowledge,and the survey was conducted anonymously.The general characteristics of subjects,the cognition level of voluntary blood donation system and knowledge,the ways to acquire these knowledge,and the status and motivation of voluntary blood donation were analyzed.Results ①In this survey,we handed out 9 000 questionnaires,and 8 037 files were returned.Effective recovery ratio was 89.30%.4 233 (52.67%,4 233/8 037) of the participants were male,and 3 804 of them were female (47.33%,3 804/8 037).The age range was from 16 to 65,and mean age was 32.65± 12.55.Occupation of participants included civil servant,student,health educator,peasant,soldier,and others.63.35% (5 092/8 037) of participants had undergraduate degree.② 90.89% of participants

  9. The use of near-infrared light for safe and effective visualization of subsurface blood vessels to facilitate blood withdrawal in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuper, Natascha J.; Klaessens, John H. G.; Jaspers, Joris E. N.; de Roode, Rowland; Noordmans, Herke Jan; de Graaff, Jurgen C.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.


    Obtaining access to blood vessels can be difficult, especially in children. Visualization of subsurface blood vessels might be a solution. Ultrasound and visible light have been used to this purpose, but have some drawbacks. Near-infrared light might be a better option since subsurface blood vessels

  10. Whole blood donor deferral analysis at Genera l hospital blood bank – A retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinal Gajjar


    Full Text Available Background: A blood transfusion is a life saving procedure in many instances and it requir es an adequate supply of safe blood. The most important is the selection of blood donors by donor selection criteria. A large number of blood donors are deferred from donating blood for several reasons either temporarily or permanently. A shortage of safe blood donor is frequent and it is important to understand the causes of deferral of potential donors. Aims: 1. Primary objective of this study was to record and document the current rate and reasons for donor deferred in our blood bank. 2. Apply relevant findings to modify recruitment strategy for blood donors. Materials and methods: Data for WBD presenting for blood donation in a blood bank V S General Hospital and outdoor camps over two and half years from January 2011 to June 2013 were analysed retrospectively. National Guidelines were used for selection & deferral of WBD. Results: 3836 (11.16% WBD were deferred out of 34373 registered donors during the study period. Donor deferrals were tabulated into temporary and permanent reasons. Temporary deferrals were 3113 (81.15% and permanent deferrals were 723 (18.85%. The most common reasons were low haemoglobin (48.33%, high blood pressure (11.94%, underweight donors (7.95% and history of medication use (6.13% among total deferral donors. Majority of donors (47.16% deferred were between 18 -30 years. Females were found to have higher deferral rate (25.48% than males (10.76%. Discussion and conclusion: A deferral study in blood donors may shed light on the health status of general population which may affect the present and future blood supply. It is important to provide donors with a clear message on their deferral status so that most of temporary deferral donors will return for donation in future.

  11. Crowdfunding as 'Donations'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreau, Kevin J.; Jeppesen, Lars Bo; Reichstein, Toke

    For a wide class of crowdfunding approaches, we argue that the reward structure (for funders) is closer to that of charitable donations to public goods than it is to traditional entrepreneurial finance. Many features of the design of crowdfunding platforms can therefore be understood as attempts...... to deal with attendant “free-rider” problems in motivating contributions. Reviewing institutional features of today’s crowdfunding, we clarify that there are often limits in the extent to which tangible rewards can be used to motivate contributions. Drawing on analogies with charitable donations, we...... theorize that intangible sources of motivation — (i) direct psychological rewards, (ii) reciprocity and (iii) social interactions — can play a role in entrepreneurial crowdfunding. In our detailed empirical analysis of a representative project we find abundant evidence consistent with this characterization...

  12. Analysis on positive confirmation result of HIV antibody prelimicnary screening in voluntary blood donation%无偿献血HIV抗体初筛阳性确认结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庚娣; 刘永梅


    the Western blot confirmation .The confirmation results of blood samples during 2009 -2015 were statistically analyzed .Results There were 197 766 blood samples from 2009 to 2015 .The overall infection rates of HIV were 1 .3 ,4 .7 ,5 .6 ,5 .4 ,5 .3 ,4 .6 ,7 .3/one hundred thousand respectively ,the average infection rate was 0 .004 9% (4 .9/one hundred thousand) ,the average confirmed positive rate was 22 .1% ,the false positive rate was 77 .9% .Among the blood donors of confirmed positive HIV antibody ,the donors aged 18-30 years old accounted for 67 .7% .Conclusion It is important for the recruitment work before the blood donation .Aiming at the blood donors of workers from outside and relative low cultural level ,especially the blood donors of high risk behavior ,the small card mode could be adopted to guide them to the disease control center to conduct the professional consultation and detection ,which can increase the blood transfusion safety coefficient and also prevents the spread of HIV/AIDS .Aiming at the false positive blood do‐nors ,the works of follow up ,tracking monitoring and return to the blood donation team should be done well for reducing the run a‐way of blood donors .Selecting more sensitive reagents and more sensitive method for the amplification of virus nucleic acid can shorten the infection risk of the window period as far as possible for ensuring the safety of blood transfusion .

  13. Interventions to screen for human immune-deficiency virus among people donating blood[Protocol]%献血员人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)筛检措施的系统评价的研究方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉; 刘建平; 熊玮; 邝璞; 陶铁军


    , the fourth generation test has been produced till now. Initially, HIV test was primarily used to screen the blood supply, it also became an important aspect of HIV prevention, especially screening among people donating blood. Today, HIV testing is seen as an integral part of both the nation's prevention and treatment efforts. Objective To assess the effectiveness of any intervention tests for HIV screening among people donating blood, and find appropriate tests for HIV screening to decrease the risk of HIV transmission by blood transfusion.Search strategy MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register(CENTRAL/CCTR), AIDSLINE, EMBASE, CBM were be searched with the terms: "HIV", "AIDS", "screening", "test", "blood donor", "blood bank" and the detailed screening method.The websites of WHO, UNAIDS, CDC, FDA, and their related links were searched. Letters were mailed to various agencies and experts in this field to acquire unpublished reports. Inclusion criteria RCT and CCT for screening HIV among blood donors will be included. Observational studies such as cohort studies, cased-control studies, and historical controlled studies will be used for sensitivity analysis.Method of the review According to the principles of Cochrane Review, selection of trials for inclusion, quality assessment of studies, data extraction and syntheses were conducted by reviewers.

  14. Complex Contagion of Campaign Donations

    CERN Document Server

    Traag, V A


    Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign donations diffuse through a network of more than 50 000 elites and examine how connectivity among previous donors reinforces contagion. We find the diffusion of donations to be driven by independent reinforcement contagion: people are more likely to donate when exposed to donors from different social groups than when they are exposed to equally many donors from the same group. Counter-intuitively, being exposed to one side may increase donations to the other side. Although the effect is weak, simultaneous cross-cutting exposure makes donation somewhat less likely. Finally, the independence of donors in the beginning of a campaign predicts the amount of money that is raised throughout a campaign. We theorize that people infer population-wide estimates from their local observations, with elites assessing the via...

  15. Role of Religion in Organ Donation-Development of the United Kingdom Faith and Organ Donation Action Plan. (United States)

    Randhawa, G; Neuberger, J


    At a national policy level, the United Kingdom is at the forefront of recognizing the role of faith and its impact on organ donation. This is demonstrated by the recommendations of the Organ Donation Taskforce, National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidelines on organ donation, All-Party Parliamentary Kidney Group, and National Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic Taskforce Alliance. Evidence to date shows that further thought is required to ensure the active engagement of faith communities with organ donation in the UK. The "Taking Organ Transplantation to 2020" strategy was launched in July 2013 by National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) in collaboration with the Department of Health and Welsh, Scottish, and Northern Irish governments and seeks to increase the number of people, from all sections of the UK's multiethnic and multifaith population, who consent to and authorize organ donation in their life. NHSBT seeks to work in partnership with faith leaders and this culminated in a Faith and Organ Donation Summit. Faith leaders highlight that there is a need for engagement at both national and local levels concerning organ donation as well as diagnosis and definition of death.

  16. Design and Implementation of Volunteer Blood Donation Information Management Platform%无偿献血志愿者信息管理平台的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢树; 夏立敏; 韩文丽; 高翔


    In the recent years, public welfare units and some service industries all had volunteers to join and provide various services, and the service troops are expanding year by year. As the public welfare hygiene profession unit, the blood banks also have many volunteers, who donate blood without compensation and provide the service for the blood donors. Majority of the blood banks of Ningxia established its own volunteer troops. However, with development of troops in the entire area of Ningxia, it is becoming necessary to manage the service in omni-direction. It was proposed its own design and methods to control the troops with compute network management pattern in the article.%近年来,各公益单位和一些服务行业都有志愿者加入并提供服务,而且服务队伍也在逐年扩大,作为公益性卫生行业的血站,也有许多为无偿献血提供服务的志愿者,一方面参与无偿献血,另一方面又为献血者提供服务。宁夏全区各血站,大部分都建立了自己的无偿献血志愿者队伍,并随时为献血者提供全面周到的服务。然而随着全区无偿献血事业的发展,需要对志愿者参与无偿献血工作服务进行全方位的管理,因此,笔者站在全区的角度对无偿献血志愿者的管理模式进行了定位,并且探讨利用计算机网络管理模式,提出自己的设计思路与方法,使其能够适应目前全区各血站无偿献血志愿者具体服务内容与理念。

  17. Significance of ALT screening in the safety of blood donation by the ALT deferred donors%ALT单项不合格献血者再次献血血液筛查结果追踪调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎世杰; 汪传喜; 梁华钦; 廖峭; 戎霞; 陈锦艳; 林昌周; 梁浩坚


    目的 探讨和评价ALT血液筛查项目在临床用血血液安全中的意义.方法 采用回顾性调查法对2010年10月至2012年12月期间,ALT单项阳性并再次献血的献血者血液筛查结果进行追踪调查和分析.结果 3 910例再次献血者中,HBsAg、抗-HCV、抗-HIV、抗-TP以及ALT血液筛查结果均合格3 053例,占再次献血的78.1%,ALT单项仍为阳性845例,占不合格的98.6% (845/857),ALT阴性而ELISA筛查项目阳性9例,核酸筛查阳性3例,其中ALT合并NAT阳性1例.结论 ALT血液筛查在肝炎病毒感染“窗口期”或隐匿性感染中有提示的作用,在一定程度上能减少漏检的发生,在保障血液安全中具有一定的意义.%Objective To investigate and evaluate the significance of ALT screening in the safety of blood donation.Methods The blood screening results of ALT deferred donors (October 2010 to December 2012) from the Guangzhou Blood Center were investigated and analyzed by retrospective survey method.Results Among the 3 910 2nd time blood donors with previous unqualified ALT,3 053 (78.1%) donors were found to have qualified results in the testing of HBsAg,anti-HCV,anti-HIV,anti-TP and ALT screening.845 (98.6%) were found to have unqualified result with ALT screening only.Other 11 were found to have unqualified results in either ELISA or NAT,while their ALT screening result was qualified.One donor was found to have unqualified result with both ALT and NAT.Conclusion ALT screening can play a role in the monitoring of hepatitis virus infection and in reducing the risk of transmission due to the window-period and other occult infections.

  18. Distribution of blood groups in blood donors in the blood bank of Jagdalpur, Bastar district, Chhattisgarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A Badge


    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The incidence of ABO and rhesus (Rh groups varies markedly in different races, ethnic groups, and socioeconomic groups in different parts of the world. The frequencies of ABO and Rh blood groups vary from one population to another and time to time in the same region. The present study was carried out to find the distribution of blood group in rural and tribal populations of Bastar district of Chhattisgarh. Materials and Methods: The present retrospective study was carried out at late Shri Baliram Kashyap Memorial Government Medical College and Maharani Hospital blood bank, Jagdalpur, Bastar district, Chhattisgarh, India, during the 2-year period from January 2014 to December 2015. The blood collections were taken from the voluntary donors at outdoor blood donation camp and in-house blood bank as well as from replacement donors at blood bank. Totally 12,852 donors were considered medically fit and accepted for blood donation during the study period. Results: Out of the total 12,852 donors, most of the donors, i.e., 3996 (31.09% were with blood Group O followed by B (30.44%, A (24.95%, and AB (13.52%. Out of the 12,852 blood donors, majority, i.e., 12,779 (99.43% were male and 73 (0.57% were female. Maximum blood donors, i.e., 12,777 (99.42% were Rh positive while only 75 (0.58% were Rh negative. Conclusion: The knowledge of distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups at local and regional levels is helpful in effective management of blood banks and safe blood transfusion services.

  19. Incidence of human herpes virus-6 and human cytomegalovirus infections in donated bone marrow and umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad-Behbahani A


    Full Text Available This study examined the incidence of human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6 and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infections that are potentially transmitted to haematopoietic stem cells (HSC transplant recipients via bone marrow (BM or umbilical cord blood (UCB. Bone marrow progenitor cells were collected from 30 allogenic BM donors. UCB HSC were collected from 34 subjects. The extracted DNA was then processed using nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR technique. HCMV and HHV-6 serological status were determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA. Nested PCR identified HCMV in 22 (73% of 30 samples of BM progenitor cells but in only eight (23.5% of 34 samples of UBC HSC ( P = 0.001. HHV-6 DNA was detected in 11 (36.6% of 30 BM progenitor cells and in only one (2.9% of 34 UBC cells ( P = 0.002. Both HHV-6 and HCMV infections were determined in nine (26.5% of 34 bone marrow samples. The results indicate that, the risk of HCMV and HHV-6 via BM progenitor cells is higher than transmission by UCB cells ( P= 0.04.

  20. National Organ and Tissue Donation Initiative (United States)

    ... More Nearly 95% of U.S. adults support organ donation. Show your support and sign up today. Sign ... donation statistics Information about Organ, Eye, and Tissue Donation Every day, lives are saved and improved by ...

  1. Intrapleural instillation of autologous blood for persistent air leak in spontaneous pneumothorax- is it as effective as it is safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karangelis Dimos


    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of autologous blood pleurodesis in the management of persistent air leak in spontaneous pneumothorax. Patients and methods A number of 15 patients (10 male and 5 female were included in this prospective study between March 2005 and December 2009. The duration of the air leak exceeded 7 days in all patients. The application of blood pleurodesis was used as the last preoperative conservative method of treatment in 12 patients. One patient refused surgery and two were ineligible for operation due to their comorbidities. A blood sample of 50 ml was obtained from the patient's femoral vein and immediately introduced into the chest tube. Results A success rate of 27% was observed having the air leak sealed in 4 patients in less than 24 hours. Conclusion Despite our disappointingly poor outcome, the authors believe that the procedure's safety, convenience and low cost establish it as a worth trying method of conservative treatment for patients with the aforementioned pathology for whom no other alternative than surgery would be a choice.

  2. Attitude toward living kidney donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Alarcón, L.; Ramis, G.; Gómez-Laguna, J.; Quereda, J.J.; Herrero-Medrano, J.M.; Mrowiec, A.; Mendonça, L.; López-Navas, A.; Ríos, A.


    Introduction Due to the current deficit of organs for transplantation, living kidney related donations (LKRD) should be promoted. Veterinarians often hold decision-making positions in the public health care system, and therefore can influence public opinion about organ donation. The objective was

  3. Brazilian blood donation eligibility criteria for dermatologic patients Critérios brasileiros de elegibilidade à doação de sangue para pacientes dermatológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gustavo Wambier


    Full Text Available A focused and commented review on the impact of dermatologic diseases and interventions in the solidary act of donating blood is presented to dermatologists to better advise their patients. This is a review of current Brazilian technical regulations on hemotherapeutic procedures as determined by Ministerial Directive #1353/2011 by the Ministry of Health and current internal regulations of the Hemotherapy Center of Ribeirão Preto, a regional reference center in hemotherapeutic procedures. Criteria for permanent inaptitude: autoimmune diseases (>1 organ involved, personal history of cancer other than basal cell carcinoma, severe atopic dermatitis or psoriasis, pemphigus foliaceus, porphyrias, filariasis, leprosy, extra pulmonary tuberculosis or paracoccidioidomycosis, and previous use of etretinate. Drugs that impose temporary ineligibility: other systemic retinoids, systemic corticosteroids, 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors, vaccines, methotrexate, beta-blockers, minoxidil, anti-epileptic, and anti-psychotic drugs. Other conditions that impose temporary ineligibility: occupational accident with biologic material, piercing, tattoo, sexually transmitted diseases, herpes, and bacterial infections, among others. Discussion: Thalidomide is currently missing in the teratogenic drugs list. Although finasteride was previously considered a drug that imposed permanent inaptitude, according to its short halflife current restriction of 1 month is still too long. Dermatologists should be able to advise their patients about proper timing to donate blood, and discuss the impact of drug withdrawal on treatment outcomes and to respect the designated washout periods.Uma revisão centrada no impacto de doenças e intervenções dermatológicas no ato solidário de doar sangue é apresentada aos dermatologistas para melhor aconselhamento dos seus pacientes. Esta é uma revisão das atuais normas técnicas brasileiras sobre procedimentos hemoterápicos conforme

  4. A comparative research on the motivation factors of voluntary blood donation among college students from a comprehensive university and a medical university%综合性大学与医学类院校学生无偿献血的动因比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆佳玲; 孙牧; 屠小明; 赵轶轮; 蔡旭兵


    Objective: To compare the differences of common knowledge, attitudes and motivations in voluntary blood donation between students from one comprehensive university and one medical university in Nanjing. Methods: We established questionnaires via document research, expert consultation and focus group discussion. Chi-square test was performed to compare the differences of common knowledge. t-test was performed to compare the differences of attitudes and motivations. Results: Students in comprehensive university known less about blood donation than students in medical universities. The score of attitude towards blood donation in students from medical university was higher than that in students from comprehensive university. No significant differences were found between them in feelings when they are donating blood. The score of motivation of altruism in medical university students was higher than that in comprehensive university students. Among the students who did not donate blood, the score of motivation of self-efficacy and reward in medical university students was higher than that in comprehensive university students. Conclusion:It is necessary to strengthen the popularization of blood donation in comprehensive universities. Suitable broadcasting and recruiting strategies can be established according to the differences between them in motivation and attitudes to donate blood.%以南京某综合性大学和某医学院校为例,比较两类学校学生在无偿献血认知、献血参与态度及献血动机方面的差异。通过文献研究、专家咨询及焦点小组评分编制调查问卷。认知差异比较采用卡方检验,态度和动机差异采用t检验。综合性大学学生对无偿献血的认知水平较低。医学类院校学生在献血参与态度方面的得分较高,二者在献血感受上无差异。献血动机方面,医学类院校学生献血的利他性得分较高,在两校暂未献血人群中,医学类院校学生自

  5. Comunicações persuasivas e doação regular de sangue: um estudo experimental Persuasive communications and regular blood donation: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balduino Guedes Fernandes da Cunha


    Full Text Available Esta investigação teve por objetivos: verificar capitulação para a variável dependente "intenção comportamental de tornar-se doador(a regular de sangue", averiguar influência destas comunicações na variância da variável dependente, examinar a contribuição isolada da variável independente externa, à Teoria da Ação Racional e testar o ajuste da Teoria da Ação Racional ampliada para o comportamento e amostra estudados. Utilizou-se delineamento só pós-teste e procedimento duplo-cego, designando-se aleatoriamente 405 estudantes universitários, para os grupos experimental 1, experimental 2, controle-placebo e somente-controle. Resultados demonstraram: inexistir capitulação para os grupos experimentais; consideráveis percentuais de variância da variável dependente explicados pelas independentes dos grupos experimentais e controle-placebo; correlações satisfatórias e significativas para variáveis da teoria ampliada. A ausência de capitulação para a variável critério deveu-se, provavelmente, ao intervalo do tempo. Coube à estratégia persuasiva positiva maior variância da variável dependente. A obrigação moral demonstrou maior influência na intenção dos participantes em desempenhar o comportamento. Correlações corroboraram validades teórica e metodológica da teoria ampliada.This study aimed to: investigate yielding to the dependent variable "behavioral intent to become a regular blood donor", verify the impact of such communications on variance in the dependent variable, examine the single contribution of the external independent variable to the Rational Action Theory, and test the fit of the expanded Rational Choice Theory to the target behavior and sample. Only a post-test design and double-blinded procedure were used, randomly picking 405 university students for experimental groups 1 and 2, placebo control, and control only. The results showed: lack of yielding by the experimental groups; considerable

  6. Cord Blood Karyotyping: A Safe and Non-Invasive Method for Postnatal Testing of Assisted Reproductive Technology Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Zarei Moradi


    Full Text Available Background: To verify the hypothesis that the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities increases in babies conceived by different assisted reproduction procedures. The availability of the umbilical cord blood encouraged us to study this hypothesis via this method. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study, umbilical cord blood samples of assisted reproductive technology (ART children were analyzed with standard cytogenetic techniques (G banding. Karyotyping was possible in 109 cases. Results: The number of abnormal cases was four (3.7%, among which, three cases (2.8% were inherited and only 1 case (0.9% was a de novo translocation. In total, the incidence of de novo chromosomal abnormalities was in the range observed in all live births in the general population (0.7-1%. Conclusion: No significant difference in the incidence of chromosomal abnormality was found between ART and naturally conceived babies. To date, several studies have examined the medical and developmental outcome of ART children and still have not reached a definite conclusion. Genetic counseling is recommended as an integral part of planning of treatment strategies for couples wishing to undergo ART.

  7. Analysis of influencing factors and reasons of red blood cell spill- over in thrombocytapheresis occurred in voluntary blood donation in blood stations%机采血小板在血站无偿献血中造成冲红原因及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To explore the influencing factors and reasons of red blood cell spill - over in thrombocytapheresis occurred in voluntary blood donation in blood stations. Methods Totally 618 voluntary blood donors with complete clinical data between May 11th 1999 and November 7 th 2010 were enrolled in this study. All of them met the national stipulation physical examination standard. Before blood collection, phlebotomists from blood stations inquired strictly about the donors' healthy condition, then followed a standard program according to procedures;21 red blood cell spill - over cases (Platelets were collected by a CS -3000Plus cell separator) .excluded the machine fault and misopera-tion,were investigated in this study. The normal control group consisted of 597 voluntary blood donors with normal platelet collection. The study include ①the blood count of finger - prick blood before hemapheresis in both groups; ②the effects of pre - diluted blood store time; ③the results of two methods in donors with different levels of platelets; ④the effects of test cups; the comparison of platelet count in the two groups;⑤the effects of environmental factors;⑥the-comparison of the effects of different blood collection methods; ⑦the anticoagulant selection. Results The blood count of finger - prick before hemapheresis in both groups had no difference (P > 0.05) in HGB(g/L) 、PLT( x 109/L) 、MPV(fl) ,MCHC(g/L) ,MCV(pg) ,MCV(fl) ,PTW(% ),except RDW (P < 0.05). The separation of platelets should be finished in 120 minutes. The difference between the two groups (P < 0. 05) is more significant with the decrease of platelet counts. The result suggested that thrombocytapheresis show a high incidence of red blood cell spill - over. Choose the test cups with high quality. The environmental temperature is particularly important. It shall be strictly forbidden to squeeze hard on the blood collecting location. Select EDTA - K2 as the anticoagulant. Conclusions Red blood cell

  8. Progress Toward Strengthening National Blood Transfusion Services - 14 Countries, 2011-2014. (United States)

    Chevalier, Michelle S; Kuehnert, Matthew; Basavaraju, Sridhar V; Bjork, Adam; Pitman, John P


    Blood transfusion is a life-saving medical intervention; however, challenges to the recruitment of voluntary, unpaid or otherwise nonremunerated whole blood donors and insufficient funding of national blood services and programs have created obstacles to collecting adequate supplies of safe blood in developing countries (1). Since 2004, the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has provided approximately $437 million in bilateral financial support to strengthen national blood transfusion services in 14 countries in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean* that have high prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. CDC analyzed routinely collected surveillance data on annual blood collections and HIV prevalence among donated blood units for 2011-2014. This report updates previous CDC reports (2,3) on progress made by these 14 PEPFAR-supported countries in blood safety, summarizes challenges facing countries as they strive to meet World Health Organization (WHO) targets, and documents progress toward achieving the WHO target of 100% voluntary, nonremunerated blood donors by 2020 (4). During 2011-2014, overall blood collections among the 14 countries increased by 19%; countries with 100% voluntary, nonremunerated blood donations remained stable at eight, and, despite high national HIV prevalence rates, 12 of 14 countries reported an overall decrease in donated blood units that tested positive for HIV. Achieving safe and adequate national blood supplies remains a public health priority for WHO and countries worldwide. Continued success in improving blood safety and achieving WHO targets for blood quality and adequacy will depend on national government commitments to national blood transfusion services or blood programs through increased public financing and diversified funding mechanisms for transfusion-related activities.

  9. Development of blood transfusion service in Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Sanmukh


    Full Text Available Background: Sultanate of Oman is geographically situated in south-west of Asia, having common borders on western side by the land with United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Yemen and with the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the east and the north respectively. The country enjoys one of the best health care facilities including blood transfusion services in the region. Study design: Information was collected through informal personal interviews, digging out the past records, and the report presentations at various forums. Results: A modest start by providing blood units through import, the country is now self-reliant on procuring blood units from voluntary non-remunerate blood donors within the sultanate. A steady growth of blood banks is witnessed in every aspect of blood banking including blood collection, blood processing and supply. Various modalities are adapted in promoting voluntary blood donation programme. Conclusion: Sultanate of Oman has created one of the best blood transfusion services in the region in providing safe blood for transfusion through voluntary donation, a use of blood components and irradiating blood products.

  10. 不同检测方法在无偿献血筛选ALT中的应用评价%Evaluation of different inspection methods for ALT screening in blood donation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永嘉; 韩翌; 谢云峥


    [Objective] Through comparing the results of different inspection methods, seeking a suitable inspection method for ALT screening in blood centre for blood donation, to save the blood and greatly reduce the number of blood scrap caused by ALT unqualified. [Methods] Use MissionTMC100 biochemical analyzer, Reflotron plus biochemical analyzer and microlab 300 semiautomatic biochemistry analyzer each to inspect 100 blood donors'ALT, then compare each results with Hitachi 7600 -010 automatic biochemistry analyzer. [Results] Compared with Hitachi 7600 -010 automatic hio-chemistry analyzer, MissionTMC100 biochemical analyzerx2 =2.25,relevance r = 0.9550;Reflotron plus biochemical analyzer;x2=4. 167,relevance r = 0. 9724;microlab 300 semiautomatic biochemistry analyzer x2 =0. 25,relevance r =0.9695. Conclusion: Microlab 300 semiautomatic biochemistry analyzer has a good result and it has a good correlation with Hitachi 7600-010 automatic biochemistry analyzer as well; MissionTMC100 biochemical analyzer and Reflotron plus biochemical analyzer are suggested to adjust critical value, MissionTMC100 biochemical analyzer is suggested to adjust to 35, while Reflotron plus is suggested to 34 U/L.%[目的]寻求一种适合应用于血液中心无偿献血血清丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)筛选的检测方法,以达到节约血源,大幅度降低因ALT不合格造成的血液报废.[方法]用MissionTMC100干式生化分析仪(艾康)、Reflotron plus 快速全自动干式生化分析仪(罗氏)、microlab 300半自动生化分析仪(威图)3种仪器分别测100例献血者的ALT,并分别与日立7600-010全自动生化分析仪进行比较.[结果]与全自动生化仪测试结果相比,艾康干式法x2=2.25,相关性r=0.9550;罗氏x2 =4.167,相关性r=0.9724;威图半自动x2=o.25,相关性r=0.9695.[结论]威图半自动生化分析仪结果良好,相关性好,与日立7600-010相比无明显差异;艾康与罗氏应适当调整临界值,艾康应调为35 U

  11. The new Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions database (SCANDAT2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Rostgaard, Klaus; Vasan, Senthil K;


    -creation of SCANDAT with updated, identifiable data. We collected computerized data on blood donations and transfusions from blood banks covering all of Sweden and Denmark. After data cleaning, two structurally identical databases were created and the entire database was linked with nationwide health outcomes......BACKGROUND: Risks of transfusion-transmitted disease are currently at a record low in the developed world. Still, available methods for blood surveillance might not be sufficient to detect transmission of diseases with unknown etiologies or with very long incubation periods. STUDY DESIGN...... AND METHODS: We have previously created the anonymized Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT) database, containing data on blood donors, blood transfusions, and transfused patients, with complete follow-up of donors and patients for a range of health outcomes. Here we describe the re...

  12. The critical pathway for deceased donation : reportable uniformity in the approach to deceased donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez-Gil, Beatriz; Delmonico, Francis L.; Shaheen, Faissal A. M.; Matesanz, Rafael; O'Connor, Kevin; Minina, Marina; Muller, Elmi; Young, Kimberly; Manyalich, Marti; Chapman, Jeremy; Kirste, Guenter; Al-Mousawi, Mustafa; Coene, Leen; Garcia, Valter Duro; Gautier, Serguei; Hasegawa, Tomonori; Jha, Vivekanand; Kwek, Tong Kiat; Chen, Zhonghua Klaus; Loty, Bernard; Costa, Alessandro Nanni; Nathan, Howard M.; Ploeg, Rutger; Reznik, Oleg; Rosendale, John D.; Tibell, Annika; Tsoulfas, George; Vathsala, Anantharaman; Noel, Luc


    P>The critical pathway of deceased donation provides a systematic approach to the organ donation process, considering both donation after cardiac death than donation after brain death. The pathway provides a tool for assessing the potential of deceased donation and for the prospective identification

  13. Confidentiality in gamete donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Yavari


    Full Text Available During recent decades, the third person intervention in human artificial insemination has created new hopes for infertile couples. However these new progresses have propounded new ethical and legal concerns for families. One of them is confidentiality regarding gamete donor's identity, and its disclosure to the future child and others. Of course, negligence to this ethical issue would produce a big barrier for efficient health care services."nFor compiling this article we searched different websites including Pubmed, Ovid, Elsevier, Google and etc and the resulting articles were investigated carefully. "nIn this article, the history of gamete donation in different countries is reviewed initially and the mentioned reasons for anonymity with that of disclosure are compared. "nBecause of the different cultures and values of various societies, it is not justifiable to propose a unique method regarding this issue; however, there have to be clear rules in this regard, in each country. In order to facilitate this process, pretreatment counseling courses should be established to explain different aspects of this issue for the recipients.

  14. Alternative Living Kidney Donation Programs Boost Genetically Unrelated Donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalie A. Poldervaart


    Full Text Available Donor-recipient ABO and/or HLA incompatibility used to lead to donor decline. Development of alternative transplantation programs enabled transplantation of incompatible couples. How did that influence couple characteristics? Between 2000 and 2014, 1232 living donor transplantations have been performed. In conventional and ABO-incompatible transplantation the willing donor becomes an actual donor for the intended recipient. In kidney-exchange and domino-donation the donor donates indirectly to the intended recipient. The relationship between the donor and intended recipient was studied. There were 935 conventional and 297 alternative program transplantations. There were 66 ABO-incompatible, 68 domino-paired, 62 kidney-exchange, and 104 altruistic donor transplantations. Waiting list recipients (n=101 were excluded as they did not bring a living donor. 1131 couples remained of whom 196 participated in alternative programs. Genetically unrelated donors (486 were primarily partners. Genetically related donors (645 were siblings, parents, children, and others. Compared to genetically related couples, almost three times as many genetically unrelated couples were incompatible and participated in alternative programs (P<0.001. 62% of couples were genetically related in the conventional donation program versus 32% in alternative programs (P<0.001. Patient and graft survival were not significantly different between recipient programs. Alternative donation programs increase the number of transplantations by enabling genetically unrelated donors to donate.

  15. Seroprevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections and evaluation of the pre-donation screening performance at the Provincial Hospital of Tete, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidane Solon


    TTIs after questionnaire screening is high in Tete, Mozambique, but HCV infection does not appear as a major issue. The questionnaire did not exclude effectively HIV-infected donor candidates, while the locally used assays led to unnecessary rejection of many safe donations. A contextualized questionnaire and consistent use of quality-assured assays would considerably improve the current screening procedure for blood donation.

  16. Knowledge and awareness about Iron deficiency and megaloblastic anaemia among blood donors: a study at rural based tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar R. Shah


    Full Text Available Background: Voluntary blood donation is promoted in order to make the blood banking safe and successful. Research in the area of blood donation has found that, iron stores are influenced by regular blood donation if dietary intake of iron is inadequate. Awareness and knowledge among blood donors regarding iron and B12 deficiency and its prevention is very much required. Objective: To assess the knowledge and awareness about iron deficiency and megaloblastic anaemia among blood donors. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among the 500 voluntary blood donors during the span of 1 year at one of the blood bank of tertiary care hospital using prestructured questionnaire on the various aspect of iron and B12 deficiency/folate deficiency anemia. The data was analysed with the help of Microsoft excel and SPSS. Results: Out of 500 blood donors, 15.6% donors were regular blood donor. It was observed 60% blood donors were having knowledge of anemia in general. Iron deficiency and vitamin B12 deficiency were known to 42% and 31.6% donors, respectively. Only 20% donors could able to answer the acceptable level of hemoglobin require for donating the blood. About 42% donors were aware about importance of iron, folate and vitamin B12 in maintaining normal hemoglobin level. Majority (82.7% of regular blood donors were willing to get information regarding iron, folate and vitamin B12 deficiency. Conclusion: Significant lack of awareness regarding iron and vitamin B12 deficiency was observed in regular voluntary blood donors. The present study recommends the provision of health education on iron and vitamin B12 deficiency as well as Iron, folate and vitamin B12 rich foods to regular blood donor to prevent anaemia among them. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 708-710

  17. Donation FAQs (Bone and Tissue Allografts) (United States)

    ... Us Home Site Map Company Links Newsroom Careers Donation FAQs Over 120,000 people need organ transplants ... MTF encourages you to learn the facts about donation, to make a personal choice and to discuss ...

  18. Donations: how to ensure you really benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordero I


    Full Text Available Appropriate donated equipment or consumables can help to achieve the goals of VISION 2020. However, according to the World Health Organization (WHO Guidelines on Healthcare Equipment Donation (2000, an estimated 70% or more of donated medical equipment is not being used.

  19. 31 CFR 596.301 - Donation. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Donation. 596.301 Section 596.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Definitions § 596.301 Donation. The term donation means a transfer made in the form of a gift or...

  20. 78 FR 57539 - Charitable Donation Accounts (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 703 and 721 RIN 3133-AE17 Charitable Donation Accounts AGENCY: National Credit Union... regulations to clarify that a federal credit union (FCU) is authorized to fund a charitable donation account... contributions and donations is among an FCU's incidental powers.\\2\\ \\1\\ 12 U.S.C. 1757(17). \\2\\ 44 FR 56691...

  1. Evaluation of Factors Limiting Corneal Donation. (United States)

    Röck, Daniel; Wude, Johanna; Yoeruek, Efdal; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl Ulrich; Röck, Tobias


    BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate factors limiting corneal donation at the University Hospital Tübingen. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively studied all hospital deaths from January 2012 to December 2015, considering each deceased patient as a potential corneal donor. During this period an ophthalmic resident managed corneal donor procurement on a full-time basis. Various factors limiting corneal donation were examined. RESULTS Among the 3412 deaths, 2937 (86.1%) displayed nonfulfillment of corneal donation. Consent for corneal donation was obtained in 475 cases (13.9%). The mean annual corneal donation rate was 13.9 donors per 100 deaths (range: 11.2-17.8). The leading causes of nonfulfillment of corneal donations were refusal to donate (49.8%, 1698 cases) and medical contraindications (23.6%, 805 cases). After next-of-kin interview of 2173 potential donors (109 potential donors were excluded because of logistical problems), willingness to participate in corneal donation was present in 475 cases (21.9%), whereas in 1698 cases (78.1%) corneal donation was refused. CONCLUSIONS Our study showed refusal to donate is the most important factor limiting corneal donation. It seems that increasing the knowledge of people about corneal donation through public education and media are necessary to address the corneal shortage.

  2. Trends of transfusion transmissible diseases among blood donors at Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Negi


    Full Text Available Context: Blood can save lives; however, it can be a source of transfusion transmitted diseases if proper screening of donated blood is not done. It is now mandatory to screen all donated blood units, whether replacement or voluntary for five transfusion transmitted diseases-namely human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis, and malaria. Aims: The present study was done to study the prevalence of infectious disease markers among donors at the blood bank of a tertiary care center. Settings and Design: A total of 53,069 donors donated blood over 11 years. The number of replacement and voluntary donors was 41,710 and 11,359, respectively. Materials and Methods: Screening of blood units was done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method for HIV and hepatitis B and C. HIV testing was done using fourth generation ELISA kits. Syphilis was tested by latex agglutination assay and malaria was tested using slide method up to the year 2008-2009 and by rapid immunochromatographic assay after that. Results: The mean percentage of these infections per year was found to be 0.2, 1.2, 0.9, 0.3, and 0.002% for HIV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, hepatitis C virus (HCV, syphilis, and malarial parasite (MP, respectively. Conclusions: The risk of transfusion transmissible infection (TTI today is low but supply of safe blood depends on proper donor selection and sensitive screening tests.

  3. Body donation in India: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant A. Rokade


    Full Text Available The study of anatomy is inseparable from cadaveric dissection. However scarcity of cadavers is felt all over the world. Body donation is the preferred and major source of cadavers worldwide. It is defined as an informed and free act of giving one’s whole body after death for medical education and research. This article gives a brief review of history of body donation. It reveals the details about who can donate and who can accept the body along with procedure followed to donate body in India. It discusses the donors’ attitude behind body donation and factors preventing people from body donation. It deals with approach of various religions towards body donation. It discusses some important ways to overcome the scarcity of bodies in India and the world. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 173-177

  4. Fatores associados à aptidão clínica para a doação de sangue: determinantes demográficos e socioeconômicos Factors associated to clinical aptness for blood donation: demographic and socioeconomic determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Brener


    technological advances and increasing demand for blood transfusions. However, despite investment to increase the number of blood donors, there is a chronic shortage of blood. The aim of this study was to compare demographic and social-economic characteristics comparing individuals that were considered eligible with temporarily and permanent non-eligible blood donors. A case-comparison study was carried out at the Blood Donation Center (Hemocentro of Belo Horizonte from a survey involving 3,527 candidates for blood donation. Comparisons stratified by gender were made for all characteristics. Multinomial logistic regression was used to verify the association between the variables and eligibility for blood donation. Candidates for blood donation were similar according to the socio-economic level and dissimilar according to gender, age and type of donation. For both genders, the following characteristics were statistically associated in respect to eligibility for blood donation: to be young (18 to 29 years, to have a stable relationship and employment and not to own an automobile. For men, the presence of less than two people per bedroom of their residence was also statistically significant. Distinct demographic and social-economic profiles were identified in relation to gender and eligibility category. Similar profiles were found between temporarily non-eligible and eligible candidates, especially among women. Therefore, adopting multiple strategies in blood donor recruitment is justified in order to make contact with the different groups.

  5. Safety of blood and blood products in Scandinavia today. (United States)

    Lindholm, A


    The safety of blood and blood products in Scandinavia today is high. An absolutely safe blood supply is, however, an unattainable goal. The dominating risk is transmission of non-A, non-B virus (NANBV). The calculated per blood unit risk is 1:200. The incidence of cirrhosis due to post-transfusion hepatitis NANB is calculated to at most 0.1% among recipients of blood components from about 5 donors. Other risk factors are transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). The prevalence of HBsAg among first time donors is about 0.05% (Sweden). In Scandinavia, anti-HIV-1 has been found in 0.001% of donations from start of screening in 1985 to December 1987. The prevalence was higher in Denmark, lower in Finland (and perhaps Iceland). The prevalence has declined during the last years. As of June 1988, 117 patients in the Scandinavian countries have been infected by blood components, all but 2 before screening was introduced. Besides these, 226 haemophiliacs have been infected by, in almost all cases, imported clotting factor concentrates before heat treatment was introduced. Most of the infected patients are still asymptomatic. About 70% of blood donors have anti-CMV, a few percent of which will transmit CMV-infection, with severe symptoms, to immunosuppressed patients without anti-CMV.

  6. Another donation of computer equipment

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    On Thursday 27 February, CERN was pleased to donate computer equipment to a physics institute in the Philippines.   H.E. Leslie J. Baja and Rolf Heuer. Following donations of computer equipment to institutes in Morocco, Ghana, Bulgaria, Serbia and Egypt, CERN is to send 50 servers and 4 network switches to the National Institute of Physics at the University of the Philippines Diliman. CERN’s Director-General Rolf Heuer and the Ambassador of the Philippines to Switzerland and Lichtenstein, H.E. Leslie J. Baja, spoke of their enthusiasm for the project during an official ceremony. The equipment will be used for various high energy physics research programmes in the Philippines and for the University’s development of digital resources for science.

  7. Processing and storage of blood components: strategies to improve patient safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietersz RNI


    Full Text Available Ruby NI Pietersz, Pieter F van der Meer Department of Product and Process Development, Sanquin Blood Bank, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Abstract: This review focuses on safety improvements of blood processing of various blood components and their respective storage. A solid quality system to ensure safe and effective blood components that are traceable from a donor to the patient is the foundation of a safe blood supply. To stimulate and guide this process, National Health Authorities should develop guidelines for blood transfusion, including establishment of a quality system. Blood component therapy enabled treatment of patients with blood constituents that were missing, only thus preventing reactions to unnecessarily transfused elements. Leukoreduction prevents many adverse reactions and also improves the quality of the blood components during storage. The safety of red cells and platelets is improved by replacement of plasma with preservative solutions, which results in the reduction of isoantibodies and plasma proteins. Automation of blood collection, separation of whole blood into components, and consecutive processing steps, such as preparation of platelet concentrate from multiple donations, improves the consistent composition of blood components. Physicians can better prescribe the number of transfusions and therewith reduce donor exposure and/or the risk of pathogen transmission. Pathogen reduction in cellular blood components is the latest development in improving the safety of blood transfusions for patients. Keywords: blood components, red cell concentrates, platelet concentrates, plasma, transfusion, safety 

  8. Safe environments. (United States)


    A new film on the Social Care Institute for Excellence website aims to encourage health and social care organisations to create safe environments in which staff can raise concerns as part of normal practice. Key points raised in the film include that managers should listen to what whistleblowers say and ensure the concerns raised are managed well, and that open cultures in which concerns can be raised help build safer working environments and effective learning organisations. You can view the film at

  9. [The contribution of persuasion social psychology to the retention of donors: the impact of labelling the previous donation]. (United States)

    Callé, N; Plainfossé, C; Georget, P; Sénémeaud, C; Rasonglès, P


    The supply of blood cell products requires from the National French Blood Institute (Établissement Français du Sang - EFS) to rely upon regular blood donors. Contact with donors, tailored to individuals as much as possible, helps them to donate on a regular basis. Within the context of a research program conducted with the Psychology Department of the Université de Caen Basse-Normandie, persuasive theoretical models from social psychology have been tested. These models allow adapting messages according to the motivation of donors. The content is centred on the previous donation, differently labelled according to two types of labelling: functional labelling and social labelling. Functional labelling points out the efficiency of what "has been done" (the previous blood donation), whereas social labelling emphasizes the social value of the individual. Different types of mailing invitations have been sent to 1917 donors from the Normandy database, invited to three different blood collections. Every experimental letter worked better than the standard EFS letter (which was used as the "control" letter) in terms of effective blood donation after reception of the letter. Some of the letters are more efficient in motivating donors than other ones. The letters labelling the previous blood donation as functional (efficiency of the donation) appeared more efficient than those with social label (social value) in whichever motivation induced.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu P .


    Full Text Available A 3 Years retrospective study conducted on “Donor Deferral Pattern among Blood Donors in Blood Bank’’ of a Medical College Hospital of Chhattisgarh. This study shows the major possible causes of deferrals for donation of blood in northern Chhattisgarh. Donor’s detail information on the donor deferral including the cause of deferral was recorded in deferral register. Donors deferred were analyzed and computed for study on the bas ic of medical examination. In the study done f ro m A ugust 2012 to July 2015 a total of 18773 donors were registered and the screened. Out of these 18153 were male and 620 were female. Among the male, 1486 were deferred which makes 8.18% of the total registe red. Among female, 339 were deferred which makes 54.67% of the total registered. The maximum numbers of deferrals were due to low Hb (17.97% the second most important cause for deferral in this region happens to be alcohol/ganja intake (11.61%. The third leading cause is skin puncture or ear piercing (10.57%. This figure is mainly due to professional donors who frequent around the hospital very often. Interestingly forth cause is deferral is medication (7.39% mostly over the counter drugs. Other major c ause for deferrals in descending order are low BP (6.68%, fever and cold (6.30%, hypertension (5.64%, underweight (4.54%, Typhoid (4.05%, menstrual cycle (3.39% and donated <3 month (2.41%. The least percentage of cause of deferral was due to breast feeding (0.10%. It is because of very low percentage of female donation. Strict screening of donor is compulsory to achieve safe blood equally important is to increase the number of voluntary donations with minimum deferral. To achieve this it is necessa ry to study and analyze various causes for donor deferral & categorize them under temporary & Permanent, so that temporary deferral can be converted to donations. Proper medical examination and Strict deferral system of the blood donors in blood banks redu ces the

  11. [Joint application of mathematic models in assessing the residual risk of hepatitis C virus transmitted through blood transfusion]. (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Jia, Yao; Xie, Yun-zheng; Li, Xiu-mei; Liu, Xiao-ying; Wu, Xiao-fei


    The practicable and effective methods for residual risk assessment on transfusion-transmitted disease was to establish the mathematic models. Based on the characteristics of the repeat donors which donated their blood on a regular base, a model of sero-conversion during the interval of donations was established to assess the incidence of the repeat donors. Based on the characteristics of the prevalence in the population, a model of 'prevalence increased with the age of the donor' was established to assess the incidence of those first-time donors. And based on the impact of the windows period through blood screening program, a model of residual risk associated with the incidence and the length of the windows period was established to assess the residual risk of blood transfusion. In this paper, above said 3 kinds of mathematic models were jointly applied to assess the residual risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) which was transmitted through blood transfusion in Shanghai, based on data from the routine blood collection and screening program. All the anti-HCV unqualified blood donations were confirmed before assessment. Results showed that the residual risk of HCV transmitted through blood transfusion during Jan. 1(st), 2007 to Dec. 31(st), 2008 in Shanghai was 1:101 000. Data showed that the results of residual risk assessment with mathematic models was valuable. The residual risk of transfusion-transmitted HCV in Shanghai was at a safe level, according to the results in this paper.

  12. Drivers of Discretionary Firm Donations in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bandeira-de-Mello


    Full Text Available Discretionary firm donation is usually related to the stakeholder theory and corporate social performance. Although theoretical explanations for this social behavior are pervasive in related literature, empirical modeling remains underdeveloped. We developed an explanatory structural model of discretionary firm donation using firm and industry level indicators. Unlike previous research, we estimated the explanatory power of the construct we called stakeholder orientation. Our tentative model was tested on a Brazilian sample of 101 publicly traded donor firms, using data on firm donations to social projects and to political candidates in electoral campaigns. The main results suggest that discretionary donation seems to be a strategy for managing conflicting claims in highly stakeholder oriented firms; the characteristics of the firm are more important than industry effects in explaining firm donations; and large firms, showing slack resources, and with a less concentrated ownership structure tend to engage in discretionary donation more intensively.

  13. Blood (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  14. Attitudes toward organ donation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; TIAN Hui; YIN Hang; LIU Hang; ZHANG Xiao-dong


    Background Organ transplantation represents an important advance in modern medical science,and it has benefited many patients with organ failure; however,the severe deficiency of organ sources has been a bottleneck that has limited the benefits -this technology can bring.The aim of this study was to show the results of a survey on Chinese people's awareness and attitudes toward organ donation.Methods We designed a questionnaire regarding organ donation consisting of 20 short questions,which were distributed to 10 groups.Most of the questions were multiple-choice; the core question related to people's attitudes to organ donation and the development of organ donation.The survey was held in the outpatient hall of Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital,a commercial district,and four professional colleges.Participants were randomly selected,and answered questions about gender,age,educational background,profession,and study major.Results In all,2930 valid responses were received.Male:female ratio was nearly 1:1.2 (mean age 38 years).Over 90.0% of participants knew about organ transplantation and which organs could be transplanted; more than 95.0% knew about organ donation,but the time they had been aware of it varied.Nearly 90.0% of the participants approved of deceased organ donation; 73.0% indicated they would like to donate their organs post mortem.Participants who knew more about organ failure and organ transplantation were more likely to support organ donation.College students were very positive about organ donation,though as they gain professional knowledge their attitudes may change.Altogether,65.3% of participants approved of living organ donation,which was obviously lower than the figure for deceased organ donation (P <0.05).In all,85.7% of participants approved of compensation to the deceased donor's family.To promote organ donation in China,62.9% of participants indicated that the public's knowledge about organ donation should be increased via the media

  15. Embryo donation in Iran: an ethical review. (United States)

    Afshar, Leila; Bagheri, Alireza


    Iran is the only Muslim country that has legislation on embryo donation, adopted in 2003. With an estimated 10-15% of couples in the country that are infertile, there are not any legal or religious barriers that prohibit an infertile couple from taking advantage of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs). Although all forms of ARTs available in Iran have been legitimized by religious authorities, there is a lack of legislation in all ARTs except embryo donation. By highlighting ethical issues in embryo donation, the paper presents a critical review of the Act of Embryo Donation in Iran. The paper argues that the Act does not provide enough safeguards for the future child and assurance for the safety of the donated embryos. It also does not restrict embryo donation to surplus embryos from infertile couples and is silent about the number of embryos that could be donated by each couple as well as the number of recipients for donated embryos by a couple. The Act is also silent about the issues of genetic linkage (nasab) and heritage which are challenging issues, especially in a conservative Islamic society. As a result, the future child may not inherit from their birth parents, as it is not required by the Act, or from the genetically related parents under the anonymity policy. Finally there is no standard national protocol or guidelines to evaluate the safety of the donated embryos. The paper concludes that despite its benefits, the Act lacks clarity, and it is subject to misunderstanding and confusion.

  16. Experiences obtaining insurance after live kidney donation. (United States)

    Boyarsky, B J; Massie, A B; Alejo, J L; Van Arendonk, K J; Wildonger, S; Garonzik-Wang, J M; Montgomery, R A; Deshpande, N A; Muzaale, A D; Segev, D L


    The impact of kidney donation on the ability to change or initiate health or life insurance following donation is unknown. To quantify this risk, we surveyed 1046 individuals who donated a kidney at our center between 1970 and 2011. Participants were asked whether they changed or initiated health or life insurance after donation, and if they had any difficulty doing so. Among 395 donors who changed or initiated health insurance after donation, 27 (7%) reported difficulty; among those who reported difficulty, 15 were denied altogether, 12 were charged a higher premium and 8 were told they had a preexisting condition because they were kidney donors. Among 186 donors who changed or initiated life insurance after donation, 46 (25%) reported difficulty; among those who reported difficulty, 23 were denied altogether, 27 were charged a higher premium and 17 were told they had a preexisting condition because they were kidney donors. In this single-center study, a high proportion of kidney donors reported difficulty changing or initiating insurance, particularly life insurance. These practices by insurers create unnecessary burden and stress for those choosing to donate and could negatively impact the likelihood of live kidney donation among those considering donation.

  17. Shifting paradigms in eligibility criteria for live kidney donation: a systematic review. (United States)

    Ahmadi, Ali R; Lafranca, Jeffrey A; Claessens, Laura A; Imamdi, Raoul M S; IJzermans, Jan N M; Betjes, Michiel G H; Dor, Frank J M F


    As the organ shortage increases, inherently the demand for donor kidneys continues to rise. Thus, live kidney donation is essential for increasing the donor pool. In order to create successful expansion, extended criteria live kidney donors should be considered. This review combines current guidelines with all available literature in this field, trying to seek and establish the optimal extended criteria. Comprehensive searches were carried out in major databases until November 2013 to search for articles regarding older age, overweight and obesity, hypertension, vascular anomalies/multiplicity, nulliparous women, and minors as donors. Of the 2079 articles found, 152 fell within the scope of the review. Five major guidelines were included and reviewed. Based on the literature search, live kidney donation in older donors (up to 70 years of age) seems to be safe as outcome is comparable to younger donors. Obese donors have comparable outcome to lean donors, in short- and mid-term follow-up. Since little literature is available proving the safety of donation of hypertensive donors, caution is advised. Vascular multiplicity poses no direct danger to the donor and women of childbearing age can be safely included as donors. Although outcome after donation in minors is shown to be comparable to adult donors, they should only be considered if no other options exist. We conclude that the analyzed factors above should not be considered as absolute contraindications for donation.

  18. Exploring Donation Decisions: Beliefs and Preferences for Organ Donation in Australia (United States)

    Hyde, Melissa K.; White, Katherine M.


    The authors explored common beliefs and preferences for posthumous and living organ donation in Australia where organ donation rates are low and little research exists. Content analysis of discussions revealed the advantage of prolonging/saving life whereas disadvantages differed according to donation context. A range of people/groups perceived to…

  19. Generation of red blood cells from human embryonic/induced pluripotent stem cells for blood transfusion. (United States)

    Ebihara, Yasuhiro; Ma, Feng; Tsuji, Kohichiro


    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is necessary for many patients with emergency or hematological disorders. However, to date the supply of RBCs remains labile and dependent on voluntary donations. In addition, the transmission of infectious disease via blood transfusion from unspecified donors remains a risk. Establishing a large quantity of safe RBCs would help to address this issue. Human embryonic stem (hES) cells and the recently established human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells represent potentially unlimited sources of donor-free RBCs for blood transfusion, as they can proliferate indefinitely in vitro. Extensive research has been done to efficiently generate transfusable RBCs from hES/iPS cells. Nevertheless, a number of challenges must be overcome before the clinical usage of hES/iPS cell-derived RBCs can become a reality.

  20. Avaliação da pré-triagem sorológica para o marcador do vírus da hepatite B (anti-HBc total em candidatos à doação de sangue no Estado do Acre, 2002 Evaluation of the sorologic pre-selection for the hepatitis B virus marker (total anti-HBc in candidates to blood donation in the state of Acre, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita do Socorro Uchôa da Silva


    Full Text Available O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar a pré-triagem sorológica para hepatite B (anti-HBc total em candidatos à doação de sangue, verificando a associação entre as variáveis sexo, faixa etária, escolaridade e naturalidade. Estudo transversal com dados retrospectivos, tendo como população-alvo candidatos à doação de sangue naturais dos municípios do interior do Acre, que procuraram o Centro de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Acre, no período de janeiro a dezembro de 2002. Dos 673 candidatos incluídos foi constatado reatividade ao anti-HBc total em 54,8%. Sendo observado maior reatividade ao anti-HBc total entre os candidatos do sexo masculino, faixa etária mais avançada e menor grau de escolaridade (pThe aim of this research was to evaluate previous serum screening for hepatitis B (total anti-HBc among blood donation candidates, verifying the link between the variables: gender, age, degree of education and native-born. A transverse study with retrospective data carried out on a target population, blood donation candidates from districts of the interior of Acre State, who came to the Acre Hematology and Hemoterapy Center during the period January to December, 2002. The research indicated reactivity in 54.8% of the total anti-HBc among the 673 candidates included. Greater reactivity of total anti-HBc was observed among males, older candidates and those with lower education levels (p<0.005. Previous serum screening for hepatitis B among blood donation candidates is a viable alternative, since it reduces cost and increases transfusional safety. Attracting female donors, youths and those who have higher education levels, would signify potential blood donors for HEMOACRE.

  1. Safe cycling!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    The HSE Unit will be running a cycling safety campaign at the entrances to CERN's restaurants on 14, 15 and 16 May. Pop along to see if they can persuade you to get back in the saddle!   With summer on its way, you might feel like getting your bike out of winter storage. Well, the HSE Unit has come up with some original ideas to remind you of some of the most basic safety rules. This year, the prevention campaign will be focussing on three themes: "Cyclists and their equipment", "The bicycle on the road", and "Other road users". This is an opportunity to think about the condition of your bike as well as how you ride it. From 14 to 16 May, representatives of the Swiss Office of Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse will join members of the HSE Unit at the entrances to CERN's restaurants to give you advice on safe cycling (see box). They will also be organising three activity stands where you can test your knowle...

  2. The importance of education in the promotion of organ donation - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2012.p253

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taise Ribeiro Morais


    .The profile of the opponent to organ donation is: man or woman over the age of 45 years, with low schooling, who does not know the concept of brain death and has a partner also against organ donation, is not conducive to blood donation and fears the manipulation of the body after death. The main reasons for not accepting the donation is the lack of knowledge of how to become a donor and the fear of misdiagnosis of death(7.Facing this reality, health professionals should act as educators, to modify public opinion regarding the misconceptions. However, unfavorable beliefs can be modified only if educators are well prepared for that, so that the population is prompted to participate in debates on organ transplants and legislation.Modifying the existing reality means developing programs planned and evaluated in an ongoing educational process, supported by theoretical background and scientifically recognized models, for all segments of the community, along with incorporating the knowledge of thanatology in the formation of health professionals, with better appreciation of religious principles, to avoid making an aggressive approach to the families of potential donors. The preparation of families should be taken into consideration, to prevent the false idea that death is being expected in order to save others’ lives, because every family wants their patient to have the opportunity to live. Therefore, the government is to be exhorted to realize that the lack of support to the practice of organ donation is a real problem, and to include educational activities regarding transplants in priority governmental programs and in public policies of health care.Since organ donation in Brazil depends exclusively on the family permission, campaigns that seek to increase the understanding of the concept of brain death among the population, and, most of all, to encourage people to express their desire to be a donor and to discuss their decision with family are important strategies to tackle this

  3. Giving Ourselves: The Ethics of Anatomical Donation (United States)

    Gunderman, Richard B.


    In some European countries, such as Italy, medical education is threatened by a dearth of anatomical specimens. Such a shortage could spread to other nations, including the United States. This article addresses two ethical questions in body donation. Why might people choose to donate their bodies to education and science? What sorts of ethical…

  4. Female College Students' Perceptions of Organ Donation (United States)

    Boland, Kathleen; Baker, Kerrie


    The current process of organ donation in the U.S. relies on the premise of altruism or voluntary consent. Yet, human organs available for donation and transplant do not meet current demands. The literature has suggested that college students, who represent a large group of potential healthy organ donors, often are not part of donor pools. Before…

  5. Proposal for the donation of LEP equipment

    CERN Document Server


    CERN has announced that LEP equipment will become available for donations to educational and scientific research institutes, to museums and public bodies in Member States and non-member States. A number of requests for a limited amount of equipment have been received. CERN has no further use for this equipment. The Finance Committee is invited to approve these donations.

  6. The Percentage Variation of Platelets in Multiple Donator Apheresis Platelets in Peripheral Blood Reticulocytes%多次单采血小板献血者外周血网织血小板百分比水平的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周爱国; 李继红; 周宁; 孟德伍; 祝峰; 范恩勇


    目的:了解单采血小板献血者外周血网织血小板百分比水平的变化情况。方法按照单采血小板捐献情况分为2组,实验组为参加过单采血小板的献血者153例,对照组为以往无献血史,首次来血站献血且符合献血条件,共189例,利用全自动血球分析仪检测WBC、RBC、Hb、HCT、PLT、PDW、PCT、MPV及IPF比例等项目。结果与对照组相比,实验组中男性献血者WBC、PCT的差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),RBC、Hb、HCT、PLT明显升高,有统计学意义(P<0.05),PDW、MPV、IPF下降,有统计学意义(P<0.05);实验组中女性献血者WBC、RBC、Hb、HCT、PLT、PCT、MPV的差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),PDW、IPF明显升高,有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论多次进行单采血小板捐献,对于男性献血者除加快RBC、PLT的骨髓造血功能外,并未加速IPF上升,相反促进PLT成熟。对于女性献血者则由于自身早期的生理性周期性失血,女性献血者的RBC、PLT等指标已受自身免疫负反馈调节而耐受,但对于多次捐献血小板的女性献血者,可能血小板生成能力较男性献血小板者增加有关。%Objective To understand reticulated platelet level changes in apheresis platelet donors. Methods The platelets donators were divided into experimental group (A) and control group(B). Group A comprised 153 cases of apheresis platelet donors and group B included 189 cases without the experience of blood donation. Automated blood analyzer was used for testing WBC,RBC,Hb,HCT,PLT,PDW,PCT,MPV and IPF proportions and other items. Results No significant difference was seen of WBC and PCT(P>0.05) in the male blood donors in Group A,whereas RBC,Hb,HCT,and PLT were obviously elavated(P0.05)whereas PDW and IPF were significantly increased(P<0.05). Conclusion Repeated apheresis platelet donations may accelerate RBC and PLT rather than IPF production in bone marrow

  7. Doação de sangue: solidariedade mecânica versus solidariedade orgânica Donación de sangre: solidariedad mecánica versus solidariedad orgânica Blood donation: mechanic solidarity versus organic solidarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Suely May Rodrigues Pereima


    Full Text Available Reflete-se sobre doação de sangue em um hemocentro de Santa Catarina, abordando-a como solidariedade mecânica e orgânica. Discute-se a forma de viver na contemporaneidade com a Globalização e o culto à velocidade em um contexto impregnado por incertezas e adversidades. Vive-se num mundo acelerado, dificultando a convivência em sociedade, contribuindo para a fragilização de valores e atitudes que melhorem a qualidade de vida. Mesmo com as dificuldades vivenciadas no cotidiano da sociedade contemporânea, percebe-se na história da hemoterapia brasileira, ao se falar em doação de sangue, que atitudes e valores como a solidariedade vêm se transformando de forma sensível tendo-se a atualidade como pano de fundo Busca-se compreender a doação de sangue como solidariedade mecânica e orgânica.Reflexión sobre la donación de sangre en un homocentro de Santa Catarina, abordandola como solidaridad mecánica y orgánica. Se reflexiona sobre el modo de vida contemporáneo en la globalización y el culto a la velocidad en un contexto impregnado por la incertidumbre y la adversidad. Vivimos en un mundo acelerado, lo que dificulta la convivencia en sociedad, contribuyendo al debilitamiento de valores y actitudes que mejoren la calidad de vida. A pesar de las dificultades que la sociedad contemporánea experimenta en la vida cotidiana, se percibe en la historia de la hemoterapia brasileña, cuando se habla de donación de sangre, que actitudes y valores tales como la solidaridad se están transformando cada vez más de manera significativa en el contexto en que vivimos. En este estudio se trata de entender la donación de sangre como solidaridad mecánica y orgánica.The article offers a reflection of blood donation in an hemocenter of Santa Catarina, with a mechanic and organic solidarity approach. It discuss the way of life in contemporary globalization and the cult of speed in a context pervaded by uncertainties and adversities. People live

  8. Tailoring Lipid and Polymeric Nanoparticles as siRNA Carriers towards the Blood-Brain Barrier – from Targeting to Safe Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Maria João; Fernandes, Carlos; Martins, Susana


    Blood-brain barrier is a tightly packed layer of endothelial cells surrounding the brain that acts as the main obstacle for drugs enter the central nervous system (CNS), due to its unique features, as tight junctions and drug efflux systems. Therefore, since the incidence of CNS disorders is incr...

  9. Rapid quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction with novel phospholipid cleanup: A streamlined ultra high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection approach for screening polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in avian blood cells and plasma. (United States)

    Provatas, Anthony A; Yevdokimov, Alexander V; King, Cory A; Gatley, Emma L; Stuart, James D; Evers, David C; Perkins, Christopher R


    A streamlined method has been developed for the isolation and analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in avian blood cells and plasma utilizing quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction in combination with novel phospholipid cleanup technology. A variety of traditional extraction and cleanup techniques have been employed in the preparation and analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsin a variety of matrices; liquid-liquid partitioning, solid-phase extractions, gel permeation chromatography, and column chromatography are all effective techniques, however they are laborious and time consuming processes that require large amounts of solvent. Using quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction coupled with phospholipid cleanup, samples can be quickly screened while maintaining high throughput and sensitivity. With a liquid chromatography approach, analysis times may be kept short at 16 min while maintaining high analyte recovery. Recoveries in quality control samples ranged from 70 to 109%, with average surrogate recoveries of 80.6 ± 1.10%. The result of using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction approach in conjunction with phospholipid cleanup is a methodology that significantly reduces sample preparation time and solvent use while maintaining high sensitivity and reproducibility.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion is an essential element of a health care system. Safety of blood transfusion is of extreme importance in order to avoid any severe morbidity and mortality in the patient. By screening donated blood units, we get a clue of the prevalence of those infections among donor pop ulations and consequently the safety of collected donations. It also gives us an idea of the prevalence of the Transfusion transmissible infections ( TTIs in the community. OBJECTIVES : To find out the sero - prevalence of TTIs namely HBV (Hepatitis B in the blood donor population at MMC&RI, Mysore. To stratify sero prevalence of TTIs based on the age and sex of the donor population . METHODOLOGY: The present study was carried out in the Blood Bank , Mysore Medical College and Research Institute , Mysore during the period from November 2012 to May 2014 among 14075 blood donors. All the samples were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg by ELISA method . RESULTS : Out of a total of 14075 blood donors , a total of 103 tested positive for TTIs . 94.08% were males and remaining 5.92% were females. A majority of donors were voluntary donors (85.79% and a majority of the donors were between the age group of 18 - 39 years (78.17%. The prevalence rate of HBV in blood donors was 0.73%. The seroprevale nce in voluntary donors was 0.57% and in replacement donors was 1.75 % respectively. CONCLUSION : Voluntary blood donation is safe, compared to replacement as high prevalence of Hepatitis B is observed in replacement donors.

  11. 45 CFR 2544.115 - Who may offer a donation? (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may offer a donation? 2544.115 Section 2544... COMMUNITY SERVICE SOLICITATION AND ACCEPTANCE OF DONATIONS § 2544.115 Who may offer a donation? Anyone... donation to the Corporation....

  12. Public Opinion on Organ Donation After Death and Its Influence on Attitudes Toward Organ Donation. (United States)

    Aijing, Luo; Wenzhao, Xie; Wei, Wei; Qiquan, Wan; Xuantong, Deng


    BACKGROUND China officially launched a pilot program of organ donation after cardiac death to overcome the shortage of available organs since 2011. Voluntary organ donation by deceased citizens became the only source of transplant organs beginning January 1, 2015. To investigate public opinions on organ donation by deceased donors, and discuss the effect of these opinions on the willingness and attitude of the public regarding voluntary organ donation. MATERIAL AND METHODS We designed a questionnaire. The survey was conducted from December 2014 to January 2015 in Changsha City, and 417 valid questionnaires were recovered. RESULTS A total of 162 respondents explicitly expressed a willingness to donate organs, and 269 believed that the organ donors' relatives should be compensated. A total of 255 respondents thought it acceptable to complete the donation-consent form when receiving a driver's license. Among the respondents, 65.3% did not agree with the statement "My body is bestowed by my parents, and to donate my body parts would not display filial respect"; 88.9% agreed that "It is necessary to consider the willingness of my family"; 74.4% agreed that "Donated organs have not been fairly and appropriately used; the wealthy and celebrities have been favored"; and 61.4% agreed that "Organ donation laws and regulations are not well developed, and organ donations will result in unnecessary difficulties." More than 80% believed that organ donation and transplantation extend life. CONCLUSIONS Public opinions on organ donation after death are associated with various factors, including traditional values, religious beliefs, compensation mechanisms, donor registration, institutional credibility, and ideals.

  13. The mystery of the occluded port that allowed blood withdrawal: is it safe to use standard needles to access ports? A case report and literature review. (United States)

    Cataldo, Rita; Costa, Fabio; Vitiello, Michelangelo; Brescia, Fabrizio; Proscia, Paola; Falco, Clementina; Carassiti, Massimiliano


    A frequent complication of totally implantable central venous access devices (TIVADs) is withdrawal occlusion. We describe a case of rare dysfunction of TIVADs: blood withdrawal was possible, whereas infusion was not. A further investigation demonstrated that during infusion, a silicone core, probably produced by hypodermic needle puncture, occluded the reservoir outlet hole. The silicone septum puncture by standard needles instead of non-coring ones may reduce the device effectiveness and expose patients to serious complications.

  14. The investigation of infants with RhD-negative mothers: can we safely omit the umbilical cord blood direct antiglobulin test? (United States)

    James, R M; McGuire, W; Smith, D P


    Historically, the investigation of a neonate at risk of Rhesus D antigen (RhD)-associated haemolytic disease has included a direct antiglobulin test on umbilical cord blood. However, the introduction of routine antenatal anti-RhD prophylaxis has led to a significant number of false positive results and recent studies suggest that a positive cord blood direct antiglobulin test is poorly predictive of subsequent hyperbilirubinaemia. The British Committee for Standards in Haematology guidelines now recommend that a direct antiglobulin test should no longer be performed routinely on umbilical cord blood in infants born to RhD-negative mothers. We review the recent changes in antenatal management of RhD-negative mothers and their impact on the neonatal presentation of RhD-associated haemolytic disease of the newborn that underpin this recommendation. We conclude that there is convincing evidence to support the guidelines. Finally, we consider how babies born to RhD-negative mothers should be investigated and consider alternative strategies to detect neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia.

  15. Pfizer donates drug to South Africa's poor. (United States)

    This article reports on Pfizer's AIDS drug donation to South Africa. The donated drug, Diflucan, treats cryptococcal meningitis, a lethal brain infection that occurs in one out of 10 HIV patients. Its daily dose in South Africa costs about US$15, far more than poor people can afford. The HIV and AIDS Treatment Action Campaign, an advocacy group, had lobbied New York-based Pfizer for a year to reduce the drug's price. The donation offered hope among activists that other pharmaceutical companies would follow suit and offer HIV- and AIDS-related drugs at a discount or for free. After the announcement of the donation, the group is now lobbying Glaxo Wellcome, maker of Zidovudine. The group is asking to make the drug available for free to reduce the risk of vertical transmission. Glaxo Wellcome, however, has no plans of offering Zidovudine for free, although the drug was offered 75% cheaper in developing nations.

  16. Donation of CERN computing equipment to Pakistan

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    An official ceremony marking the eighth donation of CERN computing equipment to an outside institute, this time a university in Pakistan, took place on Monday, 2 March.     From left to right: Sajjad Mohsin, Dean at the COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, S. M. Junaid Zaidi, Rector of CIIT, Aumair Qayyum (CIIT) and Syed Ali Zahir Bukhari (CIIT).   On this occasion, 224 servers and 30 network hubs were donated to the CIIT (COMSATS Institute of Information Technology) in Islamabad, Pakistan, where they will be used by scientists working on the LHC’s ALICE experiment. For several years now, CERN has regularly donated computing equipment that no longer meets its highly specific requirements but is still more than adequate for less exacting environments. To date, a total of 1,149 servers and 79 hubs have been donated to eight countries, namely Bulgaria, Egypt, Ghana, Morocco, the Philippines, Senegal, Serbia and now P...

  17. The challenges of social marketing of organ donation: news and entertainment coverage of donation and transplantation. (United States)

    Harrison, Tyler R; Morgan, Susan E; Chewning, Lisa V


    While great strides have been made in persuading the public to become potential organ donors, actual behavior has not yet caught up with the nearly universally favorable attitudes the public expresses toward donation. This paper explores the issue by situating the social marketing of organ donation against a broader backdrop of entertainment and news media coverage of organ donation. Organ donation storylines are featured on broadcast television in medical and legal dramas, soap operas, and other television serials approximately four times per month (not including most cable networks), and feature storylines that promote myths and fears of the organ donation process. National news and other non-fictionalized coverage of organ donation are even more common, with stories appearing over twenty times a month on average. These stories tend to be one-dimensional and highly sensationalized in their coverage. The marketing of organ donation for entertainment essentially creates a counter-campaign to organ donation, with greater resources and reach than social marketers have access to. Understanding the broader environmental context of organ donation messages highlights the issues faced by social marketing campaigns in persuading the public to become potential donors.

  18. Tailor-Made Live Kidney Donation


    Klop, Karel


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis describes several aspects of live kidney donation, such as surgical techniques, cost-effectivity, cosmetics en quality of life. Kidney transplantation offer several benefits when compared to dialysis. These benefits include better recipient and graft survival, better access to transplantation and pre-emptive transplantation. Eligibility criteria for live kidney donation have been extended in the last decade, leading to an increase in live donors and an...

  19. Campaigning for Organ Donation at Mosques. (United States)

    Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L


    There is a trend of recruiting faith leaders at mosques to overcome religious barriers to organ donation, and to increase donor registration among Muslims. Commentators have suggested that Muslims are not given enough information about organ donation in religious sermons or lectures delivered at mosques. Corrective actions have been recommended, such as funding campaigns to promote organ donation, and increasing the availability of organ donation information at mosques. These actions are recommended despite published literature expressing safety concerns (i.e., do no harm) in living and end-of-life organ donation. Living donors require life-long medical follow-up and treatment for complications that can appear years later. Scientific and medical controversies persist regarding the international guidelines for death determination in end-of-life donation. The medical criteria of death lack validation and can harm donors if surgical procurement is performed without general anesthesia and before biological death. In the moral code of Islam, the prevention of harm holds precedence over beneficence. Moral precepts described in the Quran encourage Muslims to be beneficent, but also to seek knowledge prior to making practical decisions. However, the Quran also contains passages that demand honesty and truthfulness when providing information to those who are seeking knowledge. Currently, information is limited to that which encourages donor registration. Campaigning for organ donation to congregations in mosques should adhere to the moral code of complete, rather than selective, disclosure of information. We recommend as a minimal standard the disclosure of risks, uncertainties, and controversies associated with the organ donation process.

  20. CERN servers donated to Ghana

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    Cutting-edge research requires a constantly high performance of the computing equipment. At the CERN Computing Centre, computers typically need to be replaced after about four years of use. However, while servers may be withdrawn from cutting-edge use, they are still good for other uses elsewhere. This week, 220 servers and 30 routers were donated to the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) in Ghana.   “KNUST will provide a good home for these computers. The university has also developed a plan for using them to develop scientific collaboration with CERN,” said John Ellis, a professor at King’s College London and a visiting professor in CERN’s Theory Group.  John Ellis was heavily involved in building the relationship with Ghana, which started in 2006 when a Ghanaian participated in the CERN openlab student programme. Since 2007 CERN has hosted Ghanaians especially from KNUST in the framework of the CERN Summer Student Progr...

  1. Hemochromatosis Patients as Voluntary Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara E Power


    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate hemochromatosis patients' suitability as blood donors as well as their perceptions and experience with the current public donation system. Participants were gathered from a list of current hemochromatosis patients (n=120 and members of the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society (n=1000. Of the 1120 surveys mailed out to these groups, 801 surveys were returned completed. The sample respondents had a mean age of 57.44 years (SD=12.73; range 19 to 87 years, and 57% were men. It was found that 20% (160 of the respondents have donated blood since their diagnosis; however, only 12% of the respondents indicated that they use voluntary blood donation as a means of maintaining their iron levels. Forty per cent of the respondents indicated that they had been refused from voluntary donation. Despite the fact that in May 2001 the Canadian Blood Services, in collaboration with the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society, began a promotion campaign to encourage hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary blood donors, the present study found that 15% of the respondents reported having been refused from the voluntary blood donation service due to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. With respect to quality of life, it was found that individuals who donate blood were generally healthier with respect to physical functioning and bodily pain, however, these findings may indicate that hemochromatosis patients who are healthier are better able to donate at public blood banks, rather than that voluntary blood donation has an effect on the donors' physical functioning over phlebotomy clinic users. These study findings suggest that although there may be other medical factors limiting individuals from donating, hemochromatosis patients are interested in being voluntary blood donors and this potential resource is currently under-used.

  2. Traveling Safely with Medicines (United States)

    ... Medications Safely My Medicine List How to Administer Traveling Safely with Medicines Planes, trains, cars – even boats ... your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you ...

  3. Risk Factors Associated with Increased Morbidity in Living Liver Donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helry L. Candido


    Full Text Available Living donor liver donation (LDLD is an alternative to cadaveric liver donation. We aimed at identifying risk factors and developing a score for prediction of postoperative complications (POCs after LDLD in donors. This is a retrospective cohort study in 688 donors between June 1995 and February 2014 at Hospital Sírio-Libanês and A.C. Camargo Cancer Center, in São Paulo, Brazil. Primary outcome was POC graded ≥III according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Left lateral segment (LLS, left lobe (LL, and right lobe resections (RL were conducted in 492 (71.4%, 109 (15.8%, and 87 (12.6% donors, respectively. In total, 43 (6.2% developed POCs, which were more common after RL than LLS and LL (14/87 (16.1% versus 23/492 (4.5% and 6/109 (5.5%, resp., p<0.001. Multivariate analysis showed that RL resection (OR: 2.81, 95% CI: 1.32 to 3.01; p=0.008, smoking status (OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.35 to 7.56; p=0.012, and blood transfusion (OR: 3.15, 95% CI: 1.45 to 6.84; p=0.004 were independently associated with POCs. RL resection, intraoperative blood transfusion, and smoking were associated with increased risk for POCs in donors.

  4. Risk Factors Associated with Increased Morbidity in Living Liver Donation (United States)

    Candido, Helry L.; da Fonseca, Eduardo A.; Feier, Flávia H.; Pugliese, Renata; Benavides, Marcel A.; Silva, Enis D.; Gordon, Karina; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama; Canet, Jaume; Chapchap, Paulo; Neto, Joao Seda


    Living donor liver donation (LDLD) is an alternative to cadaveric liver donation. We aimed at identifying risk factors and developing a score for prediction of postoperative complications (POCs) after LDLD in donors. This is a retrospective cohort study in 688 donors between June 1995 and February 2014 at Hospital Sírio-Libanês and A.C. Camargo Cancer Center, in São Paulo, Brazil. Primary outcome was POC graded ≥III according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Left lateral segment (LLS), left lobe (LL), and right lobe resections (RL) were conducted in 492 (71.4%), 109 (15.8%), and 87 (12.6%) donors, respectively. In total, 43 (6.2%) developed POCs, which were more common after RL than LLS and LL (14/87 (16.1%) versus 23/492 (4.5%) and 6/109 (5.5%), resp., p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that RL resection (OR: 2.81, 95% CI: 1.32 to 3.01; p = 0.008), smoking status (OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.35 to 7.56; p = 0.012), and blood transfusion (OR: 3.15, 95% CI: 1.45 to 6.84; p = 0.004) were independently associated with POCs. RL resection, intraoperative blood transfusion, and smoking were associated with increased risk for POCs in donors. PMID:26788361

  5. Prevalence and trends of transfusion transmitted infections among blood donors of blood bank attached to government hospital of South Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopi H. Dobariya


    Conclusions: Prevalence of TTIs in the present study was lower as compare to other studies of the India. The reasons behind this finding may be better pre-donation counseling, better life style, higher proportion of voluntary blood donation (> 99% and high pre-donation deferral rate (11.17%. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(9.000: 4123-4127

  6. [Perioperative salvage and use of autologous blood]. (United States)

    Larsen, B; Dich-Nielsen, J O


    Pre-operative blood donation gives ready availability of large volumes of patient compatible blood, up to four units and five when erythropoietin is used. It is recommended that autologous pre-donated blood is leucocyte depleted immediately after the donation. During normovolaemic haemodilution it is mandatory to monitor haemodynamics during the donation. Usually 1-2 units are removed pre-operatively and returned during or after the operation. Intra and postoperative salvage and recycling is performed either with washing and haemoconcentration of the blood or with salvage and immediate retransfusion. When salvaged blood is retransfused unwashed there are high levels of free haemoglobin, degradation products of fibrin/fibrinogen, interleukin-6 and activated complement. Clinically, this has not been shown to be of importance. Taking the patient's health status into account, we suggest that a level of B-haemoglobin should be determined pre-operatively to indicate use of transfusions both with autologous and allogeneic blood.

  7. Brain death and organ donation of children. (United States)

    Gündüz, Ramiz Coşkun; Şahin, Şanlıay; Uysal-Yazıcı, Mutlu; Ayar, Ganime; Yakut, Halil İbrahim; Akman, Alkım Öden; Hirfanoğlu, İbrahim Murat; Kalkan, Gökhan


    We aimed to define the demographic characteristics, clinical features and outcome of patients with brain death, and to emphasize the importance of organ donation from children. Data for the period from September 2009 to October 2012 were collected retrospectively. Twenty children who were diagnosed as brain death were included. Data including demographics, major cause leading to brain death, duration of brain death evaluation, ancillary tests used to confirm brain death, complications and outcome, duration of hospitalization and organ donation were collected for statistical evaluation. The mean age was 6.2 years, and the male/female ratio 1.85. The major cause leading to brain death was most often traumatic brain injury, seen in 11 patients (55%). The mean duration of brain death evaluation was 6.7 and 1.7 days in Centers I and II respectively. The mean duration of hospitalization was 12.5 days. Electroencephalography (EEG) was used in 18 patients (90%). Complications included hyperglycemia in 13 cases and diabetes incipitus in 7 cases (65% and 35%, respectively). Mean duration of survival was 9.8 days. In Center I, one of the patients' parents gave consent to organ donation, while four parents in Center II agreed to organ donation. The study demonstrated that the duration of brain death evaluation was longer in Center I than in Center II (pbrain death and length of stay in the PICU (p>0.05). Early diagnosis of brain death and prompt evaluation of patients by ICU physicians once the diagnosis is taken into consideration will probably yield better organs and reduce costs. Training PICU physicians, nurses and organ donation coordinators, and increasing children's awareness of the need for organ donation via means of public communication may increase families' rate of agreement to organ donation in the future.

  8. Pathogen inactivation technologies for cellular blood components: an update. (United States)

    Schlenke, Peter


    Nowadays patients receiving blood components are exposed to much less transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases than three decades before when among others HIV was identified as causative agent for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the transmission by blood or coagulation factors became evident. Since that time the implementation of measures for risk prevention and safety precaution was socially and politically accepted. Currently emerging pathogens like arboviruses and the well-known bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates still remain major concerns of blood safety with important clinical consequences, but very rarely with fatal outcome for the blood recipient. In contrast to the well-established pathogen inactivation strategies for fresh frozen plasma using the solvent-detergent procedure or methylene blue and visible light, the bench-to-bedside translation of novel pathogen inactivation technologies for cell-containing blood components such as platelets and red blood cells are still underway. This review summarizes the pharmacological/toxicological assessment and the inactivation efficacy against viruses, bacteria, and protozoa of each of the currently available pathogen inactivation technologies and highlights the impact of the results obtained from several randomized clinical trials and hemovigilance data. Until now in some European countries pathogen inactivation technologies are in in routine use for single-donor plasma and platelets. The invention and adaption of pathogen inactivation technologies for red blood cell units and whole blood donations suggest the universal applicability of these technologies and foster a paradigm shift in the manufacturing of safe blood.

  9. Legal briefing: organ donation and allocation. (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason


    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to organ donation and allocation. This topic has been the subject of recent articles in JCE. Organ donation and allocation have also recently been the subjects of significant public policy attention. In the past several months, legislatures and regulatory agencies across the United States and across the world have changed, or considered changing, the methods for procuring and distributing human organs for transplantation. Currently, in the U.S., more than 100,000 persons are waiting for organ transplantation. In China, more than 1.5 million people are waiting. Given the chronic shortage of available organs (especially kidneys and livers) relative to demand, the primary focus of most legal developments has been on increasing the rate of donation. These and related developments are usefully divided into the following 12 topical categories: 1. Revised Uniform Anatomical Gift Act. 2. Presumed Consent and Opt-Out. 3. Mandated Choice. 4. Donation after Cardiac Death. 5. Payment and Compensation. 6. Donation by Prisoners. 7. Donor Registries. 8. Public Education. 9. Other Procurement Initiatives. 10. Lawsuits and Liability. 11. Trafficking and Tourism. 12. Allocation and Distribution.

  10. Effect of preoperative autologous blood donation on the bone marrow hematopoietic cells in acute hemor-rhagic shock rabbits%贮存式自体输血对急性失血性休克兔骨髓造血细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章健萍; 刘丽; 陶强; 杨大威; 郭建荣


    Objective To explore the effect of preoperative autologous blood donation on the bone marrow hematopoietic cells in acute hemorrhagic shock of New Zealand rabbits. Methods Twenty-four male New Zealand rabbits,weighing 1.9-2.4 kg,were randomly divided into 4 groups(n =6 each),using a random number table:control group (group CON),allogeneic blood trans-fusion group (group ABT),autologous blood storage group (group ABS)and preoperative autologous blood donation group (group PAT).In ABS and PAT groups,autologous blood was collected and stored for 3 times before operation,once a week till 72 hours before operation.Femoral artery of group CON and group ABS were separated,yet shock was not simulated.After the rabbit model of a-cute hemorrhagic shock was established,group ABT was transfused the blood stored by group ABS, group PAT preoperative autologous blood.Hemoglobin (Hb)and reticulocyte (RET)percentage of the four groups of rabbits were tested before blood storage (T1 ),after blood storage (T2 ),before hemorrhagic shock (T3 ),at resuscitation (T4 ),resuscitation for 24 h (T5 ).The bone marrow nucleated cell of rabbits was counted and the proportion of marrow hematopoietic cell in stationary/first gap (G0/G1 )phase,synthesis (S)phase,second gap/mitosis (G2/M)phase was examined at 24 h after resuscitation.Results Compared with group CON,Hb was significantly decreased in group ABS at T2-T5 ,group PAT at T2 ,T3 ,group ABT at T4 (P <0.05).Compared with group ABT,RET percentage was significantly increased in group ABS and PAT at T2 ,and remained at a high level at T5 (P <0.05).The number of bone marrow nucleated cell was significantly increased in group ABS and PAT (P <0.05),the marrow hematopoietic cell cycle of G0/G1 phase was significantly decreased,S phase,G2/M phase cell proportion obviously advanced (P < 0.05 ).Conclusion Preoperative autologous blood donation stimulates the bone marrow hematopoietic cell from the stationary phase to proliferation,increases the

  11. Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Optimizing Assignment of Blood in Blood Banking System


    Olusanya, Micheal O.; Arasomwan, Martins A.; Aderemi O. Adewumi


    This paper reports the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO) for the assignment of blood to meet patients’ blood transfusion requests for blood transfusion. While the drive for blood donation lingers, there is need for effective and efficient management of available blood in blood banking systems. Moreover, inherent danger of transfusing wrong blood types to patients, unnecessary importation of blood units from external sources, and wastage of blood products due to nonusage necessi...

  12. Prediction models for hemoglobin deferral in whole blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, A.M.


    Each year, a relevant proportion of the invited blood donors is eventually deferred from donation because of low hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Deferrals are meant to protect donors from developing iron deficiency anemia after a blood donation, however, they may increase the risk of donor lapse, even thoug

  13. Organ Donation: Don't Let These Myths Confuse You (United States)

    ... a lifesaver. If you've never considered organ donation or delayed becoming a donor because of possibly ... information, here are answers to some common organ donation myths and concerns. Myth: If I agree to ...

  14. Gamete donation: ethical implications for donors. (United States)

    Shenfield, Francoise


    The interests of gamete donors have only recently been recognized in assisted reproduction; traditionally, the interests of the patients (typically a couple) and the prospective child are paramount. However, assisted reproduction would not be possible without donors, and the simple utilitarian view would be to place their interests first to maximize the availability of the practice. There are several ethical issues on both sides of the donor--recipient equation, some of which are mutual and others are in conflict. For example, the word 'donation' implies there is no payment. Informed consent for donation is essential if the autonomy of the donor is to be respected, and includes information about the results of screening. This is a sensitive issue, especially when pathology is found in a donor who is not being screened for his or her own immediate benefit. Counselling may result in donors refusing to take part, but may also lead to selection by the person recruiting the donors, sometimes as a consequence of examining the motivation of the donor. In this case, the main problem is the ethical basis of the selection process. Other aspects of gamete donation may lead to a conflict of interests between the donor, the recipients and even the prospective child, particularly in terms of anonymity and the information that is made available about the specific circumstances of donation. Implications and support counselling are essential tools in achieving an acceptable balance for all parties involved.

  15. Tailor-Made Live Kidney Donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.W.J. Klop (Karel)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis describes several aspects of live kidney donation, such as surgical techniques, cost-effectivity, cosmetics en quality of life. Kidney transplantation offer several benefits when compared to dialysis. These benefits include better recipient and graft surviva

  16. Personality and motivation for body donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, Sophie; Eisinga, Rob; Venbrux, Eric; Kuks, Jan B. M.; Gerrits, Peter O.


    Background: This study examines the relationship between motivation for body donation to science and personality characteristics using a body donor survey (N = 759) conducted by the University Medical Centre Groningen (UMCG) in The Netherlands. The survey expands on anthropological studies that sugg

  17. Should Charity Donations Have Strings Attached?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The commonly held belief among most people is that acts of charity are carried out with no thought of getting something in return, or of attaching conditions to those who receive donations. It’s perhaps for this rea- son that events surrounding the Henan Charity Federation’s recent decision to add an agenda to students’ financial aid caused such a public outcry.

  18. 50 CFR 12.36 - Donation or loan. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Donation or loan. 12.36 Section 12.36... SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Disposal of Forfeited or Abandoned Property § 12.36 Donation or loan. (a... and security for the item. (b) Any donation or loan may be made only after execution of a...

  19. 50 CFR 679.26 - Prohibited Species Donation Program. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibited Species Donation Program. 679... ALASKA Management Measures § 679.26 Prohibited Species Donation Program. (a) Authorized species. The PSD... SPECIES DONATION PROGRAM - NOT FOR SALE - PERISHABLE PRODUCT - KEEP FROZEN”. (3) A processor retaining...

  20. 78 FR 3023 - Draft Policy on Donations, Fundraising, and Solicitation (United States)


    ... Fish and Wildlife Service RIN 1018-AY36 Draft Policy on Donations, Fundraising, and Solicitation AGENCY..., and provides general guidance on fundraising by non-Federal entities on the Service's behalf. It also..., fundraising, and solicitation. While donations can be a means to further our mission, not all donations...

  1. Are Detox Diets Safe? (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Are Detox Diets Safe? KidsHealth > For Teens > Are Detox Diets Safe? ... las dietas de desintoxicación? What Is a Detox Diet? The name sounds reassuring — everyone knows that anything ...

  2. Safe havens in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin


    Eleven safe havens exist in Europe providing offshore banking and low taxes. Ten of these states are very small while Switzerland is moderately small. All 11 countries are richer than their large neighbors. It is shown that causality is from small to safe haven to wealth, and that theoretically...... of the safe havens, but it still explains, why they are rich. Microstates offer a veil of anonymity to funds passing through, and Switzerland offers safe storage of funds....

  3. Current issues relating to the transfusion of stored red blood cells. (United States)

    Zimrin, A B; Hess, J R


    The development of blood storage systems allowed donation and transfusion to be separated in time and space. This separation has permitted the regionalization of donor services with subsequent economies of scale and improvements in the quality and availability of blood products. However, the availability of storage raises the question of how long blood products can and should be stored and how long they are safe and effective. The efficacy of red blood cells was originally measured as the increment in haematocrit and safety began with typing and the effort to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination. Appreciation of a growing list of storage lesions of red blood cells has developed with our increasing understanding of red blood cell physiology and our experience with red blood cell transfusion. However, other than frank haemolysis, rare episodes of bacterial contamination and overgrowth, the reduction of oxygen-carrying capacity associated with the failure of some transfused cells to circulate, and the toxicity of lysophospholipids released from membrane breakdown, storage-induced lesions have not had obvious correlations with safety or efficacy. The safety of red blood cell storage has also been approached in retrospective epidemiologic studies of transfused patients, but the results are frequently biased by the fact that sicker patients are transfused more often and blood banks do not issue blood products in a random order. Several large prospective studies of the safety of stored red blood cells are planned.

  4. Influence of the kidney histology at the time of donation on long term kidney function in living kidney donors. (United States)

    Goecke, H; Ortiz, A M; Troncoso, P; Martinez, L; Jara, A; Valdes, G; Rosenberg, H


    Living donation is the best choice for kidney transplantation, obtaining long-lasting good results for the recipient. Some concern still remains regarding the donor's long-term health. Kidney biopsy was routinely performed in our donor population at the time of donation many years ago. We found the existence of morphological kidney disease in those samples, in spite of normal clinical evaluations before donation. We attempted to correlate those abnormalities with long-term clinical outcomes. Donors were at least 10 years after surgery. A medical interview, including the SF-36 Health Survey, laboratory evaluation, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed on 27 donors meeting the inclusion criteria. Two donors had died after donation from unrelated causes with no known nephropathy. Histological analysis showed abnormalities in 16 of 29 donors. We found an increased prevalence of hypertension compared to the general population. Interestingly, there was no proteinuria in the donor population, and none developed clinical nephropathy. All subjects felt emotionally rewarded with donation, stating that their lives had no limitations. Our results suggest that kidney biopsy is neither necessary nor useful prior to donation because, although many donors had morphological kidney disease, none developed clinical nephropathy in the long term.

  5. Donació de sang i educació per a la ciutadania: un projecte pedagògic Blood donation and education for citizenship: a teaching project Donación de sangre y educación para la ciudadanía: un proyecto pedagógico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariona Graell Martín


    Full Text Available El projecte «Donació de Sang i Educació per a la Ciutadania» sorgeix del Banc de Sang i Teixits de Catalunya amb l’objectiu de generar una experiència educativa d’aprenentatge servei. Es proposa incrementar el número de donacions de sang perquè els joves prenguin consciència de la seva transcendència, desenvolupar el sentit que suposa aquesta acció, i que coneguin la tasca del Banc de Sang i Teixits. A partir de l’experiència de l’escola Valldemia s’expliquen els passos necessaris per dur a terme el projecte des del Banc de Sang i Teixits. En primer lloc, es formula una breu introducció on es contextualitza l’estudi; en segon terme, ’explica la metodologia que s’ha emprat per recollir la informació i organitzar-la, i en tercer lloc, es mostra l’experiència pròpiament, l’aplicació del projecte a l’escola Valldemia, amb una sistematització més teòrica ______________________________________________Le projet Don de sang et éducation à la citoyenneté est surgi de la Banque de sang et de tissus de Catalogne dans le but de créer une expérience éducative d’apprentissage service. Il propose d’augmenter le nombre des dons de sang afin que les jeunes prennent conscience de sa transcendance, développent le sens que suppose cette action, et découvrent la tâche de la Banque du sang et des tissus. À partir de l’expérience de l’école Valldemia, l’article explique les étapes nécessaires pour mener à terme le projet depuis la Banque du sang. En premier lieu, il formule une brève introduction dans laquelle il contextualise l’étude ; en deuxième lieu, il explique la méthodologie qui a été utilisée pour recueillir l’information et l’organiser ; en troisième lieu, il montre l’expérience proprement dite, l’application du projet à l’école Valldemia, où est présentée en même temps sa systématisation plus théoriqueThe Blood donation and Education for Citizenship project was set

  6. Donation after cardio-circulatory death liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hieu Le Dinh; Arnaud de Roover; Abdour Kaba; Séverine Lauwick; Jean Joris; Jean Delwaide; Pierre Honoré


    The renewed interest in donation after cardio-circulatory death (DCD) started in the 1990s following the limited success of the transplant community to expand the donation after brain-death (DBD) organ supply and following the request of potential DCD families.Since then,DCD organ procurement and transplantation activities have rapidly expanded,particularly for nonvital organs,like kidneys.In liver transplantation (LT),DCD donors are a valuable organ source that helps to decrease the mortality rate on the waiting lists and to increase the availability of organs for transplantation despite a higher risk of early graft dysfunction,more frequent vascular and ischemia-type biliary lesions,higher rates of re-listing and re-transplantation and lower graft survival,which are obviously due to the inevitable warm ischemia occurring during the declaration of death and organ retrieval process.Experimental strategies intervening in both donors and recipients at different phases of the transplantation process have focused on the attenuation of ischemia-reperfusion injury and already gained encouraging results,and some of them have found their way from pre-clinical success into clinical reality.The future of DCD-LT is promising.Concerted efforts should concentrate on the identification of suitable donors (probably Maastricht category Ⅲ DCD donors),better donor and recipient matching (high risk donors to low risk recipients),use of advanced organ preservation techniques (oxygenated hypothermic machine perfusion,normothermic machine perfusion,venous systemic oxygen persufflation),and pharmacological modulation (probably a multi-factorial biologic modulation strategy) so that DCD liver allografts could be safely utilized and attain equivalent results as DBD-LT.

  7. WHO strategies for safe blood transfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Background/HistoryThedramaticlife savingpropertiesofbloodtransfusionscannotbemoreforcefullyemphasizedthaninthosesituationsthatariseasaresultofconflictsandtrauma .Thetwoworldwarsservedaspotentforcesinpromotingbloodtransfusionservices ,firstasamilitarynecessityandthenasapublicneedasanimportantpartofclinicalmedicine .Bloodanditsconstituentcomponentswereidentifiedandputtogooduseastechnologiesemergednotonlyintheareaofimmunohaematology ,diagnostictestingandcomponentproductionbutinthecollectionsystems .Withtheadve...

  8. Ex-vivo expansion of red blood cells: how real for transfusion in humans? (United States)

    Migliaccio, Anna Rita; Masselli, Elena; Varricchio, Lilian; Whitsett, Carolyn


    Blood transfusion is indispensable for modern medicine. In developed countries, the blood supply is adequate and safe but blood for alloimmunized patients is often unavailable. Concerns are increasing that donations may become inadequate in the future as the population ages prompting a search for alternative transfusion products. Improvements in culture conditions and proof-of-principle studies in animal models have suggested that ex-vivo expanded red cells may represent such a product. Compared to other cell therapies transfusion poses the unique challenge of requiring great cell doses (2.5×10(12) cells vs 10(7) cells). Although production of such cell numbers is theoretically possible, current technologies generate red cells in numbers sufficient only for safety studies. It is conceived that by the time these studies will be completed, technical barriers to mass cell production will have been eliminated making transfusion with ex-vivo generated red cells a reality.

  9. Indian ICU nurses' perceptions of and attitudes towards organ donation. (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, Poreddi; Nagarajaiah; Ramachandra; Math, Suresh Bada

    Nurses play a significant role in identifying and securing potential organ donors in the clinical environment. Research among Indian nurses related to organ donation is sparse. The present study aimed to investigate nurses' attitudes towards organ donation. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was carried out among nurses (n=184) at a tertiary care centre. Data were collected through self-report questionnaire. A majority (81%) of the respondents were 'willing to sign the card' for organ donation; however, only 3.8% (n=7) of them actually 'signed the organ donation card'. There were significant associations found between intentions to sign the organ donation card and gender (x2=5.852; pdonation. Furthermore, nurse administrators must take the initiative to develop guidelines clarifying the role of nurses in the organ donation and transplantation process to promote organ donation and improve rates.

  10. Application of CART Algorithm in Blood Donors Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Santhanam


    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study used data mining modeling techniques to examine the blood donor classification. The availability of blood in blood banks is a critical and important aspect in a healthcare system. Blood banks (in the developing countries context are typically based on a healthy person voluntarily donating blood and is used for transfusions or made into medications. The ability to identify regular blood donors will enable blood banks and voluntary organizations to plan systematically for organizing blood donation camps in an effective manner. Approach: Identify the blood donation behavior using the classification algorithms of data mining. The analysis had been carried out using a standard blood transfusion dataset and using the CART decision tree algorithm implemented in Weka. Results: Numerical experimental results on the UCI ML blood transfusion data with the enhancements helped to identify donor classification. Conclusion: The CART derived model along with the extended definition for identifying regular voluntary donors provided a good classification accuracy based model.

  11. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman


    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  12. Artificial blood. (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman


    Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  13. Can donated media placements reach intended audiences? (United States)

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Chu, Jennifer; Polonec, Lindsey


    Donated media placements for public service announcements (PSAs) can be difficult to secure, and may not always reach intended audiences. Strategies used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign (SFL) to obtain donated media placements include producing a diverse mix of high-quality PSAs, co-branding with state and tribal health agencies, securing celebrity involvement, monitoring media trends to identify new distribution opportunities, and strategically timing the release of PSAs. To investigate open-ended recall of PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, CDC conducted 12 focus groups in three U.S. cities with men and women either nearing age 50 years, when screening is recommended to begin, or aged 50-75 years who were not in compliance with screening guidelines. In most focus groups, multiple participants recalled exposure to PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, and most of these individuals reported having seen SFL PSAs on television, in transit stations, or on the sides of public buses. Some participants reported exposure to SFL PSAs without prompting from the moderator, as they explained how they learned about the disease. Several participants reported learning key campaign messages from PSAs, including that colorectal cancer screening should begin at age 50 years and screening can find polyps so they can be removed before becoming cancerous. Donated media placements can reach and educate mass audiences, including millions of U.S. adults who have not been screened appropriately for colorectal cancer.

  14. Socio-demographic characteristics of Danish blood donors (United States)

    Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Simonsen, Jacob; Sundby, Anna; Rostgaard, Klaus; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Sørensen, Erik; Nielsen, Kaspar René; Bruun, Mie Topholm; Frisch, Morten; Edgren, Gustaf; Erikstrup, Christian; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Ullum, Henrik


    Background Blood transfusion is an essential component of a modern healthcare system. Because knowledge about blood donor demography may inform the design of strategies for donor recruitment and retention, we used nationwide registers to characterize the entire population of blood donors in Denmark in 2010. Methods The study population comprised all Danes in the age range eligible for blood donation (N = 3,236,753) at the end of 2010. From the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT) register, we identified 174,523 persons who donated blood in Danish blood banks at least once in 2010. The association between sociodemographic characteristics and blood donor prevalence was examined using regression models. Results The overall prevalence of blood donation was 5.4% among both women and men. The age-specific prevalence of blood donation peaked at 25 years of age (6.8%) for women and 30 years of age (5.7%) for men. Children of any age were associated with lower prevalence of blood donation among women, while the opposite was seen for men. Middle to high income groups, but not the highest income group, had fourfold higher donor prevalence than the lowest income group (6.7% compared to 1.7%). The prevalence of blood donation was considerably lower among men living with their parents (2.9%) or alone (3.9%) than among men cohabitating with a woman (6.2%). Summary Social marginalization, as indicated by low income and being a male living without a woman, was associated with lower prevalence of blood donation. However, individuals with very high incomes and women with children were underrepresented in the Danish blood donor population. PMID:28182624

  15. The Consequences of Vagueness in Consent to Organ Donation. (United States)

    Shaw, David M


    In this article I argue that vagueness concerning consent to post-mortem organ donation causes considerable harm in several ways. First, the information provided to most people registering as organ donors is very vague in terms of what is actually involved in donation. Second, the vagueness regarding consent to donation increases the distress of families of patients who are potential organ donors, both during and following the discussion about donation. Third, vagueness also increases the chances that the patient's intention to donate will not be fulfilled due to the family's distress. Fourth, the consequent reduction in the number of donated organs leads to avoidable deaths and increased suffering among potential recipients, and distresses them and their families. There are three strategies which could be used to reduce the harmful effects of this vagueness. First, recategorizing the reasons (commonly referred to as 'overrules' under the current system) given by families who refuse donation from registered donors would bring greater clarity to donation discussions. Second, people who wish to donate their organs should be encouraged to discuss their wishes in detail with their families, and to consider recording their wishes in other ways. Finally, the consent system for organ donation could be made more detailed, ensuring both that more information is provided to potential donors and that they have more flexibility in how their intentions are indicated; this last strategy, however, could have the disadvantage of discouraging some potential donors from registering.

  16. Real-Time Blood Donor Management Using Dashboards Based on Data Mining Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhanam T


    Full Text Available This study uses data mining modeling techniques to examine the blood donor classification and extending this to facilitate the development of realtime blood donor management using dashboards with blood profile and geo-location data. This enables decision makers the ability to manage and plan the blood donation activities based on key metrics. This capability provides the ability to plan effective targeted blood donation campaigns. The scoring algorithm implemented for the dashboard also helps in the optimized deployment of budget resources and budget allocation determination for blood donation campaigns.

  17. Awareness of Cornea Donation of Registered Tissue Donors in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting Chu; Lin-nong Wang; Hao Yu; Ru-yang Zhang


    Objective To evaluate the current cornea donation awareness of tissue donors in the city of Nanjing,China. Methods Altogether 2000 registered tissue donors in the Red Cross Eye Bank of Nanjing by the end of 2010 and 2000 control residents of Nanjing in February to June 2011 were randomly selected to par-ticipate in our field questionnaire survey. The questionnaire consisted of questions regarding the understand-ing of cornea donation,the attitude toward cornea donation,and attitude toward legislation and free dona-tion. The awareness of cornea donation between the registered tissue donors and residents was compared. Related factors of the willingness to donate corneas and to become a tissue donor were evaluated with uni-variate and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 1867 (response rate: 93.4%) tissue donors and 1796 (response rate: 89.8%; ef-fective questionnaires: 1697) residents participated in this survey. For the questions about the knowledge of cornea donation,90.3% tissue donors (residents: 78.9%) knew that donated corneas could be used for transplantations; 71.2% tissue donors (residents: 47.6%) knew that the appearance would not be destroyed after cornea donation; 70.7% tissue donors (residents: 20.0%) knew the formalities to become a cornea do-nor. For attitude toward cornea donation,82.2% tissue donors (residents: 45.1%) were willing to donate corneas or eyeballs after death; 84.0% tissue donors (residents: 30.2%) had discussed with their families about donation; 85.1% tissue donors (residents: 24.8%) supported their families' or friends' cornea donation. For attitude toward legislation and free donation,88.3% tissue donors (residents: 61.3%) approved of legis-lation to regular cornea donation; 72.2% tissue donors (residents: 38.8%) thought that cornea or organ do-nation should be gratis. The difference between two groups was significant (P<0.001). However,some tissue donors did not know cornea donation well,some even opposed the

  18. Characteristics of donors who do or do not return to give blood and barriers to their return

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, A.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Kort, W.L.A.M.M. de; Baaren, R.B. van; Veldhuizen, I.J.T.


    Background In the Netherlands about 50% of whole blood donors return to give blood after an invitation to donate. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of donor return behaviour and to gain insight into the barriers to blood donation reported by the donors themselves. Materials and met


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Shortage of organs is a global problem in which Asia lags behind the rest of the world. A huge gap exists between patients who need organ transplants and potential donors. The organ donation rate from dead bodies in India is estimated to be a minuscule 0.05 per million people. There are various barriers which prevent people from donating organs to the needy. Socio-cultural barriers are one among them where in lack of awareness and motivation to donate organs are important determinants. OBJECTIVES: 1 To study the determinants of knowledge regarding organ donation and motivation to donate organs in a selected student population in Bellary and 2 To find independent predictors of knowledge levels and motivation towards organ donation. METHODOLOGY: A cross sectional survey was conducted in a setting of degree colleges of Bellary city. A stratified random sampling technique was adopted to select the colleges and students within the sections. Information was collected using face to face interviews based on a structured, pre-tested questionnaire. Data were entered into an electronic database and analysis was done to ascertain the determinants of knowledge levels and motivation of organ donation using SPSS version 16.0.1 (SPSS, 2007. RESULTS: In this study 125 students (43% achieved an adequate knowledge score for Organ Donation, The field of education; income group and region from which they hail were found to have a significant association with knowledge scores of organ donation. In this study 125 students (43% people expressed a high motivation to donate. Higher the age group, Perceived allowance of organ donation in religion and the adequate knowledge levels were significantly associated with the motivation to donate. By multi-logistic regression, type of branch chosen in education emerged as significant independent predictor of knowledge status of respondents and higher the age group, adequate knowledge scores and perceived allowance of organ

  20. Asymptotically Safe Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Shoemaker, Ian M.


    We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting...... searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter....

  1. Medications: Using Them Safely (United States)

    ... young children. Store a medication syringe in a safe place out of the reach of kids. Other options ... Keep this number posted in an easily visible place in case you need it. Safe Disposal Do not give leftover medicine to others. ...

  2. How much blood is needed? (United States)

    Seifried, E; Klueter, H; Weidmann, C; Staudenmaier, T; Schrezenmeier, H; Henschler, R; Greinacher, A; Mueller, M M


    Demographic changes in developed countries as their populations age lead to a steady increase in the consumption of standard blood components. Complex therapeutic procedures like haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, cardiovascular surgery and solid organ transplantation are options for an increasing proportion of older patients nowadays. This trend is likely to continue in coming years. On the other hand, novel aspects in transplant regimens, therapies for malignant diseases, surgical procedures and perioperative patient management have led to a moderate decrease in blood product consumption per individual procedure. The ageing of populations in developed countries, intra-society changes in the attitude towards blood donation as an important altruistic behaviour and the overall alterations in our societies will lead to a decline in regular blood donations over the next decades in many developed countries. Artificial blood substitutes or in vitro stem cell-derived blood components might also become alternatives in the future. However, such substitutes are still in early stages of development and will therefore probably not alleviate this problem within the next few years. Taken together, a declining donation rate and an increase in the consumption of blood components require novel approaches on both sides of the blood supply chain. Different blood donor groups require specific approaches and, for example, inactive or deferred donors must be re-activated. Optimal use of blood components requires even more attention.

  3. 41 CFR 102-37.45 - How long is property available for donation screening? (United States)


    ... available for donation screening? 102-37.45 Section 102-37.45 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.45 How long is property available for donation screening? Entities authorized to participate in the donation program...

  4. 41 CFR 102-37.30 - When does property become available for donation? (United States)


    ... become available for donation? 102-37.30 Section 102-37.30 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.30 When does property become available for donation? Excess personal property becomes available for donation the...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Singh


    Full Text Available Introduction: There are 2 million corneal blind in India with a big gap between corneal demand and supply. The Govt. of Haryana by launching Nehru Drishti Yojna has taken a big step to eliminate corneal blindness from Haryana. Medical students are from a different educational background with a scientific base and thus have a pivotal role play in becoming as role models and mass educators. Objective: To assess the perception of medical students regarding eye donation. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among medical students of MMIMSR, Mullana, Ambala. A pretested, semi-structured questionnaire was used for collecting the necessary information after getting informed consent. The data was statistically analyzed using SPSS version 11.5 software. Results: 96% of the students knew about corneal donation though only 67% were willing for eye donation. Nobility was the major inspiring force for eye donation.13% reported, objection by family and 3.2% reported religious factors as restrictions for eye donation. There were many misconceptions regarding eye donation.27% thought that eye donation would result in delay in funeral arrangements. Conclusion: There is an imperative need to emphasize undergraduate teaching to evade myths concerning eye donation and promote eye donation.

  6. Altruism and reward: motivational compatibility in deceased organ donation. (United States)

    Voo, Teck Chuan


    Acts of helping others are often based on mixed motivations. Based on this claim, it has been argued that the use of a financial reward to incentivize organ donation is compatible with promoting altruism in organ donation. In its report Human Bodies: Donation for Medicine and Research, the Nuffield Council on Bioethics uses this argument to justify its suggestion to pilot a funeral payment scheme to incentivize people to register for deceased organ donation in the UK. In this article, I cast a sceptical eye on the above Nuffield report's argument that its proposed funeral payment scheme would prompt deceased organ donations that remain altruistic (as defined by and valued the report). Specifically, I illustrate how this scheme may prompt various forms of mixed motivations which would not satisfy the report's definition of altruism. Insofar as the scheme produces an expectation of the reward, it stands diametrical to promoting an 'altruistic perspective'. My minimal goal in this article is to argue that altruism is not motivationally compatible with reward as an incentive for donation. My broader goal is to argue that if a financial reward is used to incentivize organ donation, then we should recognize that the donation system is no longer aiming to promote altruism. Rewarded donation would not be altruistic but it may be ethical given a persistent organ shortage situation.

  7. UK policy initiatives and the effect on increasing organ donation. (United States)

    Hall, Bethany; Parkin, Matthew Sw

    Organ donation has developed since the Human Tissue Act 1961, and even since the Human Tissue Act 2004, which replaced it. Given the demand for organ transplants, there have been various attempts to increase the number of people on the Organ Donation Register, including awareness campaigns and celebrity endorsement. However, as the UK-wide strategy Taking Organ Transplantation to 2020 indicates, increasing the number of donations will require more than simply increasing the number of registered donors. This article reviews the changes in policies relating to organ donation and the associated issues.

  8. Blood donor motivation: a survey of minority college students. (United States)

    Oswalt, R; Gordon, J


    Ninety-five percent of all blood donors are Caucasian. To investigate why minorities are under-represented as blood donors, a random sample of 120 minority college students were surveyed about attitudes and behavior regarding blood donations. This sample of minority students had donated blood at the same rate (33%) and for the same positive motivation (altruism) and negative motivations (for those who did not donate--fear, medical excuses, didn't think of it, no time) as Caucasian donors. The low rate of blood donations by minorities is not due to their membership in ethnic groups per se, but to other variables such as education and socioeconomic level. A recruitment strategy based on the results of this study is presented.

  9. Characteristics and outcome of living kidney donors after donation: A report from Cote d′Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Amélie Lagou


    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation from living kidney donors (LKDs because of its good results represents a good option for the treatment of patients with the end-stage renal disease. Kidney donation is a relatively safe procedure according to several studies. We conducted this cross-sectional study in order to describe the demographic, clinical, and renal outcome of LKD in Cτte d′Ivoire. From March to November 2014, LKD residing in Cτte d′Ivoire at the time of investigation and having donated the kidney more than one year ago were considered for the study. They were evaluated through a questionnaire. Of the 29 LKD listed in Cτte d′Ivoire, only 14 responded to the questionnaire. The mean age at donation was 43.29 ± 9.12 years (27-59 and 10 of the LKD were women. Eight were related to the recipients, and the remaining were spouses. Laparoscopic nephrectomy was performed in nine LKD. The left kidney was harvested in ten cases. The main motivation for donation in all donors was the desire to save a life. At the time of the survey, the average duration after the donation was 4.57 ± 2.56 years (1-8. Only five donors had a regular nephrological follow-up. Hypertension was observed in one donor, seven had significant proteinuria, and six had glomerular filtration rate 30 mL/min. Significantly higher proteinuria was noted in donors under 45 years as compared to those over 45 years (0.43 ± 0.17 g/24 h vs. 0.22 ± 0.03 g/24 h, P = 0.01. Our study suggests that renal disease in LKD in Cτte d′Ivoire is low after a mean follow-up period of four years. A donor registry is essential to ensure better follow-up of donors in order to detect potential adverse effects of kidney donation in the medium as well as in the long-term.

  10. Organ donation: a significant marketing challenge. (United States)

    Clarke, Roberta N


    Unlike most health care markets, the organ donation market is one where patients are the marketers, prospective donors are the customers, and no payment is allowed in the exchange process. The assumption that altruistic behavior by donors would satisfy the need for organs has proven woefully untrue. As a result, those needing organs have resorted to relying on unwilling or impoverished donors, to having to promote themselves on websites which have achieved success for only small numbers of patients, or to waiting for organs which they may never receive. This remains a still unsolved marketing challenge.

  11. Karate: Keep It Safe. (United States)

    Jordan, David


    Safety guidelines for each phase of a karate practice session are presented to provide an accident-free and safe environment for teaching karate in a physical education or traditional karate training program. (JMF)

  12. Stretching Safely and Effectively (United States)

    ... it safely and effectively. By Mayo Clinic Staff Stretching may take a back seat to your exercise routine. The main concern is exercising, not stretching, right? Not so fast. Stretching may help you: ...

  13. The first safe country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Puggioni


    Full Text Available The Dublin II Regulation makes the first safe country of refuge solelyresponsible for refugees and asylum seekers. In the case of Italy, thefirst responsible country has not been acting responsibly.

  14. Vitamins, Are They Safe?


    Hadi Hamishehkar; Farhad Ranjdoost; Parina Asgharian; Ata Mahmoodpoor; Sarvin Sanaie


    The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MED...

  15. Safe biodegradable fluorescent particles (United States)

    Martin, Sue I.; Fergenson, David P.; Srivastava, Abneesh; Bogan, Michael J.; Riot, Vincent J.; Frank, Matthias


    A human-safe fluorescence particle that can be used for fluorescence detection instruments or act as a safe simulant for mimicking the fluorescence properties of microorganisms. The particle comprises a non-biological carrier and natural fluorophores encapsulated in the non-biological carrier. By doping biodegradable-polymer drug delivery microspheres with natural or synthetic fluorophores, the desired fluorescence can be attained or biological organisms can be simulated without the associated risks and logistical difficulties of live microorganisms.

  16. Safe Separators for Treewidth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodlaender, H.L.; Koster, A.M.C.A.


    A set of vertices S Í V is called a safe separator for treewidth, if S is a separator of G, and the treewidth of G equals the maximum of the treewidth over all connected components W of G - S of the graph, obtained by making S a clique in the subgraph of G, induced by W È S. We show that such safe s

  17. Serological profile of candidates for corneal donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adroaldo Lunardelli


    Full Text Available Objetive: The purpose of this study is to map the serological profile of candidates to corneal donation at Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, identifying the percentage of disposal by serology and the marker involved. Methods: There have been analised – retrospectively – the results of serology of all corneal donors, made between the period of 1st january 2006 and 31st december 2012. Data analised were related to age, gender and the results of serology pertinent to viral markers (HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HCV and anti-HIV, these, determined by immunosorbent tests (ELISA. Results: In the period of the study, there were 2476 corneal donors at the institution, with a major incidence on the male gender, on an average of 58.7 years old. 23% of retention because of serological unfitness was also identified, that is, 570 samples were non-negative to any of the used tests. The marker anti- HBc was the most prevalent on the studied population, followed by the Hepatitis C virus (HCV and by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. Conclusion: From the data found through this study, it is essential to have the participation of an efficient service on the serological evaluation of the candidates to corneal donation, once the security of the receptor must be taken into consideration in a population of donors with 23% of unfitness prevalence, in which the most prevalent marker is the one of Hepatits B.

  18. Categories of donation after cardiocirculatory death. (United States)

    Detry, O; Le Dinh, H; Noterdaeme, T; De Roover, A; Honoré, P; Squifflet, J-P; Meurisse, M


    The interest in donation after cardiocirculatory death (DCD) was renewed in the early 1990s, as a means to partially overcome the shortage of donations after brain death. In some European countries and in the United States, DCD has become an increasingly frequent procedure over the last decade. To improve the results of DCD transplantation, it is important to compare practices, experiences, and results of various teams involved in this field. It is therefore crucial to accurately define the different types of DCD. However, in the literature, various DCD terminologies and classifications have been used, rendering it difficult to compare reported experiences. The authors have presented herein an overview of the various DCD descriptions in the literature, and have proposed an adapted DCD classification to better define the DCD processes, seeking to provide a better tool to compare the results of published reports and to improve current practices. This modified classification may be modified in the future according to ongoing experiences in this field.

  19. Malarone-donation programme in Africa. (United States)

    Bloland, P B; Kazembe, P N; Watkins, W M; Doumbo, O K; Nwanyanwu, O C; Ruebush, T K


    Glaxo Wellcome announced in November 1996 its intent to donate up to 1 million treatment courses per year of its new antimalarial drug, Malarone, to countries in Africa, Southeast Asia, and South America, where malaria is endemic. Because the effectiveness of the small number of available antimalarial drugs is threatened by the emergence of drug resistance, the advantages of introduction of this new drug to a given area should be given careful consideration. Chloroquine, for example, is nearing the end of its effectiveness as a first-line drug for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in many areas of East and Central Africa. The lifespan of its replacement, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, is likely to be even shorter given its long half-life and the ease with which resistance-conferring mutations occur. In Southeast Asia and the Amazon basin of South America, where multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a serious problem, the advantages of Malarone introduction clearly outweigh any disadvantages. In sub-Saharan Africa, the premature distribution and increasing use of artemisinins may jeopardize their long-term effectiveness, however. Another factor complicating decisions to introduce Malarone is its required 3-day course of treatment, necessitating hospitalization if compliance is to be ensured. The donation project gives patients in developing countries access to an expensive drug that would otherwise be unavailable. Time must be taken, however, to fully debate the project's pros and cons, resolve inherent logistic problems, and establish guidelines for Malarone use in sub-Saharan Africa.

  20. Oocyte donation in patients without ovarian function. (United States)

    Devroey, P; Wisanto, A; Camus, M; Van Waesberghe, L; Bourgain, C; Liebaers, I; Van Steirteghem, A C


    The clinical, hormonal and cytogenetic findings in 36 women with primary ovarian failure, referred for oocyte or embryo donations are reported. Fifteen women were suffering from ovarian dysgenesis and 11 from premature menopause. Six of these 26 patients showed X-chromosome abnormalities. One patient had a Noonan syndrome. The remaining 10 had surgical menopause. The mean duration of their infertility was 6.5 +/- 3.2 years (+/- SD). All patients had elevated serum gonadotrophins within the menopausal range. Hypothalamic, pituitary and thyroid function were found to be intact. In one of the 15 ovarian biopsies on the patients with chromosomal competent ovarian failure, primordial follicles were found. Hysterosalpingograms revealed a normal uterine cavity in all patients. In view of oocyte donation, careful evaluation of the obstetric risk was mandatory in the six patients with X-chromosome aberrations and in the patient with the Noonan syndrome, because of their short stature and possible concomitant cardiovascular and renal disease. After substitution therapy with oestradiol valerate and natural progesterone, 13 pregnancies were established, seven patients delivered (one set of twins), eight healthy children were born, three pregnancies aborted and three pregnancies are progressing normally.

  1. Social and ethical issues in mitochondrial donation (United States)

    Dimond, Rebecca


    Introduction or background The UK is at the forefront of mitochondrial science and is currently the only country in the world to legalize germ-line technologies involving mitochondrial donation. However, concerns have been raised about genetic modification and the ‘slippery slope’ to designer babies. Sources of data This review uses academic articles, newspaper reports and public documents. Areas of agreement Mitochondrial donation offers women with mitochondrial disease an opportunity to have healthy, genetically related children. Areas of controversy Key areas of disagreement include safety, the creation of three-parent babies, impact on identity, implications for society, definitions of genetic modification and reproductive choice. Growing points The UK government legalized the techniques in March 2015. Scientific and medical communities across the world followed the developments with interest. Areas timely for developing research It is expected that the first cohort of ‘three parent’ babies will be born in the UK in 2016. Their health and progress will be closely monitored. PMID:26351372

  2. Safe Sex in Theory and Practice. (United States)

    Shea, Christopher


    Despite the fact that gay and bisexual male college students know about safe sex practices, they are often not using them, according to a recent survey. The study of about 20,500 blood samples on 35 college and university campuses shows a high rate of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, with men 22 times as likely as women to test…

  3. 76 FR 7546 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Prohibited Species Donation (PSD) Program (United States)


    ...; Prohibited Species Donation (PSD) Program AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... currently approved information collection. A prohibited species donation (PSD) program for Pacific salmon.... Vessels and processing plants participating in the donation program voluntarily retain and process...

  4. 75 FR 15403 - Information Collection, Procurement of Agricultural Commodities for Foreign Donation (United States)


    ... Donation AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation, USDA ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: In... information collection associated with procurement of agricultural commodities for foreign donation. The.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Procurement of Agricultural Commodities for Foreign Donation. OMB Number:...

  5. Introduction to Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization and Blood Safety in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Abolghasemi


    Full Text Available "nCurrently, in Iran blood transfusion is an integral part of the national health system and blood donation is voluntary and non­remu­nerated and blood and its components may not be a source of profit. In 1974 and following establishment of Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization (IBTO all blood transfusion activities from donor recruitment to production of blood com­po­nents and delivery of blood and blood products were centralized. The activities of IBTO are followed the laws and regu­la­tions of Ministry of Health and criteria of Iran National Regulatory Authority. In order to meet the country's demand in 2007 IBTO collected about 1.7 millions units of blood from the population of 70 millions. In 1979 coincided with the Is­lamic revolution the number of  blood units collected throughout the country were 124,000 units or 3.4 unit per 1000 popu­la­tion whereas after about 30 years this increased to about 25 unit per 1000 population. With improving the pool of vol­un­tary donors, IBTO has been successful in excluding "family replacement" donation since 2007 and reached to 100% volun­tary and nonremunerated blood donation. Currently more than 92% of blood donors in Iran are male and contribution of fe­male in blood donation is less than 8%. Although all donated blood in Iran screened for HBsAg since 1974, screening of blood units for HIV and HCV started since 1989 and 1996, respectively. The frequency of HBV infection in blood do­nors showed a significant decline from 1.79% in 1998 to 0.4% in 2007. The overall frequency of HCV and HIV infection are 0.13% and 0.004% respectively.

  6. Ear length and kidney function decline after kidney donation. (United States)

    Katavetin, Pisut; Watanatorn, Salin; Townamchai, Natavudh; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Praditpornsilpa, Kearkiat


    The preservation of kidney function after kidney donation depends on the kidney reserve - the potential of the remaining kidney to boost their function after loss of the other kidney. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, size and shape of the external ears are examined to evaluate the person's kidney health. We hypothesized that ear size might be a practical yet overlooked marker of kidney reserve. Fifty kidney transplantation donors were participated in this study. The length and width of both ears of all participants were measured during one of the post-donation visits. Pre-donation serum creatinine and post-donation serum creatinine as well as other relevant parameters (age, sex, weight, height, etc.) of the participants were extracted from medical records. The estimated GFR was calculated from serum creatinine, age and sex using the CKD-EPI equation. Ear length negatively associated with %GFR decline after kidney donation. For every 1 cm increase in ear length, it was associated with 5.7% less GFR decline after kidney donation (95% Confidence Interval 0.2 to 11.3, P = 0.04). Ear width, as well as age, sex, body weight, height, body mass index, and pre-donation eGFR did not significantly associate with the GFR decline. Our findings support the notion of Traditional Chinese Medicine that ear morphology may be associated with kidney health and suggest that ear length might be a useful predictor of kidney function decline after kidney donation.

  7. 7 CFR 250.30 - State processing of donated foods. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State processing of donated foods. 250.30 Section 250.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS FOR USE IN...

  8. Opting-out systems no guarantee for higher donation rates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppen, R.; Friele, R.D.; Marquet, R.L.; Gevers, J.K.M.


    There are considerable differences in the number of organ donations between countries. It is assumed that opting-out systems have a significantly positive impact on the national organ donation rate. The aim of our study was to establish whether different consent systems explain the difference in org

  9. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be...

  10. Donation after cardiac death : are Australian emergency clinicians supportive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marck, C. H.; Neate, S. L.; Weiland, T. J.; Hickey, B. B.; Jelinek, G. A.


    To improve organ donation processes and outcomes, many Australian hospitals have introduced donation after cardiac death (DCD) following the 2010 publication of the National Protocol for DCD. As emergency clinicians play a significant role in identifying potential DCD donors, it is critical to asses

  11. Using Standardized Patients to Educate Medical Students about Organ Donation (United States)

    Feeley, Thomas Hugh; Anker, Ashley E.; Soriano, Rainier; Friedman, Erica


    Medical students at Mount Sinai School of Medicine participated in an intervention designed to promote knowledge and improved communication skills related to cadaveric organ donation. The intervention required students to interact with a standardized patient for approximately 10 minutes and respond to questions posed about organ donation in a…

  12. 32 CFR 644.495 - Donation to a public body. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Donation to a public body. 644.495 Section 644.495 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.495 Donation to a public body. A public body, as defined by GSA for this purpose, means...

  13. Voluntary Body Donation: The Gift that Lives on Forever (United States)

    Saritha, S.; Rao, M. Vittoo; Sumangala; Supriya, G.; Kumar, Praveen


    Body donation is a gracious act, Shankarcharaya firmly believed in concept of Body Donation or Organ Donation and said Iddham sharirum paropakarum i.e. the body is for use of others and death is not the end, it is the beginning. Anatomy is important basic subject for medicalstudents, both U.G. & P.G. Best method of Anatomy learning is by dissection on human cadavers, which remains principle teaching tool. Human cadavers for purpose of study are a scarcity with mushrooming of medical institutions in this country. Unclaimed bodies are no more origin of cadavers. Whole Body donation is the need of the hour. A Voluntary Body Donation is defined as the act of giving oneís Body after death for Medical research and education. In this article a survey was done in S.V.S. Medical & Dental Colleges Faculty members and medical exhibition visitors which include lawyers, engineers, teachers and others during the year of 2010. The body donation including organ donation and various factors such as age, religion, culture and donorís attitude are discussed. Body donation provides the students and medical researchers with unparalleled opportunities to study the human body. Computers nor books cannot totally replace body dissection in learning the anatomy.

  14. 5 CFR 630.1113 - Using donated annual leave. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Using donated annual leave. 630.1113 Section 630.1113 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1113 Using donated annual leave. (a) Any...

  15. 5 CFR 630.1109 - Donating annual leave. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donating annual leave. 630.1109 Section 630.1109 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1109 Donating annual leave. An employee may...

  16. Perinatal outcomes in 375 children born after oocyte donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchau, Sara S; Loft, Anne; Larsen, Elisabeth C;


    To describe perinatal outcomes in children born after oocyte donation (OD) compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and spontaneous conception (SC).......To describe perinatal outcomes in children born after oocyte donation (OD) compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and spontaneous conception (SC)....

  17. Attitudes to cadaveric organ donation in Irish preclinical medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, Kevin C


    There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this topic, there has been none in Ireland. Anatomy dissection can be a stressor to medical students-we investigate the attitudes of Irish students to organ donation and how they change with exposure to anatomy dissection. A questionnaire was administered to first year students in the School of Medicine in University College Dublin, Ireland, three times over a nine-week period at the commencement of classes in an academic year. The attitudes of the students were positive throughout regarding organ donation by a stranger, a family member, or themselves. There was, however, a significant decrease in support for the donation of a family member\\'s organs in a minority of students. Irish students\\' attitudes to postmortem organ donation are positive and are not changed by exposure to the dissecting room. There is support for the donation of organs, and willingness among students to donate their own organs and support donation by family members.

  18. Should We Be “Nudging” for Cadaveric Organ Donations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg


    Originaltitel: Getting the purpose of mandated choice wrong - Is Increasing Supply of Donated Cadaver Organs really what we want to nudge?......Originaltitel: Getting the purpose of mandated choice wrong - Is Increasing Supply of Donated Cadaver Organs really what we want to nudge?...

  19. Body Donation in India: Social Awareness, Willingness, and Associated Factors (United States)

    Rokade, Shrikant A.; Gaikawad, Anjana P.


    With the attendant rise of the number of medical colleges in India over past few decades, the demand for cadavers used in medical education and research is growing. However, there is an insufficient supply of donated cadavers available for dissection. This study was undertaken to assess the general population's awareness of body donation programs…

  20. Organ donation and Islam-challenges and opportunities. (United States)

    Sharif, Adnan


    The issue of organ donation in Islam has been debated for decades, with most religious authorities sanctioning both living-organ and deceased-organ donation. However, disquiet among the Islamic community on the compatibility of organ donation with their faith remains, especially in relation to deceased-organ donation. This remains a topical, controversial, and challenging component of organ procurement at both local and international levels. In this article, I will explore Islamic arguments both for and against organ donation, in the context of both living-donor and deceased-donor models. By discussing both practical and philosophical perspectives, the aim is to facilitate discussion on how best to achieve consensus on this issue by driving the debate forward in an open and all-encompassing manner. Although every attempt should be made to achieve consensus among key Muslim opinion makers (individuals, authorities, and institutions), encouraging personalized decision making by intellectual effort should be the goal to achieve genuine informed consent.

  1. Infectivity of blood products from donors with occult hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allain, Jean-Pierre; Mihaljevic, Ivanka; Gonzalez-Fraile, Maria Isabel


    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) is identified in 1:1000 to 1:50,000 European blood donations. This study intended to determine the infectivity of blood products from OBI donors.......Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) is identified in 1:1000 to 1:50,000 European blood donations. This study intended to determine the infectivity of blood products from OBI donors....

  2. Transfusions of blood and blood products and viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wróblewska


    Full Text Available Transfusions of blood and blood products are commonly used in medicine, but being biological materials they carry a risk of transmitting infections--viral, bacterial, parasitic, as well as prions. Laboratory tests used for screening of donated blood for viral infections at present cannot detect all infectious units. Criteria for selection of blood donors therefore must be very strict, while methods of inactivation of viruses and laboratory assays for detection of their presence must be improved. Indications for blood transfusion should be restricted.

  3. Predictive capacity of pre-donation GFR and renal reserve capacity for donor renal function after living kidney donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rook, M; Hofker, HS; van Son, WJ; van der Heide, JJH; Ploeg, RJ; Navis, GJ


    Kidney transplantation from living donors is important to reduce organ shortage. Reliable pre-operative estimation of post-donation renal function is essential. We evaluated the predictive potential of pre-donation glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (iothalamate) and renal reserve capacity for post-do

  4. The Safe Lambda Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, William


    Safety is a syntactic condition of higher-order grammars that constrains occurrences of variables in the production rules according to their type-theoretic order. In this paper, we introduce the safe lambda calculus, which is obtained by transposing (and generalizing) the safety condition to the setting of the simply-typed lambda calculus. In contrast to the original definition of safety, our calculus does not constrain types (to be homogeneous). We show that in the safe lambda calculus, there is no need to rename bound variables when performing substitution, as variable capture is guaranteed not to happen. We also propose an adequate notion of beta-reduction that preserves safety. In the same vein as Schwichtenberg's 1976 characterization of the simply-typed lambda calculus, we show that the numeric functions representable in the safe lambda calculus are exactly the multivariate polynomials; thus conditional is not definable. We also give a characterization of representable word functions. We then study the ...

  5. Right patient, Right blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selberg, Hanne; Madsen, Trine Stougaard


    Right patient, Right Blood Simulation based training in blood transfusion practice in nursing education Background: In spite of strict checking procedures to handling transfusion of blood severe adverse reactions are likely to happen and the major cause of morbidity occurs to be liable to human...... errors. Nursing students have limited possibility to practice safe blood transfusion during clinical placements. We introduced simulation-based workshops to reinforce safe transfusion practice and thus increase patient safety but equally important to bridge the gap between theory and practice. Objectives......: The objective of the current study was to test workshops focusing on procedures of safe blood transfusion by combining theory and practice, integrating current guidelines on safe blood transfusion and hereby help students to better recognize and handle errors and adverse reactions. Methods: 372 third year...

  6. Right hepatic lobe donation adversely affects donor life insurability up to one year after donation. (United States)

    Nissing, Matthew H; Hayashi, Paul H


    There are no data regarding hepatic lobe donation effects on donor life insurability. Two investigators called 10 agents of 10 different large life insurance companies. One investigator gave a fictitious profile: Caucasian man, 33 years old, nonsmoker, without medical problems (control profile [CP]). The other investigator used the same profile with a history of uncomplicated right lobe donation 12 months earlier (donor profile [DP]). Investigators asked for premium quotes on a $100,000 term life policy. No medical testing or record review was allowed. Investigators were blinded to the results of each other's calls. Agents were unaware of the study. We documented underwriting decisions, premiums quoted, stipulations, number of phone calls, and phone time. All 10 companies would pursue underwriting CP at their lowest, "preferred" rate. Five would do the same for DP. Two might underwrite DP at a more expensive "standard" rate, but a "preferred" rate would be less likely. One would underwrite DP at the "standard" rate; one would not underwrite DP. One agent did not return follow-up calls (DP insurability premiums were lower for CP vs. DP ($189/yr. vs. $202/yr., P = 0.56). Median number of phone calls required was 1 for CP and 3 for DP (P = 0.01). Mean telephone minutes were 4.2 for CP and 8.0 for DP (P = 0.004). In conclusion, right hepatic lobe donation decreases life insurability 1 year after uncomplicated donation. Donors can expect some increased difficulty obtaining life insurance, but they should find a company willing to pursue underwriting. The premium paid may be slightly higher.

  7. Gay and Bisexual Men's Perceptions of the Donation and Use of Human Biological Samples for Research: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Patterson

    Full Text Available Human biological samples (biosamples are increasingly important in diagnosing, treating and measuring the prevalence of illnesses. For the gay and bisexual population, biosample research is particularly important for measuring the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. By determining people's understandings of, and attitudes towards, the donation and use of biosamples, researchers can design studies to maximise acceptability and participation. In this study we examine gay and bisexual men's attitudes towards donating biosamples for HIV research. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 46 gay and bisexual men aged between 18 and 63 recruited in commercial gay scene venues in two Scottish cities. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically using the framework approach. Most men interviewed seemed to have given little prior consideration to the issues. Participants were largely supportive of donating tissue for medical research purposes, and often favourable towards samples being stored, reused and shared. Support was often conditional, with common concerns related to: informed consent; the protection of anonymity and confidentiality; the right to withdraw from research; and ownership of samples. Many participants were in favour of the storage and reuse of samples, but expressed concerns related to data security and potential misuse of samples, particularly by commercial organisations. The sensitivity of tissue collection varied between tissue types and collection contexts. Blood, urine, semen and bowel tissue were commonly identified as sensitive, and donating saliva and as unlikely to cause discomfort. To our knowledge, this is the first in-depth study of gay and bisexual men's attitudes towards donating biosamples for HIV research. While most men in this study were supportive of donating tissue for research, some clear areas of concern were identified. We suggest that these minority concerns should be accounted

  8. The Donation of 1629 in Andalusia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} When the financial problems of the Monarchy worsened in 1629 due to the wars in Italy, Philip IV requested a general aid or donation, the second and most substantial of his long reign. This article studies some questions about the commission that took don Álvaro de Cabrera to the Andalusian provinces of Seville, Córdoba and Jaén, and that we still do not know very well, for example, the receipts, the forms of collections, especially in the local communities, the grants offered by the King to the donors and in which measure the donations changed, or not, the nature of the Castilian tax system characterized by the privilege, indirect taxation and local intermediation that closely joined the local and royal finances.

  9. Challenges of using HIV as a primary risk indicator: Need for integrated blood donor risk management model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mapako, T.; Parirewa, J.J.; Emmanuel, J.C.; Mvere, D.A.; Massundah, E.; Mavunganidze, G.; Marowa, L.M.; Postma, M.J.; Van Hulst, M.


    Background: The use of risk modelling in blood safety is increasing getting momentum. NBSZ initiated blood donor risk profiling based on donation frequency (r-coding) since 1994 and in 2006 a generic risk classification model was developed (include age and donation venue) which was mainly based on H

  10. Safe Manual Jettison (United States)

    Barton, Jay


    In space, the controlled release of certain cargoes is no less useful than the maritime jettisons from which they take their name but is also much more dangerous. Experience has shown that jettisons can be performed safely, but the process is complicated with the path to performing a jettison taking months or even years. In the background, time is also required to write procedures, train the crew, configure the vehicle, and many other activities. This paper outlines the current process used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for manual jettisons, detailing the methods used to assure that the jettisons and the jettisoned objects are as safe as achievable and that the crew is adequately trained to be able to affect the safe jettison. The goal of this paper is not only to capture what it takes to perform safe jettisons in the near Earth environment but to extrapolate this knowledge to future space exploration scenarios that will likely have Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and International Partner (IP) interfaces.

  11. Keeping Food Safe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses things kids and parents can do to help prevent illness by keeping food safe.  Created: 5/27/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/27/2009.

  12. [Living organ donation vs. cadaveric donation - study of liver transplanted children and their families]. (United States)

    Schulz, K H; Hofmann, C; Sander, K; Edsen, S; Burdelski, M; Koch, U; Rogiers, X


    There is only scarce information on the quality of life of child recipients of liver transplants and their families. Particularly children with a living related graft and their families never have been compared to children who received a cadaveric graft and their families. We investigated the following issues in our study: How do parents and children from participating families rate their strain, their quality of life and their relationships within their family? Do families with a living - related donor differ from those with a cadaveric donor? What do living donors and their partners think about the donation retrospectively? The study was conducted with 106 participants from 50 families (42 mothers, 40 fathers, and 24 children older than 6 years). In 20 of these families, a living transplantation had been performed. Participants were interviewed and asked to fill out several questionnaires. School-aged children with a liver transplant show good social integration among their peers and in school. The child's disease, however, has a great impact on the family. Family members show a reduction in social contact, and an increase in marital crises, and problematic relations amongst siblings. Families in which a cadaveric graft was performed, are less satisfied with life, and show more symptoms of exhaustion. Every family studied possessed or acquired - a high degree of internal or external coping resources. Living - related donors tried hard to obtain an understanding of the medical context. The partner, rather than the donor himself, feels anxious before the donation. The limited time available for the decision to donate is not perceived by the donors to be critical. Ten percent of living donors feel "a little" that their health is affected. The decision to donate is supported "strongly" or "very strongly" by the partners in 80 % of the cases. A possible strain on the child through the expectation of gratitude by the donor is stated by 20 %. All of the donors agree

  13. Funding Charities Through Tax Law: When Should a Donation Qualify for Donation Incentives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Parachin


    Full Text Available Canadian income tax law provides incentives for taxpayers to make charitable donations. Since only those donations to charities qualifying as charitable “gifts” are eligible for donation incentives, the definition of gift bodes significant revenue implications for charities and government alike. The Income Tax Act does not, however, define the term gift. The tests applied by courts and regulators to identify gifts in the absence of a statutory definition are contradictory, unnecessarily restrictive, and inconsistent with the tax policy behind donation incentives. The recent attempt to improve the law through the proposed “split-receipting” rules has achieved little in the way of meaningful reform. The ideal solution is to adopt a statutory definition of “charitable donation” that will both broaden and clarify the range of eligible donations. / La loi canadienne de l’impôt sur le revenu prévoit des incitatifs visant à encourager les contribuables à faire des dons. Étant donné que seuls les dons faits aux oeuvres de bienfaisance qui se qualifient en tant que « dons » de bienfaisance peuvent donner droit à ces incitatifs, la définition du terme « don » est porteuse d’importantes répercussions fiscales, tant pour les organisations caritatives que pour le gouvernement. Toutefois, la Loi de l’impôt sur le revenu ne définit pas le terme « don ». Les critères appliqués par les cours et les autorités de réglementation pour identifier ce qui constitue un don, en l’absence d’une définition établie par la loi, sont contradictoires, inutilement restrictives et incohérentes avec la politique fiscale concernant les incitatifs accordés au titre des dons de bienfaisance. La récente tentative d’améliorer la loi avec les règles proposées sur le fractionnement des reçus n’a eu que peu de résultats pour mener à une réforme significative. La solution idéale est d’adopter une définition législative du

  14. 单采血小板献血反应的诱因分析总结%Analysis and summary the inducement of platelets aphaeresis donated reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:预防和降低单采血小板过程中献血反应的发生,保证单采质量,壮大无偿献血队伍。方法:对天津市2010年-2013年发生献血反应的单采献血者情况进行记录并分析。结果:单采血小板发生献血反应的诱因主要包括:精神紧张,枸橼酸盐反应,低血糖反应,身体因素,二次穿刺。结论:做好献血前的宣传告知工作和献血过程中的护理干预,是保证单采过程顺利进行的重要措施之一。%Objective:To prevent and reduce the occurrence of donated reaction in the process of platelet apheresis,ensure the apheresis quality,and strengthen blood donation team.Methods:The situation of solid blood donors with donated reaction from 2010 to 2013 in Tianjin were recorded and analysed.Results:The inducement of platelets aphaeresis donated reaction mainly include:mental stress,citrate reaction,hypoglycemia reaction,physical factors,and the two puncture.Conclusion:Complete the propaganda inform work before blood donation and nursing intervention in the process of blood donation,is one of the important measures to ensure the single production process smoothly.

  15. Live kidney donations and the ethic of care. (United States)

    Kane, Francis; Clement, Grace; Kane, Mary


    In this paper, we seek to re-conceptualize the ethical framework through which ethicists and medical professionals view the practice of live kidney donations. The ethics of organ donation has been understood primarily within the framework of individual rights and impartiality, but we show that the ethic of care captures the moral situation of live kidney donations in a more coherent and comprehensive way, and offers guidance for practitioners that is more attentive to the actual moral transactions among donors and recipients. A final section offers guidelines for the practice of live kidney transplants that emerge from an ethic of care.

  16. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus


    study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...... need to move beyond the bifurcation of the social and medical aspects of blood supply as two separate issues and approach social dynamics as key medical safety questions....

  17. 41 CFR 102-37.580 - Who is responsible for costs associated with the donation? (United States)


    ... costs associated with the donation? 102-37.580 Section 102-37.580 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Bodies in Lieu of Abandonment/Destruction § 102-37.580 Who is responsible for costs associated with the donation? The recipient public...

  18. 41 CFR 102-37.40 - What type of surplus property is available for donation? (United States)


    ... property is available for donation? 102-37.40 Section 102-37.40 Public Contracts and Property Management... 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.40 What type of surplus property is available for donation? All surplus property (including property held...

  19. 45 CFR 2544.135 - How should an offer of a donation be made? (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How should an offer of a donation be made? 2544... NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SOLICITATION AND ACCEPTANCE OF DONATIONS § 2544.135 How should an offer of a donation be made? (a) In general, an offer of donation should be made by providing a letter of tender...

  20. Safe use of nanomaterials

    CERN Multimedia


    The use of nanomaterials  is on the increase worldwide, including at CERN. The HSE Unit has established a safety guideline to inform you of the main requirements for the safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials at CERN.   A risk assessment tool has also been developed which guides the user through the process of evaluating the risk for his or her activity. Based on the calculated risk level, the tool provides a list of recommended control measures.   We would therefore like to draw your attention to: Safety Guideline C-0-0-5 - Safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials; and Safety Form C-0-0-2 - Nanomaterial Risk Assessment   You can consult all of CERN’s safety rules and guidelines here. Please contact the HSE Unit for any questions you may have.   The HSE Unit

  1. 23 CFR 710.505 - Real property donations. (United States)


    ... determines that an appraisal is unnecessary because the valuation problem is uncomplicated and the fair... meet environmental requirements as specified in 23 U.S.C. 323(d). (b) Credit for donations....

  2. Third Party Reproduction: Sperm, Egg, and Embryo Donation and Surrogacy (United States)

    ... third-party reproduction” refers to the use of eggs , sperm , or embryos that have been donated by a ... the requisite screening and testing required of all egg and sperm donors. For embryos that are created specifically for ...

  3. Posthumous organ donation beliefs of college students: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Liu


    Conclusion: Despite positive attitudes towards posthumous organ donation, college students are hesitant to become donors because of lack of knowledge/publicity; cultural disdain; and lack of governmental assurance.

  4. On the possibility of embryo donation in Hispanic America


    Álvarez-Díaz, Jorge Alberto; Médico sexólogo clínico, magíster en bioética. Doctorando en el Programa de Ciencias Sociosanitarias y Humanidades Médicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid- España. Becario del Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT), México.


    Empirical studies regarding embryo donation in developed countries show that the most probable action would be to discard surplus embryos and, if they would donate them, the preferred option would be for research, and eventually to other couples. There are not enough studies in Hispanic America about the opinions of those who have participated in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) regarding embryo disposition of surplus embryos. Moreover, there are scarce specific laws regulating ART in...

  5. The evaluation of blood donor deferral causes in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafirakureva, N.; Khoza, S.; Van Hulst, M.; Postma, M.J.; Mvere, D.A.


    Background: Donor selection is one of the first steps in blood donation aimed at improving the safety of blood and blood products. It is the only line of protection for donors and against certain infections for which testing is not performed. There is paucity of published data on reasons for donor d

  6. Syphilis screening practices in blood transfusion facilities in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Sarkodie


    Conclusions: Despite international and national recommendations, more than half of the studied health facilities that provide blood transfusions in Ghana are not screening blood donations for syphilis. These data show a considerable mismatch between recommendations and practice, with serious consequences for blood safety and public health.


    Chien, Yu-Hung; Chang, Wen-Te


    People in many countries are unwilling to donate organs. Drawing on previous research regarding the use of message framing and the theory of exemplification promoting intentions to donate organs, this study examined messaging strategies. This study used a 2 × 2 between-subjects factorial design to examine the joint effects of gain/loss frames and statistical/exemplar appeals on the intentions of 189 Taiwanese college students (108 women, 81 men; age range = 19-24 yr., M = 21.6, SD = 2.9) regarding organ donation. Each participant was randomly assigned to read one of four versions of an organ donation promotional message and then to complete a questionnaire. The analysis of variance showed a significant interaction between the two factors. Loss-exemplar messages elicited significantly more positive intentions toward donation than did loss-statistical messages. There was no significant difference between the statistical and exemplar appeals observed under the gain-framed condition. The practical implications of developing effective organ donation promotional materials and the limitations of this study are discussed.

  8. Donation to disaster relief campaigns: underlying social cognitive factors exposed. (United States)

    Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, Ard; Peters, Oscar


    A number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on attitudes, and the impact of media exposure. The aim was to expand and improve an already existing model by Cheung and Chan [Cheung, C. K., & Chan, C. M. (2000). Social-cognitive factors of donating money to charity, with special attention to an international relief organisation. Evaluation and Program Planning, 23, 241-253]. The expanded model showed a better fit. Furthermore, the expanded model explained two-thirds of the variance of the intention to donate to a disaster relief campaign. The greatest predictor of the intention to donate proved to be "Past donation to disaster relief campaigns." The factor "News exposure" was indicated to be a valuable additional factor, as it had a significant direct effect on "Awareness of a disaster relief campaign" and was the only factor that had a total effect on all other factors, including "Intention to donate to a disaster relief campaign."

  9. Human body donation programs in Sri Lanka: Buddhist perspectives. (United States)

    Subasinghe, Sandeepani Kanchana; Jones, D Gareth


    Considerable attention is being given to the availability of bodies for anatomical education. This raises the question of the manner in which they are obtained, that is, whether they are unclaimed or donated. With increasing emphasis upon the ethical desirability of using body bequests, the spotlight tends to be focused on those countries with factors that militate against donations. However, little attention has been paid to cultures where donations are readily available. One such country is Sri Lanka where the majority of the Buddhist population follows Theravada Buddhism. Within this context, the expectation is that donations will be given selflessly without expecting anything in return. This is because donation of one's body has blessings for a better outcome now and in the afterlife. The ceremonies to honor donors are outlined, including details of the "Pirith Ceremony." The relevance for other cultures of these features of body donation is discussed paying especial attention to the meaning of altruism and consent, and justification for the anonymization of cadavers. The degree to which anatomy is integrated into the surrounding culture also emerges as significant.

  10. The research and development and application of computer system in safe blood transfusion%计算机系统在安全输血中的研发与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢月利; 王艳春; 高乐俊; 刘静


    With the constant progress of blood transfusion, the application of the computer system has become the mainstream in the development of blood transfusion. In order to ensure the security of blood transfusion and improve work efficiency, we researched and used the blood transfusion management system in our hospital from January 2010. This system played a huge advantage and role in our hosptial's review of "first-class hospital" in 2013 , made the safety of blood transfusion and reduced the work intensity of the workers. This system includes a transfusion application, nursing practice, cross matching,blood inventory management, send blood and other functions. At the same time, this sysyem connects with hospital information. This system provides a set of accurate, convenient management tool through the application of the software for transfusion branch.%随着输血事业的不断进步,计算机系统的应用成为输血发展的主流.为保障输血安全,提高工作效率,我们于2010 年1月正式研发并运用了输血管理系统,在2013年我院的"三甲医院"复审的过程中发挥了巨大的优势和作用,保证了输血的安全性并减轻了工作人员的工作强度.此系统包括输血申请、护理采血 、配血、 血液库存、发血等功能.同时与医院信息系统共联 , 通过这套软件的应用为输血科提供了一套准确无误、方便快捷的管理工具.

  11. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun


    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  12. Escola segura Safe school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Ferreira Liberal


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisão das estratégias para tornar o ambiente escolar seguro. Inicialmente os autores contextualizam a violência e os acidentes no ambiente escolar e fazem recomendações, baseadas em dados da literatura, para a implantação de escolas seguras. FONTE DE DADOS: Artigos publicados entre 1993 e 2005 na base de dados MEDLINE. Dados nacionais epidemiológicos e da literatura também foram pesquisados. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Há evidência crescente de que a intervenção tem múltiplos componentes. O foco político é a prática em educação em saúde com o envolvimento de toda a comunidade. O norte dessas intervenções é ajudar estudantes e toda a comunidade a adotar um comportamento seguro e saudável. As escolas estão assumindo um envolvimento crescente na promoção da saúde, prevenção de doenças e prevenção de trauma. Nesse contexto de prevenção de causas externas de morbimortalidade, é importante reconhecer o risco ambiental, locais e comportamentos de risco como favoráveis ao trauma e à violência, além de um novo conceito de acidentes como algo que possa ser evitado. CONCLUSÃO: A implementação da escola segura representa uma nova direção promissora para o trabalho preventivo baseado na escola. É importante notar que uma escola segura deve intervir não meramente na sua estrutura física, mas também torná-la tão segura quanto possível, trabalhando com a comunidade escolar por meio de educação em saúde, discutindo principalmente o comportamento saudável.OBJECTIVE: To review the strategies to make school a safe environment. The paper first addresses the social context of accidents and violence in the school environment, and makes recommendations, based on the literature data, for the implementation of safe schools. SOURCE OF DATA: Articles published between 1993 and 2005 in the MEDLINE database. Brazilian epidemiological and literature data have also been searched. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: There is

  13. The History of the Foundation of the Iranian National Blood Transfusion Service in 1974 and the Biography of its Founder; Professor Fereydoun Ala. (United States)

    Azizi, Mohammad Hossein; Nayernouri, Touraj; Bahadori, Moslem


    The history of early attempts of blood transfusion in Iran traces back to the 1940s; however, around three decades later in 1974, the Iranian National Blood Transfusion Service (Sazeman-e Melli-e Enteqal-e Khun-e Iran) was founded by the outstanding hematologist, Professor Fereydoun Ala. The main goals of this centralized organization were to collect blood from healthy voluntary donors, to screen the donated blood and to provide various safe blood products based on scientific and ethical standards. In due course, a new era of blood transfusion service in Iran had begun to such a degree that after more than four decades of its activity, it is now considered the best-developed blood service in the eastern Mediterranean region. Here, a brief historical account of the early blood transfusion efforts and the establishment of the modern Iranian National Blood Transfusion Service in Iran is discussed in addition to the life and career of its founder and first director, Professor Fereydoun Ala.

  14. Safe motherhood at risk? (United States)

    Thompson, A


    Health professionals' negative attitudes toward clients often exacerbate the problems women face in terms of health status and access to health care. Thus, the health professionals can themselves be obstacles to women seeking the health care they need. A key challenge to midwives, in addition to providing technically competent services, is gaining insight into the people for whom they are responsible so that childbirth traditions are treated with respect and women are offered dignity. Safe motherhood requires intersectoral collaboration. Many innovative approaches to safe motherhood are based on the community's participation in planning services that meet the needs of women. Other approaches are based on decentralization of services. For example, a large university teaching hospital in Lusaka, Zambia, set up birthing centers around the city to take the pressure off the hospital. Midwives head up these centers, which are close to the women's homes. Decentralization of delivery services has improved the physical and emotional outcomes for mothers and newborns. Midwives must be prepared to articulate concerns about inequalities and deficiencies in the health care system in order to persuade the government to change. Women, including midwives, need to form multidisciplinary alliances to work together to effect change. The front-line workers in maternity care are midwives. They should adopt the following strategies to become even more effective in their efforts to make motherhood safer. They should listen to what women say about their needs. They should scale services to a manageable, human scale. They should learn the skills to become politically active advocates. They should work with other midwives, women, leaders, and other professional groups. Motherhood can be safe when women have more control over their own decision making, the education to liberate themselves to make their own decisions, and access to skilled care.

  15. Keeping food safe. (United States)

    Conde, Crystal


    Legislation passed during this year's legislative session will help the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) identify the source of food-borne illness outbreaks. Senate Bill 81 increases the number of food wholesalers and warehouse operators that must obtain licenses from DSHS. DSHS enforcement activities include follow-up inspections at establishments that have problems, sending warning letters, holding management meetings with the firms, and providing technical assistance. When a food-borne illness outbreak involves a Texas manufacturer, wholesaler, or warehouse, DSHS can recall contaminated products, close establishments temporarily until they can ensure their food is safe or close them permanently, and levy fines.

  16. Military walking blood bank and the civilian blood service. (United States)

    Berséus, Olle; Hervig, Tor; Seghatchian, Jerard


    In most countries whole blood transfusions have been replaced by component therapy. This has allowed for both better usage of the blood donations and better quality during storage. While this strategy was initially motivated by the commercial need for plasma the plasma reduction also reduced the levels of low grade proteases and sialidase, hence minimizing the cellular storage lesion/microvesiculation during prolonged storage. Plasma reduction also reduces transfusion reactions associated with plasma. During special military conditions, however, blood transfusion is urgently needed without corresponding access to blood components, in particular platelets. Accordingly, new focus on whole blood has aroused and added a new challenge to the blood transfusion services. This special issue of "what is happening" highlights the planed efforts by Swedish and Norwegian groups in the developments of military walking blood bank, which is applicable to civil blood services.

  17. Assessing anxiety levels and empathic tendency in blood and platelet donors. (United States)

    Kılıç, Suar Çakı; Doğan, Erdoğan; Sevimligül, Gülgün; Yücel, Birsen; Bolat, Fatih; Kavakçı, Onder; Sencan, Mehmet


    In spite of a constantly-increasing requirement for blood transfusion in the world, blood donation does not exhibit an increase at the same rate. In Turkey with a population of 74 million, only 15 per 10,000 people donate blood regularly and rate of voluntary blood donation is very low compared to developed countries. The aim of this study is to determine empathic level of donors and anxiety levels of blood and platelet donors and also to enable comfort and motivation of donors by taking precautions for reducing their anxieties. This prospective and descriptive study was conducted with 100 voluntary donors (50 blood donors, 50 platelet donors) who admitted to Blood Centre of Cumhuriyet University Hospital between 15 March 2012 and 30 April 2012. Average age of these donors was 27 (19-48)years. The mean scores of donors from Empathic Tendency Scale (ETS), State Anxiety Invertory (SAI) and Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI) were 70 (49-83), 40 (33-45) and 34 (30-44), respectively. ETS score of those donating blood/platelet for the first time was low, >1 is higher in those who donated previously. SAI and TAI scores of blood donors were higher than those of platelet donors (pempathy. Donation made during the continuous disclosure is an important factor for being a donor.

  18. Type Safe Extensible Programming (United States)

    Chae, Wonseok


    Software products evolve over time. Sometimes they evolve by adding new features, and sometimes by either fixing bugs or replacing outdated implementations with new ones. When software engineers fail to anticipate such evolution during development, they will eventually be forced to re-architect or re-build from scratch. Therefore, it has been common practice to prepare for changes so that software products are extensible over their lifetimes. However, making software extensible is challenging because it is difficult to anticipate successive changes and to provide adequate abstraction mechanisms over potential changes. Such extensibility mechanisms, furthermore, should not compromise any existing functionality during extension. Software engineers would benefit from a tool that provides a way to add extensions in a reliable way. It is natural to expect programming languages to serve this role. Extensible programming is one effort to address these issues. In this thesis, we present type safe extensible programming using the MLPolyR language. MLPolyR is an ML-like functional language whose type system provides type-safe extensibility mechanisms at several levels. After presenting the language, we will show how these extensibility mechanisms can be put to good use in the context of product line engineering. Product line engineering is an emerging software engineering paradigm that aims to manage variations, which originate from successive changes in software.

  19. The Science and Social Necessity of Deceased Organ Donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis L. Delmonico


    Full Text Available Successful deceased organ donation requires a reproducible – consistent (scientific system that evaluates the potential for organ donation and determines objectively whether the national system is achieving its goals. The science of organ donation also pertains to the determination of death. We are a common humanity that dies similarly – a humanity whose ultimate criterion of life resides in the function of the human brain. The recent brain death law of Israel encouragingly enables a determination of death by the loss of neurologic function, but it has become complicated by a practice that may perpetuate societal misperceptions. As a result opportunities for deceased organ donation – to provide for Israelis in need of organ transplants – are being lost. A statured task force of society could be assembled to convey its support for deceased donation to influence society and resolve these misperceptions. The World Health Organization is now calling for each member state to achieve a self-sufficiency in organ donation and transplantation “equitably meeting the transplantation needs of a given population using resources from within that population”. Patients should not be compelled to go to foreign countries for their organs. Israel has been a leader in the development of a model program intended to address transplant tourism. Insurance companies are no longer permitted to provide resources for Israelis to undergo illegal transplants in foreign destinations. The social necessity of a scientifically and medically applied system of deceased organ donation is now evident so that a sufficient number of organs can be available for patients from within the country where they reside.

  20. Increasing demands on today's blood donors


    McClelland, W. M.


    Recently in Northern Ireland there has been a rapid increase in demand for a variety of blood components. To meet this need a large proportion of routine blood donations must be processed at the Transfusion Centre. In addition, several blood components are collected direct from donors by apheresis techniques. Apheresis is currently restricted to the collection of components from highly selected donors, but in future this method is likely to be employed for collection of some routine component...

  1. Factors in enhancing blood safety by nucleic acid technology testing for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatakrishna Shyamala


    Full Text Available In the last few decades through an awareness of transfusion transmitted infections (TTI, a majority of countries have mandated serology based blood screening assays for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, Hepatitis C virus (HCV, and Hepatitis B virus (HBV. However, despite improved serology assays, the transfusion transmission of HIV, HCV, and HBV continues, primarily due to release of serology negative units that are infectious because of the window period (WP and occult HBV infections (OBI. Effective mode of nucleic acid technology (NAT testing of the viruses can be used to minimize the risk of TTIs. This review compiles the examples of NAT testing failures for all three viruses; analyzes the causes for failure, and the suggestions from retrospective studies to minimize such failures. The results suggest the safest path to be individual donation testing (ID format for highest sensitivity, and detection of multiple regions for rapidly mutating and recombining viruses. The role of blood screening in the context of the donation and transfusion practices in India, the donor population, and the epidemiology is also discussed. World wide, as the public awareness of TTIs increases, as the recipient rights for safe blood are legally upheld, as the possibility to manage diseases such as hepatitis through expensive and prolonged treatment becomes accessible, and the societal responsibility to shoulder the health costs as in the case for HIV becomes routine, there is much to gain by preventing infections than treating diseases.

  2. Create a Safe Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    随着教育的不断发展与进步,教师的作用与学生的角色已日益成为教育者与研究人员关注的焦点。但是,同时我们也应该高度重视教学课堂的重要性,努力创造一个让学生无论从心理上还是情感上都感到“安全”的教室。创造一个愉悦,友好,轻松,同时又具有很好教学效果的教学环境并不只是一种理想,笔者认为是切实可行的。本文主要探讨了如何去创造这样“安全”的教室。本文第一部分讨论了教师的形象问题,第二部分围绕师生关系展开,第三部分探讨了如何营造一种愉悦气氛,第四部分阐述了培养学生自信的重要性。%With the advancement of education ,the role of teacher and the role of learner have respectively draw increasing attention from the educators and researchers. But equal emphasis should be given to the classroom, the very place where learning takes place. And great efforts should be made to create a psychologically or emotionally safe classroom. A pleasant, friendly, relaxed but effective classroom is not something ideal as some teachers once thought, but rather practicable.This paper just discusses the ways of creating a safe classroom and gives some of my personal reflections, with Part One touching upon the image of the teacher; Part Two embracing the importance of teacher-students relationship; Part Three focusing on the pleasant climate in a safe classroom; Part Four featuring the student’s high-self-esteem.

  3. A Safe and Welcoming Place. (United States)

    Zingher, Gary


    Focuses on the theme of safe and comforting places for children, and how libraries can help provide safe havens for children. Presents a survey of safe places in selected works of children's literature. Includes a sampler of creative activities focusing on the theme, and a list of resources (books and videotapes). (AEF)

  4. Safe pill-dispensing. (United States)

    Testa, Massimiliano; Pollard, John


    Each patient is supplied with a smart-card containing a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) chip storing a unique identification code. The patient places the Smart-card on a pill-dispenser unit containing an RFID reader. The RFID chip is read and the code sent to a Base-station via a wireless Bluetooth link. A database containing both patient details and treatment information is queried at the Base-station using the RFID as the search key. The patient's treatment data (i.e., drug names, quantities, time, etc.) are retrieved and sent back to the pill-dispenser unit via Bluetooth. Appropriate quantities of the required medications are automatically dispensed, unless the patient has already taken his/her daily dose. Safe, confidential communication and operation is ensured.

  5. Iron deficiency in blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Cortés


    Full Text Available Context: Blood donation results in a substantial loss of iron (200 to 250 mg at each bleeding procedure (425 to 475 ml and subsequent mobilization of iron from body stores. Recent reports have shown that body iron reserves generally are small and iron depletion is more frequent in blood donors than in non-donors. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors and to establish the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors according to sex, whether they were first-time or multi-time donors. Design: From march 20 to April 5, 2004, three hundred potential blood donors from Hemocentro del Café y Tolima Grande were studied. Diagnostic tests: Using a combination of biochemical measurements of iron status: serum ferritin (RIA, ANNAR and the hemoglobin pre and post-donation (HEMOCUE Vital technology medical . Results: The frequency of iron deficiency in potential blood donors was 5%, and blood donors accepted was 5.1%; in blood donors rejected for low hemoglobin the frequency of iron deficiency was 3.7% and accepted blood donors was 1.7% in male and 12.6% in female. The frequency of iron deficiency was higher in multi-time blood donors than in first-time blood donors, but not stadistic significative. Increase nivel accepted hemoglobina in 1 g/dl no incidence in male; in female increase of 0.5 g/dl low in 25% blood donors accepted with iron deficiency, but increased rejected innecesary in 16.6% and increased is 1 g/dl low blood donors female accepted in 58% (7/12, but increased the rejected innecesary in 35.6%. Conclusions: We conclude that blood donation not is a important factor for iron deficiency in blood donors. The high frequency of blood donors with iron deficiency found in this study suggests a need for a more accurate laboratory trial, as hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement alone is not sufficient for detecting and excluding blood donors with iron deficiency without anemia, and ajustes hacia

  6. Organ Donation Campaigns: Perspective of Dialysis Patient's Family Members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makmor Tumin


    Full Text Available Solving the dilemma of the organ shortage in Malaysia requires educating Malaysians about organ donation and transplantation. This paper aims at exploring the average Malaysian households ' preferred channels of campaigns and the preferred campaigners in a family setting, targeting at the dialysis family members.We analyzed the responses of 350 respondents regarding organ donation campaigns. The respondents are 2 family members of 175 dialysis patients from 3 different institutions. The information on respondents' willingness to donate and preferred method and channel of organ donation campaign were collected through questionnaire.Malaysian families have a good tendency to welcome campaigns in both the public and private (their homes spheres. We also found that campaigns facilitated by the electronic media (Television and Radio and executed by experienced doctors are expected to optimize the outcomes of organ donation, in general. Chi-square tests show that there are no significant differences in welcoming campaigns among ethnics. However, ethnics preferences over the campaign methods and campaigners are significantly different (P <0.05.Ethnic differences imply that necessary modifications on the campaign channels and campaigners should also be taken under consideration. By identifying the preferred channel and campaigners, this study hopes to shed some light on the ways to overcome the problem of organ shortage in Malaysia.

  7. Social donation and university development: a comparative analysis between China's and America's endowment for public education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Gong-li; Yang Xuan-liang; Li Huai-zu


    Social donation is a means for individuals,government organizations,and non-government organizations (NGOs) to provide public products and services for society.Seeking social donation is vital in the improvement of the university.This paper probes into the relationship between social donation and university development by comparing social donation levels and practices in China with those in the U.S.The main reasons why social donations in Chinese universities are relatively low are as follows:(1) independent NGOs have not been formed;(2) the system and mechanism of social donation are not perfect,and (3) many restricting factors of social culture still exist in China.

  8. Applicability of available methods for incidence estimation among blood donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shtmian Zou; Edward P.Notari IV; Roger Y.Dodd


    @@ Abstract Incidence rates of major transfusion transmissible viral infections have been estimated threugh widely used sereconversion approaches and recently developed methods.A quality database for blood donors and donations with the capacity to track donation history of each donor is the basis for incidence estimation and many other epidemiological studies.Depending on available data,difierent ways have been used to determine incidence rates based on conversion from uninfected to infected status among repeat donors.

  9. Models of Charity Donations and Project Funding in Social Networks (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Adam

    One of the key fundaments of building a society is common interest or shared aims of the group members. This research work is a try to analyze web-based services oriented towards money collection for various social and charity projects. The phenomenon of social founding is worth a closer look at because its success strongly depends on the ability to build an ad-hoc or persistent groups of people sharing their believes and willing to support external institutions or individuals. The paper presents a review of money collection sites, various models of donation and money collection process as well as ways how the projects' results are reported to their founders. There is also a proposal of money collection service, where donators are not charged until total declared help overheads required resources to complete the project. The risk of missing real donations for declared payments, after the collection is closed, can be assessed and minimized by building a social network.

  10. Kidney organ donation: developing family practice initiatives to reverse inertia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Myfanwy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kidney transplantation is associated with greater long term survival rates and improved quality of life compared with dialysis. Continuous growth in the number of patients with kidney failure has not been matched by an increase in the availability of kidneys for transplantation. This leads to long waiting lists, higher treatment costs and negative health outcomes. Discussion Misunderstandings, public uncertainty and issues of trust in the medical system, that limit willingness to be registered as a potential donor, could be addressed by community dissemination of information and new family practice initiatives that respond to individuals' personal beliefs and concerns regarding organ donation and transplantation. Summary Tackling both personal and public inertia on organ donation is important for any community oriented kidney donation campaign.

  11. The Indian Ocean tsunami and private donations to NGOs. (United States)

    Kim, Youngwan; Nunnenkamp, Peter; Bagchi, Chandreyee


    Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are widely believed to raise their flag in humanitarian hotspots with a strong media presence in order to attract higher private donations. We assess this hypothesis by comparing the changes in donations between US-based NGOs with and without aid operations in the four countries most affected by the tsunami in the Indian Ocean in 2004. Simple before-after comparisons tend to support the hypothesis that 'flying the flag' helps attract higher private donations. However, performing a difference-in-difference-in-differences (DDD) approach, we find only weak indications that private donors systematically and strongly preferred NGOs with operations in the region. Extended specifications of the baseline regressions reveal that our major findings are robust. NGO heterogeneity matters in some respects, but the DDD results hold when accounting for proxies of the NGOs' reputation and experience.

  12. Automated nucleic acid amplification testing in blood banks: An additional layer of blood safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati Chigurupati


    Full Text Available Context: A total of 30 million blood components are transfused each year in India. Blood safety thus becomes a top priority, especially with a population of around 1.23 billion and a high prevalence rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV in general population. Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT in blood donor screening has been implemented in many developed countries to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections (TTIs. NAT takes care of the dynamics of window period of viruses and offers the safest blood pack for donation. Aims: The aim of this study is to show the value of NAT in blood screening. Settings and Design: Dhanavantari Blood Bank, Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, India. Subjects and Methods: Over a period of 1 year from January 2012 to December 2012, a total number of 15,000 blood donor samples were subjected to tests for HIV, HBV, and HCV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method and 8000 ELISA nonreactive samples were subjected for NAT using multiplex polymerase chain reaction technology. Results: Of the 15,000 donors tested, 525 were seroreactive. In 8000 ELISA negative blood samples subjected to NAT, 4 donor samples were reactive for HBV. The NAT yield was 1 in 2000. Conclusions: NAT could detect HIV, HBV, and HCV cases in blood donor samples those were undetected by serological tests. NAT could interdict 2500 infectious donations among our approximate 5 million annual blood donations.

  13. Aflatoxins & Safe Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eVillers


    Full Text Available The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb before versus after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field versus after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described.

  14. OneSight-China Donation Held in Qingdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>"It is the first time that I got a pair of glasses through so many procedures.It sets my mind at rest." Zhou Peng,a 20-year-old recipient of donated eyeglasses,said excitedly.From May 11 to 20,2010,60 oculists and volunteers from 11 countries including the United States,Australia,India,Ghana and Thailand gathered in Qingdao and with their loving care took part in the OneSight-China Donation activity to provide clear vision to the disabled and people in need in the city.

  15. Increasing organ donation by presumed consent and allocation priority: Chile. (United States)

    Zúñiga-Fajuri, Alejandra


    Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world's only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ donation can substantially enhance or save more lives, the effect on organ availability due to incentives arising from rules of preference should not be underestimated.

  16. Namibia's transition from whole blood-derived pooled platelets to single-donor apheresis platelet collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitman, John P.; Basavaraju, Sridhar V.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Wilkinson, Robert; von Finckenstein, Bjorn; Lowrance, David W.; Marfin, Anthony A.; Postma, Maarten; Mataranyika, Mary; Smit Sibinga, Cees Th.


    BACKGROUNDFew African countries separate blood donations into components; however, demand for platelets (PLTs) is increasing as regional capacity to treat causes of thrombocytopenia, including chemotherapy, increases. Namibia introduced single-donor apheresis PLT collections in 2007 to increase PLT

  17. How Research on Charitable Giving Can Inform Strategies to Promote Human Milk Donations to Milk Banks. (United States)

    Stevens, Jack; Keim, Sarah A


    Many hospitalized preterm infants do not exclusively receive mother's own milk, so milk from another mother may be sought. Previous research indicated that just 1% of US women who express breast milk actually donate it for another family. Therefore, strategies to boost donation rates should be identified. We draw upon the experimental literature on charitable giving of monetary donations to offer 6 strategies to promote breast milk donations to milk banks in North America. These strategies include (1) highlighting a potential identifiable recipient of donated breast milk as opposed to highlighting groups of potential recipients; (2) emphasizing similarities between the potential donor and potential beneficiaries; (3) emphasizing similarities between the potential donor and previous donors; (4) using negative arousal to promote donations; (5) emphasizing the self-interest of those asking for breast milk donations; and (6) highlighting the specific effect of breast milk donations. Potential limitations of these strategies are discussed.

  18. Obstetric and neonatal outcome after oocyte donation in 106 women with Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagman, Anna; Loft, Anne; Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt;


    What are the obstetric and neonatal outcomes of deliveries after oocyte donation (OD) in women with Turner syndrome (TS)?......What are the obstetric and neonatal outcomes of deliveries after oocyte donation (OD) in women with Turner syndrome (TS)?...

  19. Factors influencing the family consent rate for organ donation in the UK. (United States)

    Hulme, W; Allen, J; Manara, A R; Murphy, P G; Gardiner, D; Poppitt, E


    The refusal rate for organ donation in the UK is 42%, among the highest in Europe. We extracted data on every family approach for donation in UK ICUs or Emergency Departments between 1st April 2012 and 30th September 2013, and performed multiple logistic regression to identify modifiable factors associated with consent. Complete data were available for 4703 of 4899 approaches during the study period. Consent for donation after brain death was 68.9%, and for donation after circulatory death 56.5% (p donation in the approach were strongly associated with consent (p donation after circulatory death than for donation after brain death, even after accounting for the impact of prior knowledge of patients' wishes. Involvement of the specialist nurse in the approach, encouraging family discussions about donation wishes and promotion of the organ donor register are key strategies to increase UK consent rates, and are supported by this study.

  20. Thinking about breastmilk donation: What are the current issues in unregulated practices of breastmilk donation in the UK?


    Dowling, S.


    This work draws on a review of the evidence and of the current situation, and on reflection following previous conference presentations and discussions rather than on empirical research, although it forms the basis of developing and on-going research. \\ud There are many ways in which breastmilk is donated informally, often using the terminology of ‘sharing’ and usually to full-term infants. In contrast breastmilk is donated, primarily to premature and sick infants, to ‘milk banks’ (with, in t...

  1. Deepening the Donation Work of University Libraries Using Donation Websites%利用网站深化高校图书馆捐赠工作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蓓; 晏凌; 袁欣; 桂立新


    Based on the existing donation work, Tsinghua University Library designs and develops the donation website to promote the donation work via the network platform. The donation website not only provides clear donation guidance, but also adds search functions to enhance the transparency and quality of donation services, and updates the donation ranking list dynamically to show respect to donors timely and adequately. At the same time, the donation website also lively publishes donation news and exhibitions so that donors and readers could know the progress and achievements of donation work in time. The application of donation website is helpful to deepen library services, strengthen the library publicity, inspire the donation enthusiasm of donors, and attract more donation resources for libraries.%清华大学图书馆基于原有的捐赠工作,设计并开发了捐赠网站深化图书捐赠工作。捐赠网站不仅提供明确的捐赠指南以引导捐赠,还增设了查询功能以提升工作透明度、完善捐赠服务,提供动态更新榜单以及时、充分地表达对捐赠者的尊重。其生动、全面的捐赠新闻和展览,更使捐赠者和读者能够及时了解捐赠工作的进展与成果。捐赠网站的应用有助于深化图书馆服务,加强图书馆宣传,激发捐赠者的热情,从而为图书馆争取到更多的捐赠资源。

  2. Role of the blood transfusion service in tissue banking. (United States)

    Warwick, R M; Eastlune, T; Fehily, D


    Tissue transplantation and banking are rapidly growing services throughout the world reflecting the widening availability of transplantable cadaver tissue and the mounting clinical indications particularly in orthopaedic, plastic and cardiovascular surgery. In the US tissue banking is more established, yet continues to show a rapid growth profile. In the UK it is currently organised in a variety of different ways and by a number of different organisations. The risks of disease transmission by tissue transplantation are similar to those for blood transfusion and the majority of tissues are grafted during procedures that are not life saving. The danger of disease transmission has resulted in the introduction of legislation in the US which allows the FDA to inspect tissue banks and to recall and destroy tissues. In the UK, there is currently no regulation or inspection of tissue banks to demonstrate that donor selection, tissue processing and tracking are conducted to acceptable standards. Blood transfusion services in the UK, US, New Zealand, Australia and possibly other countries have extended their roles to include organ and tissue donation to varying degrees, with the collection, processing and distribution of bone and tendon allografts most commonly undertaken. They have readily available special capabilities and experience with an established infrastructure, compliant with Good Manufacturing Practice, placing them in an ideal position to provide this service safely and cost-effectively.

  3. Questionnaire-Related Deferrals in Regular Blood Donors in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkon Reikvam


    Full Text Available Voluntary donation is a key issue in transfusion medicine. To ensure the safety of blood transfusions, careful donor selection is important. Although new approaches to blood safety have dramatically reduced the risks for infectious contamination of blood components, the quality and the availability of blood components depend on the willingness to donate and the reliability of the information given by the donors about their own health, including risk behavior. As donors who are deferred by the blood bank will be less motivated to return for donation, it is important to reduce the number of deferrals. The aims of the present study were to investigate the reasons for deferral of registered donors coming to the blood bank for donation, in order to identify areas of importance for donor education—as these deferrals potentially could be avoided by better donor comprehension. Deferral related to testing of donors is not included in this study as these deferrals are dependent on laboratory results and cannot be indentified by questionnaire or interview. Data were collected from all blood donors in a period for 18 months who came for blood donation at a large university hospital in Norway. 1 163 of the 29 787 regular donors, who showed up for donation, were deferred (3.9%. The main reasons were intercurrent illness (n=182 (15.6%, skin ulcers (n=170 (14.6%, and risk behaviour (n=127 (10.9%. In a community, intercurrent illnesses, skin ulcers, and potential risk behavior are the most frequent reasons for deferral of regular donors. Strategized effort on donor education is needed, as “failure to donate” reduces donor motivation.

  4. Safe Zones: Creating LGBT Safe Space Ally Programs (United States)

    Poynter, Kerry John; Tubbs, Nancy Jean


    This article discusses model LGBT Safe Space Ally programs. These programs, often called "Safe Zones," include self selected students, faculty, and employees who publicly show support by displaying stickers, signs, and other identifiable items. Issues covered in the article include history, development, training, membership, assessment, and…

  5. Donation to disaster relief campaigns: underlying social cognitive factors exposed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, Ard; Peters, Oscar


    number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on attitude

  6. 7 CFR 226.5 - Donation of commodities. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donation of commodities. 226.5 Section 226.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Assistance to States § 226.5...

  7. Organ Donation and Elective Ventilation: A Necessary Strategy (United States)


    Organ transplantation is the sole treatment to improve or save the life of patients with final-stage organ failure. The shortage of available organs for transplantation constitutes a universal problem, estimating that 10% of patients on waiting lists die. Brain death is an undesirable result; nevertheless, it has beneficial side-effects since it is the most frequent source of organs for transplantation. However, this phenomenon is relatively uncommon and has a limited potential. One of the options that focuses on increasing organ donation is to admit patients with catastrophic brain injuries (with a high probability of brain death and nontreatable) to the Intensive Care Unit, with the only purpose of donation. To perform elective nontherapeutic ventilation (ENTV), a patient's anticipated willingness to donate organs and/or explicit acceptance by his/her relatives is required. This process should focus exclusively on those patients with catastrophic brain injuries and imminent risk of death which, due to its acute damage, are not considered treatable. This article defends ENTV as an effective strategy to improve donation rate, analyzing its ethical and legal basis. PMID:28182115

  8. Zoroastrians Support Oocyte and Embryo Donation Program for Infertile Couples (United States)

    Halvaei, Iman; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Ghasemi-Esmailabad, Saeed; Nabi, Ali; Shamsi, Farimah


    Background The main goal was to evaluate the attitudes and knowledge of Zoroastrians living in Iran towards oocyte donation (OD) and embryo donation (ED) program. Methods This cross sectional study consisted of 318 Zoroastrians (n=175 for OD and n=143 for ED) of both sexes. The questionnaire form comprised two parts of general demographic characteristics of the participants and twenty multiple-choice questions about attitude and knowledge of participants towards OD and ED. For statistical analysis, the chi-square test was applied for comparison of data generated from ED and OD groups. Results Majority of the participants supported OD (69.7%) and ED (71.3%) for infertile patients. In addition, 40% and 42% preferred donation program (OD and ED, respectively), compared to adoption. About 60% of the respondents believed that the donors have no right to find the child and claim it as their own. In addition, more than half of the respondents thought that the recipients of oocyte/embryo should never know the name and address of the donors. More than half of the participants did not know whether their religion accepts donation program or not. Approximately, 80% of respondents supported psychological counseling for both donors and recipients. Moreover, about 56% of the participants necessitated the advertisement on OD/ED program in the mass media. Conclusion Our preliminary data showed that Zoroastrians supported both OD and ED program equally for infertile couples. PMID:25473631

  9. Strategies to increase living kidney donation: a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardinal, H.; Durand, C.; Larrivee, S.; Verhave, J.C.; Paquet, M.R.; Fortin, M.C.


    BACKGROUND: Living kidney transplantation (LKT) offers the best medical outcomes for organ recipients. Historically, our centre had a low rate of LKT. In 2009, in an effort to increase living organ donation (LOD), a dedicated team was created. Its mandate was to promote LOD at our centre and at refe

  10. Paid Living Donation and Growth of Deceased Donor Programs. (United States)

    Ghahramani, Nasrollah


    Limited organ availability in all countries has stimulated discussion about incentives to increase donation. Since 1988, Iran has operated the only government-sponsored paid living donor (LD) kidney transplant program. This article reviews aspects of the Living Unrelated Donor program and development of deceased donation in Iran. Available evidence indicates that in the partially regulated Iranian Model, the direct negotiation between donors and recipients fosters direct monetary relationship with no safeguards against mutual exploitation. Brokers, the black market and transplant tourism exist, and the waiting list has not been eliminated. Through comparison between the large deceased donor program in Shiraz and other centers in Iran, this article explores the association between paid donation and the development of a deceased donor program. Shiraz progressively eliminated paid donor transplants such that by 2011, 85% of kidney transplants in Shiraz compared with 27% across the rest of Iran's other centers were from deceased donors. Among 26 centers, Shiraz undertakes the largest number of deceased donor kidney transplants, most liver transplants, and all pancreas transplants. In conclusion, although many patients with end stage renal disease have received transplants through the paid living donation, the Iranian Model now has serious flaws and is potentially inhibiting substantial growth in deceased donor organ transplants in Iran.

  11. Do Specialized MBA Programs Cultivate Alumni Relationships and Donations? (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer Wiggins; Thomas, Veronica; Peck, Joann


    A recent trend among universities shifts from traditional MBA programs to specialized MBA offerings. Specialized programs are believed to cultivate stronger relationships with students, which lead to stronger alumni relationships and increased donations. This research tests this empirically by examining relationship perceptions and donation…

  12. Organ donation and transplantation within the Zulu culture. (United States)

    Bhengu, B R; Uys, H H M


    Greater knowledge and technological advancement in the field of transplantation has increased the demand for organ donation beyond the supply of organs, especially among the black communities. This imbalance arises from the few sources of organs, limitations on the techniques of organ retrieval, disparities in the allocation of organs and socio-cultural factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which Zulu cultural norms and social structures influence an individual's decision to donate an organ or to undergo transplantation. A qualitative approach using an ethno-nursing method was selected. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a transplant co-ordinator representing the professional sector, with traditional healers and religious leaders representing the folk sector, and with the general public representing the popular sector of the health care system. Both urban and rural settings were used. Conclusions arrived at showed that knowledge was lacking among Zulu speaking people about organ donation and transplantation and misconceptions about the topic were related to Zulu life patterns, beliefs about death, burial and life hereafter, and values and social structures. Recommendations with regard to the promotion of organ donation and transplantation among Zulu speaking people were made based on culture-sensitive and culture-congruent principles.

  13. Organ donation and transplantation within the Zulu culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R. Bhengu


    Full Text Available Greater knowledge and technological advancement in the field of transplantation has increased the demand for organ donation beyond the supply of organs, especially among the black communities. This imbalance arises from the few sources of organs, limitations on the techniques of organ retrieval, disparities in the allocation of organs and socio-cultural factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which Zulu cultural norms and social structures influence an individual’s decision to donate an organ or to undergo transplantation. A qualitative approach using an ethno-nursing method was selected. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a transplant co-ordinator representing the professional sector, with traditional healers and religious leaders representing the folk sector, and with the general public representing the popular sector of the health care system. Both urban and rural settings were used. Conclusions arrived at showed that knowledge was lacking among Zulu speaking people about organ donation and transplantation and misconceptions about the topic were related to Zulu life patterns, beliefs about death, burial and life hereafter, and values and social structures. Recommendations with regard to the promotion of organ donation and transplantation among Zulu speaking people were made based on culture-sensitive and culture-congruent principles.

  14. Student Attitudes to Whole Body Donation Are Influenced by Dissection (United States)

    Cahill, Kevin C.; Ettarh, Raj R.


    Given the important role that anatomical dissection plays in the shaping of medical student attitudes to life and death, these attitudes have not been evaluated in the context of whole body donation for medical science. First year students of anatomy in an Irish university medical school were surveyed by questionnaire before and after the initial…

  15. Age Modulates Attitudes to Whole Body Donation among Medical Students (United States)

    Perry, Gary F.; Ettarh, Raj R.


    Managing a whole body donor program is necessary for facilitating a traditional dissection-based anatomy curriculum in medicine and health sciences. Factors which influence body donations to medical science can therefore affect dissection-based anatomy teaching. In order to determine whether age influences the attitudes of medical students to…

  16. Modeling charity donations: target selection, response time and gift size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J-J. Jonker (Jedid-Jah); R. Paap (Richard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)


    textabstractCharitable organizations often consider direct mailings to raise donations. Obviously, it is important for a charity to make a profitable selection from available mailing lists, which can be its own list or a list obtained elsewhere. For this purpose, a charitable organization usually ha

  17. Awareness and beliefs towards organ donation in chronic kidney disease patients in western India. (United States)

    Balwani, Manish R; Kute, Vivek B; Patel, Himanshu; Shah, Pankaj R; Goswami, Jitendra; Ghule, Pravin; Shah, Maulin; Gattani, Vipul; Trivedi, Hargovind L


    Introduction: There is a wide discrepancy between demand for and availability of donor organs for organ transplantation. There is no study on awareness about organ donation in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients in India. Objectives: To study the awareness and beliefs towards organ donation in CKD patients on hemodialysis in western India. Patients and Methods: Authors conducted a cross sectional study among 85 CKD patients to evaluate knowledge about and attitude towards organ donation at a tertiary hospital. Results: Age of respondents ranged from 15 to 75 years. All were aware of term organ donation and cadaver donation. About 47% of people heard about organ donation through hospital or from doctor. Strikingly, radio was not the source of information to any of the respondents, despite radio being one of the most common medium of mass communication. Almost one third of patients were unaware about any legislation regarding organ donation. All respondents felt that organs should go to the needy irrespective of their religion. About 70% feel that medical colleges should make decisions about organ donation in case of unclaimed dead bodies. About 31.76% believe that there is a danger that donated organs could be misused, abused or misappropriated. Conclusion: Our study shows about 31.76% of our participants believe that there is a danger that donated organs could be misused, abused or misappropriated. There seems to be paucity of information and awareness regarding organ donation among CKD patients. Mass media, religious and political leaders may be involved to maximize awareness about organ donation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the knowledge , attitudes and practices regarding eye donation in selected adult population attending tertiary eye care centre. Methods: 636 interviews were successfully completed and used for analysis. A questionnaire was specially designed to know the facts about awareness and willingness for eye donation among general population attending tertiary eye care centre. Questionnaire included whether they had any knowledge of eye donation , source of information , willingness to donate eyes and also impact of eye donation on corneal blindness status. Results: Knowledge about eye donation was significantly associated with education and socioeconomic status. After counseling , 84.90% of partici pants agreed to motivate other family members/ friends to fill the pledge form of eye donation. Allowance of eye donation in religion was significantly associated with the motivation to donate . Higher level of education and higher socioeconomic status were significant predictors of knowledge status of eye donation. For motivation , higher socioeconomic status , adequate knowledge and belief that eye donation is allowed in religion were significant predictors. Television emerged as the major source of information. Conclusion: Better knowledge may ultimately translate into the act of donation. Effective measures sh ould be taken to educate people with relevant information with the involvement of media , doctors and religious scholars

  19. Eye donation - Awareness and willingness among attendants of patients at various clinics in Melaka, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhandary Sulatha


    Full Text Available Aim: Corneal blindness accounts for 3.42% of blindness in Malaysia; the rate of eye donation is low. The aim of the study was to assess the awareness about eye donation and willingness to donate eyes among attendants of patients at various clinics in Melaka, Malaysia. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted on attendants who accompanied patients (n = 400 visiting various outpatient departments of the General Hospital and two peripheral clinics in Melaka between August and October 2007. The participants answered a questionnaire (Malay and English versions which included demographic profile, awareness of eye donation, knowledge regarding facts of eye donation, and willingness to donate eyes. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed at 5% level of significance. Results: Awareness of eye donation was observed in 276 (69% participants. Multivariate analysis showed that awareness was more among females when compared to males (P = 0.009. Of the 276 participants who were aware of eye donation, only 34.42% were willing to donate eyes. Willingness was more among the Indian race (P = 0.02 and males (P = 0.02. Educational status did not influence the willingness to donate eyes. Conclusions: Although majority of participants were aware of eye donation, willingness to donate eyes was poor.

  20. 7 CFR 250.51 - Crediting for, and use of, donated foods. (United States)


    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF FOODS... Foods in Contracts With Food Service Management Companies § 250.51 Crediting for, and use of, donated... service management company must credit the recipient agency for the value of all donated foods...

  1. 7 CFR 250.52 - Storage and inventory management of donated foods. (United States)


    ... NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF... Donated Foods in Contracts With Food Service Management Companies § 250.52 Storage and inventory management of donated foods. (a) General requirements. The food service management company must meet...

  2. Motivations for Deceased Organ Donation Among Volunteers in China: A Qualitative Research Study. (United States)

    Yin, Zhike; Liu, Shan; Yan, Jin; Liu, Jia


    BACKGROUND To align with guiding principles on human organ and tissue transplantation published by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Red Cross Society of China (RCSC) launched a new nationwide organ donation program in 2010 to recruit organ donation volunteers. Despite severe shortage of donated organs, there is a very low rate of volunteering for organ donation among the Chinese population (only 0.03 donors per million population) in the national program. Motivating organ donation is the key to the success of organ transplantation in China. MATERIAL AND METHODS Semi-structured 45- to 60-min interviews were conducted among 34 volunteers. Data analysis was performed with Nvivo 8.0 software. RESULTS Six motivations for organ donation were identified: helping others/altruism, fulfilling long-cherished wishes, reducing the burdens, making the best use of everything, giving back to society, and life extension. Factors affecting the motivation of organ donation among volunteers in China included traditional values, personal experiences, role model effect, family support, and problems in the donation system. Possible strategies to improve organ donation included fostering a scientific concept of the body and death, focusing donation promotion efforts on certain groups, and simplifying the process of organ donation. CONCLUSIONS There are multiple reasons for Chinese people to register for organ donation, with helping others as the central motivation.

  3. 48 CFR 52.226-6 - Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations. (United States)


    ... donation to nonprofit organizations. 52.226-6 Section 52.226-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.226-6 Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations. As prescribed in 26.404, insert the following clause: PROMOTING EXCESS FOOD DONATION TO NONPROFIT...

  4. Voices of Donors: Case Reports of Body Donation in Hong Kong (United States)

    Chiu, Hei Yeung; Ng, Kwok Sing; Ma, Sin Kwan; Chan, Chi Hung; Ng, Sheung Wah; Tipoe, George L.; Chan, Lap Ki


    Body donation is important for medical education and academic research. However, it is relatively rare in Hong Kong when compared with many Western countries. Comprehensive research has been performed on the motivation for body donation in Western countries; however, there is still insufficient research on body donation in Hong Kong to provide…

  5. 21 CFR 203.39 - Donation of drug samples to charitable institutions. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Donation of drug samples to charitable... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Samples § 203.39 Donation of drug samples... donation record accurately describes the drug sample delivered and that no drug sample is adulterated...

  6. 76 FR 40336 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Prohibited Species Donation Program (United States)


    ... Alaska; Prohibited Species Donation Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... species donation (PSD) program. Salmon and halibut are caught incidentally during directed fishing for... a salmon donation program and were approved by NMFS on July 10, 1996; a final rule implementing...

  7. 75 FR 873 - Extramural Support Reimbursement of Travel and Subsistence Expenses Toward Living Organ Donation... (United States)


    ... and Subsistence Expenses Toward Living Organ Donation Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... reimbursement for qualifying travel and subsistence expenses related to live organ donation. The existing... that donors incurred or will incur these additional expenses as a result of making living donations...

  8. 75 FR 23265 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Investigating the Causes of Post Donation Information... (United States)


    ... the Causes of Post Donation Information (PDI): Errors in the Donor Screening Process SUMMARY: Under... current valid OMB control number. Proposed Collection: Title: Investigating the causes of post donation... donation. However, the health history process is known to be error-prone and the reasons for those...

  9. 41 CFR Appendix A to Part 102 - 37-Miscellaneous Donation Statutes (United States)


    ... Donation Statutes A Appendix A to Part 102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Pt. 102-37, App. A Appendix A to Part 102-37—Miscellaneous Donation Statutes...

  10. Attitudes toward organ donation among waitlisted transplant patients: results of a cross-sectional survey. (United States)

    Merola, Jonathan; Pei, Kevin Y; Rodriguez-Davalos, Manuel I; Gan, Geliang; Deng, Yanhong; Mulligan, David C; Davis, Kimberly A


    Organ shortage remains a major barrier to transplantation. While many efforts have focused on educating the general population regarding donation, few studies have examined knowledge regarding donation and donor registration rates among waitlisted candidates. We aimed to determine waitlisted patients' willingness to donate, elucidate attitudes surrounding organ allocation, and identify barriers to donation. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to assess demographics, knowledge regarding organ donation, and attitudes regarding the allocation process. Responses from 225 of 579 (39%) waitlisted patients were collected. Seventy-one respondents (32%) were registered donors, while 64 patients (28%) noted no interest in participating in donation. A total of 19% of respondents felt their medical treatment would change by being a donor, while 86 patients (38%) felt their condition precluded them from donation. Forty patients (18%) felt they should be prioritized on the waitlist if they agreed to donate. A minority of patients (28%) reported discussion of organ donation with their physician. Waitlisted candidates constitute a population of willing, although often unregistered, organ donors. Moreover, many endorse misconceptions regarding the allocation process and their donation eligibility. In a population for which transplantation is not always possible, education is needed regarding organ donation among waitlisted patients, as this may enhance donation rates.

  11. 44 CFR 206.6 - Donation or loan of Federal equipment and supplies. (United States)


    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Donation or loan of Federal... Donation or loan of Federal equipment and supplies. (a) In any major disaster or emergency, the... governments for use and distribution by them for the purposes of the Stafford Act. (b) A donation or loan...

  12. 41 CFR 102-41.170 - Is unclaimed personal property available for donation? (United States)


    ... property available for donation? 102-41.170 Section 102-41.170 Public Contracts and Property Management... Personal Property § 102-41.170 Is unclaimed personal property available for donation? No, unclaimed personal property is not available for donation because reimbursement at fair market value is required....

  13. 41 CFR 102-37.35 - Who handles the donation of surplus property? (United States)


    ...-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.35 Who handles the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who handles the donation of surplus property? 102-37.35 Section 102-37.35 Public Contracts and Property Management...

  14. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation and transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Shroff


    Full Text Available The legislation called the Transplantation of Human Organ Act (THO was passed in India in 1994 to streamline organ donation and transplantation activities. Broadly, the act accepted brain death as a form of death and made the sale of organs a punishable offence. With the acceptance of brain death, it became possible to not only undertake kidney transplantations but also start other solid organ transplants like liver, heart, lungs, and pancreas. Despite the THO legislation, organ commerce and kidney scandals are regularly reported in the Indian media. In most instances, the implementation of the law has been flawed and more often than once its provisions have been abused. Parallel to the living related and unrelated donation program, the deceased donation program has slowly evolved in a few states. In approximately one-third of all liver transplants, the organs have come from the deceased donor program as have all the hearts and pancreas transplants. In these states, a few hospitals along with committed NGOs have kept the momentum of the deceased donor program. The MOHAN Foundation (NGO based in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh has facilitated 400 of the 1,300 deceased organ transplants performed in the country over the last 14 years. To overcome organ shortage, developed countries are re-looking at the ethics of unrelated programs and there seems to be a move towards making this an acceptable legal alternative. The supply of deceased donors in these countries has peaked and there has been no further increase over the last few years. India is currently having a deceased donation rate of 0.05 to 0.08 per million population. We need to find a solution on how we can utilize the potentially large pool of trauma-related brain deaths for organ donation. This year in the state of Tamil Nadu, the Government has passed seven special orders. These orders are expected to streamline the activity of deceased donors and help increase their numbers. Recently, on

  15. Screening tests for hepatitis C virus infection in blood donors:does it safe or not?%筛查献血者丙型肝炎病毒感染研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳娟(综述); 李平(审校)


    丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)是一种单股正链RNA病毒,全长约9.6 kb,开放读框区编码结构蛋白和非结构蛋白。全球HCV感染率约为3%,是一种严重威胁人类健康的传染病,在献血者中进行HCV筛查是防控丙型肝炎病毒传播的最有效手段。目前,检测HCV感染的方法主要包括抗HCV抗体检测、HCV抗原检测、HCV抗原-抗体联合检测、胶体金法快速检测、HCV分子核酸检测等。抗体检测应用最早,但窗口期较长;抗原检测能缩短窗口期,敏感性高,但易受到体内因素的干扰而影响检测结果。一些快速检测方法不需要任何设备,且简便易行,但其敏感性较差。分子检测使用的HCV RNA扩增技术(NAT)是目前最敏感的检测技术,能大大缩短窗口期,但其检测成本较为昂贵。各检测方法各有其优缺点。目前,血液中心采用至少两种不同试剂检测抗HCV以进行血液的安全筛查。%Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that is about 9.6 kb. Its open reading frames encod-ing structural proteins and non-structural proteins. HCV infection is approximately 3% worldwide. It is one of the most serious infection diseases that threaten human health. Screening tests in blood donors is the most effective means to prevent the commu-nication of HCV. The current methods for screening tests include detection of HCV antigen,anti-HCV antibody,HCV antigen–an-tibody complex,and HCV genes. Antigen detection is the initial screening test and it detects seroconversion after a long infectious window period. The detection of HCV core antigen might shorten the window period and has a high sensitivity,but interference by immunoglobulins in vivo influence its widespread uses. Rapid tests is simple to perform,but its sensitivity is low. Molecular testing for HCV RNA utilizing nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) is the most sensitive assay and can shorten the window peri


    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit


    Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood was collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff want to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.


    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit


    Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood were collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff wish to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.

  18. Indoor Tanning Is Not Safe (United States)

    ... Trends Behavior Rates What CDC Is Doing Skin Cancer Prevention Progress Report The Burning Truth Initiative A Base Tan Is Not a Safe Tan Tanned Skin Is Not Healthy Skin Controlled Tanning Is Not Safe Tanning Guidelines for School ... Melanoma Surveillance in the U.S. Related Links ...

  19. Basics for Handling Food Safely (United States)

    ... 888-MPHotline (1-888-674-6854) Basics for Safe Food Handling dishes in bowls of ice or use ... 9 months Do not freeze 2 Basics for Safe Food Handling Product Refrigerator Freezer (40 °F) (0 °F) ...

  20. More than a Safe Space (United States)

    Sadowski, Michael


    Over the past three decades, much of the conversation about LGBTQ students in schools has centered on safety--anti-bullying policies, the "safe space" of gay-straight alliances, and "safe zones" marked by rainbow-colored stickers on classroom doors. In this article, Michael Sadowski argues that it's time to move beyond safety…

  1. Shock Safe Nepal: team one

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, A.J.; Düzgün, B.C.; Spelt, C.J.; De Stoppelaar, A.O.; Van Wijnbergen, E.C.M.


    As a response to the 2015 Nepal earthquakes Shock Safe Nepal was founded to function as platform intended to contribute to the development of knowledge on earthquake safe housing. The project started on initiative of the Consul General of Nepal to The Netherlands Cas de Stoppelaar and the faculty of

  2. Safe Anesthesia For Every Tot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Markus; Vutskits, Laszlo; Hansen, Tom G


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The term 'safe use of anesthesia in children is ill-defined and requires definition of and focus on the 'safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia'. RECENT FINDINGS: The Safe Anesthesia For Every Tot initiative ( has been set up during the last year to focus...... on the safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia. This initiative aims to provide guidance on markers of quality anesthesia care. The introduction and implementation of national regulations of 'who, where, when and how' are required and will result in an improved perioperative outcome in vulnerable children....... The improvement of teaching, training, education and supervision of the safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia are the main goals of the initiative. SUMMARY: This initiative addresses the well known perioperative risks in young children, perioperative causes for cerebral morbidity as well as gaps...

  3. The politics of donating technological artifacts: techno-nationalism and the donations of the world’s first jet engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giffard, Hermione


    The Smithsonian Institution’s aviation collection includes two early jet engines, both of which were given to the museum by foreign donors. The first, a prototype of Britain’s first jet engine, which flew during World War II, was donated by the British state in 1949. The second, a replica of Germany

  4. An antidote to the emerging two tier organ donation policy in Canada: the Public Cadaveric Organ Donation Program. (United States)

    Giles, S


    In Canada, as in many other countries, there exists an organ procurement/donation crisis. This paper reviews some of the most common kidney procurement and allocation programmes, analyses them in terms of public and private administration, and argues that privately administered living donor models are an inequitable stopgap measure, the good intentions of which are misplaced and opportunistic. Focusing on how to improve the publicly administered equitable cadaveric donation programme, and at the same time offering one possible explanation for its current failure, it is suggested that the simple moral principle of "give and you shall receive", already considered by some, be extended further. This would allow for those who are willing to sign up to be a public cadaveric donor be given a priority for receiving an organ donation should they ever require it. It is argued that this priority may provide the motivation to give that is so far lacking in Canada. This model is called the Public Cadaveric Organ Donation Program.

  5. Motives for Donating: What Inspires Our Decisions to Make a Donation to Non-profit Organisations?1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladká Marie


    Full Text Available Motivation represents a foundation cornerstone on which analyses in a number of humanities and social sciences are built. For a long time, economists have seen motivation as connected with the act of giving, trying to interpret it in the context of the neoclassical economics assumptions. The objective of this paper is to find answers to the question of what mainly motivates the Czech population in their decisions to make a donation and whether there is any interdependence among such motives. We also ask what the relationship is between the determining motives and the rate or frequency of donating. The donation models that we analyze and use as the basis of our research are nowadays considered being the principal or at least interesting donation models commonly taken into account by economists in their work. We have only focused on selected microeconomics models to make the text clearly targeted; specifically, we are examining the public goods model, private consumption model investment model and impure altruism model. The data were collected through a questionnaire survey and analysed by means of mathematical-statistical methods that are commonly used in similar cases, such as descriptive statistics, the Pearson correlation coefficient and the ANOVA method based on the F-test. The empirical testing confirmed several assumptions connecting with this type of a research; however, our paper opened a space for a follow-up research, too.

  6. Successful three-way kidney paired donation transplantation: The first Indian report. (United States)

    Kute, V B; Gumber, M R; Shah, P R; Patel, H V; Vanikar, A V; Modi, P R; Shah, V R; Trivedi, H L


    Providing transplantation opportunities for patients with incompatible live donors through kidney paired donation (KPD) is an important strategy for easing the crisis in organ availability. KPD is can overcome the barriers when the only living potential donors are deemed unsuitable owing to an incompatibility of blood type, of human leukocyte antigen cross-match, or both. In KPD, the incompatibility problems with two donor recipient pairs can be solved by exchanging donors. In the absence of well-organized deceased donor program, or transplantation with desensitization protocol and ABO incompatible transplantation, living donor KPD promises hope to the growing number of patients suffering from end-stage renal disease in India. We report our first successful three-way KPD transplantation from India. In an era of organ shortage, this approach is relevant to encourage wider participation from KPD donors and transplant centers to prevent commercial transplantation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharath R.


    Full Text Available AIM: In India it is estimated that there are approximately 6.8 million people who have vision less than 6/60 in atleast one eye due to corneal disease: the rate of eye donation is low. The aim of the study was to assess the awareness about eye donation, pledging their eyes and willingness to donate eyes among attendants of patients in rural Karnataka. STUDY DESIGN: Cross - s ectional study design . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: This observational study was conducted on attendants who accompanied patients ( n = 200 visiting various outpatient departments of the Hospital between November 2014 and December 2014. The participants answered a questionnaire (Kannada and English versions which included demographic profile, awareness of eye donation, knowledge regarding facts of eye donation, pledging and willingness to donate eyes. RESULTS: Awareness of eye donation was observed in 182 (91% participants. Analysis showed that awareness was equal among males and females. Of the 182 participants who were aware of eye donation, only 108 (59.34% were willing to donate eyes. Willingness was more among the males (55.55%. 142 (71% participants wou ld recommend eye donation. Main reasons for not pledging eyes were: lack of information regarding pledging eyes (39.18%, objection by family members (33.78% and religious belief (17.56%. Educational status was associated with willingness to donate eyes (P=0.0001. Media was the major source of information about eye donation. Of those aware of eye donation only 9.34% have pledged their eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Although multiple strategies are currently followed to increase awareness of eye donations, we need to develop more innovative strategies to target young rural population to make them pledge their eyes. Awareness has to be created through the curriculum. Training of anganawadi, ASHA workers and paramedical personnel in spreading awareness, pledging and ben efits of eye donation at community level.

  8. Treatment with a nitric oxide-donating NSAID alleviates functional muscle ischemia in the mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. (United States)

    Thomas, Gail D; Ye, Jianfeng; De Nardi, Claudio; Monopoli, Angela; Ongini, Ennio; Victor, Ronald G


    In patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and the standard mdx mouse model of DMD, dystrophin deficiency causes loss of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOSμ) from the sarcolemma, producing functional ischemia when the muscles are exercised. We asked if functional muscle ischemia would be eliminated and normal blood flow regulation restored by treatment with an exogenous nitric oxide (NO)-donating drug. Beginning at 8 weeks of age, mdx mice were fed a standard diet supplemented with 1% soybean oil alone or in combination with a low (15 mg/kg) or high (45 mg/kg) dose of HCT 1026, a NO-donating nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent which has previously been shown to slow disease progression in the mdx model. After 1 month of treatment, vasoconstrictor responses to intra-arterial norepinephrine (NE) were compared in resting and contracting hindlimbs. In untreated mdx mice, the usual effect of muscle contraction to attenuate NE-mediated vasoconstriction was impaired, resulting in functional ischemia: NE evoked similar decreases in femoral blood flow velocity and femoral vascular conductance (FVC) in the contracting compared to resting hindlimbs (ΔFVC contraction/ΔFVC rest=0.88 ± 0.03). NE-induced functional ischemia was unaffected by low dose HCT 1026 (ΔFVC ratio=0.92 ± 0.04; P>0.05 vs untreated), but was alleviated by the high dose of the drug (ΔFVC ratio=0.22 ± 0.03; P<0.05 vs untreated or low dose). The beneficial effect of high dose HCT 1026 was maintained with treatment up to 3 months. The effect of the NO-donating drug HCT 1026 to normalize blood flow regulation in contracting mdx mouse hindlimb muscles suggests a putative novel treatment for DMD. Further translational research is warranted.

  9. Recipient screening in IVF: First data from women undergoing anonymous oocyte donation in Dublin

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Anthony PH


    Abstract Background Guidelines for safe gamete donation have emphasised donor screening, although none exist specifically for testing oocyte recipients. Pre-treatment assessment of anonymous donor oocyte IVF treatment in Ireland must comply with the European Union Tissues and Cells Directive (Directive 2004\\/23\\/EC). To determine the effectiveness of this Directive when applied to anonymous oocyte recipients in IVF, we reviewed data derived from selected screening tests performed in this clinical setting. Methods Data from tests conducted at baseline for all women enrolling as recipients (n = 225) in the anonymous oocyte donor IVF programme at an urban IVF referral centre during a 24-month period were analysed. Patient age at programme entry and clinical pregnancy rate were also tabulated. All recipients had at least one prior negative test for HIV, Hepatitis B\\/C, chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis performed by her GP or other primary care provider before reproductive endocrinology consultation. Results Mean (±SD) age for donor egg IVF recipients was 40.7 ± 4.2 yrs. No baseline positive chlamydia, gonorrhoea or syphilis screening results were identified among recipients for anonymous oocyte donation IVF during the assessment interval. Mean pregnancy rate (per embryo transfer) in this group was 50.5%. Conclusion When tests for HIV, Hepatitis B\\/C, chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis already have been confirmed to be negative before starting the anonymous donor oocyte IVF sequence, additional (repeat) testing on the recipient contributes no new clinical information that would influence treatment in this setting. Patient safety does not appear to be enhanced by application of Directive 2004\\/23\\/EC to recipients of anonymous donor oocyte IVF treatment. Given the absence of evidence to quantify risk, this practice is difficult to justify when applied to this low-risk population.

  10. Requirements for blood and blood components intended for transfusion or for further manufacturing use. Final rule. (United States)


    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulations applicable to blood and blood components, including Source Plasma, to make the donor eligibility and testing requirements more consistent with current practices in the blood industry, to more closely align the regulations with current FDA recommendations, and to provide flexibility to accommodate advancing technology. In order to better assure the safety of the nation's blood supply and to help protect donor health, FDA is revising the requirements for blood establishments to test donors for infectious disease, and to determine that donors are eligible to donate and that donations are suitable for transfusion or further manufacture. FDA is also requiring establishments to evaluate donors for factors that may adversely affect the safety, purity, and potency of blood and blood components or the health of a donor during the donation process. Accordingly, these regulations establish requirements for donor education, donor history, and donor testing. These regulations also implement a flexible framework to help both FDA and industry to more effectively respond to new or emerging infectious agents that may affect blood product safety.

  11. Evaluation of the return rate of volunteer blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Fátima Lourençon


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To convert first-time blood donors into regular volunteer donors is a challenge to transfusion services. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to estimate the return rate of first time donors of the Ribeirão Preto Blood Center and of other blood centers in its coverage region. METHODS: The histories of 115,553 volunteer donors between 1996 and 2005 were analyzed. Statistical analysis was based on a parametric long-term survival model that allows an estimation of the proportion of donors who never return for further donations. RESULTS: Only 40% of individuals return within one year after the first donation and 53% return within two years. It is estimated that 30% never return to donate. Higher return rates were observed among Black donors. No significant difference was found in non-return rates regarding gender, blood type, Rh blood group and blood collection unit. CONCLUSIONS: The low percentage of first-time donors who return for further blood donation reinforces the need for marketing actions and strategies aimed at increasing the return rates.

  12. Platelet concentrates, from whole blood or collected by apheresis? (United States)

    van der Meer, Pieter F


    Platelet concentrates can be isolated from donated whole blood with the platelet-rich plasma-method or the buffy coat-method. Alternatively, platelets can be obtained by apheresis, harvesting the platelets but returning all other cells to the donor. The quality and characteristics of platelets during storage are affected by a number of factors, such as anticoagulant, centrifugation and processing after collection, and pre- or post storage pooling, but when comparing literature on the various methods, most differences balance out. To have sufficient platelets to treat an adult patient, whole-blood-derived platelet concentrates need pooling of multiple donations, thereby increasing the risk of infectious agent transmission at least two-fold as compared with apheresis units. Allo immunization rates, acute reaction rates, and transfusion related acute lung injury rates are not different. Apheresis donation procedures have fewer adverse events. All these factors need to be considered and weighed when selecting a method of platelet collection for a blood center.

  13. The orientation of disaster donations: differences in the global response to five major earthquakes. (United States)

    Wei, Jiuchang; Marinova, Dora


    This study analyses the influence of gift giving, geographical location, political regime, and trade openness on disaster donation decisions, using five severe earthquakes that occurred between 2008 and 2012 as case studies. The results show that global disaster donation is not dominated by only philanthropy or trade interests, and that the determinants of donation decisions vary with the scale of the natural disaster and the characteristics of the disaster-affected countries. While gift giving exists in the case of middle-size earthquakes, political regimes play a very important part in the overall donation process. Countries with higher perceived corruption may donate more frequently, but those that are more democratic may be more generous in their donations. Generosity based on geographical proximity to the calamity is significant in the decision-making process for most natural disasters, yet it may have a negative effect on donations in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  14. Organ Donation in the 50+ Age Demographic: Survey Results on Decision Rationale and Information Preferences. (United States)

    Tartaglia, Alexander; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Myer, Kevin A; Mullins, Andrew


    The rate of organ donation by older potential donors is significantly declining even though recent studies show positive clinical outcomes with organs transplanted from older donors. This study examined the 50+ age demographic to identify the rationale for donation decisions, preferred media methods of donation information delivery, and responsiveness to an age-tailored donation message. Results from 579 surveys, 87% from the 50+ age demographic, found respondents prone to self-select themselves as medically ineligible based on current medication and health status, even though they might be medically suitable donors. Their incentive to pursue additional information on donation is limited except when motivated by personal accounts within their families and communities. In addition, even when computer literate, they continue to favor the printed or spoken word for donation information delivery. The results suggest an opportunity for those working with older adults to develop more personalized, localized donation education programs targeting this age demographic.

  15. 41 CFR 102-37.55 - Who pays for transportation and other costs associated with a donation? (United States)


    ... transportation and other costs associated with a donation? 102-37.55 Section 102-37.55 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.55 Who pays for transportation and other costs associated with a donation? The...

  16. 45 CFR 2544.130 - How will the Corporation determine whether to solicit or accept a donation? (United States)


    ... solicit or accept a donation? 2544.130 Section 2544.130 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... DONATIONS § 2544.130 How will the Corporation determine whether to solicit or accept a donation? (a) The Corporation will solicit and accept a donation only for the purpose of furthering the mission and goals of...

  17. 41 CFR 102-37.80 - What happens to surplus property that isn't transferred for donation? (United States)


    ... property that isn't transferred for donation? 102-37.80 Section 102-37.80 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.80 What happens to surplus property that isn't transferred for donation? Surplus property not transferred...

  18. 41 CFR 102-37.465 - May a SASP modify or release any of the terms and conditions of donation? (United States)


    ... release any of the terms and conditions of donation? 102-37.465 Section 102-37.465 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Agencies, Service... SASP modify or release any of the terms and conditions of donation? You may alter or grant...

  19. 41 CFR 102-37.50 - What is the general process for requesting surplus property for donation? (United States)


    ... process for requesting surplus property for donation? 102-37.50 Section 102-37.50 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY General Provisions Donation Overview § 102-37.50 What is the general process for requesting surplus property for donation? The process...

  20. Does organ donation legislation affect individuals' willingness to donate their own or their relative's organs? Evidence from European Union survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa-Font Joan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maintaining adequately high organ donation rates proves essential to offering patients all appropriate and available treatment options. However, the act of donation is in itself an individual decision that requires a depth of understanding that interacts with the social setting and the institutional framework into which an individual is embedded. This study contributes to understanding factors driving organ donation rates by examining how country regulation, individuals' awareness of regulatory setting, social interactions and socio-demographic determinants influence individuals' willingness to donate their own organs or those of a relative. Methods We draw representative data from the Eurobarometer survey 58.2 undertaken in 2002 with respondents throughout the European Union to capture heterogeneity in institutional setting. We use logistic regression techniques to estimate the determinants of willingness to donate one's own organs and those of a deceased relative. We employ interaction terms to examine the relationship between institutional setting and respondent's awareness of organ donation legislation in their country. Results Our findings indicate that individuals are more likely to donate their organs than to consent to the donation of a relative's organs. Both decisions are affected by regulation (presumed consent, awareness of regulation and social interactions such as the ability to count on others in case of a serious problem (reciprocity. Furthermore, education (more educated, age (younger, expressing some sort of political affiliation determine willingness to donate one's own organs and consent to the donation of those of a relative. Conclusion This study confirms and develops further previous research findings that presumed consent organ donation policy positively affects the willingness of individuals to donate their own organs and those of relative by highlighting the importance of awareness of this regulation

  1. How Safe Is Your Job? (United States)

    Nocera, Joseph; And Others


    Five articles address the realities of coping with downsizing: "Living with Layoffs" (Nocera); "How Safe Is Your Job?" (Lieber); "Career Makeover" (Robinson); "Ma Bell's Orphans" (O'Reilly); and "Where Are They Now?" (Martin). (SK)

  2. Alcohol use and safe drinking (United States)

    ... this page: // Alcohol use and safe drinking To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ...

  3. Antibiotics and Pregnancy: What's Safe? (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Is it safe to take antibiotics during pregnancy? Answers from Roger W. Harms, M. ... 2014 Original article: ...

  4. Staying Safe in the Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast, Dr. Julie Gilchrist, a pediatrician and medical epidemiologist from CDC’s Injury Center, talks about staying safe in the water. Tips are for all audiences, with a focus on preventing drownings and keeping children safe in and around the pool, lake, or ocean.  Created: 5/15/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 5/19/2008.

  5. Transfusion transmitted infections in thalassaemics: need for reappraisal of blood screening strategy in India. (United States)

    Shyamala, V


    The aim of the study was to assess the blood safety in India through prevalence in thalassaemic population. Safety of the blood supply is a subject of great concern for all recipients. This review attempts to assess the relevance and format of tests for viruses in the context of transfusion transmitted infection (TTI) prevalence in India. Serological marker testing for human immunodeficiency virus-1/2 (HIV-1/2), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) is mandatory in India. Numerous TTI incidents in the repeat recipients supported by results from nucleic acid technology (NAT) testing indicate the deficiencies in blood safety. The β-thalassaemic population (3-17%) in India has been used to reflect on blood safety. The prevalence of HIV-1/2, HCV and HBV in the Indian donor population, the limitations in accessing safe donors, quality of serological tests and the impact on repeat recipients is evaluated. The reports point to prevalence of ˜2% of viral diseases in the blood donor population, and the insufficiency of serology testing resulting in up to 45% TTIs in thalassaemics. The revelation by individual donation (ID) NAT testing, of 1 per 310 units being serology negative-NAT reactive is alarming. Extrapolating the serology negative NAT reactive yields, for an annual blood supply of 7.9 million units, 23,700 units or nearly 100,000 blood components are likely to be infectious. Though the cost for ID-NAT testing is considered unaffordable for a medium development country such as India, the enormity of TTIs will place an unmanageable cost burden on the society.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier


    Full Text Available Registry data analysis shows stabilization of indicators of donor and transplant activity in 2011 after continuous growth within five years, increase in a share of effective donors after brain death and multi-organ explantation, development of thoracic organs transplantation and living related donor kidney transplantation. In the conditions of decentralization of organ donation and transplant programs it is necessary to develop coope- ration between transplant centers and to expand the practice of an interregional exchange of donor organs. The federal law «About bases of health protection of citizens in the Russian Federation», accepted in 2011, creates a legal basis for development and acceptance of the new legislation in the sphere of organ donation and transplantation. 

  7. Subversive practices of sperm donation - globalizing Danish sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willum Adrian, Stine

    During the past two decades, Denmark has developed in to an important destination for fertility travellers in need of donor sperm. Furthermore, two of the largest sperm banks in Europe have been established in Denmark, exporting sperm globally. This development has taken place at the same time...... as the use of donated sperm continuously has been debated as an ethical issue, and increasingly been regulated. In this presentation I will discuss how Denmark became a destination for fertility travelling (sperm donation) as a result of various subversive strategies of family making. The article inquires...... into how the bending of boundaries by “inappropriate parents”, fertility travellers, private sperm banks and fertility clinics have been part in negotiating the changes of the legislation in practice, and thus been part of developing a Danish industry of sperm banking. The presentation is based on a multi...

  8. Living kidney donation and masked nationalism in Israel. (United States)

    Epstein, Miran


    This paper draws attention to a current trend of masked conditional-nationalist living kidney donation in Israel, to which the local transplant system has been turning a blind eye. The paper seeks to make the international transplant and bioethics communities aware of this disturbing trend. It also explains why it is wrong and suggests how to tackle it. Finally, it calls on the Israeli system to bring the practice to a halt for the benefit of all parties involved.

  9. [The direct donation of human milk in neonatology]. (United States)

    Buffin, Rachel


    The superiority of human milk over its substitutes is no longer questioned, especially for the feeding of premature babies or newborns hospitalised in neonatology. Milk banks organise the collection, conservation, treatement and distribution of human milk. The objective is however to encourage the direct donation of raw milk, avoiding the need for freezing and pasteurisation, in order to preserve its properties as best as possible.

  10. Organ Donation European Quality System: ODEQUS project methodology. (United States)

    Manyalich, M; Guasch, X; Gomez, M P; Páez, G; Teixeira, L


    Differences in the number of organ donors among hospitals cannot be explained only by the number of intensive care unit beds used or neurologic patients treated. The figures obtained are influenced by the organizational structure of the donation process and how efficient it is. The Organ Donation European Quality System (ODEQUS) is a 3-year project (from October 2010 to September 2013) co-financed by the European Agency for Health and Consumers (EAHC20091108) which aims to define a methodology to evaluate organ procurement performance at the hospital level. ODEQUS's specific objectives are to identify quality criteria and to develop quality indicators in three types of organ donation (after brain death, after cardiac death, and living donation). Those tools will be useful for hospitals' self-assessment as well as for developing an international auditing model. A consortium has been established involving 14 associated partners from Austria, Croatia, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, as well as five collaborating partners from Greece, Hungary, Malta, Slovenia, and Turkey. The project has been established in three steps: 1) Design of a survey about the use of quality tools in a wide sample of European hospitals; 2) Development of quality criteria and quality indicators by the project experts. The main fields considered have been organizational structures, clinical procedures, and outcomes; and 3) Elaboration of an evaluation system to test the quality indicators in 11 European hospitals. Two types of training have been designed and performed: one concerns the development of quality criteria and quality indicators, whereas another is focused on how to use evaluation tools. Following this methodology, the project has so far identified 131 quality criteria and developed 31 quality indicators. Currently, the quality indicators are being tested in 11 selected hospitals.

  11. Organ donation and transplantation within the Zulu culture


    B.R. Bhengu; H.H.M. Uys


    Greater knowledge and technological advancement in the field of transplantation has increased the demand for organ donation beyond the supply of organs, especially among the black communities. This imbalance arises from the few sources of organs, limitations on the techniques of organ retrieval, disparities in the allocation of organs and socio-cultural factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which Zulu cultural norms and social structures influence an individual’s dec...

  12. Organ donation and transplantation within the Zulu culture



    M.Cur. (Intensive General Nursing) Knowledge and technological advancement in the field of transplantation has increased the demand for organ donation. However, the supply of organs does not meet this demand, especially, among the black communities. Literature reviewed associate this imbalance with the few sources of organs, the technique of organ retrieval, discrepancies in the allocation of organs and sociocultural factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which the...

  13. Results of living kidney donation in Andalusia: 2006-2009. (United States)

    Pérez-Valdivia, M A; Ramos, M Toro; Gentil, M A; Osuna, A; Mazuelos, A; Sola, E; Rodríguez-Benot, A


    Renal transplantation is the best therapeutic choice in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), with donation from living donors the alternative that offers the best medium- and long-term results. Because of the limited number of cadaver donors and the progressive increase in donor age, transplantation from living donors has become the renal replacement treatment of choice. Several studies have demonstrated that donation does not increase the donor's risk of developing ESRD in the long term. Some studies have asserted that a donor's life expectancy increases as a result of the comprehensive study and screening process they must undergo. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the vital status and onset of chronic renal disease in 101 living kidney donors in Andalusia, Spain, during 2006-2009, based on data obtained from the Sistema de Información de la Coordinación Autonómica de Trasplantes de Andalucía (Regional Transplants Coordination of Andalusia). Donor survival was 99%, and the only death, from lung cancer, was not associated with the surgical procedure. Only 5 transplants failed during this period, and no donors developed ESRD. Neither the probability of survival nor the risk of developing ESRD in donors was influenced by kidney donation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Dear Editor, “ Body donation is the act of giving away one`s body after death without any conditions or rewards for the sake of education and research in medicine . ” 1 A sound knowledge of anatomy is essential from the beginning of a medical education and knowledge obtained through dissection of human body is an indispensable part of the education of health ca re professionals. It is the first step to become a doctor. Pool of source for cadaver used to be unclaimed bodies and few donated bodies. The Anatomy Act , 2 provides for the supply of unclaimed bodies to teaching institutions and hospitals for the purpose o f dissection and research work. With the mushrooming of medical Institutions in the country and need of human tissue for medical research and science is great, scarcity of bodies is felt all over the world . 3,4 The situation is equally affected in India too . 2 Too fulfill the requirement there came the ideology of voluntary body donation.

  15. Blood sugar test - blood (United States)

    ... blood glucose level ( hypoglycemia ) may be due to: Hypopituitarism (a pituitary gland disorder) Underactive thyroid gland or ... tonic-clonic seizure Glucagon blood test Glucagonoma Hyperthyroidism Hypopituitarism Hypothyroidism Insulinoma Low blood sugar Multiple endocrine neoplasia ( ...

  16. Becoming a morther by non-anonymous egg donation: secrecy and the relationship between egg recipient, egg donor and egg donation child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, D.A.M. van; Candido, A.; Pijffers, W.H.


    The object of the study was to investigate secrecy in non-anonymous egg donation, to explore some characteristics of this kind of egg donation arrangement and the relationship of the recipient with her non-genetic child. Forty-four egg recipients and 62 IVF patients with a child conceived through eg

  17. Screening for Babesia microti in the U.S. Blood Supply. (United States)

    Moritz, Erin D; Winton, Colleen S; Tonnetti, Laura; Townsend, Rebecca L; Berardi, Victor P; Hewins, Mary-Ellen; Weeks, Karen E; Dodd, Roger Y; Stramer, Susan L


    Background Babesia microti, a tickborne intraerythrocytic parasite that can be transmitted by means of blood transfusion, is responsible for the majority of cases of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis in the United States. However, no licensed test exists for screening for B. microti in donated blood. We assessed data from a large-scale, investigational product-release screening and donor follow-up program. Methods From June 2012 through September 2014, we performed arrayed fluorescence immunoassays (AFIAs) for B. microti antibodies and real-time polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assays for B. microti DNA on blood-donation samples obtained in Connecticut, Massachusetts, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. We determined parasite loads with the use of quantitative PCR testing and assessed infectivity by means of the inoculation of hamsters and the subsequent examination for parasitemia. Donors with test-reactive samples were followed. Using data on cases of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis, we compared the proportions of screened versus unscreened donations that were infectious. Results Of 89,153 blood-donation samples tested, 335 (0.38%) were confirmed to be positive, of which 67 (20%) were PCR-positive; 9 samples were antibody-negative (i.e., 1 antibody-negative sample per 9906 screened samples), representing 13% of all PCR-positive samples. PCR-positive samples were identified all through the year; antibody-negative infections occurred from June through September. Approximately one third of the red-cell samples from PCR-positive or high-titer AFIA-positive donations infected hamsters. Follow-up showed DNA clearance in 86% of the donors but antibody seroreversion in 8% after 1 year. In Connecticut and Massachusetts, no reported cases of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis were associated with screened donations (i.e., 0 cases per 75,331 screened donations), as compared with 14 cases per 253,031 unscreened donations (i.e., 1 case per 18,074 unscreened donations) (odds ratio, 8

  18. A rational framework for production decision making in blood establishments. (United States)

    Ramoa, Augusto; Maia, Salomé; Lourenço, Anália


    SAD_BaSe is a blood bank data analysis software, created to assist in the management of blood donations and the blood production chain in blood establishments. In particular, the system keeps track of several collection and production indicators, enables the definition of collection and production strategies, and the measurement of quality indicators required by the Quality Management System regulating the general operation of blood establishments. This paper describes the general scenario of blood establishments and its main requirements in terms of data management and analysis. It presents the architecture of SAD_BaSe and identifies its main contributions. Specifically, it brings forward the generation of customized reports driven by decision making needs and the use of data mining techniques in the analysis of donor suspensions and donation discards.

  19. Comparing the usage of autologous blood transfusion with homologous blood transfusion in spine surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan Hamdan


    Full Text Available Autologous Blood Transfusion (ABT is the safest type of blood transfusion for the operator and the patient. The preoperative donation technique had already been reduced the homologous blood requirements successfully. Homologous Blood Transfusion (HBT brings more risks in complications such as transmission of diseases, anaphylactic reactions, haemolitic reactions etc. This was a parallel study, comparing one group receiving ABT and a second group receiving HBT where in both groups were performed spine surgery. The parameter used was the hemoglobin(Hb and hematocrit(Ht content preoperatively (after donation of ABT and after transfusion, total days in hospitalization after surgery. Another purpose of this study was also to achieve understandings in using ABT by considering the total patients who finally required additional HBT. There were 74 patients with diagnosis of spine fracture, tuberculous spondylitis, scoliosis, spinal stenosis and spondylolisthesis. In the ABT group the average age was 33,9 ± 14 years old and the HBT group was 29,1 ± 11,5 years old. Both groups consisted of 21 males and 16 females. Body weight of the ABT group was 55,3 ± 11,1 kg and the HBT group 52,8 ± 9,7 kg. Amount of donations preoperatively in ABT was 798,6 ± 170 cc. There were 12 patients (32,4% where the donated blood amount preoperatively did not match up the requests. There were eight patients (21,6% in the ABT group that required additional HBT of about 550 cc. Three patients (8,1% of the ABT group received transfusion that did not match the indications (blood loss < 15% of the total blood volume. The Hb and Ht content preoperatively (after donation of the ABT group significantly was less than the HBT group (p= 0,001. Hb content after transfusion in the ABT group was not significantly less than the HBT group (p = 0,30. Hospitalization days after surgery were significantly higher in the HBT group (p = 0,000. In conclusions : there was 21,6% of the ABT group

  20. Organ donation on Web 2.0: content and audience analysis of organ donation videos on YouTube. (United States)

    Tian, Yan


    This study examines the content of and audience response to organ donation videos on YouTube, a Web 2.0 platform, with framing theory. Positive frames were identified in both video content and audience comments. Analysis revealed a reciprocity relationship between media frames and audience frames. Videos covered content categories such as kidney, liver, organ donation registration process, and youth. Videos were favorably rated. No significant differences were found between videos produced by organizations and individuals in the United States and those produced in other countries. The findings provide insight into how new communication technologies are shaping health communication in ways that differ from traditional media. The implications of Web 2.0, characterized by user-generated content and interactivity, for health communication and health campaign practice are discussed.

  1. Knowledge and attitudes toward organ donation: a community-based study comparing rural and urban populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghanim Saad


    Full Text Available The study was set to determine whether knowledge and attitudes toward organ dona-tion differ according to geographical location. Self-administered questionnaires were employed to collect data such as demographic characteristics, basic knowledge, attitudes and source of information about organ donation from subjects in rural and urban areas. The questionnaires were distributed randomly to 1,000 individuals in both areas during 2008. The data were analyzed in a descriptive fashion. Despite similarities in knowledge and attitudes of respondents in both areas, rural res-pondents were less likely to have information about organ donation, to report willingness to donate organs, and to have knowledge about "brain death" or the "organ donation card" than their counter-parts in urban areas. The study identified that the principle respondents′ source of information about organ donation was the television. More than 90% of respondents in rural and urban areas reported that the contribution of health care providers in providing them with knowledge about organ dona-tion and transplantation was "none" or "little". Respondents identified several reasons, which may influence their decisions to donate organs. In conclusion, the deficit in knowledge and attitudes of rural respondents about organ donation may be justified by the lack of information about this signi-ficant issue. Accordingly, health facilities, local mass media and educational institutions should provide intensive educational programs to encourage the public donate organs.

  2. Population income and longitudinal trends in living kidney donation in the United States. (United States)

    Gill, Jagbir; Dong, Jianghu; Gill, John


    Living kidney donation is declining in the United States. We examined longitudinal trends in living donation as a function of median household income and donor relation to assess the effect of financial barriers on donation in a changing economic environment. The zip code-level median household income of all 71,882 living donors was determined by linkage to the 2000 US Census. Longitudinal changes in the rate of donation were determined in income quintiles between 1999 and 2004, when donations were increasing, and between 2005 and 2010, when donations were declining. Rates were adjusted for population differences in age, sex, race, and ESRD rate using multilevel linear regression models. Between 1999 and 2004, the rate of growth in living donation per million population was directly related to income, increasing progressively from the lowest to highest income quintile, with annualized changes of 0.55 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.14 to 1.05) for Q1 and 1.77 (95% CI, 0.66 to 2.77) for Q5 (Pincome with longitudinal changes also varied by donor relationship. In conclusion, changes in living donation in the past decade varied by median household income, resulting in increased disparities in donation between low- and high-income populations. These findings may inform public policies to support living donation during periods of economic volatility.

  3. Regional Differences in Communication Process and Outcomes of Requests for Solid Organ Donation. (United States)

    Traino, H M; Molisani, A J; Siminoff, L A


    Although federal mandate prohibits the allocation of solid organs for transplantation based on "accidents of geography," geographic variation of transplantable organs is well documented. This study explores regional differences in communication in requests for organ donation. Administrative data from nine partnering organ procurement organizations and interview data from 1339 family decision makers (FDMs) were compared across eight geographically distinct US donor service areas (DSAs). Authorization for organ donation ranged from 60.4% to 98.1% across DSAs. FDMs from the three regions with the lowest authorization rates reported the lowest levels of satisfaction with the time spent discussing donation and with the request process, discussion of the least donation-related topics, the highest levels of pressure to donate, and the least comfort with the donation decision. Organ procurement organization region predicted authorization (odds ratios ranged from 8.14 to 0.24), as did time spent discussing donation (OR = 2.11), the number of donation-related topics discussed (OR = 1.14), and requesters' communication skill (OR = 1.14). Standardized training for organ donation request staff is needed to ensure the highest quality communication during requests, optimize rates of family authorization to donation in all regions, and increase the supply of organs available for transplantation.

  4. Attitudes of Australian chiropractic students toward whole body donation: a cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Alexander, Michelle; Marten, Mathew; Stewart, Ella; Serafin, Stanley; Štrkalj, Goran


    Cadavers play an important role in anatomy education. In Australia, bodies for anatomy education are acquired only through donations. To gain insight into educational dynamics in an anatomy laboratory as well as to facilitate body donation programs and thanksgiving ceremonies, it is important to understand students' attitudes toward body donation. In this cross-sectional study, the attitudes of Macquarie University's first, second, and fifth year chiropractic students toward body donation were investigated. Macquarie University chiropractic students have a four semester long anatomy program, which includes cadaver-based instruction on prosected specimens. A questionnaire was used to record respondents' demographics and attitudes toward body donation: personal, by a relative, and by a stranger. It was found that ethnicity and religion affect attitudes toward body donation, with Australian students being more willing to donate a stranger's body and atheists and agnostics being more willing to donate in general. Furthermore, willingness to donate one's own or a family member's body decreases as year of study increases, suggesting a possible negative impact of exposure to cadavers in the anatomy laboratory. This was only true, however, after controlling for age. Thus, the impact of viewing and handling prosected specimens, which is the norm in anatomy classes in Australia, may not be as strong as dissecting cadavers. It is suggested that anatomists and educators prepare students for cadaver-based instruction as well as exhibit sensitivity to cultural differences in how students approach working with cadavers, when informing different communities about body donation programs and in devising thanksgiving ceremonies.

  5. Organ procurement organizations Internet enrollment for organ donation: Abandoning informed consent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verheijde Joseph L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Requirements for organ donation after cardiac or imminent death have been introduced to address the transplantable organs shortage in the United States. Organ procurement organizations (OPOs increasingly use the Internet for organ donation consent. Methods An analysis of OPO Web sites available to the public for enrollment and consent for organ donation. The Web sites and consent forms were examined for the minimal information recommended by the United States Department of Health and Human Services for informed consent. Content scores were calculated as percentages of data elements in four information categories: donor knowledge, donor consent reinforcement, donation promotion, and informed consent. Results There were 60 Web sites for organ donation enrollment serving the 52 states. The median percent (10 percentile-90 percentile content scores of the Web sites for donor knowledge, donor consent reinforcement, and donation promotion were 33% (20–47, 79% (57–86, and 75% (50–100, respectively. The informed consent score was 0% (0–33. The content scores for donor knowledge and informed consent were significantly lower than donor consent reinforcement and donation promotion for all Web sites (P Conclusion The Web sites and consent forms for public enrollment in organ donation do not fulfill the necessary requirements for informed consent. The Web sites predominantly provide positive reinforcement and promotional information rather than the transparent disclosure of organ donation process. Independent regulatory oversight is essential to ensure that Internet enrollment for organ donation complies with legal and ethical standards for informed consent.

  6. Knowledge of Kidney Donation Among Care Givers in Two Tertiary Hospitals in Southwest Nigeria. (United States)

    Adejumo, Oluseyi A; Solarin, Adaobi U; Abiodun, Moses T; Akinbodewa, Ayodeji A


    One of the major challenges of kidney transplantation is shortage of kidney donors. Care givers (CGs) are potential kidney donors, but the majority of them are unwilling to donate due to inadequate knowledge on kidney donation. This study evaluated the knowledge of kidney donation and its determinants among CGs in two tertiary hospitals in Southwest Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study that was carried out in the Kidney Care Centre (KCC), Ondo and Babcock University Teaching Hospital (BUTH), Ilishan-Remo using a self-administered pretested questionnaire that assessed knowledge of kidney donation and its determinants. Pvalue of donation was 63.4%. More respondents from BUTH compared to KCC had adequate knowledge of kidney donation (80% vs. 46.7%, P ≤ 0.001). Similarly, the mean knowledge score was higher in respondents from BUTH (P ≤ 0.001). Factors that determined knowledge of kidney donation were female gender (AOR: 3.43, 95% CI: 1.25-9.40, P = 0.02) and social class (AOR: 1.22, 95% CI: 0.50-2.95, P ≤ 0.001). There was positive correlation between knowledge of kidney donation among the respondents from both hospitals and their willingness to donate kidneys (r = 0.439, P ≤ 0.001). Knowledge of kidney donation was better among BUTH's respondents. Gender and social class were predictors of knowledge of kidney donation. Improving knowledge of kidney donation may improve willingness to donate among the public.

  7. Predictors of general discomfort, limitations in activities of daily living and intention of a second donation in unrelated hematopoietic stem cell donation. (United States)

    Lee, M H; Jang, J H; Min, H J; Jang, H I; Nah, J H; Lyu, C J; Han, K-S; Won, J H; Lee, Y-H; Chong, S Y; Mun, Y C; Lee, W S; Kim, S J; Kim, I


    We performed a retrospective study of 1868 consecutive unrelated donors to predict the risk factors related to general discomfort, limitations in activities of daily living (ADLs) and intention of a second donation in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) donation. General discomfort and limitations in ADLs were assessed by numerical measurement (scores of 0-10) and donor's intention of a second donation by yes or no reply. The post-donation questionnaires were completed within 48 h after HSC collection and at 1 week, 4 weeks, and 4 months thereafter. Predictors of general discomfort included female sex (Pdonation on day 1 (Pdonation on day 1 (Pdonation was male sex (P=0.0007). Age, sex and collection method and period should be considered risk factors when unrelated HSC donation is performed.

  8. Burden of hepatitis C virus infection and its genotypes among the blood donors at Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma A


    Full Text Available Background: Safe blood donation remains a challenge in resource limited countries. False positive serological tests lead to wastage of large number of blood units. Nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT technology has greatly enhanced the accuracy in identification of transfusions transmitted infections. Methods: The present study was undertaken to study the seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV and asses the concordance between seropositivity with the presence of HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA and to know the distribution pattern of HCV genotypes in healthy blood donors. Results: Among the 9287 donors screened (88.3% males, 7153 (77% were voluntary donors while 2134 (23% were replacement donors. Among blood donors, 27 (0.3% samples tested HCV seropositive. Among 27 anti-HCV positive samples only 11 (41% were found positive for HCV RNA. Among the 5 samples subjected to sequencing, three were found to be genotype 1a while two were genotype 3a. Conclusions: Our observations suggest that implementing NAAT test for HCV screening will be helpful in minimizing false-positive test results in the Indian setting.

  9. Recruitment of prospective donors: what do they expect from a homepage of a blood transfusion service? (United States)

    Moog, R; Fourné, K


    In times of shrinking donor population, the recruitment of donors is of utmost importance. Recruitment can be done by personal communication, advertisement/information, classical mass media (newspaper, radio, TV) or new computerized media. The aim of this study was to gain information about the donors' demands of an Internet presentation of a blood transfusion service. Between October and December 2004 inclusive, prospective donors were asked to complete a survey about the impact of Internet information for blood donors. The survey contained questions measuring demographics, education and motivation for blood donation. In addition, the survey included questions that measured Internet access, duration of online time and donors' demands for an Internet presentation of a blood transfusion service. Donors were asked to tick a box with predefined answers. In cases where no options were applied, donors were requested to specify their answers. One hundred and fourteen prospective donors (71 female, 43 male) with a median age of 25 years (range 18-57 years) completed the survey. Most donors (57.9%) were 18-30 years old. Forty-two (36.8%) of the surveyed donors were repeat donors, whereas 72 (63.2%) were first-time donors. The majority of donors were informed about blood donation from relatives or friends (70.7% repeat donors and 67.7% first-time donors). Most of them had Internet access (85.7% repeat donors and 90.3% first-time donors). Exclusive use of private access was more often reported in repeat donors (77.8%), whereas both private and professional access was more frequently used in first-time donors (32.3%). Most donors used the Internet access daily, followed by weekly and monthly use. Multiple answers were given about the importance of desired information about the topic 'blood donation'. Both first-time and repeat donors wanted to be informed about organizational details of blood donation such as opening times, eligibility criteria, donation process and the kind

  10. Transoperative refusion: a simple and safe method in emergency surgery. (United States)

    Gusmão, Luiz Carlos Buarque; Valoes, Sérgio Henrique Chagas; Leitão Neto, José da Silva


    The objective is to reinforce the importance of blood reinfusion as a cheap, safe and simple method, which can be used in small hospitals, especially those in which there is no blood bank. Moreover, even with the use of devices that perform the collection and filtration of blood, more recent studies show that the cost-benefit ratio is much better when autologous transfusion is compared with blood transfusions, even when there is injury to hollow viscera and blood contamination. It is known that the allogeneic blood transfusion carries a number of risks to patients, among them are the coagulation disorders mediated by excess enzymes in the conserved blood, and deficiency in clotting factors, mainly the Factor V, the proacelerin. Another factor would be the risk of contamination with still unknown pathogens or that are not investigated during screening for selection of donors, such as the West Nile Fever and Creutzfeldt-Jacob, better known as "Mad Cow" disease. Comparing both methods, we conclude that blood autotransfusion has numerous advantages over heterologous transfusion, even in large hospitals. We are not against blood transfusions, just do not agree that the patient's own blood is discarded without making sure there will be enough blood in stock to get him out of the hemorrhagic shock.

  11. Transoperative refusion: a simple and safe method in emergency surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Buarque Gusmão


    Full Text Available The objective is to reinforce the importance of blood reinfusion as a cheap, safe and simple method, which can be used in small hospitals, especially those in which there is no blood bank. Moreover, even with the use of devices that perform the collection and filtration of blood, more recent studies show that the cost-benefit ratio is much better when autologous transfusion is compared with blood transfusions, even when there is injury to hollow viscera and blood contamination. It is known that the allogeneic blood transfusion carries a number of risks to patients, among them are the coagulation disorders mediated by excess enzymes in the conserved blood, and deficiency in clotting factors, mainly the Factor V, the proacelerin. Another factor would be the risk of contamination with still unknown pathogens or that are not investigated during screening for selection of donors, such as the West Nile Fever and Creutzfeldt-Jacob, better known as "Mad Cow" disease. Comparing both methods, we conclude that blood autotransfusion has numerous advantages over heterologous transfusion, even in large hospitals. We are not against blood transfusions, just do not agree that the patient's own blood is discarded without making sure there will be enough blood in stock to get him out of the hemorrhagic shock.

  12. A behavior model for blood donors and marketing strategies to retain and attract them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covadonga Aldamiz-echevarria


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: analyze and propose a theoretical model that describes blood donor decisions to help staff working in blood banks (nurses and others in their efforts to capture and retain donors.METHODS: analysis of several studies on the motivations to give blood in Spain over the last six years, as well as past literature on the topic, the authors' experiences in the last 25 years in over 15 Non Governmental Organizations with different levels of responsibilities, their experiences as blood donors and the informal interviews developed during those 25 years.RESULTS: a model is proposed with different internal and external factors that influence blood donation, as well as the different stages of the decision-making process.CONCLUSION: the knowledge of the donation process permits the development of marketing strategies that help to increase donors and donations.

  13. Increasing organ donation via anticipated regret (INORDAR: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Carroll Ronan E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout the world there is an insufficient supply of donor organs to meet the demand for organ transplantations. This paper presents a protocol for a randomised controlled trial, testing whether a simple, theory-based anticipated regret manipulation leads to a significant increase in posthumous organ donor registrations. Methods We will use a between-groups, prospective randomised controlled design. A random sample of 14,520 members of the adult Scottish general public will be contacted via post. These participants will be randomly allocated into 1 of the 4 conditions. The no questionnaire control (NQC group will simply receive a letter and donor registration form. The questionnaire control (QC arm will receive a questionnaire measuring their emotions and non-cognitive affective attitudes towards organ donation. The theory of planned behavior (TPB group will complete the emotions and affective attitudes questionnaire plus additional items assessing their cognitive attitudes towards organ donation, perceived control over registration and how they think significant others view this action. Finally, the anticipated regret (AR group will complete the same indices as the TPB group, plus two additional anticipated regret items. These items will assess the extent to which the participant anticipates regret for not registering as an organ donor in the near future. The outcome variable will be NHS Blood and Transplant verified registrations as an organ donor within 6 months of receiving our postal intervention. Discussion This study will assess whether simply asking people to reflect on the extent to which they may anticipate regret for not registering as an organ donor increases organ donor registration 6 months later. If successful, this simple and easy to administer theory-based intervention has the potential to save lives and money for the NHS by reducing the number of people receiving treatments such as dialysis. This

  14. Perioperative complications in liver transplantation using donation after cardiac death grafts: a propensity-matched study. (United States)

    Pan, Xiongxiong; Apinyachon, Worapot; Xia, Wei; Hong, Johnny C; Busuttil, Ronald W; Steadman, Randolph H; Xia, Victor W


    Donation after cardiac death (DCD) is an important source for expanding the donor pool for liver transplantation (LT). Although the long-term outcomes of LT using DCD grafts have been extensively studied, perioperative complications related to DCD grafts are rarely reported. The aim of this study was to determine whether DCD grafts were associated with a higher incidence of postreperfusion complications and worse outcomes in adult LT patients. After institutional review board approval, the medical records of all adult patients who underwent LT at our medical center between 2004 and 2011 were reviewed. Postreperfusion complications and posttransplant outcomes were compared between patients receiving DCD grafts and patients receiving donation after brain death (DBD) grafts. In all, 74 patients received DCD grafts during the study period, and 1369 patients received DBD grafts. An initial comparison showed that many preoperative, prereperfusion, and donor variables in the DCD group differed significantly from those in the DBD group. Propensity matching was chosen so that adjustments could be made for the differences. A postmatching analysis showed that the preoperative, prereperfusion, and donor variables no longer differed between the 2 groups. The postreperfusion requirements for blood products and vasopressors, the posttransplant ventilation times, the incidence of posttransplant acute renal injury, and the 30-day and 1-year patient and graft survival rates were comparable between the 2 groups. However, patients receiving DCD grafts experienced significantly higher rates of hyperkalemia (33.8% versus 18.9%, P grafts remained a risk factor for postreperfusion hyperkalemia and PRS. A prophylactic regimen aimed at decreasing postreperfusion hyperkalemia and PRS is recommended for the management of LT using DCD grafts.

  15. [Drug information for safe use]. (United States)

    Watanabe, Shinichi


    Various information on pharmaceuticals is provided to healthcare professionals in order to ensure the safe use of pharmaceuticals. In addition to package inserts that contain information on indication, dosage, and administration, some review reports of new drugs which contain the summary of the results of clinical trials submitted for new drug application and review process as well as manuals for handling disorders due to adverse drug reactions which contain early symptoms and information on treatment of serious adverse reactions are provided. Information on drugs is renewed based on drug reactions reported to the authority. It is important that pharmacists comprehend this information and have the updated information on drugs, and disseminate this information to other healthcare professionals such as doctors, nurses etc. for the safe use of pharmaceuticals. Pharmacists who have completed a six-year course are expected to utilize all this information and contribute to the safe use of pharmaceuticals.

  16. Blood, Soy Milk, and Vitality: The Wartime Origins of Blood Banking in China, 1943-45. (United States)

    Soon, Wayne


    This article examines the multiple meanings of blood transfusion and banking in modern China through the history of the first Chinese blood bank, established by the Overseas Chinese in 1943 to solicit blood for the war effort. Through investigating the attitudes of Chinese soldiers and civilians toward the blood bank, this article argues for the multiplicity of motivations underpinning society's attitudes toward blood banking and donation. Cultural notions of blood were an important but not the sole factor in their consideration. Ideas of nationalism and altruism played a role too. What eventually turned out to be most effective for most donors was the promise of eggs and soy milk for blood. Its economic value in the context of wartime scarcity was enough for many to abandon opposition to blood banking. By drawing attention to socioeconomic concerns in biomedical practices, this article provides an alternative examination of blood banking in modern societies.

  17. New classification of donation after circulatory death donors definitions and terminology. (United States)

    Thuong, Marie; Ruiz, Angel; Evrard, Patrick; Kuiper, Michael; Boffa, Catherine; Akhtar, Mohammed Z; Neuberger, James; Ploeg, Rutger


    In the face of a crisis in organ donation, the transplant community are increasingly utilizing donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors. Over the last 10 years, with the increasing usage of DCD donors, we have seen the introduction in a number of new terms and definitions. We report the results of the 6th International Conference in Organ Donation held in Paris in 2013 and report a consensus agreement of an established expert European Working Group on the definitions and terminology regarding DCD donation, including refinement of the Maastricht definitions. This document forms part of a special series where recommendations are presented for uncontrolled and controlled DCD donation and organ specific guidelines for kidney, pancreas, liver and lung transplantation. An expert panel formed a consensus on definitions and terms aiming to establish consistent usage of terms in DCD donation.

  18. How safe are Indian laboratories?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.

    CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 79, NO. 8, 25 OCTOBER 2000 1041 How safe are I n dian laboratories? Many students opt for science after their 10th standard examination and many of them study chemistry later. In case they fail to get into a professional... safety goggles, gloves and laboratory coats would no r- mally be absent. In case these are pr e- sent the experimenter, students and even the demonstrators themselves do not use them. Auto pipettes and other safe devices for handling the chemicals...

  19. Safe and Liquid Mortgage Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Lund, Jesper

    This paper shows that strict match pass-through funding of covered bonds provides safe and liquid mortgage bonds. Despite a 30% drop in house prices during the 2008 global crisis Danish mortgage bonds remained as liquid as most European government bonds. The Danish pass-through system effectively...... eliminates credit risk from the investor's perspective. Similar to other safe bonds, funding liquidity becomes the main driver of mortgage bond liquidity and this creates commonality in liquidity across markets and countries. These findings have implications for how to design a robust mortgage bond system...

  20. The reason and prevention of blood adverse reaction%献血不良反应原因及预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    By analyzing reasons of donating blood adverse reaction, including mental reasons, piercing pain, faint at the sight of puppy blood and treatment reasons, lack of fasting blood donation, lack of blood donation knowledge and environmental reasons, the reasonable effective prevention methods were found, including: completing the propaganda work of blood donation knowledge, strict examination, improving the blood donation site environment, improving the level of blood business knowledge and professional technical personnel, and so on, so as to control the incidence of blood donation reaction, and reduce the fear of blood donors, then the unpaid blood donation team would get stronger.%目的:通过对献血不良反应的发生原因进行分析,包括精神原因、穿刺疼痛原因、晕血和晕针原因、空腹献血、献血者献血知识缺乏以及献血环境原因等,找到合理有效的预防方法,包括做好献血知识的宣传工作、严格的体格检查、改善献血场所环境、提高采血人员业务知识及专业技术水平等,从而控制献血反应的发生率,减少献血者的恐惧心理,使无偿献血队伍得到壮大。

  1. Blood Thinner Pills: Your Guide to Using Them Safely (United States)

    ... Minority Rural Women Información en español Prevención y bienestar Condiciones y enfermedades Atención médica Medicamentos La seguridad ... Newsroom Press Releases Data Visualizations AHRQ Stats AHRQ Social Media Blog AHRQ Views Events AHRQ Research Summit ...

  2. Cultural acceptability and personal willingness of Iranian students toward cadaveric donation. (United States)

    Abbasi Asl, Jamal; Nikzad, Hossein; Taherian, Aliakbar; Atlasi, Mohammad Ali; Naderian, Homayoun; Mousavi, Gholamabbas; Kashani, Milad Motalebi; Omidi, Abdollah


    Cadaver dissection stands as a crucial component in medical curricula around the world, although computer-based multimedia programs have been introduced in order to replace the need for cadaver donations. Due to a decrease in the number of unclaimed bodies and rather few donations, there is an insufficient number of cadavers for anatomical studies in Iran. This study was carried out to evaluate medical students' awareness and willingness regarding body donation in Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. In this study, a questionnaire was designed to focus on the cultural acceptability and personal willingness to donate one's body after death. Students from the university's anatomy classes (n = 331) participated in this study. Seventy-seven percent of the students expressed their agreement toward the idea of utilizing body donation services, though only 25.4% of participants were willing to donate their own bodies. None of the demographic factors were associated with cultural acceptability or personal willingness towards body donation. These findings indicated that besides "payment", other factors were associated with students' willingness to become donors. All factors of awareness except "previous awareness of organization" were associated with cultural acceptability. In this study, students suggested that encouraging people to register for body donation using mass media (25.6%) and teaching students to respect cadavers in the dissection environment (24.8%) were the best solutions for addressing the lack of cadavers. These findings indicated that a lack of awareness about body donation might be the main factor responsible for unwillingness towards body donation; therefore, improving the public's awareness and addressing the willingness of students regarding body donation may help overcome the current lack of donated cadavers. Anat Sci Educ 10: 120-126. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Awareness and beliefs towards organ donation in chronic kidney disease patients in western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balwani Manish R


    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a wide discrepancy between demand for and availability of donor organs for organ transplantation. There is no study on awareness about organ donation in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients in India. Objectives: To study the awareness and beliefs towards organ donation in CKD patients on hemodialysis in western India. Patients and Methods: Authors conducted a cross sectional study among 85 CKD patients to evaluate knowledge about and attitude towards organ donation at a tertiary hospital. Results: Age of respondents ranged from 15 to 75 years. All were aware of term organ donation and cadaver donation. About 47% of people heard about organ donation through hospital or from doctor. Strikingly, radio was not the source of information to any of the respondents, despite radio being one of the most common medium of mass communication. Almost one third of patients were unaware about any legislation regarding organ donation. All respondents felt that organs should go to the needy irrespective of their religion. About 70% feel that medical colleges should make decisions about organ donation in case of unclaimed dead bodies. About 31.76% believe that there is a danger that donated organs could be misused, abused or misappropriated. Conclusion: Our study shows about 31.76% of our participants believe that there is a danger that donated organs could be misused, abused or misappropriated. There seems to be paucity of information and awareness regarding organ donation among CKD patients. Mass media, religious and political leaders may be involved to maximize awareness about organ donation.

  4. Ethical Aspects of Blood Donors and the Recipients of Their Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. M. van den Burg


    Full Text Available To date medical care is inextricable based on blood donors and blood products. The continuing increase and intensification of tests and guidelines also results in a change in deferral and abnormal test results. Donors and recipients of their blood are faced with this information and are confronted with a kaleidoscope of thoughts and emotions. The discussion with respect to paid versus nonpaid donation is not new, but other aspects are less often discussed. We describe these other aspects for donors and recipients of their blood and hope to open the ethical discussion; if and to what extent we should have limits?

  5. Blood Bank on Wheels : A Novel Concept


    N Moorchung; Chattopadhyay, AB; Sivasubramanian, R


    The concept of supplying safe and screened blood to casualties in war has been a problem over the years. Using the equipments available in a Corp Blood Supply Unit, we describe a simple modification of a vehicle for blood supply and its potential use as a mobile blood bank.

  6. Bottlenecks of blood processing in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kajja, I.; Kyeyune, D.; Bimenya, G. S.; Sibinga, C. T. S.


    Aim: To identify where and why delays occur in Uganda blood banks. Background: The timely provision and supply of safe and efficacious blood components to hospitals depends on sound systems in the processing blood banks. Poorly managed systems lead to apparent blood shortages in hospitals and increa

  7. From hesitation to appreciation: the transformation of a single, local donation-nurse project into an established organ-donation service. (United States)

    Gyllström Krekula, Linda; Malenicka, Silvia; Nydahl, Anders; Tibell, Annika


    This study evaluates the transition from a local project to promote organ donation to a permanent county-based donation service inspired by the Spanish model. To address the problem of declining donation rates, a project with one donation-specialized nurse (DOSS) was initiated at a single neuro-intensive care unit. This project was later expanded into a permanent on-call service consisting of seven DOSSes, covering a large urban county. During the different periods (before, during project and during permanent service), the DOSS function's effect on donation rates was significant, and the number of eligible donors that became actual donors increased from 37% to 73% and 74%, respectively. The effect on family vetoes was as prominent with a decrease from 34% to 8% and 14%. The staff appreciation of the DOSS function was also evident during the periods; all areas included in the questionnaire (family care, donor care and staff support) have improved greatly owing to the DOSS. The transition from a single, local donation-nurse project, to an on-call service with several DOSSes covering a large urban county was a success considering the donation rates as well as the staff's appreciation. Hence, organizational models from abroad can be adjusted and successfully adopted.

  8. Attitudes and behaviors regarding organ donation: a study on officials of religion in Turkey. (United States)

    Güden, Emel; Cetinkaya, Fevziye; Naçar, Melis


    The aim of this study is to determine the attitudes and behaviors of religious scholars regarding organ donation and transplantation. In this study, 540 officials working in the Department of Religious Affairs in Kayseri, Turkey, were included. Overall, 86.6% response rate (n = 468) was achieved. Although a majority of the officials of religion in this study stated that they believed in the importance of organ donation (90.8%), the rate of considering donation (57.9%) and the donation rate (1.1%) were found to be substantially low. There is a difference between the employment status and willingness to donate organs. The rate of willingness to donate was significantly high in men than women. And also was high in imams and preachers. Regarding the sources of information, the majority of the respondents (70.0%) cited mass media. Overall, 15.3% cited school education and 42.0% religious publications. The most common question (83.1%) that was asked was "whether or not organ donation was suitable for Muslim religious". Our study revealed that although the research groups have positive ideas about organ donation and transplantation, their role was low in informing and motivating people about organ donation and transplantation.

  9. Analysis of knowledge of the general population and health professionals on organ donation after cardiac death (United States)

    Bedenko, Ramon Correa; Nisihara, Renato; Yokoi, Douglas Shun; Candido, Vinícius de Mello; Galina, Ismael; Moriguchi, Rafael Massayuki; Ceulemans, Nico; Salvalaggio, Paolo


    Objective To evaluate the knowledge and acceptance of the public and professionals working in intensive care units regarding organ donation after cardiac death. Methods The three hospitals with the most brain death notifications in Curitiba were selected, and two groups of respondents were established for application of the same questionnaire: the general public (i.e., visitors of patients in intensive care units) and health professionals working in the same intensive care unit. The questionnaire contained questions concerning demographics, intention to donate organs and knowledge of current legislation regarding brain death and donation after cardiac death. Results In total, 543 questionnaires were collected, including 442 from family members and 101 from health professionals. There was a predominance of women and Catholics in both groups. More females intended to donate. Health professionals performed better in the knowledge comparison. The intention to donate organs was significantly higher in the health professionals group (p = 0.01). There was no significant difference in the intention to donate in terms of education level or income. There was a greater acceptance of donation after uncontrolled cardiac death among Catholics than among evangelicals (p < 0.001). Conclusion Most of the general population intended to donate, with greater intentions expressed by females. Education and income did not affect the decision. The type of transplant that used a donation after uncontrolled cardiac death was not well accepted in the study population, indicating the need for more clarification for its use in our setting. PMID:27626950

  10. Factors influencing willingness to donate to marine endangered species recovery in the Galapagos National Park, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana A Cardenas


    Full Text Available Willingness to donate money for the conservation of endangered species may depend on numerous factors. In this paper, we analyze data from a survey given to tourists visiting Ecuador’s Galapagos National Park and Marine Reserve to investigate determinants of their willingness to donate (WTD towards the conservation of two marine endangered species--the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini and the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas. Specifically, we use regression analysis to analyze the influence of attitudes and beliefs toward species conservation, levels of concern for specific species, recreational motivations, and past donation patterns on WTD, while also controlling for individual characteristics such as age, gender, place of residence, and other demographics. Additionally, we evaluate the sensitivity of WTD to the species being protected by conservation efforts. Our results demonstrate that specific concern about the species, beliefs about donating to the protection program, and past donation behavior significantly influence the intention to donate money towards the recovery of the two marine endangered species. The likelihood of donating to green sea turtle conservation efforts is marginally higher than for hammerhead sharks, possibly due to its more charismatic nature. In contrast, visitors who are more willing to donate for shark conservation appear to be those with a strong desire to see them in the wild. The results provide useful information on the heterogeneity of tourist preferences towards donating to species conservation efforts, which has broad implications for resource agencies seeking ways to fund conservation actions.

  11. Staying Safe on the Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast for all audiences, Dr. Julie Gilchrist from CDC's Injury Center outlines tips for safe boating.  Created: 6/5/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 6/8/2008.

  12. Fire-safe hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodor, G.E.; Weatherford, W.D. Jr.; Wright, B.R.


    A stabilized, fire-safe, aqueous hydrocarbon fuel emulsion prepared by mixing: a diesel fuel; an emulsifier (consisting of oleyl diethanolamide, diethanolamine, and diethanolamine soap of oleic acid) which has been treated with about 0 to 7 1/2 of oleic acid. A modified version of this fuel also contains 0 to 0.5% of an antimisting agent, and water.

  13. Thermodynamics of asymptotically safe theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rischke, Dirk H.; Sannino, Francesco


    We investigate the thermodynamic properties of a novel class of gauge-Yukawa theories that have recently been shown to be completely asymptotically safe, because their short-distance behaviour is determined by the presence of an interacting fixed point. Not only do all the coupling constants freeze...

  14. Sound Security,Safe Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ With the approach of the long a waited event,Chinese authorities have geared up to intensify security preparations.In line with the"people-oriented"and"athletes-centered"ideas,Beijing will spare no efforts to provide quality services and to build a safe and cornfort able environment that will satisfy all the Games' participants.

  15. Safe-haven CDS Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingler, Sven; Lando, David

    We argue that Credit Default Swap (CDS) premia for safe-haven sovereigns, like Germany and the United States, are driven to a large extent by regulatory requirements under which derivatives dealing banks have an incentive to buy CDS to hedge counterparty credit risk of their counterparties. We...

  16. Organ donation after circulatory death in a university teaching hospital. (United States)

    Sidiropoulos, S; Treasure, E; Silvester, W; Opdam, H; Warrillow, S J; Jones, D


    Although organ transplantation is well established for end-stage organ failure, many patients die on waiting lists due to insufficient donor numbers. Recently, there has been renewed interest in donation after circulatory death (DCD). In a retrospective observational study we reviewed the screening of patients considered for DCD between March 2007 and December 2012 in our hospital. Overall, 148 patients were screened, 17 of whom were transferred from other hospitals. Ninety-three patients were excluded (53 immediately and 40 after review by donation staff). The 55 DCD patients were younger than those excluded (P=0.007) and they died from hypoxic brain injury (43.6%), intraparenchymal haemorrhage (21.8%) and subarachnoid haemorrhage (14.5%). Antemortem heparin administration and bronchoscopy occurred in 50/53 (94.3%) and 22/55 (40%) of cases, respectively. Forty-eight patients died within 90 minutes and proceeded to donation surgery. Associations with not dying in 90 minutes included spontaneous ventilation mode (P=0.022), absence of noradrenaline infusion (P=0.051) and higher PaO2:FiO2 ratio (P=0.052). The number of brain dead donors did not decrease over the study period. The time interval between admission and death was longer for DCD than for the 45 brain dead donors (5 [3-11] versus 2 [2-3] days; P<0.001), and 95 additional patients received organ transplants due to DCD. Introducing a DCD program can increase potential organ donors without reducing brain dead donors. Antemortem investigations appear to be acceptable to relatives when included in the consent process.

  17. Organ donation quality control in Abruzzo region (Italy). (United States)

    Parzanese, I; Maccarone, D; Caniglia, L; Pisani, F; Laurenzi, C; Famulari, A


    Abruzzo is a region in central Italy with a population of 1,262,392. Within this region there are 13 hospitals with intensive care units, four of which have neurosurgical units. The Regional Centre for Transplants in L'Aquila is notified of encephalic deaths in hospitals in Abruzzo and Molise and coordinates organ retrieval and transplantation. Organ donation is a process that involves a whole series of professionals who, operating in a sequential manner in each hospital, make possible the use of a cadaveric organ to give life to a person or improve the quality of life of a patient on a waiting list. Quality control procedures were introduced in 2001 and involve all of the hospitals in the region with intensive care units. The system for quality control was computerized in 2004 and is used in the four hospitals with neurosurgical units (type A hospitals) and in the 13 hospitals without (type B hospitals); the different types of deaths (cause of death, age, etc) are also analyzed with this system. One of the aims of this system is to discover the theoretical donation capacity, taking as benchmark values those resulting from the regional average and those published in international literature, and noting any shortcomings. It has emerged that donor identification is well organized and efficient and this is thanks to a concerted effort that has been made to overcome technical and organizational problems connected to donor detection and donor maintenance during the 6 hours of legal observation. The high percentage of opposition to organ removal, despite the fall registered in the first half of this year (2005), is still above the national average and still remains a critical point in the organ donation process.

  18. Opinion Toward Living Liver Donation of Hospital Personnel From Units Related to Organ Donation and Transplantation: A Multicenter Study From Spain and Latin-America (United States)

    Rios, Antonio; Lopez Navas, Ana; Ayala Garcia, Marco Antonio; Sebastian, Jose; Abdo Cuza, Anselmo; Martinez Alarcon, Laura; Ramirez, Ector Jaime; Munoz, Gerardo; Palacios, Gerardo; Suarez Lopez, Juliette; Castellanos, Ricardo; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Martinez, Miguel Angel; Diaz, Ernesto; Ramirez, Pablo; Parrilla, Pascual


    Background: Hospital personnel of services related to donation and transplantation process play a fundamental role in the development of transplantation. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the attitude toward living liver donation (LLD) among hospital personnel from services related to donation and transplantation in hospital centers in Spain and Latin America. Materials and Methods: Eight hospitals within the “International Donor Collaborative Project” were selected, three in Spain, three in Mexico and two in Cuba. The study was performed in transplant-related services, using a randomized sample, which was stratified by the type of service and job category. Results: In total, 878 workers were surveyed of which 82% (n = 720) were in favor of related LLD, 10% (n = 90) were against and 8% (n = 68) undecided. Attitudes toward related LLD were more favorable in the following groups: the Latin Americans (86% in favor vs. 77% among the Spanish; P = 0.007); younger people (37 vs. 40 years, P = 0.002); those in favor of either deceased donation (P < 0.001) or living kidney donation (P < 0.001); those who believed that they might need a transplant in the future (P < 0.001); those who would accept a liver from a living donor (P < 0.001); those who discussed the subject of donation and transplantation with their families (P = 0.040); and those whose partner was in favor of donation and transplantation (P = 0.044). Conclusions: Personnel from donation and transplantation-related units had a favorable attitude toward LLD. This attitude was not affected by psychosocial factors, although it was influenced by factors directly and indirectly related to the donation and transplantation process. PMID:25737727

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Show Your Support! Help stop diabetes with these promotions that give back. Healthy Recipes: Delicious Recipe Kits ... to Give Do-It-Yourself Fundraising & Local Events Promotions that Give Back Donate Your Collectibles Donate Stocks ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Member Donate Now! One Time Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type ... time Give monthly Give in honor Give in memory Donate Now Why Give? Nearly 30 million battle ...