WorldWideScience

Sample records for blood diseases

  1. Lyme disease blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... antibodies in the blood sample using the ELISA test . If the ELISA test is positive, it must be confirmed with another ... were seen in your blood sample. If the ELISA test is negative, usually no other testing is needed. ...

  2. High blood pressure and eye disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000999.htm High blood pressure and eye disease To use the sharing features ... are sent to the brain. Causes High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina. The higher the blood ...

  3. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease High Blood Cholesterol High blood cholesterol is another major risk factor for heart disease ... can do something about. The higher your blood cholesterol level, the greater your risk for developing heart ...

  4. Iron in Parkinson disease, blood diseases, malaria and ferritin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauminger, E. R.; Nowik, I.

    1998-12-01

    The concentration of iron in Substantia nigra, the part of the brain which is involved in Parkinson disease, has been found by Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS) to be ~ 160 μg/g wet tissue and ~ 670 μg/g dry weight, both in control and Parkinson samples. All the iron observed by MS in these samples is ferritin-like iron. In several blood diseases, large amounts of ferritin-like iron have been observed in red blood cells. Desferral removed iron from serum, but not from red blood cells. The iron compound in the malarial pigment of human blood infected by P. falciparum was found to be hemin-like, whereas the pigment iron in rats infected by P. berghei was different from any known iron porphyrin.

  5. Iron in Parkinson disease, blood diseases, malaria and ferritin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauminger, E.R.; Nowik, I. [Hebrew University, Racah Institute of Physics (Israel)

    1998-12-15

    The concentration of iron in Substantia nigra, the part of the brain which is involved in Parkinson disease, has been found by Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) to be {approx} 160 {mu}g/g wet tissue and {approx} 670 {mu}g/g dry weight, both in control and Parkinson samples. All the iron observed by MS in these samples is ferritin-like iron. In several blood diseases, large amounts of ferritin-like iron have been observed in red blood cells. Desferral removed iron from serum, but not from red blood cells. The iron compound in the malarial pigment of human blood infected by P. falciparum was found to be hemin-like, whereas the pigment iron in rats infected by P. berghei was different from any known iron porphyrin.

  6. Blood biomarker for Parkinson disease: peptoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Umar; Zaman, Sayed; Hynan, Linda S; Brown, L Steven; Dewey, Richard B; Karp, David; German, Dwight C

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Because dopaminergic neuronal loss begins years before motor symptoms appear, a biomarker for the early identification of the disease is critical for the study of putative neuroprotective therapies. Brain imaging of the nigrostriatal dopamine system has been used as a biomarker for early disease along with cerebrospinal fluid analysis of α-synuclein, but a less costly and relatively non-invasive biomarker would be optimal. We sought to identify an antibody biomarker in the blood of PD patients using a combinatorial peptoid library approach. We examined serum samples from 75 PD patients, 25 de novo PD patients, and 104 normal control subjects in the NINDS Parkinson’s Disease Biomarker Program. We identified a peptoid, PD2, which binds significantly higher levels of IgG3 antibody in PD versus control subjects (P<0.0001) and is 68% accurate in identifying PD. The PD2 peptoid is 84% accurate in identifying de novo PD. Also, IgG3 levels are significantly higher in PD versus control serum (P<0.001). Finally, PD2 levels are positively correlated with the United Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale score (r = 0.457, P<0001), a marker of disease severity. The PD2 peptoid may be useful for the early-stage identification of PD, and serve as an indicator of disease severity. Additional studies are needed to validate this PD biomarker. PMID:27812535

  7. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Remember Clinical Trials What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against ... filtering units called nephrons. [ Top ] How does high blood pressure affect the kidneys? High blood pressure can damage ...

  8. "Keep the Beat": Healthy Blood Pressure Helps Prevent Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Keep the Beat": Healthy Blood Pressure Helps Prevent Heart Disease Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Your ... a condition that also increases the chance of heart disease and stroke. High blood pressure is especially common ...

  9. When Blood Cells Bend: Understanding Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe When Blood Cells Bend Understanding Sickle Cell Disease For people who don’t suspect they ... Cells Bend Wise Choices Links Living with Sickle Cell Disease See a sickle cell disease expert regularly. ...

  10. INFECTIOUS-DISEASE TESTING FOR BLOOD-TRANSFUSIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DESFORGES, JF; ATHARI, F; COOPER, ES; JOHNSON, CS; LEMON, SM; LINDSAY, KL; MCCULLOUGH, J; MCINTOSH, K; ROSS, RK; WHITSETT, CF; WITTES, J; WRIGHT, TL

    1995-01-01

    Objective.-To provide physicians and other transfusion medicine professionals with a current consensus on infectious disease testing for blood transfusions. Participants.-A nonfederal, nonadvocate, 12-member consensus panel representing the fields of hematology, infectious disease, transfusion medic

  11. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  12. [Cytokines in the treatment of blood diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robak, T

    1995-01-01

    Cytokines are a class of signal peptides which represent a major communication network in living organism. Over the last decade, the discovery, cloning and purification of hematopoietic cytokines (interleukins, hematopoietic growth factors) has increased our understanding of the regulation, proliferation, differentiation and function of hematopoietic cells. More recently, the large scale production of the recombinant forms of these molecules has enabled to treat the patients with pharmacologic doses of cytokines. The therapeutic activity of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) has been demonstrated in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia and other chronic myeloproliferative syndromes. IFN-gamma is useful in the prevention of infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Erythropoietin (EPO) was the first hematopoietic growth factor available for clinical use, initially to treat anaemia in renal failure patients. The next cytokines introduced into the clinic were granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF). They are used successfully in haematological malignant disorders to stimulate granulopoiesis after chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation and to help mobilise marrow stem cells for peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Interleukin (IL)-1, -2, -3, -4, -6 and -11 have been tested in clinical trials. However, the value of these agents remains to be established. PMID:7544526

  13. Increased blood carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations in inflammatory pulmonary diseases

    OpenAIRE

    H. Yasuda; Yamaya, M; Yanai, M; Ohrui, T; Sasaki, H

    2002-01-01

    Background: Exhaled carbon monoxide has been reported to increase in inflammatory pulmonary diseases and to be correlated with blood carboxyhaemoglobin (Hb-CO) concentration. A study was undertaken to determine whether arterial blood Hb-CO increases in patients with inflammatory pulmonary diseases.

  14. Blood donation and cardiovascular disease. Addressing the healthy donor effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peffer, K.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, the possible protective effect of frequent blood donation on cardiovascular disease was studied. Previous research has shown that high iron stores could have damaging effects on developing cardiovascular disease, and that blood donation lowers iron stores. Lowering iron stores throug

  15. Mechanisms Linking Red Blood Cell Disorders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Mozos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to review the main pathophysiological links between red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, provides a brief description of the latest studies in this area, and considers implications for clinical practice and therapy. Anemia is associated with a special risk in proatherosclerotic conditions and heart disease and became a new therapeutic target. Guidelines must be updated for the management of patients with red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, and targets for hemoglobin level should be established. Risk scores in several cardiovascular diseases should include red blood cell count and RDW. Complete blood count and hemorheological parameters represent useful, inexpensive, widely available tools for the management and prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, arrhythmias, and stroke. Hypoxia and iron accumulation cause the most important cardiovascular effects of sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Patients with congenital chronic hemolytic anemia undergoing splenectomy should be monitored, considering thromboembolic and cardiovascular risk.

  16. Disease-specific classification using deconvoluted whole blood gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Oh, William K.; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Blood-based biomarker assays have an advantage in being minimally invasive. Diagnostic and prognostic models built on peripheral blood gene expression have been reported for various types of disease. However, most of these studies focused on only one disease type, and failed to address whether the identified gene expression signature is disease-specific or more widely applicable across diseases. We conducted a meta-analysis of 46 whole blood gene expression datasets covering a wide range of diseases and physiological conditions. Our analysis uncovered a striking overlap of signature genes shared by multiple diseases, driven by an underlying common pattern of cell component change, specifically an increase in myeloid cells and decrease in lymphocytes. These observations reveal the necessity of building disease-specific classifiers that can distinguish different disease types as well as normal controls, and highlight the importance of cell component change in deriving blood gene expression based models. We developed a new strategy to develop blood-based disease-specific models by leveraging both cell component changes and cell molecular state changes, and demonstrate its superiority using independent datasets. PMID:27596246

  17. Sirolimus for Autoimmune Disease of Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-22

    Autoimmune Pancytopenia; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS); Evans Syndrome; Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura; Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune; Autoimmune Neutropenia; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic; Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Rheumatoid Arthritis

  18. ABO Blood Group and Risk of Thromboembolic and Arterial Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Rostgaard, Klaus; Majeed, Ammar;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ABO blood groups have been shown to be associated with increased risks of venous thromboembolic and arterial disease. However, the reported magnitude of this association is inconsistent and is based on evidence from small-scale studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used the SCANDAT2...... (Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions) database of blood donors linked with other nationwide health data registers to investigate the association between ABO blood groups and the incidence of first and recurrent venous thromboembolic and arterial events. Blood donors in Denmark and Sweden between 1987......-up. Compared with blood group O, non-O blood groups were associated with higher incidence of both venous and arterial thromboembolic events. The highest rate ratios were observed for pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism (incidence rate ratio, 2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.77-2.79), deep vein thrombosis...

  19. Diagnosis of Carrion’s Disease by Direct Blood PCR in Thin Blood Smear Negative Samples

    OpenAIRE

    del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Silva Caso, Wilmer; Tinco Valdez, Carmen; Pons, Maria J.; del Valle, Luis J.; Oré, Verónica Casabona; Michelena, Denisse Champin; Mayra, Jorge Bazán; Gavidea, Víctor Zavaleta; Vargas, Martha; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiologic agent of Carrion's disease. This disease has two well established phases, the most relevant being the so called Oroya Fever, in which B. bacilliformis infect the erythrocytes resulting in severe anemia and transient immunosuppression, with a high lethality in the absence of adequate antibiotic treatment. The presence of B. bacilliformis was studied in 113 blood samples suspected of Carrion’s disease based on clinical criteria, despite the absence of a...

  20. Cerebellar blood flow in methylmercury poisoning (Minamata disease)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We looked at regional cerebellar blood flow in patients with Minamata disease (MD) using technetium-99 m ethyl cysteinate dimer (99m-Tc-ECD). We carried out single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) on 15 patients with MD (eight men, seven women, aged 51-78 years, mean 70.5 years) and 11 control subjects (eight men, three women, aged 62-80 years, mean 72.5 years). Regional blood flow was measured in the superior, middle, and inferior portions of the cerebellar hemispheres, and the frontal, temporal and occipital cerebral lobes. The degree of cerebellar atrophy was assessed on MRI. There were significant differences in regional blood flow in all parts of the cerebellum between patients and control, but no significant decrease was observed in the cerebrum. Blood flow was lower in the inferior cerebellum than in the other parts. Even in patients without cerebellar atrophy, flow was significantly decreased regional blood flow in the inferior part. (orig.)

  1. Association Between Complete Blood Count Parameters and Urinary Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiray, Ozay; Cevik, Erdem; Cuce, Ferhat

    2016-01-01

    Background Complete blood count (CBC) parameters may associated with multiple diseases. Urinary stone disease is common public problem. Predictive value of CBC parameters may be associated with urinary stone disease Objectives To analyze the association between complete blood count (CBC) parameters and urinary stone disease. Patients and Methods This study was a retrospective observational study of 3,099 patients who were admitted to the urology outpatient clinic or diagnosed with urinary stone disease in the emergency services department. There were 353 patients included in the study that had ultrasonography (USG) and/or non-contrast computerized tomography (NCCT) and a CBC. Patients who had non-urinary system inflammatory disease in USG or NCCT, had fever, non-urinary system infection, anemia or diagnosed hematologic malignancy were excluded (n = 27). Patients were divided into two groups: a stone group (n = 74) and a control group (n = 252). Data of patients were retrieved from the hospital database and statistical analysis was performed. Results An increase in RDW, MPV, PDW, WBC, granulocyte percentage and a decrease in lymphocyte percentage is statistically associated with urinary stone disease (P pain in patients, it is important to remember that CBC parameters may support urinary stone disease, and considering CBC results may be useful in the diagnosis of urinary stone disease.

  2. Management of high blood pressure in peripheral arterial disease

    OpenAIRE

    Krzesinski, Jean-Marie

    2005-01-01

    Arterial hypertension (HTA) is a promoter of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in association with other atherosclerotic risk factors factors. Systolic HTA is the most frequently noted form in such disease, secondary to marked increase in large artery siffness. The existence of PAD confers on the hypertensive patient a very high cardiovascular (CV) risk, requiring an intensive global therapeutical approach. Treating HTA is one of such beneficial actions. The optimal blood pressure (BP) to...

  3. Blood flow structure in patients with coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2007-05-01

    Blood flow structure was studied by PC integrated video camera with following slide by slide analysis. Volumetric blood flow velocity was supporting on constant level (1 ml/h). Silicone tube of diameter comparable with coronary arteries diameter was used as vessel model. Cell-cell interactions were studied under glucose and anticoagulants influence. Increased adhesiveness of blood cells to tube walls was revealed in patient with coronary heart disease (CHD) compare to practically healthy persons (PHP). In patients with stable angina pectoris of high functional class and patients with AMI shear stress resistant erythrocyte aggregates were predominating in blood flow structure up to microclots formation. Clotting and erythrocytes aggregation increase as response to glucose solution injection, sharply defined in patients with CHD. Heparin injection (10 000 ED) increased linear blood flow velocity both in patients with CHD and PHP. After compare our results with other author's data we can consider that method used in our study is sensible enough to investigate blood flow structure violations in patients with CHD and PHP. Several differences of cell-cell interaction in flow under glucose and anticoagulant influence were found out in patients with CHD and PHP.

  4. Discovery of Novel Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease from Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jintao; Pan, Genhua; Ifeachor, Emmanuel; Belshaw, Robert; Li, Xinzhong

    2016-01-01

    Blood-based biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease would be very valuable because blood is a more accessible biofluid and is suitable for repeated sampling. However, currently there are no robust and reliable blood-based biomarkers for practical diagnosis. In this study we used a knowledge-based protein feature pool and two novel support vector machine embedded feature selection methods to find panels consisting of two and three biomarkers. We validated these biomarker sets using another serum cohort and an RNA profile cohort from the brain. Our panels included the proteins ECH1, NHLRC2, HOXB7, FN1, ERBB2, and SLC6A13 and demonstrated promising sensitivity (>87%), specificity (>91%), and accuracy (>89%). PMID:27418712

  5. Aggressive blood pressure control for chronic kidney disease unmasks moyamoya!

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, T. Keefe; Halabi, Carmen M.; Siefken, Philp; Karmarkar, Swati; Leonard, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Hypertensive crises in children or adolescents are rare, but chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major risk factor for occurrence. Vesicoureteral reflux nephropathy is a common cause of pediatric renal failure and is associated with hypertension. Aggressive blood pressure (BP) control has been shown to delay progression of CKD and treatment is targeted for the 50th percentile for height when compared with a target below the 90th percentile for the general pediatric hypertensive patient. We pres...

  6. Related Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) for Genetic Diseases of Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-11

    Stem Cell Transplantation; Bone Marrow Transplantation; Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Allogeneic Transplantation,; Genetic Diseases; Thalassemia; Pediatrics; Diamond-Blackfan Anemia; Combined Immune Deficiency; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Lymphoproliferative Disease; Metabolic Diseases

  7. Cerebral blood flow changes in Parkinson's disease associated with dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dementia is one of the main non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and it is diagnosed in about 30% of cases. Its aetiology remains unclear and contributing factors are controversial. Dementia may be more common in old patients with severe motor symptoms and mild cognitive impairment. Clinico-pathological studies show the association between dementia in PD and the age-related group of dementias, such as AD and VaD. A valuable aid in the assessment of dementia in PD is cerebral blood flow (CBF) brain SPECT scanning. It shows three different patterns of rCBF reduction, including frontal lobe hypoperfusion, iu Alzheimer-likel type of hypoperfusion and multiple, vascular defects. The heterogeneity of rCBF reduction may reflect the multifactorial pathophysiology of dementia in PD. It may result from concomitant AD pathology, cerebrovascular disease, destruction of nigro-striato-frontal projection or may be a distinct disease of different aetiology. (author)

  8. Diagnosis of Carrion's disease by direct blood PCR in thin blood smear negative samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana del Valle Mendoza

    Full Text Available Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiologic agent of Carrion's disease. This disease has two well established phases, the most relevant being the so called Oroya Fever, in which B. bacilliformis infect the erythrocytes resulting in severe anemia and transient immunosuppression, with a high lethality in the absence of adequate antibiotic treatment. The presence of B. bacilliformis was studied in 113 blood samples suspected of Carrion's disease based on clinical criteria, despite the absence of a positive thin blood smear, by two different PCR techniques (using Bartonella-specific and universal 16S rRNA gene primers, and by bacterial culture. The specific 16S rRNA gene primers revealed the presence of 21 B. bacilliformis and 1 Bartonella elizabethae, while universal primers showed both the presence of 3 coinfections in which a concomitant pathogen was detected plus Bartonella, in addition to the presence of infections by other microorganisms such as Agrobacterium or Bacillus firmus. These data support the need to implement molecular tools to diagnose Carrion's disease.

  9. Purinergic signaling and blood vessels in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnstock, Geoffrey; Ralevic, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Purinergic signaling plays important roles in control of vascular tone and remodeling. There is dual control of vascular tone by ATP released as a cotransmitter with noradrenaline from perivascular sympathetic nerves to cause vasoconstriction via P2X1 receptors, whereas ATP released from endothelial cells in response to changes in blood flow (producing shear stress) or hypoxia acts on P2X and P2Y receptors on endothelial cells to produce nitric oxide and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor, which dilates vessels. ATP is also released from sensory-motor nerves during antidromic reflex activity to produce relaxation of some blood vessels. In this review, we stress the differences in neural and endothelial factors in purinergic control of different blood vessels. The long-term (trophic) actions of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides and nucleotides in promoting migration and proliferation of both vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells via P1 and P2Y receptors during angiogenesis and vessel remodeling during restenosis after angioplasty are described. The pathophysiology of blood vessels and therapeutic potential of purinergic agents in diseases, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, ischemia, thrombosis and stroke, diabetes, and migraine, is discussed.

  10. Peripheral blood lymphocytes DNA in patients with chronic liver diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vasiliy I Reshetnyak; Tatyana I Sharafanova; Ludmila U Ilchenko; Elena V Golovanova; Gennadiy G Poroshenko

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND Viral replication in blood cells with nucleuses may lead to the damage of lymphocytes genetic apparatus and the beginning of immunopathological reactions.AIM Of this investigation is to reveal the damage to peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL)DNA in the patients with chronic liver diseases.MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixteen-ninepatients with chronic liver diseases (37 patients with chronic viral hepatitis, 2 patients with liver cirrhosis of mixed etiology (alcohol + virus G),30 women with primary biliary cirrhosis-PBC)were examined. The condition of DNA structure of PBL-was measured by the fluorescenceanalysis of DNA unwinding (FADU) technique with modification. Changes of fluorescence (in %) reflected the DNA distractions degree (thepresence of DNA single-stranded breaks and alkalinelabile sights).RESULTS AND CONCLUSION . The quantity of DNA single-stranded breaks and alkalinelabile sightsin DNA in all patients with chronic viral hepatitis .didnt differ from the control group,excluding the patients with chronic hepatitis (CH) C + G. Patients with HGV and TTV monoinfection had demonstrated the increase of the DNA single-stranded breaks PBL quantity.This fact may be connected with hypothesisabout the viruses replication in white blood cells discussed in the literature. Tendency to increase quantity of DNA PBL damages in the patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) accordingly to the alkaline phosphatase activity increase was revealed. Significant decrease of the DNA single-stranded breaks and alkalinelabile sights in the PBC patients that were treated with prednison was demonstrated. Probably, the tendency to increase the quantity of DNA singlestranded breaks and alkalinelabile sights in lymphocytes of the PBC patients was depended on the surplus of the blood bile acid content.

  11. Determinants of resting cerebral blood flow in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Adam M; Borzage, Matthew T; Choi, Soyoung; Václavů, Lena; Tamrazi, Benita; Nederveen, Aart J; Coates, Thomas D; Wood, John C

    2016-09-01

    Stroke is common in children with sickle cell disease and results from an imbalance in oxygen supply and demand. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is increased in patients with sickle cell disease to compensate for their anemia, but adequacy of their oxygen delivery has not been systematically demonstrated. This study examined the physiological determinants of CBF in 37 patients with sickle cell disease, 38 ethnicity matched control subjects and 16 patients with anemia of non-sickle origin. Cerebral blood flow was measured using phase contrast MRI of the carotid and vertebral arteries. CBF increased inversely to oxygen content (r(2)  = 0.69, P Brain oxygen delivery, the product of CBF and oxygen content, was normal in all groups. Brain composition, specifically the relative amounts of grey and white matter, was the next strongest CBF predictor, presumably by influencing cerebral metabolic rate. Grey matter/white matter ratio and CBF declined monotonically until the age of 25 in all subjects, consistent with known maturational changes in brain composition. Further CBF reductions were observed with age in subjects older than 35 years of age, likely reflecting microvascular aging. On multivariate regression, CBF was independent of disease state, hemoglobin S, hemoglobin F, reticulocyte count and cell free hemoglobin, suggesting that it is regulated similarly in patients and control subjects. In conclusion, sickle cell disease patients had sufficient oxygen delivery at rest, but accomplish this only by marked increases in their resting CBF, potentially limiting their ability to further augment flow in response to stress. Am. J. Hematol. 91:912-917, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27263497

  12. Polymerase chain reaction and blood culture in blood donors screened by ELISA test for Chagas' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Tieko Kinoshita-Yanaga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate, through blood culture and PCR, the results of the ELISA for Chagas' disease in the screening of blood donors in the public blood-supply network of the state of Paraná, Brazil, and to map the epidemiological profile of the donors with respect to their risk of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. The negative and positive results of the ELISA were confirmed by blood culture and PCR for 190/191 individuals (99.5%. For one individual (0.5%, the ELISA was inconclusive, blood culture and IIF were negative, and IHA and PCR positive. Three individuals (1.6% were positive for T. cruzi on all the tests. Donors were predominantly female, and natives of Paraná, of rural origin, had observed or been informed of the presence of the vector in the municipalities where they resided, had never received a blood transfusion, had donated blood 1 to 4 times, and reported no cases of Chagas' disease in their families. We concluded that PCR and blood culturing have excellent potential for confirming the results of the ELISA, and that candidate blood donors with negative or positive tests have a similar risk of infection by T. cruzi, indicating that the ELISA test is sufficiently safe for screening blood prior to use.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, pela hemocultura e PCR, os resultados do teste ELISA utilizado para doença de Chagas na triagem de doadores de sangue na rede pública do Estado do Paraná, Brasil, e traçar o perfil epidemiológico dos doadores quanto ao risco de infecção pelo Trypanosoma cruzi. Os resultados negativos e positivos do ELISA foram confirmados pela hemocultura e PCR em 190/191 indivíduos (99,5%. Para um indivíduo (0,5%, o teste de ELISA foi inconclusivo, hemocultura e IFI foram negativas, HAI e PCR foram positivas. Três indivíduos (1,6% foram positivos para T. cruzi em todos os testes. A maioria dos doadores era do sexo feminino, oriundos do Estado do Paraná, de origem rural, tinham

  13. Cyclodextrins, blood-brain barrier, and treatment of neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecsernyés, Miklós; Fenyvesi, Ferenc; Bácskay, Ildikó; Deli, Mária A; Szente, Lajos; Fenyvesi, Éva

    2014-11-01

    Biological barriers are the main defense systems of the homeostasis of the organism and protected organs. The blood-brain barrier (BBB), formed by the endothelial cells of brain capillaries, not only provides nutrients and protection to the central nervous system but also restricts the entry of drugs, emphasizing its importance in the treatment of neurological diseases. Cyclodextrins are increasingly used in human pharmacotherapy. Due to their favorable profile to form hydrophilic inclusion complexes with poorly soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients, they are present as excipients in many marketed drugs. Application of cyclodextrins is widespread in formulations for oral, parenteral, nasal, pulmonary, and skin delivery of drugs. Experimental and clinical data suggest that cyclodextrins can be used not only as excipients for centrally acting marketed drugs like antiepileptics, but also as active pharmaceutical ingredients to treat neurological diseases. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin received orphan drug designation for the treatment of Niemann-Pick type C disease. In addition to this rare lysosomal storage disease with neurological symptoms, experimental research revealed the potential therapeutic use of cyclodextrins and cyclodextrin nanoparticles in neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, neuroinfections and brain tumors. In this context, the biological effects of cyclodextrins, their interaction with plasma membranes and extraction of different lipids are highly relevant at the level of the BBB.

  14. Investigations of significance of blood smear results in diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Potkonjak Aleksandar; Lako Branislav; Belić Branislava; Milošević Nikolina; Stevančević Ognjen; Cincović Marko; Lako Bjanka

    2010-01-01

    The microscopic examination of stained smears of peripheral blood is of vital significance in the speedy diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases, in particular during the stage of infection when the cause is present in the blood, or blood cells. It is sometimes possible to make a definitive diagnosis of an infectious or parasitic disease following an examination of a stained smear of the peripheral blood. Since microscopic examinations of a peripheral blood smear are applied increasi...

  15. Innocent blood: a history of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Hemorrhages occurring in the newborn without trauma have been observed by obstetricians since the 17th century, but have been considered different diseases depending on their location. Umbilical hemorrhage associated with obstructed bile canals was described by Cheyne in 1802. Grandidier in 1871 and Townsend in 1894 grouped together various forms of neonatal bleeds and associated them with disturbed coagulation. When the clotting system became better understood in the last decade of the 19th century, effective symptomatic treatment was developed: gelatin, serum injection, and the transfusion of fresh blood. In 1935, Dam detected the function of vitamin K in the coagulation system and 4 years later, Waddell introduced vitamin K administration into therapy and prevention of neonatal hemorrhagic disease. Kernicterus occurred when high doses of synthetic water-soluble vitamin K analogues were given to preterm infants, reminding physicians that progress in neonatal therapy rests on the cornerstones of controlled trials and follow-up.

  16. Dyslipidemia and Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene L. Bowman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Blood-brain barrier (BBB dysfunction may have a significant role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Modifiable factors associated with BBB function may have therapeutic implication. This study tested the hypothesis that dyslipidemia is associated with BBB impairment in mild-to-moderate AD. Methods. Thirty-six subjects with AD were followed for 1 year. Fasting CSF and plasma were collected with clinical assessments at baseline and 12 months. BBB impairment was defined as CSF albumin index ≥9. Independent t-tests and linear regression assessed the relationship between plasma lipoproteins and BBB integrity. Results. Dyslipidemia was prevalent in 47% of the population, and in 75% of those with BBB impairment. Subjects with BBB impairment had significantly higher mean plasma triglyceride and lower HDL cholesterol (TG, P=0.007; HDL, P=0.043. Plasma triglycerides explained 22% of the variance in BBB integrity and remained significant after controlling for age, gender, ApoE-4 genotype, blood pressure, and statin use. Conclusion. Dyslipidemia is more prevalent in AD subjects with BBB impairment. Plasma triglyceride and HDL cholesterol may have a role in maintaining BBB integrity in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Cerebral blood flow in sickle cell cerebrovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttenlocher, P.R.; Moohr, J.W.; Johns, L.; Brown, F.D.

    1984-05-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been studied by the xenon-133 (/sup 133/Xe) inhalation method in 16 children with suspected sickle cell cerebrovascular disease. Abnormalities consisting of decreases in total, hemispheral, or regional CBF were found in 17 of 26 studies. Eleven studies performed immediately after stroke, transient ischemic attack, or depression of state of alertness showed abnormalities. In addition to confirming regional cerebrovascular insufficiency in children with stroke due to major cerebral artery occlusion, the method detected diffuse decrease in CBF in children with stupor, coma, and seizures who had normal angiographic findings. In contrast, six of seven studies obtained after exchange transfusion or during maintenance on hypertransfusion therapy showed normal findings. The difference between results in patients with acute neurologic disturbances and those receiving transfusion therapy was statistically significant (P less than .005). The data indicate that the /sup 133/Xe method reliably demonstrates cerebrovascular impairment in sickle cell disease. They also suggest that CBF changes in patients with sickle cell disease can be reversed by exchange transfusion and by hypertransfusion therapy. The /sup 133/Xe CBF method may be useful for following up children with sickle cell disease who are at high risk for recurrent stroke.

  18. Possible Correlation of Transfusion Transmitted Diseases with Rh type and ABO Blood Group System

    OpenAIRE

    Tyagi, Surabhi; Tyagi, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Background: Screening of blood is mandatory for transfusion transmitted diseases and is routinely done in the blood banks. As blood is the major source transmission of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus & many other diseases the hazards can be minimised by effective donor selection and screening.

  19. Cerebral blood flow in Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roher AE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Alex E Roher,1 Josef P Debbins,2 Michael Malek-Ahmadi,3 Kewei Chen,4 James G Pipe,2 Sharmeen Maze,2 Christine Belden,3 Chera L Maarouf,1 Pradeep Thiyyagura,4 Hua Mo,4 Jesse M Hunter,1 Tyler A Kokjohn,1,5 Douglas G Walker,6 Jane C Kruchowsky,6 Marek Belohlavek,7 Marwan N Sabbagh,3 Thomas G Beach81The Longtine Center for Neurodegenerative Biochemistry, Banner Sun Health Research Institute, Sun City, 2Keller Center for Imaging Innovation, Neuroimaging Research, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, 3Cleo Roberts Center for Clinical Research, Banner Sun Health Research Institute, Sun City, 4Computational Image Analysis Program, Banner Alzheimer’s Institute, Phoenix, 5Department of Microbiology, Midwestern University, Glendale, 6Laboratory of Neuroinflammation, Banner Sun Health Research Institute, Sun City, 7Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, 8Civin Laboratory for Neuropathology, Banner Sun Health Research Institute, Sun City, AZ, USABackground: Alzheimer’s disease (AD dementia is a consequence of heterogeneous and complex interactions of age-related neurodegeneration and vascular-associated pathologies. Evidence has accumulated that there is increased atherosclerosis/arteriosclerosis of the intracranial arteries in AD and that this may be additive or synergistic with respect to the generation of hypoxia/ischemia and cognitive dysfunction. The effectiveness of pharmacologic therapies and lifestyle modification in reducing cardiovascular disease has prompted a reconsideration of the roles that cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular function play in the pathogenesis of dementia.Methods: Using two-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging, we quantified cerebral blood flow within the internal carotid, basilar, and middle cerebral arteries in a group of individuals with mild to moderate AD (n = 8 and compared the results with those from a group of age-matched nondemented control (NDC subjects (n = 9

  20. Women and Heart Disease | Healthy Blood Pressure | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Special Section: Healthy Blood Pressure Women and Heart Disease Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table ... Vivica A. Fox. "The Heart Truth Campaign" Urges Women To Take Good Blood Pressure Seriously February is ...

  1. Radiosensitivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes in autoimmune disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes, cultured with Con A, can be inhibited by ionizing radiation. Lymphocytes from patients with conditions associated with autoimmunity, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and polymyositis, are more radiosensitive than those from healthy volunteers or patients with conditions not associated with autoimmunity. Nuclear material isolated from the lymphocytes of patients with autoimmune diseases is, on average, lighter in density than the nuclear material from most healthy controls. This difference in density is not related to increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation but the degree of post-irradiation change in density (lightening) is proportional to the initial density, i.e. more dense nuclear material always shows a greater upward shift after radiation. The recovery of pre-irradiation density of nuclear material, 1 h after radiation exposure, taken as an indication of DNA repair, correlates with the radiosensitivity of lymphocyte proliferation (Con A response); failure to return to pre-irradiation density being associated with increased sensitivity of proliferative response. These results require extension but, taken with previously reported studied of the effects of DNA methylating agents, support the idea that DNA damage and its defective repair could be important in the aetio-pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. (author)

  2. Radiosensitivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes in autoimmune disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, G. (Kennedy Inst. of Rheumatology, London (UK). Div. of Experimental Pathology); Cramp, W.A.; Edwards, J.C.; George, A.M.; Sabovljev, S.A.; Hart, L.; Hughes, G.R.V. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK)); Denman, A.M. (Northwich Park Hospital, Harrow (UK)); Yatvin, M.B. (Wisconsin Clinical Cancer Center, Madison (USA))

    1985-06-01

    The proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes, cultured with Con A, can be inhibited by ionizing radiation. Lymphocytes from patients with conditions associated with autoimmunity, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and polymyositis, are more radiosensitive than those from healthy volunteers or patients with conditions not associated with autoimmunity. Nuclear material isolated from the lymphocytes of patients with autoimmune diseases is, on average, lighter in density than the nuclear material from most healthy controls. This difference in density is not related to increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation but the degree of post-irradiation change in density (lightening) is proportional to the initial density, i.e. more dense nuclear material always shows a greater upward shift after radiation. The recovery of pre-irradiation density of nuclear material, 1 h after radiation exposure, taken as an indication of DNA repair, correlates with the radiosensitivity of lymphocyte proliferation (Con A response); failure to return to pre-irradiation density being associated with increased sensitivity of proliferative response. These results require extension but, taken with previously reported studied of the effects of DNA methylating agents, support the idea that DNA damage and its defective repair could be important in the aetio-pathogenesis of autoimmune disease.

  3. The variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Risk, uncertainty or safety in the use of blood and blood derivatives?

    OpenAIRE

    Liras, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    It has been long since French physician Jean-Baptiste Denys carried out the first successful blood transfusion to a human being. Using bird feathers as canules, sheep blood was transfused to a young man. The patient died soon after Denys' treatment and Denys was accused of murder. In the XXI century, known as the biotechnology century, we face new challenges in Medicine. New emerging and reemerging diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) or "mad cow disease" and its human variant (v...

  4. Capillary pericytes regulate cerebral blood flow in health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Catherine N; Reynell, Clare; Gesslein, Bodil;

    2014-01-01

    Increases in brain blood flow, evoked by neuronal activity, power neural computation and form the basis of BOLD (blood-oxygen-level-dependent) functional imaging. Whether blood flow is controlled solely by arteriole smooth muscle, or also by capillary pericytes, is controversial. We demonstrate...... blood flow, capillaries dilate before arterioles and are estimated to produce 84% of the blood flow increase. In pathology, ischaemia evokes capillary constriction by pericytes. We show that this is followed by pericyte death in rigor, which may irreversibly constrict capillaries and damage the blood-brain...

  5. Blood-based biomarkers of microvascular pathology in Alzheimer's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ewers, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) is a genetically complex and chronically progressive neurodegenerative disorder with molecular mechanisms and neuropathologies centering around the amyloidogenic pathway, hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of tau protein, and neurofibrillary degeneration. While cerebrovascular changes have not been traditionally considered to be a central part of AD pathology, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that they may, in fact, be a characteristic feature of the AD brain as well. In particular, microvascular abnormalities within the brain have been associated with pathological AD hallmarks and may precede neurodegeneration. In vivo assessment of microvascular pathology provides a promising approach to develop useful biological markers for early detection and pathological characterization of AD. This review focuses on established blood-based biological marker candidates of microvascular pathology in AD. These candidates include plasma concentration of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) that are increased in AD. Measures of endothelial vasodilatory function including endothelin (ET-1), adrenomedullin (ADM), and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), as well as sphingolipids are significantly altered in mild AD or during the predementia stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), suggesting sensitivity of these biomarkers for early detection and diagnosis. In conclusion, the emerging clinical diagnostic evidence for the value of blood-based microvascular biomarkers in AD is promising, however, still requires validation in phase II and III diagnostic trials. Moreover, it is still unclear whether the described protein dysbalances are early or downstream pathological events and how the detected systemic microvascular alterations relate to cerebrovascular and neuronal pathologies in the AD brain.

  6. Recovery of uncommon bacteria from blood: association with neoplastic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, J L; Koneman, E W

    1995-07-01

    bloodstream infections of Salmonella typhimurium and Capno-cytophaga canimorsus in Hodgkin's disease patients seems likely due to a particular mechanism which infection by these species is favored. The specific nature of these mechanisms remains to be determined. The recovery of any unusual bacterium from blood should warrant a careful consideration of the possibility of underlying disease, especially cancer. Microbiologists should advise clinicians of the unusual nature of the identified organism and provide the counsel that certain neoplastic processes, often accompanied by neutropenia, render the human host susceptible to invasion by almost any bacterium. The recovery of such organisms as C. septicum or S. bovis should prompt the clinician to aggressively seek to identify an occult neoplasm if one has not yet been diagnosed.

  7. The variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Risk, uncertainty or safety in the use of blood and blood derivatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liras, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    It has been long since French physician Jean-Baptiste Denys carried out the first successful blood transfusion to a human being. Using bird feathers as canules, sheep blood was transfused to a young man. The patient died soon after Denys' treatment and Denys was accused of murder. In the XXI century, known as the biotechnology century, we face new challenges in Medicine. New emerging and reemerging diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) or "mad cow disease" and its human variant (vCJD), challenge the biosafety aspects of a widely extended and extremely useful technique, that is, the perfusion of blood, of its derived components and of other pharmacological products obtained from plasma. To face these new challenges we need innovative prevention strategies. PMID:18573217

  8. [Blood groups - minuses and pluses. Do the blood group antigens protect us from infectious diseases?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwiński, Marcin

    2015-06-25

    Human blood can be divided into groups, which is a method of blood classification based on the presence or absence of inherited erythrocyte surface antigens that can elicit immune response. According to the International Society of Blood Transfusion, there are 341 blood group antigens collected in 35 blood group systems. These antigens can be proteins, glycoproteins or glycosphingolipids, and function as transmembrane transporters, ion channels, adhesion molecules or receptors for other proteins. The majority of blood group antigens is present also on another types of cells. Due to their localization on the surface of cells, blood group antigens can act as receptors for various pathogens or their toxins, such as protozoa (malaria parasites), bacteria (Helicobacter pylori, Vibrio cholerae and Shigella dysenteriae) and viruses (Noroviruses, Parvoviruses, HIV). If the presence of group antigen (or its variant which arised due to mutation) is beneficial for the host (e.g. because pathogens are not able to bind to the cells), the blood group may become a selection trait, leading to its dissemination in the population exposed to that pathogen. There are thirteen blood group systems that can be related to pathogen resistance, and it seems that the particular influence was elicit by malaria parasites. It is generally thought that the high incidence of blood groups such as O in the Amazon region, Fy(a-b-) in Africa and Ge(-) in Papua-New Guinea is the result of selective pressure from malaria parasite. This review summarizes the data about relationship between blood groups and resistance to pathogens.

  9. Association of plasma uric acid with ischaemic heart disease and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Tom M; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Benn, Marianne;

    2013-01-01

    To assess the associations between both uric acid levels and hyperuricaemia, with ischaemic heart disease and blood pressure, and to explore the potentially confounding role of body mass index.......To assess the associations between both uric acid levels and hyperuricaemia, with ischaemic heart disease and blood pressure, and to explore the potentially confounding role of body mass index....

  10. Contribution of blood platelets to vascular pathology in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang W

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Wei Zhang,1,2 Wei Huang,1 Fang Jing11Department of Pharmacology, Institutes for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Molecular Therapy and Pharmaceutical Innovation, Shanghai, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA is a critical factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. In the clinical setting, nearly 98% AD patients have CAA, and 75% of these patients are rated as severe CAA. It is characterized by the deposition of the β-amyloid peptide (mainly Aβ40 in the walls of cerebral vessels, which induces the degeneration of vessel wall components, reduces cerebral blood flow, and aggravates cognitive decline. Platelets are anuclear cell fragments from bone marrow megakaryocytes and their function in hemostasis and thrombosis has long been recognized. Recently, increasing evidence suggests that platelet activation can also mediate the onset and development of CAA. First, platelet activation and adhesion to a vessel wall is the initial step of vascular injury. Activated platelets contribute to more than 90% circulating Aß (mainly Aβ1-40, which in turn activates platelets and results in the vicious cycle of Aβ overproduction in damaged vessel. Second, the uncontrolled activation of platelets leads to a chronic inflammatory reaction by secretion of chemokines (eg, platelet factor 4 [PF4], regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and presumably secreted [RANTES], and macrophage inflammatory protein [MIP-1α], interleukins (IL-1 β, IL-7, and IL-8, prostaglandins, and CD40 ligand (CD40L. The interaction of these biological response modulators with platelets, endothelial cells, and leukocytes establishes a localized inflammatory response that contributes to CAA formation. Finally, activated platelets are the upholder of fibrin clots, which are structurally abnormal and resistant to degradation

  11. Periodontal disease and inflammatory blood cytokines in patients with stable coronary artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAMPITS, Cassio; MONTENEGRO, Marlon M.; RIBEIRO, Ingrid W. J.; FURTADO, Mariana V.; POLANCZYK, Carisi A.; RÖSING, Cassiano K.; HAAS, Alex. N

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Periodontal disease has been associated with elevations of blood cytokines involved in atherosclerosis in systemically healthy individuals, but little is known about this association in stable cardiovascular patients. The aim of this study was to assess the association between periodontal disease (exposure) and blood cytokine levels (outcomes) in a target population of patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Material and Methods This cross-sectional study included 91 patients with stable CAD who had been under optimized cardiovascular care. Blood levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α were measured by Luminex technology. A full-mouth periodontal examination was conducted to record probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment (CA) loss. Multiple linear regression models, adjusting for gender, body mass index, oral hypoglycemic drugs, smoking, and occurre:nce of acute myocardial infarction were applied. Results CAD patients that experienced major events had higher concentrations of IFN-γ (median: 5.05 pg/mL vs. 3.01 pg/mL; p=0.01), IL-10 (median: 2.33 pg/mL vs. 1.01 pg/mL; p=0.03), and TNF-α (median: 9.17 pg/mL vs. 7.47 pg/mL; p=0.02). Higher numbers of teeth with at least 6 mm of CA loss (R2=0.07) and PD (R2=0.06) were significantly associated with higher IFN-γ log concentrations. Mean CA loss (R2=0.05) and PD (R2=0.06) were significantly related to IL-10 concentrations. Elevated concentrations of TNF-α were associated with higher mean CA loss (R2=0.07). Conclusion Periodontal disease is associated with increased systemic inflammation in stable cardiovascular patients. These findings provide additional evidence supporting the idea that periodontal disease can be a prognostic factor in cardiovascular patients. PMID:27556206

  12. Blood Eosinophils and Exacerbations in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Krogh, Signe; Nielsen, Sune F; Lange, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Whether high blood eosinophils are associated with COPD exacerbations among individuals with COPD in the general population is largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that high blood eosinophils predict COPD exacerbations. METHODS: Among 81,668 individuals from the Copenhagen...... General Population Study, we examined 7,225 with COPD based on spirometry. We recorded blood eosinophils at baseline and future COPD exacerbations longitudinally, defined as moderate (short-course treatment of systemic corticosteroids) or severe (hospitalization). We also assessed exacerbation risk...... and 2,864 moderate COPD exacerbations were recorded. Among all participants with COPD, blood eosinophils above versus below 0.34∙10(9) cells/L had a multivariable adjusted incidence rate ratio of 1.76 (95%CI: 1.56-1.99) for severe exacerbations and of 1.15 (1.05-1.27) for moderate exacerbations...

  13. CFD simulation of blood flow inside the corkscrew collaterals of the Buerger’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sharifi, Alireza; Charjouei Moghadam, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Buerger’s disease is an occlusive arterial disease that occurs mainly in medium and small vessels. This disease is associated with Tobacco usage. The existence of corkscrew collateral is one of the established characteristics of the Buerger’s disease. Methods: In this study, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of blood flow within the corkscrew artery of the Buerger’s disease is conducted. The geometry of the artery is constructed based on the actual corkscrew arte...

  14. Increased epigenetic age and granulocyte counts in the blood of Parkinson's disease patients

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, Steve; Ritz, Beate R.

    2015-01-01

    It has been a long standing hypothesis that blood tissue of PD Parkinson's disease (PD) patients may exhibit signs of accelerated aging. Here we use DNA methylation based biomarkers of aging (“epigenetic clock”) to assess the aging rate of blood in two ethnically distinct case-control data sets. Using n=508 Caucasian and n=84 Hispanic blood samples, we assess a) the intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration of blood (IEAA), which is independent of blood cell counts, and b) the extrinsic epigeneti...

  15. STUDIES ON BLOOD GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE PROTEIN LEVEL OF CHILDREN IN KESHAN DISEASE AND KASHIN-BECK DISEASE AREAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭武红; 种晓红; 杨占田; 翟连榜; 王立新; 徐光禄

    2002-01-01

    Objective To oberve the change in blood glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) protein levels of residents in the low-selenium (Se) area by contrasting the blood GSH-Px protein level of the children in the Keshan disease area with those in the Kashin-Beck disease and non-endemic areas. Methods GSH-Px protein levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The Se content and GSH-Px activity were assayed by the 2,3-diaminonaphthalene spectrofluorimetric method and glutathione reductase-coupled method respectively. Results ①The blood Se content and GSH-Px protein level of children in Keshan disease area (Moding) were significantly lower than those in Xi'an non-endemic area, however, there was no significant difference when compared with the low-Se non-endemic area; ②The blood Se content, GSH-Px activity and GSH-Px protein level of children in the Kashin-Beck disease area (Yulin) were significantly lower than those of children in two non-endemic areas and in the Keshan disease area; ③The blood Se content and GSH-Px activity were positively correlated to the GSH-Px protein level respectively. Conclusion These results indicate that the blood GSH-Px protein level is decreased in the low-Se residents. The Se status not only affects the GSH-Px activity but also regulate the GSH-Px protein level.

  16. [Chagas' disease in patients in chronic hemodialysis. Prevalence and risk of transmission by blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorca, M; Lorca, E; Atías, A; Plubins, L

    1989-06-01

    A serologic study of Chagas disease was performed in 110 patients submitted to chronic hemodialisis and blood transfusions. Immunofluorescence antibody testing (IgG and IgM) was positive in 6 out of 62 patients receiving multiple blood transfusions (9.7%), but negative in all 48 subjects without transfusions. Thus, repeated blood transfusion is a significant risk for T cruzi infection in chronic hemodialized patients. PMID:2501847

  17. Blood pressure 2 years after a chronic disease management intervention study

    OpenAIRE

    Tobe, Sheldon; Vincent, Lloyd; Wentworth, Joan; Hildebrandt, Denise; Kiss, Alexander; Perkins, Nancy; Hartman, Susan; Ironstand, Laurie; Hoppe, Jacquie; Hunter, Katie; Pylypchuk, George

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To follow blood pressure change over time in participants who had participated in a 1- year chronic disease management program focused on blood pressure reduction. The expectation was that blood pressure would return back to the baseline once the study was completed. Study design. Prospective, single-arm observational study. Methods. Study participants were Status Indians living on-reserve with type 2 diabetes and persistent hypertension who had participated in the DREAM3 study. B...

  18. Chronobiologically Interpreted Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberg, Franz; Mult, Hc; Cornélissen, Germaine; Hillman, Dewayne; Beaty, Larry A; Hong, Shiyu; Schwartzkopff, Othild; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Siegelova, Jarmila

    2012-05-01

    To detect vascular variability anomalies (VVAs), a blood pressure and heart rate profile around the clock for at least 7 days is a start. As a minimum, measurement every 60 or preferably 30 minutes for a week is needed, to be continued if abnormality is found, to assess the about 24-hour (circadian) variability that exists in all individuals. As a first dividend, one then also obtains a glimpse of 2 of the very many longer-than-circadian periodicities, the biological half-week and week. Certainly if we can have sensors and computer chips in our cars that continuously monitor the pressure over a tire's life, we should be able to do the same job for ourselves for diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Healthcare today emphasizes wellness with recommendations for exercise and a proper diet, yet these evaluations may not be adequate. BP may be measured at a visit to the doctor or before an exercise session, along with measuring body weight and performing a physical exam. The seeds of disease are planted long before they are visible, and what appears to be normal from a conventional point of view may in fact actually be abnormal. Hidden alterations of physiological function, masked by the body's remarkable adaptive capabilities, may become visible through a new diagnostic and therapeutic realm-chronobiology-that reveals hitherto unseen abnormalities. The tools of chronobiology may yield additional dividends, such as the detection of physiological "loads" related to stress and stress relief and the undesirable effcts of space weather upon personal events such as sudden cardiac death, societal events like terrorism and war, and natural disasters. Chronobiologi cally interpreted automatic ambulatory BP and heart rate (HR) monitoring (C-ABPM) may detect the antecedents of these types of events. C-ABPM is of interest in preventive cardiology, since it reveals new diagnoses as vascular variability anomalies (VVAs) and renders previous conventional diagnoses more reliable, such

  19. Osteoclast formation from peripheral blood of patients with bone-lytic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J. de Vries; V. Everts

    2009-01-01

    Recent literature indicates that osteoclast formation in vitro from peripheral blood of patients with diseases associated with bone loss such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, periodontitis and bone metastatic cancer may occur spontaneously being independent of addition of osteoclast formation

  20. Features of ambulatory blood pressure in 540 patients with chronic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the features and influencing factors of ambulatory blood pressure in chronic kidney disease(CKD)patients.Methods A total of 540 CKD patients from May 2010 to May 2012 in our department

  1. Relationship of blood pressure variability and angiotensinogen T235M polymorphism with Binswanger’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    位慧芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To detect the relationship of blood pressure variability(BPV) and angiotensinogen(AGT) T235M polymorphism with Binswanger’s disease(BD). Methods Totally 122 cases with BD and 108 cases with essential hypertension had been enrolled. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was used to get the data

  2. Neurofilament Light Chain in Blood and CSF as Marker of Disease Progression in Mouse Models and in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacioglu, Mehtap; Maia, Luis F; Preische, Oliver; Schelle, Juliane; Apel, Anja; Kaeser, Stephan A; Schweighauser, Manuel; Eninger, Timo; Lambert, Marius; Pilotto, Andrea; Shimshek, Derya R; Neumann, Ulf; Kahle, Philipp J; Staufenbiel, Matthias; Neumann, Manuela; Maetzler, Walter; Kuhle, Jens; Jucker, Mathias

    2016-07-01

    A majority of current disease-modifying therapeutic approaches for age-related neurodegenerative diseases target their characteristic proteopathic lesions (α-synuclein, Tau, Aβ). To monitor such treatments, fluid biomarkers reflecting the underlying disease process are crucial. We found robust increases of neurofilament light chain (NfL) in CSF and blood in murine models of α-synucleinopathies, tauopathy, and β-amyloidosis. Blood and CSF NfL levels were strongly correlated, and NfL increases coincided with the onset and progression of the corresponding proteopathic lesions in brain. Experimental induction of α-synuclein lesions increased CSF and blood NfL levels, while blocking Aβ lesions attenuated the NfL increase. Consistently, we also found NfL increases in CSF and blood of human α-synucleinopathies, tauopathies, and Alzheimer's disease. Our results suggest that CSF and particularly blood NfL can serve as a reliable and easily accessible biomarker to monitor disease progression and treatment response in mouse models and potentially in human proteopathic neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Neurofilament Light Chain in Blood and CSF as Marker of Disease Progression in Mouse Models and in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacioglu, Mehtap; Maia, Luis F; Preische, Oliver; Schelle, Juliane; Apel, Anja; Kaeser, Stephan A; Schweighauser, Manuel; Eninger, Timo; Lambert, Marius; Pilotto, Andrea; Shimshek, Derya R; Neumann, Ulf; Kahle, Philipp J; Staufenbiel, Matthias; Neumann, Manuela; Maetzler, Walter; Kuhle, Jens; Jucker, Mathias

    2016-07-01

    A majority of current disease-modifying therapeutic approaches for age-related neurodegenerative diseases target their characteristic proteopathic lesions (α-synuclein, Tau, Aβ). To monitor such treatments, fluid biomarkers reflecting the underlying disease process are crucial. We found robust increases of neurofilament light chain (NfL) in CSF and blood in murine models of α-synucleinopathies, tauopathy, and β-amyloidosis. Blood and CSF NfL levels were strongly correlated, and NfL increases coincided with the onset and progression of the corresponding proteopathic lesions in brain. Experimental induction of α-synuclein lesions increased CSF and blood NfL levels, while blocking Aβ lesions attenuated the NfL increase. Consistently, we also found NfL increases in CSF and blood of human α-synucleinopathies, tauopathies, and Alzheimer's disease. Our results suggest that CSF and particularly blood NfL can serve as a reliable and easily accessible biomarker to monitor disease progression and treatment response in mouse models and potentially in human proteopathic neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27292537

  4. Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, Georg B; Munroe, Patricia B; Rice, Kenneth M; Bochud, Murielle; Johnson, Andrew D; Chasman, Daniel I; Smith, Albert V; Tobin, Martin D; Verwoert, Germaine C; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Pihur, Vasyl; Vollenweider, Peter; O'Reilly, Paul F; Amin, Najaf; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Teumer, Alexander; Glazer, Nicole L; Launer, Lenore; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aulchenko, Yurii; Heath, Simon; Sõber, Siim; Parsa, Afshin; Luan, Jian'an; Arora, Pankaj; Dehghan, Abbas; Zhang, Feng; Lucas, Gavin; Hicks, Andrew A; Jackson, Anne U; Peden, John F; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wild, Sarah H; Rudan, Igor; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Parker, Alex N; Fava, Cristiano; Chambers, John C; Fox, Ervin R; Kumari, Meena; Go, Min Jin; van der Harst, Pim; Kao, Wen Hong Linda; Sjögren, Marketa; Vinay, D G; Alexander, Myriam; Tabara, Yasuharu; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Whincup, Peter H; Liu, Yongmei; Shi, Gang; Kuusisto, Johanna; Tayo, Bamidele; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung Hoang; Lehtimäki, Terho; Matullo, Giuseppe; Wu, Ying; Gaunt, Tom R; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Cooper, Matthew N; Platou, Carl G P; Org, Elin; Hardy, Rebecca; Dahgam, Santosh; Palmen, Jutta; Vitart, Veronique; Braund, Peter S; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Palmas, Walter; Campbell, Harry; Ludwig, Barbara; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Palmer, Nicholette D; Aspelund, Thor; Garcia, Melissa; Chang, Yen-Pei C; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Steinle, Nanette I; Grobbee, Diederick E; Arking, Dan E; Kardia, Sharon L; Morrison, Alanna C; Hernandez, Dena; Najjar, Samer; McArdle, Wendy L; Hadley, David; Brown, Morris J; Connell, John M; Hingorani, Aroon D; Day, Ian N M; Lawlor, Debbie A; Beilby, John P; Lawrence, Robert W; Clarke, Robert; Hopewell, Jemma C; Ongen, Halit; Dreisbach, Albert W; Li, Yali; Young, J Hunter; Bis, Joshua C; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Adair, Linda S; Lee, Nanette R; Chen, Ming-Huei; Olden, Matthias; Pattaro, Cristian; Bolton, Judith A Hoffman; Köttgen, Anna; Bergmann, Sven; Mooser, Vincent; Chaturvedi, Nish; Frayling, Timothy M; Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H; Erdmann, Jeanette; Kulkarni, Smita R; Bornstein, Stefan R; Grässler, Jürgen; Groop, Leif; Voight, Benjamin F; Kettunen, Johannes; Howard, Philip; Taylor, Andrew; Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Barroso, Inês; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Weder, Alan B; Hunt, Steven C; Sun, Yan V; Bergman, Richard N; Collins, Francis S; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Scott, Laura J; Stringham, Heather M; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Vartiainen, Erkki; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Staessen, Jan A; Wang, Thomas J; Burton, Paul R; Soler Artigas, Maria; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Haidong; Lohman, Kurt K; Rudock, Megan E; Heckbert, Susan R; Smith, Nicholas L; Wiggins, Kerri L; Doumatey, Ayo; Shriner, Daniel; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Tripathy, Vikal; Langefeld, Carl D; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S; Corsi, Anna Maria; Singleton, Andrew; Forrester, Terrence; Hilton, Gina; McKenzie, Colin A; Salako, Tunde; Iwai, Naoharu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Umemura, Satoshi; Eyheramendy, Susana; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Jong-Young; Scott, James; Sehmi, Joban S; Zhang, Weihua; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Smith, George Davey; Wong, Andrew; Narisu, Narisu; Stančáková, Alena; Raffel, Leslie J; Yao, Jie; Kathiresan, Sekar; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Schwartz, Stephen M; Ikram, M Arfan; Longstreth, W T; Mosley, Thomas H; Seshadri, Sudha; Shrine, Nick R G; Wain, Louise V; Morken, Mario A; Swift, Amy J; Laitinen, Jaana; Prokopenko, Inga; Zitting, Paavo; Cooper, Jackie A; Humphries, Steve E; Danesh, John; Rasheed, Asif; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Bakker, Stephan J L; van Gilst, Wiek H; Janipalli, Charles S; Mani, K Radha; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Hofman, Albert; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U S; Oostra, Ben A; Demirkan, Ayse; Isaacs, Aaron; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Lakatta, Edward G; Orru, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kangas, Antti J; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Soininen, Pasi; Tukiainen, Taru; Würtz, Peter; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Dörr, Marcus; Kroemer, Heyo K; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Deloukas, Panos; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D; Zhai, Guangju; Meschia, James F; Nalls, Michael A; Sharma, Pankaj; Terzic, Janos; Kumar, M V Kranthi; Denniff, Matthew; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Fowkes, F Gerald R; Charchar, Fadi J; Schwarz, Peter E H; Hayward, Caroline; Guo, Xiuqing; Rotimi, Charles; Bots, Michiel L; Brand, Eva; Samani, Nilesh J; Polasek, Ozren; Talmud, Philippa J; Nyberg, Fredrik; Kuh, Diana; Laan, Maris; Hveem, Kristian; Palmer, Lyle J; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Casas, Juan P; Mohlke, Karen L; Vineis, Paolo; Raitakari, Olli; Ganesh, Santhi K; Wong, Tien Y; Tai, E Shyong; Cooper, Richard S; Laakso, Markku; Rao, Dabeeru C; Harris, Tamara B; Morris, Richard W; Dominiczak, Anna F; Kivimaki, Mika; Marmot, Michael G; Miki, Tetsuro; Saleheen, Danish; Chandak, Giriraj R; Coresh, Josef; Navis, Gerjan; Salomaa, Veikko; Han, Bok-Ghee; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Kooner, Jaspal S; Melander, Olle; Ridker, Paul M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gyllensten, Ulf B; Wright, Alan F; Wilson, James F; Ferrucci, Luigi; Farrall, Martin; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Pramstaller, Peter P; Elosua, Roberto; Soranzo, Nicole; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Altshuler, David; Loos, Ruth J F; Shuldiner, Alan R; Gieger, Christian; Meneton, Pierre; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Rotter, Jerome I; Rettig, Rainer; Uda, Manuela; Strachan, David P; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Beckmann, Jacques S; Boerwinkle, Eric; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Boehnke, Michael; Larson, Martin G; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Psaty, Bruce M; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Elliott, Paul; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Levy, Daniel; Caulfield, Mark J; Johnson, Toby

    2011-10-01

    Blood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (≥140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or  ≥90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This genome-wide association study of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which used a multi-stage design in 200,000 individuals of European descent, identified sixteen novel loci: six of these loci contain genes previously known or suspected to regulate blood pressure (GUCY1A3-GUCY1B3, NPR3-C5orf23, ADM, FURIN-FES, GOSR2, GNAS-EDN3); the other ten provide new clues to blood pressure physiology. A genetic risk score based on 29 genome-wide significant variants was associated with hypertension, left ventricular wall thickness, stroke and coronary artery disease, but not kidney disease or kidney function. We also observed associations with blood pressure in East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry individuals. Our findings provide new insights into the genetics and biology of blood pressure, and suggest potential novel therapeutic pathways for cardiovascular disease prevention. PMID:21909115

  5. Waterborne Exophiala species causing disease in cold-blooded animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, G.S.; Vicente, V.A.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Harrak, M.J.; Badali, H.; Seyedmousavi, S.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of mesophilic waterborne species of the black yeast genus Exophiala (Chaetothyriales) belong to a single clade judging from SSU rDNA data. Most taxa are also found to cause cutaneous or disseminated infections in cold-blooded, water animals, occasionally reaching epidemic proportions. H

  6. Waterborne Exophiala species causing disease in cold-blooded animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S. de Hoog; V.A. Vicente; M.J. Najafzadeh; M.J. Harrak; H. Badali; S. Seyedmousavi

    2011-01-01

    The majority of mesophilic waterborne species of the black yeast genus Exophiala (Chaetothyriales) belong to a single clade judging from SSU rDNA data. Most taxa are also found to cause cutaneous or disseminated infections in cold-blooded, water animals, occasionally reaching epidemic proportions. H

  7. Genetic predisposition to higher blood pressure increases risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiangfeng; Huang, Jianfeng; Wang, Laiyuan; Chen, Shufeng; Yang, Xueli; Li, Jianxin; Cao, Jie; Chen, Jichun; Li, Ying; Zhao, Liancheng; Li, Hongfan; Liu, Fangcao; Huang, Chen; Shen, Chong; Shen, Jinjin; Yu, Ling; Xu, Lihua; Mu, Jianjun; Wu, Xianping; Ji, Xu; Guo, Dongshuang; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Yang, Zili; Wang, Renping; Yang, Jun; Yan, Weili; Gu, Dongfeng

    2015-10-01

    Although multiple genetic markers associated with blood pressure have been identified by genome-wide association studies, their aggregate effect on risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease is uncertain, particularly among East Asian who may have different genetic and environmental exposures from Europeans. We aimed to examine the association between genetic predisposition to higher blood pressure and risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease in 26 262 individuals in 2 Chinese population-based prospective cohorts. A genetic risk score was calculated based on 22 established variants for blood pressure in East Asian. We found the genetic risk score was significantly and independently associated with linear increases in blood pressure and risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease (P range from 4.57×10(-3) to 3.10×10(-6)). In analyses adjusted for traditional risk factors including blood pressure, individuals carrying most blood pressure-related risk alleles (top quintile of genetic score distribution) had 40% (95% confidence interval, 18-66) and 26% (6-45) increased risk for incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease, respectively, when compared with individuals in the bottom quintile. The genetic risk score also significantly improved discrimination for incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease and led to modest improvements in risk reclassification for cardiovascular disease (all the Pblood pressure is an independent risk factor for blood pressure increase and incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease and provides modest incremental information to cardiovascular disease risk prediction. The potential clinical use of this panel of blood pressure-associated polymorphisms remains to be determined.

  8. The Emergence of Blood and Blood Vessels in the Embryo and Its Relevance to Postnatal Biology and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Tiffany M.; Hirschi, Karen K.

    Blood and blood vessels develop in parallel within mammalian systems, and this temporal and spatial association has led to the confirmation of an endothelial origin of hematopoiesis. The extraembryonic yolk sac and aorto-gonado-mesonephros (AGM) region both contain a specialized population of endothelial cells ("hemogenic endothelium") that function to produce hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, which then differentiate to provide the full complement of blood cells within the developing embryo and furthermore in the adult system. Therefore, this population has great therapeutic potential in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. This chapter reviews the development of the vascular and hematopoietic systems, characterization and function of the hemogenic endothelium within embryonic and embryonic stem cell (ES cell) models, and speculate on the presence of such a population within the adult system. In order to harness this endothelial subtype for clinical application, we must understand both the normal functions of these cells and the potential for misregulation in disease states.

  9. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease latest unknown in struggle to restore faith in blood supply.

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, P.

    1996-01-01

    There was considerable medical interest in a recent Toronto conference on prion disease--and in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in particular--because of the recent tainted-beef controversy in Britain. Although there is no proven link between a newly recognized variant form of CJD and "mad cow disease," and no evidence that CJD can be spread through the blood supply, the theoretical risk has scientists scrambling to understand how the disease is spread and policymakers struggling with the tho...

  10. Clinical applications of radiolabeled blood elements in inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Comin, J. (Hospital Princeps d' Espanya, Barcelona (Spain). S. Medicina Nuclear); Prats, E. (Hospital Cinico, Zaragoza (Spain). S.Medicina Nuclear)

    1999-03-01

    The work discusses the main clinical features of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the methods to obtain an accurate diagnostic. Nuclear medicine procedures are deeply analysed, with special emphasis in those where clinical experience is larger and that are available for clinical practice in most countries. In the opinion of the authors [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO is the first choice agent, while [sup 111]In-oxine could be considered as a gold standard for evaluation of new agents. In the context of IBD, the WBC scintigraphy is useful for its diagnosis and the evaluation of disease extension. The evaluation of disease severity deserves further experiences.

  11. Heart rate and blood pressure variability in cardiac diseases: pharmacological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloarec-Blanchard, L

    1997-01-01

    Even at rest, blood pressure and heart fluctuate continuously around their mean values. Considerable interest has recently focused on the assessment of spontaneous in fluctuations in heart rate and blood pressure, i.e., heart rate and blood pressure variability, using time or frequency domain indexes. Heart rate variability has been extensively studied in cardiovascular disease and has emerged as a valuable parameter for detecting abnormalities in autonomic cardiovascular control, evaluating the prognosis and assessing the impact of drug therapy on the autonomic nervous system in patients with myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure or a heart transplant. In contrast, until the recent development of noninvasive methods for continuous blood pressure recording, blood pressure variability received little attention, and this parameter remains to be evaluated in cardiovascular disease.

  12. Central Blood Pressure and Chronic Kidney Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie L. Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension, diabetes, and proteinuria are well-recognized risk factors for progressive kidney function loss. However, despite excellent antihypertensive and antidiabetic drug therapies, which also often lower urinary protein excretion, there remains a significant reservoir of patients with chronic kidney disease who are at high risk for progression to end-stage kidney disease. This has led to the search for less traditional cardiovascular risk factors that will help stratify patients at risk for more rapid kidney disease progression. Among these are noninvasive estimates of vascular structure and function. Arterial stiffness, manifested by the pulse wave velocity in the aorta, has been established in a number of studies as a significant risk factor for kidney disease progression and cardiovascular endpoints. Much less well studied in chronic kidney disease are measures of central arterial pressures. In this paper we cover the physiology behind the generation of the central pulse wave contour and the studies available using these approaches and conclude with some speculations on the rationale for why measurements of central pressure may be informative for the study of chronic kidney disease progression.

  13. Investigations of significance of blood smear results in diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potkonjak Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic examination of stained smears of peripheral blood is of vital significance in the speedy diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases, in particular during the stage of infection when the cause is present in the blood, or blood cells. It is sometimes possible to make a definitive diagnosis of an infectious or parasitic disease following an examination of a stained smear of the peripheral blood. Since microscopic examinations of a peripheral blood smear are applied increasingly rarely in clinical practice, due to the development of other methods for the diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases in dogs, as well as the lack of knowledge of the morphology of the numerous causes that can be present in the blood, we carried out an investigation into the presence and spread of infections whose causes can be present in dog blood. The investigations covered 100 dogs from which peripheral blood smears were taken and then stained with a Giemsa solution according to the standard protocol and examined under a microscope with an immersion lens. The examination of peripheral blood smears stained according to Giemsa resulted in the identification of the presence of an Ehrlichia spp. morula in a neutrophil granulocyte in one dog. The presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas was established in erythrocytes of eleven dogs, while the presence of the protozoa Babesia canis in erythrocytes was identified in five dogs included in the investigations. A microscopic examination of dog peripheral blood smears stained according to Giemsa was shown as a speedy, practical, simple, and inexpensive method for making a definitive etiological diagnosis of these infections, and it should be included regularly in standard protocols for the diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases.

  14. CFD simulation of blood flow inside the corkscrew collaterals of the Buerger’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Alireza; Charjouei Moghadam, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Buerger’s disease is an occlusive arterial disease that occurs mainly in medium and small vessels. This disease is associated with Tobacco usage. The existence of corkscrew collateral is one of the established characteristics of the Buerger’s disease. Methods: In this study, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of blood flow within the corkscrew artery of the Buerger’s disease is conducted. The geometry of the artery is constructed based on the actual corkscrew artery of a patient diagnosed with the Buerger’s disease. The blood properties are the same as the actual blood properties of the patient. The blood flow rate is taken from the available experimental data in the literature. Results: The local velocity patterns, pressure and kinematic viscosity distributions in different segments of the corkscrew collateral artery was demonstrated and discussed for the first time for this kind of artery. The effects of non-Newtonian consideration for the blood viscosity behavior were investigated in different segments of the artery. Moreover, the variations of the blood flow patterns along the artery were investigated in details for each segment. Conclusion: It was found that the flow patterns were affected by the complex geometry of this artery in such a way that it could lead to the presence of sites that were prone to the accumulation of the flowing particles in blood like nicotine. Furthermore, due to the existence of many successive bends in this artery, the variations of kinematic viscosity along this artery were significant, therefore the non-Newtonian behavior of the blood viscosity must be considered. PMID:27340623

  15. Skeletal blood flow in Paget's disease of bone and its response to calcitonin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, R; Reeve, J; Spellacy, E; Tellez-Yudilevich, M

    1978-01-01

    1. Blood flow to the skeleton was measured by the 18F clearance method of Wooton, Reeve & Veall (1976) in 24 patients with untreated Paget's disease. In every patient but one, resting skeletal blood flow was increased. There was a significant positive correlation between skeletal blood flow and serum alkaline phosphatase and between skeletal blood flow and urinary total hydroxyproline excretion. 2. Fourteen patients were re-studied after they had received short-term (7 days or less) or long-term (7 weeks or more) calcitonin. Skeletal blood flow, alkaline phosphatase and urinary hydroxy-proline excretion fell towards normal in every case. There was some evidence from the short-term studies that calcitonin produced a more rapid fall in skeletal blood flow than in alkaline phosphatase. 3. Glomerular filtration rate appeared to increase transiently in response to calcitonin.

  16. A Case of Vertical Transmission of Chagas Disease Contracted via Blood Transfusion in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A Fearon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and is endemic in many countries in Latin America, where infected bugs of the Triatominea subfamily carry the parasite in the gut and transmit it to humans through fecal contamination of a bite. However, vertical transmission and transmission through blood transfusion and organ transplantation is well documented. Increasing immigration from endemic countries to North America has prompted blood operators, including Canadian Blood Services and Hema Quebec, to initiate blood donor testing for Chagas antibody. In the present report, an unusual case of vertical transmission from a mother, most likely infected through blood transfusion, and detected as part of a concurrent seroprevalence study in blood donors is described.

  17. [Blood Safety in the XXI century. Transfusion transmitted infectious diseases. International and Mexican view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo Medina, Julieta

    2014-01-01

    Currently worldwide, the transfusion of blood components cannot be done without residual risks, as compared to those countries with a high human development index, mostly in Europe, that have blood donation systems based on 100% repeat volunteer donors and use molecular biology techniques in screening for infectious diseases. In Latin America and the Caribbean countries, prevention of transfusion-transmissible diseases requires special and different strategies due to several factors: the high prevalence of replacement donors, their specific geographical location, climate, genetic, and sociocultural status of the population make them vulnerable to endemic diseases such as dengue, malaria, and Chagas disease. Thus it is necessary to create local approaches to increase blood safety and achieve the goals set by the Pan American Health Organization.

  18. Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarwar, N; Gao, P; Seshasai, S R Kondapally;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Uncertainties persist about the magnitude of associations of diabetes mellitus and fasting glucose concentration with risk of coronary heart disease and major stroke subtypes. We aimed to quantify these associations for a wide range of circumstances. METHODS: We undertook a meta...... markers. HRs for coronary heart disease were higher in women than in men, at 40-59 years than at 70 years and older, and with fatal than with non-fatal disease. At an adult population-wide prevalence of 10%, diabetes was estimated to account for 11% (10-12%) of vascular deaths. Fasting blood glucose......-analysis of individual records of diabetes, fasting blood glucose concentration, and other risk factors in people without initial vascular disease from studies in the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration. We combined within-study regressions that were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure...

  19. Effect of geomagnetic storms upon blood sedimentation dynamics in ischemic heart disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Youri I.; Voeikov, Vladimir L.; Kondakov, Sergey E.; Demidion, P. Y.; Dmitriev, Andey Y.; Ozerskii, S. Y.

    2000-11-01

    The sedimentation properties of blood of 13 ischemic heart disease patients and 2 healthy volunteers have been analyzed using a special computerized optical device for high temporal resolution tracing of red blood/plasma boundary movement rate (ESR-graphy). The kinetic curves of red blood sedimentation are substantially nonmonotonic and exhibit multiple accelerations, decelerations and even backwards movement of the red blood/plasma boundary. The intensity of blood sedimentation rate oscillations is significantly higher in the blood of patients and voluteers on days of enhanced geomagnetic activity than on quiet days. In healthy donors, blood oscillations were also observed on active geomagnetic days, however, their intensity was lower, the sedimentation rate started to oscillate after a longer time upon pipette installation, and the oscillation frequency was lower than in the patients' blood. Thus, blood is highly responsive to changes in geomagnetic field activity. Possibly oscillatory behavior mechanism of blood sedimentation rate and the diagnostic and prognostic merits of the ESR graphs are discussed.

  20. Mendelian randomization of blood lipids for coronary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes, Michael V.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Palmer, Tom M.; Drenos, Fotios; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Nelson, Christopher P.; Dale, Caroline E.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Finan, Chris; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Tragante, Vinicius; van Iperen, Erik P. A.; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Shah, Sonia; Elbers, Clara C.; Shah, Tina; Engmann, Jorgen; Giambartolomei, Claudia; White, Jon; Zabaneh, Delilah; Sofat, Reecha; McLachlan, Stela; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Hall, Alistair S.; North, Kari E.; Almoguera, Berta; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Cushman, Mary; Fornage, Myriam; Patel, Sanjay R.; Redline, Susan; Siscovick, David S.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Hofker, Marten H.; Verschuren, W. Monique; Bots, Michiel L.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Melander, Olle; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Morris, Richard; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Price, Jackie; Kumari, Meena; Baumert, Jens; Peters, Annette; Thorand, Barbara; Koenig, Wolfgang; Gaunt, Tom R.; Humphries, Steve E.; Clarke, Robert; Watkins, Hugh; Farrall, Martin; Wilson, James G.; Rich, Stephen S.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Lange, Leslie A.; Smith, George Davey; Reiner, Alex P.; Talmud, Philippa J.; Kivimaeki, Mika; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Dudbridge, Frank; Samani, Nilesh J.; Keating, Brendan J.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Casas, Juan P.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To investigate the causal role of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides in coronary heart disease (CHD) using multiple instrumental variables for Mendelian randomization. Methods and results We developed weighted allele scores based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (S

  1. Association between α-synuclein blood transcripts and early, neuroimaging-supported Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locascio, Joseph J; Eberly, Shirley; Liao, Zhixiang; Liu, Ganqiang; Hoesing, Ashley N; Duong, Karen; Trisini-Lipsanopoulos, Ana; Dhima, Kaltra; Hung, Albert Y; Flaherty, Alice W; Schwarzschild, Michael A; Hayes, Michael T; Wills, Anne-Marie; Shivraj Sohur, U; Mejia, Nicte I; Selkoe, Dennis J; Oakes, David; Shoulson, Ira; Dong, Xianjun; Marek, Ken; Zheng, Bin; Ivinson, Adrian; Hyman, Bradley T; Growdon, John H; Sudarsky, Lewis R; Schlossmacher, Michael G; Ravina, Bernard; Scherzer, Clemens R

    2015-09-01

    There are no cures for neurodegenerative diseases and this is partially due to the difficulty of monitoring pathogenic molecules in patients during life. The Parkinson's disease gene α-synuclein (SNCA) is selectively expressed in blood cells and neurons. Here we show that SNCA transcripts in circulating blood cells are paradoxically reduced in early stage, untreated and dopamine transporter neuroimaging-supported Parkinson's disease in three independent regional, national, and international populations representing 500 cases and 363 controls and on three analogue and digital platforms with P Parkinson's disease of 2.45 compared to individuals in the highest quartile. Disease-relevant transcript isoforms were low even near disease onset. Importantly, low SNCA transcript abundance predicted cognitive decline in patients with Parkinson's disease during up to 5 years of longitudinal follow-up. This study reveals a consistent association of reduced SNCA transcripts in accessible peripheral blood and early-stage Parkinson's disease in 863 participants and suggests a clinical role as potential predictor of cognitive decline. Moreover, the three independent biobank cohorts provide a generally useful platform for rapidly validating any biological marker of this common disease. PMID:26220939

  2. Cell-cell interaction in blood flow in patients with coronary heart disease (in vitro study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2007-02-01

    Blood cell-cell and cell-vessel wall interactions are one of the key patterns in blood and vascular pathophysiology. We have chosen the method of reconstruction of pulsative blood flow in vitro in the experimental set. Blood flow structure was studied by PC integrated video camera with following slide by slide analysis. Studied flow was of constant volumetric blood flow velocity (1 ml/h). Diameter of tube in use was comparable with coronary arteries diameter. Glucose solution and unfractured heparin were used as the nonspecial irritants of studied flow. Erythrocytes space structure in flow differs in all groups of patients in our study (men with stable angina pectoris (SAP), myocardial infarction (MI) and practically healthy men (PHM). Intensity of erythrocytes aggregate formation was maximal in patients with SAP, but time of their "construction/deconstruction" at glucose injection was minimal. Phenomena of primary clotting formation in patients with SAP of high function class was reconstructed under experimental conditions. Heparin injection (10 000 ED) increased linear blood flow velocity both in patients with SAP, MI and PHP but modulated the cell profile in the flow. Received data correspond with results of animal model studies and noninvasive blood flow studies in human. Results of our study reveal differences in blood flow structure in patients with coronary heart disease and PHP under irritating conditions as the possible framework of metabolic model of coronary blood flow destabilization.

  3. Increased epigenetic age and granulocyte counts in the blood of Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Steve; Ritz, Beate R

    2015-12-01

    It has been a long standing hypothesis that blood tissue of PD Parkinson's disease (PD) patients may exhibit signs of accelerated aging. Here we use DNA methylation based biomarkers of aging ("epigenetic clock") to assess the aging rate of blood in two ethnically distinct case-control data sets. Using n=508 Caucasian and n=84 Hispanic blood samples, we assess a) the intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration of blood (IEAA), which is independent of blood cell counts, and b) the extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration rate of blood (EEAA) which is associated with age dependent changes in blood cell counts. Blood of PD subjects exhibits increased age acceleration according to both IEAA (p=0.019) and EEAA (p=6.1 x 10(-3)). We find striking differences in imputed blood cell counts between PD cases and controls. Compared to control subjects, PD subjects contains more granulocytes (p=1.0 x 10(-9) in Caucasians, p=0.00066 in Hispanics) but fewer T helper cells (p=1.4 x 10(-6) in Caucasians, p=0.0024 in Hispanics) and fewer B cells (p=1.6 x 10(-5) in Caucasians, p=4.5 x 10(-5) in Hispanics). Overall, this study shows that the epigenetic age of the immune system is significantly increased in PD patients and that granulocytes play a significant role. PMID:26655927

  4. What African Americans with Diabetes or High Blood Pressure Need to Know: Get Checked for Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Language URL What African Americans with Diabetes or High Blood Pressure Need to Know Page Content Get Checked for ... I be checked for kidney disease? Diabetes and high blood pressure can damage the kidneys and lead to kidney ...

  5. Longitudinal assessment of high blood pressure in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B Schwimmer

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD affects 9.6% of children and may put these children at elevated risk of high blood pressure and subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for high blood pressure in children with NAFLD.Cohort study performed by the NIDDK NASH Clinical Research Network. There were 484 children with NAFLD ages 2 to 17 at enrollment; 382 children were assessed both at enrollment and 48 weeks afterwards. The main outcomes were high blood pressure at baseline and persistent high blood pressure at both baseline and 48 weeks.Prevalence of high blood pressure at baseline was 35.8% and prevalence of persistent high blood pressure was 21.4%. Children with high blood pressure were significantly more likely to have worse steatosis than children without high blood pressure (mild 19.8% vs. 34.2%, moderate 35.0% vs. 30.7%, severe 45.2% vs. 35.1%; P = 0.003. Higher body mass index, low-density lipoprotein, and uric acid were independent risk factors for high blood pressure (Odds Ratios: 1.10 per kg/m2, 1.09 per 10 mg/dL, 1.25 per mg/dL, respectively. Compared to boys, girls with NAFLD were significantly more likely to have persistent high blood pressure (28.4% vs.18.9%; P = 0.05.In conclusion, NAFLD is a common clinical problem that places children at substantial risk for high blood pressure, which may often go undiagnosed. Thus blood pressure evaluation, control, and monitoring should be an integral component of the clinical management of children with NAFLD.

  6. Infectious Prions in the Saliva and Blood of Deer with Chronic Wasting Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiason, Candace K.; Powers, Jenny G.; Dahmes, Sallie J.; Osborn, David A.; Miller, Karl V.; Warren, Robert J.; Mason, Gary L.; Hays, Sheila A.; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Seelig, Davis M.; Wild, Margaret A.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Spraker, Terry R.; Miller, Michael W.; Sigurdson, Christina J.; Telling, Glenn C.; Hoover, Edward A.

    2006-10-01

    A critical concern in the transmission of prion diseases, including chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids, is the potential presence of prions in body fluids. To address this issue directly, we exposed cohorts of CWD-naïve deer to saliva, blood, or urine and feces from CWD-positive deer. We found infectious prions capable of transmitting CWD in saliva (by the oral route) and in blood (by transfusion). The results help to explain the facile transmission of CWD among cervids and prompt caution concerning contact with body fluids in prion infections.

  7. Peripheral blood lymphocyte appearance in a case of I cell disease

    OpenAIRE

    Meer, W. van der; Jakobs, B; Bocca, G.; Smeitink, J.; Schuurmans, S.; de Keijzer, M H

    2001-01-01

    In general, peripheral blood smears are performed to obtain information with regard to various morphological features as an aid in the diagnosis of infection or malignancy. This report presents a patient with I cell disease (inclusion cell disease), a fatal lysosomal storage disorder caused by a defect in an enzyme responsible for the transfer of mannose-6-phosphate ligands to precursor lysosomal enzymes. As a consequence, most lysosomal enzymes are transported outside the cell instead of bei...

  8. Implication of Cord Blood for Cell-Based Therapy in Refractory Childhood Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Since cord blood (CB) contains hematopoietic stem cells as well as a mixture of multipotent stem cells, CB has the ability to give rise to hematopoietic, epithelial, endothelial and neural tissues. Recently, the application of cell-based therapy using CB has expanded its clinical utility, particularly, by using autologous CB in children with refractory diseases. This review focuses clinical and pre-clinical application of CB cell-based therapy for inherited metabolic diseases as well as tissu...

  9. Huntington's disease biomarker progression profile identified by transcriptome sequencing in peripheral blood

    OpenAIRE

    Mastrokolias, Anastasios; Ariyurek, Yavuz; Goeman, Jelle J.; van Duijn, Erik; Roos, Raymund AC; Roos C. van der Mast; van Ommen, GertJan B.; Johan T den Dunnen; 't Hoen, Peter AC; van Roon-Mom, Willeke MC

    2015-01-01

    With several therapeutic approaches in development for Huntington's disease, there is a need for easily accessible biomarkers to monitor disease progression and therapy response. We performed next-generation sequencing-based transcriptome analysis of total RNA from peripheral blood of 91 mutation carriers (27 presymptomatic and, 64 symptomatic) and 33 controls. Transcriptome analysis by DeepSAGE identified 167 genes significantly associated with clinical total motor score in Huntington's dise...

  10. Progression of kidney disease in type 2 diabetes – beyond blood pressure control: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Chatha Maninder P; Daoud Tarek M; Kramer Holly J; Leehey David J; Isreb Majd A

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The risk factors for progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) have not been fully elucidated. Although uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) is known to be deleterious, other factors may become more important once BP is treated. Methods All patients seen in the outpatient clinics of our hospital between January 1993 and September 2002 with type 2 DM and clinical evidence of CKD were evaluated. Progression of kidney disease was evaluated by ra...

  11. Blood Thinners

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

  12. [EFFICACY OF SURGICAL TREATMENT OF VARICOSE DISEASE, DEPENDING ON ADSORPTION-RHEOLOGIC PROPERTIES OF BLOOD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grihn, V K; Kondratenko, P G; Melekhovets, Yu V; Sinyachenko, Yu O; Sinyachenko, O V

    2015-05-01

    Physico-chemical adsorption-rheological properties of venous blood in patients, suffering varicose disease of the lower extremities, and their impact on efficacy of various methods of surgical treatment were studied. Conduction of endovasal laser coagulation in combination with crossectomy have promoted enhancement of operative treatment efficacy in patients in initial terms of observation (in 1 week), in 1 month a complete occlusion of the vein was noted more rarely. Efficacy of a small--power laser ablation with irradiation power of 10 W and less in 4 weeks postoperatively is higher, than of surgical treatment with a laser irradiation power 15 W. In a varicose disease of the lower extremities there were observed the raising of the blood volume toughness, superficial relaxation and superficial stress on background of reduction of the toughness--elasticity module, superficial toughness and superficial elasticity. Crossectomy conduction did not influence the integral dynamics of adsorption--rheological properties of venous blood, but in 1 month after endovasal laser coagulation a normalization of physicchemical parameters of blood was noted. Application of laser irradiation of the 10 W power and less promotes inhibition of the relaxation properties of venous blood; a prognostic meaning owes initial value of the blood volume toughness.

  13. Mendelian randomization of blood lipids for coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michael V.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Palmer, Tom M.; Drenos, Fotios; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Nelson, Christopher P.; Dale, Caroline E.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Finan, Chris; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Tragante, Vinicius; van Iperen, Erik P.A.; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Shah, Sonia; Elbers, Clara C.; Shah, Tina; Engmann, Jorgen; Giambartolomei, Claudia; White, Jon; Zabaneh, Delilah; Sofat, Reecha; McLachlan, Stela; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Hall, Alistair S.; North, Kari E.; Almoguera, Berta; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Cushman, Mary; Fornage, Myriam; Patel, Sanjay R.; Redline, Susan; Siscovick, David S.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Hofker, Marten H.; Verschuren, W. Monique; Bots, Michiel L.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Melander, Olle; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Morris, Richard; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Price, Jackie; Kumari, Meena; Baumert, Jens; Peters, Annette; Thorand, Barbara; Koenig, Wolfgang; Gaunt, Tom R.; Humphries, Steve E.; Clarke, Robert; Watkins, Hugh; Farrall, Martin; Wilson, James G.; Rich, Stephen S.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Lange, Leslie A.; Davey Smith, George; Reiner, Alex P.; Talmud, Philippa J.; Kivimäki, Mika; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Dudbridge, Frank; Samani, Nilesh J.; Keating, Brendan J.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Casas, Juan P.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To investigate the causal role of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides in coronary heart disease (CHD) using multiple instrumental variables for Mendelian randomization. Methods and results We developed weighted allele scores based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with established associations with HDL-C, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). For each trait, we constructed two scores. The first was unrestricted, including all independent SNPs associated with the lipid trait identified from a prior meta-analysis (threshold P < 2 × 10−6); and the second a restricted score, filtered to remove any SNPs also associated with either of the other two lipid traits at P ≤ 0.01. Mendelian randomization meta-analyses were conducted in 17 studies including 62,199 participants and 12,099 CHD events. Both the unrestricted and restricted allele scores for LDL-C (42 and 19 SNPs, respectively) associated with CHD. For HDL-C, the unrestricted allele score (48 SNPs) was associated with CHD (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.70), per 1 mmol/L higher HDL-C, but neither the restricted allele score (19 SNPs; OR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.42, 1.98) nor the unrestricted HDL-C allele score adjusted for triglycerides, LDL-C, or statin use (OR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.44, 1.46) showed a robust association. For triglycerides, the unrestricted allele score (67 SNPs) and the restricted allele score (27 SNPs) were both associated with CHD (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.24, 2.11 and 1.61; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.59, respectively) per 1-log unit increment. However, the unrestricted triglyceride score adjusted for HDL-C, LDL-C, and statin use gave an OR for CHD of 1.01 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.75). Conclusion The genetic findings support a causal effect of triglycerides on CHD risk, but a causal role for HDL-C, though possible, remains less certain. PMID:24474739

  14. Correlation between "ABO" blood group phenotypes and periodontal disease: Prevalence in south Kanara district, Karnataka state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpur Prakash Pai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The correlation between certain systemic diseases and ABO blood group is a well-documented fact. The association between periodontal disease and ABO blood group is not studied in relation to a specific geographic location. Here is a study conducted on a group of patients belonging to South Kanara district of Karnataka state. Materials and Methods: A total of 750 subjects aged between 30and 38 years belonging to South Kanara district were selected on random basis. The study subjects were segregated into healthy/mild gingivitis, moderate/severe gingivitis, and periodontitis group, based on Loe and Silness index and clinical attachment loss as criteria. The study group was further categorized and graded using Ramfjord′s periodontal disease index. Blood samples were collected to identify ABO blood group. Results: Prevalence of blood group O was more in South Kanara district, followed by blood groups B and A, and the least prevalent was AB. The percentage distribution of subjects with blood groups O and AB was more in healthy/mild gingivitis group (group I and moderate/severe gingivitis group (group II, while subjects with blood groups B and A were more in periodontitis group III. There was increased prevalence of subjects with blood groups O and AB with healthy periodontium, while subjects with blood groups B and A showed inclination toward diseased periodontium. Conclusion: There is a correlation existing between periodontal disease and ABO blood group in this geographic location. This association can be due to various blood group antigens acting as receptors for infectious agents associated with periodontal disease. This broad correlation between periodontal disease and ABO blood group also points toward susceptibility ofthe subjects with certain blood groups to periodontal disease.

  15. Red blood cell cluster separation from digital images for use in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Hidalgo, Manuel; Guerrero-Peña, F A; Herold-García, S; Jaume-I-Capó, Antoni; Marrero-Fernández, P D

    2015-07-01

    The study of cell morphology is an important aspect of the diagnosis of some diseases, such as sickle cell disease, because red blood cell deformation is caused by these diseases. Due to the elongated shape of the erythrocyte, ellipse adjustment and concave point detection are applied widely to images of peripheral blood samples, including during the detection of cells that are partially occluded in the clusters generated by the sample preparation process. In the present study, we propose a method for the analysis of the shape of erythrocytes in peripheral blood smear samples of sickle cell disease, which uses ellipse adjustments and a new algorithm for detecting notable points. Furthermore, we apply a set of constraints that allow the elimination of significant image preprocessing steps proposed in previous studies. We used three types of images to validate our method: artificial images, which were automatically generated in a random manner using a computer code; real images from peripheral blood smear sample images that contained normal and elongated erythrocytes; and synthetic images generated from real isolated cells. Using the proposed method, the efficiency of detecting the two types of objects in the three image types exceeded 99.00%, 98.00%, and 99.35%, respectively. These efficiency levels were superior to the results obtained with previously proposed methods using the same database, which is available at http://erythrocytesidb.uib.es/. This method can be extended to clusters of several cells and it requires no user inputs. PMID:25216490

  16. Alzheimer's disease--one clinical syndrome, two radiological expressions: a study on blood pressure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, H.F. de; Barkhof, F.; Scheltens, P.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vascular risk factors could play a role in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease, but this has not been investigated in relation to neuroimaging findings OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the distribution of blood pressure and an indicator of atherosclerosis (pulse pressure) in patients with Alzheim

  17. Blood-brain barrier P-glycoprotein function is not impaired in early Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, A. L.; van Berckel, B. N. M.; Lubberink, M.; Luurtsema, G.; Lammertsma, A. A.; Leenders, K. L.

    2008-01-01

    The cause of Parkinson's disease (PD) is unknown. Genetic susceptibility and exposure to environmental toxins contribute to specific neuronal loss in PD. Decreased blood-brain barrier (BBB) P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux function has been proposed as a possible causative link between toxin exposure an

  18. Storage time of transfused blood and disease recurrence after colorectal cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    transfused patients (P = 0.004). The survival of patients receiving blood exclusively stored or = 21 days, survival was 3.7 years (P = 0.12). Among patients with curative resection (n = 532), the hazard ratio of disease recurrence was 1.5 (95...

  19. Healing of ulcers on the feet correlated with distal blood pressure measurements in occlusive arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, P; Lassen, N A

    1980-01-01

    The frequency of healing in subchronic ulcers in 66 feet in 62 patients with arterial occlusive disease was correlated with the systolic digital blood pressure (SDBP) and the systolic ankle blood pressure (SABP), both measured with a strain gauge, and with the skin perfusion pressure on the heel...... of healing correlated significantly with the three distal blood pressure parameters investigated, the closest correlation being with the SDBP measured at the final examination, i.e. just after healing of the ulcer or just before an inevitable major amputation. Of the 22 cases with SDBP below 20 mmHg only two...... and peripheral neuropathy were frequent in the diabetic group. The data show that the systolic digital blood pressure is a particularly valuable prognostic parameter....

  20. Vasoactive enzymes and blood flow responses to passive and active exercise in peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walker, Meegan A.; Høier, Birgitte; Walker, Philip J.;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is characterised by impaired leg blood flow, which contributes to claudication and reduced exercise capacity. This study investigated to what extent vasoactive enzymes might contribute to altered blood flow in PAD (Fontaine stage II). Methods: We...... compared femoral artery blood flow during reactive hyperaemia, leg-extension exercise and passive leg movement, and determined the level of vasoactive enzymes in skeletal muscle samples from the vastus lateralis in PAD (n = 10, 68.5 ± 6.5 years) and healthy controls (CON, n = 9, 62.1 ± 12.3 years). Leg...... than CON (1.04 ± 0.19 vs 0.50 ± 0.06 AU, P = 0.02), with no differences for other enzymes. Leg blood flow during exercise was correlated with prostacyclin synthase (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Elevated NADPH oxidase indicates that oxidative stress may be a primary cause of low nitric oxide availability...

  1. DIAGNOSING LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISEASE VIRUS IN LIVE WILD TURKEYS (MELEAGRIS GALLOPAVO) USING WHOLE BLOOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, Katrina; Bunting, Elizabeth; Schuler, Krysten; Jagne, Jarra; Whipps, Christopher M

    2015-12-01

    Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is a retrovirus that infects wild and domestic turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ). The first cases of LPDV in the United States were diagnosed in 2009, and subsequent surveillance has revealed the virus to be widespread in wild turkey populations throughout the eastern half of the country. More research is needed to determine whether LPDV is having a negative effect on turkey populations, but progress has been impeded by the lack of a simple method for diagnosing the virus in living birds. Infected animals may appear asymptomatic, and diagnostics currently rely on tissue or bone marrow, which can be difficult to obtain. This study investigated the reliability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect LPDV in whole blood, compared with previous methods using buffy coat (concentrated white blood cells) and bone marrow. Paired samples of whole blood and buffy coat were collected from 137 live turkeys and paired samples of whole blood and bone marrow were collected from 32 turkeys postmortem. Compared with buffy coat, whole blood had 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity. When compared with bone marrow, whole blood had 100% sensitivity and 89% specificity. Both comparisons had a high degree of agreement using Cohen's kappa statistic. Based on these results, PCR of whole blood provides detection of LPDV in living birds that is on par with both buffy coat and bone marrow.

  2. Nicholas Metropolis Award Talk for Outstanding Doctoral Thesis Work in Computational Physics: Computational biophysics and multiscale modeling of blood cells and blood flow in health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosov, Dmitry

    2011-03-01

    Computational biophysics is a large and rapidly growing area of computational physics. In this talk, we will focus on a number of biophysical problems related to blood cells and blood flow in health and disease. Blood flow plays a fundamental role in a wide range of physiological processes and pathologies in the organism. To understand and, if necessary, manipulate the course of these processes it is essential to investigate blood flow under realistic conditions including deformability of blood cells, their interactions, and behavior in the complex microvascular network. Using a multiscale cell model we are able to accurately capture red blood cell mechanics, rheology, and dynamics in agreement with a number of single cell experiments. Further, this validated model yields accurate predictions of the blood rheological properties, cell migration, cell-free layer, and hemodynamic resistance in microvessels. In addition, we investigate blood related changes in malaria, which include a considerable stiffening of red blood cells and their cytoadherence to endothelium. For these biophysical problems computational modeling is able to provide new physical insights and capabilities for quantitative predictions of blood flow in health and disease.

  3. Huntington's disease biomarker progression profile identified by transcriptome sequencing in peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrokolias, Anastasios; Ariyurek, Yavuz; Goeman, Jelle J; van Duijn, Erik; Roos, Raymund A C; van der Mast, Roos C; van Ommen, GertJan B; den Dunnen, Johan T; 't Hoen, Peter A C; van Roon-Mom, Willeke M C

    2015-10-01

    With several therapeutic approaches in development for Huntington's disease, there is a need for easily accessible biomarkers to monitor disease progression and therapy response. We performed next-generation sequencing-based transcriptome analysis of total RNA from peripheral blood of 91 mutation carriers (27 presymptomatic and, 64 symptomatic) and 33 controls. Transcriptome analysis by DeepSAGE identified 167 genes significantly associated with clinical total motor score in Huntington's disease patients. Relative to previous studies, this yielded novel genes and confirmed previously identified genes, such as H2AFY, an overlap in results that has proven difficult in the past. Pathway analysis showed enrichment of genes of the immune system and target genes of miRNAs, which are downregulated in Huntington's disease models. Using a highly parallelized microfluidics array chip (Fluidigm), we validated 12 of the top 20 significant genes in our discovery cohort and 7 in a second independent cohort. The five genes (PROK2, ZNF238, AQP9, CYSTM1 and ANXA3) that were validated independently in both cohorts present a candidate biomarker panel for stage determination and therapeutic readout in Huntington's disease. Finally we suggest a first empiric formula predicting total motor score from the expression levels of our biomarker panel. Our data support the view that peripheral blood is a useful source to identify biomarkers for Huntington's disease and monitor disease progression in future clinical trials. PMID:25626709

  4. CHANGES OF INTERCELLULAR COOPERATION IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD IN TREATED PATIENTS WITH CARDIOLOGIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Korichkina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study changes of intercellular cooperation in peripheral blood induced by treatment in patients with arterial hypertension (HT, ischemic heart disease (IHD and chronic heart failure (CHF.Material and methods. 610 patients were involved into the study, including 250 patients with HT of stages I-III (50 untreated patients, 150 patients with IHD and 210 patients with CHF of stages I-III. All patients were treated except 50 hypertensive ones. 80 healthy patients (40 men, 40 women were included into control group. Blood smears of patients were evaluated (Romanovsky's stain. A number of leukocyte, autorosettes and autorosettes with erythrocyte lysis was calculated. The cellular association consisting of a neutrophil, monocyte or eosinocyte with 3 or more erythrocytes skintight to their surface defined as autorosettes. Erythrocytes number and hemoglobin level determined in peripheral blood.Results. Single autorosettes in peripheral blood were observed in patients of control group and in untreated patients with HT. Treated patients with HT, IHD and CHF had increased number of autorossets and autorosettes with erythrocytes lysis. This phenomenon resulted in reduction of erythrocytes number and hemoglobin level in peripheral blood.Conclusion. Treated patients with cardiologic diseases had changes in intercellular cooperation. It should be considered at intensive and long term therapy.

  5. Problems in cerebral blood flow calculation using xenon-133 in patients with pulmonary diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used the end-tidal concentration of xenon-133 (air curve) to estimate the profile of its arterial concentration in calculating cerebral blood flow. We examined the effects of pulmonary disease and artificial ventilation on the air curve and the calculated cerebral blood flow. We studied the relation between arterial and end-tidal xenon activities in 19 subjects, of whom 15 had pulmonary dysfunction. The t 1/2 of the declining phases of the arterial and air curves were used to express their shapes. The mean +/- SD reference t 1/2 from 15 normal volunteers was 26.8 +/- 8.4 seconds. The mean +/- SD t 1/2 s of the air and arterial curves from the 15 patients with pulmonary dysfunction were 10.4 +/- 2.9 and 33.8 +/- 10.9 seconds. The degree of pulmonary dysfunction (expressed as the pulmonary shunt percentage) correlated with distortion of the air curve. Substituting the arterial for the air curve, mean calculated cerebral blood flow (as the initial slope index) increased from 40 to 61 for the 12 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The degree of underestimation of cerebral blood flow using the air curve correlated with the pulmonary shunt percentage. Our work confirms the problems of estimating cerebral blood flow in subjects with pulmonary dysfunction

  6. Blood Dendritic Cells: Canary in the Coal Mine to Predict Chronic Inflammatory Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodie eMiles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of risk factors for chronic inflammatory diseases are unknown. This makes personalized medicine for assessment, prognosis, and choice of therapy very difficult. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that low-grade subclinical infections may be an underlying cause of many chronic inflammatory diseases and thus may contribute to secondary outcomes (e.g. cancer. Many diseases are now categorized as inflammatory-mediated diseases that stem from a dysregulation in host immunity. There is a growing need to study the links between low-grade infections, the immune responses they elicit, and how this impacts overall health. One such link explored in detail here is the extreme sensitivity of myeloid dendritic cells (mDC in peripheral blood to chronic low-grade infections and the role that these mDCs play in arbitrating the resulting immune responses. We find that emerging evidence supports a role for pathogen-induced mDCs in chronic inflammation leading to increased risk of secondary clinical disease. The mDCs that are elevated in the blood as a result of low-grade bacteremia often do not trigger a productive immune response, but can disseminate the pathogen throughout the host. This aberrant trafficking of mDCs can accelerate systemic inflammatory disease progression. Conversely, restoration of DC homeostasis may aid in pathogen elimination and minimize dissemination. Thus it would seem prudent when assessing chronic inflammatory disease risk to consider blood mDC numbers, and the microbial content (microbiome and activation state of these mDCs. These may provide important clues (the canary in the coal mine of high inflammatory disease risk. This will facilitate development of novel immunotherapies to eliminate such smoldering infections in atherosclerosis, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and pre-eclampsia.

  7. Molecular matching of red blood cells is superior to serological matching in sickle cell disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Cobianchi da Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of DNA methods to provide a means to precisely genotypically match donor blood units for the antigen-negative type of 35 sickle cell disease patients<. METHODS: Red blood cell units were investigated for ABO, D, C, c, E, e, K, Fyª, Fy b, Jkª, Jk b, S, s, Diª and RH variants by performing a molecular array (Human Erythrocyte Antigen BeadChipTM, BioArray Solutions, polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing of patient samples and donor units that had been serologically matched based on the ABO, Rh and K phenotypes and the presence of antibodies. RESULTS: Matches for 21 of 35 sickle cell disease patients presented discrepancies or mismatches for multiple antigens between the genotype profile and the antigen profile of their serologically-matched blood units. The main discrepancies or mismatches occurred in the RH, FY, JK and MNS systems. Eight Rh alloimmunized patients presented RHD and RHCE variants that had not been serologically identified. According to these results better matches were found for the patients with genotyped units and the patients benefited as shown by better in vivo red blood cell survival. CONCLUSION: Molecular matching is superior to serological matching in sickle cell disease patients, decreasing the risk of transfusion reactions, especially delayed transfusion reactions to existing alloantibodies and preventing alloimmunization.

  8. Management of High Blood Pressure in Those without Overt Cardiovascular Disease Utilising Absolute Risk Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing blood pressure has a continuum of adverse risk for cardiovascular events. Traditionally this single measure was used to determine who to treat and how vigorously. However, estimating absolute risk rather than measurement of a single risk factor such as blood pressure is a superior method to identify who is most at risk of having an adverse cardiovascular event such as stroke or myocardial infarction, and therefore who would most likely benefit from therapeutic intervention. Cardiovascular disease (CVD risk calculators must be used to estimate absolute risk in those without overt CVD as physician estimation is unreliable. Incorporation into usual practice and limitations of the strategy are discussed.

  9. Oscillometric blood pressure measurement: a simple method in screening for peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Jesper; Wiinberg, Niels; Bruce, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Blood pressure at the ankle level is a reliable indicator of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and the ankle brachial index (ABI) is a useful non-invasive screening tool for the early detection of atherosclerosis. In the first part of the study, systolic blood pressures obtained by oscillometry...... of PAD was sufficiently high in subjects over the age of 60 years to warrant screening. The ankle brachial index based on measurements with an oscillometric device was shown reliable in the exclusion of PAD, thereby fulfilling an important criterion for the use in screening....

  10. Red Blood Cell Antigen Genotyping for Sickle Cell Disease, Thalassemia, and Other Transfusion Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Ross M; Chou, Stella T

    2016-10-01

    Since the discovery of the ABO blood group in the early 20th century, more than 300 blood group antigens have been categorized among 35 blood group systems. The molecular basis for most blood group antigens has been determined and demonstrates tremendous genetic diversity, particularly in the ABO and Rh systems. Several blood group genotyping assays have been developed, and 1 platform has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a "test of record," such that no phenotype confirmation with antisera is required. DNA-based red blood cell (RBC) phenotyping can overcome certain limitations of hemagglutination assays and is beneficial in many transfusion settings. Genotyping can be used to determine RBC antigen phenotypes in patients recently transfused or with interfering allo- or autoantibodies, to resolve discrepant serologic typing, and/or when typing antisera are not readily available. Molecular RBC antigen typing can facilitate complex antibody evaluations and guide RBC selection for patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), thalassemia, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. High-resolution RH genotyping can identify variant RHD and RHCE in patients with SCD, which have been associated with alloimmunization. In the future, broader access to cost-efficient, high-resolution RBC genotyping technology for both patient and donor populations may be transformative for the field of transfusion medicine. PMID:27345938

  11. Magnetic separation-based blood purification: a promising new approach for the removal of disease-causing compounds?

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, I K; Schlegel, A A; Graf, R.; Stark, W J; Beck-Schimmer, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies report promising results regarding extracorporeal magnetic separation-based blood purification for the rapid and selective removal of disease-causing compounds from whole blood. High molecular weight compounds, bacteria and cells can be eliminated from blood within minutes, hence offering novel treatment strategies for the management of intoxications and blood stream infections. However, risks associated with incomplete particle separation and the biological consequences of par...

  12. Use of blood based biomarkers in the evaluation of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edward; L; Barnes; Choong-Chin; Liew; Samuel; Chao; Robert; Burakoff

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant improvements in our understanding of Crohn’s disease(CD) and ulcerative colitis(UC) in recent years, questions remain regarding the best approaches to assessment and management of these chronic diseases during periods of both relapse and remission. Various serologic biomarkers have been used in the evaluation of patients with both suspected and documented inflammatory bowel disease(IBD), and while each has potential utility in the assessment of patients with IBD, potential limitation remain with each method of assessment. Given these potential shortcomings, there has been increased interest in other means of evaluation of patients with IBD, including an expanding interest in the role of gene expression profiling. Among patients with IBD, gene expression profiles obtained from whole blood have been used to differentiate active from inactive CD, as well as to differentiate between CD, UC, and non-inflammatory diarrheal conditions. There are many opportunities for a non-invasive, blood based test to aid in the assessment of patients with IBD, particularly when considering more invasive means of evaluation including endoscopy with biopsy. Furthermore, as the emphasis on personalized medicine continues to increase, the potential ability of gene expression analysis to predict patient response to individual therapies offers great promise. While whole blood gene expression analysis may not completely replace more traditional means of evaluating patients with suspected or known IBD, it does offer significant potential to expand our knowledge of the underlying genes involved in the development of these diseases.

  13. [Peripheral blood monocyte hepcidin in patients with multiple myeloma is associated with anemia of chronic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Zhou, Dao-Bin; Duan, Ming-Hui; Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Jie-Ping; Zhao, Yong-Qiang; Shen, Ti; Wu, Yong-Ji

    2013-04-01

    Disorders of iron utilization caused by abnormal elevation of hepcidin levels are the main mechanism of anemia of chronic disease. Hepcidin is mainly produced by the liver. Recently it has been found that monocytes are another source of hepcidin. The increased hepcidin in serum and urine of multiple myeloma patients may be one cause of anemia of chronic disease (ACD). However it is unclear whether the peripheral blood monocyte hepcidin is involved in the pathogenesis of anemia of chronic disease. This study was purposed to investigate the role of monocyte hepcidin in multiple myeloma patients with anemia of chronic disease. The clinical data and peripheral venous blood of multiple myeloma patients were collected.Serum concentration of IL-6 and TNF-α was detected by ELISA. Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated by CD14(+) magnetic beads. Hepcidin, IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA of monocytes were detected by real time quantitative PCR. The results showed that the expression level of monocyte hepcidin mRNA in myeloma patients was higher than that in normal controls. In untreated patients, the expression level of monocyte hepcidin mRNA was negatively correlated with hemoglobin, and positively correlated with serum ferritin and IL-6 levels, but unrelated with TNF-α levels.It is concluded that the increased monocyte hepcidin levels in multiple myeloma patients may play an etiologic role in ACD.

  14. CYP11B2 gene polymorphism among coronary heart disease patients and blood donors in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normaznah, Y; Azizah, M R; Kuak, S H; Rosli, M A

    2015-04-01

    Various previous studies have reported the implication of CYP11B2 gene polymorphism in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. In particular, the -344T/C polymorphism, which is located at a putative binding site for the steroidogenic transcription factor (SF-1) has been associated with essential hypertension, left ventricular dilation and coronary heart disease. In the present study, we aim to determine the allele and genotype frequencies of the CYP11B2 gene in patients with clinical manifestation of coronary heart disease and confirmed by angiography and blood donors and to calculate the association of the gene polymorphism with CHD. A total of 79 DNA from patients with coronary heart disease admitted to the National Heart Institute and 84 healthy blood donors have been genotyped using polymerase chain reaction technique followed by restriction enzyme digestion (RFLP). Results of the study demonstrated that out of 79 for the patients, 40 were homozygous T, 10 were homozygous C and 29 were heterozygous TC. The frequencies of genotype TT, CC and TC for patients were 0.5, 0.13 and 0.36 respectively. The frequencies of allele T and C in patients were 0.68 and 0.31 respectively. While for the blood donors, 40 subjects were of homozygous T, 7 were homozygous C and 37 were heterozygous TC. The genotype frequencies for the TT, CC and TC were 0.47, 0.08 and 0.44 respectively. The frequency of the allele T was 0.69 and allele C was 0.3. Chi-Square analysis showed that there was no significant difference in the genotype and C allele frequencies between the CHD patients and the blood donors. Our study suggests that there is lack of association between -344T/C polymorphism of CYP11B2 gene and coronary heart disease.

  15. LPS-Stimulated Whole Blood Cytokine Production Is Not Related to Disease Behavior in Patients with Quiescent Crohn's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark M T J Broekman

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease (CD is a chronic inflammatory disease in which cytokines play a pivotal role in the induction and maintenance of inflammation. Innate cytokine production is genetically determined and varies largely between individuals; this might impact the severity of inflammation. We aimed to assess whether ex-vivo endotoxin-stimulated levels of cytokines could be associated with disease phenotype.Patients with quiescent CD (Harvey-Bradshaw Index ≤ 4 and negative inflammation markers who were not using immunomodulating drugs or biologicals were eligible. Historical disease characteristics (localization, behavior, number of bowel resections, drug history, extra-intestinal symptoms were extracted from medical records. We measured cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 in supernatants of lipopolysaccharide (LPS -stimulated whole blood cultures and correlated these with disease characteristics and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. In addition, we analyzed whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the promoter region of the TNF-α gene were related to TNF-α levels.We included 75 patients with CD and 24 healthy controls. Six patients were excluded because of increased inflammation markers resulting in a total of 69 patients. The mean age (SD of patients with CD was 51.2 (12.3 years with a mean (SD disease duration of 24.1 (11.5 years. Disease localization, peri-anal involvement and behavior were not related to LPS-stimulated TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 or IL-10 levels. In addition, combination of localization with behavior to differentiate mild from severe disease type showed no significant differences. TNF-α levels were higher in patients with CD (428 pg/ml IQR [267-468] compared to healthy controls (459 pg/ml IQR [364-570], p=0.02. We found no associations between SNPs in the promoter region and TNF-α levels.In this study, innate cytokine production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 was not

  16. Detecting Newcastle disease virus in combination of RT-PCR with red blood cell absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chengqian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR has limited sensitivity when treating complicated samples, such as feces, waste-water in farms, and nucleic acids, protein rich tissue samples, all the factors may interfere with the sensitivity of PCR test or generate false results. In this study, we developed a sensitive RT-PCR, combination of red blood cell adsorption, for detecting Newcastle disease virus (NDV. One pair of primers which was highly homologous to three NDV pathotypes was designed according to the consensus nucleocapsid protein (NP gene sequence. To eliminate the interfere of microbes and toxic substances, we concentrated and purified NDV from varied samples utilizing the ability of NDV binding red blood cells (RBCs. The RT-PCR coupled with red blood cell adsorption was much more sensitive in comparison with regular RT-PCR. The approach could also be used to detect other viruses with the property of hemagglutination, such as influenza viruses.

  17. Multiplex method for initial complex testing of antibodies to blood transmitted diseases agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltavchenko, Alexander G; Nechitaylo, Oleg V; Filatov, Pavel V; Ersh, Anna V; Gureyev, Vadim N

    2016-10-01

    Initial screening of donors and population at high risk of infection with blood transmitted diseases involves a number of analyses using monospesific diagnostic systems, and therefore is expensive labor- and time-consuming process. The goal of this work is to construct a multiplex test enabling to carry out rapid initial complex testing at a low price. The paper describes a kit making it possible to detect simultaneously antibodies to six agents of the most significant blood transmitted diseases: HIV virus, hepatitis B and C viruses, cytomegalovirus, T. pallidum and T. gondii in blood products. The kit comprises multiplex dot-immunoassay based on plane protein arrays (immune chips) using colloidal gold conjugates and silver development. It provides an opportunity to carry out complex analysis within 70min at room temperature, and there is no need of well-qualified personnel. We compared laboratory findings of the kit with monospecific kits for ELISA produced by two Russian commercial companies. Dot-assay results correlate well with data obtained using commercial kits for ELISA. Furthermore, multiplex analysis is quicker and cheaper in comparison with ELISA and can be carried out in non-laboratory conditions. The kit for multiplex dot-immunoassay of antibodies to blood transmitted agents can significantly simplify initial complex testing. PMID:27497868

  18. Optical force on diseased blood cells: Towards the optical sorting of biological matter

    KAUST Repository

    Gongora, Juan Sebastian Totero

    2015-05-01

    By employing a series of massively parallel ab-initio simulations, we study how optical forces act on biological matter subject to morphological disease. As a representative case study, we here consider the case of Plasmodium falciparum on red blood cells (RBC) illuminated by a monochromatic plane wave. Realistic parameters for the geometry and the refractive index are then taken from published experiments. In our theoretical campaign, we study the dependence of the optical force on the disease stage for different incident wavelengths. We show that optical forces change significantly with the disease, with amplitude variation in the hundreds of pN range. Our results open up new avenues for the design of new optical systems for the treatment of human disease. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Optical force on diseased blood cells: towards the optical sorting of biological matter

    CERN Document Server

    Gongora, Juan Sebastian Totero

    2016-01-01

    By employing a series of massively parallel ab-initio simulations, we study how optical forces act on biological matter subject to morphological disease. As a representative case study, we here consider the case of Plasmodium Falciparum on red blood cells (RBC) illuminated by a monochromatic plane wave. Realistic parameters for the geometry and the refractive index are then taken from published experiments. In our theoretical campaign, we study the dependence of the optical force on the disease stage for different incident wavelengths. We show that optical forces change significantly with the disease, with amplitude variation in the hundreds of pN range. Our results open up new avenues for the design of new optical systems for the treatment of human disease.

  20. Tattoos and transfusion-transmitted disease risk: implications for the screening of blood donors in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    NISHIOKA Sérgio de A.; Gyorkos, Theresa W.; MacLean, J D

    2002-01-01

    Having a tattoo has been associated with serological evidence of hepatitis B and C viruses, as well as human immunodeficiency virus infections and syphilis; all of these are known to be transmissible by blood transfusion. These associations are of higher magnitude for individuals with nonprofessionally-applied tattoos and with two or more tattoos. Tattoos are common among drug addicts and prisoners, conditions that are also associated with transfusion-transmitted diseases. We examined the imp...

  1. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Membrane Fluidity and Disease Outcome in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gloudina M Hon; Hassan, Mogamat S.; van Rensburg, Susan J.; Abel, Stefan; Erasmus, Rajiv T; Matsha, Tandi

    2011-01-01

    Immune cell membrane lipids are important determinants of membrane fluidity, eicosanoid production and phagocytosis and fatty acid metabolic abnormalities have been reported in immune cells from patients with multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between peripheral blood mononuclear cell membrane fluidity, permeability status, and disease outcome as measured by the Kurtzke expanded disability status scale. Phospholipids, fatty acids and cholesterol comp...

  2. Infrared Imaging of Nitric Oxide-Mediated Blood Flow in Human Sickle Cell Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gorbach, Alexander M; Hans C Ackerman; Liu, Wei-Min; Meyer, Joseph M.; Littel, Patricia L.; Seamon, Catherine; Footman, Eleni; Chi, Amy; Zorca, Suzana; Krajewski, Megan L.; Cuttica, Michael J.; Machado, Roberto F; Cannon, Richard O.; Kato, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular dysfunction is an important pathophysiologic manifestation of sickle cell disease (SCD), a condition that increases risk of pulmonary hypertension and stroke. We hypothesized that infrared (IR) imaging would detect changes in cutaneous blood flow reflective of vascular function. We performed IR imaging and conventional strain gauge plethysmography in twenty-five adults with SCD at baseline and during intra-arterial infusions of an endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine (ACh)...

  3. CYTOKINES AND C-REACTIVE PROTEIN CONTENT IN SERUM BLOOD OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LARYNGITIS DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Zaiter Samir; Kulikova EA; Garyuk GI

    2013-01-01

    Some kinds of interleikines of patients with chronic laryngitis disease were investigated. There is “cytokines explosion” of the patients with chronic laryngitis with persistent herpes simplex virus. Comparative investigation cytokine profile in serum blood is demonstrated: balanced reaction cytokines profile of patients with chronic laryngitis without persistent herpes simplex virus and dysbalanced reaction of patients with laryngitis (hyperergation). Increased content IL-6 and low content g...

  4. Non-arterial assessment of blood gas status in patients with chronic pulmonary disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Elborn, J. S.; Finch, M B; Stanford, C. F.

    1991-01-01

    Assessment of blood gas status is important in the management of patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Arterial puncture is often painful and may damage the arterial wall. Measurement of oxygen saturation by transcutaneous oximetry offers a non-invasive alternative to arterial methods but does not allow assessment of partial pressure of carbon dioxide. We have examined the value of oximetry and dorsal hand venous carbon dioxide as an alternative to arterial puncture. Transcutaneous oxygen ...

  5. Cigarette smoking impairs nitric oxide-mediated cerebral blood flow increase: Implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Noboru; Okamura, Tomio

    2016-08-01

    Cerebral blood flow is mainly regulated by nitrergic (parasympathetic, postganglionic) nerves and nitric oxide (NO) liberated from endothelial cells in response to shear stress and stretch of vasculature, whereas sympathetic vasoconstrictor control is quite weak. On the other hand, peripheral vascular resistance and blood flow are mainly controlled by adrenergic vasoconstrictor nerves; endothelium-derived NO and nitrergic nerves play some roles as vasodilator factors. Cigarette smoking impairs NO synthesis in cerebral vascular endothelial cells and nitrergic nerves leading to interference with cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in the brain. Smoking-induced cerebral hypoperfusion is induced by impairment of synthesis and actions of NO via endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)/neuronal NOS (nNOS) inhibition and by increased production of oxygen radicals, resulting in decreased actions of NO on vascular smooth muscle. Nicotine acutely and chronically impairs the action of endothelial NO and also inhibits nitrergic nerve function in chronic use. Impaired cerebral blood supply promotes the synthesis of amyloid β that accelerates blood flow decrease. This vicious cycle is thought to be one of the important factors involving in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Quitting smoking is undoubtedly one of the important ways to prevent and delay the genesis or slow the progress of impaired cognitive function and AD. PMID:27530818

  6. Lung function, transfusion, pulmonary capillary blood volume and sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, Alan; McGhee, Emily; Robinson, Polly; Rees, David; Height, Susan; Greenough, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Lung function abnormalities occur in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and may be associated with elevated pulmonary blood volume. To investigate that association, we determined whether blood transfusion in SCD children acutely increased pulmonary capillary blood volume (PCBV) and increased respiratory system resistance (Rrs5). Measurements of Rrs5 and spirometry were made before and after blood transfusion in 18 children, median age 14.2 (6.6-18.5) years. Diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and nitric oxide were assessed to calculate the PCBV. Post transfusion, the median Rrs5 had increased from 127.4 to 141.3% predicted (pvolume from 39.7 to 64.1 ml/m2 (pvolume in one second (p=0.0056) and vital capacity (p=0.0008) decreased. The increase in Rrs5 correlated with the increase in PCBV (r=0.50, p=0.0493). Increased pulmonary capillary blood volume may at least partially explain the lung function abnormalities in SCD children.

  7. Tattoos and transfusion-transmitted disease risk: implications for the screening of blood donors in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio de A. Nishioka

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Having a tattoo has been associated with serological evidence of hepatitis B and C viruses, as well as human immunodeficiency virus infections and syphilis; all of these are known to be transmissible by blood transfusion. These associations are of higher magnitude for individuals with nonprofessionally-applied tattoos and with two or more tattoos. Tattoos are common among drug addicts and prisoners, conditions that are also associated with transfusion-transmitted diseases. We examined the implications of these associations for the screening of blood donors in Brazil. Numbers of individuals who would be correctly or unnecessarily deferred from blood donation on the basis of the presence of tattoos, and on their number and type, were calculated for different prevalence situations based on published odds ratios. If having a tattoo was made a deferral criterion, cost savings (due to a reduced need for laboratory testing and subsequent follow-up would accrue at the expense of the deferral of appropriate donors. Restricting deferral to more `at-risk' sub-groups of tattooed individuals would correctly defer less individuals and would also reduce the numbers of potential donors unnecessarily deferred. Key factors in balancing cost savings and unnecessary deferrals include the magnitude of the pool of blood donors in the population, the prevalence of individuals with tattoos and the `culture' of tattoos in the population. Tattoos can therefore be an efficient criterion for the screening of blood donors in certain settings, a finding that requires corroboration from larger population-based studies.

  8. CXCL5 polymorphisms are associated with variable blood pressure in cardiovascular disease-free adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beitelshees Amber L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Leukocyte count has been associated with blood pressure, hypertension, and hypertensive complications. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in the CXCL5 gene, which encodes the neutrophilic chemokine ENA-78, are associated with blood pressure in cardiovascular disease (CVD-free adults and that these polymorphisms are functional. Methods and results A total of 192 community-dwelling participants without CVD or risk equivalents were enrolled. Two CXCL5 polymorphisms (−156 G > C (rs352046 and 398 G > A (rs425535 were tested for associations with blood pressure. Allele-specific mRNA expression in leukocytes was also measured to determine whether heterozygosity was associated with allelic expression imbalance. In −156 C variant carriers, systolic blood pressure (SBP was 7 mmHg higher than in −156 G/G wild-type homozygotes (131 ± 17 vs. 124 ± 14 mmHg; P = 0.008. Similarly, diastolic blood pressure (DBP was 4 mmHg higher in −156 C variant carriers (78 ± 11 vs. 74 ± 11 mmHg; P = 0.013. In multivariate analysis of SBP, age, sex, body mass index, and the −156 G > C polymorphism were identified as significant variables. Age, sex, and the −156 G > C SNP were further associated with DBP, along with white blood cells. Allelic expression imbalance and significantly higher circulating ENA-78 concentrations were noted for variant carriers. Conclusion CXCL5 gene polymorphisms are functional and associated with variable blood pressure in CVD-free individuals. The role of CXCL5 as a hypertension- and CVD-susceptibility gene should be further explored.

  9. Biostable insect kinin analogs reduce blood meal and disrupt ecdysis in the blood-gorging Chagas’ disease vector, Rhodnius prolixus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodnius prolixus is a blood-gorging hemipteran that takes blood meals that are approximately 10 times its body weight. This blood meal is crucial for growth and development and is needed to ensure a successful molt into the next instar. Kinins are a multifunctional family of neuropeptides which hav...

  10. Related research of blood glucose, blood lipid and serum cystatin C and lower-extremity arterial disease in type 2 diabetic mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Zeng; Jie Ou; Yun-Mei He; Chun-Yu Cai

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relationship between levels of blood glucose, blood lipid and serum cystatin C and lower-extremity arterial disease in type 2 diabetic mellitus so as to provide the basis for the prevention and treatment of the disease.Methods:A total of 240 cases of patients with type 2 diabetic mellitus receiving physical examinations in our hospital from March 2014 to March 2015 were selected and divided into three groups. The control group was consisted of type 2 diabetes patients without lower-extremity arterial disease, the observation group 1 included type 2 diabetes patients with mild or moderate lower-extremity arterial disease, and the observation group 2 was formed by type 2 diabetes patients with severe lower-extremity arterial disease. Each group contained 80 cases. Then, the heights, weights, waist and hip circumferences of patients in the three groups were determined and the body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were calculated; the fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS), insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), 2 h postprandial blood glucose (2 h PG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HBA1c) in two groups were detected; and the levels of serum total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), apolipoprotein B (apoB) and cystatin C (CysC) in two groups were also tested.Results:Compared with the control group, the WHR, FBG, HOMA-IR, 2 h PG, HBA1c, LDL-C, apoB and CysC all increased significantly, and the differences were statistically significant. Besides, there were statistically significances existing between the observation groups 1 and 2. What’s more, the serum levels of TC, HDL-C, TG and apoA1 in the observation groups were not significantly different from those of the control group.Conclusions: There is a close relationship between blood glucose, blood lipid, serum cystatin C level and lower-extremity arterial

  11. α-synuclein reactive antibodies as diagnostic biomarkers in blood sera of Parkinson's disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Yanamandra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Auto-antibodies with specificity to self-antigens have been implicated in a wide variety of neurological diseases, including Parkinson's (PD and Alzheimer's diseases, being sensitive indicators of neurodegeneration and focus for disease prevention. Of particular interest are the studies focused on the auto-immune responses to amyloidogenic proteins associated with diseases and their applications in therapeutic treatments such as vaccination with amyloid antigens and antibodies in PD, Alzheimer's disease and potentially other neurodegeneration ailments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Generated auto-antibodies towards the major amyloidogenic protein involved in PD Lewy bodies--α-synuclein and its amyloid oligomers and fibrils were measured in the blood sera of early and late PD patients and controls by using ELISA, Western blot and Biacore surface plasmon resonance. We found significantly higher antibody levels towards monomeric α-synuclein in the blood sera of PD patients compared to controls, though the responses decreased with PD progression (P<0.0001. This indicates potential protective role of autoimmunity in maintaining the body homeostasis and clearing protein species whose disbalance may lead to amyloid assembly. There were no noticeable immune responses towards amyloid oligomers, but substantially increased levels of IgGs towards α-synuclein amyloid fibrils both in PD patients and controls, which subsided with the disease progression (P<0.0001. Pooled IgGs from PD patients and controls interacted also with the amyloid fibrils of Aβ (1-40 and hen lysozyme, however the latter were recognized with lower affinity. This suggests that IgGs bind to the generic amyloid conformational epitope, displaying higher specificity towards human amyloid species associated with neurodegeneration. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings may suggest the protective role of autoimmunity in PD and therefore immune reactions towards PD major

  12. High blood pressure: the foundation for epidemic cardiovascular disease in African populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard S; Amoah, Albert G B; Mensah, George A

    2003-01-01

    High-blood pressure is a powerful independent risk factor for death from heart disease and stroke. It is also a common clinical condition affecting more than 600 million persons worldwide and seen in nearly all populations. Although reliable, large-scale, population-based data on high blood pressure in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are limited, recent studies provide important and worrisome findings in both epidemiology and clinical outcomes. Although overall hypertension prevalence is between 10%-15%, prevalence rates as high as 30%-32% have been reported in middle-income urban and some rural areas. Importantly, hypertension awareness, treatment, and control rates as low as 20%, 10%, and 1%, respectively have also been found. Stroke has been by far the most common clinical sequela. In most SSA settings, hypertension control assumes a relatively low priority and little experience exists in implementing sustainable and successful programs for drug treatment. Rapid urbanization and transition from agrarian life to the wage-earning economy of city life continue to fuel increases in average blood pressure levels and prevalence of hypertension. Although the true burden of high blood pressure in sub-Saharan Africa remains largely unmeasured, compelling preliminary evidence suggests that it is the foundation for epidemic cardiovascular disease in Africa and already contributes substantively to death and disability from stroke, heart failure, and kidney failure in this region. Success in limiting this epidemic in SSA will depend heavily on the implementation of sustainable and aggressive population-based programs for high blood pressure awareness, prevention, treatment, and control. It will be critical to obtain investments in improved surveillance and program-relevant research to provide the evidence base for policy development and effective hypertension prevention and control. PMID:13677414

  13. Components of the complete blood count as risk predictors for coronary heart disease: in-depth review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjid, Mohammad; Fatemi, Omid

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease, and several inflammatory biomarkers, such as C-reactive protein, have been used to predict the risk of coronary heart disease. High white blood cell count is a strong and independent predictor of coronary risk in patients of both sexes, with and without coronary heart disease. A high number of white blood cells and their subtypes (for example, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and eosinophils) are associated with the presence of coronary heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, and stroke. The coronary heart disease risk ratios associated with a high white blood cell count are comparable to those of other inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein. In addition, other components of the complete blood count, such as hematocrit and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, also are associated with coronary heart disease, and the combination of the complete blood count with the white blood cell count can improve our ability to predict coronary heart disease risk. These tests are inexpensive, widely available, and easy to order and interpret. They merit further research.

  14. Associations between peripheral blood eosinophil counts in patients with systemic sclerosis and disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Katsutoshi; Nakashita, Tamao; Kaneko, Norihiro; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Motojima, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Increased levels of serum pro-fibrotic cytokines have been reported in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Some of these cytokines also play an important role in the differentiation and migration of eosinophils. The aim of this study was to determine whether eosinophilic inflammation is caused in SSc. We retrospectively reviewed the peripheral blood eosinophil counts in 70 untreated patients with SSc and compared them with those in patients with other major collagen diseases. We additionally evaluated a possible association with disease severity. Eosinophil counts were significantly higher levels in patients with SSc than in those with other collagen diseases, whereas total leukocyte counts were not. Eosinophil counts correlated positively with both severe interstitial lung disease (ILD; r = 0.255, p = 0.033) and modified Rodnan total skin thickness score (m-Rodnan TSS) in SSc (r = 0.347, p = 0.003), but did not correlate with ILD severity in other collagen diseases. In conclusion, peripheral eosinophil counts were higher in patients with SSc than in those with other collagen diseases and were correlated with increased disease severity. Our data suggest that eosinophilic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of SSc. PMID:27610320

  15. Blood levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP in patients with neurological diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph A Mayer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The brain-specific astroglial protein GFAP is a blood biomarker candidate indicative of intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with symptoms suspicious of acute stroke. Comparably little, however, is known about GFAP release in other neurological disorders. In order to identify potential "specificity gaps" of a future GFAP test used to diagnose intracerebral hemorrhage, we measured GFAP in the blood of a large and rather unselected collective of patients with neurological diseases. METHODS: Within a one-year period, we randomly selected in-patients of our university hospital for study inclusion. Patients with ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack and intracerebral hemorrhage were excluded. Primary endpoint was the ICD-10 coded diagnosis reached at discharge. During hospital stay, blood was collected, and GFAP plasma levels were determined using an advanced prototype immunoassay at Roche Diagnostics. RESULTS: A total of 331 patients were included, covering a broad spectrum of neurological diseases. GFAP levels were low in the vast majority of patients, with 98.5% of cases lying below the cut-off that was previously defined for the differentiation of intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke. No diagnosis or group of diagnoses was identified that showed consistently increased GFAP values. No association with age and sex was found. CONCLUSION: Most acute and chronic neurological diseases, including typical stroke mimics, are not associated with detectable GFAP levels in the bloodstream. Our findings underline the hypothesis that rapid astroglial destruction as in acute intracerebral hemorrhage is mandatory for GFAP increase. A future GFAP blood test applied to identify patients with intracerebral hemorrhage is likely to have a high specificity.

  16. Impact of Ambient Air Pollution on the Differential White Blood Cell Count in Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Brüske, Irene; Hampel, Regina; Socher, Martin M.; Rückerl, Regina; Schneider, Alexandra; Heinrich, Joachim; Oberdörster, Günter; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Peters, Annette

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies report associations between particulate air pollution and increased mortality from pulmonary diseases.To examine whether the exposure to ambient gaseous and particulate air pollution leads to an alteration of the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases like chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma.

  17. Decreased cerebral blood flow and prognosis of Alzheimer's disease. A multicenter HMPAO-SPECT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for evaluating the severity and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Eighty-four AD patients were included. At entry, 99mTc-HMPAO-SPECT, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Mental Function Impairment Scale (MENFIS), and the Raven Colored Progression Matrix (RCPM) were performed for all 84 patients. During the follow-up periods, two individual MMSE evaluations in 34 patients, two MENFIS evaluations in 30 patients, and two RCPM evaluations in 20 patients were performed. Based on the regions of decreased cerebral blood flow demonstrated on three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) images of SPECT, the cases were classified as type A (no decrease), type B (decreased blood flow in the parietal or temporal lobe), type C (decreased blood flow in the frontal lobe and parietal or temporal lobe), type Pc (decreased blood flow in posterior cingulate gyrus only), and ''other types''. The types of decreased blood flow, scores on neuropsychological evaluations, and symptom progression were analyzed. The MENFIS, MMSE, and RCPM scores were poorest in type C patients at entry. The degree of decrease of these scores during the follow-up periods was also greatest in type C. The greatest difference between patients with and without rapid progression in SPECT data of the mild AD patients (MMSE score≥24) was in the frontal lobe. Decreased blood flow in the frontal lobe of AD patients is correlated not only with reduced cognitive function at the time of the evaluation but with rapid progression in the subsequent clinical course. (author)

  18. Experimental Lyme disease in rabbits: spirochetes found in erythema migrans and blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornblatt, A N; Steere, A C; Brownstein, D G

    1984-01-01

    In attempts to produce experimental Lyme disease, 33 rabbits were inoculated with Lyme spirochetes by tick feeding or from tick organ homogenates or cultures. Two rabbits developed erythema chronicum migrans at the site of inoculation, in one instance 2 days after injection of a tick organ homogenate and in the other instance, 17 days after feeding of infected Ixodes dammini ticks. Spirochetes were seen in skin biopsy specimens of the second lesion with Warthin-Starry and immunoperoxidase stains. Spirochetes were also recovered from blood cultures of two additional rabbits 2 weeks post-inoculation. These findings are characteristic of early Lyme disease in humans and give additional support for the spirochetal etiology of Lyme disease. Images PMID:6480108

  19. Classification of peripheral occlusive arterial diseases based on symptoms, signs and distal blood pressure measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, K H; Noer, Ivan; Paaske, William;

    1980-01-01

    Systolic blood pressures at toe and ankle were measured in 459 consecutive patients with occlusive arterial disease. Fifty-eight per cent had intermittent claudication with arterial disease of all degrees of severity. Seventeen per cent complained of rest pain having toe systolic pressures below 30...... mmHg, half had arterial lesions proximal to the groin. None had diabetes. Fourteen per cent non-diabetic patients had chronic ulcerations on the foot with arterial lesions similar to those in patients with rest pain. Eleven per cent diabetic patients with chronic ulcerations had less pronounced...... occlusive arterial disease which was located distally on the legs. A classification in three groups is suggested: (1) ischemia only during exercise; (2) ischemia at rest with or without ulcerations: and (3) diabetics with chronic ulcerations....

  20. Modeling the Role of the Glymphatic Pathway and Cerebral Blood Vessel Properties in Alzheimer's Disease Pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Rose Kyrtsos

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, affecting over 10% population over the age of 65 years. Clinically, AD is described by the symptom set of short term memory loss and cognitive decline, changes in mentation and behavior, and eventually long-term memory deficit as the disease progresses. On imaging studies, significant atrophy with subsequent increase in ventricular volume have been observed. Pathology on post-mortem brain specimens demonstrates the classic findings of increased beta amyloid (Aβ deposition and the presence of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs within affected neurons. Neuroinflammation, dysregulation of blood-brain barrier transport and clearance, deposition of Aβ in cerebral blood vessels, vascular risk factors such as atherosclerosis and diabetes, and the presence of the apolipoprotein E4 allele have all been identified as playing possible roles in AD pathogenesis. Recent research has demonstrated the importance of the glymphatic system in the clearance of Aβ from the brain via the perivascular space surrounding cerebral blood vessels. Given the variety of hypotheses that have been proposed for AD pathogenesis, an interconnected, multilayer model offers a unique opportunity to combine these ideas into a single unifying model. Results of this model demonstrate the importance of vessel stiffness and heart rate in maintaining adequate clearance of Aβ from the brain.

  1. Evaluation of MR angiography and blood flow measurement in abdominal and peripheral arterial occlusive disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabuchi, Kenji [Dokkyo Univ. School of Medicine, Mibu, Tochigi (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    To assess the characteristics of blood flow measurement with MR Angiography (MRA) to evaluate the status of vascular stenoses, two or three dimensional time-of-flight MRA and velocity-encoded cine MR were performed in the 230 segments of 35 patients, with abdominal and peripheral arterial occlusive diseases. In 11 of these 35 patients digital subtraction angiography was additionally underwent, and the stenotic findings was compared with MRA. There were 17 segments in which the velocity could not be measured, because the blood flow exceeded the upper limit of peak-encoded velocity (VENC) which was set at 120 cm/sec. Therefore, it is necessary to set the upper limit of VENC at higher than 120 cm/sec. There were 11 stenotic findings in DSA and 20 stenotic findings in MRA. Pulsatility Index (PI=(max velocity-min. velocity)/average velocity) were used for evaluating the blood flow waveform, and there were significant difference between the 11 stenotic findings of DSA and the others'. In summery, MRA was considered as useful examination to assess the degree of the vascular stenoses in abdominal and peripheral arterial occlusive disease. (author)

  2. Hemorheological risk factors of acute chest syndrome and painful vaso-occlusive crisis in children with sickle cell disease. : Blood rheology in sickle cell disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lamarre, Yann; Romana, Marc; Waltz, Xavier; Lalanne-Mistrih, Marie-Laure; Tressières, Benoît; Divialle-Doumdo, Lydia; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Vent-Schmidt, Jens; Petras, Marie; Broquere, Cedric; Maillard, Frederic; Tarer, Vanessa; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Connes, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    International audience BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effects of blood rheology on the occurrence of acute chest syndrome and painful vaso-occlusive crises in children with sickle cell anemia and hemoglobin SC disease. DESIGN AND METHODS: To address this issue, steady-state hemorheological profiles (blood viscosity, red blood cell deformability, aggregation properties) and hematologic parameters were assessed in 44 children with sickle cell anemia and 49 children with hemoglobin SC ...

  3. Blood discard rate and the prevalence of infectious and contagious diseases in blood donors from provincial towns of the state of Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Donizete Borelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: So that an improvement in the selection of donors can be achieved and the risk to the recipient of transfused blood can be reduced, prospective donors are submitted to clinical and serological screening. Objective: This study investigated the blood discard rate and the rate of infectious and contagious diseases in blood donors from provincial towns of the state of Paraná, Brazil. Methods: This study was an exploratory cross-sectional descriptive investigation with a quantitative approach of donations between January and December 2011. Results: In the study period the Regional Blood center in Maringá, Brazil received 8337 blood donations from people living in the city and neighboring towns. However, 278 (3.33% donations were discarded during serological screening owing to one or more positive serological markers. A total of 46.4% of the discarded blood units were confirmed positive by serology with anti-HBc being the most common (66.7%, followed by syphilis (22.5%, HBsAg (4.7%, anti-hepatitis C virus (3.1%, human immunodeficiency virus (1.5% and Chagas' disease (1.5%. The rate of infectious-contagious diseases that can be transmitted by blood transfusions was 1.55% (129/8337 of the donor population with a frequency of 1.03% for anti-HBc and 0.35% for syphilis. Conclusion: This study demonstrates a high prevalence of the anti-HBc marker in prospective blood donors from provincial towns in the state of Paraná, Brazil.

  4. Common Aging Signature in the Peripheral Blood of Vascular Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongbo; Han, Guangchun; Wang, Jiajia; Zeng, Fan; Li, Yuanming; Shao, Shaoju; Song, Fuhai; Bai, Zhouxian; Peng, Xing; Wang, Yan-Jiang; Shi, Xiangqun; Lei, Hongxing

    2016-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are the two most dominant forms of dementia in elderly people. Due to the large overlap between AD and VaD in clinical observations, great controversies exist regarding the distinction and connection between these two types of senile dementia. Here for the first time, we resort to the gene expression pattern of the peripheral blood to compare AD and VaD objectively. In our previous work, we have demonstrated that the dysregulation of gene expression in AD is unique among the examined diseases including neurological diseases, cancer, and metabolic diseases. In this study, we found that the dysregulation of gene expression in AD and VaD is quite similar to each other at both functional and gene levels. Interestingly, the dysregulation started at the early stages of the diseases, namely mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). We have also shown that this signature is distinctive from that of peripheral vascular diseases. Comparison with aging studies revealed that the most profound change in AD and VaD, namely ribosome, is consistent with the accelerated aging scenario. This study may have implications to the common mechanism between AD and VaD. PMID:26099307

  5. Home blood pressure monitor use in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaojing; Shafi, Salman; Negrete, Andrea; Davis, William N; Sarac, Erdal; Negrete, Alejandro M; Negrete, Hilmer

    2016-10-01

    Home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) is recommended in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension (HTN). However, little is known about the use and pattern of HBPM in CKD patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in an out-patient nephrology clinic. A total of 285 patients participated in the study. Of all patients, 66% reported using HBPM. Self-reported compliance with BP medications (93.9% vs. 85.1%, p 0.03), exercise >3 days/week (45.9 vs. 26.3%, p helpful in managing hypertension (85.4%). Most common reason for not using HBPM was lack of advice by a physician (43.4%). HBPM use is common in patients with CKD and HTN. HBPM users are more likely to follow life-style and dietary modifications for blood pressure control. PMID:27104796

  6. Transfusion rate and prevalence of unexpected red blood cell alloantibodies in women undergoing hysterectomy for benign disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoestesen, Lisbeth M; Rasmussen, Kjeld L; Lauszus, Finn F;

    2011-01-01

    To determine transfusion rates, risk factors for transfusion and the prevalence of unexpected red blood cell alloantibodies in women undergoing hysterectomy for benign disease. In addition, we aimed to evaluate the necessity of the pretransfusion testing for red blood cell alloantibodies....

  7. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and changes in cerebral blood flow : The Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease-Magnetic Resonance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Pieternella H.; Muller, Majon; Vincken, Koen L.; Westerink, Jan; Mali, Willem P. T. M.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Geerlings, Mirjam I.; Doevendans, PAFM

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobin and hematocrit are important determinants of blood viscosity and arterial oxygen content and may therefore influence cerebral blood flow (CBF). We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations of hemoglobin and hematocrit with CBF in 569 patients with manifest arterial disease (me

  8. Tight junctions at the blood brain barrier: physiological architecture and disease-associated dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luissint Anny-Claude

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Blood–brain barrier (BBB, present at the level of the endothelium of cerebral blood vessels, selectively restricts the blood-to-brain paracellular diffusion of compounds; it is mandatory for cerebral homeostasis and proper neuronal function. The barrier properties of these specialized endothelial cells notably depend on tight junctions (TJs between adjacent cells: TJs are dynamic structures consisting of a number of transmembrane and membrane-associated cytoplasmic proteins, which are assembled in a multimolecular complex and acting as a platform for intracellular signaling. Although the structural composition of these complexes has been well described in the recent years, our knowledge about their functional regulation still remains fragmentary. Importantly, pericytes, embedded in the vascular basement membrane, and perivascular microglial cells, astrocytes and neurons contribute to the regulation of endothelial TJs and BBB function, altogether constituting the so-called neurovascular unit. The present review summarizes our current understanding of the structure and functional regulation of endothelial TJs at the BBB. Accumulating evidence points to a correlation between BBB dysfunction, alteration of TJ complexes and progression of a variety of CNS diseases, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis and brain tumors, as well as neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Understanding how TJ integrity is controlled may thus help improve drug delivery across the BBB and the design of therapeutic strategies for neurological disorders.

  9. Caffeine blocks disruption of blood brain barrier in a rabbit model of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghribi Othman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High levels of serum cholesterol and disruptions of the blood brain barrier (BBB have all been implicated as underlying mechanisms in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Results from studies conducted in animals and humans suggest that caffeine might be protective against Alzheimer's disease but by poorly understood mechanisms. Using rabbits fed a cholesterol-enriched diet, we tested our hypothesis that chronic ingestion of caffeine protects against high cholesterol diet-induced disruptions of the BBB. New Zealand rabbits were fed a 2% cholesterol-enriched diet, and 3 mg caffeine was administered daily in drinking water for 12 weeks. Total cholesterol and caffeine concentrations from blood were measured. Olfactory bulbs (and for some studies hippocampus and cerebral cortex as well were evaluated for BBB leakage, BBB tight junction protein expression levels, activation of astrocytes, and microglia density using histological, immunostaining and immunoblotting techniques. We found that caffeine blocked high cholesterol diet-induced increases in extravasation of IgG and fibrinogen, increases in leakage of Evan's blue dye, decreases in levels of the tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1, increases in astrocytes activation and microglia density where IgG extravasation was present. Chronic ingestion of caffeine protects against high cholesterol diet-induced increases in disruptions of the BBB, and caffeine and drugs similar to caffeine might be useful in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Blood pressure, risk of ischemic cerebrovascular and ischemic heart disease, and longevity in alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Sillesen, Henrik;

    2003-01-01

    Because elastase in alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency may attack elastin in the arterial wall, we tested whether alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency is associated with reduced blood pressure, risk of ischemic cerebrovascular (ICVD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD), and longevity.......Because elastase in alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency may attack elastin in the arterial wall, we tested whether alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency is associated with reduced blood pressure, risk of ischemic cerebrovascular (ICVD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD), and longevity....

  11. PL 01-2 BLOOD PRESSURE AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE MORTALITY IN THE ASIA PACIFIC REGION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Il

    2016-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a global leading cause of death nowadays. Fortunately, the majority of risk factors which cause CVD are preventable. The INTERSTROKE study recently reported that about 90% of the population-attributable risk of stroke is associated with ten modifiable risk factors. Especially high blood pressure levels are well established to be associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Recently CVD mortality has been decreasing in high-income countries but increasing in some middle-income countries and low-income countries. Since 2000, CVD morality decreased by 16% among the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries, but increased by 4% in Asian countries. Even within the Asia-Pacific region, individual countries show different patterns of CVD mortality trends. Recent data show that CVD mortality is decreasing in South Korea, Singapore, New Zealand and Australia but the rate is increasing in Philippine, Pakistan, Myanmar and China. South Korea showed a dramatic reduction in CVD mortality reduction. Between 2000 and 2012, CVD mortality has been decreased by 37%, and population mean level of systolic blood pressure has been decreased by around 10 mmHg in the adult Koreans. This blood pressure reduction was mainly due to improved awareness, treatment and control rates of hypertension. However, in countries where CVD mortality is increasing, hypertension control rate were reported to be still low about 10 to 20%, and the population blood pressure level is not decreasing.Prevention, identification, and management of hypertension might be a main factor, which explains the regional difference of CVD mortality in the Asia-Pacific region. Therefore, more efforts to prevent hypertension and to lower blood pressure and are essential to reduce CVD mortality, especially in countries with poor control rate of hypertension. PMID:27642874

  12. FREE RADICAL-RELATED DISEASES: THE PREDICTIVE VALUE OF BIOMARKERS IN THE UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Perrone

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in preterm newborns healthcare, the incidence of neonatal pathologies and disabilities still remain unacceptable high. The deficiency of antioxidant systems and the high free radicals (FRs production may cause several neonatal diseases, such as Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP, Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD, Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC, Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA, Periventricular Leukomalacia (PVL and Intraventricular Hemorrhage (IVH, representing facets of the ‘Free Radical-Related Diseases’ (FRD. The aim of this study is to verify the association between FRD and blood levels of reliable oxidative stress (OS biomarkers in preterm newborns. We enrolled 178 preterm newborns born consecutively at the General Hospital “Santa Maria alle Scotte” in Siena, between 23 and 34 weeks (30,36±2.97 of gestational age, with birth-weight from 430 to 2890 grams (1453±593. After birth, we evaluated in the cord blood the markers of potential risk of OS (Non Protein-Bound Iron, NPBI and the markers of FR damage (Total Hydroperoxides, TH; Advanced Oxidation Protein Products, AOPP. For each newborn, we assessed the presence or absence of the following diseases, considering as FRD the presence of one at least: ROP, BPD, NEC, PDA, PVL, IVH. The univariate logistic regression showed a significant association between FRD and OS related markers. Risk assessment of FRD was higher in newborns with higher values of each OS marker: respectively TH (OR=1.013, p=0,000, AOPP (OR=1.017, p=0,036, NPBI (OR=1.077, p=0.039. Perinatal OS exposure is linked to the main diseases of prematurity. The evaluation of OS biomarkers in preterm newborns through the analysis of umbilical cord blood, can be useful and predictive for early identification of infants at risk for FRD in order to devise appropriate and timely prevention and treating strategies.

  13. Radionuclide and macromicroangiographic study of pulmonary ventilation and blood flow in chronic pulmonary nonspecific diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of ventilation and perfusion in 105 patients with chronic pulmonary nonspecific diseases using radiopneumography with 133Xe. A simultaneous macro-microangiographic study was made of the pulmonary artery on specimens taken after lobectomy in 35 patients with bronchiectasia in the lower lobe. Assymetry of the distribution of ventilation and perfusion is typical of patients with bronchiectasia. It manifests itself in a significant decrease in the viable pulmonary capacity and the blood flow in the affected zone. A simultaneous compensatory rise of a perfusion was recorded. Simultaneous anatomostructural radionuclide studies make it possible to understand more deeply the essence of a pathological process

  14. Clinical laboratory experience of blood CRIM testing in infantile Pompe disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeksha S. Bali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cross-reactive immunological material (CRIM status is an important prognostic factor in patients with infantile Pompe disease (IPD being treated with enzyme replacement therapy. Western blot analysis of cultured skin fibroblast lysates has been the gold standard for determining CRIM status. Here, we evaluated CRIM status using peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC protein. For 6 of 33 patients (18% CRIM status determination using PBMC was either indeterminate or discordant with GAA genotype or fibroblast CRIM analysis results. While the use of PBMCs for CRIM determination has the advantage of a faster turnaround time, further evaluation is needed to ensure the accuracy of CRIM results.

  15. CYTOKINES AND C-REACTIVE PROTEIN CONTENT IN SERUM BLOOD OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LARYNGITIS DISEASE

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    Zaiter Samir

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Some kinds of interleikines of patients with chronic laryngitis disease were investigated. There is “cytokines explosion” of the patients with chronic laryngitis with persistent herpes simplex virus. Comparative investigation cytokine profile in serum blood is demonstrated: balanced reaction cytokines profile of patients with chronic laryngitis without persistent herpes simplex virus and dysbalanced reaction of patients with laryngitis (hyperergation. Increased content IL-6 and low content g-interferon and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-a are predisposition of chronisation inflammation processes in larynges. This situation needs sighting correction.

  16. [The determinant role of an accurate medicosocial approach in the prognosis of pediatric blood diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppet, M

    2005-01-01

    The care of infancy and childhood blood diseases implies a comprehensive medicosocial approach. This is a prerequisite for regular follow-up, for satisfactory compliance to treatment and for optimal patient's quality of life. Different modalities of medicosocial approach have been developed in the pediatric department (firstly in the Hospital Saint Pierre and than in the Children's University Hospital HUDERF). The drastic importance of a recent reform of the increased family allowances is briefly presented. The author underlines the determinant role of an accurate global approach, in which the patient and the family are surrounded by a multidisciplinary team, including social workers. PMID:16454232

  17. The Study of Chlamydia Pneumoniae DNA in the Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell of Coronary Heart Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Tao; Xu Xiang Guang; Zhang Guo Liang; Fang Weihua

    2004-01-01

    Objectives To detection of chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) DNA in the circulating mononuclear cell fractions of coronary heart disease and to investigate the association between infection with chlamydia pneumoniae and coronary heart disease (CHD) and prospectively whether blood -based nested polymerase chain reaction ( nPCR ) is useful in identifying Cpn infection. Methods The peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) Cpn DNA was examined using nPCR technique and confirmed by electrophoresis in 150 patients with CHD. Select 55 patients with clinical suspected CHD but angiography result are normal as control group (CG). Then we conducted a prospective , randomized, double - blind, placebo -controlled study of 6 months of azithromycin and placebo treatment in CHD group. Patients with Cpn DNA positive were then randomized to receive azithromycin or placebo. After treatment blood sample were collected for repeated measurement . Results Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA was detected in 49(32.7% ) of 150persons with CHD and in 1 ( 1.8% ) of 55 persons with control group,odds ratio 26.2, 95% confidence interva13.52 - 194.98. The positivity rates of nPCR in CHD groups were higher than those in control group. 16 cases (29. 1% ) in latent coronary heart diseases(LCHD) group , 19 cases (39.6%) in unstable angina(UAP) group ,and 14 cases (29.9%) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI)group were Cpn positive by nPCR. There were no significant difference among in AMIUAP and LCHD group. There were significiant difference in Cpn DNA negative rates after the azithromycin and the placebo treatment. Conclusions Chlamydia pneumoniae is present in PBMC of a significant proportion of persons with CHD. The potential role of chlamydia pneumoniae in coronary atherosclerosis may therefore be more related to acceleration of disease or systemic effects by persistent infection than to sudden initiation of progressive coronary artery disease by acute infection. The detection of Cpn DNA in PBMC with nPCR may be

  18. MR-based coronary artery blood velocity measurements in patients without coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiemann, M.; Esmaeili, A.; Vogl, T.J. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology University Hospital, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Bakhtiary, F.; Moritz, A. [University HospitalJohann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Hietschold, V. [University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus Technical University Dresden, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Dresden (Germany); Koch, A.; Abolmaali, N.D. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology University Hospital, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus Techinical University Dresden, ZIK OncoRay - Molecular Imaging, Dresden (Germany); Ackermann, H. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Department for Biomathematics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of MR-based coronary blood velocity measurements (MRvenc) in patients without coronary artery disease (CAD). Eighty-three patients with angiographically excluded CAD received MRvenc of the proximal segments of both coronary arteries (CAs). Using a retrospectively ECG-gated breath-hold phase-contrast FLASH sequence with high temporal resolution, flow data were technically acquirable in 137/166 (83%) CAs. Quantification and analysis of blood velocities in systole and diastole of both CAs were performed. Biphasic velocity profiles were found in 83/100 CAs. Median systolic and diastolic velocities differed significantly in LCA (19 cm/s, 24 cm/s; P<0.0001) and RCAs (14 cm/s, 16 cm/s; P<0.01). The diastolic/systolic velocity ratio was calculated in LCAs and RCAs with a median of 1.3 and 1.1, respectively. The velocity profiles of the remaining CAs were monophasic (17 CAs) or revealed severe alterations of the physiologic velocity profile with reduced flow undulations and steady velocities (37 CAs). Optimized clinical MRvenc is feasible to quantify blood velocities in the CAs. Potential indications are (1) non-invasive monitoring of patients after aortic valve reconstruction as well as (2) detection of asymptomatic CAD patients. (orig.)

  19. Red blood cell abnormalities and the pathogenesis of anemia in end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgatzakou, Hara T; Antonelou, Marianna H; Papassideri, Issidora S; Kriebardis, Anastasios G

    2016-08-01

    Anemia is the most common hematologic complication in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It is ascribed to decreased erythropoietin production, shortened red blood cell (RBC) lifespan, and inflammation. Uremic toxins severely affect RBC lifespan; however, the implicated molecular pathways are poorly understood. Moreover, current management of anemia in ESRD is controversial due to the "anemia paradox" phenomenon, which underlines the need for a more individualized approach to therapy. RBCs imprint the adverse effects of uremic, inflammatory, and oxidative stresses in a context of structural and functional deterioration that is associated with RBC removal signaling and morbidity risk. RBCs circulate in hostile plasma by raising elegant homeostatic defenses. Variability in primary defect, co-morbidity, and therapeutic approaches add complexity to the pathophysiological background of the anemic ESRD patient. Several blood components have been suggested as biomarkers of anemia-related morbidity and mortality risk in ESRD. However, a holistic view of blood cell and plasma modifications through integrated omics approaches and high-throughput studies might assist the development of new diagnostic tests and therapies that will target the underlying pathophysiologic processes of ESRD anemia. PMID:26948278

  20. Meta-analysis of peripheral blood apolipoprotein E levels in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peripheral blood Apolipoprotein E (ApoE levels have been proposed as biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD, but previous studies on levels of ApoE in blood remain inconsistent. This meta-analysis was designed to re-examine the potential role of peripheral ApoE in AD diagnosis and its potential value as a candidate biomarker. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, and BIOSIS previews for case-control studies measuring ApoE levels in serum or plasma from AD subjects and healthy controls. The pooled weighted mean difference (WMD and 95% confidence interval (CI were used to estimate the association between ApoE levels and AD risk. RESULTS: Eight studies with a total of 2250 controls and 1498 AD cases were identified and analyzed. The pooled WMD from a random-effect model of AD participants compared with the healthy controls was -5.59 mg/l (95% CI: [-8.12, -3.06]. The overall pattern in WMD was not varied by characteristics of study, including age, country, assay method, publication year, and sample type. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis supports a lowered level of blood ApoE in AD patients, and indicates its potential value as an important risk factor for AD. Further investigation employing standardized assay for ApoE measurement are still warranted to uncover the precise role of ApoE in the pathophysiology of AD.

  1. Methylation analysis of multiple genes in blood DNA of Alzheimer's disease and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannorella, Pierpaola; Stoccoro, Andrea; Tognoni, Gloria; Petrozzi, Lucia; Salluzzo, Maria Grazia; Ragalmuto, Alda; Siciliano, Gabriele; Haslberger, Alexander; Bosco, Paolo; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Migliore, Lucia; Coppedè, Fabio

    2015-07-23

    We collected blood DNA from 120 late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and 115 healthy matched controls and analysed the methylation levels of genes involved in amyloid-beta peptide production (PSEN1 and BACE1), in DNA methylation (DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B), and in one-carbon metabolism (MTHFR), searching for correlation with age and gender, with biomarkers of one-carbon metabolism (plasma homocysteine, and serum folate and vitamin B12 levels), and with disease status (being healthy or having AD). We also evaluated the contribution of the APOE ϵ4 allele, the major late-onset AD genetic risk factor, to the studied gene methylation levels. All the genes showed low mean methylation levels (<5%) in both AD and control DNA, no difference between groups, and no correlation with the studied biomarkers, except for MTHFR that showed methylation levels ranging from 5% to 75%, and correlation with circulating biomarkers of one-carbon metabolism. However, mean MTHFR methylation levels were similar between groups (31.1% in AD and 30.7% in controls, P=0.58). Overall, present data suggest that none of the studied regions is differently methylated in blood DNA between AD and control subjects. PMID:26079324

  2. Blood pressure variability and cardiovascular autonomic control during hemodialysis in peripheral vascular disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemodialysis (HD) patients with peripheral vascular disease (PVD) are at higher risk of mortality. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the hypothesis of an association between the PVD and an altered control system on peripheral resistance in response to volume depletion induced by HD treatment; and to investigate whether HD induced increase of pulse pressure (PP) is associated with PVD. Continuous blood pressure (BP) was recorded during HD treatment at the beginning and at the end of HD. The overhydration condition was evaluated by means of whole body bioimpedance spectroscopy, measured before each HD treatment. BP variability, heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity were then analyzed. Patients affected by PVD reported a prevalence of peripheral local control as shown by higher values of very low frequency in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) variability and a reduced cardiac baroreflex with respect to patients not affected by this pathology. HD treatment induced a significant increase of PP and LF% in DBP series in PVD patients only. Our results suggested that differences in BP variability and PP changes could be related not only to an underlying vascular disease, but also to an alteration in autonomic control. (paper)

  3. A case of graft-versus-host disease following irradiated fresh blood transfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reported a case of a fatal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) which developed in a 65-year-old, male patient which was considered to have been induced by irradiated fresh blood donated by his son after a coronary bypass surgery. Fresh blood was obtained from his relatives, and a 15 Gy irradiation was performed before transfusion. The diagnosis of acute GVHD was made by clinical symptoms and histological examinations of the skin and the bone marrow. He died of sepsis on the 19th post-operative day. The HLA typing of the lymphocytes, revealed that the patient had A 2, A 24, Bw 52, Bw 62, Cw 4, DR 2, and his son had A 24, Bw 52, DR 2. A 24 and Bw 52 were homogeneous making his son histocompatible with one of the patient's haplotype. This might well be attributable to the occurrence of GVHD in this case, meaning that 15 Gy irradiation was not sufficient for the prevention of this disease. (author)

  4. Efficient Quantitative Analysis of Carboxyalkylpyrrole Ethanolamine Phospholipids: Elevated Levels in Sickle Cell Disease Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junhong; Wang, Hua; Hrinczenko, Borys; Salomon, Robert G

    2016-07-18

    γ-Hydroxy-α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, generated by oxidative damage of polyunsaturated phospholipids, form pyrrole derivatives that incorporate the ethanolamine phospholipid (EP) amino group such as 2-pentylpyrrole (PP)-EP and 2-(ω-carboxyalkyl)pyrrole (CAP)-EP derivatives: 2-(ω-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP)-EP, 2-(ω-carboxypropyl)pyrrole (CPP)-EP, and 2-(ω-carboxyheptyl)pyrrole (CHP)-EP. Because EPs occur in vivo in various forms, a complex mixture of pyrrole-modified EPs with different molecular weights is expected to be generated. To provide a sensitive index of oxidative stress, all of the differences in mass related to the glycerophospholipid moieties were removed by releasing a single CAP-ethanolamine (ETN) or PP-ETN from each mixture by treatment with phospholipase D. Accurate quantization was achieved using the corresponding ethanolamine-d4 pyrroles as internal standards. The product mixture obtained by phospholipolysis of total blood phospholipids from sickle cell disease (SCD) patients was analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The method was applied to measure CAP-EP and PP-EP levels in blood plasma from clinical monitoring of SCD patients. We found uniformly elevated blood levels of CEP-EP (63.9 ± 9.7 nM) similar to mean levels in blood from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients (56.3 ± 37.1 nM), and 2-fold lower levels (27.6 ± 3.6 nM, n = 5) were detected in plasma from SCD patients hospitalized to treat a sickle cell crisis, although mean levels remain higher than those (12.1 ± 10.5 nM) detected in blood from healthy controls. Plasma levels of CPP-EPs from SCD clinic patients were 4-fold higher than those of SCD patients hospitalized to treat a sickle cell crisis (45.1 ± 10.9 nM, n = 5 versus 10.9 ± 3.4 nM, n = 6; p < 0.002). PP-EP concentration in plasma from SCD clinic patients is nearly 4.8-fold higher than its level in plasma samples from SCD patients hospitalized to treat a sickle cell crisis (7.06 ± 4.05 vs 1.48 ± 0.92 nM; p < 0.05). Because

  5. Increased osteoclast formation and activity by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in chronic liver disease patients with osteopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J. Olivier; A.M. Schoenmaker; R.E. Mebius; V. Everts; C.J. Mulder; K.M.J. van Nieuwkerk; T.J. de Vries; S.W. van der Merwe

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common complication of chronic liver disease, and the underlying mechanisms are not understood. We aimed to determine if osteoclasts develop from osteoclast precursors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of chronic liver disease patients with osteopenia compared with cont

  6. Passage of dietary antigens into the blood of children with coeliac disease. Quantification and size distribution of absorbed antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husby, S; Foged, N; Høst, A;

    1987-01-01

    The uptake of ovalbumin (OA) from egg and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) from cow's milk into the blood was investigated for seven hours after a test meal in five children with coeliac disease on a gluten free diet and after gluten challenge, and in five children with normal jejunal mucosa. Ovalbumin w......, indicating increased macromolecular passage through the gut mucosa in untreated coeliac disease....

  7. Load of challenge Marek's disease virus DNA in blood as a criterion for early diagnosis of Marek's disease tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Isabel M; Cortes, Aneg L; Silva, R F

    2008-06-01

    Outbreaks of Marek's disease (MD) in vaccinated flocks still occur sporadically and lead to economic losses. Unfortunately, adequate methods to predict MD outbreaks are lacking. In the present study, we have evaluated whether high load of challenge MD virus (MDV) DNA in peripheral blood could aid in the early diagnosis of MD and in monitoring efficacy of vaccines against MD. One experiment was conducted to simulate field conditions by combining various vaccines (turkey herpesvirus [HVT] and HVT + MDV serotype 2 [SB1]) and challenge viruses (GA, Md5, and 648A). Vaccine efficacy among our experimental groups ranged from 13.3% to 94.2%. Each chicken was sampled three times during the length of the experiment (3, 5, and 15 wk postchallenge [wpc]), and gross lesions were evaluated in chickens that died and at termination of the experiment. DNA was extracted from whole blood and buffy coats from each sample, and the load of challenge MDV DNA and HVT DNA were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Chickens that developed MD by the end of the experiment had higher load of challenge MDV DNA (threshold cycle [Ct] glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH]/Ct glycoprotein B [gB] ratios of 1.0, 1.04, and 1.05 at 3, 5, and 15 wpc, respectively) than those that did not develop MD (Ct GAPDH/Ct gB ratios of 0.7, 0.69, and 0.46 at 3, 5, and 15 wpc, respectively). However, load of HVT DNA in blood was not correlated with the development of tumors (Ct GAPDH/Ct HVT ratios from 0.04 to 0.10 in both groups). Vaccinated groups with >75% protection had statistically significant less challenge DNA virus (Ct GAPDH/Ct gB ratios of 0.76, 0.70, and 0.45 at 3, 5, and 15 wpc, respectively) than less protected groups (Ct GAPDH/Ct gB ratios of 0.92, 0.97, and 0.85 at 3, 5, and 15 wpc, respectively). No differences in the load of HVT DNA could be found between protected and nonprotected groups at any time point of the study (Ct GAPDH/Ct HVT from 0.05 to 0.09 in both groups). Our

  8. Biodistribution of Infused Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cells in Alzheimer's Disease-Like Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Jared; Darlington, Donna; Kuzmin-Nichols, Nicole; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Sawmiller, Darrell R; Sanberg, Paul R; Tan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBCs), a prolific source of non-embryonic or adult stem cells, have emerged as effective and relatively safe immunomodulators and neuroprotectors, reducing behavioral impairment in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, and stroke. In this report, we followed the bioavailability of HUCBCs in AD-like transgenic PSAPP mice and nontransgenic Sprague-Dawley rats. HUCBCs were injected into tail veins of mice or rats at a single dose of 1 × 10(6) or 2.2 × 10(6) cells, respectively, prior to harvesting of tissues at 24 h, 7 days, and 30 days after injection. For determination of HUCBC distribution, tissues from both species were subjected to total DNA isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the gene for human glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Our results show a relatively similar biodistribution and retention of HUCBCs in both mouse and rat organs. HUCBCs were broadly detected both in the brain and several peripheral organs, including the liver, kidney, and bone marrow, of both species, starting within 7 days and continuing up to 30 days posttransplantation. No HUCBCs were recovered in the peripheral circulation, even at 24 h posttransplantation. Therefore, HUCBCs reach several tissues including the brain following a single intravenous treatment, suggesting that this route can be a viable method of administration of these cells for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Changes in Proteome Profile of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Chronic Chagas Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, Kizhake V.; Zago, Maria P.; Koo, Sue-Jie; Spratt, Heidi; Stafford, Susan; Blell, Zinzi N.; Gupta, Shivali; Nuñez Burgos, Julio; Barrientos, Natalia; Brasier, Allan R.

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc) infection causes chagasic cardiomyopathy; however, why 30–40% of the patients develop clinical disease is not known. To discover the pathomechanisms in disease progression, we obtained the proteome signature of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of normal healthy controls (N/H, n = 30) and subjects that were seropositive for Tc-specific antibodies, but were clinically asymptomatic (C/A, n = 25) or clinically symptomatic (C/S, n = 28) with cardiac involvement and left ventricular dysfunction. Protein samples were labeled with BODIPY FL-maleimide (dynamic range: > 4 orders of magnitude, detection limit: 5 f-mol) and resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE). After normalizing the gel images, protein spots that exhibited differential abundance in any of the two groups were analyzed by mass spectrometry, and searched against UniProt human database for protein identification. We found 213 and 199 protein spots (fold change: |≥ 1.5|, p93% prediction success in classifying infected individuals with no disease and those with cardiac involvement and LV dysfunction. In conclusion, we have identified molecular pathways and a panel of proteins that could aid in detecting seropositive individuals at risk of developing cardiomyopathy. PMID:26919708

  10. Changes in Proteome Profile of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Chronic Chagas Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Jain Garg

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc infection causes chagasic cardiomyopathy; however, why 30-40% of the patients develop clinical disease is not known. To discover the pathomechanisms in disease progression, we obtained the proteome signature of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of normal healthy controls (N/H, n = 30 and subjects that were seropositive for Tc-specific antibodies, but were clinically asymptomatic (C/A, n = 25 or clinically symptomatic (C/S, n = 28 with cardiac involvement and left ventricular dysfunction. Protein samples were labeled with BODIPY FL-maleimide (dynamic range: > 4 orders of magnitude, detection limit: 5 f-mol and resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE. After normalizing the gel images, protein spots that exhibited differential abundance in any of the two groups were analyzed by mass spectrometry, and searched against UniProt human database for protein identification. We found 213 and 199 protein spots (fold change: |≥ 1.5|, p93% prediction success in classifying infected individuals with no disease and those with cardiac involvement and LV dysfunction. In conclusion, we have identified molecular pathways and a panel of proteins that could aid in detecting seropositive individuals at risk of developing cardiomyopathy.

  11. Successful cord blood stem cell transplantation for congenital erythropoietic porphyria (Gunther's disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zix-Kieffer, I; Langer, B; Eyer, D; Acar, G; Racadot, E; Schlaeder, G; Oberlin, F; Lutz, P

    1996-07-01

    Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (Gunther's disease, GD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease. It results from the deficiency of uroporphyrinogen III synthase, the fourth enzyme on the metabolic pathway of heme synthesis. GD leads to severe scarring of the face and hands as a result of photosensitivity and fragility of the skin due to uroporphyrin I and coproporphyrin I accumulation. It also causes erythrocyte fragility leading to haemolytic anaemia. The other clinical features include hirsutism, red discolouration of teeth, finger-nails and urine and stunted growth. The outcome is poor, and the disfiguring nature of GD may partly explain the legend of the werewolf. No curative treatment was known until 1991, when the first case of BMT in GD was reported. The clinical and biological outcome after transplantation was encouraging, with an important regression of the symptoms of the disease, but the child died of CMV-infection 11 months after BMT. We report the second case of GD treated successfully by stem cell transplantation using umbilical cord blood from an HLA-identical brother in a 4-year-old girl suffering from severe GD. Our patient is very well 10 months after transplantation. We confirm that stem cell transplantation is curative for GD.

  12. Peripheral blood and intrathyroidal T cell clones from patients with thyroid autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massart, C; Caroff, G; Maugendre, D; Genetet, N; Gibassier, J

    1999-01-01

    For a better understanding of the pathogenesis of thyroid autoimmune diseases, we have studied morphological and functional properties of T clones from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and from intrathyroidal lymphocytes (ITL) obtained from 3 patients with Graves' disease or 1 Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Investigations were carried out on clones cultured alone or cocultured with autologous thyrocytes. Clonage efficiency ranged from 30% to 33% for PBL and 10% to 36% for ITL. A predominance of CD4-positive clones was observed whatever the origin of the lymphocytes or the autoimmune pathology. Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) was detected in the majority (17/19) of the clones tested. Intracytoplasmic interleukin (IL-4) was secreted in 7/19 clones and both cytokines were produced in 5/19 clones. In coculture a proliferative response and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) production were observed with 6 clones (4 from Graves thyrocytes and 2 from thyroiditis). No cytotoxic clone was derived from Graves or thyroiditis tissues. These data demonstrate that the large majority of T clones are principally CD4-T cells; all the clones secreted TNF-alpha and a large majority produced IFN-gamma. Only a few clones produced IL-4 alone or associated with IFN-gamma. Six T clones induced proliferative response and of TNF-alpha secretion in coculture. Further investigations must be performed on these antigen-reactive T clones to analyse their role in the pathogenesis of the human thyroid autoimmune diseases. PMID:10739333

  13. Biodistribution of Infused Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cells in Alzheimer's Disease-Like Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Jared; Darlington, Donna; Kuzmin-Nichols, Nicole; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Sawmiller, Darrell R; Sanberg, Paul R; Tan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBCs), a prolific source of non-embryonic or adult stem cells, have emerged as effective and relatively safe immunomodulators and neuroprotectors, reducing behavioral impairment in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, and stroke. In this report, we followed the bioavailability of HUCBCs in AD-like transgenic PSAPP mice and nontransgenic Sprague-Dawley rats. HUCBCs were injected into tail veins of mice or rats at a single dose of 1 × 10(6) or 2.2 × 10(6) cells, respectively, prior to harvesting of tissues at 24 h, 7 days, and 30 days after injection. For determination of HUCBC distribution, tissues from both species were subjected to total DNA isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the gene for human glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Our results show a relatively similar biodistribution and retention of HUCBCs in both mouse and rat organs. HUCBCs were broadly detected both in the brain and several peripheral organs, including the liver, kidney, and bone marrow, of both species, starting within 7 days and continuing up to 30 days posttransplantation. No HUCBCs were recovered in the peripheral circulation, even at 24 h posttransplantation. Therefore, HUCBCs reach several tissues including the brain following a single intravenous treatment, suggesting that this route can be a viable method of administration of these cells for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26414627

  14. Viral Metagenomics on Blood-Feeding Arthropods as a Tool for Human Disease Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Annika; Nitsche, Andreas; Kohl, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Surveillance and monitoring of viral pathogens circulating in humans and wildlife, together with the identification of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), are critical for the prediction of future disease outbreaks and epidemics at an early stage. It is advisable to sample a broad range of vertebrates and invertebrates at different temporospatial levels on a regular basis to detect possible candidate viruses at their natural source. However, virus surveillance systems can be expensive, costly in terms of finances and resources and inadequate for sampling sufficient numbers of different host species over space and time. Recent publications have presented the concept of a new virus surveillance system, coining the terms “flying biological syringes”, “xenosurveillance” and “vector-enabled metagenomics”. According to these novel and promising surveillance approaches, viral metagenomics on engorged mosquitoes might reflect the viral diversity of numerous mammals, birds and humans, combined in the mosquitoes’ blood meal during feeding on the host. In this review article, we summarize the literature on vector-enabled metagenomics (VEM) techniques and its application in disease surveillance in humans. Furthermore, we highlight the combination of VEM and “invertebrate-derived DNA” (iDNA) analysis to identify the host DNA within the mosquito midgut. PMID:27775568

  15. Blood amyloid beta levels in healthy, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease individuals: replication of diastolic blood pressure correlations and analysis of critical covariates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Ruiz

    Full Text Available Plasma amyloid beta (Aβ levels are being investigated as potential biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. In AB128 cross-sectional study, a number of medical relevant correlates of blood Aβ40 or Aβ42 were analyzed in 140 subjects (51 Alzheimer's disease patients, 53 healthy controls and 36 individuals diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment. We determined the association between multiple variables with Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels measured in three different blood compartments called i Aβ directly accessible (DA in the plasma, ii Aβ recovered from the plasma matrix (RP after diluting the plasma sample in a formulated buffer, and iii associated with the remaining cellular pellet (CP. We confirmed that diastolic blood pressure (DBP is consistently correlated with blood DA Aβ40 levels (r=-0.19, P=0.032. These results were consistent in the three phenotypic groups studied. Importantly, the observation resisted covariation with age, gender or creatinine levels. Observed effect size and direction of Aβ40 levels/DBP correlation are in accordance with previous reports. Of note, DA Aβ40 and the RP Aβ40 were also strongly associated with creatinine levels (r=0.599, P<<0.001 and to a lesser extent to urea, age, hematocrit, uric acid and homocysteine (p<0.001. DBP and the rest of statistical significant correlates identified should be considered as potential confounder factors in studies investigating blood Aβ levels as potential AD biomarker. Remarkably, the factors affecting Aβ levels in plasma (DA, RP and blood cell compartments (CP seem completely different.

  16. Alloimmunization is associated with older age of transfused red blood cells in sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Payal C.; Deal, Allison M.; Pfaff, Emily R.; Qaqish, Bahjat; Hebden, Leyna M.; Park, Yara A.; Ataga, Kenneth I.

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization is a significant clinical complication of sickle cell disease (SCD). It can lead to difficulty with cross-matching for future transfusions and may sometimes trigger life-threatening delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions. We conducted a retrospective study to explore the association of clinical complications and age of RBC with alloimmunization in patients with SCD followed at a single institution from 2005 to 2012. One hundred and sixty six patients with a total of 488 RBC transfusions were evaluated. Nineteen patients (11%) developed new alloantibodies following blood transfusions during the period of review. The median age of RBC units was 20 days (interquartile range: 14–27 days). RBC antibody formation was significantly associated with the age of RBC units (P = 0.002), with a hazard ratio of 3.5 (95% CI: 1.71–7.11) for a RBC unit that was 7 days old and 9.8 (95% CI: 2.66–35.97) for a unit that was 35 days old, 28 days after the blood transfusion. No association was observed between RBC alloimmunization and acute vaso-occlusive complications. Although increased echocardiography-derived tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (TRV) was associated with the presence of RBC alloantibodies (P = 0.02), TRV was not significantly associated with alloimmunization when adjusted for patient age and number of transfused RBC units. Our study suggests that RBC antibody formation is significantly associated with older age of RBCs at the time of transfusion. Prospective studies in patients with SCD are required to confirm this finding. PMID:25963831

  17. Regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive deficits in chronic lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Brian A; Keilp, John; Prohovnik, Isak; Heertum, Ronald Van; Mann, J John

    2003-01-01

    This study examined brain functioning in patients with Lyme encephalopathy. Eleven patients underwent neuropsychological tests and Xenon(133)-regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies, using an external detector system. Each rCBF scan was age- and sex-matched to two archival, normal controls. While few differences were noted on gray-matter flow indices (ISI, fg), Lyme patients demonstrated significant flow reductions in white matter index (k(2)) (p=.004), particularly in the posterior temporal and parietal lobes bilaterally (p=.003). Flow reductions in white matter areas were significantly associated with deficits in memory (r=.66, p=.027) and visuospatial organization (r=.62, p=.041). Results suggest that Lyme encephalopathy may be a disease primarily affecting the cerebral white matter.

  18. Blood-brain barrier transport of drugs for the treatment of brain diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabathuler, Reinhard

    2009-06-01

    The central nervous system is a sanctuary protected by barriers that regulate brain homeostasis and control the transport of endogenous compounds into the brain. The blood-brain barrier, formed by endothelial cells of the brain capillaries, restricts access to brain cells allowing entry only to amino acids, glucose and hormones needed for normal brain cell function and metabolism. This very tight regulation of brain cell access is essential for the survival of neurons which do not have a significant capacity to regenerate, but also prevents therapeutic compounds, small and large, from reaching the brain. As a result, various strategies are being developed to enhance access of drugs to the brain parenchyma at therapeutically meaningful concentrations to effectively manage disease.

  19. Chemokine receptor expression on the surface of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talvani, Andre; Rocha, Manoel O C; Ribeiro, Antonio L; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Teixeira, Mauro M

    2004-01-15

    We evaluated the expression of chemokine receptors (CCR1, CCR2, CCR5, and CXCR4) on the surface of peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from patients with chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) and noninfected individuals. Only CCR5 and CXCR4 expression was different on the surface of the subsets (CD4, CD8, and CD14) evaluated. Patients with mild CCC had elevated leukocyte expression of CCR5, compared with noninfected individuals or those with severe disease. CXCR4 expression was lower on leukocytes from patients with severe CCC. The differential expression of both receptors on leukocytes of patients with CCC was consistent and clearly correlated with the degree of heart function such that the lower the heart function, the lower the expression of either CCR5 or CXCR4. These results highlight the possible participation of the chemokine system in early forms of chagasic cardiomyopathy and the relevance of heart failure-induced remodeling in modifying immune parameters in infected individuals.

  20. Nanoparticle-mediated brain drug delivery: Overcoming blood-brain barrier to treat neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Cláudia; Praça, Catarina; Ferreira, Raquel; Santos, Tiago; Ferreira, Lino; Bernardino, Liliana

    2016-08-10

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a vital boundary between neural tissue and circulating blood. The BBB's unique and protective features control brain homeostasis as well as ion and molecule movement. Failure in maintaining any of these components results in the breakdown of this specialized multicellular structure and consequently promotes neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In several high incidence pathologies such as stroke, Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) the BBB is impaired. However, even a damaged and more permeable BBB can pose serious challenges to drug delivery into the brain. The use of nanoparticle (NP) formulations able to encapsulate molecules with therapeutic value, while targeting specific transport processes in the brain vasculature, may enhance drug transport through the BBB in neurodegenerative/ischemic disorders and target relevant regions in the brain for regenerative processes. In this review, we will discuss BBB composition and characteristics and how these features are altered in pathology, namely in stroke, AD and PD. Additionally, factors influencing an efficient intravenous delivery of polymeric and inorganic NPs into the brain as well as NP-related delivery systems with the most promising functional outcomes will also be discussed. PMID:27208862

  1. Cord blood-circulating endothelial progenitors for treatment of vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, M; Vanneaux, V; Delmau, C; Gluckman, E; Rodde-Astier, I; Larghero, J; Uzan, G

    2011-04-01

    Adult peripheral blood (PB) endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are produced in the bone marrow and are able to integrate vascular structures in sites of neoangiogenesis. EPCs thus represent a potential therapeutic tool for ischaemic diseases. However, use of autologous EPCs in cell therapy is limited by their rarity in adult PB. Cord blood (CB) contains more EPCs than PB, and they are functional after expansion. They form primary colonies that give rise to secondary colonies, each yielding more than 10(7) cells after few passages. The number of endothelial cells obtained from one unit of CB is compatible with potential clinical application. EPC colonies can be securely produced, expanded and cryopreserved in close culture devices and endothelial cells produced in these conditions are functional as shown in different in vitro and in vivo assays. As CB EPC-derived endothelial cells would be allogeneic to patients, it would be of interest to prepare them from ready-existing CB banks. We show that not all frozen CB units from a CB bank are able to generate EPC colonies in culture, and when they do so, number of colonies is lower than that obtained with fresh CB units. However, endothelial cells derived from frozen CB have the same phenotypical and functional properties than those derived from fresh CB. This indicates that CB cryopreservation should be improved to preserve integrity of stem cells other than haematopoietic ones. Feasibility of using CB for clinical applications will be validated in porcine models of ischaemia.

  2. Nanoparticles and blood-brain barrier: the key to central nervous system diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Alazne; Suárez-Merino, Blanca; Goñi-de-Cerio, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Major central nervous system disorders represent a significant and worldwide public health problem. In fact, the therapeutic success of many pharmaceuticals developed to treat central nervous system diseases is still moderate, since the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the access of systemically administered compounds to the brain. Therefore, they require the application of a large total dose of a drug, and cause numerous toxic effects. The development of nanotechnological systems are useful tools to deliver therapeutics and/or diagnostic probes to the brain due to nanocarriers having the potential to improve the therapeutic effect of drugs and to reduce their side effects. This review provides a brief overview of the variety of carriers employed for central nervous system drug and diagnostic probes delivery. Further, this paper focuses on the novel nanocarriers developed to enhance brain delivery across the blood-brain barrier. Special attention is paid to liposomes, micelles, polymeric and lipid-based nanoparticles, dendrimers and carbon nanotubes. The recent developments in nanocarrier implementation through size/charge optimization and surface modifications (PEGylation, targeting delivery, and coating with surfactants) have been discussed. And a detailed description of the nanoscaled pharmaceutical delivery devices employed for the treatment of central nervous system disorders have also been defined. The aim of the review is to evaluate the nanotechnology-based drug delivery strategies to treat different central nervous system disorders.

  3. 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and renal disease in young subjects with type I diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, S K; Chase, H P; Icaza, G; Rothman, R L; Osberg, I; Carmain, J A

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) was evaluated in 150 teenage and young adults with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) to define high-risk subjects who are likely to develop early diabetic nephropathy. Their age range was 16-28 years with diabetes of 3.5-25.8 years duration. All subjects had office blood pressure (BP) measured, wore an ABP monitor for 24 h, and collected two or more timed urine samples for albumin excretion rates (AERs). Eighty-six subjects had no elevation of AER ( 200 micrograms/min). Age, gender, duration of diabetes, and single office BP readings were similar in the four groups (p > 0.05, logistic regression). All 24-h ABP parameters were significantly higher in subjects with diabetes having AER values greater than 7.6 micrograms/min when compared with healthy age- and gender-matched nondiabetic controls (p 140/90) were significantly related with AERs (p or = 140/90) are associated with diabetic renal disease. PMID:9334907

  4. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate in cats with chronic kidney disease undergoing chemical restraint during hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Karine Kleine Figueiredo dos Santos; Daniel Paulino Junior; Julio César Cambraia Veado; Juliana de Abreu Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Dialysis is one of the used methods for treatment of Acute Renal Injury (ARI) and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) to replace the function of the kidneys when refers to blood depuration. Hemodialysis removes toxins accumulated in the body directly from the blood, being a useful alternative therapy for dogs and cats with CKD in advanced stages. Because of the difficulty on handling the patient feline, this procedure requires sedation. However, few studies have been conducted to assess the safety o...

  5. Potential Large Animal Models for Gene Therapy of Human Genetic Diseases of Immune and Blood Cell Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Thomas R.; Adler, Rima L.; Hickstein, Dennis D.

    2009-01-01

    Genetic mutations involving the cellular components of the hematopoietic system—red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets—manifest clinically as anemia, infection, and bleeding. Although gene targeting has recapitulated many of these diseases in mice, these murine homologues are limited as translational models by their small size and brief life span as well as the fact that mutations induced by gene targeting do not always faithfully reflect the clinical manifestations of such mutatio...

  6. Correlation between blood lipids and serum uric acid in the elderly patients with coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie; Geng; Bin; Yu; Shu; Tao; Chen; Qing; Liang; Chen; Hong; Liang; Cong; Bo; Li; Lin; Wang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relationship between blood lipids and serum uric acid(UA)in the elderly patients with coronary heart disease(CHD).Method:Quartered patients according to their uric acid level.Systematic review and compare lipid level among this four groups.Polynary logistic stepwise regression analysis were employed to analyze independent risk factor of coronary heart disease.Results:Serum level of triglycerides(TAG)and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol(VLDL-C)increase significantly(F=7.42,p<0.01;F=5.42,p<0.01 respectively)while high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C)and Apolipoprotein A1(Apo A1)decrease(F=5.03,p<0.01;F=7.03,p<0.01)upon elevated serum uric acid level among coronary heart disease patients.Gender(OR=0.16,95%CI 0.078~0.315,p=0.001),Ccr(OR=0.95,CI=0.935~0.969,p=0.001),associated hypertension(OR=2.23,CI=1.156~4.285,p=0.017)or DM(OR=2.44,CI=1.154~5.168,p=0.02),TC(OR=1.56,CI=1.119~2.186,p=0.009),HDL-C(OR=0.02,CI=0.004~0.076,p=0.001),UA(OR=1.09,1.086~1.094,p=0.001)are all independent risk factors for coronary heart disease.Conclusion:TAG,VLDL-C were positively related to UA while HDL-C and Apo A1were negatively linked to UA among CHD patients.Gender,Ccr,Hypertension,DM,TC,HDL-C and UA are independent risk factors for CHD while BMI,TAG,LDL-C were not.

  7. Changes in Proteome Profile of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Chronic Chagas Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Nisha Jain; Soman, Kizhake V; Zago, Maria P; Koo, Sue-Jie; Spratt, Heidi; Stafford, Susan; Blell, Zinzi N; Gupta, Shivali; Nuñez Burgos, Julio; Barrientos, Natalia; Brasier, Allan R; Wiktorowicz, John E

    2016-02-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc) infection causes chagasic cardiomyopathy; however, why 30-40% of the patients develop clinical disease is not known. To discover the pathomechanisms in disease progression, we obtained the proteome signature of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of normal healthy controls (N/H, n = 30) and subjects that were seropositive for Tc-specific antibodies, but were clinically asymptomatic (C/A, n = 25) or clinically symptomatic (C/S, n = 28) with cardiac involvement and left ventricular dysfunction. Protein samples were labeled with BODIPY FL-maleimide (dynamic range: > 4 orders of magnitude, detection limit: 5 f-mol) and resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE). After normalizing the gel images, protein spots that exhibited differential abundance in any of the two groups were analyzed by mass spectrometry, and searched against UniProt human database for protein identification. We found 213 and 199 protein spots (fold change: |≥ 1.5|, psurvival and free radical scavenging capacity in C/S (but not C/A) subjects. The MYC/SP1 transcription factors that regulate hypoxia and oxidative/inflammatory stress were predicted to be key targets in the context of control of Chagas disease severity. Further, MARS-modeling identified a panel of proteins that had >93% prediction success in classifying infected individuals with no disease and those with cardiac involvement and LV dysfunction. In conclusion, we have identified molecular pathways and a panel of proteins that could aid in detecting seropositive individuals at risk of developing cardiomyopathy. PMID:26919708

  8. Amyloidosis, synucleinopathy, and prion encephalopathy in a neuropathic lysosomal storage disease: the CNS-biomarker potential of peripheral blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartholomew J Naughton

    Full Text Available Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS IIIB is a devastating neuropathic lysosomal storage disease with complex pathology. This study identifies molecular signatures in peripheral blood that may be relevant to MPS IIIB pathogenesis using a mouse model. Genome-wide gene expression microarrays on pooled RNAs showed dysregulation of 2,802 transcripts in blood from MPS IIIB mice, reflecting pathological complexity of MPS IIIB, encompassing virtually all previously reported and as yet unexplored disease aspects. Importantly, many of the dysregulated genes are reported to be tissue-specific. Further analyses of multiple genes linked to major pathways of neurodegeneration demonstrated a strong brain-blood correlation in amyloidosis and synucleinopathy in MPS IIIB. We also detected prion protein (Prnp deposition in the CNS and Prnp dysregulation in the blood in MPS IIIB mice, suggesting the involvement of Prnp aggregation in neuropathology. Systemic delivery of trans-BBB-neurotropic rAAV9-hNAGLU vector mediated not only efficient restoration of functional α-N-acetylglucosaminidase and clearance of lysosomal storage pathology in the central nervous system (CNS and periphery, but also the correction of impaired neurodegenerative molecular pathways in the brain and blood. Our data suggest that molecular changes in blood may reflect pathological status in the CNS and provide a useful tool for identifying potential CNS-specific biomarkers for MPS IIIB and possibly other neurological diseases.

  9. Cellular and physiological mechanisms underlying blood flow regulation in the retina and choroid in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kur, Joanna; Newman, Eric A; Chan-Ling, Tailoi

    2012-09-01

    We review the cellular and physiological mechanisms responsible for the regulation of blood flow in the retina and choroid in health and disease. Due to the intrinsic light sensitivity of the retina and the direct visual accessibility of fundus blood vessels, the eye offers unique opportunities for the non-invasive investigation of mechanisms of blood flow regulation. The ability of the retinal vasculature to regulate its blood flow is contrasted with the far more restricted ability of the choroidal circulation to regulate its blood flow by virtue of the absence of glial cells, the markedly reduced pericyte ensheathment of the choroidal vasculature, and the lack of intermediate filaments in choroidal pericytes. We review the cellular and molecular components of the neurovascular unit in the retina and choroid, techniques for monitoring retinal and choroidal blood flow, responses of the retinal and choroidal circulation to light stimulation, the role of capillaries, astrocytes and pericytes in regulating blood flow, putative signaling mechanisms mediating neurovascular coupling in the retina, and changes that occur in the retinal and choroidal circulation during diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and Alzheimer's disease. We close by discussing issues that remain to be explored.

  10. Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehret, Georg B.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Bochud, Murielle; Johnson, Andrew D.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Smith, Albert V.; Tobin, Martin D.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Pihur, Vasyl; Vollenweider, Peter; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Amin, Najaf; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Teumer, Alexander; Glazer, Nicole L.; Launer, Lenore; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aulchenko, Yurii; Heath, Simon; Sober, Siim; Parsa, Afshin; Luan, Jian'an; Arora, Pankaj; Dehghan, Abbas; Zhang, Feng; Lucas, Gavin; Hicks, Andrew A.; Jackson, Anne U.; Peden, John F.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wild, Sarah H.; Rudan, Igor; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Parker, Alex N.; Fava, Cristiano; Chambers, John C.; Fox, Ervin R.; Kumari, Meena; Go, Min Jin; van der Harst, Pim; Kao, Wen Hong Linda; Sjogren, Marketa; Vinay, D. G.; Alexander, Myriam; Tabara, Yasuharu; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Whincup, Peter H.; Liu, Yongmei; Shi, Gang; Kuusisto, Johanna; Tayo, Bamidele; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Khanh-Dung Hoang Nguyen, [No Value; Lehtimaki, Terho; Matullo, Giuseppe; Wu, Ying; Gaunt, Tom R.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cooper, Matthew N.; Platou, Carl G. P.; Org, Elin; Hardy, Rebecca; Dahgam, Santosh; Palmen, Jutta; Vitart, Veronique; Braund, Peter S.; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Palmas, Walter; Campbell, Harry; Ludwig, Barbara; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Aspelund, Thor; Garcia, Melissa; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Arking, Dan E.; Kardia, Sharon L.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Hernandez, Dena; Najjar, Samer; McArdle, Wendy L.; Hadley, David; Brown, Morris J.; Connell, John M.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Day, Ian N. M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Beilby, John P.; Lawrence, Robert W.; Clarke, Robert; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Ongen, Halit; Dreisbach, Albert W.; Li, Yali; Young, J. Hunter; Bis, Joshua C.; Kahonen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Adair, Linda S.; Lee, Nanette R.; Chen, Ming-Huei; Olden, Matthias; Pattaro, Cristian; Bolton, Judith A. Hoffman; Koettgen, Anna; Bergmann, Sven; Mooser, Vincent; Chaturvedi, Nish; Frayling, Timothy M.; Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Kulkarni, Smita R.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Graessler, Juergen; Groop, Leif; Voight, Benjamin F.; Kettunen, Johannes; Howard, Philip; Taylor, Andrew; Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Barroso, Ine S.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Weder, Alan B.; Hunt, Steven C.; Sun, Yan V.; Bergman, Richard N.; Collins, Francis S.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Scott, Laura J.; Stringham, Heather M.; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Vartiainen, Erkki; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Staessen, Jan A.; Wang, Thomas J.; Burton, Paul R.; Artigas, Maria Soler; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Haidong; Lohman, Kurt K.; Rudock, Megan E.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Doumatey, Ayo; Shriner, Daniel; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Tripathy, Vikal; Langefeld, Carl D.; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S.; Corsi, Anna Maria; Singleton, Andrew; Forrester, Terrence; Hilton, Gina; McKenzie, Colin A.; Salako, Tunde; Iwai, Naoharu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Umemura, Satoshi; Eyheramendy, Susana; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Jong-Young; Scott, James; Sehmi, Joban S.; Zhang, Weihua; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Smith, George Davey; Wong, Andrew; Narisu, Narisu; Stancakova, Alena; Raffel, Leslie J.; Yao, Jie; Kathiresan, Sekar; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Longstreth, W. T.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Seshadri, Sudha; Shrine, Nick R. G.; Wain, Louise V.; Morken, Mario A.; Swift, Amy J.; Laitinen, Jaana; Prokopenko, Inga; Zitting, Paavo; Cooper, Jackie A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Danesh, John; Rasheed, Asif; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Janipalli, Charles S.; Mani, K. Radha; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Hofman, Albert; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U. S.; Oostra, Ben A.; Demirkan, Ayse; Isaacs, Aaron; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Lakatta, Edward G.; Orru, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kangas, Antti J.; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Soininen, Pasi; Tukiainen, Taru; Wurtz, Peter; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Doerr, Marcus; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Voelker, Uwe; Voelzke, Henry; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Deloukas, Panos; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Zhai, Guangju; Meschia, James F.; Nalls, Michael A.; Sharma, Pankaj; Terzic, Janos; Kumar, M. V. Kranthi; Denniff, Matthew; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Fowkes, F. Gerald R.; Charchar, Fadi J.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Hayward, Caroline; Guo, Xiuqing; Rotimi, Charles; Bots, Michiel L.; Brand, Eva; Samani, Nilesh J.; Polasek, Ozren; Talmud, Philippa J.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Kuh, Diana; Laan, Maris; Hveem, Kristian; Palmer, Lyle J.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Casas, Juan P.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Vineis, Paolo; Raitakari, Olli; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Wong, Tien Y.; Tai, E. Shyong; Cooper, Richard S.; Laakso, Markku; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Harris, Tamara B.; Morris, Richard W.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Kivimaki, Mika; Marmot, Michael G.; Miki, Tetsuro; Saleheen, Danish; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Coresh, Josef; Navis, Gerjan; Salomaa, Veikko; Han, Bok-Ghee; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Melander, Olle; Ridker, Paul M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gyllensten, Ulf B.; Wright, Alan F.; Wilson, James F.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Farrall, Martin; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Elosua, Roberto; Soranzo, Nicole; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Altshuler, David; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Gieger, Christian; Meneton, Pierre; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rettig, Rainer; Uda, Manuela; Strachan, David P.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Boehnke, Michael; Larson, Martin G.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Psaty, Bruce M.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Elliott, Paul; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Levy, Daniel; Caulfield, Mark J.; Johnson, Toby

    2011-01-01

    Blood pressure is a heritable trait(1) influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (>= 140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or >= 90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure)(2). Even small increments in blood pressure are

  11. Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.B. Ehret (Georg); P. Munroe (Patricia); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); M. Bochud (Murielle); A.D. Johnson (Andrew); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); M.D. Tobin (Martin); G.C. Verwoert (Germaine); S.J. Hwang; V. Pihur (Vasyl); P. Vollenweider (Peter); P.F. O'Reilly (Paul); N. Amin (Najaf); J.L. Bragg-Gresham (Jennifer L.); A. Teumer (Alexander); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); L.J. Launer (Lenore); J. Hua Zhao (Jing); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); S.C. Heath (Simon); S. Sõber (Siim); A. Parsa (Afshin); J. Luan; P. Arora (Pankaj); A. Dehghan (Abbas); F. Zhang (Feng); G. Lucas (Gavin); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); A.U. Jackson (Anne); J. Peden (John); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); S.H. Wild (Sarah); I. Rudan (Igor); W. Igl (Wilmar); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); A.N. Parker (Alex); C. Fava (Cristiano); J.C. Chambers (John); E.R. Fox (Ervin); M. Kumari (Meena); M. Jin Go (Min); P. van der Harst (Pim); W. Hong Linda Kao (Wen); M. Sjögren (Marketa); D.G. Vinay; M. Alexander (Myriam); Y. Tabara (Yasuharu); S. Shaw-Hawkins (Sue); P.H. Whincup (Peter); Y. Liu (Yongmei); G. Shi (Gang); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); B. Tayo (Bamidele); M. Seielstad (Mark); X. Sim (Xueling); K.-D. Hoang Nguyen; T. Lehtimäki (Terho); G. Matullo (Giuseppe); Y. Wu (Ying); T.R. Gaunt (Tom); N. Charlotte Onland-Moret; M.N. Cooper (Matthew); C. Platou (Carl); E. Org (Elin); R. Hardy (Rebecca); S. Dahgam (Santosh); J. Palmen (Jutta); V. Vitart (Veronique); P.S. Braund (Peter); T. Kuznetsova (Tatiana); C.S.P.M. Uiterwaal (Cuno); A. Adeyemo (Adebowale); W. Palmas (Walter); H. Campbell (Harry); B. Ludwig (Barbara); M. Tomaszewski; I. Tzoulaki; N.D. Palmer (Nicholette); T. Aspelund (Thor); M. Garcia (Melissa); Y.-P.C. Chang (Yen-Pei); J.R. O´Connell; N.I. Steinle (Nanette); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); D.E. Arking (Dan); S.L. Kardia (Sharon); A.C. Morrison (Alanna); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); S.S. Najjar (Samer); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); D. Hadley (David); M.J. Brown (Morris); J. Connell (John); A. Hingorani (Aroon); I.N.M. Day (Ian); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); J.P. Beilby (John); R.W. Lawrence (Robert); R. Clarke; J. Hopewell; H. Ongen (Halit); A.W. Dreisbach (Albert); Y. Li (Yali); J. Hunter Young; J.C. Bis (Joshua); M. Kähönen (Mika); J. Viikari (Jorma); N.R. Lee (Nanette); M-H. Chen (Ming-Huei); M. Olden (Matthias); C. Pattaro (Cristian); J.A. Hoffman Bolton (Judith); A. Köttgen (Anna); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); V. Mooser (Vincent); N. Chaturvedi (Nish); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); M. Islam (Muhammad); T.H. Jafar (Tazeen); S.R. Kulkarni (Smita); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan); J. Gräßler (Jürgen); L. Groop (Leif); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); J. Kettunen (Johannes); P. Howard (Philip); A. Taylor (Andrew); S. Guarrera (Simonetta); F. Ricceri (Fulvio); V. Emilsson (Valur); A.S. Plump (Andrew); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); A.B. Weder (Alan); S.C. Hunt (Steven); Y.V. Sun (Yan); R.N. Bergman (Richard); F.S. Collins (Francis); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); L.J. Scott (Laura); H.M. Stringham (Heather); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); M. Perola (Markus); E. Vartiainen (Erkki); S.-M. Brand; J.A. Staessen (Jan); Y.A. Wang (Ying); P.R. Burton (Paul); M. Soler Artigas (Maria); Y. Dong (Yanbin); H. Snieder (Harold); H. Zhu (Haidong); K. Lohman (Kurt); M.E. Rudock (Megan); S.R. Heckbert (Susan); K.L. Wiggins (Kerri); A. Doumatey (Ayo); D. Shriner (Daniel); G. Veldre (Gudrun); M. Viigimaa (Margus); S. Kinra (Sanjay); D. Prabhakaran (Dorairaj); V. Tripathy (Vikal); C.D. Langefeld (Carl); A. Rosengren (Annika); D.S. Thelle (Dag); A. Maria Corsi (Anna); A. Singleton (Andrew); T. Forrester (Terrence); G. Hilton (Gina); C.A. McKenzie (Colin); T. Salako (Tunde); N. Iwai (Naoharu); Y. Kita (Yoshikuni); T. Ogihara (Toshio); T. Ohkubo (Takayoshi); T. Okamura (Tomonori); H. Ueshima (Hirotsugu); S. Umemura (Satoshi); S. Eyheramendy (Susana); T. Meitinger (Thomas); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); Y. Shin Cho (Yoon); H.-L. Kim; J.S. Sehmi (Joban); B. Hedblad (Bo); P. Nilsson (Peter); G. Davey-Smith (George); A. Wong (Andrew); N. Narisu (Narisu); A. Stancáková (Alena); L.J. Raffel (Leslie); J. Yao (Jie); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); S.M. Schwartz (Stephen); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); W.T. Longstreth Jr; T.H. Mosley (Thomas); S. Seshadri (Sudha); N.R.G. Shrine (Nick); L.V. Wain (Louise); M.A. Morken (Mario); A.J. Swift (Amy); J. Laitinen (Jaana); I. Prokopenko (Inga); P. Zitting (Paavo); S.E. Humphries (Steve); J. Danesh (John); A. Rasheed (Asif); A. Goel (Anuj); A. Hamsten (Anders); H. Watkins (Hugh); W.H. van Gilst (Wiek); C.S. Janipalli (Charles); K. Radha Mani; C. Yajnik (Chittaranjan); A. Hofman (Albert); F.U.S. Mattace Raso (Francesco); B.A. Oostra (Ben); A. Demirkan (Ayşe); A.J. Isaacs (Aaron); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); E. Lakatta (Edward); M. Orrù (Marco); A. Scuteri (Angelo); M. Ala-Korpela (Mika); A.J. Kangas (Antti); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); P. Soininen (Pasi); T. Tukiainen (Taru); P. Würtz (Peter); R. Twee-Hee Ong (Rick); M. Dörr (Marcus); H.K. Kroemer (Heyo); U. Völker (Uwe); H. Völzke (Henry); P. Galan (Pilar); S. Hercberg (Serge); G.M. Lathrop (Mark); D. Zelenika (Diana); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); M. Mangino (Massimo); T.D. Spector (Timothy); G. Zhai (Guangju); J.F. Meschia (James F.); M.A. Nalls (Michael); P. Sharma (Pankaj); J. Terzic (Janos); M.V. Kranthi Kumar; M. Denniff (Matthew); E. Zukowska-Szczechowska (Ewa); L.E. Wagenknecht (Lynne); F. Gerald R. Fowkes; F.J. Charchar (Fadi); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter); C. Hayward (Caroline); X. Guo (Xiuqing); C. Rotimi (Charles); M.L. Bots (Michiel); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); O. Polasek (Ozren); P.J. Talmud (Philippa); F. Nyberg (Fredrik); D. Kuh (Diana); M. Laan (Maris); K. Hveem (Kristian); Y.T. van der Schouw (Yvonne); J.P. Casas (Juan); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); P. Vineis (Paolo); O. Raitakari (Olli); S.K. Ganesh (Santhi); E. Shyong Tai; M. Laakso (Markku); D.C. Rao (Dabeeru C.); T.B. Harris (Tamara); R.W. Morris (Richard); A. Dominiczak (Anna); M. Kivimaki (Mika); M. Marmot (Michael); T. Miki (Tetsuro); D. Saleheen; G.R. Chandak (Giriraj); J. Coresh (Josef); G. Navis (Gerjan); V. Salomaa (Veikko); B.-G. Han; J.S. Kooner (Jaspal); O. Melander (Olle); P.M. Ridker (Paul); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); A.F. Wright (Alan); J.F. Wilson (James); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); M. Farrall (Martin); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); R. Elosua (Roberto); N. Soranzo (Nicole); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); D. Altshuler (David); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); C. Gieger (Christian); P. Meneton (Pierre); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); N.J. Wareham (Nick); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); R. Rettig (Rainer); M. Uda (Manuela); D.P. Strachan (David); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A.L. Hartikainen; J.S. Beckmann (Jacques); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); J. Erdmann (Jeanette); R.S. Vasan (Ramachandran Srini); M. Boehnke (Michael); M.G. Larson (Martin); M.R. Järvelin; B.M. Psaty (Bruce); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); C. Newton-Cheh (Christopher); P. Elliott (Paul); D. Levy (Daniel); M. Caulfield (Mark); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); L.S. Adair (Linda); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); I. Barroso (Inês)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBlood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (≥140mmg Hg systolic blood pressure ≥90mmg Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are

  12. Peripheral blood gene expression patterns discriminate among chronic inflammatory diseases and healthy controls and identify novel targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palatka Karoly

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA afflict millions of people worldwide, but their pathogenesis is still not well understood. It is also not well known if distinct changes in gene expression characterize these diseases and if these patterns can discriminate between diseased and control patients and/or stratify the disease. The main focus of our work was the identification of novel markers that overlap among the 3 diseases or discriminate them from each other. Methods Diseased (n = 13, n = 15 and n = 12 in IBD, psoriasis and RA respectively and healthy patients (n = 18 were recruited based on strict inclusion and exclusion criteria; peripheral blood samples were collected by clinicians (30 ml in Venous Blood Vacuum Collection Tubes containing EDTA and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were separated by Ficoll gradient centrifugation. RNA was extracted using Trizol reagent. Gene expression data was obtained using TaqMan Low Density Array (TLDA containing 96 genes that were selected by an algorithm and the statistical analyses were performed in Prism by using non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test (P-values Results Here we show that using a panel of 96 disease associated genes and measuring mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood derived mononuclear cells; we could identify disease-specific gene panels that separate each disease from healthy controls. In addition, a panel of five genes such as ADM, AQP9, CXCL2, IL10 and NAMPT discriminates between all samples from patients with chronic inflammation and healthy controls. We also found genes that stratify the diseases and separate different subtypes or different states of prognosis in each condition. Conclusions These findings and the identification of five universal markers of chronic inflammation suggest that these diseases have a common background in

  13. The therapeutic potential of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Ju; Lee, Jong Kil; Lee, Hyun; Shin, Ji-woong; Carter, Janet E; Sakamoto, Toshiro; Jin, Hee Kyung; Bae, Jae-sung

    2010-08-30

    The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include the presence of extracellular amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) in the form of amyloid plaques in the brain parenchyma and neuronal loss. The mechanism associated with neuronal death by amyloid plaques is unclear but oxidative stress and glial activation has been implicated. Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) are being scrutinized as a potential therapeutic tool to prevent various neurodegenerative diseases including AD. However, the therapeutic impact of hUCB-MSCs in AD has not yet been reported. Here we undertook in vitro work to examine the potential impact of hUCB-MSCs treatment on neuronal loss using a paradigm of cultured hippocampal neurons treated with Abeta. We confirmed that hUCB-MSCs co-culture reduced the hippocampal apoptosis induced by Abeta treatment. Moreover, in an acute AD mouse model to directly test the efficacy of hUCB-MSCs treatment on AD-related cognitive and neuropathological outcomes, we demonstrated that markers of glial activation, oxidative stress and apoptosis levels were decreased in AD mouse brain. Interestingly, hUCB-MSCs treated AD mice demonstrated cognitive rescue with restoration of learning/memory function. These data suggest that hUCB-MSCs warrant further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent in AD.

  14. Prescriptive Oriented Drug Analysis of Multiple Sclerosis Disease by LC-UV in Whole Human Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneetha, A; Rajeswari, Raja K

    2016-02-01

    As a polytherapy treatment, multiple sclerosis disease demands prescriptions with more than one drug. Polytherapy is sometimes rational for drug combinations chosen to minimize adverse effects. Estimation of drugs that are concomitantly administered in polytherapy is acceptable as it shortens the analytical timepoints and also the usage of biological matrices. In clinical phase trials, the withdrawal of biofluids is a critical issue for each analysis. Estimating all the coadminsitered drugs in a single shot will be more effective and economical for pharmaceuticals. A single, simple, rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography assay method has been developed with UV detection and fully validated for the quantification of 14 drugs (at random combinations) used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis disease. The set of combinations was based on prescriptions to patients. Separations were achieved on an X-Terra MS C18 (100 × 3.9 mm, 5 µm) column. The analytes were extracted from 50 µL aliquots of whole human blood with protein precipitation using acetonitrile. All the drugs were sufficiently stable during storage for 24 h at room temperature and for 23 days at 2-8°C. The percentage recoveries of all drugs were between 90 and 115%, with RSD values drug interaction studies.

  15. Biomechanics of red blood cells in human spleen and consequences for physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivkin, Igor V; Peng, Zhangli; Karniadakis, George E; Buffet, Pierre A; Dao, Ming; Suresh, Subra

    2016-07-12

    Red blood cells (RBCs) can be cleared from circulation when alterations in their size, shape, and deformability are detected. This function is modulated by the spleen-specific structure of the interendothelial slit (IES). Here, we present a unique physiological framework for development of prognostic markers in RBC diseases by quantifying biophysical limits for RBCs to pass through the IES, using computational simulations based on dissipative particle dynamics. The results show that the spleen selects RBCs for continued circulation based on their geometry, consistent with prior in vivo observations. A companion analysis provides critical bounds relating surface area and volume for healthy RBCs beyond which the RBCs fail the "physical fitness test" to pass through the IES, supporting independent experiments. Our results suggest that the spleen plays an important role in determining distributions of size and shape of healthy RBCs. Because mechanical retention of infected RBC impacts malaria pathogenesis, we studied key biophysical parameters for RBCs infected with Plasmodium falciparum as they cross the IES. In agreement with experimental results, surface area loss of an infected RBC is found to be a more important determinant of splenic retention than its membrane stiffness. The simulations provide insights into the effects of pressure gradient across the IES on RBC retention. By providing quantitative biophysical limits for RBCs to pass through the IES, the narrowest circulatory bottleneck in the spleen, our results offer a broad approach for developing quantitative markers for diseases such as hereditary spherocytosis, thalassemia, and malaria. PMID:27354532

  16. Biomechanics of red blood cells in human spleen and consequences for physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivkin, Igor V; Peng, Zhangli; Karniadakis, George E; Buffet, Pierre A; Dao, Ming; Suresh, Subra

    2016-07-12

    Red blood cells (RBCs) can be cleared from circulation when alterations in their size, shape, and deformability are detected. This function is modulated by the spleen-specific structure of the interendothelial slit (IES). Here, we present a unique physiological framework for development of prognostic markers in RBC diseases by quantifying biophysical limits for RBCs to pass through the IES, using computational simulations based on dissipative particle dynamics. The results show that the spleen selects RBCs for continued circulation based on their geometry, consistent with prior in vivo observations. A companion analysis provides critical bounds relating surface area and volume for healthy RBCs beyond which the RBCs fail the "physical fitness test" to pass through the IES, supporting independent experiments. Our results suggest that the spleen plays an important role in determining distributions of size and shape of healthy RBCs. Because mechanical retention of infected RBC impacts malaria pathogenesis, we studied key biophysical parameters for RBCs infected with Plasmodium falciparum as they cross the IES. In agreement with experimental results, surface area loss of an infected RBC is found to be a more important determinant of splenic retention than its membrane stiffness. The simulations provide insights into the effects of pressure gradient across the IES on RBC retention. By providing quantitative biophysical limits for RBCs to pass through the IES, the narrowest circulatory bottleneck in the spleen, our results offer a broad approach for developing quantitative markers for diseases such as hereditary spherocytosis, thalassemia, and malaria.

  17. The potential role of /sup 111/In white blood cell scans in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipper, M.S.; Williams, R.J.

    1982-10-01

    In many institutions, the use of /sup 111/In white blood cell (WBC) scans have become routine for abscess detection. Its use for the detection of bone and joint inflammation, renal disease, and myocardial infarction has also been reported. Two patients are presented whose /sup 111/In studies were of major clinical value in the management of their inflammatory bowel disease. In one, the diagnosis was suggested, and in the second, the extent of disease was defined. The potential role of /sup 111/In WBC imaging in inflammatory bowel disease--for diagnosis, staging, and monitoring response to therapy--are discussed. Possible pitfalls as well as a comprehensive prospective study are suggested.

  18. Factors Associated with Blood Culture Contamination in the Emergency Department: Critical Illness, End-Stage Renal Disease, and Old Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jan Chang

    Full Text Available Blood culture contamination in emergency departments (ED that experience a high volume of patients has negative impacts on optimal patient care. It is therefore important to identify risk factors associated with blood culture contamination in EDs.A prospectively observational study in a university-affiliated hospital were conducted between August 2011 and December 2012. Positive monomicrobial and negative blood cultures drawn from adult patients in the ED were analyzed to evaluate the possible risk factors for contamination. A total of 1,148 positive monomicrobial cases, 391 contamination cases, and 13,689 cases of negative blood culture were identified. Compared to patients with negative blood cultures, patients in triage levels 1 and 2 (Incidence Rate Ratio, IRR = 2.24, patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD (IRR = 2.05, and older patients (IRR: 1.02 per year were more likely to be associated with ED blood culture contamination.Critical patients (triage levels 1 and 2, ESRD patients, and older patients were more commonly associated with blood culture contamination in the ED. Further studies to evaluate whether the characteristics of skin commensals contribute to blood culture contamination is warranted, especially in hospitals populated with high-risk patients.

  19. Regional cerebral blood flow patterns in extremely elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical and pathologic features in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients differ depending on the age of onset. The aim of our study was to compare the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns of younger, elderly, and extremely elderly patients with AD with that of controls to characterize the rCBF patterns in extremely elderly patients with AD. Single photon emission CT (SPECT) was performed in 113 patients with probable AD, including 34 younger (<70 years), 41 elderly (70-84 years), and 38 extremely elderly (≥85 years) patients divided according to age at examination. The SPECT data were analyzed using three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP). No significant differences regarding gender, duration of disease, education, and Mini-Mental State Examination score were found among the groups. As compared with controls, younger and elderly AD demonstrated significant reduction of rCBF in the temporo-parietal areas, posterior cingulate cortices and precunei, which is considered to be a characteristic rCBF pattern in AD. On the other hand, the extremely elderly AD group demonstrated significant reduction of rCBF in the frontal and medial temporal areas, in addition to the temporo-parietal areas, posterior cingulate cortices and precunei, but the reductions were milder than in those in younger and elderly AD groups. The extremely elderly patients with AD showed atypical rCBF patterns in AD compared to younger and elderly patients with AD. Our data suggest that pathological features in extremely elderly AD may be different from those in younger and elderly AD and that diseases different from AD, such as senile dementia of the neurofibrillary tangle type may be clinically diagnosed as extremely elderly AD. (author)

  20. Selective Heart Rate Reduction With Ivabradine Increases Central Blood Pressure in Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Stefano F; Messerli, Franz H; Cerny, David; Gloekler, Steffen; Traupe, Tobias; Laurent, Stéphane; Seiler, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Heart rate (HR) lowering by β-blockade was shown to be beneficial after myocardial infarction. In contrast, HR lowering with ivabradine was found to confer no benefits in 2 prospective randomized trials in patients with coronary artery disease. We hypothesized that this inefficacy could be in part related to ivabradine's effect on central (aortic) pressure. Our study included 46 patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease who were randomly allocated to placebo (n=23) or ivabradine (n=23) in a single-blinded fashion for 6 months. Concomitant baseline medication was continued unchanged throughout the study except for β-blockers, which were stopped during the study period. Central blood pressure and stroke volume were measured directly by left heart catheterization at baseline and after 6 months. For the determination of resting HR at baseline and at follow-up, 24-hour ECG monitoring was performed. Patients on ivabradine showed an increase of 11 mm Hg in central systolic pressure from 129±22 mm Hg to 140±26 mm Hg (P=0.02) and in stroke volume by 86±21.8 to 107.2±30.0 mL (P=0.002). In the placebo group, central systolic pressure and stroke volume remained unchanged. Estimates of myocardial oxygen consumption (HR×systolic pressure and time-tension index) remained unchanged with ivabradine.The decrease in HR from baseline to follow-up correlated with the concomitant increase in central systolic pressure (r=-0.41, P=0.009) and in stroke volume (r=-0.61, P<0.001). In conclusion, the decrease in HR with ivabradine was associated with an increase in central systolic pressure, which may have antagonized possible benefits of HR lowering in coronary artery disease patients. CLINICAL TRIALSURL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier NCT01039389. PMID:27091900

  1. Accelerated Blood Clearance Phenomenon Reduces the Passive Targeting of PEGylated Nanoparticles in Peripheral Arterial Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hyung-Jun; England, Christopher G; Feng, Liangzhu; Graves, Stephen A; Hernandez, Reinier; Nickles, Robert J; Liu, Zhuang; Lee, Dong Soo; Cho, Steve Y; Cai, Weibo

    2016-07-20

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a leading global health concern. Due to limited imaging and therapeutic options, PAD and other ischemia-related diseases may benefit from the use of long circulating nanoparticles as imaging probes and/or drug delivery vehicles. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated nanoparticles have shown shortened circulation half-lives in vivo when injected multiple times into a single subject. This phenomenon has become known as the accelerated blood clearance (ABC) effect. The phenomenon is of concern for clinical translation of nanomaterials as it limits the passive accumulation of nanoparticles in many diseases, yet it has not been evaluated using inorganic or organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles. Herein, we found that the ABC phenomenon was induced by reinjection of PEGylated long circulating organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles, which significantly reduced the passive targeting of (64)Cu-labeled PEGylated reduced graphene oxide-iron oxide nanoparticles ((64)Cu-RGO-IONP-PEG) in a murine model of PAD. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging was performed at 3, 10, and 17 days postsurgical induction of hindlimb ischemia. At day 3 postsurgery, the nanoparticles displayed a long circulation half-life with enhanced accumulation in the ischemic hindlimb. At days 10 and 17 postsurgery, reinjected mice displayed a short circulation half-life and lower accumulation of the nanoparticles in the ischemic hindlimb, in comparison to the naïve group. Also, reinjected mice showed significantly higher liver uptake than the naïve group, indicating that the nanoparticles experienced higher sequestration by the liver in the reinjected group. Furthermore, photoacoustic (PA) imaging and Prussian blue staining confirmed the enhanced accumulation of the nanoparticles in the liver tissue of reinjected mice. These findings validate the ABC phenomenon using long circulating organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles upon multiple administrations to the same

  2. B cells and platelets harbor prion infectivity in the blood of deer infected with chronic wasting disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiason, Candace K; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Hays, Sheila A; Powers, Jenny; Osborn, David A; Dahmes, Sallie J; Miller, Karl V; Warren, Robert J; Mason, Gary L; Telling, Glenn C; Young, Alan J; Hoover, Edward A

    2010-05-01

    Substantial evidence for prion transmission via blood transfusion exists for many transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases. Determining which cell phenotype(s) is responsible for trafficking infectivity has important implications for our understanding of the dissemination of prions, as well as their detection and elimination from blood products. We used bioassay studies of native white-tailed deer and transgenic cervidized mice to determine (i) if chronic wasting disease (CWD) blood infectivity is associated with the cellular versus the cell-free/plasma fraction of blood and (ii) in particular if B-cell (MAb 2-104(+)), platelet (CD41/61(+)), or CD14(+) monocyte blood cell phenotypes harbor infectious prions. All four deer transfused with the blood mononuclear cell fraction from CWD(+) donor deer became PrP(CWD) positive by 19 months postinoculation, whereas none of the four deer inoculated with cell-free plasma from the same source developed prion infection. All four of the deer injected with B cells and three of four deer receiving platelets from CWD(+) donor deer became PrP(CWD) positive in as little as 6 months postinoculation, whereas none of the four deer receiving blood CD14(+) monocytes developed evidence of CWD infection (immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis) after 19 months of observation. Results of the Tg(CerPrP) mouse bioassays mirrored those of the native cervid host. These results indicate that CWD blood infectivity is cell associated and suggest a significant role for B cells and platelets in trafficking CWD infectivity in vivo and support earlier tissue-based studies associating putative follicular B cells with PrP(CWD). Localization of CWD infectivity with leukocyte subpopulations may aid in enhancing the sensitivity of blood-based diagnostic assays for CWD and other TSEs. PMID:20219916

  3. TT virus and hepatitis G virus infections in Korean blood donors and patients with chronic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mee Juhng Jeon; Jong Hee Shin; Soon Pal Suh; Yong Chai Lim; Dong Wook Ryang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalences of TTV and HGV infections among blood donors and patients with chronic liver disease in Korea, to investigate the association of TTV and HGV infections with blood transfusion, and to assess the correlation between TTV and HGV viremia and hepatic damage.METHODS: A total of 391 serum samples were examined in this study. Samples were obtained from healthy blood donors (n= 110), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive donors (n=112), anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV)-positive donors (n=69), patients with type B chronic liver disease (n=81), and patients with type C chronic liver disease (n= 19).TTV DNA was detected using the hemi-nested PCR. HGV RNA was tested using RT-PCR. A history of blood transfusion and serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were also determined.RESULTS: TTV DNA was detected in 8.2 % of healthy blood donors, 16.1% of HBsAg-positive donors, 20.3 % of antiHCV-positive donors, 21.0 % of patients with type B chronic liver disease, and 21.1% of patients with type C chronic liver disease. HGV RNA was detected in 1.8 % of healthy blood donors, 1.8 % of HBsAg-positive donors, 17.4 % of anti-HCV-positive donors, 13.6% of patients with type B chronic liver disease, and 10.5% of patients with type C chronic liver disease. The prevalence of TTV and HGV infections in HBV- or HCV-positive donors and patients was significantly higher than in healthy blood donors (P<0.05),except for the detection rate of HGV in HBsAg-positive donors which was the same as for healthy donors. There was a history of transfusion in 66.7% of TTV DNA-positive patients and 76.9% of HGV RNA-positive patients (P<0.05). No significant increase in serum ALT and AST was detected in the TTV- or HGV-positive donors and patients.CONCLUSION: TTV and HGV infections are more frequently found in donors and patients infected with HBV or HCV than in healthy blood donors. However, there is no significant

  4. Severe proliferative retinopathy is associated with blood hyperviscosity in sickle cell hemoglobin-C disease but not in sickle cell anemia. : Sickle cell disease and retinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Lemaire, Clément; Lamarre, Yann; Lemonne, Nathalie; Waltz, Xavier; Chahed, Sadri; Cabot, Florence; Botez, Ioana; Tressieres, Benoit; Lalanne-Mistrih, Marie-Laure; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Connes, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    International audience Little is known about the impact of blood rheology on the occurrence of retinopathy in sickle cell disease (SCD). Fifty-nine adult SCD patients in steady-state condition participated to the study: 32 with homozygous SCD (sickle cell anemia; SCA) and 27 with sickle cell hemoglobin-C disease (SCC). The patients underwent retinal examination and were categorized according to the classification of Goldberg: 1) no retinopathy (group 1), 2) non-proliferative or proliferati...

  5. Impact of graft versus host disease on outcome of allogeneic peripherial blood stem cell transplantation for leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎美章

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the impact of the occurrence and severity of acute and chronic graft versus host disease(GVHD)on the long-term outcome of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation(allo-PBSCT)for leukemia.Methods A total of 231 patients with leukemia,who underwent allo-HSCT in Changhai Hospital from Jan1st,2001 to Dec 31th,2011,were retrospectively analyzed.The overall survival(OS),disease-free survival

  6. Genome-wide peripheral blood leukocyte DNA methylation microarrays identified a single association with inflammatory bowel diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, R Alan; Nagy-Szakal, Dorottya; Pedersen, Natalia;

    2012-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are common forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Monozygotic (MZ) twin discordance rates and epidemiologic data implicate that environmental changes and epigenetic factors may play a pathogenic role in IBD. DNA methylation (the methylation...... of cytosines within CpG dinucleotides) is an epigenetic modification, which can respond to environmental influences. We investigated whether DNA methylation might be connected with IBD in peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) DNA by utilizing genome-wide microarrays....

  7. Can perfusion CT assessment of primary colorectal adenocarcinoma blood flow at staging predict for subsequent metastatic disease? A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Vicky [Mount Vernon Hospital, Paul Strickland Scanner Centre, Northwood (United Kingdom); Halligan, Steve [University College Hospital, Department of Academic Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Wellsted, David M. [University of Hertfordshire, Health Research and Development Support Unit, Hatfield (United Kingdom); Bartram, Clive I. [St Mark' s Hospital, Intestinal Imaging Centre, Harrow (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    We aimed to determine whether perfusion CT measurements at colorectal cancer staging may predict for subsequent metastatic relapse. Fifty two prospective patients underwent perfusion CT at staging to estimate tumour blood flow, blood volume, mean transit time, and permeability surface area product. Patients considered metastasis free and suitable for surgery underwent curative resection subsequently. At final analysis, a median of 48.6 months post-surgery, patients were divided into those who remained disease free, and those with subsequent metastases. Vascular parameters for these two groups were compared using t-testing, and receiver operator curve analysis was performed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of these vascular parameters for predicting metastases. Thirty seven (71%) patients underwent curative surgery; data were available for 35: 26 (74%) remained disease free; 9 (26%) recurred (8 metastatic, 1 local). Tumour blood flow differed significantly between disease-free and metastatic patients (76.0 versus 45.7 ml/min/100 g tissue; p=0.008). With blood flow <64 ml/min/100 g tissue, sensitivity and specificity (95% CI) for development of metastases were 100% (60-100%) and 73% (53-87%), respectively. Our preliminary findings suggest that primary tumour blood flow might potentially be a useful predictor warranting further study. (orig.)

  8. Dynamics of peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations in the acute and subacute phase of Legionnaires' disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis P C de Jager

    Full Text Available STUDY OBJECTIVE: Absolute lymphocytopenia is recognised as an important hallmark of the immune response to severe infection and observed in patients with Legionnaires' disease. To explore the immune response, we studied the dynamics of peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations in the acute and subacute phase of LD. METHODS AND RESULTS: EDTA-anticoagulated blood was obtained from eight patients on the day the diagnosis was made through detection of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 antigen in urine. A second blood sample was obtained in the subacute phase. Multiparametric flow cytometry was used to calculate lymphocyte counts and values for B-cells, T-cells, NK cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. Expression of activation markers was analysed. The values obtained in the subacute phase were compared with an age and gender matched control group. Absolute lymphocyte count (×10⁹/l, median and range significantly increased from 0.8 (0.4-1.6 in the acute phase to 1.4 (0.8-3.4 in the subacute phase. B-cell count showed no significant change, while T-cell count (×10⁶/l, median and range significantly increased in the subacute phase (495 (182-1024 versus 979 (507-2708, p = 0.012 as a result of significant increases in both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts (374 (146-629 versus 763 (400-1507, p = 0.012 and 119 (29-328 versus 224 (107-862, p = 0.012. In the subacute phase of LD, significant increases were observed in absolute counts of activated CD4+ T-cells, naïve CD4+ T-cells and memory CD4+ T-cells. In the CD8+ T-cell compartment, activated CD8+ T-cells, naïve CD8+ T-cell and memory CD8+ T-cells were significantly increased (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The acute phase of LD is characterized by absolute lymphocytopenia, which recovers in the subacute phase with an increase in absolute T-cells and re-emergence of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. These observations are in line with the suggested role for T-cell activation in the immune response to LD.

  9. D-dimer is useful in assessing the vulnerable blood in elderly patients with coronary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yansong Zheng; Qiang Zeng; Liping Zhang; Liufa Duan; Kunlun He; Qiufu Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Background and objective The value of D-dimer in the risk stratification of patients with coronary artery diseas(CAD)and the relationship between D-dimer and the diseased coronary arteries remains controversial or unclear.especially in the elderly.Thisstudy was to evaluate the usefulness of D-djmer as a biomarker in assessing the vuinerable blood in the elderly patients with coronarydisease.Methods Sixty elderly (≥60 years old)male patients with suspected CAD were enrolled in this prospective study.Patients were divided into CAD group(n=41,10 with stable angina and 31 with unstable angina)and control group(n=19)according to their coronary angiography Results Clinicalinformation including age,body mass index(BMI),smoking index,and thecomplications of Primary hypertension or diabetes.and CAD family history was collected.Venous blood was sampled serially for thedetermination of total cholesterol,HDL cholesterol,LDL cholesterol,triglycerides,apoAl,apoB,glucose,uric acid,homocysteine(Hey),hs-CRP,soluble thrombomodulin(sTM),and marker of fibrinolytic system and hypercoagulability,such as D-dimer,fibrinogen,etc.The extent of coronary atherosclerosis was assessed.using the Gensini scoring system on the basis of coronary angiography.Results Compared with the controls.the patients with CAD had significantly higher levels of D-dimer.D-dimer level wassignificantly correlated to age.hs-CR P.Hcy,and PAI-1.Patients with D-dimer levels in the top triplicate of D-dimer level hadsignificantly higher prevalence of unstable angina compared with patients in the lowest triplicate(OR=4.8,Z=3.28,P=0.001).In anordinal logistic regression.the OR value ofdeveloping more serious CAD augmented 3.1-foid with each increasing triplicate of D-dimer.Patients with unstable angina had a significantly higher level of D-dimer than the controls(P=0.005),and an increasing trend comparedwith patients with stable angina (P=0.059).whereas there was no difference between the patients with stable angina and

  10. Center for fetal monkey gene transfer for heart, lung, and blood diseases: an NHLBI resource for the gene therapy community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantal, Alice F; Skarlatos, Sonia I

    2012-11-01

    The goals of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Center for Fetal Monkey Gene Transfer for Heart, Lung, and Blood Diseases are to conduct gene transfer studies in monkeys to evaluate safety and efficiency; and to provide NHLBI-supported investigators with expertise, resources, and services to actively pursue gene transfer approaches in monkeys in their research programs. NHLBI-supported projects span investigators throughout the United States and have addressed novel approaches to gene delivery; "proof-of-principle"; assessed whether findings in small-animal models could be demonstrated in a primate species; or were conducted to enable new grant or IND submissions. The Center for Fetal Monkey Gene Transfer for Heart, Lung, and Blood Diseases successfully aids the gene therapy community in addressing regulatory barriers, and serves as an effective vehicle for advancing the field.

  11. Evaluation of restenosis, renal function and blood pressure after the renal artery stenting in patients with atherosclerosis renovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王焱

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the restenosis, renal function and blood pressure after renal artery stenting in patients with atherosclerosis renovascular disease. Methods Percutaneous renal artery stent (PTRAS) was performed in 135 patients with single or bilateral renal artery stenosis (≥70%). Clinical data of above patients were studied during follow-up period. Results A total of 147

  12. Red blood cell membrane concentration of cis-palmitoleic and cis-vaccenic acids and risk of coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although previous studies have suggested associations between plasma palmitoleic acid and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors, including blood pressure, inflammation, and insulin resistance, little is known about the relation of palmitoleic acid and CHD. This ancillary study of the Physicians'...

  13. Nurse-led care interventions for high blood pressure control: Implications for non-communicable disease programs in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Katende

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Nurses play a significant role in the control of high blood pressure when they employ effective evidence based strategies in identification, prevention and management of hypertension. Adapting effective evidence based strategies in identification, prevention and management of non-communicable diseases could improve patient outcomes in Uganda.

  14. Can Genetic Analysis of Putative Blood Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers Lead to Identification of Susceptibility Loci?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Robert C; Phillips, Nicole R; Tilson, Jeffrey L; Huebinger, Ryan M; Shewale, Shantanu J; Koenig, Jessica L; Mitchel, Jeffrey S; O'Bryant, Sid E; Waring, Stephen C; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Chasse, Scott; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C

    2015-01-01

    Although 24 Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk loci have been reliably identified, a large portion of the predicted heritability for AD remains unexplained. It is expected that additional loci of small effect will be identified with an increased sample size. However, the cost of a significant increase in Case-Control sample size is prohibitive. The current study tests whether exploring the genetic basis of endophenotypes, in this case based on putative blood biomarkers for AD, can accelerate the identification of susceptibility loci using modest sample sizes. Each endophenotype was used as the outcome variable in an independent GWAS. Endophenotypes were based on circulating concentrations of proteins that contributed significantly to a published blood-based predictive algorithm for AD. Endophenotypes included Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (MCP1), Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (VCAM1), Pancreatic Polypeptide (PP), Beta2 Microglobulin (B2M), Factor VII (F7), Adiponectin (ADN) and Tenascin C (TN-C). Across the seven endophenotypes, 47 SNPs were associated with outcome with a p-value ≤1x10(-7). Each signal was further characterized with respect to known genetic loci associated with AD. Signals for several endophenotypes were observed in the vicinity of CR1, MS4A6A/MS4A4E, PICALM, CLU, and PTK2B. The strongest signal was observed in association with Factor VII levels and was located within the F7 gene. Additional signals were observed in MAP3K13, ZNF320, ATP9B and TREM1. Conditional regression analyses suggested that the SNPs contributed to variation in protein concentration independent of AD status. The identification of two putatively novel AD loci (in the Factor VII and ATP9B genes), which have not been located in previous studies despite massive sample sizes, highlights the benefits of an endophenotypic approach for resolving the genetic basis for complex diseases. The coincidence of several of the endophenotypic signals with known AD loci may point to novel

  15. Can Genetic Analysis of Putative Blood Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers Lead to Identification of Susceptibility Loci?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Barber

    Full Text Available Although 24 Alzheimer's disease (AD risk loci have been reliably identified, a large portion of the predicted heritability for AD remains unexplained. It is expected that additional loci of small effect will be identified with an increased sample size. However, the cost of a significant increase in Case-Control sample size is prohibitive. The current study tests whether exploring the genetic basis of endophenotypes, in this case based on putative blood biomarkers for AD, can accelerate the identification of susceptibility loci using modest sample sizes. Each endophenotype was used as the outcome variable in an independent GWAS. Endophenotypes were based on circulating concentrations of proteins that contributed significantly to a published blood-based predictive algorithm for AD. Endophenotypes included Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (MCP1, Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (VCAM1, Pancreatic Polypeptide (PP, Beta2 Microglobulin (B2M, Factor VII (F7, Adiponectin (ADN and Tenascin C (TN-C. Across the seven endophenotypes, 47 SNPs were associated with outcome with a p-value ≤1x10(-7. Each signal was further characterized with respect to known genetic loci associated with AD. Signals for several endophenotypes were observed in the vicinity of CR1, MS4A6A/MS4A4E, PICALM, CLU, and PTK2B. The strongest signal was observed in association with Factor VII levels and was located within the F7 gene. Additional signals were observed in MAP3K13, ZNF320, ATP9B and TREM1. Conditional regression analyses suggested that the SNPs contributed to variation in protein concentration independent of AD status. The identification of two putatively novel AD loci (in the Factor VII and ATP9B genes, which have not been located in previous studies despite massive sample sizes, highlights the benefits of an endophenotypic approach for resolving the genetic basis for complex diseases. The coincidence of several of the endophenotypic signals with known AD loci may point

  16. Unrelated Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation(HSCT) for Genetic Diseases of Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-21

    Sickle Cell Disease; Thalassemia; Anemia; Granuloma; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Chediak Higashi Syndrome; Osteopetrosis; Neutropenia; Thrombocytopenia; Hurler Disease; Niemann-Pick Disease; Fucosidosis

  17. Wall morphology, blood flow and wall shear stress: MR findings in patients with peripheral artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galizia, Mauricio S.; Barker, Alex; Collins, Jeremy; Carr, James [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Liao, Yihua [Northwestern University' s Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); McDermott, Mary M. [Northwestern University' s Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University' s Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Markl, Michael [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-04-15

    To investigate the influence of atherosclerotic plaques on femoral haemodynamics assessed by two-dimensional (2D) phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with three-directional velocity encoding. During 1 year, patients with peripheral artery disease and an ankle brachial index <1.00 were enrolled. After institutional review board approval and written informed consent, 44 patients (age, 70 ± 12 years) underwent common femoral artery MRI. Patients with contra-indications for MRI were excluded. Sequences included 2D time-of-flight, proton-density, T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated 2D PC-MRI with 3D velocity encoding was acquired. A radiologist classified images in five categories. Blood flow, velocity and wall shear stress (WSS) along the vessel circumference were quantified from the PC-MRI data. The acquired images were of good quality for interpretation. There were no image quality problems related to poor ECG-gating or slice positioning. Velocities, oscillatory shear stress and total flow were similar between patients with normal arteries and wall thickening/plaque. Patients with plaques demonstrated regionally increased peak systolic WSS and enhanced WSS eccentricity. Combined multi-contrast morphological imaging of the peripheral arterial wall with PC-MRI with three-directional velocity encoding is a feasible technique. Further study is needed to determine whether flow is an appropriate marker for altered endothelial cell function, vascular remodelling and plaque progression. (orig.)

  18. Transplantation of mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells for peripheral arterial occlusive disease of the lower extremity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofeng YANG; Yanxiang WU; Hongmei WANG; Yifeng XU; Bo XU; Xin LU; Yibin ZANG; Fa WANG; Yue ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To assess the clinical efficacy, safety, and feasibility of autologous transplantation of mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) for patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) of the lower extremity. Methods A total of 152 patients with PAOD of the lower extremity were enrolled into this non-controlled observational study from November 2003 to March 2006. All patients received subcutaneous injections of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, 450600 μg/day) for 5 days in order to mobilize stem/progenitor cells; their PBMNCs were collected and transplanted by multiple intramuscular injections into ischemic limbs. Patients were followed up for at least 12 weeks. Results At 12 weeks, primarymanifestations,including lower limb pain and coldness, were significantly improved in 137 (90.1%) of the patients; limb ulcers improved or healed in 46 (86.8%) of the 53 patients, while 25 of the 48 (47.9%) patients with limb gangrene remained steady or improved. Ankle-brachial index (ABI) improved in 33 (22%) of the cases, and TcPO2 increased in 45 (30%) of the cases. Angiography before treatment, and at 12 weeks after treatment, was performed in 10 of the patients and showed formation of new collateral vessels. No severe adverse effects or complications specifically related to cell transplantation were observed. Conclusion Autologous transplantation of G-CSF-mobilized PBMNCs might be a safe and effective treatment for lower limb ischemic disorder.(J Geriatr Cardiol 2006; 3:178-80.)

  19. Mitogen-activated Tasmanian devil blood mononuclear cells kill devil facial tumour disease cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gabriella K; Tovar, Cesar; Cooray, Anne A; Kreiss, Alexandre; Darby, Jocelyn; Murphy, James M; Corcoran, Lynn M; Bettiol, Silvana S; Lyons, A Bruce; Woods, Gregory M

    2016-08-01

    Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) is a transmissible cancer that has brought the host species, the Tasmanian devil, to the brink of extinction. The cancer cells avoid allogeneic immune recognition by downregulating cell surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I expression. This should prevent CD8(+) T cell, but not natural killer (NK) cell, cytotoxicity. The reason why NK cells, normally reactive to MHC-negative cells, are not activated to kill DFTD cells has not been determined. The immune response of wild devils to DFTD, if it occurs, is uncharacterised. To investigate this, we tested 12 wild devils with DFTD, and found suggestive evidence of low levels of antibodies against DFTD cells in one devil. Eight of these devils were also analysed for cytotoxicity, however, none showed evidence for cytotoxicity against cultured DFTD cells. To establish whether mimicking activation of antitumour responses could induce cytotoxic activity against DFTD, Tasmanian devil peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were treated with either the mitogen Concanavalin A, the Toll-like receptor agonist polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid or recombinant Tasmanian devil IL-2. All induced the PBMC cells to kill cultured DFTD cells, suggesting that activation does not occur after encounter with DFTD cells in vivo, but can be induced. The identification of agents that activate cytotoxicity against DFTD target cells is critical for developing strategies to protect against DFTD. Such agents could function as adjuvants to induce functional immune responses capable of targeting DFTD cells and tumours in vivo. PMID:27089941

  20. Common DNA methylation alterations of Alzheimer's disease and aging in peripheral whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongdong; Guo, Zheng; Guo, You; Li, Mengyao; Yan, Haidan; Cheng, Jun; Wang, Chenguang; Hong, Guini

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common aging-related neurodegenerative illness. Recently, many studies have tried to identify AD- or aging-related DNA methylation (DNAm) biomarkers from peripheral whole blood (PWB). However, the origin of PWB biomarkers is still controversial. In this study, by analyzing 2565 DNAm profiles for PWB and brain tissue, we showed that aging-related DNAm CpGs (Age-CpGs) and AD-related DNAm CpGs (AD-CpGs) observable in PWB both mainly reflected DNAm alterations intrinsic in leukocyte subtypes rather than methylation differences introduced by the increased ratio of myeloid to lymphoid cells during aging or AD progression. The PWB Age-CpGs and AD-CpGs significantly overlapped 107 sites (P-value = 2.61×10−12) and 97 had significantly concordant methylation alterations in AD and aging (P-value nervous system development, neuron differentiation and neurogenesis. More than 60.8% of these 97 concordant sites were found to be significantly correlated with age in normal peripheral CD4+ T cells and CD14+ monocytes as well as in four brain regions, and 44 sites were also significantly differentially methylated in different regions of AD brain tissue. Taken together, the PWB DNAm alterations related to both aging and AD could be exploited for identification of AD biomarkers. PMID:26943045

  1. Blood-brain barrier proteomics: towards the understanding of neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanos, Yannis; Gosselet, Fabien; Dehouck, Marie-Pierre; Cecchelli, Roméo

    2014-11-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) regulates the passage of endogenous and exogenous compounds and thus contributes to the brain homeostasis with the help of well-known proteins such as tight junction proteins, plasma membrane transporters and metabolic barrier proteins. In the last decade, proteomics have emerged as supplementary tools for BBB research. The development of proteomic technologies has provided several means to extend knowledge on the BBB and to investigate additional routes for the bypass of this barrier. Proteomics approaches have been used in vivo and also using in vitro BBB models to decipher the physiological characteristics and, under stress conditions, to understand the molecular mechanisms of brain diseases. This work has demonstrated that both quantitative global and targeted proteomics approaches are powerful and provide significant information on the brain microvessel endothelium. However, current knowledge is only partial and it is necessary to increase the studies using proteomics tools that will provide additional information concerning brain pathologies or BBB metabolism. Highly sensitive, accurate and specific protein quantification by quantitative targeted proteomics appears as an essential methodology for human BBB studies. PMID:25446619

  2. Study on the relationship between red blood cell immunity and lipid peroxidation in patients with hand-foot-mouth disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the relationship between red blood cell immunity and lipid peroxidation in patients with hand-foot-mouth disease. Methods: The red blood cell C3b receptor (RBC-C3bR) and red blood cell immune complex rosette (RBC-ICR) were measured in 42 patients with hand-foot-mouth disease as well as in 35 controls. The serum levels of MDA, SOD and GSH-PX were also measured with colorimetry in these subjects. Results: RBC-ICRR and MDA levels were significantly higher in patients with hand-foot-mouth disease than those in controls(P<0.01), while the RBC-C3bR, SOD, GSH-PX levels were significantly lower in patients with hand-foot-mouth disease than those in controls (P<0.01). RBC-C3bR was negatively correlated with MDA (r=-0.5014, P<0.05), but RBC-ICR was positively correlated with MDA (r=0.5942, P<0.01). Conclusion: The lowered red cell immune function was closely associated with the lipid peroxidation injury in patients with hand-foot-mouth disease. (authors)

  3. The Prognostic Role of Red Blood Cell Distribution Width in Coronary Artery Disease: A Review of the Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Bujak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cell distribution width (RDW is a measure of red blood cell volume variations (anisocytosis and is reported as part of a standard complete blood count. In recent years, numerous studies have noted the importance of RDW as a predictor of poor clinical outcomes in the settings of various diseases, including coronary artery disease (CAD. In this paper, we discuss the prognostic value of RDW in CAD and describe the pathophysiological connection between RDW and acute coronary syndrome. In our opinion, the negative prognostic effects of elevated RDW levels may be attributed to the adverse effects of independent risk factors such as inflammation, oxidative stress, and vitamin D3 and iron deficiency on bone marrow function (erythropoiesis. Elevated RDW values may reflect the intensity of these phenomena and their unfavorable impacts on bone marrow erythropoiesis. Furthermore, decreased red blood cell deformability among patients with higher RDW values impairs blood flow through the microcirculation, resulting in the diminution of oxygen supply at the tissue level, particularly among patients suffering from myocardial infarction treated with urgent revascularization.

  4. A Family Cluster of Chagas Disease Detected through Selective Screening of Blood Donors: A Case Report and Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Mongeau-Martin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease (CD is a protozoan infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted by triatomine insect vectors in parts of Latin America. In a nonendemic country, such as Canada, spread can still occur via vertical transmission, and infected blood or organ donations. The Canadian Blood Services and Héma-Québec have both implemented selective screening of blood donors for CD based on risk factors. In 2011, Héma-Québec identified two seropositive ‘at-risk’ Chilean siblings who had donated blood in Montreal, Quebec. They were referred to the JD MacLean Centre for Tropical Diseases (Montreal, Quebec for confirmatory testing (T cruzi excreted-secreted antigen ELISA, polymerase chain reaction and/or radioimmunoprecipitation assay and follow-up. Screening of the rest of the family revealed two other seropositive family members (the mother and sister. While their geographical history in Chile suggests vectorial transmission, this family cluster of CD raises the possibility of vertical transmission. Congenital infection should always be considered among CD-positive mothers and pregnant women. With blood donor screening, Canadian physicians will increasingly see patients with CD and should know how to manage them appropriately. In addition to the case presentation, the authors review the transmission, screening and clinical management of CD in a nonendemic context.

  5. A family cluster of Chagas disease detected through selective screening of blood donors: A case report and brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongeau-Martin, Guillaume; Ndao, Momar; Libman, Michael; Delage, Gilles; Ward, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD) is a protozoan infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted by triatomine insect vectors in parts of Latin America. In a nonendemic country, such as Canada, spread can still occur via vertical transmission, and infected blood or organ donations. The Canadian Blood Services and Héma-Québec have both implemented selective screening of blood donors for CD based on risk factors. In 2011, Héma-Québec identified two seropositive 'at-risk' Chilean siblings who had donated blood in Montreal, Quebec. They were referred to the JD MacLean Centre for Tropical Diseases (Montreal, Quebec) for confirmatory testing (T cruzi excreted-secreted antigen ELISA, polymerase chain reaction and/or radioimmunoprecipitation assay) and follow-up. Screening of the rest of the family revealed two other seropositive family members (the mother and sister). While their geographical history in Chile suggests vectorial transmission, this family cluster of CD raises the possibility of vertical transmission. Congenital infection should always be considered among CD-positive mothers and pregnant women. With blood donor screening, Canadian physicians will increasingly see patients with CD and should know how to manage them appropriately. In addition to the case presentation, the authors review the transmission, screening and clinical management of CD in a nonendemic context. PMID:26236358

  6. Simple blood tests as predictive markers of disease severity and clinical condition in patients with venous insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Oguz; Yavuz, Celal; Kankilic, Nazim; Demirtas, Sinan; Tezcan, Orhan; Caliskan, Ahmet; Mavitas, Binali

    2016-09-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is a progressive inflammatory disease. Because of its inflammatory nature, several circulating markers were investigated for predicting disease progression. We aimed to investigate simple inflammatory blood markers as predictors of clinical class and disease severity in patients with CVI. Eighty patients with CVI were divided into three groups according to clinical class (grade 1, 2 and 3) and score of disease severity (mild, moderate and severe). The basic inflammatory blood markers [neutrophil, lymphocyte, mean platelet volume (MPV), white blood cell (WBC), platelet, albumin, D-dimer, fibrinogen, fibrinogen to albumin ratio, and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio] were investigated in each group. Serum neutrophil, lymphocyte, MPV, platelet count, D-dimer and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio levels were similar among the groups (P > 0.05). Although the serum WBC levels were significant in the clinical severity groups (P < 0.05), it was useless to separate each severity class. However, albumin, fibrinogen and the fibrinogen to albumin ratio were significant predictors of clinical class and disease severity. Especially, the fibrinogen to albumin ratio was detected as an independent indicator for a clinical class and disease severity with high sensitivity and specificity (75% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity for clinical class and 90% sensitivity and 88.3% specificity for disease severity). Serum fibrinogen and albumin levels can be useful parameters to determine clinical class and disease severity in patients with CVI. Moreover, the fibrinogen to albumin ratio is a more sensitive and specific predictor of the progression of CVI. PMID:26650463

  7. Circadian variations in blood pressure in health and disease: implications for patient management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaughter MS

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Atul R Chugh1, John H Loughran1, Mark S Slaughter21Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, 2Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USAAbstract: Traditionally, blood pressure measurements have been performed in office settings and have provided the basis for all diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. However, the development of a clinically relevant 24-hour blood pressure monitoring system has added greatly to the ability of blood pressure values to confer additional clinical information, including prognostic value. Mechanistically, the circadian rhythm of blood pressure is mediated by a complex process as a part of the neurohormonal cascade. Pattern recognition of blood pressure peaks and troughs over a 24-hour period has led to categorization into specific subsets namely, ie, dippers, nondippers, extreme dippers, and reverse dippers. Cardiovascular risk is associated with certain pattern types, as has been demonstrated in large observational and prospective studies. The development of therapies for the purpose of restoring more pathological patterns to normal ones continues to grow. These include both pharmaceutical and device therapy. This article describes the development of 24-hour blood pressure monitoring systems, the identification of circadian blood pressure patterns, and the treatment strategies studied thus far which affect these newer blood pressure parameters.Keywords: ambulatory blood pressure measurement, nocturnal blood pressure, dippers, nondippers, extreme dippers, device therapy

  8. Genome-wide meta-analysis of systolic blood pressure in children with sickle cell disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallav Bhatnagar

    Full Text Available In pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD patients, it has been reported that higher systolic blood pressure (SBP is associated with increased risk of a silent cerebral infarction (SCI. SCI is a major cause of neurologic morbidity in children with SCD, and blood pressure is a potential modulator of clinical manifestations of SCD; however, the risk factors underlying these complications are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to identify genetic variants that influence SBP in an African American population in the setting of SCD, and explore the use of SBP as an endo-phenotype for SCI. We conducted a genome-wide meta-analysis for SBP using two SCD cohorts, as well as a candidate screen based on published SBP loci. A total of 1,617 patients were analyzed, and while no SNP reached genome-wide significance (P-value<5.0 x 10(-8, a number of suggestive candidate loci were identified. The most significant SNP, rs7952106 (P-value=8.57 x 10(-7, was in the DRD2 locus on chromosome 11. In a gene-based association analysis, MIR4301 (micro-RNA4301, which resides in an intron of DRD2, was the most significant gene (P-value=5.2 x 10(-5. Examining 27 of the previously reported SBP associated SNPs, 4 SNPs were nominally significant. A genetic risk score was constructed to assess the aggregated genetic effect of the published SBP variants, demonstrating a significant association (P=0.05. In addition, we also assessed whether these variants are associated with SCI, validating the use of SBP as an endo-phenotype for SCI. Three SNPs were nominally associated, and only rs2357790 (5' CACNB2 was significant for both SBP and SCI. None of these SNPs retained significance after Bonferroni correction. Taken together, our results suggest the importance of DRD2 genetic variation in the modulation of SBP, and extend the aggregated importance of previously reported SNPs in the modulation of SBP in an African American cohort, more specifically in children with SCD.

  9. Copper toxicosis gene MURR1 is not changed in Wilson disease patients with normal blood ceruloplasmin levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karl Heinz Weiss; Uta Merle; Mark Schaefer; Peter Ferenci; Joachim Fullekrug; Wolfgang Stremmel

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To analyze our Wilson disease patient cohort (n = 106) for alterations in the gene coding forMURR1.METHODS: Patients with an established diagnosis of Wilson disease but normal ceruloplasmin blood levels were chosen for our study (n = 14). Patients with two known disease-causing mutations in the ATP7B gene were not included. The three exons of the human MURR1 gene were sequenced after amplification of the genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction.RESULTS: Our study did not reveal any mutations leading to an amino acid change in the MURR1 sequence of Wilson disease patients. A polymorphism at 472 bp of the coding sequence could be confirmed.CONCLUSION: The MURR1 gene plays no role in the pathogenesis of Wilson disease patients with normal serum ceruloplasmin levels.

  10. Circadian variations in blood pressure in health and disease: implications for patient management

    OpenAIRE

    Slaughter, Mark; Chugh,; Loughran,

    2011-01-01

    Atul R Chugh1, John H Loughran1, Mark S Slaughter21Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, 2Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USAAbstract: Traditionally, blood pressure measurements have been performed in office settings and have provided the basis for all diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. However, the development of a clinically relevant 24-hour blood pressure monitoring system has added greatly to the ability of blood pressure values...

  11. Study on Blood Coagulant/Fibrinolytic Activity at Plasma andMonocytic Levels in Coronary Heart Disease Patients withBlood-Stasis Syndrome of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To explore and compare the changes of coagulant/fibrinolytic activity in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients with Blood Stasis Syndrome of TCM and evaluate the roles of these changes. Methods: Eighty patients of CHD were divided into two groups by Syndrome Differentiation of TCM, the Blood-Stasis (BS) group (30 cases) and the non-Blood-Stasis (NBS) group (50 cases, including 27 cases of Phlegm-Dampness Syndrome and 23 cases of Qi-Stagnation Syndrome); and 20 healthy persons were enrolled as normal control group. Tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and its inhibitor (PAI-1) in plasma and in human peripheral blood monocyte cell (PBMC), as well as the procoagulant activity (PCA) in PBMC were measured by chromogenic substrate method. Results: The plasma PAI-1 activity and PCA of PBMC in the BS group were significantly higher than those in the NBS group and the normal control group (P<0.01). PAI-1 activity of PBMC in the two groups of CHD patients was higher than those in the normal control group significantly (P<0.01), but no significant difference was found between the BS group and the NBS group (P>0.05). The difference of plasma t-PA activity between the two groups of CHD was insignificant. The PBMC t-PA activity in the BS group was lower than that in the NBS and normal control groups (P<0.01). Conclusion: In the CHD patients with BS, the PBMC PCA was increased and the fibrinolytic activity at both plasma and monocyte levels lowered significantly, these changes in coagulant/fibrinolytic activity may be the important pathologic factors in forming BS which suggests that CHD patients with BS were in the prothrombotic state.

  12. Biochemical characterization of blood plasma of coronary artery disease patients by in vitro high-resolution proton NMR spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anu Malik; Uma Sharma; R Lakshmy; Rajiv Narang; Naranamanglam R Jagannathan

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the biochemical profile of blood plasma of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and angiographically normal subjects (controls) to determine biomarkers for their differentiation. In this double blind study, 5 mL venous blood was drawn before angiography from CAD patients (n=60) and controls (n=13) comprising angiography normal individuals. In vitro high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of these blood plasma samples was carried out at 400 MHz, and intensity data were analysed with partial least square discriminant analysis. Categorization of subjects as controls or CAD patients and the patients further as single vessel disease (SVD), double vessel disease (DVD) and triple vessel disease (TVD) was done at the end of the study based on their angiography reports. Raised levels of lipids, alanine (Ala) and isoleucine/leucine/valine (Ile/Leu/Val) were observed in CAD patients compared with controls. Partial least square discriminant analysis showed separation between controls vs CAD patients. TVD patients showed increased levels of Ile/Leu/Val and Ala compared with controls and SVD. Alanine, Ile/Leu/Val, and LDL/VLDL appear as possible biomarkers for distinguishing between controls and patients with SVD and TVD. A metabolic adaptation of myocardium may play a role in raising the Ala level.

  13. Buccal Cell Cytokeratin 14 Correlates with Multiple Blood Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifert, Wayne R; Nguyen, Tori; Rembach, Alan; Martins, Ralph; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie; Masters, Colin L; Ames, David; Rowe, Christopher C; Macaulay, S Lance; François, Maxime; Fenech, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may reflect early stages of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our hypothesis was that cytokeratin 14 (CK14) expression could be used with blood-based biomarkers such as homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate to identify individuals with MCI or AD from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) flagship study of aging. Buccal cells from 54 individuals were analyzed by a newly developed method that is rapid, automated, and quantitative for buccal cell CK14 expression levels. CK14 was negatively correlated with plasma Mg²⁺ and LDL, while positively correlated with vitamin B12, red cell hematocrit/volume, and basophils in the MCI group and positively correlated with insulin and vitamin B12 in the AD group. The combined biomarker panel (CK14 expression, plasma vitamin B12, and homocysteine) was significantly lower in the MCI (p = 0.003) and AD (p = 0.0001) groups compared with controls. Receiver-operating characteristic curves yielded area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.829 for the MCI (p = 0.002) group and 0.856 for the AD (p = 0.0003) group. These complex associations of multiple related parameters highlight the differences between the MCI and AD cohorts and possibly an underlying metabolic pathology associated with the development of early memory impairment. The changes in buccal cell CK14 expression observed in this pilot study supports previous results suggesting the peripheral biomarkers and metabolic changes are not restricted to brain pathology alone in MCI and AD and could prove useful as a potential biomarker in identifying individuals with an increased risk of developing MCI and eventually AD. PMID:26402008

  14. Effects of Intensified Vasodilatory Antihypertensive Treatment on Renal Function, Blood supply and Oxygenation in Chronic Kidney Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khatir, Dinah Sherzad; Pedersen, Michael; Ivarsen, Per;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Progression of Chronic kidney disease (CKD) may result from tissue hypoxia induced by small artery structural narrowing, with increased renal vascular resistance (RVR) and impaired blood supply. We investigated whether vasodilating therapy (VT) is superior to non-vasodilating therapy...... (nonVT) for improvement of RVR, tissue oxygenation, and preservation of kidney function. Methods: Eighty-two hypertensive grade 3-4 CKD patients (glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 36±15 ml/min/1.73 m2) were randomised to renin-angiotensin inhibition combined with either VT (amlodipine) or nonVT (beta......-blocker metoprolol). At baseline and following 18 months of therapy we determined forearm resistance by venous occlusion plethysmography. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) renal artery blood flow was measured for calculation of RVR, and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) MRI was used as a marker of renal...

  15. Can family history and cord blood IgE predict sensitization and allergic diseases up to adulthood?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrits Pagh Nissen, Susanne; Fomsgaard Kjær, Henrik; Høst, Arne;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term studies of the predictive value of family history and cord blood IgE level until adulthood are few, and their conclusions have been contradictory. METHODS: Screening of total IgE in 1617 cord blood samples was performed in a Danish birth cohort. All infants with cord blood Ig......E (CB-IgE) ≥0.5 kU/l and a corresponding randomly chosen group with CB-IgE physical examination, specific IgE testing, and from 10 yr also spirometry, were carried out at 1½, 5, 10, 15, and 26 yr. Predefined diagnostic criteria were...... used. RESULTS: A total of 455 infants were included, 188 with CB-IgE ≥0.5 kU/l and 267 with CB-IgE history and elevated CB-IgE were significantly associated to allergic disease until 26 yr. Concerning any allergic...

  16. Prevalence, clinical staging and risk for blood-borne transmission of Chagas disease among Latin American migrants in Geneva, Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Jackson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migration of Latin Americans to the USA, Canada and Europe has modified Chagas disease distribution, but data on imported cases and on risks of local transmission remain scarce. We assessed the prevalence and risk factors for Chagas disease, staged the disease and evaluated attitudes towards blood transfusion and organ transplant among Latin American migrants in Geneva, Switzerland. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This cross-sectional study included all consecutive Latin American migrants seeking medical care at a primary care facility or attending two Latino churches. After completing a questionnaire, they were screened for Chagas disease with two serological tests (Biomérieux ELISA cruzi; Biokit Bioelisa Chagas. Infected subjects underwent a complete medical work-up. Predictive factors for infection were assessed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis.1012 persons (females: 83%; mean age: 37.2 [SD 11.3] years, Bolivians: 48% [n = 485] were recruited. 96% had no residency permit. Chagas disease was diagnosed with two positive serological tests in 130 patients (12.8%; 95%CI 10.8%-14.9%, including 127 Bolivians (26.2%; 95%CI 22.3%-30.1%. All patients were in the chronic phase, including 11.3% with cardiac and 0.8% with digestive complications. Predictive factors for infection were Bolivian origin (OR 33.2; 95%CI 7.5-147.5, reported maternal infection with T. cruzi (OR 6.9; 95%CI 1.9-24.3, and age older than 35 years (OR 6.7; 95%CI 2.4-18.8. While 22 (16.9% infected subjects had already donated blood, 24 (18.5% and 34 (26.2% considered donating blood and organs outside Latin America, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Chagas disease is highly prevalent among Bolivian migrants in Switzerland. Chronic cardiac and digestive complications were substantial. Screening of individuals at risk should be implemented in nonendemic countries and must include undocumented migrants.

  17. Coronary vasomotor and blood flow responses to isoflavone-intact soy protein in subjects with coronary heart disease or risk factors for coronary heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Carolyn M.; Hayward, Christopher S.; Mason, Mark J.; Ilsley, Charles D.; Collins, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Animal data suggest favourable coronary vasomotor actions of isoflavones however the effects of isoflavones on the human coronary circulation are undetermined. We therefore investigated the effects of short-term isoflavone-intact soy protein ingestion on basal coronary arterial tone and stimulated vasoreactivity and blood flow in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) or risk factors for CHD. Seventy-one subjects were randomised, double-blind, to isoflavone-intact so...

  18. Investigations of mammary and uterine blood flow in relation to milk yield, postpartum disease, and pregnancy result in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, H; Lietzau, M; Tichy, A; Herzog, K

    2016-11-01

    The objective was to determine the blood flow variables in the uterine arteries and the pudendoepigastric trunks, which supply the mammary gland, and relate these variables to the occurrence of uterine disease, milk yield, and pregnancy result. To achieve this, 119 multiparous German Holstein cows were examined using color Doppler sonography once during the dry period and on Days 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 66, 76, 86, and 96 postpartum (pp). Cows with retained fetal membranes or metritis had a higher blood flow volume and time-averaged maximum velocity and a lower pulsatility index in the uterine arteries on Days 7, 14 and 28 pp (P blood flow volume in the pudendoepigastric trunks on examination Days 7 to 96 pp with the exception of Day 76 (P perfusion. Increased uterine perfusion in cows with retained fetal membrane and metritis may be due to increased uterine size attributable to delayed involution. High mammary perfusion in high-yielding cows is due to an increased demand for nutrients and oxygen. Color Doppler sonography is a useful method for the investigation of the effect of uterine disease on uterine blood flow and of the effect of milk yield on mammary perfusion.

  19. Creation of an iliac arteriovenous shunt lowers blood pressure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with hypertension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Faul, John

    2014-01-28

    Vasodilators are used with caution in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We have developed a device for percutaneous arteriovenous shunt creation in the iliac region to increase cardiac output and oxygen delivery for patients with COPD. Although this device does not cause significant blood pressure changes in normotensive patients with COPD, we hypothesized that arteriovenous shunt creation might cause vasodilator effects in hypertensive patients because of a reduction in vascular resistance.

  20. Hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn due to maternal red blood cell alloantibodies in the Malay population

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Nazri Hassan; Noor Haslina Mohd Noor; Shah Reza Johan Noor; Salamah Ahmad Sukri; Rapiaah Mustafa; Hans Van Rostenberghe Luc Aster

    2014-01-01

    Background: Maternal red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization may lead to production of harmful antibodies that result in hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn (HDFN). There is insufficient data on the prevalence of HDFN due to RBC alloantibodies in the Malay neonatal population. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of HDFN in the Malay neonatal population due to clinically significant RBC alloantibodies. Subjects and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Transf...

  1. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI Assessment of Hyperemic Fractional Microvascular Blood Plasma Volume in Peripheral Arterial Disease: Initial Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Bas Versluis; Marjolein H G Dremmen; Nelemans, Patty J; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Geert-Willem Schurink; Tim Leiner; Walter H Backes

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to describe a method that assesses the hyperemic microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. The reversibly albumin binding contrast agent gadofosveset was used in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI) to assess the microvascular status in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and healthy controls. In addition, the reproducibility of this method in healthy controls was determined. MATERIALS AND METH...

  2. Assessment of Red Blood Cell Parameters and Peripheral Smear at Different Temperatures in Case of Cold Agglutination Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, V.

    2014-01-01

    Cold agglutination disease (CAD) is characterized by an auto-antibody which is able to agglutinate red blood cells (RBCs) at temperatures lower than that of the body, and subsequently to activate the complement system responsible for lysis of RBCs. Patients show hemolytic anemia of varying degrees of severity, which arise or worsen upon exposure to low temperatures. We describe a case who presented with fever and symptoms of asthenia. His investigations yielded bizarre RBC parameters which le...

  3. Bone Marrow and Kidney Transplant for Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease and Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-03

    Chronic Kidney Disease; Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML); Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL); Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML); Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL); Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL); Hodgkin Disease; Multiple Myeloma; Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS); Aplastic Anemia; AL Amyloidosis; Diamond Blackfan Anemia; Myelofibrosis; Myeloproliferative Disease; Sickle Cell Anemia; Autoimmune Diseases; Thalassemia

  4. Whole blood DNA aberrant methylation in pancreatic adenocarcinoma shows association with the course of the disease: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertas Dauksa

    Full Text Available Pancreatic tumors are usually diagnosed at an advanced stage in the progression of the disease, thus reducing the survival chances of the patients. Non-invasive early detection would greatly enhance therapy and survival rates. Toward this aim, we investigated in a pilot study the power of methylation changes in whole blood as predictive markers for the detection of pancreatic tumors. We investigated methylation levels at selected CpG sites in the CpG rich regions at the promoter regions of p16, RARbeta, TNFRSF10C, APC, ACIN1, DAPK1, 3OST2, BCL2 and CD44 in the blood of 30 pancreatic tumor patients and in the blood of 49 matching controls. In addition, we studied LINE-1 and Alu repeats using degenerate amplification approach as a surrogate marker for genome-wide methylation. The site-specific methylation measurements at selected CpG sites were done by the SIRPH method. Our results show that in the patient's blood, tumor suppressor genes were slightly but significantly higher methylated at several CpG sites, while repeats were slightly less methylated compared to control blood. This was found to be significantly associated with higher risk for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Additionally, high methylation levels at TNFRSCF10C were associated with positive perineural spread of tumor cells, while higher methylation levels of TNFRSF10C and ACIN1 were significantly associated with shorter survival. This pilot study shows that methylation changes in blood could provide a promising method for early detection of pancreatic tumors. However, larger studies must be carried out to explore the clinical usefulness of a whole blood methylation based test for non-invasive early detection of pancreatic tumors.

  5. Effectiveness of treatment with donepezil hydrochloride and changes in regional cerebral blood flow in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the relationship between the effects of donepezil hydrochloride (donepezil) and cerebral blood flow, and to evaluate the usefulness of cerebral blood flow imaging in assessing and predicting treatment effectiveness. The subjects were 29 outpatients (12 men and 17 women; age 50-82 years; mean age 69.2 years), who had received a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Efficacy was evaluated before donepezil administration; after 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months of drug administration; and at 1 year after completion of administration using the Japanese version of the Alzheimer's disease assessment scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog), as a measure of cognitive function. The ADAS-cog has been frequently used to evaluate cognitive function in AD patients. Patients whose ADAS-cog scores improved by 3 or more points during the observation period were classified as responders, and those with no improvement were classified as nonresponders. 123I-iofetamine (IMP) was used for single photon emission computed tomography cerebral blood flow scintigraphy. On the basis of ADAS-cog score improvement, 22 of the 29 patients were responders (7 men and 15 women; age 50-82 years; mean age 69.0 years) and seven were nonresponders (5 men and 2 women; age 61-80 years; mean age 70.0 years). The results indicate that a difference in cerebral blood flow responsiveness after 1 month of treatment distinguishes responders from nonresponders. After 1 month, blood flow was significantly decreased in all regions of nonresponders, whereas significant increases in blood flow were seen in the anterior frontal lobe and parietal lobe of responders. At that time point, blood flow in the basal ganglion differed significantly between the two groups, indicating that this difference in responsiveness after 1 month of treatment may distinguish responders from nonresponders. In cognitive function testing, the group that exhibited a complete response showed improvement

  6. Storage time of transfused blood and disease recurrence after colorectal cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perioperative blood transfusion and subsequent development of postoperative infectious complications may lead to poor prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer. It has been suggested that the development of postoperative infectious complications may be related to the storage time o...

  7. CFD simulation of blood flow inside the corkscrew collaterals of the Buerger’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sharifi

    2016-03-01

    Results: The local velocity patterns, pressure and kinematic viscosity distributions in different segments of the corkscrew collateral artery was demonstrated and discussed for the first time for this kind of artery. The effects of non-Newtonian consideration for the blood viscosity behavior were investigated in different segments of the artery. Moreover, the variations of the blood flow patterns along the artery were investigated in details for each segment. Conclusion: It was found that the flow patterns were affected by the complex geometry of this artery in such a way that it could lead to the presence of sites that were prone to the accumulation of the flowing particles in blood like nicotine. Furthermore, due to the existence of many successive bends in this artery, the variations of kinematic viscosity along this artery were significant, therefore the non-Newtonian behavior of the blood viscosity must be considered.

  8. Correlation between arterial and venous blood gas analysis parameters in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novović Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Arterial blood gas (ABG analyses have an important role in the assessment and monitoring of the metabolic and oxygen status of patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Arterial puncture could have a lot of adverse effects, while sampling of venous blood is simpler and is not so invasive. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether venous blood gas (VBG values of pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2, partial oxygen pressure (PO2, bicarbonate (HCO3, and venous and arterial blood oxygen saturation (SO2 can reliably predict ABG levels in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. Methods. Forty-seven patients with a prior diagnosis of COPD were included in this prospective study. The patients with acute exacerbation of this disease were examined at the General Hospital EMS Department in Prijepolje. ABG samples were taken immediately after venous sampling, and both were analyzed. Results. The Pearson correlation coefficients between arterial and venous parameters were 0.828, 0.877, 0.599, 0.896 and 0.312 for pH, PCO2, PO2, HCO3 and SO2, respectively. The statistically significant correlation between arterial and venous pH, PCO2 and HCO3, values was found in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD (p<0.001. Conclusion. When we cannot provide arterial blood for analysis, venous values of the pH, Pv,CO2 and HCO3 parameters can be an alternative to their arterial equivalents in the interpretation of the metabolic status in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD, while the values of venous Pv,O2 and Sv,O2 cannot be used as predictors in the assessment of oxygen status of such patients.

  9. Chromatographic profiles of blood plasma free oligosaccharides in patients with cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. U. Pismenetskaya

    2015-03-01

    approaches allowed predicting a range of glycan structures for each of the main peaks of HPLC profiles of plasma free oligosaccharides and managing ways for their future experimental analysis. In the case of cardiovascular disorders, HPLC profiles of FOS revealed a changing pattern of heterogeneity, depending on the severity of the disease. Three main enlarged glycan species in the netral fraction and one peak in the charged fraction distinguished the FOS of the patients from those of the healthy volunteers. It has been revealed that the neutral marker peaks were represented by polimannose glycans with 5–7 mannose residues and 1–2 residues of N-acetylglucosamine, and one of the major peaks of the charged fraction – by two-antennary complex N-glycan with two sialic acid residues. The study of free oligosaccharides of blood plasma is a new field of glycobiology allowing an evaluation of an organism state at the level of the cell organelle functional status and openning up broad prospects for finding early diagnostic and prognostic markers of cardiac insufficiency.

  10. Integrative transcriptomic meta-analysis of Parkinson’s disease and depression identifies NAMPT as a potential blood biomarker for de novo Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Jose A.; Littlefield, Alyssa M.; Potashkin, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging research indicates that depression could be one of the earliest prodromal symptoms or risk factors associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder worldwide, but the mechanisms underlying the association between both diseases remains unknown. Understanding the molecular networks linking these diseases could facilitate the discovery of novel diagnostic and therapeutics. Transcriptomic meta-analysis and network analysis of blood microarrays from untreated patients with PD and depression identified genes enriched in pathways related to the immune system, metabolism of lipids, glucose, fatty acids, nicotinamide, lysosome, insulin signaling and type 1 diabetes. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), an adipokine that plays a role in lipid and glucose metabolism, was identified as the most significant dysregulated gene. Relative abundance of NAMPT was upregulated in blood of 99 early stage and drug-naïve PD patients compared to 101 healthy controls (HC) nested in the cross-sectional Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI). Thus, here we demonstrate that shared molecular networks between PD and depression provide an additional source of biologically relevant biomarkers. Evaluation of NAMPT in a larger prospective longitudinal study including samples from other neurodegenerative diseases, and patients at risk of PD is warranted. PMID:27680512

  11. Cerebral blood flow and liver function in patients with encephalopathy due to acute and chronic liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, T; Schroeder, T; Ranek, L

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in hepatic encephalopathy, to ascertain whether this was related to the changes in liver function and whether these changes gave any prognostic information. CBF, determined by the intravenous xenon-133 method......, and liver functions, assessed by the prothrombin index, bilirubin concentration, and the galactose elimination capacity, were studied in patients with acute fulminant liver failure and in patients with encephalopathy due to chronic liver diseases--that is, cirrhosis of various etiologies. The CBF range...... any differences between patients with acute or chronic liver diseases or the different degrees of hepatic encephalopathy. In conclusion, a marked reduction of the CBF was seen in hepatic encephalopathy, irrespective of the etiology of the disease....

  12. Dengue viral RNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells are associated with disease severity and preexisting dengue immune status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anon Srikiatkhachorn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with dengue viruses (DENV causes a wide range of manifestations from asymptomatic infection to a febrile illness called dengue fever (DF, to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. The in vivo targets of DENV and the relation between the viral burden in these cells and disease severity are not known. METHOD: The levels of positive and negative strand viral RNA in peripheral blood monocytes, T/NK cells, and B cells and in plasma of DF and DHF cases were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS: Positive strand viral RNA was detected in monocytes, T/NK cells and B cells with the highest amounts found in B cells. Viral RNA levels in CD14+ cells and plasma were significantly higher in DHF compared to DF, and in cases with a secondary infection compared to those undergoing a primary infection. The distribution of viral RNA among cell subpopulations was similar in DF and DHF cases. Small amounts of negative strand RNA were found in a few cases only. The severity of plasma leakage correlated with viral RNA levels in plasma and in CD14+ cells. CONCLUSIONS: B cells were the principal cells containing DENV RNA in peripheral blood, but overall there was little active DENV RNA replication detectable in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Secondary infection and DHF were associated with higher viral burden in PBMC populations, especially CD14+ monocytes, suggesting that viral infection of these cells may be involved in disease pathogenesis.

  13. Commentary on “Alzheimer’s disease drug development and the problem of the blood-brain barrier”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, James W.

    2016-01-01

    The perspective by Dr. William Pardridge entitled “Alzheimer’s Disease Drug Discovery and the Problem of the Blood-Brain Barrier” makes a strong case for the imbalance in resource distribution to the drug-discovery and brain drug delivery processes, where the latter received less than 1% of the investment of the former. My own calculations are consistent with this striking imbalance. Dr. Pardridge predicts that current trials of passive immunity against β-amyloid peptide will likely fail, whereas past trials of active immunization exhibited trial-ending side effects, in part because of disruption of the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. To bring an assessment of the physiology of the blood-brain barrier and the brain delivery of drugs to the fore, several changes are needed in the way we perceive the problem, train our young scientists, organize research efforts, and incentivize reaching our common goals of effective drug therapy for Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:19751923

  14. Role of indium-111 white blood cells in inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froelich, J.W.; Field, S.A.

    1988-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease in patients may be difficult to diagnose because of the complex problems associated with this disease. Radionuclides are able to provide a rapid and effective method of imaging the bowel in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease. In the past, clinical work-ups have included barium x-ray studies and endoscopy. Scarring and fistula formation have made it difficult to determine between the active disease and abscesses that may occur. Gallium-67 (67Ga) has been very useful in imaging patients with inflammatory bowel disease, but the multiple-day imaging procedure has been a limitation for the clinicians when achieving a diagnosis. Recent results with Indium-111 (111In)--labeled WBCs have provided excellent correlation between clinical symptoms and colonoscopy findings in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. This technique has also allowed the differentiation between reoccurring inflammatory bowel disease and abscesses that accompany the disease within a 24-hour time period. The use of intravenous (IV) glucagon has increased the clarity of the images in the small bowel. Technetium 99m (99mTc) diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) has been used in patients with inflammatory bowel disease demonstrating promising results. Investigators feel labelling 99mTc with WBCs will be improved, therefore yielding a greater efficiency, which will have a major impact on imaging patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Imaging patients with inflammatory bowel disease using radionuclides has yielded promising results. This is a significant advancement over barium radiography and endoscopy exams.24 references.

  15. Integration of Quantitative Positron Emission Tomography Absolute Myocardial Blood Flow Measurements in the Clinical Management of Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewirtz, Henry; Dilsizian, Vasken

    2016-05-31

    In the >40 years since planar myocardial imaging with(43)K-potassium was introduced into clinical research and management of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), diagnosis and treatment have undergone profound scientific and technological changes. One such innovation is the current state-of-the-art hardware and software for positron emission tomography myocardial perfusion imaging, which has advanced it from a strictly research-oriented modality to a clinically valuable tool. This review traces the evolving role of quantitative positron emission tomography measurements of myocardial blood flow in the evaluation and management of patients with CAD. It presents methodology, currently or soon to be available, that offers a paradigm shift in CAD management. Heretofore, radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging has been primarily qualitative or at best semiquantitative in nature, assessing regional perfusion in relative terms. Thus, unlike so many facets of modern cardiovascular practice and CAD management, which depend, for example, on absolute values of key parameters such as arterial and left ventricular pressures, serum lipoprotein, and other biomarker levels, the absolute levels of rest and maximal myocardial blood flow have yet to be incorporated into routine clinical practice even in most positron emission tomography centers where the potential to do so exists. Accordingly, this review focuses on potential value added for improving clinical CAD practice by measuring the absolute level of rest and maximal myocardial blood flow. Physiological principles and imaging fundamentals necessary to understand how positron emission tomography makes robust, quantitative measurements of myocardial blood flow possible are highlighted.

  16. Integration of Quantitative Positron Emission Tomography Absolute Myocardial Blood Flow Measurements in the Clinical Management of Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewirtz, Henry; Dilsizian, Vasken

    2016-05-31

    In the >40 years since planar myocardial imaging with(43)K-potassium was introduced into clinical research and management of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), diagnosis and treatment have undergone profound scientific and technological changes. One such innovation is the current state-of-the-art hardware and software for positron emission tomography myocardial perfusion imaging, which has advanced it from a strictly research-oriented modality to a clinically valuable tool. This review traces the evolving role of quantitative positron emission tomography measurements of myocardial blood flow in the evaluation and management of patients with CAD. It presents methodology, currently or soon to be available, that offers a paradigm shift in CAD management. Heretofore, radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging has been primarily qualitative or at best semiquantitative in nature, assessing regional perfusion in relative terms. Thus, unlike so many facets of modern cardiovascular practice and CAD management, which depend, for example, on absolute values of key parameters such as arterial and left ventricular pressures, serum lipoprotein, and other biomarker levels, the absolute levels of rest and maximal myocardial blood flow have yet to be incorporated into routine clinical practice even in most positron emission tomography centers where the potential to do so exists. Accordingly, this review focuses on potential value added for improving clinical CAD practice by measuring the absolute level of rest and maximal myocardial blood flow. Physiological principles and imaging fundamentals necessary to understand how positron emission tomography makes robust, quantitative measurements of myocardial blood flow possible are highlighted. PMID:27245647

  17. Effects of aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with Chagas' heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Haline; Teixeira, Maxelle Martins; Sousa, Rodrigo Cunha de; Silva, Marcos Vinícius da; Correia, Dalmo; Rodrigues Junior, Virmondes; Levy, Bruce David; Rogério, Alexandre de Paula

    2016-04-15

    Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). In some patients with Chagas disease, symptoms progress to chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy. Endogenously, inflammation is resolved in the presence of lipid mediators such as aspirin-triggered RvD1 (AT-RvD1) which has anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution effects. Here, we demonstrated, for the first time, the effects of AT-RvD1 on T. cruzi antigen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with Chagas heart disease. The levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-13 increased in PBMCs from cardiac-form Chagas patients in stage B1 (patients with fewer heart abnormalities) stimulated with T. cruzi antigen compared to those in non-stimulated PBMCs. AT-RvD1 reduced the IFN-γ concentrations in PBMCs from patients with Chagas disease stimulated with T. cruzi antigen compared to stimulated with T. cruzi antigen cells. AT-RvD1 treatment resulted in no observable changes in TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-13 levels. AT-RvD1 significantly decreased the percentage of necrotic cells and caused a significant reduction in the proliferation rate of T. cruzi antigen-stimulated PBMCs from patients with Chagas disease. These findings demonstrate that AT-RvD1 modulates the immune response in Chagas disease patients and might have potential to be used as an alternative approach for slowing the development of further heart damage.

  18. Peripheral blood minimal residual disease may replace bone marrow minimal residual disease as an immunophenotypic biomarker for impending relapse in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeijlemaker, W; Kelder, A; Oussoren-Brockhoff, Y J M; Scholten, W J; Snel, A N; Veldhuizen, D; Cloos, J; Ossenkoppele, G J; Schuurhuis, G J

    2016-03-01

    As relapses are common in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), early relapse prediction is of high importance. Although conventional minimal residual disease (MRD) measurement is carried out in bone marrow (BM), peripheral blood (PB) would be an advantageous alternative source. This study aims to investigate the specificity of leukemia-associated immunophenotypes used for MRD detection in blood samples. Consistency of PB MRD as compared with BM MRD was determined in flow cytometric data of 205 paired BM and PB samples of 114 AML patients. A significant correlation was found between PB and BM MRD (r=0.67, Pconsolidation therapy. As PB MRD appeared to be an independent predictor for response duration, the highly specific PB MRD assay may have a prominent role in future MRD assessment in AML. PMID:26373238

  19. Remnant Cholesterol, Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, and Blood Pressure as Mediators From Obesity to Ischemic Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Smith, George Davey;

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Obesity leads to increased ischemic heart disease (IHD) risk, but the risk is thought to be mediated through intermediate variables and may not be caused by increased weight per se. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the increased IHD risk because of obesity is mediated through...... variables and using genetic variants associated with these. During ≤22 years of follow-up 13 945 participants developed IHD. The increased IHD risk caused by obesity was partly mediated through elevated levels of nonfasting remnant cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, through elevated blood...... obesity were low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with 8%, systolic blood pressure with 7%, and remnant cholesterol with 7% excess risk of IHD. Corresponding observational excess risks using conventional body mass index were 21%, 11%, and 20%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The increased IHD risk because...

  20. Analysis of cognitive function and regional cerebral blood flow in Parkinson's disease by 123I-IMP SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies have found that the uptake of a radioisotope is reduced in the frontal or parietooccipital lobe on SPECT scans of patients with Parkinson's disease accompanied by cognitive impairment. The present study investigated the relationship between the results of SPECT imaging and those of cognitive function tests in patients with Parkinson's disease accompanied by cognitive impairment. Thirty patients with Parkinson's disease served as subjects, including 9 men and 21 women with an average of 66.1 years. Patients underwent 123I-IMP SPECT and various cognitive function tests (Japanese alphabet pick-up test, Stroop test, Hasegawa's dementia screening scale, Raven color matrix, and course cube-combination test). Next, three neurologists with no knowledge of the patient's clinical symptoms were asked to analyze the reduced uptake on SPECT scans as follows: frontal lobe, parietooccipital lobe, frontal and parietooccipital lobes, diffused reduction, and no reduced uptake. The results of SPECT imaging and each cognitive function test were compared. Reduced uptake in the frontal and parietooccipital lobes and diffused reduction correlated with decreases in cognitive function. Cognitive impairment is not notable when cortical blood flow is partially reduced, but is notable when cortical blood flow is widely reduced. (author)

  1. Radiographic evaluation of destructive periodontal disease in blue mink in relation to age and blood morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Andersen, Thomas Holmen; Eriksen, Thomas;

    2005-01-01

    animals (age &GE; 19 mo). Severe periodontal disease (defined by more than 50% bone loss related to one or more teeth) was not detected in mink aged 7 mo, but affected 15.3% of mink aged 19 mo and 39.6% of mink aged 31 mo. The positive relationship between age and periodontal disease was statistically...... in the mink was related to and possibly caused by destructive periodontal disease. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of periodontal disease between the 2 genotypes and age was found to be the only statistical predictor of poor production results (P < 0.01) in blue mink....

  2. Quality Control in Screening for Infectious Diseases at Blood Banks. Rationale and Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Alquezar, Amadeo; Albajar-Viñas, Pedro; Guimarães, André Valpassos; Corrêa, José Abol

    2015-11-01

    Quality control procedures are indispensable to ensure the reliability of the results provided by laboratories responsible for serological screening in blood banks. International recommendations on systems of quality management classify as a top component the inclusion of two types of control: (a) internal quality control (IQC) and (b) external quality control (EQC). In EQC it is essential to have, at least, a monthly frequency of laboratory assessment. On the other hand, IQC involves the daily use of low-reactivity control sera, which should be systematically added in all run, carried out in the laboratory for each parameter. Through the IQC analysis some variations in the criteria of run acceptance and rejection may be revealed, but it is of paramount importance to ensure the previous definition of these criteria and even more importantly, the adherence to them; and that corresponds to the validation of analytical runs of each test. Since 2010 this has been, for instance, the experience of the PNCQ*, developing external quality control programmes on serology for blood banks. These programmes use samples of lyophilized sera well-characterized for the reactivity related to the parameters used for the serological screening of blood donors. The programmes have used blind panels of six samples for monthly assessments. In the last 50 assessments, which involved 68 blood banks in Brazil, a significant number of instances of non-compliance were observed in all monthly assessments. These results provide strong support to the recommendation of systematic monthly assessments. (*) National Quality Control Programme (PNCQ). PMID:27683500

  3. Blood-Brain Barrier P-Glycoprotein Function in Neurodegenerative Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, A. L.

    2011-01-01

    Protection of the brain is strengthened by active transport and ABC transporters. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) functions as an active efflux pump by extruding a substrate from the brain, which is important for maintaining loco-regional homeostasis in the brain and protectio

  4. Longitudinal observations on circadian blood pressure variation in chronic kidney disease stages 3-5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elung-Jensen, Thomas; Strandgaard, Svend; Kamper, Anne-Lise

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that status as a 'non-dipper' determined from 24-h blood pressure (BP) recordings is associated with increased risk of end-organ damage but little is known about the consistency of dipper status in renal patients. The present post hoc analysis evaluated dipper...

  5. The diagnostic utility of stabilized blood for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus RNA by RT-qPCR

    OpenAIRE

    S. Fontél, Kristina; Bøtner, Anette; Belsham, Graham; Lohse, Louise

    2014-01-01

    In Europe, clinical signs indicative of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), would immediately lead to collection of blood and relevant organ material for further laboratory examination for this vesicular disease virus. Today, the first line system for detection of virus in the sample material is real time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic utility of stabilized blood for detection of FMDV RNA in this system.

  6. New red blood cell and reticulocyte parameters and reference values for healthy individuals and in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia S. Scherer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The importance of local references values has been well described in the literature; this is because the characteristics of the population may influence the laboratory tests. Objective: To establish the reference range for traditional and extended red blood cell parameters and reticulocyte indices in order to investigate its application in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Materials and methods: 249 blood donors (125 males and 124 females were selected to establish the reference values. The hemodialysis sample consisted of 62 patients with terminal CKD (48 male and 14 female. All analyzes were performed using the Sysmex XE-5000 automated hematology analyzer. Results: Differences between reference values was observed in relation to gender: red blood cells (RBC, hemoglobin (HGB, hematocrit (HCT, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, percentage of hyperchromic red blood cells (%HYPER, percentage of microcytosis (%MICRO, percentage of macrocytosis (%MACRO, absolute reticulocyte count (RET, reticulocyte hemoglobin content (RET-He, immature reticulocyte fraction (IFR, low fluorescence reticulocytes (LFR, medium fluorescence reticulocytes (MFR, and high fluorescence reticulocytes (HFR. Individuals with CKD presented RBC, HGB, HCT, MCHC, red cell distribution width expressed as coefficient of variation (RDW-CV, percentage of hypochromic red blood cells (%HYPO, percentage of reticulocytes (RET%, RET (female group, IFR, LFR, MFR, and HFR results compatible with the anemic state, which can be observed in 91.8% of patients. All studied parameters were in the area under the curve (AUC > 0.4. In male group, %HYPO (AUC: 0.806 and IFR (AUC: 0.762 presented higher AUC values, while female group presented %HYPO (AUC: 0.806, %HYPER (AUC: 0.815, and IFR (AUC: 0.660. Conclusion: The medical advancement, the development of new techniques and hematological parameters have revealed important information about functional integrity of

  7. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma exerts systemic effects on the peripheral blood myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells: an indicator of disease severity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendritic cells (DCs) isolated from tumor bearing animals or from individuals with solid tumors display functional abnormalities and the DC impairment has emerged as one mechanism for tumor evasion from the control of the immune system. Ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the most common pancreatic cancer, is recognized as a very aggressive cancer type with a mortality that almost matches the rate of incidence. We examined the systemic influence ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) exerted on levels of peripheral blood DCs and inflammatory mediators in comparison to the effects exerted by other pancreatic tumors, chronic pancreatitis, and age-matched controls. All groups examined, including PDAC, had decreased levels of myeloid DCs (MDC) and plasmacytoid DCs (PDC) and enhanced apoptosis in these cells as compared to controls. We found elevated levels of PGE2 and CXCL8 in subjects with PDAC, and chronic pancreatitis. Levels of these inflammatory factors were in part restored in PDAC after tumor resection, whereas the levels of DCs were impaired in the majority of these patients ~12 weeks after tumor removal. Our results prove that solid pancreatic tumors, including PDAC, systemically affect blood DCs. The impairments do not seem to be tumor-specific, since similar results were obtained in subjects with chronic pancreatitis. Furthermore, we found that PDAC patients with a survival over 2 years had significant higher levels of blood DCs compared to patients with less than one year survival. Our findings points to the involvement of inflammation in the destruction of the blood MDCs and PDCs. Furthermore, the preservation of the blood DCs compartment in PDAC patients seems to benefit their ability to control the disease and survival

  8. Environmental temperature affects prevalence of blood parasites of birds on an elevation gradient: implications for disease in a warming climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzel Zamora-Vilchis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rising global temperature is predicted to expand the distribution of vector-borne diseases both in latitude and altitude. Many host communities could be affected by increased prevalence of disease, heightening the risk of extinction for many already threatened species. To understand how host communities could be affected by changing parasite distributions, we need information on the distribution of parasites in relation to variables like temperature and rainfall that are predicted to be affected by climate change. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined relations between prevalence of blood parasites, temperature, and seasonal rainfall in a bird community of the Australian Wet Tropics along an elevation gradient. We used PCR screening to investigate the prevalence and lineage diversity of four genera of blood parasites (Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon and Trypanosoma in 403 birds. The overall prevalence of the four genera of blood parasites was 32.3%, with Haemoproteus the predominant genus. A total of 48 unique lineages were detected. Independent of elevation, parasite prevalence was positively and strongly associated with annual temperature. Parasite prevalence was elevated during the dry season. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Low temperatures of the higher elevations can help to reduce both the development of avian haematozoa and the abundance of parasite vectors, and hence parasite prevalence. In contrast, high temperatures of the lowland areas provide an excellent environment for the development and transmission of haematozoa. We showed that rising temperatures are likely to lead to increased prevalence of parasites in birds, and may force shifts of bird distribution to higher elevations. We found that upland tropical areas are currently a low-disease habitat and their conservation should be given high priority in management plans under climate change.

  9. TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR Β IN BLOOD SERUM AND BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE FLUID IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Surkova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Progressive obstruction and lung tissue remodeling comprise an important feature of the airways in COPD patients. The main processes involved in tissue remodeling in COPD are protease/antiprotease, oxidant/antioxidant imbalances, like as inflammatory and fibrotic events that contribute to development or progression of disease. TGFβ is a multifunctional growth factor that regulates synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins, primarily collagen and fibronectin, thus inducing fibrosis of respiratory ways. The aim of our study was to determine levels of TGFβ in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF of COPD patients. All the patients with COPD had increased levels of TGFβ in serum, as compared with subjects without COPD (p < 0.01, but there was no difference in TGFβ concentration between patients at different stages of disease. Increased phagocytic activity of blood monocytes was found in 81% of COPD patients, as compared to controls. Phagocytosis of apoptotic T­cells and bacterial infection of monocytes leads to increased secretion of TGFβ and it may cause higher levels of TGF β in peripheral blood. TGFβ concentration in BALF of patients at stage III of disease was higher than in the patients at stage II (p < 0.05. The level of TGFβ in BALF directly correlates with number of alveolar macrophages (r = 0.39; р = 0.03. These data indicate that TGFβ is involved in chemotaxis of macrophages in COPD patients’ airways. We conclude that increased secretion of TGFβ by peripheral blood monocytes may be a result of their high phagocytic activity. Hence, TGFβ mediates interactions between the two main components underlying lung tissue remodeling, i.e. fibrosis of respiratory airways, and development of emphysema in COPD.

  10. Whole blood gene expression profiles to assess pathogenesis and disease severity in infants with respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuncion Mejias

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the leading cause of viral lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI and hospitalization in infants. Mostly because of the incomplete understanding of the disease pathogenesis, there is no licensed vaccine, and treatment remains symptomatic. We analyzed whole blood transcriptional profiles to characterize the global host immune response to acute RSV LRTI in infants, to characterize its specificity compared with influenza and human rhinovirus (HRV LRTI, and to identify biomarkers that can objectively assess RSV disease severity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a prospective observational study over six respiratory seasons including a cohort of infants hospitalized with RSV (n = 135, HRV (n = 30, and influenza (n = 16 LRTI, and healthy age- and sex-matched controls (n = 39. A specific RSV transcriptional profile was identified in whole blood (training cohort, n = 45 infants; Dallas, Texas, US and validated in three different cohorts (test cohort, n = 46, Dallas, Texas, US; validation cohort A, n = 16, Turku, Finland; validation cohort B, n = 28, Columbus, Ohio, US with high sensitivity (94% [95% CI 87%-98%] and specificity (98% [95% CI 88%-99%]. It classified infants with RSV LRTI versus HRV or influenza LRTI with 95% accuracy. The immune dysregulation induced by RSV (overexpression of neutrophil, inflammation, and interferon genes, and suppression of T and B cell genes persisted beyond the acute disease, and immune dysregulation was greatly impaired in younger infants (<6 mo. We identified a genomic score that significantly correlated with outcomes of care including a clinical disease severity score and, more importantly, length of hospitalization and duration of supplemental O2. CONCLUSIONS: Blood RNA profiles of infants with RSV LRTI allow specific diagnosis, better understanding of disease pathogenesis, and assessment of disease severity. This study opens new avenues

  11. Short-term effects of air pollution: a panel study of blood markers in patients with chronic pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frampton Mark

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing evidence indicates that ambient air pollution is associated with exacerbation of chronic diseases like chronic pulmonary disease. A prospective panel study was conducted to investigate short-term changes of blood markers of inflammation and coagulation in response to daily changes in air pollution in Erfurt, Germany. 12 clinical visits were scheduled and blood parameters were measured in 38 male patients with chronic pulmonary disease during winter 2001/2002. Additive mixed models with random patient intercept were applied, adjusting for trend, weekday, and meteorological parameters. Hourly data on ultrafine particles (UFP, 0.01-0.1 μm, accumulation mode particles (ACP, 0.1-1.0 μm, PM10 (particulate matter 2], carbon monoxide [CO], and sulphur dioxide [SO2] were collected at a central monitoring site and meteorological data were received from an official network. For each person and visit the individual 24-hour average of pollutants immediately preceding the blood withdrawal (lag 0 up to day 5 (lag1-4 and 5-day running means were calculated. Results Increased levels of fibrinogen were observed for an increase in one interquartile range of UFP, PM10, EC, OC, CO, and NO revealing the strongest effect for lag 3. E-selectin increased in association with ACP and PM10 with a delay of one day. The ACP effect was also seen with the 5-day-mean. The pattern found for D-dimer was inconsistent. Prothrombin fragment 1+2 decreased with lag 4 consistently for all particulate pollutants. Von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF showed a consistent decrease in association with almost all air pollutants with all lags except for lag 0. No associations were found for C-reactive protein, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1, serum amyloid A and factor VII. Conclusion These results suggest that elevated concentrations of air pollution are associated with changes in some blood markers of inflammation and coagulation in patients with

  12. Autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in tumor-stage mycosis fungoides: predictors of disease-free survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Jones, R; Child, F; Olavarria, E; Whittaker, S; Spittle, M; Apperley, J

    2001-09-01

    Nine patients with mycosis fungoides (age range 27-67) underwent autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). All patients had tumor-stage disease, and four had lymph node involvement. Eight patients exhibited a peripheral blood T cell clone using PCR/SSCP analysis of the TCR gamma gene, six prior to harvest and two at the time of harvest. Mobilization of CD34+ stem cells was achieved with etoposide and G-CSF. Harvested cells were positively selected for CD34. After negative selection for CD4 and CD8, only two samples became PCR negative. Conditioning prior to reinfusion of stem cells was achieved with various combinations of total skin electron beam (TSEB), total body irradiation (TBI), and chemotherapy, depending upon the patient's prior exposure to radiotherapy. One patient failed to engraft and died of candidal septicemia 15 days posttransplant. The other eight patients achieved complete remission, but this was short-lived in four (median disease-free survival [DFS] = 2 months) and prolonged in three (median DFS 11 months). Those with a short DFS were distinguished by rapid tumor onset prior to transplant but not by stage at transplant. Loss of a detectable T cell clone after manipulation of the harvest did not discriminate between the two groups, but rapid relapsers had been subjected to a greater degree of T cell depletion, possibly indicating a compromised cytotoxic response post-PBSCT. The median survival of the cohort is four years from tumor onset, 15 months from PBSCT, and 27 months from the date a peripheral blood clone was first detected in the presence of tumor-stage disease. Rapid relapse was associated with poor overall survival. Our data demonstrate the value of PBSCT for inducing remission in tumor-stage mycosis fungoides. Reinfusion of neoplastic cells could be avoided by harvesting stem cells at an earlier stage in the disease process, preferably before a T cell clone is detectable in the peripheral blood. Alternatively T cell

  13. Increased plasma noradrenaline concentration in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease: relation to haemodynamics and blood gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Christensen, N J; Kok-Jensen, A;

    1980-01-01

    . Plasma noradrenaline (NA) concentration averaged 0.51 ng/ml and was inversely correlated to arterial oxygen saturation and mixed venous oxygen saturation, and positively correlated to arterial carbon dioxide tension and mean pulmonary arterial pressure. Oxygen inhalation did not change plasma NA...... present. Plasma adrenaline concentration was normal. The results point to enhanced sympathetic nervous activity in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease, probably caused by the deranged blood gases. The pulmonary haemodynamic changes and increased pulse rate may, at least partly, be due to...

  14. Liver function in Huntington's disease assessed by blood biochemical analyses in a clinical setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Marie Borch; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen E.;

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited, progressive neurological disorder caused by a CAG repeat elongation in the huntingtin gene. In addition to motor-, psychiatric- A nd cognitive dysfunction, peripheral disease manifestations in the form of metabolic changes and cellular dysfunct......Huntington's disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited, progressive neurological disorder caused by a CAG repeat elongation in the huntingtin gene. In addition to motor-, psychiatric- A nd cognitive dysfunction, peripheral disease manifestations in the form of metabolic changes and cellular...... indicated by the Unified Huntington's disease rating scale-Total Functional Capacity Score (UHDRS-TFC). For gamma-glutamyl transferase, elevated levels were more frequent in the manifest groups than in both the HD gene-expansion negative controls and premanifest HD gene-expansion carriers. Finally...

  15. Human Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells: Rational for Use as a Neuroprotectant in Ischemic Brain Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadar Arien-Zakay

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of stem cells for reparative medicine was first proposed more than three decades ago. Hematopoietic stem cells from bone marrow, peripheral blood and human umbilical cord blood (CB have gained major use for treatment of hematological indications. CB, however, is also a source of cells capable of differentiating into various non-hematopoietic cell types, including neural cells. Several animal model reports have shown that CB cells may be used for treatment of neurological injuries. This review summarizes the information available on the origin of CB-derived neuronal cells and the mechanisms proposed to explain their action. The potential use of stem/progenitor cells for treatment of ischemic brain injuries is discussed. Issues that remain to be resolved at the present stage of preclinical trials are addressed.

  16. Prevalence of High Blood Pressure, Heart Disease, Thalassemia, Sickle-Cell Anemia, and Iron-Deficiency Anemia among the UAE Adolescent Population

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Barakat-Haddad

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of high blood pressure, heart disease, and medical diagnoses in relation to blood disorders, among 6,329 adolescent students (age 15 to 18 years) who reside in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Findings indicated that the overall prevalence of high blood pressure and heart disease was 1.8% and 1.3%, respectively. Overall, the prevalence for thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and iron-deficiency anemia was 0.9%, 1.6%, and 5%, respectively. Bivariate analysis reve...

  17. Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, also called low ... actions can also help prevent hypoglycemia: Check blood glucose levels Knowing your blood glucose level can help ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  19. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... facts about high blood pressure [PDF-255K] . High Blood Pressure in the United States About 70 million ...

  20. Electronic and oscillation absorption spectra of blood plamsa at surgical diseases of thyroid gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guminetskiy, S. G.; Motrich, A. V.; Poliansky, I. Y.; Hyrla, Ya. V.

    2012-01-01

    The results of investigating the absorption spectra of blood plasma in the visible and infrared parts of spectra obtained using the techniques of spherical photometer and spectrophotometric complex "Specord IR75" are presented. The possibility of using these spectra for diagnoses the cases of diffuse toxic goiter and nodular goiter and control of treatment process in postsurgical period in the cases of thyroid gland surgery is estimated.

  1. Ectopic fat storage in heart, blood vessels and kidneys in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Montani, Jean-Pierre; Carroll, Joan F; Dwyer, Terry M.; Antic, Vladan; Yang, Zhihong; Abdul G Dulloo

    2005-01-01

    In humans and most animal models, the development of obesity leads not only to increased fat depots in classical adipose tissue locations but also to significant lipid deposits within and around other tissues and organs, a phenomenon known as ectopic fat storage. The purpose of this review is to explore the possible locations of ectopic fat in key target-organs of cardiovascular control (heart, blood vessels and kidneys) and to propose how ectopic fat storage can play a role in the pathogenes...

  2. Detection of acute osteomyelitis with indium-111 labeled white blood cells in a patient with sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A young patient with sickle cell disease (SCD) and multiple hospitalizations for crisis was admitted because of suspected osteomyelitis. Initial laboratory work, radiographs, and bone images were not contributory. An In-111 white blood cell (WBC) study demonstrated two areas of increased radionuclide uptake consistent with osteomyelitis. One of these had associated soft tissue infection. No other areas of active osteomyelitis were visualized, in spite of the presence of several additional infection sites. Imaging with In-111 WBC is probably not justified for routine diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis in areas free of previous disease, where conventional bone images are highly efficient. In-111 WBC imaging, however, may be helpful in detecting osteomyelitis in selected patients with SCD in whom Tc-99m bone images and radiographs are usually abnormal and difficult to interpret due to previous bone infarcts. Localization of the infection focus is very important in choosing the aspiration site for bacteriologic studies. A negative study, however, should be interpreted cautiously

  3. Optical characterization of red blood cells from individuals with sickle cell trait and disease in Tanzania using quantitative phase imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaehwang; Matemba, Lucas E.; Lee, Kyeoreh; Kazyoba, Paul E.; Yoon, Jonghee; Massaga, Julius J.; Kim, Kyoohyun; Kim, Dong-Jin; Park, Yongkeun

    2016-08-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is common across Sub-Saharan Africa. However, the investigation of SCD in this area has been significantly limited mainly due to the lack of research facilities and skilled personnel. Here, we present optical measurements of individual red blood cells from healthy individuals and individuals with SCD and sickle cell trait in Tanzania using the quantitative phase imaging technique. By employing a quantitative phase imaging unit, an existing microscope in a clinic is transformed into a powerful quantitative phase microscope providing measurements on the morphological, biochemical, and biomechanical properties of individual cells. The present approach will open up new opportunities for cost-effective investigation and diagnosis of several diseases in low resource environments.

  4. The rheological properties of blood and the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Pierzchała

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is an important public health concern, which affects around 2–4% of the population. Left untreated, it causes a decrease not only in quality of life, but also of life expectancy. Despite the fact that knowledge about the mechanisms of development of cardiovascular disease in patients with OSA is still incomplete, observations confirm a relationship between sleep disordered breathing and the rheological properties of blood. One possible consequence of an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease may be a rise in mortality in OSA patients. Continuously improved research methods are allowing for an increasingly more accurate understanding of the significance of observed changes. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011, Vol. 49, No. 2, 206–210

  5. Optical characterization of red blood cells from individuals with sickle cell trait and disease in Tanzania using quantitative phase imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, JaeHwang; Matemba, Lucas E; Lee, KyeoReh; Kazyoba, Paul E; Yoon, Jonghee; Massaga, Julius J; Kim, Kyoohyun; Kim, Dong-Jin; Park, YongKeun

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is common across Sub-Saharan Africa. However, the investigation of SCD in this area has been significantly limited mainly due to the lack of research facilities and skilled personnel. Here, we present optical measurements of individual red blood cells from healthy individuals and individuals with SCD and sickle cell trait in Tanzania using the quantitative phase imaging technique. By employing a quantitative phase imaging unit, an existing microscope in a clinic is transformed into a powerful quantitative phase microscope providing measurements on the morphological, biochemical, and biomechanical properties of individual cells. The present approach will open up new opportunities for cost-effective investigation and diagnosis of several diseases in low resource environments. PMID:27546097

  6. Optical characterization of red blood cells from individuals with sickle cell trait and disease in Tanzania using quantitative phase imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, JaeHwang; Lee, KyeoReh; Kazyoba, Paul E; Yoon, Jonghee; Massaga, Julius J; Kim, Kyoohyun; Kim, Dong-Jin; Park, YongKeun

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is common across Sub-Saharan Africa. However, the investigation of SCD in this area has been significantly limited mainly due to the lack of research facilities and skilled personnel. Here, we present optical measurements of individual red blood cells (RBCs) from healthy individuals and individuals with SCD and sickle cell trait in Tanzania using the quantitative phase imaging technique. By employing a quantitative phase imaging unit (QPIU), an existing microscope in a clinic is transformed into a powerful quantitative phase microscope providing measurements on the morphological, biochemical, and biomechanical properties of individual cells. The present approach will open up new opportunities for cost-effective investigation and diagnosis of several diseases in low resource environments.

  7. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  8. Mathematical modeling of bone marrow--peripheral blood dynamics in the disease state based on current emerging paradigms, part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afenya, Evans K; Ouifki, Rachid; Camara, Baba I; Mundle, Suneel D

    2016-04-01

    Stemming from current emerging paradigms related to the cancer stem cell hypothesis, an existing mathematical model is expanded and used to study cell interaction dynamics in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. The proposed mathematical model is described by a system of nonlinear differential equations with delay, to quantify the dynamics in abnormal hematopoiesis. The steady states of the model are analytically and numerically obtained. Some conditions for the local asymptotic stability of such states are investigated. Model analyses suggest that malignancy may be irreversible once it evolves from a nonmalignant state into a malignant one and no intervention takes place. This leads to the proposition that a great deal of emphasis be placed on cancer prevention. Nevertheless, should malignancy arise, treatment programs for its containment or curtailment may have to include a maximum and extensive level of effort to protect normal cells from eventual destruction. Further model analyses and simulations predict that in the untreated disease state, there is an evolution towards a situation in which malignant cells dominate the entire bone marrow - peripheral blood system. Arguments are then advanced regarding requirements for quantitatively understanding cancer stem cell behavior. Among the suggested requirements are, mathematical frameworks for describing the dynamics of cancer initiation and progression, the response to treatment, the evolution of resistance, and malignancy prevention dynamics within the bone marrow - peripheral blood architecture. PMID:26877072

  9. Relationship of blood pressure with some cardiovascular disease risk factors in a rural population of Plateau State, North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil N Okeahialam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is associated with certain cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors which vary from one place to the other depending on community sophistication. We decided to obtain the situation as it affects this rural Nigerian community to be in an evidence-based position to initiate individual and group prevention strategies. Design: Cross-sectional population survey. Materials and Methods: We surveyed for CVD risk factors among subjects 15 years and above in this rural community using a questionnaire requesting personal, medical and anthropometric information. One in three of them were randomly assigned to laboratory investigations. Results: Of the 840 subjects studied, 25% were males. The population mean age was 45.5 (18.2 standard deviation (SD, with 1.8% smokers and 4.1% using alcohol. Systolic blood pressure (SBP correlated with age, body mass index (BMI, total cholesterol (TC and uric acid (UA; while diastolic blood pressure (DBP correlated with age, BMI, TC, UA and atherogenic index (AI. SBP and DBP improved with exercise but not salt intake. The local seasonings used in cooking had no impact on blood pressure. Conclusion: To reduce cardiovascular morbidity in this and probably other rural sub-Saharan African communities, BMI, TC, UA and salt intake in diet should be targeted for reduction. Physical activity should be encouraged. Interestingly, these fall into the sphere of healthy lifestyle which should be encouraged and re-inforced.

  10. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate in cats with chronic kidney disease undergoing chemical restraint during hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Kleine Figueiredo dos Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dialysis is one of the used methods for treatment of Acute Renal Injury (ARI and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD to replace the function of the kidneys when refers to blood depuration. Hemodialysis removes toxins accumulated in the body directly from the blood, being a useful alternative therapy for dogs and cats with CKD in advanced stages. Because of the difficulty on handling the patient feline, this procedure requires sedation. However, few studies have been conducted to assess the safety of anesthesia in dogs and cats with CKD undergoing dialysis. The present study aimed to evaluate two different protocols of chemical restraint in cats with CKD and the effect of these on systolic blood pressure (SBP and heart rate (HR, since the procedure of extracorporeal circulation leads the patient to a hypotensive frame. Twelve adult cats were used, with an average weight of 4 kg, CKD, underwent two anesthetic protocols: Group GP (n = 6 using propofol, and group GCM (n = 6 using ketamine-midazolam association for the implantation procedure of central venous catheter (CVC and hemodialysis. Cats in GP as well as the GCM group showed statistical difference in the change in SBP and HR only from baseline compared to the other time points evaluated. The two protocols maintained SBP and HR within physiological values.

  11. Circulating thrombopoietin levels in normal healthy blood donors and in aplastic anemia patients in relation to disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thrombopoietin (TPO is the key hematopoietic growth factor regulating the production of platelets from bone marrow megakaryocytes and maintaining platelet hemostasis. This study was done to find any relationship between the levels of thrombopoietin and the severity of disease in patients with aplastic anemia. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from 52 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of aplastic anemia and 45 normal healthy blood donors of both sexes over a period of 2 years, and TPO was estimated by using commercially available TPO-specific-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The median TPO level of 1190 pg/ml (range 625-7651 pg/ml in aplastic anemia patients was significantly higher than the median TPO level of 121.1 pg/ml (81.25-237.7 pg/ml in normal healthy blood donors (P = 0.000. No significant difference was observed in TPO levels of male and female patients (P = 0.453. The median TPO concentrations observed in very severe aplastic anemia, severe aplastic anemia, and nonsevere aplastic anemia were 2765 pg/ml (range 625-6451 pg/ml, 1190 pg/ml (range 672.1-7651 pg/ml, and 1111.5 pg/ml (range 761.1-2289.2 pg/ml, respectively. TPO in patients of very severe aplastic anemia was significantly higher than patients of nonsevere aplastic anemia (P = 0.043, with no significant relation among rest of the groups. Discussion: TPO levels in aplastic anemia patients were significantly higher than in healthy blood donors; however, in aplastic anemia patients TPO levels were significantly higher only in patients with very severe disease.

  12. Blood-Brain Barrier and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein: A Limit to the Therapy of CNS Tumors and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Anna Lisa; da Ros, Martina; Fantappiè, Ornella; Lucchesi, Maurizio; Facchini, Ludovica; Stival, Alessia; Becciani, Sabrina; Guidi, Milena; Favre, Claudio; de Martino, Maurizio; Genitori, Lorenzo; Sardi, Iacopo

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of brain tumors and neurodegenerative diseases, represents an ongoing challenge. In Central Nervous System (CNS) the achievement of therapeutic concentration of chemical agents is complicated by the presence of distinct set of efflux proteins, such as ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters localized on the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB). The activity of ABC transporters seems to be a common mechanism that underlies the poor response of CNS diseases to therapies. The molecular characterization of Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2), as an ABC transporter conferring multidrug resistance (MDR), has stimulated many studies to investigate its activity on the BBB, its involvement in physiology and CNS diseases and its role in limiting the delivery of drugs in CNS. In this review, we highlight the activity and localization of BCRP on the BBB and the action that this efflux pump has on many conventional drugs or latest generation molecules used for the treatment of CNS tumors and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26584727

  13. Prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Escherichia coli in blood samples from patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazareth, Nair; Magro, Fernando; Machado, Elisabete; Ribeiro, Teresa Gonçalves; Martinho, António; Rodrigues, Pedro; Alves, Rita; Macedo, Gonçalo Nuno; Gracio, Daniela; Coelho, Rosa; Abreu, Candida; Appelberg, Rui; Dias, Camila; Macedo, Guilherme; Bull, Tim; Sarmento, Amélia

    2015-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) have been implicated as primary triggers in Crohn's disease (CD). In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of MAP and E. coli (EC) DNA in peripheral blood from 202 inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients at various disease periods and compared against 24 cirrhotic patients with ascites (CIR) (non-IBD controls) and 29 healthy controls (HC). MAP DNA was detected by IS900-specific nested PCR, EC DNA by malB-specific nested PCR and AIEC identity, in selected samples, by sequencing of fimH gene. CD patients with active disease showed the highest MAP DNA prevalence among IBD patients (68 %). Infliximab treatment resulted in decreased MAP detection. CIR patients had high individual and coinfection rates (75 % MAP, 88 % EC and 67 % MAP and EC), whilst HC controls had lower MAP prevalence (38 %) and EC was undetectable in this control group. EC DNA prevalence in IBD patients was highly associated with CD, and 80 % of EC from the selected samples of CD patients analyzed carried the fimH30 allele, with a mutation strongly associated with AIEC. Our results show that coinfection with MAP and AIEC is common and persistent in CD, although the high MAP and EC detection in CIR patients suggested that colonization is, at least, partially dependent on increased gut permeability. Nevertheless, facilitative mechanisms between a susceptible host and these two potential human pathogens may allow their implication in CD pathogenesis.

  14. Glomerular diseases associated with chronic graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanswangphuwana, C; Townamchai, N; Intragumtornchai, T; Bunworasate, U

    2014-12-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is the major complication following allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Nephrotic syndrome (NS) and other types of glomerulonephritis have been proposed to be the very rare forms of renal cGVHD. From 1991 to 2011, 253 patients underwent allo-SCT at our center. We report here 4 cases (1.6%) presenting with varieties of glomerular manifestations associated with cGVHD. The first case was typical NS. The renal pathology showed membranous nephropathy (MN). The second case was also MN, but this patient also had the pathology of focal segmental glomerulosclrosis (FSGS) and acute tubular necrosis (ATN). The third case showed lupus nephritis-like glomerular lesions with a high anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) titer. The fourth case presented with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN)-like symptoms. The kidney histology in this case was not available. The patient responded well to immunosuppressive therapy, but NS later recurred. Therefore, overt glomerular diseases after allo-SCT in Thai patients are not very rare. Monitoring urinalysis during withdrawal of immunosuppressive drugs and also during follow-up of patients with cGVHD may be considered.

  15. The diagnostic utility of stabilized blood for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus RNA by RT-qPCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Fontél, Kristina; Bøtner, Anette; Belsham, Graham;

    In Europe, clinical signs indicative of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), would immediately lead to collection of blood and relevant organ material for further laboratory examination for this vesicular disease virus. Today, the first line system for detection of virus in the sample material is real...

  16. Optimal blood pressure in patients with peripheral artery disease following endovascular therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Haruki; Ura, Nobuyuki; Hata, Shinya; Moniwa, Norihito; Hasegawa, Koichi; Takizawa, Hideki; Tanaka, Shigemichi

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the associations between blood pressure (BP) and event incidence to define optimal BP after endovascular therapy (EVT) in patients who underwent EVT. BP was monitored every 6 months for 5 years, and the patients were divided into two groups by average BP: ≥ 140/90 mmHg and  7.0% was significantly higher among those who did not achieve target BP in the restenosis group (42.9%) than in the other group (10.8%) (p EVT. PMID:26440772

  17. Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients With Life Threatening Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-23

    Purpura, Schoenlein-Henoch; Graft Versus Host Disease; Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune; Rheumatoid Arthritis; Churg-Strauss Syndrome; Hypersensitivity Vasculitis; Wegener's Granulomatosis; Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Giant Cell Arteritis; Pure Red Cell Aplasia; Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis; Polyarteritis Nodosa; Autoimmune Thrombocytopenic Purpura; Takayasu Arteritis

  18. An unusual white blood cell scan in a child with inflammatory bowel disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porn, U; Howman-Giles, R; O'Loughlin, E; Uren, R; Chaitow, J

    2000-10-01

    Technetium-99m-labeled leukocyte (WBC) imaging is a valuable screening method for inflammatory bowel disease, especially in children, because of its high rate of sensitivity, low cost, and ease of preparation. A 14-year-old girl is described who had juvenile arthritis and iritis complicated by inflammatory bowel disease. She was examined for recurrent abdominal pain. A Tc-99m stannous colloid WBC scan was performed, and tracer accumulation was seen in the small bowel in the region of the distal ileum on the initial 1-hour image. Delayed imaging at 3 hours also revealed tracer accumulation in the cecum and ascending colon, which was not seen on the early image. A biopsy of the colon during endoscopy showed no evidence of active inflammation in the colon. The small bowel was not seen. Computed tomography revealed changes suggestive of inflammatory bowel disease in the distal ileum. The appearance on the WBC study was most likely a result of inflammatory bowel disease involving the distal ileum, with transit of luminal activity into the large bowel.

  19. An unusual white blood cell scan in a child with inflammatory bowel disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porn, U; Howman-Giles, R; O'Loughlin, E; Uren, R; Chaitow, J

    2000-10-01

    Technetium-99m-labeled leukocyte (WBC) imaging is a valuable screening method for inflammatory bowel disease, especially in children, because of its high rate of sensitivity, low cost, and ease of preparation. A 14-year-old girl is described who had juvenile arthritis and iritis complicated by inflammatory bowel disease. She was examined for recurrent abdominal pain. A Tc-99m stannous colloid WBC scan was performed, and tracer accumulation was seen in the small bowel in the region of the distal ileum on the initial 1-hour image. Delayed imaging at 3 hours also revealed tracer accumulation in the cecum and ascending colon, which was not seen on the early image. A biopsy of the colon during endoscopy showed no evidence of active inflammation in the colon. The small bowel was not seen. Computed tomography revealed changes suggestive of inflammatory bowel disease in the distal ileum. The appearance on the WBC study was most likely a result of inflammatory bowel disease involving the distal ileum, with transit of luminal activity into the large bowel. PMID:11043720

  20. Longitudinal observations on circadian blood pressure variation in chronic kidney disease stages 3-5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elung-Jensen, T.; Strandgaard, S.; Kamper, Anne-Lise

    2008-01-01

    /non-dipper status prospectively in a study on dosage of enalapril in progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3-5. METHODS: In 34 patients, 24-h ambulatory BP (A&D TM2421) was measured at baseline and every 4 months for 1 year or until the need for renal replacement therapy. For each BP recording patients...

  1. Purine Bases in Blood Plasma of Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa E. Muravluyova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the study of purine bases and intermediates of purine catabolism in plasma of patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Decrease of adenine and hypoxantine in plasma of patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia was registered. Increase of guanine in plasma of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was established.

  2. Why are the neurodegenerative disease-related pathways overrepresented in primary HIV-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells: a genome-wide perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Li; Conceicao Viviane; Gupta Priyanka; Saksena Nitin K

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We demonstrate for the first time that the genome-wide profiling of HIV-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from HIV-patients free of neurologic disease show overrepresentation of neurodegenerative pathways (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, ALS, Huntington’s and Prion Disease, etc.) in genome-wide microarray analysis, which suggests that this genome-wide representation of neurodegenerative diseases-related pathways in PBMCs could possibly be a subcellular manifestation of ne...

  3. Blood and urine levels of heavy metal pollutants in female and male patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sponder M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Michael Sponder,1 Monika Fritzer-Szekeres,2 Rodrig Marculescu,2 Martina Mittlböck,3 Maria Uhl,4 Birgit Köhler-Vallant,5 Jeanette Strametz-Juranek1 1Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 2Department of Medical-Chemical Laboratory Analysis, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 3Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics and Intelligent Systems, Section for Clinical Biometrics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 4Department of Pollutants and Human, Environment Agency Austria, Vienna, Austria; 5Department of Inorganic Analysis, Environment Agency Austria, Vienna, Austria Background: Heavy metal pollutants such as cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, and mercury (Hg are rarely the subjects of cardiovascular research although they have been suspected for decades to negatively impact the circulatory system. Methods: Apart from detailed anamnestic data, urinary levels of Cd and full blood levels of Pb and Hg were measured in 53 female (mean age: 68.04±7.03 years and 111 male (mean age: 60.68±11.43 years nonsmoking or never-smoking patients with angiographically verified and precisely quantified coronary artery disease (CAD. Results: Although Cd was quantifiable in 68.3% of subjects, only 34.1% of these patients exceeded the critical 1 µg/L Human Biomonitoring (HBM-I level. Median Pb (20 µg/L and Hg (0.55 µg/L levels were lower than the HBM-I, as well as reference levels of Pb. Wine consumption was the main source for Pb, fish and wine consumption for Hg, and previous nicotine abuse for Cd. There was no correlation between Cd, Pb, or Hg and severity of CAD although severity correlated positively with atherosclerosis parameters (uric acid, creatinine, triglycerides, blood urea nitrogen, C-reactive protein and negatively with high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusion: Cd levels detected in CAD patients were high compared to German and European reference levels but it could not be proven that urine

  4. Optimal design and uncertainty quantification in blood flow simulations for congenital heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Alison

    2009-11-01

    Recent work has demonstrated substantial progress in capabilities for patient-specific cardiovascular flow simulations. Recent advances include increasingly complex geometries, physiological flow conditions, and fluid structure interaction. However inputs to these simulations, including medical image data, catheter-derived pressures and material properties, can have significant uncertainties associated with them. For simulations to predict clinically useful and reliable output information, it is necessary to quantify the effects of input uncertainties on outputs of interest. In addition, blood flow simulation tools can now be efficiently coupled to shape optimization algorithms for surgery design applications, and these tools should incorporate uncertainty information. We present a unified framework to systematically and efficient account for uncertainties in simulations using adaptive stochastic collocation. In addition, we present a framework for derivative-free optimization of cardiovascular geometries, and layer these tools to perform optimization under uncertainty. These methods are demonstrated using simulations and surgery optimization to improve hemodynamics in pediatric cardiology applications.

  5. Minimal residual disease in bone marrow and peripheral blood of patients with metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Joachim; Rosenberg, Robert; Dahm, Michael; Janni, Wolfgang; Gutschow, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    The presence of occult micrometastases in bone marrow (BM) of patients with early breast cancer increases the risk of relapse. Detection of circulation tumor cells in peripheral blood (PB) may also influence the patient's prognosis. Few data are available on the correlation between tumor cell dissemination in BM and PB in solid epithelial tumors. Twenty-milliliter blood samples were collected from PB of 42 patients with advanced breast cancer and centrifuged using the density gradient OncoQuick (OncoQuick Greiner BioOne, Frickenhausen, Germany). The BM aspirates available from 11 of the 42 patients were centrifuged using density centrifugation Ficoll. Tumor cell detection was performed by microscopy after cytospin preparation and immunocytochemical staining with the monoclonal antibody A45-B/B3. Cytokeratin-positive cells were detected in 23 patients (55%) in the PB and in three patients (27%) in the BM. A cohort with bone lesions as the only metastatic side showed a correlation as follows: 7 of the 11 patients (64%) had negative findings in BM and PB, whereas cytokeratin-positive cells in PB were present in 3 of these 11 patients (27%). The presence of visceral metastases was associated with the detection of cytokeratin-positive cells in the PB in 20 of the 31 patients (65%) in this subgroup. The density gradient OncoQuick in combination with immunocytochemical staining allows the detection of cytokeratin-positive cells in PB of patients with advanced breast cancer. The immunocytochemical detection of cytokeratin-positive cells in PB seems to be associated with the site of metastatic manifestation.

  6. Altered lymphatics in an ovine model of congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datar, Sanjeev A; Johnson, Eric G; Oishi, Peter E; Johengen, Michael; Tang, Eric; Aramburo, Angela; Barton, Jubilee; Kuo, Hsuan-Chang; Bennett, Stephen; Xoinis, Konstantine; Reel, Bhupinder; Kalkan, Gokhan; Sajti, Eniko; Osorio, Oscar; Raff, Gary W; Matthay, Michael A; Fineman, Jeffrey R

    2012-03-15

    Abnormalities of the lymphatic circulation are well recognized in patients with congenital heart defects. However, it is not known how the associated abnormal blood flow patterns, such as increased pulmonary blood flow (PBF), might affect pulmonary lymphatic function and structure. Using well-established ovine models of acute and chronic increases in PBF, we cannulated the efferent lymphatic duct of the caudal mediastinal node and collected and analyzed lymph effluent from the lungs of lambs with acutely increased PBF (n = 6), chronically increased PBF (n = 6), and age-matched normal lambs (n = 8). When normalized to PBF, we found that lymph flow was unchanged following acute increases in PBF but decreased following chronic increases in PBF. The lymph:plasma protein ratio decreased with both acute and chronic increases in PBF. Lymph bioavailable nitric oxide increased following acute increases in PBF but decreased following chronic increases in PBF. In addition, we found perturbations in the transit kinetics of contrast material through the pleural lymphatics of lambs with chronic increases in PBF. Finally, there were structural changes in the pulmonary lymphatic system in lambs with chronic increases in PBF: lymphatics from these lambs were larger and more dilated, and there were alterations in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C, lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1, and Angiopoietin-2, proteins known to be important for lymphatic growth, development, and remodeling. Taken together these data suggest that chronic increases in PBF lead to both functional and structural aberrations of lung lymphatics. These findings have important therapeutic implications that warrant further study.

  7. Higher frequency of secretor phenotype in O blood group – its benefits in prevention and/or treatment of some diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Salih Jaff

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mohamad Salih JaffPathology Department, Hawler Medical University (Formerly Salahaddin University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, IraqAbstract: ABO blood groups and secretor status are important in clinical and forensic medicine and in relation to some diseases. There are geographic and racial differences in their frequencies, but the frequency of secretor status in different ABO blood group systems has not been determined yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was mainly to determine this point. Blood and saliva from 762 randomly selected apparently healthy adult individuals (480 men and 282 women were examined to determine their ABO and Rhesus blood groups by standard conventional methods, and their secretor status by using Lewis blood grouping and/or hemagglutination inhibition test of saliva. Results showed that 76.1% of the study population were ABH blood group antigens secretors and 23.9% were nonsecretors. The frequencies of secretor status in different ABO blood groups were 70.1% in group A, 67.8% in group B, 67.9% in group AB, and 88.3% in group O. In conclusion, blood group O individuals have significantly higher frequency of secretor status than non-O blood group individuals. This finding would be beneficial to them, protecting them, at least partially, from certain malignancies or allowing them to have less aggressive disease, and this finding might be useful in enhancing further studies and research in this direction.Keywords: blood group O, ABO blood groups, secretor phenotype, frequency, malignancies, prevention and/or treatment

  8. Changes in Renal Function and Blood Pressure in Patients with Stone Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worcester, Elaine M.

    2007-04-01

    Stone disease is a rare cause of renal failure, but a history of kidney stones is associated with an increased risk for chronic kidney disease, particularly in overweight patients. Loss of renal function seems especially notable for patients with stones associated with cystinuria, hyperoxaluria, and renal tubular acidosis, in whom the renal pathology shows deposits of mineral obstructing inner medullary collecting ducts, often diffusely. However, even idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers have a mild but significant decrease in renal function, compared to age, sex and weight-matched normals, and appear to lose renal function with age at a slightly faster rate than non-stone formers. There is also an increased incidence of hypertension among stone formers, although women are more likely to be affected than men.

  9. High blood pressure during pregnancy is associated with future cardiovascular disease: an observational cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Tooher, Jane; Chiu, Christine L; Yeung, Kristen; Lupton, Samantha J; Thornton, Charlene; Makris, Angela; O'Loughlin, Aiden; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The study aimed to determine if having a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) is a risk factor for future cardiovascular disease (CVD), independent of age and body mass index (BMI). Design Data were sourced from the baseline questionnaire of the 45 and Up Study, Australia, an observational cohort study. Setting Participants were randomly selected from the Australian Medicare Database within New South Wales. Participants A total of 84 619 women were eligible for this study, of w...

  10. Expression of RNAs Coding for Metal Transporters in Blood of Patients with Huntington’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Szeliga, Monika; Różycka, Aleksandra; Jędrak, Paulina; Barańska, Sylwia; Janik, Piotr; Jamrozik, Zygmunt; Albrecht, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated elevated levels of iron (Fe) in brains of patients with Huntington’s disease (HD). Striatal cells carrying mutated Huntingtin presented increased sensitivity to cadmium (Cd) toxicity, decreased sensitivity to manganese (Mn) toxicity and deficits in Mn uptake. The hypothesis arose that the observed alterations result from the altered expression and/or activity of proteins engaged in the transport of these metals, that is: transferrin (TF), transferrin receptor ...

  11. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4 A49G polymorphism and autoimmune blood diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Aktürk

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4 is expressed on T lymphocytes, and inhibits the T-cell responses. In animal models, it has been shown that complete CTLA-4 deficiency was lethal due to massive infiltration of tissues by polyclonally proliferating lymphocytes. CTLA-4 A49G polymorphism, which has been suggested to reduce the inhibitory function of the CTLA-4 molecule, was found to be associated with various autoimmune diseases in recent studies. Material and Methods: In this study, we evaluated the frequency of CTLA-4 A49G polymorphism in 46 patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA, 62 patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP, and 150 healthy individuals. Results: Allele frequencies and genotype distributions were similar in both ITP and AIHA patients compared to healthy individuals. In subgroup analysis, however, we found that in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL patients with AIHA (n=4, all patients had CTLA-4 A49G polymorphism (3 had AG, 1 had GG. There was no significant statistical association between G allele and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or AIHA.Conclusion: These data suggest that CTLA-4 A49G polymorphism does not contribute to the pathogenesis of lymphoproliferative diseases itself, nor does it increase the risk of autoimmune complications in patients with lymphoproliferative disease.

  12. A study of eosinophil count in nasal and blood smear in allergic respiratory diseases in a rural setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic respiratory disorders are fairly common visiting cases in pediatrics outpatient department (OPD. With an appropriate history and detailed examination, diagnosis may not be problematic. Routine investigation may not contribute much to the final diagnosis but may help in ruling out other possibilities. This study was done to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of blood or nasal eosinophilia in subjects suffering from allergic respiratory disorders and also to assess the feasibility of nasal cytogram which is a simple, economical and reliable investigation in allergic respiratory disorders. This is a prospective clinical correlation study of patients attending outpatient department. 100 subjects aged between 2-18 years of either sex were selected for the estimation of eosinophil count in nasal and peripheral smear in allergic respiratory disorders. All allergic respiratory cases based on eosinophillia. The nasal and blood eosinophilia were compared with each other and clinical findings of allergic rhinitis with or without asthma were studied. In this study peak age incidence was seen between 11-18 years and it was more common in males. Rhinorrhoea, pale mucosa and nasal obstruction were common findings in allergic rhinitis with bronchial asthma. Nasal eosinophilia was seen in 52.4% and 64.9% of cases of allergic rhinitis and allergic rhinitis with asthma respectively. Blood eosinophilia was seen in 54% and 56.8% of cases of allergic rhinitis with asthma respectively. Nasal cytogram which is a simple, economical and non- invasive procedure can be used as an alternative to invasive peripheral smear eosinophilia as both are equally efficacious in diagnosing allergic respiratory diseases.

  13. Neuropsychiatric disease relevance of circulating anti-NMDA receptor autoantibodies depends on blood-brain barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, C; Stepniak, B; Schneider, A; Papiol, S; Tantra, M; Begemann, M; Sirén, A-L; Pardo, L A; Sperling, S; Mohd Jofrry, S; Gurvich, A; Jensen, N; Ostmeier, K; Lühder, F; Probst, C; Martens, H; Gillis, M; Saher, G; Assogna, F; Spalletta, G; Stöcker, W; Schulz, T F; Nave, K-A; Ehrenreich, H

    2014-10-01

    In 2007, a multifaceted syndrome, associated with anti-NMDA receptor autoantibodies (NMDAR-AB) of immunoglobulin-G isotype, has been described, which variably consists of psychosis, epilepsy, cognitive decline and extrapyramidal symptoms. Prevalence and significance of NMDAR-AB in complex neuropsychiatric disease versus health, however, have remained unclear. We tested sera of 2817 subjects (1325 healthy, 1081 schizophrenic, 263 Parkinson and 148 affective-disorder subjects) for presence of NMDAR-AB, conducted a genome-wide genetic association study, comparing AB carriers versus non-carriers, and assessed their influenza AB status. For mechanistic insight and documentation of AB functionality, in vivo experiments involving mice with deficient blood-brain barrier (ApoE(-/-)) and in vitro endocytosis assays in primary cortical neurons were performed. In 10.5% of subjects, NMDAR-AB (NR1 subunit) of any immunoglobulin isotype were detected, with no difference in seroprevalence, titer or in vitro functionality between patients and healthy controls. Administration of extracted human serum to mice influenced basal and MK-801-induced activity in the open field only in ApoE(-/-) mice injected with NMDAR-AB-positive serum but not in respective controls. Seropositive schizophrenic patients with a history of neurotrauma or birth complications, indicating an at least temporarily compromised blood-brain barrier, had more neurological abnormalities than seronegative patients with comparable history. A common genetic variant (rs524991, P=6.15E-08) as well as past influenza A (P=0.024) or B (P=0.006) infection were identified as predisposing factors for NMDAR-AB seropositivity. The >10% overall seroprevalence of NMDAR-AB of both healthy individuals and patients is unexpectedly high. Clinical significance, however, apparently depends on association with past or present perturbations of blood-brain barrier function. PMID:23999527

  14. Chronic kidney disease, 24-h blood pressure and small vessel diseases are independently associated with cognitive impairment in lacunar infarct patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the relationships between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cognitive impairment (CI) have been highlighted, the etiology of CI in CKD remains uncertain. Subjects comprised 224 consecutive patients with symptomatic lacunar infarction who underwent magnetic resonance imaging and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Diurnal blood pressure (BP) patterns were categorized into three groups: dippers, non-dippers and risers. Lacunar infarcts (LIs), including both symptomatic and silent and diffuse white matter lesions (WMLs), were graded into three grades according to their degree. The results of kidney function were evaluated using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), categorized into three groups: stage 1, >60; stage 2, 30-60; and stage 3, -1 per 1.73 m2. There were 44 patients with CI. Confluent WMLs, including WML 2 and WML 3, were found in 36 patients (81.8%), and multiple lacunae including LI 2 and LI 3 were found in 30 patients (68.1%) with CI. Age >75 years (odds ratio (OR), 5.5; P-1 per 1.73 m2 (OR, 2.9; P-1 per 1.73 m2 (OR, 23.8; P75 years (OR, 4.1; P-1 per 1.73 m2 (OR, 3.7; P-1 per 1.73 m2 (OR, 8.7; P<0.05) were independently associated with WML grade 3. Extensive small vessel diseases, CKD and non-dipping status were independently associated with CI. CKD appears to mainly contribute to vascular CI, whereas possibilities of overlapping with other mechanisms such as degenerative CI cannot be excluded. Strict night time BP control and renoprotective treatment may be warranted to prevent CI. (author)

  15. Activation of Blood Coagulation in Two Prototypic Autoimmune Skin Diseases: A Possible Link with Thrombotic Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Cugno

    Full Text Available Coagulation activation has been demonstrated in two prototypic autoimmune skin diseases, chronic autoimmune urticaria and bullous pemphigoid, but only the latter is associated with increased thrombotic risk. Two markers of coagulation activation (prothrombin fragment F1+2 and fibrin fragment D-dimer were measured by immunoenzymatic methods in plasma samples from 30 patients with active chronic autoimmune urticaria, positive for autologous serum skin test, 30 patients with active bullous pemphigoid and 30 healthy subjects. In skin biopsies, tissue factor expression was evaluated by both immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. F1+2 and D-dimer levels were higher in active chronic autoimmune urticaria (276.5±89.8 pmol/L and 5.56±4.40 nmol/L, respectively than in controls (145.2±38.0 pmol/L and 1.06±0.25 nmol/L; P=0.029 and P=0.011 and were much higher in active bullous pemphigoid (691.7±318.7 pmol/L and 15.24±9.09 nmol/L, respectively (P<0.0001. Tissue factor positivity was evident in skin biopsies of both disorders with higher intensity in bullous pemphigoid. F1+2 and D-dimer, during remission, were markedly reduced in both disorders. These findings support the involvement of coagulation activation in the pathophysiology of both diseases. The strong systemic activation of coagulation in bullous pemphigoid may contribute to increase the thrombotic risk and provides the rationale for clinical trials on anticoagulant treatments in this disease.

  16. Development of a blood-based molecular biomarker test for identification of schizophrenia before disease onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, M K; Krebs, M-O; Cox, D; Guest, P C; Yolken, R H; Rahmoune, H; Rothermundt, M; Steiner, J; Leweke, F M; van Beveren, N J M; Niebuhr, D W; Weber, N S; Cowan, D N; Suarez-Pinilla, P; Crespo-Facorro, B; Mam-Lam-Fook, C; Bourgin, J; Wenstrup, R J; Kaldate, R R; Cooper, J D; Bahn, S

    2015-01-01

    Recent research efforts have progressively shifted towards preventative psychiatry and prognostic identification of individuals before disease onset. We describe the development of a serum biomarker test for the identification of individuals at risk of developing schizophrenia based on multiplex immunoassay profiling analysis of 957 serum samples. First, we conducted a meta-analysis of five independent cohorts of 127 first-onset drug-naive schizophrenia patients and 204 controls. Using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression, we identified an optimal panel of 26 biomarkers that best discriminated patients and controls. Next, we successfully validated this biomarker panel using two independent validation cohorts of 93 patients and 88 controls, which yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.97 (0.95–1.00) for schizophrenia detection. Finally, we tested its predictive performance for identifying patients before onset of psychosis using two cohorts of 445 pre-onset or at-risk individuals. The predictive performance achieved by the panel was excellent for identifying USA military personnel (AUC: 0.90 (0.86–0.95)) and help-seeking prodromal individuals (AUC: 0.82 (0.71–0.93)) who developed schizophrenia up to 2 years after baseline sampling. The performance increased further using the latter cohort following the incorporation of CAARMS (Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental State) positive subscale symptom scores into the model (AUC: 0.90 (0.82–0.98)). The current findings may represent the first successful step towards a test that could address the clinical need for early intervention in psychiatry. Further developments of a combined molecular/symptom-based test will aid clinicians in the identification of vulnerable patients early in the disease process, allowing more effective therapeutic intervention before overt disease onset. PMID:26171982

  17. A blood-based screening tool for Alzheimer's disease that spans serum and plasma: findings from TARC and ADNI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sid E O'Bryant

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: There is no rapid and cost effective tool that can be implemented as a front-line screening tool for Alzheimer's disease (AD at the population level. OBJECTIVE: To generate and cross-validate a blood-based screener for AD that yields acceptable accuracy across both serum and plasma. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Analysis of serum biomarker proteins were conducted on 197 Alzheimer's disease (AD participants and 199 control participants from the Texas Alzheimer's Research Consortium (TARC with further analysis conducted on plasma proteins from 112 AD and 52 control participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI. The full algorithm was derived from a biomarker risk score, clinical lab (glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, homocysteine, and demographic (age, gender, education, APOE*E4 status data. MAJOR OUTCOME MEASURES: Alzheimer's disease. RESULTS: 11 proteins met our criteria and were utilized for the biomarker risk score. The random forest (RF biomarker risk score from the TARC serum samples (training set yielded adequate accuracy in the ADNI plasma sample (training set (AUC = 0.70, sensitivity (SN = 0.54 and specificity (SP = 0.78, which was below that obtained from ADNI cerebral spinal fluid (CSF analyses (t-tau/Aβ ratio AUC = 0.92. However, the full algorithm yielded excellent accuracy (AUC = 0.88, SN = 0.75, and SP = 0.91. The likelihood ratio of having AD based on a positive test finding (LR+ = 7.03 (SE = 1.17; 95% CI = 4.49-14.47, the likelihood ratio of not having AD based on the algorithm (LR- = 3.55 (SE = 1.15; 2.22-5.71, and the odds ratio of AD were calculated in the ADNI cohort (OR = 28.70 (1.55; 95% CI = 11.86-69.47. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to create a blood-based screening algorithm that works across both serum and plasma that provides a comparable screening accuracy to that obtained from CSF analyses.

  18. Altered Peripheral Blood Monocyte Phenotype and Function in Chronic Liver Disease: Implications for Hepatic Recruitment and Systemic Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L Gadd

    Full Text Available Liver and systemic inflammatory factors influence monocyte phenotype and function, which has implications for hepatic recruitment and subsequent inflammatory and fibrogenic responses, as well as host defence.Peripheral blood monocyte surface marker (CD14, CD16, CD163, CSF1R, CCR2, CCR4, CCR5, CXCR3, CXCR4, CX3CR1, HLA-DR, CD62L, SIGLEC-1 expression and capacity for phagocytosis, oxidative burst and LPS-stimulated TNF production were assessed in patients with hepatitis C (HCV (n = 39 or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD (n = 34 (classified as non-advanced disease, compensated cirrhosis and decompensated cirrhosis and healthy controls (n = 11 by flow cytometry.The selected markers exhibited similar monocyte-subset-specific expression patterns between patients and controls. Monocyte phenotypic signatures differed between NAFLD and HCV patients, with an increased proportion of CD16+ non-classical monocytes in NAFLD, but increased expression of CXCR3 and CXCR4 in HCV. In both cohorts, monocyte CCR2 expression was reduced and CCR4 elevated over controls. CD62L expression was specifically elevated in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and positively correlated with the model-for-end-stage-liver-disease score. Functionally, monocytes from patients with decompensated cirrhosis had equal phagocytic capacity, but displayed features of dysfunction, characterised by lower HLA-DR expression and blunted oxidative responses. Lower monocyte TNF production in response to LPS stimulation correlated with time to death in 7 (46% of the decompensated patients who died within 8 months of recruitment.Chronic HCV and NAFLD differentially affect circulating monocyte phenotype, suggesting specific injury-induced signals may contribute to hepatic monocyte recruitment and systemic activation state. Monocyte function, however, was similarly impaired in patients with both HCV and NAFLD, particularly in advanced disease, which likely contributes to the increased

  19. Astrocytic modulation of blood brain barrier: perspectives on Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, Ricardo; Ávila, Marcos; Gonzalez, Janneth; El-Bachá, Ramon Santos; Báez, Eliana; García-Segura, Luis Miguel; Jurado Coronel, Juan Camilo; Capani, Francisco; Cardona-Gomez, Gloria Patricia; Barreto, George E.

    2014-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a tightly regulated interface in the Central Nervous System (CNS) that regulates the exchange of molecules in and out from the brain thus maintaining the CNS homeostasis. It is mainly composed of endothelial cells (ECs), pericytes and astrocytes that create a neurovascular unit (NVU) with the adjacent neurons. Astrocytes are essential for the formation and maintenance of the BBB by providing secreted factors that lead to the adequate association between the cells of the BBB and the formation of strong tight junctions. Under neurological disorders, such as chronic cerebral ischemia, brain trauma, Epilepsy, Alzheimer and Parkinson’s Diseases, a disruption of the BBB takes place, involving a lost in the permeability of the barrier and phenotypical changes in both the ECs and astrocytes. In this aspect, it has been established that the process of reactive gliosis is a common feature of astrocytes during BBB disruption, which has a detrimental effect on the barrier function and a subsequent damage in neuronal survival. In this review we discuss the implications of astrocyte functions in the protection of the BBB, and in the development of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and related disorders. Additionally, we highlight the current and future strategies in astrocyte protection aimed at the development of restorative therapies for the BBB in pathological conditions. PMID:25136294

  20. Astrocytic modulation of Blood Brain Barrier: Perspectives on Parkinson´s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo eCabezas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available TThe blood–brain barrier (BBB is a tightly regulated interface in the Central Nervous System that regulates the exchange of molecules in and out from the brain thus maintaining the CNS homeostasis. It is mainly composed of endothelial cells, pericytes and astrocytes that create a neurovascular unit with the adjacent neurons. Astrocytes are essential for the formation and maintenance of the BBB by providing secreted factors that lead to the adequate association between the cells of the BBB and the formation of strong tight junctions. Under neurological disorders, such as chronic cerebral ischemia, brain trauma, Epilepsy, Alzheimer and Parkinson´s Diseases, a disruption of the BBB takes place, involving a lost in the permeability of the barrier and phenotypical changes in both the endothelial cells and astrocytes. In this aspect, it has been established that the process of reactive gliosis is a common feature of astrocytes during BBB disruption, which has a detrimental effect on the barrier function and a subsequent damage in neuronal survival. In this review we discuss the implications of astrocyte functions in the protection of the BBB, and in the development of Parkinson´s disease and related disorders. Additionally, we highlight the current and future strategies in astrocyte protection aimed at the development of restorative therapies for the BBB in pathological conditions.

  1. Peripheral blood involvement in patients with follicular lymphoma: a rare disease manifestation associated with poor prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkozy, Clémentine; Baseggio, Lucile; Feugier, Pierre; Callet-Bauchu, Evelyne; Karlin, Lionel; Seymour, John F; Lebras, Laure; Michallet, Anne-Sophie; Offner, Fritz; Dumas, Olivier; Traverse-Glehen, Alexandra; Ffrench, Martine; Lopez-Guillermo, Armando; Berger, Françoise; Coiffier, Bertrand; Felman, Pascale; Salles, Gilles

    2014-03-01

    Follicular Lymphoma (FL) is the second most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtype and its course is heterogeneous. At diagnosis, some patients with FL manifest a detectable leukaemic phase (FL-LP), but this feature has been seldom described and is poorly characterized. Among 499 patients diagnosed with FL in Lyon-Sud hospital, 37 (7·4%) had characteristic FL-LP (by cytological blood smears and flow cytometric analysis). In addition, 91/1135 FL patients from the PRIMA study presented FL-LP at study entry. In order to evaluate the outcome of this Lyon-Sud cohort, FL-LP patients were matched with 111 newly diagnosed FL without LP according to the Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) score, age and treatment. Presence of FL-LP was associated with shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (P = 0·004 and P = 0·031, respectively). Presence of FL-LP and high FLIPI score remained independent prognostic factors in a Cox model for time to progression (TTP). A number of circulating lymphoma cells (CLC) >4 × 10(9) /l was the most significant predictor for a shorter TTP in this Cox model. The prognostic impact of FL-LP on TTP was validated in the PRIMA cohort (P = 0·0004). In conclusion, FL-LP is a rare event associated with shorter PFS and patients with CLC >4 × 10(9) /l have a poorer outcome. These patients should be monitored carefully to consider alternative therapeutic options. PMID:24274024

  2. The changes of serum BDNF, blood lipid and PCI in the elderly patients with coronary heart disease complicated with diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Xia He; Jing-Jing Yang; Mei-Jin Yuan; Xiao-Juan Ding

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To compare the clinic from coronary heart disease complicated with diabetes mellitus patients serum BDNF changes, blood tests and PCI, for the clinical treatment of coronary heart disease in patients with diabetes mellitus provide certain reference and ideas.Methods: In outpatient of our hospital of elderly patients with coronary heart disease in patients with diabetes mellitus complicated with 126 cases into coronary heart disease combined with diabetes mellitus group, CHD patients admitted in the same period of 125 cases into coronary heart disease group and healthy subjects during the same period in 120 cases into the healthy control group, 61 males, 59 females, aged 58 to 79 years old, mean age (64.36± 2.20) to exclude coronary heart disease, diabetes and liver and other diseases. All patients according to Gensini integration system and coronary artery vascular image segmentation evaluation criteria for each of the degree of vascular stenosis were evaluated. Total cholesterol (TC), glycerin three fat (TG), low density protein (LDL-C), high density protein (HDL-C), apolipoprotein A1 (APOA-1) and apolipoprotein B (APOB) and other indicators were detected. The number of stents, mean diameter and length of stent in patients with coronary heart disease combined with diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease group were compared. Results: Coronary heart disease with diabetes mellitus group Gensini score and serum BDNF concentrations were higher in CHD group and control group, CHD group Gensini score and serum BDNF concentrations were significantly higher than the control group, the differences were statistically significant; coronary heart disease and coronary heart disease group and blood fat group in TC, TG, LDL-C, diabetes, APO-B levels were significantly higher than that of control group HDL-C and APOA-1 were significantly lower than control group, coronary heart disease and diabetes group in TC, TG, LDL-C, blood lipid and APO-B level were

  3. Association between Blood Dioxin Level and Chronic Kidney Disease in an Endemic Area of Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Yuan Huang

    Full Text Available Dioxin is an industrial pollutant related to various diseases, but epidemiological data on its effects on the kidney are limited. Therefore, we conducted a study to evaluate the association between dioxin exposure and chronic kidney disease (CKD and identify the related factors.We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study and recruited participants from an area where the residents were exposed to dioxin released from a factory. We defined a "high dioxin level" as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs ≥ 20 pg WHO98-TEQDF/g lipid in the serum and defined CKD as having an estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR ≤ 60 mL/min/1.73m2 or a diagnosis of CKD by a physician. The renal function was assessed between 2005 and 2010, and we excluded those who had had kidney diseases before the study started. Comparisons between patients of CKD and those who did not have CKD were made to identify the risk factors for CKD.Of the 2898 participants, 1427 had high dioxin levels, and 156 had CKD. In the univariate analyses, CKD was associated with high dioxin levels, age, gender, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and high insulin and uric acid levels. After adjusting for other factors, we found high dioxin levels (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-2.99, female gender (AOR = 1.74, 95%CI: 1.20-2.53, hypertension (AOR = 1.68, 95%CI: 1.17-2.42, high insulin levels (AOR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.26-3.61, high uric acid levels (AOR = 4.25, 95% CI: 2.92-6.20, and older age (AOR = 4.66, 95% CI: 1.87-11.62 for 40-64 year and AOR = 26.66, 95% CI: 10.51-67.62 for age ≥ 65 year were independent predictors of CKD.A high dioxin level was associated with an increased prevalence of CKD. Therefore, the kidney function of populations with exposure to dioxin should be monitored.

  4. Fibrinogen function is impaired in whole blood from patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A S; Johansson, Pär I.; Bochsen, Louise;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) have haemostatic abnormities associated with bleeding and thrombo-embolic events. The haemostatic abnormalities are not fully understood, but recent studies indicate that elevated haematocrit and fibrinogen function may be of...... importance. The aim of this study was to characterise the haemostatic profile and examine the potential role of haematocrit on clot formation and strength in CCHD patients. Furthermore to examine whether CCHD patients with history of haemoptysis have diminished fibrinogen function compared to those without...... haemoptysis. METHODS: In a prospective study 75 adult CCHD patients had haematocrit, platelet count, and plasma fibrinogen concentration examined. Furthermore thrombelastography(TEG) as well as TEG Functional Fibrinogen(TEG FF) assay evaluating fibrinogen function(FLEV) was performed. Data were compared with...

  5. Visit-to-visit variability of blood pressure and coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure and mortality: A cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntner, Paul; Whittle, Jeff; Lynch, Amy I.; Colantonio, Lisandro D.; Simpson, Lara M.; Einhorn, Paula T.; Levitan, Emily B.; Whelton, Paul K; Cushman, William C.; Louis, Gail T.; Davis, Barry R.; Oparil, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Variability of blood pressure (BP) across outpatient visits is frequently dismissed as random fluctuation around a patient’s underlying BP. Objective: Examine the association between visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) on cardiovascular disease and mortality outcomes. Design Prospective cohort study Setting Post-hoc analysis of the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). Participants 25,814 ALLHAT participants. Measurements VVV of SBP was defined as the standard deviation (SD) across BP measurements obtained at 7 visits conducted from 6 to 28 months following ALLHAT enrollment. Participants free of cardiovascular disease events during the first 28 months of follow-up were followed from the month 28 study visit through the end of active ALLHAT follow-up. Outcomes included fatal coronary heart disease or non-fatal myocardial infarction, all-cause mortality, stroke and heart failure. Results There were 1194 cases of fatal CHD or non-fatal MI, 1948 deaths, 606 cases of stroke and 921 cases of heart failure during follow-up. After multivariable adjustment including mean SBP, the hazard ratio comparing participants in the highest versus lowest quintile of SD of SBP (≥14.4 mmHg versus <6.5 mmHg) was 1.30 (1.06–1.59) for fatal coronary heart disease or non-fatal myocardial infarction, 1.58 (1.32–1.90) for all-cause mortality, 1.46 (1.06–2.01) for stroke, and 1.25 (0.97–1.61) for heart failure. Higher VVV of DBP was also associated with cardiovascular disease events and mortality. Limitations Long-term outcomes were not available. Conclusions Higher VVV of SBP is associated with increased cardiovascular disease and mortality risk. Future studies should examine whether reducing VVV of BP lowers this risk. Primary funding source National Institutes of Health PMID:26215765

  6. Blood Pressure Matters: Keep Hypertension in Check

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cuff, or an automatic device may measure the pressure. Blood pressure is given as 2 numbers. The first ... described above. High Blood Pressure NIHSeniorHealth: High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease Heart and Vascular Diseases ...

  7. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and blood glucose%慢性阻塞性肺疾病和血糖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高惠丽; 姚婉贞

    2008-01-01

    To analyze Chinese and foreign advancement documents recently published for the association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) and blood glucose. COPD and asthma influenced differently with glucose. COPD patients are discussed with changes such as inflammatory factor,erythrocyte alterations,glucose metabolism, hypoxemia, dyscrasia ect. Hyperglycaemia more emerges with in COPD patients than other patients. Hyperglycaemia is a risk factor of acute exacerbation COPD.%分析近期发表的中外文献,研究慢性阻塞性肺疾病(chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,COPD)和血糖的相互关系.COPD和支气管哮喘对血糖的不同影响.COPD患者中炎症因子、红细胞改变、葡萄糖的代谢、低氧血症和恶液质等改变进行论证,阐明COPD易出现高血糖.高血糖是COPD急性加重的独立危险因素之一.

  8. Abnormalities in rCBF [regional cerebral blood flow] and computed tomography in patients with Alzheimer's disease and in controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pattern of abnormal distribution of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cerebral blood flow tracer 99m-technetium-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (99Tcm-HMPAO) was investigated in 14 patients with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD) who subsequently had post-mortem confirmation, and also in 14 elderly control subjects. These abnormalities were compared with computed tomography (CT) scans to investigate the degree to which the focal SPECT deficits were due to atrophy. Results show that SPECT imaging with 99Tcm-HMPAO and CT scanning both have a higher incidence of abnormality in AD patients than in controls and that the difference between patients and controls is greater with SPECT than with CT. Frontal SPECT and CT abnormalities in moderate/severe Alzheimer's disease occur as frequently as temporal/occipital abnormalities but the latter are rare in control subjects. Around 50% of SPECT deficits occur in CT normal brain regions, showing that atrophy is not the sole cause of SPECT deficits. (author)

  9. Cerebral blood flow is diminished in asymptomatic middle-aged adults with maternal history of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Xu, Guofan; Oh, Jennifer M; Dowling, N Maritza; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Gallagher, Catherine L; Birdsill, Alex C; Palotti, Matthew; Wharton, Whitney; Hermann, Bruce P; LaRue, Asenath; Bendlin, Barbara B; Rowley, Howard A; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A; Johnson, Sterling C

    2014-04-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) provides an indication of the metabolic status of the cortex and may have utility in elucidating preclinical brain changes in persons at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related diseases. In this study, we investigated CBF in 327 well-characterized adults including patients with AD (n = 28), patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, n = 23), older cognitively normal (OCN, n = 24) adults, and asymptomatic middle-aged adults (n = 252) with and without a family history (FH) of AD. Compared with the asymptomatic cohort, AD patients displayed significant hypoperfusion in the precuneus, posterior cingulate, lateral parietal cortex, and the hippocampal region. Patients with aMCI exhibited a similar but less marked pattern of hypoperfusion. Perfusion deficits within the OCN adults were primarily localized to the inferior parietal lobules. Asymptomatic participants with a maternal FH of AD showed hypoperfusion in hippocampal and parietofrontal regions compared with those without a FH of AD or those with only a paternal FH of AD. These observations persisted when gray matter volume was included as a voxel-wise covariate. Our findings suggest that having a mother with AD might confer a particular risk for AD-related cerebral hypoperfusion in midlife. In addition, they provide further support for the potential utility of arterial spin labeling for the measurement of AD-related neurometabolic dysfunction, particularly in situations where [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose imaging is infeasible or clinically contraindicated.

  10. First pass and gated blood pool in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty patients with chronic obstructive lung disease were studied. The spirometry demonstrated predominantly reduction of vital capacity with signs of pulmonary hyperinflation. Obstruction of the proximal and distal airways was also noted. Total pulmonary resistance and static lung compliance were increased in the majority of these patients. Hypoxemia was present in the entire group, with no carbon dioxide retention. Various degrees of pulmonary artery dilatation were detected on the radioisotopic examination, suggesting pulmonary hypertension, confirmed by the increased mean pulmonary transit time. Regional disturbance of myocardial motility of the right ventricle was observed in 90% of the patients, being severe in 15%. The end-systolic volume was increased in 95% of the patients and the end-diastolic in 55%. These changes represent an initial functional disturbance, which does not allow to draw conclusions about reduction of the cardiac output or the ejection fraction. Left ventricular motility was normal in 85% of the patients, reduced in 15% and severely reduced in only one patient. Left ventricular volume was discrete or moderately increased in six patients (20%). The ejection fraction was decreased in one patient (5%). The increased ejection fraction observed in three patients is likely a consequence of a rise in the ejected volume by a normal myocardium. The aorta was elongated in 75% of the patients. Taking into consideration the patients' age, it could be concluded that aortosclerosis with structural changes of its caliber is the cause of the elongation. (author)

  11. HIGH-DOSE CHEMOTHERAPY WITH AUTOLOGOUS PERIPHERAL BLOOD STEM CELL SUPPORT IN CHILDREN WITH MALIGNANT DISEASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-wen; TANG Suo-qin; YANG Guang; GAO Xiao-ning; FENG Chen; YU Fang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the potential effectiveness and toxicity of this therapy in children with advanced neuroblastoma on day--3(BM). Treatment regimens followed by autologous PBSC infusion were performed in 19 children with neuroblastoma (n=12) or malignant lymphoma (n=7) for consolidation treatment. There were thirteen males and six females,with a median age of 6.4 years (raging 3.5~13 years). Results: The median period of achieving ANC >0.5×109/L,WBC>1.0×109/L, and platelet >20×109/L after infusion of PBSCs were 21 d, 17 d, and 33 d respectively. Stomatitis occurred in 16 children (86%), and twelve had gastrointestinal toxicity (64%). Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 14 (74%)children. Fifteen patients (79%) survived. Ten patients (53%) are alive in CR. These patients are alive for a median of 639days and disease-free for 909 d after transplantation. Four cases (21%) relapsed, and four cases (21%) died. Conclusion:CEM or BM regimen followed by autologous PBSCT infusion is safe and feasible, and has significant effects in children with advanced neuroblastoma or malignant lymphoma.

  12. Human Blood and Mucosal Regulatory T Cells Express Activation Markers and Inhibitory Receptors in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Lord

    Full Text Available FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs are critical for preventing intestinal inflammation. However, FOXP3+ T cells are paradoxically increased in the intestines of patients with the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD ulcerative colitis (UC or Crohn's disease (CD. We determined whether these FOXP3+ cells in IBD patients share or lack the phenotype of such cells from patients without IBD.We quantified and characterized FOXP3+ Treg populations, as well as FOXP3- CD4+ T cells, in the lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL of intestine surgically resected from patients with and without IBD, and in the blood of controls or Crohn's patients with or without disease activity.In all samples, a similar fraction of FOXP3+ cells expressed the "natural" Treg (nTreg marker Helios, suggesting that, in IBD, these cells are not entirely "induced" Tregs (iTregs derived from activated effector T cells. Helios+ and Helios- FOXP3+ T cells demonstrated similar expression of maturation markers, activation markers, and inhibitory molecules between IBD patients and controls, while FOXP3- cells paradoxically expressed more of the inhibitory receptors CD39, CTLA4, and PD-1 in inflamed mucosa. Greater expression of activation markers was also seen in both Helios+ and Helios- Tregs, relative to FOXP3- cells, in both IBD patients and controls, indicating that Tregs are effectively activated by antigen in IBD.Extensive immunophenotyping revealed that Helios+ and Helios- mucosal Tregs exist at a similar frequency, and have a similar expression of inhibitory molecules and activation markers in patients with IBD as in healthy controls.

  13. The effects of anticholinergic drugs on regional cerebral blood flow, and oxygen metabolism in previously untreated patients with Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and oxygen metabolism (rCMRO2) were measured using the steady-state 15O technique and positron emission tomography (PET) in six previously untreated patients with Parkinson's disease before and after trihexyphenidyl (THP) treatment. The patients comprised of 4 men and 2 women with Hoehn-Yahr stage II-III. Their ages at the onset of the study ranged from 46 to 57 years (mean±SD, 51.8±3.7) and the duration of the illness ranged from 10 to 48 months (mean±SD, 28.8±15.5). The PET study, assessments of the disability and cognitive function were undergone twice. The first time assessments were done was when the patients were not receiving any drugs, and the second time was one to three months after administration of 6 mg THP. All patients showed clinical improvement after THP treatment. The mean disability score of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale decreased from 35.1 (SD±11.3) to 25.7 (SD±11.6). The cognitive function assessed by Hasegawa's dementia rating scale-revised, Mini-Mental State Examination, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, were not significantly different before and after the THP treatment. After the THP treatment, rCBF and rCMRO2 decreased significantly in the striatum (about 15%) and all cerebral cortices (about 10%) on both sides contralateral and ipsilateral to the predominantly symptomatic limbs. We conclude that an anticholinergic THP decreases the rCBF and rCMRO2 significantly in the cerebral cortices without cognitive impairment in early untreated patients with Parkinson's disease. (author)

  14. Prevalence of High Blood Pressure, Heart Disease, Thalassemia, Sickle-Cell Anemia, and Iron-Deficiency Anemia among the UAE Adolescent Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Barakat-Haddad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence of high blood pressure, heart disease, and medical diagnoses in relation to blood disorders, among 6,329 adolescent students (age 15 to 18 years who reside in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. Findings indicated that the overall prevalence of high blood pressure and heart disease was 1.8% and 1.3%, respectively. Overall, the prevalence for thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and iron-deficiency anemia was 0.9%, 1.6%, and 5%, respectively. Bivariate analysis revealed statistically significant differences in the prevalence of high blood pressure among the local and expatriate adolescent population in the Emirate of Sharjah. Similarly, statistically significant differences in the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia were observed among the local and expatriate population in Abu Dhabi city, the western region of Abu Dhabi, and Al-Ain. Multivariate analysis revealed the following significant predictors of high blood pressure: residing in proximity to industry, nonconventional substance abuse, and age when smoking or exposure to smoking began. Ethnicity was a significant predictor of heart disease, thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and iron-deficiency anemia. In addition, predictors of thalassemia included gender (female and participating in physical activity. Participants diagnosed with sickle-cell anemia and iron-deficiency anemia were more likely to experience different physical activities.

  15. Extreme Air Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The Air Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the extreme concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with extreme levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that air pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the extremely high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today.

  16. 24 hr non-invasive ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate monitoring in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eStübner

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-motor symptoms are now commonly recognized in Parkinson’s Disease (PD and can include dysautonomia. Impairment of cardiovascular autonomic function can occur at any stage of PD but is typically prevalent in advanced stages or related to (anti-parkinsonian drugs and can result in atypical blood pressure (BP readings and related symptoms such as orthostatic hypotension (OH and supine hypertension. OH is usually diagnosed with a head-up-tilt test (HUT or an (active standing test (also known as Schellong test in the laboratory, but 24 hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM in a home setting may have several advantages, such as providing an overview of symptoms in daily life alongside pathophysiology as well as assessment of treatment interventions. This, however, is only possible if ABPM is administrated correctly and an autonomic protocol (including a diary is followed. which will be discussed in this review. A 24hr ABPM does not only allow the detection of OH, if it is present, but also the assessment of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction during and after various daily stimuli, such as postprandial and alcohol dependent hypotension, as well as exercise and drug induced hypotension. Furthermore, information about the circadian rhythm of BP and heart rate (HR can be obtained and establish whether or not a patient has a fall of BP at night (i.e. ‘dipper’ vs. non-‘dipper’. The information about nocturnal BP may also allow the investigation or detection of disorders such as sleep dysfunction, nocturnal movement disorders and obstructive sleep apnea, which are common in PD. Additionally, a 24hr ABPM should be conducted to examine the effectiveness of OH therapy. This review will outline the methodology of 24 hr ABPM in PD, summarize findings of such studies in PD and briefly consider common daily stimuli that might affect 24 Hr ABPM.

  17. Predictors of Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Interrelationship of Dyslipidemia and Arterial Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djuro Macut

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS could develop subclinical atherosclerosis during life. Purpose. To analyze cardiovascular risk (CVR factors and their relation to clinical markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD in respect to their age. Material and Methods. One hundred women with PCOS (26.32±5.26 years, BMI: 24.98±6.38 kg/m2 were compared to 50 respective controls. In all subjects, total cholesterol (TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios, glucose, insulin and HOMA index, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, resp., and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT were analyzed in respect to their age and level of androgens. Results. PCOS over 30 years had higher WHR (P=0.008, SBP (P<0.001, DBP (P<0.001, TC (P=0.028, HDL-C (P=0.028, LDL-C (P=0.045, triglycerides (P<0.001, TC/HDL-C (P<0.001, and triglycerides/HDL-C (P<0.001 and had more prevalent hypertension and pronounced CIMT on common carotid arteries even after adjustment for BMI (P=0.005 and 0.036, resp.. TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C were higher in PCOS with the highest quintile of FAI in comparison to those with lower FAI (P=0.045 and 0.034, resp.. Conclusions. PCOS women older than 30 years irrespective of BMI have the potential for early atherosclerosis mirrored through the elevated lipids/lipid ratios and through changes in blood pressure.

  18. Differences in abundances of cell-signalling proteins in blood reveal novel biomarkers for early detection of clinical Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Rocha de Paula

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In November 2007 a study published in Nature Medicine proposed a simple test based on the abundance of 18 proteins in blood to predict the onset of clinical symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease (AD two to six years before these symptoms manifest. Later, another study, published in PLoS ONE, showed that only five proteins (IL-1, IL-3, EGF, TNF- and G-CSF have overall better prediction accuracy. These classifiers are based on the abundance of 120 proteins. Such values were standardised by a Z-score transformation, which means that their values are relative to the average of all others. METHODOLOGY: The original datasets from the Nature Medicine paper are further studied using methods from combinatorial optimisation and Information Theory. We expand the original dataset by also including all pair-wise differences of z-score values of the original dataset ("metafeatures". Using an exact algorithm to solve the resulting Feature Set problem, used to tackle the feature selection problem, we found signatures that contain either only features, metafeatures or both, and evaluated their predictive performance on the independent test set. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to show that a specific pattern of cell signalling imbalance in blood plasma has valuable information to distinguish between NDC and AD samples. The obtained signatures were able to predict AD in patients that already had a Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI with up to 84% of sensitivity, while maintaining also a strong prediction accuracy of 90% on a independent dataset with Non Demented Controls (NDC and AD samples. The novel biomarkers uncovered with this method now confirms ANG-2, IL-11, PDGF-BB, CCL15/MIP-1; and supports the joint measurement of other signalling proteins not previously discussed: GM-CSF, NT-3, IGFBP-2 and VEGF-B.

  19. Evaluation of the cardiac performance in patients with coronary arterty disease by the pulmonary blood volume change in exercise testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of the cardiac performance was studied by the change of the pulmonary blood volume (PBV) during the exercise testing in 17 normal subjects (group N), 18 patients with angina pectoris (group A) and 25 with both old myocardial infarction and angina pectoris (group M). The exercise testing was performed by bicycle ergometer in supine position. Blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output measured by dye dilution method, left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) by multi-gate method, pulmonary artery pressure by Swan-Ganz catheter and PBV was measured during exercise. PBV was estimated by the radioactivity of the systemically administered Tc-99m labeled RBC in the lung field. ROI was adjusted over the right upper and lower lung field. And also the effect of the nitroglycerin was examined. In the result, (1) EF at the peak exercise increased in group N but decreased in Groups A and M. (2) Increased pulmonary artery diastolic pressure at the peak exercise (PAd at exercise) was remarkably higher in groups A and M than group M. (3) PBV was unchanged in group N; however, increased 9.6% in group A and 10.9% in group M. (4) Increased rate of PBV revealed good correlation with ΔEF (r=-0.68, p<0.01) and PAd at exercise (r=0.83, p<0.01), and was considered as the pulmonary congestion due to left ventricular dysfunction. (5) After the sublingual administration of nitroglycerin, the increased PAd and PBV at the peak exercise was suppressed. Particularly, it was remarkable in group A. Thus it was concluded that the noninvasive measurement of PBV during exercise could suggest the extent of the pulmonary congestion and was very useful for evaluation of the cardiac performance in coronary artery disease. (author)

  20. International study to evaluate PCR methods for detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in blood samples from Chagas disease patients.

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    Alejandro G Schijman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A century after its discovery, Chagas disease still represents a major neglected tropical threat. Accurate diagnostics tools as well as surrogate markers of parasitological response to treatment are research priorities in the field. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of PCR methods in detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA by an external quality evaluation. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: An international collaborative study was launched by expert PCR laboratories from 16 countries. Currently used strategies were challenged against serial dilutions of purified DNA from stocks representing T. cruzi discrete typing units (DTU I, IV and VI (set A, human blood spiked with parasite cells (set B and Guanidine Hidrochloride-EDTA blood samples from 32 seropositive and 10 seronegative patients from Southern Cone countries (set C. Forty eight PCR tests were reported for set A and 44 for sets B and C; 28 targeted minicircle DNA (kDNA, 13 satellite DNA (Sat-DNA and the remainder low copy number sequences. In set A, commercial master mixes and Sat-DNA Real Time PCR showed better specificity, but kDNA-PCR was more sensitive to detect DTU I DNA. In set B, commercial DNA extraction kits presented better specificity than solvent extraction protocols. Sat-DNA PCR tests had higher specificity, with sensitivities of 0.05-0.5 parasites/mL whereas specific kDNA tests detected 5.10(-3 par/mL. Sixteen specific and coherent methods had a Good Performance in both sets A and B (10 fg/µl of DNA from all stocks, 5 par/mL spiked blood. The median values of sensitivities, specificities and accuracies obtained in testing the Set C samples with the 16 tests determined to be good performing by analyzing Sets A and B samples varied considerably. Out of them, four methods depicted the best performing parameters in all three sets of samples, detecting at least 10 fg/µl for each DNA stock, 0.5 par/mL and a sensitivity between 83.3-94.4%, specificity of 85

  1. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI assessment of hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume in peripheral arterial disease: initial findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas Versluis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to describe a method that assesses the hyperemic microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. The reversibly albumin binding contrast agent gadofosveset was used in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI to assess the microvascular status in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD and healthy controls. In addition, the reproducibility of this method in healthy controls was determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten PAD patients with intermittent claudication and 10 healthy control subjects were included. Patients underwent contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the peripheral arteries, followed by one DCE MRI examination of the musculature of the calf. Healthy control subjects were examined twice on different days to determine normative values and the interreader and interscan reproducibility of the technique. The MRI protocol comprised dynamic imaging of contrast agent wash-in under reactive hyperemia conditions of the calf musculature. Using pharmacokinetic modeling the hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume (V(p, unit: % of the anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles was calculated. RESULTS: V(p was significantly lower for all muscle groups in PAD patients (4.3±1.6%, 5.0±3.3% and 6.1±3.6% for anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, respectively compared to healthy control subjects (9.1±2.0%, 8.9±1.9% and 9.3±2.1%. Differences in V(p between muscle groups were not significant. The coefficient of variation of V(p varied from 10-14% and 11-16% at interscan and interreader level, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using DCE MRI after contrast-enhanced MR angiography with gadofosveset enables reproducible assessment of hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. V(p was lower in PAD patients than in healthy controls, which reflects a promising functional (hemodynamic biomarker for the

  2. Autoimmune Demyelinating Polyneuropathy as a Manifestation of Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease after Adult Cord Blood Transplantation in a Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick Hogan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune mediated demyelinating disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation is a rare entity with unclear etiology. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP has been reported after related and adult unrelated allogeneic stem cell transplantation but no such case has been reported after unrelated cord blood transplantation. We hereby present the first case of AIDP after double umbilical cord blood transplantation (DUCBT. A 55-year-old man with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL received a cord blood transplant for relapsed refractory disease with high risk cytogenetics. On day 221, patient presented with skin rash, tingling in both lower extremites, and ascending paralysis that progressed rapidly over the course of 2 days. The workup resulted in a diagnosis of AIDP and administration of intravenous immunoglobulins plus steroids was initiated. Motor and sensory powers were fully recovered and his chronic GVHD was managed for several months with single agent sirolimus.

  3. The added value of peripheral blood cell morphology in the diagnosis and management of infectious diseases--part 2: illustrative cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potasman, I; Prokocimer, M

    2008-11-01

    The previous review dealt with the diagnostic yield of peripheral blood smear examination with regard to diagnosis of infectious diseases. In addition to the clinical data, it can provide information of major clinical significance. At times, it can even replace additional, costly and time-consuming diagnostic modalities. The following clinical vignettes, which are discussed briefly, support these arguments. PMID:19103816

  4. Blood born miRNAs signatures that can serve as disease specific biomarkers are not significantly affected by overall fitness and exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Backes

    Full Text Available Blood born micro(miRNA expression pattern have been reported for various human diseases with signatures specific for diseases. To evaluate these biomarkers, it is mandatory to know possible changes of miRNA signatures in healthy individuals under different physiological conditions. We analyzed the miRNA expression in peripheral blood of elite endurance athletes and moderatly active controls. Blood drawing was done before and after exhaustive exercise in each group. After Benjamini-Hochberg adjustment we did not find any miRNA with significant p-values when comparing miRNA expression between the different groups. We found, however, 24 different miRNAs with an expression fold change of minimum 1.5 in at least one of the comparisons (athletes before vs after exercise, athletes before exercise vs controls and athletes after exercise vs controls. The observed changes are not significant in contrast to the expression changes of the blood born miRNA expression reported for many human diseases. These data support the idea of disease associated miRNA patterns useful as biomarkers that are not readily altered by physiological conditions.

  5. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training and Irbesartan on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Marquis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The present pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of an aerobic exercise training (AET program alone or combined with an antihypertensive agent (irbesartan to reduce blood pressure (BP and enhance heart rate variability (HRV in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

  6. miRNA expression profiles in cerebrospinal fluid and blood of patients with Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia - an exploratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sofie Sølvsten; Nygaard Hillig, Ann-Britt; Christensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    . The purpose of this exploratory investigation was to analyze the expression of miRNAs in CSF and blood of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders in order to identify potential miRNA biomarker candidates able to separate AD from other types of dementia. METHODS: CSF...

  7. Can Genetic Analysis of Putative Blood Alzheimer’s Disease Biomarkers Lead to Identification of Susceptibility Loci?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebinger, Ryan M.; Shewale, Shantanu J.; Koenig, Jessica L.; Mitchel, Jeffrey S.; O’Bryant, Sid E.; Waring, Stephen C.; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Chasse, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Although 24 Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk loci have been reliably identified, a large portion of the predicted heritability for AD remains unexplained. It is expected that additional loci of small effect will be identified with an increased sample size. However, the cost of a significant increase in Case-Control sample size is prohibitive. The current study tests whether exploring the genetic basis of endophenotypes, in this case based on putative blood biomarkers for AD, can accelerate the identification of susceptibility loci using modest sample sizes. Each endophenotype was used as the outcome variable in an independent GWAS. Endophenotypes were based on circulating concentrations of proteins that contributed significantly to a published blood-based predictive algorithm for AD. Endophenotypes included Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (MCP1), Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (VCAM1), Pancreatic Polypeptide (PP), Beta2 Microglobulin (B2M), Factor VII (F7), Adiponectin (ADN) and Tenascin C (TN-C). Across the seven endophenotypes, 47 SNPs were associated with outcome with a p-value ≤1x10-7. Each signal was further characterized with respect to known genetic loci associated with AD. Signals for several endophenotypes were observed in the vicinity of CR1, MS4A6A/MS4A4E, PICALM, CLU, and PTK2B. The strongest signal was observed in association with Factor VII levels and was located within the F7 gene. Additional signals were observed in MAP3K13, ZNF320, ATP9B and TREM1. Conditional regression analyses suggested that the SNPs contributed to variation in protein concentration independent of AD status. The identification of two putatively novel AD loci (in the Factor VII and ATP9B genes), which have not been located in previous studies despite massive sample sizes, highlights the benefits of an endophenotypic approach for resolving the genetic basis for complex diseases. The coincidence of several of the endophenotypic signals with known AD loci may point to novel

  8. Blood pressure level and relation to other cardiovascular risk factors in male hypertensive patients without clinical evidence of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C T; Sørum, C; Hansen, J F;

    2000-01-01

    , duration of hypertension, cholesterol and triglyceride level, smoking status, information of regular exercise, a family history of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and drug treatment, in 220 men treated for arterial hypertension. In the univariate analyses we found a higher systolic blood pressure (SBP...... and the blood pressure (BP), and to evaluate the percentage of patients who had achieved a BP level as recommended by the sixth report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VI). BP was evaluated in relation to age, body mass index...... was independently associated with DBP. Office SBP was above 140 mmHg in 83% and above 160 mmHg in 44% of patients. During ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (AMBP), SBP was above 135 mmHg in 40% and above 155 mmHg in 15% of patients. In addition to male sex and hypertension there was a high percentage of other...

  9. Diagnosis of suspected Alzheimer's disease is improved by automated analysis of regional cerebral blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Bich-Ngoc-Thanh [UCL-Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Mont-Godinne University Hospital, Yvoir (Belgium); Free University of Brussels, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Erasme Hospital, Brussels (Belgium); Minoshima, Satoshi [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle (United States); George, Jean; Borght, Thierry Vander [UCL-Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Mont-Godinne University Hospital, Yvoir (Belgium); Robert, Annie [UCL-Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departments of PHS Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Mont-Godinne University Hospital, Yvoir (Belgium); Swine, Christian [UCL-Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Geriatrics, Mont-Godinne University Hospital, Yvoir (Belgium); Laloux, Patrice [UCL-Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Neurology, Mont-Godinne University Hospital, Yvoir (Belgium)

    2004-11-01

    Accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, remains difficult. In order to assess whether fully automated stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) presentation contributes to the diagnosis of AD by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), we investigated the diagnostic accuracy of transaxial display with and without 3D-SSP analysis as well as the correlation between cerebral perfusion in different cortical areas and the mini mental score (MMS). Seventy-two patients referred because of cognitive impairment were included in the study. According to the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke (NINCDS) and the Alzheimer's disease and Related Disorders Association (ADRDA) criteria, 27 patients were diagnosed as having probable AD while 45 were classified as non-AD patients. 3D-SSP was used to quantify the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) acquired from SPECT imaging. Compared with the transaxial section presentation alone, 3D-SSP presentation improved the area under the receiver operating curve (p<0.05) as well as intra-observer (k=0.73 vs 0.88) and inter-observer (k=0.50 vs 0.84) reproducibility. Upon normalisation of regional to thalamic activity, multiple regression analysis revealed a strong correlation between the MMS and rCBF in the right parietal cortex (p=0.002). Addition of 3D-SSP to the transaxial section display of ECD-SPECT studies improves the reproducibility and the diagnostic performance in respect of AD in patients with cognitive impairment and provides a valid tool for assessment of the severity of cortical perfusion abnormalities in such patients. (orig.)

  10. Second-tier test for quantification of underivatized amino acids in dry blood spot for metabolic diseases in newborn screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunyan; Zhu, Hongbin; Zhang, Wenyan; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Shuying

    2013-02-01

    The quantitative analysis of amino acids (AAs) in single dry blood spot (DBS) samples is an important issue for metabolic diseases as a second-tier test in newborn screening. An analytical method for quantifying underivatized AAs in DBS was developed by using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The sample preparation in this method is simple and ion-pairing agent is not used in the mobile phase that could avoid ion suppression, which happens in mass spectrometry and avoids damage to the column. Through chromatographic separation, some isomeric compounds could be identified and quantified, which cannot be solved through only appropriate multiple reactions monitoring transitions by MS/MS. The concentrations of the different AAs were determined using non-deuterated internal standard. All calibration curves showed excellent linearity within test ranges. For most of the amino acids the accuracy of extraction recovery was between 85.3 and 115 %, and the precision of relative standard deviation was <7.0 %. The 35 AAs could be identified in DBS specimens by the developed LC-MS/MS method in 17-19 min, and eventually 24 AAs in DBS were quantified. The results of the present study prove that this method as a second-tier test in newborn screening for metabolic diseases could be performed by the quantification of free AAs in DBS using the LC-MS/MS method. The assay has advantages of high sensitive, specific, and inexpensive merits because non-deuterated internal standard and acetic acid instead of ion-pairing agent in mobile phase are used in this protocol.

  11. Increased percentage of CD8 CD28– suppressor lymphocytes in peripheral blood and skin infiltrates correlates with advanced disease in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Urbaniak-Kujda

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: T cells with the CD8 CD28– phenotype are CD8 lymphocytes with regulatory function. Their increased numbers were observed in infections, autoimmune and neoplastic diseases, and in elderly healthy individuals. CD8 CD28– lymphocyte levels in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL has not yet been described. The aim of the study was to determine their levels in these patients’ peripheral blood and cutaneous infiltrates and their relation to the clinical stage of disease.Material/Methods: Forty-one untreated patients, 26 males and 15 females, with CTCL were enrolled in the study. CD8 CD28– lymphocyte levels were determined by flow cytometry in peripheral blood and by immunochemistry in skin infiltrates.Results: The percentage of CD8 CD28– lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of the patients was significantly higher than in the controls. Patients with advanced disease displayed a higher percentage of CD8 CD28– lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and skin than did the individuals with early stages of the disease. Moreover, positive correlations between CD8 CD28– lymphocyte level in peripheral blood and age, clinical stage, and the levels in the skin infiltrates was revealed. Additionally, the percentage of CD8 CD28– T cells in the skin infiltrates correlated positively with age and clinical stage of the disease.Conclusions: These data suggest that CD8 CD28– lymphocytes play an important role in the development of immunotolerance in the progression of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

  12. Validation of an automated ELISA system for detection of antibodies to Aleutian mink disease virus using blood samples collected in filter paper strips

    OpenAIRE

    Knuuttila, Anna; Aronen, Pirjo; Eerola, Majvor; Gardner, Ian A; Virtala, Anna-Maija K; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-01-01

    Background Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is the cause of a chronic immune complex disease, Aleutian disease (AD), which is common in mink-producing countries. In 2005, implementation of an AMDV eradication programme in Finland created a need for an automated high-throughput assay. The aim of this study was to validate an AMDV-VP2 -recombinant antigen ELISA, which we developed earlier, in an automated assay format for the detection of anti-AMDV antibodies in mink blood and to determine th...

  13. Prognostic Value of Reverse Dipper Blood Pressure Pattern in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients not Undergoing Dialysis: Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Ye, Zengchun; Li, Yan; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Qunzi; Ma, Xinxin; Peng, Hui; Lou, Tanqi

    2016-01-01

    The “reverse dipping” blood pressure (BP) pattern has been studied among the general population and in individuals suffering from hypertension. However, the prognosis of this pattern in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is not known. We monitored BP throughout the day and followed health outcomes in 588 CKD patients admitted to our hospital. Time to all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, renal events and cardiovascular events was recorded. Multivariate-adjusted Cox regression analyses were carried out to detect the prognostic value of a reverse dipping BP pattern. Prevalence of a “dipper”, “non-dipper” and “reverse dippers” was 34.69%, 43.54% and 18.03%, respectively. Patients with a reverse dipping pattern had a higher prevalence of total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, renal events and cardiovascular events than patients with a dipping pattern (P < 0.025). Multivariate-adjusted Cox regression analyses showed that reverse dippers (versus dippers) were associated with a higher risk of total mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 5.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.79~14.47), cardiovascular mortality (4.17; 1.25~13.88), renal events (3.00; 1.59~5.65) and cardiovascular events (4.12; 1.78~9.51) even after adjustment by 24-h systolic BP. These data suggest that a reverse dipping BP pattern, independent of 24-h levels of systolic BP, has prognostic value in CKD patients not undergoing dialysis. PMID:27713498

  14. Blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI of the skeletal muscle during ischemia in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potthast, Silke [Unispital Basel, Inst. fuer Radiologie (Switzerland); Schulte, A. [Univ. Hospital Ulm (Germany). Clinic for Radiation Therapy and Radiooncology; Kos, S.; Bilecen, D. [Unispital Basel, Interventional Radiology (Switzerland); Aschwanden, M. [Unispital Basel (Switzerland). Angiologie

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: to compare calf muscle Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD) response during ischemia in patients suffering from peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) and age-matched non-PAOD subjects. Materials and methods: PAOD patients with symptoms of intermittent calf claudication and an age-matched control group underwent T2*-weighted single-shot multi-echo planar imaging on a whole-body MR scanner at 1.5 T. The muscle BOLD signal in the calf was acquired during 60 sec of baseline and 240 sec of ischemia induced by cuff compression. T2* time courses in four calf muscles were evaluated. Results: significant differences in the mean T2* values were noted after 150 sec of measurement (p < 0.05). Patients with PAOD revealed a significantly reduced BOLD signal decrease compared to an age-matched control group. Conclusion: potential cause for this observation may be changes in the structure and/or the metabolic turnover of the muscle in PAOD patients. (orig.)

  15. A Clinical Study of Safflower Yellow Injection in Treating Coronary Heart Disease Angina Pectoris with Xin-Blood Stagnation Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effect and safety of Safflower Yellow injection (SYI) in treating coronary heart disease angina pectoris (CHD-AP) with Xin-blood stagnation syndrome (XBSS).Methods: Adopted was the multi-centered, randomized, positive parallel controlled method, 448 patients with CHD-AP-XBSS were enrolled and divided into two groups, 336 in the tested group treated with SYI and112 in the control group treated with Salvia injection by intravenous dripping once a day for 14 days, so as to observe the conditions of angina, electrocardiogram, and therapeutic effect on traditinal Chinese medicine(TCM) symptoms as well as the safety of the treatment. Results: The significantly effective rate and total effective rate in the tested group were 60.06% (194/323) and 91.02% (294/323) respectively; those in improvement of TCM symptoms were 40.18% (129/321) and 75.23% (243/323) respectively, which were better than those in the control group (P<0.01). Conclusion: SYI Injection is effective and safe in treating CHD-AP-XBSS.

  16. Structure and Ligand-Binding Mechanism of a Cysteinyl Leukotriene-Binding Protein from a Blood-Feeding Disease Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonka, Willy; Pham, Van; Nardone, Glenn; Gittis, Apostolos; Silva-Cardoso, Lívia; Atella, Georgia C; Ribeiro, José M C; Andersen, John F

    2016-07-15

    Blood-feeding disease vectors mitigate the negative effects of hemostasis and inflammation through the binding of small-molecule agonists of these processes by salivary proteins. In this study, a lipocalin protein family member (LTBP1) from the saliva of Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of the pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi, is shown to sequester cysteinyl leukotrienes during feeding to inhibit immediate inflammatory responses. Calorimetric binding experiments showed that LTBP1 binds leukotrienes C4 (LTC4), D4 (LTD4), and E4 (LTE4) but not biogenic amines, adenosine diphosphate, or other eicosanoid compounds. Crystal structures of ligand-free LTBP1 and its complexes with LTC4 and LTD4 reveal a conformational change during binding that brings Tyr114 into close contact with the ligand. LTC4 is cleaved in the complex, leaving free glutathione and a C20 fatty acid. Chromatographic analysis of bound ligands showed only intact LTC4, suggesting that cleavage could be radiation-mediated. PMID:27124118

  17. Accelerated pericyte degeneration and blood-brain barrier breakdown in apolipoprotein E4 carriers with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Matthew R; Rege, Sanket V; Ma, Qingyi; Zhao, Zhen; Miller, Carol A; Winkler, Ethan A; Zlokovic, Berislav V

    2016-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) limits the entry of neurotoxic blood-derived products and cells into the brain that is required for normal neuronal functioning and information processing. Pericytes maintain the integrity of the BBB and degenerate in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The BBB is damaged in AD, particularly in individuals carrying apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) gene, which is a major genetic risk factor for late-onset AD. The mechanisms underlying the BBB breakdown in AD remain, however, elusive. Here, we show accelerated pericyte degeneration in AD APOE4 carriers >AD APOE3 carriers >non-AD controls, which correlates with the magnitude of BBB breakdown to immunoglobulin G and fibrin. We also show accumulation of the proinflammatory cytokine cyclophilin A (CypA) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in pericytes and endothelial cells in AD (APOE4 >APOE3), previously shown to lead to BBB breakdown in transgenic APOE4 mice. The levels of the apoE lipoprotein receptor, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1), were similarly reduced in AD APOE4 and APOE3 carriers. Our data suggest that APOE4 leads to accelerated pericyte loss and enhanced activation of LRP1-dependent CypA–MMP-9 BBB-degrading pathway in pericytes and endothelial cells, which can mediate a greater BBB damage in AD APOE4 compared with AD APOE3 carriers.

  18. Preliminary study of abnormal increase of postexercise systolic blood pressure in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于宗良; 杨向军; 王国强; 高美雯; 李勋; 惠杰; 蒋廷波; 宋建平; 刘志华; 蒋文平

    2003-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to evaluate the diagnostic value of abnormal increase of postexercise systolic blood pressure (SBP) for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with or without hypertension. Methods Treadmill exercise testing (TET) was conducted in 88 patients (40 CAD patients, 48 control subjects)with or without hypertension, each of whom underwent selective coronary angiography (CAG). The abnormal increase of postexercise SBP was defined as 10mmHg higher than earlier periods during the recovery phase (6 minutes)of exercise testing. Results The abnormal increase of postexercise SBP had higher sensitivity, specificity,and accuracy for detecting CAD than those of ST - segment depression in patients with or without hypertension. Its accuracy increased with the severity of CAD while decreased in patients with hypertension, and the increase value of SBP had a positive correlation with the extent of coronary artery lesion. The combination of ST - segment depression and abnormal increase of postexercise SBP diagnosed CAD most accurately in patients with hypertension. Conclusions Abnormal increase of postexercise SBP may be a useful index for diagnosing CAD.

  19. Blood Sugar and Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyperglycemia) can be a sign of the disease diabetes mellitus. High blood sugar levels can eventually damage ... treated with the same medications used to treat diabetes. There is no simple blood test for insulin ...

  20. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  1. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal with a ... If you find that you are interested in learning more about blood diseases and disorders, here are ...

  2. Correlated regions of cerebral blood flow with clinical parameters in Parkinson's disease. Comparison using 'Anatomy' and 'Talairach Daemon' software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assign the anatomical names of functional activation regions in the brain, based on the probabilistic cyto-architectonic atlas by Anatomy 1.7 from an analysis of correlations between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and clinical parameters of the non-demented Parkinson's disease (PD) patients by statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 8. We evaluated Anatomy 1.7 of SPM toolbox compared to 'Talairach Daemon' (TD) Client 2.4.2 software. One hundred and thirty-six patients (mean age 60.0±9.09 years; 73 women and 63 men) with non-demented PD were selected. Tc-99m-HMPAO brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans were performed on the patients using a two-head gamma-camera. We analyzed the brain image of PD patients by SPM8 and found the anatomical names of correlated regions of rCBF perfusion with the clinical parameters using TD Client 2.4.2 and Anatomy 1.7. The SPM8 provided a correlation coefficient between clinical parameters and cerebral hypoperfusion by a simple regression method. To the clinical parameters were added age, duration of disease, education period, Hoehn and Yahr (H and Y) stage and Korean mini-mental state examination (K-MMSE) score. Age was correlated with cerebral perfusion in the Brodmann area (BA) 6 and BA 3b assigned by Anatomy 1.7 and BA 6 and pyramis in gray matter by TD Client 2.4.2 with p<0.001 uncorrected. Also, assigned significant correlated regions were found in the left and right lobules VI (Hem) with duration of disease, in left and right lobules VIIa crus I (Hem) with education, in left insula (Ig2), left and right lobules VI (Hem) with H and Y, and in BA 4a and 6 with K-MMSE score with p<0.05 uncorrected by Anatomy 1.7, respectively. Most areas of correlation were overlapped by two different anatomical labeling methods, but some correlation areas were found with different names. Age was the most significantly correlated clinical parameter with rCBF. TD Client found the exact anatomical name by the peak

  3. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE: a DNA finger printing technique to study the genetic diversity of blood disease bacterium of banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HADIWIYONO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hadiwiyono, Widada J, Subandiyah S, Fegan F (2011 Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE: a DNA finger printing technique to study the genetic diversity of blood disease bacterium of banana. Biodiversitas 12: 12-16. Blood disease bacterium (BDB is the most important pathogen of bananas in Indonesia. In some field, the disease incidence reaches over 80%. Epidemiologically, the disease is similar to moko disease in South America and bugtok disease in the Philippines caused by Ralstonia solanacearum race 2. However, BDB is different in phenotype and genotype from the two diseases. Previously BDB was limited in South Sulawesi since 1920s – 1980s and recently was reported in 27 of 30 provinces in Indonesia. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE is a genomic DNA fingerprinting method, which employs rare cutting restriction endonucleases to digest genome prior to electrophoresis using specialized condition to separate of large DNA fragments. The results showed that PFGE analysis was a discriminative tool to study the genetic diversity of BDB. Based on the PFGE analysis, BDB isolates obtained from different localities in Yogyakarta and Central Java were quit diverse.

  4. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Index A-Z Blood Clots Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood that can be stationary (thrombosis) ... treated? What are blood clots? Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood. Normally, blood flows freely through ...

  5. Caffeine impairs myocardial blood flow response to physical exercise in patients with coronary artery disease as well as in age-matched controls

    OpenAIRE

    Namdar, M; Schepis, T; Koepfli, P; Gaemperli, O; Siegrist, P T; Grathwohl, R; Valenta, I; R. Delaloye; Klainguti, M; Wyss, C A; Lüscher, T F; Kaufmann, P A

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed pharmacologically active substances. Its acute effect on myocardial blood flow is widely unknown. Our aim was to assess the acute effect of caffeine in a dose corresponding to two cups of coffee on myocardial blood flow (MBF) in coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MBF was measured with (15)O-labelled H2O and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) at rest and after supine bicycle exercise in controls (n = 15, mean a...

  6. Caffeine Impairs Myocardial Blood Flow Response to Physical Exercise in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease as well as in Age-Matched Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Namdar; Tiziano Schepis; Pascal Koepfli; Oliver Gaemperli; Siegrist, Patrick T.; Renate Grathwohl; Ines Valenta; Raphael Delaloye; Michael Klainguti; Wyss, Christophe A.; Lüscher, Thomas F.; Kaufmann, Philipp A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed pharmacologically active substances. Its acute effect on myocardial blood flow is widely unknown. Our aim was to assess the acute effect of caffeine in a dose corresponding to two cups of coffee on myocardial blood flow (MBF) in coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MBF was measured with (15)O-labelled H2O and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) at rest and after supine bicycle exercise in controls (n = 15, mean a...

  7. Local blood pressure associates with the degree of luminal stenosis in patients with atherosclerotic disease in the middle cerebral artery

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yuanliang; Peng, Wenjia; Teng, Zhongzhao; Gillard, Jonathan H.; Hong, Bo; Liu, Qi; Lu, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism underlying atherosclerotic ischemic events within the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is unclear. High structural stress induced by blood pressure might be a potential aetiology as plaque rupture occurs when such mechanical loading exceeds its material strength. To perform reliable analyses quantifying the mechanical loading within a plaque, the local blood pressure is needed. However, data on MCA blood pressure is currently lacking. In this study, the arterial pressure proximal to...

  8. A potent oral P-selectin blocking agent improves microcirculatory blood flow and a marker of endothelial cell injury in patients with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlar, Abdullah; Ataga, Kenneth I; McMahon, Lillian; Howard, Joanna; Galacteros, Frederic; Hagar, Ward; Vichinsky, Elliott; Cheung, Anthony T W; Matsui, Neil; Embury, Stephen H

    2012-05-01

    Abnormal blood flow accounts for most of the clinical morbidity of sickle cell disease (SCD) [1,2]. Most notably, occlusion of flow in the microvasculature causes the acute pain crises [3] that are the commonest cause for patients with SCD to seek medical attention [4] and major determinants of their quality of life [5]. Based on evidence that endothelial P-selectin is central to the abnormal blood flow in SCD we provide results from four of our studies that are germane to microvascular blood flow in SCD. A proof-of-principle study established that doses of heparin lower than what are used for anticoagulation but sufficient to block P-selectin improved microvascular blood flow inpatients with SCD. An in vitro study showed that Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium (PPS) had greater P-selectin blocking activity than heparin. A Phase I clinical study demonstrated that a single oral dose of PPS increased microvascular blood flow in patients with SCD. A Phase II clinical study that was not completed documented that daily oral doses of PPS administered for 8 weeks lowered plasma levels of sVCAM-1 and tended to improve microvascular blood flow in patients with SCD. These data support the concept that P-selectin on the microvascular endothelium is critical to both acute vascular occlusion and chronically impaired microvascular blood flow in SCD. They also demonstrate that oral PPS is beneficial to microvascular sickle cell blood flow and has potential as an efficacious agent for long-term prophylactic therapy of SCD.

  9. Association of systolic blood pressure drop with intravenous administration of itraconazole in children with hemato-oncologic disease

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    Lee HJ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyeong Jin Lee,1,* Bongjin Lee,2,* June Dong Park,2 Hyung Joo Jeong,2 Yu Hyeon Choi,2 Hee Young Ju,1 Che Ry Hong,1 Ji Won Lee,1 Hyery Kim,1 Dong In Suh,3 Kyung Duk Park,1 Hyoung Jin Kang,1 Hee Young Shin,1 Hyo Seop Ahn1 1Department of Pediatrics, Cancer Research Institute, 2Division of Pediatric Intensive Care, Department of Pediatrics, 3Division of Pulmonology, Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Although few adverse effects have been reported for itraconazole, a widely used antifungal therapy for febrile neutropenia, we found intravenous (IV itraconazole to be associated with serious cases of blood pressure (BP drop. We therefore evaluated the incidence and risk factors for BP drop during IV administration of the drug.Materials and methods: We reviewed the medical records of children with hemato-oncologic disease who were treated with IV itraconazole from January 2012 to December 2013. By analyzing systolic BP (SBP measurements made from 4 hours before through to 4 hours after itraconazole administration, we evaluated the changes in SBP and the risk factors for an SBP drop, especially clinically meaningful (≥20% drops.Results: Itraconazole was administered 2,627 times to 180 patients. The SBP during the 4 hours following itraconazole administration was lower than during the 4 hours before administration (104 [53.0–160.33 mmHg] versus 105 [59.8–148.3 mmHg]; P<0.001. The decrease in SBP was associated with the application of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT (P=0.012 and the use of inotropic (P=0.005 and hypotensive drugs (P=0.021. A clinically meaningful SBP drop was seen in 5.37% (141 out of 2,627 of the administrations, and the use of inotropics (odds ratio [OR] 6.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.22–13.92; P<0.001, reducing the dose of inotropics (OR 8.08; 95% CI 1.39–46.94; P=0

  10. Short-Term Blood Pressure Variability Relates to the Presence of Subclinical Brain Small Vessel Disease in Primary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filomena, Josefina; Riba-Llena, Iolanda; Vinyoles, Ernest; Tovar, José L; Mundet, Xavier; Castañé, Xavier; Vilar, Andrea; López-Rueda, Antonio; Jiménez-Baladó, Joan; Cartanyà, Anna; Montaner, Joan; Delgado, Pilar

    2015-09-01

    Blood pressure (BP) variability is associated with stroke risk, but less is known about subclinical cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). We aimed to determine whether CSVD relates to short-term BP variability independently of BP levels and also, whether they improve CSVD discrimination beyond clinical variables and office BP levels. This was a cohort study on asymptomatic hypertensives who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Office and average 24-hour, daytime and nighttime BP levels, and several metrics of BP variability (SD, weighted SD, coefficient of variation, and average real variability [ARV]) were calculated. Definition of CSVD was based on the presence of lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensity grades. Multivariate analysis and integrated discrimination improvement were performed to assess whether BP variability and levels were independently associated with CSVD and improved its discrimination. Four hundred eighty-seven individuals participated (median age, 64; 47% women). CSVD was identified in 18.9%, related to age, male sex, diabetes mellitus, use of treatment, ambulatory BP monitoring-defined BP levels, and ARV of systolic BP at any period. The highest prevalence (33.7%) was found in subjects with both 24-hour BP levels and ARV elevated. BP levels at any period and ARV (24 hours and nocturnal) emerged as independent predictors of CSVD, and discrimination was incrementally improved although not to a clinically significant extent (integrated discrimination improvement, 5.31%, 5.17% to 5.4%). Ambulatory BP monitoring-defined BP levels and ARV of systolic BP relate to subclinical CSVD in hypertensive individuals.

  11. Acute post-exercise change in blood pressure and exercise training response in patients with coronary artery disease

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    Antti M Kiviniemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that acute post-exercise change in blood pressure (BP may predict exercise training responses in BP in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. Patients with CAD (n=116, age 62±5 years, 85 men underwent BP assessments at rest and during 10-min recovery following a symptom-limited exercise test before and after the 6-month training intervention (one strength and 3-4 aerobic moderate-intensity exercises weekly. Post-exercise change in systolic BP (SBP was calculated by subtracting resting SBP from lowest post-exercise SBP. The training-induced change in resting SBP was -2±13 mmHg (p=0.064, ranging from -42 to 35 mmHg. Larger post-exercise decrease in SBP and baseline resting SBP predicted a larger training-induced decrement in SBP (β=0.46 and β=-0.44, respectively, p<0.001 for both. Acute post-exercise decrease in SBP provided additive value to baseline resting SBP in the prediction of training-induced change in resting SBP (R squared from 0.20 to 0.26, p=0.002. After further adjustments for other potential confounders (sex, age, baseline body mass index, realized training load, post-exercise decrease in SBP still predicted the training response in resting SBP (β=0.26, p=0.015. Acute post-exercise change in SBP was associated with training-induced change in resting SBP in patients with CAD, providing significant predictive information beyond baseline resting SBP.

  12. Mycolactone diffuses into the peripheral blood of Buruli ulcer patients--implications for diagnosis and disease monitoring.

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    Fred S Sarfo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer (BU, is unique among human pathogens in its capacity to produce a polyketide-derived macrolide called mycolactone, making this molecule an attractive candidate target for diagnosis and disease monitoring. Whether mycolactone diffuses from ulcerated lesions in clinically accessible samples and is modulated by antibiotic therapy remained to be established. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Peripheral blood and ulcer exudates were sampled from patients at various stages of antibiotic therapy in Ghana and Ivory Coast. Total lipids were extracted from serum, white cell pellets and ulcer exudates with organic solvents. The presence of mycolactone in these extracts was then analyzed by a recently published, field-friendly method using thin layer chromatography and fluorescence detection. This approach did not allow us to detect mycolactone accurately, because of a high background due to co-extracted human lipids. We thus used a previously established approach based on high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. By this means, we could identify structurally intact mycolactone in ulcer exudates and serum of patients, and evaluate the impact of antibiotic treatment on the concentration of mycolactone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides the proof of concept that assays based on mycolactone detection in serum and ulcer exudates can form the basis of BU diagnostic tests. However, the identification of mycolactone required a technology that is not compatible with field conditions and point-of-care assays for mycolactone detection remain to be worked out. Notably, we found mycolactone in ulcer exudates harvested at the end of antibiotic therapy, suggesting that the toxin is eliminated by BU patients at a slow rate. Our results also indicated that mycolactone titres in the serum may reflect a positive response to antibiotics, a possibility that it will be

  13. Association of EEG, MRI, and regional blood flow biomarkers is predictive of prodromal Alzheimer’s disease

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    Moretti DV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Davide Vito Moretti IRCCS S Giovanni di Dio Fatebenefratelli, Brescia, Italy Background: Thinning in the temporoparietal cortex, hippocampal atrophy, and a lower regional blood perfusion is connected with prodromal stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Of note, an increase of electroencephalography (EEG upper/low alpha frequency power ratio has also been associated with these major landmarks of prodromal AD.Methods: Clinical and neuropsychological assessment, EEG recording, and high-resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging were done in 74 grown up subjects with mild cognitive impairment. This information was gathered and has been assessed 3 years postliminary. EEG recording and perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography assessment was done in 27 subjects. Alpha3/alpha2 frequency power ratio, including cortical thickness, was figured for every subject. Contrasts in cortical thickness among the groups were assessed. Pearson’s r relationship coefficient was utilized to evaluate the quality of the relationship between cortical thinning, brain perfusion, and EEG markers.Results: The higher alpha3/alpha2 frequency power ratio group corresponded with more prominent cortical decay and a lower perfusional rate in the temporoparietal cortex. In a subsequent meetup after 3 years, these patients had AD.Conclusion: High EEG upper/low alpha power ratio was connected with cortical diminishing and lower perfusion in the temporoparietal brain area. The increase in EEG upper/low alpha frequency power ratio could be helpful in recognizing people in danger of conversion to AD dementia and this may be quality information in connection with clinical assessment. Keywords: electroencephalography, mild cognitive impairment, hippocampal volume, brain rhythms, biomarkers

  14. MD/DPD Multiscale Framework for Predicting Morphology and Stresses of Red Blood Cells in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung-Yu; Li, Xuejin; Li, He; Karniadakis, George Em

    2016-01-01

    Healthy red blood cells (RBCs) have remarkable deformability, squeezing through narrow capillaries as small as 3 microns in diameter without any damage. However, in many hematological disorders the spectrin network and lipid bilayer of diseased RBCs may be significantly altered, leading to impaired functionality including loss of deformability. We employ a two-component whole-cell multiscale model to quantify the biomechanical characteristics of the healthy and diseased RBCs, including Plasmodium falciparum-infected RBCs (Pf-RBCs) and defective RBCs in hereditary disorders, such as spherocytosis and elliptocytosis. In particular, we develop a two-step multiscale framework based on coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to predict the static and dynamic responses of RBCs subject to tensile forcing, using experimental information only on the structural defects in the lipid bilayer, cytoskeleton, and their interaction. We first employ CGMD on a small RBC patch to compute the shear modulus, bending stiffness, and network parameters, which are subsequently used as input to a whole-cell DPD model to predict the RBC shape and corresponding stress field. For Pf-RBCs at trophozoite and schizont stages, the presence of cytoadherent knobs elevates the shear response in the lipid bilayer and stiffens the RBC membrane. For RBCs in spherocytosis and elliptocytosis, the bilayer-cytoskeleton interaction is weakened, resulting in substantial increase of the tensile stress in the lipid bilayer. Furthermore, we investigate the transient behavior of stretching deformation and shape relaxation of the normal and defective RBCs. Different from the normal RBCs possessing high elasticity, our simulations reveal that the defective RBCs respond irreversibly, i.e., they lose their ability to recover the normal biconcave shape in successive loading cycles of stretching and relaxation. Our findings provide fundamental insights into the microstructure

  15. Dopamine Agonists Exert Nurr1-inducing Effect in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Patients with Parkinson's Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Min Zhang; Cong-Cong Sun; Ming-Shu Mo; Luan Cen; Lei Wei; Fei-Fei Luo; Yi Li

    2015-01-01

    Background:Nurr1 plays an essential role in the development,survival,and function maintenance ofmidbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons,and it is a potential target for Parkinson's disease (PD).Nurr1 mRNA can be detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs),but whether there is any association of altered Nurr1 expression in PBMC with the disease and DA drug treatments remains elusive.This study aimed to measure the Nurrl mRNA level in PBMC and evaluate the effect of Nurr1 expression by DA agents in vivo and in vitro.Methods:The mRNA levels of Nurrl in PBMC of four subgroups of 362 PD patients and 193 healthy controls (HCs) using real-time polymerase chain reaction were measured.The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test were performed to evaluate the differences between PD and HC,as well as the subgroups of PD.Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the independent association of Nurr1 expression with Hoehn and Yahr scale,age,and drug treatments.Besides,the Nurr1 expression in cultured PBMC was measured to determine whether DA agonist pramipexole affects its mRNA level.Results:The relative Nurr1 mRNA levels in DA agonists treated subgroup were significant higher than those in recent-onset cases without any anti-PD treatments (de novo) (P < 0.001) and HC groups (P < 0.010),respectively.Furthermore,the increase in Nurr1 mRNA expression was seen in DA agonist and L-dopa group.Multivariate linear regression showed DA agonists,L-dopa,and DA agonists were independent predictors correlated with Nurrl mRNA expression level in PBMC.In vitro,in the cultured PBMC treated with 10 μmol/L pramipexole,the Nurr1 mRNA levels were significantly increased by 99.61%,71.75%,73.16% in 2,4,and 8 h,respectively (P < 0.001).Conclusions:DA agonists can induce Nurr1 expression in PBMC,and such effect may contribute to DA agonists-mediated neuroprotection on DA neurons.

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin ...

  17. Treatment of foot disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells: response and correction of immunological anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Yan; Zheng, Zhao-Hui; Li, Xue-Yi; Guo, Jian; Zhang, Yan; Li, Hui; Wang, Yang-Wei; Ren, Jun; Wu, Zhen-Biao

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the distribution of Tregs/Th17/Th1 cells in type 2 diabetic patients with foot disease before and after human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cell (hUCB-MSCs) transplantation. Fifteen diabetic patients with foot disease under insulin therapy received hUCB-MSC transplantation. The hUCB-MSCs were directly injected into the quadriceps thigh muscles in patients with foot disease (cell quantity at 2 x 10⁶ per point). Physical attributes, blood cytokines, blood glucose and insulin dosage were evaluated before treatment and 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks thereafter. The ratios of Treg/Th17, Treg/Th1, and Th17/Th1 cells were measured using flow cytometry and their correlation with various cytokines (FoxP3, IL-17, INF-γ, C-RP, TNF-α, and VEGF) was scrutinized. Levels of blood glucose and insulin dosage were significantly reduced in all 15 patients following hUCB-MSC transplantation. The ratios of CD4⁺CD25(hi)FoxP3⁺ Treg/Th17 and CD4⁺CD25(hi)FoxP3⁺ Treg/Th1 cells were significantly increased 4 weeks after transplantation (p cells remained unchanged. Serum levels of VEGF peaked at 4 weeks following transplantation. Levels of C-RP and TNF-α were significantly reduced 4 weeks after transplantation. Intriguingly, the ratios of Treg/Th17 were positively correlated with VEGF levels, and were inversely correlated with plasma IL-6 levels. Our data indicated that immune disorders are associated with the development of type 2 diabetes and its complications. Levels of blood glucose and required insulin dosage were reduced after hUCB-MSC transplantation accompanied with improved clinical profiles in diabetic patients. These data favor a role for Treg cells in the onset and progression of T2D.

  18. Effect of Age on Blood Rheology in Sickle Cell Anaemia and Sickle Cell Haemoglobin C Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Céline Renoux

    Full Text Available Blood rheology plays a key role in the pathophysiology of sickle cell anaemia (SS and sickle cell haemoglobin C disease (SC, but its evolution over the lifespan is unknown.Blood viscosity, red blood cell (RBC deformability and aggregation, foetal haemoglobin (HbF and haematocrit were measured in 114 healthy individuals (AA, 267 SS (161 children + 106 adults and 138 SC (74 children + 64 adults patients.Our results showed that 1 RBC deformability is at its maximal value during the early years of life in SS and SC populations, mainly because HbF level is also at its peak, 2 during childhood and adulthood, hydroxycarbamide treatment, HbF level and gender modulated RBC deformability in SS patients, independently of age, 3 blood viscosity is higher in older SS and SC patients compared to younger ones and 4 haematocrit decreases as SS patients age.The hemorheological changes detected in older patients could play a role in the progressive development of several chronic disorders in sickle cell disease, whose prevalence increases with age. Retarding these age-related haemorheological impairments, by using suitable drugs, may minimize the risks of vaso-occlusive events and chronic disorders.

  19. Effect of Age on Blood Rheology in Sickle Cell Anaemia and Sickle Cell Haemoglobin C Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoux, Céline; Romana, Marc; Joly, Philippe; Ferdinand, Séverine; Faes, Camille; Lemonne, Nathalie; Skinner, Sarah; Garnier, Nathalie; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Bertrand, Yves; Petras, Marie; Cannas, Giovanna; Divialle-Doumdo, Lydia; Nader, Elie; Cuzzubbo, Daniela; Lamarre, Yann; Gauthier, Alexandra; Waltz, Xavier; Kebaili, Kamila; Martin, Cyril; Hot, Arnaud; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Pialoux, Vincent; Connes, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Blood rheology plays a key role in the pathophysiology of sickle cell anaemia (SS) and sickle cell haemoglobin C disease (SC), but its evolution over the lifespan is unknown. Materials and Methods Blood viscosity, red blood cell (RBC) deformability and aggregation, foetal haemoglobin (HbF) and haematocrit were measured in 114 healthy individuals (AA), 267 SS (161 children + 106 adults) and 138 SC (74 children + 64 adults) patients. Results Our results showed that 1) RBC deformability is at its maximal value during the early years of life in SS and SC populations, mainly because HbF level is also at its peak, 2) during childhood and adulthood, hydroxycarbamide treatment, HbF level and gender modulated RBC deformability in SS patients, independently of age, 3) blood viscosity is higher in older SS and SC patients compared to younger ones and 4) haematocrit decreases as SS patients age. Conclusion The hemorheological changes detected in older patients could play a role in the progressive development of several chronic disorders in sickle cell disease, whose prevalence increases with age. Retarding these age-related haemorheological impairments, by using suitable drugs, may minimize the risks of vaso-occlusive events and chronic disorders. PMID:27355589

  20. Cytokine Response to Antigen Stimulation of Whole Blood from Patients with Mycobacterium ulcerans Disease Compared to That from Patients with Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, R; Horsfield, C.; Kuijper, S.; Sarfo, S. F.; Obeng-Baah, J.; Etuaful, S.; Nyamekye, B.; Awuah, P.; Nyarko, K M; Osei-Sarpong, F.; Lucas, S.; Kolk, A. H. J.; Wansbrough-Jones, M.

    2006-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans disease (Buruli ulcer) is a skin-ulcerating infection common in some parts of the tropics. We have investigated cytokine secretion after stimulation of whole blood from Buruli ulcer (BU) patients in a region of endemicity in Ghana with M. ulcerans sonicate or culture filtrate antigens to investigate the development of the response over time and its specificity by comparison with the response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis sonicate in human immunodeficiency virus-negative...

  1. Phenobarbital and Phototherapy Combination Enhances Decline of Total Serum Bilirubin and May Decrease the Need for Blood Exchange Transfusion in Newborns with Isoimmune Hemolytic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud A.F. Kaabneh; Ghassan S. A. Salama; Ayoub G.A Shakkoury; Ibrahim M. H. Al-abdallah; Afrah Alshamari; Ruba A.A. Halaseh

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of phenobarbital and phototherapy combination on the total serum bilirubin of the newborn infants with isoimmune hemolytic disease (IHD) and its impact on blood exchange transfusion rates. PATIENTS AND METHOD This single-blinded, prospective, randomized, controlled trial was conducted between March 2013 and December 2014 at the pediatric ward of two Military Hospitals in Jordan. A total of 200 full-term neonates with IHD were di...

  2. 冠心病患者血压和血脂及血糖达标率分析%Analysis of the rates of achieving goal blood pressure, blood sugar and blood lipid in patients with coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳芳; 曹芳芳; 曹晓菁; 师树田; 刘飞; 王兆宏; 蒋志丽

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyse the rates of achieving goal blood pressure, blood glucose and blood lipid in patients with CAD which was diagnosed by coronary arteriography and to explore the relationships between CAD and rates of reaching guidelines of the three risk factors, respectively. Methods The levels of blood pressure, blood sugar and blood lipid on admission were analyzed retrospectively in 2916 cases of CAD, and the level of blood pressure was analyzed when they were discharged. Results With 130/80 mm Hg as the goal blood pressure,the rate of achieving goal blood pressure was 28. 4% on admission,and was 87.5% when they were discharged. With 140/90 mm Hg as the goal blood pressure, the rate of achieving goal blood pressure was 65.8% on admission,and was 90.0% when they were discharged. With >1.04 mmol/L as the goal HDL-C,the rate of achieving goal HDL-C was 23.0% on admission. With <2.59 mmol/L and 2.07 mmol/L as the goal LDL-C in high risk patients and very high risk patients respectively, the rates of achieving goal LDL-C were 54. 3% and 17.4% respectively. With <4. 14 mmol/L and <3.11 mmol/L as the goal TC in high risk and very high risk patients,respectively,the rates of achieving goal TC were 49.5% and 5.8% respectively. With 1.70 mmol/L as the goal TG,the rate of achieving goal TG was 58.0%. There were 538 diabetic patients with CAD,accounting for 18.5 % ,their rates of achieving goal fasting blood glucose was 1.9 %, 1138 cases had diabetes and impaired fasting blood glucose,accounting for 39.0% in CAD. Conclusion The rates of achieving goal blood pressure,fasting blood glucose and blood lipids in patients with CAD were low on admission. The results show that enhancing the rates of achieving goal blood pressure, goal fasting blood glucose and goal blood lipids is very important for secondary prevention of CAD.%目的 分析经冠状动脉造影诊断为冠心病患者的血压、血脂和血糖达标率情况,评价其3个危

  3. Relationship of daily arterial blood pressure monitoring readings and arterial stiffness profile in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease combined with arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoli N.A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine correlation between arterial blood pressure daily rhythm and daily profile of arterial stiffness in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and arterial hypertension. Materials et methods: Prospective investigation comprised 45 male patients with COPD and arterial hypertension. Individuals of 40 years younger and 80 years elder, patients with diabetes, stroke, angina pectoris, or heart infarction, vascular diseases, and exacerbation of chronic disease, bronchial and pulmonary diseases of other etiology were excluded from the analyses. Comparison group included 47 patients with essential arterial hypertension and without chronic respiratory diseases closely similar on general parameters with patients from main clinical series. Twenty-four-hour arterial blood pressure monitoring (ABPM and daily arterial stiffness monitoring were performed using BPLab® MnSDP-2 apparatus (Petr Telegin, Russian Federation. Results: Patients with COPD combined with arterial hypertension with raised arterial stiffness measures prevail over individuals in essential hypertension group. There is pathological alteration of the ABPM circadian rhythm and raised «Pressure load» values in raised arterial stiffness group. Conclusion: We found ABPM raised parameters in patients with COPD and arterial hypertension. It confirms necessity of ABPM in daily arterial stiffness assessment in patients with COPD.

  4. The added value of peripheral blood cell morphology in the diagnosis and management of infectious diseases--part 1: basic concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokocimer, M; Potasman, I

    2008-11-01

    As automated blood cell analysers and sophisticated diagnostic technologies become widespread, requests for peripheral blood smear (PBS) examination--for the diagnosis of infectious diseases--diminish. Yet, PBS examination can provide rapid and invaluable information on infection--host susceptibility, aetiology, severity, and systemic impact. Besides direct visualisation of certain microorganisms (for example, Plasmodium, Ehrlichia), PBS examination may detect characteristic footprints left by various infections on the morphology of blood cells, thus yielding the cytologic clues of the disease (for example, Döhle bodies, haemophagocytosis). Additionally, PBS examination may disclose certain infection predisposing conditions (for example, May-Hegglin anomaly, hyposplenism), and several infection related haematological and systemic complications. Combined with a careful medical history and physical examination data, all this information may yield a speedy diagnosis, a rationalised diagnostic work-up, and timely initiation of treatment. The intention of the following review is to highlight the value of PBS, and recommend that PBS examination should be fostered in the diagnostic work-up of infectious diseases. PMID:19103815

  5. Dose-response association of uncontrolled blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk factors with hyperuricemia and gout.

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    Stephen P Juraschek

    Full Text Available First-line therapy of hypertension includes diuretics, known to exert a multiplicative increase on the risk of gout. Detailed insight into the underlying prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout in persons with uncontrolled blood pressure (BP and common comorbidities is informative to practitioners initiating antihypertensive agents. We quantify the prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout in persons with uncontrolled BP and additional cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors.We performed a cross-sectional study of non-institutionalized US adults, 18 years and older, using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys in 1988-1994 and 1999-2010. Hyperuricemia was defined as serum uric acid >6.0 mg/dL in women; >7.0 mg/dL in men. Gout was ascertained by self-report of physician-diagnosed gout. Uncontrolled BP was based on measured systolic BP≥140 mmHg and diastolic BP≥90 mmHg. Additional CVD risk factors included obesity, reduced glomerular filtration rate, and dyslipidemia. The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 6-8% among healthy US adults, 10-15% among adults with uncontrolled BP, 22-25% with uncontrolled BP and one additional CVD risk factor, and 34-37% with uncontrolled BP and two additional CVD risk factors. Similarly, the prevalence of gout was successively greater, at 1-2%, 4-5%, 6-8%, and 8-12%, respectively, across these same health status categories. In 2007-2010, those with uncontrolled BP and 2 additional CVD risk factors compared to those without CVD risk factors had prevalence ratios of 4.5 (95% CI 3.5-5.6 and 4.5 (95% CI: 3.1-6.3 for hyperuricemia and gout respectively (P<0.01.Health care providers should be cognizant of the incrementally higher prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout among patients with uncontrolled BP and additional CVD risk factors. With one in three people affected by hyperuricemia among those with several CVD risk factors, physicians should consider their anti-hypertensive regimens carefully and potentially

  6. Administration-time-dependent effects of hypertension treatment on ambulatory blood pressure in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Juan J; Piñeiro, Luis; Otero, Alfonso; Castiñeira, Carmen; Ríos, María T; Regueiro, Antonio; Mojón, Artemio; Lorenzo, Sonia; Ayala, Diana E; Hermida, Ramón C

    2013-03-01

    Many published prospective trials have reported clinically meaningful morning-evening, treatment-time differences in the blood pressure (BP)-lowering efficacy, duration of action, and safety of most classes of hypertension medications. Most important, it was recently documented that routine ingestion of the full daily dose of ≥1 hypertension medications at bedtime, compared with ingestion of all of them upon awakening, significantly reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Nocturnal hypertension and non-dipping (hypertension treatment time on the circadian BP pattern and degree of BP control of hypertensive patients with CKD evaluated by 48-h ABPM. This cross-sectional study evaluated 2659 such patients (1585 men/1074 women), 64.9 ± 13.2 (mean ± SD) yrs of age, enrolled in the Hygia Project, involving primary care centers of northwest Spain and designed to evaluate prospectively CVD risk by ABPM; 1446 were ingesting all BP-lowering medications upon awakening, whereas 1213 patients were ingesting ≥1 medications at bedtime. Among the latter, 359 patients were ingesting all medications at bedtime, whereas 854 were ingesting the full daily dose of some medications upon awakening and the others at bedtime. Those ingesting all medications upon awakening had significantly higher total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol than those ingesting ≥1 medications at bedtime. Moreover, patients ingesting all medications at bedtime had the lowest fasting glucose, serum creatinine, and uric acid. Ingestion of ≥1 medications at bedtime was significantly associated with lower asleep systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP means than treatment with all medications upon awakening. The sleep-time relative SBP decline was significantly attenuated in patients ingesting all medications upon awakening (p hypertension medications were ingested upon awakening (68.3%) than when ≥1 of them was ingested at bedtime (54.2%; p hypertension medications

  7. Analysis of Arterial Blood Gas Report in Chronic Kidney Diseases – Comparison between Bedside and Multistep Systematic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhat, Vaishali; Tilak, Mona A; Roy, Indranath

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acid Base Disorders (ABDs) are commonly encountered in critically ill Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients. Timely and correct analysis of Arterial Blood Gases (ABG) is critical for the diagnosis, treatment and prediction of outcome of the patients. Aim The aim was to explore type and prevalence of ABDs in 31 critically ill CKD patients from a tertiary care hospital in Maharashtra, to compare two methods of analysis- bedside and systematic approaches and to clinically correlate the nature of ABDs in these patients. Materials and Methods The initial ABG reports of 31 consecutive CKD patients were analysed by two methods. Medica Easy stat analyser was the equipment for analysis with Principle of potentiometry and ion selective electrode for pH and pCO2 and amperometry for pO2. Serum albumin was also measured by Bromocresol green dye binding method using liquixx albumin kit in Erba XL 300 autoanalyser. Statistical Analysis Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis using Epi Info version 3.5.4 and SPSS 14.0 softwares. Results The systematic method showed a significantly higher prevalence of mixed disorders (50%) compared to bedside method (12.9%). Most prevalent disorder by bedside method was metabolic acidosis in 15 cases (48.39%). By the systematic method, 3 reports were invalid. As a single category, most prevalent type was both simple respiratory alkalosis and mixed metabolic acidosis with respiratory alkalosis- 6 of 31 cases in each type (19.36% each). As a whole, metabolic acidosis (including both High Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis or HAGMA and Non Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis or NAGMA with 4 in each type) was most prevalent- 8 of 31(25.8%). Conclusion Systematic approach was more effective in diagnosing mixed acid base disorders. By systematic method the findings of analysis in most cases could be correlated with the clinical condition and provisional diagnosis. Thus interpretation of ABDs by using stepwise approach could be useful to the

  8. The Levels of Blood Uric Acid in Parkinsonˊs Disease%帕金森病患者血尿酸水平分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马兆雷; 焦玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the blood uric acid levels of patients with Parkinsonˊs disease. Methods:The level of blood uric acid was compared between 71 PD patients( PD group)and 79 healthy patients( control group ). The PD disease progression was assessed by Hoehn-Yahr( H-Y ) scale. PD group was divided into 3 subgroups according to H-Y scales:earlier stage,mid-term stage and terminal stage. The level of blood uric acid was compared among 3 subgroups and between differ-ent genders. Results:The average level of blood uric acid in PD group was significantly lower than that in control group( P﹤0 . 05 ). The blood uric acid levels of male and female in PD group were sig-nificantly lower than their counterparts in control group. The blood uric acid level of male PD patients was higher than that of female PD patients( P﹤0 . 05 ). There were no significant difference in blood uric acid level between female PD patient in earlier stage and in mid-term stage( P﹥0 . 05 ),but blood uric acid level in earlier stage,mid-term stage was significantly higher than that in terminal stage( P﹤0. 05). In male PD patients,as the disease got worse,blood uric acid level was gradually decreased, and there was statistical significance between different stages( P﹤0 . 05 ). Conclusion:Blood uric acid level may be an important biological index of Parkinson disease.%目的:观察帕金森病( PD)患者血尿酸水平。方法:比较71例帕金森病患者( PD组)和79例健康体检者(对照组)的血尿酸水平,并比较早、中、晚期及不同性别PD患者的血尿酸水平。结果:PD组血尿酸水平低于健康对照组(P﹤0.05),男性和女性PD组血尿酸水平均低于对应的健康对照组(P﹤0.05);男性PD患者血尿酸水平低于女性PD患者血尿酸水平( P﹤0.05);早期和中期女性PD患者血尿酸水平间差异无统计学意义( P﹥0.05),但均高于晚期患者,差异具有统计学意义( P﹤0.05)

  9. Large-Scale Exome-wide Association Analysis Identifies Loci for White Blood Cell Traits and Pleiotropy with Immune-Mediated Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajuddin, Salman M; Schick, Ursula M; Eicher, John D; Chami, Nathalie; Giri, Ayush; Brody, Jennifer A; Hill, W David; Kacprowski, Tim; Li, Jin; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Manichaikul, Ani; Mihailov, Evelin; O'Donoghue, Michelle L; Pankratz, Nathan; Pazoki, Raha; Polfus, Linda M; Smith, Albert Vernon; Schurmann, Claudia; Vacchi-Suzzi, Caterina; Waterworth, Dawn M; Evangelou, Evangelos; Yanek, Lisa R; Burt, Amber; Chen, Ming-Huei; van Rooij, Frank J A; Floyd, James S; Greinacher, Andreas; Harris, Tamara B; Highland, Heather M; Lange, Leslie A; Liu, Yongmei; Mägi, Reedik; Nalls, Mike A; Mathias, Rasika A; Nickerson, Deborah A; Nikus, Kjell; Starr, John M; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Velez Edwards, Digna R; Wallentin, Lars; Bartz, Traci M; Becker, Lewis C; Denny, Joshua C; Raffield, Laura M; Rioux, John D; Friedrich, Nele; Fornage, Myriam; Gao, He; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Liewald, David C M; Rich, Stephen S; Uitterlinden, Andre; Bastarache, Lisa; Becker, Diane M; Boerwinkle, Eric; de Denus, Simon; Bottinger, Erwin P; Hayward, Caroline; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Lange, Ethan; Launer, Lenore J; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lu, Yingchang; Metspalu, Andres; O'Donnell, Chris J; Quarells, Rakale C; Richard, Melissa; Torstenson, Eric S; Taylor, Kent D; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Zonderman, Alan B; Crosslin, David R; Deary, Ian J; Dörr, Marcus; Elliott, Paul; Evans, Michele K; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kähönen, Mika; Psaty, Bruce M; Rotter, Jerome I; Slater, Andrew J; Dehghan, Abbas; White, Harvey D; Ganesh, Santhi K; Loos, Ruth J F; Esko, Tõnu; Faraday, Nauder; Wilson, James G; Cushman, Mary; Johnson, Andrew D; Edwards, Todd L; Zakai, Neil A; Lettre, Guillaume; Reiner, Alex P; Auer, Paul L

    2016-07-01

    White blood cells play diverse roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Genetic association analyses of phenotypic variation in circulating white blood cell (WBC) counts from large samples of otherwise healthy individuals can provide insights into genes and biologic pathways involved in production, differentiation, or clearance of particular WBC lineages (myeloid, lymphoid) and also potentially inform the genetic basis of autoimmune, allergic, and blood diseases. We performed an exome array-based meta-analysis of total WBC and subtype counts (neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, basophils, and eosinophils) in a multi-ancestry discovery and replication sample of ∼157,622 individuals from 25 studies. We identified 16 common variants (8 of which were coding variants) associated with one or more WBC traits, the majority of which are pleiotropically associated with autoimmune diseases. Based on functional annotation, these loci included genes encoding surface markers of myeloid, lymphoid, or hematopoietic stem cell differentiation (CD69, CD33, CD87), transcription factors regulating lineage specification during hematopoiesis (ASXL1, IRF8, IKZF1, JMJD1C, ETS2-PSMG1), and molecules involved in neutrophil clearance/apoptosis (C10orf54, LTA), adhesion (TNXB), or centrosome and microtubule structure/function (KIF9, TUBD1). Together with recent reports of somatic ASXL1 mutations among individuals with idiopathic cytopenias or clonal hematopoiesis of undetermined significance, the identification of a common regulatory 3' UTR variant of ASXL1 suggests that both germline and somatic ASXL1 mutations contribute to lower blood counts in otherwise asymptomatic individuals. These association results shed light on genetic mechanisms that regulate circulating WBC counts and suggest a prominent shared genetic architecture with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

  10. Large-Scale Exome-wide Association Analysis Identifies Loci for White Blood Cell Traits and Pleiotropy with Immune-Mediated Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajuddin, Salman M; Schick, Ursula M; Eicher, John D; Chami, Nathalie; Giri, Ayush; Brody, Jennifer A; Hill, W David; Kacprowski, Tim; Li, Jin; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Manichaikul, Ani; Mihailov, Evelin; O'Donoghue, Michelle L; Pankratz, Nathan; Pazoki, Raha; Polfus, Linda M; Smith, Albert Vernon; Schurmann, Claudia; Vacchi-Suzzi, Caterina; Waterworth, Dawn M; Evangelou, Evangelos; Yanek, Lisa R; Burt, Amber; Chen, Ming-Huei; van Rooij, Frank J A; Floyd, James S; Greinacher, Andreas; Harris, Tamara B; Highland, Heather M; Lange, Leslie A; Liu, Yongmei; Mägi, Reedik; Nalls, Mike A; Mathias, Rasika A; Nickerson, Deborah A; Nikus, Kjell; Starr, John M; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Velez Edwards, Digna R; Wallentin, Lars; Bartz, Traci M; Becker, Lewis C; Denny, Joshua C; Raffield, Laura M; Rioux, John D; Friedrich, Nele; Fornage, Myriam; Gao, He; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Liewald, David C M; Rich, Stephen S; Uitterlinden, Andre; Bastarache, Lisa; Becker, Diane M; Boerwinkle, Eric; de Denus, Simon; Bottinger, Erwin P; Hayward, Caroline; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Lange, Ethan; Launer, Lenore J; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lu, Yingchang; Metspalu, Andres; O'Donnell, Chris J; Quarells, Rakale C; Richard, Melissa; Torstenson, Eric S; Taylor, Kent D; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Zonderman, Alan B; Crosslin, David R; Deary, Ian J; Dörr, Marcus; Elliott, Paul; Evans, Michele K; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kähönen, Mika; Psaty, Bruce M; Rotter, Jerome I; Slater, Andrew J; Dehghan, Abbas; White, Harvey D; Ganesh, Santhi K; Loos, Ruth J F; Esko, Tõnu; Faraday, Nauder; Wilson, James G; Cushman, Mary; Johnson, Andrew D; Edwards, Todd L; Zakai, Neil A; Lettre, Guillaume; Reiner, Alex P; Auer, Paul L

    2016-07-01

    White blood cells play diverse roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Genetic association analyses of phenotypic variation in circulating white blood cell (WBC) counts from large samples of otherwise healthy individuals can provide insights into genes and biologic pathways involved in production, differentiation, or clearance of particular WBC lineages (myeloid, lymphoid) and also potentially inform the genetic basis of autoimmune, allergic, and blood diseases. We performed an exome array-based meta-analysis of total WBC and subtype counts (neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, basophils, and eosinophils) in a multi-ancestry discovery and replication sample of ∼157,622 individuals from 25 studies. We identified 16 common variants (8 of which were coding variants) associated with one or more WBC traits, the majority of which are pleiotropically associated with autoimmune diseases. Based on functional annotation, these loci included genes encoding surface markers of myeloid, lymphoid, or hematopoietic stem cell differentiation (CD69, CD33, CD87), transcription factors regulating lineage specification during hematopoiesis (ASXL1, IRF8, IKZF1, JMJD1C, ETS2-PSMG1), and molecules involved in neutrophil clearance/apoptosis (C10orf54, LTA), adhesion (TNXB), or centrosome and microtubule structure/function (KIF9, TUBD1). Together with recent reports of somatic ASXL1 mutations among individuals with idiopathic cytopenias or clonal hematopoiesis of undetermined significance, the identification of a common regulatory 3' UTR variant of ASXL1 suggests that both germline and somatic ASXL1 mutations contribute to lower blood counts in otherwise asymptomatic individuals. These association results shed light on genetic mechanisms that regulate circulating WBC counts and suggest a prominent shared genetic architecture with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. PMID:27346689

  11. Peripheral artery disease - legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if they have a history of: Abnormal cholesterol Diabetes Heart disease (coronary artery disease) High blood pressure ( hypertension ) Kidney disease involving hemodialysis Smoking Stroke ( cerebrovascular disease )

  12. 大便隐血与大肠疾病关系的研究%Research of the relationship between fecal occult blood and colorectal dis-ease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄珏; 田相龙; 宋冬霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between fecal occult blood and colorectal disease to indicate the role of fecal occult blood test in the diagnosis of colorectal diseases. Methods The fecal occult blood testing results of the pa-tients checked by colonoscopy in endoscopy room at Jiuting hospital of Songjiang District in Shanghai city from March 2012 to March 2014 were collected,and the relationship between fecal occult blood and colorectal disease was analyzed combined with the results of the colonoscopy. Results The positive rate of occult blood test in colorectal cancer, yspla-sia,inflammatory bowel disease,adenoma,non -adenomatous polyp,intestinal inflammatory and no abnormality was 83.33%,83.33%,66.67%,61.67%,39.22%,33.33%,6.16%respectively.The positive rate of occult blood in colorectal can-cer was respectively higher than non-adenomatous polyp,intestinal inflammatory,normal intestinal mucosa (P<0.05).The positive rate of occult blood in precancerous lesion (adenoma,dysplasia) was respectively higher than non-adenomatous polyp,intestinal inflammatory,normal intestinal mucosa (P<0.05). Conclusion Fecal occult blood has more important re-lationship with colorectal cancer and precancerous lesion,so it is very nessesary for fecal occult blood test for screening colorectal cancer and precancerous lesion early.%目的:研究大便隐血与大肠疾病的关系,说明大便隐血检测在大肠疾病诊断中的作用。方法收集2012年3月~2014年3月份在上海市松江区九亭医院内镜室行肠镜检查患者粪便隐血实验结果,并与肠镜检查结果结合分析粪便隐血与大肠疾病的关系。结果大便隐血在大肠癌、异型增生、炎症性肠病、腺瘤、非腺瘤息肉、肠道炎症及无异常中的阳性率分别为83.33%、83.33%、66.67%、61.67%、39.22%、33.33%、6.16%。大肠癌大便隐血阳性率分别高于非腺瘤息肉、肠道炎症、正常肠黏膜(P<0.05)。癌前病变(异型增生、腺瘤)大便

  13. Pathophysiology of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus disease in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri): early changes in blood and aspects of the immune Response after Injection of IHN Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, Donald F.; Smith, Lynnwood

    1974-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were injected with infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus and various hematological and blood chemical changes were monitored over 9 days. The packed cell volume, hemoglobin, red blood cell count, and plasma bicarbonate were significantly depressed by day 4. Plasma chloride, calcium, phosphorus, total protein, and blood cell types did not change during the 9 days. Furthermore, plasma  LDH isozyme was significantly increased by the fourth day, and fish infected with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, Vibrio anguillarum, Aeromonas salmonicida, and redmouth bacterium did not show specific LDH isozyme alterations. Acid-base alterations occurred at 10 C but not at 18 C. The acid-base imbalance and elevation of the  LDH isozyme were consistently associated with the early development of the disease.The immune response after injection of IHN virus was determined and protection from disease was tested by passive immunization. Actively immunized fish developed IHN-neutralizing antibodies within 54 days after injection of virus, and the antibodies were protective when juvenile fish were passively immunized and experimentally challenged with IHN virus.

  14. [Multiparameter analysis of the ergometric test. Significance of the failure of systolic blood pressure to decrease during recovery phase as an index of coronary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doria, G; Scaccianoce, G; Artale, S; Francaviglia, B; Platania, F; Circo, A

    1990-10-01

    Ergometric tests were performed in 27 patients who had previously undergone coronarography following instrumental findings and/or symptoms which seemed highly indicative of ischemic cardiopathy. The aim of the study was to assess the diagnostic importance of the failure of systolic blood pressure to decrease during the third minute of the recovery phase of the test as an index of coronary disease. In particular, as reported by other studies, the ratio between systolic blood pressure at the third minute of recovery and maximum systolic blood pressure during the test was also assessed values above 0.7 were considered pathological. Sixteen out the 27 patients examined showed lesions which were hemodynamically significant, whereas 11 patients were free of lesions and 9 had previous myocardial necrosis. The level of the above ratio in subjects without significant coronary lesions was 0.66 +/- 0.05, whereas it was 0.85 +/- 0.04 (p less than 0.01) in patients with coronary disease. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative prognostic values were respectively 91.6%, 62%, 64.7% and 90.9%. In patients with lesions to the three main arteries both the sensitivity and the specificity were 100%. In the same patients, the ST criteria were 85.7%, 50%, 81.8% and 74.3%. PMID:2074932

  15. Lower blood glucose and variability are associated with earlier recovery from renal injury caused by episodic urinary tract infection in advanced type 2 diabetic chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Fang Chiu

    Full Text Available In our previous study, type 2 diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD patients with glomerular filtration rates of 9 days, Group B groups. The differences in the continuous and categorical variables of the two groups were assessed separately. The mean glucose levels and their variability (using the standard deviation and the coefficient of standard deviation were compared at the fasting, midday pre-meal, evening pre-meal, and evening post-meal time points during hospitalization. We have organized the manuscript in a manner compliant with the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology statement.Acute kidney injury occurred within the two groups (p = 0.007 and p = 0.001, respectively. The early-morning blood glucose levels (149.7±44.0 mg/dL and average blood glucose levels (185.6±52.0 mg/dL were better in Group A (p = 0.01, p = 0.02. Group A patients also had lower glucose variability than Group B at the different time points (p<0.05. Group A also had earlier renal recovery. More relevant pathogens were identified from blood in Group B (p = 0.038.Early-morning fasting and mean blood glucose levels and their variability can be good indicators of severe infection and predictors of renal outcome in type 2 diabetic patients with CKD and UTI.

  16. Utility of point of care test devices for infectious disease testing of blood and oral fluid and application to rapid testing in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen R.; Kardos, Keith W.; Yearwood, Graham D.; Guillon, Geraldine B.; Kurtz, Lisa A.; Mokkapati, Vijaya K.

    2008-04-01

    Rapid, point of care (POC) testing has been increasingly deployed as an aid in the diagnosis of infectious disease, due to its ability to deliver rapid, actionable results. In the case of HIV, a number of rapid test devices have been FDA approved and CLIA-waived in order to enable diagnosis of HIV infection outside of traditional laboratory settings. These settings include STD clinics, community outreach centers and mobile testing units, as well as identifying HIV infection among pregnant women and managing occupational exposure to infection. The OraQuick ® rapid test platform has been widely used to identify HIV in POC settings, due to its simplicity, ease of use and the ability to utilize oral fluid as an alternative specimen to blood. More recently, a rapid test for antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been developed on the same test platform which uses serum, plasma, finger-stick blood, venous blood and oral fluid. Clinical testing using this POC test device has shown that performance is equivalent to state of the art, laboratory based tests. These devices may be suitable for rapid field testing of blood and other body fluids for the presence of infectious agents.

  17. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called homologous blood donation. Many communities have a blood bank at which any healthy person can donate blood. ... need to arrange with your hospital or local blood bank before your surgery to have directed donor blood. ...

  18. Benzodiazepine receptor and cerebral blood flow in early Alzheimer's disease. SPECT study using 123I-Iomazenil and 123I-IMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to investigate benzodiazepine receptors (BZR) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with early Alzheimer's disease. Imaging of BZR and measurement of CBF were performed by SPECT using 123I-Iomazenil (IMZ) and 123I-IMP respectively, in seven patients with early Alzheimer's disease and five patients with unilateral left cerebral infarction as controls. The values for the normal cerebral hemisphere (ratio to the contralateral cerebellum) in patients with cerebral infarction were adopted as control values. In patients with Alzheimer's disease, the CBF (ratio to cerebellum) decreased significantly in the frontal cortex and the parietal cortex compared with the control values. There was no significant difference in late IMZ SPECT counts (ratio to cerebellum) and washout (the ratio of late-to-early IMZ SPECT counts) between patients with Alzheimer's disease and the controls. However, the late IMZ SPECT counts and washout decreased in one patient with moderate dementia. There was a significant correlation between the severity of dementia and the late IMZ SPECT counts in the temporal cortex and the parietal cortex. These results suggest that benzodiazepine binding sites are relatively well preserved in patients with early Alzheimer's disease, and reduction of the CBF is caused by neuronal dysfunction rather than by neuronal loss. IMZ SPECT study is useful and necessary for clarifying the pathophysiological state in Alzheimer's disease. (author)

  19. Application of solid-phase radioimmunoassay in determining antibodies to Aujeszky's disease virus in blood serum of vaccinated pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodak, L.; Smid, B.; Valicek, L. (Vyzkumny Ustav Veterinarniho Lekarstvi, Brno-Medlanky (Czechoslovakia))

    1983-11-01

    In the blood sera of pigs vaccinated with inactivated vaccines manufactured by three different manufacturers the RIA method was used to determine the specific antibodies to the virus of Aujeszky's disease. In certain groups of vaccinated pigs the results of the RIA examination are unfavourably affected by the bond of antibodies to the cellular antigenous determinants. This proves that following vaccination antibodies are formed not only against the viral antigen but also against the antigens of cells on which the vaccination virus is propagated. These shortcomings are eliminated by the use of suitable cellular cultures for the preparation of viral and control antigens. Antigens are applicable for RIA and for ELISA examinations of blood sera of infected and vaccinated pigs. The advantages are described of the RIA and ELISA methods as compared with the virus neutralization test.

  20. Cholesterol oxidation products are sensitive and specific blood-based biomarkers for Niemann-Pick C1 disease

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Forbes D.; Scherrer, David E.; Lanier, Michael H.; Langmade, S. Joshua; Molugu, Vasumathi; Gale, Sarah E.; Olzeski, Dana; Sidhu, Rohini; Dietzen, Dennis J.; Fu, Rao; Wassif, Christopher A.; Yanjanin, Nicole M.; Marso, Steven P.; House, John; Vite, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by endolysosomal cholesterol accumulation. Previous studies implicating oxidative stress in NPC1 disease pathogenesis raised the possibility that non-enzymatic formation of cholesterol oxidation products could serve as disease biomarkers. We measured these metabolites in the plasma and tissues of the Npc1−/− mouse model and found several cholesterol oxidation products that were elevated in Npc1−...

  1. Study on the Relationship between Blood Stasis Syndrome and Clinical Pathology in 227 Patients with Primary Glomerular Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李深; 饶向荣; 王素霞; 张改华; 李晓玫; 戴希文; 陈可冀

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the severity of Chinese medicine(CM) bloodstasis syndrome(BSS) with clinical features and renal lesion indexes of the primary glomerular disease. Methods:An epidemiological survey was conducted to collect the data of 227 patients diagnosed as chronic primary glomerular diseases,and their severity of BSS were scored three days before renal biopsies were performed.The following clinical indexes were analyzed:age,course of glomerular diseases,24-h urine protein ration...

  2. Association between blood cadmium levels and 10-year coronary heart disease risk in the general Korean population: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Pyo Myong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-occupational heavy metals are considered risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD. Several recent epidemiologic studies have evaluated the relationship between non-occupational cadmium exposure and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between non-occupational cadmium exposure and risk factors for CHD using the Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk. METHODS: The heavy metal dataset of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2008 through 2010, a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 4,668 non-institutionalized Koreans, was analyzed. Subjects were stratified into seven age groups to minimize the effects of age. The log-transformed blood cadmium concentrations were compared with the Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk in each age stratum. RESULTS: The Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk was significantly associated with the log-transformed blood cadmium concentrations (p<0.05 in all age groups of Korean men, with the lowest regression coefficient (0.254 for men aged 20 to <35 years and the highest (3.354 for men aged 55 to <60 years; similar results, however, were not observed in Korean women. After adjusting for survey year, age, and urinary cotinine concentration, the log-transformed blood cadmium levels among men aged 20 to <35, 40 to <45, 50 to <55, and 60 to <65 years were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure (p<0.05, but not with total and high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Cadmium exposure, even at non-occupational levels, may be associated with CHD risk in men. Despite the declines in non-occupational cadmium exposure over the past several decades, more efforts are needed.

  3. Roles of myocardial blood volume and flow in coronary artery disease: an experimental MRI study at rest and during hyperemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCommis, Kyle S.; Goldstein, Thomas A.; Pilgram, Thomas [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Abendschein, Dana R. [Washington University School of Medicine, Center for Cardiovascular Research, St. Louis, MO (United States); Misselwitz, Bernd [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Gropler, Robert J. [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, Center for Cardiovascular Research, St. Louis, MO (United States); Zheng, Jie [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Cardiovascular Imaging Lab, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2010-08-15

    To validate fast perfusion mapping techniques in a setting of coronary artery stenosis, and to further assess the relationship of absolute myocardial blood volume (MBV) and blood flow (MBF) to global myocardial oxygen demand. A group of 27 mongrel dogs were divided into 10 controls and 17 with acute coronary stenosis. On 1.5-T MRI, first-pass perfusion imaging with a bolus injection of a blood-pool contrast agent was performed to determine myocardial perfusion both at rest and during either dipyridamole-induced vasodilation or dobutamine-induced stress. Regional values of MBF and MBV were quantified by using a fast mapping technique. Color microspheres and {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cells were injected to obtain respective gold standards. Microsphere-measured MBF and {sup 99m}Tc-measured MBV reference values correlated well with the MR results. Given the same changes in MBF, changes in MBV are twofold greater with dobutamine than with dipyridamole. Under dobutamine stress, MBV shows better association with total myocardial oxygen demand than MBF. Coronary stenosis progressively reduced this association in the presence of increased stenosis severity. MR first-pass perfusion can rapidly estimate regional MBF and MBV. Absolute quantification of MBV may add additional information on stenosis severity and myocardial viability compared with standard qualitative clinical evaluations of myocardial perfusion. (orig.)

  4. Absolute Versus Relative Myocardial Blood Flow by Dynamic CT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging in Patients With Anatomic Coronary Artery Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichmann, Julian L.; Meinel, Felix G.; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Lo, Gladys G.; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Wang, Yining; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Muscogiuri, Giuseppe; Cannao, Paola M.; De Cecco, Carlo N.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in the diagnostic accuracy of absolute and relative territorial myocardial blood flow (MBF) derived from stress dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) for the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis. MATERIALS AND METH

  5. [Structural and functional characteristics of bone tissue and blood cytokines in health and disease of the joints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariakina, E V; Norkin, I A; Gladkova, E V; Persova, E A; Matveeva, O V; Puchin'ian, D M

    2014-02-01

    Change of structural and functional state of bone in patients with primary osteoarthrosis of the hip joint compared to healthy individuals is characterized by decreased bone formation with a relative predominance of resorption. Osteopenic syndrome develops in the background of evident imbalance of a blood cytokine profile with increasing the level of proinflammatory and the variability of the level of anti-inflammatory cytokines.

  6. Plasma volume expansion by albumin in cirrhosis. Relation to blood volume distribution, arterial compliance and severity of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Kim; Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a standard albumin load on blood volume distribution, arterial compliance, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in patients with different degrees of cirrhosis. METHODS: 31 patients with cirrhosis (Child classes A/B/C=...

  7. Depressive symptoms and white blood cell count in coronary heart disease patients : Prospective findings from the Heart and Soul Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivis, Hester E.; Kupper, Nina; Penninx, Brenda W.; Na, Beeya; de Jonge, Peter; Whooley, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Depression has been associated with elevated white blood cell (WBC) count - indicative of systemic inflammation - in cross-sectional studies, but no longitudinal study has evaluated whether depressive symptoms predict subsequent WBC count or vice versa. We sought to evaluate the bidirect

  8. Transplantation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mononuclear cells induces recovery of motor dysfunction in a rat model of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen C

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chao Chen,1,* Jing Duan,1,* Aifang Shen,2,* Wei Wang,1 Hao Song,1 Yanming Liu,1 Xianjie Lu,1 Xiaobing Wang,2 Zhiqing You,1 Zhongchao Han,3,4 Fabin Han1 1Center for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, The Liaocheng People's Hospital, Affiliated Liaocheng Hospital, Taishan Medical University, Shandong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Liaocheng People's Hospital, Affiliated Liaocheng Hospital, Taishan Medical University, Shandong, People's Republic of China; 3The State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Hospital of Blood Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union of Medical College, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 4National Engineering Research Center of Cell Products, AmCellGene Co. Ltd., TEDA, Tianjin, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Human umbilical cord blood-derived mononuclear cells (hUCB-MNCs were reported to have neurorestorative capacity for neurological disorders such as stroke and traumatic brain injury. This study was performed to explore if hUCB-MNC transplantation plays any therapeutic effects for Parkinson's disease (PD in a 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of PD. hUCB-MNCs were isolated from umbilical cord blood and administered to the striatum of the 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. The apomorphine-induced locomotive turning-overs were measured to evaluate the improvement of motor dysfunctions of the rats after administration of hUCB-MNCs. We observed that transplanted hUCB-MNCs significantly improve the motor deficits of the PD rats and that grafted hUCB-MNCs integrated to the host brains and differentiated to neurons and dopamine neurons in vivo after 16 weeks of transplantation. Our study provided evidence that transplanted hUCB-MNCs play therapeutic effects in a rat PD model by differentiating to neurons and dopamine neurons. Keywords: hUCB-MNCs, Parkinson's disease, transplantation

  9. Smoking, diabetes, blood hypertension: possible etiologic role for Peyronie’s disease? Analysis in 279 patients with a control group in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Pavone

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the proportion of patients with Peyronie’s Disease (PD and the possible association with its potential risk factors in the general population of the central and western Sicily in our weekly andrological outpatient clinic. Materials and methods: We recruited a sample of 279 consecutive patients consulting our andrological outpatient clinic. Two arms were created: the first one composed by PD patients (men with symptoms suggestive for PD, the second one composed by patients with other andrological diseases (control arm. For each patient we evaluated the age, cigarette smoking, diabetes, blood hypertension and erectile function. In the PD arm we administered validated questionnaires to determine the erectile function status by the International Index of Erectile Function 5 (IIEF-5 and the pain status during erection by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. A univariate analysis was conducted using R software. Results: We enrolled 279 consecutive patients. The number of PD patients was 97 (34,7%. The univariate analysis showed a correlation between PD and cigarette smoking (p = 0.0242, blood hypertension (p < 0.001, erectile dysfunction (p < 0.001. No significant association was observed between diabetes and PD (p = 0.358. The median age of PD arm was 60 years and the median age of the control arm was 63,5 years; therefore the median age of PD arm resulted lower than the median age of the control arm (p = 0,031. Conclusions: Peyronie’s disease is more common than we might think; furthermore it can be diagnosed among young patients. According to our results, cigarette smoking and blood hypertension may be considered statically significant risk factors for developing PD. On the contrary diabetes seems not to be a risk factor for PD. According to our results PD should be sought also in young patients. Further studies are necessary to confirm that removing the indicated risk factors may reduce the incidence of PD.

  10. Decreased expression of complement regulatory proteins, CD55 and CD59, on peripheral blood leucocytes in patients with type 2 diabetes and macrovascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xi-wen; CHANG Zhi-wen; QIN Ming-zhao; SUN Ying; HUANG Hui-lian; HE Yan

    2009-01-01

    Background Macro- and microvascular diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients, but their mechanisms remain unclear. Recent reports provide evidence that the levels of CD55 and CD59 are decreased in diabetic microvascular diseases. However, very little is known about the levels of CD55 and CD59, the relationship between them and carotid artery intima-media thickness, and the effects of statins on CD55 and CD59 in diabetic macrovascular diseases.Methods The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of CD55 and CD59 expression on peripheral blood leucocyte subsets (lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils) was studied using flow cytometry, and carotid artery intima-media thickness was measured using B-mode ultrasonography in 23 healthy subjects (controls), 19 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and 43 patients with type 2 diabetes and macrovascular diseases (T2DM-M). The patients with T2DM-M were assigned to two subgroups based on whether statins were used: group with statins (n=23) and group without statins (n=20).Results Compared with the controls and T2DM, the MFI of CD55 positive neutrophils was significantly lower in T2DM-M (P=0.049 vs controls and P=0.033 vs T2DM); similarly, the MFI of CD59 positive monocytes was also lower in T2DM-M (P=0.038 vs controls and P=0.043 vs T2DM). The MFI of CD59 positive neutrophils in T2DM-M was lower than in T2DM (P=0.032). The levels of CD55 and CD59 were negatively associated with age and blood pressure (r=-0.245--0.352, P=0.041-0.003), but not acute-phase reactants and carotid artery intima-media thickness. The levels of CD55 and CD59 increased after treatment with statins, but the results were not significantly different (P >0.05).Conclusions CD55 and CD59 expressions on peripheral blood leucocytes are decreased in T2DM patients with macrovascular diseases. The results suggest that the decreased levels of complement regulatory proteins might play an important role in diabetic macrovascular

  11. Differential Gene Expression Profiles in Coronary Heart Disease Patients of Blood Stasis Syndrome in Traditional Chinese Medicine and Clinical Role of Target Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓娟; 殷惠军; 陈可冀

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the differential gene expression profiles in coronary heart disease(CHD) patients of blood-stasis syndrome(BSS) by oligonucleotide microarray technique,and the clinical significance of target gene.Methods:Subjects were assigned to CHD patients with BSS(n=8),CHD patients without BSS (n=8),and BSS patients without CHD(n=8) based on coronary angiography and the diagnostic criteria of BSS. The sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers(n=8) were enrolled as the control group.Venous bloo...

  12. Comparison of Thyroid Blood Flow and Uptake Indices Using Technetium-99m Pertechnetate in Patients with Graves’ Disease and Euthyroid Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Javadi; Ali Mahmoud Pashazadeh; Iraj Nabipour

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate parameters of early blood flow (EBF) including duration of EBF, perfusion index (PI), uptake indexes 1 and 2 (UI1 and UI2) derived from dynamic thyroid scintigraphy in patients with Graves’ disease (GD), and euthyroid (EI). Maximum instant uptake and maximum uptake of the thyroid gland were also assessed. Methods: A total of 50 patients with GD and EI were included in this study. Each patient underwent two dynamic scans of 1-min...

  13. Dogs with hearth diseases causing turbulent high-velocity blood flow have changes in patelet function and von Willebrand factor multimer distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Inge; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri; Olsen, Lisbeth Høier;

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate platelet function using in vitro tests based on both high and low shear rates and von Willebrand factor (vWf) multimeric composition in dogs with cardiac disease and turbulent high-velocity blood flow. Client-owned asymptomatic, untreated...... dogs were divided into 4 groups: 14 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (Cavaliers) with mitral valve prolapse (MVP) and no or minimal mitral regurgitation (MR), 17 Cavaliers with MVP and moderate to severe MR, 14 control dogs, and 10 dogs with subaortic stenosis (SAS). Clinical examinations...

  14. Self-monitoring of blood glucose improved glycaemic control and 10-year coronary heart disease risk profile of type 2 diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ezenwaka Chidum; JonesLeCointe Altheia; Dimgba Agbai; Okali Fidelis; Skinner Teppany; Rodriguez Martina; Extavour Rian; Davis Verdine; Spencer Alida; Mayers Hasina

    2011-01-01

    Background The debate over the overall benefits of self-monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes patients is still continuing.We aimed to assess the difference in glycaemic control and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk levels of experimental type 2 diabetes patients provided with facilities for self-monitoring blood glucose and their counterparts without such facilities.Methods Sixty-one patients who had no prior experience in using glucometers were studied as intervention (n=30) and control (n=31) groups.The intervention group was trained in self-monitoring of blood glucose and documentation.Baseline blood glucose and fasting blood glucose were measured and the intervention patients were provided with glucometers and advised to self-monitor their fasting and postprandial blood glucose over six months.The 10-year CHD risk levels were determined with the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study-derived risk engine calculator.Results The age and diabetes duration were similar in the two groups (P >0.05).The majority of the patients were unemployed or retired females with only a primary level education.After 3 months,the haemogolbin A1c (HbA1c) levels of the control patients remained unchanged ((7.8±0.3)% vs.(7.9±0.4)%,P >0.05) whereas the HbA1c levels of the intervention patients were significantly reduced from the baseline at three ((9.6±0.3)% vs.(7.8±0.3)%,P <0.001) and six ((9.2±0.4)% vs.(7.5±0.3)%,P <0.001) months.Interestingly,while the 10-year CHD risk level of the control group remained unchanged after three months,that of the intervention group was remarkably reduced at three and six months from the baseline level ((7.4±1.3)% vs.(4.5±0.9)%,P=0.056).Conclusion Self-monitoring of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes patients significantly improved glycaemic control and the CHD risk profile,suggesting that type 2 diabetes patients will potentially benefit from inclusion of glucose meters and testing strips in their health-care package.

  15. Quantification of total apolipoprotein E and its specific isoforms in cerebrospinal fluid and blood in Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Rezeli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A targeted mass spectrometric assay was developed for identification and quantification of apoE isoforms (apoE2, E3 and E4, and it was utilized for screening of samples from AD patients (n = 39 and patients with other neurodegenerative disorders (n = 38. The assay showed good linearity with LOQ corresponds to total apoE concentration of 0.8 and 40 ng/mL in CSF and plasma/serum, respectively. We identified apoE phenotypes with 100% accuracy in clinical samples. We found strong association between genotypes of the individuals and their apoE levels in blood; ϵ4 allele carriers had significantly lower apoE levels in blood than non-carriers.

  16. Effects of renal artery stenting on renal function and blood pressure in patients with atherosclerotic renovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奇; 沈卫峰; 张瑞岩; 张建盛; 胡健; 张宪

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of percutaneous renal artery intervention on renal function and blood pressure in patients with renal artery stenosis. Methods Eighty-seven patients with severe uni- or bi-lateral renal artery stenosis (luminal diameter narrowing ≥70%) and clinical hypertension received renal artery stenting between January 2002 and December 2002. The changes in blood pressure and serum creatinine level and creatinine clearance (CCr) 48 hours after intervention and during 6 months of follow-up were assessed.Results Renal stenting was performed in 98 stenotic arteries of 87 patients, and the procedural success rate was 100%. Serum creatinine level was slightly elevated from (176±21) μmol/L to (179±11) μmol/L (P=0.15) 48 hours after the procedure, but significantly decreased to (149±15) μmol/L at 6 months (P<0.001). CCr was also greatly improved [(37±11) ml/min before versus (51±8) ml/min at 6 months, P<0.001]. During follow-up, 61% of the patients experienced a normal renal function. Despite conventional medical treatment, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were also significantly decreased after stenting [(163±23)/(96±13) mm Hg before versus (148±12)/(79±15) mm Hg at 6 months, all P<0.001], and hypertension was well controlled in 67% of the patients at 6 months ' follow-up.Conclusion Renal artery stenting has a high success rate and is effective in improving renal function and blood pressure for patients with severe renal artery stenosis.

  17. A study of eosinophil count in nasal and blood smear in allergic respiratory diseases in a rural setup

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen Kumar; Kiran Bylappa; Ramesh AC; Swetha Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Allergic respiratory disorders are fairly common visiting cases in pediatrics outpatient department (OPD). With an appropriate history and detailed examination, diagnosis may not be problematic. Routine investigation may not contribute much to the final diagnosis but may help in ruling out other possibilities. This study was done to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of blood or nasal eosinophilia in subjects suffering from allergic respiratory disorders and also to assess the feasibility o...

  18. Local blood pressure associates with the degree of luminal stenosis in patients with atherosclerotic disease in the middle cerebral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuanliang; Peng, Wenjia; Teng, Zhongzhao; Gillard, Jonathan H; Hong, Bo; Liu, Qi; Lu, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism underlying atherosclerotic ischemic events within the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is unclear. High structural stress induced by blood pressure might be a potential aetiology as plaque rupture occurs when such mechanical loading exceeds its material strength. To perform reliable analyses quantifying the mechanical loading within a plaque, the local blood pressure is needed. However, data on MCA blood pressure is currently lacking. In this study, the arterial pressure proximal to the stenotic site in the MCA was measured in 15 patients scheduled for intervention. The relationships between these local measurements and pre-intervention and intra-intervention non-invasive arm measurements were assessed. The impact of luminal stenosis on the local blood pressure was quantified. Compared with the pre-intervention arm measurement, the intra-intervention arm pressure decreased significantly by 23.9 ± 11.8 and 9.3 ± 14.7 % at diastole and systole, respectively. The pressure proximal to the stenosis was much lower than the pre-intervention arm measurement (diastole: 65.3 ± 15.7 vs 82.0 ± 9.7, p pressure in the MCA in patients with stenosis pressure (22.8 ± 6.4 vs 11.1 ± 8.3, p = 0.01; unit: mmHg). However, diastolic pressure remained unaffected (69.2 ± 9.3 vs 62.8 ± 19.0, p = 0.58; unit: mmHg). In conclusion, the obtained results are helpful in understanding the local hemodynamic environment modulated by the presence of atherosclerosis. The local pressure measurements can be used for computational analysis to quantify the critical mechanical condition within an MCA lesion. PMID:27349223

  19. THE PROBLEMS OF PROVIDING INFECTIOUS DISEASE SAFETY FOR ORGAN AND TISSUE DONATION BY SCREENING BLOOD-BORNE VIRAL INFECTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sh. Khubutiya; S. A. Solonin; M. A. Godkov

    2016-01-01

    It provided data on the prevalence, clinical signifi cance and methods of laboratory diagnostics for occult forms of blood-borne viral infections (BBVIs). It considered causes of such forms of infection and their signifi cance for clinical transplantation. We analyzed the existing algorithm of laboratory screening of a potential organ donor for BBVIs in Russia. It is shown that the current screening algorithm doesn’t allow detecting hidden forms of BBVIs.

  20. Blood or Urine IP-10 Cannot Discriminate between Active Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases Different from Tuberculosis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Petrone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Interferon-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10, either in blood or in urine, has been proposed as a tuberculosis (TB biomarker for adults. This study aims to evaluate the potential of IP-10 diagnostics in children from Uganda, a high TB-endemic country. Methods. IP-10 was measured in the blood and urine concomitantly taken from children who were prospectively enrolled with suspected active TB, with or without HIV infection. Clinical/microbiological parameters and commercially available TB-immune assays (tuberculin skin test (TST and QuantiFERON TB-Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT were concomitantly evaluated. Results. One hundred twenty-eight children were prospectively enrolled. The analysis was performed on 111 children: 80 (72% of them were HIV-uninfected and 31 (27.9% were HIV-infected. Thirty-three healthy adult donors (HAD were included as controls. The data showed that IP-10 is detectable in the urine and blood of children with active TB, independent of HIV status and age. However, although IP-10 levels were higher in active TB children compared to HAD, the accuracy of identifying “active TB” was low and similar to the TST and QFT-IT. Conclusion. IP-10 levels are higher in children with respiratory illness compared to controls, independent of “TB status” suggesting that the evaluation of this parameter can be used as an inflammatory marker more than a TB test.

  1. Blood or Urine IP-10 Cannot Discriminate between Active Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases Different from Tuberculosis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, Linda; Cannas, Angela; Aloi, Francesco; Nsubuga, Martin; Sserumkuma, Joseph; Nazziwa, Ritah Angella; Jugheli, Levan; Lukindo, Tedson; Girardi, Enrico; Reither, Klaus; Goletti, Delia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Interferon-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10), either in blood or in urine, has been proposed as a tuberculosis (TB) biomarker for adults. This study aims to evaluate the potential of IP-10 diagnostics in children from Uganda, a high TB-endemic country. Methods. IP-10 was measured in the blood and urine concomitantly taken from children who were prospectively enrolled with suspected active TB, with or without HIV infection. Clinical/microbiological parameters and commercially available TB-immune assays (tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON TB-Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT)) were concomitantly evaluated. Results. One hundred twenty-eight children were prospectively enrolled. The analysis was performed on 111 children: 80 (72%) of them were HIV-uninfected and 31 (27.9%) were HIV-infected. Thirty-three healthy adult donors (HAD) were included as controls. The data showed that IP-10 is detectable in the urine and blood of children with active TB, independent of HIV status and age. However, although IP-10 levels were higher in active TB children compared to HAD, the accuracy of identifying “active TB” was low and similar to the TST and QFT-IT. Conclusion. IP-10 levels are higher in children with respiratory illness compared to controls, independent of “TB status” suggesting that the evaluation of this parameter can be used as an inflammatory marker more than a TB test. PMID:26346028

  2. Computational approaches to the prediction of blood-brain barrier permeability: A comparative analysis of central nervous system drugs versus secretase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishton, Gilbert M; LaBonte, Kristen; Williams, Antony J; Kassam, Karim; Kolovanov, Eduard

    2006-05-01

    This review summarizes progress made in the development of fully computational approaches to the prediction of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of small molecules, with a focus on rapid computational methods suitable for the analysis of large compound sets and virtual screening. A comparative analysis using the recently developed Advanced Chemistry Development (ACD/Labs) Inc BBB permeability algorithm for the calculation of logBB values for known Alzheimer's disease medicines, selected central nervous system drugs and new secretase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease, is presented. The trends in logBB values and the associated physiochemical properties of these agents as they relate to the potential for BBB permeability are also discussed. PMID:16729726

  3. 晨峰性高血压临床意义及治疗%Morning blood pressure surge in cardiovascular diseases and new treatment strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑杨; 赵巍

    2012-01-01

    血压晨峰在近年来的高血压研究中受到越来越多的关注,多项研究证实血压晨峰与心脑血管病的发病及预后密切相关.现本文就血压晨峰的定义、临床意义及治疗策略做一简要综述.%Morning blood pressure surge( MBPS) has been recently studied more and more comprehensively and has been found to be associated with a variety of cardiovascular diseases, which should be taken into account in prevention and treatment of hypertension. In this context, we briefly reviewed the definition of MBPS, clinical association between MBPS and cardiovascular diseases and new treatment strategy on MBPS.

  4. The influence of genotype on vascular endothelial growth factor and regulation of myocardial collateral blood flow in patients with acute and chronic coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, R.S.; Jorgensen, E.; Baldazzi, F.;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that mutations in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene are associated with plasma concentration of VEGF and subsequently the ability to influence coronary collateral arteries in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Blood samples from...... patients with chronic ischemic heart disease (n=53) and acute coronary syndrome (n=61) were analysed. Coronary collaterals were scored from diagnostic biplane coronary angiograms. RESULTS: The plasma concentration of VEGF was increased in patients with acute compared to chronic CHD (p=0.01). The genotype......-1154 and coronary collateral size (p=0.03) and a significant association between the VEGF plasma concentration and the collateral size (p=0.03). CONCLUSION: VEGF plasma concentration seems related to coronary collateral function in patients with CHD. The results did not support the hypothesis...

  5. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of ... smoking. Other risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, ...

  6. Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of 102 prospective studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarwar, N; Gao, P; Seshasai, S R Kondapally;

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainties persist about the magnitude of associations of diabetes mellitus and fasting glucose concentration with risk of coronary heart disease and major stroke subtypes. We aimed to quantify these associations for a wide range of circumstances....

  7. Quantitative evaluation of MR perfusion imaging using blood pool contrast agent in subjects without pulmonary diseases and in patients with pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansch, Andreas; Hinneburg, Uta [University Hospital Jena, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology II, Jena (Germany); University Hospital Jena, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology II, Gera (Germany); Kohlmann, Peter; Laue, Hendrik [Fraunhofer MEVIS - Institute for Medical Image Computing, Bremen (Germany); Boettcher, Joachim [SRH Klinikum Gera, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Gera (Germany); Malich, Ansgar [Suedharzkrankenhaus Nordhausen, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Nordhausen (Germany); Wolf, Gunter [University Hospital Jena, Department of Internal Medicine III, Jena (Germany); Pfeil, Alexander [University Hospital Jena, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology II, Jena (Germany); University Hospital Jena, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology II, Gera (Germany); University Hospital Jena, Department of Internal Medicine III, Jena (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    To assess the feasibility of time-resolved parallel three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for quantitative analysis of pulmonary perfusion using a blood pool contrast agent. Quantitative perfusion analysis was performed using novel software to assess pulmonary blood flow (PBF), pulmonary blood volume (PBV) and mean transit time (MTT) in a quantitative manner. The evaluation of lung perfusion in the normal subjects showed an increase of PBF, PBV ventrally to dorsally (gravitational direction), and the highest values at the upper lobe, with a decrease to the middle and lower lobe (isogravitational direction). MTT showed no relevant changes in either the gravitational or isogravitational directions. In comparison with normally perfused lung areas (in diseased patients), the pulmonary embolism (PE) regions showed a significantly lower mean PBF (20 {+-} 0.6 ml/100 ml/min, normal region 94 {+-} 1 ml/100 ml/min; P < 0.001), mean PBV (2 {+-} 0.1 ml/100 ml, normal region 9.8 {+-} 0.1 ml/100 ml; P < 0.001) and mean MTT (3.8 {+-} 0.1 s; normal region 6.3 {+-} 0.1; P < 0.001). Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using time-resolved dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI to determine normal range and regional variation of pulmonary perfusion and perfusion deficits in patients with PE. (orig.)

  8. ERYTHROCYTE IMMUNE ADHERENCE AND REGULATIVE FUNCTION OF PATIENTS AND RESIDENTS IN KESHAN DISEASE AREA AND ITS RELATION TO BLOOD SELENIUM LEVELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective In order to investigate the relationship between erythrocyte immune function and seleni- um(Se) level. Method Red blood cell immune adherence(RCIA) function,serum RCIA regulatory factor, blood Se content and activities of glutathione peroxidase(GPX) of residents in Keshan disease(KD) endemic and non-endemic areas were comparatively studied. Forty-eight residents in KD endemic area aged 13~ 16 years were divided into 2 groups. The residents in the experimental group were orally given 200μg Se daily as Se yeast for 12 weeks, and their erythrocyte Se content and activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX),RCIA function,serum RCIA regulatory function and circulating immune complexes(CIC) content were determined. Results The results showed that the rosette for- mation rates of erythrocyte and blood Se levels of the residents in KD area were significantly lower and the rosette formation inhibitory rate of serum RCIA of the residents in KD area was significantly higher than those in the non-endemic area. Erythrocyte Se contents, GPX activities and rosette formation rates of erythrocyte were sig- nificantly increased and the rosette formation inhibitory rates of serum RICA were significantly decreased after sup- plementing Se,but the difference in the contents of serum CIC was not significant. Conclusion The increase of ery- throcyte immune function by Se-supplement might be one of the effective mechanisms in the prevention of KD by Se- supplement.

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow in acute stage with ischemic cerebrovascular disease by xenon-133 inhalation and single photon emission computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurokawa, Hiroyuki; Iino, Katsuro; Kojima, Hisashi; Saito, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Mikio; Watanabe, Kazuo; Kato, Toshiro

    1987-05-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with xenon-133 inhalation method was undertaken within 48 hr after the onset in 68 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The results for regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were compared with concurrently available computed tomography (CT) scans. In patients with cerebral infarction, SPECT detected ischemic lesions earlier than CT, with the detectability being 92 %. The area with a decreased blood flow, as seen on SPECT, was more extensive than the low density area on CT, with a concomitant decrease in blood flow in the contralateral cerebral hemisphere. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis was associated with stenosis of the internal carotid artery in 50 % (7/14), and with stenosis of the middle cerebral artery in 35 % (9/26). Abnormal SPECT findings were seen in 47 % (8/17) of the patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA). Five TIA patients had a decreased rCBF on SPECT, which was not provided by CT scans. On the contrary, small infarct lesions in the cerebral basal ganglia, as observed in 4 patients, was not detected by SPECT, but detected by CT. This may imply the limitations of SPECT in the detection of deep-seated lesions of the cerebrum. The results led to the conclusion that SPECT can be performed safely even in acute, seriously ill patients to know changes in rCBF because it is noninvasive and is capable of being repeated in a short time. (Namekawa, K.).

  10. Quantitative evaluation of MR perfusion imaging using blood pool contrast agent in subjects without pulmonary diseases and in patients with pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the feasibility of time-resolved parallel three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for quantitative analysis of pulmonary perfusion using a blood pool contrast agent. Quantitative perfusion analysis was performed using novel software to assess pulmonary blood flow (PBF), pulmonary blood volume (PBV) and mean transit time (MTT) in a quantitative manner. The evaluation of lung perfusion in the normal subjects showed an increase of PBF, PBV ventrally to dorsally (gravitational direction), and the highest values at the upper lobe, with a decrease to the middle and lower lobe (isogravitational direction). MTT showed no relevant changes in either the gravitational or isogravitational directions. In comparison with normally perfused lung areas (in diseased patients), the pulmonary embolism (PE) regions showed a significantly lower mean PBF (20 ± 0.6 ml/100 ml/min, normal region 94 ± 1 ml/100 ml/min; P < 0.001), mean PBV (2 ± 0.1 ml/100 ml, normal region 9.8 ± 0.1 ml/100 ml; P < 0.001) and mean MTT (3.8 ± 0.1 s; normal region 6.3 ± 0.1; P < 0.001). Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using time-resolved dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI to determine normal range and regional variation of pulmonary perfusion and perfusion deficits in patients with PE. (orig.)

  11. Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood sample and sending it to a lab. Blood smear This test is used to look for parasites ... found in the blood. By looking at a blood smear under a microscope, parasitic diseases such as filariasis, ...

  12. Human Blood and Mucosal Regulatory T Cells Express Activation Markers and Inhibitory Receptors in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, James D.; Shows, Donna M.; Chen, Janice; Thirlby, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    Background FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical for preventing intestinal inflammation. However, FOXP3+ T cells are paradoxically increased in the intestines of patients with the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn’s disease (CD). We determined whether these FOXP3+ cells in IBD patients share or lack the phenotype of such cells from patients without IBD. Methods We quantified and characterized FOXP3+ Treg populations, as well as FOXP3- CD4+ T cells, in ...

  13. Neuropsychological Evaluation and Cerebral Blood Flow Effects of Apolipoprotein E4 in Alzheimer's Disease Patients after One Year of Treatment: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azusa Suwa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD is affected by apolipoprotein E (ApoE; however, its effects assessed by means of cognitive tests and by neuroimaging have not been sufficiently studied. Methods: We administered the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS and single-photon emission computed tomography imaging in patients with AD medicated with donepezil at baseline and after 1 year. Patients were classified as with or without ApoE4 and we evaluated the progress of AD. Results: Analysis of covariance showed that cerebral blood flow after 1 year in subjects with ApoE4 is significantly reduced in some areas including the left lenticular nucleus, left thalamus, and right hippocampus compared with subjects without ApoE4. Paired t tests showed significantly reduced blood flow in several regions including the right hippocampus in subjects with ApoE4 and significant deterioration of ideational praxis in subjects without ApoE4. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that supports the notion of ApoE4 playing an important role in the progress of AD.

  14. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  15. Blood Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Basics Blood is a specialized body fluid. It ... about 9 pints. Jump To: The Components of Blood and Their Importance Many people have undergone blood ...

  16. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart contracts, which ... as it relaxes, which is called diastole. Normal blood pressure is considered to be a systolic blood pressure ...

  17. Analytical Validation of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Methods for Quantification of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in Blood Samples from Chagas Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Juan Carlos; Cura, Carolina Inés; da Cruz Moreira, Otacilio; Lages-Silva, Eliane; Juiz, Natalia; Velázquez, Elsa; Ramírez, Juan David; Alberti, Anahí; Pavia, Paula; Flores-Chávez, María Delmans; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Pérez-Morales, Deyanira; Santalla, José; Marcos da Matta Guedes, Paulo; Peneau, Julie; Marcet, Paula; Padilla, Carlos; Cruz-Robles, David; Valencia, Edward; Crisante, Gladys Elena; Greif, Gonzalo; Zulantay, Inés; Costales, Jaime Alfredo; Alvarez-Martínez, Miriam; Martínez, Norma Edith; Villarroel, Rodrigo; Villarroel, Sandro; Sánchez, Zunilda; Bisio, Margarita; Parrado, Rudy; Maria da Cunha Galvão, Lúcia; Jácome da Câmara, Antonia Cláudia; Espinoza, Bertha; Alarcón de Noya, Belkisyole; Puerta, Concepción; Riarte, Adelina; Diosque, Patricio; Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Guhl, Felipe; Ribeiro, Isabela; Aznar, Christine; Britto, Constança; Yadón, Zaida Estela; Schijman, Alejandro G

    2015-09-01

    An international study was performed by 26 experienced PCR laboratories from 14 countries to assess the performance of duplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) strategies on the basis of TaqMan probes for detection and quantification of parasitic loads in peripheral blood samples from Chagas disease patients. Two methods were studied: Satellite DNA (SatDNA) qPCR and kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA) qPCR. Both methods included an internal amplification control. Reportable range, analytical sensitivity, limits of detection and quantification, and precision were estimated according to international guidelines. In addition, inclusivity and exclusivity were estimated with DNA from stocks representing the different Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing units and Trypanosoma rangeli and Leishmania spp. Both methods were challenged against 156 blood samples provided by the participant laboratories, including samples from acute and chronic patients with varied clinical findings, infected by oral route or vectorial transmission. kDNA qPCR showed better analytical sensitivity than SatDNA qPCR with limits of detection of 0.23 and 0.70 parasite equivalents/mL, respectively. Analyses of clinical samples revealed a high concordance in terms of sensitivity and parasitic loads determined by both SatDNA and kDNA qPCRs. This effort is a major step toward international validation of qPCR methods for the quantification of T. cruzi DNA in human blood samples, aiming to provide an accurate surrogate biomarker for diagnosis and treatment monitoring for patients with Chagas disease. PMID:26320872

  18. Feasibility of measuring renal blood flow by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spithoven, E.M.; Meijer, E.; Boertien, W.E.; Gaillard, C.A.J.M.; Jong, P.E. de; Gansevoort, R.T. [University of Groningen, Department of Nephrology, Community and Occupational Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, PO Box 30.001, RB Groningen (Netherlands); Borns, C.; Kappert, P.; Greuter, M.J.W.; Jagt, E. van der [University of Groningen, Department of Radiology, Community and Occupational Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Vart, P. [University of Groningen, Department of Health Sciences, Community and Occupational Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-03-15

    Renal blood flow (RBF) has been shown to predict disease progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We investigated the feasibility and accuracy of phase-contrast RBF by MRI (RBF{sub MRI}) in ADPKD patients with a wide range of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values. First, we validated RBF{sub MRI} measurement using phantoms simulating renal artery hemodynamics. Thereafter, we investigated in a test-set of 21 patients intra- and inter-observer coefficient of variation of RBF{sub MRI}. After validation, we measured RBF{sub MRI} in a cohort of 91 patients and compared the variability explained by characteristics indicative for disease severity for RBF{sub MRI} and RBF measured by continuous hippuran infusion. The correlation in flow measurement using phantoms by phase-contrast MRI was high and fluid collection was high (CCC=0.969). Technical problems that precluded RBF{sub MRI} measurement occurred predominantly in patients with a lower eGFR (34% vs. 16%). In subjects with higher eGFRs, variability in RBF explained by disease characteristics was similar for RBF{sub MRI} compared to RBF{sub Hip,} whereas in subjects with lower eGFRs, this was significantly less for RBF{sub MRI}. Our study shows that RBF can be measured accurately in ADPKD patients by phase-contrast, but this technique may be less feasible in subjects with a lower eGFR. (orig.)

  19. Expression Profile of Human Fc Receptor-Like 1, 2, and 4 Molecules in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Patients with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Graves' Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostamzadeh, D; Dabbaghmanesh, M H; Shabani, M; Hosseini, A; Amirghofran, Z

    2015-08-01

    Recently identified Fc receptor-like (FCRL) molecules are new members of the immunoglobulin superfamily dominantly expressed by B cells. Although FCRL expression patterns have been studied in normal and malignant cells, their biological functions and roles remain to be clearly identified in humans. Research has particularly focused on FCRL gene polymorphisms in autoimmune diseases, however, their involvement in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases is an interesting field for investigation. In the present study, we have investigated the gene expression profiles of FCRL1, 2, and 4 in 2 common thyroid diseases, Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and Graves' disease (GD). FCRL1, 2, and 4 expressions were determined in peripheral blood samples of 55 HT patients, 40 GD patients and equal numbers of normal subjects by quantitative real-time PCR. Our results showed downregulation of FCRL1 and upregulation of FCRL2 transcripts in both HT and GD groups compared to healthy counterparts. Overexpression of FCRL4 was observed only in GD patients compared to controls. A significant correlation was observed between all FCRL gene expression levels in HT patients. Only FCRL2 and 4 had a correlation in GD patients. In addition, FCRL1, 2, and 4 gene expressions showed no correlations with the level of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO) or anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg) antibody from patients' sera. In conclusion, expressions of activating or inhibitory FCRL1, 2, and 4 showed significant alterations in HT and GD patients compared to healthy subjects. PMID:25738996

  20. Feasibility of measuring renal blood flow by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renal blood flow (RBF) has been shown to predict disease progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We investigated the feasibility and accuracy of phase-contrast RBF by MRI (RBFMRI) in ADPKD patients with a wide range of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values. First, we validated RBFMRI measurement using phantoms simulating renal artery hemodynamics. Thereafter, we investigated in a test-set of 21 patients intra- and inter-observer coefficient of variation of RBFMRI. After validation, we measured RBFMRI in a cohort of 91 patients and compared the variability explained by characteristics indicative for disease severity for RBFMRI and RBF measured by continuous hippuran infusion. The correlation in flow measurement using phantoms by phase-contrast MRI was high and fluid collection was high (CCC=0.969). Technical problems that precluded RBFMRI measurement occurred predominantly in patients with a lower eGFR (34% vs. 16%). In subjects with higher eGFRs, variability in RBF explained by disease characteristics was similar for RBFMRI compared to RBFHip, whereas in subjects with lower eGFRs, this was significantly less for RBFMRI. Our study shows that RBF can be measured accurately in ADPKD patients by phase-contrast, but this technique may be less feasible in subjects with a lower eGFR. (orig.)

  1. Color Doppler measurement of blood flow in the inferior thyroid artery in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to find out whether the measurement of peak systolic velocity in the inferior thyroid artery (ITA) is a valuable parameter to differentiate autoimmune thyroid diseases (hyper-, normo- or hypofunctional) and to evaluate the efficacy of medical treatment. Material and methods: The ITA of 31 patients (eight with Graves' disease, 23 with subclinical hypothyroidism) was examined with color Doppler and pulsed Doppler. The final diagnosis was obtained by citology and by hormonal and antibodies assays. The patients were monitorized by ultrasound for a period of 8 months. Results: In all the patients with Graves' disease the peak systolic velocity was always over 150 cm/s, while in other autoimmune thyroiditis the peak systolic velocity was within the normal range, and never exceeding 65 cm/s. In the first group, the measurement taken in the ITA showed also the efficacy of the pharmacological treatment earlier and more reliably than the color Doppler pattern obtained in the parenchyma. Conclusions: The color Doppler measurement of the ITA seems to be a promising technique with low-cost and easy approach. In our experience, the color Doppler of the ITA could have a clinical role in the differential diagnosis of diffuse thyroid diseases and in the follow-up of the Graves' disease during medical treatment

  2. Have You Given Blood Lately?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... testing: After donation, blood establishments are required to test each unit of donated blood for the following infectious disease agents: · Hepatitis B · Hepatitis C · Human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) 1 and ...

  3. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Saunders; 2016:chap 73. Read More Acute kidney failure Acute pancreatitis Alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test ALP - blood test Burns Cardiac catheterization Enzyme Heart attack Hemolytic anemia Hepatic Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma Liver disease Mononucleosis Muscular ...

  4. Infections Transmitted By the Transfusion of Blood and Blood Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekin A.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Especially viral hepatitis viruses and human immunodeficiency virus(HIV which were transmitted by the transfusion of blood and blood products have been an important public health problem for a long time on the world. Transfusion of blood and blood products is an ideal and an easiest and a simplest route for transmission of infectious diseases. It is known that many infectious agents, either bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal agents may be transmitted by the transfusion of blood and blood products. In present study, we reviewed infection diseases that transmitted by the transfusion of blood and blood products.Additionally, we were aimed to emphasize a rare but a very important complication of transfusion of blood and blood products.

  5. Cytokine Response to Antigen Stimulation of Whole Blood from Patients with Mycobacterium ulcerans Disease Compared to That from Patients with Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R.; Horsfield, C.; Kuijper, S.; Sarfo, S. F.; Obeng-Baah, J.; Etuaful, S.; Nyamekye, B.; Awuah, P.; Nyarko, K. M.; Osei-Sarpong, F.; Lucas, S.; Kolk, A. H. J.; Wansbrough-Jones, M.

    2006-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans disease (Buruli ulcer) is a skin-ulcerating infection common in some parts of the tropics. We have investigated cytokine secretion after stimulation of whole blood from Buruli ulcer (BU) patients in a region of endemicity in Ghana with M. ulcerans sonicate or culture filtrate antigens to investigate the development of the response over time and its specificity by comparison with the response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis sonicate in human immunodeficiency virus-negative tuberculosis patients. Significant gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production in response to whole-blood stimulation with M. ulcerans sonicate was detected in patients with ulcers, which was higher than that in patients with nodules but similar to subjects with healed BU. The mean IFN-γ response in household contacts of BU patients was not significantly different from that in healthy control subjects from an area of nonendemicity. Results in patients with untreated, smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis and tuberculosis patients on treatment for more than 2 weeks showed that BU patients responded better to M. ulcerans antigens than tuberculosis patients. In contrast, interleukin-10 results were higher in patients with active M. ulcerans disease than in those with healed lesions, but the pattern of response was similar to that seen in tuberculosis. A similar pattern of cytokine secretion was found using M. tuberculosis sonicate as an antigen. Neither of the two culture filtrate antigens of M. ulcerans appeared to be more specific than M. ulcerans sonicate. In the early stages of M. ulcerans disease there was a mixed Th1 and Th2 cytokine response, but the Th1 response emerged as the dominant type. PMID:16467334

  6. Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease : a collaborative meta-analysis of 102 prospective studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarwar, N.; Gao, P.; Seshasai, S. R. Kondapally; Gobin, R.; Kaptoge, S.; Di Angelantonio, E.; Ingelsson, E.; Lawlor, D. A.; Selvin, E.; Stampfer, M.; Stehouwer, C. D. A.; Lewington, S.; Pennells, L.; Thompson, A.; Sattar, N.; White, I. R.; Ray, K. K.; Danesh, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Uncertainties persist about the magnitude of associations of diabetes mellitus and fasting glucose concentration with risk of coronary heart disease and major stroke subtypes. We aimed to quantify these associations for a wide range of circumstances. Methods We undertook a meta-analysis o

  7. From teeth, skin, blood to heart : induced pluripotent stem cells as an in vitro model for cardiac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dambrot, Cheryl Susan

    2014-01-01

    Since the first reports of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC), the field of pluripotent stem cell (PSC) research has grown in leap and bounds, particularly in the area of (cardiac) disease modeling. This is in part because it is fairly easy to produce cardiomyocytes from hPSC and also ther

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... If you find that you are interested in learning more about blood diseases and disorders, here are ... For Patients ASH Academy ASH On Demand ASH Image Bank Advocacy Action Alerts Policy News Advocacy Leadership ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose ... Find Your Local Office Find your local diabetes education program Calendar of Events Wellness Lives Here Drive ...

  10. Cord-Blood Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cord blood mainly because of the promise that stem cell research holds for the future. Most of us would have little use for stem cells now, but research into using them to treat diseases is ongoing — ...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  12. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  13. Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells improve neuropathology and cognitive impairment in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model through modulation of neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Ju; Lee, Jong Kil; Lee, Hyun; Carter, Janet E; Chang, Jong Wook; Oh, Wonil; Yang, Yoon Sun; Suh, Jun-Gyo; Lee, Byoung-Hee; Jin, Hee Kyung; Bae, Jae-Sung

    2012-03-01

    Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSC) have a potential therapeutic role in the treatment of neurological disorders, but their current clinical usage and mechanism of action has yet to be ascertained in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we report that hUCB-MSC transplantation into amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin1 (PS1) double-transgenic mice significantly improved spatial learning and memory decline. Furthermore, amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) deposition, β-secretase 1 (BACE-1) levels, and tau hyperphosphorylation were dramatically reduced in hUCB-MSC transplanted APP/PS1 mice. Interestingly, these effects were associated with reversal of disease-associated microglial neuroinflammation, as evidenced by decreased microglia-induced proinflammatory cytokines, elevated alternatively activated microglia, and increased anti-inflammatory cytokines. These findings lead us to suggest that hUCB-MSC produced their sustained neuroprotective effect by inducing a feed-forward loop involving alternative activation of microglial neuroinflammation, thereby ameliorating disease pathophysiology and reversing the cognitive decline associated with Aβ deposition in AD mice.

  14. DNA damage and apoptosis in blood neutrophils of inflammatory bowel disease patients and in Caco-2 cells in vitro exposed to betanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska-Przyjemska, Małgorzata; Olejnik, Anna; Dobrowolska-Zachwieja, Agnieszka; Łuczak, Michał; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic, relapsing, inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and continuing colonic inflammation is considered an important risk factor in the development of colorectal cancer. Our previous studies showed that beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) products and their major component betanin modulate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA damage in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) stimulated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils of healthy volunteers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of betanin on the oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis in neutrophils isolated from blood of patients with inflammatory bowel disease--ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). The results were compared with those obtained in colon carcinoma-derived Caco-2 cells. Betanin treatment at the concentration of 100 μM for 24 h increased DNA damage assessed by comet assay in IBD patients' neutrophils. A similar effect although less pronounced was observed in Caco-2 cells. Treatment of Caco-2 cells with H2O2 caused a 4-fold increase of DNA strand breaks in comparison to untreated cells, but pre-treatment with betanin reduced DNA damage in these cells. Betanin also induced procaspase-3 cleavage and caspase-3 activity accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, indicating its pro-apoptotic activity. These results suggest that betanin may support mechanisms that lead to the release of ROS and apoptotic cell death. In this way betanin may exert anti-inflammatory and potentially cancer preventive activity. PMID:27117102

  15. Aging, the metabolic syndrome, and ischemic stroke: redefining the approach for studying the blood-brain barrier in a complex neurological disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Logsdon, Aric F; Turner, Ryan C; Rosen, Charles L; Huber, Jason D

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) has many important functions in maintaining the brain's immune-privileged status. Endothelial cells, astrocytes, and pericytes have important roles in preserving vasculature integrity. As we age, cell senescence can contribute to BBB compromise. The compromised BBB allows an influx of inflammatory cytokines to enter the brain. These cytokines lead to neuronal and glial damage. Ultimately, the functional changes within the brain can cause age-related disease. One of the most prominent age-related diseases is ischemic stroke. Stroke is the largest cause of disability and is third largest cause of mortality in the United States. The biggest risk factors for stroke, besides age, are results of the metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome, if unchecked, quickly advances to outcomes that include diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. The contribution from these comorbidities to BBB compromise is great. Some of the common molecular pathways activated include: endoplasmic reticulum stress, reactive oxygen species formation, and glutamate excitotoxicity. In this chapter, we examine how age-related changes to cells within the central nervous system interact with comorbidities. We then look at how comorbidities lead to increased risk for stroke through BBB disruption. Finally, we discuss key molecular pathways of interest with a focus on therapeutic targets that warrant further investigation.

  16. The potential of pathological protein fragmentation in blood-based biomarker development for dementia - with emphasis on Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inekci, Dilek; Svendsen Jonesco, Ditte; Kennard, Sophie;

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of dementia is challenging and early stages are rarely detected limiting the possibilities for early intervention. Another challenge is the overlap in the clinical features across the different dementia types leading to difficulties in the differential diagnosis. Identifying...... biomarkers that can detect the pre-dementia stage and allow differential diagnosis could provide an opportunity for timely and optimal intervention strategies. Also, such biomarkers could help in selection and inclusion of the right patients in clinical trials of both Alzheimer's disease and other dementia......, as there is a significant crossover between the proteins involved in the different types of dementia. Additionally, CSF sampling makes these biomarkers challenging for presymptomatic identification. We need to focus on disease-specific protein fragmentation to find a fragment pattern unique for each separate dementia type...

  17. Effect of L-arginine on renal blood flow in normal subjects and patients with hypoxic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Howes, T. Q.; Keilty, S. E.; Maskrey, V. L.; Deane, C. R.; Baudouin, S. V.; Moxham, J

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: L-arginine is the precursor of endothelium derived nitric oxide (NO) and increasing the available substrate may increase the production of NO. This has been shown by local infusion in peripheral vascular beds but there are few studies of the effects during systemic infusion. Renal vasoconstriction is known to be important in the pathogenesis of cor pulmonale in patients with hypoxic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The effects of a systemic infusion of L-arginine on r...

  18. Relationship of blood pressure with some cardiovascular disease risk factors in a rural population of Plateau State, North Central Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Okeahialam, Basil N; Chikaike Ogbonna; Joseph, Dele E.; Chuhwak, Evelyn K.; Isiguzoro, Ikechukwu O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is associated with certain cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors which vary from one place to the other depending on community sophistication. We decided to obtain the situation as it affects this rural Nigerian community to be in an evidence-based position to initiate individual and group prevention strategies. Design: Cross-sectional population survey. Materials and Methods: We surveyed for CVD risk factors among subjects 15 years and above in this rural communi...

  19. Blood groups systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranadhir Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system.

  20. Blood groups systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Ranadhir; Mishra, Nitasha; Rath, Girija Prasad

    2014-09-01

    International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system. PMID:25535412

  1. Integrated Blood Barcode Chips

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Rong; Vermesh, Ophir; Srivastava, Alok; Yen, Brian K.H.; Qin, Lidong; Ahmad, Habib; Kwong, Gabriel A.; Liu, Chao-Chao; Gould, Juliane; Hood, Leroy; Heath, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Blood comprises the largest version of the human proteome1. Changes of plasma protein profiles can reflect physiological or pathological conditions associated with many human diseases, making blood the most important fluid for clinical diagnostics2-4. Nevertheless, only a handful of plasma proteins are utilized in routine clinical tests. This is due to a host of reasons, including the intrinsic complexity of the plasma proteome1, the heterogeneity of human diseases and the fast kinetics assoc...

  2. Elevated global cerebral blood flow, oxygen extraction fraction and unchanged metabolic rate of oxygen in young adults with end-stage renal disease: an MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Gang; Lou, Yaxian; Pan, Zhiying; Liu, Ya [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, College of Aivil Aviation, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Wen, Jiqiu; Li, Xue; Zhang, Zhe [Medical School of Nanjing University, National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Diseases, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Lu, Hanzhang [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Advanced Imaging Research Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Liu, Wei [Siemens Shenzhen Magnetic Resonance Ltd., Shenzhen, Guangdong (China); Liu, Hui [Siemens MR NEA Collaboration, Siemens Ltd., Shanghai (China); Chen, Huijuan; Kong, Xiang; Luo, Song; Jiang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Zongjun; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-06-15

    To noninvasively assess global cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) in young adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Thirty-six patients and 38 healthy volunteers were included and took part in MR examinations, blood and neuropsychological tests. CBF and OEF were measured by phase-contrast and T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging MRI techniques, respectively. CMRO{sub 2} was computed from CBF, OEF and hematocrit according to Fick's principle. Correlations were performed between MR measurements, blood biochemistry measurements and neuropsychological test scores. Compared with controls, ESRD patients had elevated CBF (72.9 ± 12.5 vs. 63.8 ± 8.5 ml min{sup -1} 100 g{sup -1}, P < 0.001), elevated OEF (47.2 ± 10.2 vs. 35.8 ± 5.4 %, P < 0.001), but unaffected CMRO{sub 2} (199.5 ± 36.4 vs. 193.8 ± 28.6 μmol O{sub 2} min{sup -1} 100 g{sup -1}, P = 0.879). Hematocrit negatively correlated with CBF (r = -0.640, P < 0.001) and OEF (r = -0.701, P < 0.001), but not with CMRO{sub 2}. Altered neuropsychological test scores of ESRD patients were associated with OEF and CBF, but not with CMRO{sub 2}. There were weak relationships between eGFR and hematocrit (r = 0.308, P = 0.068) or CBF (r = 0.318, P = 0.059). Our findings suggested that anaemic young adults with ESRD may afford higher CBF and OEF to maintain a normal CMRO{sub 2}. Despite this compensatory process, however, cognitive function was still impaired and its severity was correlated with their CBF and OEF abnormality. (orig.)

  3. Elevated global cerebral blood flow, oxygen extraction fraction and unchanged metabolic rate of oxygen in young adults with end-stage renal disease: an MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To noninvasively assess global cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) in young adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Thirty-six patients and 38 healthy volunteers were included and took part in MR examinations, blood and neuropsychological tests. CBF and OEF were measured by phase-contrast and T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging MRI techniques, respectively. CMRO2 was computed from CBF, OEF and hematocrit according to Fick's principle. Correlations were performed between MR measurements, blood biochemistry measurements and neuropsychological test scores. Compared with controls, ESRD patients had elevated CBF (72.9 ± 12.5 vs. 63.8 ± 8.5 ml min-1 100 g-1, P < 0.001), elevated OEF (47.2 ± 10.2 vs. 35.8 ± 5.4 %, P < 0.001), but unaffected CMRO2 (199.5 ± 36.4 vs. 193.8 ± 28.6 μmol O2 min-1 100 g-1, P = 0.879). Hematocrit negatively correlated with CBF (r = -0.640, P < 0.001) and OEF (r = -0.701, P < 0.001), but not with CMRO2. Altered neuropsychological test scores of ESRD patients were associated with OEF and CBF, but not with CMRO2. There were weak relationships between eGFR and hematocrit (r = 0.308, P = 0.068) or CBF (r = 0.318, P = 0.059). Our findings suggested that anaemic young adults with ESRD may afford higher CBF and OEF to maintain a normal CMRO2. Despite this compensatory process, however, cognitive function was still impaired and its severity was correlated with their CBF and OEF abnormality. (orig.)

  4. The reporting of theoretical health risks by the media: Canadian newspaper reporting of potential blood transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nadya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The media play an important role at the interface of science and policy by communicating scientific information to the public and policy makers. In issues of theoretical risk, in which there is scientific uncertainty, the media's role as disseminators of information is particularly important due to the potential to influence public perception of the severity of the risk. In this article we describe how the Canadian print media reported the theoretical risk of blood transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. Methods We searched 3 newspaper databases for articles published by 6 major Canadian daily newspapers between January 1990 and December 1999. We identified all articles relating to blood transmission of CJD. In duplicate we extracted information from the articles and entered the information into a qualitative software program. We compared the observations obtained from this content analysis with information obtained from a previous policy analysis examining the Canadian blood system's decision-making concerning the potential transfusion transmission of CJD. Results Our search identified 245 relevant articles. We observed that newspapers in one instance accelerated a policy decision, which had important resource and health implication, by communicating information on risk to the public. We also observed that newspapers primarily relied upon expert opinion (47 articles as opposed to published medical evidence (28 articles when communicating risk information. Journalists we interviewed described the challenges of balancing their responsibility to raise awareness of potential health threats with not unnecessarily arousing fear amongst the public. Conclusions Based on our findings we recommend that journalists report information from both expert opinion sources and from published studies when communicating information on risk. We also recommend researchers work more closely with journalists to assist them in identifying

  5. Arterial stiffness, renal function and renal blood flow in patients with coronary artery disease, arterial hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vasilievna Oskola

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AimTo investigate the relationship between changes in indicators of arterial stiffness of various types of vessels, hemodynamic pulsatility, renal function and renal blood flow in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD and arterial hypertension in the presence or absence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.Materials and MethodsThe study included 96 patients with CAD and arterial hypertension; among them, 54 subjects had T2DM and 42 did not. Сarbohydrate and lipid metabolism, renal function, stiffness of various types of arteries, parameters of hemodynamic pulsatility and renal blood flow were investigated.ResultsArterial stiffness of various types of vessels was increased in the T2DM group: carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity as a marker of aortic stiffness (a vessel of the elastic type was increased by 16% (p <0.001, index β of the common carotid artery (a vessel of the muscular elastic type was increased by 7.6% (p <0.05 and index β of the brachial artery (a vessel of the muscular type was increased by 22% (p <0.05. The level of microalbuminuria was 5-fold higher (p <0.05 and the renal resistive index was 12.5% higher (p <0.05 in the diabetics group. Significant correlations were found between aortic stiffness, parameters of hemodynamic pulsatility (pulse pressure, measured at the brachial artery, the central pulse pressure, augmentation index and renal function and renal blood flow in patients in both groups.ConclusionThe results may indicate the general pathogenetic mechanisms and the relationship between the development of increased aortic stiffness and renal dysfunction in patients with CAD, arterial hypertension and T2DM.

  6. Regional cerebral blood flow in Parkinson's disease measured with N-isopropyl-p-[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, Ikuo; Nishihara, Mamiko; Hayashi, Hiroko; Higuchi, Shoichi; Sakai, Kunio (Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Ishikawa, Atsushi; Ibayashi, Katsuhiko

    1992-09-01

    N-isopropyl-p-[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT studies were performed on 21 patients (13 females; 45-73 yrs) with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and 10 age-matched normal controls (39-69 yrs). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was quantitatively measured by the arterial blood sampling method. When compared with normal controls, global CBF, and rCBF in the frontal cortex and in the basal ganglia were reduced 22.1% (p<0.01), 25.0% (p<0.05) and 25.6% (p<0.01), respectively. The reduction of rCBF in the basal ganglia was significantly correlated (p<0.05) with symptoms such as gait disturbance, frozen gait and motor disability score. However, no significant correlation was observed between the severity of dementia and any regional reduction of CBF, including the frontal or parietal cortices. These data show that the severity of dementia in PD may be related to other factors but not with CBF. Quantification of rCBF with [sup 123]I-IMP SPECT imaging is useful for evaluation and follow-up of patients with PD. (author).

  7. Prolonged remission state of refractory adult onset Still's disease following CD34-selected autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, F; Dominici, M; Govoni, M; Moretti, S; Campioni, D; Corte, R L; Latorraca, A; Tieghi, A; Castagnari, B; Trotta, F; Castoldi, G

    2000-06-01

    We report a 38-year-old patient affected by refractory adult onset Still's disease who achieved a prolonged remission following CD34-selected ABMT. The conditioning regimen was based on the use of CY and anti-thymocyte globulin. A 3.0 and 2.0 log reduction of T (CD3+) and B (CD19+) lymphocytes, respectively, was obtained using a Ceprate device to select CD34+ cells from PBSC. In the pre-transplant period (1994-1998) the patient had a chronic persistent disease course with frequent and recurrent systemic articular flares and loss of some functional abilities, despite daily prednisone, pulses of CY and immunosuppressive therapy (CYA or MTX). At the time of ABMT the patient had become non-ambulatory. Within 3 weeks of ABMT the patient showed a marked decrease in joint swelling, and morning stiffness. Joint pain and systemic symptoms disappeared, the patient was able to walk and run and gained general well being. ESR, C-reactive protein and WBC count were significantly decreased, while Hb level increased. This partial remission persisted for at least 1 year after ABMT, although at 15 months of follow-up a reappearance of moderate synovitis in the knees and wrists was noted. Our data further showed that both patient BM microenvironment and stem-progenitor cell function (as assessed by LTC-IC assay) were damaged even 1 year after CD34-selected ABMT, suggesting that the persistence of these alterations could have facilitated the favorable outcome of the disease following ABMT. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2000) 25, 1307-1310. PMID:10871738

  8. Relationship between periodontal disease and blood glucose during pregnancy%妊娠期牙周疾病与血糖关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林靖雯; 王洪萍; 于晓光

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between periodontal disease and blood glucose during pregnancy, so as to prevent and control gestational periodontal disease better. Methods Forty-five women during 24 -28 gestational weeks were divided into gestational diabetes mellitus ( GDM) group and normal blood glucose group according to oral glucose tolerance test results. Calculus index, gingival index and periodontal probing depth were compared between two groups, and the relationship between blood glucose level and gingival index or periodontal probing depth was discussed by using correlation analysis and regression analysis. Results There was no significant difference in age, gestational weeks, calculus index, gingival index and periodontal probing depth between two groups ( t value was 0. 949, 0. 388, 0. 621, 0. 934 and 1. 304, respectively, all P >0. 05), and the difference in education degree was not significant (χ2 =0. 487, P >0. 05). There was no significant correlation among fasting blood glucose, blood sugar 1 hour after meal, blood sugar 2 hours after meal and gingival index, periodontal probing depth (r value was -0. 053, 0. 142, -0. 045, -0. 069, -0. 002 and -0. 113, respectively, all P>0. 05). Gingival index was positively related with calculus index significantly (r=0. 653,P0. 05). Conclusion Periodontal disease during pregnancy is closely related with plaque index, and reducing plaque is helpful to prevent and treat gestational periodontal disease. The study does not reveal correlation between gestational periodontal disease and blood glucose, and the relationship between them needs further study to explore.%目的:了解妊娠期牙周疾病与血糖的关系,以便更好地预防控制妊娠期牙周疾病。方法将45例24~28周的孕妇按照葡萄糖耐量试验结果分为妊娠期糖尿病组和血糖正常组。对比两组研究对象的牙石指数、牙龈指数、牙周探诊深度,并采用相关分析和回归分析对牙龈指数

  9. Regional Cerebral Blood Flow differences in early and severe Alzheimer Disease as assessed by SPECT and Principal Component Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: In its development into severe Alzheimer's Disease (AD), early Alzheimer Disease (eAD) involves progressively larger regions of the brain. These regions share close anatomo-functional relationships. The aim of this study was to investigate the rCBF changes occurring in eAD and AD as compared to a group of normal individuals by means of SPECT and Principal Component Analysis. Materials and Methods. Thirty eAD, 17 AD and 66 normal controls (CTR) were included in the study. 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT, using a three-headed gamma camera, was performed at rest and the uptake in 27 functional bilateral sub-volumes of the brain was assessed by a standardised digitalised brain atlas. Data were grouped into anatomo-functionally connected regions by means of PCA analysis performed on all 113 individuals. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the significance of the differences in flow in such functional regions and data were co-variated for age differences. Results. In the global analysis, rCBF significantly differed between groups (0.001) with a progressive reduction of flow from CTR to AD. PCA reduced the 54 variables to 11 anatomo-functional regions that interacted with groups (p<0.001) and gender (p<0.001). In the overall analysis the three groups differed significantly in all functional regions except for bilateral occipital cortex, anterior cingulated cortex, thalamus and putamen. In both CTR/eAD and CTR/AD comparisons the largest rCBF reductions were found in functional regions including left (p<0.0001) and right (p<0.0001) temporo-parietal cortex and associative parietal cortex (p<0.0001). When eAD was compared to AD, this latter showed the largest reductions in right temporo-parietal cortex (p<0.0001) and in right prefrontal cortex (p<0.005). Conclusions. In this study the rCBF was investigated in early and severe Alzheimer's Disease taking into account the functional connectivity among brain regions. Our results confirm previous findings on the progression of

  10. Dynamic SPECT with Xe-133: regional cerebral blood flow in patients with unilaterial cerebrovascular disease: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To validate xenon-133 dynamic single photon emission tomography (SPECT) clinically, 74 patients were examined. Strictly unilateral cerebrovascular disease was confirmed in 47 patients by clinical history and by transmission computerized tomography (TCT) and contrast angiography. Twenty-seven were excluded, considered normal. SPECT flow maps were evaluated visually (against TCT) or by automated region of interest (ROI) techniques. Visually, low-flow areas were detected twice as frequently in SPECT as areas of low density in TCT. In reversible episodes, sensitivity of AF alone was significantly below the sensitivity of combined evaluation of flow and ratio

  11. Dissipative particle dynamics simulations of deformation and aggregation of healthy and diseased red blood cells in a tube flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Ting; Phan-Thien, Nhan, E-mail: Nhan@nus.edu.sg; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Lim, Chwee Teck [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119260 (Singapore)

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we report simulation results assessing the deformation and aggregation of mixed healthy and malaria-infected red blood cells (RBCs) in a tube flow. A three dimensional particle model based on Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) is developed to predict the tube flow containing interacting cells. The cells are also modelled by DPD, with a Morse potential to characterize the cell-cell interaction. As validation tests, a single RBC in a tube flow and two RBCs in a static flow are simulated to examine the cell deformation and intercellular interaction, respectively. The study of two cells, one healthy and the other malaria-infected RBCs in a tube flow demonstrates that the malaria-infected RBC (in the leading position along flow direction) has different effects on the healthy RBC (in the trailing position) at the different stage of parasite development or at the different capillary number. With parasitic development, the malaria-infected RBC gradually loses its deformability, and in turn the corresponding trailing healthy RBC also deforms less due to the intercellular interaction. With increasing capillary number, both the healthy and malaria-infected RBCs are likely to undergo an axisymmetric motion. The minimum intercellular distance becomes small enough so that rouleaux is easily formed, i.e., the healthy and malaria-infected RBCs are difficultly disaggregated.

  12. EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder after umbilical cord blood transplantation in adults with hematological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, J; Arango, M; Senent, L; Jarque, I; Montesinos, P; Sempere, A; Lorenzo, I; Martín, G; Moscardó, F; Mayordomo, E; Salavert, M; Cañigral, C; Boluda, B; Salazar, C; López-Hontangas, J L; Sanz, M A; Sanz, G F

    2014-03-01

    We analyzed the incidence, clinicopathological features, risk factors and prognosis of patients with EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (EBV-PTLD) in 288 adults undergoing umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) at a single institution. Twelve patients developed proven EBV-PTLD at a median time of 73 days (range, 36-812). Three-year cumulative incidence (CI) of EBV-PTLD was 4.3% (95% CI: 1.9-6.7). All patients presented with extranodal involvement. Most frequently affected sites were the liver, spleen, central nervous system (CNS), Waldeyer's ring and BM in 7, 6, 4, 3 and 3 patients, respectively. One patient had polymorphic and 11 had monomorphic EBV-PTLD (7 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas not otherwise specified, 4 plasmablastic lymphomas). We confirmed donor origin and EBV infection in all histological samples. EBV-PTLD was the cause of death in 11 patients at a median time of 23 days (range, 1-84). The 3-year CI of EBV-PTLD was 12.9% (95% CI: 3.2-22.5) and 2.6% (95% CI: 0.5-4.7) for patients receiving reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and myeloablative conditioning, respectively (P<0.0001). In conclusion, adults with EBV-PTLD after UCBT showed frequent visceral and CNS involvement. The prognosis was poor despite routine viral monitoring and early intervention. An increased risk of EBV-PTLD was noted among recipients of RIC regimens.

  13. The effect of lowering salt intake on ambulatory blood pressure to reduce cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease (LowSALT CKD study: protocol of a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMahon Emma J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite evidence implicating dietary sodium in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD in chronic kidney disease (CKD, quality intervention trials in CKD patients are lacking. This study aims to investigate the effect of reducing sodium intake on blood pressure, risk factors for progression of CKD and other cardiovascular risk factors in CKD. Methods/design The LowSALT CKD study is a six week randomized-crossover trial assessing the effect of a moderate (180 mmol/day compared with a low (60 mmol/day sodium intake on cardiovascular risk factors and risk factors for kidney function decline in mild-moderate CKD (stage III-IV. The primary outcome of interest is 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, with secondary outcomes including arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity, proteinuria and fluid status. The randomized crossover trial (Phase 1 is supported by an ancillary trial (Phase 2 of longitudinal-observational design to assess the longer term effectiveness of sodium restriction. Phase 2 will continue measurement of outcomes as per Phase 1, with the addition of patient-centered outcomes, such as dietary adherence to sodium restriction (degree of adherence and barriers/enablers, quality of life and taste assessment. Discussion The LowSALT CKD study is an investigator-initiated study specifically designed to assess the proof-of-concept and efficacy of sodium restriction in patients with established CKD. Phase 2 will assess the longer term effectiveness of sodium restriction in the same participants, enhancing the translation of Phase 1 results into practice. This trial will provide much-needed insight into sodium restriction as a treatment option to reduce risk of CVD and CKD progression in CKD patients. Trial registration Universal Trial Number: U1111-1125-2149. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Number: ACTRN12611001097932

  14. Regional cerebral blood flow assessed with 99mTc-ECD SPET as a marker of progression of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have a higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, not all such patients develop this kind of dementia. The purpose of this prospective study was to assess whether regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns measured with technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer single-photon emission tomography (99mTc-ECD SPET) in patients suffering from MCI are useful in predicting progression to AD. The study group comprised 42 patients who fulfilled MCI criteria according to the International Psychogeriatric Association and the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study. rCBF was calculated in 16 regions of interest (ROIs). All patients were clinically assessed for 1-3 years. Twenty-one developed AD (group I) while the initial diagnosis of MCI was retained in the other 21 (group II). ROC curves were designed, and sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were determined for each ROI. Compared with group II (MCI), group I (AD) showed a significant reduction of relative blood flow (RBF), ranging from 7% to 10%, in the following areas: right and left prefrontal, right and left frontal, right and left parietal, right and left temporal, right and left frontoparietotemporal and left posterior lateral temporal. Left prefrontal, left frontal and left parietal areas showed sensitivities and specificities higher than 75% and areas below the ROC curve close to 80%. This study shows that RBF patterns in the right and left prefrontal, right and left frontal and left parietal areas are sensitive early markers of progression towards AD. Reduction of rCBF in the medial temporal and anterior lateral temporal cortex has no value as a predictor since it also occurs in patients with MCI who remain stable. (orig.)

  15. Estimated aortic blood pressure based on radial artery tonometry underestimates directly measured aortic blood pressure in patients with advancing chronic kidney disease staging and increasing arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Rasmus K; Peters, Christian D; Khatir, Dinah S; Laugesen, Esben; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Winther, Simon; Buus, Niels H

    2016-10-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) can be assessed noninvasively based on radial tonometry and may potentially be a better predictor of clinical outcome than brachial BP. However, the validity of noninvasively obtained estimates has never been examined in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here we compared invasive aortic systolic BP (SBP) with estimated central SBP obtained by radial artery tonometry and examined the influence of renal function and arterial stiffness on this relationship. We evaluated 83 patients with stage 3 to 5 CKD (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 30 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) and 41 controls without renal disease undergoing scheduled coronary angiography. BP in the ascending aorta was measured through the angiography catheter and simultaneously estimated using radial tonometry. The mean difference between estimated central and aortic SBP was -13.2 (95% confidence interval -14.9 to -11.4) mm Hg. Arterial stiffness was evaluated by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) and was significantly increased in CKD patients compared with (versus) control patients (mean 10.7 vs. 9.3 m/s). The difference in BP significantly increased 1.0 mm Hg for every 10 ml/min decrease in eGFR and by 1.6 mm Hg per 1 m/s increase in cfPWV. Using multivariate regression analysis including both eGFR and cfPWV, the difference between estimated central and invasive aortic SBP was significantly increased by 0.7 mm Hg. For the entire cohort brachial SBP significantly better reflected invasive SBP than estimated SBP. Thus, tonometry-based estimates of central BP progressively underestimate invasive central SBP with decreasing renal function and increasing arterial stiffness in CKD patients.

  16. The influence of radiographic phenotype and smoking status on peripheral blood biomarker patterns in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Bon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by both airway remodeling and parenchymal destruction. The identification of unique biomarker patterns associated with airway dominant versus parenchymal dominant patterns would support the existence of unique phenotypes representing independent biologic processes. A cross-sectional study was performed to examine the association of serum biomarkers with radiographic airway and parenchymal phenotypes of COPD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Serum from 234 subjects enrolled in a CT screening cohort was analyzed for 33 cytokines and growth factors using a multiplex protein array. The association of serum markers with forced expiratory volume in one second percent predicted (FEV1% and quantitative CT measurements of airway thickening and emphysema was assessed with and without stratification for current smoking status. Significant associations were found with several serum inflammatory proteins and measurements of FEV1%, airway thickening, and parenchymal emphysema independent of smoking status. The association of select analytes with airway thickening and emphysema was independent of FEV1%. Furthermore, the relationship between other inflammatory markers and measurements of physiologic obstruction or airway thickening was dependent on current smoking status. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Airway and parenchymal phenotypes of COPD are associated with unique systemic serum biomarker profiles. Serum biomarker patterns may provide a more precise classification of the COPD syndrome, provide insights into disease pathogenesis and identify targets for novel patient-specific biological therapies.

  17. Thiazine Red(+) platelet inclusions in Cerebral Blood Vessels are first signs in an Alzheimer's Disease mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniewallner, Kathrin M; Wenzel, Daniela; Humpel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Strong evidence shows an association between cerebral vascular diseases and Alzheimer´s disease (AD). In order to study the interaction of beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaques with brain vessels, we crossbred an AD mouse model (overexpressing amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish-Dutch-Iowa mutations, APP_SweDI) with mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the flt-1/VEGFR1 promoter in vessels (GFP_FLT1). Our data show, that only very few Aβ plaques were seen in 4-months old mice, focused in the mammillary body and in the lateral septal nucleus. The number of plaques markedly increased with age being most prominent in 12-months old mice. Thiazine Red was used to verify the plaques. Several Thiazine Red(+) inclusions were found in GFP(+) vessels, but only in non-perfused 4-months old mice. These inclusions were verified by Resorufin stainings possibly representing cerebral amyloid angiopathy. The inclusions were also seen in non-crossbred APP_SweDI but not in wildtype and GFP_FLT1 mice. In order to characterize these inclusions Flow Cytometry (FACS) analysis demonstrated that platelets were specifically stained by Thiazine Red(+), more pronounced when aggregated. In conclusion, our data show that Thiazine Red(+) inclusions representing aggregated platelets are a first pathological sign in AD before plaque development and may become important therapeutic targets in early AD. PMID:27345467

  18. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Blood Types KidsHealth > For Teens > Blood Types Print A A ... or straight hair instead of curly. ...Make Eight Blood Types The different markers that can be found in ...

  19. Self-reactive CD4+ T cells and B cells in the blood in health and autoimmune disease: increased frequency of thyroglobulin-reactive cells in Graves' disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus H; Moeller, Ane Christine; Hegedüs, Laszlo;

    2006-01-01

    with autoimmune thyroiditis. In Hashimoto's thyroiditis, B cells bound increased amounts of thyroglobulin in a complement- and autoantibody-dependent manner, and the thyroglobulin-elicited proliferation of CD4(+) T cells and B cells was complement dependent. Increased proportions of Tg-responsive CD4......(+) T cells and B cells were found in patients with Graves' disease. Notably, both patient groups and healthy controls exhibited higher proliferative responses to thyroglobulin than to a foreign recall antigen, tetanus toxoid. Our results suggest that self-tolerance can be broken by exposure of...... circulating lymphocytes to high local concentrations of self-antigen, and that complement plays a role in the maintenance of autoimmune processes, at least in Hashimoto's thyroiditis....

  20. Alzheimer's disease susceptibility variants in the MS4A6A gene are associated with altered levels of MS4A6A expression in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proitsi, Petroula; Lee, Sang Hyuck; Lunnon, Katie; Keohane, Aoife; Powell, John; Troakes, Claire; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Furney, Simon; Soininen, Hilkka; Kłoszewska, Iwona; Mecocci, Patrizia; Tsolaki, Magda; Vellas, Bruno; Lovestone, Simon; Hodges, Angela

    2014-02-01

    An increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) has previously been found to be associated with variants at the MS4A6A locus. We sought to identify which genes and transcripts in this region have altered expression in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and are influenced by the AD risk variant(s), as a first step to understanding the molecular basis of AD susceptibility at this locus. Common variants located within highly expressed MS4A6A transcripts were significantly associated with AD and MS4A6A expression levels in blood from MCI and AD subjects (p < 0.05, rs610932, rs7232, rs583791). More copies of the protective (minor) allele were associated with lower MS4A6A expression of each transcript (e.g., p = 0.019; rs610932-total MS4A6A). Furthermore, in heterozygous AD subjects, relative expression of the protective allele of V4-MS4A6A transcripts was lower (p < 0.008). Irrespective of genotype, MS4A6A transcripts were increased in blood from people with AD (p < 0.003), whereas lower expression of full length V1-MS4A6A (p = 0.002) and higher expression of V4-MS4A6A (p = 1.8 × 10(-4)) were observed in MCI, relative to elderly controls. The association between genotype and expression was less consistent in brain, although BA9 did have a similar genotype association with V4-MS4A6A transcripts as in blood. MS4A6A transcripts were widely expressed in tissues and cells, with the exception of V4-MS4A6A, which was not expressed in neuronal cells. Together these results suggest that high levels of MS4A6A in emerging AD pathology are detrimental. Persons with MCI may lower MS4A6A expression to minimize detrimental disease associated MS4A6A activity. However, those with the susceptibility allele appear unable to decrease expression sufficiently, which may explain their increased risk for developing AD. Inhibiting MS4A6A may therefore promote a more neuroprotective phenotype, although further work is needed to establish whether this is the case.

  1. Regional cerebral blood flow in acute stage ischemic cerebrovascular disease by xenon-133 inhalation and single photon emission computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurokawa, Hiroyuki (Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-03-01

    During the period from February 1984 through June 1985, single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) with xenon-133 inhalation method has been performed for the measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during the first 48 hours of onset of cerebral infarction (n=71) and transient ischemic attack (n=21). X-ray CT (CT) and carotid arteriography were concurrently performed in all the patients. In repeated studies performed for 15 normal volunteers, rCBF measurement by SPECT was found reproducible. Mean values of rCBF for the right and left cerebral hemispheres were 60.3{plus minus}6.52 and 61.8{plus minus}6.91 ml/100 g/min, respectively. For cerebral infarction, ischemic foci corresponding to clinical symptoms were detected more frequently on SPECT than on CT (93% vs 63%). In all of the evaluable 35 patients with cerebral infarction, rCBF within the first 8 hours of onset was decreased: 31.0 ml/100 g/min for the internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion and 36.0 ml/100 g/min for the middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis was observed in 50% (9/18) for ICA occlusion and 37% (14/38) for MCA occlusion. For transient ischemic attack, there was no significant difference in the detection of ischemic foci between SPECT and CT (38% vs 43%). In detecting small foci especially in the deep regions such as the basal ganglia, SPECT was inferior to CT. Mean rCBF for transient ischemic attack tended to be lower than the normal rCBF (50.7 ml/100 g/min for the right cerebral hemisphere and 50.6 ml/100 g/min for the left cerebral hemisphere). SPECT may aid in predicting prognosis and chosing treatment strategy, as well as in determining cerebral hemodynamics. (N.K.).

  2. Effect of red wine and red grape extract on blood lipids, haemostatic factors, and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alice Schmidt; Marckmann, P.; Dragsted, L.O.;

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Some epidemiological studies found a lower risk of cardiovascular disease among wine drinkers than among drinkers of other types of ethanol. This difference might be due to an effect of nonalcohol compounds in wine on important cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of this study...... was to compare the effect of red wine, nonalcohol compounds of red wine and placebo on established cardiovascular risk factors. Design: A parallel, four-armed intervention study. Subjects: A total of 69 healthy 38 - 74- y-old men and women. Interventions: Subjects were randomised to either 1: red wine ( males...... before and after intervention. Results: Wine consumption was associated with a significant 11 - 16% increase in fasting HDL-C and 8 - 15% decrease in fasting fibrinogen relative to not drinking wine. There were no significant treatment effects on fasting LDL-C, HDL-C/LDL-C-ratio, VLDL...

  3. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture

  4. Gene transcript analysis blood values correlate with {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-somatostatin analog (SSA) PET/CT imaging in neuroendocrine tumors and can define disease status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodei, L. [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Kidd, M.; Modlin, I.M.; Drozdov, I. [Wren Laboratories, Branford, CT (United States); Prasad, V. [Charite University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Severi, S.; Paganelli, G. [Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Nuclear Medicine and Radiometabolic Units, Meldola (Italy); Ambrosini, V. [S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy); Kwekkeboom, D.J.; Krenning, E.P. [Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Baum, R.P. [Zentralklinik Bad Berka, THERANOSTICS Center for Molecular Radiotherapy and Imaging, Bad Berka (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Precise determination of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) disease status and response to therapy remains a rate-limiting concern for disease management. This reflects limitations in biomarker specificity and resolution capacity of imaging. In order to evaluate biomarker precision and identify if combinatorial blood molecular markers and imaging could provide added diagnostic value, we assessed the concordance between {sup 68}Ga-somatostatin analog (SSA) positron emission tomography (PET), circulating NET gene transcripts (NETest), chromogranin A (CgA), and Ki-67 in NETs. We utilized two independent patient groups with positive {sup 68}Ga-SSA PET: data set 1 ({sup 68}Ga-SSA PETs undertaken for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), as primary or salvage treatment, n = 27) and data set 2 ({sup 68}Ga-SSA PETs performed in patients referred for initial disease staging or restaging after various therapies, n = 22). We examined the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}), circulating gene transcripts, CgA levels, and baseline Ki-67. Regression analyses, generalized linear modeling, and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were undertaken to determine the strength of the relationships. SUV{sub max} measured in two centers were mathematically evaluated (regression modeling) and determined to be comparable. Of 49 patients, 47 (96 %) exhibited a positive NETest. Twenty-six (54 %) had elevated CgA (χ{sup 2} = 20.1, p < 2.5 x 10{sup -6}). The majority (78 %) had Ki-67 < 20 %. Gene transcript scores were predictive of imaging with >95 % concordance and significantly correlated with SUV{sub max} (R {sup 2} = 0.31, root-mean-square error = 9.4). The genes MORF4L2 and somatostatin receptors SSTR1, 3, and 5 exhibited the highest correlation with SUV{sub max}. Progressive disease was identified by elevated levels of a quotient of MORF4L2 expression and SUV{sub max} [ROC-derived AUC (R {sup 2} = 0.7, p < 0.05)]. No statistical relationship was identified

  5. Gene transcript analysis blood values correlate with 68Ga-DOTA-somatostatin analog (SSA) PET/CT imaging in neuroendocrine tumors and can define disease status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precise determination of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) disease status and response to therapy remains a rate-limiting concern for disease management. This reflects limitations in biomarker specificity and resolution capacity of imaging. In order to evaluate biomarker precision and identify if combinatorial blood molecular markers and imaging could provide added diagnostic value, we assessed the concordance between 68Ga-somatostatin analog (SSA) positron emission tomography (PET), circulating NET gene transcripts (NETest), chromogranin A (CgA), and Ki-67 in NETs. We utilized two independent patient groups with positive 68Ga-SSA PET: data set 1 (68Ga-SSA PETs undertaken for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), as primary or salvage treatment, n = 27) and data set 2 (68Ga-SSA PETs performed in patients referred for initial disease staging or restaging after various therapies, n = 22). We examined the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), circulating gene transcripts, CgA levels, and baseline Ki-67. Regression analyses, generalized linear modeling, and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were undertaken to determine the strength of the relationships. SUVmax measured in two centers were mathematically evaluated (regression modeling) and determined to be comparable. Of 49 patients, 47 (96 %) exhibited a positive NETest. Twenty-six (54 %) had elevated CgA (χ2 = 20.1, p < 2.5 x 10-6). The majority (78 %) had Ki-67 < 20 %. Gene transcript scores were predictive of imaging with >95 % concordance and significantly correlated with SUVmax (R 2 = 0.31, root-mean-square error = 9.4). The genes MORF4L2 and somatostatin receptors SSTR1, 3, and 5 exhibited the highest correlation with SUVmax. Progressive disease was identified by elevated levels of a quotient of MORF4L2 expression and SUVmax [ROC-derived AUC (R 2 = 0.7, p < 0.05)]. No statistical relationship was identified between CgA and Ki-67 and no relationship with imaging parameters was evident. 68Ga

  6. Effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on hematopoietic recovery and acute graft-versus-host disease in murine allogeneic umbilical cord blood transplantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen Yu; Wang, Chun Qing; Lu, Guang; Pan, Xiu Ying; Xu, Kai Lin

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) on hematopoietic recovery and acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in a murine allogeneic umbilical cord blood transplantation (allo-UCBT) model. MSCs were obtained from C57/BL mouse bone marrow. The MSC phenotypes were identified by flow cytometry (FCM), and their ability to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes was tested. Once murine allo-UCBT and aGVHD models were established, mice were divided into five groups: (1) total body irradiation (TBI) group, each mouse receiving 0.3 ml sterile saline infusion after TBI and used as control; (2) UCB group, receiving 2 × 10(6) umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UCB-MNC) after TBI; (3) UCB+MSC group, receiving 2 × 10(6) UCB-MNC and 2 × 10(7) MSC after TBI; (4) UCB+SC group, receiving 2 × 10(6) UCB-MNC and 2 × 10(6) spleen cells after TBI; and (5) UCB+SC+MSC group, receiving 2 × 10(6) UCB-MNC, 2 × 10(7) MSC and 2 × 10(6) spleen cells after TBI. To evaluate the engraftment of HSC, the white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets counts were tested at different time points after transplantation, and the ratio of chimerism was identified by FCM. The acute GVHD clinical scores, recipient mice survival, and the histopathological analyses were used to evaluate the effect of MSC on acute GVHD. MSCs were successfully obtained in vitro and FCM analysis showed that these cells are highly positive for CD90.2, CD44, and negative for CD34, CD45, and they are capable to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes after being induced. Compared to UCB group, the UCB+MSC mice had shorter duration of myelosuppression and higher percentage of donor-derived cells which was up to 22.87 ± 4.3 % and the white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), and platelet counts started to increase by day 6 after transplantation. Moreover, the average survival time for UCB+MSC mice was 25.0 ± 10.55 days, while for the UCB group it was 15.5 ± 12.50 days

  7. The impact of pre-transplant minimal residual disease on outcome of intensified myeloablative cord blood transplant for acute myeloid leukemia in first or second complete remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Changcheng; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Tang, Baolin; Zhang, Lei; Geng, Liangquan; Liu, Huilan; Sun, Zimin

    2016-01-01

    The impact of pretransplant minimal residual disease (MRD) on outcome of myeloablative cord blood transplant (CBT) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in complete remission (CR) has not been reported. Seventy-two AML patients were assessed for MRD before CBT, and the majority (84.7%) of these patients received single-unit CBT. All patients received intensified myeloablative conditioning with BUCY2 or TBICY plus high-dose cytarabine, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil. The cumulative incidences of neutrophil and platelet engraftment, acute or chronic GVHD were comparable between MRD-negative and MRD-positive groups. The cumulative incidence of transplant-related mortality (TRM) and relapse did not differ significantly between the two cohorts (25.6% vs. 32.5%, 16.1% vs. 19.2%; p = 0.52, 0.61). There were no apparent differences in 3-year overall survival (OS) (68.9% in MRD-negative group and 57.9% in MRD-positive group, p = 0.31) and 3-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) (62.5% in MRD-negative group and 52.7% in MRD-positive group, p = 0.42) between both groups. The current study suggests that AML patients in morphological CR1 or CR2 who have detectable MRD might benefit from unrelated CBT with intensified myeloablative conditioning. PMID:26690538

  8. Relationships between systemic vascular resistance, blood rheology and nitric oxide in children with sickle cell anemia or sickle cell-hemoglobin C disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarre, Yann; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Romana, Marc; Lalanne-Mistrih, Marie-Laure; Waltz, Xavier; Petras, Marie; Doumdo, Lydia; Blanchet-Deverly, Anne; Martino, Jean; Tressières, Benoît; Maillard, Frederic; Tarer, Vanessa; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Connes, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Vascular function has been found to be impaired in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). The present study investigated the determinants of systemic vascular resistance in two main SCD syndromes in children: sickle cell anemia (SCA) and sickle cell-hemoglobin C disease (SCC). Nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), hematological, hemorheological, and hemodynamical parameters were investigated in 61 children with SCA and 49 children with SCC. While mean arterial pressure was not different between SCA and SCC children, systemic vascular resistance (SVR) was greater in SCC children. Although SVR and blood viscosity (ηb) were not correlated in SCC children, the increase of ηb (+18%) in SCC children compared to SCA children results in a greater mean SVR in this former group. SVR was positively correlated with ηb, hemoglobin (Hb) level and RBC deformability, and negatively with NOx level in SCA children. Multivariate linear regression model showed that both NOx and Hb levels were independently associated with SVR in SCA children. In SCC children, only NOx level was associated with SVR. In conclusion, vascular function of SCC children seems to better cope with higher ηb compared to SCA children. Since the occurrence of vaso-occlusive like complications are less frequent in SCC than in SCA children, this finding suggests a pathophysiological link between the vascular function alteration and these clinical manifestations. In addition, our results suggested that nitric oxide metabolism plays a key role in the regulation of SVR, both in SCA and SCC. PMID:23302597

  9. Ankle-brachial blood pressure index predicts cardiovascular events and mortality in Japanese patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitomi, Ryota; Nakayama, Masaru; Ura, Yoriko; Kuma, Kazuyoshi; Nishimoto, Hitomi; Fukui, Akiko; Ikeda, Hirofumi; Tsuchihashi, Takuya; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Kitazono, Takanari

    2014-12-01

    The ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABPI) has been recognized to have a predictive value for cardiovascular (CV) events and mortality in general or dialysis populations. However, the associations between ABPI and those outcomes have not been fully investigated in predialysis patients. The present study aimed to clarify the relationships between ABPI and both CV events and mortality in Japanese chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients not on dialysis. In this prospective observational study, we enrolled 320 patients with CKD stages 3-5 who were not on dialysis. At baseline, ABPI was examined and a low ABPI was defined as ABPI were risk factors for CV events. It was demonstrated that age, a history of cerebrovascular disease and low ABPI were determined as independent risk factors for CV mortality. In addition, age, body mass index and low ABPI were independently associated with all-cause mortality. In patients with CKD, low ABPI during the predialysis period is independently associated with poor survival and CV events, suggesting the usefulness of measuring ABPI for predicting CV events and patient survival in CKD. PMID:25056682

  10. Effects of o-vanillin on K⁺ transport of red blood cells from patients with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, A; Cytlak, U M C; Gbotosho, O T; Rees, D C; Tewari, S; Gibson, J S

    2014-01-01

    Aromatic aldehydes like o-vanillin were designed to reduce the complications of sickle cell disease (SCD) by interaction with HbS, to reduce polymerisation and RBC sickling. Present results show that o-vanillin also directly affects RBC membrane permeability. Both the K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (KCC) and the Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (or Gardos channel) were inhibited with IC50 of about 0.3 and 1 mM, respectively, with activities almost completely abolished by 5 mM. Similar effects were observed in RBCs treated with the thiol reacting reagent N-ethylmaleimide or with the Ca(2+) ionophore A23187, to circumvent any action via HbS polymerisation. The deoxygenation-induced cation conductance (sometimes termed P(sickle)) was partially inhibited, whilst deoxygenation-induced exposure of phosphatidylserine was completely abrogated. Na(+)/K(+) pump activity was also reduced. Notwithstanding, o-vanillin stimulated K(+) efflux through an unidentified pathway and resulted in reduction in cell volume (as measured by wet weight-dry weight). These actions are relevant to understanding how aromatic aldehydes may affect RBC membrane permeability per se as well as HbS polymerisation and thereby inform design of compounds most efficacious in ameliorating the complications of SCD.

  11. The effects of anticholinergic drugs on regional cerebral blood flow, and oxygen metabolism in previously untreated patients with Parkinson`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obara, Satoko; Takahashi, Satoshi; Yonezawa, Hisashi; Sato, Yoshitomo [Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-12-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and oxygen metabolism (rCMRO{sub 2}) were measured using the steady-state {sup 15}O technique and positron emission tomography (PET) in six previously untreated patients with Parkinson`s disease before and after trihexyphenidyl (THP) treatment. The patients comprised of 4 men and 2 women with Hoehn-Yahr stage II-III. Their ages at the onset of the study ranged from 46 to 57 years (mean{+-}SD, 51.8{+-}3.7) and the duration of the illness ranged from 10 to 48 months (mean{+-}SD, 28.8{+-}15.5). The PET study, assessments of the disability and cognitive function were undergone twice. The first time assessments were done was when the patients were not receiving any drugs, and the second time was one to three months after administration of 6 mg THP. All patients showed clinical improvement after THP treatment. The mean disability score of Unified Parkinson`s Disease Rating Scale decreased from 35.1 (SD{+-}11.3) to 25.7 (SD{+-}11.6). The cognitive function assessed by Hasegawa`s dementia rating scale-revised, Mini-Mental State Examination, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, were not significantly different before and after the THP treatment. After the THP treatment, rCBF and rCMRO{sub 2} decreased significantly in the striatum (about 15%) and all cerebral cortices (about 10%) on both sides contralateral and ipsilateral to the predominantly symptomatic limbs. We conclude that an anticholinergic THP decreases the rCBF and rCMRO{sub 2} significantly in the cerebral cortices without cognitive impairment in early untreated patients with Parkinson`s disease. (author)

  12. Stroke and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Stroke and High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 6,2015 Stroke is a leading ... heart disease and stroke. Start exploring today ! High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  13. Chagas Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas disease is caused by a parasite. It is common in Latin America but not in the United States. ... nose, the bite wound or a cut. The disease can also spread through contaminated food, a blood ...

  14. Raynaud's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud's disease is a rare disorder of the blood vessels, usually in the fingers and toes. It causes the ... secondary Raynaud's, which is caused by injuries, other diseases, or certain medicines. People in colder climates are ...

  15. Addison Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood pressure and water and salt balance. Addison disease happens if the adrenal glands don't make ... problem with your immune system usually causes Addison disease. The immune system mistakenly attacks your own tissues, ...

  16. Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Added Sugar Intake and Cardiovascular Diseases Mortality Among US Adults, examines the relationship between consuming too much added sugar and the risk of heart disease death. When it Comes to Blood Pressure, Make Control ...

  17. Kidney Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... until you go to the bathroom. Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons. This damage may leave kidneys ... medicines. You have a higher risk of kidney disease if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or ...

  18. Monocyte- and Neutrophil-Derived CXCL10 Impairs Efficient Control of Blood-Stage Malaria Infection and Promotes Severe Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Lisa J; Nie, Catherine Q; Ly, Ann; Ryg-Cornejo, Victoria; Chiu, Chris Y; Hansen, Diana S

    2016-02-01

    CXCL10, or IFN-γ-inducible protein 10, is a biomarker associated with increased risk for Plasmodium falciparum-mediated cerebral malaria (CM). Consistent with this, we have previously shown that CXCL10 neutralization or genetic deletion alleviates brain intravascular inflammation and protects Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infected mice from CM. In addition to organ-specific effects, the absence of CXCL10 during infection was also found to reduce parasite biomass. To identify the cellular sources of CXCL10 responsible for these processes, we irradiated and reconstituted wild-type (WT) and CXCL10(-/-) mice with bone marrow from either WT or CXCL10(-/-) mice. Similar to CXCL10(-/-) mice, chimeras unable to express CXCL10 in hematopoietic-derived cells controlled infection more efficiently than WT controls. In contrast, expression of CXCL10 in knockout mice reconstituted with WT bone marrow resulted in high parasite biomass levels, higher brain parasite and leukocyte sequestration rates, and increased susceptibility to CM. Neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes were identified as the main cellular sources of CXCL10 responsible for the induction of these processes. The improved control of parasitemia observed in the absence of CXCL10-mediated trafficking was associated with a preferential accumulation of CXCR3(+)CD4(+) T follicular helper cells in the spleen and enhanced Ab responses to infection. These results are consistent with the notion that some inflammatory responses elicited in response to malaria infection contribute to the development of high parasite densities involved in the induction of severe disease in target organs. PMID:26718341

  19. Laser Doppler flowmeter study on regional cerebral blood flow in early stage after standard superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery bypass surgery for moyamoya disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GESANG Dun-zhu; ZHANG Dong; ZHAO Ji-zong; WANG Shuo; ZHAO Yuan-li; WANG Rong; SUN Jian-jun; MENG Ze

    2009-01-01

    Background Standard superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass surgery is an effective treatment for moyamoya disease, but recent evidence suggests that postoperative cerebral hyperperfusion can occur. In this study, the trendline of changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after surgery were continually monitored near the site of anastomosis in order to investigate both the efficacy of the procedure for improving rCBF and the possible riskof hyperperfusion.Methods Standard STA-MCA bypass surgery was performed on 13 patients, rCBF was measured continually using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) until the 5th day after the operation with the LDF probe implanted adjacent to the area of the anastomosis. The trendline of rCBF changes postoperatively was recorded for the analysis performed using SPSS 13.0.Results The baseline LDF value of cortical rCBF was (84.68±14.39) perfusion unit (PU), which was linear relative to absolute perfusion volume before anastomosis and (88.90±11.26) PU immediately after anastomosis (P >0.05). The value changed significantly from before to after anastomosis (P 0.05).Conclusions STA-MCA anastomosis improves the cerebral blood supply significantly in the early stage after surgery,however, the risk of symptomatic hyperperfusion may exist, which may possibly occur on the 1st day and 5th day after surgery. A LDF is useful for postoperative monitoring for both the efficacy of bypass and possible risk of neurologic deterioration or bleeding from hyperperfusion.

  20. Caffeine impairs myocardial blood flow response to physical exercise in patients with coronary artery disease as well as in age-matched controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Namdar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed pharmacologically active substances. Its acute effect on myocardial blood flow is widely unknown. Our aim was to assess the acute effect of caffeine in a dose corresponding to two cups of coffee on myocardial blood flow (MBF in coronary artery disease (CAD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MBF was measured with (15O-labelled H2O and Positron Emission Tomography (PET at rest and after supine bicycle exercise in controls (n = 15, mean age 58+/-13 years and in CAD patients (n = 15, mean age 61+/-9 years. In the latter, regional MBF was assessed in segments subtended by stenotic and remote coronary arteries. All measurements were repeated fifty minutes after oral caffeine ingestion (200 mg. Myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR was calculated as ratio of MBF during bicycle stress divided by MBF at rest. Resting MBF was not affected by caffeine in both groups. Exercise-induced MBF response decreased significantly after caffeine in controls (2.26+/-0.56 vs. 2.02+/-0.56, P<0.005, remote (2.40+/-0.70 vs. 1.78+/-0.46, P<0.001 and in stenotic segments (1.90+/-0.41 vs. 1.38+/-0.30, P<0.001. Caffeine decreased MPR significantly by 14% in controls (P<0.05 vs. baseline. In CAD patients MPR decreased by 18% (P<0.05 vs. baseline in remote and by 25% in stenotic segments (P<0.01 vs. baseline. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that caffeine impairs exercise-induced hyperaemic MBF response in patients with CAD to a greater degree than age-matched controls.