WorldWideScience

Sample records for blood diseases

  1. Lyme disease blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lyme disease blood test looks for antibodies in the blood to the bacteria that causes Lyme disease. The test is used to help ... specialist looks for Lyme disease antibodies in the blood sample using the ELISA test . If the ELISA test is positive, it must ...

  2. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder High Blood Pressure & Kidney Disease What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is ... are the symptoms of high blood pressure and kidney disease? Most people with high blood pressure do not ...

  3. Blood and Lymph Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... years of infection of the lymph vessels with parasites. Lymph fluid accumulates causing massive swelling of the legs. Scientists once thought that all blood was the same, leading to deadly blood transfusion ...

  4. High blood pressure and eye disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000999.htm High blood pressure and eye disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina . The ...

  5. ABO blood groups and rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çildağ, Songül; Kara, Yasemin; Şentürk, Taşkın

    2017-12-01

    Various genetic and environmental risk factors have been shown to be associated with the incidence of rheumatic diseases. However, the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases poorly understood. Several studies have shown associations of ABO blood groups with various diseases. Our study aimed to determine whether there is an association between the types of rheumatic diseases and ABO and Rh blood groups. The study included the patients, followed up at the Immunology-Rheumatology clinic between January 2016 and December 2016 for diagnosis of rheumatic disease, who had an ABO Rh blood data. Age, gender, type of rheumatic disease, ABO Rh blood groups were recorded. When 823 patients were assessed for blood types, 42.5% patients had A type, 33.2% had O type, 15.4% had B type, and 8.9% had AB type. There was significant difference in the distribution of blood types in rheumatic diseases. While SpA, vasculitis, UCTD, Behçet's and RA were more common in the patients with A blood type; FMF, SLE, SSc and SjS were more common in the patients with O blood type. In addition, the blood type where all the diseases are observed the least commonly was AB. There was significant difference in the distribution of Rh factor in rheumatic diseases. 92.2% patients were Rh positive and 7.8% patients were Rh negative. In our study, we thought that the higher incidence of different rheumatic diseases in different blood types was associated with different genetic predisposition.

  6. American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Blood Screening FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease? Why are blood banks now screening for Chagas disease? The transmission of Chagas disease via blood ... How does the screening test protect people from Chagas disease? The blood screening test allows blood banks ...

  7. Central blood pressure and chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yoichi; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Takenaka, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we focused on the relationship between central blood pressure and chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Wave reflection is a major mechanism that determines central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Recent medical technology advances have enabled non-invasive central blood pressure measurements. Clinical trials have demonstrated that compared with brachial blood pressure, central blood pressure is a stronger risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and renal diseases. CKD is characterized by a diminished renal autoregulatory ability, an augmented direct transmission of systemic blood pressure to glomeruli, and an increase in proteinuria. Any elevation in central blood pressure accelerates CKD progression. In the kidney, interstitial inflammation induces oxidative stress to handle proteinuria. Oxidative stress facilitates atherogenesis, increases arterial stiffness and central blood pressure, and worsens the CV prognosis in patients with CKD. A vicious cycle exists between CKD and central blood pressure. To stop this cycle, vasodilator antihypertensive drugs and statins can reduce central blood pressure and oxidative stress. Even in early-stage CKD, mineral and bone disorders (MBD) may develop. MBD promotes oxidative stress, arteriosclerosis, and elevated central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Early intervention or prevention seems necessary to maintain vascular health in patients with CKD. PMID:26788468

  8. ABO blood group and thrombotic vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, M; Mannucci, P M

    2014-12-01

    ABO blood group antigens are complex carbohydrate molecules expressed on red blood cells and a variety of tissues. The ABO blood type is implicated in the development of a number of human diseases and there is increasing evidence regarding its involvement in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders, mainly through its effect on von Willebrand factor levels. In this review, after a brief analysis of the potential molecular mechanisms by which the blood group influences haemostasis, we focus on the clinical implications of such interaction. Overall, the literature data document the close relationship between venous thromboembolism (VTE) and non-O blood type, which is associated with an approximately two-fold increased risk of venous thrombosis. A supra-additive effect on VTE risk is observed when an inherited thrombophilic condition is associated with non-O blood group. A weaker association exists between non-O blood type and arterial thrombosis, which needs to be further investigated.

  9. ABO Blood Groups and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanrui; Mooney, Ciarán J.; Reilly, Muredach P.

    2012-01-01

    ABO blood groups have been associated with various disease phenotypes, particularly cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of death in developed countries and their prevalence rate is rapidly growing in developing countries. There have been substantial historical associations between non-O blood group status and an increase in some cardiovascular disorders. Recent GWASs have identified ABO as a locus for thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and multiple cardiovascular risk biomarkers, refocusing attention on mechanisms and potential for clinical advances. As we highlight in this paper, more recent work is beginning to probe the molecular basis of the disease associations observed in these observational studies. Advances in our understanding of the physiologic importance of various endothelial and platelet-derived circulating glycoproteins are elucidating the mechanisms through which the ABO blood group may determine overall cardiovascular disease risk. The role of blood group antigens in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular disorders remains a fascinating subject with potential to lead to novel therapeutics and prognostics and to reduce the global burden of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23133757

  10. Iron in Parkinson disease, blood diseases, malaria and ferritin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauminger, E.R.; Nowik, I. [Hebrew University, Racah Institute of Physics (Israel)

    1998-12-15

    The concentration of iron in Substantia nigra, the part of the brain which is involved in Parkinson disease, has been found by Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) to be {approx} 160 {mu}g/g wet tissue and {approx} 670 {mu}g/g dry weight, both in control and Parkinson samples. All the iron observed by MS in these samples is ferritin-like iron. In several blood diseases, large amounts of ferritin-like iron have been observed in red blood cells. Desferral removed iron from serum, but not from red blood cells. The iron compound in the malarial pigment of human blood infected by P. falciparum was found to be hemin-like, whereas the pigment iron in rats infected by P. berghei was different from any known iron porphyrin.

  11. Cerebral blood flow in Binswanger's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Keita; Tachibana, Hisao; Sugita, Minoru

    1991-01-01

    Eight patients with a clinical diagnosis of Binswanger's disease (BD) were evaluated with I-123 IMP SPECT. The SPECT findings were compared with those in 7 other patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 9 normal subjects. The ratios of I-123 IMP in the temporal cortex, thalamus, and basal ganglia to that in the cerebellum were lower in the BD group than the normal group. The BD group had a higher ratio of the occipital cortex/the cerebellum than the control group, suggesting a decreased blood flow in the cerebellum. When I-123 IMP ratio in various areas to that in the occipital cortex was examined, both the BD and AD groups seemed to have a decreased blood flow over the whole cerebrum. The BD group had a lower I-123 IMP uptake in the thalamus and basal ganglia, and the AD group had it in the parietal cortex, relative to the occipital cortex. Blood flow patterns for BD were found to be different from those for AD. This suggests the difference in areas responsible for etiology between BD and AD. (N.K.)

  12. When Blood Cells Bend: Understanding Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe April 2012 Print this issue When Blood Cells Bend Understanding Sickle Cell Disease Send us your ... Diabetes? Sound Health Wise Choices Living with Sickle Cell Disease See a sickle cell disease expert regularly. ...

  13. Blood serum galctosyl transferase in malignant diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, A.D.; Zhordaniya, K.I.; Ivanov, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    The paper is concerned with comparative analysis of the results of the determination of activity of galactosyl transferase, CEA and antigen CA-125 in the blood serum of 44 healthy persons, 70 cancer patients and 12 patients with benign diseases. It was shown that a radiometric test for galactosyl transferase in its diagnostic sensitivity was no inferior to CEA in stomach and ovarian tumors and exceeded the test for antigen CA-125 in ovarian cancer. In color cancer the diagnostic accuracy of the tests for the activity of galactosyl transferase and CEA turned out to be identical. The most reliable diagnostic test in acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children was the test for galactosyl transferase activity

  14. Preoperative blood transfusions for sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estcourt, Lise J; Fortin, Patricia M; Trivella, Marialena; Hopewell, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease is one of the commonest severe monogenic disorders in the world, due to the inheritance of two abnormal haemoglobin (beta globin) genes. Sickle cell disease can cause severe pain, significant end-organ damage, pulmonary complications, and premature death. Surgical interventions are more common in people with sickle cell disease, and occur at much younger ages than in the general population. Blood transfusions are frequently used prior to surgery and several regimens are used but there is no consensus over the best method or the necessity of transfusion in specific surgical cases. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2001. Objectives To determine whether there is evidence that preoperative blood transfusion in people with sickle cell disease undergoing elective or emergency surgery reduces mortality and perioperative or sickle cell-related serious adverse events. To compare the effectiveness of different transfusion regimens (aggressive or conservative) if preoperative transfusions are indicated in people with sickle cell disease. Search methods We searched for relevant trials in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1980), and ongoing trial databases; all searches current to 23 March 2016. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register: 18 January 2016. Selection criteria All randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing preoperative blood transfusion regimens to different regimens or no transfusion in people with sickle cell disease undergoing elective or emergency surgery. There was no restriction by outcomes examined, language or publication status. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and the risk of bias and extracted data. Main results Three trials with 990 participants were eligible for inclusion in the review. There were no

  15. INFECTIOUS-DISEASE TESTING FOR BLOOD-TRANSFUSIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DESFORGES, JF; ATHARI, F; COOPER, ES; JOHNSON, CS; LEMON, SM; LINDSAY, KL; MCCULLOUGH, J; MCINTOSH, K; ROSS, RK; WHITSETT, CF; WITTES, J; WRIGHT, TL

    1995-01-01

    Objective.-To provide physicians and other transfusion medicine professionals with a current consensus on infectious disease testing for blood transfusions. Participants.-A nonfederal, nonadvocate, 12-member consensus panel representing the fields of hematology, infectious disease, transfusion

  16. Prion diseases are efficiently transmitted by blood transfusion in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Houston, F.; McCutcheon, S.; Goldmann, W.; Chong, A.; Foster, J.; Siso, S.; Gonzalez, L.; Jeffrey, M.; Hunter, N.

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of variant Creutzfeld-Jakob disease, following on from the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic, led to concerns about the potential risk of iatrogenic transmission of disease by blood transfusion and the introduction of costly control measures to protect blood supplies. We previously reported preliminary data demonstrating the transmission of BSE and natural scrapie by blood transfusion in sheep. The final results of this experiment, reported here, give unexpectedly ...

  17. Sirolimus for Autoimmune Disease of Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Autoimmune Pancytopenia; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS); Evans Syndrome; Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura; Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune; Autoimmune Neutropenia; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic; Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Rheumatoid Arthritis

  18. ABO and Rhesus blood groups in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renvoize, E B

    1985-01-01

    ABO and rhesus (Rh) blood groups were examined in 124 patients with presenile dementia of the Alzheimer type (PDAT) and senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT), and their distribution was compared with controls. No significant associations between these blood groups and Alzheimer's disease (AD) were found after statistical correction for multiple comparisons.

  19. Blood pressure indices and disease severity in patients with sickle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Individuals with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) have lower systemic blood pressures compared to individuals with haemoglobin Hb AA phenotype. Objective: To evaluate blood pressure indices of individuals with SCA in steady state, in comparison with haematological and clinical markers of disease severity.

  20. Blood Pressure Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To compare the effect of posture on blood pressure in levodopa-treated Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with that of age-matched controls. The design is a case control study. Blood pressure was recorded manually in the seated position with Accossons® mercury sphygmomanometer in 30 consecutive patients with PD on ...

  1. Pediatric Blood Pressure and Adult Preclinical Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Costan G.; Smith, Kylie J.

    2016-01-01

    A high blood pressure level in adults is considered the single most important modifiable risk factor for global disease burden, especially those of cardiovascular (CV) origin such as stroke and ischemic heart disease. Because blood pressure levels have been shown to persist from childhood to adulthood, elevations in pediatric levels have been hypothesized to lead to increased CV burden in adulthood and, as such, might provide a window in the life course where primordial and primary prevention could be focused. In the absence of substantive data directly linking childhood blood pressure levels to overt adult CV disease, this review outlines the available literature that examines the association between pediatric blood pressure and adult preclinical markers of CV disease. PMID:27168729

  2. Mechanisms Linking Red Blood Cell Disorders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Mozos, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aims to review the main pathophysiological links between red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, provides a brief description of the latest studies in this area, and considers implications for clinical practice and therapy. Anemia is associated with a special risk in proatherosclerotic conditions and heart disease and became a new therapeutic target. Guidelines must be updated for the management of patients with red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular dise...

  3. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  4. Chagas disease, a risk factor for high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicco, Miguel Hernán; Rodeles, Luz; Yódice, Agustina; Marcipar, Iván

    2014-12-01

    Chagas disease is a parasite infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Its most common complications is chronic Chagas heart disease but impairments of the systemic vasculature also has been observed. Although the different mechanisms that regulate blood pressure are disrupted, to our knowledge data on the association of hypertension and chronic Chagas disease are scarce. In this regard we evaluate whether Chagas disease constitutes a high blood pressure risk factor. We recruited 200 individuals, half of them with positive serology for T. cruzi. They were subjected to a complete clinical examination. The mean age of sampled individuals was 46.7 ± 12.3, and the mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 124 ± 12 mmHg and 82 ± 10 mmHg, respectively. There were no between-group differences regarding age, sex distribution or body mass index. Chagas disease contributed significantly to high blood pressure (OR = 4, 95% CI 1.8323-7.0864, p = 0.0002). Our results reveal an important association between Chagas disease and high blood pressure, which should be contemplated by physicians in order to promote preventive cardiovascular actions in patients with Chagas disease.

  5. ABO Blood Group and Risk of Thromboembolic and Arterial Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Rostgaard, Klaus; Majeed, Ammar

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ABO blood groups have been shown to be associated with increased risks of venous thromboembolic and arterial disease. However, the reported magnitude of this association is inconsistent and is based on evidence from small-scale studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used the SCANDAT2...... (Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions) database of blood donors linked with other nationwide health data registers to investigate the association between ABO blood groups and the incidence of first and recurrent venous thromboembolic and arterial events. Blood donors in Denmark and Sweden between 1987......-up. Compared with blood group O, non-O blood groups were associated with higher incidence of both venous and arterial thromboembolic events. The highest rate ratios were observed for pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism (incidence rate ratio, 2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.77-2.79), deep vein thrombosis...

  6. Determinants of resting cerebral blood flow in sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, Adam M.; Borzage, Matthew T.; Choi, Soyoung; Václavů, Lena; Tamrazi, Benita; Nederveen, Aart J.; Coates, Thomas D.; Wood, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is common in children with sickle cell disease and results from an imbalance in oxygen supply and demand. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is increased in patients with sickle cell disease to compensate for their anemia, but adequacy of their oxygen delivery has not been systematically demonstrated.

  7. Developing novel blood-based biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snyder, Heather M; Carrillo, Maria C; Grodstein, Francine

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the public health crisis of the 21st century. There is a clear need for a widely available, inexpensive and reliable method to diagnosis Alzheimer's disease in the earliest stages, track disease progression, and accelerate clinical development of new therapeutics. One avenue...... of research being explored is blood based biomarkers. In April 2012, the Alzheimer's Association and the Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation convened top scientists from around the world to discuss the state of blood based biomarker development. This manuscript summarizes the meeting and the resultant...

  8. ABO blood group distribution and ischaemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutfullah, A.; Bhatti, T.A.; Hanif, A.; Shaikh, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    To study the association of ABO blood groups with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in our setting. Analytic comparative study. Department of Cardiology, Mayo hospital, Lahore over a period of two years from January 2008 to December 2009. The study group included 907 patients of IHD. The distribution of ABO blood groups in IHD patients was compared with the control group of 907 non-IHD individuals. Data was analyzed using SPSS 16. Chi-square test for significance was used. P-value less than 0.05 was taken as significant. In this study, the following pattern of ABO blood groups was observed in IHD patients and non-IHD patients respectively : Blood group A 251 (27.67%) and 248 (27.34%); Blood group B 329 (36.27%) and 358 (39.47%); Blood group O 235 (25.90%) and 240 (24.46%); Blood group AB 92 (10.14%) and 61 (6.72%), P-value = 0.06. There is no association of ABO blood groups and ischaemic heart disease. (author)

  9. Diagnostic indicators for blood stasis syndrome patients with gynaecological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jeeyoun; Ko, Mi Mi; Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, So Min; Lee, Ju Ah

    2017-06-20

    To investigate the important diagnostic indicators for blood stasis syndrome (BSS) in patients of childbearing age with gynaecological diseases. A partial least squared-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were applied to BSS symptoms data of patients with gynaecological diseases, and the diagnostic indicators used by doctors of Korean medicine (DKMs) among BSS patients with gynaecological diseases were also investigated. A total of 103 patients of childbearing age with gynaecological diseases and 40 healthy controls were enrolled. Among the 103 patients, 63 (61.7%) and 40 (38.8%) were diagnosed with BSS and non-BSS, respectively, and BSS patients exhibited a more severe extent of disease. A score plot of PLS-DA showed clearly different patterns among the 3 groups. Based on the variable importance on projection of PLS-DA model, menstrual pains, dark lumps in the menstrual blood, ileocoecal tenderness and resistance, sharp pains, and sublingual varicosities were selected as the top fifive most important indicators. Moreover, more than 75% of DKMs chose dark lumps in menstrual blood, menstrual pain, and dark menstrual blood as the diagnostic indicators of BSS in patients with gynaecological diseases, and more than 49% of them also considered sharp pains, dark red tongue, sublingual varicosities, and tendency to bruise easily as diagnostic indicators of BSS. DKMs focused on menstrual symptoms and certain gynaecological symptoms to diagnose BSS patients of childbearing age with female diseases.

  10. Blood based proteomic biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Louise Baird

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of Alzheimer’s disease (AD and its long prodromal phase poses challenges for early diagnosis and yet allows for the possibility of the development of disease modifying treatments for secondary prevention. It is therefore of importance to develop biomarkers, in particular in the preclinical or early phases that reflect the pathological characteristics of the disease and moreover could be of utility in triaging subjects for preventative therapeutic clinical trials. Much research has sought biomarkers for diagnostic purposes by comparing affected people to unaffected controls. However, given that AD pathology precedes disease onset, a pathology endophenotype design for biomarker discovery creates the opportunity for detection of much earlier markers of disease. Blood based biomarkers potentially provide a minimally invasive option for this purpose and research in the field has adopted various omics approaches in order to achieve this. This review will therefore examine the current literature regarding blood based proteomic biomarkers of AD and its associated pathology.

  11. Specific features of red blood cell morphology in hemolytic disease neonates undergoing intrauterine intravascular blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ivanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the characteristics of red blood cell morphology in infants who have undergone intrauterine intravascular blood transfusion for hemolytic disease of the fetus. The infants are shown to have a reduction in the mean volume of red blood cells and in their mean level of hemoglobin, a decrease in the fraction of fetal hemoglobin and an increase in oxygen tension at half saturation. The above morphological characteristics of red blood cells remain decreased during the neonatal period after exchange transfusion or others, as clinically indicated, which seems to suggest that the compensatory-adaptive mechanisms to regulate hematopoiesis are exhausted and a donor’s red blood cells continue to be predominant.

  12. Microfluidics to Mimic Blood Flow in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Bernhard; Dittrich, Petra S.

    2018-01-01

    Throughout history, capillary systems have aided the establishment of the fundamental laws of blood flow and its non-Newtonian properties. The advent of microfluidics technology in the 1990s propelled the development of highly integrated lab-on-a-chip platforms that allow highly accurate replication of vascular systems' dimensions, mechanical properties, and biological complexity. Applications include the detection of pathological changes to red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets at unparalleled sensitivity and the efficacy assessment of drug treatment. Recent efforts have aimed at the development of microfluidics-based tests usable in a clinial environment or the replication of more complex diseases such as thrombosis. These microfluidic disease models enable the study of onset and progression of disease as well as the identification of key players and risk factors, which have led to a spectrum of clinically relevant findings.

  13. Blood-Brain Glucose Transfer in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Brock, Birgitte; Egefjord, Lærke

    2017-01-01

    There are fewer than normal glucose transporters at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). When reduced expression of transporters aggravates the symptoms of AD, the transporters become a potential target of therapy. The incretin hormone GLP-1 prevents the decline of cerebral...... metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) in AD, and GLP-1 may serve to raise transporter numbers. We hypothesized that the GLP-1 analog liraglutide would prevent the decline of CMRglc in AD by raising blood-brain glucose transfer, depending on the duration of disease. We randomized 38 patients with AD...

  14. High Blood Pressure and Chronic Kidney Disease in Children: A Guide for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease in Children Print Email High ... such as the heart and brain. What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of your blood ...

  15. A Blood Test for Alzheimer's Disease: Progress, Challenges, and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiddle, Steven J; Voyle, Nicola; Dobson, Richard J B

    2018-03-29

    Ever since the discovery of APOEɛ4 around 25 years ago, researchers have been excited about the potential of a blood test for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since then researchers have looked for genetic, protein, metabolite, and/or gene expression markers of AD and related phenotypes. However, no blood test for AD is yet being used in the clinical setting. We first review the trends and challenges in AD blood biomarker research, before giving our personal recommendations to help researchers overcome these challenges. While some degree of consistency and replication has been seen across independent studies, several high-profile studies have seemingly failed to replicate. Partly due to academic incentives, there is a reluctance in the field to report predictive ability, to publish negative findings, and to independently replicate the work of others. If this can be addressed, then we will know sooner whether a blood test for AD or related phenotypes with clinical utility can be developed.

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of lysosomal storage diseases using fetal blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groener, J. E.; de Graaf, F. L.; Poorthuis, B. J.; Kanhai, H. H.

    1999-01-01

    Lysosomal storage diseases are a rare but significant cause of non-immune hydrops fetalis (NIHF). In 17 cases of NIHF detected by ultrasound, the activity of five lysosomal enzymes was measured in leukocytes or plasma of 1 ml of fetal blood obtained by cordocentesis. By this approach seven lysosomal

  17. Blood-Brain Glucose Transfer in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Brock, Birgitte; Egefjord, Lærke

    2017-01-01

    There are fewer than normal glucose transporters at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). When reduced expression of transporters aggravates the symptoms of AD, the transporters become a potential target of therapy. The incretin hormone GLP-1 prevents the decline of cerebral...

  18. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to high blood pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To estimate the burden of disease attributable to high blood pressure (BP) in adults aged 30 years and older in South Africa in 2000. Design. World Health Organization comparative risk assessment (CRA) methodology was followed. Mean systolic BP (SBP) estimates by age and sex were obtained from the 1998 ...

  19. The future of blood-based biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Kim; O'Bryant, Sid E; Hampel, Harald; Trojanowski, John Q; Montine, Thomas J; Jeromin, Andreas; Blennow, Kaj; Lönneborg, Anders; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Soares, Holly; Bazenet, Chantal; Sjögren, Magnus; Hu, William; Lovestone, Simon; Karsdal, Morten A; Weiner, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is significantly hampered by the lack of easily accessible biomarkers that can detect disease presence and predict disease risk reliably. Fluid biomarkers of AD currently provide indications of disease stage; however, they are not robust predictors of disease progression or treatment response, and most are measured in cerebrospinal fluid, which limits their applicability. With these aspects in mind, the aim of this article is to underscore the concerted efforts of the Blood-Based Biomarker Interest Group, an international working group of experts in the field. The points addressed include: (1) the major challenges in the development of blood-based biomarkers of AD, including patient heterogeneity, inclusion of the "right" control population, and the blood-brain barrier; (2) the need for a clear definition of the purpose of the individual markers (e.g., prognostic, diagnostic, or monitoring therapeutic efficacy); (3) a critical evaluation of the ongoing biomarker approaches; and (4) highlighting the need for standardization of preanalytical variables and analytical methodologies used by the field. Copyright © 2014 The Alzheimer's Association. All rights reserved.

  20. Regional cerebral blood flow in SPECT pattern in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenart-Jankowska, D.; Junik, R.; Sowinski, J.; Gembicki, M.; Wender, M.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of our work was to compare the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in SPECT examination in Parkinson's disease with (17 cases) and without (7 cases) dementia and in various clinical stages of the disease. The patients underwent SPECT examination 5-40 min after intravenous application of HMPAO (Ceretec, Amersham) with 740 Mbq (20 mCi) pertechnate 99m Tc. SPECT was performed with a Siemens Diacam single-head rotating gamma camera coupled to a high resolution collimator and Icon computer system provided by the manufacturer. The results were defined in relative values of ROI in relation to cerebellum. Patients with Parkinson's disease showed hypoperfusion in cerebral lobes and in deep cerebral structures including the basal ganglia. Regional perfusion deficit in SPECT was seen with and without associated dementia and already in early stage of the disease. Parkinson's disease is provoked by the lesions of dopaminergic neurons of the central nervous system leading to domination of extrapyramidal symptoms. There are many indications that also the neurotransmitters associated with cognitive functions as acetylcholine demonstrate some abnormalities. However, only in some cases of Parkinson's disease dementia is the dominating symptom. Our results of regional cerebral blood flow testify that in Parkinson's disease the dysfunction of the central nervous system is more diffuse than has previously been suggested. (author)

  1. A prospective blood RNA signature for tuberculosis disease risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Daniel E.; Penn-Nicholson, Adam; Scriba, Thomas J.; Thompson, Ethan; Suliman, Sara; Amon, Lynn M.; Mahomed, Hassan; Erasmus, Mzwandile; Whatney, Wendy; Hussey, Gregory D.; Abrahams, Deborah; Kafaar, Fazlin; Hawkridge, Tony; Verver, Suzanne; Hughes, E. Jane; Ota, Martin; Sutherland, Jayne; Howe, Rawleigh; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Boom, W. Henry; Thiel, Bonnie; Ottenhoff, Tom H.M.; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Crampin, Amelia C; Downing, Katrina; Hatherill, Mark; Valvo, Joe; Shankar, Smitha; Parida, Shreemanta K; Kaufmann, Stefan H.E.; Walzl, Gerhard; Aderem, Alan; Hanekom, Willem A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Identification of blood biomarkers that prospectively predict progression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to tuberculosis disease may lead to interventions that impact the epidemic. Methods Healthy, M. tuberculosis infected South African adolescents were followed for 2 years; blood was collected every 6 months. A prospective signature of risk was derived from whole blood RNA-Sequencing data by comparing participants who ultimately developed active tuberculosis disease (progressors) with those who remained healthy (matched controls). After adaptation to multiplex qRT-PCR, the signature was used to predict tuberculosis disease in untouched adolescent samples and in samples from independent cohorts of South African and Gambian adult progressors and controls. The latter participants were household contacts of adults with active pulmonary tuberculosis disease. Findings Of 6,363 adolescents screened, 46 progressors and 107 matched controls were identified. A 16 gene signature of risk was identified. The signature predicted tuberculosis progression with a sensitivity of 66·1% (95% confidence interval, 63·2–68·9) and a specificity of 80·6% (79·2–82·0) in the 12 months preceding tuberculosis diagnosis. The risk signature was validated in an untouched group of adolescents (p=0·018 for RNA-Seq and p=0·0095 for qRT-PCR) and in the independent South African and Gambian cohorts (p values Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, Aeras, the European Union and the South African Medical Research Council (detail at end of text). PMID:27017310

  2. Resting blood lactate in individuals with sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petto, Jefferson; de Jesus, Jaqueline Brito; Vasques, Leila Monique Reis; Pinheiro, Renata Leão Silva; Oliveira, Aila Mascarenhas; Spinola, Kelly Aparecida Borges; Silva, Wellington dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Background The most common hereditary hemoglobin disorder, affecting 20 million individuals worldwide, is sickle cell disease. The vascular obstruction resulting from the sickling of cells in this disease can produce local hypoxemia, pain crises and infarction in several tissues, including the bones, spleen, kidneys and lungs. Objective To determine red blood group genes in a Brazilian populations. Methods The present study is characterized as a case control study, with the aim of identifying the baseline blood lactate concentration in individuals with hemoglobin SS and SC diseases. One-way ANOVA with the Tukey post-test was used to analyze the results and a p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Calculations were made using the INSTAT statistical program. The graphs were generated using the ORING program. The study sample was composed of 31 men and women residing in the city of Santo Antônio de Jesus, Bahia, Brazil. The individuals were divided into two groups: Group GC of 16 subjects who did not present with any type of structural hemoglobinopathy; and Group GE composed of 15 individuals with ages between 2 and 35 years old, who had the SS and SC genotypes. Sample analyses were performed with 3 mL of blood during fasting. Results The baseline blood lactate concentration of the SS and SC individuals was higher than that of the control group (p<0.001) with means of 4.86 ± 0.95; 3.30 ± 0.33; 1.31 ± 0.08 IU/L for SS, SC and controls, respectively. This corroborates the initial research hypothesis. Conclusion The baseline blood lactate of SS and SC individuals is 3 to 4 times higher than that of healthy subjects, probably due to the fact that these patients have a metabolic deviation to the anaerobic pathway. PMID:23284239

  3. Cerebral blood flow mapping in children with sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numaguchi, Y.; Humbert, J.R.; Robinson, A.E.; Lindstrom, W.W.; Gruenauer, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    A cerebral blood flow mapping system was applied to the evaluation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in 21 patients with sickle cell cerebrovascular disease, by means of a Picker xenon computed tomographic (CT) scanner. Results indicate that (1) xenon CT is a safe and reliable procedure in children with cerebrovascular diseases; (2) CBF in the gray matter of children seems to be higher than in previously reported data obtained with use of isotopes; and (3) regional CBF can be altered significantly by changing the size of the region of interest (ROI). The term regional CBF probably has to be carefully defined in xenon CT flow mapping. Correlation with anatomy by means of CT or magnetic resonance imaging and comparison with the ROI of the contralateral side and/or adjacent sections is important

  4. [Investigation on nutritional intakes for hospitalized children with blood disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zi-Liang; Wu, Yun-Tang; Sun, Zhong; Zhu, Xiao-Fan; Li, Rui; Li, Hong-Qiang; Qi, Yu-Mei; Song, Ji-Chang; Han, Zhong-Chao

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the diet and nutritional status of hospitalized children with blood disease in order to provide nutritional guidelines. The patients' daily dietary intakes, including breakfast, lunch, dinner and additional meals, were recorded in detail for seven consecutive days. The intake amount of various nutrients was calculated using the dietary database. The majority of children with blood disease showed inadequate intakes of calories [mean 1825.81 kCal/d, 73.62% of the recommended intake (RNI)] and protein (mean 67.68 g/d, 81.34% of RNI). Intakes of vitamin E and riboflavin were adequate, but intakes of vitamin A, thiamine and vitamin C (66.67%, 77.78% and 69.89% of RNI, respectively) were inadequate. Iron and selenium intakes were adequate, but calcium and zinc intakes (41.11% and 56.21% of RNI, respectively) were grossly inadequate. Hospitalized children with blood disease had decreased dietary intakes of calories, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, calcium and zinc. The dietary pattern and nutritional intake need to be improved.

  5. Selected Arterial Blood Gasometry Parameters as Indicators of Blood Transfusion Effectiveness in Foals with Haemolytic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stopyra Artur

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the suitability of basic haematological, biochemical, and gasometric tests in checking the effectiveness of transfusion therapy in foals during isoerythrolysis. The number of red blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit, and partial pressure of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and blood pH was determined immediately before and several times after blood transfusion. The concentration of serum free bilirubin was also measured to confirm haemolysis. Fluids (0.9% NaCl, multielectrolytic fluid, 5% glucose and antibiotics (penicillin, amikacin were provided to the foals. The lowest values of haematological parameters were observed before transfusion. This was accompanied by decreased partial pressure of oxygen, low pH, and increased arterial carbon dioxide tension. Transfusion of whole blood led to a gradual normalisation of the haematological parameters, also accompanied by the normalisation of gasometric indicators (decrease in pCO2 and pO2 and pH increase. Monitoring of selected haematological and gasometric parameters allows to evaluate the efficacy of blood transfusion during treatment of haemolytic disease of foals.

  6. Studies Comparing Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Home Blood Pressure on Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbo, Daichi; Abdalla, Marwah; Falzon, Louise; Townsend, Raymond R.; Muntner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is more commonly recommended for assessing out-of-clinic blood pressure than home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM). We conducted a systematic review to examine whether ABPM or HBPM is more strongly associated with cardiovascular disease events and/or mortality. Of 1,007 abstracts published through July 20, 2015, nine articles, reporting results from seven cohorts, were identified. After adjustment for blood pressure on HBPM, blood pressure on ABPM was associated with an increased risk of outcomes in two of four cohorts for systolic blood pressure and two of three cohorts for diastolic blood pressure. After adjustment for blood pressure on ABPM, systolic blood pressure on HBPM was associated with outcomes in zero of three cohorts; an association was present in one of two cohorts for diastolic blood pressure on HBPM. There is a lack of strong empiric evidence supporting ABPM or HBPM over the other approach for predicting cardiovascular events or mortality. PMID:26822864

  7. Blood transfusion in children with sickle cell disease undergoing tonsillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Carlyn M; Gnagi, Sharon H; Teufel, Ronald J; Nguyen, Shaun A; White, David R

    2017-12-01

    Tonsillectomy is the second most common surgery in children with sickle cell disease. These children are at an increased risk of perioperative complications due to vaso-occlusive events. Although controversial, preoperative blood transfusions are sometimes given in an effort to prevent such complications. The purpose of this study is to analyze trends in the use of blood transfusion for management of children with sickle cell disease (SCD) undergoing tonsillectomy in a national database. Patients in the 1997-2012 KID with a primary procedure matching the ICD-9 procedure code for tonsillectomy (28.2-28.3) and diagnosis code for SCD (282.60-282.69) were examined. Patients were split into groups by blood transfusion status and compared across variables including complication rate, length of stay (LOS), and hospital charges. Statistical analysis included chi-square test for trend, Mann-Whitney U test, and independent t-test. 1133 patients with SCD underwent tonsillectomy. There was a strong positive correlation between increasing chronologic year and the proportion of patients receiving blood transfusions, 47 (30.1%) in 1997 to 78 (42.5%) in 2012 (r = 0.94, p = 0.005). During this period, there was no significant change in the rate of complications (r = -0.1, p = 0.87). Overall, patients receiving blood transfusion had a longer mean LOS (3.1 ± 2.4 days vs. 2.5 ± 2.2 days, p blood transfusion. The rate of complications in the transfusion group, 18 of 352(5.1%), was not significantly different (p = 0.48) from the group without transfusion, 40 of 626 (6.4%). From 1997 to 2012, there was a significant increase in the proportion of patients with SCD receiving perioperative blood transfusions for tonsillectomy. While the frequency of transfusion rose, those who received a transfusion had similar complication rates with increased charges and length of hospital stays compared to those who did not receive a transfusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  8. Diagnosis of Carrion's disease by direct blood PCR in thin blood smear negative samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana del Valle Mendoza

    Full Text Available Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiologic agent of Carrion's disease. This disease has two well established phases, the most relevant being the so called Oroya Fever, in which B. bacilliformis infect the erythrocytes resulting in severe anemia and transient immunosuppression, with a high lethality in the absence of adequate antibiotic treatment. The presence of B. bacilliformis was studied in 113 blood samples suspected of Carrion's disease based on clinical criteria, despite the absence of a positive thin blood smear, by two different PCR techniques (using Bartonella-specific and universal 16S rRNA gene primers, and by bacterial culture. The specific 16S rRNA gene primers revealed the presence of 21 B. bacilliformis and 1 Bartonella elizabethae, while universal primers showed both the presence of 3 coinfections in which a concomitant pathogen was detected plus Bartonella, in addition to the presence of infections by other microorganisms such as Agrobacterium or Bacillus firmus. These data support the need to implement molecular tools to diagnose Carrion's disease.

  9. Cerebral blood flow changes in Parkinson's disease associated with dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derejko, M.; Lass, P.; Slawek, J.; Nyka, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    Dementia is one of the main non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and it is diagnosed in about 30% of cases. Its aetiology remains unclear and contributing factors are controversial. Dementia may be more common in old patients with severe motor symptoms and mild cognitive impairment. Clinico-pathological studies show the association between dementia in PD and the age-related group of dementias, such as AD and VaD. A valuable aid in the assessment of dementia in PD is cerebral blood flow (CBF) brain SPECT scanning. It shows three different patterns of rCBF reduction, including frontal lobe hypoperfusion, iu Alzheimer-likel type of hypoperfusion and multiple, vascular defects. The heterogeneity of rCBF reduction may reflect the multifactorial pathophysiology of dementia in PD. It may result from concomitant AD pathology, cerebrovascular disease, destruction of nigro-striato-frontal projection or may be a distinct disease of different aetiology. (author)

  10. Blood platelets in the progression of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina S Gowert

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by neurotoxic amyloid-ß plaque formation in brain parenchyma and cerebral blood vessels known as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA. Besides CAA, AD is strongly related to vascular diseases such as stroke and atherosclerosis. Cerebrovascular dysfunction occurs in AD patients leading to alterations in blood flow that might play an important role in AD pathology with neuronal loss and memory deficits. Platelets are the major players in hemostasis and thrombosis, but are also involved in neuroinflammatory diseases like AD. For many years, platelets were accepted as peripheral model to study the pathophysiology of AD because platelets display the enzymatic activities to generate amyloid-ß (Aß peptides. In addition, platelets are considered to be a biomarker for early diagnosis of AD. Effects of Aß peptides on platelets and the impact of platelets in the progression of AD remained, however, ill-defined. The present study explored the cellular mechanisms triggered by Aß in platelets. Treatment of platelets with Aß led to platelet activation and enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and membrane scrambling, suggesting enhanced platelet apoptosis. More important, platelets modulate soluble Aß into fibrillar structures that were absorbed by apoptotic but not vital platelets. This together with enhanced platelet adhesion under flow ex vivo and in vivo and platelet accumulation at amyloid deposits of cerebral vessels of AD transgenic mice suggested that platelets are major contributors of CAA inducing platelet thrombus formation at vascular amyloid plaques leading to vessel occlusion critical for cerebrovascular events like stroke.

  11. ABO histo-blood group might modulate predisposition to Crohn's disease and affect disease behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni, Diego; Cleynen, Isabelle; Ferrante, Marc; Cassinotti, Andrea; Cagliani, Rachele; Ardizzone, Sandro; Vermeire, Severine; Fichera, Maria; Lombardini, Marta; Maconi, Giovanni; de Franchis, Roberto; Asselta, Rosanna; Biasin, Mara; Clerici, Mario; Sironi, Manuela

    2014-06-01

    ABO encodes a glycosyltranferase which determines the major human histo-blood group. The FUT2 fucosyltransferase allows expression of ABO antigens on the gastrointestinal mucosa and in bodily secretions (secretor phenotype). A nonsense allele in FUT2 represents a susceptibility variant for Crohn's disease, and both the secretor and ABO blood group status affect the composition of the gut microbiota. Thus, we evaluated if variants in ABO might represent good candidates as Crohn's disease susceptibility loci. We recruited two case-control cohorts, from Italy (n=1301) and Belgium (n=2331). Subjects were genotyped for one SNP in FUT2 and two variants in ABO. No effect on Crohn's disease risk was detected for ABO variants, whereas an association was observed between the FUT2 polymorphism and Crohn's disease susceptibility in the Belgian sample, but not in the Italian cohort. The effect of histo-blood groups was evaluated using group O as the reference. Most non-O groups had odds ratios (ORs) higher than 1 in both cohorts, and combined analysis of the two samples indicated a predisposing effect for the A and B groups (OR=1.17, 95% CI: 1.02-1.32 and OR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.09-1.58, respectively). In Crohn's disease patients, the non-O blood group and the non-secretor status were associated with higher risk of developing a stricturing or penetrating disease. ABO histo-blood group might confer susceptibility to Crohn's disease and modulate disease severity. Copyright © 2013 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Polymerase chain reaction and blood culture in blood donors screened by ELISA test for Chagas' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Tieko Kinoshita-Yanaga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate, through blood culture and PCR, the results of the ELISA for Chagas' disease in the screening of blood donors in the public blood-supply network of the state of Paraná, Brazil, and to map the epidemiological profile of the donors with respect to their risk of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. The negative and positive results of the ELISA were confirmed by blood culture and PCR for 190/191 individuals (99.5%. For one individual (0.5%, the ELISA was inconclusive, blood culture and IIF were negative, and IHA and PCR positive. Three individuals (1.6% were positive for T. cruzi on all the tests. Donors were predominantly female, and natives of Paraná, of rural origin, had observed or been informed of the presence of the vector in the municipalities where they resided, had never received a blood transfusion, had donated blood 1 to 4 times, and reported no cases of Chagas' disease in their families. We concluded that PCR and blood culturing have excellent potential for confirming the results of the ELISA, and that candidate blood donors with negative or positive tests have a similar risk of infection by T. cruzi, indicating that the ELISA test is sufficiently safe for screening blood prior to use.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, pela hemocultura e PCR, os resultados do teste ELISA utilizado para doença de Chagas na triagem de doadores de sangue na rede pública do Estado do Paraná, Brasil, e traçar o perfil epidemiológico dos doadores quanto ao risco de infecção pelo Trypanosoma cruzi. Os resultados negativos e positivos do ELISA foram confirmados pela hemocultura e PCR em 190/191 indivíduos (99,5%. Para um indivíduo (0,5%, o teste de ELISA foi inconclusivo, hemocultura e IFI foram negativas, HAI e PCR foram positivas. Três indivíduos (1,6% foram positivos para T. cruzi em todos os testes. A maioria dos doadores era do sexo feminino, oriundos do Estado do Paraná, de origem rural, tinham

  13. Whole-Blood Taurine Concentrations in Cats With Intestinal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathrani, A; Fascetti, A J; Larsen, J A; Maunder, C; Hall, E J

    2017-07-01

    Increased delivery of taurine-conjugated bile acids to the distal bowel can lead to dysbiosis resulting in colitis in mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease. A similar situation also could occur in cats with intestinal disease and might therefore result in decreased whole-body taurine concentration. To determine whether whole-blood taurine concentrations are decreased at the time of diagnosis in cats with intestinal disease and to correlate concentrations with clinical and laboratory variables. Twenty-one cats with chronic inflammatory enteropathy and 7 cats with intestinal neoplasia from the University of Bristol. Cats that had undergone a thorough investigation consisting of a CBC, serum biochemistry, serum cobalamin and folate concentrations, transabdominal ultrasound examination and histopathology of intestinal biopsy specimens, as well as additional testing if indicated, were included. Whole-blood from these cats collected at the time of histologic diagnosis and stored in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was retrospectively analyzed for taurine with an automated high-performance liquid chromatography amino acid analyzer. Although whole-blood taurine concentrations remained within the reference range, those cats with predominantly large intestinal clinical signs had significantly lower concentrations than did cats with small intestinal and mixed bowel clinical signs (P = 0.033) and this difference also was significant when assessed only in cats with chronic inflammatory enteropathy (P = 0.019). Additional studies are needed to determine whether large intestinal signs in cats with chronic inflammatory enteropathy are caused by alterations in the microbiota arising as a consequence of increased delivery of taurine-conjugated bile acids. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. Cerebral blood flow in sickle cell cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttenlocher, P.R.; Moohr, J.W.; Johns, L.; Brown, F.D.

    1984-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been studied by the xenon-133 ( 133 Xe) inhalation method in 16 children with suspected sickle cell cerebrovascular disease. Abnormalities consisting of decreases in total, hemispheral, or regional CBF were found in 17 of 26 studies. Eleven studies performed immediately after stroke, transient ischemic attack, or depression of state of alertness showed abnormalities. In addition to confirming regional cerebrovascular insufficiency in children with stroke due to major cerebral artery occlusion, the method detected diffuse decrease in CBF in children with stupor, coma, and seizures who had normal angiographic findings. In contrast, six of seven studies obtained after exchange transfusion or during maintenance on hypertransfusion therapy showed normal findings. The difference between results in patients with acute neurologic disturbances and those receiving transfusion therapy was statistically significant (P less than .005). The data indicate that the 133 Xe method reliably demonstrates cerebrovascular impairment in sickle cell disease. They also suggest that CBF changes in patients with sickle cell disease can be reversed by exchange transfusion and by hypertransfusion therapy. The 133 Xe CBF method may be useful for following up children with sickle cell disease who are at high risk for recurrent stroke

  15. AMBULATORY BLOOD PRESSURE PATTERNS IN CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Joshua; Ng, Derek; Flynn, Joseph T.; Mitsnefes, Mark; Poffenbarger, Tim; Warady, Bradley A.; Furth, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is the best method of detecting abnormal blood pressure (BP) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), whose hypertension may be missed with office BP measurements. We report ABPM findings in 332 children 1 year after entry in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) cohort study. All subjects underwent casual and ambulatory BP measurement. BP was categorized based on casual and ABPM results into normal, white coat, masked, and ambulatory hypertension. Only half of the subjects had a normal ABPM. BP load was elevated (>25%) in 52% (n= 172) while mean BP was elevated in 32% (n= 105). In multivariate analysis, those using an ACE inhibitor (ACEi) were 89% more likely to have a normal ABPM than those who did not report using an ACEi (OR: 1.89, 95%CI: 1.17, 3.04). For every 20% faster decline in annualized GFR change, the odds of an abnormal ABPM increased 26% (OR: 1.26, 95%CI: 0.97, 1.64; p= 0.081). A 2.25 fold increase in urine protein:creatinine ratio annualized change was associated with a 39% higher odds of an abnormal ABPM (OR: 1.39, 95%CI: 1.06, 1.82; p= 0.019). Abnormalities on ABPM are common in children with CKD, and are strongly associated with known risk factors for end stage renal disease. Individuals on ACEi were less likely to have abnormal ABPM, suggesting a possible therapeutic intervention. ABPM should be used to monitor risk and guide therapy in children with CKD. PMID:22585950

  16. Blood N-terminal Pro-brain Natriuretic Peptide and Interleukin-17 for Distinguishing Incomplete Kawasaki Disease from Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling; Chen, Yuanling; Zhong, Shiling; Li, Yunyan; Dai, Xiahua; Di, Yazhen

    2015-06-01

    To explore the diagnostic value of blood N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and interleukin-17(IL-17) for incomplete Kawasaki disease. Patients with Kawasaki disease, Incomplete Kawasaki disease and unclear infectious fever were included in this retrospective study. Their clinical features, and laboratory test results of blood NT-proBNP and IL-17 were collected and compared. 766 patients with complete clinical information were recruited, consisting of 291 cases of Kawasaki disease, 74 cases of incomplete Kawasaki disease, and 401 cases of unclear infectious diseases. When the consistency with indicator 2 and 3 in Kawasaki disease diagnosis criteria was assessed with blood IL-17 ?11.55 pg/mL and blood NT-proBNP ? 225.5 pg/dL as the criteria, the sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing incomplete Kawasaki disease and infectious diseases reached 86.5% and 94.8%, respectively. When we chose the consistency with indicator 1 and 2 in Kawasaki disease diagnosis criteria, the appearance of decrustation and/or the BCG erythema, blood IL-17 ?11.55 pg/mL and blood NT-Pro BNP ?225.5 pg/dL as the criteria, the sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing incomplete Kawasaki disease and infectious diseases was 43.2% and 100%, respectively. Blood NT-proBNP and IL-17 are useful laboratory indicators for distinguishing incomplete Kawasaki disease and infectious diseases at the early stage.

  17. Ambulatory blood pressure patterns in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Joshua; Ng, Derek; Flynn, Joseph T; Mitsnefes, Mark; Poffenbarger, Tim; Warady, Bradley A; Furth, Susan

    2012-07-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring (ABPM) is the best method of detecting abnormal BP in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), whose hypertension may be missed with casual BP measurements. We report ABPM findings in 332 children 1 year after entry in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children cohort study. All of the subjects underwent casual and ambulatory BP measurement. BP was categorized based on casual and ABPM results into normal (42%), white-coat (4%), masked (35%), and ambulatory (14%) hypertension. Only half of the subjects had a normal ABPM. BP load was elevated (>25%) in 52% (n = 172), whereas mean BP was elevated in 32% (n = 105). In multivariate analysis, those using an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor were 89% more likely to have a normal ABPM than those who did not report using an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (odds ratio, 1.89 [95% CI, 1.17-3.04]). For every 20% faster decline in annualized glomerular filtration rate change, the odds of an abnormal ABPM increased 26% (odds ratio, 1.26 [95% CI, 0.97-1.64]). A 2.25-fold increase in urine protein:creatinine ratio annualized change was associated with a 39% higher odds of an abnormal ABPM (odds ratio, 1.39 [95% CI, 1.06-1.82]). Abnormalities on ABPM are common in children with chronic kidney disease and are strongly associated with known risk factors for end-stage renal disease. Individuals on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were less likely to have abnormal ABPM, suggesting a possible therapeutic intervention. ABPM should be used to monitor risk and guide therapy in children with chronic kidney disease.

  18. Gliadin peptides activate blood monocytes from patients with celiac disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cinová, Jana; Palová-Jelínková, Lenka; Smythies, L.; Černá, M.; Pecharová, Barbara; Dvořák, M.; Fruhauf, P.; Tlaskalová, Helena; Smith, P.; Tučková, Ludmila

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2007), s. 201-209 ISSN 0271-9142 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/05/2245; GA ČR GD310/03/H147; GA AV ČR IAA5020210; GA AV ČR IAA5020205; GA AV ČR 1QS500200572; GA AV ČR KJB5020407; GA MZe 1B53002 Grant - others:US(US) DK-064400; US(US) DK-47322; US(US) DK-54495; US(US) HD-41361; US(US) DK-064400 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Source of funding: N - neverejné zdroje ; N - neverejné zdroje ; N - neverejné zdroje ; N - neverejné zdroje ; N - neverejné zdroje Keywords : celiac disease * innate immunity * blood monocytes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.886, year: 2007

  19. Cerebral blood flow and metabolic abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2001-01-01

    In this review I summarize observations of PET and SPECT studies about cerebral blood flow and metabolic abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In very early AD flow or metabolism reduces first in the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus. This reduction may arise from functional deafferentation caused by primary neural degeneration in the remote area of the entorhinal cortex that is the first to be pathologically affected in AD. Then medial temporal structures and parietotemporal association cortex show flow or metabolic reduction as disease processes. The reason why flow or metabolism in medial temporal structures shows delay in starting to reduce in spite of the earliest pathological affection remains to be elucidated. It is likely that anterior cingulate gyrus is functionally involved, since attention is the first non-memory domain to be affected, before deficits in language and visuospatial functions. However few reports have described involvement in the anterior cingulate gyrus. Relationship between cerebral blood flow or metabolism and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype has been investigated. Especially, the APOEε4 allele has been reported to increase risk and to lower onset age as a function of the inherited dose of the ε4 allele. Reduction of flow or metabolism in the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus has been reported even in presymptomatic nondemented subjects who were cognitively normal and had at least a single ε4 allele. On the contrary the relation of ε4 allele to the progression rate of AD has been controversial from neuroimaging approaches. PET and SPECT imaging has become to be quite useful for assessing therapeutical effects of newly introduced treatment for AD. Recent investigations observed significant regional flow increase after donepezil hydrochloride treatment. Most of these observations have been made by applying computer assisted analysis of three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection or statistical parametric mapping

  20. Circadian blood pressure patterns and blood pressure control in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Daniele, Nicola; Fegatelli, Danilo Alunni; Rovella, Valentina; Castagnola, Veronica; Gabriele, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo

    2017-12-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD), and CKD progression is associated with suboptimal blood pressure (BP) control. Here we evaluate the impact of CKD on the attainment of BP control and the circadian BP profile in older subjects. In this observational study, we studied 547 patients referred to the hypertension clinic, of whom 224 (40.9%) had CKD. Blood pressure (BP) control and circadian BP patterns were evaluated by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Circadian BP variability was measured as the within-subject SD of BP, the percentage of measurements exceeding normal values, hypotension, and dipping status. The attainment of adequate BP control was similar in subjects with or without CKD (around 31%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that CKD was not a determinant of adequate BP control (OR 1.004; 95% CI 0.989-1.019; p = 0.58). Patients with CKD presented as twice as higher prevalence of reverse dipper (night-time peak) for systolic BP and episodes of hypotension during daytime, independently of BP control. Knowledge of the circadian pattern of BP in hypertensive subjects with CKD could inform better than attainment of BP target about risky condition for CKD progression and cognitive decline and allow a more personalized antihypertensive treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. ABO blood groups and Rhesus factor: an exploring link to periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koregol, Arati C; Raghavendra, M; Nainegali, Sangamesh; Kalburgi, Nagaraj; Varma, Siddharth

    2010-01-01

    The presence or absence of blood group antigens has been associated with various diseases, with antigens also acting as receptors for infectious agents. Scanty literature is available in assessing the relative liability of blood group phenotypes to periodontal diseases. This research was conducted to determine the association of the ABO blood group and Rhesus (Rh) factor to periodontal diseases to assess whether they could be the predictors of periodontal diseases. A total of 1,220 subjects aged between 20 and 55 years were selected on a random basis. The study populations were segregated into three groups according to Ramfjord's periodontal disease index: Healthy, Gingivitis and Periodontitis. Blood samples were collected to identify the ABO blood groups and the Rh factor by the slide method. Blood group A showed a significantly higher percentage in the gingivitis group and blood group O showed a higher percentage in the periodontitis group. The blood group AB showed the least percentage of periodontal diseases. The distribution of Rh factor in all groups showed a significantly higher distribution of Rh-positive. The genetic factors may alter the oral ecology and the process of periodontal disease. These data are suggestive of a broad correlation between periodontal diseases and blood groups, which may act as risk predictors for periodontal diseases. This will make it possible to better-understand the risk factors of diseases of the periodontal tissues and to predict the effective methods of prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases.

  2. The sensitivity of Na + , K + ATPase as an indicator of blood diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Blood-related hereditary diseases are widespread in Eastern and SouthWestern regions of Saudi Arabia until recently. In this study, we used Na+, K+ATPase as an enzymatic indicator for the diagnosis of the diseases. Materials and methods: Individuals with different blood diseases (iron deficiency (n=13), ...

  3. Blood group does not correlate with disease severity in patients with Fabry disease (alpha-galactosidase A deficiency)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linthorst, Gabor E.; Folman, Claudia C.; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.; Hollak, Carla E. M.

    2003-01-01

    Blood groups B and P1 are substrates for the lysosomal enzyme alpha-galactosidase A. Therefore, patients with alpha-Gal A deficiency and blood groups B or P1 may exhibit more severe disease. In 48 Fabry patients distribution of blood group was not different from that in the Dutch population. No

  4. Is there an association between ABO blood grouping and periodontal disease? A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Askar, Mansour

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Although several studies have investigated the relationship between ABO blood group and medical diseases, few reports have explored the association with oral diseases, including periodontal disease (PD). Aim The aim of this literature review was to assess the association between the ABO blood grouping and PD. Methods We searched PubMed and Google Scholar databases using the following terms in different combinations: “ABO blood group,” “periodontitis,” “aggressive periodontitis (A...

  5. Blood-based biomarkers of microvascular pathology in Alzheimer's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ewers, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) is a genetically complex and chronically progressive neurodegenerative disorder with molecular mechanisms and neuropathologies centering around the amyloidogenic pathway, hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of tau protein, and neurofibrillary degeneration. While cerebrovascular changes have not been traditionally considered to be a central part of AD pathology, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that they may, in fact, be a characteristic feature of the AD brain as well. In particular, microvascular abnormalities within the brain have been associated with pathological AD hallmarks and may precede neurodegeneration. In vivo assessment of microvascular pathology provides a promising approach to develop useful biological markers for early detection and pathological characterization of AD. This review focuses on established blood-based biological marker candidates of microvascular pathology in AD. These candidates include plasma concentration of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) that are increased in AD. Measures of endothelial vasodilatory function including endothelin (ET-1), adrenomedullin (ADM), and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), as well as sphingolipids are significantly altered in mild AD or during the predementia stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), suggesting sensitivity of these biomarkers for early detection and diagnosis. In conclusion, the emerging clinical diagnostic evidence for the value of blood-based microvascular biomarkers in AD is promising, however, still requires validation in phase II and III diagnostic trials. Moreover, it is still unclear whether the described protein dysbalances are early or downstream pathological events and how the detected systemic microvascular alterations relate to cerebrovascular and neuronal pathologies in the AD brain.

  6. Capillary pericytes regulate cerebral blood flow in health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Catherine N; Reynell, Clare; Gesslein, Bodil

    2014-01-01

    Increases in brain blood flow, evoked by neuronal activity, power neural computation and form the basis of BOLD (blood-oxygen-level-dependent) functional imaging. Whether blood flow is controlled solely by arteriole smooth muscle, or also by capillary pericytes, is controversial. We demonstrate...... blood flow, capillaries dilate before arterioles and are estimated to produce 84% of the blood flow increase. In pathology, ischaemia evokes capillary constriction by pericytes. We show that this is followed by pericyte death in rigor, which may irreversibly constrict capillaries and damage the blood......-brain barrier. Thus, pericytes are major regulators of cerebral blood flow and initiators of functional imaging signals. Prevention of pericyte constriction and death may reduce the long-lasting blood flow decrease that damages neurons after stroke....

  7. Incident Cardiovascular Disease Among Adults With Blood Pressure Hg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeu, Gabriel S; Booth, John N; Colantonio, Lisandro D; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Howard, George; Lackland, Daniel T; O'Brien, Emily C; Oparil, Suzanne; Ravenell, Joseph; Safford, Monika M; Seals, Samantha R; Shimbo, Daichi; Shea, Steven; Spruill, Tanya M; Tanner, Rikki M; Muntner, Paul

    2017-08-29

    Data from before the 2000s indicate that the majority of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) events occur among US adults with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) ≥140/90 mm Hg. Over the past several decades, BP has declined and hypertension control has improved. We estimated the percentage of incident CVD events that occur at SBP/DBP Hg in a pooled analysis of 3 contemporary US cohorts: the REGARDS study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke), the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), and the JHS (Jackson Heart Study) (n=31 856; REGARDS=21 208; MESA=6779; JHS=3869). Baseline study visits were conducted in 2003 to 2007 for REGARDS, 2000 to 2002 for MESA, and 2000 to 2004 for JHS. BP was measured by trained staff using standardized methods. Antihypertensive medication use was self-reported. The primary outcome was incident CVD, defined by the first occurrence of fatal or nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal coronary heart disease, or heart failure. Events were adjudicated in each study. Over a mean follow-up of 7.7 years, 2584 participants had incident CVD events. Overall, 63.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 54.9-71.1) of events occurred in participants with SBP/DBP Hg; 58.4% (95% CI, 47.7-69.2) and 68.1% (95% CI, 60.1-76.0) among those taking and not taking antihypertensive medication, respectively. The majority of events occurred in participants with SBP/DBP Hg among those Hg, 76.6% (95% CI, 75.8-77.5) were eligible for statin treatment, but only 33.2% (95% CI, 32.1-34.3) were taking one, and 19.5% (95% CI, 18.5-20.5) met the SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) eligibility criteria and may benefit from a SBP target goal of 120 mm Hg. Although higher BP levels are associated with increased CVD risk, in the modern era, the majority of incident CVD events occur in US adults with SBP/DBP Hg. While absolute risk and cost-effectiveness should be considered, additional CVD risk

  8. Molecular mechanisms of disease in hereditary red blood cell enzymopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, Henricus Anthonius van

    2004-01-01

    Metabolically defective red blood cells are old before their time, and suffer from metabolic progeria. The focus of this thesis was to identify the molecular mechanisms by which inherited enzymopathies of the red blood cell lead to impaired enzyme function and, consequently, shorten red blood cell

  9. Elevated arteriolar cerebral blood volume in prodromal Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jun; Unschuld, Paul G; Margolis, Russell L; van Zijl, Peter C M; Ross, Christopher A

    2014-03-01

    Neurovascular alterations have been implicated in the pathophysiology of Huntington's disease (HD). Because arterioles are most responsive to metabolic alterations, arteriolar cerebral blood volume (CBVa) is an important indicator of cerebrovascular regulation. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate potential neurovascular (CBVa ) abnormality in prodromal-HD patients and compare it with the widely used imaging marker: brain atrophy. CBVa and brain volumes were measured with ultra-high-field (7.0-Telsa) magnetic resonance imaging in seven prodromal-HD patients and nine age-matched controls. Cortical CBVa was elevated significantly in prodromal-HD patients compared with controls (relative difference, 38.5%; effect size, 1.48). Significant correlations were found between CBVa in the frontal cortex and genetic measures. By contrast, no significant brain atrophy was detected in the prodromal-HD patients. CBVa may be abnormal in prodromal-HD, even before substantial brain atrophy occurs. Further investigation with a larger cohort and longitudinal follow-up is merited to determine whether CBVa could be used as a potential biomarker for clinical trials. © 2013 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  10. Blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier permeability in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalbot, Sonia; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Fladby, Tormod; Andreasen, Niels; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2011-01-01

    The role of blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCB) dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been addressed but not yet established. We evaluated the BCB integrity in 179 samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) retrospectively collected from AD patients and control cases using both CSF/serum albumin ratio (QAlb) and CSF secretory Ca2+-dependent phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) activity. These analyses were supplemented with the measurement of total tau, amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1-42), and ubiquitin CSF levels. We found that due to its higher sensitivity, CSF sPLA2 activity could 1) discriminate AD from healthy controls and 2) showed BCB impairment in neurological control cases while QAlb could not. Moreover, the CSF sPLA2 activity measurement showed that around half of the AD patients were characterized by a BCB impairment. The BCB dysfunction observed in AD was independent from Mini-Mental State Examination score as well as CSF levels of total tau, Aβ1-42, and ubiquitin. Finally, the BCB dysfunction was not limited to any of the CSF biomarkers-based previously identified subgroups of AD. These results suggest that the BCB damage occurs independent of and probably precedes both Aβ and tau pathologies in a restricted subgroup of AD patients.

  11. Hospital specific factors affect quality of blood pressure treatment in chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuilen, A.D. van; Blankestijn, P.J.; Buren, M. van; Dam, M.A. ten; Kaasjager, K.A.; Ligtenberg, G.; Sijpkens, Y.W.; Sluiter, H.E.; Ven, P.J. van der; Vervoort, G.M.M.; Vleming, L.; Bots, M.L.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood pressure (BP) is the most important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease and progression of kidney dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease. Despite extensive antihypertensive treatment possibilities, adequate control is notoriously hard to achieve.

  12. [Blood groups - minuses and pluses. Do the blood group antigens protect us from infectious diseases?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwiński, Marcin

    2015-06-25

    Human blood can be divided into groups, which is a method of blood classification based on the presence or absence of inherited erythrocyte surface antigens that can elicit immune response. According to the International Society of Blood Transfusion, there are 341 blood group antigens collected in 35 blood group systems. These antigens can be proteins, glycoproteins or glycosphingolipids, and function as transmembrane transporters, ion channels, adhesion molecules or receptors for other proteins. The majority of blood group antigens is present also on another types of cells. Due to their localization on the surface of cells, blood group antigens can act as receptors for various pathogens or their toxins, such as protozoa (malaria parasites), bacteria (Helicobacter pylori, Vibrio cholerae and Shigella dysenteriae) and viruses (Noroviruses, Parvoviruses, HIV). If the presence of group antigen (or its variant which arised due to mutation) is beneficial for the host (e.g. because pathogens are not able to bind to the cells), the blood group may become a selection trait, leading to its dissemination in the population exposed to that pathogen. There are thirteen blood group systems that can be related to pathogen resistance, and it seems that the particular influence was elicit by malaria parasites. It is generally thought that the high incidence of blood groups such as O in the Amazon region, Fy(a-b-) in Africa and Ge(-) in Papua-New Guinea is the result of selective pressure from malaria parasite. This review summarizes the data about relationship between blood groups and resistance to pathogens.

  13. Cardiovascular disease and ABO blood-groups in Africans. Are blood-group A individuals at higher risk of ischemic disease?: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Djibril Marie; Sow, Mamadou Saidou; Diack, Aminata; Dia, Khadidiatou; Mboup, Mouhamed Cherif; Fall, Pape Diadie; Fall, Moussa Daouda

    2017-12-01

    Since the discovery of the ABO blood group system by Karl Landsteiner in 1901, several reports have suggested an important involvement of the ABO blood group system in the susceptibility to thrombosis. Assessing that non-O blood groups in particular A blood group confer a higher risk of venous and arterial thrombosis than group O.Epidemiologic data are typically not available for all racial and ethnics groups.The purpose of this pilot study was to identify a link between ABO blood group and ischemic disease (ID) in Africans, and to analyze whether A blood group individuals were at higher risk of ischemic disease or not. A total of 299 medical records of patients over a three-year period admitted to the cardiology and internal medicine department of military hospital of Ouakam in Senegal were reviewed. We studied data on age, gender, past history of hypertension, diabetes, smoking, sedentarism, obesity, hyperlipidemia, use of estrogen-progestin contraceptives and blood group distribution.In each blood group type, we evaluated the prevalence of ischemic and non-ischemic cardiovascular disease. The medical records were then stratified into two categories to evaluate incidence of ischemic disease: Group 1: Patients carrying blood-group A and Group 2: Patients carrying blood group non-A (O, AB and B). Of the 299 patients whose medical records were reviewed, 92 (30.8%) were carrying blood group A, 175 (58.5%) had blood group O, 13 (4.3%) had blood group B, and 19 (6.4%) had blood group AB.The diagnosis of ischemic disease (ID) was higher in patients with blood group A (61.2%) than in other blood groups, and the diagnosis of non-ischemic disease (NID) was higher in patients with blood group O (73.6%) compared to other groups. In patients with blood group B or AB compared to non-B or non-AB, respectively there was no statistically significant difference in ID incidence.Main risk factor for ID was smoking (56.5%), hypertension (18.4%) and diabetes (14.3%).In our study

  14. Cerebral blood flow is an earlier indicator of perfusion abnormalities than cerebral blood volume in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lacalle-Aurioles, María; Mateos-Pérez, José M; Guzmán-De-Villoria, Juan A; Olazarán, Javier; Cruz-Orduña, Isabel; Alemán-Gómez, Yasser; Martino, María-Elena; Desco, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether cerebral blood flow (CBF) can better characterize perfusion abnormalities in predementia stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) than cerebral blood volume (CBV) and whether cortical atrophy is more associated with decreased CBV or with decreased CBF. We compared measurements of CBV, CBF, and mean cortical thickness obtained from magnetic resonance images in a group of healthy controls, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who converted t...

  15. Association of plasma uric acid with ischaemic heart disease and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Tom M; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Benn, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    To assess the associations between both uric acid levels and hyperuricaemia, with ischaemic heart disease and blood pressure, and to explore the potentially confounding role of body mass index.......To assess the associations between both uric acid levels and hyperuricaemia, with ischaemic heart disease and blood pressure, and to explore the potentially confounding role of body mass index....

  16. The future of blood-based biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Kim; O'Bryant, Sid E; Hampel, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is significantly hampered by the lack of easily accessible biomarkers that can detect disease presence and predict disease risk reliably. Fluid biomarkers of AD currently provide indications of disease stage; however, they are not robust predictors of disease...

  17. Apoptosis and peripheral blood lymphocyte depletion in coeliac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sabatino, Antonio; D'Alò, Simona; Millimaggi, Danilo; Ciccocioppo, Rachele; Parroni, Raffaella; Sciarra, Giuseppe; Cifone, Maria Grazia; Corazza, Gino Roberto

    2001-01-01

    In coeliac disease (CD) immunological abnormalities are not confined to the small bowel and it has been suggested that changes in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), such as lymphopenia and increased T-cell activation, may predispose to malignant or autoimmune complications of this condition. In the light of the recent findings about the Fas–Fas ligand (FasL) system in regulating lymphocyte homeostasis, the aim of the present study was to investigate peripheral lymphocyte Fas-mediated apoptosis in CD to establish whether the homeostatic role of apoptosis in peripheral T-cell selection is maintained. Moreover, because a soluble form of Fas has been described to be functionally implicated in the Fas signalling system, suggesting a relationship between some disorders and soluble Fas function, we measured levels of soluble Fas in sera of coeliac patients and analysed the relationship between these levels and the proportions of apoptotic and Fas+ PBL to further explore the function of the Fas–FasL pathway in this condition. Finally, we evaluated whether the increased prevalence of anticardiolipin antibodies, recently described in CD, could be related to PBL apoptosis in this condition. We demonstrated an increased apoptosis and higher levels of Fas and FasL expression in PBL isolated from untreated coeliac patients when compared to treated coeliac patients and controls. In addition, low levels of soluble Fas and a significant positive correlation between anticardiolipin antibodies and PBL apoptosis were found in untreated CD. Then, our results showed an increased susceptibility of PBL to undergo Fas-mediated apoptosis in active CD. This increased apoptosis could be responsible for both lymphopenia and immunogenic exposure of phospholipids with subsequent production of autoantibodies. PMID:11529933

  18. Red blood cell alloimmunization in sickle cell disease patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Alloimmunization is a recognized complication of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and causes delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions and provides problems sourcing compatible blood for future transfusions. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of RBC alloimmunization in SCD patients in ...

  19. Blood Eosinophils and Exacerbations in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Krogh, Signe; Nielsen, Sune F; Lange, Peter

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Whether high blood eosinophils are associated with COPD exacerbations among individuals with COPD in the general population is largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that high blood eosinophils predict COPD exacerbations. METHODS: Among 81,668 individuals from the Copenhag...

  20. Periodontal disease and inflammatory blood cytokines in patients with stable coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio KAMPITS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Periodontal disease has been associated with elevations of blood cytokines involved in atherosclerosis in systemically healthy individuals, but little is known about this association in stable cardiovascular patients. The aim of this study was to assess the association between periodontal disease (exposure and blood cytokine levels (outcomes in a target population of patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD. Material and Methods This cross-sectional study included 91 patients with stable CAD who had been under optimized cardiovascular care. Blood levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α were measured by Luminex technology. A full-mouth periodontal examination was conducted to record probing depth (PD and clinical attachment (CA loss. Multiple linear regression models, adjusting for gender, body mass index, oral hypoglycemic drugs, smoking, and occurre:nce of acute myocardial infarction were applied. Results CAD patients that experienced major events had higher concentrations of IFN-γ (median: 5.05 pg/mL vs. 3.01 pg/mL; p=0.01, IL-10 (median: 2.33 pg/mL vs. 1.01 pg/mL; p=0.03, and TNF-α (median: 9.17 pg/mL vs. 7.47 pg/mL; p=0.02. Higher numbers of teeth with at least 6 mm of CA loss (R2=0.07 and PD (R2=0.06 were significantly associated with higher IFN-γ log concentrations. Mean CA loss (R2=0.05 and PD (R2=0.06 were significantly related to IL-10 concentrations. Elevated concentrations of TNF-α were associated with higher mean CA loss (R2=0.07. Conclusion Periodontal disease is associated with increased systemic inflammation in stable cardiovascular patients. These findings provide additional evidence supporting the idea that periodontal disease can be a prognostic factor in cardiovascular patients.

  1. Sickle cell disease biochip: a functional red blood cell adhesion assay for monitoring sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALAPAN, YUNUS; KIM, CEONNE; ADHIKARI, ANIMA; GRAY, KAYLA E.; GURKAN-CAVUSOGLU, EVREN; LITTLE, JANE A.; GURKAN, UMUT A.

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) afflicts millions of people worldwide and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Chronic and acute vaso-occlusion are the clinical hallmarks of SCD and can result in pain crisis, widespread organ damage, and early movtality. Even though the molecular underpinnings of SCD were identified more than 60 years ago, there are no molecular or biophysical markers of disease severity that are feasibly measured in the clinic. Abnormal cellular adhesion to vascular endothelium is at the root of vaso-occlusion. However, cellular adhesion is not currently evaluated clinically. Here, we present a clinically applicable microfluidic device (SCD biochip) that allows serial quantitative evaluation of red blood cell (RBC) adhesion to endothelium-associated protein-immobilized microchannels, in a closed and preprocessing-free system. With the SCD biochip, we have analyzed blood samples from more than 100 subjects and have shown associations between the measured RBC adhesion to endothelium-associated proteins (fibronectin and laminin) and individual RBC characteristics, including hemoglobin content, fetal hemoglobin concentration, plasma lactate dehydrogenase level, and reticulocyte count. The SCD biochip is a functional adhesion assay, reflecting quantitative evaluation of RBC adhesion, which could be used at baseline, during crises, relative to various long-term complications, and before and after therapeutic interventions. PMID:27063958

  2. A Comprehensive Fluid Dynamic-Diffusion Model of Blood Microcirculation with Focus on Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Floch, Francois; Harris, Wesley L.

    2009-11-01

    A novel methodology has been developed to address sickle cell disease, based on highly descriptive mathematical models for blood flow in the capillaries. Our investigations focus on the coupling between oxygen delivery and red blood cell dynamics, which is crucial to understanding sickle cell crises and is unique to this blood disease. The main part of our work is an extensive study of blood dynamics through simulations of red cells deforming within the capillary vessels, and relies on the use of a large mathematical system of equations describing oxygen transfer, blood plasma dynamics and red cell membrane mechanics. This model is expected to lead to the development of new research strategies for sickle cell disease. Our simulation model could be used not only to assess current researched remedies, but also to spur innovative research initiatives, based on our study of the physical properties coupled in sickle cell disease.

  3. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by means of a blood test called a "fasting lipoprotein profile." Be sure to ask for the ... Because of the recent studies that showed the benefit of more intensive cholesterol lowering, physicians have the ...

  4. ABO system of blood groups in people and their resistance to certain infectious diseases (prognosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripal', I G

    1996-01-01

    Natural resistance to many infectious disease which to certain extent depends on the blood group of a person is inherent in people. As is known, human erythrocytes possess the surface antigens A, B, AB that determine the groups of blood. Blood group O erythrocytes do not possess these antigens but blood serum of such people have antibodies to A and B antigens. In people with blood group A there are antibodies to antigen B and vice versa. Human blood of AB group does not contain antibodies to erythrocyte antigens of other blood groups. This determines natural resistance of people to many infectious diseases whose agents have antigens on the surface of their cells that are similar to antigens of one or another group of blood. Thus antigens similar to those of blood group A erythrocytes are localized on the agents' cells, such agents are neutralized by natural antibodies of blood groups O and B. When antigens similar to those of blood group B erythrocytes are localized on the agents' cells, that is the obstacle for them when affecting people with blood group A and B whose serum includes a lot of antibodies to these antigens. Only people with blood group AB are most sensitive to infectious diseases which agents carry antigens A, B or both A and B on their cells, since blood of such people does not contain the corresponding natural antibodies. To illustrate the above said the author gives a prognosis of possible affection of people by most pathogenic mycoplasmas whose cells possess antigens similar to those of erythrocytes of one or another blood group.

  5. ABO Blood Group and Risk of Thromboembolic and Arterial Disease: A Study of 1.5 Million Blood Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Rostgaard, Klaus; Majeed, Ammar; Ullum, Henrik; Titlestad, Kjell-Einar; Pedersen, Ole B V; Erikstrup, Christian; Nielsen, Kaspar Rene; Melbye, Mads; Nyrén, Olof; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Edgren, Gustaf

    2016-04-12

    ABO blood groups have been shown to be associated with increased risks of venous thromboembolic and arterial disease. However, the reported magnitude of this association is inconsistent and is based on evidence from small-scale studies. We used the SCANDAT2 (Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions) database of blood donors linked with other nationwide health data registers to investigate the association between ABO blood groups and the incidence of first and recurrent venous thromboembolic and arterial events. Blood donors in Denmark and Sweden between 1987 and 2012 were followed up for diagnosis of thromboembolism and arterial events. Poisson regression models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios as measures of relative risk. A total of 9170 venous and 24 653 arterial events occurred in 1 112 072 individuals during 13.6 million person-years of follow-up. Compared with blood group O, non-O blood groups were associated with higher incidence of both venous and arterial thromboembolic events. The highest rate ratios were observed for pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism (incidence rate ratio, 2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.77-2.79), deep vein thrombosis (incidence rate ratio, 1.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.80-2.05), and pulmonary embolism (incidence rate ratio, 1.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.71-1.88). In this healthy population of blood donors, non-O blood groups explain >30% of venous thromboembolic events. Although ABO blood groups may potentially be used with available prediction systems for identifying at-risk individuals, its clinical utility requires further comparison with other risk markers. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Mononucleated Blood Cell Populations Display Different Abilities To Transmit Prion Disease by the Transfusion Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douet, Jean-Yves; Lacroux, Caroline; Litaise, Claire; Lugan, Séverine; Corbière, Fabien; Arnold, Mark; Simmons, Hugh; Aron, Naima; Costes, Pierrette; Tillier, Cécile; Cassard, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previous experiments carried out in a sheep scrapie model demonstrated that the transfusion of 200 μl of prion-infected whole blood has an apparent 100% efficacy for disease transmission. These experiments also indicated that, despite the apparent low infectious titer, the intravenous administration of white blood cells (WBC) resulted in efficient disease transmission. In the study presented here, using the same transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) animal model, our aim was to determine the minimal number of white blood cells and the specific abilities of mononucleated cell populations to transmit scrapie by the transfusion route. Our results confirmed that the transfusion of 100 μl, but not 10 μl, of fresh whole blood collected in asymptomatic scrapie-infected donor sheep can transmit the disease. The data also show that the intravenous administration of 105 WBCs is sufficient to cause scrapie in recipient sheep. Cell-sorted CD45R+ (predominantly B lymphocytes), CD4+/CD8+ (T lymphocytes), and CD14+ (monocytes/macrophages) blood cell subpopulations all were shown to contain prion infectivity by bioassays in ovine PrP transgenic mice. However, while the intravenous administration of 106 CD45+ or CD4+/8+ living cells was able to transmit the disease, similar numbers of CD14+ cells failed to infect the recipients. These data support the contention that mononucleated blood cell populations display different abilities to transmit TSE by the transfusion route. They also represent an important input for the risk assessment of blood-borne prion disease transmission and for refining the target performance of leukoreduction processes that currently are applied to mitigate the transmission risk in transfusion medicine. IMPORTANCE Interindividual variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) transmission through blood and blood-derived products is considered a major public health issue in transfusion medicine. Over the last decade, TSE in sheep has emerged as a

  7. Emerging infectious disease outbreaks: estimating disease risk in Australian blood donors travelling overseas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghlan, A; Hoad, V C; Seed, C R; Flower, R Lp; Harley, R J; Herbert, D; Faddy, H M

    2018-01-01

    International travel assists spread of infectious pathogens. Australians regularly travel to South-eastern Asia and the isles of the South Pacific, where they may become infected with infectious agents, such as dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses that pose a potential risk to transfusion safety. In Australia, donors are temporarily restricted from donating for fresh component manufacture following travel to many countries, including those in this study. We aimed to estimate the unmitigated transfusion-transmission (TT) risk from donors travelling internationally to areas affected by emerging infectious diseases. We used the European Up-Front Risk Assessment Tool, with travel and notification data, to estimate the TT risk from donors travelling to areas affected by disease outbreaks: Fiji (DENV), Bali (DENV), Phuket (DENV), Indonesia (CHIKV) and French Polynesia (ZIKV). We predict minimal risk from travel, with the annual unmitigated risk of an infected component being released varying from 1 in 1·43 million to infectious disease outbreak areas to source plasma collection provides a simple and effective risk management approach. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  8. Genetic predisposition to higher blood pressure increases risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiangfeng; Huang, Jianfeng; Wang, Laiyuan; Chen, Shufeng; Yang, Xueli; Li, Jianxin; Cao, Jie; Chen, Jichun; Li, Ying; Zhao, Liancheng; Li, Hongfan; Liu, Fangcao; Huang, Chen; Shen, Chong; Shen, Jinjin; Yu, Ling; Xu, Lihua; Mu, Jianjun; Wu, Xianping; Ji, Xu; Guo, Dongshuang; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Yang, Zili; Wang, Renping; Yang, Jun; Yan, Weili; Gu, Dongfeng

    2015-10-01

    Although multiple genetic markers associated with blood pressure have been identified by genome-wide association studies, their aggregate effect on risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease is uncertain, particularly among East Asian who may have different genetic and environmental exposures from Europeans. We aimed to examine the association between genetic predisposition to higher blood pressure and risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease in 26 262 individuals in 2 Chinese population-based prospective cohorts. A genetic risk score was calculated based on 22 established variants for blood pressure in East Asian. We found the genetic risk score was significantly and independently associated with linear increases in blood pressure and risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease (P range from 4.57×10(-3) to 3.10×10(-6)). In analyses adjusted for traditional risk factors including blood pressure, individuals carrying most blood pressure-related risk alleles (top quintile of genetic score distribution) had 40% (95% confidence interval, 18-66) and 26% (6-45) increased risk for incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease, respectively, when compared with individuals in the bottom quintile. The genetic risk score also significantly improved discrimination for incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease and led to modest improvements in risk reclassification for cardiovascular disease (all the Pgenetic predisposition to higher blood pressure is an independent risk factor for blood pressure increase and incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease and provides modest incremental information to cardiovascular disease risk prediction. The potential clinical use of this panel of blood pressure-associated polymorphisms remains to be determined. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. [Chagas' disease in patients in chronic hemodialysis. Prevalence and risk of transmission by blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorca, M; Lorca, E; Atías, A; Plubins, L

    1989-06-01

    A serologic study of Chagas disease was performed in 110 patients submitted to chronic hemodialisis and blood transfusions. Immunofluorescence antibody testing (IgG and IgM) was positive in 6 out of 62 patients receiving multiple blood transfusions (9.7%), but negative in all 48 subjects without transfusions. Thus, repeated blood transfusion is a significant risk for T cruzi infection in chronic hemodialized patients.

  10. Waterborne Exophiala species causing disease in cold-blooded animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, G.S.; Vicente, V.A.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Harrak, M.J.; Badali, H.; Seyedmousavi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of mesophilic waterborne species of the black yeast genus Exophiala (Chaetothyriales) belong to a single clade judging from SSU rDNA data. Most taxa are also found to cause cutaneous or disseminated infections in cold-blooded, water animals, occasionally reaching epidemic proportions.

  11. Waterborne Exophiala species causing disease in cold-blooded animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, G.S.; Vicente, V.A.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Harrak, M.J.; Badali, H.; Seyedmousavi, S.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of mesophilic waterborne species of the black yeast genus Exophiala (Chaetothyriales) belong to a single clade judging from SSU rDNA data. Most taxa are also found to cause cutaneous or disseminated infections in cold-blooded, water animals, occasionally reaching epidemic proportions.

  12. Systolic blood pressure of Nigerian children with sickle cell disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SCD) are reported to be lower than that of the general population but similar studies in children are unavailable. Objectives: To determine the systolic blood pressure (SBP) of children with SCD and compare it with that of healthy controls. Also ...

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Blood Disease Bacterium A2 HR-MARDI, a Pathogen Causing Banana Bacterial Wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrun, Rafidah; Abu Bakar, Norliza; Laboh, Rozeita; Redzuan, Rohaiza; Bala Jaganath, Indu

    2017-06-01

    Blood disease bacterium A2 HR-MARDI was isolated from banana plants infected with banana blood disease and which were planted in Kuala Kangsar, Malaysia. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of blood disease bacterium A2 HR-MARDI, which could provide important information on the virulence mechanism of this pathogen. Copyright © 2017 Badrun et al.

  14. The Emergence of Blood and Blood Vessels in the Embryo and Its Relevance to Postnatal Biology and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Tiffany M.; Hirschi, Karen K.

    Blood and blood vessels develop in parallel within mammalian systems, and this temporal and spatial association has led to the confirmation of an endothelial origin of hematopoiesis. The extraembryonic yolk sac and aorto-gonado-mesonephros (AGM) region both contain a specialized population of endothelial cells ("hemogenic endothelium") that function to produce hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, which then differentiate to provide the full complement of blood cells within the developing embryo and furthermore in the adult system. Therefore, this population has great therapeutic potential in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. This chapter reviews the development of the vascular and hematopoietic systems, characterization and function of the hemogenic endothelium within embryonic and embryonic stem cell (ES cell) models, and speculate on the presence of such a population within the adult system. In order to harness this endothelial subtype for clinical application, we must understand both the normal functions of these cells and the potential for misregulation in disease states.

  15. Triatoma sanguisuga blood meals and potential for Chagas disease, Louisiana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waleckx, Etienne; Suarez, Julianne; Richards, Bethany; Dorn, Patricia L

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate human risk for Chagas disease, we molecularly identified blood meal sources and prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among 49 Triatoma sanguisuga kissing bugs in Louisiana, USA. Humans accounted for the second most frequent blood source. Of the bugs that fed on humans, ≈40% were infected with T. cruzi, revealing transmission potential.

  16. Brazilian actual conditions of the blood irradiation practice in graft-versus-host disease prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes, Evamberto G. de; Borges, Jose C.; Pela, Carlos A.

    1997-01-01

    Transfusion of blood and cellular components containing viable lymphocytes can result in Graft-Versus Host Disease (GVHD) in immuno compromised patients. It can be prevented by irradiation, prior to transfusion, of blood components. This work presents an overview of the Brazilian reality and suggests policies to optimise GVHD prevention. (author). 4 refs

  17. ABO blood groups, Rhesus factor, and Behçet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurt, Kemal; Oztürk, Perihan; Gül, Mustafa; Benderli, Yasemin Cihan; Cölgeçen, Emine; Inci, Rahime

    2013-09-01

    Recently, numerous studies have been carried out to explain the genetics and immunopathogenesis of Behçet's disease (BD). There is still insufficient understanding of its etiopathogenesis, but substantial genetic and immune system abnormalities have been suggested. Several studies have shown remarkable associations of ABO blood groups with various diseases. This study investigated the relationship between ABO and Rhesus (D) blood groups and Behçet's disease in Turkish patients. Clinical data on gender, ABO, and Rhesus blood type of patients with BD were collected at the Kayseri Education and Research Hospital from 2005 to 2012. A total of 115 patients with BD were assessed for their association with ABO or Rhesus (D) blood groups and compared with the distribution of the blood groups of 25,701 healthy donors admitted to the Kayseri Education and Research Hospital Blood Center in 2010 and 2011. The distribution of ABO and Rhesus blood groups in patients with BD was similar to the healthy donors. No relationship was found between ABO or Rhesus blood groups and BD at our hospital. Further studies with a larger series and in different centers may be valuable for identifying the association between ABO or Rhesus (D) blood groups and BD.

  18. Osteoclast formation from peripheral blood of patients with bone-lytic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, T.J.; Everts, V.

    2009-01-01

    Recent literature indicates that osteoclast formation in vitro from peripheral blood of patients with diseases associated with bone loss such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, periodontitis and bone metastatic cancer may occur spontaneously being independent of addition of osteoclast formation

  19. A study of the cerebral blood flow pattern and cognitive deficit in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaru, Fuyuhiko

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow pattern in Parkinson's disease was examined by 123 I-IMP SPECT to determine whether the deficit in cognitive function is reflected in it. The patient group with Parkinson's disease showed deterioration in intelligence (Minimental state examination, Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices) and frontal lobe test (the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Though the uptake ratio of prefrontal area/occipital area in 123 I-IMP SPECT study varied widely in the Parkinson's disease group compared to the normal control group, there was no significant difference in the mean. Selective depletion of frontal lobe blood flow was not confirmed in this study. There was no correlation between cerebral blood flow pattern and cognitive functions including frontal lobe function and intelligence. We concluded that the deficit in cognitive function was not reflected in the cerebral blood flow pattern in Parkinson's disease. (author)

  20. Neurofilament Light Chain in Blood and CSF as Marker of Disease Progression in Mouse Models and in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacioglu, Mehtap; Maia, Luis F; Preische, Oliver; Schelle, Juliane; Apel, Anja; Kaeser, Stephan A; Schweighauser, Manuel; Eninger, Timo; Lambert, Marius; Pilotto, Andrea; Shimshek, Derya R; Neumann, Ulf; Kahle, Philipp J; Staufenbiel, Matthias; Neumann, Manuela; Maetzler, Walter; Kuhle, Jens; Jucker, Mathias

    2016-07-06

    A majority of current disease-modifying therapeutic approaches for age-related neurodegenerative diseases target their characteristic proteopathic lesions (α-synuclein, Tau, Aβ). To monitor such treatments, fluid biomarkers reflecting the underlying disease process are crucial. We found robust increases of neurofilament light chain (NfL) in CSF and blood in murine models of α-synucleinopathies, tauopathy, and β-amyloidosis. Blood and CSF NfL levels were strongly correlated, and NfL increases coincided with the onset and progression of the corresponding proteopathic lesions in brain. Experimental induction of α-synuclein lesions increased CSF and blood NfL levels, while blocking Aβ lesions attenuated the NfL increase. Consistently, we also found NfL increases in CSF and blood of human α-synucleinopathies, tauopathies, and Alzheimer's disease. Our results suggest that CSF and particularly blood NfL can serve as a reliable and easily accessible biomarker to monitor disease progression and treatment response in mouse models and potentially in human proteopathic neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chagas disease vector blood meal sources identified by protein mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith I Keller

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is a complex vector borne parasitic disease involving blood feeding Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae insects, also known as kissing bugs, and the vertebrates they feed on. This disease has tremendous impacts on millions of people and is a global health problem. The etiological agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastea: Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae, is deposited on the mammalian host in the insect's feces during a blood meal, and enters the host's blood stream through mucous membranes or a break in the skin. Identifying the blood meal sources of triatomine vectors is critical in understanding Chagas disease transmission dynamics, can lead to identification of other vertebrates important in the transmission cycle, and aids management decisions. The latter is particularly important as there is little in the way of effective therapeutics for Chagas disease. Several techniques, mostly DNA-based, are available for blood meal identification. However, further methods are needed, particularly when sample conditions lead to low-quality DNA or to assess the risk of human cross-contamination. We demonstrate a proteomics-based approach, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS to identify host-specific hemoglobin peptides for blood meal identification in mouse blood control samples and apply LC-MS/MS for the first time to Triatoma dimidiata insect vectors, tracing blood sources to species. In contrast to most proteins, hemoglobin, stabilized by iron, is incredibly stable even being preserved through geologic time. We compared blood stored with and without an anticoagulant and examined field-collected insect specimens stored in suboptimal conditions such as at room temperature for long periods of time. To our knowledge, this is the first study using LC-MS/MS on field-collected arthropod disease vectors to identify blood meal composition, and where blood meal identification was confirmed with more

  2. Chagas disease vector blood meal sources identified by protein mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Judith I; Ballif, Bryan A; St Clair, Riley M; Vincent, James J; Monroy, M Carlota; Stevens, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Chagas disease is a complex vector borne parasitic disease involving blood feeding Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) insects, also known as kissing bugs, and the vertebrates they feed on. This disease has tremendous impacts on millions of people and is a global health problem. The etiological agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastea: Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae), is deposited on the mammalian host in the insect's feces during a blood meal, and enters the host's blood stream through mucous membranes or a break in the skin. Identifying the blood meal sources of triatomine vectors is critical in understanding Chagas disease transmission dynamics, can lead to identification of other vertebrates important in the transmission cycle, and aids management decisions. The latter is particularly important as there is little in the way of effective therapeutics for Chagas disease. Several techniques, mostly DNA-based, are available for blood meal identification. However, further methods are needed, particularly when sample conditions lead to low-quality DNA or to assess the risk of human cross-contamination. We demonstrate a proteomics-based approach, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to identify host-specific hemoglobin peptides for blood meal identification in mouse blood control samples and apply LC-MS/MS for the first time to Triatoma dimidiata insect vectors, tracing blood sources to species. In contrast to most proteins, hemoglobin, stabilized by iron, is incredibly stable even being preserved through geologic time. We compared blood stored with and without an anticoagulant and examined field-collected insect specimens stored in suboptimal conditions such as at room temperature for long periods of time. To our knowledge, this is the first study using LC-MS/MS on field-collected arthropod disease vectors to identify blood meal composition, and where blood meal identification was confirmed with more traditional DNA

  3. Family cord blood banking for sickle cell disease: a twenty-year experience in two dedicated public cord blood banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Hanadi; Bernaudin, Françoise; Rouard, Helene; Vanneaux, Valérie; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Cavazzana, Marina; Gauthereau, Valerie; Stanislas, Aurélie; Benkerrou, Malika; De Montalembert, Mariane; Ferry, Christele; Girot, Robert; Arnaud, Cecile; Kamdem, Annie; Gour, Joelle; Touboul, Claudine; Cras, Audrey; Kuentz, Mathieu; Rieux, Claire; Volt, Fernanda; Cappelli, Barbara; Maio, Karina T; Paviglianiti, Annalisa; Kenzey, Chantal; Larghero, Jerome; Gluckman, Eliane

    2017-06-01

    Efforts to implement family cord blood banking have been developed in the past decades for siblings requiring stem cell transplantation for conditions such as sickle cell disease. However, public banks are faced with challenging decisions about the units to be stored, discarded, or used for other endeavors. We report here 20 years of experience in family cord blood banking for sickle cell disease in two dedicated public banks. Participants were pregnant women who had a previous child diagnosed with homozygous sickle cell disease. Participation was voluntary and free of charge. All mothers underwent mandatory serological screening. Cord blood units were collected in different hospitals, but processed and stored in two public banks. A total of 338 units were stored for 302 families. Median recipient age was six years (11 months-15 years). Median collected volume and total nucleated cell count were 91 mL (range 23-230) and 8.6×10 8 (range 0.7-75×10 8 ), respectively. Microbial contamination was observed in 3.5% (n=12), positive hepatitis B serology in 25% (n=84), and homozygous sickle cell disease in 11% (n=37) of the collections. Forty-four units were HLA-identical to the intended recipient, and 28 units were released for transplantation either alone (n=23) or in combination with the bone marrow from the same donor (n=5), reflecting a utilization rate of 8%. Engraftment rate was 96% with 100% survival. Family cord blood banking yields good quality units for sibling transplantation. More comprehensive banking based on close collaboration among banks, clinical and transplant teams is recommended to optimize the use of these units. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  4. Contrast sensitivity, ocular blood flow and their potential role in assessing ischaemic retinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshani, Yochai Z; Harris, Alon; Rusia, Deepam; Spaeth, George L; Siesky, Brent; Pollack, Ayala; Wirostko, Barbara

    2011-08-01

    To examine the definition, evaluation methodology, association to ocular blood flow and potential clinical value of contrast sensitivity (CS) testing in clinical and research settings, focusing in patients with ischemic retinal disease. A review of the medical literature focusing on CS and ocular blood flow in ischemic retinal disease. CS may be more sensitive than other methods at detecting subtle defects or improvements in primarily central retinal ganglion cell function early on in a disease process. CS testing attempts to provide spatial detection differences which are not directly assessed with standard visual acuity chart testing. Analyzing all studies that have assessed both CS change and ocular blood flow, it is apparent that both choroidal circulation and retinal circulation may have an important role in influencing CS. The concept that CS is directly influenced by ocular blood flow is supported by reviewing the studies involving both. Although the studies in the literature have not established a direct cause and effect relationship per se, the literature review makes it logical to assume that changes in retinal and choroidal blood flow influence CS. This raises the possibility that a subjective visual characteristic, specifically CS, may be able to be evaluated more objectively by studying blood flow. It appears appropriate to study the relationship between blood flow and CS more extensively to develop improved ways of measuring various aspects of blood flow to the eye and to best quantify early changes in visual function. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  5. Is there an association between ABO blood grouping and periodontal disease? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Askar, Mansour

    2017-09-01

    Although several studies have investigated the relationship between ABO blood group and medical diseases, few reports have explored the association with oral diseases, including periodontal disease (PD). The aim of this literature review was to assess the association between the ABO blood grouping and PD. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar databases using the following terms in different combinations: "ABO blood group," "periodontitis," "aggressive periodontitis (AP)," "risk factor," and "Rhesus factor." Databases were searched for articles published from 1977 to August 2016. Titles and abstracts of articles were screened for English-language papers describing clinical studies, case reports, or retrospective studies of oral health status in patients with different ABO blood groups. Letters to the editor, historic reviews, and articles including unpublished data were excluded. Reference lists of included studies were reviewed for additional original and review studies. We identified eight articles describing studies of the relationship between ABO blood groups and PD. The findings suggested a possible genetic basis in the association of the blood group AB with AP. Four studies showed that chronic periodontitis was more common among patients with blood group O. ABO blood subgroup and Rhesus factor could constitute risk predictors in the development of PD.

  6. Developmental Abnormalities, Blood Pressure Variability and Renal Disease In Riley Day Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Axelrod, Felicia B.; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2011-01-01

    Riley Day syndrome, commonly referred to as familial dysautonomia (FD), is a genetic disease with extremely labile blood pressure due to baroreflex deafferenation. Chronic renal disease is very frequent in these patients and was attributed to recurrent arterial hypotension and renal hypoperfusion. Aggressive treatment of hypotension, however, has not reduced its prevalence. We evaluated the frequency of kidney malformations as well as the impact of hypertension, hypotension and blood pressure variability on the severity of renal impairment. We also investigated the effect of fludrocortisone treatment on the progression of renal disease. Patients with FD appeared to have an increased incidence of hydronephrosis/reflux and patterning defects. Patients younger than 4 years old had hypertension and normal eGFR. Patients with more severe hypertension and greater variability in their blood pressure had worse renal function (both, p<0.01). In contrast, there was no relationship between eGFR and the lowest blood pressure recorded during upright tilt. The progression of renal disease was faster in patients receiving fludrocortisone (p<0.02). Hypertension precedes kidney disease in these patients. Moreover, increased blood pressure variability as well as mineralocorticoid treatment accelerate the progression of renal disease. No association was found between hypotension and renal disease in patients with FD. PMID:22129610

  7. Central Blood Pressure and Chronic Kidney Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie L. Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension, diabetes, and proteinuria are well-recognized risk factors for progressive kidney function loss. However, despite excellent antihypertensive and antidiabetic drug therapies, which also often lower urinary protein excretion, there remains a significant reservoir of patients with chronic kidney disease who are at high risk for progression to end-stage kidney disease. This has led to the search for less traditional cardiovascular risk factors that will help stratify patients at risk for more rapid kidney disease progression. Among these are noninvasive estimates of vascular structure and function. Arterial stiffness, manifested by the pulse wave velocity in the aorta, has been established in a number of studies as a significant risk factor for kidney disease progression and cardiovascular endpoints. Much less well studied in chronic kidney disease are measures of central arterial pressures. In this paper we cover the physiology behind the generation of the central pulse wave contour and the studies available using these approaches and conclude with some speculations on the rationale for why measurements of central pressure may be informative for the study of chronic kidney disease progression.

  8. Correlation of ABO Blood Group Phenotype and Rhesus Factor with Periodontal Disease: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Anju; Mittal, Neelam; Singh, T B; Srivastava, Ruchi; Verma, Pushpendra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The knowledge of the ABO blood group phenotype of the patients and their correlation with the periodontal disease maybe important in the development of early treatment strategies, and it would be helpful to target non-responding areas to periodontal therapy of the susceptible individuals. The present study was conducted to determine whether there was any correlation between periodontal diseases and ABO blood groups and Rh factor. This study was carried out on 537 subjects attending Faculty of Dental Sciences OPD in BHU. Subjects were divided into three groups: group I (healthy subjects), group II (subjects with gingivitis), and group III (subjects with periodontitis) based on periodontal examination (Gingival index, Bleeding Index, Probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level). ABO Blood grouping were done and correlated with the periodontal status of study subjects. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed using the statistical software namely Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, Version 16, IBM Analytics) and Systat 8.0. In this study, there was a greater prevalence of gingivitis in blood group O and periodontitis in blood group B. The blood group AB showed the least prevalence of periodontal diseases. Similarly gingivitis and peridontitis were significantly higher among Rhesus positive groups when compared with Rhesus negative groups. Considering the results of this study, it can be concluded that ABO blood groups and Rh factor could be a risk factor for the development of periodontal disease.

  9. Storage time of transfused blood and disease recurrence after colorectal cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perioperative blood transfusion and subsequent development of postoperative infectious complications may lead to poor prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer. It has been suggested that the development of postoperative infectious complications may be related to the storage time...... of the transfused blood. Therefore, we studied the relationship between blood storage time and the development of disease recurrence and long-term survival after colorectal cancer surgery. METHODS: Preoperative and postoperative data were prospectively recorded in 740 patients undergoing elective resection...... transfused patients (P = 0.004). The survival of patients receiving blood exclusively stored blood stored > or = 21 days, survival was 3.7 years (P = 0.12). Among patients with curative resection (n = 532), the hazard ratio of disease recurrence was 1.5 (95...

  10. Storage time of transfused blood and disease recurrence after colorectal cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    of the transfused blood. Therefore, we studied the relationship between blood storage time and the development of disease recurrence and long-term survival after colorectal cancer surgery. METHODS: Preoperative and postoperative data were prospectively recorded in 740 patients undergoing elective resection......BACKGROUND: Perioperative blood transfusion and subsequent development of postoperative infectious complications may lead to poor prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer. It has been suggested that the development of postoperative infectious complications may be related to the storage time...... transfused patients (P = 0.004). The survival of patients receiving blood exclusively stored blood stored > or = 21 days, survival was 3.7 years (P = 0.12). Among patients with curative resection (n = 532), the hazard ratio of disease recurrence was 1.5 (95...

  11. Abundant genetic overlap between blood lipids and immune-mediated diseases indicates shared molecular genetic mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole A Andreassen

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest a relationship between blood lipids and immune-mediated diseases, but the nature of these associations is not well understood. We used genome-wide association studies (GWAS to investigate shared single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs between blood lipids and immune-mediated diseases. We analyzed data from GWAS (n~200,000 individuals, applying new False Discovery Rate (FDR methods, to investigate genetic overlap between blood lipid levels [triglycerides (TG, low density lipoproteins (LDL, high density lipoproteins (HDL] and a selection of archetypal immune-mediated diseases (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, psoriasis and sarcoidosis. We found significant polygenic pleiotropy between the blood lipids and all the investigated immune-mediated diseases. We discovered several shared risk loci between the immune-mediated diseases and TG (n = 88, LDL (n = 87 and HDL (n = 52. Three-way analyses differentiated the pattern of pleiotropy among the immune-mediated diseases. The new pleiotropic loci increased the number of functional gene network nodes representing blood lipid loci by 40%. Pathway analyses implicated several novel shared mechanisms for immune pathogenesis and lipid biology, including glycosphingolipid synthesis (e.g. FUT2 and intestinal host-microbe interactions (e.g. ATG16L1. We demonstrate a shared genetic basis for blood lipids and immune-mediated diseases independent of environmental factors. Our findings provide novel mechanistic insights into dyslipidemia and immune-mediated diseases and may have implications for therapeutic trials involving lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory agents.

  12. ABO blood group frequency in Ischemic heart disease patients in Pakistani population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Saima; Anwar, Naureen; Farasat, Tasnim; Naz, Shagufta

    2014-05-01

    To determine if there is any significant association between ABO blood groups and ischemic heart disease (IHD). The study was performed at Punjab Institute of Cardiology (PIC), Lahore. Study duration was from January 2012 to September 2012. This study included 200 IHD patients and 230 control individuals. Self design questionnaire was used to collect information regarding risk factors. Standard agglutination test was performed to determine the blood groups. Data was analyzed on SPSS 16. The prevalence of blood groups in IHD group was 34% in blood group A, 29% in blood group B, 14% in blood group AB and 23% in blood group O. In control group the distribution of B, A, AB and O blood groups were 34.4%, 20.9%, 12.6%, 32.2% respectively. Rh+ve factor was prevalent in 90.5% among IHD group and 92.6% in control subjects. The prevalence of IHD was more in males (63.5%) as compared to females (36.5%). Mean age was 56.4±0.86 (yrs) and BMI was 26.4±0.33 (kg/m(2)). The prevalence of hypertension was 58.5%, diabetes was 53%, family history of cardiac disease was 45%, 35.5% of patients were doing exercise regularly, 58.5% used ghee, and 58% were smokers. C onclusion: Subjects with blood group A had significantly (pblood groups.

  13. The role of ABO blood groups in Crohn's disease and in monitoring response to infliximab treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiao; Wang, Lingyun; Zhang, Shenghong; Feng, Ting; Li, Li; Chen, Baili; Chen, Minhu

    2016-09-01

    The variation in ABO blood groups is reported to be associated with multiple diseases. Infliximab (IFX) has been widely used in the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD). We aim to investigate the distribution of ABO blood groups in Chinese patients with CD and to explore its impact on response to IFX. Patients with CD were consecutively recruited to the study between 2007 and 2014. CD patients receiving IFX therapy were followed for at least two years. In 293 patients with CD, most patients (40.6%) had blood type O (119/293). The odds ratio (OR) of CD in blood type O patients was 1.06 (95%CI: 0.6-1.86; p=0.84) compared to all other blood types. Among those CD patients, 107 patients received IFX treatment. One year after the first course of IFX, a significant association was found between the overall ABO system and outcomes of IFX treatment (pblood type AB (OR=4.42, 95% CI: 1.04-18.76; p=0.044) were more likely to achieve mucosal healing, while CD patients with blood type A had a high risk of losing response (OR=0.38, 95% CI: 0.15-0.96; p=0.040). ABO blood groups are not associated with prevalence of CD. Patients with blood type AB had a better response to IFX while those with blood type A appeared to have a risk of losing response to IFX.

  14. Association between ABO blood group and severity of coronary artery disease in unstable angina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Negar; Rafie Khorgami, Mohammad; Effatpanah, Mohammad; Khatami, Farnaz; Mashhadizadeh, Mehrpouya; Jalali, Arash; Hekmat, Hamidreza

    2017-07-01

    ABO blood groups are genetically transmitted through chromosome 9 at locus 9q34. It is supposed that there is a locus on 9p21, which has a role in developing coronary artery disease. Our study population consisted of 309 patients with unstable angina admitted to the Ziaeian Hospital, Tehran, Iran, who underwent coronary angiography. The association between types of blood group (O and non-O) with the severity of coronary artery disease was investigated. Compared to the non-O groups, the O group had more severe coronary artery involvement (P = 0.004). Our study supports recent suggestions on the association between blood group and coronary artery disease. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of blood group on atherosclerosis.

  15. A case of vertical transmission of Chagas disease contracted via blood transfusion in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Margaret A; Scalia, Vito; Huang, Mary; Dines, Irene; Ndao, Momar; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and is endemic in many countries in Latin America, where infected bugs of the Triatominea subfamily carry the parasite in the gut and transmit it to humans through fecal contamination of a bite. However, vertical transmission and transmission through blood transfusion and organ transplantation is well documented. Increasing immigration from endemic countries to North America has prompted blood operators, including Canadian Blood Services and Hema Quebec, to initiate blood donor testing for Chagas antibody. In the present report, an unusual case of vertical transmission from a mother, most likely infected through blood transfusion, and detected as part of a concurrent seroprevalence study in blood donors is described.

  16. A Case of Vertical Transmission of Chagas Disease Contracted via Blood Transfusion in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A Fearon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and is endemic in many countries in Latin America, where infected bugs of the Triatominea subfamily carry the parasite in the gut and transmit it to humans through fecal contamination of a bite. However, vertical transmission and transmission through blood transfusion and organ transplantation is well documented. Increasing immigration from endemic countries to North America has prompted blood operators, including Canadian Blood Services and Hema Quebec, to initiate blood donor testing for Chagas antibody. In the present report, an unusual case of vertical transmission from a mother, most likely infected through blood transfusion, and detected as part of a concurrent seroprevalence study in blood donors is described.

  17. Systems pharmacology and blood-brain barrier functionality in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravenstijn, Paulien Gerarda Maria

    2009-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, which is composed of many components, each caused by interplay of a number of genetic and nongenetic causes. As the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a key player in the relationship between plasma and brain pharmacokinetics, the influences

  18. Huntington's disease biomarker progression profile identified by transcriptome sequencing in peripheral blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastrokolias, A.; Ariyurek, Y.; Goeman, J.J.; Duijn, E. van; Roos, R.A.; Mast, R.C. van der; Ommen, G.B. van; Dunnen, J.T. den; Hoen, P.A.C. 't; Roon-Mom, W.M. van

    2015-01-01

    With several therapeutic approaches in development for Huntington's disease, there is a need for easily accessible biomarkers to monitor disease progression and therapy response. We performed next-generation sequencing-based transcriptome analysis of total RNA from peripheral blood of 91 mutation

  19. Investigation of the blood behaviour and vascular diseases by using mathematical physic principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardimci, Ahmet; Simsek, Buket

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we prepare a short survey for using of mathematical physic principles in blood flow and vascular diseases researches. The study of the behavior of blood flow in the blood vessels provides understanding on connection between flow and the development of dieseases such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis, aneurysms etc. and how the flow dynamics is changed under these conditions. Blood flow phenomena are often too complex that it would be possible to describe them entirely analytically, although simple models, such as Poiseuille model, can still provide some insight into blood flow. Blood is not an "ideal fluid" and energy is lost as flowing blood overcomes resistance. Resistance to blood flow is a function of viscosity, vessel radius, and vessel length. So, mathematical Physic principles are useful tools for blood flow research studies. Blood flow is a function of pressure gradient and resistance and resistance to flow can be estimates using Poiseuille's law. Reynold's number can be used to determine whether flow is laminar or turbulent.

  20. Transmission of Chagas disease via blood transfusions in 2 immunosuppressed pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Derek L; Torrence, Annie E; Vogel, Keith W; Stockinger, Diane E; Nelson, Veronica; Murnane, Robert D; Baldessari, Audrey; Kuller, LaRene; Agy, Michael; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E

    2014-02-01

    A 2.25-y-old male pigtailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) was experimentally irradiated and received a bone marrow transplant. After transplantation and engraftment, the macaque had unexpected recurring pancytopenia and dependent edema of the prepuce, scrotum, and legs. The diagnostic work-up included a blood smear, which revealed a trypomastigote consistent with Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease (CD). We initially hypothesized that the macaque had acquired the infection when it lived in Georgia. However, because the animal had received multiple blood transfusions, all blood donors were screened for CD. One male pigtailed macaque blood donor, which was previously housed in Louisiana, was positive for T. cruzi antibodies via serology. Due to the low prevalence of infection in Georgia, the blood transfusion was hypothesized to be the source of T. cruzi infection. The transfusion was confirmed as the mechanism of transmission when screening of archived serum revealed seroconversion after blood transfusion from the seropositive blood donor. The macaque made a full clinical recovery, and further follow-up including thoracic radiography, echocardiography, and gross necropsy did not show any abnormalities associated with CD. Other animals that received blood transfusions from the positive blood donor were tested, and one additional pigtailed macaque on the same research protocol was positive for T. cruzi. Although CD has been reported to occur in many nonhuman primate species, especially pigtailed macaques, the transmission of CD via blood transfusion in nonhuman primates has not been reported previously.

  1. Phytosterols and blood lipid risk factors for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ras, R.T.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Lifestyle improvements including dietary changes are important for CVD prevention. This thesis aimed to advance insights in the role of phytosterols, lipid-like compounds present in foods or plant origin, in

  2. Mendelian randomization of blood lipids for coronary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes, Michael V.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Palmer, Tom M.; Drenos, Fotios; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Nelson, Christopher P.; Dale, Caroline E.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Finan, Chris; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Tragante, Vinicius; van Iperen, Erik P. A.; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Shah, Sonia; Elbers, Clara C.; Shah, Tina; Engmann, Jorgen; Giambartolomei, Claudia; White, Jon; Zabaneh, Delilah; Sofat, Reecha; McLachlan, Stela; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Hall, Alistair S.; North, Kari E.; Almoguera, Berta; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Cushman, Mary; Fornage, Myriam; Patel, Sanjay R.; Redline, Susan; Siscovick, David S.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Hofker, Marten H.; Verschuren, W. Monique; Bots, Michiel L.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Melander, Olle; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Morris, Richard; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Price, Jackie; Kumari, Meena; Baumert, Jens; Peters, Annette; Thorand, Barbara; Koenig, Wolfgang; Gaunt, Tom R.; Humphries, Steve E.; Clarke, Robert; Watkins, Hugh; Farrall, Martin; Wilson, James G.; Rich, Stephen S.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Lange, Leslie A.; Smith, George Davey; Reiner, Alex P.; Talmud, Philippa J.; Kivimaeki, Mika; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Dudbridge, Frank; Samani, Nilesh J.; Keating, Brendan J.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Casas, Juan P.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To investigate the causal role of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides in coronary heart disease (CHD) using multiple instrumental variables for Mendelian randomization. Methods and results We developed weighted allele scores based on single nucleotide polymorphisms

  3. Mendelian randomization of blood lipids for coronary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes, Michael V.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Palmer, Tom M.; Drenos, Fotios; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Nelson, Christopher P.; Dale, Caroline E.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Finan, Chris; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Tragante, Vinicius; van Iperen, Erik P. A.; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Shah, Sonia; Elbers, Clara C.; Shah, Tina; Engmann, Jorgen; Giambartolomei, Claudia; White, Jon; Zabaneh, Delilah; Sofat, Reecha; McLachlan, Stela; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Hall, Alistair S.; North, Kari E.; Almoguera, Berta; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Cushman, Mary; Fornage, Myriam; Patel, Sanjay R.; Redline, Susan; Siscovick, David S.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Hofker, Marten H.; Verschuren, W. Monique; Bots, Michiel L.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Melander, Olle; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Morris, Richard; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Price, Jackie; Kumari, Meena; Baumert, Jens; Peters, Annette; Thorand, Barbara; Koenig, Wolfgang; Gaunt, Tom R.; Humphries, Steve E.; Clarke, Robert; Watkins, Hugh; Farrall, Martin; Wilson, James G.; Rich, Stephen S.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Lange, Leslie A.; Davey Smith, George; Reiner, Alex P.; Talmud, Philippa J.; Kivimäki, Mika; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Dudbridge, Frank; Samani, Nilesh J.; Keating, Brendan J.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Casas, Juan P.; Cavadino, Alana; Wong, Andrew; Amuzu, Antoinette; Ong, Ken; Warren, Helen; Davies, Teri-Louise; Ebrahim, Shah; Power, Christine; Hypponen, Elina; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana; Wareham, Nicholas; Langenberg, Claudia; BenShlomo, Yoav; Whincup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the causal role of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides in coronary heart disease (CHD) using multiple instrumental variables for Mendelian randomization. We developed weighted allele scores based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with established

  4. Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease: The relationship between regional cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, S.

    1985-03-01

    Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease has demonstrated the importance of the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow and the cerebral metabolic activity. In acute stroke it has been found that within the first hours after the onset of symptoms cerebral blood flow in the affected area is more depressed than cerebral oxygen utilisation. This relative preservation of oxygen utilisation results from an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio far above its normal value. However, the oxygen extraction fraction subsequently falls in the following days indicating the transition from a situation of possibly reversible ischaemia to irreversible infarction. In patients with carotid occlusive disease an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio has been observed only in very few cases. It has been shown, however, that at an earlier stage the relationship between CBF and CBV (as CBF/CBV-ratio) provides a sensitive measure of diminished perfusion pressure which could be helpful for the selection of patients for EC-IC bypass surgery. In patients with sickle cell anaemia it has been found that oxygen delivery to the brain is maintained by an increase in cerebral blood flow, whereas the oxygen extraction ratio is not increased despite the presence of a low oxygen affinity haemoglobin. Preliminary observations in classical migraine suggest an ischaemic situation during the attack.

  5. Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease: The relationship between regional cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, S.

    1985-01-01

    Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease has demonstrated the importance of the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow and the cerebral metabolic activity. In acute stroke it has been found that within the first hours after the onset of symptoms cerebral blood flow in the affected area is more depressed than cerebral oxygen utilisation. This relative preservation of oxygen utilisation results from an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio far above its normal value. However, the oxygen extraction fraction subsequently falls in the following days indicating the transition from a situation of possibly reversible ischaemia to irreversible infarction. In patients with carotid occlusive disease an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio has been observed only in very few cases. It has been shown, however, that at an earlier stage the relationship between CBF and CBV (as CBF/CBV-ratio) provides a sensitive measure of diminished perfusion pressure which could be helpful for the selection of patients for EC-IC bypass surgery. In patients with sickle cell anaemia it has been found that oxygen delivery to the brain is maintained by an increase in cerebral blood flow, whereas the oxygen extraction ratio is not increased despite the presence of a low oxygen affinity haemoglobin. Preliminary observations in classical migraine suggest an ischaemic situation during the attack. (orig.) [de

  6. Periodontal disease and inflammatory blood cytokines in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampits, Cassio; Montenegro, Marlon M; Ribeiro, Ingrid W J; Furtado, Mariana V; Polanczyk, Carisi A; Rösing, Cassiano K; Haas, Alex N

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study included 91 patients with stable CAD who had been under optimized cardiovascular care. Blood levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α were measured by Luminex technology. A full-mouth periodontal examination was conducted to record probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment (CA) loss. Multiple linear regression models, adjusting for gender, body mass index, oral hypoglycemic drugs, smoking, and occurre:nce of acute myocardial infarction were applied. CAD patients that experienced major events had higher concentrations of IFN-γ (median: 5.05 pg/mL vs. 3.01 pg/mL; p=0.01), IL-10 (median: 2.33 pg/mL vs. 1.01 pg/mL; p=0.03), and TNF-α (median: 9.17 pg/mL vs. 7.47 pg/mL; p=0.02). Higher numbers of teeth with at least 6 mm of CA loss (R2=0.07) and PD (R2=0.06) were significantly associated with higher IFN-γ log concentrations. Mean CA loss (R2=0.05) and PD (R2=0.06) were significantly related to IL-10 concentrations. Elevated concentrations of TNF-α were associated with higher mean CA loss (R2=0.07). Periodontal disease is associated with increased systemic inflammation in stable cardiovascular patients. These findings provide additional evidence supporting the idea that periodontal disease can be a prognostic factor in cardiovascular patients.

  7. Association of ABO blood groups and major ischaemic heart disease risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutf-Ullah, L.; Akhtar, B.; Noor-Us-Saba; Hanif, A.; Khan, B.Z.; Bukhshi, I.M.

    2010-01-01

    To study the association of ABO blood groups with major ischaemic heart disease risk factors. Setting: Department of Cardiology, Mayo hospital, Lahore over a period of two years from January 2008 to December 2009. Study Design: Analytic comparative study. Subjects and Methods: The study group included 907 patients of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). The distribution of ABO blood groups in IHD patients was compared for presence or absence of major IHD risk factors. Data was analyzed using SPSS 16. ANOVA and Chi-square tests for significance were used. P-value less than 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: In this study, the following pattern of ABO blood groups was observed in IHD patients : blood group A 251 (27.67%); blood group B 329 (36.27%); blood group O 235 (25.91%); blood group AB 92 (10.14%). We found no relation-ship of ABO blood groups with age (p-value = 0.234), gender (p-value = 0.093), hypertension (p-value = 0.230), diabetes mellitus (p-value = 0.801), family history of IHD (p-value = 0.277), transverse ear lobe crease (p-value = 0.231), total cholesterol (p-value = 0.797), triglycerides (p-value = 0.351), low density lipoprotein (p-value = 0.078), high density lipoprotein (p-value = 0.114). Similarly no relationship was found of smoking, weight, height and body mass index with ABO blood groups, p-values 0.428, 0.528, 0.908 and 0.455 respectively. Conclusion: There is no association of ABO blood groups and major ischaemic heart disease risk factors. (author)

  8. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV RNA loads in peripheral blood correlates with disease severity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Juan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV infection is usually restricted to the respiratory epithelium. Few studies have documented the presence of RSV in the systemic circulation, however there is no consistent information whether virus detection in the blood correlates with disease severity. Methods Balb/c mice were inoculated with live RSV, heat-inactivated RSV or medium. A subset of RSV-infected mice was treated with anti-RSV antibody 72 h post-inoculation. RSV RNA loads were measured by PCR in peripheral blood from day 1-21 post-inoculation and were correlated with upper and lower respiratory tract viral loads, the systemic cytokine response, lung inflammation and pulmonary function. Immunohistochemical staining was used to define the localization of RSV antigens in the respiratory tract and peripheral blood. Results RSV RNA loads were detected in peripheral blood from day 1 to 14 post-inoculation, peaked on day 5 and significantly correlated with nasal and lung RSV loads, airway obstruction, and blood CCL2 and CXCL1 expression. Treatment with anti-RSV antibody reduced blood RSV RNA loads and improved airway obstruction. Immunostaining identified RSV antigens in alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes. Conclusions RSV RNA was detected in peripheral blood upon infection with live RSV, followed a time-course parallel to viral loads assessed in the respiratory tract and was significantly correlated with RSV-induced airway disease.

  9. SPECT measurements of cerebral blood volume before and after acetazolamide in occlusive cerebrovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yusuke; Momose, Toshimitsu; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Nishikawa, Junichi; Sasaki, Yasuhito.

    1994-01-01

    Cerebral blood volume before and after acetazolamide was measured by SPECT to evaluate cerebral vasodilatory capacity in eight patients with cerebrovascular disease and five control subjects. Two SPECT measurements were performed serially, and acetazolamide was administered between them. The ratio of increase in hemispheric blood volume was calculated, and it was compared with the results of cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood volume measurements. A cerebral vasodilatory capacity map, the image after acetazolamide minus the baseline image, was also produced. Acetazolamide increased hemispheric blood volume in all subjects. The ratio of increase was lower in the involved hemispheres of the patients with unilateral carotid disease than in the uninvolved hemispheres of the patients and control subjects. The ratio of concordance with blood flow and blood volume measurements was approximated at 80%. Cerebral vasodilatory capacity mapping revealed three defects compatible with the clinical data. SPECT measurements of cerebral blood volume after acetazolamide can be performed following baseline SPECT with no additional radiotracer, and may be helpful to assess hemodynamic status. (author)

  10. Effects of end-stage renal disease and dialysis modalities on blood ammonia level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri, Nosratola D; Khazaeli, Mahyar; Nunes, Ane C F; Harley, Kevin T; Said, Hyder; Alipour, Omeed; Lau, Wei Ling; Pahl, Madeleine V

    2017-07-01

    Uremia results in a characteristic breath odor (uremic fetor) which is largely due to its high ammonia content. Earlier studies have shown a strong correlation between breath ammonia and blood urea levels and a 10-fold reduction in breath ammonia after hemodialysis in patients with chronic kidney disease. Potential sources of breath ammonia include: (i) local ammonia production from hydrolysis of urea in the oropharyngeal and respiratory tracts by bacterial flora, and (ii) release of circulating blood ammonia by the lungs. While the effects of uremia and hemodialysis on breath ammonia are well known their effects on blood ammonia are unknown and were explored here. Blood samples were obtained from 23 hemodialysis patients (immediately before and after dialysis), 14 peritoneal dialysis patients, and 10 healthy controls. Blood levels of ammonia, creatinine, urea, and electrolytes were measured. No significant difference was found in baseline blood ammonia between hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and control groups. Hemodialysis procedure led to a significant reduction in urea concentration (P ammonia level in 10 of the 23 patients studied. Change in blood ammonia pre- and post-hemodialysis correlated with change in serum bicarbonate levels (r = 0.61, P ammonia levels after dialysis, there was a strong correlation with drop in mean arterial pressure (r = 0.88, P ammonia compared to the patients who manifested a fall in blood ammonia (124 ± 8 vs. 136 ± 6 mmHg respectively, P = 0.27). Fall in blood urea following hemodialysis in ESRD patients was paradoxically accompanied by a modest rise in blood ammonia levels in 43% of the patients studied, contrasting prior reported effects of hemodialysis on breath ammonia. In this subgroup of patients, changes in blood ammonia during hemodialysis correlated with rise in blood bicarbonate and fall in mean arterial blood pressure. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  11. Insight into "Calculated Risk" : An Application to the Prioritization of Emerging Infectious Diseases for Blood Transfusion Safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neslo, R. E J; Oei, W.; Janssen, M. P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304818208

    Increasing identification of transmissions of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) by blood transfusion raised the question which of these EIDs poses the highest risk to blood safety. For a number of the EIDs that are perceived to be a threat to blood safety, evidence on actual disease or

  12. Gene expression patterns in peripheral blood correlate with the extent of coronary artery disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Sinnaeve

    Full Text Available Systemic and local inflammation plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, but the relationship of whole blood gene expression changes with coronary disease remains unclear. We have investigated whether gene expression patterns in peripheral blood correlate with the severity of coronary disease and whether these patterns correlate with the extent of atherosclerosis in the vascular wall. Patients were selected according to their coronary artery disease index (CADi, a validated angiographical measure of the extent of coronary atherosclerosis that correlates with outcome. RNA was extracted from blood of 120 patients with at least a stenosis greater than 50% (CADi > or = 23 and from 121 controls without evidence of coronary stenosis (CADi = 0. 160 individual genes were found to correlate with CADi (rho > 0.2, P<0.003. Prominent differential expression was observed especially in genes involved in cell growth, apoptosis and inflammation. Using these 160 genes, a partial least squares multivariate regression model resulted in a highly predictive model (r(2 = 0.776, P<0.0001. The expression pattern of these 160 genes in aortic tissue also predicted the severity of atherosclerosis in human aortas, showing that peripheral blood gene expression associated with coronary atherosclerosis mirrors gene expression changes in atherosclerotic arteries. In conclusion, the simultaneous expression pattern of 160 genes in whole blood correlates with the severity of coronary artery disease and mirrors expression changes in the atherosclerotic vascular wall.

  13. Analysis of Bowel Diseases from Blood Serum by Autofluorescence and Atomic Force Microscopy Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomečková Vladimíra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of bowel diseases is often difficult and time consuming since it is not always possible to obtain adequate information by the conventional diagnostic methods to set up a diagnosis and exclude nongastrointestinal causes of symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the structure of blood serum samples of patients with selected intestinal diseases. The blood serum samples of patients (N=35 with selected diagnoses (mesenteric thrombosis, inflammatory bowel disease, duodenal ulcers, sepsis, enterorrhagia, sigmoid colon resection, small intestine cancer and of healthy subjects were evaluated by synchronous fluorescence fingerprint and atomic force microscopy. Autofluorescence of blood serum studied at λex = 280 nm showed significant decrease of fluorescence intensity in patients with all types of diseases affecting bowels in comparison with the healthy control patients. The blood serum surface of ill patients showed significant differences in comparison with control group samples after atomic force microscopy evaluation as well. Irregularly placed small globular units of irregular shape in small amounts are possible to observe in patients with intestine ischemia. Fluorescence analysis and atomic force microscopy showed the ability to rapidly reflect qualitative and quantitative changes of proteins in blood serum samples of patients. These sensitive methods could be beneficial for monitoring the progression of both acute or chronic bowel diseases.

  14. Increased epigenetic age and granulocyte counts in the blood of Parkinson's disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Steve; Ritz, Beate R.

    2015-01-01

    It has been a long standing hypothesis that blood tissue of PD Parkinson's disease (PD) patients may exhibit signs of accelerated aging. Here we use DNA methylation based biomarkers of aging (“epigenetic clock”) to assess the aging rate of blood in two ethnically distinct case-control data sets. Using n=508 Caucasian and n=84 Hispanic blood samples, we assess a) the intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration of blood (IEAA), which is independent of blood cell counts, and b) the extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration rate of blood (EEAA) which is associated with age dependent changes in blood cell counts. Blood of PD subjects exhibits increased age acceleration according to both IEAA (p=0.019) and EEAA (p=6.1×10−3). We find striking differences in imputed blood cell counts between PD cases and controls. Compared to control subjects, PD subjects contains more granulocytes (p=1.0×10−9 in Caucasians, p=0.00066 in Hispanics) but fewer T helper cells (p=1.4×10−6 in Caucasians, p=0.0024 in Hispanics) and fewer B cells (p=1.6×10−5 in Caucasians, p=4.5×10−5 in Hispanics). Overall, this study shows that the epigenetic age of the immune system is significantly increased in PD patients and that granulocytes play a significant role. PMID:26655927

  15. The value of thyroid blood flow and static imaging for diagnosis of hashimotos disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Bangkun; Yang Jishen; Shen Dawei; Liu Bin; Xue Yuanming; Shi Jue

    1995-01-01

    The diagnostic value of the combination of thyroid blood flow and static imaging for Hashimotos disease are evaluated. Both thyroid blood flow and static imaging with 99m Tc was carried out in 108 Hashimotos disease proved by fine needle biopsy. 87% of them had markedly or slightly increased thyroid blood flow. On static imaging 89.8% showed active nonuniformity, among them, 16.7% was cold nodules. The 99m Tc uptake was normal in 66 (58.3%), decreased in 26 (26.9%), but only increased in 16, in them 4 accompanying hyperthyroidism. Thyroid blood flow and static imaging, a simple and convenient approach, combining with radioimmunoassay and clinical manifestation, can be used as routine diagnostic model

  16. Analysis of elements in human blood of patients with chronic kidney disease using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metairon, S.; Zamboni, C.B.; Kovacs, L.; Genezini, F.A.; Santos, N.F.; Vilela, E.C.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis has been used to determine Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na concentrations in whole blood of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) as well as in whole blood of normal individuals (control group). The dependence of the elements concentration in function of sex, age, time and type of treatment were investigated. The similarities and differences between healthy individuals and CKD are discussed. (author)

  17. Detection of prions in blood from patients with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha-Marambio, Luis; Pritzkow, Sandra; Moda, Fabio; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Ironside, James W; Schulz, Paul E; Soto, Claudio

    2016-12-21

    Human prion diseases are infectious and invariably fatal neurodegenerative diseases. They include sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), the most common form, and variant CJD (vCJD), which is caused by interspecies transmission of prions from cattle infected by bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Development of a biochemical assay for the sensitive, specific, early, and noninvasive detection of prions (PrP Sc ) in the blood of patients affected by prion disease is a top medical priority to increase the safety of the blood supply. vCJD has already been transmitted from human to human by blood transfusion, and the number of asymptomatic carriers of vCJD in the U.K. alone is estimated to be 1 in 2000 people. We used the protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technique to analyze blood samples from 14 cases of vCJD and 153 controls, including patients affected by sCJD and other neurodegenerative or neurological disorders as well as healthy subjects. Our results showed that PrP Sc could be detected with 100% sensitivity and specificity in blood samples from vCJD patients. Detection was possible in any of the blood fractions analyzed and could be done with as little as a few microliters of sample volume. The PrP Sc concentration in blood was estimated to be ~0.5 pg/ml. Our findings suggest that PMCA may be useful for premortem noninvasive diagnosis of vCJD and to identify prion contamination of the blood supply. Further studies are needed to fully validate the technology. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. A STUDY ON EFFECT OF AGE, BREED AND SEX ON BLOOD SUGAR LEVEL OF DISEASED DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the dogs with moderate to serious illness coming for treatment at the Dog Ward of West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, West Bengal, India, to find out possible correlation between fasting blood sugar level with breed, sex and age of dogs. The study result implicated that the blood sugar level was not having any general tendency to increase with advancement of age of ailing dogs. The blood sugar level of ailing dogs was higher in small breeds of dogs, particularly in 0 to <4 year age group. The large breeds showed highest level of sugar in blood in disease condition at above the age 12 years or more. The blood sugar level of ailing dogs had a gender bias, as it was found more in females than males in all breeds and age groups.

  19. The intriguing relationship between the ABO blood group, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-16

    Other than being present at the surface of red blood cells, the antigens of the ABO blood group system are efficiently expressed by a variety of human cells and tissues. Several studies recently described the involvement of the ABO blood group in the pathogenesis of many human disorders, including cardiovascular disease and cancer, so that its clinical significance extends now beyond the traditional boundaries of transfusion medicine. In a large cohort study recently published in BMC Medicine and including over 50,000 subjects, Etemadi and colleagues reported that nearly 6% of total deaths and as many as 9% of cardiovascular deaths could be attributed to having non-O blood groups, a condition that was also found to be associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. In this commentary, the clinical implications of ABO blood groups are critically discussed and a possible common pathogenic mechanism involving the von Willebrand factor is described.

  20. Longitudinal assessment of high blood pressure in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B Schwimmer

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD affects 9.6% of children and may put these children at elevated risk of high blood pressure and subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for high blood pressure in children with NAFLD.Cohort study performed by the NIDDK NASH Clinical Research Network. There were 484 children with NAFLD ages 2 to 17 at enrollment; 382 children were assessed both at enrollment and 48 weeks afterwards. The main outcomes were high blood pressure at baseline and persistent high blood pressure at both baseline and 48 weeks.Prevalence of high blood pressure at baseline was 35.8% and prevalence of persistent high blood pressure was 21.4%. Children with high blood pressure were significantly more likely to have worse steatosis than children without high blood pressure (mild 19.8% vs. 34.2%, moderate 35.0% vs. 30.7%, severe 45.2% vs. 35.1%; P = 0.003. Higher body mass index, low-density lipoprotein, and uric acid were independent risk factors for high blood pressure (Odds Ratios: 1.10 per kg/m2, 1.09 per 10 mg/dL, 1.25 per mg/dL, respectively. Compared to boys, girls with NAFLD were significantly more likely to have persistent high blood pressure (28.4% vs.18.9%; P = 0.05.In conclusion, NAFLD is a common clinical problem that places children at substantial risk for high blood pressure, which may often go undiagnosed. Thus blood pressure evaluation, control, and monitoring should be an integral component of the clinical management of children with NAFLD.

  1. Longitudinal assessment of high blood pressure in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwimmer, Jeffrey B; Zepeda, Anne; Newton, Kimberly P; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Behling, Cynthia; Hallinan, Erin K; Donithan, Michele; Tonascia, James

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 9.6% of children and may put these children at elevated risk of high blood pressure and subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for high blood pressure in children with NAFLD. Cohort study performed by the NIDDK NASH Clinical Research Network. There were 484 children with NAFLD ages 2 to 17 at enrollment; 382 children were assessed both at enrollment and 48 weeks afterwards. The main outcomes were high blood pressure at baseline and persistent high blood pressure at both baseline and 48 weeks. Prevalence of high blood pressure at baseline was 35.8% and prevalence of persistent high blood pressure was 21.4%. Children with high blood pressure were significantly more likely to have worse steatosis than children without high blood pressure (mild 19.8% vs. 34.2%, moderate 35.0% vs. 30.7%, severe 45.2% vs. 35.1%; P = 0.003). Higher body mass index, low-density lipoprotein, and uric acid were independent risk factors for high blood pressure (Odds Ratios: 1.10 per kg/m2, 1.09 per 10 mg/dL, 1.25 per mg/dL, respectively). Compared to boys, girls with NAFLD were significantly more likely to have persistent high blood pressure (28.4% vs.18.9%; P = 0.05). In conclusion, NAFLD is a common clinical problem that places children at substantial risk for high blood pressure, which may often go undiagnosed. Thus blood pressure evaluation, control, and monitoring should be an integral component of the clinical management of children with NAFLD.

  2. From total blood exchange to erythrocytapheresis and back to treat complications of sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballas, Samir K

    2017-09-01

    Erythrocytapheresis is an important procedure in the management of certain complications of sickle cell disease, including acute stroke, stroke prevention, acute chest syndrome, and multiorgan failure. Erythrocytapheresis in sickle cell disease simply entails the removal of the patient's red blood cells containing the abnormal sickle hemoglobin and replacing them with normal red blood cells carrying normal hemoglobin. In these procedures, the patient's plasma is not exchanged but is returned to the patient. Several studies have demonstrated that the plasma of patients with sickle cell disease contains several components that increase blood viscosity and initiate or promote vaso-occlusion. These factors include increased levels of globulins, especially immunoglobulin G, acute-phase reactants, fibrinogen, coagulation factors, inflammatory mediators, and heme in the steady state and increase further during painful crises. This may explain why, in certain complications of sickle cell disease, such as acute chest syndrome, hepatic crisis, and priapism, erythrocytapheresis by itself may not be effective despite repetitive cycles of red blood cell exchange. The use of therapeutic plasma exchange in addition to erythrocytapheresis in these situations seems to be useful in resolving them more efficiently. The role of therapeutic plasma exchange in the management of certain complications of sickle cell disease needs further evaluation. This commentary addresses the role of therapeutic plasma exchange in the management of complications of sickle cell disease. © 2017 AABB.

  3. Cellular and physiological mechanisms underlying blood flow regulation in the retina choroid in health disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kur, Joanna; Newman, Eric A.; Chan-Ling, Tailoi

    2012-01-01

    We review the cellular and physiological mechanisms responsible for the regulation of blood flow in the retina and choroid in health and disease. Due to the intrinsic light sensitivity of the retina and the direct visual accessibility of fundus blood vessels, the eye offers unique opportunities for the non-invasive investigation of mechanisms of blood flow regulation. The ability of the retinal vasculature to regulate its blood flow is contrasted with the far more restricted ability of the choroidal circulation to regulate its blood flow by virtue of the absence of glial cells, the markedly reduced pericyte ensheathment of the choroidal vasculature, and the lack of intermediate filaments in choroidal pericytes. We review the cellular and molecular components of the neurovascular unit in the retina and choroid, techniques for monitoring retinal and choroidal blood flow, responses of the retinal and choroidal circulation to light stimulation, the role of capillaries, astrocytes and pericytes in regulating blood flow, putative signaling mechanisms mediating neurovascular coupling in the retina, and changes that occur in the retinal and choroidal circulation during diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and Alzheimer's disease. We close by discussing issues that remain to be explored. PMID:22580107

  4. A correlation between severe haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn and maternal ABO blood group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, B; Quigley, J; Lambert, M; Crumlish, J; Walsh, C; McParland, P; Culliton, M; Murphy, K; Fitzgerald, J

    2014-08-01

    To analyse anti-D quantification levels and frequency of intrauterine transfusion (IUT), per maternal ABO blood group. Maternally derived red cell allo-antibodies can target fetal red cell antigens in utero leading to haemolytic disease and fetal anaemia. When a clinically significant allo-antibody is formed the priority is ascertaining the risk to the fetus and maternal ABO blood groups are not considered relevant. This was a 10-year retrospective, observational study carried out on women referred for anti-D quantification (n = 1106), and women whose fetuses required an IUT to treat fetal anaemia (n = 62) due to anti-D, in the Republic of Ireland. Relative to the overall incidence of RhD allo-immunisation by blood group, women of blood group A were more likely to require IUT compared with those who were blood group O (P = 0.002). It is known that ABO feto-maternal compatibility can influence the incidence and level of red cell allo-antibodies in pregnancy; however, it does not account for the significantly high rate of severe haemolytic disease requiring IUT seen in blood group A women. © 2014 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2014 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  5. Blood-based protein biomarkers for diagnosis of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doecke, James D; Laws, Simon M; Faux, Noel G; Wilson, William; Burnham, Samantha C; Lam, Chiou-Peng; Mondal, Alinda; Bedo, Justin; Bush, Ashley I; Brown, Belinda; De Ruyck, Karl; Ellis, Kathryn A; Fowler, Christopher; Gupta, Veer B; Head, Richard; Macaulay, S Lance; Pertile, Kelly; Rowe, Christopher C; Rembach, Alan; Rodrigues, Mark; Rumble, Rebecca; Szoeke, Cassandra; Taddei, Kevin; Taddei, Tania; Trounson, Brett; Ames, David; Masters, Colin L; Martins, Ralph N

    2012-10-01

    To identify plasma biomarkers for the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Baseline plasma screening of 151 multiplexed analytes combined with targeted biomarker and clinical pathology data. General community-based, prospective, longitudinal study of aging. A total of 754 healthy individuals serving as controls and 207 participants with AD from the Australian Imaging Biomarker and Lifestyle study (AIBL) cohort with identified biomarkers that were validated in 58 healthy controls and 112 individuals with AD from the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort. A biomarker panel was identified that included markers significantly increased (cortisol, pancreatic polypeptide, insulinlike growth factor binding protein 2, β(2) microglobulin, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, carcinoembryonic antigen, matrix metalloprotein 2, CD40, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α, superoxide dismutase, and homocysteine) and decreased (apolipoprotein E, epidermal growth factor receptor, hemoglobin, calcium, zinc, interleukin 17, and albumin) in AD. Cross-validated accuracy measures from the AIBL cohort reached a mean (SD) of 85% (3.0%) for sensitivity and specificity and 93% (3.0) for the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. A second validation using the ADNI cohort attained accuracy measures of 80% (3.0%) for sensitivity and specificity and 85% (3.0) for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. This study identified a panel of plasma biomarkers that distinguish individuals with AD from cognitively healthy control subjects with high sensitivity and specificity. Cross-validation within the AIBL cohort and further validation within the ADNI cohort provides strong evidence that the identified biomarkers are important for AD diagnosis.

  6. Blood pressure gradients in cerebral arteries: a clue to pathogenesis of cerebral small vessel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Pablo J; Müller, Lucas O; Spence, J David

    2017-09-01

    The role of hypertension in cerebral small vessel disease is poorly understood. At the base of the brain (the 'vascular centrencephalon'), short straight arteries transmit blood pressure directly to small resistance vessels; the cerebral convexity is supplied by long arteries with many branches, resulting in a drop in blood pressure. Hypertensive small vessel disease (lipohyalinosis) causes the classically described lacunar infarctions at the base of the brain; however, periventricular white matter intensities (WMIs) seen on MRI and WMI in subcortical areas over the convexity, which are often also called 'lacunes', probably have different aetiologies. We studied pressure gradients from proximal to distal regions of the cerebral vasculature by mathematical modelling. Blood flow/pressure equations were solved in an Anatomically Detailed Arterial Network (ADAN) model, considering a normotensive and a hypertensive case. Model parameters were suitably modified to account for structural changes in arterial vessels in the hypertensive scenario. Computations predict a marked drop in blood pressure from large and medium-sized cerebral vessels to cerebral peripheral beds. When blood pressure in the brachial artery is 192/113 mm Hg, the pressure in the small arterioles of the posterior parietal artery bed would be only 117/68 mm Hg. In the normotensive case, with blood pressure in the brachial artery of 117/75 mm Hg, the pressure in small parietal arterioles would be only 59/38 mm Hg. These findings have important implications for understanding small vessel disease. The marked pressure gradient across cerebral arteries should be taken into account when evaluating the pathogenesis of small WMIs on MRI. Hypertensive small vessel disease, affecting the arterioles at the base of the brain should be distinguished from small vessel disease in subcortical regions of the convexity and venous disease in the periventricular white matter.

  7. Effect of blood type on anti-?-Gal immunity and the incidence of infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Mateos-Hern?ndez, Lourdes; Alberdi, Pilar; Villar, Margarita; Riveau, Gilles; Hermann, Emmanuel; Schacht, Anne-Marie; Khalife, Jamal; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Gortazar, Christian; de la Fuente, Jos?

    2017-01-01

    The identification of factors affecting the susceptibility to infectious diseases is essential toward reducing their burden on the human population. The ABO blood type correlates with susceptibility to malaria and other infectious diseases. Due to the structural similarity between blood antigen B and Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-(3)4GlcNAc-R (alpha-Gal), we hypothesized that self-tolerance to antigen B affects the immune response to alpha-Gal, which in turn affects the susceptibility to infectious...

  8. ABO blood group and risk of coronary heart disease in two prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meian; Wolpin, Brian; Rexrode, Kathy; Manson, Joann E; Rimm, Eric; Hu, Frank B; Qi, Lu

    2012-09-01

    Epidemiological data regarding the association between ABO blood groups and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been inconsistent. We sought to investigate the associations between ABO blood group and CHD risk in prospective cohort studies. Two large, prospective cohort studies (the Nurses' Health Study [NHS] including 62 073 women and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study [HPFS] including 27 428 men) were conducted with more than 20 years of follow-up (26 years in NHS and 24 years in HPFS). A meta-analysis was performed to summarize the associations from the present study and previous studies. In NHS, during 1 567 144 person-years of follow-up, 2055 participants developed CHD; in HPFS, 2015 participants developed CHD during 517 312 person-years of follow-up. ABO blood group was significantly associated with the risk of developing CHD in both women and men (log-rank test; P=0.0048 and 0.0002, respectively). In the combined analysis adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors, compared with participants with blood group O, those with blood groups A, B, or AB were more likely to develop CHD (adjusted hazard ratios [95% CI] for incident CHD were 1.06 [0.99-1.15], 1.15 [1.04-1.26], and 1.23 [1.11-1.36], respectively). Overall, 6.27% of the CHD cases were attributable to inheriting a non-O blood group. Meta-analysis indicated that non-O blood group had higher risk of CHD (relative risk =1.11; 95% CI, 1.05-1.18; P=0.001) compared with O blood group. These data suggest that ABO blood group is significantly associated with CHD risk. Compared with other blood groups, those with the blood type O have moderately lower risk of developing CHD.

  9. [Management of high blood pressure in patients with chronic kidney disease : Summary of recent guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougardy, J M; Leeman, M

    Chronic kidney disease and high blood pressure are two common diseases that mutually maintain during their evolution. In the advanced stages of chronic kidney disease, most pat ients are hypertensive and show signs of vascular disease (coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular or peripheral). Almost one third of the patients with advanced chronic kidney disease exhibit resistant hypertension that requires complex therapeutic management. In chronic kidney disease, antihypertensive treatment is conditioned by comorbidities, but also by proteinuria, which is an independent cardiovascular risk factor in addition to the rate of glomerular filtration rate. The treatment of high blood pressure is a cornerstone of the management of the chronic kidney disease. It limits the risk of cardiovascular events (eg. myocardial infarction, stroke), but also slows the progression of chronic kidney disease. Various recommendations have been recently published on the subject in order to offer assistance to the therapeutic management of hypertension in the patient suffering from chronic kidney disease. The purpose of this article is to highlight these main key elements.

  10. ABO, Secretor and Lewis histo-blood group systems influence the digestive form of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Cássia Rubia; Camargo, Ana Vitória Silveira; Ronchi, Luís Sérgio; de Oliveira, Amanda Priscila; de Campos Júnior, Eumildo; Borim, Aldenis Albaneze; Brandão de Mattos, Cinara Cássia; Bestetti, Reinaldo Bulgarelli; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    2016-11-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, can affect the heart, esophagus and colon. The reasons that some patients develop different clinical forms or remain asymptomatic are unclear. It is believed that tissue immunogenetic markers influence the tropism of T. cruzi for different organs. ABO, Secretor and Lewis histo-blood group systems express a variety of tissue carbohydrate antigens that influence the susceptibility or resistance to diseases. This study aimed to examine the association of ABO, secretor and Lewis histo-blood systems with the clinical forms of Chagas disease. We enrolled 339 consecutive adult patients with chronic Chagas disease regardless of gender (cardiomyopathy: n=154; megaesophagus: n=119; megacolon: n=66). The control group was composed by 488 healthy blood donors. IgG anti-T. cruzi antibodies were detected by ELISA. ABO and Lewis phenotypes were defined by standard hemagglutination tests. Secretor (FUT2) and Lewis (FUT3) genotypes, determined by Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), were used to infer the correct histo-blood group antigens expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. The proportions between groups were compared using the χ2 test with Yates correction and Fisher's exact test and the Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) were calculated. An alpha error of 5% was considered significant with p-values Chagas disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Arterial Spin Labeling and Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent MRI Cerebrovascular Reactivity in Cerebrovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeeing, Diederik P J; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Petersen, Esben T

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) results of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI studies performed in patients with cerebrovascular disease (steno-occlusive vascular disease or stroke) were systematically reviewed. SUMMARY: Thirty-one articles...... found a significant lower ASL CVR in the ipsilateral hemispheres of patients compared to controls. KEY MESSAGES: This review brings support for a reduced BOLD and ASL CVR in the ipsilateral hemisphere of patients with cerebrovascular disease. We suggest that future studies will be performed in a uniform...... way so reference values can be established and could be used to guide treatment decisions in patients with cerebrovascular disease....

  12. Radionuclide-determined change in pulmonary blood volume with exercise. Improved sensitivity of multigated blood-pool scanning in detecting coronary-artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, R.D.; Pohost, G.M.; Kirshenbaum, H.D.; Kushner, F.G.; Boucher, C.A.; Block, P.C.; Strauss, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    To assess the clinical usefulness of radionuclide-determined changes in pulmonary blood volume in patients with or without substantial coronary-artery disease, we determined the ratio of pulmonary blood volume at rest as compared with that during exercise. We used multigated blood-pool images obtained at rest and during supine exercise to determine the blood-volume ratio in patients subsequently undergoing coronary arteriography for evaluation of chest pain. Exercise tests were performed by use of a submaximal-workload protocol, although all tests were limited according to each patient's symptoms. The mean exercise/rest pulmonary-blood-volume ratios were lower for persons without coronary-artery disease (0.94 +- 0.06 [S.D.], 10 patients) and for those with disease confined to the right coronary artery (0.99 +- 0.12, five patients), as compared with all others with coronary-artery disease (1.14 +- 0.15, 37 patients) (P < 0.01). A pulmonary-blood-volume ratio equal to or greater than 1.06 had a sensitivity of 79%. Patients with coronary-artery disease not confined to the right coronary artery usually show an increase in pulmonary blood volume during supine exercise. No such change occurs in persons without coronary-artery disease

  13. Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease and irradiated blood products as its preventive measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Masaru

    1996-01-01

    In this article, the outline of TA-GVHD is presented and its preventive measures, especially the effects of radiation exposure of transfusion blood, is reported. TA-GVHD is a transfusion complication with the highest mortality. In Japan, 1 of 659 patients who underwent cardiac surgery suffers this disease. If this is caused by on way matching of HLA antigen type, 1 of 312 patients are to be observed in Japanese (Europe, 1/1024; North America, 1/797). Furthermore, the primary diseases of 171 patients whose definitive diagnosis was TA-GVHD were chest vascular surgery diseases in 67, malignant tumors in 61, and pediatric diseases in 14. The relative risk rates of cardiac surgery patients are 3 times higher than that of cancer patients. The current most effective preventive therapy for TA-GVHD is radiotherapy. The ions produced by H 2 O decomposition due to radiation destroy cells. Since TA-GVHD often appears in the case of using fresh blood, authors always use irradiated blood for infusion when blood was collected within 72 hours regardless of the subject diseases. In the authors' hospitals, there have been no report of TA-GVHD between December 1993 and August 1995. Radiological effects on lymphocytes, erythrocytes, platelets, and granulocytes were also studied. As the other preventive measures, lymphocytes eliminating filter, MAP-erythrocytes, and ultraviolet irradiation are also reported. The current most safe blood is therefore considered the blood of which lymphocytes were eliminated within 24 hours after collection and exposured to irradiation. (S.Y.). 57 refs

  14. Blood Transfusion in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease Requiring Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Amr Mostafa; Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahed N.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Surgery in patients with sickle cell disease is associated with high morbidity. To reduce this high morbidity, different preoperative transfusion regimens were introduced. However, blood transfusion is associated with problems. This prospective study aims to establish the safety of conducting laparoscopic cholecystectomy without transfusion in sickle cell disease patients. Methods: Forty patients (16 males and 24 females; mean age 26.6 years) undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectom...

  15. EFFECT OF ALTITUDE AND WOUNDING ON BLOOD DISEASE PROGRESS OF PLANTAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiwiyono, S. Subandiyah, C. Sumardiyono, J. Widada, and M. Fegan.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Altitude and Wounding on Blood Disease Progress of Plantain. In the latest decade, the blood disease of banana has spread in almost all provinces in Indonesia and caused wilting of millions banana clusters in several provinces.  It is very difficult to control the disease due  to the base data about ecology and epidemiology of the pathogen are still poorly understood. This research aimed to evaluate the effect of  wounding of inoculation site on blood disease progress of plantain. The experiment was arranged using randomized completely block design It was conducted at three locations with altitude of 100, 1000, and 1600 m above sea levels as replication block. The treatments were wounding, unwounding inoculation site, inoculation, and uninoculation of plantain cv. Kepok Kuning Wounding was applied by stabbing with an injection pin around the corm of 15 stabs/seedling. The seedlings were planted singly in one liter of non sterile soil in plastic bag.  Each treatment consisted of 5 seedlings which was replicated 3 times. Inoculation was done  by soil drenching of 20 ml bacterial suspension at  concentration of 108 cfu/ml two week after planting.  The pathogen used for inoculation originated from low land area (about 100 m above sea level.  Observation was done weekly for 5 weeks. The variables observed were wilt intensity and area under disease progress (AUDPC. The results showed that blood disease was able to establish at altitude of 1600 m above sea level. The disease progress however was slower that those at 100 and 1000 m above sea level. On wounded seedling, the disease progress was more aggressive than those on unwounded one.

  16. Analysis of gingival pocket microflora and biochemical blood parameters in dogs suffering from periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkowska, Izabela; Sobczyńska-Rak, Aleksandra; Gołyńska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal diseases in dogs are caused by bacteria colonising the oral cavity. The presence of plaque comprising accumulations of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria leads to the development of periodontitis. Due to the fact that in a large percentage of cases periodontal diseases remain undiagnosed, and consequently untreated, they tend to acquire a chronic character, lead to bacteraemia and negatively impact the health of internal organs. The aim of the present study was to perform a qualitative microbiological analysis of gingival pockets and determine the correlations between selected morphological and biochemical blood parameters and the extent periodontal diseases. Twenty-one dogs treated for periodontal diseases were qualified for the study and subsequently divided into two groups: with 3rd and 4th stage of periodontal disease. Swabs from the patients' gingival pockets were taken for bacteriological testing. Blood was tested for parameters including erythrocyte count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit values and leukocyte count. Blood serum was analyzed with respect to the concentrations of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AspAT/AST) and urea. The microbiological analysis of gingival pockets indicated the presence of numerous pathogens with a growth tendency in bacterial cultures observed in dogs with advanced-stage periodontal disease. The concentration of biochemical blood markers was significantly higher in dogs with 4th stage of periodontal disease, to compared to the 3rd-stage group. Morphological parameters were not significantly different with the exception of haemoglobin concentration, which was lower in dogs with 4th stage disease. In both groups, elevated leukocyte counts were observed. By conducting a detailed microbiological examination, it is possible to provide a better prognosis, plan adequate treatment and monitor dogs treated for peridontopathy. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G

  17. Vitiligo blood transcriptomics provides new insights into disease mechanisms and identifies potential novel therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey-Rao, Rama; Sinha, Animesh A

    2017-01-28

    Significant gaps remain regarding the pathomechanisms underlying the autoimmune response in vitiligo (VL), where the loss of self-tolerance leads to the targeted killing of melanocytes. Specifically, there is incomplete information regarding alterations in the systemic environment that are relevant to the disease state. We undertook a genome-wide profiling approach to examine gene expression in the peripheral blood of VL patients and healthy controls in the context of our previously published VL-skin gene expression profile. We used several in silico bioinformatics-based analyses to provide new insights into disease mechanisms and suggest novel targets for future therapy. Unsupervised clustering methods of the VL-blood dataset demonstrate a "disease-state"-specific set of co-expressed genes. Ontology enrichment analysis of 99 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) uncovers a down-regulated immune/inflammatory response, B-Cell antigen receptor (BCR) pathways, apoptosis and catabolic processes in VL-blood. There is evidence for both type I and II interferon (IFN) playing a role in VL pathogenesis. We used interactome analysis to identify several key blood associated transcriptional factors (TFs) from within (STAT1, STAT6 and NF-kB), as well as "hidden" (CREB1, MYC, IRF4, IRF1, and TP53) from the dataset that potentially affect disease pathogenesis. The TFs overlap with our reported lesional-skin transcriptional circuitry, underscoring their potential importance to the disease. We also identify a shared VL-blood and -skin transcriptional "hot spot" that maps to chromosome 6, and includes three VL-blood dysregulated genes (PSMB8, PSMB9 and TAP1) described as potential VL-associated genetic susceptibility loci. Finally, we provide bioinformatics-based support for prioritizing dysregulated genes in VL-blood or skin as potential therapeutic targets. We examined the VL-blood transcriptome in context with our (previously published) VL-skin transcriptional profile to address

  18. Hemodynamic correction of univentricular congenital heart diseases: the role of additional sources of pulmonary blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю. Н. Горбатых

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the impact of additional sources of pulmonary blood flow on the outcomes of hemodynamic correction of univentricular congenital heart disease is presented. From 2003 to 2010 31 patients received a bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt (BCPS with/without preservation of additional pulmonary blood flow sources. The latter were preserved in 18 patients (1st group and eliminated in 13 patients (2nd group. Later on all patients had Fontan procedure. Our results showed no significant impact of additional pulmonary blood flow sources on the system ventricle function and systemic AV valve regurgitation. Preservation of adequate additional pulmonary blood flow during BCPS promotes pulmonary arterial growth and increases the degree of freedom from operative intervention, while optimizing hemodynamic features of Fontan-borderline patients.

  19. Healing of ulcers on the feet correlated with distal blood pressure measurements in occlusive arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, P; Lassen, N A

    1980-01-01

    The frequency of healing in subchronic ulcers in 66 feet in 62 patients with arterial occlusive disease was correlated with the systolic digital blood pressure (SDBP) and the systolic ankle blood pressure (SABP), both measured with a strain gauge, and with the skin perfusion pressure on the heel...... of healing correlated significantly with the three distal blood pressure parameters investigated, the closest correlation being with the SDBP measured at the final examination, i.e. just after healing of the ulcer or just before an inevitable major amputation. Of the 22 cases with SDBP below 20 mmHg only two...... and peripheral neuropathy were frequent in the diabetic group. The data show that the systolic digital blood pressure is a particularly valuable prognostic parameter....

  20. Vasoactive enzymes and blood flow responses to passive and active exercise in peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walker, Meegan A.; Høier, Birgitte; Walker, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is characterised by impaired leg blood flow, which contributes to claudication and reduced exercise capacity. This study investigated to what extent vasoactive enzymes might contribute to altered blood flow in PAD (Fontaine stage II). Methods: We...... than CON (1.04 ± 0.19 vs 0.50 ± 0.06 AU, P = 0.02), with no differences for other enzymes. Leg blood flow during exercise was correlated with prostacyclin synthase (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Elevated NADPH oxidase indicates that oxidative stress may be a primary cause of low nitric oxide availability...... compared femoral artery blood flow during reactive hyperaemia, leg-extension exercise and passive leg movement, and determined the level of vasoactive enzymes in skeletal muscle samples from the vastus lateralis in PAD (n = 10, 68.5 ± 6.5 years) and healthy controls (CON, n = 9, 62.1 ± 12.3 years). Leg...

  1. Relation of ABO blood groups to coronary lesion complexity in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ahmet; Tanboğa, İbrahim Halil; Kurt, Mustafa; Işık, Turgay; Kaya, Yasemin; Günaydın, Zeki Yüksel; Aksakal, Enbiya

    2014-02-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between ABO blood groups and complexity of coronary lesions assessed by SYNTAX score (SS) in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. Our cross-sectional and observational study population consisted of 559 stable CAD patients. From all patients, ABO blood group was determined and the SS was calculated as low SYNTAX score (0-22), intermediate SYNTAX (23-32) score and high SYNTAX score (>32). Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U test, ANOVA, or Kruskal-Wallis test and chi-square test. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent predictors of high SS. The analysis between the SS tertiles revealed that the frequency of non-O blood group was significantly higher in the upper SS tertiles (56.2% vs. 75.9 vs. 80.2%, pABO blood groups and complexity of angiographic CAD.

  2. Cerebral blood flow reduction in Alzheimer's disease: impact of capillary occlusions on mice and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Maxime; Merlo, Adlan; Peyrounette, Myriam; Doyeux, Vincent; Smith, Amy; Cruz-Hernandez, Jean; Bracko, Oliver; Haft-Javaherian, Mohammad; Nishimura, Nozomi; Schaffer, Chris B.; Davit, Yohan; Quintard, Michel; Lorthois, Sylvie

    2017-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease may be the most common form of dementia, yet a satisfactory diagnosis procedure has still to be found. Recent studies suggest that a significant decrease of cerebral blood flow, probably caused by white blood cells stalling small vessels, may be among the earliest biological markers. To assess this hypothesis we derive a blood flow model, validate it against in vitro controlled experiments and in vivo measurements made on mice. We then investigate the influence of capillary occlusions on regional perfusion (sum of all arteriole flowrates feeding the network) of large mice and humans anatomical networks. Consistent with experiments, we observe no threshold effect, so that even a small percentage of occlusions (2-4%) leads to significant blood flow decrease (5-12%). We show that both species share the same linear dependance, suggesting possible translation from mice to human. ERC BrainMicroFlow GA61510, CALMIP HPC (Grant 2017-1541).

  3. Clinical study of color Doppler sonography in Graves' disease blood flow changes after thyroid arteries embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Wenquan; Li Weiduo; Yang Jianyong; Chen Wei; Huang Yonghui; Guo Wenbo; Li Jiaping

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the color doppler image characteristics of thyroid arteries pre- and post-interventional procedure and to assess the clinical efficacy in Gnaves' disease. Methods: 11 from 31 patients diagnosed as Graves' disease undertaken thyroid arteries embolization, were analyzed. Color Doppler sonography was applied to monitor the pre-and post- procedure thyroid size and diameters of thyroid arteries. Power Doppler was used to detect the Vmax, Vmin, RI and blood flow. Results: After thyroid arteries embolization, the size and vascularity of thyroids were reduced. The thyroid arteries showed shrinkage and stoppage blood flow at the embolized site. The changes of RI, blood parameters of Vmax, Vmin and diameters of the thyroid arteries pre- and post-procedure turned out to be statistically significant for clinical restriction. Conclusion: The color Doppler sonography plays an important role for preoperative diagnosis and predicting the prognosis

  4. Correlation between "ABO" blood group phenotypes and periodontal disease: Prevalence in south Kanara district, Karnataka state, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Gurpur Prakash; Dayakar, Mundoor Manjunath; Shaila, Mulki; Dayakar, Anitha

    2012-10-01

    The correlation between certain systemic diseases and ABO blood group is a well-documented fact. The association between periodontal disease and ABO blood group is not studied in relation to a specific geographic location. Here is a study conducted on a group of patients belonging to South Kanara district of Karnataka state. A total of 750 subjects aged between 30and 38 years belonging to South Kanara district were selected on random basis. The study subjects were segregated into healthy/mild gingivitis, moderate/severe gingivitis, and periodontitis group, based on Loe and Silness index and clinical attachment loss as criteria. The study group was further categorized and graded using Ramfjord's periodontal disease index. Blood samples were collected to identify ABO blood group. Prevalence of blood group O was more in South Kanara district, followed by blood groups B and A, and the least prevalent was AB. The percentage distribution of subjects with blood groups O and AB was more in healthy/mild gingivitis group (group I) and moderate/severe gingivitis group (group II), while subjects with blood groups B and A were more in periodontitis group III. There was increased prevalence of subjects with blood groups O and AB with healthy periodontium, while subjects with blood groups B and A showed inclination toward diseased periodontium. There is a correlation existing between periodontal disease and ABO blood group in this geographic location. This association can be due to various blood group antigens acting as receptors for infectious agents associated with periodontal disease. This broad correlation between periodontal disease and ABO blood group also points toward susceptibility ofthe subjects with certain blood groups to periodontal disease.

  5. Brazilian status in blood irradiation in Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD) prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes, E.G. de; Borges, J.C.; Ghilardi Netto, T.

    1996-01-01

    A short overview of the Brazilian reality concerning Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD) is presented. Suggestions of policies and procedures to optimise GVHD prevention are reported. A national irradiator device using cobalt teletherapy unit is proposed for irradiation of blood and cellular components

  6. Longitudinal peripheral blood transcriptional analysis of a patient with severe Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kash, John C; Walters, Kathie-Anne; Kindrachuk, Jason; Baxter, David; Scherler, Kelsey; Janosko, Krisztina B; Adams, Rick D; Herbert, Andrew S; James, Rebekah M; Stonier, Spencer W; Memoli, Matthew J; Dye, John M; Davey, Richard T; Chertow, Daniel S; Taubenberger, Jeffery K

    2017-04-12

    The 2013-2015 outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone was unprecedented in the number of documented cases, but there have been few published reports on immune responses in clinical cases and their relationships with the course of illness and severity of Ebola virus disease. Symptoms of Ebola virus disease can include severe headache, myalgia, asthenia, fever, fatigue, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and hemorrhage. Although experimental treatments are in development, there are no current U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapies. We report a detailed study of host gene expression as measured by microarray in daily peripheral blood samples collected from a patient with severe Ebola virus disease. This individual was provided with supportive care without experimental therapies at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center from before onset of critical illness to recovery. Pearson analysis of daily gene expression signatures revealed marked gene expression changes in peripheral blood leukocytes that correlated with changes in serum and peripheral blood leukocytes, viral load, antibody responses, coagulopathy, multiple organ dysfunction, and then recovery. This study revealed marked shifts in immune and antiviral responses that preceded changes in medical condition, indicating that clearance of replicating Ebola virus from peripheral blood leukocytes is likely important for systemic viral clearance. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. The effect of perioperative blood transfusion on recurrence after primary operation for Crohn's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steup, W. H.; Brand, A.; Weterman, I. T.; Zwinderman, K. H.; Lamers, C. B. H. W.; Gooszen, H. G.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of perioperative blood transfusion on recurrence after primary operation was retrospectively studied in a group of 104 patients with Crohn's disease. Patients who had minor procedures like strictureplasty, segmental small-bowel resection, and operation for perianal fistula were excluded.

  8. Cerebral blood flow in small vessel disease : A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Yulu; Thrippleton, Michael J; Makin, Stephen D; Marshall, Ian; Geerlings, Mirjam I; de Craen, Anton Jm; van Buchem, Mark A; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2016-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities are frequent on neuroimaging of older people and are a key feature of cerebral small vessel disease. They are commonly attributed to chronic hypoperfusion, although whether low cerebral blood flow is cause or effect is unclear. We systematically reviewed studies that

  9. Effect of blood type on anti-α-Gal immunity and the incidence of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; Alberdi, Pilar; Villar, Margarita; Riveau, Gilles; Hermann, Emmanuel; Schacht, Anne-Marie; Khalife, Jamal; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Gortazar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2017-03-10

    The identification of factors affecting the susceptibility to infectious diseases is essential toward reducing their burden on the human population. The ABO blood type correlates with susceptibility to malaria and other infectious diseases. Due to the structural similarity between blood antigen B and Galα1-3Galβ1-(3)4GlcNAc-R (α-Gal), we hypothesized that self-tolerance to antigen B affects the immune response to α-Gal, which in turn affects the susceptibility to infectious diseases caused by pathogens carrying α-Gal on their surface. Here we found that the incidence of malaria and tuberculosis, caused by pathogens with α-Gal on their surface, positively correlates with the frequency of blood type B in endemic regions. However, the incidence of dengue fever, caused by a pathogen without α-Gal, was not related to the frequency of blood type B in these populations. Furthermore, the incidence of malaria and tuberculosis was negatively correlated with the anti-α-Gal antibody protective response. These results have implications for disease control and prevention.

  10. Haematological and blood biochemical alterations associated with respiratory disease in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Šoltésová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory diseases of cattle, particularly in young animals, represent the most important health and economic problem of cattle rearing. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes of selected blood indices in 25 calves aged 2–9 months suffering from etiologically undifferentiated chronic respiratory diseases. Blood samples were analysed for haematological indices and selected serum biochemistry variables. The results found in sick animals were compared with results from 25 healthy animals of the same age, housing and feeding system. Significant differences in means between the groups of clinically healthy and sick calves were found in 13 out of 24 evaluated indicators. In sick animals we found significantly higher mean concentrations of haemoglobin and total number of white blood cells (P P P P P P P P < 0.05. The presented results suggest the effect of respiratory diseases in calves on several changes of haematological and selected serum biochemical indicators. They indicate that respiratory diseases did not lead only to direct disturbance of gas exchange and acid-base balance, but they also indirectly affect some other variables of blood biochemistry.

  11. Alzheimer's disease--one clinical syndrome, two radiological expressions: a study on blood pressure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, H.F. de; Barkhof, F.; Scheltens, P.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vascular risk factors could play a role in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease, but this has not been investigated in relation to neuroimaging findings OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the distribution of blood pressure and an indicator of atherosclerosis (pulse pressure) in patients with

  12. Early occurrence of red blood cell alloimmunization in patients with sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sins, Joep W. R.; Biemond, Bart J.; van den Bersselaar, Sil M.; Heijboer, H.; Rijneveld, Anita W.; Cnossen, Marjon H.; Kerkhoffs, Jean-Louis H.; van Meurs, Alfred H.; von Ronnen, F. B.; Zalpuri, Saurabh; de Rijke, Yolanda B.; Ellen van der Schoot, C.; de Haas, Masja; van der Bom, Johanna G.; Fijnvandraat, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization is a major complication of transfusion therapy in sickle cell disease (SCD). Identification of high-risk patients is hampered by lack of studies that take the cumulative transfusion exposure into account. In this retrospective cohort study among previously

  13. [The blood kinin system in patients with inflammatory and functional diseases of the colon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizir, A D; Grigor'eva, Z E; Oleinik, A I; Polivoda, S V

    2001-01-01

    The condition of the kinin system was studied in 89 patients with inflammatory and functional diseases of the colon. The relatedness has been revealed of the intestine microflora changes and of the blood kinin system activity to morphological changes in the colon mucosa.

  14. Use of Repeated Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Measurements to Improve Cardiovascular Disease Risk Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paige, Ellie; Barrett, Jessica; Pennells, Lisa; Sweeting, Michael; Willeit, Peter; Angelantonio, Di Emanuele; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Goldbourt, Uri; Best, Lyle G.; Assmann, Gerd; Salonen, Jukka T.; Nietert, Paul J.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Brunner, Eric J.; Kronmal, Richard A.; Salomaa, Veikko; Bakker, Stephan L.J.; Dagenais, Gilles R.; Sato, Shinichi; Jansson, Jan Håkan; Willeit, Johann; Onat, Altan; La Cámara, De Agustin Gómez; Roussel, Ronan; Völzke, Henry; Dankner, Rachel; Tipping, Robert W.; Meade, Tom W.; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Kuller, Lewis H.; Peters, Annette; Gallacher, John; Kromhout, Daan; Iso, Hiroyasu; Knuiman, Matthew W.; Casiglia, Edoardo; Kavousi, Maryam; Palmieri, Luigi; Sundström, Johan; Davis, Barry R.; Njølstad, Inger; Couper, David; Danesh, John; Thompson, Simon G.; Wood, Angela M.

    2017-01-01

    The added value of incorporating information from repeated blood pressure and cholesterol measurements to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has not been rigorously assessed. We used data on 191,445 adults from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (38 cohorts from 17 countries with data

  15. Use of Repeated Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Measurements to Improve Cardiovascular Disease Risk Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paige, Ellie; Barrett, Jessica; Pennells, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The added value of incorporating information from repeated blood pressure and cholesterol measurements to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has not been rigorously assessed. We used data on 191,445 adults from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (38 cohorts from 17 countries with data...

  16. Postprandial Blood Glucose Outweighs Fasting Blood Glucose and HbA1c in screening Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingjing; Zhao, Lin; Lin, Liu; Gui, Minghui; Aleteng, Qiqige; Wu, Bingjie; Wang, Shanshan; Pan, Baishen; Ling, Yan; Gao, Xin

    2017-10-27

    The objective of the present study is to assess the performance of fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial blood glucose (PBG), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as screening for coronary heart disease (CHD) in an inpatient population undergoing coronary angiography. 1852 consecutive patients scheduled for coronary angiography were classified into Normal Glucose Tolerance (NGT), Impaired Glucose Regulation (IGR), and diabetes, based on FBG, PBG, and HbA1c. Correlations of Gensini score with glucose metabolism and insulin resistance were analyzed. The associations between glycemic variables and Gensini score or the presence of CHD were analyzed by multiple linear regression and logistic regression, respectively. CHD was diagnosed in 488, 622, and 414 patients with NGT, IGR, and diabetes, respectively. Gensini score was positively correlated with FBG (r = 0.09, p PBG (r = 0.20, p PBG and HbA1c were pooled altogether, only PBG persisted in its association with Gensini score and the prevalence of CHD. The severity of CHD was associated with glucose rather than insulin resistance in this Chinese population. PBG was optimally correlated with the presence and severity of CHD.

  17. Cellular function reinstitution of offspring red blood cells cloned from the sickle cell disease patient blood post CRISPR genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jianguo; Tao, Wenjing; Hao, Suyang; Zu, Youli

    2017-06-13

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a disorder of red blood cells (RBCs) expressing abnormal hemoglobin-S (HbS) due to genetic inheritance of homologous HbS gene. However, people with the sickle cell trait (SCT) carry a single allele of HbS and do not usually suffer from SCD symptoms, thus providing a rationale to treat SCD. To validate gene therapy potential, hematopoietic stem cells were isolated from the SCD patient blood and treated with CRISPR/Cas9 approach. To precisely dissect genome-editing effects, erythroid progenitor cells were cloned from single colonies of CRISPR-treated cells and then expanded for simultaneous gene, protein, and cellular function studies. Genotyping and sequencing analysis revealed that the genome-edited erythroid progenitor colonies were converted to SCT genotype from SCD genotype. HPLC protein assays confirmed reinstallation of normal hemoglobin at a similar level with HbS in the cloned genome-edited erythroid progenitor cells. For cell function evaluation, in vitro RBC differentiation of the cloned erythroid progenitor cells was induced. As expected, cell sickling assays indicated function reinstitution of the genome-edited offspring SCD RBCs, which became more resistant to sickling under hypoxia condition. This study is an exploration of genome editing of SCD HSPCs.

  18. Cellular function reinstitution of offspring red blood cells cloned from the sickle cell disease patient blood post CRISPR genome editing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Wen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickle cell disease (SCD is a disorder of red blood cells (RBCs expressing abnormal hemoglobin-S (HbS due to genetic inheritance of homologous HbS gene. However, people with the sickle cell trait (SCT carry a single allele of HbS and do not usually suffer from SCD symptoms, thus providing a rationale to treat SCD. Methods To validate gene therapy potential, hematopoietic stem cells were isolated from the SCD patient blood and treated with CRISPR/Cas9 approach. To precisely dissect genome-editing effects, erythroid progenitor cells were cloned from single colonies of CRISPR-treated cells and then expanded for simultaneous gene, protein, and cellular function studies. Results Genotyping and sequencing analysis revealed that the genome-edited erythroid progenitor colonies were converted to SCT genotype from SCD genotype. HPLC protein assays confirmed reinstallation of normal hemoglobin at a similar level with HbS in the cloned genome-edited erythroid progenitor cells. For cell function evaluation, in vitro RBC differentiation of the cloned erythroid progenitor cells was induced. As expected, cell sickling assays indicated function reinstitution of the genome-edited offspring SCD RBCs, which became more resistant to sickling under hypoxia condition. Conclusions This study is an exploration of genome editing of SCD HSPCs.

  19. [Guidelines for Chagas disease: Part III. Chagas disease in donors to blood banks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apt B, Werner; Heitmann G, Ingrid; Jercic L, M Isabel; Jotré M, Leonor; Muñoz C del V, Patricia; Noemí H, Isabel; San Martin V, Ana M; Sapunar P, Jorge; Torres H, Marisa; Zulantay A, Inés

    2008-08-01

    In this chapter it is emphasized the importance to guarantee safety and high quality blood transfusions. Besides, the following topics are analyzed: the importance of Trypanosoma cruzi infection acquired by blood transfusions, the obligatory screening implemented in Chilean blood banks and serological diagnostic techniques used that for, the seroprevalence observed, the importance to confirm results and methods recommended in this purpose and, to notify the donor once the infection is confirmed. In addition a facsímil of a letter used to notify the positive donor is included as guidelines to make advice after, attaching a pro-forma of clinical-epidemiological registration to refer the donor to medical evaluation and treatment.

  20. Longitudinal Patterns of Change in Systolic Blood Pressure and Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruski-Ivleva, Natalia; Viera, Anthony J; Shimbo, Daichi; Muntner, Paul; Avery, Christy L; Schneider, Andrea L C; Couper, David; Kucharska-Newton, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Elevated blood pressure in midlife contributes significantly to the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, patterns of blood pressure increase may differ among individuals and may result in differential risk. Our goal was to examine the contribution of longitudinal patterns of blood pressure change to incidence of heart failure, coronary heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular disease mortality. Latent class growth models were used to identify patterns of change in blood pressure across 4 clinical examinations (1987-1998) among 9845 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort participants (mean age, 53.7 [SD 5.7] years). Patterns of change in systolic blood pressure included slowly and steeply increasing, a decreasing and a sustained elevated blood pressure. Changes in diastolic and mid-blood pressure (½ systolic+½ diastolic) were less pronounced. The association of blood pressure pattern group membership with incidence of clinical outcomes was examined in follow-up from the fourth clinical examination (1996-1998) to December 31, 2011, using Poisson regression models adjusted for demographic and metabolic characteristics, and hypertension medication use. A gradient of rates of all events was observed across the identified patterns. Associations were attenuated after adjustment for covariates. Cumulative systolic blood pressure load, rather than the temporal pattern of change in systolic blood pressure itself, plays a role in determining the risk of cardiovascular disease, in particular, of heart failure and cardiovascular disease mortality, independent of blood pressure level measured at one point in time. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. [Expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide in peripheral blood of children with hand, foot and mouth disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jin-Song; Sun, Hao-Miao; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Jing-De; Wen, Cheng; Fang, Dai-Hua

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in peripheral blood of children with hand, foot and mouth disease and its significance. According to the condition of the disease, 86 children with hand, foot and mouth disease were classified into phase 1 group (19 children) and phase 2 group (67 children). ELISA was used to measure the concentrations of plasma VIP, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in peripheral blood. Flow cytometry was used to measure CD3 + , CD4 + , and CD8 + T lymphocyte subsets. RT-PCR was used for qualitative detection of enterovirus 71 (EV71) RNA in stool. Compared with the phase 1 group, the phase 2 group had a significantly higher positive rate of EV71-RNA (Phand, foot and mouth disease, the concentration of VIP in peripheral blood was positively correlated with the proportion of CD4 + T lymphocyte subset and CD4 + /CD8 + ratio (r=0.533 and 0.532 respectively; Phand, foot and mouth disease.

  2. Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarwar, N; Gao, P; Seshasai, S R Kondapally

    2010-01-01

    disease; 2.27 (1.95-2.65) for ischaemic stroke; 1.56 (1.19-2.05) for haemorrhagic stroke; 1.84 (1.59-2.13) for unclassified stroke; and 1.73 (1.51-1.98) for the aggregate of other vascular deaths. HRs did not change appreciably after further adjustment for lipid, inflammatory, or renal markers. HRs......BACKGROUND: Uncertainties persist about the magnitude of associations of diabetes mellitus and fasting glucose concentration with risk of coronary heart disease and major stroke subtypes. We aimed to quantify these associations for a wide range of circumstances. METHODS: We undertook a meta......-analysis of individual records of diabetes, fasting blood glucose concentration, and other risk factors in people without initial vascular disease from studies in the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration. We combined within-study regressions that were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure, and body...

  3. Relationship between haemodynamic impairment and collateral blood flow in carotid artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartkamp, Nolan S; Petersen, Esben T; Chappell, Michael A

    2018-01-01

    Collateral blood flow plays a pivotal role in steno-occlusive internal carotid artery (ICA) disease to prevent irreversible ischaemic damage. Our aim was to investigate the effect of carotid artery disease upon cerebral perfusion and cerebrovascular reactivity and whether haemodynamic impairment...... is influenced at brain tissue level by the existence of primary and/or secondary collateral. Eighty-eight patients with steno-occlusive ICA disease and 29 healthy controls underwent MR examination. The presence of collaterals was determined with time-of-flight, two-dimensional phase contrast MRA and territorial...... were compromised. Haemodynamic impairment in the affected brain region was always present in symptomatic patients. The degree of collateral blood flow was inversely correlated with haemodynamic impairment. Recruitment of secondary collaterals only occurred in symptomatic ICA occlusion patients...

  4. Relationship between haemodynamic impairment and collateral blood flow in carotid artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartkamp, Nolan S; Petersen, Esben T; Chappell, Michael A

    2018-01-01

    Collateral blood flow plays a pivotal role in steno-occlusive internal carotid artery (ICA) disease to prevent irreversible ischaemic damage. Our aim was to investigate the effect of carotid artery disease upon cerebral perfusion and cerebrovascular reactivity and whether haemodynamic impairment...... is influenced at brain tissue level by the existence of primary and/or secondary collateral. Eighty-eight patients with steno-occlusive ICA disease and 29 healthy controls underwent MR examination. The presence of collaterals was determined with time-of-flight, two-dimensional phase contrast MRA and territorial...... arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging. Cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reactivity were assessed with ASL before and after acetazolamide. Cerebral haemodynamics were normal in asymptomatic ICA stenosis patients, as opposed to patients with ICA occlusion, in whom the haemodynamics in both hemispheres...

  5. Does pulmonary rehabilitation reduce peripheral blood pressure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavan, Jane L; Kaliaraju, Djeya; Nolan, Claire M; Clark, Amy L; Jones, Sarah E; Kon, Samantha S C; Polkey, Michael I; Man, William D-C

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) can improve aerobic exercise capacity, health-related quality of life and dyspnoea in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recent studies have suggested that exercise training may improve blood pressure and arterial stiffness, albeit in small highly selected cohorts. The aim of the study was to establish whether supervised outpatient or unsupervised home PR can reduce peripheral blood pressure. Resting blood pressure was measured in 418 patients with COPD before and after outpatient PR, supervised by a hospital-based team (HOSP). Seventy-four patients with COPD undergoing an unsupervised home-based programme acted as a comparator group (HOME). Despite significant improvements in mean (95% confidence interval) exercise capacity in the HOSP group (56 (50-60) m, p patients with known hypertension and/or cardiovascular disease showed no impact of PR upon blood pressure. PR is unlikely to reduce blood pressure, and by implication, makes a mechanism of action in which arterial stiffness is reduced, less likely. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. CHANGES OF INTERCELLULAR COOPERATION IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD IN TREATED PATIENTS WITH CARDIOLOGIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Korichkina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study changes of intercellular cooperation in peripheral blood induced by treatment in patients with arterial hypertension (HT, ischemic heart disease (IHD and chronic heart failure (CHF.Material and methods. 610 patients were involved into the study, including 250 patients with HT of stages I-III (50 untreated patients, 150 patients with IHD and 210 patients with CHF of stages I-III. All patients were treated except 50 hypertensive ones. 80 healthy patients (40 men, 40 women were included into control group. Blood smears of patients were evaluated (Romanovsky's stain. A number of leukocyte, autorosettes and autorosettes with erythrocyte lysis was calculated. The cellular association consisting of a neutrophil, monocyte or eosinocyte with 3 or more erythrocytes skintight to their surface defined as autorosettes. Erythrocytes number and hemoglobin level determined in peripheral blood.Results. Single autorosettes in peripheral blood were observed in patients of control group and in untreated patients with HT. Treated patients with HT, IHD and CHF had increased number of autorossets and autorosettes with erythrocytes lysis. This phenomenon resulted in reduction of erythrocytes number and hemoglobin level in peripheral blood.Conclusion. Treated patients with cardiologic diseases had changes in intercellular cooperation. It should be considered at intensive and long term therapy.

  7. Non-dipping blood pressure patterns and arterial stiffness parameters in patients with Behcet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Gulperi; Yilmaz, Sema; Ergulu Esmen, Serpil

    2015-12-01

    Behcet's disease is a multisystemic vasculitis involving veins and arteries of various sizes. Non-dipping status, augmentation index and pulse wave velocity are important determinants of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We investigated the non-dipping status and arterial stiffness in patients with Behcet's disease. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the vascular parameters of 96 patients with Behcet's disease (53% female) and 60 age- and sex-matched control subjects. The non-dipping status and arterial distensibility were assessed using a Mobil-O-Graph Arteriograph, an automatic oscillometric device. In total, 65.6% of 96 patients were systolic non-dippers, and 34.4% exhibited high augmentation indices. Ten percent of the control subjects were systolic non-dippers, and 11.7% exhibited high augmentation indices. Nocturnal decreases in systolic blood pressure correlated with central systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, as well as nocturnal decreases in diastolic blood pressure. Furthermore, non-dipper patients with Behcet's disease exhibited higher nocturnal cardiac outputs than did dipper patients with Behcet's disease. Augmentation index correlated negatively with C-reactive protein and correlated positively with both 24 h and nocturnal peripheral resistance, as well as 24 h pulse wave velocity. The patients with high augmentation indices exhibited lower creatinine clearance, as well as lower nocturnal cardiac outputs, higher 24 h peripheral resistance and higher 24 h pulse wave velocities. Non-dipping status and arterial stiffness may exacerbate the harmful cardiovascular effects of the other. In addition to conventional risk factors, non-dipping status and arterial stiffness should be examined during the follow-up evaluations of patients with Behcet's disease.

  8. Huntington's disease biomarker progression profile identified by transcriptome sequencing in peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrokolias, Anastasios; Ariyurek, Yavuz; Goeman, Jelle J; van Duijn, Erik; Roos, Raymund A C; van der Mast, Roos C; van Ommen, GertJan B; den Dunnen, Johan T; 't Hoen, Peter A C; van Roon-Mom, Willeke M C

    2015-10-01

    With several therapeutic approaches in development for Huntington's disease, there is a need for easily accessible biomarkers to monitor disease progression and therapy response. We performed next-generation sequencing-based transcriptome analysis of total RNA from peripheral blood of 91 mutation carriers (27 presymptomatic and, 64 symptomatic) and 33 controls. Transcriptome analysis by DeepSAGE identified 167 genes significantly associated with clinical total motor score in Huntington's disease patients. Relative to previous studies, this yielded novel genes and confirmed previously identified genes, such as H2AFY, an overlap in results that has proven difficult in the past. Pathway analysis showed enrichment of genes of the immune system and target genes of miRNAs, which are downregulated in Huntington's disease models. Using a highly parallelized microfluidics array chip (Fluidigm), we validated 12 of the top 20 significant genes in our discovery cohort and 7 in a second independent cohort. The five genes (PROK2, ZNF238, AQP9, CYSTM1 and ANXA3) that were validated independently in both cohorts present a candidate biomarker panel for stage determination and therapeutic readout in Huntington's disease. Finally we suggest a first empiric formula predicting total motor score from the expression levels of our biomarker panel. Our data support the view that peripheral blood is a useful source to identify biomarkers for Huntington's disease and monitor disease progression in future clinical trials.

  9. The Allelic Landscape of Human Blood Cell Trait Variation and Links to Common Complex Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astle, William J; Elding, Heather; Jiang, Tao; Allen, Dave; Ruklisa, Dace; Mann, Alice L; Mead, Daniel; Bouman, Heleen; Riveros-Mckay, Fernando; Kostadima, Myrto A; Lambourne, John J; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Downes, Kate; Kundu, Kousik; Bomba, Lorenzo; Berentsen, Kim; Bradley, John R; Daugherty, Louise C; Delaneau, Olivier; Freson, Kathleen; Garner, Stephen F; Grassi, Luigi; Guerrero, Jose; Haimel, Matthias; Janssen-Megens, Eva M; Kaan, Anita; Kamat, Mihir; Kim, Bowon; Mandoli, Amit; Marchini, Jonathan; Martens, Joost H A; Meacham, Stuart; Megy, Karyn; O'Connell, Jared; Petersen, Romina; Sharifi, Nilofar; Sheard, Simon M; Staley, James R; Tuna, Salih; van der Ent, Martijn; Walter, Klaudia; Wang, Shuang-Yin; Wheeler, Eleanor; Wilder, Steven P; Iotchkova, Valentina; Moore, Carmel; Sambrook, Jennifer; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Kaptoge, Stephen; Kuijpers, Taco W; Carrillo-de-Santa-Pau, Enrique; Juan, David; Rico, Daniel; Valencia, Alfonso; Chen, Lu; Ge, Bing; Vasquez, Louella; Kwan, Tony; Garrido-Martín, Diego; Watt, Stephen; Yang, Ying; Guigo, Roderic; Beck, Stephan; Paul, Dirk S; Pastinen, Tomi; Bujold, David; Bourque, Guillaume; Frontini, Mattia; Danesh, John; Roberts, David J; Ouwehand, Willem H; Butterworth, Adam S; Soranzo, Nicole

    2016-11-17

    Many common variants have been associated with hematological traits, but identification of causal genes and pathways has proven challenging. We performed a genome-wide association analysis in the UK Biobank and INTERVAL studies, testing 29.5 million genetic variants for association with 36 red cell, white cell, and platelet properties in 173,480 European-ancestry participants. This effort yielded hundreds of low frequency (<5%) and rare (<1%) variants with a strong impact on blood cell phenotypes. Our data highlight general properties of the allelic architecture of complex traits, including the proportion of the heritable component of each blood trait explained by the polygenic signal across different genome regulatory domains. Finally, through Mendelian randomization, we provide evidence of shared genetic pathways linking blood cell indices with complex pathologies, including autoimmune diseases, schizophrenia, and coronary heart disease and evidence suggesting previously reported population associations between blood cell indices and cardiovascular disease may be non-causal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Blood Dendritic Cells: Canary in the Coal Mine to Predict Chronic Inflammatory Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodie eMiles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of risk factors for chronic inflammatory diseases are unknown. This makes personalized medicine for assessment, prognosis, and choice of therapy very difficult. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that low-grade subclinical infections may be an underlying cause of many chronic inflammatory diseases and thus may contribute to secondary outcomes (e.g. cancer. Many diseases are now categorized as inflammatory-mediated diseases that stem from a dysregulation in host immunity. There is a growing need to study the links between low-grade infections, the immune responses they elicit, and how this impacts overall health. One such link explored in detail here is the extreme sensitivity of myeloid dendritic cells (mDC in peripheral blood to chronic low-grade infections and the role that these mDCs play in arbitrating the resulting immune responses. We find that emerging evidence supports a role for pathogen-induced mDCs in chronic inflammation leading to increased risk of secondary clinical disease. The mDCs that are elevated in the blood as a result of low-grade bacteremia often do not trigger a productive immune response, but can disseminate the pathogen throughout the host. This aberrant trafficking of mDCs can accelerate systemic inflammatory disease progression. Conversely, restoration of DC homeostasis may aid in pathogen elimination and minimize dissemination. Thus it would seem prudent when assessing chronic inflammatory disease risk to consider blood mDC numbers, and the microbial content (microbiome and activation state of these mDCs. These may provide important clues (the canary in the coal mine of high inflammatory disease risk. This will facilitate development of novel immunotherapies to eliminate such smoldering infections in atherosclerosis, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and pre-eclampsia.

  11. [Association between ABO blood groups and coronary heart disease in Chinese Guangxi Zhuang population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Lin, Yingzhong; Liu, Hairun; Ji, Qingwei; Lu, Zhihong; Lu, Zhengde; Xu, Nengwen; Yuan, Jun; Liu, Ling

    2015-09-01

    To investigate this association between ABO blood groups and coronary heart disease (CHD) in the Chinese Guangxi Zhuang population. From August 2010 to April 2013, we performed a case-control study in a Chinese Zhuang population, which included 1 024 CHD cases and 1 024 age and gender-matched non-CHD controls. The ABO blood groups and biological variables were measured by standard laboratory procedures. The Gensini score was used to evaluate the severity of coronary artery stenosis. Compared to non-CHD control group, CHD group had higher levels of fasting blood glucose ((6.71 ± 6.72) mmol/L vs. (4.98 ± 1.55) mmol/L, P blood groups were associated with CHD risk in the Chinese Zhuang population. Compared with group O, the group B individuals had a higher risk of CHD (OR = 2.33, 95% CI 1.88-2.90, P group O subjects in the CHD group, and MACE at 1-year follow-up was similar between ABO blood groups of CHD individuals. ABO blood groups are associated with CHD risk in the Chinese Zhuang population.

  12. Relevance of blood groups in transfusion of sickle cell disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noizat-Pirenne, France

    2013-03-01

    Blood groups are clinically significant in sickle cell disease (SCD) as transfusion remains a key treatment in this pathology. The occurrence of a delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction (DHTR) is not rare and is a life-threatening event. The main cause of DHTR is the production of alloantibodies against red blood cell antigens. The high rate of alloimmunization in SCD patients is mainly due to the differences of red blood groups between patients of African descent, and the frequently Caucasian donors. From an immuno-haematological point of view, DHTR in SCD patients has specific features: classical antibodies known to be haemolytic can be encountered, but otherwise non significant antibodies, autoantibodies and antibodies related to partial and rare blood groups are also frequently found in individuals of African descent. In some cases, there are no detectable antibodies. As alloimmunization remains the main cause of DHTR, it is extremely important to promote blood donation by individuals of African ancestry to make appropriate blood available. Copyright © 2012 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of 25 cases of exchange transfusion by reconstituted blood in hemolytic disease of newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, D. C.; Rai, Sunita; Mehra, Aakash; Kaur, M. M.; Sao, Satya; Gaur, Ajay; Sapra, Rahul

    2007-01-01

    This study was aimed to review and establish the practice of exchange transfusion (ET) with reconstituted blood in neonates and to observe fall of bilirubin and its comparison with related studies. Twenty-five neonates diagnosed as hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN) were selected for this study, in which exchange transfusion was carried out as one of the treatments for hyperbilirubinemia. Out of the 25 cases, 15 were of Rhesus (Rh) HDN, while ABO and other blood groups constituted 6 and 4 HDN cases respectively. First, the neonates's and mother's blood samples were subjected to relevant investigations. After that, for neonates having Rh HDN, O Rh negative cells suspended in AB plasma were given, O Rh positive cells suspended in AB plasma were given to ABO HDN; and O positive cells, which were indirect Coomb's cross-matched compatible with neonates’ and mother's serum / plasma, suspended in AB plasma were given to the neonates having HDN because of other blood group antibodies. The exchange transfusion (ET) was carried out taking all aseptic precautions by Push-Pull technique with double-volume exchange transfusion method. The average post-exchange fall in serum indirect bilirubin was (52.01%) in all 25 cases, which was found to be more significant than the previous studies. Looking into the superiority of the exchange transfusion in HDN by reconstituted blood, the reconstituted blood can be modified and supplied as per the requirement and conditions. PMID:21938234

  14. Study of 25 cases of exchange transfusion by reconstituted blood in hemolytic disease of newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to review and establish the practice of exchange transfusion (ET with reconstituted blood in neonates and to observe fall of bilirubin and its comparison with related studies. Twenty-five neonates diagnosed as hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN were selected for this study, in which exchange transfusion was carried out as one of the treatments for hyperbilirubinemia. Out of the 25 cases, 15 were of Rhesus (Rh HDN, while ABO and other blood groups constituted 6 and 4 HDN cases respectively. First, the neonates′ and mother′s blood samples were subjected to relevant investigations. After that, for neonates having Rh HDN, O Rh negative cells suspended in AB plasma were given, O Rh positive cells suspended in AB plasma were given to ABO HDN; and O positive cells, which were indirect Coomb′s cross-matched compatible with neonates′ and mother′s serum / plasma, suspended in AB plasma were given to the neonates having HDN because of other blood group antibodies. The exchange transfusion (ET was carried out taking all aseptic precautions by Push-Pull technique with double-volume exchange transfusion method. The average post-exchange fall in serum indirect bilirubin was (52.01% in all 25 cases, which was found to be more significant than the previous studies. Looking into the superiority of the exchange transfusion in HDN by reconstituted blood, the reconstituted blood can be modified and supplied as per the requirement and conditions.

  15. Management of High Blood Pressure in Those without Overt Cardiovascular Disease Utilising Absolute Risk Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing blood pressure has a continuum of adverse risk for cardiovascular events. Traditionally this single measure was used to determine who to treat and how vigorously. However, estimating absolute risk rather than measurement of a single risk factor such as blood pressure is a superior method to identify who is most at risk of having an adverse cardiovascular event such as stroke or myocardial infarction, and therefore who would most likely benefit from therapeutic intervention. Cardiovascular disease (CVD risk calculators must be used to estimate absolute risk in those without overt CVD as physician estimation is unreliable. Incorporation into usual practice and limitations of the strategy are discussed.

  16. Blood eosinophil count and exacerbations in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after withdrawal of inhaled corticosteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watz, Henrik; Tetzlaff, Kay; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood eosinophil counts might predict response to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and a history of exacerbations. We used data from the WISDOM trial to assess whether patients with COPD with higher blood eosinophil counts wou...... of exacerbations. Our data suggest that counts of 4% or greater or 300 cells per μL or more might identify a deleterious effect of ICS withdrawal, an effect not seen in most patients with eosinophil counts below these thresholds. FUNDING: Boehringer Ingelheim....

  17. All Clinically-Relevant Blood Components Transmit Prion Disease following a Single Blood Transfusion: A Sheep Model of vCJD

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wolf, Christopher; Tan, Boon Chin; Smith, Antony; Groschup, Martin H.; Hunter, Nora; Hornsey, Valerie S.; MacGregor, Ian R.; Prowse, Christopher V.; Turner, Marc; Manson, Jean C.

    2011-01-01

    Variant CJD (vCJD) is an incurable, infectious human disease, likely arising from the consumption of BSE-contaminated meat products. Whilst the epidemic appears to be waning, there is much concern that vCJD infection may be perpetuated in humans by the transfusion of contaminated blood products. Since 2004, several cases of transfusion-associated vCJD transmission have been reported and linked to blood collected from pre-clinically affected donors. Using an animal model in which the disease manifested resembles that of humans affected with vCJD, we examined which blood components used in human medicine are likely to pose the greatest risk of transmitting vCJD via transfusion. We collected two full units of blood from BSE-infected donor animals during the pre-clinical phase of infection. Using methods employed by transfusion services we prepared red cell concentrates, plasma and platelets units (including leucoreduced equivalents). Following transfusion, we showed that all components contain sufficient levels of infectivity to cause disease following only a single transfusion and also that leucoreduction did not prevent disease transmission. These data suggest that all blood components are vectors for prion disease transmission, and highlight the importance of multiple control measures to minimise the risk of human to human transmission of vCJD by blood transfusion. PMID:21858015

  18. Quantitative measurement of the blood flow in peripheral vascular diseases by a new radionuclide plethysmography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, K.; Mori, Y.; Mashima, Y.; Shimada, T.; Fukuoka, M.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of the study is to introduce a new plethysmography using radionuclide (RN) for a quantitative measurement of the blood flow in the extremities following the routine RN angiography. Seventy five patients with various peripheral artery diseases have been examined. RN pletysmography was performed in the supine position 15 min. after the RN angiography using 15 mCi of Tc-99m RBC. The blood flow (F) was calculated by the equation (1) which consists of three parameters, the initial slope of the time-activity curve (dc/dt*t=0) after the venous occlusion on the thigh, changes of radio-activity (C-Co) before and after avascularization by inflation of cuff with 200 mmHg pressure at calf, and the blood volume per unit tissue volume (..beta..=Vb/V,ml/100g tissue). F (ml/min/100g) = ..beta.. (dc/dt*t=0)/C-Co. The blood flow measured simultaneously by RN plethysmography and admittance plethysmography was significantly correlated (r = 0.906,n = 16). The blood flow in 67 normal subjects was 2.78 +- 0.75 ml/min/100g. In the patients with intermittent claudication the blood flow was decreased (1.89 +- 0.75 ml/min/100g,n = 75). In the cases with poorly developed colateral circulation the blood flow markedly decreased (1.62 +- 0.29 ml/min/100g,n = 10). Increases of blood flow after exercise was small in the cases with stenosis, even in patients with collaterals. This method is very useful to evaluate quantitatively the peripheral hemodynamics following the routine RN angiographic examination.

  19. Promoting blood vessel growth in ischemic diseases: challenges in translating preclinical potential into clinical success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Dragneva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenic therapy, which involves the use of an exogenous stimulus to promote blood vessel growth, is an attractive approach for the treatment of ischemic diseases. It has been shown in animal models that the stimulation of blood vessel growth leads to the growth of the whole vascular tree, improvement of ischemic tissue perfusion and improved muscle aerobic energy metabolism. However, very few positive results have been gained from Phase 2 and 3 clinical angiogenesis trials. Many reasons have been given for the failures of clinical trials, including poor transgene expression (in gene-therapy trials and instability of the vessels induced by therapy. In this Review, we discuss the selection of preclinical models as one of the main reasons why clinical translation has been unsuccessful thus far. This issue has received little attention, but could have had dramatic implications on the expectations of clinical trials. We highlight crucial differences between human patients and animal models with regards to blood flow and pressure, as well as issues concerning the chronic nature of ischemic diseases in humans. We use these as examples to demonstrate why the results from preclinical trials might have overestimated the efficacy of angiogenic therapies developed to date. We also suggest ways in which currently available animal models of ischemic disease could be improved to better mimic human disease conditions, and offer advice on how to work with existing models to avoid overestimating the efficacy of new angiogenic therapies.

  20. Extracellular Nucleic Acids in Blood of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa E. Muravlyova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of extracellular nucleic acids and acid-soluble precursors of nucleic acids in blood of patients with different forms and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD were evaluated. The significant increase of the content of extracellular RNA and acid-soluble precursors of nucleic acids in plasma of patients with COPD was detected. The decrease of extracellular RNA in plasma of patients with COPD worsening was diagnosed. Extracellular DNA in plasma and red blood cells of patients didn’t change significantly. The article examines the mechanisms of extracellular nucleic acids increase in blood of COPD patients, studies the possible role of extracellular RNA in development of coagulation disorders in COPD patients. The further research of the role of extracellular nucleic acids and their precursors in COPD progression is required

  1. Use of Repeated Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Measurements to Improve Cardiovascular Disease Risk Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paige, Ellie; Barrett, Jessica; Pennells, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The added value of incorporating information from repeated blood pressure and cholesterol measurements to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has not been rigorously assessed. We used data on 191,445 adults from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (38 cohorts from 17 countries with data...... encompassing 1962-2014) with more than 1 million measurements of systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Over a median 12 years of follow-up, 21,170 CVD events occurred. Risk prediction models using cumulative mean values of repeated measurements and summary...... improvements were 0.0369 (95% CI: 0.0303, 0.0436) for the cumulative-means model and 0.0177 (95% CI: 0.0110, 0.0243) for the longitudinal model. In conclusion, incorporating repeated measurements of blood pressure and cholesterol into CVD risk prediction models slightly improves risk prediction....

  2. Healing of ulcers on the feet correlated with distal blood pressure measurements in occlusive arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, P; Lassen, N A

    1980-01-01

    The frequency of healing in subchronic ulcers in 66 feet in 62 patients with arterial occlusive disease was correlated with the systolic digital blood pressure (SDBP) and the systolic ankle blood pressure (SABP), both measured with a strain gauge, and with the skin perfusion pressure on the heel...... (SPPH) as measured with a photocell. Thirty-two patients (35 feet with ulcerations) had diabetes mellitus. The treatment was conservative. In 42 feet the ulcers healed after an average period of 5.8 months; in 24 feet major amputation became necessary after an average of 4.3 months. The frequency...... of healing correlated significantly with the three distal blood pressure parameters investigated, the closest correlation being with the SDBP measured at the final examination, i.e. just after healing of the ulcer or just before an inevitable major amputation. Of the 22 cases with SDBP below 20 mmHg only two...

  3. Benefits of exercise training on coronary blood flow in coronary artery disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, Rebecca S; Sturek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Every 34 seconds an American experiences a myocardial infarction or cardiac death. Approximately 80% of these coronary artery disease (CAD)-related deaths are attributable to modifiable behaviors, such as a lack of physical exercise training (ET). Regular ET decreases CAD morbidity and mortality through systemic and cardiac-specific adaptations. ET increases myocardial oxygen demand acting as a stimulus to increase coronary blood flow and thus myocardial oxygen supply, which reduces myocardial infarction and angina. ET augments coronary blood flow through direct actions on the vasculature that improve endothelial and coronary smooth muscle function, enhancing coronary vasodilation. Additionally, ET promotes collateralization, thereby, increasing blood flow to ischemic myocardium and also treats macrovascular CAD by attenuating the progression of coronary atherosclerosis and restenosis, potentially through stabilization of atherosclerotic lesions. In summary, ET can be used as a relatively safe and inexpensive way to prevent and treat CAD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of depressive symptoms with circadian blood pressure alterations in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrano, Davide L; Pisciotta, Maria S; Lo Monaco, Maria R; Onder, Graziano; Laudisio, Alice; Brandi, Vincenzo; La Carpia, Domenico; Guglielmo, Mauro; Nacchia, Antonio; Fusco, Domenico; Ricciardi, Diego; Bentivoglio, Anna R; Bernabei, Roberto; Zuccalà, Giuseppe

    2015-11-01

    To assess whether among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) depression, a common non-motor symptom associated with reduced survival, is associated with cardiovascular dysautonomia. We enrolled 125 subjects with PD consecutively admitted to a geriatric day hospital. All participants underwent comprehensive evaluation, fasting blood sampling, and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. The percent reduction in nocturnal blood pressure (dipping) was calculated. Depressive symptoms were assessed through the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS); a score ≥5 identified moderate to severe symptoms. Among participants (mean age 72.7 ± 7.8 years, 32 % women) 61 subjects (49 %) presented with a GDS score ≥ 5. When compared with other participants, subjects with a GDS score ≥ 5 had reduced adjusted levels of percent systolic (-2.6 ± 2.7 vs. 4.7 ± 2.5; p = 0.003), diastolic (0.6 ± 2.8 vs. 7.4 ± 2.6; p = 0.007), and mean blood pressure dipping (-0.7 ± 2.6 vs. 6.8 ± 2.5; p = 0.002). In separate logistic regression models, depressive symptoms were associated with reduced systolic (OR 0.94; 95 % CI 0.89; 0.98), diastolic (OR 0.94; 95 % CI 0.90; 0.99), and mean blood pressure dipping (OR 0.93; 95 % CI 0.89; 0.98), after adjusting for potential confounders. Depressive symptoms are prevalent, and independently associated with cardiovascular dysautonomia among patients with Parkinson's disease. This might explain the remarkable incidence of sudden death, as well as the association of depressive symptoms with reduced survival reported in these patients. The finding of depressive symptoms in subjects with Parkinson's disease should therefore prompt assessment of cardiovascular autonomic function.

  5. Thyroid stimulating hormone levels in cord blood are not influenced by non-thyroidal mothers' diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sterian Ward

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Screening programs not only offer the opportunity to trace and treat almost all cases of congenital hypothyroidism but also mean large savings to the health system. However, carefully planned strategies are necessary to extend their benefits and reduce costs. OBJECTIVE: To determine the possible influence of maternal diseases that affect maternal-fetal placenta dynamics on primary thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH screening for congenital hypothyroidism. DESIGN: Prospective non-randomized clinical trial with at least 3 months of follow-up. SETTING: A public university referral center [CAISM/Hospital das Clínicas, Faculty of Medicine, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP]. PARTICIPANTS: 415 neonates divided into 5 groups: eighty-three infants born from cardiac mothers; 98 from mothers that had toxemia; 54 of the mothers had diabetes mellitus; 40 were HIV positive and 140 had no diseases. INTERVENTION: All newborns had cord blood samples collected on filter paper at birth. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: TSH was measured from dried blood spots using a homemade immunofluorescence assay (sensitivity in dried blood spots = 0.1 mU/L. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the mean TSH levels among the 5 groups. Moreover, TSH levels were around 5 mU/L in 48% of the newborns, indicating that our region is severely deficient in iodine. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that primary TSH screening programs using cord blood are not affected by maternal diseases. We suggest that, besides its technical advantages over heel punctures with T4 primary approaches, neonatal screening using primary cord blood TSH may also be used as a monitoring tool for evaluation and control of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD.

  6. Studies of cerebral atrophy and regional cerebral blood flow in patients with Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Shin

    1983-01-01

    Cerebral atrophy and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of 25 patients with Parkinson's disease were studied. The rCBF was measured with the intra-arterial Xe-133 injection method. The results obtained were as follows: 1) Sixty four % of Parkinson's disease patients showed ventricular dilation, and 76% of Parkinson's disease patients showed cortical atrophy on the CT scan, but we had to allow for the effects of the natural aging process on these results. 2) No correlation was recognized either between cerebral atrophy and the severity of Parkinson's disease, or between cerebral atrophy and the duration of Parkinson's disease. 3) In Parkinson's disease patients, the mean rCBF was lower than that of normal control subjects. The difference was even more remarkable in older patients. Only 40% of Parkinson's disease patients showed hyperfrontal pattern. 4) There was no correlation either between the mean rCBF and the severity of Parkinson's disease, or between the mean rCBF and the duration of Parkinson's disease. There was no significant difference between the mean rCBF of Parkinson's disease patients receiving levodopa and that of untreated patients. 5) The mean rCBF decreased in patients with cerebral atrophy on the CT scan. 6) Parkinson's disease patients with intellectual impairment showed cerebral atrophy and a remarkable decrease of the mean rCBF. 7) The effect of aging on cerebral atrophy on the CT scan had to be allowed for, but judging from the decrease of the mean rCBF, the cerebral cortex is evidently involved in Parkinson's disease. 8) The rCBF decline in Parkinson's disease patients may be related with the diminished cortical metabolic rate due to a remote effect of striatal dysfunction and a disturbance of mesocortical dopaminergic pathways. (J.P.N.)

  7. GLP-1 analog raises glucose transport capacity of blood-brain barrier in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, M.; Brock, B.; Egefjord, L.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Glucose enters the brain tissue from plasma by facilitated diffusion across the two membranes of the endothelium of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), mediated by the glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). There is evidence in Alzheimer's disease (AD) of reduction of glucose transport across...... the blood-brain barrier, due to diminished GLUT1 translocation and expression at the BBB. Reduced BBB GLUT1 expression is known to aggravate AD pathology and further impair cognitive function, implying that GLUT1 may be a potential target of therapy directed towards AD neurovascular dysfunction...... and degeneration. Hypothesis: The incretin hormone GLP-1 prevents the decline of the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose that signifies cognitive impairment, synaptic dysfunction, and disease evolution in AD, and GLP-1 may directly activate GLUT1 transport in brain capillary endothelium. For this reason, we here...

  8. Blood transfusions for treating acute chest syndrome in people with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastgiri, Saeed; Dolatkhah, Roya

    2016-08-30

    Sickle cell disease is an inherited autosomal recessive blood condition and is one of the most prevalent genetic blood diseases worldwide. Acute chest syndrome is a frequent complication of sickle cell disease, as well as a major cause of morbidity and the greatest single cause of mortality in children with sickle cell disease. Standard treatment may include intravenous hydration, oxygen as treatment for hypoxia, antibiotics to treat the infectious cause and blood transfusions may be given. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2010. To assess the effectiveness of blood transfusions, simple and exchange, for treating acute chest syndrome by comparing improvement in symptoms and clinical outcomes against standard care. We searched The Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearching of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of the most recent search: 25 April 2016. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing either simple or exchange transfusion versus standard care (no transfusion) in people with sickle cell disease suffering from acute chest syndrome. Both authors independently selected trials and assessed the risk of bias, no data could be extracted. One trial was eligible for inclusion in the review. While in the multicentre trial 237 people were enrolled (169 SCC, 42 SC, 15 Sβ⁰-thalassemia, 11Sβ(+)-thalassemia); the majority were recruited to an observational arm and only ten participants met the inclusion criteria for randomisation. Of these, four were randomised to the transfusion arm and received a single transfusion of 7 to 13 ml/kg packed red blood cells, and six were randomised to standard care. None of the four participants who received packed red blood cells developed acute chest syndrome, while 33% (two participants

  9. Oscillometric blood pressure measurement: a simple method in screening for peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Jesper; Wiinberg, Niels; Bruce, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Blood pressure at the ankle level is a reliable indicator of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and the ankle brachial index (ABI) is a useful non-invasive screening tool for the early detection of atherosclerosis. In the first part of the study, systolic blood pressures obtained by oscillometry...... and plethysmography were compared in 80 subjects referred for possible vascular disease. In the second part of the study, 31 general practitioners enrolled 1258 consecutive patients aged more than 60 years. ABI was estimated by oscillometry. Patients with an ABI lower than 0.9 were referred to the local hospital...... of PAD was sufficiently high in subjects over the age of 60 years to warrant screening. The ankle brachial index based on measurements with an oscillometric device was shown reliable in the exclusion of PAD, thereby fulfilling an important criterion for the use in screening....

  10. Cigarette smoking impairs nitric oxide-mediated cerebral blood flow increase: Implications for Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Toda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral blood flow is mainly regulated by nitrergic (parasympathetic, postganglionic nerves and nitric oxide (NO liberated from endothelial cells in response to shear stress and stretch of vasculature, whereas sympathetic vasoconstrictor control is quite weak. On the other hand, peripheral vascular resistance and blood flow are mainly controlled by adrenergic vasoconstrictor nerves; endothelium-derived NO and nitrergic nerves play some roles as vasodilator factors. Cigarette smoking impairs NO synthesis in cerebral vascular endothelial cells and nitrergic nerves leading to interference with cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in the brain. Smoking-induced cerebral hypoperfusion is induced by impairment of synthesis and actions of NO via endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS/neuronal NOS (nNOS inhibition and by increased production of oxygen radicals, resulting in decreased actions of NO on vascular smooth muscle. Nicotine acutely and chronically impairs the action of endothelial NO and also inhibits nitrergic nerve function in chronic use. Impaired cerebral blood supply promotes the synthesis of amyloid β that accelerates blood flow decrease. This vicious cycle is thought to be one of the important factors involving in Alzheimer's disease (AD. Quitting smoking is undoubtedly one of the important ways to prevent and delay the genesis or slow the progress of impaired cognitive function and AD.

  11. Tattoos and transfusion-transmitted disease risk: implications for the screening of blood donors in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio de A. Nishioka

    Full Text Available Having a tattoo has been associated with serological evidence of hepatitis B and C viruses, as well as human immunodeficiency virus infections and syphilis; all of these are known to be transmissible by blood transfusion. These associations are of higher magnitude for individuals with nonprofessionally-applied tattoos and with two or more tattoos. Tattoos are common among drug addicts and prisoners, conditions that are also associated with transfusion-transmitted diseases. We examined the implications of these associations for the screening of blood donors in Brazil. Numbers of individuals who would be correctly or unnecessarily deferred from blood donation on the basis of the presence of tattoos, and on their number and type, were calculated for different prevalence situations based on published odds ratios. If having a tattoo was made a deferral criterion, cost savings (due to a reduced need for laboratory testing and subsequent follow-up would accrue at the expense of the deferral of appropriate donors. Restricting deferral to more `at-risk' sub-groups of tattooed individuals would correctly defer less individuals and would also reduce the numbers of potential donors unnecessarily deferred. Key factors in balancing cost savings and unnecessary deferrals include the magnitude of the pool of blood donors in the population, the prevalence of individuals with tattoos and the `culture' of tattoos in the population. Tattoos can therefore be an efficient criterion for the screening of blood donors in certain settings, a finding that requires corroboration from larger population-based studies.

  12. Factors affecting regional pulmonary blood flow in chronic ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistolesi, M.; Miniati, M.; Bonsignore, M.

    1988-01-01

    To assess the effect of left heart disease on pulmonary blood flow distribution, we measured mean pulmonary arterial and wedge pressures, cardiac output, pulmonary vascular resistance, pulmonary blood volume, and arterial oxygen tension before and after treatment in 13 patients with longstanding ischemic heart failure and pulmonary edema. Pulmonary edema was evaluated by a radiographic score, and regional lung perfusion was quantified on a lung scan by the upper to lower third ratio (U:L ratio) of pulmonary blood flow per unit of lung volume. In all cases, redistribution of lung perfusion toward the apical regions was observed; this pattern was not affected by treatment. After treatment, pulmonary vascular pressures, resistance, and edema were reduced, while pulmonary blood volume did not change. At this time, pulmonary vascular resistance showed a positive correlation with the U:L ratio (r = 0.78; P less than 0.01), whereas no correlation was observed between U:L ratio and wedge pressure, pulmonary edema, or arterial oxygen tension. Hence, redistribution of pulmonary blood flow, in these patients, reflects chronic structural vascular changes prevailing in the dependent lung regions

  13. High blood pressure during pregnancy is associated with future cardiovascular disease: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooher, Jane; Chiu, Christine L; Yeung, Kristen; Lupton, Samantha J; Thornton, Charlene; Makris, Angela; O'Loughlin, Aiden; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to determine if having a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) is a risk factor for future cardiovascular disease (CVD), independent of age and body mass index (BMI). Data were sourced from the baseline questionnaire of the 45 and Up Study, Australia, an observational cohort study. Participants were randomly selected from the Australian Medicare Database within New South Wales. A total of 84 619 women were eligible for this study, of which 71 819 were included. These women had given birth between the ages of 18 and 45 years, had an intact uterus and ovaries, and had not been diagnosed with high blood pressure prior to their first pregnancy. HDP was associated with higher odds of having high blood pressure (high blood pressure (45.6 vs 54.8 years, phigh blood pressure, compared with women who were normotensive during pregnancy (high blood pressure (<58 years: 12.48, 10.63 to 14.66; p<0.001 and ≥58 years, 5.16, 4.54 to 5.86; p<0.001), compared with healthy weight women with a normotensive pregnancy. HDP is an independent risk factor for future CVD, and this risk is further exacerbated by the presence of overweight or obesity in later life.

  14. Infrared Imaging of Nitric Oxide-Mediated Blood Flow in Human Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbach, Alexander M.; Ackerman, Hans C.; Liu, Wei-Min; Meyer, Joseph M.; Littel, Patricia L.; Seamon, Catherine; Footman, Eleni; Chi, Amy; Zorca, Suzana; Krajewski, Megan L.; Cuttica, Michael J.; Machado, Roberto F.; Cannon, Richard O.; Kato, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular dysfunction is an important pathophysiologic manifestation of sickle cell disease (SCD), a condition that increases risk of pulmonary hypertension and stroke. We hypothesized that infrared (IR) imaging would detect changes in cutaneous blood flow reflective of vascular function. We performed IR imaging and conventional strain gauge plethysmography in twenty-five adults with SCD at baseline and during intra-arterial infusions of an endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine (ACh), an endothelium-independent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and a NOS inhibitor L-NMMA. Skin temperature measured by IR imaging increased in a dose-dependent manner to graded infusions of ACh (+1.1° C, p imaging correlated significantly with baseline forearm blood flow (31.8±0.2° C, 6.0±0.4 mL/min/100mL; r = 0.58, p = 0.003), and appeared to represent a novel biomarker of vascular function. It predicted a blunted blood flow response to SNP (r = −0.61, p = 0.002), and was independently associated with a marker of pulmonary artery pressure, as well as hemoglobin level, diastolic blood pressure, homocysteine, and cholesterol (R2 = 0.84, p imaging of agonist-stimulated cutaneous blood flow represents a less cumbersome alternative to plethysmography methodology. Measurement of baseline skin temperature by IR imaging may be a useful new marker of vascular risk in adults with SCD. PMID:22784510

  15. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenic patients; In relation to the subtypes of the disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagawa, Katsuo; Sibuya, Isoo; Oiji, Arata; Kawakatsu, Sinobu; Morinobu, Shigeru; Totsuka, Shiro (Yamagata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Kinoshita, Osami; Yazaki, Mitsuyasu

    1990-03-01

    Seventy-six schizophrenic patients were examined by a Xe-133 inhalation method to determine regional cerebral blood flow. A decreased blood flow was observed in the frontal lobe, especially in the right inferior part. In a study on the relationship between disease subtypes and regional cerebral blood flow, negative symptoms were found more predominantly associated with dissolution type than delusion type. In the group of dissolution type, a decreased blood flow was observed in both the right inferior frontal lobe and the right upper hemisphere, in comparison to the group of delution type. Patients presenting with auditory hallucination had a significantly higher incidence of both negative and positive symptoms, as compared with those not presenting with it. In such patients, a significantly decreased blood flow was also seen in the left upper frontal lobe and the bilateral parietal lobe. Xe-133 inhalation method should assist in evaluating brain function in schizophrenic patients, thus leading to the likelihood of developing a new treatment modality. (N.K.).

  16. Biostable insect kinin analogs reduce blood meal and disrupt ecdysis in the blood-gorging Chagas’ disease vector, Rhodnius prolixus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodnius prolixus is a blood-gorging hemipteran that takes blood meals that are approximately 10 times its body weight. This blood meal is crucial for growth and development and is needed to ensure a successful molt into the next instar. Kinins are a multifunctional family of neuropeptides which hav...

  17. The relationship between ABO blood group and cardiovascular disease: results from the Cardiorisk program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuzzo, Enrico; Bonfanti, Carlo; Frattini, Francesco; Montorsi, Paolo; Turdo, Rosalia; Previdi, Maria Grazia; Turrini, Elisa; Franchini, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    The ABO blood group exerts a profound influence on hemostasis, and it has hence been associated with the development of thrombotic cardiovascular adverse events. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the ABO blood group and the risk of cardiovascular disease assessed with the Cardiorisk score. All blood donors aged between 35 and 65 years were enrolled in the Cardiorisk program, which included the assessment of 8 variables (sex, age, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, plasma glucose, arterial blood pressure, anti-hypertensive therapy and smoking) which were used to generate a score. Individuals with a resulting score ≥20, considered at high cardiovascular risk, underwent additional instrumental tests (chest X-ray, stress electrocardiogram and Doppler ultrasound of supra-aortic trunks) and were closely clinically monitored. Between January 2005 and December 2015, 289 blood donors with Cardiorisk ≥20 were identified, 249 of whom were included in the study with at least 2 years of follow-up. Among these, 36 (14.5%) had instrumental abnormality tests and developed adverse cardiovascular events (10 acute coronary syndrome, 2 cerebral ischemia, 3 cardiac arrhythmia, 8 stenosis of supra-aortic trunks or iliac arteries) during a median follow-up of 5.3 years. In this group of 249 high risk individuals, a statistically significant association (P=0.02) was found between the non-O blood type and the risk of developing subclinical or clinical cardiovascular events (odds ratio, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.1-10.1; P=0.033). The results of this study underline the both key role of ABO blood group for the risk of developing arterial thrombotic events and the need for including such unmodifiable variable on the scores assessing the thrombotic risk.

  18. Blood type gene locus has no influence on ACE association with Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Braae, Anne; Medway, Christopher; Carrasquillo, Minerva; Younkin, Steven; Kehoe, Patrick G.; Morgan, Kevin; Alzheimer's Research UK

    2015-01-01

    The ABO blood group locus was recently found to contribute independently as well as via interactions with ACE gene variation to plasma levels of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). Variation in ACE has also previously been implicated as conferring susceptibility for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but has also been proposed to confer risk via interactions with other as yet unknown genes. More recently, larger studies have not supported ACE as a risk factor for AD, while the role of ACE pathway in ...

  19. A SURVEY OF RETINA BASED DISEASE IDENTIFICATION USING BLOOD VESSEL SEGMENTATION

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    P Kuppusamy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The colour retinal photography is one of the most essential features to identify the confirmation of various eye diseases. The iris is primary attribute to authenticate the human. This research work presents the survey and comparison of various blood vessel related feature identification, segmentation, extraction and enhancement methods. Additionally, this study is observed the various databases performance for storing the images and testing in minimal time. This paper is also provides the better performance techniques based on the survey.

  20. Blood transfusion and 30-day readmission rate in adult patients hospitalized with sickle cell disease crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouraie, Mehdi; Gordeuk, Victor R

    2015-10-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) patients hospitalized with vasoocclusive pain crisis tend to have prolonged length of stay (LOS) and high 30-day readmission rates. We investigated the associations of demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and blood transfusion during hospitalization with these outcomes. Repeated regression analysis was used to analyze 39,324 admissions of 4348 adults with sickle cell crisis from 2007 to 2012 in the Truven Health MarketScan Medicaid Databases. The mean (95% range) LOS was 5.9 (1.0-19.0) days and the 30-day readmission rate was 39.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 39.1%-40.0%). Older age; chronic cardiopulmonary, renal, or liver disease; and sepsis were associated with both longer LOS and greater 30-day readmission rate. Female sex, iron overload, acute chest syndrome, acute renal failure, and stroke were additional predictors of longer LOS. Simple red blood cell transfusion was administered in 31.8% of the admissions, and these patients tended to have more severe disease (chronic cardiopulmonary or kidney disease, acute chest syndrome, acute kidney or liver failure, sepsis). Nevertheless, transfusion was associated with a reduced estimated odds ratio (OR) of inpatient mortality of 0.75 (95% CI, 0.57-0.99) and a decreased OR of 30-day readmission of 0.78 (95% CI, 0.73-0.83). Our findings point to blood transfusion as a potential means to reduce the 30-day readmission rate among Medicaid patients hospitalized with sickle cell crisis. There is a need for a prospective study to examine the potential benefit and safety of simple blood transfusion for this purpose. © 2015 AABB.

  1. Optical force on diseased blood cells: Towards the optical sorting of biological matter

    KAUST Repository

    Gongora, J. S. Totero

    2015-05-01

    By employing a series of massively parallel ab-initio simulations, we study how optical forces act on biological matter subject to morphological disease. As a representative case study, we here consider the case of Plasmodium falciparum on red blood cells (RBC) illuminated by a monochromatic plane wave. Realistic parameters for the geometry and the refractive index are then taken from published experiments. In our theoretical campaign, we study the dependence of the optical force on the disease stage for different incident wavelengths. We show that optical forces change significantly with the disease, with amplitude variation in the hundreds of pN range. Our results open up new avenues for the design of new optical systems for the treatment of human disease. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Liver function in Huntington's disease assessed by blood biochemical analyses in a clinical setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Marie Borch; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen E.

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited, progressive neurological disorder caused by a CAG repeat elongation in the huntingtin gene. In addition to motor-, psychiatric- A nd cognitive dysfunction, peripheral disease manifestations in the form of metabolic changes and cellular...... indicated by the Unified Huntington's disease rating scale-Total Functional Capacity Score (UHDRS-TFC). For gamma-glutamyl transferase, elevated levels were more frequent in the manifest groups than in both the HD gene-expansion negative controls and premanifest HD gene-expansion carriers. Finally...... dysfunction are seen. Blood levels of a wide range of hormones, metabolites and proteins have been analyzed in HD patients, identifying several changes associated with the disease. However, a comprehensive panel of liver function tests (LFT) has not been performed. We investigated a cohort of manifest...

  3. Newborn blood spot screening for sickle cell disease by using tandem mass spectrometry: implementation of a protocol to identify only the disease states of sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moat, Stuart J; Rees, Derek; King, Lawrence; Ifederu, Adeboye; Harvey, Katie; Hall, Kate; Lloyd, Geoff; Morrell, Christine; Hillier, Sharon

    2014-02-01

    The currently recommended technologies of HPLC and isoelectric focusing for newborn blood spot screening for sickle cell disease (SCD) identify both the disease and carrier states, resulting in large numbers of infants being followed up unnecessarily. Analysis of blood spot tryptic peptides performed by using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is an alternative technology to detect hemoglobin (Hb) variant disorders. We analyzed 2154 residual newborn blood spots and 675 newborn blood spots from infants with Hb variants by using MS/MS after trypsin digestion. Screening cutoffs were developed by using the ratio between the variant peptide-to-wild-type peptide abundance for HbS, C, D(Punjab), O(Arab), Lepore, and E peptides. A postanalytical data analysis protocol was developed using these cutoffs to detect only the disease states of SCD and not to identify carrier states. A parallel study of 13 249 newborn blood spots from a high-prevalence SCD area were analyzed by both MS/MS and HPLC. Screening cutoffs developed distinguished the infants with the disease states of SCD, infants who were carriers of SCD, and infants with normal Hb. In the parallel study no false-negative results were identified, and all clinically relevant cases were correctly identified using the MS/MS protocol. Unblinding the data revealed a total of 328 carrier infants that were successfully excluded by the protocol. The screening protocol developed correctly identified infants with the disease states of SCD. Furthermore, large numbers of sickle cell carrier infants were successfully not identified, thereby avoiding unnecessary follow-up testing and referral for genetic counseling.

  4. Specific features of a neonatal period in infants following intrauterine intravascular blood transfusion for fetal hemolytic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ivanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives data on the characteristics of a neonatal period in infants following intrauterine blood transfusion for Rh-induced fetal hemolytic disease. It is shown that the early diagnosis and detection of the signs of fetal hemolytic disease, and intrauterine intravascular blood transfusion may prolong pregnancy, ensure the birth of a baby with normal anthropometric indicators, optimize his/her neonatal period and prognosis of severe hemolytic disease in the fetus and newborn.

  5. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of regional cerebral blood flow in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemcov, A.; Barclay, L.L.; Sansone, J.; Metz, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to quantitatively assess the ability of individual detectors in a 32-detector 133 Xe inhalation system to discriminate between two populations over the range of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) values. These populations were clinically evaluated as normal (age 63.1 +/- 13.1, n = 23) and presumed Alzheimer's disease (age 72.7 +/- 7.0, n = 82). Summary statistics showed that for homologous detectors the average value of blood flow in the normal group was greater than the flow value in the group of subjects with Alzheimer's disease. Conclusions drawn from single values of flow or mean hemispheric flow can lead to erroneous conclusions about hemisphere asymmetries. However, the dynamic relationship between the correct identifications (true positives) compared with incorrect identifications (false positives) of Alzheimer's disease at each detector varies over the range of blood flow values, and quantitative characterization of this relationship in terms of an ROC curve provides more insight into the structure of the data. Detectors approximating the speech, auditory and association cortex were most effective in discriminating between groups. Frontal detectors were marginally useful diagnostically

  6. Novel candidate blood-based transcriptional biomarkers of Machado-Joseph disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Mafalda; Bettencourt, Conceição; Maciel, Patrícia; Gao, Fuying; Ramos, Amanda; Kazachkova, Nadiya; Vasconcelos, João; Kay, Teresa; Rodrigues, Ana João; Bettencourt, Bruno; Bruges-Armas, Jácome; Geschwind, Daniel; Coppola, Giovanni; Lima, Manuela

    2015-06-01

    Machado-Joseph disease (or spinocerebellar ataxia type 3) is a late-onset polyglutamine neurodegenerative disorder caused by a mutation in the ATXN3 gene, which encodes for the ubiquitously expressed protein ataxin-3. Previous studies on cell and animal models have suggested that mutated ataxin-3 is involved in transcriptional dysregulation. Starting with a whole-transcriptome profiling of peripheral blood samples from patients and controls, we aimed to confirm abnormal expression profiles in Machado-Joseph disease and to identify promising up-regulated genes as potential candidate biomarkers of disease status. The Illumina Human V4-HT12 array was used to measure transcriptome-wide gene expression in peripheral blood samples from 12 patients and 12 controls. Technical validation and validation in an independent set of samples were performed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Based on the results from the microarray, twenty six genes, found to be up-regulated in patients, were selected for technical validation by quantitative real-time PCR (validation rate of 81% for the up-regulation trend). Fourteen of these were further tested in an independent set of 42 patients and 35 controls; 10 genes maintained the up-regulation trend (FCGR3B, CSR2RA, CLC, TNFSF14, SLA, P2RY13, FPR2, SELPLG, YIPF6, and GPR96); FCGR3B, P2RY13, and SELPLG were significantly up-regulated in patients when compared with controls. Our findings support the hypothesis that mutated ataxin-3 is associated with transcription dysregulation, detectable in peripheral blood cells. Furthermore, this is the first report suggesting a pool of up-regulated genes in Machado-Joseph disease that may have the potential to be used for fine phenotyping of this disease. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  7. AETIOPATHOGENESIS OF FEVER IN HOSPITALISED SICKLE CELL DISEASE CHILDREN REVISITED WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO BLOOD CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhana Panda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Sickle Cell Disease (SCD poses a considerable health burden in India. The sickle gene is widespread among many tribal population groups in India with prevalence of heterozygotes varying from 1-40 percent. The disease has multiple acute and chronic complications, including haemolytic crises, severe pain, renal complications, thromboembolic phenomenon and overwhelming infections; some complications of SCD generate high mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a cross-sectional, hospital inpatient based, observational study. Convenience sampling technique was used to include 74 consecutively diagnosed cases of sickle cell disease children less than 14 years of age and suffering from fever. A blood culture was performed in each case prior to starting of antibiotics. RESULTS The present study comprised of 74 children with confirmed sickle cell disease admitted to ward with fever. The largest numbers of cases were between 1 to 3 years age group. Febrile episodes decreased as the age advanced. Around 30% of febrile patients presented with cough followed by 24% with pain in limbs. Anaemia was the most common physical finding (92% followed by splenomegaly in 86% cases. URTI being most common aetiology. Most common organism isolated by blood culture was Staph. aureus in 8 samples. CONCLUSION As because fever is a consistent finding in severe bacterial infections, extensive evaluation, early intervention in febrile SCD children may reduce the morbidity and mortality rates. Although, the greatest concern has traditionally been S. pneumoniae, effective vaccination has reduced its incidence. It is probably wise to treat all highly febrile children with sickle cell disease with antibiotics pending the results of blood culture. Strengthening of routine immunisation programme is needed.

  8. Blood levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP in patients with neurological diseases.

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    Christoph A Mayer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The brain-specific astroglial protein GFAP is a blood biomarker candidate indicative of intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with symptoms suspicious of acute stroke. Comparably little, however, is known about GFAP release in other neurological disorders. In order to identify potential "specificity gaps" of a future GFAP test used to diagnose intracerebral hemorrhage, we measured GFAP in the blood of a large and rather unselected collective of patients with neurological diseases. METHODS: Within a one-year period, we randomly selected in-patients of our university hospital for study inclusion. Patients with ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack and intracerebral hemorrhage were excluded. Primary endpoint was the ICD-10 coded diagnosis reached at discharge. During hospital stay, blood was collected, and GFAP plasma levels were determined using an advanced prototype immunoassay at Roche Diagnostics. RESULTS: A total of 331 patients were included, covering a broad spectrum of neurological diseases. GFAP levels were low in the vast majority of patients, with 98.5% of cases lying below the cut-off that was previously defined for the differentiation of intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke. No diagnosis or group of diagnoses was identified that showed consistently increased GFAP values. No association with age and sex was found. CONCLUSION: Most acute and chronic neurological diseases, including typical stroke mimics, are not associated with detectable GFAP levels in the bloodstream. Our findings underline the hypothesis that rapid astroglial destruction as in acute intracerebral hemorrhage is mandatory for GFAP increase. A future GFAP blood test applied to identify patients with intracerebral hemorrhage is likely to have a high specificity.

  9. [The discarding of blood units and the prevalence of infectious diseases in donors at the Pro-Blood Foundation/Blood Center of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Nanci A; Sabino, Ester C; Barreto, Claudia C; Barreto, Angela M E; Otani, Marcia M; Chamone, Dalton F

    2003-01-01

    To analyze the changes in the proportion of blood units discarded from 1991 through 2001 at the Pro-Blood Foundation/Blood Center of São Paulo (Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro de São Paulo), which is the largest blood bank in Latin America, and to determine the prevalence of infectious diseases among donors at the Blood Center in November 2001. We compiled data concerning the discarding of blood units due to the presence of serological markers for communicable diseases at the Blood Center during the period from 1991 through 2001. To determine the prevalence of infectious diseases, 9 942 screened samples were analyzed in November 2001; all reactive samples underwent confirmatory tests. Over the study period there was a significant decrease in the percentage of units discarded, from 20% in 1991 to 9% in 2001. In November 2001 the prevalence of infectious diseases among donors was: 0.04% for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 0.21% for hepatitis C virus (HCV), 0.06% for human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV), 0.14% for Chagas' disease, and 1.10% for syphilis. For hepatitis B virus, the prevalences found were: 0.14% for anti-HBc and HBsAg, 1.68% for anti-HBc and anti-HBs, and 1.67% for isolated anti-HBc. The decrease in the discarding of blood units and in infectious diseases among donors at the Blood Center of São Paulo reflects the increase in the Center's percentage of repeat donors.

  10. Cellular changes in blood indicate severe respiratory disease during influenza infections in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Dengler

    Full Text Available Influenza A infection is a serious threat to human and animal health. Many of the biological mechanisms of the host-pathogen-interactions are still not well understood and reliable biomarkers indicating the course of the disease are missing. The mouse is a valuable model system enabling us to study the local inflammatory host response and the influence on blood parameters under controlled circumstances. Here, we compared the lung and peripheral changes after PR8 (H1N1 influenza A virus infection in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice using virus variants of different pathogenicity resulting in non-lethal and lethal disease. We monitored hematological and immunological parameters revealing that the granulocyte to lymphocyte ratio in the blood represents an early indicator of severe disease progression already two days after influenza A infection in mice. These findings might be relevant to optimize early diagnostic options of severe influenza disease and to monitor successful therapeutic treatment in humans.

  11. The gut-blood barrier permeability - A new marker in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufnal, Marcin; Pham, Kinga

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that blood-borne metabolites of gut microbiota, such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) are involved in the aetiology of cardiovascular diseases and may serve as markers of cardiovascular risk. To enter the bloodstream the microbiota-derived molecules need to pass the gut-blood barrier (GBB). The GBB plays an important role in maintaining organism homeostasis. It is a complex multi-layer system which determines the absorption of nutrients, water and many other substances. The integrity and permeability of the GBB may be impaired in numerous diseases including gastrointestinal, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Here, we propose that the evaluation of the GBB permeability may have a significant diagnostic potential in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Second, we suggest that the GBB permeability is a variable that confounds diagnostic value of new gut microbiota-derived biomarkers such as TMAO. Therefore, cardiovascular risk assessment requires the evaluation of both TMAO and the GBB permeability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The main sceneries of Chagas disease transmission. The vectors, blood and oral transmissions - A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigues Coura

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi by the most important domestic vectors, blood transfusion and oral intake. Among the vectors, Triatoma infestans, Panstrongylus megistus, Rhodnius prolixus, Triatoma dimidiata, Triatoma brasiliensis, Triatoma pseudomaculata, Triatoma sordida, Triatoma maculata, Panstrongylus geniculatus, Rhodnius ecuadoriensis and Rhodnius pallescens can be highlighted. Transmission of Chagas infection, which has been brought under control in some countries in South and Central America, remains a great challenge, particularly considering that many endemic countries do not have control over blood donors. Even more concerning is the case of non-endemic countries that receive thousands of migrants from endemic areas that carry Chagas disease, such as the United States of America, in North America, Spain, in Europe, Japan, in Asia, and Australia, in Oceania. In the Brazilian Amazon Region, since Shaw et al. (1969 described the first acute cases of the disease caused by oral transmission, hundreds of acute cases of the disease due to oral transmission have been described in that region, which is today considered to be endemic for oral transmission. Several other outbreaks of acute Chagas disease by oral transmission have been described in different states of Brazil and in other South American countries.

  13. The main sceneries of Chagas disease transmission. The vectors, blood and oral transmissions - A comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, José Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    This review deals with transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi by the most important domestic vectors, blood transfusion and oral intake. Among the vectors, Triatoma infestans, Panstrongylus megistus, Rhodnius prolixus, Triatoma dimidiata, Triatoma brasiliensis, Triatoma pseudomaculata, Triatoma sordida, Triatoma maculata, Panstrongylus geniculatus, Rhodnius ecuadoriensis and Rhodnius pallescens can be highlighted. Transmission of Chagas infection, which has been brought under control in some countries in South and Central America, remains a great challenge, particularly considering that many endemic countries do not have control over blood donors. Even more concerning is the case of non-endemic countries that receive thousands of migrants from endemic areas that carry Chagas disease, such as the United States of America, in North America, Spain, in Europe, Japan, in Asia, and Australia, in Oceania. In the Brazilian Amazon Region, since Shaw et al. (1969) described the first acute cases of the disease caused by oral transmission, hundreds of acute cases of the disease due to oral transmission have been described in that region, which is today considered to be endemic for oral transmission. Several other outbreaks of acute Chagas disease by oral transmission have been described in different states of Brazil and in other South American countries. PMID:25466622

  14. The association of ABO blood groups with extent of coronary atherosclerosis in Croatian patients suffering from chronic coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabuva, Svjetlana; Carević, Vedran; Radić, Mislav; Fabijanić, Damir

    2013-01-01

    The aim of study was to: 1) examine the relationship between ABO blood groups and extent of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD), 2) compare ABO blood groups distribution in CAD patients and general population, 3) examine possible differences in traditional risk factors frequency in CAD patients with different ABO blood groups. In the 646 chronic CAD patients (72.4% males) coronary angiograms were scored by quantitative assessment using multiple angiographic scoring system, Traditional risk factors were self reported or measured by standard methods. ABO blood distribution of patients was compared with group of 651 healthy blood donors (74.6% males). Among all ABO blood group patients there was no significant difference between the extent of coronary atherosclerosis with regard to all the three scoring systems: number of affected coronary arteries (P = 0.857), Gensini score (P = 0.818), and number of segments narrowed > 50% (P = 0.781). There was no significant difference in ABO blood group distribution between CAD patients and healthy blood donors. Among CAD patients, men with blood group AB were significantly younger than their pairs with non-AB blood groups (P = 0.008). Among CAD patients with AB blood group, males groups (P = 0.003). No association between ABO blood groups and the extent of coronary atherosclerosis in Croatian CAD patients is observed. Observation that AB blood group might possibly identify Croatian males at risk to develop the premature CAD has to be tested in larger cohort of patients.

  15. ABO blood group is a risk factor for coronary artery disease in patients with poor blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bingyang; Wu, Naqiong; Zhu, Chenggang; Gao, Ying; Guo, Yuanlin; Qing, Ping; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Yao; Dong, Qian; Li, Jianjun

    2017-01-01

    Few studies had examined the role of ABO blood groups on CAD in hypertensive patients with different blood pressure (BP) controls. A total of 2708 patients with primary hypertension (HTN) were consecutively enrolled and underwent coronary angiography (CAG) due to angina-like chest pain. The severity of coronary artery stenosis was assessed by Gensini score (GS). Patients were divided into two groups due to results of CAG: HTN with CAD (n = 2185) and HTN without CAD (n = 523). Poor BP control was defined as systolic BP (SBP) ≥ mean in the study. Multivariable regression analysis was used to determine the potential impact of ABO blood groups on risk of the presence and severity of CAD. Compared to HTN without CAD group, the percentage of A blood group was statistically higher and O blood group was significantly lower in HTN with CAD group. Moreover, percentage of the angiography-proven CAD was higher in A blood group than that in non-A blood group (p < 0.05). After adjusting for confounding factors, A blood group was independently associated with CAD (odds ratio (OR): 1.422; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.017-1.987; p = 0.039) and GS (β = 0.055, p = 0.046) in patients with poor BP control. A blood group was an independent risk factor for the presence and severity of CAD in hypertensive patients with poor BP control.

  16. Experimental Lyme disease in rabbits: spirochetes found in erythema migrans and blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornblatt, A N; Steere, A C; Brownstein, D G

    1984-01-01

    In attempts to produce experimental Lyme disease, 33 rabbits were inoculated with Lyme spirochetes by tick feeding or from tick organ homogenates or cultures. Two rabbits developed erythema chronicum migrans at the site of inoculation, in one instance 2 days after injection of a tick organ homogenate and in the other instance, 17 days after feeding of infected Ixodes dammini ticks. Spirochetes were seen in skin biopsy specimens of the second lesion with Warthin-Starry and immunoperoxidase stains. Spirochetes were also recovered from blood cultures of two additional rabbits 2 weeks post-inoculation. These findings are characteristic of early Lyme disease in humans and give additional support for the spirochetal etiology of Lyme disease. Images PMID:6480108

  17. Blood Pressure and Intracranial Aneurysms in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Niemczyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is correlated with an increased frequency of both intracranial aneurysms (ICANs, and arterial hypertension (AH. The aim of our study was to search for the association between blood pressure (BP and ICANs in ADPKD patients. Methods: Sixty-eight adult, pre-dialysis phase ADPKD patients underwent both screening for ICANs with magnetic resonance angiography of the brain, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM. Results: ICANs were diagnosed in 10 patients (ICAN(+ group, while in 58 were not (ICAN(- group. The nighttime maximum diastolic blood pressure (DBP, maximum increase in DBP from measurement to measurement (positive delta of DBP at night, and the standard deviation of the daytime mean arterial pressure were significantly higher in ICAN(+ compared to ICAN(- patients. Additionally, in a subgroup of patients after 45 years-of-age, ICAN(+ patients had significantly higher maximum 24-hour and daytime systolic blood pressure, maximum 24-hour, daytime, nighttime DBP, maximum daytime and nighttime positive delta of DBP compared to ICAN(- cases. Conclusions: Development of ICANs in hypertensive ADPKD patients is accompanied with higher values of some BP parameters measured by ABPM. Hypertensive ADPKD patients with substantial fluctuations in BP assessed by ABPM, especially those after 45 years-of-age, should become candidates for screening for ICANs.

  18. Hemodynamics and Blood Coagulation System in Patients Operated Following Ulcer Disease Hemorrhagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Filatov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the clinical efficacy of hypoxen and nutrients used in the combination therapy of patients operated for bleeding gastroduodenal ulcer. Subjects and methods. Seventy-four patients were examined and treated. All the patients were divided into 3 groups: 1 standard therapy + hypoxen in a daily dose of 1 g for a week; 2 standard therapy + hypox-en and nutrients; 3 standard therapy only. Hypoxen and nutrients were administered on postoperative day 1 via an enter-al feeding tube. Systemic hemodynamic and hemostatic parameters were determined using MICAR-RHEO hardware-software rheographic unit APG2-01 analyzer, respectively. Results. It was established that the hyper- and eukinetic hemodynamic types were predominant before surgery and the eukinetic type was prevalent in the early postoperative period. Hypoxen and nutrients were observed to positively affect central hemodynamic parameters, such as blood pressure, cardiac output, circulating blood volume, and heart rate. Hypercoagulation changes (shorter blood clotting time in a study group and elevated serum fibrinogen levels in a comparison group on postoperative day 10 suggest that the hemostatic parameters should be monitored and corrected as soon as possible. Key words: ulcer disease, hypoxen, nutritional support, blood circulation, hemostatic system.

  19. The variation profile of blood components indicates the degree of severity in psoriasis as inflammatory disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahesar, S.M.; Dahot, M.U.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the changes occurring in blood cells and hemoglobin concentration in 158 subjects recruited. For the study comprised (44) psoriatic males and (35) psoriatic females. The blood sample analyses, microscopically. White blood cells shows higher count while neutrophils and lymphocytes showed a marked enhancement in psoriatic samples. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was measured by Western Green method. ESR in psoriatic male patients mean 31+-10 hgmm/hr opposed to 9.5+-4.1 hgmm/hr in healthy males and in female psoriatic patients mean 34+-12 hgmm/hr against 15+-3 hgmm/hr healthy females was noted. Elevation of erythrocyte sedimentation rate was observed in psoriatic patients. The mean hemoglobin level (cyanide method) in psoriatic male was 12+-1.2 g/dl opposed to 15.2+-1.3 g/dl in healthy males while in psoriatic females it was 11.1+-1.4 g/dl as opposed to 14+-1.6 g/dl in healthy females. Hemoglobin shows reduced concentration in psoriatic patients. The marked changes in white blood sells, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and hemoglobin concentration indicates psoriasis as inflammatory disease. (author)

  20. Blood dendritic cell frequency declines in idiopathic Parkinson's disease and is associated with motor symptom severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ciaramella

    Full Text Available The role of inflammation in Parkinson's Disease (PD is well appreciated, but its underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Our objective was to determine whether dendritic cells (DC, a unique type of migratory immune cells that regulate immunological response and inflammation have an impact on PD. In a case-control study including 80 PD patients and 80 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects, the two main blood subsets of plasmacytoid and myeloid DC were defined by flow cytometry analysis. Clinical evaluation of subjects consisting of cognition and depression assessment was performed using the Mini Mental State Examination and the Beck Depression Inventory. The severity of motor symptoms was measured using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-Part III. Comparison between patient and control DC measures and their relationships with clinical assessments were evaluated.The following main results were obtained: 1 the level of circulating DC (mainly the myeloid subset was significantly reduced in PD patients in comparison with healthy controls; 2 after controlling for depressive and cognitive characteristics, the frequency of myeloid DC was confirmed as one of the independent determinants of PD; 3 the number of both myeloid and plasmacytoid DC was negatively associated with motor symptom severity. Overall, the decline of blood DC, perhaps due to the recruitment of immune cells to the site of disease-specific lesions, can be considered a clue of the immune alteration that characterizes PD, suggesting innovative exploitations of DC monitoring as a clinically significant tool for PD treatment. Indeed, this study suggests that reduced peripheral blood DC are a pathologically-relevant factor of PD and also displays the urgency to better understand DC role in PD for unraveling the immune system contribution to disease progression and thus favoring the development of innovative therapies ideally based on immunomodulation.

  1. Identification of heart disease-prone personality using oscillometric blood pressure measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seungah; Shin, Youngsuk

    2015-01-01

    By using the conventional method of measuring two-points (systolic and diastolic) blood pressure, it is difficult to differentiate a heart disease-prone personality from normals. Recently, an oscillometric method that reflects the personalized trait of blood pressure was developed by one author. By using this new measurement technique, this study intended to test the possibility of differentiating a heart disease-prone personality (type A or type D) from normal people. TPA scale in MMPI-2 and DS14 were used for screening type A and D. Oscillometric waveforms created by the cuff pressure were segmented into window blocks based on a single beat at a minimum, allowing this method to extract maximal top and bottom amplitudes in each window block. Then, a spectrogram using a short-time Fourier transform was applied to discriminate between character types in extracted blood pressure patterns with linear discriminant analysis. Compared to a normal personality, type A and type D personalities displayed a lower frequency response on STFT with maximum negative amplitudes than normals. In particular, the type D personality showed a lower frequency response than the type A personality. These results could provide a new qualitative method for measuring different biological indices between type A or D personalities and normals.

  2. Evaluation of MR angiography and blood flow measurement in abdominal and peripheral arterial occlusive disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabuchi, Kenji [Dokkyo Univ. School of Medicine, Mibu, Tochigi (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    To assess the characteristics of blood flow measurement with MR Angiography (MRA) to evaluate the status of vascular stenoses, two or three dimensional time-of-flight MRA and velocity-encoded cine MR were performed in the 230 segments of 35 patients, with abdominal and peripheral arterial occlusive diseases. In 11 of these 35 patients digital subtraction angiography was additionally underwent, and the stenotic findings was compared with MRA. There were 17 segments in which the velocity could not be measured, because the blood flow exceeded the upper limit of peak-encoded velocity (VENC) which was set at 120 cm/sec. Therefore, it is necessary to set the upper limit of VENC at higher than 120 cm/sec. There were 11 stenotic findings in DSA and 20 stenotic findings in MRA. Pulsatility Index (PI=(max velocity-min. velocity)/average velocity) were used for evaluating the blood flow waveform, and there were significant difference between the 11 stenotic findings of DSA and the others'. In summery, MRA was considered as useful examination to assess the degree of the vascular stenoses in abdominal and peripheral arterial occlusive disease. (author)

  3. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of Iranian surgeons about blood-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, Mehrdad; Marashi, Seyed Ali; Kabir, Ali; Taghipour, Hamid Reza; Faghihi-Kashani, Amir Hossein; Ghoddoosi, Iraj; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2009-01-01

    Perhaps more than any other healthcare worker, it is the surgeons who are at an increased risk of exposure to hepatitis B (HB) virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. The aim of this study was to evaluate surgeons' concerns regarding risk awareness and behavioral methods of protection against blood-borne pathogen transmission during surgery. A 31-item questionnaire with a reliability coefficient of 0.73 was used. Of 575 surgeons invited to participate from three universities and one national annual surgical society between May and July 2007, 430 (75%) returned completed forms. Concern about being infected with blood-borne diseases was more than 70 (from a total score of 100). Only 12.9% of surgeons always used double gloves. Complete vaccination against HB was done in about 76% of surgeons and only 56.8% had checked their HB surface antibody (anti-HBs) level. Older surgeons never used double gloves (P = 0.001). Iranian surgeons are not aware of the correct percentage of infected patients with and seroconversion rate of blood-borne diseases, do not use double gloves adequately, do not report their needlestick injuries, vaccinate against HB, and check anti-HBs after vaccination. Educational meetings, pamphlets, and facilities must be provided to health care workers, informing them of hazards, prevention, and postexposure prophylaxis to needlestick injuries, vaccination efficacy, and wearing double gloves.

  4. Signatures of reproductive events on blood counts and biomarkers of inflammation: Implications for chronic disease risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W Cramer

    Full Text Available Whether inflammation mediates how reproductive events affect chronic-disease risk is unclear. We studied inflammatory biomarkers in the context of reproductive events using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data. From 15,986 eligible women from the 1999-2011 data cycles, we accessed information on reproductive events, blood counts, C-reactive protein (CRP, and total homocysteine (tHCY. We calculated blood-count ratios including: platelet-lymphocyte (PLR, lymphocyte-monocyte (LMR, platelet-monocyte (PMR, and neutrophil-monocyte (NMR. Using sampling weights per NHANES guidelines, means for counts, ratios, or biomarkers by reproductive events were compared using linear regression. We performed trend tests and calculated p-values with partial sum of squares F-tests. Higher PLR and lower LMR were associated with nulliparity. In postmenopausal women, lower PMR was associated with early age at first birth and higher NMR with later age at and shorter interval since last birth. Lower PNR and higher neutrophils and tHCY were associated with early natural menopause. In all women, the neutrophil count correlated positively with CRP; but, in premenopausal women, correlated inversely with tHCY. Reproductive events leave residual signatures on blood counts and inflammatory biomarkers that could underlie their links to chronic disease risk.

  5. Creatinine measurement on dry blood spot sample for chronic kidney disease screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Alan Castro Azevedo E; Gómez, Juan Fidel Bencomo; Lugon, Jocemir Ronaldo; Graciano, Miguel Luis

    2016-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) screening is advisable due to its high morbidity and mortality and is usually performed by sampling blood and urine. Here we present an innovative and simpler method, by measuring creatinine on a dry blood spot on filter paper. One-hundred and six individuals at high risk for CKD were enrolled. The creatinine values obtained using both tests and the demographic data of each participant allowed us to determinate the eGFR. The adopted cutoff for CKD was an eGFR value 96%, predictive negative value 55% and accuracy 92%. By the CKD-EPI equation the sensitivity was 94%, specificity 55%, predictive positive value 94%, predictive negative value 55% and accuracy 90%. A Bland and Altman analysis showed a relatively narrow range of creatinine values differences (+ 0.68mg/dl to -0.55mg/dl) inside the ± 1.96 SD, without systematic differences. Measurement of creatinine on dry blood sample is an easily feasible non-invasive diagnostic test with good accuracy that may be useful to screen chronic kidney disease.

  6. Effect of elevated blood pressure on quality of life in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Cynthia; Gerson, Arlene; Hooper, Stephen R; Matheson, Matthew; Lande, Marc; Kupferman, Juan; Furth, Susan; Warady, Bradley; Flynn, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    Although hypertension is known to have an adverse impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adults, little is known about the effects of hypertension and use of antihypertensive medications on HRQoL in hypertensive children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cross-sectional and longitudinal assessment of impact of elevated blood pressure (BP) and antihypertensive medication use on HRQoL scores obtained in children enrolled in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) Study. Blood pressure was measured both manually and by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. HRQoL was assessed with the PedsQL survey. The study sample included 551 participants with sufficient data for cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Cross-sectional analysis of presence of prehypertension or hypertension and impact on HRQoL found mild associations between elevated BP and HRQoL scores with overall PedsQL parent and child scores averaging 79 vs. 76.5 and 83 vs. 78.5, respectively. However, no associations persisted under longitudinal multivariate analysis. Despite apparent small effects of elevated BP on HRQoL at baseline, no association was found between the presence of elevated BP and HRQoL over time in children with mild-to-moderate CKD. In addition, antihypertensive medication use did not appear to have an impact on HRQoL in this population.

  7. [Resistance of Aujeszky disease viruses, present in the blood of pigs, to potassium thiosulphate and hydrogen chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecerka, P; Dvorák, P

    1984-05-01

    A trial was conducted to study the sensitivity of the Aujeszky disease virus, present in the blood of pigs, to the effect of two preservatives: potassium thiosulphate ( K2S2O5 ) and hydrogen chloride (HCl). The sensitivity of the virus was determined on rabbits infected with pig blood containing Aujeszky disease virus with different additions of the two preservatives. As found, 0.5% of K2S2O5 and 3% of HCl are concentrations fully sufficient for the inactivation of all the viruses present in the blood. Blood preserved in this way can be used for feeding purposes in pig stocks without the hazard of introducing Aujeszky disease in healthy stocks via the blood included in feed rations.

  8. Brazilian situation of blood component irradiation practice for the prevention of transfusion associated Graft-versus-Host disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes, E.G.; Borges, J.C.; Covas, D.T.; Motta, I.

    1998-01-01

    Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) is a usually complication of transfusion of blood component containing T lymphocytes what recently has also involved immunocompetent patient. Gamma irradiation of cellular blood components has been the mainstay against TA-GVHD, nevertheless there is little information in the literature about current transfusion medicine practices regarding gamma irradiation of blood products. This work presents an overview of the Brazilian reality and suggests policies to optimize TA-GVHD prevention. (Author)

  9. On cerebrae blood circulation from data of radiocirculography in some diseases of central nervous system in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, A.G.; Stroganova, L.I.; Chirkin, N.I.

    1980-01-01

    Results of radioisotope investigation of cerebral blood circulation in 202 children with different pathology of central nervous system are presented. Velocity of cerebral blood flow and time of semiaccumulation and semimoving a preparate were investigated by means of sup(113m)In. It is established that radiocirculography shows clearly the changes in the system of cerebral blood supply and in such diseases as vegetovascular distonia and hypertension syndrome, the radiocirculography data pass ahead the clinical picture

  10. Brazilian situation of blood component irradiation practice for the prevention of transfusion associated Graft-versus-Host disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goes, E.G.; Borges, J.C. [EE/COPPE-UFRJ (Brazil); Covas, D.T. [Faculdade deMedicina-USP-RP (Brazil); Motta, I. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer- Rio deJaneiro (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) is a usually complication of transfusion of blood component containing T lymphocytes what recently has also involved immunocompetent patient. Gamma irradiation of cellular blood components has been the mainstay against TA-GVHD, nevertheless there is little information in the literature about current transfusion medicine practices regarding gamma irradiation of blood products. This work presents an overview of the Brazilian reality and suggests policies to optimize TA-GVHD prevention. (Author)

  11. The investigation of cytokine level in peripheral blood of patients with thyroid eye disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Wenhong; Zhang Yi; Luo Zhihang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To detect the level of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and insulin-lide growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in patients with thyroid eye disease and to seek the relationship between serum level and the outbreak as well as the condition variety. Methods: To measure the level of serum IL-6 and IGF-1 by radioimmunoassay in 30 patients with thyroid eye disease after their clinical expression and activity score have been assessed, 30 patients with hyperthyroidism but without ophthalmopathy, 30 healthy subjects. Results: The level of serum IL-6 and IGF-1 in patients with thyroid eye disease were higher than that of patients with hyperthyroidism but without ophthalmopathy (t=4.20, t=4.00, P<0.01) and healthy subjects (t=4.20, t=4.05, P<0.01). IL-6 and IGF-1 levels tend to elevate with the increase of severity of eye disease. There were significant differences among them. Conclusion: The leve of IL-6, IGF-1 and the cause of thyroid eye disease are closely related, and IL-6 and IGF-1 levels in peripheral blood might reflect the severity of eye disease. (authors)

  12. Pulmonary Microvascular Blood Flow in Mild Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Emphysema. The MESA COPD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueper, Katja; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Parikh, Megha A; Austin, John H M; Bluemke, David A; Carr, James; Choi, Jiwoong; Goldstein, Thomas A; Gomes, Antoinette S; Hoffman, Eric A; Kawut, Steven M; Lima, Joao; Michos, Erin D; Post, Wendy S; Po, Ming Jack; Prince, Martin R; Liu, Kiang; Rabinowitz, Dan; Skrok, Jan; Smith, Ben M; Watson, Karol; Yin, Youbing; Zambeli-Ljepovic, Alan M; Barr, R Graham

    2015-09-01

    Smoking-related microvascular loss causes end-organ damage in the kidneys, heart, and brain. Basic research suggests a similar process in the lungs, but no large studies have assessed pulmonary microvascular blood flow (PMBF) in early chronic lung disease. To investigate whether PMBF is reduced in mild as well as more severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema. PMBF was measured using gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) among smokers with COPD and control subjects age 50 to 79 years without clinical cardiovascular disease. COPD severity was defined by standard criteria. Emphysema on computed tomography (CT) was defined by the percentage of lung regions below -950 Hounsfield units (-950 HU) and by radiologists using a standard protocol. We adjusted for potential confounders, including smoking, oxygenation, and left ventricular cardiac output. Among 144 participants, PMBF was reduced by 30% in mild COPD, by 29% in moderate COPD, and by 52% in severe COPD (all P COPD in both nonemphysematous and emphysematous lung regions. Associations for PMBF were independent of measures of small airways disease on CT and gas trapping largely because emphysema and small airways disease occurred in different smokers. PMBF was reduced in mild COPD, including in regions of lung without frank emphysema, and may represent a distinct pathological process from small airways disease. PMBF may provide an imaging biomarker for therapeutic strategies targeting the pulmonary microvasculature.

  13. The state of blood lymphocyte metabolism in Graves' disease patients in the treatment course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S G Shagarova

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the research of the blood lymphocyte metabolism in 35 women with Graves' disease (GD. The definition of thyroid (fO4, O3, thyro1tropic hormones, antibodies against thyroid peroxidase and blood lymphocyte NAD(P1dependent dehydrogenases was spent before the beginning of treatment and later 1 and 3 months receip1 tion of thiamazolc. The thyroid hormones concen1tration in GD patients is come to normal after 3 months of treat1 ment. The lympho1cyte metabolism is characterized by the increase level of macromolecular synthesis and antiox1 idant ability in cells, high efficiency malate1aspartate shuttle, and the increase level amino1acid exchange in GD patients throughout all period of re1search. Also in GD patients it is broken endocrine regulation of lymphocyte me1 tabolism, one point the correlation reduction between thyroid hormones concentra1tion and enzyme indicators.

  14. Measurement of peripheral blood flow in patients with peripheral artery disease: Methods and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Dereck L; Brown, Rebecca Jl; Bronas, Ulf G; Kirk, Laura N; Treat-Jacobson, Diane

    2018-02-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a manifestation of generalized atherosclerosis which results in hemodynamic compromise of oxygen and substrate delivery to the lower extremity skeletal muscles. Hemodynamic assessments are vital in PAD diagnosis and in the evaluation of strategies aimed at treating claudication (i.e. exercise training, revascularization, and pharmacological agents). Venous occlusion plethysmography (VOP) is a century-old, non-invasive technique used to quantify limb blood flow and has been used to evaluate hemodynamic compromise in patients with PAD. However, the literature suggests a wide array of methodological variability in the measurement and analysis of limb blood flow using VOP. In this manuscript, we overview the clinical application of VOP measurement, and secondly we review the methodological variation that occurs during the measurement and analysis of VOP in healthy individuals and in patients with claudication.

  15. Phagocytic activity of peripheral blood and crevicular phagocytes in health and periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neutrophils constitute the main phagocytic cell system in mammalian host defense against an infecting agent. Abnormalities in leukocyte number and function are associated with increased susceptibility to periodontal diseases. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the in vitro phagocytic properties of crevicular and peripheral blood neutrophils in healthy and periodontitis subjects. Patients and Methods: A total of 30 subjects, that is, 10 patients in each of the following three groups: healthy controls, chronic periodontitis (CP, and localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP, were included in the study. The neutrophils were isolated from the peripheral blood and gingival crevice and tested for phagocytosis of Candida albicans. The percentage of leukocytes with ingested C. albicans was determined by light microscopy. Results: A significant reduction in the phagocytic activity of crevicular fluid polymorphonuclear neutrophils (CF-PMN of LAP subjects (mean: 54.3±7(P< 0.001 was observed, compared to healthy controls (mean: 74.2±9 and chronic periodontitis subjects (mean: 69±9(P=0.352. The mean percentage of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs with phagocytosis of opsonized C. albicans in LAP patients was significantly reduced (mean: 74.9±5(P< 0.0068 compared to the phagocytic activity of neutrophils from controls (mean:82.1±3 and chronic periodontitis subjects (mean: 82.0±5(P=0.970. There was no significant reduction in the phagocytic activity of CF PMNs (mean: 69±9 (P=0.35 and peripheral blood PMNs (mean: 82.5(P=0.97 in the chronic periodontitis group when compared to the control group. Conclusion: The phagocytic activity of both crevicular and peripheral neutrophils in subjects with periodontitis is altered, increasing the susceptibility to periodontitis. Thus individual susceptibility may be an additional and important modifying factor in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.

  16. Systematic Analysis of Blood Cell Transcriptome in End-Stage Chronic Respiratory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botturi, Karine; Reynaud-Gaubert, Martine; Mussot, Sacha; Stern, Marc; Danner-Boucher, Isabelle; Mornex, Jean-François; Pison, Christophe; Dromer, Claire; Kessler, Romain; Dahan, Marcel; Brugière, Olivier; Le Pavec, Jérôme; Perros, Frédéric; Humbert, Marc; Gomez, Carine; Brouard, Sophie; Magnan, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Background End-stage chronic respiratory diseases (CRD) have systemic consequences, such as weight loss and susceptibility to infection. However the mechanisms of such dysfunctions are as yet poorly explained. We hypothesized that the genes putatively involved in these mechanisms would emerge from a systematic analysis of blood mRNA profiles from pre-transplant patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), pulmonary hypertension (PAH), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Whole blood was first collected from 13 patients with PAH, 23 patients with CF, and 28 Healthy Controls (HC). Microarray results were validated by quantitative PCR on a second and independent group (7PAH, 9CF, and 11HC). Twelve pre-transplant COPD patients were added to validate the common signature shared by patients with CRD for all causes. To further clarify a role for hypoxia in the candidate gene dysregulation, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HC were analysed for their mRNA profile under hypoxia. Results Unsupervised hierarchical clustering allowed the identification of 3 gene signatures related to CRD. One was common to CF and PAH, another specific to CF, and the final one was specific to PAH. With the common signature, we validated T-Cell Factor 7 (TCF-7) and Interleukin 7 Receptor (IL-7R), two genes related to T lymphocyte activation, as being under-expressed. We showed a strong impact of the hypoxia on modulation of TCF-7 and IL-7R expression in PBMCs from HC under hypoxia or PBMCs from CRD. In addition, we identified and validated genes upregulated in PAH or CF, including Lectin Galactoside-binding Soluble 3 and Toll Like Receptor 4, respectively. Conclusions Systematic analysis of blood cell transcriptome in CRD patients identified common and specific signatures relevant to the systemic pathologies. TCF-7 and IL-7R were downregulated whatever the cause of CRD and this could play a role in the higher susceptibility to infection of these patients. PMID:25329529

  17. Transfusion rate and prevalence of unexpected red blood cell alloantibodies in women undergoing hysterectomy for benign disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoestesen, Lisbeth M; Rasmussen, Kjeld L; Lauszus, Finn F

    2011-01-01

    To determine transfusion rates, risk factors for transfusion and the prevalence of unexpected red blood cell alloantibodies in women undergoing hysterectomy for benign disease. In addition, we aimed to evaluate the necessity of the pretransfusion testing for red blood cell alloantibodies....

  18. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and changes in cerebral blood flow : The Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease-Magnetic Resonance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Pieternella H.; Muller, Majon; Vincken, Koen L.; Westerink, Jan; Mali, Willem P. T. M.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Geerlings, Mirjam I.; Doevendans, PAFM

    Hemoglobin and hematocrit are important determinants of blood viscosity and arterial oxygen content and may therefore influence cerebral blood flow (CBF). We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations of hemoglobin and hematocrit with CBF in 569 patients with manifest arterial disease

  19. Development of a PCR Assay to Detect Low Level Trypanosoma cruzi in Blood Specimens Collected with PAXgene Blood DNA Tubes for Clinical Trials Treating Chagas Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bo; Chen, Lei; Kibukawa, Miho; Kang, John; Waskin, Hetty; Marton, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the parasitic infection of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). The STOP CHAGAS clinical trial was initiated in 2011 to evaluate posaconazole in treating Chagas disease, with treatment success defined as negative qualitative PCR results of detecting the parasites in blood specimens collected post-treatment. PAXgene Blood DNA tubes were utilized as a simple procedure to collect and process blood specimens. However, the PAXgene blood specimens challenged published T. cruzi PCR methods, resulting in poor sensitivity and reproducibility. To accurately evaluate the treatment efficacy of the clinical study, we developed and validated a robust PCR assay for detecting low level T. cruzi in PAXgene blood specimens. The assay combines a new DNA extraction method with a custom designed qPCR assay, resulting in limit of detection of 0.005 and 0.01 fg/μl for K98 and CL Brener, two representative strains of two of T. cruzi's discrete typing units. Reliable qPCR standard curves were established for both strains to measure parasite loads, with amplification efficiency ≥ 90% and the lower limit of linearity ≥ 0.05 fg/μl. The assay successfully analyzed the samples collected from the STOP CHAGAS study and may prove useful for future global clinical trials evaluating new therapies for asymptomatic chronic Chagas disease.

  20. Caffeine blocks disruption of blood brain barrier in a rabbit model of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghribi Othman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High levels of serum cholesterol and disruptions of the blood brain barrier (BBB have all been implicated as underlying mechanisms in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Results from studies conducted in animals and humans suggest that caffeine might be protective against Alzheimer's disease but by poorly understood mechanisms. Using rabbits fed a cholesterol-enriched diet, we tested our hypothesis that chronic ingestion of caffeine protects against high cholesterol diet-induced disruptions of the BBB. New Zealand rabbits were fed a 2% cholesterol-enriched diet, and 3 mg caffeine was administered daily in drinking water for 12 weeks. Total cholesterol and caffeine concentrations from blood were measured. Olfactory bulbs (and for some studies hippocampus and cerebral cortex as well were evaluated for BBB leakage, BBB tight junction protein expression levels, activation of astrocytes, and microglia density using histological, immunostaining and immunoblotting techniques. We found that caffeine blocked high cholesterol diet-induced increases in extravasation of IgG and fibrinogen, increases in leakage of Evan's blue dye, decreases in levels of the tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1, increases in astrocytes activation and microglia density where IgG extravasation was present. Chronic ingestion of caffeine protects against high cholesterol diet-induced increases in disruptions of the BBB, and caffeine and drugs similar to caffeine might be useful in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  1. The Relationship Between the Gensini Score and Complete Blood Count Parameters in Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Raşit Sayın

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the extend andseverity of coronary artery disease (CAD determined by the Gensini score and complete bloodcount parameters (white blood cell, hemoglobin, platelet, mean platelet volume, lymphocyte,neutrophil.Patients and Methods: Ninety patients with CAD underwent coronary angiography (40 females,mean age 61 ± 1.2 years were included in this study. Patients with acute coronary syndrome andprior cardiovascular disease excluded from the study. The association between the extent andseverity of CAD, which were assessed by the Gensini score, and complete blood count parameterswas analyzed by a correlation analysis.Results: Coronary angiography revealed, 6 (6.7% patients had three, 16 (17.8% patients hadtwo, and 24 (26.7% patients had single-vessel disease; 44 (48.9% patients had non-criticalstenosis. The mean Gensini score was 19.1 ± 2.1. We found a relationship between white bloodcell and neutrophil counts and the Gensini score. There was no relationship between Gensiniscore and the mean platelet volume and other parameters.Conclusion: The present study supports the hypothesis that inflammation is one of the maincomponent in the pathogenesis of CAD.

  2. Tight junctions at the blood brain barrier: physiological architecture and disease-associated dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luissint Anny-Claude

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Blood–brain barrier (BBB, present at the level of the endothelium of cerebral blood vessels, selectively restricts the blood-to-brain paracellular diffusion of compounds; it is mandatory for cerebral homeostasis and proper neuronal function. The barrier properties of these specialized endothelial cells notably depend on tight junctions (TJs between adjacent cells: TJs are dynamic structures consisting of a number of transmembrane and membrane-associated cytoplasmic proteins, which are assembled in a multimolecular complex and acting as a platform for intracellular signaling. Although the structural composition of these complexes has been well described in the recent years, our knowledge about their functional regulation still remains fragmentary. Importantly, pericytes, embedded in the vascular basement membrane, and perivascular microglial cells, astrocytes and neurons contribute to the regulation of endothelial TJs and BBB function, altogether constituting the so-called neurovascular unit. The present review summarizes our current understanding of the structure and functional regulation of endothelial TJs at the BBB. Accumulating evidence points to a correlation between BBB dysfunction, alteration of TJ complexes and progression of a variety of CNS diseases, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis and brain tumors, as well as neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Understanding how TJ integrity is controlled may thus help improve drug delivery across the BBB and the design of therapeutic strategies for neurological disorders.

  3. Cytomegalovirus viremia, viruria and disease after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation: no need for surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgrami, S; Aslanzadeh, J; Feingold, J M; Bona, R D; Clive, J; Dorsky, D; Edwards, R L; Tutschka, P J

    1999-07-01

    A retrospective evaluation of 200 consecutive recipients of autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) was conducted to ascertain the incidence, risk factors, clinical features, complications, and outcome of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. A total of 26 patients (13%) developed CMV viremia (n = 5), DNAemia (n = 3), viruria (n = 18) and/or disease (n = 3) at a median of 45 days following stem cell infusion. None of the patients underwent surveillance testing for CMV. A diagnosis was established by culture and polymerase chain reaction of blood, urine or other tissue samples submitted when patients exhibited clinical features suggestive of CMV infection. Cytomegalovirus seropositivity prior to transplantation was the only statistically significant risk factor predicting subsequent identification of CMV (P < 0.001). The symptoms were severe enough in 23 patients to warrant treatment with intravenous ganciclovir. Three patients developed CMV disease; two developed fatal CMV pneumonia and one developed CMV gastritis which responded to antiviral treatment. Clinical signs and symptoms as well as viremia and viruria resolved with (20 patients) and without (three patients) treatment in the remaining individuals. All instances of CMV viremia, DNAemia, viruria and disease occurred within 3 months of stem cell infusion. These results demonstrate that CMV is a common pathogen after autologous PBSCT and may result in fatality in rare instances. Surveillance programs appear to be neither useful nor cost-effective. Diagnostic evaluation should be performed only in patients exhibiting suspicious clinical features and antiviral chemotherapy should be administered for persistent and severe signs and symptoms.

  4. Association of blood lipids with Alzheimer's disease: A comprehensive lipidomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proitsi, Petroula; Kim, Min; Whiley, Luke; Simmons, Andrew; Sattlecker, Martina; Velayudhan, Latha; Lupton, Michelle K; Soininen, Hillka; Kloszewska, Iwona; Mecocci, Patrizia; Tsolaki, Magda; Vellas, Bruno; Lovestone, Simon; Powell, John F; Dobson, Richard J B; Legido-Quigley, Cristina

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) replicate previous associations between six blood lipids and Alzheimer's disease (AD) (Proitsi et al 2015) and (2) identify novel associations between lipids, clinical AD diagnosis, disease progression and brain atrophy (left/right hippocampus/entorhinal cortex). We performed untargeted lipidomic analysis on 148 AD and 152 elderly control plasma samples and used univariate and multivariate analysis methods. We replicated our previous lipids associations and reported novel associations between lipids molecules and all phenotypes. A combination of 24 molecules classified AD patients with >70% accuracy in a test and a validation data set, and we identified lipid signatures that predicted disease progression (R 2  = 0.10, test data set) and brain atrophy (R 2  ≥ 0.14, all test data sets except left entorhinal cortex). We putatively identified a number of metabolic features including cholesteryl esters/triglycerides and phosphatidylcholines. Blood lipids are promising AD biomarkers that may lead to new treatment strategies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Red Blood Cell Distribution Width: A Novel Predictive Indicator for Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The red blood cell distribution width (RDW obtained from a standard complete blood count (CBC is a convenient and inexpensive biochemical parameter representing the variability in size of circulating erythrocytes. Over the past few decades, RDW with mean corpuscular volume (MCV has been used to identify quite a few hematological system diseases including iron-deficiency anemia and bone marrow dysfunction. In recent years, many clinical studies have proved that the alterations of RDW levels may be associated with the incidence and prognosis in many cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs. Therefore, early detection and intervention in time of these vascular diseases is critical for delaying their progression. RDW as a new predictive marker and an independent risk factor plays a significant role in assessing the severity and progression of CVDs. However, the mechanisms of the association between RDW and the prognosis of CVDs remain unclear. In this review, we will provide an overview of the representative literatures concerning hypothetical and potential epidemiological associations between RDW and CVDs and discuss the underlying mechanisms.

  6. Biostable insect kinin analogs reduce blood meal and disrupt ecdysis in the blood-gorging Chagas' disease vector, Rhodnius prolixus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Angela B; Nachman, Ronald J; Kaczmarek, Krzysztof; Zabrocki, Janusz

    2016-06-01

    Rhodnius prolixus is a blood-gorging hemipteran that takes blood meals that are approximately 10 times its body weight. This blood meal is crucial for growth and development and is needed to ensure a successful molt into the next instar. Kinins are a multifunctional family of neuropeptides which have been shown to play a role in the control of feeding in a variety of insects. In this study, two biostable Aib-containing kinin analogs were tested to see if they interfere with blood-feeding and subsequent development into the next instar. One of the analogs, 1729 (Ac-R[Aib]FF[Aib]WGa), had no effect on the size of the blood meal or on the subsequent molting of the insect into the next instar. This analog also did not interfere with either short-term or long-term diuresis. The second analog, 1728 ([Aib]FF[Aib]WGa), appeared to be an antifeedant. Insects feeding on blood containing this analog (15μM) only consumed 60% of the blood meal taken by insects fed on blood without analog. Insects feeding on blood containing 1728 had a slower rate of rapid diuresis (diuresis in the first 3-5h after feeding) leading to less urine being excreted by 5days post feeding. The consequence of these effects was that insects fed on 1728 did not molt. This data indicates that the biostable Aib-containing analog 1728 disrupts normal growth and development in the blood-feeding insect, R. prolixus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Blood pressure, risk of ischemic cerebrovascular and ischemic heart disease, and longevity in alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Sillesen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Because elastase in alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency may attack elastin in the arterial wall, we tested whether alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency is associated with reduced blood pressure, risk of ischemic cerebrovascular (ICVD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD), and longevity.......Because elastase in alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency may attack elastin in the arterial wall, we tested whether alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency is associated with reduced blood pressure, risk of ischemic cerebrovascular (ICVD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD), and longevity....

  8. Morning Home Blood Pressure Is a Strong Predictor of Coronary Artery Disease: The HONEST Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kario, Kazuomi; Saito, Ikuo; Kushiro, Toshio; Teramukai, Satoshi; Tomono, Yasuhiro; Okuda, Yasuyuki; Shimada, Kazuyuki

    2016-04-05

    Few studies have evaluated out-of-office blood pressure (BP) measurements as predictors of coronary artery disease (CAD) events. The aim of this study was to determine morning home blood pressure (HBP) as a predictor of CAD events. Using data from the HONEST (Home blood pressure measurement with Olmesartan Naive patients to Establish Standard Target blood pressure) study, we investigated the relationship between morning HBP and incidence of stroke and CAD events. In 21,591 treated hypertensive patients (mean age 64.9 years; mean follow-up 2.02 years), 127 stroke events (2.92 per 1,000 patient-years), and 121 CAD events (2.78 per 1,000 patient-years) occurred. The incidence of stroke events was significantly higher in patients with morning home systolic blood pressure (HSBP) ≥145 mm Hg compared with morning HSBP ≥155 mm Hg and those with morning HSBP morning HSBP predicted stroke events similarly to CSBP. Incidence of CAD events was significantly higher in patients with morning HSBP ≥145 mm Hg compared with morning HSBP ≥155 mm Hg was 6.24 (95% CI: 2.82 to 13.84) and for CSBP ≥160 mm Hg was 3.51 (95% CI: 1.71 to 7.20); therefore, compared with morning HSBP, CSBP may underestimate CAD risk. Goodness-of-fit analysis showed that morning HSBP predicted CAD events more strongly than CSBP. Morning HBP is a strong predictor of future CAD and stroke events, and may be superior to clinic BP in this regard. There does not appear to be a J-curve in the relationship between morning HBP and stroke or CAD events. (Home blood pressure measurement with Olmesartan Naive patients to Establish Standard Target blood pressure Study [HONEST]; UMIN000002567). Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The relationships between visit-to-visit blood pressure variability and renal and endothelial function in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Chikara; Morimoto, Satoshi; Nakahigashi, Mitsutaka; Kusabe, Makiko; Ueda, Hiroko; Someya, Kazunori; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Iwasaka, Toshiji; Shiojima, Ichiro

    2015-03-01

    Visit-to-visit blood pressure variability has been shown to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. High visit-to-visit blood pressure variability and endothelial dysfunction are observed in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is therefore assumed that high variability in visit-to-visit blood pressure measurements may be associated with endothelial dysfunction in these patients. The present study investigated the associations between visit-to-visit blood pressure variability and renal and endothelial function in patients with chronic kidney disease. We analyzed 150 consecutive patients with predialysis chronic kidney disease who visited our outpatient clinic from January 2006 to December 2010. The study examined the relationships between variability in visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure levels or mean systolic blood pressure (M SBP) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and flow-mediated dilation, an index of endothelial function. Variability in visit-to-visit systolic blood pressure showed a significant negative association with eGFR, independent of age, hemoglobin A1c, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and uric acid, whereas M SBP did not. Similarly, variability in SBP showed a significant negative association with flow-mediated dilation, independent of age, eGFR, HbA1c, LDL cholesterol and M SBP. These data indicate that variability in visit-to-visit blood pressure measurements is associated with impaired renal and endothelial function in patients with chronic kidney disease. This finding suggests that reducing blood pressure fluctuations might have beneficial effects in patients with chronic kidney disease, although this point needs to be addressed by future studies.

  10. The performance of blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors as screening tests for ischaemic heart disease and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, M R; Wald, N J; Morris, J K

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarises the main evidence and conclusions relating to using blood pressure measurement as a screening test to identify people who will develop ischaemic heart disease (IHD) or stroke, as recently published in a Health Technology Assessment report. While blood pressure is recognised as an important cause of stroke and IHD, and lowering blood pressure can substantially lower the risk of these diseases, the measurement of blood pressure is a poor screening test. It is not good in distinguishing those who will and will not develop these diseases. The poor screening performance is illustrated by the findings that in the largest cohort study, persons in the top 10% of the distribution of systolic blood pressure experienced only 21% of all IHD events and 28% of all strokes at a given age. Using several cardiovascular risk factors in combination does not add materially to the poor screening performance of blood pressure alone. Among persons in a specified age group, the 5% at highest risk experience 17% of all heart disease deaths with risk computation based on blood pressure alone, 22% when based on blood pressure and apolipoprotein B (or LDL cholesterol) in combination, and only 28% using these two, smoking and three other cardiovascular risk factors all in combination. Identifying patients at the time of hospital discharge following myocardial infarction or stroke is the most effective screening test to identify those who will die of cardiovascular disease. In patients with a history of myocardial infarction or stroke the cardiovascular death rate in the absence of treatment is about 5% per year, a risk that persists for at least 15 years. In the absence of treatment, about half of all deaths from heart disease in a population occur after hospital discharge following the first infarct. Among persons with no history of cardiovascular disease, age is a better screening test than the reversible risk factors, and the best policy is to offer treatment to all

  11. Enhanced Activities of Blood Thiamine Diphosphatase and Monophosphatase in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Pan

    Full Text Available Thiamine metabolites and activities of thiamine-dependent enzymes are impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD.To clarify the mechanism for the reduction of thiamine diphosphate (TDP, an active form of thiamine and critical coenzyme of glucose metabolism, in AD.Forty-five AD patients clinically diagnosed and 38 age- and gender-matched control subjects without dementia were voluntarily recruited. The contents of blood TDP, thiamine monophosphate (TMP, and thiamine, as well as the activities of thiamine diphosphatase (TDPase, thiamine monophosphatase (TMPase, and thiamine pyrophosphokinase (TPK, were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography.Blood TDP contents of AD patients were significantly lower than those in control subjects (79.03 ± 23.24 vs. 127.60 ± 22.65 nmol/L, P 0.05. Blood TDP levels correlated negatively with TDPase activities (r = -0.2576, P = 0.0187 and positively with TPK activities (r = 0.2426, P = 0.0271 in all participants.Enhanced TDPase and TMPase activities may contribute to the reduction of TDP level in AD patients. The results imply that an imbalance of phosphorylation-dephosphorylation related to thiamine and glucose metabolism may be a potential target for AD prevention and therapy.

  12. Cross-stream distribution of red blood cells in sickle-cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Lam, Wilbur; Graham, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Experiments revealed that in blood flow, red blood cells (RBCs) tend to migrate away from the vessel walls, leaving a cell-free layer near the walls, while leukocytes and platelets tend to marginate towards the vessel walls. This segregation behavior of different cellular components in blood flow can be driven by their differences in stiffness and shape. An alteration of this segregation behavior may explain endothelial dysfunction and pain crisis associated with sickle-cell disease (SCD). It is hypothesized that the sickle RBCs, which are considerably stiffer than the healthy RBCs, may marginate towards the vessel walls and exert repeated damage to the endothelial cells. Direct simulations are performed to study the flowing suspensions of deformable biconcave discoids and stiff sickles representing healthy and sickle cells, respectively. It is observed that the sickles exhibit a strong margination towards the walls. The biconcave discoids in flowing suspensions undergo a so-called tank-treading motion, while the sickles behave as rigid bodies and undergo a tumbling motion. The margination behavior and tumbling motion of the sickles may help substantiate the aforementioned hypothesis of the mechanism for the SCD complications and shed some light on the design of novel therapies.

  13. Meta-analysis of peripheral blood apolipoprotein E levels in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peripheral blood Apolipoprotein E (ApoE levels have been proposed as biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD, but previous studies on levels of ApoE in blood remain inconsistent. This meta-analysis was designed to re-examine the potential role of peripheral ApoE in AD diagnosis and its potential value as a candidate biomarker. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, and BIOSIS previews for case-control studies measuring ApoE levels in serum or plasma from AD subjects and healthy controls. The pooled weighted mean difference (WMD and 95% confidence interval (CI were used to estimate the association between ApoE levels and AD risk. RESULTS: Eight studies with a total of 2250 controls and 1498 AD cases were identified and analyzed. The pooled WMD from a random-effect model of AD participants compared with the healthy controls was -5.59 mg/l (95% CI: [-8.12, -3.06]. The overall pattern in WMD was not varied by characteristics of study, including age, country, assay method, publication year, and sample type. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis supports a lowered level of blood ApoE in AD patients, and indicates its potential value as an important risk factor for AD. Further investigation employing standardized assay for ApoE measurement are still warranted to uncover the precise role of ApoE in the pathophysiology of AD.

  14. Perspective: interesterified triglycerides, the recent increase in deaths from heart disease, and elevated blood viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloop, Gregory D; Weidman, Joseph J; St Cyr, John A

    2018-01-01

    The authors hypothesize that consumption of interesterified fats may be the cause of the continuous increase in cardiovascular deaths in the United States which began in 2011. Interesterification is a method of producing solid fats from vegetable oil and began to supplant partial hydrogenation for this purpose upon recognition of the danger of trans fats to cardiovascular health. Long, straight carbon chains, as are present in saturated and trans fatty acids, decrease the fluidity of the erythrocyte cell membrane, which decreases erythrocyte deformability and increases blood viscosity. This decrease in cell membrane fluidity is caused by increased van der Waals interactions, which also solidify dietary fats. Elevated blood viscosity is favored as the pathogenic mechanism by which trans fats increase cardiovascular mortality because changes in lipoprotein levels do not account for all the mortality attributable to their consumption. The rapid changes in cardiovascular mortality noted with the introduction and withdrawal of trans fats from the food supply are reviewed. The evidence implicating elevated blood viscosity in cardiovascular disease is also reviewed. Data regarding the production and consumption of interesterified fats in the US should be released in order to determine if there is an association with the observed increase in cardiovascular deaths.

  15. Blood-Brain Barrier Leakage in Patients with Early Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Haar, Harm J; Burgmans, Saartje; Jansen, Jacobus F A; van Osch, Matthias J P; van Buchem, Mark A; Muller, Majon; Hofman, Paul A M; Verhey, Frans R J; Backes, Walter H

    2016-11-01

    Purpose To investigate whether the blood-brain barrier (BBB) leaks blood-circulating substances in patients with early forms of Alzheimer disease (AD), and if so, to examine the extent and pattern of leakage. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the local medical ethical committees of the Maastricht University Medical Center and Leiden University Medical Center, and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. For this pilot study, 16 patients with early AD and 17 healthy age-matched control subjects underwent dynamic contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequence with dual time resolution for 25 minutes. The Patlak graphical approach was used to quantify the BBB leakage rate and local blood plasma volume. Subsequent histogram analysis was used to determine the volume fraction of the leaking brain tissue. Differences were assessed with linear regression analysis, adjusted for confounding variables. Results The BBB leakage rate was significantly higher in patients compared with that in control subjects in the total gray matter (P cascade of pathologic events that eventually lead to cognitive decline and dementia. © RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  16. Gene expression profile of peripheral blood monocytes: a step towards the molecular diagnosis of celiac disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Galatola

    Full Text Available AIM: Celiac disease (CD is a multifactorial autoimmune disease induced by ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Despite technological progress, the diagnosis of CD is still based on duodenal biopsy as it was 50 years ago. In this study we analysed the expression of CD-associated genes in small bowel biopsies of patients and controls in order to explore the multivariate pathway of the expression profile of CD patients. Then, using multivariant discriminant analysis, we evaluated whether the expression profiles of these genes in peripheral blood monocytes (PBMs differed between patients and controls. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-seven patients with active and 11 with treated CD, 40 healthy controls and 9 disease controls (Crohn's disease patients were enrolled. RESULTS: Several genes were differentially expressed in CD patients versus controls, but the analysis of each single gene did not provided a comprehensive picture. A multivariate discriminant analysis showed that the expression of 5 genes in intestinal mucosa accounted for 93% of the difference between CD patients and controls. We then applied the same approach to PBMs, on a training set of 20 samples. The discriminant equation obtained was validated on a testing cohort of 10 additional cases and controls, and we obtained a correct classification of all CD cases and of 91% of the control samples. We applied this equation to treated CD patients and to disease controls and obtained a discrimination of 100%. CONCLUSIONS: The combined expression of 4 genes allows one to discriminate between CD patients and controls, and between CD patients on a gluten-free diet and disease controls. Our results contribute to the understanding of the complex interactions among CD-associated genes, and they may represent a starting point for the development of a molecular diagnosis of celiac disease.

  17. Blood transfusion for preventing primary and secondary stroke in people with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Winfred C; Dwan, Kerry

    2013-11-14

    In sickle cell disease, a common inherited haemoglobin disorder, abnormal haemoglobin distorts red blood cells, causing anaemia, vaso-occlusion and dysfunction in most body organs. Without intervention, stroke affects around 10% of children with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS) and recurrence is likely. Chronic blood transfusion dilutes the sickled red blood cells, reducing the risk of vaso-occlusion and stroke. However, side effects can be severe. To assess risks and benefits of chronic blood transfusion regimens in people with sickle cell disease to prevent first stroke or recurrences. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register, comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and conference proceedings.Date of the latest search of the Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 28 January 2013. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing blood transfusion as prophylaxis for stroke in people with sickle cell disease to alternative or no treatment. Both authors independently assessed the risk of bias of the included trials and extracted data. Searches identified three eligible randomised trials (n = 342). The first two trials addressed the use of chronic transfusion to prevent primary stroke; the third utilized the drug hydroxycarbamide (hydroxyurea) and phlebotomy to prevent both recurrent (secondary) stroke and iron overload in patients who had already experienced an initial stroke. In the first trial (STOP) a chronic transfusion regimen for maintaining sickle haemoglobin lower than 30% was compared with standard care in 130 children with sickle cell disease judged (through transcranial Doppler ultrasonography) as high-risk for first stroke. During the trial, 11 children in the standard care group suffered a stroke compared to one in the transfusion group, odds ratio 0.08 (95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.66). This meant the trial was

  18. Association between ABO Blood Group and Risk of Congenital Heart Disease: A 6-year large cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Bailing; You, Guoling; Fu, Qihua; Wang, Jing

    2017-02-17

    ABO blood group, except its direct clinical implications for transfusion and organ transplantation, is generally accepted as an effect factor for coronary heart disease, but the associations between ABO blood group and congenital heart disease (CHD) are not coherent by previous reports. In this study, we evaluated the the potential relationship between ABO blood group and CHD risk. In 39,042 consecutive inpatients (19,795 CHD VS 19,247 controls), we used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the roles of ABO blood group, gender, and RH for CHD. The associations between ABO blood group and CHD subgroups, were further evaluated using stratification analysis, adjusted by gender. A blood group demonstrated decreased risk for isolated CHD (OR 0.82; 95% CI, 0.78-0.87) in individuals with A blood group in the overall cohort analysis, and the finding was consistently replicated in independent subgroup analysis. ABO blood group may have a role for CHD, and this novel finding provides ABO blood group as a possible marker for CHD, but more studies need to be done.

  19. ABO blood group system and the coronary artery disease: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Yang, Sheng-Hua; Xu, Hao; Li, Jian-Jun

    2016-03-18

    ABO blood group system, a well-known genetic risk factor, has clinically been demonstrated to be linked with thrombotic vascular diseases. However, the relationship between ABO blood group and coronary artery disease (CAD) is still controversial. We here performed an updated meta-analysis of the related studies and tried to elucidate the potential role of ABO blood group as a risk factor for CAD. All detectable case-control and cohort studies comparing the risk of CAD in different ABO blood groups were collected for this analysis through searching PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Ultimately, 17 studies covering 225,810 participants were included. The combined results showed that the risk of CAD was significantly higher in blood group A (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.26, p = 0.01) and lower in blood group O (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.78 to 0.94, p = 0.0008). Even when studies merely about myocardial infarction (MI) were removed, the risk of CAD was still significantly higher in blood group A (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.10, p = 0.03) and lower in blood group O (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.85 to 0.93, p < 0.00001). This updated systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that both blood group A and non-O were the risk factors of CAD.

  20. Elucidating nature's solutions to heart, lung, and blood diseases and sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Hannah V; Martin, Sandra L; Horwitz, Barbara A; Yan, Lin; Bailey, Shannon M; Podrabsky, Jason; Storz, Jay F; Ortiz, Rudy M; Wong, Renee P; Lathrop, David A

    2012-03-30

    Evolution has provided a number of animal species with extraordinary phenotypes. Several of these phenotypes allow species to survive and thrive in environmental conditions that mimic disease states in humans. The study of evolved mechanisms responsible for these phenotypes may provide insights into the basis of human disease and guide the design of new therapeutic approaches. Examples include species that tolerate acute or chronic hypoxemia like deep-diving mammals and high-altitude inhabitants, as well as those that hibernate and interrupt their development when exposed to adverse environments. The evolved traits exhibited by these animal species involve modifications of common biological pathways that affect metabolic regulation, organ function, antioxidant defenses, and oxygen transport. In 2006, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute released a funding opportunity announcement to support studies that were designed to elucidate the natural molecular and cellular mechanisms of adaptation in species that tolerate extreme environmental conditions. The rationale for this funding opportunity is detailed in this article, and the specific evolved mechanisms examined in the supported research are described. Also highlighted are past medical advances achieved through the study of animal species that have evolved extraordinary phenotypes as well as the expectations for new understanding of nature's solutions to heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders through future research in this area.

  1. Increased blood-brain barrier vulnerability to systemic inflammation in an Alzheimer disease mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shuko; Sato, Naoyuki; Ikimura, Kazuko; Nishino, Hirohito; Rakugi, Hiromi; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2013-08-01

    Behavioral and psychological problems are often observed in patients with dementia such as that associated with Alzheimer disease, and these noncognitive symptoms place an extremely heavy burden on the family and caregivers. Although it is well know that these symptoms often are triggered by infection of peripheral organs, the underlying mechanisms for these pathological conditions are still unclear. In this study, using an Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP)-transgenic mouse, we analyzed behavioral changes and brain inflammatory response induced by peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide. Application of a unique in vivo microdialysis system revealed that the increase in brain inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-6) level was significantly higher in APP-Tg than in wild-type mice after peripheral lipopolysaccharide injection, which was associated with more severe sickness behaviors. The blood-brain barrier became more permeable in APP-Tg mice during peripherally evoked inflammation, suggesting the increased vulnerability of the blood-brain barrier to inflammation in this animal model of Alzheimer's disease. These findings might provide insight into the pathogenesis of noncognitive symptoms in dementia and a basis to develop new therapeutic treatments for them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A case of graft-versus-host disease following irradiated fresh blood transfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Akira; Takeuchi, Yasushi; Ueda, Nobuhisa

    1991-01-01

    We reported a case of a fatal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) which developed in a 65-year-old, male patient which was considered to have been induced by irradiated fresh blood donated by his son after a coronary bypass surgery. Fresh blood was obtained from his relatives, and a 15 Gy irradiation was performed before transfusion. The diagnosis of acute GVHD was made by clinical symptoms and histological examinations of the skin and the bone marrow. He died of sepsis on the 19th post-operative day. The HLA typing of the lymphocytes, revealed that the patient had A 2, A 24, Bw 52, Bw 62, Cw 4, DR 2, and his son had A 24, Bw 52, DR 2. A 24 and Bw 52 were homogeneous making his son histocompatible with one of the patient's haplotype. This might well be attributable to the occurrence of GVHD in this case, meaning that 15 Gy irradiation was not sufficient for the prevention of this disease. (author)

  3. Blood pressure variability and cardiovascular autonomic control during hemodialysis in peripheral vascular disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titapiccolo, Jasmine Ion; Cerutti, Sergio; Signorini, Maria Gabriella; Ferrario, Manuela; Garzotto, Francesco; Cruz, Dinna; Ronco, Claudio; Moissl, Ulrich; Tetta, Ciro

    2012-01-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) patients with peripheral vascular disease (PVD) are at higher risk of mortality. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the hypothesis of an association between the PVD and an altered control system on peripheral resistance in response to volume depletion induced by HD treatment; and to investigate whether HD induced increase of pulse pressure (PP) is associated with PVD. Continuous blood pressure (BP) was recorded during HD treatment at the beginning and at the end of HD. The overhydration condition was evaluated by means of whole body bioimpedance spectroscopy, measured before each HD treatment. BP variability, heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity were then analyzed. Patients affected by PVD reported a prevalence of peripheral local control as shown by higher values of very low frequency in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) variability and a reduced cardiac baroreflex with respect to patients not affected by this pathology. HD treatment induced a significant increase of PP and LF% in DBP series in PVD patients only. Our results suggested that differences in BP variability and PP changes could be related not only to an underlying vascular disease, but also to an alteration in autonomic control. (paper)

  4. Trends in the prevalence of Chagas' disease among first-time blood donors in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Ester C; Gonçalez, Thelma T; Salles, Nanci A; Silva, Guilherme R; Chamone, Dalton F

    2003-07-01

    Screening of blood donors for Chagas' disease is mandatory in Brazil. Data about the prevalence of Chagas' disease among first-time blood donors has not been previously reported. The objective of this study was to report the trends in the prevalence of Chagas' disease among first-time blood donors in São Paulo, Brazil according to gender, age, and type of donation. The data was obtained at Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro de São Paulo during the period of 1996 to 2001. Samples were considered positive if they were reactive to the three serologic tests used at screening (indirect immunofluorescence, indirect hemagglutination, and EIA). The prevalence of Chagas' disease was two times higher among replacement blood donors than among altruistic donors (52 vs. 25 cases/10,000). The overall prevalence among blood donors decreased at a rate of 1.86 cases per 10,000 per year. An increase in the proportion of altruistic donors and a decrease in the prevalence primarily among younger donors were observed. The prevalence of Chagas' disease is decreasing in the São Paulo population. Differences in the socioeconomic level between altruistic and replacement donors may be the reason for the differences in the prevalence among these groups. It will be important to target for study the population of young seroreactive blood donors to better understand how new infections are occurring.

  5. The composition and daily variation of microparticles in whole blood in stable coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christersson, Christina; Lindahl, Bertil; Siegbahn, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of circadian variation of microparticles (MPs) in stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the daily variation of platelet-, endothelial- and monocyte-derived MPs in whole blood and their tissue factor expression (TF) in SCAD and whether these MPs were related to other endothelial and coagulation markers. Serial blood samples from patients with SCAD were collected during one day. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate the amount of large MPs 0.5-1.0 μm, positive for annexin, and their expression of CD41, CD62P, CD144, CD14 and TF. The lag time and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) was calculated by Calibrated Automated Thrombogram and soluble (s)P-selectin, sTF and vWF by ELISA. The majority of MPs in whole blood consisted of CD41 + MPs with no significant daily variation. In contrast, the concentration of CD62P + MPs described a daily variation with the lowest concentrations found in the evening (p = 0.031). CD62P + and CD144 + MPs had the highest expression of TF, 52.6% and 42.9%, respectively, and correlated to the endothelial activity evaluated by vWF. There was a circadian rhythm of lag time (p monocyte-derived MPs do not present the same circadian variation and they differ in TF expression in SCAD. The MPs from activated platelets, endothelial cells and monocytes exist in low concentrations in whole blood but are related to the endothelial and coagulation activity found in SCAD.

  6. [Hemolytic disease of the newborn and irregular blood group antibodies in the Netherlands: prevalence and morbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, B A; Hirasing, R A; Overbeeke, M A

    1999-07-10

    To inventory prevalence and morbidity of haemolytic disease of newborn caused by irregular anti-erythrocyte antibodies other than antirhesus-D. Prospective registration study. All paediatricians (n = 380) in general hospitals and contact persons (n = 79) in university hospitals were asked for monthly reports of clinical cases of haemolytic disease of newborn during 2 years (1996-1997). Response was 97%. A total of 130 reports were received in two study years, 49 of which could not be confirmed as non-RhD-non-AB0 antagonism. In the group of which the transfusion history was known (n = 60), 29 pregnant women (48%) had received transfused blood at some time. Of the antibodies found, anti-c, anti-E and anti-K were the most frequent. The direct antiglobulin test was positive in 61 of the 81 cases, negative in 10 cases, while in 10 cases it was unknown or false-negative due to earlier intrauterine transfusions (in three neonates). The highest bilirubin levels recorded were 572, 559 and 520 mumol/l (all three with maternal anti-c antagonism). Therapeutic data were known concerning 80 of the 81 newborn: 21 (16%) received no treatment, 24 (29%) only phototherapy and the others--in addition to phototherapy if any--also blood transfusion, exchange transfusion or intrauterine transfusion, or a combination of these. It was calculated that the actual prevalence of irregular anti-erythrocyte antibodies in Dutch pregnant women probably amounts to approximately 0.25%. This finding may possibly be confirmed since starting 1 July 1998 all pregnant women in the country are screened for the presence of these antibodies. It is recommended that girls and women in the reproductive age group should receive primary prevention of development of irregular anti-erythrocyte antibodies by application of a selective blood transfusion policy, taking into account the occurrence of the antigens c, E and K.

  7. Neutrophils mediate blood-spinal cord barrier disruption in demyelinating neuroinflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubé, Benoit; Lévesque, Sébastien A; Paré, Alexandre; Chamma, Émilie; Kébir, Hania; Gorina, Roser; Lécuyer, Marc-André; Alvarez, Jorge I; De Koninck, Yves; Engelhardt, Britta; Prat, Alexandre; Côté, Daniel; Lacroix, Steve

    2014-09-01

    Disruption of the blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers (BBB and BSCB, respectively) and immune cell infiltration are early pathophysiological hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS), its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and neuromyelitis optica (NMO). However, their contribution to disease initiation and development remains unclear. In this study, we induced EAE in lys-eGFP-ki mice and performed single, nonterminal intravital imaging to investigate BSCB permeability simultaneously with the kinetics of GFP(+) myeloid cell infiltration. We observed a loss in BSCB integrity within a day of disease onset, which paralleled the infiltration of GFP(+) cells into the CNS and lasted for ∼4 d. Neutrophils accounted for a significant proportion of the circulating and CNS-infiltrating myeloid cells during the preclinical phase of EAE, and their depletion delayed the onset and reduced the severity of EAE while maintaining BSCB integrity. We also show that neutrophils collected from the blood or bone marrow of EAE mice transmigrate more efficiently than do neutrophils of naive animals in a BBB cell culture model. Moreover, using intravital videomicroscopy, we demonstrate that the IL-1R type 1 governs the firm adhesion of neutrophils to the inflamed spinal cord vasculature. Finally, immunostaining of postmortem CNS material obtained from an acutely ill multiple sclerosis patient and two neuromyelitis optica patients revealed instances of infiltrated neutrophils associated with regions of BBB or BSCB leakage. Taken together, our data provide evidence that neutrophils are involved in the initial events that take place during EAE and that they are intimately linked with the status of the BBB/BSCB. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. Mutant huntingtin protein expression and blood-spinal cord barrier dysfunction in huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciacca, Giacomo; Cicchetti, Francesca

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the distribution, frequency, and specific location of mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT) aggregates-the pathological hallmark of Huntington disease (HD)-within the various compartments of the spinal cord and their potential impact on the local vasculature and blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB). We performed a series of postmortem immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent stainings, as well as Western blot analyses, on cervical and lumbar sections of the spinal cord in patients diagnosed with HD (n = 11 of all grades of disease severity) along with sex- and age-matched healthy controls (n = 9). We observed that mHTT was preferably expressed within the anterior horn of the gray matter, in both cervical and lumbar sections. At the cellular level, mHTT aggregates were more often encountered in the extracellular matrix but could also be observed within cell bodies and neurites as well as within the endothelium of blood vessels with an increase in the density of small blood vessels in cervical sections of HD cases. These vasculature changes were accompanied with features of BSCB leakage, as assessed by the presence of increased levels of fibrinogen in the surrounding parenchyma and enhanced leukocyte infiltration. This alteration in BSCB integrity may be explained, in part, by the dysregulation we found in some of the main proteins associated with it such as junctional adhesion molecule-1 and vascular endothelial cadherin. These observations have important implications for our understanding of HD pathology and may also have significant therapeutic implications. Ann Neurol 2017;82:981-994. © 2017 American Neurological Association.

  9. Impaired cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monocytes/macrophages in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Y; Inagaki, T; Sawada, M; Suzumura, A

    2000-03-01

    Although the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is still unknown, several reports suggest the presence of immunological abnormalities in the patients with PD such as impaired T cell responses or cytokine production by the peripheral immune system. In this study, we examined cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and monocyte/macrophages (PBM) in the patients with idiopathic PD, using age-related healthy donors as a normal control and cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) as a disease control. Production of TNF-alpha, IL-1alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 by PBMC and TNF-alpha by PBM were significantly lower in the patients with PD as compared to the control groups. IFN-gamma production by LPS-stimulated PBMC in the patients with PD was also significantly lower than that in control groups. Cytokine production by PBMC from the patients with CVD who had a similar disability as the patient group was not significantly different from those in normal controls. Thus, impaired production of inflammatory cytokines may not be due to the mental and physical stress caused by their disability. In the patients with PD, a significant negative correlation was noted in 1alpha-1beta, IL-1beta and IL-6 levels produced by LPS-stimulated PBMC and Hoehn Yahr disability score of the patients, suggesting that the impaired cytokine production may progress with disease progression. These abnormalities in cytokine production may not be primary but may affect the prognosis of PD.

  10. Insight into "Calculated Risk": An Application to the Prioritization of Emerging Infectious Diseases for Blood Transfusion Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neslo, R E J; Oei, W; Janssen, M P

    2017-09-01

    Increasing identification of transmissions of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) by blood transfusion raised the question which of these EIDs poses the highest risk to blood safety. For a number of the EIDs that are perceived to be a threat to blood safety, evidence on actual disease or transmission characteristics is lacking, which might render measures against such EIDs disputable. On the other hand, the fact that we call them "emerging" implies almost by definition that we are uncertain about at least some of their characteristics. So what is the relative importance of various disease and transmission characteristics, and how are these influenced by the degree of uncertainty associated with their actual values? We identified the likelihood of transmission by blood transfusion, the presence of an asymptomatic phase of infection, prevalence of infection, and the disease impact as the main characteristics of the perceived risk of disease transmission by blood transfusion. A group of experts in the field of infectious diseases and blood transfusion ranked sets of (hypothetical) diseases with varying degrees of uncertainty associated with their disease characteristics, and used probabilistic inversion to obtain probability distributions for the weight of each of these risk characteristics. These distribution weights can be used to rank both existing and newly emerging infectious diseases with (partially) known characteristics. Analyses show that in case there is a lack of data concerning disease characteristics, it is the uncertainty concerning the asymptomatic phase and the disease impact that are the most important drivers of the perceived risk. On the other hand, if disease characteristics are well established, it is the prevalence of infection and the transmissibility of the disease by blood transfusion that will drive the perceived risk. The risk prioritization model derived provides an easy to obtain and rational expert assessment of the relative importance of

  11. Increased blood clearance rate of indium-111 oxine-labeled autologous CD4+ blood cells in untreated patients with Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimfors, G.; Holm, G.; Mellstedt, H.; Schnell, P.O.; Tullgren, O.; Bjoerkholm, M.

    1990-01-01

    Untreated patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) have a blood T-lymphocytopenia mainly caused by a reduction of the CD4+ subset. Indirect support for a sequestration of T cells in the spleen and tumor-involved lymphoid tissue has accumulated. To test the hypothesis that the blood CD4 T-lymphocytopenia in patients with HD is caused by an altered lymphocyte traffic, 12 untreated HD patients and five in complete clinical remission (CCR) were studied. Blood lymphocytes were collected by leukapheresis and gradient centrifugation, and were further purified by an adherence step. The cells were labeled with indium-111 oxine and reinfused intravenously into the patient. The radioactivity of CD4+ and CD8+ blood lymphocytes separated by immunoabsorption was measured from serial blood samples. CD4+ cells were eliminated more rapidly in untreated patients than patients in CCR. Repeated gamma camera imaging after autotransfusion of indium-111 oxine labeled cells demonstrated an accumulation of radioactivity in tumor-involved tissue of untreated patients. These findings support the concept of an enhanced elimination of CD4+ cells in patients with active HD that may contribute to the observed blood T-lymphocytopenia and may reflect a biologic response to the tumor

  12. Evaluation of Various Cardiac Indices and ROC Analysis in Coronary Artery Disease Employing Resting ECG Gated Blood Pool Scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Sang Eun; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Park, Young Bae; Seo, Jung Don; Lee, Young Woo; Koh, Chang Soon

    1992-01-01

    Gated blood pool scan is frequently used for evaluating the change in cardiac function in various cardiac diseases. But resting gated blood pool scan using only LVEF as a cardiac index has been consistently shown to have a low sensitivity, which is about 50%, in detecting coronary artery disease. So it is recommended to compare exercise gated blood pool scan to resting gated blood pool scan. Exercise tests, however, are not always possible, especially in patients with musculoskeletal diseases, recent myocardial infarction and in elderly persons. We studied the usefulness of resting gated blood pool scan using multiple indices in evaluating the patients with coronary artery disease. Studied cases were 185 patients with coronary artery disease (angina pectoris 31, myocardial infarction 154) and 25 normals with low likelihood of coronary artery disease. We used 99m Tc-labeled RBC, 740 MBq labeled by in vivo method. The data were evaluated by Micro DELTA computer program. The results were as following: 1) The ejection rates (PER, AER) and filling rates (PFR, AFR) were different in normals and patients with angina pectoris or myocardial infarction. 2) Mean phase angle, ejection rates and filling rates could separate normals from coronary artery disease patients with normal LVEF. 3) Regional ejection fraction was decreased at the site of the infarct in patients with myocardial infarction. 4) Peak filling rate was the most detectable index in evaluation of cardiac function in patients with coronary artery disease. 5) The threshold at 1.5 standard deviation of normal range was considered as the most reliable cut-off value from ROC analysis. These data suggest that the resting gated blood pool scan has an important role in the evaluation of cardiac functional changes using various cardiac indices in patients with coronary artery disease.

  13. Doppler ultrasound evaluation of cerebral blood flow pattern in neonates with congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Yang Min; Lee, Soo Hyun; Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Woong Han

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate intracerebral resistive index (RI) values in neonates with congenital heart disease and to investigate their changes after the corrective surgery of the congenital heart disease. Sixty nine neonates with congenital heart disease who underwent brain ultrasonography were included. Resistive index values were obtained at the genu portion of the anterior cerebral arteries through the anterior fontanelles. The patients were divided into 4 groups according to the presence of associated patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and intracranial RI values. We evaluated the types of congenital heart disease that could influence RI values. Resistive index values were statistically higher in patients with PDA than in patients without PDA (p<0.05). RI values were higher in cases of large PDA with left-to-right shunt, but within the normal range in cases of small or nearly closing PDA or large PDA with bidirectional blood flow or with right-to-left shunt. For those patients without PDA, RI values were higher when patients had pulmonary atresia with multiple collateral vessels into the lung or when truncus arteriosus was present. RI values were also high in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. RI values were normalized after the ligation of PDA, but patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome showed persistently high RI values even after the Norwood's operation with Blalock-Taussig shunt. RI values are influenced by various congenital heart diseases except PDA. Therefore, the presences of the congenital heart disease and its hemodynamic changes should be taken into consideration in the evaluation of the intracranial RI values using Doppler ultrasonography.

  14. [Correlation between blood stasis syndrome and pathological characteristics of coronary artery in patients with coronary heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jian-Peng; Shi, Da-Zhuo; Li, Tian-Chang; Xu, Hao; Chen, Hao

    2010-09-01

    To study the correlation of blood stasis syndrome or its accompanied syndromes with Gensini score in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) in stable condition. The syndrome types of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and blood stasis score in 131 CHD patients confirmed by coronary angiography were recorded. Gensini score was calculated according to the coronary pathological characteristics showed by angiography. The correlations of blood stasis syndrome and its accompanied syndromes with coronary lesion and Gensini score were analyzed. Among the TCM syndrome types, blood stasis, turbid phlegm and qi deficiency were the most common syndromes, revealed in 85 patients (64.9%), 83 patients (63.4%) and 85 patients (64.9%), respectively. The coronary lesion length and Gensini score in the patients with blood stasis syndrome were much higher than those in the patients with non-blood stasis syndrome (Psyndrome were higher than those in the patients with non-blood stasis syndrome (Psyndrome score was more than 9 points, the coronary lesion length was higher than that in the patients whose blood stasis syndrome score was less than 9 points (Psyndrome score showed no correlation with Gensini score (Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.104, P=0.241). Blood stasis syndrome is the most common TCM syndrome in CHD patients in stable condition. The blood stasis syndrome score is proportional to coronary lesion length, and reflects the severity of coronary lesion.

  15. [Blood transfusion assessment to 112 homozygous sickle-cell disease patients in university hospital of Brazzaville].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokekias, A Elira; Ossini, L Ngolet; Tsiba, F O Atipo; Malanda, F; Koko, I; De Montalembert, M

    2009-01-01

    Homozygous, sickle-cell disease (SCD) is responsible for acute complication, especially anaemic crisis and special situation such as acute chest syndrome, stroke and acute priapism. Pregnancy sickle-cell disease presents high risk for the mother and the fetus. In these indications, blood transfusion is the main therapy aiming to reduce anaemia in order to restore hemoglobin's rate or to increase normal Hb proportion. This study aims to assess the short-term efficiency of the red cell transfusion in SCD homozygous form. One hundred and twelve homozygous sickle-cell patients were enrolled in this prospective study: 59 females and 53 males, median age is 21,8 years (extremes: 2 and 45 years). These patients are mostly with very low income. Two groups of patients are included in this study. In the first group, patients present acute anemia crisis caused by infections disease (malaria, bacterial infections). In the second group (20 cases), SCD patients have particularly situations: pregnancy (10 cases); stroke (six cases); cardiac failure (two cases) and priapism (two cases). Transfusion treatment in first group is simple regimen. Transfusion of EC increased median Hb level at 2,9 g/dl (extremes: 1,1 and 4,7). In the second group of patients, 16 cases were transfused by manual partial exchange (1-3) and four patients received simple regimen of transfusion. Median Hb level was 3,1g/dl (extremes: 2,4-4,9 g/dl). HbS percentage reduction was after PTE between -30 and -66,8% (median: -52,6%). According to our diagnostic possibilities (blood serologic test), we have not found any contamination by HIV, HBV and HCV (virus).

  16. Diagnostic value of blood urea and bilirubin levels determination in patients with gastroduodenal zone diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Zhakun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of relationships of urea and bilirubin blood levels in patients with Helicobacter pylori associated gastroduodenal pathology (HP-aGDP has the considerable relevance for clinicians, since these indicators represent the status and function of the gastroduodenal zone. The aim of this study was to estimate changes of bilirubin and urea blood levels in patients with HP-aGDP before and after treatment. Materials and methods. Our study has included 59 patients of the main group with different HP-aGDP and 40 patients of the control group with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. Results. In patients with HP-aGDP the doubly severe reduction of urea concentration was observed in significantly greater number of patients, while half of the patients in the controls had an increase of its level by 10.4 %. The bilirubin concentration decrease was more pronounced (37.1 % vs. 3.5 % and significant (p < 0.05 in patients with HP-aGDP. Its rate depended on the dynamics of urea exactly in patients with HP-aGDP and it was more pronounced in case of urea reduction (p < 0.05. Thus, the revealed association of bilirubin and urea levels changes, namely their decrease owing to the treatment, was inherent only to patients with HP-aGDP unlike to the patients with CAD. We also determined the involvement of lipid, carbohydrate and protein metabolism, electrolytes, composition of blood in the processes of local and systemic inflammation caused by HP and its relationship with adaptive reactions, which generally depended on other individual characteristics of patients in the study group (age, duration of disease, ulcer size, etc.. Conclusions. The monitoring of urea and bilirubin blood levels in patients especially with HP-aGDP during the eradication has a specific diagnostic and prognostic value. The bilirubin level in such cases reflects the severity of cholestasis, inflammatory lesions of the duodenal mucosa, comorbid hepatobiliary disease, while the urea level

  17. Can whole-blood parameters be used in follow-up of children with rheumatic valvular heart disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpuz, Derya; Giray, Dilek; Ozyurt, Abdullah; Bozlu, Gulcin; Unal, Selma; Hallioglu, Olgu

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between red blood cell distribution width, platelet distribution width, and mean platelet volume and the presence and severity of valvular involvement in patients with rheumatic heart disease. Between April, 2012 and December, 2015, 151 patients who were admitted to the Pediatric Cardiology Unit with diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease and 148 healthy children were included to our study. Transthoracic echocardiography for all children was performed, and the values of red blood cell distribution width, platelet distribution width, and mean platelet volume, besides other blood count parameters, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein levels were recorded. Red blood cell distribution width, platelet distribution width, mean platelet volume, and C-reactive protein levels were significantly higher in patients with rheumatic heart disease when compared with healthy controls (p0.05). This is the first study in children with rheumatic heart disease that demonstrated significantly increased red blood cell distribution width, platelet distribution width, and mean platelet volume levels, as well as evaluated all three parameters together. Furthermore, red blood cell distribution width values in the chronical period of acute rheumatic fever, due to the positive correlation with the other chronic inflammatory markers, may help make the diagnosis in children.

  18. MRI-based blood oxygen saturation measurements in infants and children with congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nield, Lynne E.; Valsangiacomo, Emanuela R.; Hornberger, Lisa K. [Department of Paediatrics and Division of Cardiology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada); Qi, Xiuling; Wright, Graham A. [Department of Medical Biophysics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Yoo, Shi-Joon [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto School of Medicine, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Background: Vessel oxygen saturation can be determined with MR oximetry using an in vivo measurement of signal decay (T2) and the calibration curve relating T2 to blood oxygen saturation (%HbO{sub 2}), where: 1/T2=1/T2O+K (1-%HbO{sub 2}/100){sup 2} and K is a constant parameter which correlates with measured fibrinogen levels. The ability to noninvasively measure %HbO{sub 2} in cardiac chambers and vessels has enormous potential in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). Objective: The purpose of the study was to prospectively characterize the T2-%HbO{sub 2} relationship in infants where T2-%HbO{sub 2} is the realtionship between T2 and %HbO{sub 2} (blood oxygen saturation) expressed by the equation given above, and to determine whether adult values for K and T2O (where T2O is the T2 of fully oxygenated blood) can be extrapolated to pediatric patients with CHD. A second objective was to apply this method to calculate the %HbO{sub 2} in vivo using MR imaging in infants with CHD. Materials and methods: Fifteen patients with CHD undergoing cardiac catheterization (9 male; 6 female), median age 8 months, were recruited for the calibration study. T2O and K were measured directly from blood samples, compared with the values estimated from adult population statistics, and plotted against hematocrit and fibrinogen, respectively. In four studies of infants with CHD, T2 measurements were converted to %HbO{sub 2} using the calibration curve. Results: The T2-%HbO{sub 2} relationship in infants correlated with the adult calibration statistics (1/T2O vs. hematocrit, r=0.77; K vs. fibrinogen, r=0.61). Our initial in vivo studies demonstrated that the MR oximetry reflected the expected oxygen saturations. Conclusion: Adult values for T2-%HbO{sub 2} calibration can be used to measure blood oxygen saturation in vivo in children with CHD. (orig.)

  19. Blood amyloid beta levels in healthy, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease individuals: replication of diastolic blood pressure correlations and analysis of critical covariates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Ruiz

    Full Text Available Plasma amyloid beta (Aβ levels are being investigated as potential biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. In AB128 cross-sectional study, a number of medical relevant correlates of blood Aβ40 or Aβ42 were analyzed in 140 subjects (51 Alzheimer's disease patients, 53 healthy controls and 36 individuals diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment. We determined the association between multiple variables with Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels measured in three different blood compartments called i Aβ directly accessible (DA in the plasma, ii Aβ recovered from the plasma matrix (RP after diluting the plasma sample in a formulated buffer, and iii associated with the remaining cellular pellet (CP. We confirmed that diastolic blood pressure (DBP is consistently correlated with blood DA Aβ40 levels (r=-0.19, P=0.032. These results were consistent in the three phenotypic groups studied. Importantly, the observation resisted covariation with age, gender or creatinine levels. Observed effect size and direction of Aβ40 levels/DBP correlation are in accordance with previous reports. Of note, DA Aβ40 and the RP Aβ40 were also strongly associated with creatinine levels (r=0.599, P<<0.001 and to a lesser extent to urea, age, hematocrit, uric acid and homocysteine (p<0.001. DBP and the rest of statistical significant correlates identified should be considered as potential confounder factors in studies investigating blood Aβ levels as potential AD biomarker. Remarkably, the factors affecting Aβ levels in plasma (DA, RP and blood cell compartments (CP seem completely different.

  20. Changes in Proteome Profile of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Chronic Chagas Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Jain Garg

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc infection causes chagasic cardiomyopathy; however, why 30-40% of the patients develop clinical disease is not known. To discover the pathomechanisms in disease progression, we obtained the proteome signature of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of normal healthy controls (N/H, n = 30 and subjects that were seropositive for Tc-specific antibodies, but were clinically asymptomatic (C/A, n = 25 or clinically symptomatic (C/S, n = 28 with cardiac involvement and left ventricular dysfunction. Protein samples were labeled with BODIPY FL-maleimide (dynamic range: > 4 orders of magnitude, detection limit: 5 f-mol and resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE. After normalizing the gel images, protein spots that exhibited differential abundance in any of the two groups were analyzed by mass spectrometry, and searched against UniProt human database for protein identification. We found 213 and 199 protein spots (fold change: |≥ 1.5|, p93% prediction success in classifying infected individuals with no disease and those with cardiac involvement and LV dysfunction. In conclusion, we have identified molecular pathways and a panel of proteins that could aid in detecting seropositive individuals at risk of developing cardiomyopathy.

  1. Successful cord blood stem cell transplantation for congenital erythropoietic porphyria (Gunther's disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zix-Kieffer, I; Langer, B; Eyer, D; Acar, G; Racadot, E; Schlaeder, G; Oberlin, F; Lutz, P

    1996-07-01

    Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (Gunther's disease, GD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease. It results from the deficiency of uroporphyrinogen III synthase, the fourth enzyme on the metabolic pathway of heme synthesis. GD leads to severe scarring of the face and hands as a result of photosensitivity and fragility of the skin due to uroporphyrin I and coproporphyrin I accumulation. It also causes erythrocyte fragility leading to haemolytic anaemia. The other clinical features include hirsutism, red discolouration of teeth, finger-nails and urine and stunted growth. The outcome is poor, and the disfiguring nature of GD may partly explain the legend of the werewolf. No curative treatment was known until 1991, when the first case of BMT in GD was reported. The clinical and biological outcome after transplantation was encouraging, with an important regression of the symptoms of the disease, but the child died of CMV-infection 11 months after BMT. We report the second case of GD treated successfully by stem cell transplantation using umbilical cord blood from an HLA-identical brother in a 4-year-old girl suffering from severe GD. Our patient is very well 10 months after transplantation. We confirm that stem cell transplantation is curative for GD.

  2. Neuro-Coagulopathy: Blood Coagulation Factors in Central Nervous System Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Ciro; Virtuoso, Assunta; Maggio, Nicola; Papa, Michele

    2017-10-12

    Blood coagulation factors and other proteins, with modulatory effects or modulated by the coagulation cascade have been reported to affect the pathophysiology of the central nervous system (CNS). The protease-activated receptors (PARs) pathway can be considered the central hub of this regulatory network, mainly through thrombin or activated protein C (aPC). These proteins, in fact, showed peculiar properties, being able to interfere with synaptic homeostasis other than coagulation itself. These specific functions modulate neuronal networks, acting both on resident (neurons, astrocytes, and microglia) as well as circulating immune system cells and the extracellular matrix. The pleiotropy of these effects is produced through different receptors, expressed in various cell types, in a dose- and time-dependent pattern. We reviewed how these pathways may be involved in neurodegenerative diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases), multiple sclerosis, ischemic stroke and post-ischemic epilepsy, CNS cancer, addiction, and mental health. These data open up a new path for the potential therapeutic use of the agonist/antagonist of these proteins in the management of several central nervous system diseases.

  3. Three dimensional cerebral blood flow in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, Takashi

    1987-01-01

    Three dimensional local cerebral blood flow values were measured in 28 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease without dementia and 17 control subjects, by means of xenon enhanced CT method using low concentration cold xenon and autoradiographic strategy. The results demonstrated that local cerebral perfusion in the patients with Parkinson's disease decreased with close correlations with aging and severity of the clinical symptoms and signs. Stepwise multiregression analysis revealed that mean CBF values and 1-CBF values through thalamus and white matter decreased primarily depending on aging and degree of brain atrophy, whereas 1-CBF values through basal ganglia decreased depending on severity of disease. The spatial distributions of 1-CBF were maintained normally and symmetrically even in the severely affected cases or in those with hemiparkinsonism, therefore hyperfrontalities were well preserved in all of the patients. Acute intravenous administration of L-DOPA gave rise to a diffuse increase in 1-CBF only in the patients and the increment was more prominent in patients severely affected than in those mildly affected. It was concluded that reduction of 1-CBF in the basal ganglia and cortex may be attributed to hypometabolism in the mesostriatal and mesocortical dopaminergic system. (author)

  4. Is Blood Pressure Improving in Children With Chronic Kidney Disease? A Period Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, Gina-Marie; Pierce, Christopher; Mitsnefes, Mark; Samuels, Joshua; Warady, Bradley A; Furth, Susan; Flynn, Joseph

    2018-03-01

    Uncontrolled hypertension in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been identified as one of the main factors contributing to progression of CKD and increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Recent efforts to achieve better blood pressure (BP) control have been recommended. The primary objective of this analysis was to compare BP control over 2 time periods among participants enrolled in the CKiD study (Chronic Kidney Disease in Children). Casual BP and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitor data were compared among 851 participants during 2 time periods: January 1, 2005, through July 1, 2008 (period 1, n=345), and July 1, 2010, through December 31, 2013 (period 2, n=506). Multivariable logistic regression to model the propensity of a visit record being in period 2 as a function of specific predictors was performed. After controlling for confounding variables (age, sex, race, socioeconomics, CKD duration, glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria, body mass index, growth failure, and antihypertensives), no significant differences were detected between time periods with respect to casual BP status (prehypertension: 15% versus 15%; uncontrolled hypertension: 18% versus 17%; P =0.87). Analysis of ambulatory BP monitor data demonstrated higher ambulatory BP indices, most notably masked hypertension in period 2 (36% versus 49%; P children with CKD. This analysis also underscores the importance of routine ambulatory BP monitor assessment in children with CKD. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Peripheral blood and intrathyroidal T cell clones from patients with thyroid autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massart, C; Caroff, G; Maugendre, D; Genetet, N; Gibassier, J

    1999-01-01

    For a better understanding of the pathogenesis of thyroid autoimmune diseases, we have studied morphological and functional properties of T clones from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and from intrathyroidal lymphocytes (ITL) obtained from 3 patients with Graves' disease or 1 Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Investigations were carried out on clones cultured alone or cocultured with autologous thyrocytes. Clonage efficiency ranged from 30% to 33% for PBL and 10% to 36% for ITL. A predominance of CD4-positive clones was observed whatever the origin of the lymphocytes or the autoimmune pathology. Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) was detected in the majority (17/19) of the clones tested. Intracytoplasmic interleukin (IL-4) was secreted in 7/19 clones and both cytokines were produced in 5/19 clones. In coculture a proliferative response and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) production were observed with 6 clones (4 from Graves thyrocytes and 2 from thyroiditis). No cytotoxic clone was derived from Graves or thyroiditis tissues. These data demonstrate that the large majority of T clones are principally CD4-T cells; all the clones secreted TNF-alpha and a large majority produced IFN-gamma. Only a few clones produced IL-4 alone or associated with IFN-gamma. Six T clones induced proliferative response and of TNF-alpha secretion in coculture. Further investigations must be performed on these antigen-reactive T clones to analyse their role in the pathogenesis of the human thyroid autoimmune diseases.

  6. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... This Section Action Alerts Advocacy Toolkit Policy News Sickle Cell Disease Initiative Policy Statements Congressional Fellowship Testimony and ... all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting ...

  7. Blood Urea Nitrogen Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) BNP and NT-proBNP ... Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Lyme Disease Tests Magnesium Maternal Serum Screening, Second Trimester Measles and Mumps Tests Mercury ...

  8. Effects of whole blood viscosity and plasma NOx on cardiac function and cerebral blood flow in children with chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyan, Necla; Akçaboy, Meltem; Göktaş, Tayfun; Kula, Serdar; Nazlıel, Bijen; Çakar, Nilgün; Uncu, Nermin; Çelik, Bülent; Erbaş, Deniz

    2017-11-13

    Background/aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of whole blood viscosity and plasma nitric oxide on cerebral and cardiovascular risks associated with chronic kidney disease. Materials and methods: The study group consisted of 40 pediatric patients and 21 healthy control subjects. Hematologic and biochemical variables, viscosity and plasma nitric oxide levels, echocardiographic findings, and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity were examined. Results: Viscosity values of patients were significantly lower than those of the control group. Lower values of hematocrit, total protein, and albumin and higher values of ferritin in all patient groups resulted in significantly low viscosity levels. Plasma nitric oxide levels were higher in all patient groups than those in the controls. No statistically significant difference was present in middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity between the patient and control groups. Even when systolic functions were normal, the patient group had significant deterioration in diastolic functions, suggesting morbidity and mortality risks. Conclusions: Cerebral blood flow velocities were not affected by viscosity and nitric oxide levels, suggesting that cerebral circulation has the ability to make adaptive modulation. The metabolism of nitric oxide levels needs further investigation and studies in patients with chronic renal disease.

  9. Risk of transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease via blood and blood products. The French risk-analysis over the last 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M; Trouvin, J-H

    2013-09-01

    Risk of transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (infectious agent, responsible of spongiform encephalopathy) via blood and blood components (including the plasma-derived medicinal products such as coagulation factors and immunoglobulins) have been a subject of concern for Health authorities since the early 1980s, with a regain of interest in the 1990s, with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy outbreak followed few years after with the notification of the first cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. The risk-analysis and measures taken by the French authorities in the period 1990-2010 will be described with the various assumptions and working hypothesis used and revisited as new findings become available. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Restrictive versus liberal blood transfusion in patients with coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yushu; Shi, Xiuli; Wen, Meiqin; Chen, Yucheng; Zhang, Qing

    2017-04-01

    To compare clinical outcomes between restrictive versus liberal blood transfusion strategies in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). A literature search from January 1966 to May 2016 was performed in PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library to find trials evaluating a restrictive hemoglobin transfusion trigger of ≤8 g/dL, compared with a more liberal trigger. Two study authors independently extracted data from the trials. The primary outcome was mortality and the secondary outcome was subsequent myocardial infarction. Relative risks (RRs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were assessed. Six trials involving 133,058 participants were included in this study. Pooled results revealed no difference in mortality between the liberal transfusion and restrictive transfusions (RR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.91-1.52, P = .22). Subgroup analysis revealed that a restrictive transfusion strategy was associated with a higher risk of in-hospital mortality (RR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.15-1.67, P transfusion strategy and restrictive transfusion strategy in risk for subsequent myocardial infarction (RR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.57-2.06, P = .80). Limitations include (1) limited number of trials, especially those evaluating myocardial infarction, (2) observed heterogeneity, (3) confounding by indication and other inherent bias may exist. The findings suggest that restrictive blood transfusion was associated with higher in-hospital and 30 day mortality than liberal blood transfusion in CAD patients. The conclusions are mainly based on retrospective studies and should not be considered as recommendation before they are supported by randomized controlled trials.

  11. Laboratory and Genetic Biomarkers Associated with Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity in Hemoglobin SC Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayra Pereira Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reference values for cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV in hemoglobin SC disease (HbSC have not been established. We aimed to investigate associations between laboratory and genetic biomarkers associated with CBFV in HbSC children. Sixty-eight HbSC children were included; CBFV was analyzed by transcranial Doppler, and the time-averaged maximum mean velocity (TAMMV was estimated. Hematological, biochemical, immunological, and genetic analyses were performed. TAMMV was negatively correlated with red blood cell count (RBC count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and direct bilirubin (DB, yet positively correlated with monocytes and ferritin. We found that children with TAMMV ≥ 128 cm/s had decreased red blood cell distribution width (RDW and nitric oxide metabolite (NOx concentration. Children with TAMMV ≥ 143.50 cm/s had decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit, as well as increased ferritin levels. Decreased hemoglobin, hematocrit, RDW, and NOx and increased ferritin were detected in children with TAMMV ≥ 125.75 cm/s. The CAR haplotype was associated with higher TAMMV. In association analyses, RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, RDW, monocyte, DB, NOx, and ferritin, as well as the CAR haplotype, were found to be associated with higher TAMMV in HbSC children. Multivariate analysis suggested that high TAMMV was independently associated with hematocrit, RDW, and NOx. Additional studies are warranted to validate the establishment of a cutoff value of 125.75 cm/s associated with elevated TAMMV in HbSC children.

  12. Discrepancies in Clinic and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Korean Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) control is considered the most important treatment for preventing chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and associated cardiovascular complications. However, clinic BP is insufficient to diagnose hypertension (HT) and to monitor overall BP control because it does not correlate well with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). We enrolled 387 hypertensive CKD patients (stages G1–G4, 58.4% male with median age 61 years) from 3 hospitals in Korea. HT of clinic BP and ABPM was classified as ≥ 140/90 and ≥ 130/80 mmHg, respectively. Clinic BP control rate was 60.2%. The median 24-hour systolic blood pressures (SBPs) of CKD G3b and CKD G4 were significantly higher than those of CKD G1–2 and CKD G3a. However, the median 24-hour SBPs were not different between CKD G1–2 and CKD G3a or between CKD G3b and CKD G4. Of all patients, 5.7%, 38.0%. 42.3%, and 14.0% were extreme-dippers, dippers, non-dippers, and reverse-dippers, respectively. Non-/reverse-dippers independently correlated with higher Ca × P product, higher intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), and lower albumin. Normal BP was 33.3%, and sustained, masked, and white-coat HT were 29.7%, 26.9%, and 10.1%, respectively. White-coat HT independently correlated with age ≥ 61 years and masked HT independently correlated with CKD G3b/G4. In conclusion, ABPM revealed a high prevalence of non-/reverse-dippers and sustained/masked HT in Korean CKD patients. Clinicians should try to obtain a CKD patient's ABPM, especially among those who are older or who have advanced CKD as well as those with abnormal Ca × P product, iPTH, and albumin. PMID:28378550

  13. Oral antioxidants improve leg blood flow during exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Matthew J; Trinity, Joel D; Garten, Ryan S; Ives, Stephen J; Conklin, Jamie D; Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Witman, Melissa A H; Bledsoe, Amber D; Morgan, David E; Runnels, Sean; Reese, Van R; Zhao, Jia; Amann, Markus; Wray, D Walter; Richardson, Russell S

    2015-09-01

    The consequence of elevated oxidative stress on exercising skeletal muscle blood flow as well as the transport and utilization of O2 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not well understood. The present study examined the impact of an oral antioxidant cocktail (AOC) on leg blood flow (LBF) and O2 consumption during dynamic exercise in 16 patients with COPD and 16 healthy subjects. Subjects performed submaximal (3, 6, and 9 W) single-leg knee extensor exercise while LBF (Doppler ultrasound), mean arterial blood pressure, leg vascular conductance, arterial O2 saturation, leg arterial-venous O2 difference, and leg O2 consumption (direct Fick) were evaluated under control conditions and after AOC administration. AOC administration increased LBF (3 W: 1,604 ± 100 vs. 1,798 ± 128 ml/min, 6 W: 1,832 ± 109 vs. 1,992 ± 120 ml/min, and 9W: 2,035 ± 114 vs. 2,187 ± 136 ml/min, P leg vascular conductance, and leg O2 consumption (3 W: 173 ± 12 vs. 210 ± 15 ml O2/min, 6 W: 217 ± 14 vs. 237 ± 15 ml O2/min, and 9 W: 244 ± 16 vs 260 ± 18 ml O2/min, P < 0.05, control vs. AOC, respectively) during exercise in COPD, whereas no effect was observed in healthy subjects. In addition, the AOC afforded a small, but significant, improvement in arterial O2 saturation only in patients with COPD. Thus, these data demonstrate a novel beneficial role of AOC administration on exercising LBF, O2 consumption, and arterial O2 saturation in patients with COPD, implicating oxidative stress as a potential therapeutic target for impaired exercise capacity in this population. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Caucasian origin of disease associated HLA haplotypes in chinese blood donors with IgA deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Lu, Ping; Ling, Bing; Zhu, Ziyan; Hammarström, Lennart

    2014-02-01

    Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (IgAD) is the most common primary immunodeficiency in Caucasians with a prevalence of 1:600. However, the prevalence of IgAD is markedly lower in East Asian countries but no genetic studies have been performed on IgAD individuals in the Mongoloid population. We investigated the prevalence of IgAD in a large number of Chinese blood donors (n = 39,015) in Shanghai, China. We measured immunoglobulin class, IgG subclass and anti-IgA serum levels among the IgAD donors. These donors were subsequently tissue typed and the allele frequency was compared with the Shanghai bone marrow donor HLA registry. Seventeen IgAD Chinese blood donors were identified, giving a prevalence of 1: 2,295. Two previously identified IgAD blood donor samples were added in the subsequent tests. Most IgAD donors had serum IgG levels above the normal range with no major IgG subclass deficiency and one donor was weakly positive for anti-IgA. Two-thirds of the Chinese IgAD donors carried Caucasian IgAD associated risk haplotypes, including DRB1*0301-DQB1*0201, DRB1*0701-DQB1*0202 and DRB1*0102-DQB1*0501, giving a significantly higher frequency of these haplotypes as compared to the Shanghai bone marrow donor HLA registry. The prevalence of IgAD in Chinese in this study is markedly lower than in Caucasians. This is the first study to investigate the genetics of IgAD in the Mongoloid population and two-thirds of the Chinese IgAD donors showed a mixture of Caucasian IgAD risk haplotypes. The low prevalence of IgAD could potentially be due to the low frequency of the disease associated risk haplotypes in China.

  15. Blood and lymphatic vasculature in the ovary: development, function and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H M; Russell, D L

    2014-01-01

    The remodelling of the blood vasculature has been the subject of much research while rapid progress in the understanding of the factors controlling lymphangiogenesis in the ovary has only been reported more recently. The ovary undergoes cyclic remodelling throughout each menstrual/estrous cycle. This process requires significant vascular remodelling to supply each new cohort of growing follicles. Literature searches were performed to review studies on the ovarian lymphatic vasculature that described spatial, temporal and functional data in human or animal species. The role of ovarian blood and lymphatic vasculature in the pathogenesis of ovarian disease and dysfunction was also explored. Research in a number of species including zebrafish, rodents and primates has described the lymphatic vasculature within the remodelling ovary, while recent research in mouse has confirmed hormonal regulation of lymphangiogenic growth factors, their receptors and also a role for the protease, ADAMTS1 in the development of the lymphatic vasculature. With a critical role in the maintenence of fluid homeostasis, the ovarian lymphatic vasculature is important for normal ovarian function and has been linked to syndromes involving ovarian fluid imbalance, including ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and massive ovarian edema. The lymphatic vasculature has also been heavily implicated in the metastatic cancer process. The spatial and temporal regulation of the ovarian lymphatic vasculature has now been reported in a number of species and the data also implicate the ovarian lymphatic vasculature in ovarian pathologies, including cancer and those linked with use of artificial reproduction technologies.

  16. Changing practice: red blood cell typing by molecular methods for patients with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Jessica; Friedman, David F; Jackson, Tannoa; Vege, Sunitha; Westhoff, Connie M; Chou, Stella T

    2015-06-01

    Extended red blood cell (RBC) antigen matching is recommended to limit alloimmunization in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). DNA-based testing to predict blood group phenotypes has enhanced availability of antigen-negative donor units and improved typing of transfused patients, but replacement of routine serologic typing for non-ABO antigens with molecular typing for patients has not been reported. This study compared the historical RBC antigen phenotypes obtained by hemagglutination methods with genotype predictions in 494 patients with SCD. For discrepant results, repeat serologic testing was performed and/or investigated by gene sequencing for silent or variant alleles. Seventy-one typing discrepancies were identified among 6360 antigen comparisons (1.1%). New specimens for repeat serologic testing were obtained for 66 discrepancies and retyping agreed with the genotype in 64 cases. One repeat Jk(b-) serologic phenotype, predicted Jk(b+) by genotype, was found by direct sequencing of JK to be a silenced allele, and one N typing discrepancy remains under investigation. Fifteen false-negative serologic results were associated with alleles encoding weak antigens or single-dose Fy(b) expression. DNA-based RBC typing provided improved accuracy and expanded information on RBC antigens compared to hemagglutination methods, leading to its implementation as the primary method for extended RBC typing for patients with SCD at our institution. © 2015 AABB.

  17. Molecular anatomy and functions of the choroidal blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghersi-Egea, Jean-François; Strazielle, Nathalie; Catala, Martin; Silva-Vargas, Violeta; Doetsch, Fiona; Engelhardt, Britta

    2018-03-01

    The barrier between the blood and the ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is located at the choroid plexuses. At the interface between two circulating fluids, these richly vascularized veil-like structures display a peculiar morphology explained by their developmental origin, and fulfill several functions essential for CNS homeostasis. They form a neuroprotective barrier preventing the accumulation of noxious compounds into the CSF and brain, and secrete CSF, which participates in the maintenance of a stable CNS internal environment. The CSF circulation plays an important role in volume transmission within the developing and adult brain, and CSF compartments are key to the immune surveillance of the CNS. In these contexts, the choroid plexuses are an important source of biologically active molecules involved in brain development, stem cell proliferation and differentiation, and brain repair. By sensing both physiological changes in brain homeostasis and peripheral or central insults such as inflammation, they also act as sentinels for the CNS. Finally, their role in the control of immune cell traffic between the blood and the CSF confers on the choroid plexuses a function in neuroimmune regulation and implicates them in neuroinflammation. The choroid plexuses, therefore, deserve more attention while investigating the pathophysiology of CNS diseases and related comorbidities.

  18. Blood-brain barrier-supported neurogenesis in healthy and diseased brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozhilenkova, Elena A; Lopatina, Olga L; Komleva, Yulia K; Salmin, Vladimir V; Salmina, Alla B

    2017-05-24

    Adult neurogenesis is one of the most important mechanisms contributing to brain development, learning, and memory. Alterations in neurogenesis underlie a wide spectrum of brain diseases. Neurogenesis takes place in highly specialized neurogenic niches. The concept of neurogenic niches is becoming widely accepted due to growing evidence of the important role of the microenvironment established in the close vicinity to stem cells in order to provide adequate control of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Neurogenic niches represent the platform for tight integration of neurogenesis and angiogenesis supported by specific properties of cerebral microvessel endothelial cells contributing to establishment of partially compromised blood-brain barrier (BBB) for the adjustment of local conditions to the current metabolic needs of stem and progenitor cells. Here, we review up-to-date data on microvascular dynamics in activity-dependent neurogenesis, specific properties of BBB in neurogenic niches, endothelial-driven mechanisms of clonogenic activity, and future perspectives for reconstructing the neurogenic niches in vitro.

  19. Blood type gene locus has no influence on ACE association with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braae, Anne; Medway, Christopher; Carrasquillo, Minerva; Younkin, Steven; Kehoe, Patrick G; Morgan, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    The ABO blood group locus was recently found to contribute independently and via interactions with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene variation to plasma levels of ACE. Variation in ACE has previously been not only implicated as individually conferring susceptibility for Alzheimer's disease (AD) but also proposed to confer risk via interactions with other as yet unknown genes. More recently, larger studies have not supported ACE as a risk factor for AD, whereas the role of ACE pathway in AD has come under increased levels of scrutiny with respect to various aspects of AD pathology and possible therapies. We explored the potential combined involvement of ABO and ACE variations in the genetic susceptibility of 2067 AD cases compared with 1376 nondemented elderly. Including the effects of ABO haplotype did not provide any evidence for the genetic association of ACE with AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Screening for Hypertension and Lowering Blood Pressure for Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Anthony J

    2017-07-01

    Hypertension affects 1 in 3 American adults. Blood pressure (BP)-lowering therapy reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends all adults be screened for hypertension. Most patients whose office BP is elevated should have out-of-office monitoring to confirm the diagnosis. Ambulatory BP monitoring is preferred for out-of-office measurement, but home BP monitoring is a reasonable alternative. Guidelines for treatment are stratified by age (60 years) and include cutoffs for recommended treatment BPs and target BP goals. Quality of hypertension care is improved by incorporating population health management using registries and medication titration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cerebral blood flow and metabolic abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan). National Center Hospital for Mental, Nervous, and Muscular Disorders

    2001-04-01

    In this review I summarize observations of PET and SPECT studies about cerebral blood flow and metabolic abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In very early AD flow or metabolism reduces first in the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus. This reduction may arise from functional deafferentation caused by primary neural degeneration in the remote area of the entorhinal cortex that is the first to be pathologically affected in AD. Then medial temporal structures and parietotemporal association cortex show flow or metabolic reduction as disease processes. The reason why flow or metabolism in medial temporal structures shows delay in starting to reduce in spite of the earliest pathological affection remains to be elucidated. It is likely that anterior cingulate gyrus is functionally involved, since attention is the first non-memory domain to be affected, before deficits in language and visuospatial functions. However few reports have described involvement in the anterior cingulate gyrus. Relationship between cerebral blood flow or metabolism and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype has been investigated. Especially, the APOE{epsilon}4 allele has been reported to increase risk and to lower onset age as a function of the inherited dose of the {epsilon}4 allele. Reduction of flow or metabolism in the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus has been reported even in presymptomatic nondemented subjects who were cognitively normal and had at least a single {epsilon}4 allele. On the contrary the relation of {epsilon}4 allele to the progression rate of AD has been controversial from neuroimaging approaches. PET and SPECT imaging has become to be quite useful for assessing therapeutical effects of newly introduced treatment for AD. Recent investigations observed significant regional flow increase after donepezil hydrochloride treatment. Most of these observations have been made by applying computer assisted analysis of three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection

  2. Blood pressure and calf muscle oxygen extraction during plantar flexion exercise in peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, J Carter; Miller, Amanda J; Aziz, Faisal; Radtka, John F; Proctor, David N; Leuenberger, Urs A; Sinoway, Lawrence I; Muller, Matthew D

    2017-07-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is an atherosclerotic vascular disease that affects 200 million people worldwide. Although PAD primarily affects large arteries, it is also associated with microvascular dysfunction, an exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise, and high cardiovascular mortality. We hypothesized that fatiguing plantar flexion exercise that evokes claudication elicits a greater reduction in skeletal muscle oxygenation (SmO 2 ) and a higher rise in BP in PAD compared with age-matched healthy subjects, but low-intensity steady-state plantar flexion elicits similar responses between groups. In the first experiment, eight patients with PAD and eight healthy controls performed fatiguing plantar flexion exercise (from 0.5 to 7 kg for up to 14 min). In the second experiment, seven patients with PAD and seven healthy controls performed low-intensity plantar flexion exercise (2.0 kg for 14 min). BP, heart rate (HR), and SmO 2 were measured continuously using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). SmO 2 is the ratio of oxygenated hemoglobin to total hemoglobin, expressed as a percent. At fatigue, patients with PAD had a greater increase in mean arterial BP (18 ± 2 vs. vs. 10 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.029) and HR (14 ± 2 vs. 6 ± 2 beats/min, P = 0.033) and a greater reduction in SmO 2 (-54 ± 10 vs. -12 ± 4%, P = 0.001). However, both groups had similar physiological responses to low-intensity, nonpainful plantar flexion exercise. These data suggest that patients with PAD have altered oxygen uptake and/or utilization during fatiguing exercise coincident with an augmented BP response. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In this laboratory study, patients with peripheral artery disease performed plantar flexion exercise in the supine posture until symptoms of claudication occurred. Relative to age- and sex-matched healthy subjects we found that patients had a higher blood pressure response, a higher heart rate response, and a greater reduction in skeletal muscle oxygenation as

  3. Changes in intracranial venous blood flow and pulsatility in Alzheimer's disease: A 4D flow MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Rivera, Leonardo A; Schubert, Tilman; Turski, Patrick; Johnson, Kevin M; Berman, Sara E; Rowley, Howard A; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Johnson, Sterling C; Wieben, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    Cerebral blood flow, arterial pulsation, and vasomotion may be important indicators of cerebrovascular health in aging and diseases of aging such as Alzheimer's disease. Noninvasive markers that assess these characteristics may be helpful in the study of co-occurrence of these diseases and potential additive and interacting effects. In this study, 4D flow MRI was used to measure intra-cranial flow features with cardiac-gated phase contrast MRI in cranial arteries and veins. Mean blood flow and pulsatility index as well as the transit time of the peak flow from the middle cerebral artery to the superior sagittal sinus were measured in a total of 104 subjects comprising of four groups: (a) subjects with Alzheimer's disease, (b) age-matched controls, (c) subjects with mild cognitive impairment, and (d) a group of late middle-aged with parental history of sporadic Alzheimer's disease. The Alzheimer's disease group exhibited: a significant decrease in mean blood flow in the superior sagittal sinus, transverse sinus, middle cerebral artery, and internal carotid arteries; a significant decrease of the peak and end diastolic blood flow in the middle cerebral artery and superior sagittal sinus; a faster transmission of peak flow from the middle cerebral artery to the superior sagittal sinus and increased pulsatility index along the carotid siphon.

  4. Predictive value of red blood cell distribution width for coronary artery lesions in patients with Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiyan; Fu, Songling; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Qing; Hu, Jian; Gao, Lichao; Zhu, Weihua; Gong, Fangqi

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that elevated red blood cell distribution width is associated with poor outcome in cardiovascular diseases. In order to assess the predictive value of red blood cell distribution width, before treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins, for coronary artery lesions in patient with Kawasaki disease, we compared 83 patients with coronary artery lesions and 339 patients without coronary artery lesions before treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin. Clinical, echocardiographic, and biochemical values were evaluated along with red blood cell distribution width. A total of 422 consecutive patients with Kawasaki disease were enrolled into our study. According to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the optimal red blood cell distribution width cut-off value for predicting coronary artery lesions was 14.55% (area under the curve was 0.721; p=0.000); eighty-three patients (19.7%) had coronary artery lesions, and 70% of the patients with coronary artery lesions had red blood cell distribution width level >14.55%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that fever duration >14 days (odds ratio was 3.42, 95% confidence interval was 1.27-9.22; p=0.015), intravenous immunoglobulin resistance (odds ratio was 2.33, 95% confidence interval was 1.02-5.29; p=0.04), and red blood cell distribution width >14.55% (odds ratio was 3.49, 95% confidence interval was 2.01-6.05; p=0.000) were independent predictors of coronary artery lesions in patients with Kawasaki disease. In Conclusion, red blood cell distribution width may be helpful for predicting coronary artery lesions in patients with Kawasaki disease.

  5. Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehret, Georg B.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Bochud, Murielle; Johnson, Andrew D.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Smith, Albert V.; Tobin, Martin D.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Pihur, Vasyl; Vollenweider, Peter; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Amin, Najaf; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Teumer, Alexander; Glazer, Nicole L.; Launer, Lenore; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aulchenko, Yurii; Heath, Simon; Sõber, Siim; Parsa, Afshin; Luan, Jian'an; Arora, Pankaj; Dehghan, Abbas; Zhang, Feng; Lucas, Gavin; Hicks, Andrew A.; Jackson, Anne U.; Peden, John F.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wild, Sarah H.; Rudan, Igor; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Parker, Alex N.; Fava, Cristiano; Chambers, John C.; Fox, Ervin R.; Kumari, Meena; Go, Min Jin; van der Harst, Pim; Kao, Wen Hong Linda; Sjögren, Marketa; Vinay, D. G.; Alexander, Myriam; Tabara, Yasuharu; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Whincup, Peter H.; Liu, Yongmei; Shi, Gang; Kuusisto, Johanna; Tayo, Bamidele; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung Hoang; Lehtimäki, Terho; Matullo, Giuseppe; Wu, Ying; Gaunt, Tom R.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cooper, Matthew N.; Platou, Carl G. P.; Org, Elin; Hardy, Rebecca; Dahgam, Santosh; Palmen, Jutta; Vitart, Veronique; Braund, Peter S.; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Palmas, Walter; Campbell, Harry; Ludwig, Barbara; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Aspelund, Thor; Garcia, Melissa; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Arking, Dan E.; Kardia, Sharon L.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Hernandez, Dena; Najjar, Samer; McArdle, Wendy L.; Hadley, David; Brown, Morris J.; Connell, John M.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Day, Ian N. M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Beilby, John P.; Lawrence, Robert W.; Clarke, Robert; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Ongen, Halit; Dreisbach, Albert W.; Li, Yali; Young, J. Hunter; Bis, Joshua C.; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Adair, Linda S.; Lee, Nanette R.; Chen, Ming-Huei; Olden, Matthias; Pattaro, Cristian; Bolton, Judith A. Hoffman; Köttgen, Anna; Bergmann, Sven; Mooser, Vincent; Chaturvedi, Nish; Frayling, Timothy M.; Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Kulkarni, Smita R.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Grässler, Jürgen; Groop, Leif; Voight, Benjamin F.; Kettunen, Johannes; Howard, Philip; Taylor, Andrew; Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Barroso, Inês; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Weder, Alan B.; Hunt, Steven C.; Sun, Yan V.; Bergman, Richard N.; Collins, Francis S.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Scott, Laura J.; Stringham, Heather M.; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Vartiainen, Erkki; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Staessen, Jan A.; Wang, Thomas J.; Burton, Paul R.; Artigas, Maria Soler; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Haidong; Lohman, Kurt K.; Rudock, Megan E.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Doumatey, Ayo; Shriner, Daniel; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Tripathy, Vikal; Langefeld, Carl D.; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S.; Corsi, Anna Maria; Singleton, Andrew; Forrester, Terrence; Hilton, Gina; McKenzie, Colin A.; Salako, Tunde; Iwai, Naoharu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Umemura, Satoshi; Eyheramendy, Susana; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Jong-Young; Scott, James; Sehmi, Joban S.; Zhang, Weihua; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Smith, George Davey; Wong, Andrew; Narisu, Narisu; Stančáková, Alena; Raffel, Leslie J.; Yao, Jie; Kathiresan, Sekar; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Longstreth, W. T.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Seshadri, Sudha; Shrine, Nick R. G.; Wain, Louise V.; Morken, Mario A.; Swift, Amy J.; Laitinen, Jaana; Prokopenko, Inga; Zitting, Paavo; Cooper, Jackie A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Danesh, John; Rasheed, Asif; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Janipalli, Charles S.; Mani, K. Radha; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Hofman, Albert; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U. S.; Oostra, Ben A.; Demirkan, Ayse; Isaacs, Aaron; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Lakatta, Edward G.; Orru, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kangas, Antti J.; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Soininen, Pasi; Tukiainen, Taru; Würtz, Peter; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Dörr, Marcus; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Deloukas, Panos; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Zhai, Guangju; Meschia, James F.; Nalls, Michael A.; Sharma, Pankaj; Terzic, Janos; Kumar, M. V. Kranthi; Denniff, Matthew; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Fowkes, F. Gerald R.; Charchar, Fadi J.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Hayward, Caroline; Guo, Xiuqing; Rotimi, Charles; Bots, Michiel L.; Brand, Eva; Samani, Nilesh J.; Polasek, Ozren; Talmud, Philippa J.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Kuh, Diana; Laan, Maris; Hveem, Kristian; Palmer, Lyle J.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Casas, Juan P.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Vineis, Paolo; Raitakari, Olli; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Wong, Tien Y.; Tai, E. Shyong; Cooper, Richard S.; Laakso, Markku; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Harris, Tamara B.; Morris, Richard W.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Kivimaki, Mika; Marmot, Michael G.; Miki, Tetsuro; Saleheen, Danish; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Coresh, Josef; Navis, Gerjan; Salomaa, Veikko; Han, Bok-Ghee; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Melander, Olle; Ridker, Paul M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gyllensten, Ulf B.; Wright, Alan F.; Wilson, James F.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Farrall, Martin; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Elosua, Roberto; Soranzo, Nicole; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Altshuler, David; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Gieger, Christian; Meneton, Pierre; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rettig, Rainer; Uda, Manuela; Strachan, David P.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Boehnke, Michael; Larson, Martin G.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Psaty, Bruce M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Elliott, Paul; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Levy, Daniel; Caulfield, Mark J.; Johnson, Toby; Tang, Hua; Knowles, Joshua; Hlatky, Mark; Fortmann, Stephen; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Quertermous, Thomas; Go, Alan; Iribarren, Carlos; Absher, Devin; Risch, Neil; Myers, Richard; Sidney, Steven; Ziegler, Andreas; Schillert, Arne; Bickel, Christoph; Sinning, Christoph; Rupprecht, Hans J.; Lackner, Karl; Wild, Philipp; Schnabel, Renate; Blankenberg, Stefan; Zeller, Tanja; Münzel, Thomas; Perret, Claire; Cambien, Francois; Tiret, Laurence; Nicaud, Viviane; Proust, Carole; Uitterlinden, Andre; van Duijn, Cornelia; Whitteman, Jaqueline; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Demissie-Banjaw, Serkalem; Ramachandran, Vasan; Smith, Albert; Folsom, Aaron; Morrison, Alanna; Chen, Ida Yii-Der; Bis, Joshua; Volcik, Kelly; Rice, Kenneth; Taylor, Kent D.; Marciante, Kristin; Smith, Nicholas; Glazer, Nicole; Heckbert, Susan; Harris, Tamara; Lumley, Thomas; Kong, Augustine; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Holm, Hilma; Gulcher, Jeffrey R.; Stefansson, Kari; Andersen, Karl; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Preuss, Michael; Schreiber, Stefan; König, Inke R.; Lieb, Wolfgang; Hengstenberg, Christian; Schunkert, Heribert; Fischer, Marcus; Grosshennig, Anika; Medack, Anja; Stark, Klaus; Linsel-Nitschke, Patrick; Bruse, Petra; Aherrahrou, Zouhair; Peters, Annette; Loley, Christina; Willenborg, Christina; Nahrstedt, Janja; Freyer, Jennifer; Gulde, Stephanie; Doering, Angela; Meisinger, Christina; Klopp, Norman; Illig, Thomas; Meinitzer, Andreas; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Halperin, Eran; Dobnig, Harald; Scharnagl, Hubert; Kleber, Marcus; Laaksonen, Reijo; Pilz, Stefan; Grammer, Tanja B.; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Renner, Wilfried; März, Winfried; Böhm, Bernhard O.; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Winkler, Karl; Hoffmann, Michael M.; Siscovick, David S.; Musunuru, Kiran; Barbalic, Maja; Guiducci, Candace; Burtt, Noel; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Wells, George A.; Chen, Li; Jarinova, Olga; Roberts, Robert; McPherson, Ruth; Dandona, Sonny; Pichard, Augusto D.; Rader, Daniel J.; Devaney, Joe; Lindsay, Joseph M.; Kent, Kenneth M.; Qu, Liming; Satler, Lowell; Burnett, Mary Susan; Li, Mingyao; Reilly, Muredach P.; Wilensky, Robert; Waksman, Ron; Epstein, Stephen; Matthai, William; Knouff, Christopher W.; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Hakonarson, Hakon H.; Walker, Max C.; Hall, Alistair S.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Wright, Benjamin J.; Nelson, Chris; Thompson, John R.; Ball, Stephen G.; Felix, Janine F.; Demissie, Serkalem; Loehr, Laura R.; Rosamond, Wayne D.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Benjamin, Emelia; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Haritunians, Talin; Couper, David; Murabito, Joanne; Wang, Ying A.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Gottdiener, John S.; Chang, Patricia P.; Willerson, James T.; Köttgen, A.; Pattaro, C.; Böger, C. A.; Fuchsberger, C.; Olden, M.; Glazer, N. L.; Parsa, A.; Gao, X.; Yang, Q.; Smith, A. V.; O'Connell, J. R.; Li, M.; Schmidt, H.; Tanaka, T.; Isaacs, A.; Ketkar, S.; Hwang, S. J.; Johnson, A. D.; Dehghan, A.; Teumer, A.; Paré, G.; Atkinson, E. J.; Zeller, T.; Lohman, K.; Cornelis, M. C.; Probst-Hensch, N. M.; Kronenberg, F.; Tönjes, A.; Hayward, C.; Aspelund, T.; Eiriksdottir, G.; Launer, L. J.; Harris, T. B.; Rampersaud, E.; Mitchell, B. D.; Arking, D. E.; Boerwinkle, E.; Struchalin, M.; Cavalieri, M.; Singleton, A.; Giallauria, F.; Metter, J.; de Boer, J.; Haritunians, T.; Lumley, T.; Siscovick, D.; Psaty, B. M.; Zillikens, M. C.; Oostra, B. A.; Feitosa, M.; Province, M.; de Andrade, M.; Turner, S. T.; Schillert, A.; Ziegler, A.; Wild, P. S.; Schnabel, R. B.; Wilde, S.; Munzel, T. F.; Leak, T. S.; Illig, T.; Klopp, N.; Meisinger, C.; Wichmann, H. E.; Koenig, W.; Zgaga, L.; Zemunik, T.; Kolcic, I.; Minelli, C.; Hu, F. B.; Johansson, A.; Igl, W.; Zaboli, G.; Wild, S. H.; Wright, A. F.; Campbell, H.; Ellinghaus, D.; Schreiber, S.; Aulchenko, Y. S.; Felix, J. F.; Rivadeneira, F.; Uitterlinden, A. G.; Hofman, A.; Imboden, M.; Nitsch, D.; Brandstätter, A.; Kollerits, B.; Kedenko, L.; Mägi, R.; Stumvoll, M.; Kovacs, P.; Boban, M.; Campbell, S.; Endlich, K.; Völzke, H.; Kroemer, H. K.; Nauck, M.; Völker, U.; Polasek, O.; Vitart, V.; Badola, S.; Parker, A. N.; Ridker, P. M.; Kardia, S. L.; Blankenberg, S.; Liu, Y.; Curhan, G. C.; Franke, A.; Rochat, T.; Paulweber, B.; Prokopenko, I.; Wang, W.; Gudnason, V.; Shuldiner, A. R.; Coresh, J.; Schmidt, R.; Ferrucci, L.; Shlipak, M. G.; van Duijn, C. M.; Borecki, I.; Krämer, B. K.; Rudan, I.; Gyllensten, U.; Wilson, J. F.; Witteman, J. C.; Pramstaller, P. P.; Rettig, R.; Hastie, N.; Chasman, D. I.; Kao, W. H.; Heid, I. M.; Fox, C. S.; Vasan, R. S.; Lieb, W.; Felix, S. B.; Watzinger, N.; Larson, M. G.; Smith, N. L.; Grosshennig, A.; Kathiresan, S.; König, I. R.; Homuth, G.; Aragam, J.; Bis, J. C.; Erdmann, J.; Dörr, M.; Zweiker, R.; Lind, L.; Rodeheffer, R. J.; Greiser, K. H.; Levy, D.; Deckers, J. W.; Stritzke, J.; Lackner, K. J.; Ingelsson, E.; Kullo, I.; Haerting, J.; O'Donnell, C. J.; Heckbert, S. R.; Stricker, B. H.; Reffelmann, T.; Redfield, M. M.; Werdan, K.; Mitchell, G. F.; Rice, K.; Arnett, D. K.; Gottdiener, J. S.; Meitinger, T.; Blettner, M.; Friedrich, N.; Wang, T. J.; Benjamin, E. J.; Rotter, J. I.; Schunkert, H.; Chambers, J. C.; Zhang, W.; Lord, G. M.; van der Harst, P.; Lawlor, D. A.; Sehmi, J. S.; Gale, D. P.; Wass, M. N.; Ahmadi, K. R.; Bakker, S. J.; Beckmann, J.; Bilo, H. J.; Bochud, M.; Brown, M. J.; Caulfield, M. J.; Connell, J. M.; Cook, H. T.; Cotlarciuc, I.; Davey Smith, G.; de Silva, R.; Deng, G.; Devuyst, O.; Dikkeschei, L. D.; Dimkovic, N.; Dockrell, M.; Dominiczak, A.; Ebrahim, S.; Eggermann, T.; Farrall, M.; Floege, J.; Forouhi, N. G.; Gansevoort, R. T.; Han, X.; Hedblad, B.; Homan van der Heide, J. J.; Hepkema, B. G.; Hernandez-Fuentes, M.; Hypponen, E.; Johnson, T.; de Jong, P. E.; Kleefstra, N.; Lagou, V.; Lapsley, M.; Li, Y.; Loos, R. J.; Luan, J.; Luttropp, K.; Maréchal, C.; Melander, O.; Munroe, P. B.; Nordfors, L.; Peltonen, L.; Penninx, B. W.; Perucha, E.; Pouta, A.; Roderick, P. J.; Ruokonen, A.; Samani, N. J.; Sanna, S.; Schalling, M.; Schlessinger, D.; Schlieper, G.; Seelen, M. A.; Sjögren, M.; Smit, J. H.; Snieder, H.; Soranzo, N.; Spector, T. D.; Stenvinkel, P.; Sternberg, M. J.; Swaminathan, R.; Ubink-Veltmaat, L. J.; Uda, M.; Vollenweider, P.; Wallace, C.; Waterworth, D.; Zerres, K.; Waeber, G.; Wareham, N. J.; Maxwell, P. H.; McCarthy, M. I.; Jarvelin, M. R.; Mooser, V.; Abecasis, G. R.; Lightstone, L.; Scott, J.; Navis, G.; Elliott, P.; Kooner, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Blood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (≥140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or  ≥90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are

  6. Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.B. Ehret (Georg); P. Munroe (Patricia); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); M. Bochud (Murielle); A.D. Johnson (Andrew); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); M.D. Tobin (Martin); G.C. Verwoert (Germaine); S.J. Hwang; V. Pihur (Vasyl); P. Vollenweider (Peter); P.F. O'Reilly (Paul); N. Amin (Najaf); J.L. Bragg-Gresham (Jennifer L.); A. Teumer (Alexander); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); L.J. Launer (Lenore); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); S.C. Heath (Simon); S. Sõber (Siim); A. Parsa (Afshin); J. Luan; P. Arora (Pankaj); A. Dehghan (Abbas); F. Zhang (Feng); G. Lucas (Gavin); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); A.U. Jackson (Anne); J. Peden (John); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); S.H. Wild (Sarah); I. Rudan (Igor); W. Igl (Wilmar); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); A.N. Parker (Alex); C. Fava (Cristiano); J.C. Chambers (John); E.R. Fox (Ervin); M. Kumari (Meena); M. Jin Go (Min); P. van der Harst (Pim); W. Hong Linda Kao (Wen); M. Sjögren (Marketa); D.G. Vinay; M. Alexander (Myriam); Y. Tabara (Yasuharu); S. Shaw-Hawkins (Sue); P.H. Whincup (Peter); Y. Liu (YongMei); G. Shi (Gang); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); B. Tayo (Bamidele); M. Seielstad (Mark); X. Sim (Xueling); K.-D. Hoang Nguyen; T. Lehtimäki (Terho); G. Matullo (Giuseppe); Y. Wu (Ying); T.R. Gaunt (Tom); N. Charlotte Onland-Moret; M.N. Cooper (Matthew); C. Platou (Carl); E. Org (Elin); R. Hardy (Rebecca); S. Dahgam (Santosh); J. Palmen (Jutta); V. Vitart (Veronique); P.S. Braund (Peter); T. Kuznetsova (Tatiana); C.S.P.M. Uiterwaal (Cuno); A. Adeyemo (Adebowale); W. Palmas (Walter); H. Campbell (Harry); B. Ludwig (Barbara); M. Tomaszewski; I. Tzoulaki; N.D. Palmer (Nicholette); T. Aspelund (Thor); M. Garcia (Melissa); Y.-P.C. Chang (Yen-Pei); J.R. O´Connell; N.I. Steinle (Nanette); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); D.E. Arking (Dan); S.L. Kardia (Sharon); A.C. Morrison (Alanna); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); S.S. Najjar (Samer); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); D. Hadley (David); M.J. Brown (Morris); J. Connell (John); A. Hingorani (Aroon); I.N.M. Day (Ian); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); J.P. Beilby (John); R.W. Lawrence (Robert); R. Clarke; J. Hopewell; H. Ongen (Halit); A.W. Dreisbach (Albert); Y. Li (Yali); J. Hunter Young; J.C. Bis (Joshua); M. Kähönen (Mika); J. Viikari (Jorma); N.R. Lee (Nanette); M-H. Chen (Ming-Huei); M. Olden (Matthias); C. Pattaro (Cristian); J.A. Hoffman Bolton (Judith); A. Köttgen (Anna); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); V. Mooser (Vincent); N. Chaturvedi (Nish); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); M. Islam (Muhammad); T.H. Jafar (Tazeen); S.R. Kulkarni (Smita); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan); J. Gräßler (Jürgen); L. Groop (Leif); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); J. Kettunen (Johannes); P. Howard (Philip); A. Taylor (Andrew); S. Guarrera (Simonetta); F. Ricceri (Fulvio); V. Emilsson (Valur); A.S. Plump (Andrew); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); A.B. Weder (Alan); S.C. Hunt (Steven); Y.V. Sun (Yan); R.N. Bergman (Richard); F.S. Collins (Francis); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); L.J. Scott (Laura); H.M. Stringham (Heather); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); M. Perola (Markus); E. Vartiainen (Erkki); S.-M. Brand; J.A. Staessen (Jan); Y.A. Wang (Ying); P.R. Burton (Paul); M. Soler Artigas (Maria); Y. Dong (Yanbin); H. Snieder (Harold); H. Zhu (Haidong); K. Lohman (Kurt); M.E. Rudock (Megan); S.R. Heckbert (Susan); K.L. Wiggins (Kerri); A. Doumatey (Ayo); D. Shriner (Daniel); G. Veldre (Gudrun); M. Viigimaa (Margus); S. Kinra (Sanjay); D. Prabhakaran (Dorairaj); V. Tripathy (Vikal); C.D. Langefeld (Carl); A. Rosengren (Annika); D.S. Thelle (Dag); A. Maria Corsi (Anna); A. Singleton (Andrew); T. Forrester (Terrence); G. Hilton (Gina); C.A. McKenzie (Colin); T. Salako (Tunde); N. Iwai (Naoharu); Y. Kita (Yoshikuni); T. Ogihara (Toshio); T. Ohkubo (Takayoshi); T. Okamura (Tomonori); H. Ueshima (Hirotsugu); S. Umemura (Satoshi); S. Eyheramendy (Susana); T. Meitinger (Thomas); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); Y. Shin Cho (Yoon); H.-L. Kim; J.S. Sehmi (Joban); B. Hedblad (Bo); P. Nilsson (Peter); G. Davey-Smith (George); A. Wong (Andrew); N. Narisu (Narisu); A. Stancáková (Alena); L.J. Raffel (Leslie); J. Yao (Jie); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); S.M. Schwartz (Stephen); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); W.T. Longstreth Jr; T.H. Mosley (Thomas); S. Seshadri (Sudha); N.R.G. Shrine (Nick); L.V. Wain (Louise); M.A. Morken (Mario); A.J. Swift (Amy); J. Laitinen (Jaana); I. Prokopenko (Inga); P. Zitting (Paavo); S.E. Humphries (Steve); J. Danesh (John); A. Rasheed (Asif); A. Goel (Anuj); A. Hamsten (Anders); H. Watkins (Hugh); W.H. van Gilst (Wiek); C.S. Janipalli (Charles); K. Radha Mani; C. Yajnik (Chittaranjan); A. Hofman (Albert); F.U.S. Mattace Raso (Francesco); B.A. Oostra (Ben); A. Demirkan (Ayşe); A.J. Isaacs (Aaron); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); E. Lakatta (Edward); M. Orrù (Marco); A. Scuteri (Angelo); M. Ala-Korpela (Mika); A.J. Kangas (Antti); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); P. Soininen (Pasi); T. Tukiainen (Taru); P. Würtz (Peter); R. Twee-Hee Ong (Rick); M. Dörr (Marcus); H.K. Kroemer (Heyo); U. Völker (Uwe); H. Völzke (Henry); P. Galan (Pilar); S. Hercberg (Serge); G.M. Lathrop (Mark); D. Zelenika (Diana); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); M. Mangino (Massimo); T.D. Spector (Timothy); G. Zhai (Guangju); J.F. Meschia (James F.); M.A. Nalls (Michael); P. Sharma (Pankaj); J. Terzic (Janos); M.V. Kranthi Kumar; M. Denniff (Matthew); E. Zukowska-Szczechowska (Ewa); L.E. Wagenknecht (Lynne); F. Gerald R. Fowkes; F.J. Charchar (Fadi); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter); C. Hayward (Caroline); X. Guo (Xiuqing); C. Rotimi (Charles); M.L. Bots (Michiel); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); O. Polasek (Ozren); P.J. Talmud (Philippa); F. Nyberg (Fredrik); D. Kuh (Diana); M. Laan (Maris); K. Hveem (Kristian); Y.T. van der Schouw (Yvonne); J.P. Casas (Juan); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); P. Vineis (Paolo); O. Raitakari (Olli); S.K. Ganesh (Santhi); E. Shyong Tai; M. Laakso (Markku); D.C. Rao (Dabeeru C.); T.B. Harris (Tamara); R.W. Morris (Richard); A. Dominiczak (Anna); M. Kivimaki (Mika); M. Marmot (Michael); T. Miki (Tetsuro); D. Saleheen; G.R. Chandak (Giriraj); J. Coresh (Josef); G. Navis (Gerjan); V. Salomaa (Veikko); B.-G. Han; J.S. Kooner (Jaspal); O. Melander (Olle); P.M. Ridker (Paul); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); A.F. Wright (Alan); J.F. Wilson (James); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); M. Farrall (Martin); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); R. Elosua (Roberto); N. Soranzo (Nicole); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); D. Altshuler (David); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); C. Gieger (Christian); P. Meneton (Pierre); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); N.J. Wareham (Nick); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); R. Rettig (Rainer); M. Uda (Manuela); D.P. Strachan (David); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A.L. Hartikainen; J.S. Beckmann (Jacques); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); J. Erdmann (Jeanette); R.S. Vasan (Ramachandran Srini); M. Boehnke (Michael); M.G. Larson (Martin); M.R. Järvelin; B.M. Psaty (Bruce); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); C. Newton-Cheh (Christopher); P. Elliott (Paul); D. Levy (Daniel); M. Caulfield (Mark); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); L.S. Adair (Linda); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); I.E. Barroso (Inês)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBlood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (≥140mmg Hg systolic blood pressure ≥90mmg Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are

  7. Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehret, Georg B.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Bochud, Murielle; Johnson, Andrew D.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Smith, Albert V.; Tobin, Martin D.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Pihur, Vasyl; Vollenweider, Peter; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Amin, Najaf; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Teumer, Alexander; Glazer, Nicole L.; Launer, Lenore; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aulchenko, Yurii; Heath, Simon; Sober, Siim; Parsa, Afshin; Luan, Jian'an; Arora, Pankaj; Dehghan, Abbas; Zhang, Feng; Lucas, Gavin; Hicks, Andrew A.; Jackson, Anne U.; Peden, John F.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wild, Sarah H.; Rudan, Igor; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Parker, Alex N.; Fava, Cristiano; Chambers, John C.; Fox, Ervin R.; Kumari, Meena; Go, Min Jin; van der Harst, Pim; Kao, Wen Hong Linda; Sjogren, Marketa; Vinay, D. G.; Alexander, Myriam; Tabara, Yasuharu; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Whincup, Peter H.; Liu, Yongmei; Shi, Gang; Kuusisto, Johanna; Tayo, Bamidele; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Khanh-Dung Hoang Nguyen, [No Value; Lehtimaki, Terho; Matullo, Giuseppe; Wu, Ying; Gaunt, Tom R.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cooper, Matthew N.; Platou, Carl G. P.; Org, Elin; Hardy, Rebecca; Dahgam, Santosh; Palmen, Jutta; Vitart, Veronique; Braund, Peter S.; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Palmas, Walter; Campbell, Harry; Ludwig, Barbara; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Aspelund, Thor; Garcia, Melissa; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Arking, Dan E.; Kardia, Sharon L.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Hernandez, Dena; Najjar, Samer; McArdle, Wendy L.; Hadley, David; Brown, Morris J.; Connell, John M.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Day, Ian N. M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Beilby, John P.; Lawrence, Robert W.; Clarke, Robert; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Ongen, Halit; Dreisbach, Albert W.; Li, Yali; Young, J. Hunter; Bis, Joshua C.; Kahonen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Adair, Linda S.; Lee, Nanette R.; Chen, Ming-Huei; Olden, Matthias; Pattaro, Cristian; Bolton, Judith A. Hoffman; Koettgen, Anna; Bergmann, Sven; Mooser, Vincent; Chaturvedi, Nish; Frayling, Timothy M.; Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Kulkarni, Smita R.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Graessler, Juergen; Groop, Leif; Voight, Benjamin F.; Kettunen, Johannes; Howard, Philip; Taylor, Andrew; Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Barroso, Ine S.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Weder, Alan B.; Hunt, Steven C.; Sun, Yan V.; Bergman, Richard N.; Collins, Francis S.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Scott, Laura J.; Stringham, Heather M.; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Vartiainen, Erkki; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Staessen, Jan A.; Wang, Thomas J.; Burton, Paul R.; Artigas, Maria Soler; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Haidong; Lohman, Kurt K.; Rudock, Megan E.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Doumatey, Ayo; Shriner, Daniel; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Tripathy, Vikal; Langefeld, Carl D.; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S.; Corsi, Anna Maria; Singleton, Andrew; Forrester, Terrence; Hilton, Gina; McKenzie, Colin A.; Salako, Tunde; Iwai, Naoharu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Umemura, Satoshi; Eyheramendy, Susana; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Jong-Young; Scott, James; Sehmi, Joban S.; Zhang, Weihua; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Smith, George Davey; Wong, Andrew; Narisu, Narisu; Stancakova, Alena; Raffel, Leslie J.; Yao, Jie; Kathiresan, Sekar; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Longstreth, W. T.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Seshadri, Sudha; Shrine, Nick R. G.; Wain, Louise V.; Morken, Mario A.; Swift, Amy J.; Laitinen, Jaana; Prokopenko, Inga; Zitting, Paavo; Cooper, Jackie A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Danesh, John; Rasheed, Asif; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Janipalli, Charles S.; Mani, K. Radha; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Hofman, Albert; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U. S.; Oostra, Ben A.; Demirkan, Ayse; Isaacs, Aaron; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Lakatta, Edward G.; Orru, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kangas, Antti J.; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Soininen, Pasi; Tukiainen, Taru; Wurtz, Peter; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Doerr, Marcus; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Voelker, Uwe; Voelzke, Henry; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Deloukas, Panos; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Zhai, Guangju; Meschia, James F.; Nalls, Michael A.; Sharma, Pankaj; Terzic, Janos; Kumar, M. V. Kranthi; Denniff, Matthew; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Fowkes, F. Gerald R.; Charchar, Fadi J.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Hayward, Caroline; Guo, Xiuqing; Rotimi, Charles; Bots, Michiel L.; Brand, Eva; Samani, Nilesh J.; Polasek, Ozren; Talmud, Philippa J.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Kuh, Diana; Laan, Maris; Hveem, Kristian; Palmer, Lyle J.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Casas, Juan P.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Vineis, Paolo; Raitakari, Olli; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Wong, Tien Y.; Tai, E. Shyong; Cooper, Richard S.; Laakso, Markku; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Harris, Tamara B.; Morris, Richard W.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Kivimaki, Mika; Marmot, Michael G.; Miki, Tetsuro; Saleheen, Danish; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Coresh, Josef; Navis, Gerjan; Salomaa, Veikko; Han, Bok-Ghee; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Melander, Olle; Ridker, Paul M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gyllensten, Ulf B.; Wright, Alan F.; Wilson, James F.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Farrall, Martin; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Elosua, Roberto; Soranzo, Nicole; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Altshuler, David; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Gieger, Christian; Meneton, Pierre; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rettig, Rainer; Uda, Manuela; Strachan, David P.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Boehnke, Michael; Larson, Martin G.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Psaty, Bruce M.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Elliott, Paul; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Levy, Daniel; Caulfield, Mark J.; Johnson, Toby

    2011-01-01

    Blood pressure is a heritable trait(1) influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (>= 140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or >= 90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure)(2). Even small increments in blood pressure are

  8. Amyloidosis, synucleinopathy, and prion encephalopathy in a neuropathic lysosomal storage disease: the CNS-biomarker potential of peripheral blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartholomew J Naughton

    Full Text Available Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS IIIB is a devastating neuropathic lysosomal storage disease with complex pathology. This study identifies molecular signatures in peripheral blood that may be relevant to MPS IIIB pathogenesis using a mouse model. Genome-wide gene expression microarrays on pooled RNAs showed dysregulation of 2,802 transcripts in blood from MPS IIIB mice, reflecting pathological complexity of MPS IIIB, encompassing virtually all previously reported and as yet unexplored disease aspects. Importantly, many of the dysregulated genes are reported to be tissue-specific. Further analyses of multiple genes linked to major pathways of neurodegeneration demonstrated a strong brain-blood correlation in amyloidosis and synucleinopathy in MPS IIIB. We also detected prion protein (Prnp deposition in the CNS and Prnp dysregulation in the blood in MPS IIIB mice, suggesting the involvement of Prnp aggregation in neuropathology. Systemic delivery of trans-BBB-neurotropic rAAV9-hNAGLU vector mediated not only efficient restoration of functional α-N-acetylglucosaminidase and clearance of lysosomal storage pathology in the central nervous system (CNS and periphery, but also the correction of impaired neurodegenerative molecular pathways in the brain and blood. Our data suggest that molecular changes in blood may reflect pathological status in the CNS and provide a useful tool for identifying potential CNS-specific biomarkers for MPS IIIB and possibly other neurological diseases.

  9. Transcriptomic profiling of peripheral blood nucleated cells in dogs with and without clinical signs of chronic mitral valve disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garncarz Magdalena

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to demonstrate differences in the gene expression of signalling pathways between healthy dogs and dogs with chronic mitral valve disease in different heart failure groups. Blood samples were collected from 49 dogs of various breeds between 1.4 and 15.2 years of age. Isolated RNA samples were analysed for quality and integrity and the gene expression profile was determined. The study demonstrated that nucleated cells from peripheral blood can be used to assess the status of heart failure in dogs. Furthermore, significant differences in the expression of the genes were noticed between healthy dogs and dogs with clinical signs of chronic mitral valve disease. This is a preliminary non-invasive study showing the feasibility of genetic testing from peripheral blood nucleated cells, which at the same time has made it possible to set the future directions of genetic studies in clinical cases of canine chronic mitral valve disease.

  10. Comparison of parasite loads in serum and blood samples from patients in acute and chronic phases of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Carolina; Teherán, Aníbal; Flórez, Carolina; Ramírez, Juan David

    2018-04-17

    Molecular methods have been developed for the detection and quantification of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in blood samples from patients with Chagas disease. However, aspects of sample processing necessary for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), such as the addition of guanidine hydrochloride to whole blood samples, may limit timely access to molecular diagnosis. We analysed 169 samples from serum and guanidine-EDTA blood (GEB) obtained from patients in acute and chronic phases of Chagas disease. We applied qPCR targeted to the satellite DNA region. Finally, we compared the parasite loads and cycle of threshold values of the qPCR. The results confirmed the usefulness of serum samples for the detection and quantification of parasite DNA in patients with Chagas disease, especially in the acute phase. However, the parasite loads detected in serum samples from patients in the chronic phase were lower than those detected in GEB samples. The epidemiological implications of the findings are herein discussed.

  11. Measurement of hepatic volume and effective blood flow with radioactive colloids: Evaluation of development in liver diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, M.; Uchino, H.; Kyoto Univ.

    1982-01-01

    Changes in hepatic volume and the blood flow effectively perfusing the liver parenchyma were studied as an assessment of the severity of liver diseases. Hepatic effective blood flow was estimated as the hepatic fractional clearance of radioactive colloids, obtained from the disappearance rate multiplied by the fraction of injected dose taken up by the liver. The hepatic fractional clearance was normal or not markedly decreased in patients with acute hepatitis which had developed favorably, but was severely decreased in patients with fulminant hepatitis. In liver diseases, the ratio of hepatic volume to fractional clearance was found to increase as the clearance decreased. In subjects with normal clearance, hepatic fractional clearance was correlated significantly with liver volume, indicating that hepatic effective blood flow is proportional to parenchymal volume in an unanesthetized, resting state. In biopsied cases changes in volume and blood flow accorded well with changes indicated by morphological criteria. In chronic persistent hepatitis, effective hepatic blood flow is not diminished. However, hepatic blood flow were observed between the cirrhosis or chronic aggressive hepatitis, and normal control groups. Extension of chronic inflammatory infiltration into the parenchyma distinguishes chronic aggressive hepatitis from chronic persistent hepatitis. Architecture is often disturbed in the former. These changes should be accompanied by disturbance of microcirculation. The present study indicates that the decrease in effective hepatic blood flow in chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis has two aspects: one is a summation of microcirculatory disturbances, and the other is a decrease in liver cell mass. (orig.)

  12. Morning Blood Pressure Surge as a Predictor of Development of Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turak, Osman; Afsar, Baris; Siriopol, Dimitrie; Ozcan, Firat; Cagli, Kumral; Yayla, Cagri; Oksuz, Fatih; Mendi, Mehmet Ali; Kario, Kazuomi; Covic, Adrian; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2016-05-01

    Blood pressure (BP) usually increases upon awakening--a physiological mechanism called morning BP surge (MBPS). BP values above the MBPS threshold are associated with target organ damage, including left ventricular hypertrophy and proteinuria. Despite these data, there have been no studies that have investigated the association between elevated MBPS and the development of incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, patients with essential hypertension were included and underwent ambulatory BP measurements and MBPS. Patients were followed for a median of 3.33 years. In total, 622 patients were enrolled. The mean age of patients was 57.6±12.4 years, 54.0% were men, 16.7% had diabetes, and 10.6% had prevalent cardiovascular disease. During follow-up, 32 patients developed CKD. Higher MBPS, analyzed both as continuous and categorical variables, was associated with incident CKD in all models. Elevated MBPS is associated with kidney function deterioration and the development of CKD. Studies are needed to further examine underlying mechanisms regarding MBPS and these renal outcomes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Optimism, family cohesion and treatment as predictors of quality of life in blood cancer diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavielle-Sotomayor, Pilar; Rozen-Fuller, Etta; Bustamante-Rojano, Juan; Martínez-Murillo, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Quality of life must be a part of the goals of care given to blood cancer patients and it must be used to assess the effectiveness of their treatment. The objective was to evaluate the quality of life of patients with leukemia and its relationship with psychological, familial and disease-related aspects. An analytic cross-sectional study was carried out in patients with acute leukemia at different stages of treatment. We used SF-36, Optimism and Family Cohesion scales. Quality of life was affected physically and mentally in the treatment phases aimed to mitigate the active, and the advanced stage of this disease (50.6 ± 25.6, 62 ± 14.3; 46 ± 23.2, 53.8 ± 23.4, respectively), regardless of gender, age, level of optimism and family cohesion. Patients could carry out basic functions of self-care (bathing, feeding, etcetera), but not activities of daily living (shopping, household chores, etcetera), which require a greater effort. Although the patients perceived having been affected in the emotional health area-by the presence of anxiety and depression-they did not consider that these alterations limited their ability to carry out work and everyday activities. Quality of life was most affected at mental dimension and physical dimension, mainly in patients at induction and palliative treatment. The results showed that the objectives of care aimed to reduce symptoms and maintain patient comfort are not achieved.

  14. Misery perfusion, blood pressure control, and 5-year stroke risk in symptomatic major cerebral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Kagawa, Shinya; Kishibe, Yoshihiko; Takahashi, Masaaki; Higashi, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    The benefit of strict blood pressure (BP) control in high-risk patients with symptomatic major cerebral artery disease and misery perfusion (MP) is controversial. Our purposes were (1) to determine whether MP is a predictor of a 5-year risk of subsequent stroke and (2) to investigate the relationships among BP during follow-up, MP, and the stroke risk. We studied 130 nondisabled patients with symptomatic major cerebral artery disease. Baseline hemodynamic measurements were obtained from (15)O-gas positron emission tomography, and patients received medical treatment and they were followed for 5 years or until stroke recurrence or death. During 5 years, strokes occurred in 6 of 16 patients with MP and in 15 of 114 without MP (log-rank test; Pstrokes in patients with MP and 4 in those without MP (Pstroke declined markedly after 2 years, and there was only 1 ipsilateral ischemic stroke in a patient without MP. Normal systolic BP (strokes in patients with impaired perfusion (including MP), whereas systolic BP outside the 130 to 149 mm Hg range was associated with an increased risk of all strokes in patients without MP. Patients with MP showed a high-5-year stroke recurrence, but a large part of the 5-year stroke risk disappeared after 2 years. Aggressive BP control may be hazardous in patients with impaired perfusion, including MP. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Association of erythrocyte deformability with red blood cell distribution width in metabolic diseases and thalassemia trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayá, Amparo; Alis, Rafael; Suescún, Marta; Rivera, Leonor; Murado, Julian; Romagnoli, Marco; Solá, Eva; Hernandez-Mijares, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Increased red blood distribution width (RDW) in anemia is related to disturbances in the cellular surface/volume ratio, usually accompanied by morphological alterations, while it has been shown in inflammatory diseases that the activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines disturbing erythropoiesis increases RDW. Recently it has been reported that higher RDW is related with decreased erythrocyte deformability, and that it could be related with the association of RDW and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. In order to analyze the influence of morphological alterations and proinflammatory status on the relationship between RDW and erythrocyte deformability, we analyzed erythrocyte deformability along with RDW and other hematological and biochemical parameters in 36 α-thalassemia, 20 β-thalassemia, 20 δβ-thalassemia trait carriers, 61 metabolic syndrome patients and 76 morbidly obese patients. RDW correlated inversely with erythrocyte deformability in minor β-thalassemia (r =-0.530, p thalassemia is often accompanied by more marked cell-shaped perturbations than other thalassemia traits. This could be the reason for this negative association only in this setting. Higher anisocytosis seems to be associated with greater morphologic alterations (shape/volume), which reduce erythrocyte deformability. The proinflammatory profile in metabolic patients can be related to the positive association of RDW with erythrocyte deformability found in these patients. However, further research is needed to explain the mechanisms underlying this association.

  16. Neuroimmune Axes of the Blood-Brain Barriers and Blood-Brain Interfaces: Bases for Physiological Regulation, Disease States, and Pharmacological Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Michelle A; Banks, William A

    2018-04-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) barriers predominantly mediate the immune-privileged status of the brain, and are also important regulators of neuroimmune communication. It is increasingly appreciated that communication between the brain and immune system contributes to physiologic processes, adaptive responses, and disease states. In this review, we discuss the highly specialized features of brain barriers that regulate neuroimmune communication in health and disease. In section I , we discuss the concept of immune privilege, provide working definitions of brain barriers, and outline the historical work that contributed to the understanding of CNS barrier functions. In section II , we discuss the unique anatomic, cellular, and molecular characteristics of the vascular blood-brain barrier (BBB), blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, and tanycytic barriers that confer their functions as neuroimmune interfaces. In section III , we consider BBB-mediated neuroimmune functions and interactions categorized as five neuroimmune axes: disruption, responses to immune stimuli, uptake and transport of immunoactive substances, immune cell trafficking, and secretions of immunoactive substances. In section IV , we discuss neuroimmune functions of CNS barriers in physiologic and disease states, as well as pharmacological interventions for CNS diseases. Throughout this review, we highlight many recent advances that have contributed to the modern understanding of CNS barriers and their interface functions. Copyright © 2018 by The Author(s).

  17. Brain and blood metabolite signatures of pathology and progression in Alzheimer disease: A targeted metabolomics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay R Varma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic basis of Alzheimer disease (AD is poorly understood, and the relationships between systemic abnormalities in metabolism and AD pathogenesis are unclear. Understanding how global perturbations in metabolism are related to severity of AD neuropathology and the eventual expression of AD symptoms in at-risk individuals is critical to developing effective disease-modifying treatments. In this study, we undertook parallel metabolomics analyses in both the brain and blood to identify systemic correlates of neuropathology and their associations with prodromal and preclinical measures of AD progression.Quantitative and targeted metabolomics (Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ [identification and quantification] p180 assays were performed on brain tissue samples from the autopsy cohort of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA (N = 44, mean age = 81.33, % female = 36.36 from AD (N = 15, control (CN; N = 14, and "asymptomatic Alzheimer's disease" (ASYMAD, i.e., individuals with significant AD pathology but no cognitive impairment during life; N = 15 participants. Using machine-learning methods, we identified a panel of 26 metabolites from two main classes-sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids-that discriminated AD and CN samples with accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 83.33%, 86.67%, and 80%, respectively. We then assayed these 26 metabolites in serum samples from two well-characterized longitudinal cohorts representing prodromal (Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative [ADNI], N = 767, mean age = 75.19, % female = 42.63 and preclinical (BLSA (N = 207, mean age = 78.68, % female = 42.63 AD, in which we tested their associations with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI measures of AD-related brain atrophy, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers of AD pathology, risk of conversion to incident AD, and trajectories of cognitive performance. We developed an integrated blood and brain endophenotype score that summarized the relative importance of

  18. Selective Heart Rate Reduction With Ivabradine Increases Central Blood Pressure in Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Stefano F; Messerli, Franz H; Cerny, David; Gloekler, Steffen; Traupe, Tobias; Laurent, Stéphane; Seiler, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Heart rate (HR) lowering by β-blockade was shown to be beneficial after myocardial infarction. In contrast, HR lowering with ivabradine was found to confer no benefits in 2 prospective randomized trials in patients with coronary artery disease. We hypothesized that this inefficacy could be in part related to ivabradine's effect on central (aortic) pressure. Our study included 46 patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease who were randomly allocated to placebo (n=23) or ivabradine (n=23) in a single-blinded fashion for 6 months. Concomitant baseline medication was continued unchanged throughout the study except for β-blockers, which were stopped during the study period. Central blood pressure and stroke volume were measured directly by left heart catheterization at baseline and after 6 months. For the determination of resting HR at baseline and at follow-up, 24-hour ECG monitoring was performed. Patients on ivabradine showed an increase of 11 mm Hg in central systolic pressure from 129±22 mm Hg to 140±26 mm Hg (P=0.02) and in stroke volume by 86±21.8 to 107.2±30.0 mL (P=0.002). In the placebo group, central systolic pressure and stroke volume remained unchanged. Estimates of myocardial oxygen consumption (HR×systolic pressure and time-tension index) remained unchanged with ivabradine.The decrease in HR from baseline to follow-up correlated with the concomitant increase in central systolic pressure (r=-0.41, P=0.009) and in stroke volume (r=-0.61, Pcoronary artery disease patients. CLINICAL TRIALSURL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier NCT01039389. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Home blood pressure-guided antihypertensive therapy in chronic kidney disease: more data are needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgianos, Panagiotis I; Champidou, Eleni; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Balaskas, Elias V; Zebekakis, Pantelis E

    2018-02-10

    In the era of newly introduced hypertension guidelines recommending lower blood pressure (BP) targets for drug-treated hypertensives, the necessity for optimized management of hypertension becomes even more urgent. The concept of home BP-guided antihypertensive therapy is for long suggested as a simple and feasible approach to improve BP control rates and optimize the management of hypertension. Home BP-guided antihypertensive therapy is particularly applicable to hypertensives with chronic kidney disease (CKD) for several reasons including the following: (1) difficult-to-control BP and high BP variability in the CKD setting; (2) poor accuracy of office BP in determining hypertension control status and detecting "white-coat" and "masked" hypertension; (3) poor value of routine office BP recordings in predicting the longitudinal progression of target-organ damage; and (4) superiority of home BP over office BP recordings in prognosticating the risk of incident end-stage renal disease or death. The concept of home BP-guided antihypertensive therapy is even more relevant for those on hemodialysis, given the high intradialytic and interdialytic BP variability and poor value of conventional peridialytic BP recordings in estimating the actual BP load recorded outside of dialysis with the use of home or ambulatory BP monitoring. Randomized trials comparing home BP-guided antihypertensive therapy versus usual care are warranted to prove the feasibility and effectiveness of this therapeutic approach and convince clinicians for using home BP monitoring as the standard of care when managing hypertension, particularly in people with CKD or end-stage renal disease. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Regional cerebral blood studies by the xenon-133 inhalation method in cases of cerebrovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Takahide

    1982-01-01

    rCBF was measured 428 times in 191 patients and 15 healthy volunteers by the Xenon-133 inhalation technique. The two-compartment analysis and the estimate of initial slope index were performed. There was no difference in blood flow between the two hemispheres in the 15 healthy volunteers, whose mean age was 36.5 +- 13.5 years (F 1 , right: 83.1 +- 11.4; left: 85.1 +- 12.1; 1Sl, right: 51.6 +- 6.3; left: 52.4 +- 6.0). Good correlation with a correlation coefficient of 0.965 was observed between the value obtained by the Xenon-133 inhalation and intracarotid methods in 14 patients with brain diseases. Reproducibilities of the Xenon-133 inhalation technique by serial measurement of rCBF at intervals of 30 - 40 minutes and 3 - 5 days were almost the same, with a variation coefficient of 3.7% and a correlation coefficient of 0.98. Repeated rCBF measurement by the Xenon-133 inhalation was performed during a long follow-up period of up to 1 year after bypass surgery. In 28 adult patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease, CBF values of most patients stabilized in normal range within 3 months after the operation. In 12 patients with Moyamoya disease, CBF values were distributed over a wide range preoperatively, and increased gradually and tended to stabilize in the relatively subnormal range within 3 months after operation. This clinical experience indicates that the Xenon-133 inhalation method is a useful and safe procedure for the determination of rCBF, especially for repeated studies in cases with bypass surgery during long postoperative follow-up periods and for measurement of rCBF in child cases. (J.P.N.)

  1. Association of blood pressure variability and neurocognition in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Marc B; Mendley, Susan R; Matheson, Matthew B; Shinnar, Shlomo; Gerson, Arlene C; Samuels, Joshua A; Warady, Bradley A; Furth, Susan L; Hooper, Stephen R

    2016-11-01

    Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension have increased blood pressure variability (BPV), which has been associated with lower neurocognitive test scores in adults. Children with CKD are at risk for decreased neurocognitive function. Our objective was to determine whether children with CKD and increased BPV had worse performance on neurocognitive testing compared with children with CKD and lower BPV. This was a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of the relation between BPV and neurocognitive test performance in children ≥6 years enrolled in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) study. Visit-to-visit BPV was assessed by the standard deviation of visit BPs (BPV-SD) and average real variability (ARV). Ambulatory BPV was assessed by SD of wake and sleep periods on 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring. We assessed 650 children with a mean follow-up period of 4.0 years. Children with systolic visit-to-visit BPV in the upper tertile had lower scores on Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) Verbal Category Switching than those with BPV in the lower tertile (BPV-SD, 8.3 vs. 9.5, p = 0.006; ARV, 8.5 vs. 9.6, p = 0.02). On multivariate analysis, the association between lower Category Switching score and increased BPV remained significant after controlling for mean BP, demographic characteristics, and disease-related variables [BPV-SD, β = -0.7, 95 % confidence interval (CI) -1.28 to -0.12; ARV, β = -0.54, CI -1.05 to -0.02). Ambulatory BPV was not independently associated with any cognitive measure. Higher systolic visit-to-visit BPV was independently associated with decreased D-KEFS Category Switching scores in children with mild-to-moderate CKD.

  2. White blood cell count and the risk for coronary artery disease in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad Twig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between white blood cell (WBC count and coronary artery disease (CAD is unknown in young adults. Our objective was to assess the association between WBC count and its changes over time with CAD incidence in the Metabolic, Life-style and Nutrition Assessment in Young adults (MELANY study, a cohort of Israeli army personnel. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 29,120 apparently healthy young men (mean age; 31.2±5.5 years with a normal baseline WBC count (3,000-12,000 cells/mm(3 were followed during a mean follow up of 7.5±3.8 years for incidence of CAD. Participants were screened every 3-5 years using a stress test, and CAD was confirmed by coronary angiography. In a multivariate model adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, family history of CAD, physical activity, diabetes, triglycerides and smoking status, WBC levels (divided to quintiles above 6,900 cells/mm(3 (quintile 4 were associated with a 2.17-fold increase (95%CI = 1.18-3.97 in the risk for CAD as compared with men in quintile 1 (WBC≤5,400 cells/mm(3. When modeled as a continuous variable, a WBC increment of 1000 cells/mm(3 was associated with a 17.4% increase in CAD risk (HR 1.174; 95%CI = 1.067-1.290, p = 0.001. A decrease in the WBC level (within the normal range during the follow-up period was associated with increased physical activity and decreased triglyceride levels as well as with reduced incidence of CAD. CONCLUSIONS: WBC count is an independent risk factor for CAD in young adults at values well within the normal range. WBC count may assist in detecting subgroups of young men at either low or high risk for progression to CAD.

  3. Effect of dialysis on cerebral blood flow in depressive end-stage renal disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Hyun-Yeol; Kim, Seong-Jang; Song, Sang-Heon

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with depressive symptoms during dialysis. Fourteen patients with ESRD underwent Tc-99m ethylcysteinate dimer (Tc-99m ECD) brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and were evaluated the severity of depressive mood at pre-dialytic period and at least 6 months after dialysis initiation. rCBF was analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) in brain SPECT image. The responder was defined as a decrease of ≥25% in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score from baseline HDRS score. Pre-dialysis brain SPECT did not show any rCBF differences between responders and non-responders. The follow-up brain SPECT revealed a significant higher perfusion in left middle temporal gyrus of responder group when compared with non-responder (hemisphere coordinate X, Y, Z; -58, -2, -16, peak Z=3.36, p=0.046). In responder, a significant increase in rCBF was found in right parahippocampal gyrus (hemisphere coordinate X, Y, Z; 30, -40, -14, peak Z=3.51, p=0.043). In non-responder, there were significant decreases in rCBF in left superior frontal gyrus (hemisphere coordinate X, Y, Z; -22, 30, 42, peak Z=3.86, p=0.032) and right orbitofrontal cortex (hemisphere coordinate X, Y, Z; 10, 58, -6, peak Z=3.81, p=0.046). The present findings showed the characteristic patterns of rCBF changes in depressive ESRD patients having maintenance dialysis. Further investigations in brain blood flow and glucose metabolism are needed to elucidate the effect of dialysis itself and the difference of according to dialysis modality in patients having depression and ESRD. (author)

  4. Brain and blood metabolite signatures of pathology and progression in Alzheimer disease: A targeted metabolomics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oommen, Anup M.; Varma, Sudhir; Casanova, Ramon; An, Yang; O’Brien, Richard; Pletnikova, Olga; Kastenmueller, Gabi; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima; Thambisetty, Madhav

    2018-01-01

    Background The metabolic basis of Alzheimer disease (AD) is poorly understood, and the relationships between systemic abnormalities in metabolism and AD pathogenesis are unclear. Understanding how global perturbations in metabolism are related to severity of AD neuropathology and the eventual expression of AD symptoms in at-risk individuals is critical to developing effective disease-modifying treatments. In this study, we undertook parallel metabolomics analyses in both the brain and blood to identify systemic correlates of neuropathology and their associations with prodromal and preclinical measures of AD progression. Methods and findings Quantitative and targeted metabolomics (Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ [identification and quantification] p180) assays were performed on brain tissue samples from the autopsy cohort of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) (N = 44, mean age = 81.33, % female = 36.36) from AD (N = 15), control (CN; N = 14), and “asymptomatic Alzheimer’s disease” (ASYMAD, i.e., individuals with significant AD pathology but no cognitive impairment during life; N = 15) participants. Using machine-learning methods, we identified a panel of 26 metabolites from two main classes—sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids—that discriminated AD and CN samples with accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 83.33%, 86.67%, and 80%, respectively. We then assayed these 26 metabolites in serum samples from two well-characterized longitudinal cohorts representing prodromal (Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative [ADNI], N = 767, mean age = 75.19, % female = 42.63) and preclinical (BLSA) (N = 207, mean age = 78.68, % female = 42.63) AD, in which we tested their associations with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of AD-related brain atrophy, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of AD pathology, risk of conversion to incident AD, and trajectories of cognitive performance. We developed an integrated blood and brain endophenotype score that

  5. The influence of patient's consciousness regarding high blood pressure and patient's attitude in face of disease controlling medicine intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelec, Maria Aparecida A Moura; Pierin, Angela M G; Mion, Décio

    2003-10-01

    To assess the relation between blood pressure control and the following: the Morisky-Green test, the patient's consciousness regarding high blood pressure, the patient's attitude in face of medicine intake, the patient's attendance at medical consultations, and the subjective physician's judgment. We studied 130 hypertensive patients with the following characteristics: 73% females, 60 +/- 11 years, 58% married, 70% white, 45% retired, 45% with incomplete elementary schooling, 64% had a familial income of 1 to 3 minimum wages, body mass index of 30 +/- 7 kg/m , consciousness regarding the disease for a mean period of 11 +/- 9.5 years, and mean treatment duration of 8 +/- 7 years. Only 35% of the hypertensive individuals had blood pressure under control and a longer duration of treatment (10 +/- 7 vs 7 +/- 6.5 years; Pface of medicine intake, the controlled patients achieved significantly higher scores than did the noncontrolled patients (8 +/- 1.9 vs 7 +/- 2, Pconsciousness regarding their disease and its treatment, and most (70%) patients attended 3 or 4 medical consultations, which did not influence blood pressure control. The physicians attributed significantly higher scores regarding adherence to treatment to controlled patients (6 +/- 0.8 vs 5 +/- 1.2; PConsciousness regarding the disease, the Morisky-Green test, and attendance to medical consultations did not influence blood pressure control.

  6. Direct molecular detection and genotyping of Borrelia burgdorferi from whole blood of patients with early Lyme disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W Eshoo

    Full Text Available Direct molecular tests in blood for early Lyme disease can be insensitive due to low amount of circulating Borrelia burgdorferi DNA. To address this challenge, we have developed a sensitive strategy to both detect and genotype B. burgdorferi directly from whole blood collected during the initial patient visit. This strategy improved sensitivity by employing 1.25 mL of whole blood, a novel pre-enrichment of the entire specimen extract for Borrelia DNA prior to a multi-locus PCR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry detection assay. We evaluated the assay on blood collected at the initial presentation from 21 endemic area patients who had both physician-diagnosed erythema migrans (EM and positive two-tiered serology either at the initial visit or at a follow-up visit after three weeks of antibiotic therapy. Results of this DNA analysis showed detection of B. burgdorferi in 13 of 21 patients (62%. In most cases the new assay also provided the B. burgdorferi genotype. The combined results of our direct detection assay with initial physician visit serology resulted in the detection of early Lyme disease in 19 of 21 (90% of patients at the initial visit. In 5 of 21 cases we demonstrate the ability to detect B. burgdorferi in early Lyme disease directly from whole blood specimens prior to seroconversion.

  7. Strongyloides stercoralis infection increases the likelihood to detect Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in peripheral blood in Chagas disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Fernando; Sulleiro, Elena; Piron, Maria; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Sauleda, Silvia; Molina-Morant, Daniel; Moure, Zaira; Molina, Israel

    2017-11-01

    In a previous study performed by our group, Strongyloides stercoralis infection in patients with Chagas disease was associated with higher proportion of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA detection in peripheral blood. The aim of the study was to confirm this association in a larger cohort of patients. Cross-sectional study of all patients with Chagas disease diagnosed from 2005 to 2015 during blood donation at the Catalan Blood Bank. Demographic data and T. cruzi RT-PCR were collected. S. stercoralis infection diagnosis was based on a serological test. Two hundred and two blood donors were included. T. cruzi RT-PCR was positive in 72 (35.6%) patients, and S. stercoralis serology was positive in 22 (10.9%) patients. Patients with positive S. stercoralis serology had higher proportion of positive T. cruzi RT-PCR than those with negative serology (54.5% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.050), and the difference increased when taking a serological index cut-off of 2.5, which increases the specificity of the test to detect a confirmed strongyloidiasis (60% vs. 33%, P = 0.017). Patients with Chagas disease with positive S. stercoralis serology had higher proportion of positive T. cruzi RT-PCR in peripheral blood than those with negative serology, which reflects the potential immunomodulatory effects of S. stercoralis in T. cruzi co-infected patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Genome-wide peripheral blood leukocyte DNA methylation microarrays identified a single association with inflammatory bowel diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, R Alan; Nagy-Szakal, Dorottya; Pedersen, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are common forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Monozygotic (MZ) twin discordance rates and epidemiologic data implicate that environmental changes and epigenetic factors may play a pathogenic role in IBD. DNA methylation (the methylation of ...... of cytosines within CpG dinucleotides) is an epigenetic modification, which can respond to environmental influences. We investigated whether DNA methylation might be connected with IBD in peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) DNA by utilizing genome-wide microarrays....

  9. INCREASED VASOOCCLUSIVE CRISIS IN “O” BLOOD GROUP SICKLE CELL DISEASE PATIENTS: ASSOCIATION WITH UNDERLYING THROMBOSPONDIN LEVELS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al Huneini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objectives: To explore the incidence of vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC in Blood Group “O” sickle cell disease (SCD patients, and correlate it with the blood group and thrombospondin (TSP levels. Methods: In 89 consecutive SCD patients, blood samples were obtained for vWF antigen, collagen binding activity, blood group typing, C-reactive protein, variant hemoglobin analysis (HPLC, Serum TSP 1 and TSP 2 levels, complete blood counts, liver function tests, LDH and renal function tests during VOC episodes and in steady state conditions. Results: In the steady state SCD patients (n=72, “O” blood group patients (n=37 showed significantly higher median serum TSP 1 and TSP 2 levels than the non “O” blood group patients [n=35] [p <0.05, Mann-Whitney test], with an inverse relation between VWF:Ag, Factor VIII:C and TSP levels. Furthermore, the serum TSP 1 and TSP 2 levels were significantly higher in patients presenting with acute VOC [n=17], and in those with repeated VOC’s (group 1, n=16 especially amongst those patients with blood group “O” [p, <0.05, Mann-Whitney test]. Conclusions: The study shows that there was an inverse relation between TSP and vWF levels, in blood group “O” SCD patients with an upregulation of the TSP levels. Expectedly, during active VOC crisis, the TSP 1 and TSP 2 levels were significantly elevated.    Key Words: VOC; SCD; TSP; vWD; Blood groups

  10. Blood transfusion for preventing primary and secondary stroke in people with sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estcourt, Lise J; Fortin, Patricia M; Hopewell, Sally; Trivella, Marialena; Wang, Winfred C

    2017-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease is one of the commonest severe monogenic disorders in the world, due to the inheritance of two abnormal haemoglobin (beta globin) genes. Sickle cell disease can cause severe pain, significant end-organ damage, pulmonary complications, and premature death. Stroke affects around 10% of children with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS). Chronic blood transfusions may reduce the risk of vaso-occlusion and stroke by diluting the proportion of sickled cells in the circulation. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2002, and last updated in 2013. Objectives To assess risks and benefits of chronic blood transfusion regimens in people with sickle cell disease for primary and secondary stroke prevention (excluding silent cerebral infarcts). Search methods We searched for relevant trials in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1980), and ongoing trial databases; all searches current to 04 April 2016. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 25 April 2016. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing red blood cell transfusions as prophylaxis for stroke in people with sickle cell disease to alternative or standard treatment. There were no restrictions by outcomes examined, language or publication status. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and the risk of bias and extracted data. Main results We included five trials (660 participants) published between 1998 and 2016. Four of these trials were terminated early. The vast majority of participants had the haemoglobin (Hb)SS form of sickle cell disease. Three trials compared regular red cell transfusions to standard care in primary prevention of stroke: two in children with no previous long-term transfusions; and one in children and adolescents on long-term transfusion. Two trials compared the drug

  11. CONTENTS OF THYROID HORMONES, CYTOKINES AND α2-MACROGLOBULIN IN BLOOD SERA AND IN CULTURE SUPERNATES OF BLOOD CELLS FROM THE GRAVES DISEASE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Zorina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We had investigated levels of TTG, T4, TNFα, IL-6, IFNγ, and α2-MG in blood serum and supernates of short-term blood cultures in the patients with verified Graves disease before treatment and after reaching of euthyroid status, as compared with healthy controls. We have revealed that initial blood concentrations of free Т4 in the patients were increased, along with decrease in TSH, higher IL-6, IFNγ levels, as well as concentrations of α2-MG which participates in cytokine transport and synthesis. Thiamazole treatment normalized the hormonal profile and reduced blood levels of IL-6, IFNγ and α2-MG, however, without complete normalization, along with increase of serum TNFα contents. It was shown, that the patients before treatment had decreased in vitro response of cells to the mitogenic stimulation as shown by decreased induction of TNFα and IFNγ production, along with, increased spontaneous IFNγ levels. When reaching euthyroid state after Thiamazole administration, we observed an increased spontaneous IFNγ synthesis, decreased IL-6 production in resting cultures. In mitogen-stimulated cell cultures from the treated patients, IFNγ contents became normal, however, TNFα secretion remained lower than in controls. The α2-MG levels in supernates were stable and significantly lower, than in serum. We may presume that thyrotoxicosis treatment with Thiamazole causes stabilization of the endocrine state, however, being not sufficient for normalized production of cytokines, as well as α2-MG, with its regulatory and transporter functions, thus promoting recurrence of disease and reactivation of autoimmune events. 

  12. Blood Transfusion and 30-Day Mortality in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease and Anemia Following Noncardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Robert H; Singletary, Brandon A; McMurtrie, James T; Graham, Laura A; Richman, Joshua S; Holcomb, Carla N; Itani, Kamal M; Maddox, Thomas M; Hawn, Mary T

    2016-02-01

    Although liberal blood transfusion thresholds have not been beneficial following noncardiac surgery, it is unclear whether higher thresholds are appropriate for patients who develop postoperative myocardial infarction (MI). To evaluate the association between postoperative blood transfusion and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease and postoperative MI following noncardiac surgery. Retrospective cohort study involving Veterans Affairs facilities from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2012. A total of 7361 patients with coronary artery disease who underwent inpatient noncardiac surgery and had a nadir postoperative hematocrit between 20% and 30%. Patients with significant bleeding, including any preoperative blood transfusion or transfusion of greater than 4 units during the intraoperative or postoperative setting, were excluded. Mortality rates were compared using both logistic regression and propensity score matching. Patients were stratified by postoperative nadir hematocrit and the presence of postoperative MI. Initial postoperative blood transfusion. The 30-day postoperative mortality rate. Of the 7361 patients, 2027 patients (27.5%) received at least 1 postoperative blood transfusion. Postoperative mortality occurred in 267 (3.6%), and MI occurred in 271 (3.7%). Among the 5334 patients without postoperative blood transfusion, lower nadir hematocrit was associated with an increased risk for mortality (hematocrit of 20% to blood transfusion was associated with lower mortality, for those with hematocrit of 20% to 24% (odds ratio, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.13-0.64). In patients without postoperative MI, transfusion was associated with significantly higher mortality for those with hematocrit of 27% to 30% (odds ratio, 3.21; 95% CI, 1.85-5.60). These findings support a restrictive postoperative transfusion strategy in patients with stable coronary artery disease following noncardiac surgery. However, interventional studies are needed to evaluate the use of a more

  13. Partial Red Blood Cell Exchange in Children and Young Patients with Sickle Cell Disease: Manual Versus Automated Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Carlos; Moniz, Marta; Nunes, Pedro; Abadesso, Clara; Ferreira, Teresa; Barra, António; Lichtner, Anabela; Loureiro, Helena; Dias, Alexandra; Almeida, Helena

    2017-10-31

    The benefits of manual versus automated red blood cell exchange have rarely been documented and studies in young sickle cell disease patients are scarce. We aim to describe and compare our experience in these two procedures. Young patients (≤ 21 years old) who underwent manual- or automated-red blood cell exchange for prevention or treatment of sickle cell disease complications were included. Clinical, technical and hematological data were prospectively recorded and analyzed. Ninety-four red blood cell exchange sessions were performed over a period of 68 months, including 57 manual and 37 automated, 63 for chronic complications prevention, 30 for acute complications and one in the pre-operative setting. Mean decrease in sickle hemoglobin levels was higher in automated-red blood cell exchange (p sickle hemoglobin level decrease per volume removed (p cell exchange and access alarm on automated-red blood cell exchange. No major complication or alloimunization was recorded. Automated-red blood cell exchange decreased sickle hemoglobin levels more efficiently than manual procedure in the setting of acute and chronic complications of sickle cell disease, with minor technical concerns mainly due to vascular access. The threshold of sickle hemoglobin should be individualized for clinical and hematological goals. In our cohort of young patients, the need for an acceptable venous access was a limiting factor, but iron-overload was avoided. Automated red blood cell exchange is safe and well tolerated. It permits a higher sickle hemoglobin removal efficacy, better volume status control and iron-overload avoidance.

  14. Passage of dietary antigens into the blood of children with coeliac disease. Quantification and size distribution of absorbed antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husby, S; Foged, N; Høst, A

    1987-01-01

    The uptake of ovalbumin (OA) from egg and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) from cow's milk into the blood was investigated for seven hours after a test meal in five children with coeliac disease on a gluten free diet and after gluten challenge, and in five children with normal jejunal mucosa. Ovalbumin w...

  15. Nurse-led care interventions for high blood pressure control: Implications for non-communicable disease programs in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Katende

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Nurses play a significant role in the control of high blood pressure when they employ effective evidence based strategies in identification, prevention and management of hypertension. Adapting effective evidence based strategies in identification, prevention and management of non-communicable diseases could improve patient outcomes in Uganda.

  16. IFNγ production in peripheral blood of early Lyme disease patients to hLFAαL (aa326-345

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wormser Gary P

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proposed that outer surface protein A (OspA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto contains a T helper 1 (Th1 cell epitope that could play a role in an autoimmune response to hLFA1. Methods We used two peptides, hLFAαL (aa326-345 and Borrelia burgdorferi OspAB31 (aa164-183, as stimulating antigens to measure Th1 proinflammatory IFNγ cytokine production in peripheral blood of Lyme disease patients presenting with EM without history of arthritis, as well as in peripheral blood of healthy individuals. Results IFNγ responses to hLFA1 peptide were observed in 11 of 19 Lyme disease patients and in 3 of 15 healthy controls. In contrast, only 2 of 19 of the Lyme disease patients and none of the controls responded to the homologous OspAB31 peptide. Conclusions IFNγ was produced in response to stimulation with peptide hLFAαL (aa326-345 in peripheral blood of 58% of patients with early Lyme disease without signs of arthritis, as well as in peripheral blood of 20% of healthy individuals, but not in response to stimulation with the homologous OspAB31 (aa164-183 peptide (p

  17. Increased plasma noradrenaline concentration in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease: relation to haemodynamics and blood gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Christensen, N J; Kok-Jensen, A

    1980-01-01

    present. Plasma adrenaline concentration was normal. The results point to enhanced sympathetic nervous activity in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease, probably caused by the deranged blood gases. The pulmonary haemodynamic changes and increased pulse rate may, at least partly, be due...

  18. 76 FR 63308 - Data and Data Needs To Advance Risk Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ....'' The purpose of the public workshop is to discuss data and data sources currently used by FDA, possible...] Data and Data Needs To Advance Risk Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood and... workshop. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled: ``Data and Data...

  19. ADAM10 gene expression in the blood cells of Alzheimer's disease patients and mild cognitive impairment subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzine, Patricia Regina; Marcello, Elena; Borroni, Barbara; Kamphuis, Willem; Hol, Elly; Padovani, Alessandro; Nascimento, Carla Crispim; De Godoy Bueno, Patricia; Assis Carvalho Vale, Francisco; Iost Pavarini, Sofia Cristina; Di Luca, Monica; Cominetti, Márcia Regina

    2015-01-01

    ADAM10 is a potential biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). ADAM10 protein levels are reduced in platelets of AD patients. The aim was to verify the total blood and platelet ADAM10 gene expression in AD patients and to compare with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy subjects. No

  20. Unrelated Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation(HSCT) for Genetic Diseases of Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-21

    Sickle Cell Disease; Thalassemia; Anemia; Granuloma; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Chediak Higashi Syndrome; Osteopetrosis; Neutropenia; Thrombocytopenia; Hurler Disease; Niemann-Pick Disease; Fucosidosis

  1. Red Blood Cell Distribution Width in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgul, Guler; Seyhan, Ekrem Cengiz; Özgül, Mehmet Akif; Günlüoğlu, Mehmet Zeki

    2017-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is accepted as a powerful predictor of outcomes in patients with CVD. To study RDW in patients with COPD, and to compare the value of this measurement with clinical, echocardiographic, nutritional and laboratory status. Secondly, we aimed to determine the effect of smoking on RDW values in healthy subjects. One hundred and seventy-five patients with stable COPD and 210 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Demographic, clinical, nutritional status, echocardiographic, and laboratory characteristics, RDW values were recorded and compared. RDW values were higher in the COPD group than in controls (15±2.3% vs. 13.8±2.5%, p<0.001). In COPD patients, RDW levels positively correlated with CRP levels (r=0.27, P<.001), albumin levels (r=0.23, P=.04), right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) (r=0.24, P=.001), pulmonary hypertension (PAH) (r=0.1, P=.02), and presence of CVD (r=0.24, P=.02). In multivariable logistic regression suggested that presence of CVD (4.3; 95% CI: 1.3 to 11; P=.01), and presence of RVD (3.1; 95% CI: 1.7 to 8.3; P=.02) were independently related to elevated RDW levels in COPD patients. In the healthy population, correlations analysis showed only a significant correlation between RDW and cigarette smoking years (r=0.57, P<.001). RDW is independently associated with CVD and RVD in patients with COPD. In the healthy population, RDW is also associated with smoking status. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Interankle systolic blood pressure difference and renal outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Huang, Jiun-Chi; Lee, Su-Chu; Chang, Jer-Ming; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2016-05-01

    Interankle blood pressure (BP) difference has been associated with peripheral artery disease and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, the relationship between interankle BP difference and renal outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD) has never been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether interankle BP difference is associated with the rate of renal function decline and progression to renal end points in patients with stage 3-5 CKD. We enrolled 144 patients with CKD from one regional hospital. The BP in four limbs was simultaneously measured using an ABI-form device. The decline in renal function was evaluated using an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) slope. Rapid renal progression was defined as an eGFR slope < -3 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) per year. The renal end points were defined as ≥ 25% decline in eGFR or commencement of dialysis during the follow-up period. During a mean follow-up period of 3.1 years, 90 patients (62.5%) reached renal end points. Multivariate analysis showed that an increased interankle systolic BP difference (per 5 mmHg) was associated with a worse eGFR slope (regression β, -0.292; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.482 to -0.102; P = 0.003), rapid renal progression (odds ratio, 1.189; 95% CI, 1.015-1.394; P = 0.032), and an increased risk of progression to renal end points (hazard ratio, 1.126; 95% CI, 1.052-1.204, P = 0.001). Interankle systolic BP difference was associated with rapid renal progression and progression to renal end points in patients with stage 3-5 CKD in our study. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  3. The emerging challenge of optimal blood pressure management and hypertensive syndromes in pregnant women with sickle cell disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, Nabilah F; DeBaun, Michael R; Oppong, Samuel A

    2017-11-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the most common hemoglobinopathy, affecting a considerable proportion of black populations of African origin, Middle East and in the Indian sub-continent. Women with SCD are more likely to experience adverse pregnancy and delivery outcomes. Hypertensive diseases in pregnancy such as preeclampsia and eclampsia are more common in women with sickle cell disease. Areas covered: This review examined the influence of hypertension and SCD in pregnancy, and provides the preliminary evidence that the traditional systolic and diastolic blood pressure thresholds for hypertensive disorders such as pre-eclampsia and eclampsia may require reassessment in pregnant women with SCD. The causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, hypertensive complications of pregnancy in women with and without sickle cell disease were reviewed. A MEDLINE database search using medical subject headings (MeSH) and keywords for articles regarding sickle cell disease, pregnancy and hypertension was performed. Expert commentary: Pregnancy in women with sickle cell disease is associated with high maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Using the existing thresholds for diagnosis and treatment for hypertensive disease in pregnancy without adjustment to accommodate for the lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure in those with sickle cell disease may worsen an already poor maternal and perinatal outcome in this population.

  4. Determinants of abnormal blood pressure response to exercise in coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakki, A.H.; Munley, B.M.; Hadjimiltiades, S.; Meissner, M.D.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    This study assessed the determinants of exercise-induced abnormal systolic blood pressure (BP) response in 127 patients with documented coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy. Three types of systolic BP response to exercise were identified: an increase by more than 20 mm Hg (group I, n = 74); an increase by 20 mm Hg or less (group II, n = 36); and a decrease of at least 10 mm Hg (group III, n = 17). The 3 groups were not significantly different in age, gender or medications. The number of segments with perfusion defects was significantly higher in groups II and III than group I (group III, 2.9 +/- 1.5; group II, 2.9 +/- 2.1; and group I, 1.8 +/- 1.4, p = 0.009). Prior myocardial infarction, abnormal left ventricular ejection fraction, and multivessel CAD were more common in group III than in groups I and II. Stepwise discriminant analysis of 15 relevant clinical, angiographic and exercise scintigraphic descriptors showed that the number of thallium perfusion defects, abnormal LV ejection fraction at rest and multivessel CAD to be important predictors of hypotensive BP response. Multivariate analysis, however, showed that the number of thallium perfusion defects was the only important predictor of the hypotensive response. Thus, it is the functional significance of CAD assessed by the extent of thallium perfusion abnormalities rather than the extent of CAD or left ventricular dysfunction at rest that determines the systolic BP response to exercise

  5. The impact of coffee consumption on blood pressure, cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysant, Steven G

    2017-03-01

    Coffee is the most widely consumed beverage, next to water. However, there has been a long-standing controversy regarding its safety on blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and intuitively, physicians dissuaded their patients from coffee drinking. Areas covered: This controversy was, primarily, based on older prospective studies or case reports, which showed a positive association of coffee drinking with the incidence of hypertension and CVD. In contrast to these reports, recent, well controlled, studies have demonstrated either a neutral or beneficial effect of moderate coffee consumption (3-4 cups/day), on BP, CVD, heart failure (HF), cardiac arrhythmias, or diabetes mellitus (DM). For the preparation of this special report, an English language focused search of the Medline database was conducted between 2010 and 2016 on studies with data on effect on the coffee consumption in patients with high BP, CVD, HF, cardiac arrhythmias or DM. Of the 94 abstracts reviewed, 34 pertinent papers were selected, and the findings from these papers together with collateral literature will be discussed in this special report. Expert commentary: Based on the evidence from these studies, coffee consumption in moderation, is safe and is beneficial in both healthy persons as well as patients with high BP, CVD, HF, cardiac arrhythmias or DM. Therefore, coffee restriction is not warranted for these patients, although some caution should be exercised.

  6. Blood pressure, body mass index and risk of cardiovascular disease in Chinese men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jianfeng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is still uncertain whether increased blood pressure (BP has a stronger effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD in lean persons than in obese persons. We tested it using a data set collected from a large cohort of Chinese adults. Methods Systolic and diastolic BP, body mass index (BMI and other variables were measured in 169,871 Chinese men and women ≥ 40 years of age in 1991 using standard protocols. Follow-up evaluation was conducted in 1999-2000, with a response rate of 93.4%. Data were analyzed with Cox proportional hazards models. Results After adjusted for age, sex, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, high school education, physical inactivity, geographic region, and urbanization, we found that the effects of systolic or diastolic BP on risk of CVD generally increased with the increasing BMI levels (underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. For example, hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence interval (CI per 1- standard deviation (SD increase in systolic BP within corresponding BMI levels were 1.27(1.21-1.33, 1.45(1.41-1.48, 1.52 (1.45-1.59 and 1.63 (1.51-1.76, respectively. Statistically significant interactions (P Conclusion Our study suggests that the magnitude of the association between BP and CVD generally increase with increasing BMI. Hypertension should not be regarded as a less serious risk factor in obese than in lean or normal-weight persons in Chinese adults.

  7. Wall morphology, blood flow and wall shear stress: MR findings in patients with peripheral artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galizia, Mauricio S.; Barker, Alex; Collins, Jeremy; Carr, James [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Liao, Yihua [Northwestern University' s Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); McDermott, Mary M. [Northwestern University' s Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University' s Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Markl, Michael [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-04-15

    To investigate the influence of atherosclerotic plaques on femoral haemodynamics assessed by two-dimensional (2D) phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with three-directional velocity encoding. During 1 year, patients with peripheral artery disease and an ankle brachial index <1.00 were enrolled. After institutional review board approval and written informed consent, 44 patients (age, 70 ± 12 years) underwent common femoral artery MRI. Patients with contra-indications for MRI were excluded. Sequences included 2D time-of-flight, proton-density, T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated 2D PC-MRI with 3D velocity encoding was acquired. A radiologist classified images in five categories. Blood flow, velocity and wall shear stress (WSS) along the vessel circumference were quantified from the PC-MRI data. The acquired images were of good quality for interpretation. There were no image quality problems related to poor ECG-gating or slice positioning. Velocities, oscillatory shear stress and total flow were similar between patients with normal arteries and wall thickening/plaque. Patients with plaques demonstrated regionally increased peak systolic WSS and enhanced WSS eccentricity. Combined multi-contrast morphological imaging of the peripheral arterial wall with PC-MRI with three-directional velocity encoding is a feasible technique. Further study is needed to determine whether flow is an appropriate marker for altered endothelial cell function, vascular remodelling and plaque progression. (orig.)

  8. Dynamic quantitative microscopy and nanoscopy of red blood cells in sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked, Natan T.; Satterwhite, Lisa L.; Telen, Marilyn J.; Truskey, George A.; Wax, Adam

    2012-03-01

    We have applied wide-field digital interferometric techniques to quantitatively image sickle red blood cells (RBCs) [1] in a noncontact label-free manner, and measure the nanometer-scale fluctuations in their thickness as an indication of their stiffness. The technique can simultaneously measure the fluctuations for multiple spatial points on the RBC and thus yields a map describing the stiffness of each RBC in the field of view. Using this map, the local rigidity regions of the RBC are evaluated quantitatively. Since wide-field digital interferometry is a quantitative holographic imaging technique rather than one-point measurement, it can be used to simultaneously evaluate cell transverse morphology plus thickness in addition to its stiffness profile. Using this technique, we examine the morphology and dynamics of RBCs from individuals who suffer from sickle cell disease, and find that the sickle RBCs are significantly stiffer than healthy RBCs. Furthermore, we show that the technique is sensitive enough to distinguish various classes of sickle RBCs, including sickle RBCs with visibly-normal morphology, compared to the stiffer crescent-shaped sickle RBCs.

  9. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in patients with Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Shin; Ujike, Takashi; Kuroki, Soemu; Sakamoto, Shizuki; Soeda, Toshiyuki; Terashi, Akiro; Iio, Masaaki.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine functional changes in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease (PD). Cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) were determined using 0-15 positron emission tomography in 10 PD patients and five age-matched healthy volunteers. There was a tendency among PD patients towards a decreased CBF and CMRO 2 in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. These values were significantly lower in the frontal cortex in the PD group than the control group. There was no difference in OEF between the groups. A more decreased cerebral oxygen metabolism was observed in patients staged as severer on the scale of Hoehn and Yahr. There was no correlation between cerebral oxygen metabolism and tremor, rigidity, or bradykinesis. A decreased cerebral oxygen metabolism was associated with mental disorders, such as depression, hallucination, and dementia. These results may provide an important clue for the understanding of mesocortical dopaminergic pathway and the relationship between PD and dementia. (N.K.)

  10. Verbal or Visual Memory Score and Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Alzheimer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Hayashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Among many cognitive function deficits, memory impairment is an initial and cardinal symptom in Alzheimer disease (AD. In most cases, verbal and visual memory scores correlate highly, but in some cases the deficit of verbal or visual memory is very different from that of the other memory. In this study, we examined the neural substrates of verbal and visual memory in patients with AD. Methods: One hundred eighty-eight consecutive patients with AD were recruited from outpatient units. Verbal and visual memory scores were evaluated using the Wechsler Memory Scale – revised. The patients underwent brain SPECT with 99mTc-ethylcysteinate dimer. Results: After removing the effects of age, sex, education, and Mini-Mental State Examination scores, correlation analysis showed a significant correlation of verbal memory scores to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF in the bilateral cingulate gyrus and left precuneus. Similarly, a significant correlation of visual memory scores to rCBF was found in the right precuneus and right cingulate gyrus. Conclusion: The posterior medial cortices (PMC are very important areas in episodic memory among patients with mild AD. Verbal memory is more closely related to the both sides of the PMC, while visual memory is more closely related to the right PMC.

  11. Iron isotopic composition of blood serum in anemia of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoshkina, Yulia; Costas-Rodríguez, Marta; Speeckaert, Marijn; Van Biesen, Wim; Delanghe, Joris; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2017-05-24

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a general term for disorders that affect the structure and function of the kidneys. Iron deficiency (ID) and anemia occur in the vast majority of CKD patients, most of whom are elderly. However, establishing the cause of anemia in CKD, and therefore making an informed decision concerning the corresponding therapeutic treatment, is still a challenge. High-precision Fe isotopic analysis of blood serum samples of CKD patients with and without ID/anemia was performed via multi-collector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) for such a purpose. Patients with CKD and/or iron disorders showed a heavier serum Fe isotopic composition than controls. Many clinical parameters used for the diagnosis and follow-up of anemia correlated significantly with the serum Fe isotopic composition. In contrast, no relation was observed between the serum Fe isotopic composition and the estimated glomerular filtration rate as a measure of kidney function. Among the CKD patients, the serum Fe isotopic composition was substantially heavier in the occurrence of ID anemia, while erythropoietin-related anemia did not exert this effect. The Fe isotopic composition can thus be useful for distinguishing these different types of anemias in CKD patients, i.e. ID anemia vs. erythropoietin-related anemia.

  12. Verbal or Visual Memory Score and Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Satoshi; Terada, Seishi; Oshima, Etsuko; Sato, Shuhei; Kurisu, Kairi; Takenoshita, Shintaro; Yokota, Osamu; Yamada, Norihito

    2018-01-01

    Among many cognitive function deficits, memory impairment is an initial and cardinal symptom in Alzheimer disease (AD). In most cases, verbal and visual memory scores correlate highly, but in some cases the deficit of verbal or visual memory is very different from that of the other memory. In this study, we examined the neural substrates of verbal and visual memory in patients with AD. One hundred eighty-eight consecutive patients with AD were recruited from outpatient units. Verbal and visual memory scores were evaluated using the Wechsler Memory Scale - revised. The patients underwent brain SPECT with 99m Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer. After removing the effects of age, sex, education, and Mini-Mental State Examination scores, correlation analysis showed a significant correlation of verbal memory scores to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the bilateral cingulate gyrus and left precuneus. Similarly, a significant correlation of visual memory scores to rCBF was found in the right precuneus and right cingulate gyrus. The posterior medial cortices (PMC) are very important areas in episodic memory among patients with mild AD. Verbal memory is more closely related to the both sides of the PMC, while visual memory is more closely related to the right PMC.

  13. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Shin; Ujike, Takashi; Kuroki, Soemu; Sakamoto, Shizuki; Soeda, Toshiyuki; Terashi, Akiro; Iio, Masaaki.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine functional changes in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease (PD). Cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO/sub 2/) were determined using 0-15 positron emission tomography in 10 PD patients and five age-matched healthy volunteers. There was a tendency among PD patients towards a decreased CBF and CMRO/sub 2/ in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. These values were significantly lower in the frontal cortex in the PD group than the control group. There was no difference in OEF between the groups. A more decreased cerebral oxygen metabolism was observed in patients staged as severer on the scale of Hoehn and Yahr. There was no correlation between cerebral oxygen metabolism and tremor, rigidity, or bradykinesis. A decreased cerebral oxygen metabolism was associated with mental disorders, such as depression, hallucination, and dementia. These results may provide an important clue for the understanding of mesocortical dopaminergic pathway and the relationship between PD and dementia. (N.K.).

  14. Blood-Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier Permeability in Alzheimer’s Disease1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalbot, Sonia; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Fladby, Tormod; Andreasen, Niels; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2011-01-01

    The role of blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCB) dysfunction in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been addressed but not yet established. We evaluated the BCB integrity in 179 samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) retrospectively collected from AD patients and control cases using both CSF/serum albumin ratio (QAlb) and CSF secretory Ca2+-dependent phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) activity. These analyses were supplemented with the measurement of total tau, amyloid-β1–42 (Aβ1–42), and ubiquitin CSF levels. We found that due to its higher sensitivity, CSF sPLA2 activity could 1) discriminate AD from healthy controls and 2) showed BCB impairment in neurological control cases while QAlb could not. Moreover, the CSF sPLA2 activity measurement showed that around half of the AD patients were characterized by a BCB impairment. The BCB dysfunction observed in AD was independent from Mini-Mental State Examination score as well as CSF levels of total tau, Aβ1–42, and ubiquitin. Finally, the BCB dysfunction was not limited to any of the CSF biomarkers-based previously identified subgroups of AD. These results suggest that the BCB damage occurs independent of and probably precedes both Aβ and tau pathologies in a restricted subgroup of AD patients. PMID:21471645

  15. Study on the relationship between red blood cell immunity and lipid peroxidation in patients with hand-foot-mouth disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hongxia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between red blood cell immunity and lipid peroxidation in patients with hand-foot-mouth disease. Methods: The red blood cell C3b receptor (RBC-C3bR) and red blood cell immune complex rosette (RBC-ICR) were measured in 42 patients with hand-foot-mouth disease as well as in 35 controls. The serum levels of MDA, SOD and GSH-PX were also measured with colorimetry in these subjects. Results: RBC-ICRR and MDA levels were significantly higher in patients with hand-foot-mouth disease than those in controls(P<0.01), while the RBC-C3bR, SOD, GSH-PX levels were significantly lower in patients with hand-foot-mouth disease than those in controls (P<0.01). RBC-C3bR was negatively correlated with MDA (r=-0.5014, P<0.05), but RBC-ICR was positively correlated with MDA (r=0.5942, P<0.01). Conclusion: The lowered red cell immune function was closely associated with the lipid peroxidation injury in patients with hand-foot-mouth disease. (authors)

  16. Test for Detection of Disease-Associated Prion Aggregate in the Blood of Infected but Asymptomatic Animals▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Binggong; Cheng, Xin; Yin, Shaoman; Pan, Tao; Zhang, Hongtao; Wong, Poki; Kang, Shin-Chung; Xiao, Fan; Yan, Huimin; Li, Chaoyang; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Miller, Michael W.; Wisniewski, Thomas; Greene, Mark I.; Sy, Man-Sun

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a sensitive in vitro assay for detecting disease-associated prion aggregates by combining an aggregation-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AS-ELISA) with the fluorescent amplification catalyzed by T7 RNA polymerase technique (FACTT). The new assay, named aggregation-specific FACTT (AS-FACTT), is much more sensitive than AS-ELISA and could detect prion aggregates in the brain of mice as early as 7 days after an intraperitoneal inoculation of PrPSc. However, AS-FACTT was still unable to detect prion aggregates in blood of infected mice. To further improve the detection limit of AS-FACTT, we added an additional prion amplification step (Am) and developed a third-generation assay, termed Am-A-FACTT. Am-A-FACTT has 100% sensitivity and specificity in detecting disease-associated prion aggregates in blood of infected mice at late but still asymptomatic stages of disease. At a very early stage, Am-A-FACTT had a sensitivity of 50% and a specificity of 100%. Most importantly, Am-A-FACTT also detects prion aggregates in blood of mule deer infected with the agent causing a naturally occurring prion disease, chronic wasting disease. Application of this assay to cattle, sheep, and humans could safeguard food supplies and prevent human contagion. PMID:17079434

  17. Test for detection of disease-associated prion aggregate in the blood of infected but asymptomatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Binggong; Cheng, Xin; Yin, Shaoman; Pan, Tao; Zhang, Hongtao; Wong, Poki; Kang, Shin-Chung; Xiao, Fan; Yan, Huimin; Li, Chaoyang; Wolfe, Lisa L; Miller, Michael W; Wisniewski, Thomas; Greene, Mark I; Sy, Man-Sun

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a sensitive in vitro assay for detecting disease-associated prion aggregates by combining an aggregation-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AS-ELISA) with the fluorescent amplification catalyzed by T7 RNA polymerase technique (FACTT). The new assay, named aggregation-specific FACTT (AS-FACTT), is much more sensitive than AS-ELISA and could detect prion aggregates in the brain of mice as early as 7 days after an intraperitoneal inoculation of PrP(Sc). However, AS-FACTT was still unable to detect prion aggregates in blood of infected mice. To further improve the detection limit of AS-FACTT, we added an additional prion amplification step (Am) and developed a third-generation assay, termed Am-A-FACTT. Am-A-FACTT has 100% sensitivity and specificity in detecting disease-associated prion aggregates in blood of infected mice at late but still asymptomatic stages of disease. At a very early stage, Am-A-FACTT had a sensitivity of 50% and a specificity of 100%. Most importantly, Am-A-FACTT also detects prion aggregates in blood of mule deer infected with the agent causing a naturally occurring prion disease, chronic wasting disease. Application of this assay to cattle, sheep, and humans could safeguard food supplies and prevent human contagion.

  18. Successful stem cell therapy using umbilical cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells for Buerger's disease and ischemic limb disease animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Whan; Han, Hoon; Chae, Gue-Tae; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Bo, Sun; Yoon, Jung-Hee; Lee, Yong-Soon; Lee, Kwang-Soo; Park, Hwon-Kyum; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2006-06-01

    Buerger's disease, also known as thromboangiitis obliterans, is a nonatherosclerotic, inflammatory, vasoocclusive disease. It is characterized pathologically as a panangiitis of medium and small blood vessels, including both arteries and adjacent veins, especially the distal extremities (the feet and the hands). There is no curative medication or surgery for this disease. In the present study, we transplanted human leukocyte antigen-matched human umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into four men with Buerger's disease who had already received medical treatment and surgical therapies. After the stem cell transplantation, ischemic rest pain suddenly disappeared from their affected extremities. The necrotic skin lesions were healed within 4 weeks. In the follow-up angiography, digital capillaries were increased in number and size. In addition, vascular resistance in the affected extremities, compared with the preoperative examination, was markedly decreased due to improvement of the peripheral circulation. Because an animal model of Buerger's disease is absent and also to understand human results, we transplanted human UCB-derived MSCs to athymic nude mice with hind limb ischemia by femoral artery ligation. Up to 60% of the hind limbs were salvaged in the femoral artery-ligated animals. By in situ hybridization, the human UCB-derived MSCs were detected in the arterial walls of the ischemic hind limb in the treated group. Therefore, it is suggested that human UCB-derived MSC transplantation may be a new and useful therapeutic armament for Buerger's disease and similar ischemic diseases.

  19. The influence of patient's consciousness regarding high blood pressure and patient's attitude in face of disease controlling medicine intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida A Moura Strelec

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between blood pressure control and the following: the Morisky-Green test, the patient's consciousness regarding high blood pressure, the patient's attitude in face of medicine intake, the patient's attendance at medical consultations, and the subjective physician's judgment. METHODS: We studied 130 hypertensive patients with the following characteristics: 73% females, 60±11 years, 58% married, 70% white, 45% retired, 45% with incomplete elementary schooling, 64% had a familial income of 1 to 3 minimum wages, body mass index of 30±7 kg/m², consciousness regarding the disease for a mean period of 11±9.5 years, and mean treatment duration of 8 ±7 years. RESULTS: Only 35% of the hypertensive individuals had blood pressure under control and a longer duration of treatment (10±7 vs 7±6.5 years; P<0.05. The retiree predominated. The result of the Morisky-Green test did not relate to blood pressure control. In evaluating the attitude in face of medicine intake, the controlled patients achieved significantly higher scores than did the noncontrolled patients (8±1.9 vs 7 ±2, P<0.05. The hypertensive patients had higher levels of consciousness regarding their disease and its treatment, and most (70% patients attended 3 or 4 medical consultations, which did not influence blood pressure control. The physicians attributed significantly higher scores regarding adherence to treatment to controlled patients (6±0.8 vs 5±1.2; P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Consciousness regarding the disease, the Morisky-Green test, and attendance to medical consultations did not influence blood pressure control.

  20. Usefulness of blood irradiation before transfusion to avoid transfusion associated graft versus host disease (TA-GVHD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Koki

    1997-01-01

    We summarize the pathology of the transfusion associated graft versus host disease (TA-GVHD) and examine the usefulness of the blood irradiation before transfusion as more widely used prophylaxis. The symptom of TA-GVHD was as follows: after (asymptomatic phase) for 1 to 2 weeks after blood transfusion, pyrexia and erythema appeared. Furthermore, hepatic disorder, diarrhea and bloody stool occurred. In no longer time, pancytopenia by aplastic crisis of the bone marrow appeard, and severe granulocytopenia occurred. Finally, by the complication with severe infectious disease such as septicemia, almost all the patients died with in 3 to 4 weeks after blood transfusion. TA-GVHD was found in some patients without immune deficiency syndrome. The cause of the frequent occurrence of the disease in Japan was shown by the probability of the one-way matching analysis. As the countermeasure of TA-GVHD, we examined the effectiveness of the blood irradiation before transfusion under the consideration of the safety and the emergency. After the responder cells were beforehand irradiated with various doses of radiation (X-ray or g-ray), the proliferative response was investigated through the uptake of 3 H-thymidine, and we obtained 15-50 Gy as the optimum dose of the radiation. We discuss the establishment of the countermeasure for the TA-GVHD and the formation of the nationwide support system for TV-GVHD (K.H.). 33 refs

  1. Cord blood IgE. II. Prediction of atopic disease. A follow-up at the age of 18 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L G; Høst, A; Halken, S

    1992-01-01

    size with cord blood IgE less than 0.5 kU/l. A total of 762 infants were clinically evaluated at 18 months of age. A diagnosis of definite atopy, probable atopy or no atopy, including both IgE and non-IgE mediated disease was established. Applying different cord blood IgE cut-off values (0.3, 0.5, 0.......8, 1.1) we did not find an excess of atopic infants among those with elevated cord blood IgE irrespective of the chosen cut-off value. Atopic predisposition or family history of atopic disease was defined as at least one parent or older sibling with atopic disease. Significantly more infants...... with a family history developed atopy at 18 months. In the 2 series the positive predictive values of cord blood IgE greater than or equal to 0.5 were 43% and 46% and the sensitivities were 17% and 15%. The predictive values of having a family history were 48% and 44% and the sensitivities were 55% and 58%....

  2. Effects of exercise training on calf muscle oxygen extraction and blood flow in patients with peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Wesley B; Li, Zhe; Schenkel, Steven S; Chandra, Malavika; Busch, David R; Englund, Erin K; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Yodh, Arjun G; Floyd, Thomas F; Mohler, Emile R

    2017-12-01

    We employed near-infrared optical techniques, diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), and frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (FD-NIRS) to test the hypothesis that supervised exercise training increases skeletal muscle microvascular blood flow and oxygen extraction in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) who experience claudication. PAD patients ( n = 64) were randomly assigned to exercise and control groups. Patients in the exercise group received 3 mo of supervised exercise training. Calf muscle blood flow and oxygen extraction were optically monitored before, during, and after performance of a graded treadmill protocol at baseline and at 3 mo in both groups. Additionally, measurements of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) and peak walking time (PWT) to maximal claudication were made during each patient visit. Supervised exercise training was found to increase the maximal calf muscle blood flow and oxygen extraction levels during treadmill exercise by 29% (13%, 50%) and 8% (1%, 12%), respectively [ P group population were significantly higher than corresponding changes in the control group ( P training also increased PWT by 49% (18%, 101%) ( P = 0.01). However, within statistical error, the ABI, resting calf muscle blood flow and oxygen extraction, and the recovery half-time for hemoglobin\\myoglobin desaturation following cessation of maximal exercise were not altered by exercise training. The concurrent monitoring of both blood flow and oxygen extraction with the hybrid DCS/FD-NIRS instrument revealed enhanced muscle oxidative metabolism during physical activity from exercise training, which could be an underlying mechanism for the observed improvement in PWT. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We report on noninvasive optical measurements of skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen extraction dynamics before/during/after treadmill exercise in peripheral artery disease patients who experience claudication. The measurements tracked the effects of a 3-mo supervised

  3. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Top of Page CDC Fact Sheets Related to High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Pulmonary Hypertension Heart Disease Signs ...

  4. Pripherical muscular blood, flow in patient with traumatic spinal cord disease according to 133Xe data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galakhin, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    Studies with 133 Xe on the voluminous muscular blood flow in the lower limbs of patients with trauma of the spinal cord showed significant disturbance of the peripheral hemodynamics. In a spinal cord trauma the blood flow rate is reduced irrespective of patients' age and the site of trauma. The most noticeable disturbances of the peripheral blood flow are observed in patients with the affected cervical and upper thoracic regions of the spinal cord as compared to the thoracolumbar region

  5. Regional cerebral blood flow in Parkinson's disease measured with N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odano, Ikuo; Nishihara, Mamiko; Hayashi, Hiroko; Higuchi, Shoichi; Sakai, Kunio; Ishikawa, Atsushi; Ibayashi, Katsuhiko.

    1992-01-01

    N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT studies were performed on 21 patients (13 females; 45-73 yrs) with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and 10 age-matched normal controls (39-69 yrs). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was quantitatively measured by the arterial blood sampling method. When compared with normal controls, global CBF, and rCBF in the frontal cortex and in the basal ganglia were reduced 22.1% (p 123 I-IMP SPECT imaging is useful for evaluation and follow-up of patients with PD. (author)

  6. Association between blood pressure and Alzheimer disease measured up to 27 years prior to diagnosis: the HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabin, Jessica Mira; Tambs, Kristian; Saltvedt, Ingvild; Sund, Erik; Holmen, Jostein

    2017-05-31

    A lot of attention has been paid to the relationship of blood pressure and dementia because epidemiological research has reported conflicting evidence. Observational data has shown that midlife hypertension is a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia later in life, whereas there is evidence that low blood pressure is predictive in later life. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between dementia and blood pressure measured up to 27 years (mean 17.6 years) prior to ascertainment. In Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway, incident dementia data were collected during 1995-2011, and the diagnoses were validated by a panel of experts in the field. By using the subjects' personal identification numbers, the dementia data were linked to data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (the HUNT Study), a large, population-based health study performed in 1984-1986 (HUNT 1) and 1995-1997 (HUNT 2). A total of 24,638 participants of the HUNT Study were included in the present study, 579 of whom were diagnosed with Alzheimer disease, mixed Alzheimer/vascular dementia, or vascular dementia. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the association between dementia and blood pressure data from HUNT 1 and HUNT 2. Over the age of 60 years, consistent inverse associations were observed between systolic blood pressure and all-cause dementia, mixed Alzheimer/vascular dementia, and Alzheimer disease, but not with vascular dementia, when adjusting for age, sex, education, and other relevant covariates. This was observed for systolic blood pressure in both HUNT 1 and HUNT 2, regardless of antihypertensive medication use. There was an adverse association between systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and Alzheimer disease in individuals treated with antihypertensive medication under the age of 60 years. Our data are in line with those in previous studies demonstrating an inverse association between dementia and systolic blood pressure in

  7. Predictive value of cord blood bilirubins for hyperbilirubinemia in neonates at risk for maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility and hemolytic disease of the newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Kara L.; Roy, Devika; Molchan, Lauren; Bradley, Lyndsey; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Walker, Valencia P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the predictive ability of cord blood bilirubin (CBB) for hyperbilirubinemia in a population at risk for maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility and hemolytic disease of the newborn. Study Design This is a single center retrospective case-control study. Cases received phototherapy; controls did not. Cases were matched 1:3 to controls by gender and treating physician. Inclusion criteria included: ≥ 35 weeks gestation, CBB, and one or more total serum bilirubin (TSB) concentrations. The primary outcome was CBB. Secondary outcomes were a TSB > 75th percentile, length of stay, and neonatal intensive care unit admission. The prognostic ability of CBB for phototherapy and TSB > 75th percentile was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine predictors for phototherapy and TSB > 75th percentile. Result When compared to controls (n=142), cases (n=54) were more likely to have a positive Coombs’ test (82% vs. 41%, p 75th percentile (85% vs. 21%, p75th percentile was 0.87±0.03 (phemolytic disease of the newborn. PMID:26518407

  8. Predictive value of cord blood bilirubin for hyperbilirubinemia in neonates at risk for maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility and hemolytic disease of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, K; Roy, D; Molchan, L; Bradley, L; Grogan, T; Elashoff, D; Walker, V

    2015-01-01

    To determine the predictive ability of cord blood bilirubin (CBB) for hyperbilirubinemia in a population at risk for maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility and hemolytic disease of the newborn. This is a single center retrospective case-control study. Cases received phototherapy; controls did not. Cases were matched 1:3 to controls by gender and treating physician. Inclusion criteria included: ≥35 weeks gestation, CBB, and one or more total serum bilirubin (TSB) concentrations. The primary outcome was CBB. Secondary outcomes were a TSB >75th percentile, length of stay, and neonatal intensive care unit admission. The prognostic ability of CBB for phototherapy and TSB >75th percentile was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine predictors for phototherapy and TSB >75th percentile. When compared to controls (n = 142), cases (n = 54) were more likely to have a positive Coombs' test (82% vs. 41% , p 75th percentile (85% vs. 21% , p 75th percentile was 0.87 ± 0.03 (p hemolytic disease of the newborn.

  9. Radiographic evaluation of destructive periodontal disease in blue mink in relation to age and blood morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Andersen, Thomas Holmen; Eriksen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In this study, blood samples and jaws were collected from 2 genotypes of blue mink (n = 289) in order to examine phenotypic expression of specific characteristics of Chediak-Higashi Syndrome (C-HS). Blood samples were subjected to differential counts to assess the proportion of abnormal polymorph......In this study, blood samples and jaws were collected from 2 genotypes of blue mink (n = 289) in order to examine phenotypic expression of specific characteristics of Chediak-Higashi Syndrome (C-HS). Blood samples were subjected to differential counts to assess the proportion of abnormal...

  10. Molecular blood typing augments serologic testing and allows for enhanced matching of red blood cells for transfusion in patients with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Katie; Harris, Samantha; Gaur, Prashant; Haile, Askale; Armour, Rosalind; Teramura, Gayle; Delaney, Meghan

    2012-02-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) patients have dissimilar red blood cell (RBC) phenotypes compared to the primarily Caucasian blood donor base due, in part, to underlying complex Rh and silenced Duffy expression. Gene array-based technology offers high-throughput antigen typing of blood donors and can identify patients with altered genotypes. The purpose of the study was to ascertain if RBC components drawn from predominantly Caucasian donors could provide highly antigen-matched products for molecularly typed SCD patients. SCD patients were genotyped by a molecular array (HEA Beadchip, BioArray Solutions). The extended antigen phenotype (C, c, E, e, K, k, Jk(a) , Jk(b) , Fy(a) , Fy(b) , S, s) was used to query the inventory using different matching algorithms; the resulting number of products was recorded. A mean of 96.2 RBC products was available for each patient at basic-level, 34 at mid-level, and 16.3 at high-level stringency. The number of negative antigens correlated negatively with the number of available products. The Duffy silencing mutation in the promoter region (67T>C) (GATA) was found in 96.5% of patients. Allowing Fy(b+) products for patients with GATA increased the number of available products by up to 180%, although it does not ensure prevention of Duffy antibodies in all patients. This feasibility study provides evidence that centers with primarily Caucasian donors may be able to provide highly antigen-matched products. Knowledge of the GATA status expands the inventory of antigen-matched products. Further work is needed to determine the most clinically appropriate match level for SCD patients. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  11. Effect of Self-monitoring and Medication Self-titration on Systolic Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients at High Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    McManus, Richard J.; Mant, Jonathan; Haque, M. Sayeed; Bray, Emma P.; Bryan, Stirling; Greenfield, Sheila M.; Jones, Miren I.; Jowett, Sue; Little, Paul; Penaloza, Cristina; Schwartz, Claire; Shackleford, Helen; Shovelton, Claire; Varghese, Jinu; Williams, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Self-monitoring of blood pressure with self-titration of antihypertensives (self-management) results in lower blood pressure in patients with hypertension, but there are no data about patients in high-risk groups.\\ud \\ud OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of self-monitoring with self-titration of antihypertensive medication compared with usual care on systolic blood pressure among patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease.\\ud \\ud DESIGN, SETTING, AN...

  12. Application of Texture Analysis to Study Small Vessel Disease and Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés Hernández, Maria Del C; González-Castro, Victor; Chappell, Francesca M; Sakka, Eleni; Makin, Stephen; Armitage, Paul A; Nailon, William H; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2017-01-01

    We evaluate the alternative use of texture analysis for evaluating the role of blood-brain barrier (BBB) in small vessel disease (SVD). We used brain magnetic resonance imaging from 204 stroke patients, acquired before and 20 min after intravenous gadolinium administration. We segmented tissues, white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and applied validated visual scores. We measured textural features in all tissues pre- and post-contrast and used ANCOVA to evaluate the effect of SVD indicators on the pre-/post-contrast change, Kruskal-Wallis for significance between patient groups and linear mixed models for pre-/post-contrast variations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with Fazekas scores. Textural "homogeneity" increase in normal tissues with higher presence of SVD indicators was consistently more overt than in abnormal tissues. Textural "homogeneity" increased with age, basal ganglia perivascular spaces scores ( p  < 0.01) and SVD scores ( p  < 0.05) and was significantly higher in hypertensive patients ( p  < 0.002) and lacunar stroke ( p  = 0.04). Hypertension (74% patients), WMH load (median = 1.5 ± 1.6% of intracranial volume), and age (mean = 65.6 years, SD = 11.3) predicted the pre/post-contrast change in normal white matter, WMH, and index stroke lesion. CSF signal increased with increasing SVD post-contrast. A consistent general pattern of increasing textural "homogeneity" with increasing SVD and post-contrast change in CSF with increasing WMH suggest that texture analysis may be useful for the study of BBB integrity.

  13. Periodontal disease, hypertension, and blood pressure among older adults in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Tumanyan, Sona; Campos, Maribel; Zevallos, Juan C; Joshipura, Kaumudi J

    2013-02-01

    Current scientific evidence addressing the relationship between periodontitis and hypertension is limited to studies producing inconsistent results. All participants of an ongoing representative cohort of Puerto Rican elderly who were ≥70 years old and residing in the San Juan metropolitan area were invited to this cross-sectional study. Periodontal probing depth (PD) and attachment loss (AL) were summarized using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Periodontology definition for severe periodontitis (≥2 teeth with AL ≥6 mm and ≥1 tooth with PD ≥5 mm). Three repeated blood pressure (BP) measurements taken were averaged using a standardized auscultatory method. Information on hypertension history, use of antihypertensive medications, and potential confounders (age, sex, smoking, heavy and binge drinking, diabetes, use of preventive dental services, flossing, body mass index, consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole wheat bread, and high-fiber cereal) was collected during in-person interviews. High BP was defined as average systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic ≥90 mm Hg. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to study the relationship between severe periodontitis, hypertension history, and high BP. The study population comprised 182 adults. In multivariate analysis, there was no association between severe periodontitis and hypertension history (odds ratio [OR] = 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.40 to 2.48). Severe periodontitis was associated with high BP, with OR of 2.93 (95% CI: 1.25 to 6.84), after adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and binge drinking. This association was stronger when restricted to those with hypertension or taking antihypertensive medications: OR = 4.20 (95% CI: 1.28 to 13.80). The results of this study suggest that periodontitis may contribute to poor BP control among older adults.

  14. HOTAIR role in melanoma progression and its identification in the blood of patients with advanced disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantile, Monica; Scognamiglio, Giosuè; Marra, Laura; Aquino, Gabriella; Botti, Chiara; Falcone, Maria Rosaria; Malzone, Maria Gabriella; Liguori, Giuseppina; Di Bonito, Maurizio; Franco, Renato; Ascierto, Paolo Antonio; Botti, Gerardo

    2017-12-01

    The molecular mechanisms responsible for the metastatic progression of melanoma have not been fully defined yet. We have recently shown that an important role in this process is certainly played by HOX genes, whose regulation is under control of particular non-coding RNAs, some of which are present within the HOX locus. HOTAIR is the most studied among them, whose aberrant expression is associated with the metastatic progression of many malignancies. The aim of this study was to verify the role played by HOTAIR in metastatic progression of melanoma and to evaluate the circulating levels of HOTAIR in the blood of patients with metastatic melanoma. A series of melanocytic lesions were selected to evaluate the potential changes in the expression of HOTAIR during the evolution of the disease through in situ and molecular approaches. None of the benign melanocytic lesions showed the presence of HOTAIR. The staining of HOTAIR resulted very weak in the primary pT1 lesions, while it was very strong in all pairs of primary tissues and corresponding metastases. Surprisingly, we found the presence of HOTAIR in some intratumoral lymphocytes, while this positivity decreased in lymphocyte component further away from the tumor. HOTAIR was also detected in the serum of selected metastatic patients. These data allowed us to speculate on the fundamental role played by HOTAIR in tumor evolution of melanoma. Its presence in intratumoral lymphocytes might suggest that its involvement in the modulation of tumor microenvironment and the detection in the serum could be used in the management of melanoma patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Plasma and White Blood Cells Show Different miRNA Expression Profiles in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwienbacher, Christine; Foco, Luisa; Picard, Anne; Corradi, Eloina; Serafin, Alice; Panzer, Jörg; Zanigni, Stefano; Blankenburg, Hagen; Facheris, Maurizio F; Giannini, Giulia; Falla, Marika; Cortelli, Pietro; Pramstaller, Peter P; Hicks, Andrew A

    2017-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) diagnosis is based on the assessment of motor symptoms, which manifest when more than 50% of dopaminergic neurons are degenerated. To date, no validated biomarkers are available for the diagnosis of PD. The aims of the present study are to evaluate whether plasma and white blood cells (WBCs) are interchangeable biomarker sources and to identify circulating plasma-based microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for an early detection of PD. We profiled plasma miRNA levels in 99 L-dopa-treated PD patients from two independent data collections, in ten drug-naïve PD patients, and in unaffected controls matched by sex and age. We evaluated expression levels by reverse transcription and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and combined the results from treated PD patients using a fixed effect inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. We revealed different expression profiles comparing plasma and WBCs and drug-naïve and L-dopa-treated PD patients. We observed an upregulation trend for miR-30a-5p in L-dopa-treated PD patients and investigated candidate target genes by integrated in silico analyses. We could not analyse miR-29b-3p, normally expressed in WBCs, due to the very low expression in plasma. We observed different expression profiles in WBCs and plasma, suggesting that they are both suitable but not interchangeable peripheral sources for biomarkers. We revealed miR-30a-5p as a potential biomarker for PD in plasma. In silico analyses suggest that miR-30a-5p might have a regulatory role in mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy. Further investigations are needed to confirm miR-30a-5p deregulation and targets and to investigate the influence of L-dopa treatment on miRNA expression levels.

  16. Dynamics of ceruloplasmin amd of some blood parameters in piglets suffering from acute radiation disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aladzhov, E.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in oxidase activity of ceruloplasmin (CP) were followed up after treatment with gamma rays of 60 Co with a dose of 4 Ey (dose power 0.68 Ey/min) in the blood serum of male piglets of an average life weight of 18+-3 kg. CP level from 217 E/l raised to 376 E/l on the 16th hour after radiation and on the 16th day decreased to 296 e/l. Moreover, serum copper increased from 25 μmol/l to 42.3 μmol/l on the 16th hour following irradiation but on the 14th day its level dropped to 32.5 μmol/l. Erythrocyte and leucocyte count decreased from 5.83x10 12 /l and 19.94x10 12 /l to 2.47x10 12 /l and 2.0x10 9 /l, respectively. Besides, serum albumin decreased, but α-and β-globulins increased. Examination of ailing piglets showed a paraclinical pattern of an inflammatory process by acute radiation disease. CP as an antioxidant participates in reactions with toxic radiacals on radiation. By the rising of its level on radiation it again was characterized as an acute-phase protein. Serum CP was determined according to the method of Ravin using as substrate P-phenylendiamine dihydrochloride; serum copper - by the test of Boehringer Mannheim; serum proteins were studied electrophoretically on agarose gels using veronal buffer, pH 8.6

  17. Elevated Blood Urea Nitrogen is Associated With Critical Limb Ischemia in Peripheral Arterial Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Thomas; Pichler, Martin; Schilcher, Gernot; Hafner, Franz; Hackl, Gerald; Rief, Peter; Eller, Philipp; Brodmann, Marianne

    2015-06-01

    As renal function is often impaired in atherosclerosis patients, accelerating atherosclerosis per se and creating a vicious cycle, we investigated the association of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and critical limb ischemia (CLI) in peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) patients. Our cross-sectional study included 1521 PAOD patients, with normal and impaired renal function treated at our institution from 2005 to 2010. Patients on renal replacement therapy were excluded. The cohort was divided into tertiles according to the serum BUN levels. An optimal cutoff value for the continuous BUN was calculated by applying a receiver-operating curve analysis to discriminate between CLI and non-CLI. In our cohort, CLI increased significantly with an increase in BUN (13.1% in the first tertile, 18.7% in the second tertile, 29.0% in the third tertile, P for trend 17.7. CLI was more frequent in BUN > 17.7 patients (342 [38.6%]) than in BUN  ≤ 17.7 patients (134 [21.1%]) (P 17.7 was associated with an odds ratio of 1.6 (95% confidence interval: 1.3-1.9, P < 0.001) for CLI even after the adjustment for other established vascular risk factors such as age ≥ 75 and type 2 diabetes. An increased BUN is significantly associated with a high risk for CLI and other vascular endpoints. The BUN is an easily determinable, broadly available, and inexpensive marker that could be used to identify patients at high risk for vascular endpoints.

  18. Blood-Brain Barrier Penetrating Biologic TNF-α Inhibitor for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Rudy; Knox, Jillian; Chang, Jae; Derbedrossian, Aram; Vasilevko, Vitaly; Cribbs, David; Boado, Ruben J; Pardridge, William M; Sumbria, Rachita K

    2017-07-03

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) driven processes are involved at multiple stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology and disease progression. Biologic TNF-α inhibitors (TNFIs) are the most potent class of TNFIs but cannot be developed for AD since these macromolecules do not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). A BBB-penetrating TNFI was engineered by the fusion of the extracellular domain of the type II human TNF receptor (TNFR) to a chimeric monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the mouse transferrin receptor (TfR), designated as the cTfRMAb-TNFR fusion protein. The cTfRMAb domain functions as a molecular Trojan horse, binding to the mouse TfR and ferrying the biologic TNFI across the BBB via receptor-mediated transcytosis. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of this BBB-penetrating biologic TNFI in a mouse model of AD. Six-month-old APPswe, PSEN 1dE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice were treated with saline (n = 13), the cTfRMAb-TNFR fusion protein (n = 12), or etanercept (non-BBB-penetrating biologic TNFI; n = 11) 3 days per week intraperitoneally. After 12 weeks of treatment, recognition memory was assessed using the novel object recognition task, mice were sacrificed, and brains were assessed for amyloid beta (Aβ) load, neuroinflammation, BBB damage, and cerebral microhemorrhages. The cTfRMAb-TNFR fusion protein caused a significant reduction in brain Aβ burden (both Aβ peptide and plaque), neuroinflammatory marker ICAM-1, and a BBB disruption marker, parenchymal IgG, and improved recognition memory in the APP/PS1 mice. Fusion protein treatment resulted in low antidrug-antibody formation with no signs of either immune reaction or cerebral microhemorrhage development with chronic 12-week treatment. Chronic treatment with the cTfRMAb-TNFR fusion protein, a BBB-penetrating biologic TNFI, offers therapeutic benefits by targeting Aβ pathology, neuroinflammation, and BBB-disruption, overall improving recognition memory in a transgenic mouse model

  19. Potential large animal models for gene therapy of human genetic diseases of immune and blood cell systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Thomas R; Adler, Rima L; Hickstein, Dennis D

    2009-01-01

    Genetic mutations involving the cellular components of the hematopoietic system--red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets--manifest clinically as anemia, infection, and bleeding. Although gene targeting has recapitulated many of these diseases in mice, these murine homologues are limited as translational models by their small size and brief life span as well as the fact that mutations induced by gene targeting do not always faithfully reflect the clinical manifestations of such mutations in humans. Many of these limitations can be overcome by identifying large animals with genetic diseases of the hematopoietic system corresponding to their human disease counterparts. In this article, we describe human diseases of the cellular components of the hematopoietic system that have counterparts in large animal species, in most cases carrying mutations in the same gene (CD18 in leukocyte adhesion deficiency) or genes in interacting proteins (DNA cross-link repair 1C protein and protein kinase, DNA-activated catalytic polypeptide in radiation-sensitive severe combined immunodeficiency). Furthermore, we describe the potential of these animal models to serve as disease-specific preclinical models for testing the efficacy and safety of clinical interventions such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or gene therapy before their use in humans with the corresponding disease.

  20. A comparative study of blood flow in the cerebellum and brainstem between Machado-Joseph disease and olivopontocerebellar atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Suzuki, Masahiko; Ito Yasuhiko; Iguchi, Yasuyuki; Mori, Yutaka

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, the neurogenic and pathological differences between Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) and sporadic olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) have been clarified. We performed N-isopropyl-p-[I-123] iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT on 9 patients with MJD and 12 patients with OPCA. The blood flow of the cerebellum in the MJD group was significantly decreased than that of the control group (p<0.0001). That of OPCA group was significantly decreased than those of the control and MJD groups (p<0.0001, respectively). The blood flow of the brainstem in the MJD group was significantly decreased than that of the control group (p<0.001). That of OPCA group was significantly decreased than those of the control and MJD groups (p<0.0001, respectively). The blood flow of cerebellum and brainstem in the OPCA group were much decreased than those of MJD group. IMP distribution pattern in MJD patients obviously differed from that of OPCA patients. (author)

  1. Diagnostic value of blood thiamine metabolites in Alzheimer's disease examined by11C-PiB PET scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhichun; Pan, Xiaoli; Fei, Guoqiang; Pan, Shumei; Bao, Weiqi; Ren, Shuhua; Guan, Yihui; Zhong, Chunjiu

    2017-06-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic value of blood thiamine metabolites for Alzheimer's disease (AD) by using positron emission tomography with 11 C-Pittsburgh compound B ( 11 C-PiB PET) scanning. Thirty-eight clinically diagnosed AD patients were voluntarily recruited. Blood thiamine metabolites were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. All the patients received 11 C-PiB PET scanning for the measurement of cerebral amyloid deposition. Thiamine diphosphate (TDP) had 66.7% sensitivity and 80.0% specificity for AD diagnosis, while the γ-value representing the best combination of thiamine metabolites and age had 24.2% sensitivity and 100.0% specificity according to the cut-off value of our previous study. Blood TDP but not γ-value exhibited results significant for AD diagnosis.

  2. Allele-level HLA matching for umbilical cord blood transplantation for non-malignant diseases in children: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Mary; Wang, Tao; Veys, Paul A; Boelens, Jaap J; St Martin, Andrew; Spellman, Stephen; Bonfim, Carmem Sales; Brady, Colleen; Cant, Andrew J; Dalle, Jean-Hugues; Davies, Stella M; Freeman, John; Hsu, Katherine C; Fleischhauer, Katharina; Kenzey, Chantal; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Michel, Gerard; Orchard, Paul J; Paviglianiti, Annalisa; Rocha, Vanderson; Veneris, Michael R; Volt, Fernanda; Wynn, Robert; Lee, Stephanie J; Horowitz, Mary M; Gluckman, Eliane; Ruggeri, Annalisa

    2017-07-01

    The standard for selecting unrelated umbilical cord blood units for transplantation for non-malignant diseases relies on antigen-level (lower resolution) HLA typing for HLA-A and HLA-B, and allele-level for HLA-DRB1. We aimed to study the effects of allele-level matching at a higher resolution-HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-DRB1, which is the standard used for adult unrelated volunteer donor transplantation for non-malignant diseases-for umbilical cord blood transplantation. We retrospectively studied 1199 paediatric donor-recipient pairs with allele-level HLA matching who received a single unit umbilical cord blood transplantation for non-malignant diseases reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research or Eurocord and European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplant. Transplantations occurred between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2012. The primary outcome was overall survival. The effect of HLA matching on survival was studied using a Cox regression model. Compared with HLA-matched transplantations, mortality was higher with transplantations mismatched at two (hazard ratio [HR] 1·55, 95% CI 1·08-2·21, p=0·018), three (2·04, 1·44-2·89, p=0·0001), and four or more alleles (3·15, 2·16-4·58, pServices-Health Resources and Services Administration; and US Department of Navy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical and Pathogenetic Significance of Osteoassociated Microelements in the Joint Diseases. Report I. Microelementosis in the Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Syniachenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Relevance. Microelementosis (imbalance in the body of certain microelements — ME is considered as one of the most important clinical and pathogenetic components of degenerative and inflammatory joint diseases, and ME can play the role of co-factors involved in the processes of articular inflammation. The objective: to study the levels in the blood serum and to assess the clinical and pathogenetic significance of osteoassociated ME (cobalt — Co, copper — Cu, iron — Fe, litium — Li, manganese — Mn, lead — Pb, strontium — Sr, zinc — Zn in a variety of arthritis — rheumatoid (RA, Chlamydia-induced urogenital reactive arthritis (ReA, psoriatic (PsA, gouty (GA and osteoarthritis (OA. Material and methods. There were 262 patients under observation, among them 89 persons suffering from RA, 31 — ReA, 35 — PsA, 49 — GA and 58 — OA. The distribution of males and females in these groups were 1 : 2, 2 : 1, 1 : 1, 11 : 1, 1 : 3, respectively, the average age of the patients was 47, 34, 42, 48 and 58 years, and the duration of clinical manifestations of the disease — 10, 4, 11, 7 and 12 years. ME in the blood serum were studied using atomic absorption spectrometer with electrographite atomizer SolAAr-Mk2-MOZe. Results. Microelementosis in arthritis is manifested by increased blood concentrations of toxic Li, Pb and Sr, moreover, the feature of ReA is a normal ferremia level, PsA — hyperkupremia, and OA — hypozincemia. Microelement blood composition depends on the activity, clinical and laboratory signs of disease, the prevalence of articular process, aggravation of bone destructive changes in the joints (subchondral sclerosis, osteocystosis, bone erosions, epiphyseal osteoporosis, etc, the presence of systemic osteoporosis, spondylopathies (osteochondrosis, spondyloarthrosis and extra-articular manifestations of arthritis (lesions of the skin, muscles, peripheral nervous system, lymph nodes, internal organs. Blood indexes

  4. Blood levels of lead and mercury and celiac disease seropositivity: the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamycheva, Elena; Goto, Tadahiro; Camargo, Carlos A

    2017-03-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disease with increasing prevalence in the USA. CD leads to decreased absorption of many nutrients including certain divalent metals. On the other hand, recent cross-sectional studies suggest the associations between trace heavy metal exposure and autoimmunity. We aimed to determine if there is an association between CD autoimmunity and blood levels of heavy metals in the general US population. We used nationally representative data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2012. Our study comprised 3643 children (ages 6-17 years) and 11,040 adults (age ≥18 years). Children with CD seropositivity had significantly lower blood lead (0.56 versus 0.80 μg/dL, P = 0.001) and mercury levels (0.47 versus 0.64 μg/L, P = 0.001). In the linear regression model, CD seropositivity was associated with lower levels of blood lead and mercury in children (β = -0.14, P = 0.03 for lead and β = -0.22, P = 0.008 for mercury), but not in adults. These findings of CD-heavy metals association are, to our knowledge, novel, and we conclude that decreased levels of heavy metals in blood are most likely a consequence of CD in the US children.

  5. Identification of a set of endogenous reference genes for miRNA expression studies in Parkinson's disease blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Alice; Foco, Luisa; Blankenburg, Hagen; Picard, Anne; Zanigni, Stefano; Zanon, Alessandra; Pramstaller, Peter P; Hicks, Andrew A; Schwienbacher, Christine

    2014-10-10

    Research on microRNAs (miRNAs) is becoming an increasingly attractive field, as these small RNA molecules are involved in several physiological functions and diseases. To date, only few studies have assessed the expression of blood miRNAs related to Parkinson's disease (PD) using microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Measuring miRNA expression involves normalization of qRT-PCR data using endogenous reference genes for calibration, but their choice remains a delicate problem with serious impact on the resulting expression levels. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of a set of commonly used small RNAs as normalizers and to identify which of these miRNAs might be considered reliable reference genes in qRT-PCR expression analyses on PD blood samples. Commonly used reference genes snoRNA RNU24, snRNA RNU6B, snoRNA Z30 and miR-103a-3p were selected from the literature. We then analyzed the effect of using these genes as reference, alone or in any possible combination, on the measured expression levels of the target genes miR-30b-5p and miR-29a-3p, which have been previously reported to be deregulated in PD blood samples. We identified RNU24 and Z30 as a reliable and stable pair of reference genes in PD blood samples.

  6. Analysis And Quantification Of Cerebral Blood Flow As A Possible Biomarker In Early Alzheimer’s Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goñi, I.; Garcia-Eulate, R.; Fernandez Seara, M.A.; Galiano, A.; Vidorreta, M.; Riverol, M.; Zubieta, J.L.

    2016-07-01

    For the past years, a deep research into possible biomarkers has taken place in order to detect Alzheimer’s disease even before earliest symptoms arise. Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) is among those, and its measurement can be performed by non-invasive Magnetic Resonance Imaging techniques. This practical work is framed into a bigger study which assesses diagnostic ability of CBF by Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL), and has used phasecontrast generated images to quantify CBF by measuring internal carotid (ICA) and vertebral arteries (VA) blood flow. Age, gender and diagnosis-related changes in CBF have been assessed with statistical methods. Therefore, this work aims to determine if CBF is a suitable parameter for discerning different diagnosis groups: twenty-nine control subjects and seventy-one case subjects including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subjective memory loss (SML) have been studied. (Author)

  7. Glutathione redox cycle in small intestinal mucosa and peripheral blood of pediatric celiac disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesnać Stojiljković

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The celiac disease is an autoimmune gastrointestinal disorder caused by gluten from wheat, rye or barley. In genetically predisposed persons, gluten induces the immune-mediated inflammation of small intestinal mucosa. Histological lesions include intraepithelial lymphocytosis, crypt hypertrophy and villous atrophy, resulting in malabsorption of micro- and macronutrients. The only treatment for celiac patients is a permanent gluten-free diet (GFD. Reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidative stress are strongly associated with the celiac disease. Glutathione (GSH is a main detoxifier of endogenous and exogenous ROS in the intestine. In order to explain the role of glutathione redox cycle in celiac patients, we examined the activities of GSH-related antioxidant (AO enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione reductase (GR, as well as the concentration of GSH in small intestinal biopsies and peripheral blood of children affected by the celiac disease. The concentration of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH as markers of oxidative damage was measured in the same samples. The results clearly demonstrate a significant malfunction of GSH redox cycle with a concomitant decrease in the capacity to regenerate GSH and detoxify LOOH in celiac patients, even after several years of GFD. The oral administration of GSH and a diet rich in natural antioxidants, as well as appropriate dietary supplements, could be of great benefit to the patients.A doença celíaca é uma desordem gastrointestinal causada pelo glúten proveniente do trigo, centeio ou cevada. Em pessoas geneticamente predispostas, o glúten induz uma inflamação imune da mucosa do intestino delgado. As lesões histológicas incluem linfocitose intraepitelial, hipertrofia de criptas e atrofia vilosa, resultando em malabsorção de micro- e macronutrientes. O único tratamento para os pacientes celíacos é a restrição permanente de glúten na dieta (GFD.Espécies reativas de oxigênio (ROS e o

  8. Prevalence of celiac disease among blood donors in São Paulo: the most populated city in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Lage Alencar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Celiac disease is a permanent enteropathy caused by the ingestion of gluten, which leads to an immunemediated inflammation of the small intestine mucosa. The prevalence of celiac disease varies among different nations and ethnic backgrounds, and its diversity is determined by genetic and environmental factors. São Paulo city is one of the largest cities in the world, with a vast population and an important history of internal migratory flow from other Brazilian regions, as well as immigration from other, primarily European, countries, resulting in significant miscegenation. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of adults with undiagnosed celiac disease among blood donors of São Paulo by collecting information on the ancestry of the population studied. METHODS: The prevalence of celiac disease was assessed by screening for positive IgA transglutaminase and IgA endomysium antibodies in 4,000 donors (volunteers in the Fundação Pró-Sangue Blood Center of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. The antibody-positive subjects were asked to undergo a small bowel biopsy. RESULTS: Of the 4,000 subjects, twenty-four had positive tests, although both antibody tests were not always concordant. For example, ten subjects were positive for IgA tissue transglutaminase only. In twenty-one positive patients, duodenal biopsies were performed, and the diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed in fourteen patients (Marsh criteria modified by Oberhuber. In this group, 67% claimed to have European ancestry, mainly from Italy, Portugal and Spain. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of celiac disease is at least 1:286 among supposedly healthy blood bank volunteers in São Paulo, Brazil.

  9. Prevalence, clinical staging and risk for blood-borne transmission of Chagas disease among Latin American migrants in Geneva, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Yves; Gétaz, Laurent; Wolff, Hans; Holst, Marylise; Mauris, Anne; Tardin, Aglaé; Sztajzel, Juan; Besse, Valérie; Loutan, Louis; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Jannin, Jean; Albajar Vinas, Pedro; Luquetti, Alejandro; Chappuis, François

    2010-02-02

    Migration of Latin Americans to the USA, Canada and Europe has modified Chagas disease distribution, but data on imported cases and on risks of local transmission remain scarce. We assessed the prevalence and risk factors for Chagas disease, staged the disease and evaluated attitudes towards blood transfusion and organ transplant among Latin American migrants in Geneva, Switzerland. This cross-sectional study included all consecutive Latin American migrants seeking medical care at a primary care facility or attending two Latino churches. After completing a questionnaire, they were screened for Chagas disease with two serological tests (Biomérieux ELISA cruzi; Biokit Bioelisa Chagas). Infected subjects underwent a complete medical work-up. Predictive factors for infection were assessed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis.1012 persons (females: 83%; mean age: 37.2 [SD 11.3] years, Bolivians: 48% [n = 485]) were recruited. 96% had no residency permit. Chagas disease was diagnosed with two positive serological tests in 130 patients (12.8%; 95%CI 10.8%-14.9%), including 127 Bolivians (26.2%; 95%CI 22.3%-30.1%). All patients were in the chronic phase, including 11.3% with cardiac and 0.8% with digestive complications. Predictive factors for infection were Bolivian origin (OR 33.2; 95%CI 7.5-147.5), reported maternal infection with T. cruzi (OR 6.9; 95%CI 1.9-24.3), and age older than 35 years (OR 6.7; 95%CI 2.4-18.8). While 22 (16.9%) infected subjects had already donated blood, 24 (18.5%) and 34 (26.2%) considered donating blood and organs outside Latin America, respectively. Chagas disease is highly prevalent among Bolivian migrants in Switzerland. Chronic cardiac and digestive complications were substantial. Screening of individuals at risk should be implemented in nonendemic countries and must include undocumented migrants.

  10. Prevalence of celiac disease among blood donors in São Paulo: the most populated city in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Marília Lage; Ortiz-Agostinho, Carmen Lucia; Nishitokukado, Lêda; Damião, Adérson O M C; Abrantes-Lemos, Clarice P; Leite, André Zonetti de Arruda; Brito, Thales de; Chamone, Dalton de Alencar Fischer; Silva, Maria Elizabeth Rossi da; Giannella-Neto, Daniel; Sipahi, Aytan Miranda

    2012-09-01

    Celiac disease is a permanent enteropathy caused by the ingestion of gluten, which leads to an immunemediated inflammation of the small intestine mucosa. The prevalence of celiac disease varies among different nations and ethnic backgrounds, and its diversity is determined by genetic and environmental factors. São Paulo city is one of the largest cities in the world, with a vast population and an important history of internal migratory flow from other Brazilian regions, as well as immigration from other, primarily European, countries, resulting in significant miscegenation. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of adults with undiagnosed celiac disease among blood donors of São Paulo by collecting information on the ancestry of the population studied. The prevalence of celiac disease was assessed by screening for positive IgA transglutaminase and IgA endomysium antibodies in 4,000 donors (volunteers) in the Fundação Pró-Sangue Blood Center of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. The antibody-positive subjects were asked to undergo a small bowel biopsy. Of the 4,000 subjects, twenty-four had positive tests, although both antibody tests were not always concordant. For example, ten subjects were positive for IgA tissue transglutaminase only. In twenty-one positive patients, duodenal biopsies were performed, and the diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed in fourteen patients (Marsh criteria modified by Oberhuber). In this group, 67% claimed to have European ancestry, mainly from Italy, Portugal and Spain. The prevalence of celiac disease is at least 1:286 among supposedly healthy blood bank volunteers in São Paulo, Brazil.

  11. Prevalence of celiac disease among blood donors in SÃO PAULO – the most populated city in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Marília Lage; Ortiz-Agostinho, Carmen Lucia; Nishitokukado, Iêda; Damião, Adérson O.M.C.; Abrantes-Lemos, Clarice P.; de Arruda Leite, André Zonetti; de Brito, Thales; de Alencar Fischer Chamone, Dalton; da Silva, Maria Elizabeth Rossi; Giannella-Neto, Daniel; Sipahi, Aytan Miranda

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Celiac disease is a permanent enteropathy caused by the ingestion of gluten, which leads to an immune-mediated inflammation of the small intestine mucosa. The prevalence of celiac disease varies among different nations and ethnic backgrounds, and its diversity is determined by genetic and environmental factors. São Paulo city is one of the largest cities in the world, with a vast population and an important history of internal migratory flow from other Brazilian regions, as well as immigration from other, primarily European, countries, resulting in significant miscegenation. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of adults with undiagnosed celiac disease among blood donors of São Paulo by collecting information on the ancestry of the population studied. METHODS: The prevalence of celiac disease was assessed by screening for positive IgA transglutaminase and IgA endomysium antibodies in 4,000 donors (volunteers) in the Fundação Pró-Sangue Blood Center of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. The antibody-positive subjects were asked to undergo a small bowel biopsy. RESULTS: Of the 4,000 subjects, twenty-four had positive tests, although both antibody tests were not always concordant. For example, ten subjects were positive for IgA tissue transglutaminase only. In twenty-one positive patients, duodenal biopsies were performed, and the diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed in fourteen patients (Marsh criteria modified by Oberhuber). In this group, 67% claimed to have European ancestry, mainly from Italy, Portugal and Spain. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of celiac disease is at least 1:286 among supposedly healthy blood bank volunteers in São Paulo, Brazil. PMID:23018296

  12. [The etiological pattern of diseases in pregnant women with enhanced blood ALT and AST activities, admitted to the obstetric unit of infectious disease hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudina, K R; Znoĭko, O O; Trubitsyna, Iu G; Shut'ko, S A; Kuz'min, V N; Serobian, A G; Revazian, N R; Petrova, T V; Blokhina, N P; Iushchuk, N D

    2010-01-01

    to define a role of hepatotropic (HAV, HBV, HCV, and HDV) and opportunistic hepatotropic (HGV, CMV, EBV, HHV types 1, 2, and 6) viruses in the etiological pattern of diseases accompanied by enhanced blood AlAT and AsA T activities in pregnant women. Two hundred and eleven pregnant women, including 123 patients with chronic viral hepatitis, 74 with enhanced blood AlAT activity and no markers of viral hepatitis (EAlA T-NMVH), and 14 with acute viral hepatitis were examined. Most pregnant women with chronic HBV and HCV infections were found to have HBV DNA and HCV RNA in the blood in the presence of normal and enhanced activities of transaminases. In the EAlAT-NMVH group, there was none of the opportunistic hepatotropic viruses in more than 7% of cases. No genetic material of HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, HGV, CMV, EBV, HHV types 1, 2, and 6 was found in the blood of all 10 patients with hepatitis of unspecified etiology. In the absence of serologic data supporting the presence of infectious pathology, blood testing using the polymerase chain reaction is of low informative value in detecting opportunistic hepatotropic viruses in pregnant women with hepatitis of unspecified etiology. However, by keeping in mind that the spectrum of opportunistic hepatotropic viruses is not confined to those included in this study, it is expedient to examine additionally pregnant women with enhanced blood AlAT and AsAT activity in order to identify TTV, B19V, HHV-8, SEN and NV-F in the blood.

  13. Analysis of blood parameters in relation to the risk of cardiovascular disease for older population in Kelantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabela, Z.; Ramzun, M. R.; Hana, M. M.; Zahirah, N. Z. N.; Ashikin, N. A. R. N. N.; Nursakinah, S.; Azhar, A. R.; Iskandar, S. M.

    2018-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is known to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and its complication is increasing among older people. Blood parameters including blood pressure (BP), glucose (BG), cholesterol (CHL) and uric acid (UA) are important aspects in maintaining a good condition of the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study is to determine the reference values of blood parameters among older population as well as to assess the association of CVD risk factors with the factors of age, gender and body mass index (BMI). Blood samples were collected from 400 older respondents (≥50 years) in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. The findings showed that respondents aged ≥60 years had significantly higher levels of BP and UA, but lower CHL than 50-59 years respondents (p<0.05). The males had significantly higher BP and lower CHL than the females (p<0.05). The respondents with BMI of ≥25 kgm-2 had significantly higher BP and BG than the respondents with BMI of <25 kgm-2 (p<0.05). There were significant associations between BP-BG, BG-UA and CHL-UA. It can be concluded that the levels of blood parameters are affected by the factors of age, gender and BMI.

  14. Metabolomic profiling reveals distinct patterns of tricarboxylic acid disorders in blood stasis syndrome associated with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Li, Chun; Chang, Hong; Lu, Ling-Hui; Qiu, Qi; Ouyang, Yu-Lin; Yu, Jun-da; Guo, Shu-Zhen; Han, Jing; Wang, Wei

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the underlying metabolomic profifiling of coronary heart disease (CHD) with blood stasis syndrome (BSS). CHD model was induced by a nameroid constrictor in Chinese miniature swine. Fifteen miniature swine were randomly divided into a model group (n=9) and a control group (n=6), respectively according to arandom number table. After 4 weeks, plasma hemorheology was detected by automatic hemorheological analyzer, indices including hematocrit, plasma viscosity, blood viscosity, rigidity index and erythrocyte sedimentation rate; cardiac function was assessed by echocardiograph to detect left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVED), left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDd), ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS) and other indicators. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and bioinformatics were applied to analyze spectra of CHD plasma with BSS. The results of hemorheology analysis showed signifificant changes in viscosity, with low shear whole blood viscosity being lower and plasma viscosity higher in the model group compared with the control group. Moreover, whole blood reduction viscosity at high shear rate and whole blood reduction viscosity at low shear rate increased signifificantly (P patterns involved were associated with dysfunction of energy metabolism including glucose and lipid disorders, especially in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, galactose metabolism and adenosine-triphosphate-binding cassette transporters. Glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism disorders were the major contributors to the syndrome classifification of CHD with BSS.

  15. Whole blood DNA aberrant methylation in pancreatic adenocarcinoma shows association with the course of the disease: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertas Dauksa

    Full Text Available Pancreatic tumors are usually diagnosed at an advanced stage in the progression of the disease, thus reducing the survival chances of the patients. Non-invasive early detection would greatly enhance therapy and survival rates. Toward this aim, we investigated in a pilot study the power of methylation changes in whole blood as predictive markers for the detection of pancreatic tumors. We investigated methylation levels at selected CpG sites in the CpG rich regions at the promoter regions of p16, RARbeta, TNFRSF10C, APC, ACIN1, DAPK1, 3OST2, BCL2 and CD44 in the blood of 30 pancreatic tumor patients and in the blood of 49 matching controls. In addition, we studied LINE-1 and Alu repeats using degenerate amplification approach as a surrogate marker for genome-wide methylation. The site-specific methylation measurements at selected CpG sites were done by the SIRPH method. Our results show that in the patient's blood, tumor suppressor genes were slightly but significantly higher methylated at several CpG sites, while repeats were slightly less methylated compared to control blood. This was found to be significantly associated with higher risk for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Additionally, high methylation levels at TNFRSCF10C were associated with positive perineural spread of tumor cells, while higher methylation levels of TNFRSF10C and ACIN1 were significantly associated with shorter survival. This pilot study shows that methylation changes in blood could provide a promising method for early detection of pancreatic tumors. However, larger studies must be carried out to explore the clinical usefulness of a whole blood methylation based test for non-invasive early detection of pancreatic tumors.

  16. Creation of an iliac arteriovenous shunt lowers blood pressure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with hypertension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Faul, John

    2014-01-28

    Vasodilators are used with caution in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We have developed a device for percutaneous arteriovenous shunt creation in the iliac region to increase cardiac output and oxygen delivery for patients with COPD. Although this device does not cause significant blood pressure changes in normotensive patients with COPD, we hypothesized that arteriovenous shunt creation might cause vasodilator effects in hypertensive patients because of a reduction in vascular resistance.

  17. Evaluation of regional pulmonary blood flow in mitral valvular heart disease using single-pass radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang-Soon Koh; Byung Tae Kim; Myung Chul Lee; Bo Yeon Cho

    1982-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension in mitral valvular cardiac disease has been evaluated in 122 patients by a modified upper lung/lower count ratio using single-pass radionuclide angiocardiography. The mean upper lung/lower lung radio correlates well with pulmonary artery mean (r=0.483) and wedge pressure (r=0.804). After correction surgery of the cardiac valve, the ratio decreases and returns to normal range in patients judged clinically to have good surgical benifit. This modified method using single-pass technique provides additional simple, reproducible and nontraumatic results of regional pulmonary blood flow and appears to be correlated with the degree of pulmonary hypertension in mitral heart disease

  18. Autologous cord blood harvesting in North Eastern Italy: ethical questions and emerging hopes for curing diabetes and celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parco S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sergio Parco, Fulvia VascottoInstitute for Maternal and Child Health, IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, ItalyBackground: The Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG, a region of North Eastern Italy, has passed legislation (Decree No 2324/2010 to regulate the banking of umbilical cord blood samples for personal, autologous, or family-directed use, and to implement the Agreement of the State-Regions Permanent Conference (Decree No 62/CSR/2010. This paper aims to identify the formalities and the reasons why families collect and bank their cord blood in foreign banks for both personal and private use.Methods: To this end, at the Institute for Maternal and Child Health of Trieste (the regional capital city of the FVG, Italy, which assists about 1800 pregnant women a year, 129 questionnaires, drafted from January 2010 to December 2011 and concerning the granting of authorization to export samples, were examined.Results: The collected data showed that 75% of involved families had resorted to anonymous public collection, which is available to anyone with therapeutic needs, and provided compatibility and hematologic protocols recognized by the scientific and international community (main indications: leukemia, hemoglobinopaties, and inherited hematologic and immunologic disorders. Conversely, 25.0% requested private storage at a foreign bank for personal or family-dedicated use. The principal motivation by disease was for treatment for diabetes (22.4% and celiac disease (19.7% (a multiorgan disease for which the FVG region has provided safeguards by approving a specific law granting support to families; Decree No 561/2007. For these two types of disease we found that information was received from the internet and not from general medical physicians, with a significant difference found using the χ2 test (P < 0.01.Conclusion: The indication of treating these diseases with cord blood stem cell transplantation appears to be well grounded and encouraging, and has recently

  19. Blood pressure and the risk of chronic kidney disease progression using multistate marginal structural models in the CRIC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens-Shields, Alisa J; Spieker, Andrew J; Anderson, Amanda; Drawz, Paul; Fischer, Michael; Sozio, Stephen M; Feldman, Harold; Joffe, Marshall; Yang, Wei; Greene, Tom

    2017-11-20

    In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), clinical interest often centers on determining treatments and exposures that are causally related to renal progression. Analyses of longitudinal clinical data in this population are often complicated by clinical competing events, such as end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and death, and time-dependent confounding, where patient factors that are predictive of later exposures and outcomes are affected by past exposures. We developed multistate marginal structural models (MS-MSMs) to assess the effect of time-varying systolic blood pressure on disease progression in subjects with CKD. The multistate nature of the model allows us to jointly model disease progression characterized by changes in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), the onset of ESRD, and death, and thereby avoid unnatural assumptions of death and ESRD as noninformative censoring events for subsequent changes in eGFR. We model the causal effect of systolic blood pressure on the probability of transitioning into 1 of 6 disease states given the current state. We use inverse probability weights with stabilization to account for potential time-varying confounders, including past eGFR, total protein, serum creatinine, and hemoglobin. We apply the model to data from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study, a multisite observational study of patients with CKD. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Characteristic patterns of cerebral blood perfusion and cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinsons disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Y. J.; Park, M. J.; Cha, J. G.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, J. W.; Kang, D. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Parkinsons disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that represents cognitive impairment as well as motor symptoms. Even in the early stages of PD, cognitive alterations can be demonstrated by careful neuropsychological test. The purposes of this study are to investigate the pattern of cognitive impairment and the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT in patients with PD. One hundred and twenty two patients with PD and 35 control subjects participated in this study. Patients with PD who had dementia clinically or K-MMSE score below 25 points or with severe motor dysfunction to interfere with the tests were also excluded. They were all matched for age (61±10 vs 61±8), education periods (8.8±4.9 vs 8.8±4.5), and K-MMSE score (27±1.6 vs 27±1.5). All subjects were evaluated using the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB) and Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT with SPM software to measure rCBF. Patients with PD performed worse in digit span backward, Rey Complex Figure Test, visual memory, semantic fluency, stroop test, and alternating hand movement test(p<0.05) compared with control group. On SNSB test, 100 patients (82.0%) showed some abnormalities. Eighty-six patients (70.5%) showed frontal dysfunction, 47 (38.5%) memory impairment, 33 (27.0%) language dysfunction, 25 (20.5%) attention deficit and 22 (18.3%) visuospatial dysfunction in the order of frequency. Eight patients with PD showed single memory domain MCI and 28 single non-memory domain MCI (20 frontal dysfunction). Multiple domain MCI was found in 64 patients with PD. SPM analysis of the SPECT image revealed multiple perfusion deficit in the both frontal, temporal, both limbic lobes, Lt. parietal and Lt. Putamen. It is concluded that abnormalities of cognitive function be detected very commonly in patients with PD. MCI in PD patients is most frequently involved in the item of frontal lobe function. SPECT image might be helpful to explain cognitive impairment in some PD patients

  1. Characteristic patterns of cerebral blood perfusion and cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinsons disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y. J.; Park, M. J.; Cha, J. G.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, J. W.; Kang, D. Y. [Dong-A University College of medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Parkinsons disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that represents cognitive impairment as well as motor symptoms. Even in the early stages of PD, cognitive alterations can be demonstrated by careful neuropsychological test. The purposes of this study are to investigate the pattern of cognitive impairment and the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT in patients with PD. One hundred and twenty two patients with PD and 35 control subjects participated in this study. Patients with PD who had dementia clinically or K-MMSE score below 25 points or with severe motor dysfunction to interfere with the tests were also excluded. They were all matched for age (61{+-}10 vs 61{+-}8), education periods (8.8{+-}4.9 vs 8.8{+-}4.5), and K-MMSE score (27{+-}1.6 vs 27{+-}1.5). All subjects were evaluated using the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery (SNSB) and Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT with SPM software to measure rCBF. Patients with PD performed worse in digit span backward, Rey Complex Figure Test, visual memory, semantic fluency, stroop test, and alternating hand movement test(p<0.05) compared with control group. On SNSB test, 100 patients (82.0%) showed some abnormalities. Eighty-six patients (70.5%) showed frontal dysfunction, 47 (38.5%) memory impairment, 33 (27.0%) language dysfunction, 25 (20.5%) attention deficit and 22 (18.3%) visuospatial dysfunction in the order of frequency. Eight patients with PD showed single memory domain MCI and 28 single non-memory domain MCI (20 frontal dysfunction). Multiple domain MCI was found in 64 patients with PD. SPM analysis of the SPECT image revealed multiple perfusion deficit in the both frontal, temporal, both limbic lobes, Lt. parietal and Lt. Putamen. It is concluded that abnormalities of cognitive function be detected very commonly in patients with PD. MCI in PD patients is most frequently involved in the item of frontal lobe function. SPECT image might be helpful to explain cognitive impairment in some

  2. Effectiveness of treatment with donepezil hydrochloride and changes in regional cerebral blood flow in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Tsunetaka; Ha-Kawa, S.; Yoshimura, Masafumi; Nobuhara, Kenji; Kinoshita, Toshihiko; Sawada, Satoshi

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the relationship between the effects of donepezil hydrochloride (donepezil) and cerebral blood flow, and to evaluate the usefulness of cerebral blood flow imaging in assessing and predicting treatment effectiveness. The subjects were 29 outpatients (12 men and 17 women; age 50-82 years; mean age 69.2 years), who had received a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Efficacy was evaluated before donepezil administration; after 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months of drug administration; and at 1 year after completion of administration using the Japanese version of the Alzheimer's disease assessment scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog), as a measure of cognitive function. The ADAS-cog has been frequently used to evaluate cognitive function in AD patients. Patients whose ADAS-cog scores improved by 3 or more points during the observation period were classified as responders, and those with no improvement were classified as nonresponders. 123 I-iofetamine (IMP) was used for single photon emission computed tomography cerebral blood flow scintigraphy. On the basis of ADAS-cog score improvement, 22 of the 29 patients were responders (7 men and 15 women; age 50-82 years; mean age 69.0 years) and seven were nonresponders (5 men and 2 women; age 61-80 years; mean age 70.0 years). The results indicate that a difference in cerebral blood flow responsiveness after 1 month of treatment distinguishes responders from nonresponders. After 1 month, blood flow was significantly decreased in all regions of nonresponders, whereas significant increases in blood flow were seen in the anterior frontal lobe and parietal lobe of responders. At that time point, blood flow in the basal ganglion differed significantly between the two groups, indicating that this difference in responsiveness after 1 month of treatment may distinguish responders from nonresponders. In cognitive function testing, the group that exhibited a complete response showed

  3. Estimating the future burden of cardiovascular disease and the value of lipid and blood pressure control therapies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Warren; Peneva, Desi; Li, Jim Z; Liu, Larry Z; Liu, Gordon; Gao, Runlin; Lakdawalla, Darius N

    2016-05-10

    Lifestyle and dietary changes reflect an ongoing epidemiological transition in China, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) playing an ever-increasing role in China's disease burden. This study assessed the burden of CVD and the potential value of lipid and blood pressure control strategies in China. We estimated the likely burden of CVD between 2016 and 2030 and how expanded use of lipid lowering and blood pressure control medication would impact that burden in the next 15 years. Accounting for the costs of drug use, we assessed the net social value of a policy that expands the utilization of lipid and blood pressure lowering therapies in China. Rises in prevalence of CVD risk and population aging would likely increase the incidence of acute myocardial infarctions (AMIs) by 75 million and strokes by 118 million, while the number of CVD deaths would rise by 39 million in total between 2016 and 2030. Universal treatment of hypertension and dyslipidemia patients with lipid and blood pressure lowering therapies could avert between 10 and 20 million AMIs, between 8 and 30 million strokes, and between 3 and 10 million CVD deaths during the 2016-2030 period, producing a positive social value net of health care costs as high as $932 billion. In light of its aging population and epidemiological transition, China faces near-certain increases in CVD morbidity and mortality. Preventative measures such as effective lipid and blood pressure management may reduce CVD burden substantially and provide large social value. While the Chinese government is implementing more systematic approaches to health care delivery, prevention of CVD should be high on the agenda.

  4. Correlation between arterial and venous blood gas analysis parameters in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novović Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Arterial blood gas (ABG analyses have an important role in the assessment and monitoring of the metabolic and oxygen status of patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Arterial puncture could have a lot of adverse effects, while sampling of venous blood is simpler and is not so invasive. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether venous blood gas (VBG values of pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2, partial oxygen pressure (PO2, bicarbonate (HCO3, and venous and arterial blood oxygen saturation (SO2 can reliably predict ABG levels in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. Methods. Forty-seven patients with a prior diagnosis of COPD were included in this prospective study. The patients with acute exacerbation of this disease were examined at the General Hospital EMS Department in Prijepolje. ABG samples were taken immediately after venous sampling, and both were analyzed. Results. The Pearson correlation coefficients between arterial and venous parameters were 0.828, 0.877, 0.599, 0.896 and 0.312 for pH, PCO2, PO2, HCO3 and SO2, respectively. The statistically significant correlation between arterial and venous pH, PCO2 and HCO3, values was found in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD (p<0.001. Conclusion. When we cannot provide arterial blood for analysis, venous values of the pH, Pv,CO2 and HCO3 parameters can be an alternative to their arterial equivalents in the interpretation of the metabolic status in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD, while the values of venous Pv,O2 and Sv,O2 cannot be used as predictors in the assessment of oxygen status of such patients.

  5. Merging Transport Data for Choroid Plexus with Blood-Brain Barrier to Model CNS Homeostasis and Disease More Effectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Conrad; Johanson, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Robust modeling of CNS transport integrates molecular fluxes at the microvascular blood-brain barrier and epithelial choroid plexus blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier. Normal activity of solute transporters, channels and aquaporins, in the cerebral endothelium and choroidal epithelium, sets the microenvironment composition for neurons and glia. Conversely, perturbed transport/permeability at the barrier interfaces causes interstitial fluid dyshomeostasis (e.g. edema) arising in neural disorders. Critically-important transependymal solute/water distribution between brain and CSF needs more attention. This treatise encourages procuring transport data simultaneously for blood-brain barrier, blood-CSF barrier and CSF. In situ perfusion and multicompartmental analyses (tracers, microdialysis) provide dynamic assessments of molecular transfer among various CNS regions. Diffusion, active transport and convection are distorted by disease- and age-associated alterations in barrier permeability and CSF turnover (sink action). Clinical complications result from suboptimal conveyance of micronutrients (folate), catabolites (β-amyloid) and therapeutic agents (antibiotics) within the CNS. Neurorestorative therapies for stroke, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis and brain tumors are facilitated by insight on molecular and cellular trafficking through the choroid plexus-CSF nexus. Knowledge is needed about fluxes of growth factors, neurotrophins, hormones and leukocytes from ventricular CSF into the hippocampus, subventricular zone and hypothalamus. CSF and brain removal of potentially toxic catabolites and neuropeptides merits further investigation to manage the degeneration of Alzheimer's disease and normal pressure hydrocephalus. Novel therapies will rely on delineating peptide and drug distributions across the blood-brain barrier and choroid plexus-CSF, and how they modulate the intervening neural-glial networks and neurogenic sites. Multicompartmental transport

  6. Evidence for Reverse Causality in the Association Between Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Risk in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, William; Staplin, Natalie; Judge, Parminder K; Mafham, Marion; Emberson, Jonathan; Haynes, Richard; Wheeler, David C; Walker, Robert; Tomson, Charlie; Agodoa, Larry; Wiecek, Andrzej; Lewington, Sarah; Reith, Christina A; Landray, Martin J; Baigent, Colin

    2017-02-01

    Among those with moderate-to-advanced chronic kidney disease, the relationship between blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease seems U shaped but is loglinear in apparently healthy adults. The SHARP (Study of Heart and Renal Protection) randomized 9270 patients with chronic kidney disease to ezetimibe/simvastatin versus matching placebo and measured BP at each follow-up visit. Cox regression was used to assess the association between BP and risk of cardiovascular disease among (1) those with a self-reported history of cardiovascular disease and (2) those with no such history and, based on plasma troponin-I concentration, a low probability of subclinical cardiac disease. A total of 8666 participants had a valid baseline BP and troponin-I measurement, and 2188 had at least 1 cardiovascular event during follow-up. After adjustment for relevant confounders, the association between systolic BP and cardiovascular events was U shaped, but among participants without evidence of previous cardiovascular disease, there was a positive loglinear association throughout the range of values studied. Among those with the lowest probability of subclinical cardiac disease, each 10 mm Hg higher systolic BP corresponded to a 27% increased risk of cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.44). In contrast, the relationship between diastolic BP and cardiovascular risk remained U shaped irrespective of cardiovascular disease history or risk of subclinical disease. In conclusion, the lack of a clear association between systolic BP and cardiovascular risk in this population seems attributable to confounding, suggesting that more intensive systolic BP reduction may be beneficial in such patients. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00125593. © 2016 The Authors.

  7. Peripheral Blood Based Discrimination of Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease from Non-IBD Colitis by Genome-Wide Gene Expression Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Sipos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A molecular diagnostic assay using easily accessible peripheral blood would greatly assist in the screening and diagnosis of ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn’s disease (CD. Transcriptional profiles in blood/biopsy samples from 12 UC (6/12, 9 CD (5/9, 6 non-inflammatory bowel disease (non-IBD colitis (6/0, and 11 healthy (11/11 patients were assessed by Affymetrix HGU133Plus2.0 microarrays. Prediction analysis of microarrays, discriminant and ROC analyses were performed, the results were validated by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry using also an independent set of samples (15 blood samples, 45 biopsies. A set of 13 transcripts was differentially expressed in IBD, non-IBD controls and healthy blood samples (100% specificity and sensitivity. Validated difference was found in 16 transcripts between UC, non-IBD and normal blood, and 4 transcripts between CD, non-IBD and normal samples. UC and CD blood cases could be also distinguished by 5 genes with 100% specificity and sensitivity. Some disease associated alterations in blood transcripts were also detected in colonic tissue. IBD subtypes may be discriminated from non-IBD (diverticulitis, infective and ischemic colitis in vitro from peripheral blood by screening for differential gene expression revealed in this study. Transcriptional profile alterations in peripheral blood can be located in diseased colon.

  8. The main sceneries of Chagas disease transmission. The vectors, blood and oral transmissions--a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, José Rodrigues

    2015-05-01

    This review deals with transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi by the most important domestic vectors, blood transfusion and oral intake. Among the vectors, Triatoma infestans, Panstrongylus megistus, Rhodnius prolixus, Triatoma dimidiata, Triatoma brasiliensis, Triatoma pseudomaculata, Triatoma sordida, Triatoma maculata, Panstrongylus geniculatus, Rhodnius ecuadoriensis and Rhodnius pallescens can be highlighted. Transmission of Chagas infection, which has been brought under control in some countries in South and Central America, remains a great challenge, particularly considering that many endemic countries do not have control over blood donors. Even more concerning is the case of non-endemic countries that receive thousands of migrants from endemic areas that carry Chagas disease, such as the United States of America, in North America, Spain, in Europe, Japan, in Asia, and Australia, in Oceania. In the Brazilian Amazon Region, since Shaw et al. (1969) described the first acute cases of the disease caused by oral transmission, hundreds of acute cases of the disease due to oral transmission have been described in that region, which is today considered to be endemic for oral transmission. Several other outbreaks of acute Chagas disease by oral transmission have been described in different states of Brazil and in other South American countries.

  9. Periodontal disease associated with blood glucose levels in urban Koreans aged 50 years and older: the Dong-gu study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young-Suk; Shin, Min-Ho; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Lee, Young-Hoon; Kim, Ok-Joon; Kim, Young-Joon; Chung, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Ok-Su

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the association of periodontal disease and the number of teeth present with the risk of prediabetes and diabetes as well as with blood glucose and HbA1c levels in adult Koreans. The relationship between periodontal disease and diabetes has not been fully elucidated. Cross-sectional data from 5535 participants aged ≥50 years were obtained from 2008 to 2010. Periodontal status was measured as pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment loss (CAL) and bleeding on probing (BOP) recorded. The percentage of sites with a PD ≥4 mm, CAL ≥4 mm (CAL4) and BOP (BOP%) were recorded. Participants were divided into three groups according to PD4, CAL4 and BOP% measurements. Number of teeth present was divided into four groups. Participants were classified as normoglycaemic, prediabetic or diabetic based on HbA1c and fasting glucose levels. After full adjustment, the highest tertile of CAL4 (OR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.18-2.02, p Periodontal disease severity was positively associated with HbA1c and glucose levels. The number of teeth present was positively associated with HbA1c, but not glucose, levels. Periodontal disease and the number of teeth present are associated with an increased risk of diabetes and increased blood glucose and HbA1c levels in Koreans aged ≥50 years. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Relative blood volume monitoring during hemodialysis in end stage renal disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion Titapiccolo, Jasmine; Ferrario, Manuela; Garzotto, Francesco; Cruz, Dinna; Moissl, Ulrich; Tetta, Ciro; Ronco, Claudio; Signorini, Maria G; Cerutti, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    A crucial point in the haemodialysis (HD) treatment is the reliable assessment of hydration status. An inadequate removed volume may lead to chronic fluid overload which can lead to hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure. Therefore, the estimation of the hydration state and the management of a well-tolerated water removal is an important challenge. This exploratory study aims at identifying new parameters obtained from continuous Blood Volume Monitoring (BVM) allowing a qualitative evaluation of hydration status for verifying the adequacy of HD setting parameters (e.g UFR, target dry weight). The percentage of blood volume reduction (BVR%) during HD was compared against a gold standard method for hydration status assessment. The slope of the first 30 minute of blood volume reduction (BVR) was proposed as a useful parameter to identify overhydrated patients.

  11. Cerebral blood flow and liver function in patients with encephalopathy due to acute and chronic liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, T; Schroeder, T; Ranek, L

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in hepatic encephalopathy, to ascertain whether this was related to the changes in liver function and whether these changes gave any prognostic information. CBF, determined by the intravenous xenon-133 method......, and liver functions, assessed by the prothrombin index, bilirubin concentration, and the galactose elimination capacity, were studied in patients with acute fulminant liver failure and in patients with encephalopathy due to chronic liver diseases--that is, cirrhosis of various etiologies. The CBF range...... any differences between patients with acute or chronic liver diseases or the different degrees of hepatic encephalopathy. In conclusion, a marked reduction of the CBF was seen in hepatic encephalopathy, irrespective of the etiology of the disease....

  12. Pilot Cross-Sectional Study of Three Zoonoses (Lyme Disease, Tularaemia, Leptospirosis) among Healthy Blood Donors in Eastern Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zákutná, Ľubica; Dorko, Erik; Rimárová, Kvetoslava; Kizeková, Marianna

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of three zoonotic infections among healthy blood donors/volunteers in Eastern Slovakia. Sera from 124 blood donors were investigated for the presence of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, Francisella tularensis and Leptospira pomona. The participants also completed the questionnaire about demographic, exposure and epidemiological characteristics. Two serological methods were used for the diagnosis: the enzyme linked protein A/G assay (ELPAGA) and the Western blot (WB). First, sera were screened by ELPAGA (except for leptospirosis). The observed seroprevalence was 15% for Lyme borreliosis (LB) and 4% for tularaemia (TUL). The results were confirmed by WB. Positive IgG antibodies (WB method) were detected only in 1.6% of examined for LB and 0.8% for TUL. Our results did not identify any antibodies against Leptospira pomona agent in the examined healthy blood donors group. ELPAGA seroprevalence for TUL was significantly higher in blood donors working in the agricultural area in the direct contact with hay, straw, manure, and agricultural land. Our outputs determine tick bite as a significant risk factor for LB. The study confirms the explosion of tick-borne diseases in the healthy population of people. The exposure risk for leptospirosis seems to be minimal. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  13. 'The white blood cell always eat the red': how Jamaicans with sickle cell disease understand their illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Moji; Asnani, Monika

    2016-01-01

    To explore lay understandings of sickle cell disease (SCD) among Jamaicans living with the illness. There is no qualitative research on this subject in Jamaica, where SCD is the most common genetic disorder. Thirty in-depth semi-structured interviews (50% males, 50% urban residence) were conducted with adult patients attending the Sickle Cell Unit in Jamaica. Transcribed data were analysed using thematic analysis. Patients' narratives focused on two main themes: lay understandings of how SCD works (using ideas of attack and fortification, and blockage and flow); and what causes the illness (lay ideas of inheritance). The most common description of SCD was that their white blood cells were 'eating/sucking out/feeding on' their red blood cells. Hence, treatment required 'building up' their blood, while a key to good health was ensuring an unimpeded flow of blood. Most participants believed SCD was hereditary, but there were various understandings of the mechanism and probability of its transmission. Belief in the possibility of transmitting SCD was not always a barrier to reproduction, nor did participants always insist on their partner or child being tested. Participants engaged in medical pluralism, a dynamic combination of folk and biomedical beliefs. Their concerns, experiences and interpretations were powerful motivators of reproductive and screening behaviour. Their narratives of SCD transcend the individual to express social, societal and cultural realities. Health care professionals and policy-makers should communicate clearly to ensure understanding, and recognize and engage with their patients' sociocultural context.

  14. Solid lipid nanoparticles as anti-inflammatory drug delivery system in a human inflammatory bowel disease whole-blood model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpe, Loredana; Canaparo, Roberto; Daperno, Marco; Sostegni, Raffaello; Martinasso, Germana; Muntoni, Elisabetta; Ippolito, Laura; Vivenza, Nicoletta; Pera, Angelo; Eandi, Mario; Gasco, Maria Rosa; Zara, Gian Paolo

    2010-03-18

    Standard treatment for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) necessitates frequent intake of anti-inflammatory and/or immunosuppressive drugs, leading to significant adverse events. To evaluate the role solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) play as drug delivery system in enhancing anti-inflammatory activity for drugs such as dexamethasone and butyrate in a human inflammatory bowel diseases whole-blood model. ELISA assay and the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokine mRNA expression levels were evaluated by quantitative SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR to determine the IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and IL-10 secretion in inflammatory bowel diseases patients' PBMC culture supernatants. There was a significant decrease in IL-1beta (p<0.01) and TNF-alpha (p<0.001) secretion, whilst IL-10 (p<0.05) secretion significantly increased after cholesteryl butyrate administration, compared to that of butyrate alone at the highest concentration tested (100 microM), at 24h exposure. There was a significant decrease in IL-1beta (p<0.01), TNF-alpha (p<0.001) and IL-10 (p<0.001) secretion after dexamethasone loaded SLN administration, compared to dexamethasone alone at the highest concentration tested (250 nM) at 24h exposure. No IFN-gamma was detected under any conditions and no cytotoxic effects observed even at the highest concentration tested. The incorporation of butyrate and dexamethasone into SLN has a significant positive anti-inflammatory effect in the human inflammatory bowel disease whole-blood model. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in blood by PCR is associated with Chagas cardiomyopathy and disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, E C; Ribeiro, A L; Lee, T H; Oliveira, C L; Carneiro-Proietti, A B; Antunes, A P; Menezes, M M; Ianni, B M; Salemi, V M; Nastari, L; Fernandes, F; Sachdev, V; Carrick, D M; Deng, X; Wright, D; Gonçalez, T T; Murphy, E L; Custer, B; Busch, M P

    2015-04-01

    The significance of detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in blood of antibody-positive patients for risk of development of Chagas heart disease is not well established. The objective of this study was to compare detection of T. cruzi DNA with known clinical and laboratory markers of Chagas cardiomyopathy (CC) severity. This is a case-control study nested within a retrospective cohort developed in Brazil to understand the natural history of Chagas disease. The study enrolled 499 T. cruzi seropositive blood donors (SP-BD) and 488 frequency matched seronegative control donors (SN-BD) who had donated between 1996 and 2002, and 101 patients with clinically diagnosed CC. In 2008-2010 all enrolled subjects underwent a health questionnaire, medical examination, electrocardiograms and echocardiograms and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. A blinded panel of three cardiologists adjudicated the outcome of CC. Trypanosoma cruzi kinetoplast minicircle sequences were amplified by real-time PCR using an assay with a sensitivity of one parasite per 20 mL of blood. All testing was performed on coded samples. Rates of PCR detection of T. cruzi DNA were significantly (P = 0.003) higher in CC patients and SP-BD diagnosed with CC (79/105 [75.2 %]) compared with SP-BD without CC (143/279 [51.3%]). The presence of parasitaemia was significantly associated with known markers of disease progression such as QRS and QT interval duration, lower left ventricular ejection fraction, higher left ventricular index mass, and elevated troponin and NTpro-BNP levels. Trypanosoma cruzi PCR positivity is associated with presence and severity of cardiomyopathy, suggesting a direct role of parasite persistence in disease pathogenesis. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2015 European Society of Cardiology.

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow using 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT in Parkinson's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Chul; Bae, Sang Kyun; Chung, June Key; Koh, Chang Soon; Roh, Jae Kyu; Myung, Ho Jin; Lee, Myung Hae

    1992-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow were measured in 10 patients with Parkinson's disease and 12 normal persons using 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT. Reconstructed images were interpreted qualitatively and were compared with those findings of CT. For the quantitative analysis, six pairs of region of interest matched with the perfusion territories of large cerebral arteries and cerebellar hemisphere were determined. From the count values, indices showing the degree of asymmetry between right and left cerebral or cerebellar hemisphere, cerebral asymmetry index (ASI) and percent index of cerebellar asymmetry (PIA), and an index showing change of each region, region to cerebellum ratio (RCR) were obtained. ASI of normal persons and patients were 0.082 ± 0.033 and 0.108 ± 0.062, respectively and PIA were -0.4 ± 0.7% and -0.7 ± 1.0%, respectively, which showed no statistically significant difference between normal persons and patients. Among 10 RCR's, those of both regions of basal ganglia and both regions of anterior cerebral artery were significantly reduced. We concluded that the most significant reduction of regional cerebral blood flow in patients with Parkinson's disease was observed in the regions of basal ganglia and in the regions of anterior cerebral artery, and the degree of change in hemispheric blood flow was similar in both hemisphere.

  17. Dengue viral RNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells are associated with disease severity and preexisting dengue immune status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anon Srikiatkhachorn

    Full Text Available Infection with dengue viruses (DENV causes a wide range of manifestations from asymptomatic infection to a febrile illness called dengue fever (DF, to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. The in vivo targets of DENV and the relation between the viral burden in these cells and disease severity are not known.The levels of positive and negative strand viral RNA in peripheral blood monocytes, T/NK cells, and B cells and in plasma of DF and DHF cases were measured by quantitative RT-PCR.Positive strand viral RNA was detected in monocytes, T/NK cells and B cells with the highest amounts found in B cells. Viral RNA levels in CD14+ cells and plasma were significantly higher in DHF compared to DF, and in cases with a secondary infection compared to those undergoing a primary infection. The distribution of viral RNA among cell subpopulations was similar in DF and DHF cases. Small amounts of negative strand RNA were found in a few cases only. The severity of plasma leakage correlated with viral RNA levels in plasma and in CD14+ cells.B cells were the principal cells containing DENV RNA in peripheral blood, but overall there was little active DENV RNA replication detectable in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Secondary infection and DHF were associated with higher viral burden in PBMC populations, especially CD14+ monocytes, suggesting that viral infection of these cells may be involved in disease pathogenesis.

  18. Evaluation of latent cardiac disease in diabetic patients with Tl-201 exercise myocardial scintigram and blood pool scintigram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Takeo; Kasai, Ryutaro; Ikebe, Nobuhiko; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Yamasawa, Ikuhiro; Ibukiyama, Chiharu; Notoya, Yoko

    1990-01-01

    To find latent heart disease in diabetic patients, 142 diabetic patients were divided into 4 groups: (1) no hypertension and normal ECG (DM group); (2) hypertension recognized clinically (HT group); (3) myocardial damage on ECG (MD group); (4) group associated with the previous 2 (HT+MD group). In all groups Tl-201 exercise myocardial scintigrams and blood pool scintigrams were taken for comparative analysis. Positive rates of SPECT were 27.7% (23/83) in the DM group, 30.0% (9/30) in the HT group, 50.0% (6/12) in the MD group, and 70.6% (12/17) in the HT+MD group. The rate in the HT+MD group was significantly higher than in that of the DM and HT groups (p<0.001, p<0.01). Blood pool scintigrams revealed that in the HT+MD group, as compared with the normal control group, both 1/3 FF and PFR were significantly depressed, in addition to significant TPF prolongation in the former (p<0.001, p<0.05, p<0.05). These findings suggest that in diabetic patients hypertension and myocardial damage would lead to a high incidence of abnormality in SPECT and left ventricular rapid filling dysfunction. This indicate a high incidence of latent cardiac disease which can be recognized in diabetic patients by stress myocardial and blood pool scintigrams. (author)

  19. HLA-DQ-Gluten Tetramer Blood Test Accurately Identifies Patients With and Without Celiac Disease in Absence of Gluten Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Vikas K; Lundin, Knut E A; Mørkrid, Lars; Qiao, Shuo-Wang; Sollid, Ludvig M; Christophersen, Asbjørn

    2018-03-01

    Celiac disease is characterized by HLA-DQ2/8-restricted responses of CD4+ T cells to cereal gluten proteins. A diagnosis of celiac disease based on serologic and histologic evidence requires patients to be on gluten-containing diets. The growing number of individuals adhering to a gluten-free diet (GFD) without exclusion of celiac disease complicates its detection. HLA-DQ-gluten tetramers can be used to detect gluten-specific T cells in blood of patients with celiac disease, even if they are on a GFD. We investigated whether an HLA-DQ-gluten tetramer-based assay accurately identifies patients with celiac disease. We produced HLA-DQ-gluten tetramers and added them to peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from 143 HLA-DQ2.5 + subjects (62 subjects with celiac disease on a GFD, 19 subjects without celiac disease on a GFD [due to self-reported gluten sensitivity], 10 subjects with celiac disease on a gluten-containing diet, and 52 presumed healthy individuals [controls]). T cells that bound HLA-DQ-gluten tetramers were quantified by flow cytometry. Laboratory tests and flow cytometry gating analyses were performed by researchers blinded to sample type, except for samples from subjects with celiac disease on a gluten-containing diet. Test precision analyses were performed using samples from 10 subjects. For the HLA-DQ-gluten tetramer-based assay, we combined flow-cytometry variables in a multiple regression model that identified individuals with celiac disease on a GFD with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value of 0.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89-1.00) vs subjects without celiac disease on a GFD. The assay detected individuals with celiac disease on a gluten-containing diet vs controls with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value of 0.95 (95% CI 0.90-1.00). Optimized cutoff values identified subjects with celiac disease on a GFD with 97% sensitivity (95% CI 0.92-1.00) and 95% specificity (95% CI 0

  20. Longitudinal observations on circadian blood pressure variation in chronic kidney disease stages 3-5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elung-Jensen, T.; Strandgaard, S.; Kamper, Anne-Lise

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that status as a 'non-dipper' determined from 24-h blood pressure (BP) recordings is associated with increased risk of end-organ damage but little is known about the consistency of dipper status in renal patients. The present post hoc analysis evaluated dipper/no...

  1. Quality Control in Screening for Infectious Diseases at Blood Banks. Rationale and Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Alquezar, Amadeo; Albajar-Viñas, Pedro; Guimarães, André Valpassos; Corrêa, José Abol

    2015-11-01

    Quality control procedures are indispensable to ensure the reliability of the results provided by laboratories responsible for serological screening in blood banks. International recommendations on systems of quality management classify as a top component the inclusion of two types of control: (a) internal quality control (IQC) and (b) external quality control (EQC). In EQC it is essential to have, at least, a monthly frequency of laboratory assessment. On the other hand, IQC involves the daily use of low-reactivity control sera, which should be systematically added in all run, carried out in the laboratory for each parameter. Through the IQC analysis some variations in the criteria of run acceptance and rejection may be revealed, but it is of paramount importance to ensure the previous definition of these criteria and even more importantly, the adherence to them; and that corresponds to the validation of analytical runs of each test. Since 2010 this has been, for instance, the experience of the PNCQ*, developing external quality control programmes on serology for blood banks. These programmes use samples of lyophilized sera well-characterized for the reactivity related to the parameters used for the serological screening of blood donors. The programmes have used blind panels of six samples for monthly assessments. In the last 50 assessments, which involved 68 blood banks in Brazil, a significant number of instances of non-compliance were observed in all monthly assessments. These results provide strong support to the recommendation of systematic monthly assessments. (*) National Quality Control Programme (PNCQ).

  2. Occupational hazards of traditional healers: repeated unprotected blood exposures risk infectious disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Carolyn M; Salato, José; Blevins, Meridith; Silva, Wilson; González-Calvo, Lázaro; Vermund, Sten H; Gaspar, Felisbela

    2016-11-01

    Healers provide support for acute and chronic illnesses in rural Mozambique, such as socially acceptable traditional 'vaccinations' (subcutaneous cuts in the skin to rub herbs directly into the bloody lesion). We aimed to document the frequency of blood exposure by traditional practitioners in Mozambique. We conducted surveys with a simple random sample of 236 traditional healers in Zambézia province. Chi-square and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to compare 'injection' behaviours across districts. Healers treated a median of eight patients in the past month (IQR: 4-15). About 75% conducted 'injections'. These healers 'injected' a median of four patients (IQR: 1-8), used a new razor a median of three times (IQR: 1-8), and almost never used gloves. Lifetime blood exposures among those who provided 'injections' during treatments were estimated to be 1758 over a healer's career. The majority of healers are exposed repeatedly to patient blood. Given the high prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B and C virus, and other blood-borne agents, specific healer practices are an occupational hazard and reuse of razors is risky for their clients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Blood-Brain Barrier P-Glycoprotein Function in Neurodegenerative Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, A. L.

    Protection of the brain is strengthened by active transport and ABC transporters. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) functions as an active efflux pump by extruding a substrate from the brain, which is important for maintaining loco-regional homeostasis in the brain and

  4. Hyperbaric oxygen, oxygen-ozone therapy, and rheologic parameters of blood in patients with peripheral occlusive arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrazzo, G; Coppola, L; Luongo, C; Sammartino, A; Giunta, R; Grassia, A; Ragone, R; Tirelli, A

    1995-03-01

    For many years, clinical practice has consolidated the use of both hyperbaric oxygen and oxygen-ozone therapy in the treatment of peripheral occlusive arterial disease (POAD). We investigated the influence of these treatments on hemorrheologic parameters that play an important role in the pathogenesis and the clinical course of arteriosclerosis. Two groups of 15 patients suffering from POAD, assigned at random either to a cycle of HBO therapy or O2-O3 therapy, were evaluated for blood viscosity, erythrocyte filterability, hematocrit value, fibrinogen concentration, and thrombin time. The O2-O3 therapy caused a significant increase of erythrocyte filterability and a significant decrease of blood viscosity. By contrast, HBO therapy did not produce any significant change. The increase of lipid peri-oxidation, proved by raised malonyldialdehyde plasma levels, seems a likely mechanism involved in the hemorrheologic effects of O2-O3 therapy.

  5. Remnant Cholesterol, Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, and Blood Pressure as Mediators From Obesity to Ischemic Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Smith, George Davey

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Obesity leads to increased ischemic heart disease (IHD) risk, but the risk is thought to be mediated through intermediate variables and may not be caused by increased weight per se. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the increased IHD risk because of obesity is mediated through...... variables and using genetic variants associated with these. During ≤22 years of follow-up 13 945 participants developed IHD. The increased IHD risk caused by obesity was partly mediated through elevated levels of nonfasting remnant cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, through elevated blood...... obesity were low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with 8%, systolic blood pressure with 7%, and remnant cholesterol with 7% excess risk of IHD. Corresponding observational excess risks using conventional body mass index were 21%, 11%, and 20%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The increased IHD risk because...

  6. Application of solid-phase radioimmunoassay in determining antibodies to Aujeszky's disease virus in blood serum of vaccinated pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodak, L.; Smid, B.; Valicek, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the blood sera of pigs vaccinated with inactivated vaccines manufactured by three different manufacturers the RIA method was used to determine the specific antibodies to the virus of Aujeszky's disease. In certain groups of vaccinated pigs the results of the RIA examination are unfavourably affected by the bond of antibodies to the cellular antigenous determinants. This proves that following vaccination antibodies are formed not only against the viral antigen but also against the antigens of cells on which the vaccination virus is propagated. These shortcomings are eliminated by the use of suitable cellular cultures for the preparation of viral and control antigens. Antigens are applicable for RIA and for ELISA examinations of blood sera of infected and vaccinated pigs. The advantages are described of the RIA and ELISA methods as compared with the virus neutralization test. (author)

  7. Histo-blood group gene polymorphisms as potential genetic modifiers of infection and cystic fibrosis lung disease severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Taylor-Cousar

    Full Text Available The pulmonary phenotype in cystic fibrosis (CF is variable; thus, environmental and genetic factors likely contribute to clinical heterogeneity. We hypothesized that genetically determined ABO histo-blood group antigen (ABH differences in glycosylation may lead to differences in microbial binding by airway mucus, and thus predispose to early lung infection and more severe lung disease in a subset of patients with CF.Clinical information and DNA was collected on >800 patients with the DeltaF508/DeltaF508 genotype. Patients in the most severe and mildest quartiles for lung phenotype were enrolled. Blood samples underwent lymphocyte transformation and DNA extraction using standard methods. PCR and sequencing were performed using standard techniques to identify the 9 SNPs required to determine ABO blood type, and to identify the four SNPs that account for 90-95% of Lewis status in Caucasians. Allele identification of the one nonsynonymous SNP in FUT2 that accounts for >95% of the incidence of nonsecretor phenotype in Caucasians was completed using an ABI Taqman assay. The overall prevalence of ABO types, and of FUT2 (secretor and FUT 3 (Lewis alleles was consistent with that found in the Caucasian population. There was no difference in distribution of ABH type in the severe versus mild patients, or the age of onset of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in the severe or mild groups. Multivariate analyses of other clinical phenotypes, including gender, asthma, and meconium ileus demonstrated no differences between groups based on ABH type.Polymorphisms in the genes encoding ABO blood type, secretor or Lewis genotypes were not shown to associate with severity of CF lung disease, or age of onset of P. aeruginosa infection, nor was there any association with other clinical phenotypes in a group of 808 patients homozygous for the DeltaF508 mutation.

  8. Histo-blood group gene polymorphisms as potential genetic modifiers of infection and cystic fibrosis lung disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Cousar, Jennifer L; Zariwala, Maimoona A; Burch, Lauranell H; Pace, Rhonda G; Drumm, Mitchell L; Calloway, Hollin; Fan, Haiying; Weston, Brent W; Wright, Fred A; Knowles, Michael R

    2009-01-01

    The pulmonary phenotype in cystic fibrosis (CF) is variable; thus, environmental and genetic factors likely contribute to clinical heterogeneity. We hypothesized that genetically determined ABO histo-blood group antigen (ABH) differences in glycosylation may lead to differences in microbial binding by airway mucus, and thus predispose to early lung infection and more severe lung disease in a subset of patients with CF. Clinical information and DNA was collected on >800 patients with the DeltaF508/DeltaF508 genotype. Patients in the most severe and mildest quartiles for lung phenotype were enrolled. Blood samples underwent lymphocyte transformation and DNA extraction using standard methods. PCR and sequencing were performed using standard techniques to identify the 9 SNPs required to determine ABO blood type, and to identify the four SNPs that account for 90-95% of Lewis status in Caucasians. Allele identification of the one nonsynonymous SNP in FUT2 that accounts for >95% of the incidence of nonsecretor phenotype in Caucasians was completed using an ABI Taqman assay. The overall prevalence of ABO types, and of FUT2 (secretor) and FUT 3 (Lewis) alleles was consistent with that found in the Caucasian population. There was no difference in distribution of ABH type in the severe versus mild patients, or the age of onset of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in the severe or mild groups. Multivariate analyses of other clinical phenotypes, including gender, asthma, and meconium ileus demonstrated no differences between groups based on ABH type. Polymorphisms in the genes encoding ABO blood type, secretor or Lewis genotypes were not shown to associate with severity of CF lung disease, or age of onset of P. aeruginosa infection, nor was there any association with other clinical phenotypes in a group of 808 patients homozygous for the DeltaF508 mutation.

  9. Fluctuations in Blood Marginal Zone B-Cell Frequencies May Reflect Migratory Patterns Associated with HIV-1 Disease Progression Status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Gauvin

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that overexpression of BLyS/BAFF was associated with increased relative frequencies of innate "precursor" marginal zone (MZ-like B-cells in the blood of HIV-1-infected rapid and classic progressors. However, along with relatively normal BLyS/BAFF expression levels, these cells remain unaltered in elite-controllers (EC, rather, percentages of more mature MZ-like B-cells are decreased in the blood of these individuals. Fluctuations in frequencies of blood MZ-like B-cell populations may reflect migratory patterns associated with disease progression status, suggesting an important role for these cells in HIV-1 pathogenesis. We have therefore longitudinally measured plasma levels of B-tropic chemokines by ELISA-based technology as well as their ligands by flow-cytometry on blood B-cell populations of HIV-1-infected individuals with different rates of disease progression and uninfected controls. Migration potential of B-cell populations from these individuals were determined by chemotaxis assays. We found important modulations of CXCL13-CXCR5, CXCL12-CXCR4/CXCR7, CCL20-CCR6 and CCL25-CCR9 chemokine-axes and increased cell migration patterns in HIV progressors. Interestingly, frequencies of CCR6 expressing cells were significantly elevated within the precursor MZ-like population, consistent with increased migration in response to CCL20. Although we found little modulation of chemokine-axes in EC, cell migration was greater than that observed for uninfected controls, especially for MZ-like B-cells. Overall the immune response against HIV-1 may involve recruitment of MZ-like B-cells to peripheral sites. Moreover, our findings suggest that "regulated" attraction of these cells in a preserved BLyS/BAFF non-inflammatory environment, such as encountered in EC could be beneficial to the battle and even control of HIV.

  10. ABO blood group is associated with peripheral arterial disease in African Americans: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Mindy M; Larson, Nicholas B; Wassel, Christina L; Cohoon, Kevin P; Tsai, Michael Y; Pankow, James S; Hanson, Naomi Q; Decker, Paul A; Berardi, Cecilia; Alexander, Kristine S; Cushman, Mary; Zakai, Neil A; Bielinski, Suzette J

    2017-05-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects 8.5 million Americans and thus improving our understanding of PAD is critical to developing strategies to reduce disease burden. The objective of the study was to determine the association of ABO blood type with ankle brachial index (ABI) as well as prevalent and incident PAD in a multi-ethnic cohort. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis includes non-Hispanic White, African, Hispanic, and Chinese Americans aged 45-84. ABO blood type was estimated using ABO genotypes in 6027 participants who had ABI assessed at the baseline exam. Associations with ABO blood type were evaluated categorically and under an additive genetic model by number of major ABO alleles. After excluding those with ABI>1.4, prevalent PAD was defined as ABI≤0.9 at baseline and incident PAD as ABI≤0.9 for 5137 participants eligible for analysis. There were 222 prevalent cases and 239 incident cases of PAD. In African Americans, each additional copy of the A allele was associated with a 0.02 lower baseline ABI (p=0.006). Each copy of the A allele also corresponded to 1.57-fold greater odds of prevalent PAD (95% CI, 1.17-2.35; p=0.004), but was not associated with incident PAD. No associations were found in other racial/ethnic groups for ABI, prevalent PAD, or incident PAD across all races/ethnicities. Blood type A and the A allele count were significantly associated with baseline ABI and prevalent PAD in African Americans. Further research is needed to confirm and study the mechanisms of this association in African Americans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fluctuations in Blood Marginal Zone B-Cell Frequencies May Reflect Migratory Patterns Associated with HIV-1 Disease Progression Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvin, Julie; Chagnon-Choquet, Josiane; Poudrier, Johanne; Roger, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that overexpression of BLyS/BAFF was associated with increased relative frequencies of innate "precursor" marginal zone (MZ)-like B-cells in the blood of HIV-1-infected rapid and classic progressors. However, along with relatively normal BLyS/BAFF expression levels, these cells remain unaltered in elite-controllers (EC), rather, percentages of more mature MZ-like B-cells are decreased in the blood of these individuals. Fluctuations in frequencies of blood MZ-like B-cell populations may reflect migratory patterns associated with disease progression status, suggesting an important role for these cells in HIV-1 pathogenesis. We have therefore longitudinally measured plasma levels of B-tropic chemokines by ELISA-based technology as well as their ligands by flow-cytometry on blood B-cell populations of HIV-1-infected individuals with different rates of disease progression and uninfected controls. Migration potential of B-cell populations from these individuals were determined by chemotaxis assays. We found important modulations of CXCL13-CXCR5, CXCL12-CXCR4/CXCR7, CCL20-CCR6 and CCL25-CCR9 chemokine-axes and increased cell migration patterns in HIV progressors. Interestingly, frequencies of CCR6 expressing cells were significantly elevated within the precursor MZ-like population, consistent with increased migration in response to CCL20. Although we found little modulation of chemokine-axes in EC, cell migration was greater than that observed for uninfected controls, especially for MZ-like B-cells. Overall the immune response against HIV-1 may involve recruitment of MZ-like B-cells to peripheral sites. Moreover, our findings suggest that "regulated" attraction of these cells in a preserved BLyS/BAFF non-inflammatory environment, such as encountered in EC could be beneficial to the battle and even control of HIV.

  12. Autologous blood stem-cell transplantation in patients with advanced Hodgkin's disease and prior radiation to the pelvic site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerbling, M.H.; Holle, R.; Haas, R.; Knauf, W.; Doerken, B.H.; Ho, A.D.; Kuse, R.; Pralle, H.; Fliedner, T.M.; Hunstein, W.

    1990-01-01

    Patients with relapsed Hodgkin's disease who respond to salvage therapy are successfully treated with cyclophosphamide, carmustine (BCNU), and etoposide (VP-16) (CBV) followed by autologus bone marrow transplantation (ABMT). Because of heavy pretreatment including radiation to the pelvic site, marrow harvest was not feasible in those patients. We therefore used blood-derived hemopoietic precursor cells as an alternative stem-cell source to rescue them after superdose chemotherapy. Hemopoietic precursor cells were mobilized into the peripheral blood either by chemotherapeutic induction of transient myelosuppression followed by an overshooting of blood stem-cell concentration, or by continuous intravenous (IV) granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) administration. The median time to reach 1,000 WBC per microliter, 500 polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) per microliter, or 20,000 platelets per microliter was 10, 20.5, and 38 days, respectively, for 50% of all patients. The platelet counts of two patients never dropped below 20,000/microL following autologous blood stem-cell transplantation (ABSCT), whereas two other patients had to be supported with platelets for 75 and 86 days posttransplant until a stable peripheral platelet count of 20,000/microL was attained. Among the 11 assessable patients, seven are in unmaintained complete remission (CR) at a median follow-up of 318 days. This is a first report on a series of ABSCTs in patients with advanced Hodgkin's disease proving that, despite prior damage to the marrow site, the circulating stem-cell pool is still a sufficient source of hemopoietic precursor cells for stem-cell rescue

  13. Progression of chronic kidney disease : The role of blood pressure control, proteinuria, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition - A patient-level meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jafar, TH; Stark, PC; Schmid, CH; Landa, M; Maschio, G; de Jong, PE; de Zeeuw, D; Shahinfar, S; Toto, R; Levey, AS

    2003-01-01

    Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce blood pressure and urine protein excretion and slow the progression of chronic kidney disease. Purpose: To determine the levels of blood pressure and urine protein excretion associated with the lowest risk for progression of chronic

  14. Analysis of cognitive function and regional cerebral blood flow in Parkinson's disease by 123I-IMP SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takayuki; Morohoshi, Toshio; Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Fukui, Toshiya; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Sugita, Koujiro

    2000-01-01

    Several studies have found that the uptake of a radioisotope is reduced in the frontal or parietooccipital lobe on SPECT scans of patients with Parkinson's disease accompanied by cognitive impairment. The present study investigated the relationship between the results of SPECT imaging and those of cognitive function tests in patients with Parkinson's disease accompanied by cognitive impairment. Thirty patients with Parkinson's disease served as subjects, including 9 men and 21 women with an average of 66.1 years. Patients underwent 123 I-IMP SPECT and various cognitive function tests (Japanese alphabet pick-up test, Stroop test, Hasegawa's dementia screening scale, Raven color matrix, and course cube-combination test). Next, three neurologists with no knowledge of the patient's clinical symptoms were asked to analyze the reduced uptake on SPECT scans as follows: frontal lobe, parietooccipital lobe, frontal and parietooccipital lobes, diffused reduction, and no reduced uptake. The results of SPECT imaging and each cognitive function test were compared. Reduced uptake in the frontal and parietooccipital lobes and diffused reduction correlated with decreases in cognitive function. Cognitive impairment is not notable when cortical blood flow is partially reduced, but is notable when cortical blood flow is widely reduced. (author)

  15. New red blood cell and reticulocyte parameters and reference values for healthy individuals and in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia S. Scherer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The importance of local references values has been well described in the literature; this is because the characteristics of the population may influence the laboratory tests. Objective: To establish the reference range for traditional and extended red blood cell parameters and reticulocyte indices in order to investigate its application in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Materials and methods: 249 blood donors (125 males and 124 females were selected to establish the reference values. The hemodialysis sample consisted of 62 patients with terminal CKD (48 male and 14 female. All analyzes were performed using the Sysmex XE-5000 automated hematology analyzer. Results: Differences between reference values was observed in relation to gender: red blood cells (RBC, hemoglobin (HGB, hematocrit (HCT, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, percentage of hyperchromic red blood cells (%HYPER, percentage of microcytosis (%MICRO, percentage of macrocytosis (%MACRO, absolute reticulocyte count (RET, reticulocyte hemoglobin content (RET-He, immature reticulocyte fraction (IFR, low fluorescence reticulocytes (LFR, medium fluorescence reticulocytes (MFR, and high fluorescence reticulocytes (HFR. Individuals with CKD presented RBC, HGB, HCT, MCHC, red cell distribution width expressed as coefficient of variation (RDW-CV, percentage of hypochromic red blood cells (%HYPO, percentage of reticulocytes (RET%, RET (female group, IFR, LFR, MFR, and HFR results compatible with the anemic state, which can be observed in 91.8% of patients. All studied parameters were in the area under the curve (AUC > 0.4. In male group, %HYPO (AUC: 0.806 and IFR (AUC: 0.762 presented higher AUC values, while female group presented %HYPO (AUC: 0.806, %HYPER (AUC: 0.815, and IFR (AUC: 0.660. Conclusion: The medical advancement, the development of new techniques and hematological parameters have revealed important information about functional integrity of

  16. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma exerts systemic effects on the peripheral blood myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells: an indicator of disease severity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjomsland, Vegard; Larsson, Marie; Sandström, Per; Spångeus, Anna; Messmer, Davorka; Emilsson, Johan; Falkmer, Ursula; Falkmer, Sture; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Borch, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) isolated from tumor bearing animals or from individuals with solid tumors display functional abnormalities and the DC impairment has emerged as one mechanism for tumor evasion from the control of the immune system. Ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the most common pancreatic cancer, is recognized as a very aggressive cancer type with a mortality that almost matches the rate of incidence. We examined the systemic influence ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) exerted on levels of peripheral blood DCs and inflammatory mediators in comparison to the effects exerted by other pancreatic tumors, chronic pancreatitis, and age-matched controls. All groups examined, including PDAC, had decreased levels of myeloid DCs (MDC) and plasmacytoid DCs (PDC) and enhanced apoptosis in these cells as compared to controls. We found elevated levels of PGE2 and CXCL8 in subjects with PDAC, and chronic pancreatitis. Levels of these inflammatory factors were in part restored in PDAC after tumor resection, whereas the levels of DCs were impaired in the majority of these patients ~12 weeks after tumor removal. Our results prove that solid pancreatic tumors, including PDAC, systemically affect blood DCs. The impairments do not seem to be tumor-specific, since similar results were obtained in subjects with chronic pancreatitis. Furthermore, we found that PDAC patients with a survival over 2 years had significant higher levels of blood DCs compared to patients with less than one year survival. Our findings points to the involvement of inflammation in the destruction of the blood MDCs and PDCs. Furthermore, the preservation of the blood DCs compartment in PDAC patients seems to benefit their ability to control the disease and survival

  17. Cognitive Function and Kidney Disease: Baseline Data From the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Daniel E; Gaussoin, Sarah A; Nord, John; Auchus, Alexander P; Chelune, Gordon J; Chonchol, Michel; Coker, Laura; Haley, William E; Killeen, Anthony A; Kimmel, Paul L; Lerner, Alan J; Oparil, Suzanne; Saklayen, Mohammad G; Slinin, Yelena M; Wright, Clinton B; Williamson, Jeff D; Kurella Tamura, Manjula

    2017-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease is common and is associated with cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, and cognitive function, although the nature of this relationship remains uncertain. Cross-sectional cohort using baseline data from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT). Participants in SPRINT, a randomized clinical trial of blood pressure targets in older community-dwelling adults with cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, or high cardiovascular disease risk and without diabetes or known stroke, who underwent detailed neurocognitive testing in the cognition substudy, SPRINT-Memory and Cognition in Decreased Hypertension (SPRINT-MIND). Urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Cognitive function, a priori defined as 5 cognitive domains based on 11 cognitive tests using z scores, and abnormal white matter volume quantified by brain magnetic resonance imaging. Of 9,361 SPRINT participants, 2,800 participated in SPRINT-MIND and 2,707 had complete data; 637 had brain imaging. Mean age was 68 years, 37% were women, 30% were black, and 20% had known cardiovascular disease. Mean eGFR was 70.8±20.9mL/min/1.73m 2 and median urine ACR was 9.7 (IQR, 5.7-22.5) mg/g. In adjusted analyses, higher ACR was associated with worse global cognitive function, executive function, memory, and attention, such that each doubling of urine ACR had the same association with cognitive performance as being 7, 10, 6, and 14 months older, respectively. Lower eGFR was independently associated with worse global cognitive function and memory. In adjusted models, higher ACR, but not eGFR, was associated with larger abnormal white matter volume. Cross-sectional only, no patients with diabetes were included. In older adults, higher urine ACR and lower eGFR have independent associations with global cognitive performance with different affected domains. Albuminuria concurrently identifies a higher burden of abnormal brain

  18. Studies of cerebral atrophy and regional cerebral blood flow in patients with Parkinson's disease

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    Kitamura, Shin (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo)

    1983-04-01

    Cerebral atrophy and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of 25 patients with Parkinson's disease were studied. The rCBF was measured with the intra-arterial Xe-133 injection method. The results obtained were as follows: 1) Sixty four % of Parkinson's disease patients showed ventricular dilation, and 76% of Parkinson's disease patients showed cortical atrophy on the CT scan, but we had to allow for the effects of the natural aging process on these results. 2) No correlation was recognized either between cerebral atrophy and the severity of Parkinson's disease, or between cerebral atrophy and the duration of Parkinson's disease. 3) In Parkinson's disease patients, the mean rCBF was lower than that of normal control subjects. The difference was even more remarkable in older patients. Only 40% of Parkinson's disease patients showed hyperfrontal pattern. 4) There was no correlation either between the mean rCBF and the severity of Parkinson's disease, or between the mean rCBF and the duration of Parkinson's disease. There was no significant difference between the mean rCBF of Parkinson's disease patients receiving levodopa and that of untreated patients. 5) The mean rCBF decreased in patients with cerebral atrophy on the CT scan. 6) Parkinson's disease patients with intellectual impairment showed cerebral atrophy and a remarkable decrease of the mean rCBF. 7) The effect of aging on cerebral atrophy on the CT scan had to be allowed for, but judging from the decrease of the mean rCBF, the cerebral