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Sample records for blood derived mesenchymal-like

  1. Roles of db-cAMP, IBMX and RA in aspects of neural differentiation of cord blood derived mesenchymal-like stem cells.

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    Murni Tio

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have multilineage differentiation potential which includes cell lineages of the central nervous system; hence MSCs might be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. Although mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to differentiate into the neural lineage, there is still little knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of differentiation particularly towards specialized neurons such as dopaminergic neurons. Here, we show that MSCs derived from human umbilical cord blood (MSC(hUCBs are capable of expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH and Nurr1, markers typically associated with DA neurons. We also found differential phosphorylation of TH isoforms indicating the presence of post-translational mechanisms possibly activating and modifying TH in MSC(hUCB. Furthermore, functional dissection of components in the differentiation medium revealed that dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX and retinoic acid (RA are involved in the regulation of Nurr1 and Neurofilament-L expression as well as in the differential phosphorylation of TH. We also demonstrate a possible inhibitory role of the protein kinase A signaling pathway in the phosphorylation of specific TH isoforms.

  2. Generation, Characterization, and Multilineage Potency of Mesenchymal-Like Progenitors Derived from Equine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

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    Lepage, Sarah I; Nagy, Kristina; Sung, Hoon-Ki; Kandel, Rita A; Nagy, Andras; Koch, Thomas G

    2016-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are more and more frequently used to treat orthopedic injuries in horses. However, these cells are limited in their expandability and differentiation capacity. Recently, the first equine-induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines were reported by us [ 1 ]. In vitro differentiation of iPSCs into MSC-like cells is an attractive alternative to using MSCs derived from other sources, as a much larger quantity of patient-specific cells with broad differentiation potential could be generated. However, the differentiation capacity of iPSCs to MSCs and the potential for use in tissue engineering have yet to be explored. In this study, equine iPSCs were induced to differentiate into an MSC-like population. Upon induction, the iPSCs changed morphology toward spindle-shaped cells similar to MSCs. The ensuing iPSC-MSCs exhibited downregulation of pluripotency-associated genes and an upregulation of MSC-associated genes. In addition, the cells expressed the same surface markers as MSCs derived from equine umbilical cord blood. We then assessed the multilineage differentiation potential of iPSC-MSCs. Although chondrogenesis was not achieved after induction with transforming growth factor-beta 3 (TGFβ3) and/or bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP-4) in 3D pellet culture, mineralization characteristic of osteogenesis and lipid droplet accumulation characteristic of adipogenesis were observed after chemical induction. We demonstrate a protocol for the derivation of MSC-like progenitor populations from equine iPS cells.

  3. Role of Human Corneal Stroma-Derived Mesenchymal-Like Stem Cells in Corneal Immunity and Wound Healing.

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    Veréb, Zoltán; Póliska, Szilárd; Albert, Réka; Olstad, Ole Kristoffer; Boratkó, Anita; Csortos, Csilla; Moe, Morten C; Facskó, Andrea; Petrovski, Goran

    2016-01-01

    Corneal tissue regeneration is of crucial importance for maintaining normal vision. We aimed to isolate and cultivate human corneal stroma-derived mesenchymal stem-like cells (CSMSCs) from the central part of cadaver corneas and study their phenotype, multipotency, role in immunity and wound healing. The isolated cells grew as monolayers in vitro, expressed mesenchymal- and stemness-related surface markers (CD73, CD90, CD105, CD140b), and were negative for hematopoietic markers as determined by flow cytometry. CSMSCs were able to differentiate in vitro into fat, bone and cartilage. Their gene expression profile was closer to bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMMSCs) than to limbal epithelial stem cells (LESC) as determined by high-throughput screening. The immunosuppressive properties of CSMSCs were confirmed by a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), while they could inhibit proliferation of activated immune cells. Treatment of CSMSCs by pro-inflammatory cytokines and toll-like receptor ligands significantly increased the secreted interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL-10) levels, as well as the cell surface adhesion molecules. CSMSCs were capable of closing a wound in vitro under different stimuli. These cells thus contribute to corneal tissue homeostasis and play an immunomodulatory and regenerative role with possible implications in future cell therapies for treating sight-threatening corneal diseases. PMID:27195722

  4. Selection of mesenchymal-like metastatic cells in primary tumors – an in silico investigation

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    Vipin eNarang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to metastasize, cancer cells must undergo phenotypic transition from an anchorage-dependent form to a motile form via a process referred to as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT. It is currently unclear whether metastatic cells emerge late during tumor progression by successive accumulation of mutations, or whether they derive from distinct cell populations already present during the early stages of tumorigenesis. Similarly, the selective pressures that drive metastasis are poorly understood. Selection of cancer cells with increased proliferative capacity and enhanced survival characteristics may explain how some transformations promote a metastatic phenotype. However, it is difficult to explain how disseminated mesenchymal-like cancer cells can be subjected to such selective pressure, since these cells usually remain dormant for prolonged periods of time. In the current study, we have used in silico modeling and simulation to investigate the hypothesis that mesenchymal-like cancer cells evolve during the early stages of primary tumor development, and that these cells exhibit survival and proliferative advantages within the tumor microenvironment. In an agent-based tumor microenvironment model, cancer cell agents with distinct sets of attributes governing nutrient consumption, proliferation, apoptosis, random motility and cell adhesion were allowed to compete for space and nutrients. These simulation data indicated that mesenchymal-like cancer cells displaying high motility and low adhesion proliferate more rapidly and display a survival advantage over epithelial-like cancer cells. Furthermore, the presence of mesenchymal-like cells within the primary tumor influences the macroscopic properties, emergent morphology and growth rate of tumors.

  5. Human placenta-derived stromal cells decrease inflammation, placental injury and blood pressure in hypertensive pregnant mice.

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    Chatterjee, Piyali; Chiasson, Valorie L; Pinzur, Lena; Raveh, Shani; Abraham, Eytan; Jones, Kathleen A; Bounds, Kelsey R; Ofir, Racheli; Flaishon, Liat; Chajut, Ayelet; Mitchell, Brett M

    2016-04-01

    Pre-eclampsia, the development of hypertension and proteinuria or end-organ damage during pregnancy, is a leading cause of both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, and there are no effective clinical treatments for pre-eclampsia aside from delivery. The development of pre-eclampsia is characterized by maladaptation of the maternal immune system, excessive inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. We have reported that detection of extracellular RNA by the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 3 and 7 is a key initiating signal that contributes to the development of pre-eclampsia. PLacental eXpanded (PLX-PAD) cells are human placenta-derived, mesenchymal-like, adherent stromal cells that have anti-inflammatory, proangiogenic, cytoprotective and regenerative properties, secondary to paracrine secretion of various molecules in response to environmental stimulation. We hypothesized that PLX-PAD cells would reduce the associated inflammation and tissue damage and lower blood pressure in mice with pre-eclampsia induced by TLR3 or TLR7 activation. Injection of PLX-PAD cells on gestational day 14 significantly decreased systolic blood pressure by day 17 in TLR3-induced and TLR7-induced hypertensive mice (TLR3 144-111 mmHg; TLR7 145-106 mmHg; both Pinflammation and placental injury, increased markedly in both groups of TLR-induced hypertensive mice, were reduced by PLX-PAD cells. Importantly, PLX-PAD cell therapy had no effects on these measures in pregnant control mice or on the fetuses. These data demonstrate that PLX-PAD cell therapy can safely reverse pre-eclampsia-like features during pregnancy and have a potential therapeutic role in pre-eclampsia treatment.

  6. Radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives for evaluating local cerebral blood flow

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    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1990-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging comprising radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation or regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain.

  7. Human placenta-derived stromal cells decrease inflammation, placental injury and blood pressure in hypertensive pregnant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Piyali; Chiasson, Valorie L; Pinzur, Lena; Raveh, Shani; Abraham, Eytan; Jones, Kathleen A; Bounds, Kelsey R; Ofir, Racheli; Flaishon, Liat; Chajut, Ayelet; Mitchell, Brett M

    2016-04-01

    Pre-eclampsia, the development of hypertension and proteinuria or end-organ damage during pregnancy, is a leading cause of both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, and there are no effective clinical treatments for pre-eclampsia aside from delivery. The development of pre-eclampsia is characterized by maladaptation of the maternal immune system, excessive inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. We have reported that detection of extracellular RNA by the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 3 and 7 is a key initiating signal that contributes to the development of pre-eclampsia. PLacental eXpanded (PLX-PAD) cells are human placenta-derived, mesenchymal-like, adherent stromal cells that have anti-inflammatory, proangiogenic, cytoprotective and regenerative properties, secondary to paracrine secretion of various molecules in response to environmental stimulation. We hypothesized that PLX-PAD cells would reduce the associated inflammation and tissue damage and lower blood pressure in mice with pre-eclampsia induced by TLR3 or TLR7 activation. Injection of PLX-PAD cells on gestational day 14 significantly decreased systolic blood pressure by day 17 in TLR3-induced and TLR7-induced hypertensive mice (TLR3 144-111 mmHg; TLR7 145-106 mmHg; both P<0.05), and also normalized their elevated urinary protein:creatinine ratios (TLR3 5.68-3.72; TLR7 5.57-3.84; both P<0.05). On gestational day 17, aortic endothelium-dependent relaxation responses improved significantly in TLR3-induced and TLR7-induced hypertensive mice that received PLX-PAD cells on gestational day 14 (TLR3 35-65%; TLR7 37-63%; both P<0.05). In addition, markers of systemic inflammation and placental injury, increased markedly in both groups of TLR-induced hypertensive mice, were reduced by PLX-PAD cells. Importantly, PLX-PAD cell therapy had no effects on these measures in pregnant control mice or on the fetuses. These data demonstrate that PLX-PAD cell therapy can safely reverse pre-eclampsia-like features during

  8. Peripheral blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, K; Vinberg, M; Kessing, L V

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed as a potential biomarker related to disease activity and neuroprogression in bipolar disorder, speculated to mirror alterations in brain expression of BDNF. The research area is rapidly evolving; however, recent...... investigations have yielded conflicting results with substantial variation in outcomes, highlighting the need to critically assess the state of current evidence. The aims of the study were to investigate differences in peripheral blood BDNF concentrations between bipolar disorder patients and healthy control...... subjects and between affective states in bipolar disorder patients, including assessment of the effect of treatment of acute episodes on BDNF levels. A systematic review of English language studies without considering publication status was conducted in PubMed (January 1950-November 2014), Embase (1974...

  9. The treatment of neurodegenerative disorders using umbilical cord blood and menstrual blood-derived stem cells.

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    Sanberg, Paul R; Eve, David J; Willing, Alison E; Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Tan, Jun; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Allickson, Julie G; Cruz, L Eduardo; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2011-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation is a potentially important means of treatment for a number of disorders. Two different stem cell populations of interest are mononuclear umbilical cord blood cells and menstrual blood-derived stem cells. These cells are relatively easy to obtain, appear to be pluripotent, and are immunologically immature. These cells, particularly umbilical cord blood cells, have been studied as either single or multiple injections in a number of animal models of neurodegenerative disorders with some degree of success, including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Sanfilippo syndrome type B. Evidence of anti-inflammatory effects and secretion of specific cytokines and growth factors that promote cell survival, rather than cell replacement, have been detected in both transplanted cells.

  10. Blood-derived DNA methylation markers of cancer risk.

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    Marsit, Carmen; Christensen, Brock

    2013-01-01

    The importance of somatic epigenetic alterations in tissues targeted for carcinogenesis is now well recognized and considered a key molecular step in the development of a tumor. Particularly, alteration of gene-specific and genomic DNA methylation has been extensively characterized in tumors, and has become an attractive biomarker of risk due to its specificity and stability in human samples. It also is clear that tumors do not develop as isolated phenomenon in their target tissue, but instead result from altered processes affecting not only the surrounding cells and tissues, but other organ systems, including the immune system. Thus, alterations to DNA methylation profiles detectable in peripheral blood may be useful not only in understanding the carcinogenic process and response to environmental insults, but can also provide critical insights in a systems biological view of tumorigenesis. Research to date has generally focused on how environmental exposures alter genomic DNA methylation content in peripheral blood. More recent work has begun to translate these findings to clinically useful endpoints, by defining the relationship between DNA methylation alterations and cancer risk. This chapter highlights the existing research linking the environment, blood-derived DNA methylation alterations, and cancer risk, and points out how these epigenetic alterations may be contributing fundamentally to carcinogenesis.

  11. Pleomorphic Structures in Human Blood Are Red Blood Cell-Derived Microparticles, Not Bacteria

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    Mitchell, Adam J.; Gray, Warren D.; Schroeder, Max; Yi, Hong; Taylor, Jeannette V.; Dillard, Rebecca S.; Ke, Zunlong; Wright, Elizabeth R.; Stephens, David; Roback, John D.; Searles, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are a common, life-saving therapy for many patients, but they have also been associated with poor clinical outcomes. We identified unusual, pleomorphic structures in human RBC transfusion units by negative-stain electron microscopy that appeared identical to those previously reported to be bacteria in healthy human blood samples. The presence of viable, replicating bacteria in stored blood could explain poor outcomes in transfusion recipients and have major implications for transfusion medicine. Here, we investigated the possibility that these structures were bacteria. Results Flow cytometry, miRNA analysis, protein analysis, and additional electron microscopy studies strongly indicated that the pleomorphic structures in the supernatant of stored RBCs were RBC-derived microparticles (RMPs). Bacterial 16S rDNA PCR amplified from these samples were sequenced and was found to be highly similar to species that are known to commonly contaminate laboratory reagents. Conclusions These studies suggest that pleomorphic structures identified in human blood are RMPs and not bacteria, and they provide an example in which laboratory contaminants may can mislead investigators. PMID:27760197

  12. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring-Derived Short-Term Blood Pressure Variability in Primary Aldosteronism.

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    Grillo, Andrea; Bernardi, Stella; Rebellato, Andrea; Fabris, Bruno; Bardelli, Moreno; Burrello, Jacopo; Rabbia, Franco; Veglio, Franco; Fallo, Francesco; Carretta, Renzo

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term blood pressure (BP) variability (BPV) derived from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA), either idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA) or aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA), in comparison with patients with essential hypertension (EH) and normotensive (NT) controls. Thirty patients with PA (16 with IHA and 14 with APA), 30 patients with EH, and 30 NT controls, matched for sex, age, body mass index, and antihypertensive therapy, were studied. The standard deviation (SD) of 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime BP; 24-hour weighted SD of BP; and 24-hour BP average real variability were not different between patients with PA and those with EH (P=not significant). All BPV indices were higher in patients with PA, either IHA or APA subtypes, and patients with EH, compared with NT controls (P<.001 to P<.05). ABPM-derived short-term BPV is increased in patients with PA, and it may represent an additional cardiovascular risk factor in this disease. The role of aldosterone excess in BPV has to be clarified. PMID:25880017

  13. Colloidal Properties of Nanoerythrosomes Derived from Bovine Red Blood Cells.

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    Kuo, Yuan-Chia; Wu, Hsuan-Chen; Hoang, Dao; Bentley, William E; D'Souza, Warren D; Raghavan, Srinivasa R

    2016-01-12

    Liposomes are nanoscale containers that are typically synthesized from lipids using a high-shear process such as extrusion or sonication. While liposomes are extensively used in drug delivery, they do suffer from certain problems including limited colloidal stability and short circulation times in the body. As an alternative to liposomes, we explore a class of container structures derived from erythrocytes (red blood cells). The procedure involves emptying the inner contents of these cells (specifically hemoglobin) and resuspending the empty structures in buffer, followed by sonication. The resulting structures are termed nanoerythrosomes (NERs), i.e., they are membrane-covered nanoscale containers, much like liposomes. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) are employed for the first time to study these NERs. The results reveal that the NERs are discrete spheres (∼110 nm diameter) with a unilamellar membrane of thickness ∼4.5 nm. Remarkably, the biconcave disc-like shape of erythrocytes is also exhibited by the NERs under hypertonic conditions. Moreover, unlike typical liposomes, NERs show excellent colloidal stability in both buffer as well as in serum at room temperature, and are also able to withstand freeze-thaw cycling. We have explored the potential for using NERs as colloidal vehicles for targeted delivery. Much like conventional liposomes, NER membranes can be decorated with fluorescent or other markers, solutes can be encapsulated in the cores of the NERs, and NERs can be targeted to specifically bind to mammalian cells. Our study shows that NERs are a promising and versatile class of nanostructures. NERs that are harvested from a patient's own blood and reconfigured for nanomedicine can potentially offer several benefits including biocompatibility, minimization of immune response, and extended circulation time in the body. PMID:26684218

  14. Age estimation of blood stains by hemoglobin derivative determination using reflectance spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H. Bremmer; A. Nadort; T.G. van Leeuwen; M.J.C. van Gemert; M.C.G. Aalders

    2011-01-01

    Blood stains can be crucial in reconstructing crime events. However, no reliable methods are currently available to establish the age of a blood stain on the crime scene. We show that determining the fractions of three hemoglobin derivatives in a blood stain at various ages enables relating these ti

  15. Platelet-Rich Blood Derivatives for Stem Cell-Based Tissue Engineering and Regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masoudi, E.A.; Ribas, J.; Kaushik, G.; Leijten, J.C.H.; Khademhosseini, A.

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-rich blood derivatives have been widely used in different fields of medicine and stem cell-based tissue engineering. They represent natural cocktails of autologous growth factors, which could provide an alternative for recombinant protein-based approaches. Platelet-rich blood derivatives, s

  16. Chondrogenic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells derived from equine bone marrow and umbilical cord blood

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    Berg, Lise Charlotte; Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Heerkens, T.;

    2009-01-01

    including bone marrow and umbilical cord blood. The objective of this study was to provide an in vitro comparison of the chondrogenic potential in MSC derived from adult bone marrow (BM-MSC) and umbilical cord blood (CB-MSC). Results: MSC from both sources produced tissue with cartilage-like morphology...

  17. Blood Vessel-Derived Acellular Matrix for Vascular Graft Application

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    Luigi Dall’Olmo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the issues connected to the use of autologous vascular grafts and artificial materials for reconstruction of small diameter (<6 mm blood vessels, this study aimed to develop acellular matrix- (AM- based vascular grafts. Rat iliac arteries were decellularized by a detergent-enzymatic treatment, whereas endothelial cells (ECs were obtained through enzymatic digestion of rat skin followed by immunomagnetic separation of CD31-positive cells. Sixteen female Lewis rats (8 weeks old received only AM or previously in vitro reendothelialized AM as abdominal aorta interposition grafts (about 1 cm. The detergent-enzymatic treatment completely removed the cellular part of vessels and both MHC class I and class II antigens. One month after surgery, the luminal surface of implanted AMs was partially covered by ECs and several platelets adhered in the areas lacking cell coverage. Intimal hyperplasia, already detected after 1 month, increased at 3 months. On the contrary, all grafts composed by AM and ECs were completely covered at 1 month and their structure was similar to that of native vessels at 3 months. Taken together, our findings show that prostheses composed of AM preseeded with ECs could be a promising approach for the replacement of blood vessels.

  18. GCD quantitation of opiates as propionyl derivatives in blood.

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    Mykkänen, S; Seppälä, J; Ariniemi, K; Lillsunde, P

    2000-03-01

    We describe a method using a gas chromatograph with electron ionization detection (GCD) for the simultaneous determination of morphine, codeine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, ethylmorphine, and dihydrocodeine in blood. The method employs propionic anhydride in the presence of triethylamine to propionylate free hydroxyl groups of the opiates in blood. The quantitation is achieved by using GCD with selected ion monitoring of the two most characteristic ions for each analyte. The quantitation limit was 0.01 mg/L and the linearity was 0.01-10 mg/L for dihydrocodeine, ethylmorphine, and 6-monoacetylmorphine. For the other investigated opiates, the quantitation limit was 0.025 mg/L and linearity was 0.025-10 mg/L. The intraday relative standard deviation (RSD) varied from 7.2 to 10% at the 0.5 mg/L level, and the day-to-day RSDs varied from 7.5 to 11% at the 0.85 mg/L level.

  19. The variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Risk, uncertainty or safety in the use of blood and blood derivatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liras, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    It has been long since French physician Jean-Baptiste Denys carried out the first successful blood transfusion to a human being. Using bird feathers as canules, sheep blood was transfused to a young man. The patient died soon after Denys' treatment and Denys was accused of murder. In the XXI century, known as the biotechnology century, we face new challenges in Medicine. New emerging and reemerging diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) or "mad cow disease" and its human variant (vCJD), challenge the biosafety aspects of a widely extended and extremely useful technique, that is, the perfusion of blood, of its derived components and of other pharmacological products obtained from plasma. To face these new challenges we need innovative prevention strategies. PMID:18573217

  20. Improved isolation protocol for equine cord blood-derived mesenchymal stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl; Betts, Dean H.

    2009-01-01

      BACKGROUND AIMS: A robust methodology for the isolation of cord blood-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (CB-MSCs) from fresh umbilical cord blood has not been reported in any species. The objective of this study was to improve the isolation procedure for equine CB-MSCs. METHODS: Pre......Cyte-EQ medium is superior to Ficoll-Paque PREMIUM density medium for the isolation of putative equine CB MSC and that MSC-qualified FBS may improve the isolation efficiency....

  1. Isolation and characterization of equine peripheral blood-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells

    OpenAIRE

    Armando de M. Carvalho; Ana Lucia M. Yamada; Juliana R.B. Martins; Leandro Maia; Marjorie de A Golim; Elenice Deffune; Carlos A. Hussni; Ana Liz G. Alves

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to isolate, cultivate and characterize equine peripheral blood-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (PbMSCs). Peripheral blood was collected, followed by the isolation of mononuclear cells using density gradient reagents, and the cultivation of adherent cells. Monoclonal mouse anti-horse CD13, mouse anti-horse CD44, and mouse anti-rat CD90 antibodies were used for the immunophenotypic characterization of the surface of the PbMSCs. These cells were also ...

  2. A novel mechanism of bacterial toxin transfer within host blood cell-derived microvesicles.

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    Anne-lie Ståhl

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin (Stx is the main virulence factor of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, which are non-invasive strains that can lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS, associated with renal failure and death. Although bacteremia does not occur, bacterial virulence factors gain access to the circulation and are thereafter presumed to cause target organ damage. Stx was previously shown to circulate bound to blood cells but the mechanism by which it would potentially transfer to target organ cells has not been elucidated. Here we show that blood cell-derived microvesicles, shed during HUS, contain Stx and are found within patient renal cortical cells. The finding was reproduced in mice infected with Stx-producing Escherichia coli exhibiting Stx-containing blood cell-derived microvesicles in the circulation that reached the kidney where they were transferred into glomerular and peritubular capillary endothelial cells and further through their basement membranes followed by podocytes and tubular epithelial cells, respectively. In vitro studies demonstrated that blood cell-derived microvesicles containing Stx undergo endocytosis in glomerular endothelial cells leading to cell death secondary to inhibited protein synthesis. This study demonstrates a novel virulence mechanism whereby bacterial toxin is transferred within host blood cell-derived microvesicles in which it may evade the host immune system.

  3. Cell-cycle dependent localization of MELK and its new partner RACK1 in epithelial versus mesenchyme-like cells in Xenopus embryo

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    Isabelle Chartrain

    2013-08-01

    Maternal Embryonic Leucine zipper Kinase (MELK was recently shown to be involved in cell division of Xenopus embryo epithelial cells. The cytokinetic furrow of these cells ingresses asymmetrically and is developmentally regulated. Two subpopulations of xMELK, the mMELK (for “mitotic” xMELK and iMELK (“interphase” xMELK, which differ in their spatial and temporal regulation, are detected in Xenopus embryo. How cells regulate these two xMELK populations is unknown. In this study we show that, in epithelial cells, xMELK is present at a higher concentration at the apical junctional complex, in contrast to mesenchyme-like cells, which have uniform distribution of cortical MELK. Interestingly, mMELK and iMELK also differ by their requirements towards cell–cell contacts to establish their proper cortical localization both in epithelial and mesenchyme-like cells. Receptor for Activated protein Kinase C (RACK1, which we identified as an xMELK partner, co-localizes with xMELK at the tight junction. Moreover, a truncated RACK1 construct interferes with iMELK localization at cell–cell contacts. Collectively, our results suggest that iMELK and RACK1 are present in the same complex and that RACK1 is involved in the specific recruitment of iMELK at the apical junctional complex in epithelial cells of Xenopus embryos.

  4. Phenotypic, functional, and quantitative characterization of canine peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages

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    R Bueno

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The yield as well as phenotypic and functional parameters of canine peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages were analyzed. The cells that remained adherent to Teflon after 10 days of culture had high phagocytic activity when inoculated with Leishmania chagasi. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that more than 80% of cultured cells were positive for the monocyte/macrophage marker CD14.

  5. Antitumor activities of human dendritic cells derived from peripheral and cord blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Kun Zhang; Jun Li; Hai-Bin Chen; Jin-Lun Sun; Yao-Juan Qu; Juan-Juan Lu

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To observe the biological specialization of humanperipheral blood dendritic cells (DC) and cord blood derivedDC and its effects on effector cells killing humanhepatocarcinoma cell line BEL-7402 in vitro.METHODS: The DC biological characteristics were detectedwith immunohistochemical and MTT assay. Two antitumorexperimental groups are: peripheral blood DC and cordblood DC groups. Peripheral blood DC groups used LAKcells as the effector cells and BEL-7402 as target cells, whilecord blood DC groups used CTL induced by tumor antigentwice pulsed DC as effector cells and BEL-7402 as targetcells, additional peripheral blood DC and cord blood DC areadded to observe its stimulating activities to effector cells.The effector's cytotoxicity to tumor cells were detected withneutral red colorimetric assay at two effector/target ratios of5:1 and 10: 1.RESULTS: Peripheral blood DC and cord blood DC highlyexpressed HLA-ABC, HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, CD54 and S-100protein. The stimulating activities to lymphocyteproliferation were compared between experimental groups(DC added) and control group (no DC added). In sixexperiment subgroups, the DC/lymphocyte ratio wassequentially 0.25: 100, 0.5: 100, 1: 100, 2: 100, 4: 100 and 8:100, A values(x± s) were 0.75396± 0.009, 0.84916± 0.010,0.90894± 0.012, 0.98371 ± 0.007, 1.01299 ± 0.006 and 1.20384± 0.006 in peripheral blood DC groups and 0.77650 ± 0.005,0.83008± 0.007, 0.92725 ± 0.007, 1.05990 ± 0.010, 1.15583 ±0.011, 1.22983 ± 0.011 in cord blood DC groups. A value was0.59517 ± 0.005 in control group. The stimulating activitieswere higher in experimental groups than in control group ( P< 0.01 ), which were increased when the DC concentrationwas enlarged ( P < 0.01 ). Two differently derived DCs hadthe same phenotypes and similar stimulating activities ( P >0.05). In peripheral blood DC groups, the cytotoxicity (x ±s) of the LD groups (experimental groups) and L groups(control group) was 58.16% ± 2.03% (5: 1), 46.18% ±2

  6. Plasticity of human menstrual blood stem cells derived from the endometrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian LIN; Dennis XIANG; Jin-long ZHANG; Julie ALLICKSON; Charlie XIANG

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells can be obtained from women's menstrual blood derived from the endometrium. The cells display stem cell markers such as Oct-4, SSEA-4, Nanog, and c-kit (CD117), and have the potent ability to differentiate into various cell types, including the heart, nerve, bone, cartilage, and fat. There has been no evidence of teratoma,ectopic formation, or any immune response after transplantation into an animal model. These cells quickly regenerate after menstruation and secrete many growth factors to display recurrent angiogenesis. The plasticity and safety of the acquired cells have been demonstrated in many studies. Menstrual blood-derived stem cells (MenSCs) provide an alternative source of adult stem cells for research and application in regenerative medicine. Here we summarize the multipotent properties and the plasticities of MenSCs and other endometrial stem cells from recent studies conducted both in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Human umbilical cord blood-derived f-macrophages retain pluripotentiality after thrombopoietin expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have previously characterized a new type of stem cell from human peripheral blood, termed fibroblast-like macrophage (f-MΦ). Here, using umbilical cord blood as a source, we identified cells with similar characteristics including expression of surface markers (CD14, CD34, CD45, CD117, and CD163), phagocytosis, and proliferative capacity. Further, thrombopoietin (TPO) significantly stimulated the proliferation of cord blood-derived f-MΦ (CB f-MΦ) at low dosage without inducing a megakaryocytic phenotype. Additional experiments demonstrated that TPO-expanded cord blood-derived f-MΦ (TCB f-MΦ) retained their surface markers and differentiation ability. Treatment with vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) gave rise to endothelial-like cells, expressing Flt-1, Flk-1, von Willebrand Factor (vWF), CD31, acetylated low density lipoprotein internalization, and the ability to form endothelial-like cell chains. In the presence of lipopolyssacharide (LPS) and 25 mM glucose, the TCB f-MΦ differentiated to express insulin mRNA, C-peptide, and insulin. In vitro functional analysis demonstrated that these insulin-positive cells could release insulin in response to glucose and other secretagogues. These findings demonstrate a potential use of CB f-MΦ and may lead to develop new therapeutic strategy for treating dominant disease

  8. Differentiation of Human Cord Blood and Stromal Derived Stem Cells into Neuron Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Pamukçu Baran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The most basic properties of stem cells are the capacities to self-renew indefinitely and to differentiate into multiple cell or tissue types. Umbilical cord blood has been utilized for human hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as an alternative source to bone marrow.The experiments show that Wharton’s jelly cells are easily attainable and can be expanded in vitro, maintained in culture, and induced to differentiate into neural cells. Almost recent studies it has been discovered that the cord blood-derived cells can differantiate not only to blood cells but also to various somatic cells like neuron or muscle cell with the signals taken from the envoirenment.Interestingly, neural cells obtained from umbilical cord blood show a relatively high spontaneous differentiation into oligodendrocytes, Embryonic stem cells proliferate indefinitely and can differentiate spontaneously into all tissue types.It has been shown that embryonic stem cells can be induced to differentiate into neurons and glia by treatment with retinoic acid or basic fibroblast growth factor. It has been studied that the diseases as Motor Neuron Disease, Parkinson, Alzheimer and degeneration of medulla spinalis and also paralysises could be treated with transplantation of cord blood-dericed stem cells.

  9. Blood flow in transplantable bladder tumors treated with hematoporphyrin derivative and light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selman, S.H.; Kreimer-Birnbaum, M.; Klaunig, J.E.; Goldblatt, P.J.; Keck, R.W.; Britton, S.L.

    1984-05-01

    Following hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) photochemotherapy, blood flow to transplantable N-(4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thia-zolyl) formamide-induced urothelial tumors was determined by a radioactive microsphere technique using either /sup 103/Ru or /sup 141/Ce. Two tumors were implanted s.c. on the abdominal wall of Fischer 344 weanling rats. HPD (10 mg/kg body weight) was administered 24 hr prior to phototherapy (red light, greater than 590 nm; 360 J/sq cm). One of the two tumors was shielded from light exposure and served as an internal control. Blood flows were determined in control animals that received no treatment (Group 1), HPD only (Group 2), or light only (Group 3). In Groups 4 and 5, animals received the combination of HPD and light but differed in the time interval between treatment and blood flow determinations (10 min and 24 hr, respectively). Only blood flow to tumors treated with HPD and light showed a significant decrease (p less than 0.05) when compared with their internal controls both at 10 min (Group 4) and 24 hr (Group 5) after completion of phototherapy. These studies suggest that disruption of tumor blood flow may be an important mechanism of action of this method of cancer therapy.

  10. [MORPHOFUNCTIONAL STATE OF BLOOD CELLS AFTER CHRONIC EXPOSURE OF THE PROTEIN KINASES INHIBITOR MALEIMIDE DERIVATIVE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byelinska, I V; Lynchak, O V; Tsyvinska, S M; Rybalchenko, V K

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the protein kinases inhibitor maleimide derivative (MI-1, 1-(4-Cl-benzyl)-3-Cl-4-(CF3-phenylamino)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione), inhibitor of VEGF-R1,2,3, FGF-R1, EGF-R(h), PDK1, Src(h), Syk(h), YES, ZAP70 et al. with antineoplastic activity, on blood cells parameters of rats after chronic exposure has been studied. Administration of MI-1 at doses 0.027 and 2.7 mg/kg (suppress colon carcinogenesis) for 20 and 26 weeks does not affect the morphofunctional state of red blood cells in healthy rats. This is confirmed by the lack of differences in the concentration of hemoglobin in blood, red blood cells count, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit and mean corpuscular volume, and the number of reticulocytes in blood after 20 and 26 weeks of exposure compared with the control group. MI-1 at indicated doses does not influence total leukocytes count and content (eosinophilic and neutrophilic granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes) and does not inhibit thrombocytopoiesis (platelet count remains unchanged). No negative effect of MI-1 on hematopoiesis is not limited (by the hemopoietic system) use of this compound as a potential antitumor drug PMID:26552308

  11. Blood compatibility of polyethersulfone membrane by blending a sulfated derivative of chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jimin; Zhao, Weifeng; Nie, Shengqiang; Sun, Shudong; Zhao, Changsheng

    2013-06-01

    In this study, a novel sulfated derivative of chitosan, which could be dissolved in many common organic solvents, is conveniently synthesized for the modification of polyethersulfone (PES) membrane. Elemental analysis, FTIR, (1)H NMR and X-ray diffraction diagrams (XRD) are used to demonstrate the introduction of functional groups. Owing to the solubility in organic solvents, the sulfated derivative of chitosan could be directly blended with PES in organic solvent to prepare membrane by means of a liquid-liquid phase separation technique. The modified membrane showed lower protein (bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bovine serum fibrinogen (BFG)) adsorption and suppressed platelet adhesion. Moreover, the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) for the modified membrane was enhanced as high as 60% compared to pure PES membrane. The lower protein adsorption, suppressed platelet adhesion and increased APTT confirmed that the blood compatibility of the modified PES membrane by the sulfated derivative of chitosan was significantly improved.

  12. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Microvesicles Support Ex Vivo Expansion of Cord Blood-Derived CD34+ Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are known to support the characteristic properties of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs in the bone marrow hematopoietic microenvironment. MSCs are used in coculture systems as a feeder layer for the ex vivo expansion of umbilical cord blood (CB to increase the relatively low number of HSPCs in CB. Findings increasingly suggest that MSC-derived microvesicles (MSC-MVs play an important role in the biological functions of their parent cells. We speculate that MSC-MVs may recapitulate the hematopoiesis-supporting effects of their parent cells. In the current study, we found MSC-MVs containing microRNAs that are involved in the regulation of hematopoiesis. We also demonstrated that MSC-MVs could improve the expansion of CB-derived mononuclear cells and CD34+ cells and generate a greater number of primitive progenitor cells in vitro. Additionally, when MSC-MVs were added to the CB-MSC coculture system, they could improve the hematopoiesis-supporting effects of MSCs. These findings highlight the role of MSC-MVs in the ex vivo expansion of CB, which may offer a promising therapeutic approach in CB transplantation.

  13. Whole blood-derived microRNA signatures in mice exposed to lipopolysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Ching-Hua

    2012-07-01

    RNA targets. Conclusions We identified a specific whole blood–derived miRNA signature in mice exposed to LPS, but not to LTA, from different gram-negative bacteria. These whole blood-derived miRNAs are promising as biomarkers for LPS exposure.

  14. Effect of thiol derivatives on mixed mucus and blood clots in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risack, L E; Vandevelde, M E; Gobert, J G

    1978-01-01

    The disintegrating effect of three reducing thiol derivatives: [sodium mercaptoethane sulphonate (Mesna), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and dithio-1,4-threitol (DTT)] was investigated in vitro upon blood clots formed in the absence or in the presence of tracheobronchial secretions and compared with the effect of iso-osmotic saline solution. The amounts of haemoglobin released from the clots after 30 min incubation and the initial rates of haemoglobin release were compared for the different products at different concentrations. All three reducing agents showed some ability to disintegrate mixed clots to an extent depending on their concentration. After 30 min incubation, statistical analysis showed a highly significant difference in favour of Mesna at the three concentrations used, i.e. 0.1, 1.0 and 10 mmol/1. The initial rate of haemoglobin release in presence of Mesna was at all concentrations significantly higher than that of NAC or DTT. The effects on normal blood clots were much less pronounced. The effectiveness of Mesna in splitting up mixed blood and mucus clots in the management of patients who had inhaled blood is discussed.

  15. Effect of thiol derivatives on mixed mucus and blood clots in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risack, L E; Vandevelde, M E; Gobert, J G

    1978-01-01

    The disintegrating effect of three reducing thiol derivatives: [sodium mercaptoethane sulphonate (Mesna), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and dithio-1,4-threitol (DTT)] was investigated in vitro upon blood clots formed in the absence or in the presence of tracheobronchial secretions and compared with the effect of iso-osmotic saline solution. The amounts of haemoglobin released from the clots after 30 min incubation and the initial rates of haemoglobin release were compared for the different products at different concentrations. All three reducing agents showed some ability to disintegrate mixed clots to an extent depending on their concentration. After 30 min incubation, statistical analysis showed a highly significant difference in favour of Mesna at the three concentrations used, i.e. 0.1, 1.0 and 10 mmol/1. The initial rate of haemoglobin release in presence of Mesna was at all concentrations significantly higher than that of NAC or DTT. The effects on normal blood clots were much less pronounced. The effectiveness of Mesna in splitting up mixed blood and mucus clots in the management of patients who had inhaled blood is discussed. PMID:97741

  16. Endothelial progenitor cell differentiation using cryopreserved, umbilical cord blood-derived mononuclear cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-ho JANG; Hugh C KIM; Sun-kyung KIM; Jeong-eun CHOI; Young-jin KIM; Hyun-woo LEE; Seok-yun KANG; Joon-seong PARK; Jin-hyuk CHOI; Ho-yeong LIM

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the endothelial differentiation potentiality of umbilical cord blood (UCB), we induced the differentiation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC)from cryopreserved UCB-derived mononuclear cells (MNC). Methods: MNC from cryopreserved UCB and peripheral blood (PB) were cultured in M199 medium with endothelial cell growth supplements for 14 d. EPC were characterized by RT-PCR,flow cytometry, and immunocytochemistry analysis. The proliferation of differen-tiated EPC was studied by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTI') assay, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentra-tion was measured using an ELISA kit. Characteristics of UCB-derived EPC were compared with those of PB-derived EPC. Results: A number of round-shaped cells were loosely attached to the bottom after 24 h culture, and numerous spindle-shaped cells began to appear from the round-shaped ones on d 7. Those cells expressed endothelial markers such as, Fit-1/VEGFR-1, ecNOS, VE-cadherin, yon Willebrand factor, and secreted VEGF. The patterns of endothelial markers of EPC from PB and UCB did not show striking differences. The results of the prolifera-tion and secretion of VEGF were also similar. Conclusion: We successfully cul-tured UCB cells stored at -196 ℃ into cells with the quality of endothelial cells.Those EPC could be used for angiogenic therapeutics by activating adjacent endothelial cells and enhancing angiogenesis.

  17. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomsen Preben D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is low and the future isolation percentage of MSCs from cryopreserved equine cord blood is therefore expectedly low. The hypothesis of this study was that equine MSCs could be isolated from fresh whole equine cord blood. Results Cord blood was collected from 7 foals immediately after foaling. The mononuclear cell fraction was isolated by Ficoll density centrifugation and cultured in a DMEM low glucose based media at 38.5°C in humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO2. In 4 out of 7 samples colonies with MSC morphology were observed. Cellular morphology varied between monolayers of elongated spindle-shaped cells to layered cell clusters of cuboidal cells with shorter cytoplasmic extensions. Positive Alizarin Red and von Kossa staining as well as significant calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity confirmed osteogenesis. Histology and positive Safranin O staining of matrix glycosaminoglycans illustrated chondrogenesis. Oil Red O staining of lipid droplets confirmed adipogenesis. Conclusion We here report, for the first time, the isolation of mesenchymal-like stem cells from fresh equine cord blood and their differentiation into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. This novel isolation of equine cord blood MSCs and their preliminary in vitro differentiation positions the horse as the ideal pre-clinical animal model for proof-of-principle studies of cord blood derived MSCs.

  18. Effects of hypoxia on proliferation of human cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Longying; Shu, Xiaomei; Lang, Changhui; Yu, Xiaohua

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the influence of hypoxia on proliferation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs). The mononuclear cells were separated by density gradient centrifugation from human umbilical cord blood and then, respectively, cultured under hypoxia (5 % O2) or normoxia (20 % O2). Their cell morphology, cell surface markers, β-galactosidase staining, cell growth curve, DNA cycle, and the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) were evaluated. We found that hypoxia, in part via HIF-1α, improved the proliferation efficiency, and prevented senescence of hUCB-MSCs without altering their morphology and surface markers. These results demonstrated that hypoxia provides a favorable culture condition to promote hUCB-MSCs proliferation in vitro, which is a better way to obtain sufficient numbers of hUCB-MSCs for research and certainly clinical application. PMID:25742732

  19. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring-derived short-term blood pressure variability is increased in Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebellato, Andrea; Grillo, Andrea; Dassie, Francesca; Sonino, Nicoletta; Maffei, Pietro; Martini, Chiara; Paoletta, Agostino; Fabris, Bruno; Carretta, Renzo; Fallo, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    Cushing's syndrome is associated with high cardiovascular morbility and mortality. Blood pressure (BP) variability within a 24-h period is increasingly recognized as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. The aim of our study was to investigate the short-term BP variability indices in Cushing's syndrome. Twenty-five patients with Cushing's syndrome (mean age 49 ± 13 years, 4 males; 21 Cushing's disease and 4 adrenal adenoma patients) underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors. Cushing patients were divided into 8 normotensive (NOR-CUSH) and 17 hypertensive (HYP-CUSH) patients and were compared with 20 normotensive (NOR-CTR) and 20 hypertensive (HYP-CTR) age-, sex-, and BMI-matched control subjects. Short-term BP variability was derived from ABPM and calculated as the following: (1) standard deviation (SD) of 24-h, daytime, and nighttime BP; (2) 24-h weighted SD of BP; and (3) average real variability (ARV), i.e., the average of the absolute differences between consecutive BP measurements over 24 h. In comparison with controls, patients with Cushing's syndrome, either normotensive or hypertensive, had higher 24-h and daytime SD of BP, as well as higher 24-h weighted SD and ARV of BP (P = 0.03 to P CUSH or between HYP-CTR and HYP-CUSH subgroups. ABPM-derived short-term BP variability is increased in Cushing's syndrome, independent of BP elevation. It may represent an additional cardiovascular risk factor in this disease. The role of excess cortisol in BP variability has to be further clarified.

  20. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles supporting activated protein C-mediated regulation of blood coagulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzica Livaja Koshiar

    Full Text Available Elevated levels of erythrocyte-derived microparticles are present in the circulation in medical conditions affecting the red blood cells. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles expose phosphatidylserine thus providing a suitable surface for procoagulant reactions leading to thrombin formation via the tenase and prothrombinase complexes. Patients with elevated levels of circulating erythrocyte-derived microparticles have increased thrombin generation in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether erythrocyte-derived microparticles are able to support the anticoagulant reactions of the protein C system. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles were isolated using ultracentrifugation after incubation of freshly prepared erythrocytes with the ionophore A23187 or from outdated erythrocyte concentrates, the different microparticles preparations yielding similar results. According to flow cytometry analysis, the microparticles exposed phoshatidylserine and bound lactadherin, annexin V, and protein S, which is a cofactor to activated protein C. The microparticles were able to assemble the tenase and prothrombinase complexes and to stimulate the formation of thrombin in plasma-based thrombin generation assay both in presence and absence of added tissue factor. The addition of activated protein C in the thrombin generation assay inhibited thrombin generation in a dose-dependent fashion. The anticoagulant effect of activated protein C in the thrombin generation assay was inhibited by a monoclonal antibody that prevents binding of protein S to microparticles and also attenuated by anti-TFPI antibodies. In the presence of erythrocyte-derived microparticles, activated protein C inhibited tenase and prothrombinase by degrading the cofactors FVIIIa and FVa, respectively. Protein S stimulated the Arg306-cleavage in FVa, whereas efficient inhibition of FVIIIa depended on the synergistic cofactor activity of protein S and FV. In summary, the erythrocyte-derived

  1. Mathematical model for blood flow autoregulation by endothelium-derived relaxing factor

    CERN Document Server

    Chernyavsky, I L; Chernyavsky, Igor L.; Kudryashov, Nikolai A.

    2006-01-01

    The fluid shear stress is an important regulator of the cardiovascular system via the endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) that is Nitric Oxide. This mechanism involves biochemical reactions in an arterial wall. The autoregulation process is managed by the vascular tonus and gives the negative feedback for the shear stress changing. A new mathematical model for the autoregulation of a blood flow through arteria under the constant transmural pressure is presented. Endothelium-derived relaxing factor Nitric Oxide, the multi-layer structure of an arterial wall, and kinetic-diffusion processes are taken into consideration. The limit case of the thin-wall artery is analytically studied. The stability condition for a stationary point of the linearized system is given. The exact stationary solutions of the origin system are found. The numerical simulation for the autoregulation system is presented. It is shown the arteria adaptation to an initial radial perturbation and the transition of the system to new equi...

  2. T lymphocytes derived from human cord blood provide effective antitumor immunotherapy against a human tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect of donor-derived T cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an effective adoptive immunotherapy, the antitumor effects of cord blood (CB) transplantation have not been well studied. We established the animal model by transplantation of CB mononuclear cells and/or tumor cells into NOD/SCID mice. The presence of CB derived T cells in NOD/SCID mice or tumor tissues were determined by flow cytometric and immunohistochemical analysis. The anti-tumor effects of CB derived T cells against tumor was determined by tumor size and weight, and by the cytotoxicity assay and ELISPOT assay of T cells. We found dramatic tumor remission following transfer of CB mononuclear cells into NOD/SCID mice with human cervical tumors with a high infiltration of CD3+ T cells in tumors. NOD/SCID mice that receive neonatal CB transplants have reconstituted T cells with significant antitumor effects against human cervical and lung tumors, with a high infiltration of CD3+ T cells showing dramatic induction of apoptotic cell death. We also confirmed that T cells showed tumor specific antigen cytotoxicity in vitro. In adoptive transfer of CD3+ T cells into mice with pre-established tumors, we observed much higher antitumor effects of HPV-specific T cells by ELISPOT assays. Our results show that CB derived T lymphocytes will be useful for novel immunotherapeutic candidate cells for therapy of several tumors in clinic

  3. Low-density lipoprotein mimics blood plasma-derived exosomes and microvesicles during isolation and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sódar, Barbara W; Kittel, Ágnes; Pálóczi, Krisztina; Vukman, Krisztina V; Osteikoetxea, Xabier; Szabó-Taylor, Katalin; Németh, Andrea; Sperlágh, Beáta; Baranyai, Tamás; Giricz, Zoltán; Wiener, Zoltán; Turiák, Lilla; Drahos, László; Pállinger, Éva; Vékey, Károly; Ferdinandy, Péter; Falus, András; Buzás, Edit Irén

    2016-01-01

    Circulating extracellular vesicles have emerged as potential new biomarkers in a wide variety of diseases. Despite the increasing interest, their isolation and purification from body fluids remains challenging. Here we studied human pre-prandial and 4 hours postprandial platelet-free blood plasma samples as well as human platelet concentrates. Using flow cytometry, we found that the majority of circulating particles within the size range of extracellular vesicles lacked common vesicular markers. We identified most of these particles as lipoproteins (predominantly low-density lipoprotein, LDL) which mimicked the characteristics of extracellular vesicles and also co-purified with them. Based on biophysical properties of LDL this finding was highly unexpected. Current state-of-the-art extracellular vesicle isolation and purification methods did not result in lipoprotein-free vesicle preparations from blood plasma or from platelet concentrates. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy showed an association of LDL with isolated vesicles upon in vitro mixing. This is the first study to show co-purification and in vitro association of LDL with extracellular vesicles and its interference with vesicle analysis. Our data point to the importance of careful study design and data interpretation in studies using blood-derived extracellular vesicles with special focus on potentially co-purified LDL. PMID:27087061

  4. Low-density lipoprotein mimics blood plasma-derived exosomes and microvesicles during isolation and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sódar, Barbara W; Kittel, Ágnes; Pálóczi, Krisztina; Vukman, Krisztina V; Osteikoetxea, Xabier; Szabó-Taylor, Katalin; Németh, Andrea; Sperlágh, Beáta; Baranyai, Tamás; Giricz, Zoltán; Wiener, Zoltán; Turiák, Lilla; Drahos, László; Pállinger, Éva; Vékey, Károly; Ferdinandy, Péter; Falus, András; Buzás, Edit Irén

    2016-04-18

    Circulating extracellular vesicles have emerged as potential new biomarkers in a wide variety of diseases. Despite the increasing interest, their isolation and purification from body fluids remains challenging. Here we studied human pre-prandial and 4 hours postprandial platelet-free blood plasma samples as well as human platelet concentrates. Using flow cytometry, we found that the majority of circulating particles within the size range of extracellular vesicles lacked common vesicular markers. We identified most of these particles as lipoproteins (predominantly low-density lipoprotein, LDL) which mimicked the characteristics of extracellular vesicles and also co-purified with them. Based on biophysical properties of LDL this finding was highly unexpected. Current state-of-the-art extracellular vesicle isolation and purification methods did not result in lipoprotein-free vesicle preparations from blood plasma or from platelet concentrates. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy showed an association of LDL with isolated vesicles upon in vitro mixing. This is the first study to show co-purification and in vitro association of LDL with extracellular vesicles and its interference with vesicle analysis. Our data point to the importance of careful study design and data interpretation in studies using blood-derived extracellular vesicles with special focus on potentially co-purified LDL.

  5. Development and bioevaluation of nanofibers with blood-derived growth factors for dermal wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoncelj, Valentina; Pelipenko, Jan; Kristl, Julijana; Jeras, Matjaž; Cukjati, Marko; Kocbek, Petra

    2014-09-01

    The aim of our work was to produce a modern nanomaterial with incorporated blood-derived growth factors, produced by electrospinning, applicable in treatment of chronic wounds. Platelet-rich plasma was chosen as a natural source of growth factors. Results showed that platelet-rich plasma stimulates keratinocyte and fibroblast cell growth in vitro. Its optimal concentration in growth medium was 2% (v/v) for both types of skin cells, while higher concentrations caused alterations in cell morphology, with reduced cell mobility and proliferation. In the next step hydrophilic nanofibers loaded with platelet-rich plasma were produced from chitosan and poly(ethylene oxide), using electrospinning. The morphology of nanofibers was stable in aqueous conditions for 72 h. It was shown that electrospinning does not adversely affect the biological activity of platelet-rich plasma. The effects of nanofibers with incorporated platelet-rich plasma on cell proliferation, survival, morphology and mobility were examined. Nanofibers limited cell mobility, changed morphology and stimulated cell proliferation. Despite of the small amount of blood-derived growth factors introduced in cell culture via platelet-rich plasma-loaded nanofibers, such nanofibrillar support significantly induced cell proliferation, indicating synergistic effect of nanotopography and incorporated growth factors. The overall results confirm favorable in vitro properties of produced nanofibers, indicating their high potential as a nanomaterial suitable for delivery of platelet-rich plasma in wound healing applications. PMID:24931341

  6. Characterization of distinct mesenchymal-like cell populations from human skeletal muscle in situ and in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human skeletal muscle is an essential source of various cellular progenitors with potential therapeutic perspectives. We first used extracellular markers to identify in situ the main cell types located in a satellite position or in the endomysium of the skeletal muscle. Immunohistology revealed labeling of cells by markers of mesenchymal (CD13, CD29, CD44, CD47, CD49, CD62, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD146, and CD15 in this study), myogenic (CD56), angiogenic (CD31, CD34, CD106, CD146), hematopoietic (CD10, CD15, CD34) lineages. We then analysed cell phenotypes and fates in short- and long-term cultures of dissociated muscle biopsies in a proliferation medium favouring the expansion of myogenic cells. While CD56+ cells grew rapidly, a population of CD15+ cells emerged, partly from CD56+ cells, and became individualized. Both populations expressed mesenchymal markers similar to that harboured by human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. In differentiation media, both CD56+ and CD15+ cells shared osteogenic and chondrogenic abilities, while CD56+ cells presented a myogenic capacity and CD15+ cells presented an adipogenic capacity. An important proportion of cells expressed the CD34 antigen in situ and immediately after muscle dissociation. However, CD34 antigen did not persist in culture and this initial population gave rise to adipogenic cells. These results underline the diversity of human muscle cells, and the shared or restricted commitment abilities of the main lineages under defined conditions.

  7. Cytokines and Growth Factors Stimulate Hyaluronan Production: Role of Hyaluronan in Epithelial to Mesenchymal-Like Transition in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Chow

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the role of hyaluronan (HA in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC since close association between HA level and malignancy has been reported. HA is an abundant extracellular matrix component and its synthesis is regulated by growth factors and cytokines that include epidermal growth factor (EGF and interleukin-1β (IL-1β. We showed that treatment with recombinant EGF and IL-1β, alone or in combination with TGF-β, was able to stimulate HA production in lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. TGF-β/IL-1β treatment induced epithelial to mesenchymal-like phenotype transition (EMT, changing cell morphology and expression of vimentin and E-cadherin. We also overexpressed hyaluronan synthase-3 (HAS3 in epithelial lung adenocarcinoma cell line H358, resulting in induced HA expression, EMT phenotype, enhanced MMP9 and MMP2 activities and increased invasion. Furthermore, adding exogenous HA to A549 cells and inducing HA H358 cells resulted in increased resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitor, Iressa. Together, these results suggest that elevated HA production is able to induce EMT and increase resistance to Iressa in NSCLC. Therefore, regulation of HA level in NSCLC may be a new target for therapeutic intervention.

  8. Characterization of distinct mesenchymal-like cell populations from human skeletal muscle in situ and in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecourt, Severine, E-mail: severine.lecourt@sls.aphp.fr [UPMC/AIM UMR S 974, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); INSERM U974, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); CNRS UMR 7215, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); Laboratoire de Therapie Cellulaire, Hopital Saint Louis, Paris (France); Marolleau, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: Marolleau.Jean-Pierre@chu-amiens.fr [Laboratoire de Therapie Cellulaire, Hopital Saint Louis, Paris (France); CHU Amiens Hopital Sud, Service d' Hematologie Clinique, UPJV, Amiens (France); Fromigue, Olivia, E-mail: olivia.fromigue@larib.inserm.fr [INSERM U606, Universite Paris 07, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris (France); Vauchez, Karine, E-mail: k.vauchez@institut-myologie.org [UPMC/AIM UMR S 974, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); INSERM U974, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); CNRS UMR 7215, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); Genzyme S.A.S., Saint-Germain en Laye (France); Andriamanalijaona, Rina, E-mail: rinandria@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Biochimie des Tissus Conjonctifs, Faculte de Medecine, Caen (France); Ternaux, Brigitte, E-mail: brigitte.ternaux@orange.fr [Laboratoire de Therapie Cellulaire, Hopital Saint Louis, Paris (France); Lacassagne, Marie-Noelle, E-mail: mnlacassagne@free.fr [Laboratoire de Therapie Cellulaire, Hopital Saint Louis, Paris (France); Robert, Isabelle, E-mail: isa-robert@hotmail.fr [Laboratoire de Therapie Cellulaire, Hopital Saint Louis, Paris (France); Boumediene, Karim, E-mail: karim.boumediene@unicaen.fr [Laboratoire de Biochimie des Tissus Conjonctifs, Faculte de Medecine, Caen (France); Chereau, Frederic, E-mail: fchereau@pervasistx.com [Myosix S.A., Saint-Germain en Laye (France); Marie, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.marie@larib.inserm.fr [INSERM U606, Universite Paris 07, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris (France); and others

    2010-09-10

    Human skeletal muscle is an essential source of various cellular progenitors with potential therapeutic perspectives. We first used extracellular markers to identify in situ the main cell types located in a satellite position or in the endomysium of the skeletal muscle. Immunohistology revealed labeling of cells by markers of mesenchymal (CD13, CD29, CD44, CD47, CD49, CD62, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD146, and CD15 in this study), myogenic (CD56), angiogenic (CD31, CD34, CD106, CD146), hematopoietic (CD10, CD15, CD34) lineages. We then analysed cell phenotypes and fates in short- and long-term cultures of dissociated muscle biopsies in a proliferation medium favouring the expansion of myogenic cells. While CD56{sup +} cells grew rapidly, a population of CD15{sup +} cells emerged, partly from CD56{sup +} cells, and became individualized. Both populations expressed mesenchymal markers similar to that harboured by human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. In differentiation media, both CD56{sup +} and CD15{sup +} cells shared osteogenic and chondrogenic abilities, while CD56{sup +} cells presented a myogenic capacity and CD15{sup +} cells presented an adipogenic capacity. An important proportion of cells expressed the CD34 antigen in situ and immediately after muscle dissociation. However, CD34 antigen did not persist in culture and this initial population gave rise to adipogenic cells. These results underline the diversity of human muscle cells, and the shared or restricted commitment abilities of the main lineages under defined conditions.

  9. Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote regeneration of crush-injured rat sciatic nerves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mi-Ae Sung; Jong-Ho Lee; Hun Jong Jung; Jung-Woo Lee; Jin-Yong Lee; Kang-Mi Pang; Sang Bae Yoo; Mohammad S. Alrashdan; Soung-Min Kim; Jeong Won Jahng

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells can promote neural regeneration following brain injury. However, the therapeutic effects of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in guiding peripheral nerve regeneration remain poorly understood. This study was designed to investigate the effects of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells on neural regeneration using a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model. Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (1 × 106) or a PBS control were injected into the crush-injured segment of the sciatic nerve. Four weeks after cell injection, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tyrosine kinase receptor B mRNA expression at the lesion site was increased in comparison to control. Furthermore, sciatic function index, Fluoro Gold-labeled neuron counts and axon density were also significantly increased when compared with control. Our results indicate that human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote the functional recovery of crush-injured sciatic nerves.

  10. Genetically engineered blood pharming: generation of HLA-universal platelets derived from CD34+ progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Constança; Blaszczyk, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Blood pharming is a recently designed concept to enable in vitro production of blood cells that are safe, effective and readily available. This approach represents an alternative to blood donation and may contribute to overcome the shortage of blood products. However, the high variability of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci remains a major hurdle to the application of off-the-shelf blood products. Refractoriness to platelet (PLT) transfusion caused by alloimmunization against HLA class I antigens constitutes a relevant clinical problem. Thus, it would be desirable to generate PLT units devoid of HLA antigens. To reduce the immunogenicity of cell-based therapeutics, we have permanently reduced HLA class I expression using an RNA interference strategy. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the generation of HLA class I-silenced (HLA-universal) PLTs from CD34+ progenitor cells using an shRNA targeting β2-microglobulin transcripts is feasible. CD34+ progenitor cells derived from G-CSF mobilised donors were transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding for the β2-microglobulin-specific shRNA and differentiated into PLTs using a liquid culture system. The functionality of HLA-silenced PLTs and their ability to escape HLA antibody-mediated cytotoxicity were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Platelet activation in response to ADP and thrombin were assessed in vitro. The immune-evasion capability of HLA-universal megakaryocytes (MKs) and PLTs was tested in lymphocytotoxicity assays using anti-HLA antibodies. To assess the functionality of HLA-universal PLTs in vivo, HLA-silenced MKs were infused into NOD/SCID/IL-2Rγc(-/-) mice with or without anti-HLA antibodies. PLT generation was evaluated by flow cytometry using anti-CD42a and CD61 antibodies. HLA-universal PLTs demonstrated to be functionally similar to blood-derived PLTs. Lymphocytotoxicity assays showed that HLA-silencing efficiently protects MKs against HLA antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity. 80

  11. Genetically engineered blood pharming: generation of HLA-universal platelets derived from CD34+ progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Constança; Blaszczyk, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Blood pharming is a recently designed concept to enable in vitro production of blood cells that are safe, effective and readily available. This approach represents an alternative to blood donation and may contribute to overcome the shortage of blood products. However, the high variability of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci remains a major hurdle to the application of off-the-shelf blood products. Refractoriness to platelet (PLT) transfusion caused by alloimmunization against HLA class I antigens constitutes a relevant clinical problem. Thus, it would be desirable to generate PLT units devoid of HLA antigens. To reduce the immunogenicity of cell-based therapeutics, we have permanently reduced HLA class I expression using an RNA interference strategy. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the generation of HLA class I-silenced (HLA-universal) PLTs from CD34+ progenitor cells using an shRNA targeting β2-microglobulin transcripts is feasible. CD34+ progenitor cells derived from G-CSF mobilised donors were transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding for the β2-microglobulin-specific shRNA and differentiated into PLTs using a liquid culture system. The functionality of HLA-silenced PLTs and their ability to escape HLA antibody-mediated cytotoxicity were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Platelet activation in response to ADP and thrombin were assessed in vitro. The immune-evasion capability of HLA-universal megakaryocytes (MKs) and PLTs was tested in lymphocytotoxicity assays using anti-HLA antibodies. To assess the functionality of HLA-universal PLTs in vivo, HLA-silenced MKs were infused into NOD/SCID/IL-2Rγc(-/-) mice with or without anti-HLA antibodies. PLT generation was evaluated by flow cytometry using anti-CD42a and CD61 antibodies. HLA-universal PLTs demonstrated to be functionally similar to blood-derived PLTs. Lymphocytotoxicity assays showed that HLA-silencing efficiently protects MKs against HLA antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity. 80

  12. Impact of Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Cardiovascular Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Roura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, cell therapy has become an exciting opportunity to treat human diseases. Early enthusiasm using adult stem cell sources has been tempered in light of preliminary benefits in patients. Considerable efforts have been dedicated, therefore, to explore alternative cells such as those extracted from umbilical cord blood (UCB. In line, UCB banking has become a popular possibility to preserve potentially life-saving cells that are usually discarded after birth, and the number of UCB banks has grown worldwide. Thus, a brief overview on the categories of UCB banks as well as the properties, challenges, and impact of UCB-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs on the area of cardiovascular research is presented. Taken together, the experience recounted here shows that UCBMSCs are envisioned as attractive therapeutic candidates against human disorders arising and/or progressing with vascular deficit.

  13. A stable and reproducible human blood-brain barrier model derived from hematopoietic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Cecchelli

    Full Text Available The human blood brain barrier (BBB is a selective barrier formed by human brain endothelial cells (hBECs, which is important to ensure adequate neuronal function and protect the central nervous system (CNS from disease. The development of human in vitro BBB models is thus of utmost importance for drug discovery programs related to CNS diseases. Here, we describe a method to generate a human BBB model using cord blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells. The cells were initially differentiated into ECs followed by the induction of BBB properties by co-culture with pericytes. The brain-like endothelial cells (BLECs express tight junctions and transporters typically observed in brain endothelium and maintain expression of most in vivo BBB properties for at least 20 days. The model is very reproducible since it can be generated from stem cells isolated from different donors and in different laboratories, and could be used to predict CNS distribution of compounds in human. Finally, we provide evidence that Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway mediates in part the BBB inductive properties of pericytes.

  14. Bioluminescence imaging of cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cell transplanatation into myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jung Joon; Ahn, Young Keun; Moon, Sung Min; Lim, Sang Yup; Yun, Kyung Ho; Heo, Young Jun; Song, Ho Chun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Bom, Hee Seung [School of Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The conventional method of analyzing myocardial cell transplanation relies on postmortem histology. We sought to demonstrate the feasibility of longitudinal monitoring transplanted cell survival in living animals using optical imaging techniques. Umblical cord blood was collected upon delivery with informed consent. Umblical mononuclear cells were obtained by negative immuno-depletion of CD3, CD14, CD19, CD38, CD66b, and glycophorin- A positive cells, followed by Ficoll- Paque density gradient centrifugation, and plated in non-coated tissue culture flasks in expansion medium. Cells were allowed to adhere overnight, thereafter non-adherent cells were washed out with medium changes. After getting the MSCs, they were transfected [multiplicity of infection (MOl) = 40) with Ad-CMV-Fluc overnight. Rats (n=4) underwent intramyocardial injection of 5 x 10{sup 5} MSCs expressing firefly luciferase (Fluc) reporter gene. Optical bioluminescence imaging was performed using the charged-coupled device camera (Xenogen) from the 1st day of transplantion. Cardiac bioluminescence signals were present from 2nd day of transplantation. Cardiac signals were clearly present at day 2 (9.2x10{sup 3}p/s/cm{sup 2}/sr). The signal reduced from day 3. The locations, magnitude, and survival duration of cord blood derived MSCs were monitored noninvasively. With further development, molecular imaging studies should add critical insights into cardiac cell transplantation.

  15. Protective role of a novel human erythrocyte-derived depressing factor on blood vessels in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The protective role of a human erythrocyte-derived depressing factor (EDDF) on blood vessels was evaluated. The experiments were carried out on 25male Wistar rats aged 6-8 weeks, which were divided into control (n = 8), calcium overload (n = 8) and NG-L-nitro-arginine hypertensive model groups (L-NNA,n = 9), respectively. The isolated vascular ring perfusion assay, two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy (TPM) and transmitted electron microscope were used to examine the effect of EDDF on vascular function and ultrastructure. Results showed that the contractile response of calcium overload rats and L-NNA rats to phenylephrine (PE) was significantly enhanced compared with that of the control (P < 0.05), and EDDF (10-3 g @mL-1) remarkably decreased the vascular contractile response of control's and calcium overload rats (P < 0.05),while EDDF had no effect on that of L-NNA rats. EDDF also alleviated the ultrastructural lesion of aorta VSMC in calcium overload rats by easing the abnormal in the nucleus, mitochondrion and other organell. It is concluded that EDDF could efficiently protect blood vessels against injury by influencing Ca2+ transport and ameliorating the lesion of VSMC, and further supported the hypothesis that the NO-cGMP pathway might contribute to the vasodilation and partially antihypertensive mechanism of EDDF.``

  16. Angioblast Derived from ES Cells Construct Blood Vessels and Ameliorate Diabetic Polyneuropathy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhito Himeno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although numerous reports addressing pathological involvements of diabetic polyneuropathy have been conducted, a universally effective treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy has not yet been established. Recently, regenerative medicine studies in diabetic polyneuropathy using somatic stem/progenitor cell have been reported. However, the effectiveness of these cell transplantations was restricted because of their functional and numerical impairment in diabetic objects. Here, we investigated the efficacy of treatment for diabetic polyneuropathy using angioblast-like cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. Methods and Results. Angioblast-like cells were obtained from mouse embryonic stem cells and transplantation of these cells improved several physiological impairments in diabetic polyneuropathy: hypoalgesia, delayed nerve conduction velocities, and reduced blood flow in sciatic nerve and plantar skin. Furthermore, pathologically, the capillary number to muscle fiber ratios were increased in skeletal muscles of transplanted hindlimbs, and intraepidermal nerve fiber densities were ameliorated in transplanted plantar skin. Transplanted cells maintained their viabilities and differentiated to endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells around the injection sites. Moreover, several transplanted cells constructed chimeric blood vessels with recipient cells. Conclusions. These results suggest that transplantation of angioblast like cells induced from embryonic stem cells appears to be a novel therapeutic strategy for diabetic polyneuropathy.

  17. Bioluminescence imaging of cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cell transplanatation into myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional method of analyzing myocardial cell transplanation relies on postmortem histology. We sought to demonstrate the feasibility of longitudinal monitoring transplanted cell survival in living animals using optical imaging techniques. Umblical cord blood was collected upon delivery with informed consent. Umblical mononuclear cells were obtained by negative immuno-depletion of CD3, CD14, CD19, CD38, CD66b, and glycophorin- A positive cells, followed by Ficoll- Paque density gradient centrifugation, and plated in non-coated tissue culture flasks in expansion medium. Cells were allowed to adhere overnight, thereafter non-adherent cells were washed out with medium changes. After getting the MSCs, they were transfected [multiplicity of infection (MOl) = 40) with Ad-CMV-Fluc overnight. Rats (n=4) underwent intramyocardial injection of 5 x 105 MSCs expressing firefly luciferase (Fluc) reporter gene. Optical bioluminescence imaging was performed using the charged-coupled device camera (Xenogen) from the 1st day of transplantion. Cardiac bioluminescence signals were present from 2nd day of transplantation. Cardiac signals were clearly present at day 2 (9.2x103p/s/cm2/sr). The signal reduced from day 3. The locations, magnitude, and survival duration of cord blood derived MSCs were monitored noninvasively. With further development, molecular imaging studies should add critical insights into cardiac cell transplantation

  18. Human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor protect injured optic nerve:viscoelasticity characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-man Lv; Yan Liu; Fei Wu; Yi Yuan; Min Luo

    2016-01-01

    The optic nerve is a viscoelastic solid-like biomaterial. Its normal stress relaxation and creep properties enable the nerve to resist constant strain and protect it from injury. We hypothesized that stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve change after injury. More-over, human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells may restore these changes to normal. To validate this hypothesis, a rabbit model of optic nerve injury was established using a clamp approach. At 7 days after injury, the vitreous body re-ceived a one-time injection of 50 μg human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or 1 × 106 human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells. At 30 days after injury, stress relaxation and creep properties of the optic nerve that received treatment had recovered greatly, with patho-logical changes in the injured optic nerve also noticeably improved. These results suggest that human brain-derived neurotrophic factor or umbilical cord blood-derived stem cell intervention promotes viscoelasticity recovery of injured optic nerves, and thereby contributes to nerve recovery.

  19. Elimination of epithelial-like and mesenchymal-like breast cancer stem cells to inhibit metastasis following nanoparticle-mediated photothermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paholak, Hayley J; Stevers, Nicholas O; Chen, Hongwei; Burnett, Joseph P; He, Miao; Korkaya, Hasan; McDermott, Sean P; Deol, Yadwinder; Clouthier, Shawn G; Luther, Tahra; Li, Qiao; Wicha, Max S; Sun, Duxin

    2016-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggesting breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) drive metastasis and evade traditional therapies underscores a critical need to exploit the untapped potential of nanotechnology to develop innovative therapies that will significantly improve patient survival. Photothermal therapy (PTT) to induce localized hyperthermia is one of few nanoparticle-based treatments to enter clinical trials in human cancer patients, and has recently gained attention for its ability to induce a systemic immune response targeting distal cancer cells in mouse models. Here, we first conduct classic cancer stem cell (CSC) assays, both in vitro and in immune-compromised mice, to demonstrate that PTT mediated by highly crystallized iron oxide nanoparticles effectively eliminates BCSCs in translational models of triple negative breast cancer. PTT in vitro preferentially targets epithelial-like ALDH + BCSCs, followed by mesenchymal-like CD44+/CD24- BCSCs, compared to bulk cancer cells. PTT inhibits BCSC self-renewal through reduction of mammosphere formation in primary and secondary generations. Secondary implantation in NOD/SCID mice reveals the ability of PTT to impede BCSC-driven tumor formation. Next, we explore the translational potential of PTT using metastatic and immune-competent mouse models. PTT to inhibit BCSCs significantly reduces metastasis to the lung and lymph nodes. In immune-competent BALB/c mice, PTT effectively eliminates ALDH + BCSCs. These results suggest the feasibility of incorporating PTT into standard clinical treatments such as surgery to enhance BCSC destruction and inhibit metastasis, and the potential of such combination therapy to improve long-term survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer. PMID:27450902

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from human placenta suppress allogeneic umbilical cord blood lymphocyte proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Dong LI; Wei Yuan ZHANG; He Lian LI; Xiao Xia JIANG; Yi ZHANG; Pei Hsien TANG; Ning MAO

    2005-01-01

    Human placenta-derived mononuclear cells (MNC) were isolated by a Percoll density gradient and cultured in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) maintenance medium.The homogenous layer of adherent cells exhibited a typical fibroblastlike morphology,a large expansive potential,and cell cycle characteristics including a subset of quiescent cells.In vitro differentiation assays showed the tripotential differentiation capacity of these cells toward adipogenic,osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages.Flow cytometry analyses and immunocytochemistry stain showed that placental MSC was a homogeneous cell population devoid of hematopoietic cells,which uniformly expressed CD29,CD44,CD73,CD 105,CD166,laminin,fibronectin and vimentin while being negative for expression of CD31,CD34,CD45 and α-smooth muscle actin.Most importantly,immuno-phenotypic analyses demonstrated that these cells expressed class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-Ⅰ),but they did not express MHC-Ⅱ molecules.Additionally these cells could suppress umbilical cord blood (UCB) lymphocytes proliferation induced by cellular or nonspecific mitogenic stimuli.This strongly implies that they may have potential application in allograft transplantation.Since placenta and UCB are homogeneous,the MSC derived from human placenta can be transplanted combined with hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) from UCB to reduce the potential graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in recipients.

  1. Identification of myeloid derived suppressor cells in the peripheral blood of tumor bearing dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherger Matthew

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs are a recently described population of immune cells that significantly contribute to the immunosuppression seen in cancer patients. MDSCs are one of the most important factors that limit the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy (e.g. cancer vaccines and MDSC levels are increased in cancer in multiple species. Identifying and targeting MDSCs is actively being investigated in the field of human oncology and is increasingly being investigated in veterinary oncology. The treatment of canine cancer not only benefits dogs, but is being used for translational studies evaluating and modifcying candidate therapies for use in humans. Thus, it is necessary to understand the immune alterations seen in canine cancer patients which, to date, have been relatively limited. This study investigates the use of commercially available canine antibodies to detect an immunosuppressive (CD11blow/CADO48low cell population that is increased in the peripheral blood of tumor-bearing dogs. Results Commercially available canine antibodies CD11b and CADO48A were used to evaluate white blood cells from the peripheral blood cells of forty healthy control dogs and forty untreated, tumor-bearing dogs. Tumor-bearing dogs had a statistically significant increase in CD11blow/CADO48Alow cells (7.9% as compared to the control dogs (3.6%. Additionally, sorted CD11blow/CADO48Alow generated in vitro suppressed the proliferation of canine lymphocytes. Conclusions The purpose of this study was aimed at identifying potential canine specific markers for identifying MDSCs in the peripheral blood circulation of dogs. This study demonstrates an increase in a unique CD11blow/CADO48Alow cell population in tumor-bearing dogs. This immunophenotype is consistent with described phenotypes of MDSCs in other species (i.e. mice and utilizes commercially available canine-specific antibodies. Importantly, CD11blow/CADO48Alow from a tumor environment

  2. Effect of peptides derived from food proteins on blood pressure – a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Pripp, Are Hugo

    2008-01-01

    Background: Peptides derived from food proteins have in clinical trials shown an effect on blood pressure. Their biological mechanism is mainly due to inhibition of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) and thereby regulation of blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin system. A meta-analysis of these trials is needed to better quantify their effect, sources of variation and possible publication bias. Objective: To perform a meta-analysis of placebo-controlled clinical trials on peptides ...

  3. The variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Risk, uncertainty or safety in the use of blood and blood derivatives?

    OpenAIRE

    Liras, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    It has been long since French physician Jean-Baptiste Denys carried out the first successful blood transfusion to a human being. Using bird feathers as canules, sheep blood was transfused to a young man. The patient died soon after Denys' treatment and Denys was accused of murder. In the XXI century, known as the biotechnology century, we face new challenges in Medicine. New emerging and reemerging diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) or "mad cow disease" and its human variant (v...

  4. [Single-donor (apheresis) platelets and pooled whole-blood-derived platelets--significance and assessment of both blood products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzler, Walter E

    2014-01-01

    The transfusion efficacy of ATK, which contain fully functional platelets, is beyond all doubt. The equivalence of ATK and PTK has been subject of many studies. Some of those studies show the superiority of ATK's, while others do not, but there have been no studies that demonstrated a superiority of PTK's. The superiority of platelets stored in plasma and in third generation additive solution was demonstrated in clinical studies; therefore, it cannot be said that all the platelet concentrates on the German market are equivalent in efficacy. Of decisive importance, above all, is the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections with known pathogens, or those not yet discovered. This risk is different for ATK compared to PTK. Taking this difference in risk and the difference in donor exposure of transfused patients into account, it can definitely be said that ATK and PTK are not equivalent. In 2012, the Robert-Koch-Institute (RKI) published a mathematical risk model for different platelet concentrates and assessed the risk of transmitting known pathogens such as HIV, HCV, and HBV. The risk was higher for PTK compared to ATK. The relative risks for PTK derived from 4BCs were 2.2 (95%--CI: 2.1-2.4) for HIV, 2.7 (95%--CI: 2.5-3.0) for HCV, and 2.2 (95%--CI: 2.8-3.7) for HBV. At the present time, these are the relative risks of transfusion-transmitted infections with the traditional pathogens for PTK compared to ATK. In addition to the RKI assessed risks, there is the theoretical risk of a new, unknown agent, transmitted through blood exposure. The magnitude of this risk is hardly predictable for PTK. The experience gathered so far, especially in the last three decades, with the emergence of HIV, prions, and West Nil virus, shows that the biological nature of a next transfusion-transmissible infectious agent cannot be predictable. This agent, if we think at a conventional sexually transmissible agent with nucleic acid and long latent period, would spread first in areas with

  5. [Single-donor (apheresis) platelets and pooled whole-blood-derived platelets--significance and assessment of both blood products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzler, Walter E

    2014-01-01

    The transfusion efficacy of ATK, which contain fully functional platelets, is beyond all doubt. The equivalence of ATK and PTK has been subject of many studies. Some of those studies show the superiority of ATK's, while others do not, but there have been no studies that demonstrated a superiority of PTK's. The superiority of platelets stored in plasma and in third generation additive solution was demonstrated in clinical studies; therefore, it cannot be said that all the platelet concentrates on the German market are equivalent in efficacy. Of decisive importance, above all, is the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections with known pathogens, or those not yet discovered. This risk is different for ATK compared to PTK. Taking this difference in risk and the difference in donor exposure of transfused patients into account, it can definitely be said that ATK and PTK are not equivalent. In 2012, the Robert-Koch-Institute (RKI) published a mathematical risk model for different platelet concentrates and assessed the risk of transmitting known pathogens such as HIV, HCV, and HBV. The risk was higher for PTK compared to ATK. The relative risks for PTK derived from 4BCs were 2.2 (95%--CI: 2.1-2.4) for HIV, 2.7 (95%--CI: 2.5-3.0) for HCV, and 2.2 (95%--CI: 2.8-3.7) for HBV. At the present time, these are the relative risks of transfusion-transmitted infections with the traditional pathogens for PTK compared to ATK. In addition to the RKI assessed risks, there is the theoretical risk of a new, unknown agent, transmitted through blood exposure. The magnitude of this risk is hardly predictable for PTK. The experience gathered so far, especially in the last three decades, with the emergence of HIV, prions, and West Nil virus, shows that the biological nature of a next transfusion-transmissible infectious agent cannot be predictable. This agent, if we think at a conventional sexually transmissible agent with nucleic acid and long latent period, would spread first in areas with

  6. Myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants induce blood-brain barrier dysfunction in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Üllen

    Full Text Available Peripheral leukocytes can exacerbate brain damage by release of cytotoxic mediators that disrupt blood-brain barrier (BBB function. One of the oxidants released by activated leukocytes is hypochlorous acid (HOCl formed via the myeloperoxidase (MPO-H2O2-Cl(- system. In the present study we examined the role of leukocyte activation, leukocyte-derived MPO and MPO-generated oxidants on BBB function in vitro and in vivo. In a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced systemic inflammation, neutrophils that had become adherent released MPO into the cerebrovasculature. In vivo, LPS-induced BBB dysfunction was significantly lower in MPO-deficient mice as compared to wild-type littermates. Both, fMLP-activated leukocytes and the MPO-H2O2-Cl(- system inflicted barrier dysfunction of primary brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC that was partially rescued with the MPO inhibitor 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide. BMVEC treatment with the MPO-H2O2-Cl(- system or activated neutrophils resulted in the formation of plasmalogen-derived chlorinated fatty aldehydes. 2-chlorohexadecanal (2-ClHDA severely compromised BMVEC barrier function and induced morphological alterations in tight and adherens junctions. In situ perfusion of rat brain with 2-ClHDA increased BBB permeability in vivo. 2-ClHDA potently activated the MAPK cascade at physiological concentrations. An ERK1/2 and JNK antagonist (PD098059 and SP600125, respectively protected against 2-ClHDA-induced barrier dysfunction in vitro. The current data provide evidence that interference with the MPO pathway could protect against BBB dysfunction under (neuroinflammatory conditions.

  7. The Chondrogenic Potential of Progenitor Cells Derived from Peripheral Blood: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-Jie; Yin, Meng-Hong; Jiang, Dong; Zhang, Zheng-Zheng; Qi, Yan-Song; Wang, Hai-Jun; Yu, Jia-Kuo

    2016-08-15

    An increasing number of studies have detected mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) in the peripheral blood (PB). This study aimed to systematically review the possibility of using the PB as a source for chondrogenic progenitors. PubMed, the Web of Science, and Embase were searched for relevant articles. The findings of the studies were reviewed to evaluate the biological characteristics of PB-derived MSCs, chondrogenic MPCs, and their applications in cartilage repair. Thirty-six articles were included in the final analysis, 29 of which indicated that PB is a potential source for chondrogenic progenitor cells. Thirty-two studies reporting in vitro data, including 79.2% (19/24) of studies on PB MSCs and 75% (6/8) of studies on chondrogenic PB MPCs, confirmed the existence of PB MSCs and PB MPCs, respectively; all in vivo investigations showed that using PB as a cell source enhanced cartilage repair. PB MSCs were found in most of the animal studies (12/13), whereas 7 of 11 human studies described the presence of PB MSCs. This systematic review strongly indicates the existence of MSCs in the PB of animals, whereas the presence of MSCs in human PB is less clear. Although the presence of both MSCs and chondrogenic MPCs in the PB, as well as a few favorable outcomes associated with the use of PB-derived progenitors for cartilage repair in vivo, suggests that the PB is a potential alternative source of chondrogenic progenitor cells for cartilage repair, the efficacy of these cells has not been compared to those from other sources, such as bone marrow or adipose tissue in controlled studies. PMID:27353075

  8. The therapeutic potential of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Ju; Lee, Jong Kil; Lee, Hyun; Shin, Ji-woong; Carter, Janet E; Sakamoto, Toshiro; Jin, Hee Kyung; Bae, Jae-sung

    2010-08-30

    The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include the presence of extracellular amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) in the form of amyloid plaques in the brain parenchyma and neuronal loss. The mechanism associated with neuronal death by amyloid plaques is unclear but oxidative stress and glial activation has been implicated. Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) are being scrutinized as a potential therapeutic tool to prevent various neurodegenerative diseases including AD. However, the therapeutic impact of hUCB-MSCs in AD has not yet been reported. Here we undertook in vitro work to examine the potential impact of hUCB-MSCs treatment on neuronal loss using a paradigm of cultured hippocampal neurons treated with Abeta. We confirmed that hUCB-MSCs co-culture reduced the hippocampal apoptosis induced by Abeta treatment. Moreover, in an acute AD mouse model to directly test the efficacy of hUCB-MSCs treatment on AD-related cognitive and neuropathological outcomes, we demonstrated that markers of glial activation, oxidative stress and apoptosis levels were decreased in AD mouse brain. Interestingly, hUCB-MSCs treated AD mice demonstrated cognitive rescue with restoration of learning/memory function. These data suggest that hUCB-MSCs warrant further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent in AD.

  9. A cord blood monocyte–derived cell therapy product accelerates brain remyelination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntz, Susan; Scotland, Paula; Xu, Li; Noeldner, Pamela; Patel, Sachit; Wollish, Amy; Gunaratne, Aruni; Gentry, Tracy; Matsushima, Glenn K.; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Balber, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    Microglia and monocytes play important roles in regulating brain remyelination. We developed DUOC-01, a cell therapy product intended for treatment of demyelinating diseases, from banked human umbilical cord blood (CB) mononuclear cells. Immunodepletion and selection studies demonstrated that DUOC-01 cells are derived from CB CD14+ monocytes. We compared the ability of freshly isolated CB CD14+ monocytes and DUOC-01 cells to accelerate remyelination of the brains of NOD/SCID/IL2Rγnull mice following cuprizone feeding–mediated demyelination. The corpus callosum of mice intracranially injected with DUOC-01 showed enhanced myelination, a higher proportion of fully myelinated axons, decreased gliosis and cellular infiltration, and more proliferating oligodendrocyte lineage cells than those of mice receiving excipient. Uncultured CB CD14+ monocytes also accelerated remyelination, but to a significantly lesser extent than DUOC-01 cells. Microarray analysis, quantitative PCR studies, Western blotting, and flow cytometry demonstrated that expression of factors that promote remyelination including PDGF-AA, stem cell factor, IGF1, MMP9, MMP12, and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 were upregulated in DUOC-01 compared to CB CD14+ monocytes. Collectively, our results show that DUOC-01 accelerates brain remyelination by multiple mechanisms and could be beneficial in treating demyelinating conditions. PMID:27699230

  10. Effects of non-toxic cryoprotective agents on the viability of cord blood derived MNCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissoyi, Akalabya; Pramanik, K

    2013-01-01

    The present work investigates the effects of a variety of natural cryoprotectants in combination on post-thaw viability and apoptosis of cryopreserved mononuclear cells (MNCs) derived from umbilical cord blood. The extracellular cryoprotectants (10 mM) namely trehalose, hydroxyl ethyl starch, polyvinyl pyrrolidine and intracellular CPAs (5 mM) like erythritol, taurine and ectoine were used to prepare different combinations of freezing medium following L9 (3(4)) Taguchi orthogonal array. Catalase, coenzyme Q10 and n-acetyl cystine (100 microg/m) were added as antioxidants. Among various combinations, freezing medium consisting of hydroxyl ethyl starch, ectoin and co-enzyme Q10 with 10% FBS is found to be most effective combination achieving maximum cell viability of 93%, 5.6% early apoptotic, 0.7% late apoptotic and 0.1% necrotic cells. SEM and phase contrast microscopy confirmed the normal cell morphology of the post-thaw cultured cells with retaining their membrane integrity. The survival rate of MNCs is higher than the rate achieved using conventional Me2SO. PMID:24448765

  11. Partial Purification of the 5-Hydroxytryptamine-Reuptake System from Human Blood Platelets Using a Citalopram-Derived Affinity Resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biessen, E.A.L.; Horn, A.S.; Robillard, G.T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a procedure for the synthesis and application of a citalopram-derived affinity resin in purifying the 5HT-reuptake system from human blood platelets. A two-step scheme has been developed for partial purification, based on wheat germ agglutinin-lectin (WGA) affinity and citalopra

  12. Human umbilical cord blood stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor for optic nerve injury:a biomechanical evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-jun Zhang; Ya-jun Li; Xiao-guang Liu; Feng-xiao Huang; Tie-jun Liu; Dong-mei Jiang; Xue-man Lv; Min Luo

    2015-01-01

    Treatment for optic nerve injury by brain-derived neurotrophic factor or the transplantation of human umbilical cord blood stem cells has gained progress, but analysis by biomechanical indicators is rare. Rabbit models of optic nerve injury were established by a clamp. At 7 days after injury, the vitreous body received a one-time injection of 50 μg brain-derived neurotrophic factor or 1 × 106 human umbilical cord blood stem cells. After 30 days, the maximum load, max-imum stress, maximum strain, elastic limit load, elastic limit stress, and elastic limit strain had clearly improved in rabbit models of optical nerve injury after treatment with brain-derived neu-rotrophic factor or human umbilical cord blood stem cells. The damage to the ultrastructure of the optic nerve had also been reduced. These ifndings suggest that human umbilical cord blood stem cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor effectively repair the injured optical nerve, im-prove biomechanical properties, and contribute to the recovery after injury.

  13. Whole body UVA irradiation lowers systemic blood pressure by release of nitric oxide from intracutaneous photolabile nitric oxide derivates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opländer, C.; Volkmar, C.M.; Paunel-Görgülü, A.; van Faassen, E.E.H.; Heiss, C.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Human skin contains photolabile nitric oxide derivates like nitrite and S-nitroso thiols, which after UVA irradiation, decompose and lead to the formation of vasoactive NO. Objective: Here, we investigated whether whole body UVA irradiation influences the blood pressure of healthy volunte

  14. Factors inducing human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into neuron-like cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nawei Zhang; Fengqing Ji

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUCB-derived MSCs)can differentiate into neuron-like cells,which can be used to treat some central nervous system(CNS)diseases.To investigate the factors,which can induce HUCB-derived MSCs to differentiate into neuron-like cells,so as to find effective methods for future clinical application.DATA SOURCES:Using the key terms"human umbilical cord blood"combined with"mesenchymal stem cells,neuron-like cells,neural cells"respectively,the relevant articles in English published during the period from January 1999 to June 2006 were searched from the Medline database.Meanwhile,relevant Chinese articles published from January 1999 to June 2006 were searched Using the same key terms.STUDY SELECTION: All articles associated with the differentiation from human umbilical cord blood into neuron-like cells were selected firstly.Then the full texts were looked up by searchling Ovid medical Journals full-text database and Elsevier Electrical Journals Full-text Database.Articles with full expeiments,enrolled in inducible factors or involved inducible mechanism were retdeved.DATA EXTRACTION:Among 119 collected correlative articles,29 were involved and 90 were excluded.DATA SYNTHESIS:The inducible factors of HUCB-derived MSCs differentiatling into neuron-like cells included renal endothelial growth factors,fibroblasts,β-mercaptoethanol,dimethyl sulfoxide,butyl hydroxyl anisol,brain-derived neurotrophic factor,Danshen,retinoic acid,sodium ferulate and so on,but its mechanism was unclear.CONCLUSION:Human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs can differentiate into neuron-like cells,with varied inductors.

  15. Are Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Derived from Patients with Certain Myopathies Suitable for Personalized Drug Screening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy V. Shatillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Limb girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs and several other disorders which share their specific phenotype are rare, predominantly hereditary conditions with no curative treatment. Differential diagnosis of these myopathies is quite challenging and expensive in many cases. Therefore, a significant proportion of patients remains undiagnosed and untreated for a long time. At the same time there is a huge amount of drugs and supplements potentially able to modify the course of some of these muscular dystrophies. That is why a simple empirical approach able to define a patient’s reaction to a specific compound seems rational. Because most common basic pathogenetic mechanisms for these quite different disorders increase the vulnerability of muscle cells (or decrease ability for reparation during mechanical stress, we propose a simple, noninvasive and inexpensive approach for individualized drug screening based on the drug’s influence on the mechanical vulnerability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Methods: PBMC derived from 8 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, 2 patients with LGMD2A, 1 patient with LGMD2B, 1 with MERRF syndrome, 1 with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD and 13 matched control subjects were irradiated by ultrasound in the presence of several compounds (lisinopril, vitamin D3, prednisolon, tocopherol, topiramate, glutargin, α-lipoic acid, essentiale, and physiological solution. Then viability indexes of the samples were detected by citotoxic assays based on vital dye (neutral red and resazurin metabolism. Results: In cytotoxicity tests with active transport of neutral red into PBMC derived from DMD patients, the cells showed signs of destruction at 1.06±0.52 minutes of ultrasounding compared to 1.75±0.6 minutes in control. PBMCs from patients with other myopathies have either normal or decreased resistance to ultrasound. The addition of tocopherol significantly changes the PBMC

  16. Phenotypical and functional characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells derived from equine umbilical cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, N; Gulati, B R; Kumar, R; Gera, S; Kumar, S; Kumar, P; Yadav, P S

    2016-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offer promise as therapeutic aid in the repair of tendon and ligament injuries in race horses. Fetal adnexa is considered as an ideal source of MSCs due to many advantages, including non-invasive nature of isolation procedures and availability of large tissue mass for harvesting the cells. However, MSCs isolated from equine fetal adnexa have not been fully characterized due to lack of species-specific markers. Therefore, this study was carried out to isolate MSCs from equine umbilical cord blood (UCB) and characterize them using cross-reactive markers. The plastic-adherent cells could be isolated from 13 out of 20 (65 %) UCB samples. The UCB derived cells proliferated till passage 20 with average cell doubling time of 46.40 ± 2.86 h. These cells expressed mesenchymal surface markers but did not express haematopoietic/leucocytic markers by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. The phenotypic expression of CD29, CD44, CD73 and CD90 was shown by 96.36 ± 1.28, 93.40 ± 0.70, 73.23 ± 1.29 and 46.75 ± 3.95 % cells, respectively in flow cytometry, whereas, reactivity against the haematopoietic antigens CD34 and CD45 was observed only in 2.4 ± 0.20 and 0.1 ± 0.0 % of cells, respectively. Osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation could be achieved using established methods, whereas the optimum adipogenic differentiation was achieved after supplementing media with 15 % rabbit serum and 20 ng/ml of recombinant human insulin. In this study, we optimized methodology for isolation, cultural characterization, differentiation and immunophenotyping of MSCs from equine UCB. Protocols and markers used in this study can be employed for unequivocal characterization of equine MSCs. PMID:25487085

  17. Human Blood-Vessel-Derived Stem Cells for Tissue Repair and Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Wen Chen; Mirko Corselli; Bruno Péault; Johnny Huard

    2012-01-01

    Multipotent stem/progenitor cells with similar developmental potentials have been independently identified from diverse human tissue/organ cultures. The increasing recognition of the vascular/perivascular origin of mesenchymal precursors suggested blood vessels being a systemic source of adult stem/progenitor cells. Our group and other laboratories recently isolated multiple stem/progenitor cell subsets from blood vessels of adult human tissues. Each of the three structural layers of blood ve...

  18. The in Vitro Assessment of Biochemical Factors in Hepatocyte like Cells Derived from Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A KHoramroodi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Umbilical cord blood (UCB is a source of Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSC and progenitor cells that can reconstitute the hematopoietic system in patients with malignant and nonmalignant disorders. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived from umbilical cord blood (UCB have been differentiated to some kind of cells, such as osteobblast, adipoblast and chondroblast in Vitro. This study examined the differentiation of Umbilical Cord Blood (UCB derived stem cells to functional hepatocytes. Materials & Methods: The present study was an experimental study which was carried out in the Payam-e-Noor University of Tehran in cooperation with Hamedan University of Medical Sciences in 2008. Umbilical cord blood (UCB was obtained from Fatemieh hospital (Hamadan, Iran. Stem cells were isolated from the cord blood by combining density gradient centrifugation with plastic adherence. When the isolated cells reached 80% confluence, they differentiated to hepatocyte like cells. The medium which was used was consists of DMEM and 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS supplemented with 20 ng/mL Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF, 10 ng/mL basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF and 20 ng/mL Oncostatin M (OSM.The medium was changed every 3 days and stored for Albumin (ALB, Alpha Fetoprotein (AFP, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP, and urea assay. Finally PAS stain was done to study Glycogen storage in the differentiated cell. Results: Measurement of biochemical factors in different days showed that concentration of albumin (ALB, alpha fetoprotein (AFP, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and Urea gradually increased. Also, PAS staining showed the storage of glycogen in these cells. Conclusion: Stem cell-derived from human umbilical cord blood (HUCB is a new source of cell types for cell transplantation therapy of hepatic diseases and under certain conditions these cells can differentiate into liver cells.

  19. Novel UDP-GalNAc Derivative Structures Provide Insight into the Donor Specificity of Human Blood Group Glycosyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gerd K; Pesnot, Thomas; Palcic, Monica M; Jørgensen, Rene

    2015-12-25

    Two closely related glycosyltransferases are responsible for the final step of the biosynthesis of ABO(H) human blood group A and B antigens. The two enzymes differ by only four amino acid residues, which determine whether the enzymes transfer GalNAc from UDP-GalNAc or Gal from UDP-Gal to the H-antigen acceptor. The enzymes belong to the class of GT-A folded enzymes, grouped as GT6 in the CAZy database, and are characterized by a single domain with a metal dependent retaining reaction mechanism. However, the exact role of the four amino acid residues in the specificity of the enzymes is still unresolved. In this study, we report the first structural information of a dual specificity cis-AB blood group glycosyltransferase in complex with a synthetic UDP-GalNAc derivative. Interestingly, the GalNAc moiety adopts an unusual yet catalytically productive conformation in the binding pocket, which is different from the "tucked under" conformation previously observed for the UDP-Gal donor. In addition, we show that this UDP-GalNAc derivative in complex with the H-antigen acceptor provokes the same unusual binding pocket closure as seen for the corresponding UDP-Gal derivative. Despite this, the two derivatives show vastly different kinetic properties. Our results provide a important structural insight into the donor substrate specificity and utilization in blood group biosynthesis, which can very likely be exploited for the development of new glycosyltransferase inhibitors and probes.

  20. Achievements and challenges of adoptive T cell therapy with tumor-infiltrating or blood-derived lymphocytes for metastatic melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Inge Marie; Verdegaal, Els M

    2014-01-01

    with durable complete tumor eradication. These remarkable results justify the need for a definitive phase III trial documenting the efficacy of this type of T cell-based Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product in order to pave the way for regulatory approval and implementation of TIL therapy as a new treatment......Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) based on autologous T cell derived either from tumor as tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) or from peripheral blood is developing as a key area of future personalized cancer therapy. TIL-based ACT is defined as the infusion of T cells harvested from autologous fresh...... and interleukin-2 in addition to T cell infusion. To this end, adoptive T cell therapy using peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived T cells could be a welcome alternative to circumvent these limitations and broaden up the applicability of ACT. Here, we discuss current initiatives in this focused research...

  1. A study on the hemocompatibility of dendronized chitosan derivatives in red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou YF

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Yanfang Zhou,1,* Jiemei Li,1,* Fang Lu,1 Junjie Deng,2 Jiahua Zhang,1 Peijie Fang,1 Xinsheng Peng,1 Shu-Feng Zhou3 1Guangdong Medical Universtity, Dongguan, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Dendrimers are hyperbranched macromolecules with well-defined topological structures and multivalent functionalization sites, but they may cause cytotoxicity due to the presence of cationic charge. Recently, we have introduced alkyne-terminated poly(amidoamine (PAMAM dendrons of different generations (G=2,3 into chitosan to obtain dendronized chitosan derivatives [Cs-g-PAMAM (G=2,3], which exhibited a better water solubility and enhanced plasmid DNA transfection efficiency. In this study, we attempted to examine the impact of Cs-g-PAMAM (G=2,3 at different concentrations (25 µg/mL, 50 µg/mL, and 100 µg/mL on the morphology, surface structure, and viability of rat red blood cells (RBCs. The results showed that treatment of RBCs with Cs-g-PAMAM (G=2,3 at 50 µg/mL and 100 µg/mL induced a slightly higher hemolysis than Cs, and Cs-g-PAMAM (G=3 caused a slightly higher hemolysis than Cs-g-PAMAM (G=2, but all values were <5.0%. Optical microscopic and atomic force microscopic examinations indicated that Cs-g-PAMAM (G=2,3 caused slight RBC aggregation and lysis. Treatment of RBCs with 100 µg/mL Cs-g-PAMAM (G=3 induced echinocytic transformation, and RBCs displayed characteristic irregular contour due to the folding of the periphery. Drephanocyte-like RBCs were observed when treated with 100 µg/mL Cs-g-PAMAM (G=3. Erythrocytes underwent similar shape transition upon treatment with Cs-g-PAMAM (G=2 or Cs. The roughness values (Rms of RBCs incubated with Cs-g-PAMAM (G=2,3 were significantly larger

  2. Cord Blood Derived CD4+CD25high T Cells Become Functional Regulatory T Cells upon Antigen Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Elisabeth; Bannert, Christina; Gruber, Saskia; Klunker, Sven; Spittler, Andreas; Akdis, Cezmi A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Upon antigen exposure, cord blood derived T cells respond to ubiquitous environmental antigens by high proliferation. To date it remains unclear whether these “excessive” responses relate to different regulatory properties of the putative T regulatory cell (Treg) compartment or even expansion of the Treg compartment itself. Methods: Cord blood (>37 week of gestation) and peripheral blood (healthy controls) were obtained and different Treg cell subsets were isolated. The suppressive potential of Treg populations after antigen exposure was evaluated via functional inhibition assays ([3H]thymidine incorporation assay and CFSE staining) with or without allergen stimulation. The frequency and markers of CD4+CD25highFoxP3+ T cells were characterized by mRNA analysis and flow cytometry. Results: Cord blood derived CD4+CD25high cells did not show substantial suppressor capacity upon TCR activation, in contrast to CD4+CD25high cells freshly purified from adult blood. This could not be explained by a lower frequency of FoxP3+CD4+CD25highcells or FOXP3 mRNA expression. However, after antigen-specific stimulation in vitro, these cells showed strong proliferation and expansion and gained potent suppressive properties. The efficiency of their suppressive capacity can be enhanced in the presence of endotoxins. If T-cells were sorted according to their CD127 expression, a tiny subset of Treg cells (CD4+CD25+CD127low) is highly suppressive even without prior antigen exposure. Conclusion: Cord blood harbors a very small subset of CD4+CD25high Treg cells that requires antigen-stimulation to show expansion and become functional suppressive Tregs. PMID:22272233

  3. Endogenous endothelium-derived relaxing factor opposes hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and supports blood flow to hypoxic alveoli in anesthetized rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Sprague, R. S.; Thiemermann, C; Vane, J R

    1992-01-01

    Agents that inhibit nitric oxide synthesis augment hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. In an animal model of unilateral alveolar hypoxia, we investigated the hypothesis that endogenous endothelium-derived relaxing factor/nitric oxide opposes hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and supports blood flow to hypoxic alveoli, resulting in a reduction in arterial oxygen tension (PO2). In pentobarbital-anesthetized rabbits, unilateral alveolar hypoxia was produced by ventilation of one lung with 100% ...

  4. Gene therapy targeting cord blood-derived CD34+ cells from HIV-exposed infants: preclinical studies

    OpenAIRE

    Li, X.; Gervaix, Alain; Kang, D.; Law, P.; Spector, S. A.; Ho, A D; Wong-Staal, F

    1998-01-01

    Hematopoietic CD34+ cells from placental and umbilical cord blood (PUCB) can be valuable vehicles for gene therapy of immunodeficiencies and genetic disorders. We have conducted preclinical studies towards the treatment of HIV-1-infected infants with genetically 'immunized' CD34+ cells derived from PUCB using anti-HIV-1 hairpin ribozyme genes. PUCB was collected from 10 newborns of HIV-1-positive mothers. CD34+ cells were enriched with a modified procedure using Dynal immunomagnetic beads and...

  5. Are globoseries glycosphingolipids SSEA-3 and -4 markers for stem cells derived from human umbilical cord blood?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heli Suila; Jari Natunen; Saara Laitinen; Leena Valmu; Virve Pitk(a)nen; Tia Hirvonen; Annamari Heiskanen; Heidi Anderson; Anita Laitinen; Suvi Natunen; Halina Miller-Podraza; Tero Satomaa

    2011-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an efficient and valuable source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for transplantation. In addition to HSCs it harbours low amounts of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). No single marker to identify cord blood-derived stem cells, or to indicate their multipotent phenotype, has been characterized so far. SSEA-3 and -4 are cell surface globoseries glycosphingolipid epitopes that are commonly used as markers for human embryonic stem cells, where SSEA-3 rapidly disappears when the cells start to differentiate. Lately SSEA-3 and -4 have also been observed in MSCs. As there is an ongoing discussion and variation of stem-cell markers between laboratories, we have now comprehensively characterized the expression of these epitopes in both the multipotent stem-cell types derived from UCB. We have performed complementary analysis using gene expression analysis, mass spectrometry and immunochemical methods, including both flow cytometry and immunofluoresence microscopy. SSEA-4, but not SSEA-3, was expressed on MSCs but absent from HSCs. Our findings indicate that SSEA-3 and/or -4 may not be optimal markers for multipotency in the case of stem cells derived from cord blood, as their expression may be altered by cell-culture conditions.

  6. HIV-1 Infection of Placental Cord Blood Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    FOLCIK, RENEE M.; Merrill, Jeffrey D.; Li, Yuan; GUO, CHANG-JIANG; Douglas, Steven D.; STARR, STUART E.; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2001-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC), the most potent antigen-presenting cells (APC), have been implicated as the initial targets of HIV infection in skin and mucosal surfaces. DC can be generated in vitro from blood-isolated CD14+ monocytes or CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells in the presence of various cytokines. In this study, we investigated whether monocytes obtained from placental cord blood are capable of differentiation into dendritic cells when cultured with a combination of cytokines—granulocyte...

  7. Non-viral liposome-mediated transfer of brain-derived neurotrophic factor across the blood-brain barrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Xing; Chun-yan Wen; Song-tao Li; Zong-xin Xia

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the repair of central nervous system injury, but cannot directly tra-verse the blood-brain barrier. Liposomes are a new type of non-viral vector, able to carry macromolecules across the blood-brain barrier and into the brain. Here, we investigate whether BDNF could be transported across the blood-brain barrier by tail-vein injection of lipo-somes conjugated to transferrin (Tf) and polyethylene glycol (PEG), and carrying BDNF modiifed with cytomegalovirus promoter (pCMV) or glial ifbrillary acidic protein promoter (pGFAP) (Tf-pCMV-BDNF-PEG and Tf-pGFAP-BDNF-PEG, respectively). Both liposomes were able to traverse the blood-brain barrier, and BDNF was mainly expressed in the cerebral cortex. BDNF expression in the cerebral cortex was higher in the Tf-pGFAP-BDNF-PEG group than in the Tf-pCMV-BDNF-PEG group. This study demonstrates the successful construction of a non-virus targeted liposome, Tf-pGFAP-BDNF-PEG, which crosses the blood-brain barrier and is distributed in the cerebral cortex. Our work provides an experimental basis for BDNF-related targeted drug delivery in the brain.

  8. Characterization of Adherent Nonhematopoietic Cells Derived from Human Umbilical Cord Blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安小惠; 蔡国平

    2003-01-01

    To confirm and characterize the adherent fibroblast-like progenitors in human umbilical cord blood, we isolated mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood by Ficoll-Hypaque.Two main morphologically different kinds of cells were formed by culturing the cells in collagen-coated 24-well plastic dishes and flasks.One type was the adherent fibroblast-like cells, while the other was loosely adherent clonally expanded round cells.Our experiments demonstrate that the adherent fibroblast-like cells possess multilineage potential, including the ability to differentiate into endothelial-like cells and to express the mesenchymal cell marker.

  9. Differentiating of banked human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells into insulin-secreting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuc, Pham Van; Nhung, Truong Hai; Loan, Dang Thi Tung; Chung, Doan Chinh; Ngoc, Phan Kim

    2011-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells. They are able to differentiate into functional cells from not only mesoderm but also endoderm. Many researches showed that cells derived from fresh human UCB could transdifferentiate into insulin-secreting cells. In this study, transdifferentiating potential of cryopreserved human UCB-derived MSCs into insulin-secreting cell was investigated. Fresh human UCB was enriched the mononuclear cells by Ficoll-Paque centrifugation. The mononuclear cell population was cryopreserved in cryo-medium containing Iscove's modified Dulbecco's media (IMDM) with 10% DMSO at -196°C for 1 yr. After thawing, mononuclear cells were cultured to isolate MSCs in medium IMDM with 20% FBS supplemented with growth factors. At the fifth passages, MSCs were confirmed by flow cytometry about expression of CD13, CD14, CD34, CD45, CD166, and HLA-DR markers; after that, they were induced to differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts. After inducing with specific medium for islet differentiation, there were many clusters of cell like islet at day 14-28. Using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to analyze the expression of functional genes, the result showed that Nestin, Pdx-1, Ngn3, Ils-1, Pax6, Pax4, Nkx2.2, Nkx6.1, Glut-2, Insulin genes expressed. The results showed that MSCs derived from banked cord blood can differentiate into functional pancreatic islet-like cells in vitro. If human MSCs, especially MSCs from banked cord blood of diabetes patients themselves can be isolated, proliferated, differentiated into functional pancreatic islet-like cells, and transplanted back into them (autologous transplantation), their high-proliferation potency and rejection avoidance will provide one promising therapy for diabetes.

  10. Thermogenesis, blood metabolites and hormones, and growth of lambs born to ewes supplemented with algae-derived docosahexaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keithly, J I; Kott, R W; Berardinelli, J G; Moreaux, S; Hatfield, P G

    2011-12-01

    Neonatal lamb mortality is a major factor affecting profitability in the sheep industry, and lamb thermogenesis is a key element in neonatal lamb survival. Increased lamb vigor has been reported when ewes were supplemented during late gestation with algae-derived docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); however, the effects of DHA on lamb thermogenesis and immunocompetence have not been investigated. Eighty twin-bearing Targhee ewes (ages 2 to 5 yr; 68.5 ± 3 kg) were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 supplement treatments to determine the effects of feeding DHA to ewes during late gestation and early lactation on lamb thermogenesis, serum metabolites and hormones, and lamb growth. Supplement treatments were 12 g·ewe(-1)·d(-1) of algae-derived DHA (DHA Gold Advanced Bionutrition Corp., Columbia, MD; algae-derived DHA); and no algae-derived DHA (control). Supplements were individually fed daily during the last 30 d (±7 d) of gestation and pen fed (6 pens/treatment with 6 or 7 ewes/pen) during the first 38 d (±7 d) of lactation. One hour after lambing and before nursing, twin-born lambs were weighed, blood sampled via jugular puncture, and placed in a dry cold chamber for 30 min (0°C), and rectal temperatures were recorded every minute for 30 min. Lambs were removed from the cold chamber, blood sampled, warmed for 15 min, and returned to their dam. Ewes were blood sampled, and colostrum samples were collected 1 h postpartum. Ewe and lamb sera were assayed for glucose, NEFA, cortisol, and leptin. Lamb rectal temperature, glucose, NEFA, cortisol, leptin, and birth weights did not differ between treatments. The BW at 38 d was greater (P = 0.03) for lambs born to control ewes than for lambs born to algae-derived DHA-supplemented ewes; however, the colostrum of algae-derived DHA-supplemented ewes had a greater specific gravity (P = 0.05) than for control ewes. Overall, despite a potentially positive effect on ewe colostral IgG concentrations, supplementation of algae-derived DHA during

  11. Deriving a blood-mimicking fluid for particle image velocimetry in Sylgard-184 vascular models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Majid Y; Holdsworth, David W; Poepping, Tamie L

    2009-01-01

    A new blood-mimicking fluid (BMF) has been developed for particle image velocimetry (PIV), which enables flow studies in vascular models (phantoms). A major difficulty in PIV that affects measurement accuracy is the refraction and distortion of light passing through the interface between the model and the fluid, due to the difference in refractive index (n) between the two materials. The problem can be eliminated by using a fluid with a refractive index matching that of the model. Such fluids are not commonly available, especially for vascular research where the fluid should also have a viscosity similar to human blood. In this work, a blood-mimicking fluid, composed of water (47.38% by weight), glycerol (36.94% by weight) and sodium iodide salt (15.68% by weight), was developed for compatibility with our silicone (Sylgard 184; n = 1.414) phantoms. The fluid exhibits a dynamic viscosity of 4.31+/-0.03 cP which lies within the range of human blood viscosity (4.4+/-0.6 cP). Both refractive index and viscosity were attained at 22.2+/-0.2 degrees C, which is a feasible room temperature, thus eliminating the need for a temperature-control system. The fluid will be used to study hemodynamics in vascular flow models fabricated from Sylgard 184.

  12. Identification of bovine material in porcine spray-dried blood derivatives using the Polymerase Chain Reaction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the widely supported theory of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE spread in cattle by contaminated animal feeds, screening of feed products has become essential. For many years, manufacturers have used blood and plasma proteins as high quality ingredients of foods for both pets and farm animals. However, in Europe, the Commission Regulation 1234/2003/EC temporally bans the use of processed animal proteins, including blood-derivative products, in feedstuffs for all farm animals which are fattened or bred for the production of food. This regulation has some exceptions, such as the use of non ruminant blood products into the feed of farm fish. Authorization of the re-introduction of these proteins into animal feed formulations, especially non ruminant proteins into the feed for non ruminant farm animals, is expected when adequate control methods to discriminate ruminant proteins exist. Currently, the number of validated methods to differentiate the species of origin for most of the animal by-products is limited. Here we report the development of a rapid and sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based assay, which allows detection of bovine or porcine specific mitochondrial DNAfrom spray-dried blood derivate products (plasma, whole blood and red cells, as a marker for bovine contamination in porcine products. Sample extracts, suitable for PCR, were easily and quickly obtained with the commercial PrepManTM Ultra reagent (Applied Biosystems. To confirm the porcine origin of the samples, primers targeting a specific region of 134 bp of the porcine cytochrome b coding sequence were designed (cytbporc1-F and cytbporc2-R. Previously published PCR primers (L8129 and H8357, specific for a 271 bp fragment of the bovine mitochondrial ATPase 8-ATPase 6 genes, were chosen to accomplish amplification of bovine DNA. The limit of detection (LOD of the bovine PCR assay was at least of 0.05% (v/v of bovine inclusion in spray-dried porcine plasma or red

  13. Low-density lipoprotein mimics blood plasma-derived exosomes and microvesicles during isolation and detection

    OpenAIRE

    Sódar, Barbara W; Ágnes Kittel; Krisztina Pálóczi; Vukman, Krisztina V; Xabier Osteikoetxea; Katalin Szabó-Taylor; Andrea Németh; Beáta Sperlágh; Tamás Baranyai; Zoltán Giricz; Zoltán Wiener; Lilla Turiák; László Drahos; Éva Pállinger; Károly Vékey

    2016-01-01

    Circulating extracellular vesicles have emerged as potential new biomarkers in a wide variety of diseases. Despite the increasing interest, their isolation and purification from body fluids remains challenging. Here we studied human pre-prandial and 4 hours postprandial platelet-free blood plasma samples as well as human platelet concentrates. Using flow cytometry, we found that the majority of circulating particles within the size range of extracellular vesicles lacked common vesicular marke...

  14. Phenotypic and functional characteristics of dendritic cells derived from human peripheral blood monocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ling-ling; ZHANG Zhe; ZHENG Jie-sheng; SHENG Ji-fang; LIU Ke-zhou

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study is aimed at developing a simple and easy way to generate dendritic cells (DCs) from human peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) in vitro. Methods: PBMCs were isolated directly from white blood cell rather than whole blood and purified by patching methods (collecting the attached cell and removing the suspension cell). DCs were then generated by culturing PBMCs for six days with 30 ng/ml recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) and 20 ng/ml recombinant human interleukin-4 (rhIL-4) in vitro. On the sixth day, TNF-alpha (TNFα) 30 ng/ml was added into some DC cultures, which were then incubated for two additional days. The morphology was monitored by light microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy, and the phenotypes were determined by flow cytometry. Autologous mixed leukocyte reactions (MLR) were used to characterize DC function after TNFα or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulations for 24 h. Results: After six days of culture, the monocytes developed significant dendritic morphology and a portion of cells expressed CD 1 a, CD80 and CD86, features of DCs. TNFα treatment induced DCs maturation and up-regulation of CD80, CD86 and CD83. Autologous MLR demonstrated that these DCs possess potent T-cell stimulatory capacity. Conclusion: This study developed a simple and easy way to generate DCs from PBMCs exposed to rhGM-CSF and rhIL-4. The DCs produced by this method acquired morphologic and antigenic characteristics of DCs.

  15. Production of good manufacturing practice-grade human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells for therapeutic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pham, Phuc; Phan, Ngoc Kim

    2015-01-01

    Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that can be differentiated into several specific cell types such as adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondroblasts. They also were demonstrated to trans-differentiate into other cell lineages such as muscle cells and neurons. Thus, they are considered a promising stem cell source for therapeutic use. Here, we describe a method for production of good manufacturing practice-grade human UCB-MSCs for therapeutic use. The obtained UCB-MSCs are free of allogenous or xenogenous proteins. In addition, these MSCs could maintain the MSC phenotype in long-term culture.

  16. Limited promiscuity of HLA-DRB1 presented peptides derived of blood coagulation factor VIII.

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    Simon D van Haren

    Full Text Available The formation of inhibitory antibodies directed against coagulation factor VIII (FVIII is a severe complication in the treatment of hemophilia A patients. The induction of anti-FVIII antibodies is a CD4(+ T cell-dependent process. Activation of FVIII-specific CD4(+ T cells is dependent on the presentation of FVIII-derived peptides on MHC class II by antigen-presenting cells. Previously, we have shown that FVIII-pulsed human monocyte-derived dendritic cells can present peptides from several FVIII domains. In this study we show that FVIII peptides are presented on immature as well as mature dendritic cells. In immature dendritic cells half of the FVIII-loaded MHC class II molecules are retained within the cell, whereas in LPS-matured dendritic cells the majority of MHC class II/peptide complexes is present on the plasma membrane. Time-course studies revealed that presentation of FVIII-derived peptides was optimal between 12 and 24 hours after maturation but persisted for at least 96 hours. We also show that macrophages are able to internalize FVIII as efficiently as dendritic cells, however FVIII was presented on MHC class II with a lower efficiency and with different epitopes compared to dendritic cells. In total, 48 FVIII core-peptides were identified using a DCs derived of 8 different donors. Five HLA-promiscuous FVIII peptide regions were found - these were presented by at least 4 out of 8 donors. The remaining 42 peptide core regions in FVIII were presented by DCs derived from a single (30 peptides or two to three donors (12 peptides. Overall, our findings show that a broad repertoire of FVIII peptides can be presented on HLA-DR.

  17. A retinoic acid-enhanced, multicellular human blood-brain barrier model derived from stem cell sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, Ethan S.; Al-Ahmad, Abraham; Azarin, Samira M.; Palecek, Sean P.; Shusta, Eric V.

    2014-02-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) models are often used to investigate BBB function and screen brain-penetrating therapeutics, but it has been difficult to construct a human model that possesses an optimal BBB phenotype and is readily scalable. To address this challenge, we developed a human in vitro BBB model comprising brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), pericytes, astrocytes and neurons derived from renewable cell sources. First, retinoic acid (RA) was used to substantially enhance BBB phenotypes in human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived BMECs, particularly through adherens junction, tight junction, and multidrug resistance protein regulation. RA-treated hPSC-derived BMECs were subsequently co-cultured with primary human brain pericytes and human astrocytes and neurons derived from human neural progenitor cells (NPCs) to yield a fully human BBB model that possessed significant tightness as measured by transendothelial electrical resistance (~5,000 Ωxcm2). Overall, this scalable human BBB model may enable a wide range of neuroscience studies.

  18. Functional and Pharmacological Analysis of Cardiomyocytes Differentiated from Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear-Derived Pluripotent Stem Cells

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    Michael Riedel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Advances in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC technology have set the stage for routine derivation of patient- and disease-specific human iPSC-cardiomyocyte (CM models for preclinical drug screening and personalized medicine approaches. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs are an advantageous source of somatic cells because they are easily obtained and readily amenable to transduction. Here, we report that the electrophysiological properties and pharmacological responses of PBMC-derived iPSC CM are generally similar to those of iPSC CM derived from other somatic cells, using patch-clamp, calcium transient, and multielectrode array (MEA analyses. Distinct iPSC lines derived from a single patient display similar electrophysiological features and pharmacological responses. Finally, we demonstrate that human iPSC CMs undergo acute changes in calcium-handling properties and gene expression in response to rapid electrical stimulation, laying the foundation for an in-vitro-tachypacing model system for the study of human tachyarrhythmias.

  19. Proteomic Profiling of Ex Vivo Expanded CD34-Positive Haematopoetic Cells Derived from Umbilical Cord Blood

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    Heiner Falkenberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ex vivo expansion of haematopoetic cells by application of specific cytokines is one approach to overcome boundaries in cord blood transplantation due to limited numbers of haematopoetic stem cells. While many protocols describe an effective increase of total cell numbers and the amount of CD34-positive cells, it still remains unclear if and how the procedure actually affects the cells’ properties. In the presented publications, CD34-positive cells were isolated from cord blood and expanded for up to 7 days in media supplemented with stem cell factor (SCF, thrombopoietin (THPO, interleukin 6 (IL-6, and fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FLT3lg. At days 3 and 7, expanded cells were harvested and analyzed by flow cytometry and quantitative proteomics. 2970 proteins were identified, whereof proteomic analysis showed 440 proteins significantly changed in abundance during ex vivo expansion. Despite the fact that haematopoetic cells still expressed CD34 on the surface after 3 days, major changes in regard to the protein profile were observed, while further expansion showed less effect on the proteome level. Enrichment analysis of biological processes clearly showed a proteomic change toward a protein biosynthesis phenotype already within the first three days of expression.

  20. Isolation and characterisation of peripheral blood-derived feline mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Keiichi; Yamawaki-Ogata, Aika; Kanemoto, Isamu; Usui, Akihiko; Narita, Yuji

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from feline peripheral blood (fPB-MSCs) and to characterise the cells' in vitro properties. The mononuclear cell fractions were isolated from venous blood of cats by density gradient centrifugation and cultured on plastic dishes under various culture conditions to isolate MSCs. When these cells were cultured with 5% autologous plasma (AP) and 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS), adherent spindle shaped fibroblast-like cells (fPB-MSCs) were obtained from 15/22 (68%) cats. These cells were isolated only from medium containing both AP and FBS. The morphology of these MSCs was similar to those isolated from other species and from other feline tissues. fPB-MSCs expanded steadily up to 5-6 passages, but had increased population doubling time during passaging and almost all cells stopped proliferation at passages 7-9. These cells expressed CD44 and CD90, and were mostly negative for major histocompatibility class II and CD4. The cells could be induced to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic cell lineages. These findings indicate that fPB-MSCs can be generated but appear to require specific culture conditions. PMID:27687950

  1. Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Stem Cells Improve Heat Tolerance and Hypothalamic Damage in Heat Stressed Mice

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    Ling-Shu Tseng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heatstroke is characterized by excessive hyperthermia associated with systemic inflammatory responses, which leads to multiple organ failure, in which brain disorders predominate. This definition can be almost fulfilled by a mouse model of heatstroke used in the present study. Unanesthetized mice were exposed to whole body heating (41.2°C for 1 hour and then returned to room temperature (26°C for recovery. Immediately after termination of whole body heating, heated mice displayed excessive hyperthermia (body core temperature ~42.5°C. Four hours after termination of heat stress, heated mice displayed (i systemic inflammation; (ii ischemic, hypoxic, and oxidative damage to the hypothalamus; (iii hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis impairment (reflected by plasma levels of both adrenocorticotrophic-hormone and corticosterone; (iv decreased fractional survival; and (v thermoregulatory deficits (e.g., they became hypothermia when they were exposed to room temperature. These heatstroke reactions can be significantly attenuated by human umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ cells therapy. Our data suggest that human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells therapy may improve outcomes of heatstroke in mice by reducing systemic inflammation as well as hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis impairment.

  2. Histone deacetylase inhibition enhances self renewal and cardioprotection by human cord blood-derived CD34 cells.

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    Ilaria Burba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Use of peripheral blood- or bone marrow-derived progenitors for ischemic heart repair is a feasible option to induce neo-vascularization in ischemic tissues. These cells, named Endothelial Progenitors Cells (EPCs, have been extensively characterized phenotypically and functionally. The clinical efficacy of cardiac repair by EPCs cells remains, however, limited, due to cell autonomous defects as a consequence of risk factors. The devise of "enhancement" strategies has been therefore sought to improve repair ability of these cells and increase the clinical benefit. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pharmacologic inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs is known to enhance hematopoietic stem cells engraftment by improvement of self renewal and inhibition of differentiation in the presence of mitogenic stimuli in vitro. In the present study cord blood-derived CD34(+ were pre-conditioned with the HDAC inhibitor Valproic Acid. This treatment affected stem cell growth and gene expression, and improved ischemic myocardium protection in an immunodeficient mouse model of myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that HDAC blockade leads to phenotype changes in CD34(+ cells with enhanced self renewal and cardioprotection.

  3. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66Met and Blood Glucose: A Synergistic Effect on Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Naftali Raz; Dahle, Cheryl L.; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Kennedy, Kristen M.; Land, Susan J.; Jacobs, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    Age-related declines in episodic memory performance are frequently reported, but their mechanisms remain poorly understood. Although several genetic variants and vascular risk factors have been linked to mnemonic performance in general and age differences therein, it is unknown whether and how they modify age-related memory declines. To address that question, we investigated the effect of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism that affects secretion of BDNF, and fastin...

  4. Intestinal Microbiota-Derived Metabolomic Blood Plasma Markers for Prior Radiation Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Assessing whole-body radiation injury and absorbed dose is essential for remediation efforts following accidental or deliberate exposure in medical, industrial, military, or terrorist incidents. We hypothesize that variations in specific metabolite concentrations extracted from blood plasma would correlate with whole-body radiation injury and dose. Methods and Materials: Groups of C57BL/6 mice (n=12 per group) were exposed to 0, 2, 4, 8, and 10.4 Gy of whole-body gamma radiation. At 24 hours after treatment, all animals were euthanized, and both plasma and liver biopsy samples were obtained, the latter being used to identify a distinct hepatic radiation injury response within plasma. A semiquantitative, untargeted metabolite/lipid profile was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which identified 354 biochemical compounds. A second set of C57BL/6 mice (n=6 per group) were used to assess a subset of identified plasma markers beyond 24 hours. Results: We identified a cohort of 37 biochemical compounds in plasma that yielded the optimal separation of the irradiated sample groups, with the most correlated metabolites associated with pyrimidine (positively correlated) and tryptophan (negatively correlated) metabolism. The latter were predominantly associated with indole compounds, and there was evidence that these were also correlated between liver and plasma. No evidence of saturation as a function of dose was observed, as has been noted for studies involving metabolite analysis of urine. Conclusions: Plasma profiling of specific metabolites related to pyrimidine and tryptophan pathways can be used to differentiate whole-body radiation injury and dose response. As the tryptophan-associated indole compounds have their origin in the intestinal microbiome and subsequently the liver, these metabolites particularly represent an attractive marker for radiation injury within blood plasma

  5. Intestinal Microbiota-Derived Metabolomic Blood Plasma Markers for Prior Radiation Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ó Broin, Pilib [Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Department of Mathematical Sciences, Yeshiva University, New York, New York (United States); Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Saha, Subhrajit [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Hartil, Kirsten [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Chen, Emily I. [Department of Pharmacology, Proteomics Shared Resource, Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Goldman, Devorah; Fleming, William Harv [Department of Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Kurland, Irwin J. [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Guha, Chandan, E-mail: cguha@montefiore.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Golden, Aaron, E-mail: aaron.golden@einstein.yu.edu [Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Department of Mathematical Sciences, Yeshiva University, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Assessing whole-body radiation injury and absorbed dose is essential for remediation efforts following accidental or deliberate exposure in medical, industrial, military, or terrorist incidents. We hypothesize that variations in specific metabolite concentrations extracted from blood plasma would correlate with whole-body radiation injury and dose. Methods and Materials: Groups of C57BL/6 mice (n=12 per group) were exposed to 0, 2, 4, 8, and 10.4 Gy of whole-body gamma radiation. At 24 hours after treatment, all animals were euthanized, and both plasma and liver biopsy samples were obtained, the latter being used to identify a distinct hepatic radiation injury response within plasma. A semiquantitative, untargeted metabolite/lipid profile was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which identified 354 biochemical compounds. A second set of C57BL/6 mice (n=6 per group) were used to assess a subset of identified plasma markers beyond 24 hours. Results: We identified a cohort of 37 biochemical compounds in plasma that yielded the optimal separation of the irradiated sample groups, with the most correlated metabolites associated with pyrimidine (positively correlated) and tryptophan (negatively correlated) metabolism. The latter were predominantly associated with indole compounds, and there was evidence that these were also correlated between liver and plasma. No evidence of saturation as a function of dose was observed, as has been noted for studies involving metabolite analysis of urine. Conclusions: Plasma profiling of specific metabolites related to pyrimidine and tryptophan pathways can be used to differentiate whole-body radiation injury and dose response. As the tryptophan-associated indole compounds have their origin in the intestinal microbiome and subsequently the liver, these metabolites particularly represent an attractive marker for radiation injury within blood plasma.

  6. Development of a xeno-free autologous culture system for endothelial progenitor cells derived from human umbilical cord blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Hwan Moon

    Full Text Available Despite promising preclinical outcomes in animal models, a number of challenges remain for human clinical use. In particular, expanding a large number of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs in vitro in the absence of animal-derived products is the most critical hurdle remaining to be overcome to ensure the safety and efficiency of human therapy. To develop in vitro culture conditions for EPCs derived from human cord blood (hCB-EPCs, we isolated extracts (UCE and collagen (UC-collagen from umbilical cord tissue to replace their animal-derived counterparts. UC-collagen and UCE efficiently supported the attachment and proliferation of hCB-EPCs in a manner comparable to that of animal-derived collagen in the conventional culture system. Our developed autologous culture system maintained the typical characteristics of hCB-EPCs, as represented by the expression of EPC-associated surface markers. In addition, the therapeutic potential of hCB-EPCs was confirmed when the transplantation of hCB-EPCs cultured in this autologous culture system promoted limb salvage in a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia and was shown to contribute to attenuating muscle degeneration and fibrosis. We suggest that the umbilical cord represents a source for autologous biomaterials for the in vitro culture of hCB-EPCs. The main characteristics and therapeutic potential of hCB-EPCs were not compromised in developed autologous culture system. The absence of animal-derived products in our newly developed in vitro culture removes concerns associated with secondary contamination. Thus, we hope that this culture system accelerates the realization of therapeutic applications of autologous hCB-EPCs for human vascular diseases.

  7. Comparison of molecular profiles of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, placenta and adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, June Seok; Choi, Youjeong; Kim, Han-Soo; Kim, Hyun Ok

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are clinically useful due to their capacity for self-renewal, their immunomodulatory properties and tissue regenerative potential. These cells can be isolated from various tissues and exhibit different potential for clinical applications according to their origin, and thus comparative studies on MSCs from different tissues are essential. In this study, we investigated the immunophenotype, proliferative potential, multilineage differentiation and immunomodulatory capacity of MSCs derived from different tissue sources, namely bone marrow, adipose tissue, the placenta and umbilical cord blood. The gene expression profiles of stemness-related genes [octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), sex determining region Y-box (SOX)2, MYC, Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), NANOG, LIN28 and REX1] and lineage‑related and differentiation stage-related genes [B4GALNT1 (GM2/GS2 synthase), inhibin, beta A (INHBA), distal-less homeobox 5 (DLX5), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), proliferator‑activated receptor gamma (PPARG), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPA), bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) and SOX9] were compared using RT-PCR. No significant differences in growth rate, colony-forming efficiency and immunophenotype were observed. Our results demonstrated that MSCs derived from bone marrow and adipose tissue shared not only in vitro tri-lineage differentiation potential, but also gene expression profiles. While there was considerable inter-donor variation in DLX5 expression between MSCs derived from different tissues, its expression appears to be associated with the osteogenic potential of MSCs. Bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) significantly inhibited allogeneic T cell proliferation possibly via the high levels of the immunosuppressive cytokines, IL10 and TGFB1. Although MSCs derived from different tissues and fibroblasts share many characteristics, some of the marker genes, such as B4GALNT1 and DLX5 may be useful for

  8. Expression sequence tag library derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the chlorocebus sabaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchitchek Nicolas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African Green Monkeys (AGM are amongst the most frequently used nonhuman primate models in clinical and biomedical research, nevertheless only few genomic resources exist for this species. Such information would be essential for the development of dedicated new generation technologies in fundamental and pre-clinical research using this model, and would deliver new insights into primate evolution. Results We have exhaustively sequenced an Expression Sequence Tag (EST library made from a pool of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from sixteen Chlorocebus sabaeus monkeys. Twelve of them were infected with the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus. The mononuclear cells were or not stimulated in vitro with Concanavalin A, with lipopolysacharrides, or through mixed lymphocyte reaction in order to generate a representative and broad library of expressed sequences in immune cells. We report here 37,787 sequences, which were assembled into 14,410 contigs representing an estimated 12% of the C. sabaeus transcriptome. Using data from primate genome databases, 9,029 assembled sequences from C. sabaeus could be annotated. Sequences have been systematically aligned with ten cDNA references of primate species including Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, and Macaca mulatta to identify ortholog transcripts. For 506 transcripts, sequences were quasi-complete. In addition, 6,576 transcript fragments are potentially specific to the C. sabaeus or corresponding to not yet described primate genes. Conclusions The EST library we provide here will prove useful in gene annotation efforts for future sequencing of the African Green Monkey genomes. Furthermore, this library, which particularly well represents immunological and hematological gene expression, will be an important resource for the comparative analysis of gene expression in clinically relevant nonhuman primate and human research.

  9. Advances in menstrual blood-derived stem cells%宫内膜干细胞研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金龙; 张舒琪; 袁立

    2012-01-01

    本文介绍新型间充质干细胞—宫内膜干细胞的来源和特征,简述宫内膜干细胞分离、培养和体外扩增的方法;阐述宫内膜干细胞体外诱导分化心肌细胞和神经细胞的潜能,展望宫内膜干细胞的临床应用价值.%Menstrual blood-derived stem cells (MenSCs) are newly discovered mesenchymal stem cells. They have the potential ability to differentiate into various cell types, including heart and nerve cells. MenSCs provide an alternative source of adult stem cells for research and use in regenerative medicine.

  10. Low immunogenicity of allogeneic human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Miyoung; Jeong, Sang Young; Ha, Jueun; Kim, Miyeon; Jin, Hye Jin; Kwon, Soon-Jae [Biomedical Research Institute, MEDIPOST Co., Ltd, Seoul 137-874 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Jong Wook [Research Institute for Future Medicine Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Center, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul 137-710 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Wonil; Yang, Yoon Sun [Biomedical Research Institute, MEDIPOST Co., Ltd, Seoul 137-874 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Sung [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-709 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hong Bae, E-mail: jhb@medi-post.co.kr [Biomedical Research Institute, MEDIPOST Co., Ltd, Seoul 137-874 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • hUCB-MSCs maintained low immunogenicity even after immune challenge in vitro. • Humanized NSG mice were established using human UCB CD34+ cells. • Repeated intravenous hUCB-MSC injection into mice did not lead to immune responses and adverse events. • Allogeneic hUCB-MSCs maintained low immunogenicity in vitro and in vivo. - Abstract: Evaluation of the immunogenicity of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in an allogeneic setting during therapy has been hampered by lack of suitable models due to technical and ethical limitations. Here, we show that allogeneic human umbilical cord blood derived-MSCs (hUCB-MSCs) maintained low immunogenicity even after immune challenge in vitro. To confirm these properties in vivo, a humanized mouse model was established by injecting isolated hUCB-derived CD34+ cells intravenously into immunocompromised NOD/SCID IL2γnull (NSG) mice. After repeated intravenous injection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) or MRC5 cells into these mice, immunological alterations including T cell proliferation and increased IFN-γ, TNF-α, and human IgG levels, were observed. In contrast, hUCB-MSC injection did not elicit these responses. While lymphocyte infiltration in the lung and small intestine and reduced survival rates were observed after hPBMC or MRC5 transplantation, no adverse events were observed following hUCB-MSC introduction. In conclusion, our data suggest that allogeneic hUCB-MSCs have low immunogenicity in vitro and in vivo, and are therefore “immunologically safe” for use in allogeneic clinical applications.

  11. Low immunogenicity of allogeneic human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • hUCB-MSCs maintained low immunogenicity even after immune challenge in vitro. • Humanized NSG mice were established using human UCB CD34+ cells. • Repeated intravenous hUCB-MSC injection into mice did not lead to immune responses and adverse events. • Allogeneic hUCB-MSCs maintained low immunogenicity in vitro and in vivo. - Abstract: Evaluation of the immunogenicity of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in an allogeneic setting during therapy has been hampered by lack of suitable models due to technical and ethical limitations. Here, we show that allogeneic human umbilical cord blood derived-MSCs (hUCB-MSCs) maintained low immunogenicity even after immune challenge in vitro. To confirm these properties in vivo, a humanized mouse model was established by injecting isolated hUCB-derived CD34+ cells intravenously into immunocompromised NOD/SCID IL2γnull (NSG) mice. After repeated intravenous injection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) or MRC5 cells into these mice, immunological alterations including T cell proliferation and increased IFN-γ, TNF-α, and human IgG levels, were observed. In contrast, hUCB-MSC injection did not elicit these responses. While lymphocyte infiltration in the lung and small intestine and reduced survival rates were observed after hPBMC or MRC5 transplantation, no adverse events were observed following hUCB-MSC introduction. In conclusion, our data suggest that allogeneic hUCB-MSCs have low immunogenicity in vitro and in vivo, and are therefore “immunologically safe” for use in allogeneic clinical applications

  12. Human umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells were differentiated into pancreatic endocrine cell by Pdx-1 electrotransfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuoc Thi-My Nguyen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus type 1 is an autoimmune disease with high incidence in adolescents and young adults. A seductive approach overcomes normally obstacles treatment is cell-replacement therapy to endogenous insulin production. At the present, to get enough pancreatic endocrine cells (PECs in cell transplantation, differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs into IPCs is an interesting and promising strategy. This study aimed to orient umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (UCB-MSCs to PECs by Pdx-1 electrotransfer. UCB-MSCs were isolated from human umbilical cord blood according to published protocol. Pdx-1 was isolated and cloned into a plasmid vector. Optimal voltage of an electrotransfer was investigated to improve the cell viability and gene transfection efficacy. The results showed that 200V of the electrotransfer significantly increased in the efficiency of electrotransfer and survival cells compared with other high voltages (350V and 550V. Pdx-1 successfully transfected UCB-MSCs over-expressed pancreatic related genes as Ngn3, Nkx6.1. These results suggested that Pdx-1 transfected UCB-MSCs were successfully oriented PECs. Different to lentiviral vectors, electrotransfer is a safer method to transfer Pdx-1 to UCB-MSCs and a useful tool in translational research. [Biomed Res Ther 2014; 1(2.000: 50-56

  13. Coxsackievirus B4 Can Infect Human Peripheral Blood-Derived Macrophages

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    Enagnon Kazali Alidjinou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Beyond acute infections, group B coxsackieviruses (CVB are also reported to play a role in the development of chronic diseases, like type 1 diabetes. The viral pathogenesis mainly relies on the interplay between the viruses and innate immune response in genetically-susceptible individuals. We investigated the interaction between CVB4 and macrophages considered as major players in immune response. Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM generated with either M-CSF or GM-CSF were inoculated with CVB4, and infection, inflammation, viral replication and persistence were assessed. M-CSF-induced MDM, but not GM-CSF-induced MDM, can be infected by CVB4. In addition, enhancing serum was not needed to infect MDM in contrast with parental monocytes. The expression of viral receptor (CAR mRNA was similar in both M-CSF and GM-CSF MDM. CVB4 induced high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα in both MDM populations. CVB4 effectively replicated and persisted in M-CSF MDM, but IFNα was produced in the early phase of infection only. Our results demonstrate that CVB4 can replicate and persist in MDM. Further investigations are required to determine whether the interaction between the virus and MDM plays a role in the pathogenesis of CVB-induced chronic diseases.

  14. Osteogenic potential of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells cultured with umbilical cord blood-derived fibrin: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Yasuharu; Ishiguro, Masashi; Kumazawa, Kenichi; Aoyagi, Kazuya; Ikemoto, Shigehiro; Takeda, Akira; Uchinuma, Eiju

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the potential for osteogenesis via regenerative medicine using autologous tissues (umbilical cord (UC) and umbilical cord blood (UCB)) in nude mice. The study was designed to provide the three elements required for regenerative medicine (cell, scaffold, and growth factor) and autoserum for culture by means of autologous tissues. Mesenchymal stromal cells were obtained from UC (UC-MSCs). Fibrin, platelet-rich-plasma, and autoserum were obtained from UCB as scaffold, growth factor and serum for culture respectively. UC-MSCs were obtained from Wharton jelly and cultured with UCB-derived fibrin (UCB-fibrin) for 3-4 weeks to induce their differentiation into osteoblasts. They were implanted subcutaneously into the dorsum of male nude mice for 6 weeks prior to undergoing assessment. The assessments performed were haematoxylin and eosin, and alizarin red staining, immunohistochemical staining of human mitochondria, scanning electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to assess the expressions of osteoblast markers. Consequently, the differentiation of UC-MSCs into osteoblasts and the production of hydroxyapatite were verified. This study suggested the possible formation of bone tissue using biomedical materials obtained from UC and UCB.

  15. Partial purification of the 5-hydroxytryptophan-reuptake system from human blood platelets using a citalopram-derived affinity resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biessen, E.A.L; Horn, A.S.; Robillard, G.T. (Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands))

    1990-04-03

    This paper describes a procedure for the synthesis and application of a citalopram-derived affinity resin in purifying the 5HT-reuptake system from human blood platelets. A two-step scheme has been developed for partial purification, based on wheat germ agglutinin-lectin (WGA) affinity and citalopram affinity chromatographies. Upon solubilization of the carrier with 1% digitonin, a 50-70-fold increase in specific ({sup 3}H) imipramine binding activity with a 70% recovery could be accomplished through WGA-lectin chromatography. The WGA pool was then subjected to affinity chromatography on citalopram-agarose. At least 90% of the binding capacity adsorbed to the column. Specific elution using 10 {mu}M citalopram resulted in a 22% recovery of binding activity. A 10,000-fold overall purification was obtained by using this two-step procedure. Analysis of the fractions on SDS-PAGE after {sup 125}I labeling revealed specific elution of 78- and 55-kDa proteins concomitant with the appearance of ({sup 3}H) imipramine binding activity. The pharmacological profile of the partially purified reuptake system correlated well with that derived from the crude membrane-bound reuptake system, suggesting a copurification of the 5HT binding activity and ({sup 3}H)imipramine binding activity.

  16. Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stromal cells display a novel interaction between P-selectin and galectin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suila, H; Hirvonen, T; Kotovuori, A; Ritamo, I; Kerkelä, E; Anderson, H; Natunen, S; Tuimala, J; Laitinen, S; Nystedt, J; Räbinä, J; Valmu, L

    2014-07-01

    Human multipotent mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to exert immunomodulatory properties that have great potential in therapies for various inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. However, intravenous delivery of these cells is followed by massive cell entrapment in the lungs and insufficient homing to target tissues or organs. In targeting to tissues, MSCs and other therapeutic cells employ similar mechanisms as leucocytes, including a cascade of rolling and adhesion steps mediated by selectins, integrins and their ligands. However, the mechanisms of MSCs homing are not well understood. We discovered that P-selectin (CD62P) binds to umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived MSCs independently of the previously known sialyl Lewis x (sLex)-containing ligands such as P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1, CD162). By biochemical assays, we identified galectin-1 as a novel ligand for P-selectin. Galectin-1 has previously been shown to be a key mediator of the immunosuppressive effects of human MSCs. We conclude that this novel interaction is likely to play a major role in the immunomodulatory targeting of human UCB-derived MSCs.

  17. Conditioned Media from Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Inhibits Melanogenesis by Promoting Proteasomal Degradation of MITF.

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    Eun Sung Kim

    Full Text Available Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs secrete various beneficial molecules, which have anti-apoptotic activity and cell proliferation. However, the effect of hUCB-MSCs in melanogenesis is largely unclear. In this study, we show that conditioned media (CM derived from hUCB-MSCs inhibit melanogenesis by regulating microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF expression via the ERK signalling pathway. Treatment of hUCB-MSC-CM strongly inhibited the alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone-induced hyperpigmentation in melanoma cells as well as melanocytes. Treatment of hUCB-MSC-CM induced ERK1/2 activation in melanocytes. In addition, inhibition of ERK1/2 suppressed the anti-pigmentation activity of the hUCB-MSC-CM in melanocytes and in vitro artificial skin models. We also found that the expression of MITF was appreciably diminished while expression of phosphorylated MITF, which leads to its proteasomal degradation, was increased in cells treated with hUCB-MSC-CM. These results suggested that hUCB-MSC-CM significantly suppresses melanin synthesis via MITF degradation by the ERK pathway activation.

  18. Anti-thrombogenic properties of a nitric oxide-releasing dextran derivative: evaluation of platelet activation and whole blood clotting kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Vinod B.; Leszczak, Victoria; Wold, Kathryn A.; Lantvit, Sarah M.; Popat, Ketul C.; Reynolds, Melissa M.

    2013-01-01

    Controlling platelet activation and clotting initiated by cardiovascular interventions remains a major challenge in clinical practice. In this work, the anti-thrombotic properties of a polysaccharide-based nitric oxide (NO)-releasing dextran derivative are presented. Total platelet adhesion, platelet morphology and whole blood clotting kinetics were used as indicators to evaluate the anti-clotting properties of this material. With a total NO delivery of 0.203±0.003 μmol, the NO-releasing dextran derivative (Dex-SNO) mixed with blood plasma demonstrated a significantly lower amount of platelet adhesion and activation onto a surface and reduced whole blood clotting kinetics. Nearly 75% reduction in platelet adhesion and a significant retention of platelet morphology were observed with blood plasma treated with Dex-SNO, suggesting this to be a potential anti-platelet therapeutic agent for preventing thrombosis that does not have an adverse effect on circulating platelets. PMID:24349705

  19. Absolute counts of peripheral blood leukocyte subpopulations in intraabdominal sepsis and pneumonia-derived sepsis: a pilot study Absolute counts of peripheral blood leukocyte subpopulations in intraabdominal sepsis and pneumonia-derived sepsis: a pilot study

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    Grazyna Anna Hoser

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The leading pathophysiological changes during sepsis include systemic abnormalities in the immune
    response. Due to the general character of these disturbances, sepsis is usually studied as a homogenous clinical
    condition. We aimed to compare the immune response in intraabdominal sepsis (IAS and pneumonia-derived
    sepsis (PDS. The following cell populations were examined: white blood cell count (WBC, monocytes, lymphocytes:
    CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells, and NK cells. In both studied groups (i.e. IAS and PDS, the
    WBC was elevated. However, it was significantly higher in the IAS group than in the PDS group. The difference
    was due to a lower granulocyte count, as well as a lower monocyte count in PDS. We found no significant
    correlation between the total lymphocyte number and CD3+CD8+ T cells in either form of sepsis. Similarly, we
    observed no correlation between the total lymphocyte number and the NK cells subset in IAS. However, the
    numbers of CD3+CD8+ and NK cells correlated similarly in both types of sepsis. Both studied types of sepsis
    induced profound lymphocytopenia, with marked loss of CD8+ T cells and the NK cells. However, the similar
    relation between them, which was independent of the infection type, suggests that the NK and CD3+CD8+ cells
    have shared mechanisms of regulation. The primary site of infection has an impact on the global immune reaction.
    These alternations include especially myeloid cells: granulocytes and monocytes which disappear from peripheral
    blood during PDS, but increase in IAS.
    The leading pathophysiological changes during sepsis include systemic abnormalities in the immune
    response. Due to the general character of these disturbances, sepsis is usually studied as a homogenous clinical
    condition. We aimed to compare the immune response in intraabdominal sepsis (IAS and pneumonia-derived
    sepsis (PDS. The following cell

  20. Characterization of transcription factor networks involved in umbilical cord blood CD34+ stem cells-derived erythropoiesis.

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    Biaoru Li

    Full Text Available Fetal stem cells isolated from umbilical cord blood (UCB possess a great capacity for proliferation and differentiation and serve as a valuable model system to study gene regulation. Expanded knowledge of the molecular control of hemoglobin synthesis will provide a basis for rational design of therapies for β-hemoglobinopathies. Transcriptome data are available for erythroid progenitors derived from adult stem cells, however studies to define molecular mechanisms controlling globin gene regulation during fetal erythropoiesis are limited. Here, we utilize UCB-CD34+ stem cells induced to undergo erythroid differentiation to characterize the transcriptome and transcription factor networks (TFNs associated with the γ/β-globin switch during fetal erythropoiesis. UCB-CD34+ stem cells grown in the one-phase liquid culture system displayed a higher proliferative capacity than adult CD34+ stem cells. The γ/β-globin switch was observed after day 42 during fetal erythropoiesis in contrast to adult progenitors where the switch occurred around day 21. To gain insights into transcription factors involved in globin gene regulation, microarray analysis was performed on RNA isolated from UCB-CD34+ cell-derived erythroid progenitors harvested on day 21, 42, 49 and 56 using the HumanHT-12 Expression BeadChip. After data normalization, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis identified transcription factors (TFs with significant changes in expression during the γ/β-globin switch. Forty-five TFs were silenced by day 56 (Profile-1 and 30 TFs were activated by day 56 (Profile-2. Both GSEA datasets were analyzed using the MIMI Cytoscape platform, which discovered TFNs centered on KLF4 and GATA2 (Profile-1 and KLF1 and GATA1 for Profile-2 genes. Subsequent shRNA studies in KU812 leukemia cells and human erythroid progenitors generated from UCB-CD34+ cells supported a negative role of MAFB in γ-globin regulation. The characteristics of erythroblasts derived from UCB-CD34

  1. Palmitoylethanolamide treatment reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats: involvement of cytochrome p450-derived eicosanoids and renin angiotensin system.

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    Giuseppina Mattace Raso

    Full Text Available Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α agonist, has been demonstrated to reduce blood pressure and kidney damage secondary to hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR. Currently, no information is available concerning the putative effect of PEA on modulating vascular tone. Here, we investigate the mechanisms underpinning PEA blood pressure lowering effect, exploring the contribution of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, CYP-dependent arachidonic acid metabolites, as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHF, and renin angiotensin system (RAS modulation. To achieve this aim SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rats were treated with PEA (30 mg/kg/day for five weeks. Functional evaluations on mesenteric bed were performed to analyze EDHF-mediated vasodilation. Moreover, mesenteric bed and carotid were harvested to measure CYP2C23 and CYP2J2, the key isoenzymes in the formation of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, and the soluble epoxide hydrolase, which is responsible for their degradation in the corresponding diols. Effect of PEA on RAS modulation was investigated by analyzing angiotensin converting enzyme and angiotensin receptor 1 expression. Here, we showed that EDHF-mediated dilation in response to acetylcholine was increased in mesenteric beds of PEA-treated SHR. Western blot analysis revealed that the increase in CYP2C23 and CYP2J2 observed in SHR was significantly attenuated in mesenteric beds of PEA-treated SHR, but unchanged in the carotids. Interestingly, in both vascular tissues, PEA significantly decreased the soluble epoxide hydrolase protein level, accompanied by a reduced serum concentration of its metabolite 14-15 dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid, implying a reduction in epoxyeicosatrienoic acid hydrolisis. Moreover, PEA treatment down-regulated angiotensin receptor 1 and angiotensin converting enzyme expression, indicating a reduction in angiotensin II-mediated effects. Consistently, a damping of the

  2. Neuroprotective Effects of Transplanted Mesenchymal Stromal Cells-derived Human Umbilical Cord Blood Neural Progenitor Cells in EAE

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    Hassan Rafieemehr

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of transplanted human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stromal cells (UCB-MSC derived neural progenitor cell (MDNPC in EAE, an experimental model of MS. To initiate neuronal differentiation of UCB-MSCs, the pre-induction medium was removed and replaced with induction media containing retinoic acid, b FGF, h EGF, NGF, IBMX and ascorbic acid for one week. The expression of neural genes was examined in comparison to control group by real-time PCR assay. Then, experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE was induced using myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG, 35-55 peptides in 24 C57BL/6 mice. After induction, the mice were divided in four groups (n=6 as follows: healthy, PBS, UCB-MSCs and MDNPC, respectively. At the end of the study, disease status in all the groups was analyzed using hematoxylin-eosin (H&E staining of brain sections. We found that UCB-MSCs exhibit neuronal differentiation potential in vitro and transplanted MDNPC lowered clinical score and reduced CNS leukocyte infiltration compared to untreated mice. Our results showed that MDNPC from UCB may be a proper candidate for regenerative therapy in MS and other neurodegenerative diseases. 

  3. Macrophage-dependent clearance of systemically administered B16BL6-derived exosomes from the blood circulation in mice

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    Takafumi Imai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies using B16BL6-derived exosomes labelled with gLuc–lactadherin (gLuc-LA, a fusion protein of Gaussia luciferase (a reporter protein and lactadherin (an exosome-tropic protein, showed that the exosomes quickly disappeared from the systemic circulation after intravenous injection in mice. In the present study, the mechanism of rapid clearance of intravenously injected B16BL6 exosomes was investigated. gLuc-LA-labelled exosomes were obtained from supernatant of B16BL6 cells after transfection with a plasmid DNA encoding gLuc-LA. Labelling was stable when the exosomes were incubated in serum. By using B16BL6 exosomes labelled with PKH26, a lipophilic fluorescent dye, it was demonstrated that PKH26-labelled B16BL6 exosomes were taken up by macrophages in the liver and spleen but not in the lung, while PKH26-labelled exosomes were taken up by the endothelial cells in the lung. Subsequently, gLuc-LA-labelled B16BL6 exosomes were injected into macrophage-depleted mice prepared by injection with clodronate-containing liposomes. The clearance of the intravenously injected B16BL6 exosomes from the blood circulation was much slower in macrophage-depleted mice than that in untreated mice. These results indicate that macrophages play important roles in the clearance of intravenously injected B16BL6 exosomes from the systemic circulation.

  4. Electrophysiological characterisation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells induced by olfactory ensheathing cell-conditioned medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yu; Rong, Mingqiang; Liu, Yunsheng; Liu, Jingfang; Lu, Ming; Tao, Xiaoyu; Li, Zhenyan; Chen, Xin; Yang, Kui; Li, Chuntao; Liu, Zhixiong

    2013-12-01

    Umbilical cord blood-derived marrow stromal cells (UCB-MSCs) with high proliferation capacity and immunomodulatory properties are considered to be a good candidate for cell-based therapies. But until now, little work has been focused on the differentiation of UCB-MSCs. In this work, UCB-MSCs were demonstrated to be negative for CD34 and CD45 expression but positive for CD90 and CD105 expression. The gate values of UCB-MSCs for CD90 and CD105 were 99.3 and 98.6 %, respectively. Two weeks after treatment, the percentage of neuron-like cells differentiated from UCB-MSCs was increased to 84 ± 12 % in the experimental group [treated with olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs)-conditioned medium] and they were neuron-specific enolase positive; few neuron-like cells were found in the control group (without OECs-conditioned medium). Using whole-cell recording, sodium and potassium currents were recorded in UCB-MSCs after differentiation by OECs. Thus, human UCB-MSCs could be differentiated to neural cells by secreted secretion from OECs and exhibited electrophysiological properties similar to mature neurons after 2 weeks post-induction. These results imply that OECs can be used as a new strategy for stem cell differentiation and provide an alternative neurogenesis pathway for generating sufficient numbers of neural cells for cell therapy.

  5. Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Serum for Culturing the Supportive Feeder Cells of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines

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    Ruttachuk Rungsiwiwut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs can proliferate robustly on the feeder-free culture system, genetic instability of hPSCs has been reported in such environment. Alternatively, feeder cells enable hPSCs to maintain their pluripotency. The feeder cells are usually grown in a culture medium containing fetal bovine serum (FBS prior to coculture with hPSCs. The use of FBS might limit the clinical application of hPSCs. Recently, human cord blood-derived serum (hUCS showed a positive effect on culture of mesenchymal stem cells. It is interesting to test whether hUCS can be used for culture of feeder cells of hPSCs. This study was aimed to replace FBS with hUCS for culturing the human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs prior to feeder cell preparation. The results showed that HFFs cultured in hUCS-containing medium (HFF-hUCS displayed fibroblastic features, high proliferation rates, short population doubling times, and normal karyotypes after prolonged culture. Inactivated HFF-hUCS expressed important genes, including Activin A, FGF2, and TGFβ1, which have been implicated in the maintenance of hPSC pluripotency. Moreover, hPSC lines maintained pluripotency, differentiation capacities, and karyotypic stability after being cocultured for extended period with inactivated HFF-hUCS. Therefore, the results demonstrated the benefit of hUCS for hPSCs culture system.

  6. Cartilage repair by human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells with different hydrogels in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Beom; Song, Minjung; Lee, Choong-Hee; Kim, Jin-A; Ha, Chul-Won

    2015-11-01

    This study was carried out to assess the feasibility of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) in articular cartilage repair and to further determine a suitable delivering hydrogel in a rat model. Critical sized full thickness cartilage defects were created. The hUCB-MSCs and three different hydrogel composites (hydrogel A; 4% hyaluronic acid/30% pluronic (1:1, v/v), hydrogel B; 4% hyaluronic acid, and hydrogel C; 4% hyaluronic acid/30% pluronic/chitosan (1:1:2, v/v)) were implanted into the experimental knee (right knee) and hydrogels without hUCB-MSCs were implanted into the control knee (left knee). Defects were evaluated after 8 weeks. The hUCB-MSCs with hydrogels composites resulted in a better repair as seen by gross and histological evaluation compared with hydrogels without hUCB-MSCs. Among the three different hydrogels, the 4% hyaluronic acid hydrogel composite (hydrogel B) showed the best result in cartilage repair as seen by the histological evaluation compared with the other hydrogel composites (hydrogel A and C). The results of this study suggest that hUCB-MSCs may be a promising cell source in combination with 4% hyaluronic acid hydrogels in the in vivo repair of cartilage defects.

  7. Cord Blood-Derived Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells: Current Challenges in Engraftment, Infection, and Ex Vivo Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Katsuhiro Kita; Lee, Jong O; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N

    2011-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood has served as an alternative to bone marrow for hematopoietic transplantation since the late 1980s. Numerous clinical studies have proven the efficacy of umbilical cord blood. Moreover, the possible immaturity of cells in umbilical cord blood gives more options to recipients with HLA mismatch and allows for the use of umbilical cord blood from unrelated donors. However, morbidity and mortality rates associated with hematopoietic malignancies still remain relatively high, ...

  8. Cord Blood-Derived Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells: Current Challenges in Engraftment, Infection, and Ex Vivo Expansion

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    Katsuhiro Kita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Umbilical cord blood has served as an alternative to bone marrow for hematopoietic transplantation since the late 1980s. Numerous clinical studies have proven the efficacy of umbilical cord blood. Moreover, the possible immaturity of cells in umbilical cord blood gives more options to recipients with HLA mismatch and allows for the use of umbilical cord blood from unrelated donors. However, morbidity and mortality rates associated with hematopoietic malignancies still remain relatively high, even after cord blood transplantation. Infections and relapse are the major causes of death after cord blood transplantation in patients with hematopoietic diseases. Recently, new strategies have been introduced to improve these major problems. Establishing better protocols for simple isolation of primitive cells and ex vivo expansion will also be very important. In this short review, we discuss several recent promising findings related to the technical improvement of cord blood transplantation.

  9. Cord Blood-Derived Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells: Current Challenges in Engraftment, Infection, and Ex Vivo Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Katsuhiro; Lee, Jong O.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood has served as an alternative to bone marrow for hematopoietic transplantation since the late 1980s. Numerous clinical studies have proven the efficacy of umbilical cord blood. Moreover, the possible immaturity of cells in umbilical cord blood gives more options to recipients with HLA mismatch and allows for the use of umbilical cord blood from unrelated donors. However, morbidity and mortality rates associated with hematopoietic malignancies still remain relatively high, even after cord blood transplantation. Infections and relapse are the major causes of death after cord blood transplantation in patients with hematopoietic diseases. Recently, new strategies have been introduced to improve these major problems. Establishing better protocols for simple isolation of primitive cells and ex vivo expansion will also be very important. In this short review, we discuss several recent promising findings related to the technical improvement of cord blood transplantation. PMID:21603139

  10. Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and reverse dipping pattern of nocturnal blood pressure in patients with cardiovascular risk factors.

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    Manabu Kadoya

    Full Text Available Basic studies have shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has critical roles in the survival, growth, maintenance, and death of central and peripheral neurons, while it is also involved in regulation of the autonomic nervous system. Furthermore, recent clinical studies have suggested potential role of plasma BDNF in the circulatory system.We investigated the mutual relationships among plasma BDNF, patterns of nocturnal blood pressure changes (dippers, non-dippers, extra-dippers, and reverse-dippers, and cardiac autonomic function as determined by heart rate variability (HRV.This was a cross-sectional study of patients registered in the Hyogo Sleep Cardio-Autonomic Atherosclerosis (HSCAA Study from October 2010 to November 2012.Two-hundred fifty patients with 1 or more cardiovascular risk factor(s (obesity, smoking, presence of cardiovascular event history, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease were enrolled.Plasma BDNF levels (natural logarithm transformed were significantly (p = 0.001 lower in reverse-dipper patients (7.18±0.69 pg/ml, mean ± SD, n = 36 as compared to dippers (7.86±0.86 pg/ml, n = 100. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that BDNF (odds ratios: 0.417, 95% confidence interval: 0.228-0.762, P = 0.004 was the sole factor significantly and independently associated with the reverse-dippers as compared with dippers. Furthermore, plasma BDNF level was significantly and positively correlated with the time-domain (SDNN, SDANN5, CVRR and frequency-domain (LF of HRV parameters. Finally, multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the relationship between plasma BDNF and the reverse-dippers was weakened, yet remained significant or borderline significant even after adjusting for HRV parameters.Low plasma BDNF was independently associated with patients showing a reverse-dipper pattern of nocturnal blood pressure, in which an imbalance of cardiac autonomic function

  11. Predicting Out-of-Office Blood Pressure in the Clinic (PROOF-BP): Derivation and Validation of a Tool to Improve the Accuracy of Blood Pressure Measurement in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, James P; Stevens, Richard; Gill, Paramjit; Martin, Una; Godwin, Marshall; Hanley, Janet; Heneghan, Carl; Hobbs, F D Richard; Mant, Jonathan; McKinstry, Brian; Myers, Martin; Nunan, David; Ward, Alison; Williams, Bryan; McManus, Richard J

    2016-05-01

    Patients often have lower (white coat effect) or higher (masked effect) ambulatory/home blood pressure readings compared with clinic measurements, resulting in misdiagnosis of hypertension. The present study assessed whether blood pressure and patient characteristics from a single clinic visit can accurately predict the difference between ambulatory/home and clinic blood pressure readings (the home-clinic difference). A linear regression model predicting the home-clinic blood pressure difference was derived in 2 data sets measuring automated clinic and ambulatory/home blood pressure (n=991) using candidate predictors identified from a literature review. The model was validated in 4 further data sets (n=1172) using area under the receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. A masked effect was associated with male sex, a positive clinic blood pressure change (difference between consecutive measurements during a single visit), and a diagnosis of hypertension. Increasing age, clinic blood pressure level, and pulse pressure were associated with a white coat effect. The model showed good calibration across data sets (Pearson correlation, 0.48-0.80) and performed well-predicting ambulatory hypertension (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.72-0.79 [systolic]; 0.87; 0.85-0.89 [diastolic]). Used as a triaging tool for ambulatory monitoring, the model improved classification of a patient's blood pressure status compared with other guideline recommended approaches (93% [92% to 95%] classified correctly; United States, 73% [70% to 75%]; Canada, 74% [71% to 77%]; United Kingdom, 78% [76% to 81%]). This study demonstrates that patient characteristics from a single clinic visit can accurately predict a patient's ambulatory blood pressure. Usage of this prediction tool for triaging of ambulatory monitoring could result in more accurate diagnosis of hypertension and hence more appropriate treatment. PMID:27001299

  12. Preclinical Evaluation of the Immunomodulatory Properties of Cardiac Adipose Tissue Progenitor Cells Using Umbilical Cord Blood Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Direct Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Perea-Gil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell-based strategies to regenerate injured myocardial tissue have emerged over the past decade, but the optimum cell type is still under scrutiny. In this context, human adult epicardial fat surrounding the heart has been characterized as a reservoir of mesenchymal-like progenitor cells (cardiac ATDPCs with potential clinical benefits. However, additional data on the possibility that these cells could trigger a deleterious immune response following implantation are needed. Thus, in the presented study, we took advantage of the well-established low immunogenicity of umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCBMSCs to comparatively assess the immunomodulatory properties of cardiac ATDPCs in an in vitro allostimulatory assay using allogeneic mature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs. Similar to UCBMSCs, increasing amounts of seeded cardiac ATDPCs suppressed the alloproliferation of T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL6, TNFα, and IFNγ was also specifically modulated by the different numbers of cardiac ATDPCs cocultured. In summary, we show that cardiac ATDPCs abrogate T cell alloproliferation upon stimulation with allogeneic mature MDDCs, suggesting that they could further regulate a possible harmful immune response in vivo. Additionally, UCBMSCs can be considered as valuable tools to preclinically predict the immunogenicity of prospective regenerative cells.

  13. Regulation of human umbilical cord blood-derived multi-potent stem cells by autogenic osteoclast-based niche-like structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stem cell niches provide the micro-environment for the development of stem cells. Under our culturing regimen, a kind of osteoclast-centralized structure supports the proliferation of MSCs, derived from human cord blood, once they reside on osteoclasts. MSCs in this structure expressed Oct4 which is a marker of embryonic stem cells. Floating daughter cells of MSCs colony showed abilities to differentiate into osteocyte, adipocyte, and neuronal progenitor cells. Compared with the easy senescence of MSCs without this niche-like structure in vitro, these results suggested that osteoclasts might play an important role the development and maintenance of Umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived MSCs and might provide a means to expand UCB-MSCs in vitro, more easily, through a stem cell niche-like structure

  14. Effects of continuous phonation on 133xenon-inhalation air curves (of the kind used in deriving regional cerebral blood flow)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) may be measured with inhalation techniques that use end-expired values of radioactivity to estimate the isotope concentration in arterial blood. These end-expired data are used as an input function in a mathematical equation to derive rCBF. End-expired air is assumed normally to be in equilibrium with the arterial blood at the alveolar surface of the lung during regular (passive) breathing; this assumption may not be valid during continuous phonation. We therefore have analyzed breathing (inhalation/exhalation) patterns and end-expired radioactivity (133Xe) during (1) speaking, (2) singing, and (3) humming of the national anthem, and also during (4) passive breathing. Statistically significant differences in breathing patterns were measured between a group of nonmusicians and two groups of musicians (singers) during the phonation tasks: The nonmusicians breathed more often (and more rapidly) and exhibited less variability in their breathing patterns than did the musicians. Notwithstanding these differences, the shapes of smoothed functions derived from the end-expired values were not influenced appreciably during phonation (except possibly during talking). The latter finding suggests that estimates of rCBF derived with these data should not be confounded seriously because of the continuous phonation

  15. Infiltrating blood-derived macrophages are vital cells playing an anti-inflammatory role in recovery from spinal cord injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravid Shechter

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although macrophages (MPhi are known as essential players in wound healing, their contribution to recovery from spinal cord injury (SCI is a subject of debate. The difficulties in distinguishing between different MPhi subpopulations at the lesion site have further contributed to the controversy and led to the common view of MPhi as functionally homogenous. Given the massive accumulation in the injured spinal cord of activated resident microglia, which are the native immune occupants of the central nervous system (CNS, the recruitment of additional infiltrating monocytes from the peripheral blood seems puzzling. A key question that remains is whether the infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi contribute to repair, or represent an unavoidable detrimental response. The hypothesis of the current study is that a specific population of infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi is functionally distinct from the inflammatory resident microglia and is essential for recovery from SCI. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We inflicted SCI in adult mice, and tested the effect of infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi on the recovery process. Adoptive transfer experiments and bone marrow chimeras were used to functionally distinguish between the resident microglia and the infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi. We followed the infiltration of the monocyte-derived MPhi to the injured site and characterized their spatial distribution and phenotype. Increasing the naïve monocyte pool by either adoptive transfer or CNS-specific vaccination resulted in a higher number of spontaneously recruited cells and improved recovery. Selective ablation of infiltrating monocyte-derived MPhi following SCI while sparing the resident microglia, using either antibody-mediated depletion or conditional ablation by diphtheria toxin, impaired recovery. Reconstitution of the peripheral blood with monocytes resistant to ablation restored the lost motor functions. Importantly, the infiltrating monocyte-derived

  16. Derivation of a measure of systolic blood pressure mutability: a novel information theory-based metric from ambulatory blood pressure tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Danitza J; Vogel, Eugenio E; Saravia, Gonzalo; Stockins, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    We provide ambulatory blood pressure (BP) exams with tools based on information theory to quantify fluctuations thus increasing the capture of dynamic test components. Data from 515 ambulatory 24-hour BP exams were considered. Average age was 54 years, 54% were women, and 53% were under BP treatment. The average systolic pressure (SP) was 127 ± 8 mm Hg. A data compressor (wlzip) designed to recognize meaningful information is invoked to measure mutability which is a form of dynamical variability. For patients with the same average SP, different mutability values are obtained which reflects the differences in dynamical variability. In unadjusted linear regression models, mutability had low association with the mean systolic BP (R(2) = 0.056; P information toward diagnosis.

  17. Correlation between the quantifiable parameters of blood flow pattern derived with dynamic CT in maliagnant solitary pulmonary nodules and tumor size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenshi ZHANG

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective The solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs is one of the most common findings on chest radiographs. It becomes possible to provide more accurately quantitative information about blood flow patterns of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs with multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT. The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between the quantifiable parameters of blood flow pattern derived with dynamic CT in maliagnant solitary pulmonary nodules and tumor size. Methods 68 patients with maliagnant solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs (diameter <=4 cmunderwent multi-location dynamic contrast material-enhanced (nonionic contrast material was administrated via the antecubital vein at a rate of 4mL/s by an autoinjector, 4*5mm or 4*2.5mm scanning mode with stable table were performed. serial CT. Precontrast and postcontrast attenuation on every scan was recorded. Perfusion (PSPN, peak height (PHSPNratio of peak height of the SPN to that of the aorta (SPN-to-A ratioand mean transit time(MTT were calculated. The correlation between the quantifiable parameters of blood flow pattern derived with dynamic CT in maliagnant solitary pulmonary nodules and tumor size were assessed by means of linear regression analysis. Results No significant correlations were found between the tumor size and each of the peak height (PHSPN ratio of peak height of the SPN to that of the aorta (SPN-to-A ratio perfusion(PSPNand mean transit time (r=0.18, P=0.14; r=0.20,P=0.09; r=0.01, P=0.95; r=0.01, P=0.93. Conclusion No significant correlation is found between the tumor size and each of the quantifiable parameters of blood flow pattern derived with dynamic CT in maliagnant solitary pulmonary nodules.

  18. Generalized Liver- and Blood-Derived CD8+ T-Cell Impairment in Response to Cytokines in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C Burke Schinkel

    Full Text Available Generalized CD8+ T-cell impairment in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and the contribution of liver-infiltrating CD8+ T-cells to the immunopathogenesis of this infection remain poorly understood. It is hypothesized that this impairment is partially due to reduced CD8+ T-cell activity in response to cytokines such as IL-7, particularly within the liver. To investigate this, the phenotype and cytokine responsiveness of blood- and liver-derived CD8+ T-cells from healthy controls and individuals with HCV infection were compared. In blood, IL-7 receptor α (CD127 expression on bulk CD8+ T-cells in HCV infection was no different than controls yet was lower on central memory T-cells, and there were fewer naïve cells. IL-7-induced signalling through phosphorylated STAT5 was lower in HCV infection than in controls, and differed between CD8+ T-cell subsets. Production of Bcl-2 following IL-7 stimulation was also lower in HCV infection and inversely related to the degree of liver fibrosis. In liver-derived CD8+ T-cells, STAT5 activation could not be increased with cytokine stimulation and basal Bcl-2 levels of liver-derived CD8+ T-cells were lower than blood-derived counterparts in HCV infection. Therefore, generalized CD8+ T-cell impairment in HCV infection is characterized, in part, by impaired IL-7-mediated signalling and survival, independent of CD127 expression. This impairment is more pronounced in the liver and may be associated with an increased potential for apoptosis. This generalized CD8+ T-cell impairment represents an important immune dysfunction in chronic HCV infection that may alter patient health.

  19. Development of the nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of hepatitis C virus RNA in blood derivatives. Final report for the period 15 December 1994 - 15 December 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testing for the presence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in blood derivatives used in clinical medicine is important to ensure the safety of such preparations. A reliable and reproducible method is described for the isolation of HCV RNA, subsequent reverse transcription and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from blood derivatives. Of 17 batches of blood derivatives (14 negative for anti-HCV and 3 of unknown anti-HCV status) five were found to be positive in the nested PCR. (author). 4 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  20. Lyophilized bovine hemoglobin as a possible reference material for the determination of hemoglobin derivatives in human blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, BHA; Buursma, A; Ernst, RAJ; Maas, AHJ; Zijlstra, WG

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the suitability of a lyophilized bovine hemoglobin (LBH) preparation containing various fractions of oxyhemoglobin (O(2)Hb), carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and methemoglobin (MetHb) for quality assessment in multicomponent analysis (MCA) of hemoglobin derivatives. It was demonstrated that

  1. Mitochondrial Function and Energy Metabolism in Umbilical Cord Blood- and Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pietilä, Mika; Palomäki, Sami; Lehtonen, Siri; Ritamo, Ilja; Valmu, Leena; Nystedt, Johanna; Laitinen, Saara; Leskelä, Hannnu-Ville; Sormunen, Raija; Pesälä, Juha; Nordström, Katrina; Vepsäläinen, Ari; Lehenkari, Petri

    2011-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are an attractive choice for a variety of cellular therapies. hMSCs can be isolated from many different tissues and possess unique mitochondrial properties that can be used to determine their differentiation potential. Mitochondrial properties may possibly be used as a quality measure of hMSC-based products. Accordingly, the present work focuses on the mitochondrial function of hMSCs from umbilical cord blood (UCBMSC) cells and bone marrow cells from donor...

  2. Adjustment of Cell-Type Composition Minimizes Systematic Bias in Blood DNA Methylation Profiles Derived by DNA Collection Protocols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh Shiwa

    Full Text Available Differences in DNA collection protocols may be a potential confounder in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS using a large number of blood specimens from multiple biobanks and/or cohorts. Here we show that pre-analytical procedures involved in DNA collection can induce systematic bias in the DNA methylation profiles of blood cells that can be adjusted by cell-type composition variables. In Experiment 1, whole blood from 16 volunteers was collected to examine the effect of a 24 h storage period at 4°C on DNA methylation profiles as measured using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Our statistical analysis showed that the P-value distribution of more than 450,000 CpG sites was similar to the theoretical distribution (in quantile-quantile plot, λ = 1.03 when comparing two control replicates, which was remarkably deviated from the theoretical distribution (λ = 1.50 when comparing control and storage conditions. We then considered cell-type composition as a possible cause of the observed bias in DNA methylation profiles and found that the bias associated with the cold storage condition was largely decreased (λ adjusted = 1.14 by taking into account a cell-type composition variable. As such, we compared four respective sample collection protocols used in large-scale Japanese biobanks or cohorts as well as two control replicates. Systematic biases in DNA methylation profiles were observed between control and three of four protocols without adjustment of cell-type composition (λ = 1.12-1.45 and no remarkable biases were seen after adjusting for cell-type composition in all four protocols (λ adjusted = 1.00-1.17. These results revealed important implications for comparing DNA methylation profiles between blood specimens from different sources and may lead to discovery of disease-associated DNA methylation markers and the development of DNA methylation profile-based predictive risk models.

  3. New type of Sendai virus vector provides transgene-free iPS cells derived from chimpanzee blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasumitsu Fujie

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs are potentially valuable cell sources for disease models and future therapeutic applications; however, inefficient generation and the presence of integrated transgenes remain as problems limiting their current use. Here, we developed a new Sendai virus vector, TS12KOS, which has improved efficiency, does not integrate into the cellular DNA, and can be easily eliminated. TS12KOS carries KLF4, OCT3/4, and SOX2 in a single vector and can easily generate iPSCs from human blood cells. Using TS12KOS, we established iPSC lines from chimpanzee blood, and used DNA array analysis to show that the global gene-expression pattern of chimpanzee iPSCs is similar to those of human embryonic stem cell and iPSC lines. These results demonstrated that our new vector is useful for generating iPSCs from the blood cells of both human and chimpanzee. In addition, the chimpanzee iPSCs are expected to facilitate unique studies into human physiology and disease.

  4. Comparison of articular cartilage repair with different hydrogel-human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell composites in a rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Jun Young; Song, Minjung; Ha, Chul-Won; Kim, Jin-A; Lee, Choong-Hee; Park, Yong-Beom

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The present work was designed to explore the feasibility and efficacy of articular cartilage repair using composites of human umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) and four different hydrogels in a rat model. Methods Full-thickness articular cartilage defects were created at the trochlear groove of femur in both knees of rats. Composites of hUCB-MSCs and four different hydrogels (group A, 4% hyaluronic acid; group B, 3% alginate:30% pluronic (1:1, v/v); ...

  5. Preparation and evaluation of copper-67 labeled copper(II) bis(thiosemicarbazone) derivatives as potential blood flow tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of bis(thiosemicarbazone) derivatives of diketones and dialdehydes has been synthesized and labelled with copper-67. The biodistributions of these complexes in rats has been determined following femoral vein injection. Brain and heart levels of the complexes were determined at elapsed times of 1 minute, 5 minutes, and 2 hours as a function of % injected dose per organ

  6. Olfactory receptor responding to gut microbiota-derived signals plays a role in renin secretion and blood pressure regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluznick, Jennifer L; Protzko, Ryan J; Gevorgyan, Haykanush; Peterlin, Zita; Sipos, Arnold; Han, Jinah; Brunet, Isabelle; Wan, La-Xiang; Rey, Federico; Wang, Tong; Firestein, Stuart J; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Gordon, Jeffrey I; Eichmann, Anne; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Caplan, Michael J

    2013-03-12

    Olfactory receptors are G protein-coupled receptors that mediate olfactory chemosensation and serve as chemosensors in other tissues. We find that Olfr78, an olfactory receptor expressed in the kidney, responds to short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Olfr78 is expressed in the renal juxtaglomerular apparatus, where it mediates renin secretion in response to SCFAs. In addition, both Olfr78 and G protein-coupled receptor 41 (Gpr41), another SCFA receptor, are expressed in smooth muscle cells of small resistance vessels. Propionate, a SCFA shown to induce vasodilation ex vivo, produces an acute hypotensive response in wild-type mice. This effect is differentially modulated by disruption of Olfr78 and Gpr41 expression. SCFAs are end products of fermentation by the gut microbiota and are absorbed into the circulation. Antibiotic treatment reduces the biomass of the gut microbiota and elevates blood pressure in Olfr78 knockout mice. We conclude that SCFAs produced by the gut microbiota modulate blood pressure via Olfr78 and Gpr41. PMID:23401498

  7. Identification and expansion of cancer stem cells in tumor tissues and peripheral blood derived from gastric adenocarcinoma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tie Chen; Xinzu Chen; Fang Wang; Fan Zeng; Hong Xu; Jiankun Hu; Xianming Mo; Kun Yang; Jianhua Yu; Wentong Meng; Dandan Yuan; Feng Bi; Fang Liu; Jie Liu; Bing Dai

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer worldwide,with a high rate of death and low 5-year survival rate.To date,there is a lack of efficient therapeutic protocols for gastric cancer.Recent studies suggest that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor initiation,invasion,metastasis,and resistance to anticancer therapies.Thus,therapies that target gastric CSCs are attractive.However,CSCs in human gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC)have not been described.Here,we identify CSCs in tumor tissues and peripheral blood from GAC patients.CSCs of human GAC (GCSCs) that are isolated from tumor tissues and peripheral blood of patients carried CD44 and CD54 surface markers,generated tumors that highly resemble the original human tumors when injected into immunodeficient mice,differentiated into gastric epithelial cells in vitro,and self-renewed in vivo and in vitro.Our findings suggest that effective therapeutic protocols must target GCSCs.The capture of GCSCs from the circulation of GAC patients also shows great potential for identification of a critical cell population potentially responsible for tumor metastasis,and provides an effective protocol for early diagnosis and longitudinal monitoring of gastric cancer.

  8. Unresolved clinical aspects and safety hazards of blood derived- EV/MV in stored blood components: From personal memory lanes to newer perspectives on the roles of EV/MV in various biological phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghatchian, Jerard; Amiral, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Blood cells generate heterogeneous populations of vesicles that are delivered, as small-specialized packages of highly active cell fragments in blood circulation, having almost similar functional activities, as the mother cells. These so called extracellular vesicles are the essential part of an energy-dependent natural apoptotic process; hence their beneficial and harmful biological functions cannot be ignored. Evidence is accumulating, that cellular derived vesicles, originate from all viable cells including: megakaryocytes, platelets, red blood cells, white blood cells and endothelial cells, the highest in proportions from platelets. Shedding can also be triggered by pathological activation of inflammatory processes and activation of coagulation or complement pathways, or even by shear stress in the circulation. Structurally, so called MV/EV appear to be, sometimes inside-out and sometimes outside-in cell fragments having a bilayered phospholipid structure exposing coagulant-active phosphatidylserine, expressing various membrane receptors, and they serve as cell-to-cell shuttles for bioactive molecules such as lipids, growth factors, microRNAs, and mitochondria. Ex vivo processing of blood into its components, embodying centrifugation, processing by various apheresis procedures, leukoreduction, pathogen reduction, and finally storage in different media and different types of blood bags, also have major impacts on the generation and retention of MV content. These artificially generated small, but highly liable packages, together with the original pool of MVs collected from the donor, do exhibit differing biological activities, and are not inert elements and should be considered as a parameter of blood safety in haemovigilance programmes. Harmonization and consensus in sampling protocols, sample handling, processing, and assessment methods, in particular converting to full automation, are needed to achieve consensual interpretations. This review focuses on some of

  9. Revealing the role of oxidation state in interaction between nitro/amino-derived particulate matter and blood proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Li, Ping; Bian, Weiwei; Yu, Jingkai; Zhan, Jinhua

    2016-05-01

    Surface oxidation states of ultrafine particulate matter can influence the proinflammatory responses and reactive oxygen species levels in tissue. Surface active species of vehicle-emission soot can serve as electron transfer-mediators in mitochondrion. Revealing the role of surface oxidation state in particles-proteins interaction will promote the understanding on metabolism and toxicity. Here, the surface oxidation state was modeled by nitro/amino ligands on nanoparticles, the interaction with blood proteins were evaluated by capillary electrophoresis quantitatively. The nitro shown larger affinity than amino. On the other hand, the affinity to hemoglobin is 103 times larger than that to BSA. Further, molecular docking indicated the difference of binding intensity were mainly determined by hydrophobic forces and hydrogen bonds. These will deepen the quantitative understanding of protein-nanoparticles interaction from the perspective of surface chemical state.

  10. The effect of citrus-derived oil on bovine blood neutrophil function and gene expression in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M; Elsasser, T H; Biswas, D; Moyes, K M

    2015-02-01

    Research on the use of natural products to treat or prevent microbial invasion as alternatives to antibiotic use is growing. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) play a vital role with regard to the innate immune response that affects severity or duration of mastitis. To our knowledge, effect of cold-pressed terpeneless Valencia orange oil (TCO) on bovine PMNL function has not been elucidated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of TCO on bovine blood PMNL chemotaxis and phagocytosis capabilities and the expression of genes involved in inflammatory response in vitro. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes were isolated from jugular blood of 12 Holstein cows in mid-lactation and were incubated with 0.0 or 0.01% TCO for 120min at 37°C and 5% CO2, and phagocytosis (2×10(6) PMNL) and chemotaxis (6×10(6) PMNL) assays were then performed in vitro. For gene expression, RNA was extracted from incubated PMNL (6×10(6) PMNL), and gene expression was analyzed using quantitative PCR. The supernatant was stored at -80°C for analysis of tumor necrosis factor-α. Data were analyzed using a general linear mixed model with cow and treatment (i.e., control or TCO) in the model statement. In vitro supplementation of 0.01% of TCO increased the chemotactic ability to IL-8 by 47%; however, migration of PMNL to complement 5a was not altered. Treatment did not affect the production of tumor necrosis factor-α by PMNL. Expression of proinflammatory genes (i.e., SELL, TLR4, IRAK1, TRAF6, and LYZ) coding for proteins was not altered by incubation of PMNL with TCO. However, downregulation of TLR2 [fold change (FC=treatment/control)=-2.14], NFKBIA (FC=1.82), IL1B (FC=-2.16), TNFA (FC=-9.43), and SOD2 (FC=-1.57) was observed for PMNL incubated with TCO when compared with controls. Interestingly, expression of IL10, a well-known antiinflammatory cytokine, was also downregulated (FC=-3.78), whereas expression of IL8 (FC=1.93), a gene coding for the cytokine IL-8 known

  11. Effects of dermatan sulfate derivatives on platelet surface P-selectin expression and protein C activity in blood of inflammatory bowel disease patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Li Ji; Hai-Yan Du; Yan-Qing Chi; Hui-Fei Cui; Ji-Chao Cao; Mei-Yu Geng; Hua-Shi Guan

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of dermatan sulfate (DS)derivatives on platelet surface P-selectin expression and blood activated protein C (APC) activity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and to clarity the antiinflammatory mechanism of DS derivatives.METHODS: Dermatan sulfate (DS) was sulfated with chlorosulfonic acid to prepare polysulfated dermatan sulfate (PSDS). The major disaccharides of DS and PSDS were determined by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR) and 13C-NMR. Both DS and PSDS were depolymerized with hydrogen peroxide. The fragments were separated by gel filtration chromatography. The effects of DS derivatives on P-selectin expression were assayed by ELISA method,and blood APC activity was assayed by the synthetic chromogenic substrate method.RESULTS: The major disaccharides of DS and PSDS were IdoA-1→3-GalNAc-4-SO3 and IdoA-2SO3-1→3-GalNAc4, 6-diSO3, respectively. Compared with the adenosine diphosphate stimulated group and IBD control group, DS and its derivatives all had significant inhibitory effects on P-selectin expression (P<0.01), but there was no difference between DS-derived oligosaccharides (DSOSs) and PSDS-derived oligosaccharides (PSDSOSs). The experiments on APC activity showed that DS and its derivatives all enhanced APC activity. The most active DSOS was the one with a relative molecular weight (Mr) of 4 825, which enhanced the APC activity from 106.5±11.5% to 181.8±22.3% (P<0.01). With the decrease of Mr, the activity of DSOSs decreased gradually. The effect of PSDS on APC activity enhancement was more significant than that of DS, and the APC activity was raised to 205.2±22.1% (P<0.01). All the PSDSOSs were more active than DSOSs on the basis of comparable Mr. With the decrease of Mr, the activity of PSDSOSs increased gradually, and the most active PSDSOS was PSDSOS3 with Mr of 2 749, which enhanced the APC activity to 331.2±27.8% (P<0.01), then the activity of PSDSOSs decreased gradually

  12. Collagen gel contraction serves to rapidly distinguish epithelial- and mesenchymal-derived cells irrespective of alpha-smooth muscle actin expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helga Lind; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Villadsen, René;

    2004-01-01

    Mesenchymal-like cells in the stroma of breast cancer may arise as a consequence of plasticity within the epithelial compartment, also referred to as epithelial-mesenchymal transition, or by recruitment of genuine mesenchymal cells from the peritumoral stroma. Cells of both the epithelial compart...... under these conditions did not augment contractility. It is concluded that epithelial-derived mesenchymal-like cells are functionally defective within a connective tissue environment irrespective of an apparent contractile phenotype.......Mesenchymal-like cells in the stroma of breast cancer may arise as a consequence of plasticity within the epithelial compartment, also referred to as epithelial-mesenchymal transition, or by recruitment of genuine mesenchymal cells from the peritumoral stroma. Cells of both the epithelial...... compartment and the stromal compartment express alpha smooth muscle actin (alpha-sm actin) as part of a myoepithelial or a myofibroblastic differentiation program, respectively. Moreover, because both epithelial- and mesenchymal-derived cells are nontumorigenic, other means of discrimination are warranted...

  13. MicroRNAs as markers for neurally committed CD133+/CD34+ stem cells derived from human umbilical cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizi, Maryam; Atashi, Amir; Bakhshandeh, Behnaz; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Nadri, Samad; Hosseini, Reza Haji; Soleimani, Masoud

    2013-04-01

    Neural differentiation of the CD133+/CD34+ subpopulation of human umbilical cord blood stem cells was investigated, and neuro-miR (mir-9 and mir-124) expression was examined. An efficient induction protocol for neural differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells together with the exclusion of retinoic acid in this process was also studied. Transcription of some neural markers such as microtubule-associated protein-2, beta-tubulin III, and neuron-specific enolase was evaluated by real-time PCR, immunocytochemistry, and western blotting. Increased expression of neural indicators in the treated cells confirmed the appropriate neural differentiation, which supported the high efficiency of our defined neuronal induction protocol. Verified high expression of neuro-miRNAs along with neuronal specific proteins not only strengthens the regulatory role of miRNAs in determining stem cell fate but also introduces these miRNAs as novel indicators of neural differentiation. These data highlight the prominent therapeutic potential of hematopoietic stem cells for use in cell therapy of neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. Induction of differentiation by down-regulation of Nanog and Rex-1 in cord blood derived unrestricted somatic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langroudi, Lida; Forouzandeh, Mehdi; Soleimani, Masoud; Atashi, Amir; Golestaneh, Azadeh Fahim

    2013-07-01

    Stem cells with high self-renewal and tissue regeneration potentials are the core components of regenerative medicine. Adult stem cells with many available sources, high repairing ability, and also possessing no ethical issues are popular candidates in the clinical field. In this study we looked upon the effects of two transcription factors Nanog and Rex-1 in self-renewal and differentiation abilities of a subpopulation of cord blood stem cells known as unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs). USSCs were expanded and transfected in vitro with siRNAs targeting either Nanog, Rex-1, and in combination. Gene suppressions were achieved at both transcript and proteome level. Differentiations were evaluated by specific Real time PCR and differentiating staining. Nanog knock down revealed a significant increase in osteogenic markers, Osteocalcin and Osteopontin expression as well as a positive Alizarin Red staining, which proposes Osteogenesis. This treatment also became positive for Oil Red staining, implying adipogenic differentiation as well. In contrast, Rex-1 knock down showed an increase in MAP II and Nestin expression, which is a hall mark of neural differentiation. Surprisingly, treatment with both siRNAs did not express any changes in any of the assessed markers. Therefore, our results indicated a bilateral mesenchymal differentiation for Nanog and a neural lineage fate for Rex-1 suppression. Considering that both transcription factors are core activators of self-renewal and also are orchestrating with other factors, our results imply a positive feedback in response to changes in the regulatory network of self-renewal.

  15. Mitochondrial Function and Energy Metabolism in Umbilical Cord Blood- and Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomäki, Sami; Lehtonen, Siri; Ritamo, Ilja; Valmu, Leena; Nystedt, Johanna; Laitinen, Saara; Leskelä, Hannnu-Ville; Sormunen, Raija; Pesälä, Juha; Nordström, Katrina; Vepsäläinen, Ari; Lehenkari, Petri

    2012-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are an attractive choice for a variety of cellular therapies. hMSCs can be isolated from many different tissues and possess unique mitochondrial properties that can be used to determine their differentiation potential. Mitochondrial properties may possibly be used as a quality measure of hMSC-based products. Accordingly, the present work focuses on the mitochondrial function of hMSCs from umbilical cord blood (UCBMSC) cells and bone marrow cells from donors younger than 18 years of age (BMMSC 50). Changes of ultrastructure and energy metabolism during osteogenic differentiation in all hMSC types were studied in detail. Results show that despite similar surface antigen characteristics, the UCBMSCs had smaller cell surface area and possessed more abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum than BMMSC >50. BMMSC 50 and BMMSC 50 showed a lower level of mitochondrial maturation and differentiation capacity. UCBMSCs and BMMSCs also showed a different pattern of exocytosed proteins and glycoproteoglycansins. These results indicate that hMSCs with similar cell surface antigen expression have different mitochondrial and functional properties, suggesting different maturation levels and other significant biological variations of the hMSCs. Therefore, it appears that mitochondrial analysis presents useful characterization criteria for hMSCs intended for clinical use. PMID:21615273

  16. A novel photoplethysmography technique to derive normalized arterial stiffness as a blood pressure independent measure in the finger vascular bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiffening of the small artery may be the earliest sign of arteriosclerosis. However, there is no adequate method for directly assessing small arterial stiffness. In this study, the finger arterial elasticity index (FEI) was defined as the parameter n which denotes the curvilinearity of an exponential model of pressure (P)–volume (Va) relationship (Va = a − b exp (−nP)). For the original estimation, the FEI was calculated from a compliance index from the finger photoplethysmogram whilst occluding the finger. A simple estimation of the FEI was devised by utilizing normalized pulse volume instead of the compliance index. Both estimations yielded close agreement with the exponential model in healthy young participants (study 1: n = 19). Since the FEI was dependent on finger mean blood pressure, normalized finger arterial stiffness index (FSI) was defined as standardized residual from their relationship: mean and standard deviation (SD) of the FSI were 50 ± 10 (study 2: n = 174). The mean coefficient of variation of the FSI for four measurements was 5.72% (study 3: n = 6). The mean and SD of the FSI in seven arteriosclerotic patients were 100.0 ± 13.5. In conclusion, the FEI and FSI by simple estimation are valid and useful for arteriosclerosis research

  17. Chondrogenic commitment of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in collagen matrices for cartilage engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Leduc, Tangni; Hervieu, Magalie; Legendre, Florence; Bouyoucef, Mouloud; Gruchy, Nicolas; Poulain, Laurent; de Vienne, Claire; Herlicoviez, Michel; Demoor, Magali; Galéra, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a promising alternative source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), because UCB-MSCs are abundant and harvesting them is a painless non-invasive procedure. Potential clinical applications of UCB-MSCs have been identified, but their ability for chondrogenic differentiation has not yet been fully evaluated. The aim of our work was to characterize and determine the chondrogenic differentiation potential of human UCB-MSCs (hUCB-MSCs) for cartilage tissue engineering using an approach combining 3D culture in type I/III collagen sponges and chondrogenic factors. Our results showed that UCB-MSCs have a high proliferative capacity. These cells differentiated easily into an osteoblast lineage but not into an adipocyte lineage. Furthermore, BMP-2 and TGF-β1 potentiated chondrogenic differentiation, as revealed by a strong increase in mature chondrocyte-specific mRNA (COL2A1, COL2B, ACAN) and protein (type II collagen) markers. Although growth factors increased the transcription of hypertrophic chondrocyte markers such as COL10A1 and MMP13, the cells present in the neo-tissue maintained their phenotype and did not progress to terminal differentiation and mineralization of the extracellular matrix after subcutaneous implantation in nude mice. Our study demonstrates that our culture model has efficient chondrogenic differentiation, and that hUCB-MSCs can be a reliable source for cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:27604951

  18. Deriving Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Soklakov, Andrei N.

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative Structuring is a rigorous framework for the design of financial products. We show how it incorporates traditional investment ideas while supporting a more accurate expression of clients' views on the market. We briefly touch upon adjacent topics regarding the safety of financial derivatives and the role of pricing models in product design.

  19. A comparison of umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor and mononuclear cell transplantation for the treatment of acute hindlimb ischemia

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    Phuc Van Pham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lower limb ischemia is a common peripheral artery disease whose treatment presents many difficulties. Stem cell transplantation is considered a novel and promising method of treating this disease. Umbilical cord blood (UCB is rich in stem cells, including hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs. However, historically, banked umbilical cord blood has been used mainly to treat blood-related diseases. Therefore, this study compared the efficacy of umbilical cord bloodderived mononuclear cells (UCB-MNCs with EPC transplantation for the treatment of acute hindlimb ischemia (ALI in mouse models. MNCs were isolated from UCB by Ficoll gradient centrifugation, after which the EPCs were sorted based on CD34+ and CD133+ markers and cultured according to a previously published protocol. To induce ALI, mice were immuno-suppressed using busulfan (BU and cyclophosphamide (CY, after which the femoral arteries were burned. Induction of ALI in the immune suppressed mice was confirmed by the grade of tissue damage, pedal frequency in water, tissue edema, changes in histology, total white blood cell count, and white blood cell composition. Model mice were injected with a dose of MNCs or EPCs and un-treated control mice were injected with phosphate buffered saline. The efficiency of treatment was evaluated by comparing the grade of tissue damage between the three groups of mice. Mice aged 6 and ndash;12 months were suitable for ALI, with 100% of mice exhibiting ischemia from grade I 10%, grade III 50%, grade IV 40%. For all ALI mice, a gradual increase in pedal frequency in water, increased tissue edema, necrosis of muscle tissue, and loss of hindlimb function were observed after 20 days. Transplanted MNCs and EPCs significantly improved hindlimb ischemia compared with control treatment. Moreover, EPC transplantation significantly improved hindlimb ischemia compared with MNC transplantation. Following

  20. Blood meal-derived heme decreases ROS levels in the midgut of Aedes aegypti and allows proliferation of intestinal microbiota.

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    Jose Henrique M Oliveira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of bacteria in the midgut of mosquitoes antagonizes infectious agents, such as Dengue and Plasmodium, acting as a negative factor in the vectorial competence of the mosquito. Therefore, knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in the control of midgut microbiota could help in the development of new tools to reduce transmission. We hypothesized that toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by epithelial cells control bacterial growth in the midgut of Aedes aegypti, the vector of Yellow fever and Dengue viruses. We show that ROS are continuously present in the midgut of sugar-fed (SF mosquitoes and a blood-meal immediately decreased ROS through a mechanism involving heme-mediated activation of PKC. This event occurred in parallel with an expansion of gut bacteria. Treatment of sugar-fed mosquitoes with increased concentrations of heme led to a dose dependent decrease in ROS levels and a consequent increase in midgut endogenous bacteria. In addition, gene silencing of dual oxidase (Duox reduced ROS levels and also increased gut flora. Using a model of bacterial oral infection in the gut, we show that the absence of ROS resulted in decreased mosquito resistance to infection, increased midgut epithelial damage, transcriptional modulation of immune-related genes and mortality. As heme is a pro-oxidant molecule released in large amounts upon hemoglobin degradation, oxidative killing of bacteria in the gut would represent a burden to the insect, thereby creating an extra oxidative challenge to the mosquito. We propose that a controlled decrease in ROS levels in the midgut of Aedes aegypti is an adaptation to compensate for the ingestion of heme.

  1. Casein-Derived Lactotripeptides Reduce Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure in a Meta-Analysis of Randomised Clinical Trials

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    Ágnes A. Fekete

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to treat individuals with high blood pressure (BP with effective dietary strategies. Previous studies suggest a small, but significant decrease in BP after lactotripeptides (LTP ingestion, although the data are inconsistent. The study aim was to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis of data from all relevant randomised controlled trials (RCT. Medline, Cochrane library, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched until May 2014. Eligibility criteria were RCT that examined the effects of LTP on BP in adults, with systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP as outcome measures. Thirty RCT met the inclusion criteria, which resulted in 33 sets of data. The pooled treatment effect for SBP was −2.95 mmHg (95% CI: −4.17, −1.73; p < 0.001, and for DBP was −1.51 mmHg (95% CI: −2.21, −0.80; p < 0.001. Sub-group analyses revealed that reduction of BP in Japanese studies was significantly greater, compared with European studies (p = 0.002 for SBP and p < 0.001 for DBP. The 24-h ambulatory BP (AMBP response to LTP supplementation was statistically non-significant (p = 0.101 for SBP and p = 0.166 for DBP. Both publication bias and “small-study effect” were identified, which shifted the treatment effect towards less significant SBP and non-significant DBP reduction after LTP consumption. LTP may be effective in BP reduction, especially in Japanese individuals; however sub-group, meta-regression analyses and statistically significant publication biases suggest inconsistencies.

  2. Image-derived and arterial blood sampled input functions for quantitative PET imaging of the angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor in the kidney

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    Feng, Tao; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.; Li, Xin; Vranesic, Melin; Lodge, Martin A.; Gulaldi, Nedim C. M.; Szabo, Zsolt, E-mail: zszabo@jhmi.edu [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: The radioligand {sup 11}C-KR31173 has been introduced for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor in the kidney in vivo. To study the biokinetics of {sup 11}C-KR31173 with a compartmental model, the input function is needed. Collection and analysis of arterial blood samples are the established approach to obtain the input function but they are not feasible in patients with renal diseases. The goal of this study was to develop a quantitative technique that can provide an accurate image-derived input function (ID-IF) to replace the conventional invasive arterial sampling and test the method in pigs with the goal of translation into human studies. Methods: The experimental animals were injected with [{sup 11}C]KR31173 and scanned up to 90 min with dynamic PET. Arterial blood samples were collected for the artery derived input function (AD-IF) and used as a gold standard for ID-IF. Before PET, magnetic resonance angiography of the kidneys was obtained to provide the anatomical information required for derivation of the recovery coefficients in the abdominal aorta, a requirement for partial volume correction of the ID-IF. Different image reconstruction methods, filtered back projection (FBP) and ordered subset expectation maximization (OS-EM), were investigated for the best trade-off between bias and variance of the ID-IF. The effects of kidney uptakes on the quantitative accuracy of ID-IF were also studied. Biological variables such as red blood cell binding and radioligand metabolism were also taken into consideration. A single blood sample was used for calibration in the later phase of the input function. Results: In the first 2 min after injection, the OS-EM based ID-IF was found to be biased, and the bias was found to be induced by the kidney uptake. No such bias was found with the FBP based image reconstruction method. However, the OS-EM based image reconstruction was found to reduce variance in the subsequent

  3. Induction of human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells with embryonic stem cell phenotypes into insulin producing islet-like structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Roh, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Sae-Rom; Lee, Yong-Soon; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2007-03-23

    Success in islet-transplantation-based therapies for type I diabetes, coupled with a worldwide shortage of transplant-ready islets, has motivated efforts to develop renewable sources of islet-replacement tissue. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have been successfully induced into insulin producing islet-like structure in several studies. However, the source of the ESCs has presented ethical and technical concerns. Here, we isolated a population of stem cells from human cord blood (UCB), which expressed embryo stage specific maker, SSEA-4, and the multi-potential stem cell marker, Oct4. Subsequently, we successfully induced them into insulin-producing islet-like structures, which co-express insulin and C-peptide. These findings might have a significant potential to advance human UCB derived stem-cell-based therapeutics for diabetes.

  4. Intrathecal injection of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of basilar artery dissection: a case report

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    Han Hoon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Basilar artery dissection is a rare occurrence, and is significantly associated with morbidity and mortality. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of basilar artery dissection treated with mesenchymal stem cells. Case presentation We present the case of a 17-year-old Korean man who was diagnosed with basilar artery dissection. Infarction of the bilateral pons, midbrain and right superior cerebellum due to his basilar artery dissection was partially recanalized by intrathecal injection of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells. No immunosuppressants were given to our patient, and human leukocyte antigen alloantibodies were not detected after cell therapy. Conclusions This case indicates that intrathecal injections of mesenchymal stem cells can be used in the treatment of basilar artery dissection.

  5. Correlation between frequencies of blood monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells, regulatory T cells and negative prognostic markers in patients with castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; Køllgaard, Tania; Kongsted, Per;

    2014-01-01

    function of immune suppressive cell subsets in the peripheral blood of 41 patients with prostate cancer (PC) and 36 healthy donors (HD) showed a significant increase in circulating CD14(+) HLA-DR(low/neg) monocytic MDSC (M-MDSC) and Tregs in patients with PC compared to HD. Furthermore, M-MDSC frequencies......Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are believed to play a role in immune suppression and subsequent failure of T cells to mount an efficient anti-tumor response, by employing both direct T-cell inhibition as well as induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Investigating the frequency and...... correlated positively with Treg levels. In vitro proliferation assay with autologous T cells confirmed M-MDSC-mediated T-cell suppression, and intracellular staining of immune suppressive enzyme iNOS revealed a higher expression in M-MDSC from patients with PC. Increased frequencies of M-MDSC correlated with...

  6. Transplantation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mononuclear cells induces recovery of motor dysfunction in a rat model of Parkinson's disease

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    Chen C

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chao Chen,1,* Jing Duan,1,* Aifang Shen,2,* Wei Wang,1 Hao Song,1 Yanming Liu,1 Xianjie Lu,1 Xiaobing Wang,2 Zhiqing You,1 Zhongchao Han,3,4 Fabin Han1 1Center for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, The Liaocheng People's Hospital, Affiliated Liaocheng Hospital, Taishan Medical University, Shandong, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Liaocheng People's Hospital, Affiliated Liaocheng Hospital, Taishan Medical University, Shandong, People's Republic of China; 3The State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Hospital of Blood Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union of Medical College, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 4National Engineering Research Center of Cell Products, AmCellGene Co. Ltd., TEDA, Tianjin, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Human umbilical cord blood-derived mononuclear cells (hUCB-MNCs were reported to have neurorestorative capacity for neurological disorders such as stroke and traumatic brain injury. This study was performed to explore if hUCB-MNC transplantation plays any therapeutic effects for Parkinson's disease (PD in a 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of PD. hUCB-MNCs were isolated from umbilical cord blood and administered to the striatum of the 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. The apomorphine-induced locomotive turning-overs were measured to evaluate the improvement of motor dysfunctions of the rats after administration of hUCB-MNCs. We observed that transplanted hUCB-MNCs significantly improve the motor deficits of the PD rats and that grafted hUCB-MNCs integrated to the host brains and differentiated to neurons and dopamine neurons in vivo after 16 weeks of transplantation. Our study provided evidence that transplanted hUCB-MNCs play therapeutic effects in a rat PD model by differentiating to neurons and dopamine neurons. Keywords: hUCB-MNCs, Parkinson's disease, transplantation

  7. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells enhance cell proliferation and porcine circovirus type 2 replication in concanavalin A-stimulated swine peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Ming; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Hsiao, Shih-Hsuan; Lee, Yao; Tsai, Yi-Chieh; Chia, Mi-Yuan; Pang, Victor Fei

    2012-01-15

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells cooperating with other immune cells for the activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. The objective of the present study was to investigate the replication activity of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in DCs and/or lymphocytes during their cross talk and its possible mechanism. Two models were set, herein. Swine blood monocyte (Mo)-derived DCs (MoDCs) or peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were inoculated with PCV2 prior to their co-cultivation. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and concanavalin A (Con A) were used to stimulate MoDCs and PBLs, respectively. During 6 days of cultivation, a high PCV2 antigen-containing rate without detectable intranuclear signals and a slight but significant increase in the copy number of PCV2 genome were detected in PCV2-inoculated MoDCs. The presence of LPS alone or PCV2-free PBLs, however, had no effect on the location of PCV2 antigens or copy number of PCV2 genome in PCV2-inoculated MoDCs. On the contrary, active PCV2 replication occurred in Con A-stimulated PCV2-inoculated PBLs. When compared with blood Mos, MoDCs induced significantly higher cell proliferation and intensified PCV2 replication in Con A-stimulated PCV2-inoculated PBLs, for which direct contact between MoDCs and lymphocytes was required. Among the cytokines secreted by Con A-activated PBLs, interleukin (IL)-2, but not IL-4 or interferon-γ, could induce cell proliferation and PCV2 replication in PCV2-inoculated PBLs. The findings suggest that although MoDCs support only limited PCV2 replication in themselves, their accessory cell function is required for cell proliferation and PCV2 replication in PCV2-infected lymphocytes.

  8. Xeno-free culture condition for human bone marrow and umbilical cord matrix-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells using human umbilical cord blood serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeli, Azadeh; Moshrefi, Mojgan; Shamsara, Ali; Eftekhar-vaghefi, Seyed Hasan; Nematollahi-mahani, Seyed Noureddin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is widely used in cell culture laboratories, risk of zoonotic infections and allergic side effects create obstacles for its use in clinical trials. Therefore, an alternative supplement with proper inherent growth-promoting activities is demanded. Objective: To find FBS substitute, we tested human umbilical cord blood serum (hUCS) for proliferation of human umbilical cord matrix derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells (hBM-MSCs). Materials and Methods: Umbilical cord blood of healthy neonates, delivered by Caesarian section, was collected and the serum was separated. hUC-MSCs and hBM-MSCs were isolated and characterized by assessment of cell surface antigens by flow cytometry, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation potential. The cells were then cultured in Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium (IMDM) by conventional methods in three preparations: 1- with hUCS, 2- with FBS, and 3- without serum supplements. Cell proliferation was measured using WST-1 assay, and cell viability was assessed by trypan blue staining. Results: The cells cultured in hUCS and FBS exhibited similar morphology and mesenchymal stem cells properties. WST-1 proliferation assay data showed no significant difference between the proliferation rate of either cells following hUCS and FBS supplementation. Trypan blue exclusion dye test also revealed no significant difference for viability between hUCS and FBS groups. A significant difference was detected between the proliferation rate of stem cells cultured in serum-supplemented medium compared with serum-free medium. Conclusion: Our results indicate that human umbilical cord serum can effectively support proliferation of hBM-MSCS and hUC-MSCs in vitro and can be used as an appropriate substitute for FBS, especially in clinical studies. PMID:27738658

  9. Delivery of the Sox9 gene promotes chondrogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in an in vitro model

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    Wang, Z.H. [Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, The Second Hospital, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Li, X.L. [Department of Dermatology, The Second Hospital, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); He, X.J. [Department of Orthopedics, The Second Hospital, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Wu, B.J.; Xu, M. [Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, The Second Hospital, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Chang, H.M. [Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Medical University, Xi' an (China); Zhang, X.H. [Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, The Second Hospital, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Xing, Z. [Department of Clinical Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Center for Clinical Dental Research, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Jing, X.H.; Kong, D.M.; Kou, X.H.; Yang, Y.Y. [Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, The Second Hospital, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2014-03-18

    SRY-related high-mobility-group box 9 (Sox9) gene is a cartilage-specific transcription factor that plays essential roles in chondrocyte differentiation and cartilage formation. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of genetic delivery of Sox9 to enhance chondrogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs). After they were isolated from human umbilical cord blood within 24 h after delivery of neonates, hUC-MSCs were untreated or transfected with a human Sox9-expressing plasmid or an empty vector. The cells were assessed for morphology and chondrogenic differentiation. The isolated cells with a fibroblast-like morphology in monolayer culture were positive for the MSC markers CD44, CD105, CD73, and CD90, but negative for the differentiation markers CD34, CD45, CD19, CD14, or major histocompatibility complex class II. Sox9 overexpression induced accumulation of sulfated proteoglycans, without altering the cellular morphology. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated that genetic delivery of Sox9 markedly enhanced the expression of aggrecan and type II collagen in hUC-MSCs compared with empty vector-transfected counterparts. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis further confirmed the elevation of aggrecan and type II collagen at the mRNA level in Sox9-transfected cells. Taken together, short-term Sox9 overexpression facilitates chondrogenesis of hUC-MSCs and may thus have potential implications in cartilage tissue engineering.

  10. Transport of Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor into Liposomes across the Blood-Brain Barrier: In Vitro and in Vivo Studies

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    Shaoling Wu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF was encapsulated into liposomes in order to protect it from enzyme degradation in vivo and promote its permeability across the blood-brain barrier (BBB. In this study, GDNF conventional liposomes (GDNF-L and GDNF target sterically stabilized liposomes (GDNF-SSL-T were prepared. The average size of liposomes was below 90 nm. A primary model of BBB was established and evaluated by transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER and permeability. This BBB model was employed to study the permeability of GDNF liposomes in vitro. The results indicated that the liposomes could enhance transport of GDNF across the BBB and GDNF-SSL-T had achieved the best transport efficacy. The distribution of GDNF liposomes was studied in vivo. Free GDNF and GDNF-L were eliminated rapidly in the circulation. GDNF-SSL-T has a prolonged circulation time in the blood and favorable brain delivery. The values of the area under the curve (AUC(0–1 h in the brain of GDNF-SSL-T was 8.1 times and 6.8 times more than that of free GDNF and GDNF-L, respectively. These results showed that GDNF-SSL-T realized the aim of targeted delivery of therapeutic proteins to central nervous system.

  11. Transport of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor into liposomes across the blood-brain barrier: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaoling; Li, Guoqi; Li, Xiao; Lin, Caina; Yu, Ding; Luan, Shuo; Ma, Chao

    2014-02-27

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was encapsulated into liposomes in order to protect it from enzyme degradation in vivo and promote its permeability across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study, GDNF conventional liposomes (GDNF-L) and GDNF target sterically stabilized liposomes (GDNF-SSL-T) were prepared. The average size of liposomes was below 90 nm. A primary model of BBB was established and evaluated by transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability. This BBB model was employed to study the permeability of GDNF liposomes in vitro. The results indicated that the liposomes could enhance transport of GDNF across the BBB and GDNF-SSL-T had achieved the best transport efficacy. The distribution of GDNF liposomes was studied in vivo. Free GDNF and GDNF-L were eliminated rapidly in the circulation. GDNF-SSL-T has a prolonged circulation time in the blood and favorable brain delivery. The values of the area under the curve (AUC(0-1 h)) in the brain of GDNF-SSL-T was 8.1 times and 6.8 times more than that of free GDNF and GDNF-L, respectively. These results showed that GDNF-SSL-T realized the aim of targeted delivery of therapeutic proteins to central nervous system.

  12. The effect of Propionibacterium acnes on maturation of dendritic cells derived from acne patients' peripherial blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak-Stoma, Anna; Tabarkiewicz, Jacek; Olender, Alina; Juszkiewicz-Borowiec, Maria; Stoma, Filip; Pietrzak, Aldona; Pozarowski, Piotr; Bartkowiak-Emeryk, Małgorzata

    2008-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris which is the most common cutaneous disorder. It has a proinflammatory activity and takes part in immune reactions modulating the Th1/Th2 cellular response. The exposure of dendritic cells (DCs) to whole bacteria, their components, cytokines or other inflammatory stimuli and infectious agents induces differentiation from immature DCs into antigen-presenting mature DCs. The aim of the study was to evaluate the capability of P. acnes to induce the maturation of DCs. We stimulated monocyte derived dendritic cells (Mo-DCs) from acne patients with various concetrations of heat-killed P. acnes (10(6)-10(8) bacteria/ml) cultured from acne lesions. The results showed an increase in CD80+/CD86+/DR+ and CD83+/CD1a+/DR+ cells percentage depending on the concetration of P. acnes. The expression of CD83 and CD80 (shown as the mean fluorescence intensity - MFI) increased with higher concetrations of P. acnes. There were also significant correlations between MFI of CD83, CD80, CD86 and concetration of P. acnes. The study showed that P. acnes in the concetration of 10(8) bacteria/ml is most effective in the induction of Mo-DCs maturation. Futher studies concerning the influence on the function of T cells are needed.

  13. The effect of Propionibacterium acnes on maturation of dendritic cells derived from acne patients' peripherial blood mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Juszkiewicz-Borowiec

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes has been implicated in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris which is the most common cutaneous disorder. It has a proinflammatory activity and takes part in immune reactions modulating the Th1/Th2 cellular response. The exposure of dendritic cells (DCs to whole bacteria, their components, cytokines or other inflammatory stimuli and infectious agents induces differentiation from immature DCs into antigen-presenting mature DCs. The aim of the study was to evaluate the capability of P. acnes to induce the maturation of DCs. We stimulated monocyte derived dendritic cells (Mo-DCs from acne patients with various concetrations of heat-killed P. acnes (10(6-10(8 bacteria/ml cultured from acne lesions. The results showed an increase in CD80+/CD86+/DR+ and CD83+/CD1a+/DR+ cells percentage depending on the concetration of P. acnes. The expression of CD83 and CD80 (shown as the mean fluorescence intensity - MFI increased with higher concetrations of P. acnes. There were also significant correlations between MFI of CD83, CD80, CD86 and concetration of P. acnes. The study showed that P. acnes in the concetration of 10(8 bacteria/ml is most effective in the induction of Mo-DCs maturation. Futher studies concerning the influence on the function of T cells are needed.

  14. Immunologic testing of xeno-derived osteochondral grafts using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy human donors

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    Targoni Oleg S

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One means of treating osteoarthritis is with autologous or allogeneic osteochondral grafts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the innate immunological response in humans toward xeno-derived osteochondral grafts that have been partially or entirely treated by the photooxidation process. Methods The antigens tested included bovine, porcine, ovine and equine osteochondral samples that have been treated in successive steps of photooxidation. ELISPOT assays were used to evaluate the production of IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-α by human monocytes in response to the antigens. Results Results indicated vigorous production of IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α in response to untreated bovine, porcine and equine specimens. This indicates that these samples are perceived as foreign, or stimulatory, by the human monocytes. There was no induction of IL-4 or IL-12, which is required for Th2 and Th1 immunity, respectively. In contrast, the processed bovine, porcine and equine samples did not induce significant activation of cells of the innate immune system. This occurred after the first step in processing (after cleaning in increasing strengths of ethanol. This suggests that the processing steps dramatically, if not completely, negated the immunostimulatory properties of the test sample. The results for the ovine samples indicate a reverse response. Conclusion The findings of the study suggest that photooxidized bovine, porcine or equine samples have the potential to be used as an osteochondral graft. Although the first step in processing reduced the immunological response, photooxidation is still necessary to retain the structure and mechanical integrity of the cartilage, which would allow for immediate joint resurfacing.

  15. Monocyte- and Neutrophil-Derived CXCL10 Impairs Efficient Control of Blood-Stage Malaria Infection and Promotes Severe Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Lisa J; Nie, Catherine Q; Ly, Ann; Ryg-Cornejo, Victoria; Chiu, Chris Y; Hansen, Diana S

    2016-02-01

    CXCL10, or IFN-γ-inducible protein 10, is a biomarker associated with increased risk for Plasmodium falciparum-mediated cerebral malaria (CM). Consistent with this, we have previously shown that CXCL10 neutralization or genetic deletion alleviates brain intravascular inflammation and protects Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infected mice from CM. In addition to organ-specific effects, the absence of CXCL10 during infection was also found to reduce parasite biomass. To identify the cellular sources of CXCL10 responsible for these processes, we irradiated and reconstituted wild-type (WT) and CXCL10(-/-) mice with bone marrow from either WT or CXCL10(-/-) mice. Similar to CXCL10(-/-) mice, chimeras unable to express CXCL10 in hematopoietic-derived cells controlled infection more efficiently than WT controls. In contrast, expression of CXCL10 in knockout mice reconstituted with WT bone marrow resulted in high parasite biomass levels, higher brain parasite and leukocyte sequestration rates, and increased susceptibility to CM. Neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes were identified as the main cellular sources of CXCL10 responsible for the induction of these processes. The improved control of parasitemia observed in the absence of CXCL10-mediated trafficking was associated with a preferential accumulation of CXCR3(+)CD4(+) T follicular helper cells in the spleen and enhanced Ab responses to infection. These results are consistent with the notion that some inflammatory responses elicited in response to malaria infection contribute to the development of high parasite densities involved in the induction of severe disease in target organs. PMID:26718341

  16. Cerebral blood flow with [15O]water PET studies using an image-derived input function and MR-defined carotid centerlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Edward K.; Carson, Richard E.

    2013-03-01

    Full quantitative analysis of brain PET data requires knowledge of the arterial input function into the brain. Such data are normally acquired by arterial sampling with corrections for delay and dispersion to account for the distant sampling site. Several attempts have been made to extract an image-derived input function (IDIF) directly from the internal carotid arteries that supply the brain and are often visible in brain PET images. We have devised a method of delineating the internal carotids in co-registered magnetic resonance (MR) images using the level-set method and applying the segmentations to PET images using a novel centerline approach. Centerlines of the segmented carotids were modeled as cubic splines and re-registered in PET images summed over the early portion of the scan. Using information from the anatomical center of the vessel should minimize partial volume and spillover effects. Centerline time-activity curves were taken as the mean of the values for points along the centerline interpolated from neighboring voxels. A scale factor correction was derived from calculation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) using gold standard arterial blood measurements. We have applied the method to human subject data from multiple injections of [15O]water on the HRRT. The method was assessed by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) of the IDIF and the CBF, and comparing these to values computed using the gold standard arterial input curve. The average ratio of IDIF to arterial AUC (apparent recovery coefficient: aRC) across 9 subjects with multiple (n = 69) injections was 0.49 ± 0.09 at 0-30 s post tracer arrival, 0.45 ± 0.09 at 30-60 s, and 0.46 ± 0.09 at 60-90 s. Gray and white matter CBF values were 61.4 ± 11.0 and 15.6 ± 3.0 mL/min/100 g tissue using sampled blood data. Using IDIF centerlines scaled by the average aRC over each subjects’ injections, gray and white matter CBF values were 61.3 ± 13.5 and 15.5 ± 3.4 mL/min/100 g tissue. Using global

  17. Synergistic Effect of Sodium Butyrate and Thalidomide in the Induction of Fetal Hemoglobin Expression in Erythroid Progenitors Derived from Cord Blood CD133 + Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dehghanifard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of drugs with the ability to induce production of fetal hemoglobin as a novel therapeutic approach in treating β-Hemoglobinopathies is considered. γ-globin gene expression inducer drugs including sodium butyrate and thalidomide can reduce additional α-globin chains accumulation in erythroid precursors. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, MACS kit was used to isolate CD133+ cells of umbilical cord blood. Further, the effect of two drugs of thalidomide and sodium butyrate were separately and combined studied on the induction of quantitative expression of β-globin and γ-globin genes in erythroid precursor cells derived from CD133+ stem cells in-vitro. For this purpose, the technique SYBR green Real-time PCR was used.Results: Flow cytometry results showed that approximately 95% of purified cells were CD133+. Real-time PCR results also showed the increased levels of γ-globin mRNA in the cell groups treated with thalidomide, sodium butyrate and combination of drugs as 2.6 and 1.2 and 3.5 times respectively, and for β-globin gene, it is respectively 1.4 and 1.3 and 1.6 times compared with the control group (p<0.05.Conclusion: The study results showed that the mentioned drug combination can act as a pharmaceutical composition affecting the induction of fetal hemoglobin expression in erythroid precursor cells derived from CD133 + cells.

  18. Response to intravenous allogeneic equine cord-blood-derived mesenchymal stromal cells administered from chilled or frozen state in serum and protein free media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Brandon Williams

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Equine Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC are commonly transported, chilled or frozen, to veterinary clinics. These MSC must remain viable and minimally affected by culture, transport, or injection processes. The safety of two carrier solutions developed for optimal viability and excipient use were evaluated in ponies, with and without allogeneic cord blood-derived (CB MSC. We hypothesized that neither the carrier solutions nor CB-MSC would elicit measurable changes in clinical, hematological, or biochemical parameters. In 9 ponies (study 1 a bolus of HypoThermosol® FRS (HTS-FRS, CryoStor® CS10 (CS10 or saline was injected IV (n=3/treatment. Study 2, following a one week washout period 5x107 pooled allogeneic CB-MSC were administered IV in HTS-FRS following 24h simulated chilled transport. Study 3, following another one week washout period 5x107 pooled allogeneic CB-MSC were administered IV in CS10 immediately after thawing. Nine ponies received CB-MSCs in study 2 and 3 and three ponies received the cell carrier media without cells. CB-MSCs were pooled in equal numbers from five unrelated donors. In all studies ponies were monitored with physical examination, and blood collection for 7 days following injection. CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte populations were also evaluated in each blood sample.In all three studies, physical exam, complete blood cell count, serum biochemistry, and coagulation panel did not deviate from established normal ranges. Proportions of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes increased at 168h post injection in CB-MSC treatment groups regardless of the carrier solution. Decreases in CD4+/CD8+ double positive populations were observed at 24 h and 72 h in CB-MSC treated animals. There was no difference in viability between CB-MSC suspended in HTS-FRS or CS10.HTS-FRS and CS10 used for low volume excipient injection of MSC suspensions was not associated with short-term adverse reactions. HTS-FRS and CS10 both adequately maintain CB-MSC viability

  19. Proliferation and apoptosis property of mesenchymal stem cells derived from peripheral blood under the culture conditions of hypoxia and serum deprivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Wei-li; JIA Zhu-qing; WANG Wei-ping; ZHANG Ji-ying; FU Xin; DUAN Xiao-ning; LEUNG Kevin Kar Ming; ZHOU Chun-yan; YU Jia-kuo

    2011-01-01

    Background The proliferation and apoptosis property of mesenchymal stem cells derived from peripheral blood (PB-MSCs) were investigated under hypoxia and serum deprivation conditions in vitro so as to evaluate the feasibility for autologous PB-MSCs applications in cartilage repair.Methods MSCs were mobilized into peripheral blood by granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and AMD3100.The blood samples were collected from central ear artery of rabbits.Adhered cells were obtained by erythrocyte lysis buffer and identified as MSCs by adherence to plastic,spindle shaped morphology,specific surface markers,differentiation abilities into osteoblasts,adipocytes and chondroblasts in vitro under appropriate conditions.MSCs were cultured in four groups at different oxygen tension (20% O2 and 2% O2),with or without 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS)conditions:20% O2 and 10% FBS complete medium (normal medium,N),20% O2 and serum deprivation medium (D),2% O2 and 10% FBS complete medium (hypoxia,H),2% O2 and serum deprivation (HD).Cell proliferation was determined by CCK-8 assay.Apoptosis was detected by Annexin V/Pl and terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining.Results Spindle-shaped adherent cells were effectively mobilized from peripheral blood by a combined administration of G-CSF plus AMD3100.These cells showed typical fibroblast-like phenotype similar to MSCs from bone marrow (BM-MSCs),and expressed a high level of typical MSCs markers CD29 and CD44,but lacked in the expression of hematopoietic markers CD45 and major histocompatibility complex Class Ⅱ (MHC Ⅱ).They could also differentiate into osteoblasts,adipocytes and chondroblasts in vitro under appropriate conditions.No significant morphological differences were found among the four groups.It was found that hypoxia could enhance proliferation of PB-MSCs regardless of serum concentration,but serum deprivation inhibited proliferation at the later stage of culture

  20. Peripheral blood-derived, γ9δ2 t cell-enriched cell lines from glioblastoma multiforme patients exert anti-tumoral effects in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu-Malina, V; Garelick, D; Peshes-Yeloz, N; Wohl, A; Zach, L; Nagar, M; Amariglio, N; Besser, M J; Cohen, Z R; Bank, I

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work was to assess the potential of T cells expressing Vγ9Vδ2+ T cell receptors (TCR, γ9δ2T cells) present in peripheral blood (PB) m ononuclear cells (MC, PBMC) of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients to act as anti-tumoral agents. We found that γ9δ2T cell levels were decreased in patients' PB relative to a cohort of healthy donors (HD) (respectively 0.52±0.55%, n=16, vs 1.12±0.6%, n=14, p=0.008) but did not significantly correlate with postoperative survival (R=0.6, p=0.063). Importantly, however, the γ9δ2T cells could be expanded in vitro to consist 51±23% of the cultured lymphocytes (98% CD3+). This was achieved after 14 days of culture in medium containing the amino-bisphosphonate (ABP) Zoledronate (Zol) and interleukin (IL)-2, resulting in γ9δ2T cell-enriched lines (gdTCEL) similar to those of HD derived gdTCEL (54±19%). Moreover, gdTCEL from patients and HD mediated cytotoxicity to GBM-derived cell lines (GBMDCL), which was abrogated by immune-magnetic removal of the γ9δ2T cells. Furthermore, low level interferon (IFN) γ secretion was induced by gdTCEL briefly co-cultured with GBMDCL or autologous - tumor-derived cells, which was greatly amplified in the presence of Zol. Importantly, IFNγ secretion was inhibited by mevastatin but enhanced by cross-linking of butyrophilin 3A1 (CD277) on a CD277+ GBMDCL (U251MG) or by pretreatment of GBMDCL with temozolomide (TMZ). Taken together, these data suggest that γ9δ2T cells in PB of GBM patients can give rise to gdTCEL that mediate anti-tumoral activities. PMID:27049073

  1. Measurements of diagnostic examination performance and correlation analysis using microvascular leakage, cerebral blood volume, and blood flow derived from 3T dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging in glial tumor grading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of microvascular leakage (MVL), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and blood flow (CBF) values derived from dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging (DSC-MR imaging) for grading of cerebral glial tumors, and to estimate the correlation between vascular permeability/perfusion parameters and tumor grades. A prospective study of 79 patients with cerebral glial tumors underwent DSC-MR imaging. Normalized relative CBV (rCBV) and relative CBF (rCBF) from tumoral (rCBVt and rCBFt), peri-enhancing region (rCBVe and rCBFe), and the value in the tumor divided by the value in the peri-enhancing region (rCBVt/e and rCBFt/e), as well as MVL, expressed as the leakage coefficient K2 were calculated. Hemodynamic variables and tumor grades were analyzed statistically and with Pearson correlations. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were also performed for each of the variables. The differences in rCBVt and the maximum MVL (MVLmax) values were statistically significant among all tumor grades. Correlation analysis using Pearson was as follows: rCBVt and tumor grade, r = 0.774; rCBFt and tumor grade, r = 0.417; MVLmax and tumor grade, r = 0.559; MVLmax and rCBVt, r = 0.440; MVLmax and rCBFt, r = 0.192; and rCBVt and rCBFt, r = 0.605. According to ROC analyses for distinguishing tumor grade, rCBVt showed the largest areas under ROC curve (AUC), except for grade III from IV. Both rCBVt and MVLmax showed good discriminative power in distinguishing all tumor grades. rCBVt correlated strongly with tumor grade; the correlation between MVLmax and tumor grade was moderate. (orig.)

  2. Measurements of diagnostic examination performance and correlation analysis using microvascular leakage, cerebral blood volume, and blood flow derived from 3T dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging in glial tumor grading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Server, Andres; Nakstad, Per H. [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Graff, Bjoern A. [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Orheim, Tone E.D.; Gadmar, Oeystein B. [Oslo University Hospital, Interventional Centre, Oslo (Norway); Schellhorn, Till [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Josefsen, Roger [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo (Norway)

    2011-06-15

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of microvascular leakage (MVL), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and blood flow (CBF) values derived from dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging (DSC-MR imaging) for grading of cerebral glial tumors, and to estimate the correlation between vascular permeability/perfusion parameters and tumor grades. A prospective study of 79 patients with cerebral glial tumors underwent DSC-MR imaging. Normalized relative CBV (rCBV) and relative CBF (rCBF) from tumoral (rCBVt and rCBFt), peri-enhancing region (rCBVe and rCBFe), and the value in the tumor divided by the value in the peri-enhancing region (rCBVt/e and rCBFt/e), as well as MVL, expressed as the leakage coefficient K{sub 2} were calculated. Hemodynamic variables and tumor grades were analyzed statistically and with Pearson correlations. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were also performed for each of the variables. The differences in rCBVt and the maximum MVL (MVL{sub max}) values were statistically significant among all tumor grades. Correlation analysis using Pearson was as follows: rCBVt and tumor grade, r = 0.774; rCBFt and tumor grade, r = 0.417; MVL{sub max} and tumor grade, r = 0.559; MVL{sub max} and rCBVt, r = 0.440; MVL{sub max} and rCBFt, r = 0.192; and rCBVt and rCBFt, r = 0.605. According to ROC analyses for distinguishing tumor grade, rCBVt showed the largest areas under ROC curve (AUC), except for grade III from IV. Both rCBVt and MVL{sub max} showed good discriminative power in distinguishing all tumor grades. rCBVt correlated strongly with tumor grade; the correlation between MVL{sub max} and tumor grade was moderate. (orig.)

  3. [Comparative analysis of action of beta-phenyl derivatives of glutamic and gamma-aminobutyric acid on cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular endothelium after irreversible occlusion of the common carotid artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volotova, E V; Kurkin, D V; Mazina, N V; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2013-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the effect of phenyl derivatives of glutamic (RGPU-135) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (Phenibut) on cerebral blood flow, vasodilatory endothelial function and the number of circulating endothelial cells desquamated in animals after irreversible occlusion of the common carotid arteries. It was found that animals treated prophylactically by RGPU-135, after occlusion of the common carotid arteries have higher cerebral blood flow and lower the severity of endothelial dysfunction than in animals treated with Phenibut. PMID:24003482

  4. Flow Cytometric Quantification of Peripheral Blood Cell β-Adrenergic Receptor Density and Urinary Endothelial Cell-Derived Microparticles in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Rose

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a heterogeneous disease characterized by severe angiogenic remodeling of the pulmonary artery wall and right ventricular hypertrophy. Thus, there is an increasing need for novel biomarkers to dissect disease heterogeneity, and predict treatment response. Although β-adrenergic receptor (βAR dysfunction is well documented in left heart disease while endothelial cell-derived microparticles (Ec-MPs are established biomarkers of angiogenic remodeling, methods for easy large clinical cohort analysis of these biomarkers are currently absent. Here we describe flow cytometric methods for quantification of βAR density on circulating white blood cells (WBC and Ec-MPs in urine samples that can be used as potential biomarkers of right heart failure in PAH. Biotinylated β-blocker alprenolol was synthesized and validated as a βAR specific probe that was combined with immunophenotyping to quantify βAR density in circulating WBC subsets. Ec-MPs obtained from urine samples were stained for annexin-V and CD144, and analyzed by a micro flow cytometer. Flow cytometric detection of alprenolol showed that βAR density was decreased in most WBC subsets in PAH samples compared to healthy controls. Ec-MPs in urine was increased in PAH compared to controls. Furthermore, there was a direct correlation between Ec-MPs and Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE in PAH patients. Therefore, flow cytometric quantification of peripheral blood cell βAR density and urinary Ec-MPs may be useful as potential biomarkers of right ventricular function in PAH.

  5. Reversal of type 1 diabetes via islet β cell regeneration following immune modulation by cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inability to control autoimmunity is the primary barrier to developing a cure for type 1 diabetes (T1D. Evidence that human cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells (CB-SCs can control autoimmune responses by altering regulatory T cells (Tregs and human islet β cell-specific T cell clones offers promise for a new approach to overcome the autoimmunity underlying T1D. Methods We developed a procedure for Stem Cell Educator therapy in which a patient's blood is circulated through a closed-loop system that separates lymphocytes from the whole blood and briefly co-cultures them with adherent CB-SCs before returning them to the patient's circulation. In an open-label, phase1/phase 2 study, patients (n = 15 with T1D received one treatment with the Stem Cell Educator. Median age was 29 years (range: 15 to 41, and median diabetic history was 8 years (range: 1 to 21. Results Stem Cell Educator therapy was well tolerated in all participants with minimal pain from two venipunctures and no adverse events. Stem Cell Educator therapy can markedly improve C-peptide levels, reduce the median glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C values, and decrease the median daily dose of insulin in patients with some residual β cell function (n = 6 and patients with no residual pancreatic islet β cell function (n = 6. Treatment also produced an increase in basal and glucose-stimulated C-peptide levels through 40 weeks. However, participants in the Control Group (n = 3 did not exhibit significant change at any follow-up. Individuals who received Stem Cell Educator therapy exhibited increased expression of co-stimulating molecules (specifically, CD28 and ICOS, increases in the number of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs, and restoration of Th1/Th2/Th3 cytokine balance. Conclusions Stem Cell Educator therapy is safe, and in individuals with moderate or severe T1D, a single treatment produces lasting improvement in metabolic control. Initial results indicate Stem Cell

  6. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Index A-Z Blood Clots Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood that can be stationary (thrombosis) ... treated? What are blood clots? Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood. Normally, blood flows freely through ...

  7. Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells improve neuropathology and cognitive impairment in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model through modulation of neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Ju; Lee, Jong Kil; Lee, Hyun; Carter, Janet E; Chang, Jong Wook; Oh, Wonil; Yang, Yoon Sun; Suh, Jun-Gyo; Lee, Byoung-Hee; Jin, Hee Kyung; Bae, Jae-Sung

    2012-03-01

    Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSC) have a potential therapeutic role in the treatment of neurological disorders, but their current clinical usage and mechanism of action has yet to be ascertained in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we report that hUCB-MSC transplantation into amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin1 (PS1) double-transgenic mice significantly improved spatial learning and memory decline. Furthermore, amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) deposition, β-secretase 1 (BACE-1) levels, and tau hyperphosphorylation were dramatically reduced in hUCB-MSC transplanted APP/PS1 mice. Interestingly, these effects were associated with reversal of disease-associated microglial neuroinflammation, as evidenced by decreased microglia-induced proinflammatory cytokines, elevated alternatively activated microglia, and increased anti-inflammatory cytokines. These findings lead us to suggest that hUCB-MSC produced their sustained neuroprotective effect by inducing a feed-forward loop involving alternative activation of microglial neuroinflammation, thereby ameliorating disease pathophysiology and reversing the cognitive decline associated with Aβ deposition in AD mice.

  8. Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy Promotes Functional Recovery of Contused Rat Spinal Cord through Enhancement of Endogenous Cell Proliferation and Oligogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang In Park

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown the benefits of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs on the repair of spinal cord injury (SCI model and on behavioral improvement, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, to investigate possible mechanisms by which MSCs contribute to the alleviation of neurologic deficits, we examined the potential effect of human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (hUCB-MSCs on the endogenous cell proliferation and oligogenesis after SCI. SCI was injured by contusion using a weight-drop impactor and hUCB-MSCs were transplanted into the boundary zone of the injured site. Animals received a daily injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU for 7 days after treatment to identity newly synthesized cells of ependymal and periependymal cells that immunohistochemically resembled stem/progenitor cells was evident. Behavior analysis revealed that locomotor functions of hUCB-MSCs group were restored significantly and the cavity volume was smaller in the MSCs-transplanted rats compared to the control group. In MSCs-transplanted group, TUNEL-positive cells were decreased and BrdU-positive cells were significantly increased rats compared with control group. In addition, more of BrdU-positive cells expressed neural stem/progenitor cell nestin and oligo-lineage cell such as NG2, CNPase, MBP and glial fibrillary acidic protein typical of astrocytes in the MSC-transplanted rats. Thus, endogenous cell proliferation and oligogenesis contribute to MSC-promoted functional recovery following SCI.

  9. Targeted brain derived neurotropic factors (BDNF delivery across the blood-brain barrier for neuro-protection using magnetic nano carriers: an in-vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheesh Pilakka-Kanthikeel

    Full Text Available Parenteral use of drugs; such as opiates exert immunomodulatory effects and serve as a cofactor in the progression of HIV-1 infection, thereby potentiating HIV related neurotoxicity ultimately leading to progression of NeuroAIDS. Morphine exposure is known to induce apoptosis, down regulate cAMP response element-binding (CREB expression and decrease in dendritic branching and spine density in cultured cells. Use of neuroprotective agent; brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF, which protects neurons against these effects, could be of therapeutic benefit in the treatment of opiate addiction. Previous studies have shown that BDNF was not transported through the blood brain barrier (BBB in-vivo.; and hence it is not effective in-vivo. Therefore development of a drug delivery system that can cross BBB may have significant therapeutic advantage. In the present study, we hypothesized that magnetically guided nanocarrier may provide a viable approach for targeting BDNF across the BBB. We developed a magnetic nanoparticle (MNP based carrier bound to BDNF and evaluated its efficacy and ability to transmigrate across the BBB using an in-vitro BBB model. The end point determinations of BDNF that crossed BBB were apoptosis, CREB expression and dendritic spine density measurement. We found that transmigrated BDNF was effective in suppressing the morphine induced apoptosis, inducing CREB expression and restoring the spine density. Our results suggest that the developed nanocarrier will provide a potential therapeutic approach to treat opiate addiction, protect neurotoxicity and synaptic density degeneration.

  10. Immunoregulation and human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells transplantation%脐血间充质干细胞移植与免疫调节

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦保良; 王景川; 高炳华; 王新生

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research in recent years suggests that the self-renewal and multi-directional differentiation potency of human umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) offer basic condition to cell transplantation treatment. Moreover, their immunoloregulation function enormously expands the direction and limits cell transplantation treatment. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively analyze the immunoloregulation and human UCB-MSCs transplantation. METHODS: The key word "umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells" was used to search in Pubmed database and CNKI database from January 2008 to June 2011 in English and Chinese using computer. The preliminary screening was made through reading the title and abstract. The articles with unrelated contents, repetitive and Meta analysis were excluded. 30 papers of pertinent literature to be published in the near future or published in the authority magazine were selected to review. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Human UCB-MSCs have the similar self-renewal and multi-directional differentiation potency with the bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells. Through cell transplantation technique, human UCB-MSCs show powerful potentiality in diabetes mellitus treatment, neural degeneration disease like Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease and injury of nerve retreatment. Meanwhile, human UCB-MSCs have immunoregulatory ettects, they can lower immune reaction through down regulation of T-cells. We also get some advancements on several immunological diseases such as cell therapy of graft versus host disease and lupus nephritis.%背景:近年研究显示,脐血间充质干细胞的自我更新和多向分化潜能为细胞移植治疗提供了基础条件,而其免疫调节功能也极大地拓展了细胞治疗的方向和范围. 目的:就近期脐血间充质干细胞的免疫调节和细胞移植研究进行回顾分析. 摘要进行初筛,排除研究内容与此文无关的文献、重复性研究及Meta分析,

  11. APL-2, an altered peptide ligand derived from heat-shock protein 60, induces interleukin-10 in peripheral blood mononuclear cell derived from juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients and downregulates the inflammatory response in collagen-induced arthritis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Norailys; Cantera, Dolores; Barberá, Ariana; Alonso, Amaris; Chall, Elsy; Franco, Lourdes; Ancizar, Julio; Nuñez, Yanetsy; Altruda, Fiorella; Silengo, Lorenzo; Padrón, Gabriel; Del Carmen Dominguez, Maria

    2015-02-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by autoimmune arthritis of unknown cause with onset before age of 16 years. Methotrexate provides clinical benefits in JIA. For children who do not respond to methotrexate, treatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is an option. However, some patients do not respond or are intolerant to anti-TNF therapy. Induction of peripheral tolerance has long been considered a promising approach to the treatment of chronic autoimmune diseases. We aimed to evaluate the potentialities of two altered peptide ligands (APLs) derived from human heat-shock protein 60, an autoantigen involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis, in JIA patients. Interferon (IFN)-γ, TNF-α and interleukin (IL)-10 levels were determined in ex vivo assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from these patients. Wild-type peptide and one of these APLs increased IFN-γ and TNF-α levels. Unlike, the other APLs (called APL2) increased the IL-10 level without affecting IFN-γ and TNF-α levels. On the other hand, APL2 induces a marked activation of T cells since it transforms cell cycle phase's distribution of CD4+ T cells from these patients. In addition, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of APL2 in collagen-induced arthritis model. Therapy with APL2 reduced arthritis scores and histological lesions in mice. This effect was associated to a decrease in TNF-α and IL-17 levels. These results indicate a therapeutic potentiality of APL2 for JIA. PMID:24474501

  12. Stem cell therapy to protect and repair the developing brain: a review of mechanisms of action of cord blood and amnion epithelial derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Melendez, Margie; Yawno, Tamara; Jenkin, Graham; Miller, Suzanne L

    2013-10-24

    In the research, clinical, and wider community there is great interest in the use of stem cells to reduce the progression, or indeed repair brain injury. Perinatal brain injury may result from acute or chronic insults sustained during fetal development, during the process of birth, or in the newborn period. The most readily identifiable outcome of perinatal brain injury is cerebral palsy, however, this is just one consequence in a spectrum of mild to severe neurological deficits. As we review, there are now clinical trials taking place worldwide targeting cerebral palsy with stem cell therapies. It will likely be many years before strong evidence-based results emerge from these trials. With such trials underway, it is both appropriate and timely to address the physiological basis for the efficacy of stem-like cells in preventing damage to, or regenerating, the newborn brain. Appropriate experimental animal models are best placed to deliver this information. Cell availability, the potential for immunological rejection, ethical, and logistical considerations, together with the propensity for native cells to form teratomas, make it unlikely that embryonic or fetal stem cells will be practical. Fortunately, these issues do not pertain to the use of human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs), or umbilical cord blood (UCB) stem cells that are readily and economically obtained from the placenta and umbilical cord discarded at birth. These cells have the potential for transplantation to the newborn where brain injury is diagnosed or even suspected. We will explore the novel characteristics of hAECs and undifferentiated UCB cells, as well as UCB-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and how immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory properties are principal mechanisms of action that are common to these cells, and which in turn may ameliorate the cerebral hypoxia and inflammation that are final pathways in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain

  13. A novel bispecific immunotoxin delivered by human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to target blood vessels and vasculogenic mimicry of malignant gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yonghong Zhang,1,2 Xinlin Sun,1 Min Huang,1 Yiquan Ke,1 Jihui Wang,1 Xiao Liu1 1National Key Clinic Specialty, Neurosurgery Institute of Guangdong Province, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory on Brain Function Repair and Regeneration, Department of Neurosurgery, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 2Department of Neurosurgery, First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: In previous years, immunotoxins have been shown to be a greatly promising therapeutic tool for brain malignancies, such as gliomas. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs exhibit tropism to tumor tissue. However, the effect of bispecific immunotoxins in malignant gliomas is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of bispecific immunotoxins in human malignant gliomas.Materials and methods: In the present study, the bispecific immunotoxin VEGF165-ephrin A1-PE38KDEL was established using deoxyribonucleic acid shuffling and cloning techniques. The VEGF165-ephrin A1-PE38KDEL was delivered by hMSCs to mouse malignant gliomas. The effects of the bispecific immunotoxins on glioma-derived blood vessels and vasculogenic mimicry to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumorigenic effects of immunotoxins were examined in vivo.Results: In vitro, transfected hMSCs significantly inhibited the cell viability of gliomas cell lines U87 and U251 in a dose-dependent manner compared with untransfected hMSCs (P<0.01. In vivo, the intratumoral injection of engineered hMSCs was effective at inhibiting tumor growth in a malignant glioma tumor model.Conclusion: The bispecific immunotoxin secreted from hMSCs acts as a novel strategy for improving treatment options for malignant gliomas in the clinic. Keywords: bispecific immunotoxin, human mesenchymal stem cells, ephrin A1, VEGF165, malignant glioma

  14. Identification of granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSCs) in the peripheral blood of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Olivia; Spina, Cecilia; Mimiola, Elda; Cassaro, Adriana; Malerba, Giovanni; Todeschini, Giuseppe; Perbellini, Omar; Scupoli, Maria; Carli, Giuseppe; Facchinelli, Davide; Cassatella, Marco; Scapini, Patrizia; Tecchio, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Human granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSCs) have been described as low-density immunosuppressive CD66b+CD33dimHLA-DR-granulocytes that co-purify with mononuclear cells after density gradient centrifugation of blood from cancer patients. The role of G-MDSCs in Hodgkin (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) remains unclear. The percentage and immunophenotype of CD66b+CD33dimHLA-DR-cells were analyzed in PBMCs from HL and B-cell NHL patients (n = 124) and healthy donors (n = 48). The immunosuppressive functions of these cells were tested in vitro. Correlations between CD66b+CD33dimHLA-DR-cells and patient clinicopathological features and outcome, were evaluated. CD66b+CD33dimHLA-DR-cells were increased in PBMCs from HL and B-cell NHL patients as compared to healthy donors: 2.18 (0.02–70.92) vs 0.42 (0.04–2.97), p expression as compared to conventionally isolated (normal-density) autologous or healthy donor neutrophils. The in vitro depletion of CD66b+ cells from patient PBMCs restored the proliferation of autologous T cells. Higher frequencies of CD66b+CD33dimHLA-DR− G-MDSCs correlated significantly with unfavorable prognostic index scores and a shorter freedom from disease progression. PBMCs from HL and B-cell NHL patients contain a population of CD66b+CD33dimHLA-DR− G-MDSCs, mostly composed of activated low-density neutrophils with immunosuppressive properties. These findings disclose a previously unknown G-MDSC-mediated mechanism of immune-escape in lymphomas, therefore anticipating possible targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:27050283

  15. Scanning electron microscopy of interaction of peripheral blood lymphocytes from colonic cancer patients with human colonic cancer-derived cells; P-4788.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugihara,Mutsuto

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood lymphocytes and the various lymphocyte fractions from patients with cancer of the colon were cultivated with target cells (P-4788 derived from the colon cancer. Changes in the surface ultrastructure during tumor cell destruction were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. P-4788 cells adhering to the coverslip showed various surface activity. The surfaces of some cells were relatively flat; others were smooth or had fine granules. Still other cells were villous, round or had marked blebs. When host lymphocytes were added to the target cells, adhesion of the two cell groups began by many fine projections. After incubation for 6 h, some lymphocytes had adhered to the target cells. Many lymphocytes had adhered to the target tumor cells by 24--48 h incubation. Ultimately the tumor cells became swollen and disrupted. Most lymphocytes adherent to the target cells had few microvilli. Lymphocytes after elimination of phagocytes by carbonyl iron treatment also adhered readily. Some target cells showed adhesion with lymphocytes passed through nylon-wool columns, although the number of lymphocytes adhering was fewer than in the case of lymphocytes not passed through nylon-wool columns. T cells were collected from lymphocytes that form rosettes with SRBC by isolation with NH4Cl. They had markedly elongated microvilli which in places were sparsely scattered and tended to be localized on the side, a finding which suggests loss of cell activity by the time of SEM. Only a few T cells adhered to target cells and they seemed to be T cells without activity. It was thought that there are cytotoxic cells among T cells and that the co-existence of T cells, non-T cells and monocytes caused target cell destruction.

  16. Inhibitory effect of heparin-derived oligosaccharides on secretion of interleukin-4 and interleukin-5 from human peripheral blood T lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Li Ji; Hui-Fei Cui; Feng Shi; Yan-Qing Chi; Ji-Chao Cao; Mei-Yu Geng; Hua-Shi Guan

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effect of heparin-derived oligosaccharides (Oligs) on secretion of interleukin-4 (IL-4)and interleukin-5 (IL-5) from human peripheral blood T lymphocytes (PBTLs).METHODS: Oligs were prepared by three different heparin depolymerization methods and separated by gel filtration chromatography. PBTLs from ten adult patients with allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis were treated with phytahematoagglutinin (PHA) and Oligs. The supernatants from the cell culture of PBTLs were harvested and subjected to the deterrnination of IL-4 and IL-5 contents by ELISA method.RESULTS: At the concentration of 5 μg/mL, Oligs with different Mr had different effects on the secretion of IL-4 and IL-5. The tetrasaccharide with Mr of 1 142, produced by depolymerizing heparin with hydrogen peroxide, had the strongest inhibitory effect on the secretion of IL-4. It decreased the IL-4 content from 375.6±39.2 ng/L (PHA group) to 12.5±5.7 ng/L (P<0.01). The hexasaccharide with Mr of 1 806, produced by depolymerizing heparin with β-elimination method, had the strongest inhibitory effect on the secretion of IL-5. It decreased the IL-5 content from 289.2±33.4 ng/L (PHA group) to 22.0±5.2 ng/L (P<0.01).CONCLUSION: The inhibitory activity of Oligs on the secretion of IL-4 and IL-5 from human PBTLs closely depends on their molecular structure, and there may be an essential structure to act as an inhibitor. The most effective inhibitors of IL-4 and IL-5 secretion are tetrasaccharides and hexasaccharides, respectively.

  17. Implication of NOD1 and NOD2 for the differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells derived from human umbilical cord blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Sik Kim

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs and Nod-like receptors (NLRs are known to trigger an innate immune response against microbial infection. Although studies suggest that activation of TLRs modulate the function of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, little is known about the role of NLRs on the MSC function. In this study, we investigated whether NOD1 and NOD2 regulate the functions of human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (hUCB-MSCs. The genes of TLR2, TLR4, NOD1, and NOD2 were expressed in hUCB-MSCs. Stimulation with each agonist (Pam(3CSK(4 for TLR2, LPS for TLR4, Tri-DAP for NOD1, and MDP for NOD2 led to IL-8 production in hUCB-MSC, suggesting the expressed receptors are functional in hUCB-MSC. CCK-8 assay revealed that none of agonist influenced proliferation of hUCB-MSCs. We next examined whether TLR and NLR agonists affect osteogenic-, adipogenic-, and chondrogenic differentiation of hUCB-MSCs. Pam(3CSK(4 and Tri-DAP strongly enhanced osteogenic differentiation and ERK phosphorylation in hUCB-MSCs, and LPS and MDP also slightly did. Treatment of U0126 (MEK1/2 inhibitor restored osteogenic differentiation enhanced by Pam(3CSK(4. Tri-DAP and MDP inhibited adipogenic differentiation of hUCB-MSCs, but Pam(3CSK(4 and LPS did not. On chondrogenic differentiation, all TLR and NLR agonists could promote chondrogenesis of hUCB-MSCs with difference in the ability. Our findings suggest that NOD1 and NOD2 as well as TLRs are involved in regulating the differentiation of MSCs.

  18. Stem cell therapy to protect and repair the developing brain: a review of mechanisms of action of cord blood and amnion epithelial derived cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie eCastillo-Melendez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the research, clinical and wider community there is great interest in the use of stem cells to reduce the progression, or indeed repair brain injury. Perinatal brain injury may result from acute or chronic insults sustained during fetal development, during the process of birth, or in the newborn period. The most readily identifiable outcome of perinatal brain injury is cerebral palsy, however this is just one consequence in a spectrum of mild to severe neurological deficits. As we review, there are now clinical trials taking place worldwide targeting cerebral palsy with stem cell therapies. It will likely be many years before strong evidence-based results emerge from these trials. With such trials underway, it is both appropriate and timely to address the physiological basis for the efficacy of stem-like cells in preventing damage to, or regenerating, the newborn brain. Appropriate experimental animal models are best placed to deliver this information. Cell availability, the potential for immunological rejection, ethical and logistical considerations, together with the propensity for native cells to form terratomas, make it unlikely that embryonic or fetal stem cells will be practical. Fortunately, these issues do not pertain to the use of human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs, or umbilical cord blood (UCB stem cells that are readily and economically obtained from the placenta and umbilical cord discarded at birth. These cells have the potential for transplantation to the newborn where brain injury is diagnosed or even suspected. We will explore the novel characteristics of hAECs and undifferentiated UCB cells, as well as UCB-derived endothelial progenitor cells and mesenchymal stem cells, and how immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory properties are principal mechanisms of action that are common to these cells, and which in turn may ameliorate the cerebral hypoxia and inflammation that are final pathways in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain

  19. Extracellular matrix gel is necessary for in vitro cultivation of insulin producing cells from human umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Feng; WU De-quan; HU Yan-hua; JIN Guang-xin

    2008-01-01

    Background Pancreatic islet cell transplantation is an effective approach to treat type 1 diabetes. However, this therapy is not widely used because of the severe shortage of transplantable donor islets. This study investigated whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from human umbilical cord blood (UCB) could be transdifferentiated into insulin producing cells in vitro and the role of extracellular matrix (ECM) gel in this procedure.Methods Human UCB samples were collected and MSCs were isolated. MSCs specific marker proteins were analyzed by a flow cytometer. The capacities of osteoblast and adipocyte to differentiate were tested. Differentiation into islet like cell was induced by a 15-day protocol with or without ECM gel. Pancreatic characteristics were evaluated with immunofluorescence, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flow cytometry. Insulin content and release in response to glucose stimulation were detected with chemiluminescent immunoassay system.Results Sixteen MSCs were isolated from 42 term human UCB units (38%). Human UCB-MSCs expressed MSCs specific markers and could be induced in vitro into osteoblast and adipocyte. Islet like cell clusters appeared about 9 days after pancreatic differentiation in the inducing system with ECM gel. The insulin positive cells accounted for (25.2±3.4)% of the induced cells. The induced cells expressed islet related genes and hormones, but were not very responsive to glucose challenge. When MSCs were induced without ECM gel, clusters formation and secretion of functional islet proteins could not be observed.Conclusions Human UCB-MSCs can differentiate into islet like cells in vitro and ECM gel plays an important role in pancreatic endocrine cell maturation and formation of three dimensional structures.

  20. In Acute Stroke, Can CT Perfusion-Derived Cerebral Blood Volume Maps Substitute for Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in Identifying the Ischemic Core?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Copen

    Full Text Available In the treatment of patients with suspected acute ischemic stroke, increasing evidence suggests the importance of measuring the volume of the irreversibly injured "ischemic core." The gold standard method for doing this in the clinical setting is diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI, but many authors suggest that maps of regional cerebral blood volume (CBV derived from computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTP can substitute for DWI. We sought to determine whether DWI and CTP-derived CBV maps are equivalent in measuring core volume.58 patients with suspected stroke underwent CTP and DWI within 6 hours of symptom onset. We measured low-CBV lesion volumes using three methods: "objective absolute," i.e. the volume of tissue with CBV below each of six published absolute thresholds (0.9-2.5 mL/100 g, "objective relative," whose six thresholds (51%-60% were fractions of mean contralateral CBV, and "subjective," in which two radiologists (R1, R2 outlined lesions subjectively. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of each method, threshold, and radiologist in detecting infarction, and the degree to which each over- or underestimated the DWI core volume. Additionally, in the subset of 32 patients for whom follow-up CT or MRI was available, we measured the proportion of CBV- or DWI-defined core lesions that exceeded the follow-up infarct volume, and the maximum amount by which this occurred.DWI was positive in 72% (42/58 of patients. CBV maps' sensitivity/specificity in identifying DWI-positive patients were 100%/0% for both objective methods with all thresholds, 43%/94% for R1, and 83%/44% for R2. Mean core overestimation was 156-699 mL for objective absolute thresholds, and 127-200 mL for objective relative thresholds. For R1 and R2, respectively, mean±SD subjective overestimation were -11±26 mL and -11±23 mL, but subjective volumes differed from DWI volumes by up to 117 and 124 mL in individual patients. Inter-rater agreement

  1. Effect of storage levels of nitric oxide derivatives in blood components [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/WDkFtz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Qazi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Potential deleterious effects of red blood cell (RBC transfusions, especially from blood kept at length, have been ascribed to biochemical changes during storage, including those of nitric oxide (NO metabolism. Study methods and design: In this study, NO metabolites, nitrite and nitrate, were quantified in RBCs and whole blood with time of storage. Whole blood (WB, leukoreduced (LR, and non-leukoreduced (NLR components were obtained from healthy volunteer donors and stored in polyvinyl chloride bags for 42 days. Nitrite and nitrate were measured using reductive gas-phase chemiluminescence. Results: Nitrite concentrations initially decreased rapidly from about 150nmol/L, but stabilized at about 44nmol/L in room air for up to 42 days. Nitrate concentrations remained stable during storage at about 35µmol/L. Cells from bags maintained in an argon chamber showed decreased nitrite levels compared to those maintained in room air. Inhibition of enzymes implicated in the NO cycle did not alter nitrite levels. Conclusion: As erythrocytes may contribute to the control of blood flow and oxygen delivery through reduction of nitrite to NO under hypoxic conditions, the present findings provide insight into possible effects of blood transfusion. These measurements may explain some adverse effects of RBC transfusion and suggest ways of optimizing the preservation of stored blood.

  2. Notch signaling: a novel regulating differentiation mechanism of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells into insulin-producing cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yan-hua; WU De-quan; GAO Feng; LI Guo-dong; ZHANG Xin-chen

    2010-01-01

    Background Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) could be induced to differentiate into insulin producing cells (IPCs) in vitro, which have good application potential in the cell replacement treatment of type-1 diabetes. However, the mechanisms regulating this differentiation have remained largely unknown. Notch signaling is critical in cell differentiation. This study investigated whether Notch signaling could regulate the IPCs differentiation of human UCB-MSCs. Methods Using an interfering Notch signaling protocol in vitro, we studied the role of Notch signaling in differentiation of human UCB-MSCs into IPCs. In a control group the induction took place without interfering Notch signaling. Results Human UCB-MSCs expressed the genes of Notch receptors (Notch 1 and Notch 2) and ligands (Jagged 1 and Deltalike 1). Human UCB-MSCs with over-expressing Notch signaling in differentiation resulted in the down-regulation of insulin gene level, proinsulin protein expression, and insulin-positive cells percentage compared with the control group. These results showed that over-expressing Notch signaling inhibited IPCs differentiation. Conversely, when Notch signaling was attenuated by receptor inhibitor, the induced cells increased on average by 3.06-fold (n=4, P<0.001) in insulin gene level, 2.60-fold (n=3, P <0.02) in proinsulin protein expression, and 1.62-fold (n=6, P <0.001) in the rate of IPCs compared with the control group. Notch signaling inhibition significantly promoted IPCs differentiation with about 40% of human UCB-MSCs that converted to IPCs, but these IPCs were not responsive to glucose challenge very well both in vitro and in vivo. Hence, further research has to be carried out in the future. Conclusions Notch signaling may be an important mechanism regulating IPCs differentiation of human UCB-MSCs in vitro and Notch signaling inhibition may be an efficient way to increase the number of IPCs, which may resolve the shortage of

  3. Transplantation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells or their conditioned medium prevents bone loss in ovariectomized nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jee Hyun; Park, Hyojung; Song, Jung Ah; Ki, Kyung Ho; Yang, Jae-Yeon; Choi, Hyung Jin; Cho, Sun Wook; Kim, Sang Wan; Kim, Seong Yeon; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Baek, Wook-Young; Kim, Jung-Eun; Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Wonil; Shin, Chan Soo

    2013-03-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has recently been recognized as a new source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for use in stem cell therapy. We studied the effects of systemic injection of human UCB-MSCs and their conditioned medium (CM) on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss in nude mice. Ten-week-old female nude mice were divided into six groups: Sham-operated mice treated with vehicle (Sham-Vehicle), OVX mice subjected to UCB-MSCs (OVX-MSC), or human dermal fibroblast (OVX-DFB) transplantation, OVX mice treated with UCB-MSC CM (OVX-CM), zoledronate (OVX-Zol), or vehicle (OVX-Vehicle). Although the OVX-Vehicle group exhibited significantly less bone mineral density (BMD) gain compared with the Sham-Vehicle group, transplantation of hUCB-MSCs (OVX-MSC group) has effectively prevented OVX-induced bone mass attenuation. Notably, the OVX-CM group also showed BMD preservation comparable to the OVX-MSC group. In addition, microcomputed tomography analysis demonstrated improved trabecular parameters in both the OVX-MSC and OVX-CM groups compared to the OVX-Vehicle or OVX-DFB group. Histomorphometric analysis showed increased bone formation parameters, accompanied by increased serum procollagen type-I N-telopeptide levels in OVX-MSC and OVX-CM mice. However, cell-trafficking analysis failed to demonstrate engraftment of MSCs in bone tissue 48 h after cell infusion. In vitro, hUCB-MSC CM increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in human bone marrow-derived MSCs and mRNA expression of collagen type 1, Runx2, osterix, and ALP in C3H10T1/2 cells. Furthermore, hUCB-MSC CM significantly increased survival of osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells, while it inhibited osteoclastic differentiation. To summarize, transplantation of hUCB-MSCs could effectively prevent OVX-mediated bone loss in nude mice, which appears to be mediated by a paracrine mechanism rather than direct engraftment of the MSCs. PMID:23215868

  4. Monocyte galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine-specific C-type lectin receptor stimulant immunotherapy of an experimental glioma. Part 1: stimulatory effects on blood monocytes and monocyte-derived cells of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunotherapy with immunostimulants is an attractive therapy against gliomas. C-type lectin receptors specific for galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (GCLR) regulate cellular differentiation, recognition, and trafficking of monocyte-derived cells. A peptide mimetic of GCLR ligands (GCLRP) was used to activate blood monocytes and populations of myeloid-derived cells against a murine glioblastoma. The ability of GCLRP to stimulate phagocytosis by human microglia and monocyte-derived cells of the brain (MDCB) isolated from a human glioblastoma was initially assessed in vitro. Induction of activation markers on blood monocytes was assayed by flow cytometry after administration of GCLRP to naive mice. C57BL/6 mice underwent stereotactic intracranial implantation of GL261 glioma cells and were randomized for tumor size by magnetic resonance imaging, which was also used to assess increase in tumor size. Brain tumor tissues were analyzed using flow cytometry, histology, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with respect to tumor, peritumoral area, and contralateral hemisphere regions. GCLRP exhibited strong stimulatory effect on MDCBs and blood monocytes in vitro and in vivo. GCLRP was associated with an increased percentage of precursors of dendritic cells in the blood (P = 0.003), which differentiated into patrolling macrophages in tumoral (P = 0.001) and peritumoral areas (P = 0.04), rather than into dendritic cells, as in control animals. Treatment with GCLRP did not result in a significant change in survival of mice bearing a tumor. In vitro and in vivo activation of monocytes was achieved by administration of GCLR to mice. GCLRP-activated blood monocytes were recruited to the brain and exhibited specific phenotypes corresponding with tumor region (glioma, peritumoral zone, and contralateral glioma-free hemisphere). GCLRP treatment alone was associated with increased glioma mass as the result of the infiltration of phagocytic cells. Regional specificity for MDCB may have

  5. Inhibition spectrum studies of microthecin and other anhydrofructose derivatives using selected strains of Gram-positive and –negative bacteria, yeast and moulds, and investigation of the cytotoxicity of microthecin to malignant blood cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiskesund, R.; Thomas, L.V.; Schobert, M.;

    2009-01-01

    both GP and GN bacteria, including Ps. aeruginosa. Further tests with three malignant blood cell lines (Mutu, Ramos, Raji) and one normal cell line indicated that microthecin was a cell toxin, with a cell mortality >85% at 50 ppm. The other nine AF derivatives demonstrated low or no antimicrobial...... as a novel drug against Ps. aeruginosa and to target cancer cells. It might also be developed as a food processing aid to control bacterial growth....

  6. Resident microglia, rather than blood-derived macrophages, contribute to the earlier and more pronounced inflammatory reaction in the immature compared with the adult hippocampus after hypoxia-ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umekawa, Takashi; Osman, Ahmed M; Han, Wei; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Blomgren, Klas

    2015-12-01

    The mechanisms of neuronal injury after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) are different in the immature and the adult brain, but microglia activation has not been compared. The purpose of this study was to phenotype resident microglia and blood-derived macrophages in the hippocampus after HI in neonatal (postnatal day 9, P9) or adult (3 months of age, 3mo) mice. Unilateral brain injury after HI was induced in Cx3cr1(GFP/+) Ccr2(RFP/+) male mice on P9 (n = 34) or at 3mo (n = 53) using the Vannucci model. Resident microglia (Cx3cr1-GFP+) proliferated and were activated earlier after HI in the P9 (1-3 days) than that in the 3mo hippocampus, but remained longer in the adult brain (3-7 days). Blood-derived macrophages (Ccr2-RFP+) peaked 3 days after HI in both immature (P9) and adult (3mo) hippocampi but were twice as frequent in adult brains, 41% vs. 21% of all microglia/macrophages. CCL2 expression was three times higher in the P9 hippocampi, indicating that the proinflammatory response was more pronounced in the immature brain after HI. This corresponded well with the higher numbers of galectin-3-positive resident microglia in the P9 hippocampi, but did not correlate with CD16/32- or CD206-positive resident microglia or blood-derived macrophages. In conclusion, resident microglia, rather than infiltrating blood-derived macrophages, proliferate and are activated earlier in the immature than in the adult brain, but remain increased longer in the adult brain. The inflammatory response is more pronounced in the immature brain, and this correlate well with galectin-3 expression in resident microglia.

  7. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called homologous blood donation. Many communities have a blood bank at which any healthy person can donate blood. ... need to arrange with your hospital or local blood bank before your surgery to have directed donor blood. ...

  8. Angiogenesis and vasculogenesis: inducing the growth of new blood vessels and wound healing by stimulation of bone marrow-derived progenitor cell mobilization and homing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Omaida C

    2007-06-01

    During embryonic development, the vasculature is among the first organs to form and is in charge of maintaining metabolic homeostasis by supplying oxygen and nutrients and removing waste products. As one would expect, blood vessels are critical not only for organ growth in the embryo but also for repair of wounded tissue in the adult. An imbalance in angiogenesis (a time-honored term that globally refers to the growth of new blood vessels) contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous malignant, inflammatory, ischemic, infectious, immune, and wound-healing disorders. This review focuses on the central role of the growth of new blood vessels in ischemic and diabetic wound healing and defines the most current nomenclature that describes the neovascularization process in wounds. There are now two well-defined, distinct, yet interrelated processes for the formation of postnatal new blood vessels, angiogenesis, and vasculogenesis. Reviewed are recent new data on vasculogenesis that promise to advance the field of wound healing.

  9. In vivo differentiation of human amniotic epithelial cells into cardiomyocyte-like cells and cell transplantation effect on myocardial infarction in rats: comparison with cord blood and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Cheng-Hu; Jin, Jiyong; Joe, Jun-Ho; Song, Yi-Sun; So, Byung-Im; Lim, Sang Moo; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Woo, Sang-Keun; Ra, Jeong-Chan; Lee, Young-Yiul; Kim, Kyung-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Human amniotic epithelial cells (h-AECs), which have various merits as a cell source for cell therapy, are known to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in vitro. However, the ability of h-AECs to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in vivo and their cell transplantation effects on myocardial infarction are still unknown. In this study, we assessed whether h-AECs could differentiate into cardiomyocytes in vivo and whether h-AECs transplantation can decrease infarct size and improve cardiac function, in comparison to transplantation of cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or adipose tissue-derived MSCs. For our study, we injected h-AECs, cord blood-derived MSCs, adipose tissue-derived MSCs, and saline into areas of myocardial infarction in athymic nude rats. After 4 weeks, 3% of the surviving h-AECs expressed myosin heavy chain, a marker specific to the myocardium. Compared with the saline group, all cell-implanted groups showed a higher ejection fraction, lower infarct area by positron emission tomography and histology, and more abundant myocardial gene and protein expression in the infarct area. We showed that h-AECs can differentiate into cardiomyocyte-like cells, decrease infarct size, and improve cardiac function in vivo. The beneficial effects of h-AECs were comparable to those of cord blood and adipose tissue-derived MSCs. These results support the need for further studies of h-AECs as a cell source for myocardial regeneration due to their plentiful availability, low immunity, and lack of ethical issues related to their use.

  10. Function, expression and localization of annexin A7 in platelets and red blood cells: Insights derived from an annexin A7 mutant mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamparelli Carlotta

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annexin A7 is a Ca2+- and phospholipid-binding protein expressed as a 47 and 51 kDa isoform, which is thought to be involved in membrane fusion processes. Recently the 47 kDa isoform has been identified in erythrocytes where it was proposed to be a key component in the process of the Ca2+-dependent vesicle release, a process with which red blood cells might protect themselves against an attack by for example complement components. Results The role of annexin A7 in red blood cells was addressed in erythrocytes from anxA7-/- mice. Interestingly, the Ca2+-mediated vesiculation process was not impaired. Also, the membrane organization appeared not to be disturbed as assessed using gradient fractionation studies. Instead, lack of annexin A7 led to an altered cell shape and increased osmotic resistance of red blood cells. Annexin A7 was also identified in platelets. In these cells its loss led to a slightly slower aggregation velocity which seems to be compensated by an increased number of platelets. The results appear to rule out an important role of annexin A7 in membrane fusion processes occurring in red blood cells. Instead the protein might be involved in the organization of the membrane cytoskeleton. Red blood cells may represent an appropriate model to study the role of annexin A7 in cellular processes. Conclusion We have demonstrated the presence of both annexin A7 isoforms in red blood cells and the presence of the small isoform in platelets. In both cell types the loss of annexin A7 impairs cellular functions. The defects observed are however not compatible with a crucial role for annexin A7 in membrane fusion processes in these cell types.

  11. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  12. Blood Thinners

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

  13. Blood Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Basics Blood is a specialized body fluid. It ... about 9 pints. Jump To: The Components of Blood and Their Importance Many people have undergone blood ...

  14. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart contracts, which ... as it relaxes, which is called diastole. Normal blood pressure is considered to be a systolic blood pressure ...

  15. Defining Molecular Phenotypes of Mesenchymal and hematopoietic Stem Cells derived from Peripheral blood of Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia patients for regenerative stem cell therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Pravin D. Potdar; Rambhadur P Subedi

    2011-01-01

    Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) is a clonal myeloid disorder affecting all age groups, characterized by accumulation of immature blast cells in bone marrow and in peripheral blood. Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation is a present treatment for cure of ALL patients, which is very expensive, invasive process and may have possibility of transplantation of malignant stem cells to patients. In the present study, we hypothesized to isolate large number of normal Mesenchymal & Hematopoietic stem...

  16. Defining Molecular Phenotypes of Mesenchymal and hematopoietic Stem Cells derived from Peripheral blood of Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia patients for regenerative stem cell therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potdar, PD; Subedi, RP

    2011-01-01

    Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) is a clonal myeloid disorder affecting all age groups, characterized by accumulation of immature blast cells in bone marrow and in peripheral blood. Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation is a present treatment for cure of ALL patients, which is very expensive, invasive process and may have possibility of transplantation of malignant stem cells to patients. In the present study, we hypothesized to isolate large number of normal Mesenchymal & Hematopoietic stem cells from peripheral blood of ALL patients, which will be further characterized for their normal phenotypes by using specific molecular stem cell markers. This is the first study, which defines the existing phenotypes of isolated MSCs and HSCs from peripheral blood of ALL patients. We have established three cell lines in which two were Mesenchymal stem cells designated as MSCALL and MSCnsALL and one was suspension cell line designated as HSCALL. The HSCALL cell line was developed from the lymphocyte like cells secreted by MSCALL cells. Our study also showed that MSCALL from peripheral blood of ALL patient secreted hematopoietic stem cells in vitro culture. We have characterized all three-cell lines by 14 specific stem cell molecular markers. It was found that both MSC cell lines expressed CD105, CD13, and CD73 with mixed expression of CD34 and CD45 at early passage whereas, HSCALL cell line expressed prominent feature of hematopoietic stem cells such as CD34 and CD45 with mild expression of CD105 and CD13. All three-cell lines expressed LIF, OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, IL6, and DAPK. These cells mildly expressed COX2 and did not express BCR-ABL. Overall it was shown that isolated MSCs and HSCs can be use as a model system to study the mechanism of leukemia at stem cell level and their use in stem cell regeneration therapy for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia. PMID:24693170

  17. Defining Molecular Phenotypes of Mesenchymal and hematopoietic Stem Cells derived from Peripheral blood of Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia patients for regenerative stem cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin D. Potdar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL is a clonal myeloid disorder affecting all age groups, characterized by accumulation of immature blast cells in bone marrow and in peripheral blood. Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation is a present treatment for cure of ALL patients, which is very expensive, invasive process and may have possibility of transplantation of malignant stem cells to patients. In the present study, we hypothesized to isolate large number of normal Mesenchymal & Hematopoietic stem cells from peripheral blood of ALL patients, which will be further characterized for their normal phenotypes by using specific molecular stem cell markers. This is the first study, which defines the existing phenotypes of isolated MSCs and HSCs from peripheral blood of ALL patients. We have established three cell lines in which two were Mesenchymal stem cells designated as MSCALL and MSCnsALL and one was suspension cell line designated as HSCALL. The HSCALL cell line was developed from the lymphocyte like cells secreted by MSCALL cells. Our study also showed that MSCALL from peripheral blood of ALL patient secreted hematopoietic stem cells in vitro culture. We have characterized all three-cell lines by 14 specific stem cell molecular markers. It was found that both MSC cell lines expressed CD105, CD13, and CD73 with mixed expression of CD34 and CD45 at early passage whereas, HSCALL cell line expressed prominent feature of hematopoietic stem cells such as CD34 and CD45 with mild expression of CD105 and CD13. All three-cell lines expressed LIF, OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, IL6, and DAPK. These cells mildly expressed COX2 and did not express BCR-ABL. Overall it was shown that isolated MSCs and HSCs can be use as a model system to study the mechanism of leukemia at stem cell level and their use in stem cell regeneration therapy for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia.

  18. Human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells and chorionic plate-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote axon survival in a rat model of optic nerve crush injury

    OpenAIRE

    CHUNG, SOKJOONG; RHO, SEUNGSOO; KIM, GIJIN; Kim, So-Ra; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; KANG, MYUNGSEO; Lew, Helen

    2016-01-01

    The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in cell therapy in regenerative medicine has great potential, particularly in the treatment of nerve injury. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) reportedly contains stem cells, which have been widely used as a hematopoietic source and may have therapeutic potential for neurological impairment. Although ongoing research is dedicated to the management of traumatic optic nerve injury using various measures, novel therapeutic strategies based on the complex underly...

  19. Preliminary evaluation of treatment efficacy of umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell-differentiated cardiac pro-genitor cells in a myocardial injury mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truc Le-Buu Pham

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, stem cell therapy has been investigated as a strategy to prevent or reverse damage to heart tissue. Although the results of cell transplantation in animal models and patients with myocardial ischemia are promising, the selection of the appropriate cell type remains an issue that requires consideration. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of cardiac progenitor cell transplantation in a mouse model of myocardial ischemia. The cardiac progenitor cells used for transplantation were differentiated from umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells. Animal models injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS and healthy mice were used as controls. Cell grafting was assessed by changes in blood pressure and histological evaluation. After 14 days of transplantation, the results demonstrated that the blood pressure of transplanted mice was stable, similar to healthy mice, whereas it fluctuated in PBS-injected mice. Histological analysis showed that heart tissue had regenerated in transplanted mice, but remained damaged in PBS-injected mice. Furthermore, trichrome staining revealed that the transplanted mice did not generate significant amount of scar tissue compared with PBS-injected control mice. In addition, the cardiac progenitor cells managed to survive and integrate with local cells in cell-injected heart tissue 14 days after transplantation. Most importantly, the transplanted cells did not exhibit tumorigenesis. In conclusion, cardiac progenitor cell transplantation produced a positive effect in a mouse model of myocardial ischemia. [Biomed Res Ther 2015; 2(12.000: 435-445

  20. Non-dipping blood pressure variations in adult Kazakhs are derived from decreased daytime physical activity and increased nighttime sympathetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Hiroshi; Ozawa, Yukio; Izumi, Yoichi; Kasamaki, Yuji; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Mitsubayashi, Hiromi; Ohta, Masakatsu; Ichimaru, Yuhei

    2016-01-01

    Many of the elderly Kazakhs have been found to exhibit non-dipping blood pressure variations (BPV). Such variations are seen in both normotensive and hypertensive Kazakhs. The purpose of this study was (1) to determine whether middle-aged Kazakhs also include large numbers of non-dippers, (2) to compare the characteristics of non-dipping and dipping, and (3) to clarify the mechanisms responsible for non-dipping type BPV by examining the autonomic nervous activity and physical activity. We performed ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring. The subjects were divided into two groups (dipping and non-dipping type). We monitored the subjects' physical activity with accelerometry and assessed their autonomic nerve activity by performing a frequency domain analysis of their heart rate variability (HRV). The power spectral density (PSD) of the HRV was calculated using fast Fourier transformation. We analyzed the systolic blood pressure (SBP) variations with the maximum entropy method (MEM). The dippers and non-dippers accounted for 48% and 52% of the subjects, respectively. MEM analysis revealed that the SBP variations of the non-dippers exhibited a 24 hour periodicity with a very weak PSD as well as an ultradian periodicity. The non-dippers exhibited higher low-frequency/high-frequency (LF/HF) ratio and lower HF/(LF + HF) ratios than the dippers, particularly during the nighttime. In addition, the non-dippers performed less physical activity than the dippers. These differences in cardiac autonomic function and physical activity might contribute to the generation of a weak circadian rhythm in SBP, and thus, ultimately lead to the non-dipping SBP variations observed in non-dipper Kazakhs.

  1. Transplantation of Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells or Their Conditioned Medium Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Nude Mice

    OpenAIRE

    An, Jee Hyun; Park, Hyojung; Song, Jung Ah; Ki, Kyung Ho; Yang, Jae-Yeon; Choi, Hyung Jin; Cho, Sun Wook; Kim, Sang Wan; Kim, Seong Yeon; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Baek, Wook-Young; Kim, Jung-Eun; Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Wonil; Shin, Chan Soo

    2013-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has recently been recognized as a new source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for use in stem cell therapy. We studied the effects of systemic injection of human UCB-MSCs and their conditioned medium (CM) on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss in nude mice. Ten-week-old female nude mice were divided into six groups: Sham-operated mice treated with vehicle (Sham-Vehicle), OVX mice subjected to UCB-MSCs (OVX-MSC), or human dermal fibroblast (OVX-DFB) transplantation, ...

  2. Diagnostic examination performance by using microvascular leakage, cerebral blood volume, and blood flow derived from 3-T dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging in the differentiation of glioblastoma multiforme and brain metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Server, Andres; Nakstad, Per H. [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Orheim, Tone E.D. [Oslo University Hospital, Interventional Centre, Oslo (Norway); Graff, Bjoern A. [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Josefsen, Roger [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo (Norway); Kumar, Theresa [Oslo University Hospital-Ullevaal, Department of Pathology, Oslo (Norway)

    2011-05-15

    Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has limited capacity to differentiate between glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and metastasis. The purposes of this study were: (1) to compare microvascular leakage (MVL), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and blood flow (CBF) in the distinction of metastasis from GBM using dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging (DSC-MRI), and (2) to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of perfusion and permeability MR imaging. A prospective study of 61 patients (40 GBMs and 21 metastases) was performed at 3 T using DSC-MRI. Normalized rCBV and rCBF from tumoral (rCBVt, rCBFt), peri-enhancing region (rCBVe, rCBFe), and by dividing the value in the tumor by the value in the peri-enhancing region (rCBVt/e, rCBFt/e), as well as MVL were calculated. Hemodynamic and histopathologic variables were analyzed statistically and Spearman/Pearson correlations. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed for each of the variables. The rCBVe, rCBFe, and MVL were significantly greater in GBMs compared with those of metastases. The optimal cutoff value for differentiating GBM from metastasis was 0.80 which implies a sensitivity of 95%, a specificity of 92%, a positive predictive value of 86%, and a negative predictive value of 97% for rCBVe ratio. We found a modest correlation between rCBVt and rCBFt ratios. MVL measurements in GBMs are significantly higher than those in metastases. Statistically, both rCBVe, rCBVt/e and rCBFe, rCBFt/e were useful in differentiating between GBMs and metastases, supporting the hypothesis that perfusion MR imaging can detect infiltration of tumor cells in the peri-enhancing region. (orig.)

  3. High content of pyridinic- and pyrrolic-nitrogen-modified carbon nanotubes derived from blood biomass for the electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •An ORR electrocatalyst was fabricated from blood biomass and carbon nanotube. •The N-CNT catalyst exhibits good ORR activity, methanol resistance and stability. •The pyrolysis process produces high contents of pyridinic and pyrrolic N species. •The pyridinic-N group may play more important role in the active sites for ORR. -- Abstract: Here we present a facile synthetic route to design nitrogen-doped nanostructured carbon-based electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) by the copyrolysis of blood biomass from pig and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at high temperatures. The nitrogen-doped CNTs obtained at 800 °C not only results in excellent ORR activity with four-electron transfer selectivity in alkaline medium, but also exhibits superior methanol-tolerant property and long-term stability. It is confirmed that high-temperature pyrolysis processes can facilitate to produce higher contents of pyridinic- and pyrrolic-N binding groups in electrocatalysts, contributing to the enhancement of ORR performance in terms of onset potential, half-wave potential, and limited current density. We also propose that the planar-N configuration may be the active site that is responsible for the improved ORR electrocatalytic performance. The straight-forward and cheap synthesis of the active and stable electrocatalyst makes it a promising candidate for electrochemical power sources such as fuel cells or metal-air batteries

  4. Lethal effect of mononuclear cells derived from human umbilical cord blood differentiating into dendritic cells after in vitro induction of cytokines on neuroblastoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenghai Qu; Jianxin Zuo; Lirong Sun; Xindong Qu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dendritic cell is the most major antigen presenting cell of organism. It is proved in recent studies that human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells induced and cultured in vitro by recombinant human granuIocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (rhG-MCSF) and recombinant human interleukin-4 (rhlL-4) can generate a great many dendritic cells and promote the lethal effect of T cells on human neuroblastoma, but it is unclear that whether the lethal effect is associated with the most proper concentration of dendritic cells.OBJ ECTIVE: To investigate the lethal effect of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells induced in vitro by cytokines differentiating into dendritic cells on human neuroblastoma, and its best concentration range.DESIGN: Open experiment.SETTING: Department of Pediatrics, the Medical School Hospital of Qingdao University.MATERIALS: The study was carried out in the Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory (Laboratory for the Department of Pediatrics of the Medical School Hospital of Qingdao University) during September 2005 to May 2006.Human umbilical cord blood samples were taken from the healthy newborn infants of full-term normal delivery during October to November 2005 in the Medical School Hospital of Qingdao University, and were voluntarily donated by the puerperas. Main instruments: type 3111 CO2 incubator (Forma Scientific, USA), type 550 ELISA Reader (Bio-Rad, USA). Main reagents: neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH (Shanghai Institute of Life Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences), RPMI-1640 culture fluid and fetal bovine serum (Hyclone), rhlL-4 (Promega, USA), rhG-MCSF (Harbin Pharmaceutic Group Bioengineering Co. Ltd), rat anti-human CD1a monoclonal antibody and FITC-labeled rabbit anti-rat IgG (Xiehe Stem cell Gene Engineering Co. Ltd).METHODS: ① Human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells obtained with attachment methods differentiated into human umbilical cord blood dendritic cells, presenting typical morphology of

  5. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Blood Types KidsHealth > For Teens > Blood Types Print A A ... or straight hair instead of curly. ...Make Eight Blood Types The different markers that can be found in ...

  6. Childhood maternal care is associated with DNA methylation of the genes for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and oxytocin receptor (OXTR) in peripheral blood cells in adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unternaehrer, Eva; Meyer, Andrea Hans; Burkhardt, Susan C A; Dempster, Emma; Staehli, Simon; Theill, Nathan; Lieb, Roselind; Meinlschmidt, Gunther

    2015-01-01

    In adults, reporting low and high maternal care in childhood, we compared DNA methylation in two stress-associated genes (two target sequences in the oxytocin receptor gene, OXTR; one in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene, BDNF) in peripheral whole blood, in a cross-sectional study (University of Basel, Switzerland) during 2007-2008. We recruited 89 participants scoring  33 (n = 42, 35 women) on the maternal care subscale of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) at a previous assessment of a larger group (N = 709, range PBI maternal care = 0-36, age range = 19-66 years; median 24 years). 85 participants gave blood for DNA methylation analyses (Sequenom(R) EpiTYPER, San Diego, CA) and cell count (Sysmex PocH-100i™, Kobe, Japan). Mixed model statistical analysis showed greater DNA methylation in the low versus high maternal care group, in the BDNF target sequence [Likelihood-Ratio (1) = 4.47; p = 0.035] and in one OXTR target sequence Likelihood-Ratio (1) = 4.33; p = 0.037], but not the second OXTR target sequence [Likelihood-Ratio (1) BDNF (estimate = -0.005, 95% CI = -0.025 to 0.015; p = 0.626) or OXTR DNA methylation (estimate = -0.015, 95% CI = -0.038 to 0.008; p = 0.192). Hence, low maternal care in childhood was associated with greater DNA methylation in an OXTR and a BDNF target sequence in blood cells in adulthood. Although the study has limitations (cross-sectional, a wide age range, only three target sequences in two genes studied, small effects, uncertain relevance of changes in blood cells to gene methylation in brain), the findings may indicate components of the epiphenotype from early life stress.

  7. β-Globin sleeping beauty transposon reduces red blood cell sickling in a patient-derived CD34(+-based in vitro model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas M Sjeklocha

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal of gene therapy for sickle cell anemia (SCA is an improved phenotype for the patient. In this study, we utilized bone marrow from a sickle cell patient as a model of disease in an in vitro setting for the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty transposon gene therapy system. We demonstrated that mature sickle red blood cells containing hemoglobin-S and sickling in response to metabisulfite can be generated in vitro from SCA bone marrow. These cells showed the characteristic morphology and kinetics of hemoglobin-S polymerization, which we quantified using video microscopy and imaging cytometry. Using video assessment, we showed that delivery of an IHK-β(T87Q antisickling globin gene by Sleeping Beauty via nucleofection improves metrics of sickling, decreasing percent sickled from 53.2 ± 2.2% to 43.9 ± 2.0%, increasing the median time to sickling from 8.5 to 9.6 min and decreasing the maximum rate of sickling from 2.3 x 10(-3 sickling cells/total cells/sec in controls to 1.26 x 10(-3 sickling cells/total cells/sec in the IHK-β(T87Q-globin group (p < 0.001. Using imaging cytometry, the percentage of elongated sickled cells decreased from 34.8 ± 4.5% to 29.5 ± 3.0% in control versus treated (p < 0.05. These results support the potential use of Sleeping Beauty as a clinical gene therapy vector and provide a useful tool for studying sickle red blood cells in vitro.

  8. β-Globin Sleeping Beauty Transposon Reduces Red Blood Cell Sickling in a Patient-Derived CD34+-Based In Vitro Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjeklocha, Lucas M.; Wong, Phillip Y.-P.; Belcher, John D.; Vercellotti, Gregory M.; Steer, Clifford J.

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate goal of gene therapy for sickle cell anemia (SCA) is an improved phenotype for the patient. In this study, we utilized bone marrow from a sickle cell patient as a model of disease in an in vitro setting for the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty transposon gene therapy system. We demonstrated that mature sickle red blood cells containing hemoglobin-S and sickling in response to metabisulfite can be generated in vitro from SCA bone marrow. These cells showed the characteristic morphology and kinetics of hemoglobin-S polymerization, which we quantified using video microscopy and imaging cytometry. Using video assessment, we showed that delivery of an IHK-βT87Q antisickling globin gene by Sleeping Beauty via nucleofection improves metrics of sickling, decreasing percent sickled from 53.2 ± 2.2% to 43.9 ± 2.0%, increasing the median time to sickling from 8.5 to 9.6 min and decreasing the maximum rate of sickling from 2.3 x 10-3 sickling cells/total cells/sec in controls to 1.26 x 10-3 sickling cells/total cells/sec in the IHK-βT87Q-globin group (p < 0.001). Using imaging cytometry, the percentage of elongated sickled cells decreased from 34.8 ± 4.5% to 29.5 ± 3.0% in control versus treated (p < 0.05). These results support the potential use of Sleeping Beauty as a clinical gene therapy vector and provide a useful tool for studying sickle red blood cells in vitro. PMID:24260386

  9. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture

  10. Cytotoxic activity against human neuroblastoma and melanoma cells mediated by IgM antibodies derived from peripheral blood of healthy donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarapu, Satish Kumar; Mamidi, Srinivas; Plöger, Frank; Dill, Othmar; Blixt, Ola; Kirschfink, Michael; Schwartz-Albiez, Reinhard

    2016-06-15

    A small percentage of healthy donors identified in the Western population carry antibodies in their peripheral blood which convey cytotoxic activity against certain human melanoma and neuroblastoma cell lines. We measured the cytotoxic activity of sera and plasmas from healthy donors on the human neuroblastoma cell line Kelly and various melanoma cell lines. Antibodies of IgM isotype, presumably belonging to the class of naturally occurring antibodies, exerted cytotoxic activity in a complement-dependent fashion. Apart from complement-dependent tumor cell lysis, we observed C3 opsonization in all tumor cell lines upon treatment with cytotoxic plasmas. Cell lines tested primarily expressed membrane complement regulatory proteins (mCRP) CD46, CD55 and CD59 to various extents. Blocking of mCRPs by monoclonal antibodies enhanced cell lysis and opsonization, though some melanoma cells remained resistant to complement attack. Epitopes recognized by cytotoxic antibodies were represented by gangliosides such as GD2 and GD3, as evidenced by cellular sialidase pretreatment and enhanced expression of distinct gangliosides. It remains to be clarified why only a small fraction of healthy persons carry these antitumor cytotoxic antibodies.

  11. Controlled study on the effect of pentoxifylline and an ergot alkaloid derivative on regional cerebral blood flow in patients with chronic cerebrovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, A.; Tsuda, Y.

    1988-05-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 90 patients with CBF decreased due to vascular diseases was studied by using the xenon 133 inhalation technique and a 32-detector setup. Whereas 30 patients received their standard basic therapy only and were regarded as controls, 30 others received 3 x 2 mg/day of an ergot alkaloid (co-dergocrine mesylate), and 30 others received 3 x 400 mg pentoxifylline (slow-release formulation)/day orally. Therapy was performed for eight weeks and CBF measured before start of treatment, after a four-week treatment period, and at the end of the study. CBF did not change significantly in the control group; both the pentoxifylline and the ergot alkaloid group presented with a significant increase in the CBF. This positive effect was significantly more pronounced in the pentoxifylline group and affected more ischemic than other brain tissues. In addition, symptoms like sleep disturbances, vertigo, and tinnitus improved significantly during the pentoxifylline observation period.

  12. Cytotoxic activity against human neuroblastoma and melanoma cells mediated by IgM antibodies derived from peripheral blood of healthy donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarapu, Satish Kumar; Mamidi, Srinivas; Plöger, Frank; Dill, Othmar; Blixt, Ola; Kirschfink, Michael; Schwartz-Albiez, Reinhard

    2016-06-15

    A small percentage of healthy donors identified in the Western population carry antibodies in their peripheral blood which convey cytotoxic activity against certain human melanoma and neuroblastoma cell lines. We measured the cytotoxic activity of sera and plasmas from healthy donors on the human neuroblastoma cell line Kelly and various melanoma cell lines. Antibodies of IgM isotype, presumably belonging to the class of naturally occurring antibodies, exerted cytotoxic activity in a complement-dependent fashion. Apart from complement-dependent tumor cell lysis, we observed C3 opsonization in all tumor cell lines upon treatment with cytotoxic plasmas. Cell lines tested primarily expressed membrane complement regulatory proteins (mCRP) CD46, CD55 and CD59 to various extents. Blocking of mCRPs by monoclonal antibodies enhanced cell lysis and opsonization, though some melanoma cells remained resistant to complement attack. Epitopes recognized by cytotoxic antibodies were represented by gangliosides such as GD2 and GD3, as evidenced by cellular sialidase pretreatment and enhanced expression of distinct gangliosides. It remains to be clarified why only a small fraction of healthy persons carry these antitumor cytotoxic antibodies. PMID:26830059

  13. Circulating brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and frequency of BDNF positive T cells in peripheral blood in human ischemic stroke: Effect on outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Adeline; Yan, Jun; Csurhes, Peter; Greer, Judith; McCombe, Pamela

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this study was to measure the levels of circulating BDNF and the frequency of BDNF-producing T cells after acute ischaemic stroke. Serum BDNF levels were measured by ELISA. Flow cytometry was used to enumerate peripheral blood leukocytes that were labelled with antibodies against markers of T cells, T regulatory cells (Tregs), and intracellular BDNF. There was a slight increase in serum BDNF levels after stroke. There was no overall difference between stroke patients and controls in the frequency of CD4(+) and CD8(+) BDNF(+) cells, although a subgroup of stroke patients showed high frequencies of these cells. However, there was an increase in the percentage of BDNF(+) Treg cells in the CD4(+) population in stroke patients compared to controls. Patients with high percentages of CD4(+) BDNF(+) Treg cells had a better outcome at 6months than those with lower levels. These groups did not differ in age, gender or initial stroke severity. Enhancement of BDNF production after stroke could be a useful means of improving neuroprotection and recovery after stroke.

  14. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 and stromal cell-derived factor-1 act synergistically to support migration of blood-borne monocytes into the injured spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haoqian; Trivedi, Alpa; Lee, Jung-Uek; Lohela, Marja; Lee, Sang Mi; Fandel, Thomas M; Werb, Zena; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J

    2011-11-01

    The infiltration of monocytes into the lesioned site is a key event in the inflammatory response after spinal cord injury (SCI). We hypothesized that the molecular events governing the infiltration of monocytes into the injured cord involve cooperativity between the upregulation of the chemoattractant stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXCL12 in the injured cord and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9/gelatinase B), expressed by infiltrating monocytes. SDF-1 and its receptor CXCR4 mRNAs were upregulated in the injured cord, while macrophages immunoexpressed CXCR4. When mice, transplanted with bone marrow cells from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice, were subjected to SCI, GFP+ monocytes infiltrated the cord and displayed gelatinolytic activity. In vitro studies confirmed that SDF-1α, acting through CXCR4, expressed on bone marrow-derived macrophages, upregulated MMP-9 and stimulated MMP-9-dependent transmigration across endothelial cell monolayers by 2.6-fold. There was a reduction in F4/80+ macrophages in spinal cord-injured MMP-9 knock-out mice (by 36%) or wild-type mice, treated with the broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor GM6001 (by 30%). Mice were adoptively transferred with myeloid cells and treated with the MMP-9/-2 inhibitor SB-3CT, the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100, or a combination of both drugs. While either drug resulted in a 28-30% reduction of infiltrated myeloid cells, the combined treatment resulted in a 45% reduction, suggesting that SDF-1 and MMP-9 function independently to promote the trafficking of myeloid cells into the injured cord. Collectively, these observations suggest a synergistic partnership between MMP-9 and SDF-1 in facilitating transmigration of monocytes into the injured spinal cord.

  15. Human placenta-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells support culture expansion of long-term culture-initiating cells from cord blood CD34+ cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YiZhanga; ChangdongLi; XiaoxiaJiang; ShuangxiZhang; YingWu; BingLiu; PeihsienTang; NingMao

    2005-01-01

    Objective. Allogeneic transplantation with umbilical cord blood (UCB) in adult recipients is limited mainly by a low CD34+ cell dose. To overcome this shortcoming, human placenta as a novel source of human mesenchymal progenitor cell (MPC) was incorporated in an attempt to expand CD34+ ceils from UCB in vitro.Materials and Methods. Human placenta MPC was isolated and characterized by morphologic,immunophenotypical, and functional analysis. UCB CD34+ cells were expanded by coculturewith placeutal MPC. Suitable aliquots of cells were used to monitor cell production, elonogenie activity, and tong-term culture-initiating culture (LTC-IC) output. Finally, the immunoregulatory effect of placental MPC was evaluated by T-cell proliferation assay.Results. In its undifferentiated state, placental MPC displayed fibroblastoid morphology; was CD73, CD105, CD29, CD44, HLA-ABC, and CD166 positive; produced fibronectin, laminin,and vimentin; but was negative for CD14, CD31, CD34, CD45, HLA-DR, and α-smooth muscle actin. Functionally, it could be induced into adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes.In vitro expansion of UCB hematopoietic cells, when cocultured with placental MPC in the presence of eytokines, was significantly enhanced: CD34+ cells by 14.89±2.32 fold; colonyforming cell (CFC) by 36.73±5.79 told; and LTC-IC by 7.43±2.66 fold. Moreover, placental MPC could suppress T-cell proliferation induced by cellular stimuli.Conclusion. These results strongly suggest that human placental MPC may be a suitable feeder layer for expansion of hematopoietic progenitors from UCB in vitro.

  16. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  17. Therapeutic isolation and expansion of human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells for the use of muscle-nerve-blood vessel reconstitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro eTamaki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle makes up 40-50% of body mass, and is thus considered to be a good adult stem cell source for autologous therapy. Although, several stem/progenitor cells have been fractionated from mouse skeletal muscle showing a high potential for therapeutic use, it is unclear whether this is the case in human. Differentiation and therapeutic potential of human skeletal muscle-derived cells (Sk-Cs was examined. Samples (5-10 g were obtained from the abdominal and leg muscles of 36 patients (age, 17-79 years undergoing prostate cancer treatment or leg amputation surgery. All patients gave informed consent. Sk-Cs were isolated using conditioned collagenase solution, and were then sorted as CD34-/CD45-/CD29+ (Sk-DN/29+ and CD34+/CD45- (Sk-34 cells, in a similar manner as for the previous mouse Sk-Cs. Both cell fractions were appropriately expanded using conditioned culture medium for about 2 weeks. Differentiation potentials were then examined during cell culture and in vivo transplantation into the severely damaged muscles of athymic nude mice and rats. Interestingly, these two cell fractions could be divided into highly myogenic (Sk-DN/29+ and multipotent stem cell (Sk-34 fractions, in contrast to mouse Sk-Cs, which showed comparable capacities in both cells. At 6 weeks after the separate transplantation of both cell fractions, the former showed an active contribution to muscle fiber regeneration, but the latter showed vigorous engraftment to the interstitium associated with differentiation into Schwann cells, perineurial/endoneurial cells, and vascular endothelial cells and pericytes, which corresponded to previous observations with mouse SK-Cs. Importantly, mixed cultures of both cells resulted the reduction of tissue reconstitution capacities in vivo, whereas co-transplantation after separate expansion showed favorable results. Therefore, human Sk-Cs are potentially applicable to therapeutic autografts and show multiple differentiation

  18. Improvement of impaired mitogen-induced interferon-gamma release of peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from tumor patients by Factor AF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, J E; Neumann, H A; Gallati, H; Ricken, D

    1991-01-01

    Factor AF2, a now standardized extract from liver and spleen of newborn lambs, showed myeloprotective capacity on platelet- and erythrocyte-count as well as on hemoglobinconcentration in patients undergoing aggressive chemotherapy. In addition, a possible influence on prolonged remission duration in patients with mammary carcinoma had been claimed. In this study, the effect of Factor AF2 on mitogen-induced interferon-gamma release by PBMC was tested in 23 healthy humans and in 23 tumor patients. All patients were prior to surgery and had not yet received radio- or chemotherapy at the time of examination. The interferon-gamma concentration of the supernatants was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The cells were stimulated with PHA at 7.5 micrograms/ml. In the reference group, interferon-gamma concentration rose to 26 units/ml and to 15.5 units/ml in the tumor patients. In the reference persons, an addition of Factor AF2 at concentrations from 10(1) micrograms/ml to 10(3) micrograms/ml resulted in a small non-significant decrease of interferon-gamma release. At 10(4) micrograms/ml, neither test group showed measurable interferon-gamma concentration. In the tumor patients, cocultivation with Factor AF2 until concentration of 10(2) micrograms/ml resulted in a dose-dependent increase of interferon-gamma release, where 20.5 units/ml interferon-gamma were reached. At 10(3) micrograms/ml, Factor AF2 showed no effect on interferon-gamma release compared with the stimulation with mitogen alone. Flow-cytometry analysis of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD19, CD56, and HLA-DR expression of the PBMC deriving either from reference persons or from patients revealed an almost identical distribution. A slight difference in CD16-positive and HLA-DR positive cells, respectively, was not significant. PMID:1788474

  19. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... osmotic fragility ) Deficiency of an enzyme called lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase Abnormalities of hemoglobin , the protein in ... sickle and Pappenheimer Red blood cells, target cells Formed elements of blood References Bain BJ. The peripheral ...

  20. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  1. Graft monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cell content predicts the risk of acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic transplantation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendramin, Antonio; Gimondi, Silvia; Bermema, Anisa; Longoni, Paolo; Rizzitano, Sara; Corradini, Paolo; Carniti, Cristiana

    2014-12-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are powerful immunomodulatory cells that in mice play a role in infectious and inflammatory disorders, including acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Their relevance in clinical acute GVHD is poorly known. We analyzed whether granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) administration, used to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells, affected the frequency of MDSCs in the peripheral blood stem cell grafts of 60 unrelated donors. In addition, we evaluated whether the MDSC content in the peripheral blood stem cell grafts affected the occurrence of acute GVHD in patients undergoing unrelated donor allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Systemic treatment with G-CSF induces an expansion of myeloid cells displaying the phenotype of monocytic MDSCs (Lin(low/neg)HLA-DR(-)CD11b(+)CD33(+)CD14(+)) with the ability to suppress alloreactive T cells in vitro, therefore meeting the definition of MDSCs. Monocytic MDSC dose was the only graft parameter to predict acute GVHD. The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD at 180 days after transplantation for recipients receiving monocytic MDSC doses below and above the median was 63% and 22%, respectively (P = .02). The number of monocytic MDSCs infused did not impact the relapse rate or the transplant-related mortality rate (P > .05). Although further prospective studies involving larger sample size are needed to validate the exact monocytic MDSC graft dose that protects from acute GVHD, our results strongly suggest the modulation of G-CSF might be used to affect monocytic MDSCs graft cell doses for prevention of acute GVHD.

  2. 不同培养基培养人脐血间充质干细胞的差异★%Differences of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells cultured in different media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵霞; 路希敬; 刘国强; 徐敏; 邢健; 王椋; 丁慧芳

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cel s are the hot spot in the field of stem cel s, and there is no simple, effective culture method for the passage and amplification of umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cel s. OBJECTIVE:To explore a better culture method of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cel s in vitro with different media in the separation of mesenchymal stem cel s at a confluent status. METHODS:Human umbilical cord blood was sterilely col ected from ful-term deliveries scheduled for cesarean section. They were assigned randomly into five groups:low-glucose culture medium group, high-glucose culture medium group,α-culture medium group, low-glucose culture medium+stem cel factor group, low-glucose culture medium+human marrow mesenchymal stem cel s supernatant group. Al culture medium used was Dulbecco’s modIfied Eagle’s medium. The cord blood mononuclear cel s were isolated by lymphocyte separation medium. The monocytes of cord blood were inoculated into the culture medium containing 10%fetal bovine serum at 37 ℃ incubator with 0.05 volume fraction of CO2. Quantity and formation of cel s were observed with invert microscope, and surface antigenic features were analyzed with flow cytometry. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:(1) Comparison on number of adherent cel s and survival rate of mesenchymal stem cel s cultured for 48 hours:Number of adherent cel s in the low-glucose culture medium+human marrow mesenchymal stem cel s supernatant group, and low-glucose culture medium+stem cel factor group were significantly increased (P<0.05), while the survival rate of cel s was also increased compared with low-glucose culture medium group, high-glucose culture medium group andα-culture medium group (P<0.05). (2) Comparison on growth status of mesenchymal stem cel s at different culture time points:Cel proliferation in the low-glucose culture medium+human marrow mesenchymal stem cel s supernatant group, and low

  3. Acanthamoeba castellanii Genotype T4 Stimulates the Production of Interleukin-10 as Well as Proinflammatory Cytokines in THP-1 Cells, Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, and Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Manuela; Cano, Antonella; Delogu, Giuseppe; Erre, Giuseppe; Roberts, Craig W.; Henriquez, Fiona L.; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Cappuccinelli, Piero

    2016-01-01

    Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba can cause severe and chronic infections in humans, mainly localized in immune privileged sites, such as the brain and the eye. Monocytes/macrophages are thought to be involved in Acanthamoeba infections, but little is known about how these facultative parasites influence their functions. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of Acanthamoeba on human monocytes/macrophages during the early phase of infection. Here, THP-1 cells, primary human monocytes isolated from peripheral blood, and human monocyte-derived macrophages were either coincubated with trophozoites of a clinical isolate of Acanthamoeba (genotype T4) or stimulated with amoeba-derived cell-free conditioned medium. Production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and IL-12), anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10), and chemokine (IL-8) was evaluated at specific hours poststimulation (ranging from 1.5 h to 23 h). We showed that both Acanthamoeba trophozoites and soluble amoebic products induce an early anti-inflammatory monocyte-macrophage phenotype, characterized by significant production of IL-10; furthermore, challenge with either trophozoites or their soluble metabolites stimulate both proinflammatory cytokines and chemokine production, suggesting that this protozoan infection results from the early induction of coexisting, opposed immune responses. Results reported in this paper confirm that the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines by monocytes and macrophages can play a role in the development of the inflammatory response during Acanthamoeba infections. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that Acanthamoeba stimulates IL-10 production in human innate immune cells, which might both promote the immune evasion of Acanthamoeba and limit the induced inflammatory response. PMID:27481240

  4. Blood / Money

    OpenAIRE

    Strong, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Marilyn Strathern has argued that "nature" in Euro-American culture has appeared as constraint; it has figured the givens of existence on which human artifice is seen to construct "society" or "culture."(5) Among those givens is the notion that human beings are naturally individuals. And blood, too, images individuality: "The very thought of blood, individual blood, touches the deepest feelings in man about life and death" ([RIchard Titmuss] 16.) Transfusion medicine, then, draws on a series ...

  5. Effects of Human Placenta-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Regulation against the Maturation of Cord Blood Monocyte-derived Dendritic Cells in vitro%人胎盘源间充质干细胞对脐血单核源树突状细胞体外成熟的调节作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李毅平; 王泳; 金美芳; 刘琳; 张闽; 张学光; 汪健

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study on the in vitro maturation of cord blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mono-DCs) regulated by human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs). Methods Human cord blood monocytes were isolated by density gradient centrifugation and cultured with human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) and human interleukin-4 (hIL-4). Then large amounts of immature DCs were obtained and co-cultured with PMSCs in the presence of LPS for 4 days. The effects of PMSCs on the maturation of DCs were analyzed with inverted microscope, flow cyto-metry and mixed lymphocyte reaction respectively. Results In co-culture group, DCs were scattering around and presented round and smooth round and under inverted microscope. Compared with the control group, co-cultured DCs expressed lower level of CD80, CD86, CD83 and CD40, but higher level of CD14. Allogeneic lymphocytes proliferation assay showed that the stimulatory abilities of DCs from co-culture group were lower than those in the control group (all P <0. 05). Conclusion PMSCs can significantly suppress the maturation of cord blood mono-DCs in vitro.%目的 探讨人胎盘源间充质干细胞(PMSCs)对单核源树突状细胞(mono-DCs)体外成熟的影响.方法 采用密度梯度离心法分离人脐血单核细胞,在人粒细胞-巨噬细胞集落刺激因子(hGM-CSF)和人白细胞介素-4(hIL-4)刺激下获得大量未成熟DCs.将DCs和PMSCs共培养4d,同时加入LPS刺激,分别通过倒置显微镜、流式细胞仪和混合淋巴反应(MLR)检测DCs的成熟.结果 共培养DCs呈散在分布,细胞边缘圆滑;与成熟DCs相比,其表面CD80、CD86、CD83、CD40的表达明显较低,而CD14的表达较高;共培养组DCs刺激同种异型淋巴细胞增殖的能力在各个浓度均明显低于对照组(均P<O.05).结论 PMSCs可以明显抑制脐血单核源DCs的体外成熟.

  6. Viral metagenomics and blood safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, V; Eloit, M

    2016-02-01

    The characterization of the human blood-associated viral community (also called blood virome) is essential for epidemiological surveillance and to anticipate new potential threats for blood transfusion safety. Currently, the risk of blood-borne agent transmission of well-known viruses (HBV, HCV, HIV and HTLV) can be considered as under control in high-resource countries. However, other viruses unknown or unsuspected may be transmitted to recipients by blood-derived products. This is particularly relevant considering that a significant proportion of transfused patients are immunocompromised and more frequently subjected to fatal outcomes. Several measures to prevent transfusion transmission of unknown viruses have been implemented including the exclusion of at-risk donors, leukocyte reduction of donor blood, and physicochemical treatment of the different blood components. However, up to now there is no universal method for pathogen inactivation, which would be applicable for all types of blood components and, equally effective for all viral families. In addition, among available inactivation procedures of viral genomes, some of them are recognized to be less effective on non-enveloped viruses, and inadequate to inactivate higher viral titers in plasma pools or derivatives. Given this, there is the need to implement new methodologies for the discovery of unknown viruses that may affect blood transfusion. Viral metagenomics combined with High Throughput Sequencing appears as a promising approach for the identification and global surveillance of new and/or unexpected viruses that could impair blood transfusion safety. PMID:26778104

  7. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  8. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  9. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  10. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...... need to move beyond the bifurcation of the social and medical aspects of blood supply as two separate issues and approach social dynamics as key medical safety questions....

  11. Human embryonic stem cell derived mesenchymal progenitors express cardiac markers but do not form contractile cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe M Raynaud

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal progenitors or stromal cells have shown promise as a therapeutic strategy for a range of diseases including heart failure. In this context, we explored the growth and differentiation potential of mesenchymal progenitors (MPs derived in vitro from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. Similar to MPs isolated from bone marrow, hESC derived MPs (hESC-MPs efficiently differentiated into archetypical mesenchymal derivatives such as chondrocytes and adipocytes. Upon treatment with 5-Azacytidine or TGF-β1, hESC-MPs modified their morphology and up-regulated expression of key cardiac transcription factors such as NKX2-5, MEF2C, HAND2 and MYOCD. Nevertheless, NKX2-5+ hESC-MP derivatives did not form contractile cardiomyocytes, raising questions concerning the suitability of these cells as a platform for cardiomyocyte replacement therapy. Gene profiling experiments revealed that, although hESC-MP derived cells expressed a suite of cardiac related genes, they lacked the complete repertoire of genes associated with bona fide cardiomyocytes. Our results suggest that whilst agents such as TGF-β1 and 5-Azacytidine can induce expression of cardiac related genes, but treated cells retain a mesenchymal like phenotype.

  12. Diagnostic value of platelet derived growth factor-BB, transforming growth factor-β1,matrix metalloproteinase-1, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells for hepatic fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin-Bin Zhang; Wei-Min Cai; Hong-Lei Weng; Zhong-Rong Hu; Jun Lu; Min Zheng; Rong-Hua Liu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Noninvasive diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis has become the focus because of the limited biopsy, especially in the surveillance of treatment and in screening hepatic fibrosis.Recently, regulatory elements involved in liver fibrosis, such as platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), have been studied extensively. To determine whether these factors or enzymes could be used as the indices for the diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis, we investigated them by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.METHODS: Serum samples from sixty patients with chronic viral hepatitis B and twenty healthy blood donors were assayed to determine the level of PDGF-BB, TGF-β1, MMP-1, and TIMP-1 with ELISA, and HA, PCIII, C-IV, and LN level with RIA. The message RNA (mRNA) expression of TIMP-1 and MMP-1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was detected by RT-PCR and Northern blot hybridization. Liver biopsy was performed in all patients.The biopsy samples were histopathologically examined. The trial was double-blind controlled.RESULTS: The serum level of PDGF-BB, TIMP-1, the ratio of TIMP-1 and MMP-1 (TIMP-1/MMP-1), mRNA expression of TIMP-1 (TIMP-1mRNA), and the ratio of TIMP-1mRNA and MMP-1mRNA (TIMP-1mRNA/MMP-1mRNA) in patients was significantly higher than those in the healthy blood donors (t=2.514-11.435, P=0.000-0.016). The serum level of PDGF-BB, TIMP-1, TIMP-1/MMP-1, and TIMP-1mRNA was positively correlated with fibrosis stage and inflammation grade (r=0.239-0.565, P=0.000-0.033), while the serum level of MMP-1 was negatively correlated with fibrosis stage and inflammation grade, and TIMP-1mRNA/MMP-1mRNA was positively correlated with inflammation grade. Through the analysis by ROC curve, serum PDGF-BB was the most valuable marker, and its sensitivity was the highest among the nine indices. The markers with the highest

  13. A novel,rapid strategy to form dendritomas from human dendritic cells and hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HCCLM3 cells using mature dendritic cells derived from human peripheral blood CD14+monocytes within 48 hours of in vitro culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Guan; Ji-Run Peng; Lan Yuan; Hui Wang; Yu-Hua Wei; Xi-Sheng Leng

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Dendritomas formed by fusing cancer cells to dendritic cells have already been applied to clinical treatment trial of several types of cancers. Dendritic cells for the fusion in most trials and experiments were from blood monocytes in standard 7-d protocol culture, which requires 5-7 d of culture with granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4), followed by 2-3 d of activation with a combination of proinflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factorα (TNFα), interleukin1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6)and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2).One study showed that mature monocyte-derived dendritic cells could be obtained within 48 h ofin vitro culture with the same protocol as standard 7-d culture and referred to as FastDCs. Here we aimed to fuse human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HCCLM3 cells with mature monocytederived dendritic cells within 48 h ofin vitro culture (FastDC).METHODS: HCCLMl3 cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 with 150 mL/L fetal calf serum (FCS). CD14+monocytes from healthy human peripheral blood were purified with MACS CD14 isolation kit and cultured in six-well plates in fresh complete DC medium containing RPMI-1640, 20 mL/Lheat inactivated human AB serum, 2 mmol/L L-glutamine,100 μg/mL gentamicin, 1000 U/mL GM-CSF and 500 U/mL IL-4 for 24 h, then proinflammatory mediators such as TNFα(1000 U/mL), IL-1β (10 ng/mL), IL-6 (10 ng/mL) and PGE2(1μg/mL) were supplemented for another 24 h, and thus mature FastDCs were generated. HCCLM3 cells and FastDCs were labeled with red fluorescent dye PKH26-GL and green fluorescent dye PKH67-GL respectively. After the red fluorescent-stained HCCLM3 cells were irradiated with 50 Gy, FastDCs and irradiated HCCLM3 cells were fused in 500 mL/L polyethylene glycol(PEG)+100 mL/L dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to generate novel dendritomas. The FastDCs and novel dendritomas were immunostained with antiCD80, anti-CD86, anti-CD83, anti-HLA-DR mAbs and analyzed by fluorescence

  14. Ginsenoside Rg1 protects human umbilical cord blood-derived stromal cells against tert-Butyl hydroperoxide-induced apoptosis through Akt-FoxO3a-Bim signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Yi, Long; Wang, Lu; Chen, Linbo; Chen, Xiongbin; Wang, Yaping

    2016-10-01

    Human umbilical cord blood-derived stromal cells (hUCBDSCs) possess strong capability of supporting hematopoiesis and immune regulation, whereas some stress conditions cause reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and then lead to oxidative injury and cell apoptosis. Ginsenoside Rg1 (G-Rg1) has been demonstrated to exert antioxidative and prosurvival effects in many cell types. In this study, the tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), an analog of hydroperoxide, was utilized to mimic the oxidative damage to hUCBDSCs. We aimed to investigate the effects of Ginsenoside Rg1 on protecting hUCBDSCs from t-BHP-induced oxidative injury and apoptosis, as well as the possible signaling pathway involved. It was shown that the treatment of hUCBDSCs with G-Rg1 markedly restored the t-BHP-induced cell viability loss, promoted the CFU-F formation, and inhibited cell apoptosis. G-Rg1 also caused a reduced production of LDH and MDA while significantly enhancing the activity of SOD. Mechanistically, G-Rg1 promoted the phosphorylation of Akt and FoxO3a and led to the cytoplasmic translocation of FoxO3a, which in turn suppressed FoxO3a-modulated expression of proapoptotic Bim and elevated the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax. All these results suggest that G-Rg1 enhances the survival of t-BHP-induced hUCBDSCs and protects them against apoptosis at least partially through Akt-FoxO3a-Bim signaling pathway. PMID:27522666

  15. Moving blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelis, K

    1997-01-01

    Our internationally acclaimed journalist Sanguinia has returned safely from her historic assignment. Travelling from Homeric Greece to British Romanticism, she was witness to blood drinking, letting, bathing, and transfusion. In this report, she explores connections between the symbolic and the sadistic; the mythic and the medical--all in an effort to appreciate the layered meanings our culture has given to the movement of blood between our bodies. PMID:9407636

  16. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mail Facebook TwitterTitle Google+ LinkedIn Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Medical Dictionary Also ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  17. Blood donation before surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type of donor blood. Many communities have a blood bank where healthy people can donate blood. This blood ... need to arrange with your hospital or local blood bank before your surgery to have directed donor blood. ...

  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  19. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norepinephrine -- blood; Epinephrine -- blood; Adrenalin -- blood; Dopamine -- blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  20. Blood (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Print A A A ... about the mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood. Blood Basics Two types of blood vessels carry blood ...

  1. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Blood > Blood Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts ... about American Red Cross Blood Services Facts about blood needs Every two seconds someone in the U.S. ...

  2. Managing your blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

  3. How much blood is needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifried, E; Klueter, H; Weidmann, C; Staudenmaier, T; Schrezenmeier, H; Henschler, R; Greinacher, A; Mueller, M M

    2011-01-01

    Demographic changes in developed countries as their populations age lead to a steady increase in the consumption of standard blood components. Complex therapeutic procedures like haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, cardiovascular surgery and solid organ transplantation are options for an increasing proportion of older patients nowadays. This trend is likely to continue in coming years. On the other hand, novel aspects in transplant regimens, therapies for malignant diseases, surgical procedures and perioperative patient management have led to a moderate decrease in blood product consumption per individual procedure. The ageing of populations in developed countries, intra-society changes in the attitude towards blood donation as an important altruistic behaviour and the overall alterations in our societies will lead to a decline in regular blood donations over the next decades in many developed countries. Artificial blood substitutes or in vitro stem cell-derived blood components might also become alternatives in the future. However, such substitutes are still in early stages of development and will therefore probably not alleviate this problem within the next few years. Taken together, a declining donation rate and an increase in the consumption of blood components require novel approaches on both sides of the blood supply chain. Different blood donor groups require specific approaches and, for example, inactive or deferred donors must be re-activated. Optimal use of blood components requires even more attention. PMID:21175652

  4. Study on differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human umbilical cord blood into insulin secreting cells%人脐血间充质干细胞向胰岛素分泌细胞分化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟作华; 陆琰; 张洹

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨脐血间充质干细胞(MSC)向胰岛素分泌细胞分化的潜能及其分化诱导条件.方法 分离脐血有核细胞,将其置于MesencultTM培养基中进行培养,并利用贴壁法进行纯化、扩增.扩增后的脐血MSC用表皮生长因子(EGF)、β-巯基乙醇和高糖进行诱导.采用RT-PCR、胰岛素免疫细胞化学染色方法对诱导后的细胞进行鉴定,定量检测胰岛素分泌水平及其对葡萄糖刺激的反应性;移植到链脲佐菌素诱导的糖尿病小鼠体内,观测其在体内的降糖作用.结果 诱导后细胞形态发生明显变化,细胞变圆且聚集成团;RT-PCR分析显示,细胞表达部分胰岛相关基因;细胞的胰岛素免疫细胞化学染色为阳性;而且细胞能分泌少量[(0.37±0.06)mU/L]胰岛素,并对糖刺激具有反应性,刺激指数为1.76;诱导后的细胞移植能降低糖尿病小鼠的血糖.结论 脐血MSC具有向胰岛素分泌细胞分化的潜能.%Objective To investigate the differential potential of mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) derived from human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) into insulin-secreting cells and its inducing condition. Methods UCB nucleated cells (NCs) were isolated and cultured in MesencuhTM media. The obtained UCB MSC were purified by adherence method and expanded. Then they were induced with epidermal growth factor (EGF), B-mercaptoethanol and high concentration of glucose. The induced cells were identified by RT-PCR. Intracellular insulin was examined by immunocytochemistry. The quantity of insulin secretion and glucosesimulated insulin release were examined by chemiluminescence immtmoassay. The induced cells were also transplanted into renal subcapsular space of STZ-induced hyperglycemic mice to observe the in vivo lowering effect on hyperglycemia. Results The induced cells morphologically became round and were gathering into a mass. The expression of some genes related to pancreatic islet was found by RT-PCR. Chemiluminescence immunoassay

  5. 孤立性肺腺癌血流模式定量CT参数相互关系%Correlation of the quantifiable parameters of blood flow pattern derived with dynamic CT in solitary bronchogenic adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenjiang Li; Xiangsheng Xiao; Shiyuan Liu; Huimin Li; Chengzhou Li; Chenshi Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the correlation of the quantifiable parameters of blood flow pattern derived with dynamic CT in solitary bronchogenic adenocarcinoma (SBA). Methods: 46 patients with solitary bronchogenic adenocarcinomas (SBA) (diameter ≤ 4 cm) underwent multi-location dynamic contrast material-enhanced (nonionic contrast material was administrated via the antecubital vein at a rate of 4 mL/s by using an autoinjector 90 mL, 4 × 5 mm or 4 × 2.5 mm scanning mode with stable table were performed) serial CT. Precontrast and postcontrast attenuation on every scan was recorded. Perfusion (PBA), peak height (PHBA), ratio of peak height of the SPN to that of the aorta (BA-to-A ratio) and mean transit time (MTT) were calculated. The correlation between peak height of the aorta (PHA) and parameters of the SBA (PHBA, BA-to-A ratio, PBA, and MTT) and those among parameters of the SBA were assessed by means of linear regression analysis. Regression equation among parameters of the SBA were obtain by means of stepwise regression. Results: The correlation between the SBA peak height (PHBA, 36.78 HU ± 12.02) and the aortic peak height (PHA) was significant (r = 0.506, P < 0.0001). No significant cor relation was found between the BA-to-A peak height ratio (15.33% ± 4.55) and the aortic peak height (r = 0.130, P = 0.388 >0.05) as it was between the SBA perfusion (PBA, 31.86 mL/min/100 g ± 9.74) and the aortic peak height (r = 0.049, P = 0.749 > 0.05). The SBA perfusion correlated with the PHBA and the BA-to-A peak height ratio (r = 0.394, P = 0.007 < 0.05; r = 0.407, P = 0.005 < 0.05). The PHBA correlated positively with the BA-to-A peak height ratio (r = 0.781, P < 0.0001). Mean transit time was 14.84 s ± 5.52. PBA = 18.500 + 0.872 × BA-to-A ratio. BA-to-A ratio = 4.467 + 0.295 × PHBA. Conclusion: The linear correlation between the SBA perfusion and BA-to-A ratio and that between BA-to-A ratio and PHBA can be expressed by equation.It is possible to

  6. Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to infections including those we develop from our vaccinations (such as poliovirus antibodies, which are made by ... the Transfusion Medicine Unit, Blood Bank, and Stem Cell Storage Facility University of Rochester Medical ... and health educators who are available by phone Monday through Friday, 9 am to 9 pm ( ...

  7. Repair of calvarial defects with human umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells and demineralized bone matrix in athymic rats%人脐血间充质干细胞修复颅骨缺损的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广鹏; 李宇琳; 孙剑; 崔磊; 张文杰; 曹谊林

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of using human umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) scaffolds to repair critical-sized calvarial defects in athymic rats. Methods Human UCB-MSCs were isolated, expanded and osteogenically induced in vitro. Osteogenic differentiation of UCB-MSCs was evaluated by Alizarin Red staining and measurement of calcium content respectively, and then the cells were seeded onto DBM scaffolds. Bilateral full-thickness defects (5 mm in diameter) of parietal bone were created in an athymic rat model. The defects were either repaired with UCB-MSC/DBM constructs (experimental group) or with DBM scaffolds alone (control group). Animals were harvested at 6 and 12 weeks post-implantation respectively, and defect repair was evaluated with gross observation, micro-CT measurement and histological analysis. Results Micro-CT showed that new bone was formed in the experimental group at 6 weeks post-implantation, while no sign of new bone formation was observed in the control group. At 12 weeks post-transplantation, scaffolds had been degraded almost completely in both sides. It was shown that an average of (78.19±6.45)% of each defect volume had been repaired in experimental side; while in the control side, only limited bone formed at the periphery of the defect. Histological examination revealed that the defect was repaired by trabecular bone tissue in experimental side at 12 weeks, while only fibrous connection was observed in the control group. Conclusions Tissue-engineered bone composed of osteogenically-induced human UCB-MSCs on DBM scaffolds could successfully repair the critical-sized calvarial defects in athymic rat models.%目的 应用人脐血间充质干细胞(umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells,UCB-MSCs)复合脱钙骨材料构建组织工程化骨,修复裸大鼠颅骨标准缺损.方法 体外扩增培养、成骨诱导人UCB-MSCs,采用Alizarin Red染色

  8. Blood Culture (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... BMP) Blood Test: Complete Blood Count Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Getting a Blood Test (Video) Blood Test: ...

  9. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you have just ... The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is increased by the following: Previous blood clots ...

  10. Blood Count Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  11. Blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The ...

  12. Blood Transfusions (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Blood Transfusions KidsHealth > For Teens > Blood Transfusions Print A ... United States get blood transfusions. A Bit About Blood As blood moves throughout the body, it carries ...

  13. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor prescribes it, medicine. What Is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood flow inside ... Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you won't ...

  14. Blood Pressure Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Quiz Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents ... About High Blood Pressure / Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications / Blood Pressure Quiz Fall 2011 Issue: Volume 6 Number ...

  15. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... right away. continue How Do Doctors Measure Blood Pressure? Blood pressure readings are fast and painless. Blood pressure ... same age, height, and gender have lower blood pressure. Blood pressure between 90% and 95% of the normal ...

  16. Ground principles of animal’s blood medication

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina, T. Romeo

    2008-01-01

    In the paper ground principles of blood medication in animals are enumerated. There are presented animal's blood type groups (antigens and isoanticorps in dog and cat), auto transfusion in animals, blood substitutes (free hemoglobins, fluorocarbons), anemias' therapy (erithro and granulopoetins, blood's therapy specific steroids and vitamins, iron and his derivatives, cobalt), haemostasys and haemostatics and ant coagulation substances.

  17. 沙棘叶提取物抗登革病毒的实验研究%Effect of Hippophae rhamnoides Leaf Extract Against Dengue Virus Infection in Human Blood-derived Macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    花圣卓; 李铂岩

    2012-01-01

    Dengue virus occurs as four distinct serotypes,called Dengue 1,2,3,and 4.Symptomaticdengue virus infection ranges from a self limited febrile illness,dengue fever(DF),to a more severedisease,dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome(DHF/DSS).The anti-Dengue treatmentis severely hampered as no specific therapeutic agents are available.Even present treatmentstrategies for Dengue are more supportive than curative.In the present study anti-dengue activity of Hippoplzae rhamnoides{Seabuckthorn,SBT)leaf extract 4vas evaluated in Dengue virus type-2 infected blood-derived human macrophages as macrophages are the primary target of Denguevirus infection.Infected cells were treated with SBT leaf extract and compared with commerciallyavailable anti-viral drug,Ribavirin.The extract was able to maintain the cell viability of Dengue-infected cells at par with Ribavirin along with the decrease and increase in TNF-[alpha]and IFN-[gamma]respectively.Anti-dengue activity of SBT extract was further determined by the traditionalplaque assay.These observations suggest that the SBT leaf extract has a significant anti-dengueactivity and has the potential for the treatment of Dengue.%登革病毒依抗原性不同,可分为1、2、3、4四个血清型。它除了能导致一定范围内发热的典型登革热外,还能引致更严重的登革出血热和登革休克综合症。由于没有具体有效的治疗药物,目前尚无好的治疗登革热的方法,治疗方案多是支持性的。本实验评估了在2型登革病毒感染的人血源性巨噬细胞中沙棘叶提取物的抗登革病毒活性,选择巨噬细胞的原因是因为巨噬细胞是登革病毒感染的首要目标。受感染的细胞用沙棘叶提取物治疗并与市售的抗病毒药物利巴韦林作比较,研究发现沙棘叶提取物维持登革病毒感染细胞活力的能力几乎等同于利巴韦林。传统的空斑试验进一步确定了沙棘叶提取物的抗登革病毒活性。

  18. Study, on the optimal conditions for the cryopreservation peripheral blood derived dendritic cells%人外周血树突状细胞低温保存的优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李素萍; 杨宏友; 王震; 吕蓉; 郭晓婕; 方勤; 李敏; 刘忠

    2011-01-01

    目的 探寻冻存树突状细胞(DCs)优化的冷冻保护剂组合.方法 配制含不同浓度二甲基亚砜(DM-SO)的3种冷冻保护剂组合,A组:5%DMSO+6%羟乙基淀粉(HES)+4%人血清白蛋白(HAS);B组:10%DMSO+40%FCS;C组:12%DMSO+40%FCS,比较3组冷冻保护剂对人外周血CDl4单个核细胞诱导产生的成熟树突状细胞(mDCs)的冻存效果:采用两步法将mDCs冻存于-80℃冰箱过夜后转移至-196℃液氮气相中放置24 h,再将冻存的mDCs复苏后继续培养,并检测、比较冻存前后DC的形态、存活率、细胞表型及其对同种异体T细胞刺激活性的差异.结果 3组不同组合冷冻保护剂冷冻保存的mDCs复苏后其存活的细胞的形态没有发生明显改变,仍保留其成熟表型,并具备对T细胞的刺激活性.结论 3种不同浓度的DMSO冷冻保存mDCs,5%DMSO+6%HES+4%HSA组合更适宜.%Objective To establish a practical and efficient concentration of cryoprotective agents for the cryopreservation of dendritic cells (DCs) derived from peripheral blood.Methods Cryoprotective agents, dimethylsulfoxide( DMSO), hydroxyethyl starch (HES), human serum albumin(HSA) and fetal cow serum (FCS) were mixed in different concentrations.Group A consisted of 5% DMSO + 6% HES + 4% HSA; group B 10% DMSO + 40% FCS; group C 12% DMSO + 40% FCS.Mature DCs induced from human CD14 + monocytes were cooled with each of the three groups of different cryoprotective mixtures, in a -80℃ refrigerator overnight and then the cryovials were directly transferred into the vapourphase of liquid nitrogen and stored for 24 hours.Then the DCs were thawed and cultured.The morphology, viability, phenotype, and mixed lymphocyte reaction of the cryopreserved DCs were studied and compared to those before cryopreservation.Results Compared with control mDCs, the thawed mDCs showed no distinct change in morphological characteristics, mature phenotype and SI of DCs to T cells.Conclusion Biological properties of DCs

  19. Blood safety measures and the role of central blood institute in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenji Tadokoro

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Japanese Blood Programme Japanese Red Cross Blood Service is the sole conductor of blood service in Japan. It collects 5.3 million volun-tary non-remunerated donations from 127 million popu-lations and distributes 18 million units ( one unit = 200 ml,2 million Liter) blood matching the medical needs.A part of plasma is supplied to the JRCBS fractionation center and other 3 commercial manufacturers for pro-duction of plasma derivatives.

  20. Polyphenol- and fibre-rich dried fruits with green tea attenuate starch-derived postprandial blood glucose and insulin: a randomised, controlled, single-blind, cross-over intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyambe-Silavwe, H; Williamson, G

    2016-08-01

    Polyphenol- and fibre-rich foods (PFRF) have the potential to affect postprandial glycaemic responses by reducing glucose absorption, and thus decreasing the glycaemic response of foods when consumed together. A randomised, single-blind, cross-over study was conducted on sixteen healthy volunteers to test whether PFRF could attenuate postprandial blood glucose in healthy volunteers when added to a source of carbohydrate (starch in bread). This is the first study to examine the effects of a meal comprised of components to inhibit each stage of the biochemical pathway, leading up to the appearance of glucose in the blood. The volunteers were fasted and attended four visits: two control visits (bread, water, balancing sugars) and two test visits (single and double dose of PFRF) where they consumed bread, water and PFRF. Blood samples were collected at 0 (fasted), 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after consumption. The PFRF components were tested for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential in vitro. Plasma glucose was lower after consumption of both doses compared with controls: lower dose, change in mean incremental areas under the glucose curves (IAUC)=-27·4 (sd 7·5) %, Pamylase (green tea, strawberry, blackberry and blackcurrant) and α-glucosidase (green tea) activities in vitro. The PFRF have a pronounced and significant lowering effect on postprandial blood glucose and insulin response in humans, due in part to inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, as well as glucose transport. PMID:27278405

  1. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 6, 2016, San Diego, CA Abstracts Registration Housing Travel Information Government Concierge View all meetings Publications Blood ... Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood Detectives Find a ...

  2. Where to Donate Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... zip code using the Blood Bank Locator below: Blood Bank Locator City: State/Province: ZIP Code: Country: Show ... safety and care. The Association sets standards for blood banks and transfusion services, and accredits member blood banks ...

  3. High blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are at risk for: Bleeding from the aorta, the large blood vessel that supplies blood to ... tests Blood pressure check Blood pressure References American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes-2015 ...

  4. Lead levels - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  5. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Double Red Cell Plasma Platelets Red Cells What blood donation type is best for me? **If you do not ... blood type, a whole blood donation is recommended** Blood Donation Types: Volunteer Donations The standard or most common type ...

  6. Blood Type Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donor Community > Games > Blood Type Game Printable Version Blood Type Game This feature requires version 6 or later ... many points as possible by matching the appropriate blood type of a donor to the blood type of ...

  7. Blood Transfusion and Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the United States receive life-saving blood transfusions. During a transfusion, you receive whole blood or parts of blood ... liver failure or a severe infection. Most blood transfusions go very smoothly. Some infectious agents, such as ...

  8. Blood Transfusion (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood Transfusions KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Transfusions Print A ... and help put your child at ease. About Blood Transfusions Blood is like the body's transportation system. ...

  9. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is the AHA recommendation for healthy blood pressure? This blood pressure chart reflects categories defined by the American ... unusually low blood pressure readings. How is high blood pressure diagnosed? Your healthcare providers will want to get ...

  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Housing Travel Information Government Concierge View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances ... reflect the most recent scientific research View all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding ...

  11. Types of Blood Transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » Blood Transfusion » Types of Blood Transfusions Explore Blood Transfusion What Is... ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Blood Transfusions Blood is transfused either as whole blood ( ...

  12. Cord blood testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to evaluate the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH levels) Blood sugar level Blood type and Rh Complete blood count ( ... means you have a blood infection (septicemia). High levels of blood sugar (glucose) in the cord blood may be found ...

  13. Polydopamine/dialdehyde starch/chitosan composite coating for in-tube solid-phase microextraction and in-situ derivation to analysis of two liver cancer biomarkers in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shiju; Cai, Cuicui; Cheng, Jing; Cheng, Min; Zhou, Hongbin; Deng, Jiali

    2016-09-01

    In order to highly enrich two liver cancer biomarkers (hexanal and 2-butanone) in human blood, in this study, natural nontoxic polydopamine/dialdehyde starch/chitosan (PD/DAS/CHI) coating material was synthesized and immobilized on the inner wall of polytetrafluoro-ethlyene (PTFE) tube. It was used to develop the method based on in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME) with in-situ derivatization (ISD) coupled to high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of the above mentioned two liver cancer biomarkers in human blood. The simple, rapid and sensitive IT-SPME-ISD method can be finished within 11 min. Under optimum conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) were 1.4 and 1.6 nmol L(-1) for hexanal and 2-butanone, respectively. The relative recoveries from real human blood samples were in the range from 70% to 91% with the intra- and inter-day precisions less than 7.2%. Furthermore, this method was successfully applied for the analysis of hexanal and 2-butanone in blood samples from healthy people with 0.42 ± 0.05 and 0.34 ± 0.04 μmol L(-1), while liver cancer patients with 1.90 ± 0.07  μmol L(-1) and 0.91 ± 0.07 μmol L(-1), respectively. The t-test's results showed there is a statistically significant difference between the data from healthy persons and liver cancer patients. Hence, the developed method might be applied in the screening of suspected liver cancer patients.

  14. Financial Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconfiguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While fiscal systems are nationally bounded and inheren......Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconfiguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While fiscal systems are nationally bounded...

  15. Recombinant human growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 do not affect mitochondrial derived highly reactive oxygen species production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells under conditions of substrate saturation in-vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Keane, James; Tajouri, Lotti; Gray, Bon

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the mitochondrial effects exerted by physiological and supra-physiological concentrations of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and recombinant insulin-like growth factor-1 (rIGF-1) under conditions of substrate saturation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Methods PBMCs from healthy male subjects were treated with either rhGH, at concentrations of 0.5, 5 and 50 μg/L, or rIGF-1 at concentrations of 100, 300 and 500 μg/L ...

  16. Autologous blood donation

    OpenAIRE

    Goodnough, Lawrence T

    2004-01-01

    Although preoperative autologous blood donation is employed in elective surgery, this is declining because of the increasingly safe allogeneic blood supply. However, it continues to be used because of the public's perception of allogeneic blood risks and increasing blood shortages. Patients may donate a unit of blood (450 ± 45 ml) as often as twice weekly, up to 72 hours before surgery. Preoperative autologous blood is most beneficial in procedures that cause significant blood loss. It has be...

  17. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    ""In Global Derivatives: A Strategic Risk Management Perspective", Torben Juul Andersen has succeeded to gather in one book a complete and thorough summary and an easy-to-read explanation of all types of derivative instruments and their background, and their use in modern management of risk...... approaches to dealing in the global business environment." - Sharon Brown-Hruska, Commissioner, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, USA. "This comprehensive survey of modern risk management using derivative securities is a fine demonstration of the practical relevance of modern derivatives theory to risk...... management practice. Of particular note is the global and integrated approach chosen in this book which should be of special interest to aspiring managers active in global and international markets." - Dr Jean-Pierre Zigrand, Lecturer in Finance, London School of Economics, UK. More than 90 per cent...

  18. In vitro binding and survival assays of Leishmania parasites to peripherical blood monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages isolated from dogs naturally and experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafuri Washington L

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are a few works considering the characterization of canine monocyte-derived macrophages as well as a standardized procedure for isolation, culture, and infection of these cells with Leishmania. We have performed several modifications in order to improve the canine monocyte-derived macrophage cultures. In addition, we have done a comparative study between monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages from dogs naturally and experimentally infected with L. chagasi. Results In the presence of exogenous serum, opsonized Leishmania promastigotes binds better to monocytes/macrophages than without serum. Otherwise, this binding occurs due to the strict correlation between the opsonized biologic particles with the third receptor of the complement (CR3-CD11b/CD18. In fact, our assays with CD11b confirmed the importance of this receptor for canine cells and the L. chagasi experimental system. Moreover, monocytes obtained from naturally infected dogs have shown a higher number of monocytes bounded to promastigotes. The experimental results regarding survival have shown that promastigote forms of opsonized L. chagasi were more infective, because we found higher numbers of promastigotes bound to the different cells. As a consequence, after forty-eight hours of binding, higher numbers of amastigotes appeared inside monocyte-macrophages. Conclusion These studies have given support to continue comparative studies involving canine monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages and peritoneal macrophages. Since we have standardized the canine cell culture, we are looking forward to determining the phenotypic properties of these cells before and after L. chagasi infection using flow cytometry.

  19. Medications and Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Medications and Blood Pressure Updated:Jul 6,2016 When your blood pressure ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  20. Financial derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Gray and Joanna Place

    2006-01-01

    Derivatives, ranging from relatively simple forward contracts to complicated options products, are an increasingly important feature of financial markets worldwide. They are already being used in many emerging markets, and as the financial sector becomes deeper and more stable, their use is certain to grow. This Handbook provides a basic guide to the different types of derivatives traded, including the pricing and valuation of the products, and accounting and statistical treatment. Also, it a...

  1. [Blood regulation in Brazil: contextualization for improvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Júnior, João Batista; Costa, Christiane da Silva; Baccara, João Paulo de Araújo

    2015-10-01

    The use of blood products as essential medicines and the recognition of the high risk associated with blood transfusions require governments to take regulatory action with a focus on quality and safety. In this scenario, regulatory agencies play an essential role in socially advancing the guarantee that blood components will be produced according to current operating rules. Thus, in the effort to manage sanitary risks involved in the processing and use of blood, the Brazilian regulatory model, based on the construction of a national blood policy overseen by the State, has undergone conceptual improvement and review of the tools employed to achieve its goals. With the inclusion of good manufacturing practices as part of the Brazilian norms, as recommended by the World Health Organization, the country has moved forward in its view of blood facilities as manufacturing centers producing blood-derived biologics for therapeutic applications. It has also strengthened the need to develop safety mechanisms for blood donors and recipients. The development of a State-coordinated national blood policy and the institution of a national surveillance system with legitimate power of inspection are essential elements used in Brazil to guarantee the amount, quality, safety, and timeliness of blood supply to the population. The present article aims to discuss the present context of the blood regulatory model in Brazil so as to identify the challenges for improvement of this model. PMID:26758225

  2. Blood vessels, circulation and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, describes the vessels of the body's blood and lymphatic circulatory systems. Blood pressure and its regulatory systems are examined. The causes and management of hypertension are also explored. It is important that nurses and other healthcare professionals understand the various mechanisms involved in the regulation of blood pressure to prevent high blood pressure or ameliorate its damaging consequences.

  3. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  4. Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, also called low ... actions can also help prevent hypoglycemia: Check blood glucose levels Knowing your blood glucose level can help ...

  5. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is increased by the following: Previous blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple ...

  6. CEA blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcinoembryonic antigen blood test ... A blood sample is needed . ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. ...

  7. Ketones blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight ... there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  8. Magnesium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight pain. Others feel a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  10. Blood Type Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

  11. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics . ...

  12. What Is Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Member Blood Centers Our Partners What is blood? PUBLICATIONS EDUCATION PRESS ROOM BLOG CAREERS CONTACT ABC ... for patients who need it. One unit of blood can be separated into the following components: Nearly ...

  13. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... facts about high blood pressure [PDF-255K] . High Blood Pressure in the United States About 70 million ...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... back to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated with ... you think you have one. If you are pregnant and have concerns about blood clots, talk with ...

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ... you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ...

  16. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure and should be taken seriously. Over time, consistently high blood pressure weakens and damages ... of landmark NIH blood pressure study confirm that lower blood pressure target can reduce ...

  17. Money for Blood and Markets for Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derpmann, Simon; Quante, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Ontario's Bill 178 proposing a Voluntary Blood Donations Act declares the offer or acceptance of payment for the donation of blood a legal offence and makes it subject to penalty. The bill reinvigorates a fundamental debate about the ethical problems associated with the payment of money for blood. Scarcity of blood donors is a recurring problem in most health systems, and monetary remuneration of the willingness to donate blood is regularly discussed--and sometimes practiced--as a means to overcome scarcity in blood. However, making blood an object of economic exchange has long aroused ethical concerns that often refer to the specific meaning of blood. From the perspective of a modern understanding of money as a metric of economic value, the exchange of money for blood--shed or given--is seen as ethically troubling, because it appears to imply a commensurability of the value of human life and economic wealth. In this paper, we begin with a general taxonomy of the types of arguments that speak in favour or against compensating donors for giving blood. We then describe the context in which the discussion about payment for blood arises, and of the specific aims and concerns that are brought forward in this context. This is used to reconstruct the normative background that supports the rejection of payment for blood as it is envisaged in Bill 178 and the aims of the proposal. We then argue that while a payment indeed changes the nature of a blood donation in an ethically considerable way, we do not believe that decisive arguments against the monetary remuneration of blood donations can be substantiated, at least not independently of assuming specific societal circumstances. Thus it may be possible to establish a stable and safe blood supply through just gratification while at the same time taking strong provisions against social disconnection, injustice, exploitation or heteronomy.

  18. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  19. 人胰岛素样生长因子1基因质粒载体的构建及其在人脐血源性神经干细胞中的表达%Construction of Plasmid Vector Containing Human Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 and Its Expression in Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Neural Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 吴值荣; 朱登纳; 高峰; 侯艳艳; 陈海; 王留霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To construct the plasmid expression vector containing human insulin - like growth factor 1 ( IGF - 1 ), and examine the expression of IGF - 1 gene in human umbilical cord blood - derived neural stem cells(NSCs).Methods The IGF - 1 gene was extracted from the fetal liver via reverse tranacription polymerase chain reaction( RT - PCR) ,then the product of PCR and plasmid pcDNA3.1 were purified by gel extraction.After enzyme digestion of DNA restriction enzyme - BamH Ⅰ and Hind Ⅲ, purified IGF - 1 gene was cloned into expression plasmid vector pcDNA3.1 by T4 DNA Ligase.Recombinant plasmid was identified by DNA sequencing method and enzyme digestion of DNA restriction enzyme - BamH Ⅰ and Hind Ⅲ.Recombinant pcDNA3.1 - IGF - 1 and empty plasmid were transfected into human umbilical cord blood - derived NSCs through lipofectin transfection.After transfection, transfected umbilical cord blood - derived NSCs were filtered with neomycin( G418 ).The expression of IGF - 1 gene in the gene transfected umbilical cord blood - derived was examined by immunocytochemical method and RT - PCR.Results IGF - 1 gene was successfully extracted from the fetal liver.Recombinants peDNA3.1 -IGF - 1 was proved accurate by restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing.Recombinant was transfected into human umbilical cord blood -derived NSCs by liposome for 24 hours,then selection cell clones appeared after 2 weeks for G418 filtering.In umbilical cord blood -derived NSCs transfected by recombinant plasmid vector, the expression of IGF- 1 gene was successful, which was detected by immtmocyto-chemical method and the expression of IGF - 1 mRNA was also positive while the other was negative compared with controla,which was examined by RT - PCR.Conclusion IGF - 1 gene can expressed in umbilical cord blood - derived NSCs transfected by recombinant plasmid vector.%目的 构建人胰岛素样生长因子1(IGF-1)质粒表达载体,并观察重组体pcDNA3.1-IGF-1转染后的脐血

  20. BUN - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood urea nitrogen ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how often you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ... I Treat Hyperglycemia? You can often lower your blood glucose level by exercising. However, if your blood glucose is ...

  2. Imatinib triggers mesenchymal-like conversion of CML cells associated with increased aggressiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexandre Puissant; Yann Chéli; Jill-Patrice Cassuto; Sophie Raynaud; Laurence Legros; Jean-Max Pasquet; Francois-Xavier Mahon; Frédéric Luciano; Patrick Auberger; Maeva Dufies; Nina Fenouille; Issam Ben Sahra; Arnaud Jacquel; Guillaume Robert; Thomas Cluzeau; Marcel Deckert; Mélanie Tichet

    2012-01-01

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a cytogenetic disorder resulting from the expression of p210BCR-ABL Imatinib,an inhibitor of BCR-ABL,has emerged as the leading compound to treat CML patients.Despite encouraging clinical results,resistance to imatinib represents a major drawback for therapy,as a substantial proportion of patients are refractory to this treatment.Recent publications have described the existence of a small cancer cell population with the potential to exhibit the phenotypic switch responsible for chemoresistance.To investigate the existence of such a chemoresistant cellular subpopulation in CML,we used a two-step approach of pulse and continuous selection by imatinib in different CML cell lines that allowed the emergence of a subpopulation of adherent cells (IM-R Adh) displaying an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like phenotype.Overexpression of several EMT markers was observed in this CML subpopulation,as well as in CD34+ CML primary cells from patients who responded poorly to imatinib treatment.In response to imatinib,this CD44high/CD24low IM-R Adh subpopulation exhibited increased adhesion,transmigration and invasion in vitro and in vivo through specific overexpression of the αVβ3 receptor.FAK/Akt pathway activation following integrin β3 (ITGβ3) engagement mediated the migration and invasion of IM-R Adh cells,whereas persistent activation of ERK counteracted BCR-ABL inhibition by imatinib,promoting cell adhesion-mediated resistance.

  3. Sequential cultivation of human epidermal keratinocytes and dermal mesenchymal like stromal cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabal, Shyam; Konala, Vijay Bhaskar Reddy; Mamidi, Murali Krishna; Kanafi, Mohammad Mahboob; Mishra, Suniti; Shankar, Krupa; Pal, Rajarshi; Bhonde, Ramesh

    2016-08-01

    Human skin has continuous self-renewal potential throughout adult life and serves as first line of defence. Its cellular components such as human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs) and dermal mesenchymal stromal cells (DMSCs) are valuable resources for wound healing applications and cell based therapies. Here we show a simple, scalable and cost-effective method for sequential isolation and propagation of HEKs and DMSCs under defined culture conditions. Human skin biopsy samples obtained surgically were cut into fine pieces and cultured employing explant technique. Plated skin samples attached and showed outgrowth of HEKs. Gross microscopic examination displayed polygonal cells with a granular cytoplasm and H&E staining revealed archetypal HEK morphology. RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry authenticated the presence of key HEK markers including trans-membrane protein epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin), keratins and cytokeratin. After collection of HEKs by trypsin-EDTA treatment, mother explants were left intact and cultured further. Interestingly, we observed the appearance of another cell type with fibroblastic or stromal morphology which were able to grow up to 15 passages in vitro. Growth pattern, expression of cytoskeletal protein vimentin, surface proteins such as CD44, CD73, CD90, CD166 and mesodermal differentiation potential into osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes confirmed their bonafide mesenchymal stem cell like status. These findings albeit preliminary may open up significant opportunities for novel applications in wound healing. PMID:25698160

  4. Comparisons of immunological characteristics of placental monocyte-macrophage-derived dendritic-like cells in stimulating cord blood T lymphocytes in different periods of pregnancy%妊娠不同时期胎盘单核-巨噬细胞来源树突样细胞刺激脐血T淋巴细胞的特性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯云华; 何敏; 季宁东; 张晓洁; 季晓辉

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To observe the differences of characteristics in activation and proliferation of cord blood lymphocytes stimulated by placenta-derived dendritic-like cells in different stages and further study the role of placenta] immune cells in pregnancy tolerance and labor onset. Methods: Mononuclear cells were separated mechanically from the mid-term placenta and late placenta. CD14+ cells were obtained by MACS and induced to differentiate into dendritic-like cells through the transebdothelial trafficking system. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze dendritic-like cell phenotype and ELISA assay was performed to detect the levels of IL-12,IL-10 in culture supernatant. CCK-8 assay was used to detect the ability of stimulating the proliferation of cord blood lymphocytes and flow cytometry was used to detect intracellular cytokine produced by stimulated cord blood T lymphocytes. Results:CD14+ monocyte-macrophage obtained from decidual tissue were inoculated into the endothelial monolayer,after two-way- induced culture, cells derived from full-term placenta had an appearance of dendritic morphology changes and highly expressed cell surface markers related to immune activation of dendritic cells,such as CD80,CD86;simultaneously,higher level of IL-12 and very low level of IL-10 were detected in the culture supernatant, and cells had strange ability of stimulating the cord blood lymphocytes proliferation. They could stimulate cord blood lymphocytes to differentiate into the cells that most of them producing IFN-"y and less of them producing IL-10. However,the induced cells derived from mid-term placenta,expressed low-level CD80 and CD86(P< 0.05),in the culture supernatant,higher level of IL-10 (P < 0.05) and very low level of IL-12 (P < 0.05) were detected. Cells had weaker ability in stimulating cord blood lymphocytes (P < 0.05),and stimulated cord blood lymphocytes to differentiate to form more cells producing IL-10(P < 0.05) and less cells producing IFN-7(P < 0

  5. Electromechanical Model of Blood Flow in Vessels

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Cap; Barbora Czippelova

    2008-01-01

    The present paper deals with some theoretical derivations connected with very efficient method of solution of hydrodynamic problems of blood flow in human cardiovascular system. The electromechanical analogy of liquid flow in a tube and electromagnetic wave propagating along an electric transmission line is discussed. We have derived a detailed circuit-like model of an elementary section of the elastic tube with viscose Newtonian liquid. The analogy harmonic current electrical cir...

  6. Blood Sugar and Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyperglycemia) can be a sign of the disease diabetes mellitus. High blood sugar levels can eventually damage ... treated with the same medications used to treat diabetes. There is no simple blood test for insulin ...

  7. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  8. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood pressure with the development of a practical method to measure it. Physicians began to note associations between hypertension and risk of heart failure, stroke, and kidney failure. Although scientists had yet to prove that lowering blood pressure ...

  9. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood ...

  10. Ferritin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum ferritin level ... The amount of ferritin in the blood (serum ferritin level) is directly related to the amount of iron stored in your body. Iron is important for red blood cell production. Your doctor ...

  11. Blood Pressure Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    High blood pressure, also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. But it can cause serious problems such as stroke, ... and kidney failure. If you cannot control your high blood pressure through lifestyle changes such as losing weight and ...

  12. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any ... blood clots or blood clotting disorders in your family. Remain active, with your doctor's approval. Be aware ...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... San Diego, CA Abstracts Registration Housing Travel Information Government Concierge View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue ... clot. Blood clots in pregnant women tend to form in the deep veins of the legs or ...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... harming your baby. Jump To: Am I at Risk? The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is ... prevent blood clots during pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your ...

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  16. Lyme disease blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... antibodies in the blood sample using the ELISA test . If the ELISA test is positive, it must be confirmed with another ... were seen in your blood sample. If the ELISA test is negative, usually no other testing is needed. ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll ...

  18. Anthrax - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The best test for diagnosing anthrax is a culture of affected tissue or blood. Alternative Names Anthrax serology test; Antibody test for anthrax; Serologic test for B anthracis Images Blood test Bacillus anthracis References Hall GS, Woods GL. Medical bacteriology. ...

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) ... Programs and Awards ASH Agenda for Hematology Research Education For Clinicians For Trainees For Educators For Patients ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and eAG Hypoglycemia (Low blood glucose) Hyperglycemia (High blood glucose) Dawn Phenomenon Checking for Ketones Tight Diabetes Control donate en -- Diabetes Must Be Stopped - 2016-06-donation- ...

  1. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal with a unique focus on scholarly and educational ... Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the results of the latest ...

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the field Hematology 2015 A collection of articles from the 2015 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles updated to reflect the most recent scientific research ...

  3. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal with a ... If you find that you are interested in learning more about blood diseases and disorders, here are ...

  4. Blood Culture Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difficult to grow in culture, and additional blood cultures using special nutrient media may be done to try to grow and identify the pathogen . Viruses cannot be detected using blood culture bottles designed to grow bacteria. If the health ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women ... Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A ...

  6. Genetics Blood Card Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP guiding collection of blood for genetics analysis. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect DNA sample using a whole blood blot card

  7. Blood groups systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ranadhir Mitra; Nitasha Mishra; Girija Prasad Rath

    2014-01-01

    International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importa...

  8. Blood Donation Management System

    OpenAIRE

    K M Akkas Ali; Israt Jahan; Md. Ariful Islam; Md. Shafa-at Parvez

    2015-01-01

    This paper is focused on Blood Donation Management System which is a web application with supporting mobile application aimed to serve as a communication tool between patients (who need blood) and blood donor. To become members of the system, donors need to create their profiles by providing fundamental information like name, blood group, email address, password, and exact location from “Google Map”. In order to find out the exact location of a donor, Google Map is integrated with this app...

  9. Examining blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent specification relates to an invention concerned with improvements in or relating to the examination of blood vessels of interest. Particles of dimensions not greater than 8 microns capable of providing detectable signals, are introduced into the blood for examination of a blood vessel. The particles may be sources of radiation, e.g. Ga68. (author)

  10. Monitor blood glucose - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100220.htm Monitoring blood glucose - Series—Monitoring blood glucose: Using a self-test meter To use the ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Sugar A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  11. Blood Test: Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Glucose Print A A A Text Size What's in ... de sangre: glucosa What It Is A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose (the main ...

  12. Right patient, Right blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selberg, Hanne; Madsen, Trine Stougaard

    2014-01-01

    Right patient, Right Blood Simulation based training in blood transfusion practice in nursing education Background: In spite of strict checking procedures to handling transfusion of blood severe adverse reactions are likely to happen and the major cause of morbidity occurs to be liable to human...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: ... and-how-tos, In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood Glucose A1C ...

  14. [Autologous blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosencher, N; Conseiller, C

    2001-06-30

    Autologous blood transfusion techniques are the principal means of reducing allogeneic blood exposure. Those techniques were developed in order to prevent the risk of contamination by viruses, mainly HVB, HCV and HIV. However that risk has become so small that all studies show an exorbitant cost/efficiency ratio. Autologous blood transfusion would therefore be of no interest in terms of public health but a recent experimental study suggested a possible transmission of the BSE agent through blood. Until the matter is settled, the precaution principle means we should prefer alternative techniques to allogeneic blood whenever possible, hence a renewed interest in autologous transfusion. PMID:11503506

  15. BLOOD SERVICE IN FINLAND

    OpenAIRE

    TASHTEMIROV K.K.; LATVALA E.; IMANGAZINOV S.B.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the post is to summarize the experience of blood service in Finland by the result of the business move and examination of the service activities at the point.The research materials indicate that the blood service in Finland is a non-profit organization and is an independent part of the Finnish Red Cross (FRC). All expenses and development of Blood Service are covered by the sale of blood and blood products and expert services in the Finnish health care system. It is responsible fo...

  16. Blood Donation Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K M Akkas Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on Blood Donation Management System which is a web application with supporting mobile application aimed to serve as a communication tool between patients (who need blood and blood donor. To become members of the system, donors need to create their profiles by providing fundamental information like name, blood group, email address, password, and exact location from “Google Map”. In order to find out the exact location of a donor, Google Map is integrated with this application. The mobile application always updates the location of a donor. As a result, the system can automatically find a registered donor wherever he/she goes. Visitors can search blood donors from the home page by blood group and the place where blood is needed. The system will show the available donors along with their phone number, email address and mailing address through arranging them by nearest place and blood donation expire date. Visitors can send message to all donors through email but a member can send message using email and mobile phone. An appointment will be created only whenever a donor confirms that he/she will donate blood. Then the system will alert the donor before 12 hours of donation. Blood donors can also be searched from the mobile application, but this is only accessible for registered members. The goal of this paper is to reduce the complexity of the system to find blood donors in an emergency situation.

  17. Blood groups systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranadhir Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system.

  18. Blood groups systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Ranadhir; Mishra, Nitasha; Rath, Girija Prasad

    2014-09-01

    International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system. PMID:25535412

  19. Influence of In Vitro IL-2 or IL-15 Alone or in Combination with Hsp 70 Derived 14-Mer Peptide (TKD on the Expression of NK Cell Activatory and Inhibitory Receptors on Peripheral Blood T Cells, B Cells and NKT Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Hromadnikova

    Full Text Available Previous studies from Multhoff and colleagues reported that plasma membrane Hsp70 acts as a tumour-specific recognition structure for activated NK cells, and that the incubation of NK cells with Hsp70 and/or a 14-mer peptide derived from the N-terminal sequence of Hsp70 (TKDNNLLGRFELSG, TKD, aa 450-463 plus a low dose of IL-2 triggers NK cell proliferation and migration, and their capacity to kill cancer cells expressing membrane Hsp70. Herein, we have used flow cytometry to determine the influence of in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals with IL-2 or IL-15, either alone or in combination with TKD peptide on the cell surface expression of CD94, NK cell activatory receptors (CD16, NK2D, NKG2C, NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, NKp80, KIR2DL4, DNAM-1 and LAMP1 and NK cell inhibitory receptors (NKG2A, KIR2DL2/L3, LIR1/ILT-2 and NKR-P1A by CD3+CD56+ (NKT, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+ and CD19+ populations. NKG2D, DNAM-1, LAMP1 and NKR-P1A expression was upregulated after the stimulation with IL-2 or IL-15 alone or in combination with TKD in NKT, CD8+ T cells and B cells. CD94 was upregulated in NKT and CD8+ T cells. Concurrently, an increase in a number of CD8+ T cells expressing LIR1/ILT-2 and CD4+ T cells positive for NKR-P1A was observed. The proportion of CD8+ T cells that expressed NKG2D was higher after IL-2/TKD treatment, when compared with IL-2 treatment alone. In comparison with IL-15 alone, IL-15/TKD treatment increased the proportion of NKT cells that were positive for CD94, LAMP1 and NKRP-1A. The more potent effect of IL-15/TKD on cell surface expression of NKG2D, LIR1/ILT-2 and NKRP-1A was observed in B cells compared with IL-15 alone. However, this increase was not of statistical significance. IL-2/TKD induced significant upregulation of LAMP1 in CD8+ T cells compared with IL-2 alone. Besides NK cells, other immunocompetent cells present within the fraction of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were influenced by

  20. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar Print ... Other Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar ...

  1. Intracerebral transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human umbilical cord blood for improving the behavioural deficits in rats with Parkinson disease%人脐血间充质干细胞脑内移植改善帕金森病大鼠行为缺陷的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许予明; 邢莹; 杨红旗; 马杰; 孙玲

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many researches have proved that cord blood cells can differentiate into neurons, and moreover, there are also reports regarding the successful application of cord blood in the treatments of cerebral apoplexy and other diseases of nervous system. However, it is still unknown whether cord blood stem cells can be used in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases or not.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility and the mechanism of mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) derived from human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) in the treatment of rats with Parkinson disease(PD).DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial.SETTING and MATERIALS: Eighteen healthy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats of cleanness grade with a body mass from 220 g to 260 g were selected. Cord blood samples were obtained from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhenzhou University. Each sample had 60 mL to 120 mL of cord blood.INTERVENTION: Lateral PD rat model induced by 6-hydroxydopamine was prepared. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: ① control group (n=6) . ② PBS group (n=6): injection of 10 μL PBS into the right striatum. ③ MSCs group( n = 6): injection of 3 × 106 MSCs( 10 μL) marked with BradU into the right striatum, apomorphine induced rotational behavior was tested after 4 weeks of transplantation, and immunohistochemistry assay was carried out to trace the survival of MSCs and the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immucoreactive cells in the striatum as well.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① rotation rounds in rats of each group after transplantation. ② the results of immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: MSCs survived in the striatum. The rotational behavior induced by apomorphine in rats of MSCs group[ (212 ± 60) rounds/30 minutes] was significantly improved compared with that of control group[(340±30)rounds/minutes ] ( P < 0.05 ); However, the number of TH-positive cells in the right striatum had no statistical difference between MSCs and control group (P

  2. Use of blood and blood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, E; Wood, B

    1999-11-01

    It is sometimes necessary for the practitioner to transfuse the ruminant with whole blood or plasma. These techniques are often difficult to perform in practice, are time-consuming, expensive, and stressful to the animal. Acute loss of 20% to 25% of the blood volume will result in marked clinical signs of anemia, including tachycardia and maniacal behavior. The PCV is only a useful tool with which to monitor acute blood loss after intravascular equilibration with other fluid compartments has occurred. An acutely developing PCV of 15% or less may require transfusion. Chronic anemia with PCV of 7% to 12% can be tolerated without transfusion if the animal is not stressed and no further decline in erythrocyte mass occurs. Seventy-five percent of transfused bovine erythrocytes are destroyed within 48 hours of transfusion. A transfusion rate of 10 to 20 mL/kg recipient weight is necessary to result in any appreciable increase in PCV. A nonpregnant donor can contribute 10 to 15 mL of blood/kg body weight at 2- to 4-week intervals. Sodium citrate is an effective anticoagulant, but acid citrate dextrose should be used if blood is to be stored for more than a few hours. Blood should not be stored more than 2 weeks prior to administration. Heparin is an unsuitable anticoagulant because the quantity of heparin required for clot-free blood collection will lead to coagulation defects in the recipient. Blood cross-matching is only rarely performed in the ruminant. In field situations, it is advisable to inject 200 mL of donor blood into the adult recipient and wait 10 minutes. If no reaction occurs, the rest of the blood can probably be safely administered as long as volume overload problems do not develop. Adverse reactions are most commonly seen in very young animals or pregnant cattle. Signs of blood or plasma transfusion reaction include hiccoughing, tachycardia, tachypnea, sweating, muscle tremors, pruritus, salivation, cough, dyspnea, fever, lacrimation, hematuria

  3. Non-Invasive Optical Blood Glucose Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha C.Pande

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The method for noninvasively blood glucose monitoring system is discussed in this paper. Lot of research work has been done in developing the device which is completely noninvasive to avoid the pros & cons because of frequent pricking. In this paper we are trying to analyze the noninvasive blood glucose measurement study in the near infrared region which is the most suitable region for blood glucose measurement. For this purpose we use a technique which is similar to pulseoximetry based on near infrared spectrometry .An infrared light of particular wavelength is passed through fingertip containing an arterial pulse component are derived,thus minimizing influences of basal components such as resting blood volume,skin, muscle and bone.

  4. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whether imbalances in this system cause high blood pressure. Blood Vessel Structure and Function Changes in the structure ... can affect blood pressure. Genetic Causes of High Blood Pressure Much of the understanding of the body systems ...

  5. Controlling your high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that is healthy for you. Checking Your Blood Pressure Your blood pressure can be measured at many places, including: ... Alternative Names Controlling hypertension Images Taking your blood pressure at home Blood pressure check Low sodium diet References American Diabetes ...

  6. What Is High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also known as blood vessels and capillaries. The pressure --- blood pressure --- is the result of two forces. The ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  7. High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much alcohol. Signs and Symptoms of High Blood Pressure High blood pressure usually has no warning signs or symptoms , ... they are at high risk for high blood pressure . Blood Pressure Levels Normal systolic: less than 120 mmHg ...

  8. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to the combination of artichoke leaf dry extract standardised in caffeoylquinic acids, monacolin K in red yeast rice, sugar-cane derived policosanols, OPC from French maritime pine bark, garlic dry extract standardised in allicin, d-α-tocopheryl hydrogen succinate, riboflavin and inositol hexanicotinate in Limicol® and reduction of blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Laboratoire Lescuyer, submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to the combination of artichoke leaf dry extract standardised in caffeoylquinic acids, monacolin K in red yeast rice, sugar-cane derived policosanols, OPC from French maritime pine bark, garlic dry extract standardised in allicin, d-α-tocopheryl hydrogen succinate, riboflavin and inositol hexanicotinate in Limicol® and reduction of blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The Panel considers that the food which is the subject of the claim is sufficiently characterised. The Panel considers that reduction of blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations is a beneficial physiological effect. High LDL-cholesterol is a risk factor in the development of coronary heart disease. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that, although no evidence was provided for an LDL-cholesterol lowering effect of any of the single food constituents in Limicol® at the proposed conditions of use or as to how the ingredients individually or in any combination could contribute to the claimed effect and despite the lack of a dose-response relationship observed in one human intervention study, three human intervention studies conducted by two independent research groups showed an effect of the combination of food ingredients in Limicol® on blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of the combination of artichoke leaf dry extract standardised in caffeoylquinic acids, monacolin K in red yeast rice, sugar-cane derived policosanols, OPC from French maritime pine bark, garlic dry extract standardised in allicin, d-α-tocopheryl hydrogen succinate, riboflavin and inositol

  9. On $n$-derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Sattari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the notion of $n-$derivation is introduced for all integers $ngeq 2$. Although all derivations are $n-$derivations,  in general these notions are not equivalent. Some properties of ordinary derivations are  investigated for $n-$derivations. Also, we show that under certain mild condition  $n-$derivations are derivations.

  10. Synthesis, micellisation and interaction of novel quaternary ammonium compounds derived from l-Phenylalanine with 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine as model membrane in relation to their antibacterial activity, and their selectivity over human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joondan, Nausheen; Caumul, Prakashanand; Akerman, Matthew; Jhaumeer-Laulloo, Sabina

    2015-02-01

    A series of quaternary ammonium compounds (QUATS) derived from l-Phenylalanine have been synthesized and their antibacterial efficiencies were determined against various strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity increased with increasing chain length, exhibiting a cut-off effect at C14 for Gram-positive and C12 for Gram-negative bacteria. The l-Phenylalanine QUATS displayed enhanced antibacterial properties with a higher cut-off point compared to their corresponding l-Phenylalanine ester hydrochlorides. The CMC was correlated with the MIC, inferring that micellar activity contributes to the cut-off effect in antibacterial activity. The hemolytic activities (HC50) of the QUATS against human red blood cells were also determined to illustrate the selectivity of these QUATS for bacterial over mammalian cells. In general, the MIC was lower than the HC50, and assessment of the micellar contribution to the antibacterial and hemolytic evaluation in TBS as a common medium confirmed that these QUATS can act as antibacterial, yet non-toxic molecules at their monomer concentrations. The interaction of the QUATS with the phospholipid vesicles (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, DPPC) in the presence of 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS) and 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) as fluorescence probes showed that the presence of the quaternary ammonium moiety causes an increase in hydrophobic interactions, thus causing an increase in antibacterial activity.

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin ...

  13. Drying drops of blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutin, David; Sobac, Benjamin; Loquet, Boris; Sampol, José.

    2010-11-01

    The drying of a drop of human blood is fascinating by the complexity of the physical mechanisms that occur as well as the beauty of the phenomenon which has never been previously evidenced in the literature. The final stage of full blood evaporation reveals for a healthy person the same regular pattern with a good reproducibility. Other tests on anemia and hyperlipidemic persons were performed and presented different patterns. By means of digital camera, the influence of the motion of red blood cells (RBCs) which represent about 50% of the blood volume, is revealed as well as its consequences on the final stages of drying. The mechanisms which lead to the final pattern of dried blood drops are presented and explained on the basis of fluid and solid mechanics in conjunction with the principles of hematology. Our group is the first to evidence that the specific regular patterns characteristic of a healthy individual do not appear in a dried drop of blood from a person with blood disease. Blood is a complex colloidal suspension for which the flow motion is clearly non-Newtonian. When drops of blood evaporate, all the colloids are carried by the flow motion inside the drop and interact.

  14. Effects of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and umbilical cord on the proliferation of umbilical ;cord blood mononuclear cells%人脐带和骨髓源间充质干细胞对脐血单个核细胞增殖能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉琳; 王静文; 于纪棉

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨人脐带间充质干细胞(UCMSCs)与骨髓间充质干细胞(BMMSCs)在体外对造血干细胞的支持作用。方法分别从人脐带和骨髓中分离、培养间充质干细胞,通过免疫细胞化学染色等方法对其进行表型鉴定;采用流式细胞仪测定脐血单个核细胞的周期分布,采用甲基纤维素法测定脐血单个核细胞混合集落形成单位(CFU-Mix),比较 UCMSCs和BMMSCs对脐血单个核细胞细胞周期、CFU-Mix形成能力的影响。结果成功培养获得 UCMSCs和BMMSCs,鉴定结果符合预期;与非共培养组细胞相比,UCMSCs和 BMMSCs共培养均能促进脐血单个核细胞进入增殖周期,并增加其形成CFU-Mix的能力(P<0.05),但UCMSCs和BMMSCs共培养组之间比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论成功从人脐带和骨髓组织中培养获得间充质干细胞,两种来源的间充质干细胞均能提高脐血单个核细胞的体外增殖能力及 CFU-Mix形成能力,均具有造血支持作用。%Objective To explore the supportive effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)derived from hu-man umbilical cord (UCMSCs)and bone marrow (BMMSCs)on hematopoiesis in vitro.Methods MSCs were isola-ted from umbilical cord and bone marrow,and the purity of MSCs was analyzed by immunocytochemical stain.The distribution of mononuclear cell cycle was determined by flow cytometry.Half-solid methylcellulose was used to de-termine the colony forming unit-mixture (CFU-mix)of umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells.Influence of UCM-SCs and BMMSCs on cell cycle and forming ability of CFU-Mix among umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells were compared.Results UCMSCs and BMMSCs were both successfully isolated and identified.Compared with the blank control group,there were more umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells in S+G2+M phase and CFU-mix after inter-vening with UCMSCs and BMMSCs (P0.05).Conclusion UCMSCs and BMMSCs were successfully

  15. Photosensitized inactivation of infectious blood-borne human parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy, Millard M.; Sogandares-Bernal, Franklin M.; Matthews, James Lester

    1995-05-01

    Blood-borne viruses and protozoan parasites that are infectious to humans pose risk world-wide of infection transmission through blood and blood product transfusion. Blood-borne infectious viruses include human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-I), which causes AIDS; hepatitis C virus, which can cause chronic hepatitis; and cytomegalovirus, which can be dangerous to immunocompromised patients, e.g., the newborn, transplant recipients, and AIDS patients. Infectious blood-borne protozoan parasites include Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes Chagas' disease, endemic throughout Central and South America; the Trypanosoma species causing African sleeping sickness endemic in Central Africa; and Plasmodium falciparum, which causes malignant and increasingly drug- resistant human malaria prevalent throughout the tropics. Some researchers have focused on using photosensitizers to inactivate HIV-I and other viruses in whole blood, packed red cells, and platelet concentrates without compromising blood product function. Our group previously has reported photosensitized in vitro inactivation of P. falciparum and the mouse malaria organism Plasmodium berghei in whole blood using hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) and of T. cruzi using benzoporphyrin derivatives BPDMA and BPDDA, dihematoporphyrin ether (DHE), and hydroxyethylvinyldeuteroporphyrin (HEVD). These results suggest that continued investigation is warranted to evaluate the potential for photosensitized inactivation of blood-borne parasites in blood banking.

  16. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  17. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Wednesday 13 November 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs will be held a blood donors campaign, organized by the Etablissement de Transfusion de Haute-Savoie If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  18. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Établissement de Transfusion de Rhône-Alpes will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2000 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  19. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  20. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion d'Annemasse will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  1. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal with a unique focus on scholarly and educational content The Hematologist Features Diffusion President's Column ASH Clinical News Society News Clinical News Features ASH Self- ...

  3. Virtual blood bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Fai Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time.

  4. Give blood at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    ACCIDENTS and ILLNESSES don’t take a break! DO SOMETHING AMAZING - GIVE BLOOD! IT’S IN ALL OUR INTERESTS. 30 July 2008 from 9.30 a.m. to 4 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT NOVAE First floor - Salle des Pas Perdus After you have given blood, you are invited to partake of refreshments kindly offered by NOVAE.

  5. Exploring the applicability of equine blood to bloodstain pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Bethany A J; Banks, Craig E

    2016-07-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) is the forensic application of the interpretation of distinct patterns which blood exhibits during a bloodletting incident, providing key evidence with its ability to map the sequence of events. Here, we explore the use of equine blood and investigate its suitability within the field of BPA. Blood is a complex fluid, and finding a suitable safe substitute to human blood that encompasses all of its characteristics has been the focus of many investigations. Animal blood has been concluded as the closest and therefore the most suitable alternate. However, it seems that currently only porcine blood is most prominently utilised.In this study, equine blood was investigated, using two different anti-clotting methods, where blood impacts were explored over a typical range of varying impact velocities upon a selection of commonly encountered surfaces. Key BPA parameters, such as the diameters of the resulting bloodstains, number of spines and area of origin were measured, which were subsequently applied into previously derived BPA equations.We find that defibrinated equine blood is a suitable alternative and offers the same conclusive outcomes to human blood. This gives bloodstain pattern investigators and researchers an additional choice of blood which can be of benefit when certain bloods are difficult to attain or when the activity involves the usage of a large quantity of blood. Additionally we explore the effect on BPA of aged blood, which revealed a significant decrease in stain diameter of up to 12.78 % when blood has been left for 57 days. A shelf life of no more than 12 days is recommended when blood is refrigerated at 4℃. PMID:25013163

  6. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. VALIM; Barros, S.

    2009-01-01

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts) over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats). High blood pressure (hypertension) is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure ...

  7. Cocoa, blood pressure, and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferri, Livia; Proietti, Ilenia; Di Agostino, Stefania; Martella, Letizia; Mai, Francesca; Di Giosia, Paolo; Grassi, Davide

    2015-11-18

    High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular events worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. According to this, cocoa has a high content in polyphenols, especially flavanols. Flavanols have been described to exert favorable effects on endothelium-derived vasodilation via the stimulation of nitric oxide-synthase, the increased availability of l-arginine, and the decreased degradation of NO. Cocoa may also have a beneficial effect by protecting against oxidative stress alterations and via decreased platelet aggregation, decreased lipid oxidation, and insulin resistance. These effects are associated with a decrease of blood pressure and a favorable trend toward a reduction in cardiovascular events and strokes. Previous meta-analyses have shown that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa products are needed to determine whether or not blood pressure is reduced on a chronic basis by daily ingestion of cocoa. Furthermore, long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa on clinical outcomes are also needed to assess whether cocoa has an effect on cardiovascular events. A 3 mmHg systolic blood pressure reduction has been estimated to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. This paper summarizes new findings concerning cocoa effects on blood pressure and cardiovascular health, focusing on putative mechanisms of action and "nutraceutical " viewpoints.

  8. Blood pressure load does not add to ambulatory blood pressure level for cardiovascular risk stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yan; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boggia, José;

    2014-01-01

    Experts proposed blood pressure (BP) load derived from 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings as a more accurate predictor of outcome than level, in particular in normotensive people. We analyzed 8711 subjects (mean age, 54.8 years; 47.0% women) randomly recruited from 10 populations. We expressed BP...

  9. Measurements of brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trajkovska, Viktorija; Klein, Anders Bue; Vinberg, Maj;

    2007-01-01

    Although numerous studies have dealt with changes in blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), methodological issues about BDNF measurements have only been incompletely resolved. We validated BDNF ELISA with respect to accuracy, reproducibility and the effect of storage and repeated freezin...

  10. 混合脐血间充质干细胞体外抑制C6胶质瘤细胞增殖%Study on the mechanisms of the mixed umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in inhibiting proliferation of C6 glioma cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦红亮; 王晓宁; 孙剑瑞; 李建斌; 关方霞; 杨波

    2014-01-01

    Objective Study on the mechanisms of the mixed umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in inhibiting proliferation of C6 glioma cells.It provided experimental and theoretical basis for the mixed umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) treatment of C6 glioma in vivo.Methods B cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (bcl-2) and Cysteinyl aspartate-specific protease-3 (Caspase-3) protein expression of C6 cells were analyzed by immunohistochemistry.Results The mixed UCB-MSCs inhibited the proliferation of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-C6 glioma cells in vitro.When the E/T ratio is same,Expression of Caspase-3 in the mixed group [E/T =(5 + 5)∶1,(56 ± 5)%],but the single group is [E/T =10∶ 1,(33 ± 6) %] ; Expression of bcl-2 in mixed group is [E/T =(5 + 5) ∶ 1,(27 ± 3) %],but a single group is [E/T =10∶ 1,(46 ± 7) %].Caspase-3 protein expression tended to increase,however,bcl-2 protein expression decreased.Conclusion Compared with the single group,the mixed UCB-MSCs could inhibit proliferation of C6 cells in vitro.%目的 探讨混合脐血间充质干细胞(UCB-MSCs)体外抑制C6胶质瘤细胞增殖机制.方法 采用免疫组织化学检测C6细胞B细胞淋巴瘤/白血病-2(bcl-2)和半胱氨酰天冬氨酸特异性蛋白酶(Caspase)-3蛋白的表达,E/T(E:效应细胞即UCB-MSCs,T:靶细胞即C6细胞)=0∶1、10∶1、(5+5)∶1时,采用免疫组织化学检测C6细胞的bcl-2和Caspase-3蛋白的表达.结果 混合UCB-MSCs对C6细胞在蛋白表达上有使凋亡蛋白Caspase-3表达增高的趋势,抑凋亡蛋白bcl-2表达降低的趋势;促凋亡蛋白表达量和凋亡细胞数随E/T的比例增高而增高,呈现比例依赖关系;当E/T比例相同时,混合组[E/T=(5+5)∶1,(56±5)%]UCB-MSCs促凋亡蛋白表达量比单份组[E/T=10∶1,(33±6)%]高;抑凋亡蛋白表达量混合组[E/T=(5+5)∶1,(27±3)%],单份组[E/T=10∶1,(46±7)%].结论 与单份组比较,混合UCB-MSCs对体外C6细胞更具有抑制增殖作用.

  11. 经血源子宫内膜干细胞复合3D打印PLGA支架体外培养的相容性研究%Cellular Compatibility of Menstrual Blood-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Three-dimensional Printing PLGA Scaffolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许世兵; 单乐天; 金红婷; 王萍儿; 童培建; 肖鲁伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective] To investigate the feasibility of using three-dimensional(3D) printing PLGA loaded with menstrual blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells(MenSCs) as scaffolds for bone cartilage tissue engineering. [Methods] Three-dimensional printing PLGA was preprocessed. The five generation MenSCs were utilized. use invert microscope to observe cells biological property. According to 1.0 ×106/mL cells seeded onto PLGA scaffold composite culture, invert microscope, Mico-CT, scanning electron microscope and histopathology were observed.[Results] MSCs grew well, cells were plated to grow, fusiform or spindle row, thin cytoplasmic and nuclear circle centered, with fibroblast morphology. Cells to the fifth generation had long spindle cell monolayer and swirling arrangement. PLGA scaffolds exhibited microscopic interconnected porous structure, loose structure, large pores and mutual traffic, thinner hole wall. MenSCs on PLGA scaffold grew well, mainly in the scaffolds surface and inside growth, the scaffolds aperture had cell matrix organization connection.[Conclusion] MenSCs are ideal seeding cells for bone cartilage tissue engineering. And the PLGA scaffolds by three-dimensional printing with MenSCs may be in vitro construction as bone cartilage formation.%[目的]通过经血源子宫内膜干细胞(menstrual blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells, MenSCs)与3D打印PLGA支架材料的复合培养,探讨构建组织工程化骨软骨的可行性。[方法]预处理3D打印PLGA支架,取第5代MenSCs,倒置显微镜下观察细胞生物学特性,按1.0×106/mL的密度接种到PLGA支架材料上复合培养,通过倒置显微镜、Mico-CT、扫描电镜和组织病理学进行观察,并借此判断MenSCs与3D打印PLGA支架材料复合体外培养的融合性。[结果] MenSCs生长良好,细胞平铺生长,呈梭形或纺锤形,胞质薄,核圆居中,具有成纤维细胞形态。细胞传至第5代,为长梭形细胞单层,呈漩涡状排列

  12. Erythropoietic Potential of CD34+ Hematopoietic Stem Cells from Human Cord Blood and G-CSF-Mobilized Peripheral Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglian Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cell (RBC supply for transfusion has been severely constrained by the limited availability of donor blood and the emergence of infection and contamination issues. Alternatively, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs from human organs have been increasingly considered as safe and effective blood source. Several methods have been studied to obtain mature RBCs from CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells via in vitro culture. Among them, human cord blood (CB and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized adult peripheral blood (mPB are common adult stem cells used for allogeneic transplantation. Our present study focuses on comparing CB- and mPB-derived stem cells in differentiation from CD34+ cells into mature RBCs. By using CD34+ cells from cord blood and G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood, we showed in vitro RBC generation of artificial red blood cells. Our results demonstrate that CB- and mPB-derived CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells have similar characteristics when cultured under the same conditions, but differ considerably with respect to expression levels of various genes and hemoglobin development. This study is the first to compare the characteristics of CB- and mPB-derived erythrocytes. The results support the idea that CB and mPB, despite some similarities, possess different erythropoietic potentials in in vitro culture systems.

  13. Home monitoring of blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Barry P

    2015-01-01

    Home blood pressure monitoring is the self-measurement of blood pressure by patients. In the diagnosis and management of high blood pressure it is complementary to 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and clinic blood pressure measurements. Home monitoring can also help to identify white-coat and masked hypertension.

  14. Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate Updated:Aug 30,2016 Blood ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  15. Modelling of the Blood Coagulation Cascade in an In Vitro Flow System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Marianne; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Efendiev, Messoud A.;

    2010-01-01

    We derive a mathematical model of a part of the blood coagulation cascade set up in a perfusion experiment. Our purpose is to simulate the influence of blood flow and diffusion on the blood coagulation pathway. The resulting model consists of a system of partial differential equations taking into...

  16. White Blood Cell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... where they are needed, and then kill and digest the harmful organism or substance (see White blood ... Patel Hello Everyone! Hello to all of you readers! I know you will be seeing my biography, ...

  17. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... educational meetings and webinars ASH Image Bank Educational Web-based library of hematologic imagery In This Section: ... Blood Publishing Office . Patient Groups A list of Web links to patient groups and other organizations that ...

  18. High Blood Pressure Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your blood to pass through more easily. Alpha-beta blockers not only reduce nerve impulses, but also make ... with less force. They combine the effects of beta blockers and alpha blockers. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (also ...

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... the Guesswork out of Planning Meals! Find the healthy eating plan that works for you and your diabetes. ...

  1. Blood Test: Bilirubin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the blood. Babies with high levels may need phototherapy (treatment with a special light that makes bilirubin ... are afraid of needles. Explaining the test in terms your child can understand might help ease some ...

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... If you find that you are interested in learning more about blood diseases and disorders, here are ... For Patients ASH Academy ASH On Demand ASH Image Bank Advocacy Action Alerts Policy News Advocacy Leadership ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia. How Do I Treat Hyperglycemia? You can often lower your blood glucose ... be a serious problem if you don't treat it, so it's important to treat as soon ...

  4. Vitamin A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003570.htm Vitamin A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The vitamin A test measures the level of vitamin A ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral ... 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & ...

  6. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal with a unique focus ... ASH ASH Meeting on Hematologic Malignancies Consultative Hematology Course ASH Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ASH Workshop on ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose ... Find Your Local Office Find your local diabetes education program Calendar of Events Wellness Lives Here Drive ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term ... body can't use insulin properly. What Causes Hyperglycemia? A number of things can cause hyperglycemia: If ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia. How Do I Treat Hyperglycemia? You can often lower your blood ... record for use in an emergency. How Can I Prevent Hyperglycemia? Your best bet is to practice ...

  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... flow and harming your baby. Jump To: Am I at Risk? The risk of developing a blood ... A Patient's Journey back to top Where Can I Find More Information? If you find that you ...

  11. Cord-Blood Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cord blood mainly because of the promise that stem cell research holds for the future. Most of us would have little use for stem cells now, but research into using them to treat diseases is ongoing — ...

  12. Blood in the semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by swelling or infection of the prostate or seminal vesicles. The problem may occur after a prostate biopsy . ... blood and if any clots formed in the seminal vesicles. Depending on the cause, other symptoms that may ...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Society News Clinical News Features ASH Self-Assessment Program A comprehensive resource to help stay current ... Blood The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH Self-Assessment Program Hematology , ASH Education Program About Awards Membership ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths ... blood, which can lead to ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis is life-threatening and needs immediate treatment. Symptoms include: Shortness ...

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Meeting Abstracts 2016 Call for Abstracts 2016 Abstract Review Categories Abstracts Archive View all Education ASH Academy ... Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal with a ...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ... Blog Online Community Site Menu Are You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day ...

  17. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... blood conditions. back to top Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: A Patient's Journey back to top Where Can I ... and help move hematology forward. Learn more Find a Hematologist Search a database of practicing hematologists in ...

  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Clinical News Society News Clinical News Features ASH Self-Assessment Program A comprehensive resource to help stay ... Publications Blood The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH Self-Assessment Program Hematology , ASH Education Program About Awards ...

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hispanic Heritage Month African American Programs Latino Programs Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders American Indian/ ... High blood glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body can't ...

  1. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... techniques in the clinical application of genome editing technology MDS Summit Multiple dates and locations A complimentary ... of articles from the 2015 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  3. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... medicines you take. These include: Birth control pills Hormone therapy Testosterone DHEA (a supplement) If you are ...

  4. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure readings are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming ... minutes before the test. To track blood pressure readings over a period of time, the health care ...

  5. Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Heart Alternate Language URL Español Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers: Use Them to Manage Your Diabetes Page Content Checking your blood sugar, also called blood glucose, is an important part ...

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure ... painless and can be done in a health care provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the ...

  7. Manage your blood sugar (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checking your blood sugar levels often and writing down the results will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes so you ... possible. The best times to check your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your blood ...

  8. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  9. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dangerous as elevations of both systolic and diastolic pressure. Blood pressure is elevated for two main reasons: too ... and Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), reduce blood pressure by relaxing blood vessels Beta blockers, which also cause the heart ...

  10. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI ... providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure readings are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood ...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI ... providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure readings are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood ...

  12. Fully portable blood irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fully portable blood irradiator was developed using the beta emitter thulium-170 as the radiation source and vitreous carbon as the body of the irradiator, matrix for isotope encapsulation, and blood interface material. These units were placed in exteriorized arteriovenous shunts in goats, sheep, and dogs and the effects on circulating lymphocytes and on skin allograft retention times measured. The present work extends these studies by establishing baseline data for skin graft rejection times in untreated animals

  13. Medium of Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Eddie Glenn

    2012-01-01

    Blood quantum, the measurement of American Indian ancestry possessed by members of America’s Indigenous nations, is most often considered a rubric utilized by the federal government in an oppressive form, or by tribal nations themselves as standards of tribal citizenship requirements. In this essay, the authors recontextualize blood as a medium of national identity within the context of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma. Such decentering, as presented here, illuminates Cherokee nationhood in wa...

  14. Medium of Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie Glenn

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood quantum, the measurement of American Indian ancestry possessed by members of America’s Indigenous nations, is most often considered a rubric utilized by the federal government in an oppressive form, or by tribal nations themselves as standards of tribal citizenship requirements. In this essay, the authors recontextualize blood as a medium of national identity within the context of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma. Such decentering, as presented here, illuminates Cherokee nationhood in ways that have significant political import.

  15. Blood Screening for Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Hourfar, Michael Kai; Themann, Anna; Eickmann, Markus; Puthavathana, Pilaipan; Laue, Thomas; Seifried, Erhard; Schmidt, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Influenza viruses, including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1), could threaten blood safety. We analyzed 10,272 blood donor samples with a minipool nucleic acid amplication technique. Analytical sensitivity of the method was 804 geq/mL and 444 geq/mL for generic influenza primers and influenza (H5N1) subtype–specific primers. This study demonstrates that such screening for influenza viruses is feasible.

  16. Integrated Blood Barcode Chips

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Rong; Vermesh, Ophir; Srivastava, Alok; Yen, Brian K.H.; Qin, Lidong; Ahmad, Habib; Kwong, Gabriel A.; Liu, Chao-Chao; Gould, Juliane; Hood, Leroy; Heath, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Blood comprises the largest version of the human proteome1. Changes of plasma protein profiles can reflect physiological or pathological conditions associated with many human diseases, making blood the most important fluid for clinical diagnostics2-4. Nevertheless, only a handful of plasma proteins are utilized in routine clinical tests. This is due to a host of reasons, including the intrinsic complexity of the plasma proteome1, the heterogeneity of human diseases and the fast kinetics assoc...

  17. Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Page Content What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood against the ... do I know if I have high blood pressure? High blood pressure is often called "the silent killer" because ...

  18. Pulsatile blood flow, shear force, energy dissipation and Murray's Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengtsson Hans-Uno

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Murray's Law states that, when a parent blood vessel branches into daughter vessels, the cube of the radius of the parent vessel is equal to the sum of the cubes of the radii of daughter blood vessels. Murray derived this law by defining a cost function that is the sum of the energy cost of the blood in a vessel and the energy cost of pumping blood through the vessel. The cost is minimized when vessel radii are consistent with Murray's Law. This law has also been derived from the hypothesis that the shear force of moving blood on the inner walls of vessels is constant throughout the vascular system. However, this derivation, like Murray's earlier derivation, is based on the assumption of constant blood flow. Methods To determine the implications of the constant shear force hypothesis and to extend Murray's energy cost minimization to the pulsatile arterial system, a model of pulsatile flow in an elastic tube is analyzed. A new and exact solution for flow velocity, blood flow rate and shear force is derived. Results For medium and small arteries with pulsatile flow, Murray's energy minimization leads to Murray's Law. Furthermore, the hypothesis that the maximum shear force during the cycle of pulsatile flow is constant throughout the arterial system implies that Murray's Law is approximately true. The approximation is good for all but the largest vessels (aorta and its major branches of the arterial system. Conclusion A cellular mechanism that senses shear force at the inner wall of a blood vessel and triggers remodeling that increases the circumference of the wall when a shear force threshold is exceeded would result in the observed scaling of vessel radii described by Murray's Law.

  19. 金黄色葡萄球菌超抗原样蛋白-5抑制人脐血源性内皮祖细胞黏附功能及其机制研究%Staphylococcal superantigen-like protein-5 inhibits adhesion of human umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells to P-selectin-coated surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁华; 曲小龙; 胡厚源; 宋治远; 程彦; 张静

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究金黄色葡萄球菌超抗原样蛋白-5 (staphylococcal superantigen-like protein-5,SSL5)与人脐血源性内皮祖细胞(endothelial progenitor cells,EPCs)表面P-选择素糖蛋白配体-1 (P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1,PSGL-1) 的结合情况,及其对内皮祖细胞黏附功能的影响.方法 从金黄色葡萄球菌 NCTC 8325菌株的基因组中,扩增ssl5基因,并进行重组SSL5蛋白表达载体的构建.采用密度梯度离心法分离得到脐血中的单个核细胞并进行体外培养,对贴壁细胞在激光共聚焦显微镜下观察其摄取乙酰化低密度脂蛋白(DiI-acLDL)和结合荆豆凝集素(FITC-UEA-1)的情况.以流式细胞仪分析SSL5与EPCs表面PSGL-1的结合情况;以calcein-AM负载EPCs后,定量分析SSL5对EPCs在P-选择素包被表面黏附的抑制作用.结果 DiI-acLDL/ FITC-UEA-1双染阳性的细胞为EPCs.PSGL-1在EPCs表面有较丰富的表达,阳性细胞率为76.6%.SSL5与EPCs的结合随着SSL5浓度的增加而显著升高;并且,SSL5可竞争性抑制抗PSGL-1单克隆抗体(KPL-1)与EPCs的结合.SSL5可显著抑制EPCs在P-选择素表面的黏附,终浓度为30 mg/L的SSL5对EPCs在P-选择素表面黏附的抑制率已接近10 mg/L的KPL-1的效应,两者与空白对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 SSL5可与EPCs表面的PSGL-1结合,而抑制EPCs在P-选择素表面的黏附,提示SSL5可能通过抑制EPCs与损伤内皮或激活的血小板之间的黏附,进而抑制EPCs对损伤内皮的修复作用.%Objective To investigate the binding of staphylococcal superantigen-like protein-5 (SSL5) to P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) on human umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and the inhibitive effect of SSL5 on the adhesion of EPCs to P-selectin-coated surface.Methods SSL5 gene was amplified from the genome of Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 8325 and cloned into a vector for expressing recombinant SSL5 protein. Mononuclear cells were

  20. Identification and significance of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in peripheral blood of breast cancer patients%乳腺癌患者外周血中髓样抑制细胞的鉴定及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长青; 赵丹丹; 李慧; 魏刚; 徐贵颖; 王佳铭; 卞隽; 马牧松; 王巍; 许多; 周子君

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析乳腺癌患者外周血中髓样抑制细胞( MDSCs)水平,鉴定乳腺癌特异性MDSCs 的生物学特征并评估其临床意义。方法抽取乳腺癌患者(84例)、乳腺良性肿瘤患者(37例)和健康体检者(21例)静脉血2 ml,其中乳腺癌患者采血时间为新辅助治疗前后或手术治疗前后。采用流式细胞术,通过抗 CD11b、CD33、CD14和 HLA-DR 等荧光抗体鉴定受检者外周血中 MDSCs 的表面标志,并分析 MDSCs 水平与乳腺癌患者临床病理特征的关系。采用体外分离和细胞增殖实验检测 MDSCs 对 T 细胞功能的影响。结果乳腺癌患者外周血中存在 MDSCs,其特征性细胞表面标志为CD11b+CD33+CD14-,CD11b+CD33+CD14-细胞在组织形态上属于单个核细胞。体外实验显示, CD11b+CD33+CD14-细胞能抑制 T 细胞增殖。乳腺癌组、乳腺良性肿瘤组和健康体检组患者外周血中 MDSCs 水平分别为(15.93±3.17)%、(8.92±4.42)%和(5.02±2.75)%,乳腺癌组患者外周血中MDSCs 水平显著高于乳腺良性肿瘤组和健康体检组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.001)。乳腺癌患者外周血中 MDSCs 水平与手术治疗有关,而与患者年龄、肿瘤分期、淋巴结转移、雌激素受体、孕激素受体表达无关。早期乳腺癌患者手术前后的 MDSCs 水平分别为(15.37±2.49)%和(7.83±3.78)%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.001)。结论乳腺癌患者外周血中存在具有疾病特征性的 MDSCs。 CD11b+CD33+CD14-MDSCs 与乳腺癌的发生和发展有关,可以作为一种新的生物标志物用于辅助诊断乳腺癌,并预测乳腺癌的转归。%Objective To investigate the presence, biological features, and clinical significance of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in breast cancer patients.Methods Eighty-four cases of breast cancer, 37 cases of benign breast

  1. Assessment of blood-retinal barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinores, S A

    1995-01-01

    The blood-retinal barrier consists of two components which are comprised of the retinal vascular endothelium and the retinal pigment epithelium, respectively. Its functional integrity can be recognized by tight junctions between these cells with a paucity of endocytic vesicles within them and the presence of the molecules that regulate the ionic and metabolic gradients that constitute the barrier. The barrier is compromised in several disease processes and by a variety of agents, but in most cases the location and mechanism for barrier failure is not understood. Perfusion with a variety of radiolabeled tracer molecules, vitreous fluorophotometry, or magnetic resonance imaging can be used to quantitate blood-retinal barrier leakage. Fluorescein angiography or magnetic resonance imaging can localize sites of leakage in vivo with limited resolution. Evans blue dye can be used to visualize blood-retinal barrier failure in gross pathological specimens and immuno-histochemical labeling of serum proteins such as albumin or fibrinogen can be used to localize sites of blood-retinal barrier breakdown by light microscopy. Tracers such as horseradish peroxidase, microperoxidase, or lanthanum, or the immunocytochemical demonstration of albumin can be used to reveal blood-retinal barrier breakdown at the ultrastructural level and provide insights into the mechanisms involved. This review discusses the advantages and limitations of each of these methods to aid in selection of the appropriate techniques to derive the desired information.

  2. Transfusion and blood donation in comic strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Danic, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    The representation of blood transfusion and donation of blood in the comic strip has never been studied. The comic strip, which is a relatively recent art, emerged in the 19th century before becoming a mass medium during the 20th century. We have sought, by calling on collectors and using the resources of Internet, comic strips devoted, wholly or in part, to the themes of transfusion and blood donation. We present some of them here in chronologic order, indicating the title, country of origin, year of publication, and names of authors. The theme of the superhero using transfusion to transmit his virtues or his powers is repeated throughout the 20th century in North American comic strips. More recently, comic strips have been conceived from the outset with a promotional aim. They perpetuate positive images and are directed toward a young readership, wielding humor to reduce the fear of venipuncture. Few comic strips denounce the abuse of the commercialization of products derived from the human body. The image of transfusion and blood donation given by the comic strips is not to be underestimated because their readership is primarily children, some of whom will become blood donors. Furthermore, if some readers are transfused during their lives, the impact of a memory more or less conscious of these childhood readings may resurface, both in hopes and in fears.

  3. Profiles of blood and blood component transfusion recipients in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Khoza, Star; Hassall, Oliver; Faragher, Brian E.; Kajja, Isaac; Mvere, David A.; Emmanuel, Jean C.; Postma, Maarten J.; van Hulst, Marinus

    2015-01-01

    Background. There are limited published data on the characteristics of blood transfusion recipients in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the demographic characteristics of blood transfusion recipients and patterns of blood and blood component use in Zimbabwe. Materials and methods. Data on th

  4. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells regulate the function of Th17/Treg in peripheral blood of severe asthmatic children%骨髓间充质干细胞对重症哮喘患儿外周血Th17/Treg 的免疫调节作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄雪琼; 檀卫平; 吴葆菁; 蓝丹; 吴海飞; 麦贤弟

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨骨髓间充质干细胞( MSCs )在体外对重度哮喘患儿外周血辅助性T细胞17( Th17)和CD4+CD25+调节性T细胞(Treg)的免疫调节作用。方法:体外分离、培养和鉴定MSCs。 MSCs经丝裂霉素处理后按不同比例(1∶1、1∶2、1∶10和1∶20)与哮喘患儿外周血T淋巴细胞(TLC)直接接触共培养,检测各组MSCs 对TLC的增殖调节作用。选取上述1∶2比例共培养体系和单独TLC培养体系,ELISA法分别检测Th17的效应分子白细胞介素17( IL-17)和Treg效应分子转化生长因子β( TGF-β)水平,qRT-PCR法检测转录因子维甲酸相关孤儿核受体(RORC)及叉头框蛋白3(Foxp3)mRNA表达水平。结果: MSCs 可显著抑制重度哮喘患儿TLC增殖,且随着MSCs数量的增加,抑制作用增强。 MSCs +TLC共培养组Th17转录因子RORC mRNA和效应因子IL-17表达较TLC组下降,同时TGF-β表达增高,而Treg细胞调控基因Foxp3 mRNA表达无明显改变。结论: MSCs在体外可能通过抑制Th17分化及IL-17的分泌,同时上调TGF-β的表达,进而有效改善哮喘患儿的Th17/Treg失衡状态。%AIM: To investigate the regulatory function of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on T helper 17 cells (Th17) and regulatory T cells (Treg) in peripheral blood of severe asthmatic children . METHODS:MSCs were isolated , cultured and identified in vitro.MSCs digested with mitomycin were cocultured with T lymphocytes (TLC) at different ratios (1∶1, 1∶2, 1∶10 and 1∶20) from severe asthmatic children for 72 h.The prolifera-tion of TLC was measured by CCK-8 method.In the coculture system of the 1∶2 ratio and the single TLC system , the super-natant levels of interleukin-17 (IL-17) and transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β) were measured by ELISA.The mRNA expression of retinoic acid-related orphan nuclear receptor C (RORC) and forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3) in TLC was de-tected by

  5. Detection of testosterone esters in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsdahl, Guro; Erceg, Damir; Geisendorfer, Thomas; Turkalj, Mirjana; Plavec, Davor; Thevis, Mario; Tretzel, Laura; Gmeiner, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Injections of synthetic esters of testosterone are among the most common forms of testosterone application. In doping control, the detection of an intact ester of testosterone in blood gives unequivocal proof of the administration of exogenous testosterone. The aim of the current project was to investigate the detection window for injected testosterone esters as a mixed substance preparation and as a single substance preparation in serum and plasma. Furthermore, the suitability of different types of blood collection devices was evaluated. Collection tubes with stabilizing additives, as well as non-stabilized serum separation tubes, were tested. A clinical study with six participants was carried out, comprising a single intramuscular injection of either 1000 mg testosterone undecanoate (Nebido(®)) or a mixture of 30 mg testosterone propionate, 60 mg testosterone phenylpropionate, 60 mg testosterone isocaproate, and 100 mg testosterone decanoate (Sustanon(®)). Blood was collected throughout a testing period of 60 days. The applied analytical method for blood analysis included liquid-liquid extraction and preparation of oxime derivatives, prior to TLX-sample clean-up and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detection. All investigated testosterone esters could be detected in post-administration blood samples. The detection time depended on the type of ester administered. Furthermore, results from the study show that measured blood concentrations of especially short-chained testosterone esters are influenced by the type of blood collection device applied. The testosterone ester detection window, however, was comparable. PMID:26695486

  6. Blood and war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley-Whyte, John; Milamed, Debra R

    2010-09-01

    In 1894 Ulsterman and pathologist Almroth Wright described the citation of blood. Twenty-one years later it was introduced into wartime and clinical practice. Harvard Medical School had a large part in providing Colonel Andrew Fullerton, later Professor of Surgery, Queen's Belfast, with the intellectual and practical help for the Allies to deploy blood on the post-Somme Western Front and in Salonika. The key investigators and clinicians were Americans and Canadians who with Fullerton and Wright instructed the Allies. The key enablers were two Harvard-trained surgeons surnamed Robertson-Oswald H. ("Robby") and L. Bruce (no relation). Physician Roger I. Lee of Harvard, surgeon George W Crile of Cleveland, Peyton Rous of the Rockefeller Institute and Richard Lewisohn of Mount Sinai Hospital, both located in the Upper East Side of New York City, played key roles.By Armistice in 1918, indirect citrated nutrient-enhanced blood transfusion was widely used by the Allies. Geoffrey Keynes was taught the techniques of blood transfusion by Dr. Benjamin Harrison Alton of Harvard at a Casualty Clearing Station near Albert at the time of the Battle of Passchendaele. Professor "Robby" Robertson, DSO, Sir Geoffrey Keynes and Sir Thomas Houston established blood banking.

  7. Rotary blood pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor); Kiris, Cetin (Inventor); Kwak, Dochan (Inventor); Rosenbaum, Bernard J. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); DeBakey, Michael E. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A blood pump that comprises a pump housing having a blood flow path therethrough, a blood inlet, and a blood outlet; a stator mounted to the pump housing, the stator having a stator field winding for producing a stator magnetic field; a flow straightener located within the pump housing, and comprising a flow straightener hub and at least one flow straightener blade attached to the flow straightener hub; a rotor mounted within the pump housing for rotation in response to the stator magnetic field, the rotor comprising an inducer and an impeller; the inducer being located downstream of the flow straightener, and comprising an inducer hub and at least one inducer blade attached to the inducer hub; the impeller being located downstream of the inducer, and comprising an impeller hub and at least one impeller blade attached to the impeller hub; and preferably also comprising a diffuser downstream of the impeller, the diffuser comprising a diffuser hub and at least one diffuser blade. Blood flow stagnation and clot formation within the pump are minimized by, among other things, providing the inducer hub with a diameter greater than the diameter of the flow straightener hub; by optimizing the axial spacing between the flow straightener hub and the inducer hub, and between the impeller hub and the diffuser hub; by optimizing the inlet angle of the diffuser blades; and by providing fillets or curved transitions between the upstream end of the inducer hub and the shaft mounted therein, and between the impeller hub and the shaft mounted therein.

  8. AUDIT OF BLOOD REQUISITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, P; Swarup, D; Singh, M M

    2001-01-01

    A total of 2793 requisition forms received by the blood banks of a Service zonal hospital, between June 1995 and December 1999, were analysed. 1697 (60.71%) forms were demand for single unit blood. Blood was collected against only 1099 forms (39.34%) out of which 713 (64.88%) were single unit issue. Urgency of requirement and blood group of patients was omitted in 56% cases. 104 forms were received without mention of the indications for transfusion. History of previous transfusion and pregnancy/HDN were omitted in 25.1% and 37.38% cases respectively. At an average 14.61% of the total collection was discarded. Of the 292 units discarded, 242 units were due to non utilisation. A transfusion committee should be established in all hospitals with a licensed blood bank. It should constitute definite objectives and conduct regular audits (prospective audit, concurrent review or retrospective review), in order to achieve utmost efficiency and numerous benefits, in terms of workload, cost, errors, risks of transfusion and ultimately increased customer satisfaction. It should strive to abolish single unit and inappropriate transfusion, and advocate autologous transfusion. PMID:27365575

  9. Infections Transmitted By the Transfusion of Blood and Blood Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekin A.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Especially viral hepatitis viruses and human immunodeficiency virus(HIV which were transmitted by the transfusion of blood and blood products have been an important public health problem for a long time on the world. Transfusion of blood and blood products is an ideal and an easiest and a simplest route for transmission of infectious diseases. It is known that many infectious agents, either bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal agents may be transmitted by the transfusion of blood and blood products. In present study, we reviewed infection diseases that transmitted by the transfusion of blood and blood products.Additionally, we were aimed to emphasize a rare but a very important complication of transfusion of blood and blood products.

  10. Sufficient blood, safe blood: can we have both?

    OpenAIRE

    Bönig Halvard; Schmidt Michael; Hourfar Kai; Schüttrumpf Jörg; Seifried Erhard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The decision in September 2011 in the UK to accept blood donations from non-practicing men who have sex with men (MSM) has received significant public attention. Will this rule change substantially boost the number of blood donations or will it make our blood less safe? Clearly, most European countries have a blood procurement problem. Fewer young people are donating, while the population is aging and more invasive therapies are requiring more blood. Yet if that was the reason for al...

  11. Types of Blood Pressure Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Types of Blood Pressure Medications Updated:Aug 26,2016 Many medications known ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  12. High Blood Pressure and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More High Blood Pressure and Women Updated:Aug 13,2014 Many people ... was last reviewed on 08/04/14. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  13. Interest rate derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikkel

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....

  14. AN OVERVIEW ON BLOOD PURIFIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabia Chauhan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Blood is a connective tissue which protects us from different problems. Without blood body cannot functions at all and blood doesn’t purify itself. When blood does not purifies itself that times kidney, liver and lymphatic system work together that they help’s to purifiers the blood. Causes which are included in blood impurities are modern life style, junk food, alcohol etc. If the blood becomes impure it causes different problems e.g. acne, rashes, allergic etc. There is not any proper synthetic medication for blood impurities. Only herbal formulations are used for the blood purifier. In this review article we discussed about the market formulations and the different plants which are used in them with their different activities which are helpful in purifies the blood and also protects from other problems.

  15. Manual versus automated blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, A C; Kalliokoski, Otto; Sørensen, Dorte B;

    2014-01-01

    corticosterone metabolites, and expressed more anxious behavior than did the mice of the other groups. Plasma corticosterone levels of mice subjected to tail blood sampling were also elevated, although less significantly. Mice subjected to automated blood sampling were less affected with regard to the parameters......Facial vein (cheek blood) and caudal vein (tail blood) phlebotomy are two commonly used techniques for obtaining blood samples from laboratory mice, while automated blood sampling through a permanent catheter is a relatively new technique in mice. The present study compared physiological parameters......, glucocorticoid dynamics as well as the behavior of mice sampled repeatedly for 24 h by cheek blood, tail blood or automated blood sampling from the carotid artery. Mice subjected to cheek blood sampling lost significantly more body weight, had elevated levels of plasma corticosterone, excreted more fecal...

  16. Synthetic Bioluminescent Coelenterazine Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Ryo; Citterio, Daniel; Suzuki, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The development of coelenterazine (CTZ) derivatives resulting in superior optical characteristics is an efficient method to extend the range of its possible applications. Here, we describe the synthesis of three C-6 substituted CTZ derivatives retaining the recognition by Renilla luciferase (RLuc) and its derivatives. The novel derivatives are useful as bright blue-shifted CTZ derivatives, which can be used as an alternative to hitherto reported compound DeepBlueC™. PMID:27424892

  17. Three new flavans in dragon's blood from Daemonorops draco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qian; Saito, Yoshinori; Matsuo, Yosuke; Li, Hai-Zhou; Takashi, Tanaka

    2015-01-01

    Three new flavans were isolated from chloroform extracts of dragon's blood from Daemonorops draco, together with eight known compounds. The structures of the new flavans were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis. These compounds are the first examples of 2-methoxyflavans from D. draco and regarded as derivatives of biogenetic intermediates from flavans to chalcones, which are characteristic of the dragon's blood.

  18. Clinical significance of myeliod-derived suppressor cells in peripheral blood and serum interleukin-10 level detection in children with bronchiolitis%毛细支气管炎患儿外周血髓系抑制细胞及血清白细胞介素-10水平检测的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀芳; 雷瑞瑞; 张艳丽; 毕丹; 刘莹; 郭智兰; 韩影

    2013-01-01

    目的 检测毛细支气管炎患儿外周血髓系抑制细胞(MDSCs)占单个核细胞比例(MDSCs百分比)及血清IL-10水平,探讨其临床意义.方法 随机选取在郑州大学第三附属医院儿内科就诊的2岁以下毛细支气管炎患儿51例.其中男27例,女24例.分为特应质组(毛支Ⅰ组)(n=25)和非特应质组(毛支Ⅱ组)(n=26).同期随机选取郑州大学第三附属医院儿内科同年龄组外科疝气、肾结石等非感染性疾病术前患儿45例(无特应质疾病史及特应性疾病家族史)(其中男25例,女20例)作为对照组.抽取3组患儿静脉血4 mL,留取1 mL采用流式细胞术检测MDSCs;余3 mL留取血清标本,置-70℃冰箱保存,采用酶联免疫吸附法检测外周血IL-10水平.结果 1.各组患儿MDSCs百分比:毛支Ⅰ组[(3.17±0.24)%]、毛支Ⅱ组[(1.33±0.25)%]均高于对照组[(0.78±0.25)%](P均<0.01);毛支Ⅰ组MDSCs百分比高于毛支Ⅱ组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).2.各组患儿外周血IL-10水平比较:毛支Ⅰ组[(31.88 ±3.91) ng/L]、毛支Ⅱ组[(23.85 ±4.10) ng/L]均高于对照组[(13.63 ±2.83) ng/L](P均<0.01);毛支Ⅰ组外周血IL-10水平高于毛支Ⅱ组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).3.相关性分析:毛支Ⅰ组MDSCs百分比的分布趋势和血清IL-10水平呈正相关(r =0.717,P<0.01),毛支Ⅱ组、对照组MDSCs百分比与IL-10无相关性(r=0.262、-0.102,P均>0.05).结论 MDSCs通过上调IL-10水平在毛细支气管炎发展为哮喘的过程中起重要作用.%Objective To explore the clinical significance of detecting serum interleukin-10(IL-10) level and the proportion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in children with bronchiolitis.Methods Fifty-one children with bronchiolitis less than 2 years old were randomly enrolled including 27 boys and 24 girls.They were divided into 2 groups:bronchiolitis group Ⅰ,25 children with atopic high risks were

  19. PD-L1/PD-L2 on human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells inhibits the IL-17 secretion of peripheral blood T cells%表达PD-L1/PD-L2的人胎盘间充质干细胞对外周血T细胞分泌IL-17的拮抗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国艳; 王斐斐; 李恒; 张丽霞; 栾希英

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨程序性死亡因子配体1(PD-L1)和PD-L2在人胎盘源性间充质干细胞(hPMSCs)上表达对外周血T细胞分泌IL-17的影响.方法 应用酶消化法分离人胎盘间充质干细胞(hPMSCs),并进行表型及分化鉴定;RT-PCR、激光扫描共聚焦显微镜技术(LSCM)及流式细胞术(FCM)检测hPMSCs上PD-L1及PD-L2的表达;应用化学合成的PD-L1 siRNA、PD-L2 siRNA沉默hPMSCs上PD-L1及PD-L2表达;密度梯度离心法分离纯化人外周血T细胞;细胞胞内因子染色法分析沉默PD-L1或PD-L2后hPMSCs对PMA活化的T细胞分泌IL-17的影响.结果 除PD-L1外,hPMSCs高表达PD-L2;siRNA能够有效阻断PD-L1和PD-L2在hPMSCs上的表达;胞内染色结果显示,hPMSCs能够上调T细胞IL-17的分泌,阻断PD-L1或PD-L2后,T细胞IL-17的分泌被进一步上调,且PD-L1和PD-L2具有叠加作用.结论 PD-L1和PD-L2在hPMSCs上表达,可拮抗hPMSCs刺激外周血T细胞分泌IL-17的作用.%Objective To investigate the expressions of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and PD-L2 in human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPMSCs) and their mediated immunoregulation on the secretion of IL-17 of peripheral blood T cells. Methods hPMSCs were isolated from mature human placenta by the method of enzyme digestion. The cells were cultured and expanded in vitro, and after the third passage, they were used in phenotyping and differentiation experiments. The expressions of PD-L1 and PD-L2 were detected by RT-PCR, laser-scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and flow cytometry. Specific siRNAs were transfected into hPMSCs via cathodolyte liposome transfection method to silence the expressions of PD-L1 and PD-L2. T cells were sorted from healthy peripheral blood by gradient centrifugation. IL-17 secretion of T cells activated by PMA was detected by intracellular staining after the expressions of PD-L1 and PD-L2 were silenced. Results Besides PD-L1, hPMSCs also highly expressed PD-L2, which could be silenced

  20. Hepatites pós-transfusionais na cidade de Campinas, SP, Brasil: II. Presença dos anticorpos anti-HBc e anti-HCV em candidatos a doadores de sangue e ocorrência de hepatites pós-transfusionais pelo vírus C nos receptores de sangue ou derivados Post-transfusional hepatitis in the city of Campinas, SP, Brazil: II- Presence of anti-HBc and anti-HCV antibodies in blood donors and occurrence of post-transfusional hepatitis C virus in recipients of blood or derivates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lopes Gonçales Júnior

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisamos os anticorpos anti-HBc e anti-HCV em amostras de soros provenientes de 799 candidatos a doadores, que tiveram suas unidades de sangue ou derivados transfundidas a 111 receptores. O anti-HBc e o anti-HCV foram reagentes, em respectivamente 9 e 2,1% dos doadores testados. Observamos que entre os 111 receptores, 44 haviam recebido pelo menos uma unidade anti-HBc positiva e 67 haviam sido transfundidos somente com unidades anti-HBc negativas. Houve um risco 4,5 vezes maior de aquisição de hepatite por vírus C pelos receptores que receberam pelo menos uma unidade anti-HBc positiva Se a pesquisa do anti-HBc fosse realizada na triagem sorológica dos doadores de sangue, cerca de 56% dos casos de HVC nos receptores saiam evitados. A população de receptores que recebeu pelo menos uma unidade anti-HCV reagente, apresentou um risco 29 vezes maior de adquirir esta hepatite, quando comparada aos receptores transfundidos com todas as unidades anti-HCV negativas. A realização do teste para a pesquisa do anti-HCV na triagem dos doadores de sangue, preveniria 79% dos casos de HVC pós-transfusionais. Os candidatos a doadores brasileiros parecem ser acometidos simultânea ou sequencialmente, pelos vírus B e C das hepatites, pois, 44,4% dos doadores anti-HCV positivos, também foram anti-HBc positivos. A realização dos testes para as pesquisas dos anticorpos anti-HBc e anti-HCV, nas triagens hemoterápicas, está indicada para prevenir a transmissão de hepatites pós-transfusionais, em nosso meio.We have analysed anti-HBc and anti-HCV antibodies in serum samples from 799 donors which had their blood or derivates transfused to 111 recipients. Anti-HBc and anti-HCV were reactive in respectively 9 and 2.1% of the donors tested. We have observed that among the 111 recipients, 44 had received at least one positive anti-HBc unit and 67 had been transfused only with negative anti-HBc, units. The risk of developing hepatitis C virus was 4.5 times

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical ...

  2. Nanosized blood microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuana, Yuana

    2011-01-01

    Microparticles (MPs) have important physiological and pathological roles in blood coagulation, inflammation and tumor progression. In recent years MPs also have been recognized to participate in important biological processes, such as in signaling and in the horizontal transfer of their specific pro

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and-a1c-hyperglycemia,tips-and-how-tos, In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood ... ensureArray(data.submitSurveyResponse.errors); $.each(surveyErrors, function () { if (this.errorField) { $('input[name="' + this.errorField + '"]').closest('.form-group') . ...

  4. Blood pressure and atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010319 Effects of combined application of Xuezhikang capsule with hypotensive drugs on arterial compliance and smoothness of the dynamic blood pressure. ZHU Zongtao(朱宗涛),et al. Dept Cardiol, Centr People’s Hosp, Tengzhou 277500.Chin J Integr Tradit & West Med 2010;30

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for ... diabetes. Learn More: Stories of Courage, Love and Resilience - 2016-08-blog.html Learn More Stories of ...

  6. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Submit to Blood View all Annual Meeting Abstracts 2016 Call for Abstracts 2016 Abstract Review Categories Abstracts Archive View all Education ... ASH Workshop on Genome Editing July 14-15, 2016 Learn new techniques in the clinical application of ...

  7. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your members of Congress to support continued medical research funding Take Action Meetings ASH Workshop on Genome Editing July 14- ... U.S. Surgeon General has issued a Call to Action on DVT and PE to raise public ... research on the causes, prevention, and treatment. Blood clots ...

  8. Chemistry of Blood Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, William F.

    2005-01-01

    The molecule of December 2005 comes from the paper by Rose, Palcic and Evans on structural factors determining the blood type. The structure was previously reported by Palcic and Evans and is presented without the water molecule that is determined in the crystal structure.

  9. CO2 blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test. DO ...

  10. Blood transfusion and dermatology:

    OpenAIRE

    Al Aboud, Ahmad; Al Aboud, Khalid; Al Hawsawi, Khalid; Jain, Nipun; Ramesh, V.

    2006-01-01

    Blood transfusion is an accepted therapeutic procedure in all specialties of medicine. In dermatology, specialized techniques like plasmapheresis and extracorporeal photochemotherapy have provided a good treatment option in immune-mediated disorders like bullous dermatoses, collagen vascular diseases and cutaneous lymphomas. Other anecdotal and less substantiated reports point to its use in chronic disorders like atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Untowarddermatological manifestations include m...

  11. Teaching "In Cold Blood."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbrich, Joan D.

    1967-01-01

    The Truman Capote nonfiction novel, "In Cold Blood," which reflects for adolescents the immediacy of the real world, illuminates (1) social issues--capital punishment, environmental influence, and the gap between the "haves" and "have-nots," (2) moral issues--the complexity of man's nature, the responsibility of one man for another, and the place…

  12. Impact of blood droplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Laan

    2015-01-01

    Within Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, forensic experts commonly use the stringing method, based on a straight line approximation of the blood droplets trajectories to determine where the source of a bloodstain pattern was. However, by ignoring gravity, large errors may arise when inferring the 3D-loca

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Edition Abstracts Collections Submit to Blood View all Annual Meeting Abstracts 2016 Call for Abstracts 2016 Abstract Review ... Abstracts Registration Housing Schedule and Program 58th ASH ® Annual Meeting & Exposition December 3-6, 2016, San Diego, CA ...

  14. Mechanical damage of red blood cells by rotary blood pumps: selective destruction of aged red blood cells and subhemolytic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Ryuki; Sobajima, Hideo; Yokoyama, Naoyuki; Waguri, Satoshi; Ohuchi, Katsuhiro; Takatani, Setsuo

    2008-10-01

    In this study, mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) were measured to quantify RBC damage by rotary blood pumps. Six-hour hemolysis tests were conducted with a Bio-pump BPX-80, a Sarns 15200 roller pump, and a prototype mag-lev centrifugal pump (MedTech Heart) using fresh porcine blood circulated at 5 L/min against a 100 mm Hg head pressure. The temperature of the test and noncirculated control blood was maintained at 37 degrees C. The normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) of each pump was determined by measuring the plasma-free hemoglobin level. The MCV was measured with a Coulter counter, and MCHC was derived from total hemoglobin and hematocrit. MCH was derived from MCV and MCHC. A multivariance statistical analysis (ANOVA) revealed statistically significant differences (n = 15, P < 0.05) in MCV, MCHC, and MCH between the blood sheared by the rotary blood pumps and the nonsheared control blood. Normalized to the control blood, the Bio-pump BPX-80 showed an MCV of 1.04 +/- 0.03, an MCHC of 0.95 +/- 0.04, and an MCH of 0.98 +/- 0.02; the mag-lev MedTech Heart had an MCV of 1.02 +/- 0.02, an MCHC of 0.97 +/- 0.02, and an MCH of 0.99 +/- 0.01; and the roller pump exhibited an MCV of 1.03 +/- 0.03, an MCHC of 0.96 +/- 0.03, and an MCH of 0.99 +/- 0.01. Per 0.01 increase in NIH, the BPX-80 showed a normalized MCV change of +10.1% and a normalized MCHC change of -14.0%; the MedTech Heart demonstrated a +6.9% MCV and -9.5% MCHC change; and the roller pump had a +0.5% MCV and -0.6% MCHC change. Due to shear in the pump circuits, the RBC increased while the MCHC decreased. The likely mechanism is that older RBCs with smaller size and higher hemoglobin concentration were destroyed fast by the shear, leaving younger RBCs with larger size and lower hemoglobin concentration. Subhemolytic trauma caused the intracellular hemoglobin to decrease due to gradual hemoglobin leakage through the micropores formed in the thinned

  15. 21 CFR 640.1 - Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole Blood. 640.1 Section 640.1 Food and Drugs... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.1 Whole Blood. The proper name of this product shall be Whole Blood. Whole Blood is defined as blood collected from human donors for...

  16. ANALYSIS OF PULSATILE BLOOD FLOW IN AXIALLY MOVING ARTERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to study motional properties of pulsatile blood flow in axially moving arteries, the authors derived some expressions of the pulsatile blood flow from the basic equations of motion for blood and vascular walls, including an axial blood velocity equation, a flow rate equation and a wall shear stress equation, which described not only the overall axial movement of the arteries but also the elastic properties of the vascular walls, discussed the effects of the arterial wall elasticity on the wall shear stress in coronary arteries in terms of these expressions, and analyzed changes of motional properties of pulsatile blood flow between an elastic arterial tube model and a rigid tube model. The results proved the inference by J.E. Moore Jr. et al. (1994) that the axial movement of arteries be as important in determining coronary artery hemodynamics as the elastic property of the vascular wall.

  17. Pressure and wall shear stress in blood hammer - Analytical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Chiang C; Jing, Haixiao

    2016-10-01

    We describe an analytical theory of blood hammer in a long and stiffened artery due to sudden blockage. Based on the model of a viscous fluid in laminar flow, we derive explicit expressions of oscillatory pressure and wall shear stress. To examine the effects on local plaque formation we also allow the blood vessel radius to be slightly nonuniform. Without resorting to discrete computation, the asymptotic method of multiple scales is utilized to deal with the sharp contrast of time scales. The effects of plaque and blocking time on blood pressure and wall shear stress are studied. The theory is validated by comparison with existing water hammer experiments.

  18. Joint probability discrimination between stationary tissue and blood velocity signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaikjer, Malene; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2001-01-01

    In CFM-mode the blood velocity estimates are overlaid onto the B-mode image. The velocity estimation gives non-zero velocity estimates in both the surrounding tissue and the vessels. A discrimination algorithm is needed to determine, which estimates represent blood flow and should be displayed....... This study presents a new statistical discriminator. Investigation of the RF-signals reveals that features can be derived that distinguish the segments of the signal, which do an do not carry information on the blood flow. In this study 4 features, have been determined: (a) the energy content in the segments...

  19. Metabolic control of muscle blood flow during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2003-01-01

    and the vasculature that induce vasodilation. A link between muscle metabolic events and microvascular control of blood flow is illustrated by local dilation of terminal arterioles during contraction of muscle fibers and conduction of vasodilation upstream. Endothelial-derived vasodilator mechanisms are known...... to exert control of muscle vasodilation. Adenosine, nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin (PGI2), and endothelial-derived hyperpolarization factor (EDHF) are possible mediators of muscle vasodilation during exercise. In humans, adenosine has been shown to contribute to functional hyperemia as blood flow...

  20. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Remember Clinical Trials What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against ... filtering units called nephrons. [ Top ] How does high blood pressure affect the kidneys? High blood pressure can damage ...

  1. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lead an active, normal life. What Is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the force that blood puts on ... and medications. continue Long-Term Effects of High Blood Pressure When someone has high blood pressure, the heart ...

  2. Globalisation and blood safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Albert

    2009-05-01

    Globalisation may be viewed as the growing interdependence of countries worldwide through the increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services, and also through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology. Globalisation is not just an economic phenomenon, although it is frequently described as such, but includes commerce, disease and travel, and immigration, and as such it affects blood safety and supply in various ways. The relatively short travel times offered by modern aviation can result in the rapid spread of blood-borne pathogens before measures to counteract transmission can be put in place; this would have happened with SARS if the basic life cycle of the SARS virus included an asymptomatic viraemia. This risk can be amplified by ecological factors which effect the spread of these pathogens once they are transferred to a naïve ecosystem, as happened with West Nile Virus (WNV) in North America. The rationalization and contraction of the plasma products industry may be viewed as one aspect of globalisation imposed by the remorseless inevitability of the market; the effect of this development on the safety and supply of products has yet to be seen, but the oversight and assurance of a shrinking number of players will present particular challenges. Similarly, the monopolization of technology, through patent enforcement which puts access beyond the reach of developing countries, can have an effect on blood safety. The challenges presented to blood safety by globalisation are heightening the tensions between the traditional focus on the product safety - zero risk paradigm and the need to view the delivery of safe blood as an integrated process. As an illustration of this tension, donor deferral measures imposed by globalisation-induced risks such as vCJD and WNV have resulted in the loss of the safest and most committed portion of the blood donor population in many Western countries, leading to an increased risk to

  3. Globalisation and blood safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Albert

    2009-05-01

    Globalisation may be viewed as the growing interdependence of countries worldwide through the increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services, and also through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology. Globalisation is not just an economic phenomenon, although it is frequently described as such, but includes commerce, disease and travel, and immigration, and as such it affects blood safety and supply in various ways. The relatively short travel times offered by modern aviation can result in the rapid spread of blood-borne pathogens before measures to counteract transmission can be put in place; this would have happened with SARS if the basic life cycle of the SARS virus included an asymptomatic viraemia. This risk can be amplified by ecological factors which effect the spread of these pathogens once they are transferred to a naïve ecosystem, as happened with West Nile Virus (WNV) in North America. The rationalization and contraction of the plasma products industry may be viewed as one aspect of globalisation imposed by the remorseless inevitability of the market; the effect of this development on the safety and supply of products has yet to be seen, but the oversight and assurance of a shrinking number of players will present particular challenges. Similarly, the monopolization of technology, through patent enforcement which puts access beyond the reach of developing countries, can have an effect on blood safety. The challenges presented to blood safety by globalisation are heightening the tensions between the traditional focus on the product safety - zero risk paradigm and the need to view the delivery of safe blood as an integrated process. As an illustration of this tension, donor deferral measures imposed by globalisation-induced risks such as vCJD and WNV have resulted in the loss of the safest and most committed portion of the blood donor population in many Western countries, leading to an increased risk to

  4. The heritability of blood donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Birger; Axel, Skytthe; Rostgaard, Klaus;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary blood donation is believed to be mostly motivated by altruism. Because studies have suggested that altruistic personality is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, we speculated that willingness to donate blood could also be governed by constitutional factors...... active Danish blood donors from 2002 to 2012, to establish blood donor status for Danish twins, who at age 17 years became eligible for donation in 2002 or later. Casewise concordance in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were presented and heritability was estimated in Mx by variance component...... to donate blood, respectively. CONCLUSION: Becoming a volunteer blood donor is determined by both genetic and environmental factors shared within families....

  5. 78 FR 32191 - Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... derivatives transactions independently. \\9\\ 77 FR 5416 (Feb. 3, 2012). Question One. The Board asked if NCUA.... Conduct: Collateral Accounting reporting......... management. Counterparty exposure Transaction management... permitted under applicable state law to engage in derivatives transactions. It requires any credit...

  6. A NEW FRACTAL DERIVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ji-Huan He

    2011-01-01

    A new fractal derive is defined, which is very easy for engineering applications to discontinuous problems, two simple examples are given to elucidate to establish governing equations with fractal derive and how to solve such equations, respectively.

  7. Antioxidant capacity of eugenol derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Hidalgo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity and antioxidant capacity of eugenol derivatives (E2 = 2-Methoxy-4-[1-propenylphenyl]acetate, E3 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxyphenylacetate, E4 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-4-nitrophenol, E5 = 5-Allyl-3-nitrobenzene-1,2-diol, E6 = 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-5-nitrophenyl acetate were evaluated in order to determine the influence of the sustituents. E2-E6 were synthesized from eugenol (E1. E1 was extracted from cloves oil, and E2-E6 were obtained through acetylation and nitration reactions. Antioxidant capacity evaluated by DPPH (1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil and ORAC fluorescein demonstrated that E1 and E5 have a higher capacity and the minor toxicity evaluated by red blood cells haemolysis and the Artemia saline test. In accordance with our results, the compound's (E1-E5 use in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and or food industries could be suggested.

  8. Blood rheology and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Başkurt, Oğuz K.; Simmonds, Michael J. ; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Journal of Geriatric Cardiology (2013) 10: 291301 ©2013 JGC All rights reserved; www.jgc301.com http://www.jgc301.com; | Journal of Geriatric Cardiology Review  Open Access  Blood rheology and aging Michael J. Simmonds1, Herbert J. Meiselman2, Oguz K. Baskurt3 1Heart Foundation Research Centre, Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222, Australia 2Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Keck School of Medicine, University of S...

  9. Blood Flow Multiscale Phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Agić, Ante; Mijović, Budimir; Nikolić, Tatjana

    2007-01-01

    The cardiovascular disease is one of most frequent cause deaths in modern society. The objective of this work is analyse the effect of dynamic vascular geometry (curvature, torsion,bifurcation) and pulsatile blood nature on secondary flow, wall shear stress and platelet deposition. The problem was examined as multi-scale physical phenomena using perturbation analysis and numerical modelling. The secondary flow determined as influence pulsatile pressure, vascular tube time-dependen...

  10. 铁过载对脐带血来源的造血干祖细胞及造血支持细胞的作用观察%Effect of iron overload on umbilical cord blood derived hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and hematopoietic supportive cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖霞; 赵明峰; 卢文艺; 柴笑; 穆娟; 邓琦; 李青; 李玉明

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨铁过载对脐带血(UCB)来源的造血干祖细胞及造血支持细胞,尤其是间充质干细胞(MSCs)的损伤作用.方法 体外培养脐带血单个核细胞(UCB-MNCs)和脐带血间充质干细胞(UCB-MSCs),向培养液中添加200 μmol/L的枸橼酸铁胺(FAC) 24 h建立铁过载模型.分为MNCs-CTL组、MNCs-FAC组、MSCs-CTL组、MSCs-FAC组,每组设3个复孔,实验重复3次.检测细胞内活性氧物质(ROS)水平变化、细胞增殖、分化、凋亡以及造血支持作用.结果 对UCB-MNCs进行铁过载,MNCs-FAC组造血集落形成单位(CFU-E、CFU-GM、BFU-E、CFU-mix)计数显著低于MNCs-CTL组(P<0.05),MNCs-FAC组造血干细胞(CD+34)、髓系造血细胞(CD+33)、红系造血细胞(GlyA+)比例及计数均显著低于MNCs-CTL组(P均<0.05);MNCs-FAC组的凋亡率高于MNCs-CTL组(P<0.05).MSCs-FAC组的群体倍增时间明显长于MSCs-CTL组,且其凋亡率亦高于MSCs-CTL组(P<0.05).结论 铁过载可抑制造血干祖细胞的增殖、分化,诱导其凋亡,也可抑制MSCs的增殖能力,诱导其凋亡,降低其造血支持能力,且此过程中ROS升高.%Objective To explore the detrimental effect of iron overload on umbilical-cord blood (UCB) derived hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) and hematopoietic supportive cells,especially mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).Methods Iron overload model of UCB-MNCs and UCB-MSCs was successfully established by adding 200? mol/L FAC into the culture medium for 12h.Then the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level,cell proliferation,cell differentiation,apoptosis and hematopoietic supportive capability were detected respectively.Results Iron overload was conducted on the UCB-MNCs.The hematopoietic colony forming units (CFU-E,CFU-GM,BFU-E,CFU-mix) counts in the MNCs-FAC group were significantly lower than those of MNCs-CTL group (P < 0.05) ; CD+34,CD3+33,GlyA + cell ratio and counts in the MNCs-FAC group were significantly lower than those in the MNCs-CTL (all P

  11. Dragon's blood: botany, chemistry and therapeutic uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepika; Bleakley, Bruce; Gupta, Rajinder K

    2008-02-12

    Dragon's blood is one of the renowned traditional medicines used in different cultures of world. It has got several therapeutic uses: haemostatic, antidiarrhetic, antiulcer, antimicrobial, antiviral, wound healing, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, etc. Besides these medicinal applications, it is used as a coloring material, varnish and also has got applications in folk magic. These red saps and resins are derived from a number of disparate taxa. Despite its wide uses, little research has been done to know about its true source, quality control and clinical applications. In this review, we have tried to overview different sources of Dragon's blood, its source wise chemical constituents and therapeutic uses. As well as, a little attempt has been done to review the techniques used for its quality control and safety. PMID:18060708

  12. How to Improve Cord Blood Engraftment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beksac, Meral; Yurdakul, Pinar

    2016-01-01

    Various factors make cord blood (CB) a significant source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), including ease of procurement and lack of donor attrition, with the ability to process and store the donor cells long term. Importantly, high proliferative potential of the immature HSCs allows one log less use of cells compared to bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells. As total nucleated cell (TNC) and CD34(+) cell content of CB grafts are correlated to engraftment rate and speed, strategies to expand HSC and homing have been developed. This chapter will focus only on modalities such as intrabone administration, fucosylation, CD26 inhibition, prostaglandin E2 derivative or complement 3 exposure, and SDF-1/CXCR4/CXCL-12 pathway interventions that have been experimented successfully. Furthermore, increasing evidence in line with better recognition of CB progenitors that are involved in engraftment and homing will also be addressed. PMID:26925402

  13. How to improve cord blood engraftment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral eBeksac

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Various factors make cord blood (CB a significant source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC, including ease of procurement and lack of donor attrition, with the ability to process and store the donor cells long term. Importantly, high proliferative potential of the immature HSCs allows one log less use of cells compared to bone marrow (BM or peripheral blood stem cells. As total nucleated cell (TNC and CD34 + cell content of CB grafts are correlated with engraftment rate and speed, strategies to expand HSC and homing have been developed. This chapter will focus on modalities such as intra-bone administration, fucosylation, CD26 inhibition, Prostaglandin G2 derivative or complement 3 exposure and SDF-1/CXCR4/CXCL-12 pathway interventions that have been experimented successfully. Furthermore increasing evidence in line with better recognition of CB progenitors that are involved in engraftment and homing will also be addressed.

  14. Regional blood flow studies with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methodological approaches to blood flow analysis include (1) diffusible indicator methods, (2) clearance techniques and (3) nondiffusible indicator methods. In each case, accurate measurements of blood flow can be obtained by developing mathematical models which relate the time-dependent observation derived from following the fate of a radiotracer as a function of time to the physiological process itself. Application of these models to biological systems involves constraints and necessitates compromises which may affect the validity of the measurements. Nevertheless, when these techniques are carefully applied and adequately validated, they have provided critical physiological information about such organ systems as the brain and kidney and promise to provide diagnostic information in patients with suspected coronary and peripheral vascular disease

  15. Noninvasive measurement of pulmonary blood volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In noninvasive estimation of pulmonary blood volume by radionuclide-angiocardiography, a formula was derived from experiments with heart-lung model, and in vivo experiments PBV = CO x PPT x 0.77. The pulmonary blood volume estimated clinically by this formula was in good agreement with the results obtained invasively before. The compliance (δV/δP) of the pulmonary ''venous'' system was calculated by simultaneous measurement of pressure changes in lung field on leg elevation and changes in pulmonary arterial wedge pressure with Swan-Ganz catheter. The compliances which were calculated in 35 cases of heart diseases by this method were in a considerably good agreement with those which were assessed by analysis of a pulmonary arterial wedge pressure tracing. (Ueda, J.)

  16. Deriving Verbs in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, R. M. W.

    2008-01-01

    Phonological and semantic principles which underlie the derivation of verbs from nouns and adjectives in English are examined. There is intricate phonological conditioning for suffix "-ize" and for suffix "-(i)fy"; a third major process is zero derivation. These derivational processes cover more than a score of semantic relations (some with…

  17. DIGITAL BLOOD PRESSURE MONITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fuentes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a blood pressure monitor which measures both the high blood pressure (systolic pressure,and the low blood pressure (diastolic pressure. It is a semiautomatic meter because the inflation of the occlusivecuff is carried out in a manual way. The transducer used is a piezoresistive silicon pressure sensor integrated onchip which provides a proportional voltage to the input pressure, with a measurement range from 0 to 50 kPa (0–7.3 PSI. The oscillometric method is employed, which consists on detecting the oscillometric signal on brachialartery, being processed at each pressure step, when the cuff is gradually deflated. Signal sampling is carried out ata rate determined by the heart rate.In order to program the digital electronics of the circuit we used Altera tools, with the compiler MAX-PLUS II, andthe device selected to implement the design was an EPM7128SLC84-15 CPLD (Complex Programmable LogicDevice

  18. A Multicenter study on preparation of Leukodepleted Platelet Concentrates from Pooled whole blood-derived platelets%全血制备浓缩血小板的汇集及滤除白细胞的多中心研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红; 吴瑕; 钟锐; 贺曾; 曹晔; 何语良; 陈洁; 刘嘉馨

    2012-01-01

    there is no significant change of platelet function after filtering,which meets the requirement of relevant standards. This study supplies basis for establishing operating procedures and quality standard of preparation of leukodepleted platelet concentrates from pooled whole blood-derived platelets.%目的 联合多家采供血机构开展全血制备浓缩血小板的汇集及滤除白细胞的研究,为制定全血制备浓缩血小板的汇集及滤除白细胞的操作规程和质量标准提供依据.方法 采用PRP法或BC法由400 ml新鲜全血制备浓缩血小板,将10~ 16 U ABO同型的浓缩血小板汇集,随机用A、B两种国产血小板型去白细胞滤器进行过滤,评价过滤前后血小板的质量和功能,共完成202例研究.结果 汇集血小板数≥2.4×1011个的共147例,其中A组77例,B组70例.A组过滤前后的血小板数、白细胞数分别为(2.90±0.45)×1011vS(2.60±0.43) ×1011,(176.45±135.67)×106 VS(1.00±2.29)×106;B组过滤前后的血小板数、白细胞数分别为(2.80±0.36)×1011 VS(2.40±0.37)×1011,( 175.76±147.84)×106 VS(0.30 +0.72)×106.汇集血小板数<2.4×1011个的共55例,其中A组29例,B组26例.A组过滤前后的血小板数、白细胞数分别为(1.71±0.39)×1011 VS( 1.43±0.42)×1011,( 65.85±110.97) ×106 VS(3.7±3.98) ×106;B组过滤前后的血小板数、白细胞数分别为(1.79±0.48) ×1011 VS(1.42±0.46)×1011,(70.63±145.55)×106 VS( 1.45±2.66)×106.A、B两组过滤前后pH值、血小板低渗休克、CD62p阳性表达率和聚集率无显著差异.结论 对PRP法或BC法制备的浓缩血小板进行汇集、过滤,可有效去除白细胞,且过滤前后血小板功能无显著变化,符合相关标准的要求.本研究为制定全血制备浓缩血小板的汇集及滤除白细胞的操作规程和质量标准提供了依据.

  19. 脐血单个核细胞对血管性痴呆大鼠脑组织BDNF、NGF的影响%Effects of intracarotid administration of human cord blood mononuclear cells on expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor in rats with vascular dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昌铭; 向静; 彭昌鼎; 王景周; 吉国泰

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察颈内动脉输注脐血单个核细胞(HCMNCs)对血管性痴呆(VD)大鼠脑组织脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)和神经生长因子(NGF)表达及大鼠学习记忆能力的影响. 方法 改良Pulsinellis四血管阻断法建立VD大鼠模型;大鼠受用随机数字表法分为对照组、模型组和治疗组;每组又分为2,4,8周三个时相点,每时相点12只.体外分离HCMNCs,术后24h颈内动脉输注3x106个BrdU标记细胞于治疗组;利用穿梭箱系统和ELISA法检测注射HCMNCs后2,4,8周VD大鼠学习记忆能力以及脑组织BDNF和NGF含量的变化. 结果 模型组大鼠主动回避反应比率显著低于对照组(P<0.01),治疗组较模型组显著提高(P<0.01).术后2周模型组大鼠脑BDNF、NGF含量较对照组显著增高(P<0.01),4周时达到高峰(P<0.01),8周时则明显下降,与2,4周时相比有显著性差异(P<0.05);治疗组大鼠脑BDNF、NGF含量较模型组显著升高(P<0.01),4周时最高(P<0.05,P<0.01),8周时略有下降,但仍维持在较高水平,与2,4周时相比无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 颈内动脉输注HCMNCs可显著改善VD大鼠学习记忆能力,推测原因为通过增加VD大鼠脑组织BDNF和NGF发挥作用.%Objective To explore the effects of intracarotid administration of human cord blood mononuclear cells (HCMNCs) on the expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)and nerve growth factor (NGF) and the learning-memory abilities in the vascular dementia (VD) rats.Methods The VD rat model was established by modified Pulsinellis 4-vessel occlusion (4 VO). The rats were randomly divided into a control group, a model group and a treatment group. The three groups were observed at three time points: 2 w, 4 w and 8 w, twelve rats in each time point. HCMNCs were isolated from human umbilical cord blood in vitro. The treatment group received intracarotid infusion of 3×106 HCMNCs which were prelabeled with BrdU in vitro. The learning

  20. 人骨髓来源的间充质干细胞体外对外周血Th17细胞的调节作用%Human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells regulate Th17 cells of peripheral blood in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任思楣; 陆红; 闫颖; 王海飞; 谢波

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨人骨髓来源的间充质干细胞(BMSC)在体外对外周血Th17细胞及IL-17的调节作用.方法 用淋巴细胞分离液以密度梯度离心法分离3例急性髓系白血病(AML)、3例急性淋巴细胞白血病(ALL)、1名健康人BMSC及健康人外周血单个核细胞(PBMC)并传代培养;酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)检测培养上清中的IL-17;流式细胞术检测共培养的健康人外周血中Th17细胞所占百分比.结果 AML患者BMSC与健康人PBMC共培养后,上清中IL-17表达水平为(292.32±37.25) pg/ml,与健康人BMSC与PBMC共培养上清中的IL-17水平[(169.64±17.47)pg/ml]相比,差异有统计学意义(P< 0.01);ALL患者的BMSC与PBMC共培养后,上清中的IL-17表达水平为(159.89±23.71)pg/ml,与健康人BMSC与PBMC共培养上清的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).健康人、ALL和AML患者BMSC与健康人PBMC共培养体系中Th17细胞的百分比分别为(10.13±2.19)%、(13.77±4.04)%、(21.53±5.05)%,AML患者与健康人间差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),ALL患者与健康人间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 AML患者BMSC促进外周血CD4+T细胞分化产生Th17细胞,AML患者BMSC可能在免疫抑制调节中发挥作用.%Objective To investigate the in vitro effects of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSC) on Th17 cells of the human peripheral blood.Methods The density gradient centrifugation combined with lymphocyte separation medium was used to isolate hBMSC,which were then cultured.Cytokine IL-17 in the peripheral blood from a healthy person was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Proportion of Th17 cells was evaluated by flow cytometry.Results The expression level of IL-17 in spent culture supernatant of the healthy person PBMC and AML hBMSC was (292.32±37.25) pg/ml,and was significantly higher than that of the healthy person PBMC and healthy hBMSC [(169.64±17.47) pg/ml,P < 0.01].There was no significant difference