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Sample records for blood cytokines content

  1. CYTOKINES AND C-REACTIVE PROTEIN CONTENT IN SERUM BLOOD OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LARYNGITIS DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Zaiter Samir; Kulikova EA; Garyuk GI

    2013-01-01

    Some kinds of interleikines of patients with chronic laryngitis disease were investigated. There is “cytokines explosion” of the patients with chronic laryngitis with persistent herpes simplex virus. Comparative investigation cytokine profile in serum blood is demonstrated: balanced reaction cytokines profile of patients with chronic laryngitis without persistent herpes simplex virus and dysbalanced reaction of patients with laryngitis (hyperergation). Increased content IL-6 and low content g...

  2. CYTOKINES AND C-REACTIVE PROTEIN CONTENT IN SERUM BLOOD OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LARYNGITIS DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaiter Samir

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Some kinds of interleikines of patients with chronic laryngitis disease were investigated. There is “cytokines explosion” of the patients with chronic laryngitis with persistent herpes simplex virus. Comparative investigation cytokine profile in serum blood is demonstrated: balanced reaction cytokines profile of patients with chronic laryngitis without persistent herpes simplex virus and dysbalanced reaction of patients with laryngitis (hyperergation. Increased content IL-6 and low content g-interferon and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-a are predisposition of chronisation inflammation processes in larynges. This situation needs sighting correction.

  3. [The effect of phospholipid hepatoprotectors on lipid peroxidation in liver and content of cytokines in the blood in experimental pathology caused by isoniazid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udut, V V; Vengerovskiĭ, A I; Burkova, V N; Vaizova, O E; Korshunov, D A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose--to investigate the influence of hepatoprotective agents of phospholipids'structure essentiale, eplir and its combinations with amber acid on rats liver functional state, lipoperoxidation and bioenergetics, also tumor necrosis factor-a and interleukin-10 blood content in experimental isoniazid intoxication. These agents demonstrated antioxidant action, decreased the common and indirect bilirubine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha blood content, aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity, increased the interleukin-10 blood content. Isonoazid uncoupled the substrate oxidation with ADP phosphorylation and inhibited the respiratory activity of liver mitochondrions. Essentiale and eplir increased the coupling of oxidation with ATP synthesis, in combination with amber acid improved kinetic characteristics of liver mitochondrions.

  4. [Cytokines in the treatment of blood diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robak, T

    1995-01-01

    Cytokines are a class of signal peptides which represent a major communication network in living organism. Over the last decade, the discovery, cloning and purification of hematopoietic cytokines (interleukins, hematopoietic growth factors) has increased our understanding of the regulation, proliferation, differentiation and function of hematopoietic cells. More recently, the large scale production of the recombinant forms of these molecules has enabled to treat the patients with pharmacologic doses of cytokines. The therapeutic activity of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) has been demonstrated in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia and other chronic myeloproliferative syndromes. IFN-gamma is useful in the prevention of infections in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Erythropoietin (EPO) was the first hematopoietic growth factor available for clinical use, initially to treat anaemia in renal failure patients. The next cytokines introduced into the clinic were granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF). They are used successfully in haematological malignant disorders to stimulate granulopoiesis after chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation and to help mobilise marrow stem cells for peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Interleukin (IL)-1, -2, -3, -4, -6 and -11 have been tested in clinical trials. However, the value of these agents remains to be established. PMID:7544526

  5. Cytokine signatures of human whole blood for monitoring immunosuppression

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yi; Luo, Yuwei; Lao, Xiaobin; Tan, Liping; Sun, Erwei

    2014-01-01

    How to evaluate status of the immune system is extremely critical for clinical immunosuppressive treatment. In this study, we tested the secretion of cytokines in undiluted whole blood samples stimulated with Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin (IONO), and compared the effects of dexamethasone (DEX), cyclosporine A (CsA) or mycophenolic acid (MPA), either alone or in combination, on cytokine profiles. The results showed that both DEX and CsA dose-dependently inhibited the prod...

  6. Aggressive Periodontitis and Chronic Arthritis: Blood Mononuclear Cell Gene Expression and Plasma Protein Levels of Cytokines and Cytokine Inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Korsbæk Connor; Poulsen, Anne Havemose; Bendtzen, Klaus;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cytokines and cytokine inhibitors have been associated with many immunoinflammatory diseases. In the present study, we examined whether peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression mirrors the corresponding plasma levels of clinically important pro- and anti-inflammatory c...

  7. Rheumatoid arthritis, gold therapy, contact allergy and blood cytokines

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    Theander Jan

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To study the clinical and biochemical effects of a low starting dose for gold therapy in rheumatoid arthritis patients with a contact allergy to gold. Methods Serum cytokines were assayed before and 24 h after the first injection of gold sodium thiomalate (GSTM. Results Contact allergy to gold was found in 4 of 19 patients. Compared to gold-negative patients (starting dose: 10 mg GSTM, there was a larger increase in serum TNFalpha (p Conclusions Cytokines are released in blood by GSTM in RA patients with gold allergy. To minimize the risk of acute adverse reactions the starting dose of GSTM should be lowered to 5 mg. Alternatively, patients should be patch-tested before gold therapy; in test-positive cases, 5 mg is recommended as the first dose.

  8. Aspects on the cytokine load in trauma with special reference to blood components and local versus systemic cytokine activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansson, Marianne

    1997-01-01

    ASPECTS ON THE CYTOKINE LOAD IN TRAUMA with special reference to BLOOD COMPONENTS and LOCAL VERSUS SYSTEMIC CYTOKINE ACTIVITY by Marianne Kristiansson, M.D. Dissertation from the Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Huddinge University Hospital Karolinska Institute, Stockholm and Department of Clinical Immunology, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden Cytokines and their inhibitors are thought to be involved in many of the pathophysiologi...

  9. Cytokine profiles in peripheral blood and whole blood cell cultures associated with aggressive periodontitis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anne Havemose; Sørensen, Lars Korsbaek; Stoltze, Kaj;

    2005-01-01

    Cytokines play a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. An obvious question is whether patients with aggressive periodontitis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, or rheumatoid arthritis share blood cytokine profiles distinguishing them from individuals free of disease....

  10. LYMPHOCYTE SUBSETS AND CYTOKINES IN BLOOD AND CEREBROSPINAL FLUID IN CHILDREN WITH VIRAL AND BACTERIAL MENINGITIS

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    L. A. Alekseeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of flow cytometry caused an increase in the investigation of liquor lymphocyte pool phenotype in the case of different brain disorders, including viral and bacterial meningitis, however this type of research in children has been relatively rare. Phenotype and lymphocyte functions are under cytokine control system, therefore detection of interconnections between lymphocyte pool subpopulation composition and cytokine level in blood and liquor of the patients concerns a great interest. The purpose of this research was to study lymphocyte subpopulation composition and the level of cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFNα, IFNγ and IL-4, and also IgG in liquor and blood of children with viral and bacterial meningitis. There was performed blood and liquor investigation in 46 children aged from 1 to 16 years old with viral (n = 35 and bacterial (n = 11 meningitis. Immunophenotyping of blood and liquor cells was performed by the method of flow cytometry with the use of monoclonal antibodies to CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD16, CD56, CD25 and CD95. The content of cytokines was detected in ELISA, and that of IgG — by the method of quantitative immunoturbodimetry. During an acute period of viral meningitis there was detected a decrease in NK portion and activated CD25+ cells in the blood of patients accompanied by the increase in B-lymphocytes number, along with cytokine IFNγ, IL-8 and IL-10 serum level rise. There was determined T-lymphocytes accumulation in liquor with the prevalence of CD4+ Т-cells and, to a lesser degree, CD25+ and CD95+ cells, NK and B-lymphocytes. Intrathecally there was noted the predominance of IL-6 response accompanied by the growth of IL-8 and IL-10 concentration as well. During an acute period of bacterial meningitis there was noted a decrease in percentage of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ Т-lymphocytes, NK, CD25+ and CD95+ cells, along with, on the contrary, sharp increase in B-cells pool, simultaneously with

  11. Increased Blood Levels of Growth Factors, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Th17 Cytokines in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes.

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    Kristi Alnek

    Full Text Available The production of several cytokines could be dysregulated in type 1 diabetes (T1D. In particular, the activation of T helper (Th type 1 (Th1 cells has been proposed to underlie the autoimmune pathogenesis of the disease, although roles for inflammatory processes and the Th17 pathway have also been shown. Nevertheless, despite evidence for the role of cytokines before and at the onset of T1D, the corresponding findings are inconsistent across studies. Moreover, conflicting data exist regarding the blood cytokine levels in T1D patients. The current study was performed to investigate genetic and autoantibody markers in association with the peripheral blood cytokine profiles by xMap multiplex technology in newly diagnosed young T1D patients and age-matched healthy controls. The onset of young-age T1D was characterized by the upregulation of growth factors, including granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF and interleukin (IL-7, the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β (but not IL-6 or tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, Th17 cytokines, and the regulatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-27. Ketoacidosis and autoantibodies (anti-IA-2 and -ZnT8, but not human leukocyte antigen (HLA genotype, influenced the blood cytokine levels. These findings broaden the current understanding of the dysregulation of systemic levels of several key cytokines at the young-age onset of T1D and provide a further basis for the development of novel immunoregulatory treatments in this disease.

  12. Increased Blood Levels of Growth Factors, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Th17 Cytokines in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, Kaire; Peet, Aleksandr; Varik, Karin; Uibo, Raivo

    2015-01-01

    The production of several cytokines could be dysregulated in type 1 diabetes (T1D). In particular, the activation of T helper (Th) type 1 (Th1) cells has been proposed to underlie the autoimmune pathogenesis of the disease, although roles for inflammatory processes and the Th17 pathway have also been shown. Nevertheless, despite evidence for the role of cytokines before and at the onset of T1D, the corresponding findings are inconsistent across studies. Moreover, conflicting data exist regarding the blood cytokine levels in T1D patients. The current study was performed to investigate genetic and autoantibody markers in association with the peripheral blood cytokine profiles by xMap multiplex technology in newly diagnosed young T1D patients and age-matched healthy controls. The onset of young-age T1D was characterized by the upregulation of growth factors, including granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-7, the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β (but not IL-6 or tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α), Th17 cytokines, and the regulatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-27. Ketoacidosis and autoantibodies (anti-IA-2 and -ZnT8), but not human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype, influenced the blood cytokine levels. These findings broaden the current understanding of the dysregulation of systemic levels of several key cytokines at the young-age onset of T1D and provide a further basis for the development of novel immunoregulatory treatments in this disease. PMID:26636339

  13. The relationship between cytokine level and nitric oxide content in aqueous humor after intraocular lens implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between cytokine level and nitric oxide (NO) content in aqueous humor after intraocular lens implantation. METHODS: All New Zealand rabbits were divided randomly into three groups: (1) control group, (2) extracapsular cataract extraction group (ECCE), (3) extracapsular cataract extraction and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation group (ECCE+IOL). The inflammation of all experimental rabbit eyes, including cornea edema and anterior chamber exudation were observed via zoom-photo slitlamp microscope 1,3,7,14,30 d postoperation. Meanwhile, aqueous humor was drawn for white blood cell (WBC) counting and classifying, and for NO-2/NO-3 and cytokine assay, including interleukin-2(IL-2), tumour necrosis factor-α(TNF-α). Statistics were taken by SPSS softwear. RESULTS: (1) Total WBC in aqueous humor were higher and anterior chamber exudation were more severe in ECCE+IOL group than that in ECCE group and control group. (2) The level of IL-2 and TNF-α and the content of NO-2/NO-3 in aqueous humor of ECCE+IOL group were higher than that in ECCE group and control group 1-14 d postoperation respectively, and it increased to peak value at 3-7 d postoperation and decreased gradually after two weeks postoperation. (3) The change regularity of IL-2, TNF-α and NO-2/NO-3 in each group were basically similar, i.e. when the level of cytokine (IL-2 and TNF-α) was normal, the content of NO-2/NO-3 was normal too, when the level of cytokine (IL-2 and TNF-α) increased, the content of NO-2/NO-3 increased too. CONCLUSION: The intraocular inflammation after ECCE+IOL was more severe than that after simple ECCE. NO, IL-2 and TNF-α play an important role in intraocular inflammation after intraocular lens implantation. The changes of IL-2 and TNF-α level was closely related with NO content in aqueous humor.

  14. PRODUCTION OF PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES AND ALPHA-2-MACROGLOBULIN BY PERIPHERAL BLOOD CELLS IN THE PATIENTS WITH COLORECTAL CANCER

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    V. N. Zorina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer worldwide, being quite complicated, with respect to diagnostics and postoperative prognosis. Proinflammatory cytokines are shown to be involved into CRC pathogenesis. However, the changes in alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2-MG, a known regulator of cytokine production, still remain unclear. The aim of this work was to compare contents and production of a2-MG and several pro-inflammatory cytokines in blood serum and supernates from short-term blood cell cultures. The samples were taken from the patients with CRC at initial terms and after surgical removal of the tumor.Studies of cytokines and a2-MG concentrations in serum and supernates of 24-h blood cell cultures from the patients with verified CRC (stages T2-3N0-1M0 and T4N0-1M0 have shown some sufficient differences from healthy volunteers (control group. Pre-surgery IL-6 and TNFα contents in blood of CRC patients was significantly increased agains healthy controls (respectively, 29.9±5.4 and 3.4±1.5 pg/mL versus control group (1.0±0.3 and 0 pg/mL, respectively. Following surgical treatment, the cytokine levels were decreased by 40- 60% after the operation, however, without significant differences from initial values.The supernates of blood cultures stimulated with polyclonal mitogens exhibited significant reduction of IFNγ levels prior to surgery (273±123 pg/ml versus 804±154 pg/mL, and elevated IL-6 levels (14412±2570 pg/mL versus 1970±457 pg/mL. The mean α2-MG concentrations before CRC surgery comprised 1.96±0.11 g/L for blood serum, 0.0304±0.0047 g/L, for non-stimulated blood cell cultures, and 0.0300±0.0052 g/L in mitogen-induced cultures. These parameters did not significantly differ from control values (2.21±0.17 g/L, 0.0328±0.0018 g/L, and 0.0314±0.0019 g/L, respectively. Similar results have been yielded with the samples obtained after surgical treatment of the CRC patients.The obtained data indicate that surgical

  15. Deuterium content variation of human blood serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report, for the first time, the variation of deuterium content of blood serum of the patients with cancer disease. The tumorous cell, because of the higher growth speed , is deuterium consuming. The deuterium content of blood serum of cancerous human is diminished by about 5-7 ppm compared with that of the healthy individual. This effect is in accordance with some previous results. The replacement of tap water with deuterium depleted water in a drinking water of tumorous mice diminished the growth rate of tumors and the slight increase in the deuterium concentration stimulates growth because it is more easy for the cells to elevate the intracellular deuterium concentration up to the threshold level. (authors)

  16. Whole Blood Activation Results in Altered T Cell and Monocyte Cytokine Production Profiles by Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2001-01-01

    An excellent monitor of the immune balance of peripheral circulating cells is to determine their cytokine production patterns in response to stimuli. Using flow cytometry, a positive identification of cytokine producing cells in a mixed culture may be achieved. Recently, the ability to assess cytokine production following a whole-blood activation culture has been described. In this study, whole blood activation was compared to traditional PBMC activation and the individual cytokine secretion patterns for both T cells, T cell subsets and monocytes was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: For T cell cytokine assessment (IFNg/IL-10 and IL-21/L-4) following PMA +ionomycin activation: (1) a Significantly greater percentages of T cells producing IFNgamma and IL-2 were observed following whole-blood culture and (2) altered T cell cytokine production kinetics were observed by varying whole blood culture times. Four-color analysiS was used to allow assessment of cytokine production by specific T cell subsets. It was found that IFNgamma production was significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8+ T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8- population following five hours of whole blood activation. Conversely, IL-2 and IL-10 production were Significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8- T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8+ population. Monocyte cytokine production was assessed in both culture systems following LPS activation for 24 hours. A three-color flow cytometric was used to assess two cytokines (IL-1a/IL-12 and TNFa/IL-10) in conjunction with CD14. Nearly all monocytes were stimulated to produce IL-1a, IL-12 and TNFa. equally well in both culture systems, however monocyte production of IL-10 was significantly elevated in whole blood culture as compared to PBMC culture. IL-12 producing monocytes appeared to be a distinct subpopulation of the IL-1a producing set, whereas IL-10 and TNFa producing monocytes were largely mutually exclusive. IL-10 and TNFa producing

  17. Immunomodulatory capacity of fungal proteins on the cytokine production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurink, P.V.; Lull Noguera, C.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wichers, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Immunomodulation by fungal compounds can be determined by the capacity of the compounds to influence the cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC). These activities include mitogenicity, stimulation and activation of immune effector cells. Eight mushroom strains (Agaric

  18. Rapid Detection of Neutrophil Oxidative Burst Capacity is Predictive of Whole Blood Cytokine Responses.

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    Philip J Vernon

    Full Text Available Maladaptive immune responses, particularly cytokine and chemokine-driven, are a significant contributor to the deleterious inflammation present in many types of injury and infection. Widely available applications to rapidly assess individual inflammatory capacity could permit identification of patients at risk for exacerbated immune responses and guide therapy. Here we evaluate neutrophil oxidative burst (NOX capacity measured by plate reader to immuno-type Rhesus Macaques as an acute strategy to rapidly detect inflammatory capacity and predict maladaptive immune responses as assayed by cytokine array.Whole blood was collected from anesthetized Rhesus Macaques (n = 25 and analyzed for plasma cytokine secretion (23-plex Luminex assay and NOX capacity. For cytokine secretion, paired samples were either unstimulated or ex-vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated (100μg/mL/24h. NOX capacity was measured in dihydrorhodamine-123 loaded samples following phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA/ionomycin treatment. Pearson's test was utilized to correlate NOX capacity with cytokine secretion, p<0.05 considered significant.LPS stimulation induced secretion of the inflammatory molecules G-CSF, IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12/23(p40, IL-18, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and TNFα. Although values were variable, several cytokines correlated with NOX capacity, p-values≤0.0001. Specifically, IL-1β (r = 0.66, IL-6 (r = 0.74, the Th1-polarizing cytokine IL-12/23(p40 (r = 0.78, and TNFα (r = 0.76 were strongly associated with NOX.NOX capacity correlated with Th1-polarizing cytokine secretion, indicating its ability to rapidly predict inflammatory responses. These data suggest that NOX capacity may quickly identify patients at risk for maladaptive immune responses and who may benefit from immuno-modulatory therapies. Future studies will assess the in-vivo predictive value of NOX in animal models of immune-mediated pathologies.

  19. Multiple cytokines are released when blood from patients with tuberculosis is stimulated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens.

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    Kathryn L Kellar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infection may cause overt disease or remain latent. Interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs detect Mtb infection, both latent infection and infection manifesting as overt disease, by measuring whole-blood interferon gamma (IFN-γ responses to Mtb antigens such as early secreted antigenic target-6 (ESAT-6, culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10, and TB7.7. Due to a lack of adequate diagnostic standards for confirming latent Mtb infection, IGRA sensitivity for detecting Mtb infection has been estimated using patients with culture-confirmed tuberculosis (CCTB for whom recovery of Mtb confirms the infection. In this study, cytokines in addition to IFN-γ were assessed for potential to provide robust measures of Mtb infection. METHODS: Cytokine responses to ESAT-6, CFP-10, TB7.7, or combinations of these Mtb antigens, for patients with CCTB were compared with responses for subjects at low risk for Mtb infection (controls. Three different multiplexed immunoassays were used to measure concentrations of 9 to 20 different cytokines. Responses were calculated by subtracting background cytokine concentrations from cytokine concentrations in plasma from blood stimulated with Mtb antigens. RESULTS: Two assays demonstrated that ESAT-6, CFP-10, ESAT-6+CFP-10, and ESAT-6+CFP-10+TB7.7 stimulated the release of significantly greater amounts of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-8, MCP-1 and MIP-1β for CCTB patients than for controls. Responses to combination antigens were, or tended to be, greater than responses to individual antigens. A third assay, using whole blood stimulation with ESAT-6+CFP-10+TB7.7, revealed significantly greater IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1β, and TNF-α responses among patients compared with controls. One CCTB patient with a falsely negative IFN-γ response had elevated responses with other cytokines. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple cytokines are released when whole blood from patients with CCTB is stimulated

  20. The effects of Saccharum officinarium (sugar cane) molasses on cytokine secretion by human blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahiman, Farzana; Pool, Edmund John

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of sugar cane molasses on the immune system, using cytokines as biomarkers. Whole blood cultures, stimulated in vitro with endotoxin or PHA, were incubated with various concentrations of molasses. No cell death occurred in whole blood cultures incubated with molasses samples. The addition of molasses (800 microg/mL) to unstimulated whole blood cultures resulted in increased levels of the biomarker of inflammation, Interleukin-6 (P Molasses addition (800 microg/mL) to unstimulated whole blood cultures has no effect on the cell mediated immunity biomarker, Interferon gamma secretion. Molasses has no effect on Interleukin-6, Interleukin-10 and Interferon gamma secretion in stimulated whole blood cultures. Immunostimulation by molasses requires further investigation as it may have potential health impacts. PMID:20391026

  1. Cytokine response in peripheral blood indicates different pathophysiological mechanisms behind anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mark Ellebæk; Baatrup, G; Gjedsted, J;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anastomotic leakage (AL) after rectosigmoid resection is a serious complication associated with high morbidity and mortality. This case-control pilot study investigated the changes in blood concentration of 10 different cytokines and 2 complement factors in relation to symptomatic AL...... after low anterior resection for rectosigmoid cancer. METHODS: Fifty patients scheduled for resection of rectosigmoid cancer had blood samples taken the day before surgery and on post-operative days 1, 3 and 5. Four patients with symptomatic AL were identified. Twenty-two age- and disease......-matched patients constituted the control group. The concentration of 10 cytokines (granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon-γ, interleukin-1β, interleukin-2, interleukin-4, interleukin-5, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-10 and tumour necrosis factor-α) and 2 complement factors (mannan...

  2. SALMON SOFT ROE DNA ON BLOOD CELLS SECRETION OF CYTOKINES IN HEALTHY DONORS

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    L. N. Fedjanina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Salmon soft roe DNA influence on healthy donors blood cells secretion of early hemopoietic factors (IL-3, GM-CSF, TNFα as well as biologically active substance influence on cytokine balance of Тh1 and Тh2 responses (IFNγ, IL-10 in vitro was studied. It is established, that DNA has modulatory effect on secretion of all investigated cytokines - IL-3, GM-CSF, TNFα, INFγ and IL-10 by blood cells of healthy donors, increases their initially low concentration, reduces initially high and does not have essential influence at an average level of their secretion. Under action of DNA IFNγ level (stimulation index=3,3 increases more significantly than IL-10 level (stimulation index =1,9. Thus, salmon soft roe DNA possesses immunomodulatory properties.

  3. Production of fibrogenic cytokines by interleukin-2-treated peripheral blood leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, E J; Brock, B; Silber, I E;

    1993-01-01

    procollagen and fibronectin messenger RNAs was increased in human fibroblasts in response to leukocyte supernatants. Unstimulated leukocytes expressed minimal levels of transforming growth factor-beta or platelet-derived growth factor B chain messenger RNAs, but could be greatly enhanced by IL-2 treatment....... CONCLUSION: Mediators that induce connective tissue production are secreted by IL-2-treated peripheral blood leukocytes. These cytokines may be responsible, in part, for the stimulation of abdominal adhesions in patients receiving intraperitoneal immunotherapy....

  4. CYTOKINE LEVELS IN MATERNAL BLOOD AND UMBICAL CORD SERA FROM WOMEN WITH SYMPTOMS OF INTRAUTERINE INFECTION

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    I. A. Botvin’eva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. We had investigated serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1ra and TNFα in peripheral blood of pregnant women at the terms of 38 to 40 weeks with polyhydramnios and serum IgG antibodies specific for Chlamydia trachomatis (titers of 1:20 to 1:40. Same parameters were tested in umbilical cord blood sera, obtained at delivery. We had found high levels of TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 in sera from umbilical cord blood, and increased levels of TNFα in maternal sera before delivery in a group of women with high Apgar scores of their children (≥ 8 points, in comparison with control group. High levels of TNFα, IL-6, IL-10 in sera from umbical cord and increased serum concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ra and TNFα before delivery were evaluated in group of women with circulating antibodies against C. trachomatis during pregnancy and with low degrees of newborn children (< 7 by Apgar score. We suggest that high cytokine levels in maternal blood and in sera of umbilical cord blood from women with polyhydramnios and circulating antibodies against C. trachomatis sufficiently correlate with high clinical risk of intrauterine infection in newborns. However, high inter-individual variability of the cytokine parameters does not permit their usage as independent diagnostic criteria.

  5. Cytokine production in peripheral blood cells of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: elevated Th2/Th9 cytokine production before and reduced Th2 cytokine production after radioactive iodine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonovic, Snezana Zivancevic; Mihaljevic, Olgica; Majstorovic, Ivana; Djurdjevic, Predrag; Kostic, Irena; Djordjevic, Olivera Milosevic; Teodorovic, Ljiljana Mijatovic

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines play a key role in the regulation of cells of the immune system and also have been implicated in the pathogenesis of malignant diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate cytokine profiles in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) before and 7 days after radioactive iodine (131-I) therapy. Cytokine levels were determined in supernatants obtained from phytohemagglutinin-stimulated whole blood cultures of 13 patients with DTC and 13 control subjects. The concentrations of selected cytokines: Th1-interferon gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin 2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α); Th2-interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin 5 (IL-5), interleukin 13 (IL-13) and interleukin 10 (IL-10); Th9-interleukin-9 (IL-9); and Th17-interleukin 17 (IL-17A) were measured using multiplex cytokine detection systems for Human Th1/Th2/Th9/Th17/Th22. We have shown that peripheral blood cells of DTC patients produce significantly higher concentrations of Th2/Th9 cytokines (IL-5, IL-13 and IL-9) than control subjects. The 131-I therapy led to reduced secretion of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13). Despite this, the calculated cytokine ratios (Th1/Th2) in DTC patients before and 7 days after 131-I therapy were not different from those in healthy subjects. DTC patients have significantly higher concentrations of Th2/Th9 cytokines (IL-5, IL-13 and IL-9) than control subjects. There is no influence of hypothyroidism or stage of disease on cytokine production in DTC patients before 131-I therapy. The radioactive 131-I therapy leads to reduced secretion of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13). Additional studies are needed to determine the significance of these findings. PMID:25297452

  6. Below background levels of blood lead impact cytokine levels in male and female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of studies have documented that Pb exerts immunotoxic effects on T lymphocytes. In studies designed to explore this general response over a broad dose range, female Swiss mice were administered six different diets containing Pb acetate 1 day after mating. During lactation, the mothers received the same feed given during pregnancy, and the same diets were administered to the offspring for 9 months after weaning. At the end of exposure, blood Pb level in the offspring was determined, and possible changes in two type 1 cytokines (IL-2, INF-γ) and one type 2 cytokine (IL-4) in the serum were measured. At higher dietary Pb levels (40 and 400 ppm), a significant increase in IL-4 production was associated with a profound decrease in INF-γ and IL-2 production. At the lowest Pb diet level (0.02 ppm), which resulted in a blood lead level of (0.8 μg/dL), which is below background (2-3 μg/dL) values in humans, increases in INF-γ and IL-2 production along with a significant decrease in IL-4 production were observed. The findings provide evidence of a reversal of lead-induced cytokine skewing depending on the blood lead concentration. As blood lead concentration increases, there is a notable skewing toward Th2, while the pattern is reversed favoring Th1 development at lower blood lead values. The present findings are also notable since they indicate the potential for dietary Pb to have significant biological effects below normal background concentrations

  7. Evaluation of low level laser therapy irradiation parameters on rat muscle inflammation through systemic blood cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantineo, Matias; Pinheiro, João. P.; Morgado, António M.

    2014-02-01

    Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used for inflammation treatment. Here, we evaluate the effect of different doses, using continuous (830 and 980 nm) and pulsed illumination (830 nm), in the treatment of inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats, through cytokines concentration in systemic blood and histological analysis of muscle tissue. Animals were randomly divided into five groups per wavelength (5 animals per group: 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mW) plus a control group. LLLT was applied during five days, with constant exposure time and irradiated area (3 minutes; 0.5026 cm2). Blood was collected on days 0, 3 and 6. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-6 cytokines were quantified by ELISA. Rats were killed on day 6. Muscle inflammatory cells were counted using optical microscopy. Treatment effects occurred for all applied doses (largest effect at 40 mW: 7.2 J, 14 J/cm2 per irradiation), with reduction of proinflammatory TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 cytokines and lower number of inflammatory cells. Results were better for 830 nm. Identical methodology was used with pulsed illumination. Average power (40 mW) and duty cycle were kept constant (80%) at five frequencies (5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 Hz). Treatment effects were observed at higher frequencies, with no significant differences between them. However, the treatment effect was lower than for continuous illumination. LLLT effect on inflammation treatment can be monitored by measuring systemic blood cytokines. A larger treatment effect was observed with continuous illumination, where results seem to be compatible with a biphasic dose response.

  8. [Structural and functional characteristics of bone tissue and blood cytokines in health and disease of the joints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariakina, E V; Norkin, I A; Gladkova, E V; Persova, E A; Matveeva, O V; Puchin'ian, D M

    2014-02-01

    Change of structural and functional state of bone in patients with primary osteoarthrosis of the hip joint compared to healthy individuals is characterized by decreased bone formation with a relative predominance of resorption. Osteopenic syndrome develops in the background of evident imbalance of a blood cytokine profile with increasing the level of proinflammatory and the variability of the level of anti-inflammatory cytokines.

  9. Extraction of mRNA from coagulated horse blood and analysis of inflammation-related cytokine responses to coagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovbjerg, Kirsten Katrine Lindegaard; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    available. Here, a protocol for RNA extraction from highly clotted blood was optimized and the regulation of a number of cytokine genes compared to stabilized blood was studied. Whole blood samples from 10 clinically healthy horses were incubated for 24 hours at 37°C and RNA was extracted from...

  10. Mode of delivery and cord blood cytokines: a birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DuBois Andrea M

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms for the association between birth by cesarean section and atopy and asthma are largely unknown. Objective To examine whether cesarean section results in neonatal secretion of cytokines that are associated with increased risk of atopy and/or asthma in childhood. To examine whether the association between mode of delivery and neonatal immune responses is explained by exposure to the maternal gut flora (a marker of the vaginal flora. Methods CBMCs were isolated from 37 neonates at delivery, and secretion of IL-13, IFN-γ, and IL-10 (at baseline and after stimulation with antigens [dust mite and cat dander allergens, phytohemagglutinin, and lipopolysaccharide] was quantified by ELISA. Total and specific microbes were quantified in maternal stool. The relation between mode of delivery and cord blood cytokines was examined by linear regression. The relation between maternal stool microbes and cord blood cytokines was examined by Spearman's correlation coefficients. Results Cesarean section was associated with increased levels of IL-13 and IFN-γ. In multivariate analyses, cesarean section was associated with an increment of 79.4 pg/ml in secretion of IL-13 by CBMCs after stimulation with dust mite allergen (P Conclusion Cesarean section is associated with increased levels of IL-13 and IFN-γ, perhaps because of lack of labor and/or reduced exposure to specific microbes (e.g., gram-positive anaerobes at birth.

  11. Whole Blood Activation Results in Enhanced Detection of T Cell and Monocyte Cytokine Production by Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Clarence F.; Crucian, Brian E.

    2001-01-01

    An excellent monitor of the immune balance of peripheral circulating cells is to determine their cytokine production patterns in response to stimuli. Using flow cytometry a positive identification of cytokine producing cells in a mixed culture may be achieved. Recently, the ability to assess cytokine production following a wholeblood activation culture has been described. We compared whole blood culture to standard PBMC culture and determined the individual cytokine secretion patterns for both T cells and monocytes via flow cytometry. For T cells cytokine assessment following PMA +ionomycin activation: (1) a significantly greater percentages of T cells producing IFNgamma and IL-2 were observed following whole-blood culture; (2) altered T cell cytokine production kinetics were observed by varying whole blood culture times. In addition, a four-color cytometric analysis was used to allow accurate phenotyping and quantitation of cytokine producing lymphocyte populations. Using this technique we found IFNgamma production to be significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8+ T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8- population following five hours of whole blood activation. Conversely, IL-2 and IL-10 production were significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8- T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8+ population. Monocyte cytokine production was assessed in both culture systems following LPS activation for 24 hours. A three-color flow cytometric was used to assess two cytokines in conjunction with CD 14. The cytokine pairs used for analysis were IL-1a/IL-12, and IL-10ITNFa. Nearly all monocytes were stimulated to produce IL-1a, IL-12 and TNFalpha equally well in both culture systems. Monocyte production of IL-10 was significantly elevated following whole blood culture as compared to PBMC culture. IL-12 producing monocytes appeared to be a distinct subpopulation of the IL-1a producing set, whereas IL-10 and TNFa producing monocytes were largely mutually exclusive. IL-10 and

  12. Kinetic study of cytokines production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to Brucella DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkarbolouki, Taghi; Ardestani, Sussan K; Kariminia, Amina; Ziaee, Abed-Ali; Torkabadi, Ebrahim; Ebrahimi, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    In spite of reports on cytokines induction by the Brucella DNA in murine model, there is no comparison between pathogenic and appropriate vaccine strains in human. We investigated the cytokines profile of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) induced by DNA extracted from pathogenic isolates of Brucella melitensis and B. abortus as well as Rev1 and S19; the appropriate vaccine strains. It was observed that despite differential induction of Interleukin(IL)-12 and IL-10 production, identical IL-12/IL-10 concentration ratio was obtained by all Brucella strains DNAs that was 2 after 24 h and 4 after 5 days of incubation. In addition, IL-2 and Interferon(IFN)-gamma production were profoundly increased compared to the medium at day 3 and 5 respectively but IFN-alpha was not induced. Therefore, Brucella strains DNAs are Th1 inducing component with similar pattern in human PBMCs. PMID:17008080

  13. Cytokines profile and peripheral blood mononuclear cells morphology in Rett and autistic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorelli, Alessandra; Cervellati, Franco; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Montagner, Giulia; Waldon, PhiAnh; Hayek, Joussef; Gambari, Roberto; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    A potential role for immune dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been well established. However, immunological features of Rett syndrome (RTT), a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder closely related to autism, have not been well addressed yet. By using multiplex Luminex technology, a panel of 27 cytokines and chemokines was evaluated in serum from 10 RTT patients with confirmed diagnosis of MECP2 mutation (typical RTT), 12 children affected by classic autistic disorder and 8 control subjects. The cytokine/chemokine gene expression was assessed by real time PCR on mRNA of isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Moreover, ultrastructural analysis of PBMCs was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Significantly higher serum levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-9, IL-13 were detected in RTT compared to control subjects, and IL-15 shows a trend toward the upregulation in RTT. In addition, IL-1β and VEGF were the only down-regulated cytokines in autistic patients with respect to RTT. No difference in cytokine/chemokine profile between autistic and control groups was detected. These data were also confirmed by ELISA real time PCR. At the ultrastructural level, the most severe morphological abnormalities were observed in mitochondria of both RTT and autistic PBMCs. In conclusion, our study shows a deregulated cytokine/chemokine profile together with morphologically altered immune cells in RTT. Such abnormalities were not quite as evident in autistic subjects. These findings indicate a possible role of immune dysfunction in RTT making the clinical features of this pathology related also to the immunology aspects, suggesting, therefore, novel possible therapeutic interventions for this disorder.

  14. Serum cytokine contents in schizophrenia patient with metabolic syndrome and their correlation with nerve electrophysiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Yong Chen; Zhong Chen; Xue-Jing Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze serum cytokine contents in schizophrenia patient with metabolic syndrome (MS) and their correlation with nerve electrophysiology.Methods:A total of 90 chizophrenia patient with MS, including 41 cases with simple schizophrenia and 39 cases with simple metabolic syndrome were included for study. The values of nerve electrophysiology indexes and serum illness-related indexes were compared among included patients, and the correlation between the two was further analyzed.Results:Compared with simple schizophrenia group and simple MS group, P300 latency of schizophrenia with MS group was longer, and the amplitude was shorter; N2-P3 latency and amplitude were shorter (P<0.05); serum SOD, S100b, BDNF, ABAb, PAI-1,α-HBDH, AST, cystatin c, TG, FBG and 2hPG values of schizophrenia with MS group were higher, IGF1, HMW-APN and HDL-C levels were lower, and compared with simple schizophrenia group and simple MS group, differences were significant (P<0.05); P300 latency, P300 amplitude, N2-P3 latency and N2-P3 amplitude of schizophrenia with MS group were directly correlated with serum cytokine contents (P<0.05).Conclusions:There are significantly abnormal serum cytokines and nerve electrophysiology indexes in schizophrenia patient with MS, and nerve electrophysiology detection can be used as the means to judge disease and guide treatment.

  15. Microwave imaging of tissue blood content changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, M S; Broquetas, A; Jofre, L; Bolomey, J C; Gaboriaud, G

    1991-05-01

    Active microwave imaging gives information on the dielectric properties of of the body, allowing the collection of data that are distinct from, but complementary to, those available from other imaging methods based on different radiations. Two types of microwave imaging systems have been developed. The first is a planar system that irradiates the object with a plane wave and collects scattered phase and amplitude data at 1024 points on a parallel plane. The data can be reconstructed using a back propagation technique to give an image of the object. The second type of system is a tomographic scanner, consisting of a multiplexed 64-element circular array of waveguides. The waveguides are electronically scanned, alternately as sources and receivers, to give a complete scan of the object with no mechanical movement. A tomographic 'slice' of the object is reconstructed using spectral domain interpolation. Both systems work at 2.45 GHz with an incident power less than 1 mW cm-2 at the object and require a coupling medium (usually water) between the object and the source/receiver. Imaging parameters are appropriate for clinical use: a spatial resolution of 1 cm, measurement time of a few seconds and contrast resolution of around 1%. The effects of changes in perfusion on images of isolated animal organs are presented. Images have also been obtained, with both systems, of the internal dielectric structure of the forearm and of variations in dielectric properties due to changes of tissue blood content effected by application and release of tourniquets to the upper arm. Results show that these changes are well demonstrated by microwave imaging, and possible clinical applications are discussed. PMID:1870328

  16. Cytokine-Stimulated Phosphoflow of Whole Blood Using CyTOF Mass Cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Rosemary; Maecker, Holden

    2015-01-01

    The ability to assess the function of a range of cytokine, antigen receptor, and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways in a range of immune cells could provide a kind of fingerprint of the state of the human immune system. The mass cytometry or CyTOF, platform allows for the parallel application of about 40 labeled antibodies to a single sample, creating the possibility to read out many cell types and signaling pathways in a single small blood sample. We developed such a mass cytometry ...

  17. Controlled meal frequency without caloric restriction alters peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Dan L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent fasting (IF improves healthy lifespan in animals by a mechanism involving reduced oxidative damage and increased resistance to stress. However, no studies have evaluated the impact of controlled meal frequency on immune responses in human subjects. Objective A study was conducted to establish the effects of controlled diets with different meal frequencies, but similar daily energy intakes, on cytokine production in healthy male and female subjects. Design In a crossover study design with an intervening washout period, healthy normal weight middle-age male and female subjects (n = 15 were maintained for 2 months on controlled on-site one meal per day (OMD or three meals per day (TMD isocaloric diets. Serum samples and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs culture supernatants from subjects were analyzed for the presence of inflammatory markers using a multiplex assay. Results There were no significant differences in the inflammatory markers in the serum of subjects on the OMD or TMD diets. There was an increase in the capacity of PBMCs to produce cytokines in subjects during the first month on the OMD or TMD diets. Lower levels of TNF-α, IL-17, MCP-1 and MIP-1β were produced by PBMCs from subjects on the OMD versus TMD diet. Conclusions PBMCs of subjects on controlled diets exhibit hypersensitivities to cellular stimulation suggesting that stress associated with altered eating behavior might affect cytokine production by immune cells upon stimulation. Moreover, stimulated PBMCs derived from healthy individuals on a reduced meal frequency diet respond with a reduced capability to produce cytokines.

  18. CHANGES IN THE PARAMETERS OF BLOOD LIPIDS AND CYTOKINES IN PATIENTS WITH PRIMARY OSTEOARTHRITIS DURING TREATMENT WITH ARTHRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Yu Alexenko

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion. The POA patients treated with Arthra displayed improvements in LPO profile and antioxidant defense and lower blood concentrations of cholesterol and LDL cholesterol along with a decline in the levels of the blood cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, TNF-α, and CRP.

  19. Effect of transport stress on peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets and Th cytokines in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuren Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate transport stress on porcine peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets and Th cytokines, blood samples were collected from pigs before and after transport. Creatine kinase (CK, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, glucose, and cortisol in the serum were measured. The number of leukocytes and lymphocytes, percentages of lymphocyte subsets, as well as Th cell cytokines level and their mRNA expression were detected, respectively. After transport, the level of CK, glucose and interleukin (IL-4 increased significantly (p<0.01, LDH, Th memory cells, natural killer and interferon (IFN-γ increased significantly (p<0.05, cortisol, number of leukocytes and lymphocytes decreased (p<0.01, percentages of γ δ T cells, naïve Th cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes decreased significantly (p<0.05. The mRNA expressions IL-2 and IFN-γ were down regulated, p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively. While IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 were up regulated, but only IL-10 displayed a highly significant difference (p<0.01. These data suggested that transport could cause immune suppression in pigs, which influences cellular immunity more than humoral immunity, and humoral immunity may play an important role in transport stress. Proper measures should be taken to reduce susceptibility of infection after transport.

  20. Fetal Gender and Several Cytokines Are Associated with the Number of Fetal Cells in Maternal Blood - An Observational Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlütter, Jacob Mørup; Kirkegaard, Ida; Petersen, Olav Bjørn;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify factors influencing the number of fetal cells in maternal blood. METHODS: A total of 57 pregnant women at a gestational age of weeks 11-14 were included. The number of fetal cells in maternal blood was assessed in 30 ml of blood using specific markers for both enrichment...... and subsequent identification. RESULTS: Participants carrying male fetuses had a higher median number of fetal cells in maternal blood than those carrying female fetuses (5 vs. 3, p = 0.04). Certain cytokines (RANTES, IL-2 and IL-5) were significantly associated with the number of fetal cells in maternal blood....... CONCLUSION: The number of fetal cells in maternal blood is associated with certain cytokines and fetal gender....

  1. In vitro cytokine induction by TLR-activating vaccine adjuvants in human blood varies by age and adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haren, Simon D; Ganapathi, Lakshmi; Bergelson, Ilana; Dowling, David J; Banks, Michaela; Samuels, Ronald C; Reed, Steven G; Marshall, Jason D; Levy, Ofer

    2016-07-01

    Most infections occur in early life, prompting development of novel adjuvanted vaccines to protect newborns and infants. Several Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists (TLRAs) are components of licensed vaccine formulations or are in development as candidate adjuvants. However, the type and magnitude of immune responses to TLRAs may vary with the TLR activated as well as age and geographic location. Most notably, in newborns, as compared to adults, the immune response to TLRAs is polarized with lower Th1 cytokine production and robust Th2 and anti-inflammatory cytokine production. The ontogeny of TLR-mediated cytokine responses in international cohorts has been reported, but no study has compared cytokine responses to TLRAs between U.S. neonates and infants at the age of 6months. Both are critical age groups for the currently pediatric vaccine schedule. In this study, we report quantitative differences in the production of a panel of 14 cytokines and chemokines after in vitro stimulation of newborn cord blood and infant and adult peripheral blood with agonists of TLR4, including monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) and glucopyranosyl lipid Adjuvant aqueous formulation (GLA-AF), as well as agonists of TLR7/8 (R848) and TLR9 (CpG). Both TLR4 agonists, MPLA and GLA-AF, induced greater concentrations of Th1 cytokines CXCL10, TNF and Interleukin (IL)-12p70 in infant and adult blood compared to newborn blood. All the tested TLRAs induced greater infant IFN-α2 production compared to newborn and adult blood. In contrast, CpG induced greater IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-12p40, IL-10 and CXCL8 in newborn than in infant and adult blood. Overall, to the extent that these in vitro studies mirror responses in vivo, our study demonstrates distinct age-specific effects of TLRAs that may inform their development as candidate adjuvants for early life vaccines. PMID:27081760

  2. Finger blood content, light transmission, and pulse oximetry errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, T M; Lawson, R A; Young, J D

    1992-01-01

    The changes in light emitting diode current necessary to maintain a constant level of light incident upon a photodetector were measured in 20 volunteers at the two wavelengths employed by pulse oximeters. Three states of finger blood content were assessed; exsanguinated, hyperaemic, and normal. The changes in light emitting diode current with changes in finger blood content were small and are not thought to represent a significant source of error in saturation as measured by pulse oximetry. PMID:1536406

  3. Finger blood content, light transmission, and pulse oximetry errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, T M; Lawson, R A; Young, J D

    1992-01-01

    The changes in light emitting diode current necessary to maintain a constant level of light incident upon a photodetector were measured in 20 volunteers at the two wavelengths employed by pulse oximeters. Three states of finger blood content were assessed; exsanguinated, hyperaemic, and normal. The changes in light emitting diode current with changes in finger blood content were small and are not thought to represent a significant source of error in saturation as measured by pulse oximetry.

  4. Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus sclerotia and cultured mycelia stimulate cytokine production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro and their chemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangqun; Li, Juan; Hu, Yan

    2014-08-01

    Inonotus obliquus is an edible and medicinal mushroom to treat many diseases. In the present study, polysaccharides and fractions were isolated and purified by DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-200 chromatography from I. obliquus wild sclerotia, culture broth and cultured mycelia under submerged fermentation. The extracts and fractions could significantly induce the secretion of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL-2 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and showed no toxicity to PBMCs. The stimulation effect of the six extracts and eight fractions on the four-cytokine production was dose-dependent. Sclerotial polysaccharides were more effective in the four-cytokine production at 150 μg/ml while exopolysaccharides and endopolysacchrides showed a much better effect on IL-1β production at 30 μg/ml. Purified fractions from exopolysaccharides and endopolysaccharides were more effective than the fraction from sclerotia in most cytokine production. These heteropolysaccharide-protein conjugates mainly contained glucose, galactose, and mannose. Protein content, molecular weight, monosaccharide molar ratio, and anomeric carbon configuration differed from each other and had effects on the cytokine induction activity of the polysaccharides to some extent. PMID:24867795

  5. EFFECTS OF AN EIGHT-WEEK ATORVASTATIN TREATMENT ON SPONTANEOUS CYTOKINE PRODUCTION BY THE BLOOD MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES IN METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Bespalovа

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess effects of the eight-week course of atorvastatin therapy upon the levels of spontaneous cytokine production by mononuclear blood leukocytes (MNBC in metabolic syndrome. An open-label prospective study included 36 patients with stage II hypertension (blood pressure < 180/110 mm Hg. accomplished by metabolic syndrome. Along with clinical surveys performed at a specialized cardiological clinics, we assessed spontaneous cytokine production by MNBC during treatment with atorvastatin. It was shown that the 8-week treatment of these patients with atorvaststin, at individually matched daily doses (20to 40 mg was associated with reduced serum concentration of acute phase proteins (C-reactive protein and neopterin, as well as decreased spontaneous production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα by MNBCs. The latter finding is of great importance for pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome.

  6. Effects of Flurbiprofen Axetil on Postoperative Analgesia and Cytokines in Peripheral Blood of Thoracotomy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mi; Li, Beiping; Kong, Ming

    2015-06-01

    The objective is to study the effects of flurbiprofen axetil (FA) with fentanyl together in postoperative controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) on pain intensity, cytokine levels in peripheral blood and adverse reactions of thoracotomy patients. Fifty thoracotomy patients were divided into a FA and a control group, each with 25 cases. Postoperative analgesia was administered in the two groups using PCIA. The pressing times of analgesia pump, the visual analog scale (VAS) scores during resting and coughing at 2, 6, 24, 48, 72 h after surgery and the incidence of adverse drug reactions were recorded. Levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-2, and TNF-α in peripheral blood were determined before the administration of FA (T0), and at 24 h (T1), 48 h (T2), 72 h (T3) after surgery. The analgesia pump pressing times in the FA group was less than that of the control group. The VAS scores during resting and coughing at 2, 6, 24, 48, 72 h after surgery, were statistically less than those of control group. The incidence rate of nausea and vomiting was insignificantly different between the two groups. Administration of FA together with PCIA in thoracotomy patients can improve postoperative analgesia.

  7. Periodontal disease and inflammatory blood cytokines in patients with stable coronary artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAMPITS, Cassio; MONTENEGRO, Marlon M.; RIBEIRO, Ingrid W. J.; FURTADO, Mariana V.; POLANCZYK, Carisi A.; RÖSING, Cassiano K.; HAAS, Alex. N

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Periodontal disease has been associated with elevations of blood cytokines involved in atherosclerosis in systemically healthy individuals, but little is known about this association in stable cardiovascular patients. The aim of this study was to assess the association between periodontal disease (exposure) and blood cytokine levels (outcomes) in a target population of patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Material and Methods This cross-sectional study included 91 patients with stable CAD who had been under optimized cardiovascular care. Blood levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α were measured by Luminex technology. A full-mouth periodontal examination was conducted to record probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment (CA) loss. Multiple linear regression models, adjusting for gender, body mass index, oral hypoglycemic drugs, smoking, and occurre:nce of acute myocardial infarction were applied. Results CAD patients that experienced major events had higher concentrations of IFN-γ (median: 5.05 pg/mL vs. 3.01 pg/mL; p=0.01), IL-10 (median: 2.33 pg/mL vs. 1.01 pg/mL; p=0.03), and TNF-α (median: 9.17 pg/mL vs. 7.47 pg/mL; p=0.02). Higher numbers of teeth with at least 6 mm of CA loss (R2=0.07) and PD (R2=0.06) were significantly associated with higher IFN-γ log concentrations. Mean CA loss (R2=0.05) and PD (R2=0.06) were significantly related to IL-10 concentrations. Elevated concentrations of TNF-α were associated with higher mean CA loss (R2=0.07). Conclusion Periodontal disease is associated with increased systemic inflammation in stable cardiovascular patients. These findings provide additional evidence supporting the idea that periodontal disease can be a prognostic factor in cardiovascular patients. PMID:27556206

  8. Effect of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on blood glucose, lipid profile and cytokines in humans: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Raghu, B.; Venkatesan, P

    2008-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on blood glucose, lipid profile and cytokines in humans. Twenty adult healthy subjects were supplemented with 1g/day fish oil concentrate capsules for 2 weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and again after 2 week intervention. Fish oil supplementation significantly lowered fasting serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, very low density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein...

  9. In vitro cytokine production and phenotype expression by blood mononuclear cells from umbilical cords, children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, K; Zak, M; Nielsen, S;

    1996-01-01

    , and unmeasurable levels in cord blood MNC. Flow cytometry analysis of the phenotypic distribution of MNC revealed age related differences in the expression of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD14, CD19, CD45RA, CD45R0, CD2, LFA-1, ICAM-1 and LFA-3. Correlation studies did not indicate that the observed differences in cytokine...

  10. Cord blood cytokines are modulated by maternal farming activities and consumption of farm dairy products during pregnancy: the PASTURE Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfefferle, P.I.; Buchele, G.; Blumer, N.; Roponen, M.; Ege, M.J.; Krauss-Etschmann, S.; Genuneit, J.; Hyvarinen, A.; Hirvonen, M.R.; Lauener, R.; Pekkanen, J.; Riedler, J.; Dalphin, J.C.; Brunekreef, B.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; von Mutius, E.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional farming represents a unique model situation to investigate the relationship of early-life farm-related exposure and allergy protection. OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations between maternal farm exposures and cytokine production in cord blood (CB) mononuclear cells in a pr

  11. Determination of intracellular cytokines IFN-γ and IL-4 in canine T lymphocytes by flow cytometry following whole-blood culture

    OpenAIRE

    Papadogiannakis, Emmanouil I.; Kontos, Vasilios I.; Tamamidou, Maria; Roumeliotou, Anastasia

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a whole-blood flow cytometric method for the determination of intracellular cytokines IFN-γ and IL-4 in canine T lymphocyte subpopulations. Conjugated anti-cytokine antibodies and commercially available reagents for cell fixation and permeabilization were used. Canine peripheral blood was cultured with a combination of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin to promote cytokine synthesis in each cell, along with monensin to increase the sensitivity of the met...

  12. Inflammatory cytokine detection in adenotonsill and peripheral blood mononuclear cells- culture in adenotonsillectomy patients: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhadi M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tonsils and adenoid hypertrophy is a major respiratory symptom in children which is partly due to recruitment of inflammatory cells in upper airway lymph nodes as a result of the effects of synthesis and release of different inflammatory cytokines. It seems that infections play role in concert with these cytokines leading to tonsilar hypertrophy and other pathologic consequences. It is proposed that cellular infiltrate of tonsils and adenoids may secrete different quantities of these cytokines compared with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC cultures.Methods: Among patients who were admitted for adenotonsillectomy to the ENT ward, 37 patients, under 1-12 years old patients with fulfill criteria selected to include the study. Excised adenoid and tonsils cultured and inflammatory cytokines Interferon-γ (INF-γ, Interlukine-1 (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α measured in cellular culture supernatant. The same cytokines measured in PBMC cultures.Results: The data shows that there is a significant difference between IFN-γ and IL-8 amounts in adenoid tissue culture supernatant and PBMC culture of our patients. Furth-ermore, the amounts of IFN-γ, IL-1 and IL-8 showed considerable difference between tonsilar tissue culture supernatant and PBMC culture of these patients. Although there is a significant correlation between IL-6 amounts in tissue culture supernatant and PBMC culture (P=0.02, the respective data for TNF is only almost significant.Conclusion: Inflammatory cytokines may have significant role in the early provoke of inflammation occurred in hypertrophied tonsils and adenoid. The majority of these cyt-okines increase the expression of adhesion molecules on epithelial cells and influence the recruitment of leucocytes and inflamed tonsils. On the other hand lack of sufficient cytokine release may lead to persistent infections and may cause chronic inflammation and hypertrophied tissue.

  13. [The comparative characteristic of cytokine production in serum and whole blood in patients with chronic autoimmune nettle rash].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschina, L A; Baranova, N I; Kojenkova, S V

    2015-03-01

    The sampling of 100 patients with chronic autoimmune nettle rash and control group of 30 healthy donors was analyzed for identification of level of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-17, IL-18 and γ-interferon (IFN) in serum of patients. The same sampling was examined using method ex vivo for spontaneous and induced production by cells of immune system. In patients with chronic autoimmune nettle rash increasing of spontaneous production of IL-4 and spontaneous and induced production of IL-17 and IFN was identified. The decreasing of spontaneous and induced production of IL-18 was detected too. These occurrences indicate to simultaneous activation of Th1, Th2 and Th17-population of T-lymphocytes. The analysis of level of cytokines in blood serum established only decreasing of level of IL-4 in patients with chronic autoimmune nettle rash as compared with healthy individuals. The level of other analyzed cytokines had no reliable differences that demonstrate both low informativeness of detection ofcontent of cytokines in blood serum and advantage of application of method ex vivo with detection of level of cytokines in whole blood. PMID:26031163

  14. [Blood trace elements content in adolescents in an industrial town].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazbaeva, Z I; Amanzhol, I A; Shibuchikova, Zh B; Sabirov, Zh B; Zhumabekova, S Zh

    2013-01-01

    A cohort blind study of blood trace elements content in children-adolescents aged 14-16 years old, residing in an industrial town, where large industrial enterprises of ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy have been functioning for long periods, has been performed There was established a lack of vital important element selenium in the blood, that causes the accumulation of toxic metals, cadmium and mercury.

  15. Reduction of cytokine release of blood and bronchoalveolar mononuclear cells by ambroxol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, S; Zissel, G; Kienast, K; Müller-Quernheim, J

    1997-03-24

    Ambroxol is a mucolytic agent frequently used in the treatment of chronic bronchitis. It has been reported, following clinical and in-vitro studies, that ambroxol exhibits an anti-inflammatory action. This capability was investigated by activating bronchoalveolar lavage cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in-vitro to elicit the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-2 and interferon gamma, whilst simultaneously exposing them to varying pharmacological concentrations of ambroxol (10, 1, and 0.1 microM). After 24 h it was observed that the isolated tissue-culture supernatants showed a dose-dependent reduction in the concentration of the tested cytokines; 10 microM (12 to 37% reduction) and 1 microM to (6 to 27% reduction). At 0.1 microM, a significant reduction could only be observed in the release of interleukin-2 by bronchoalveolar lavage cells. These results demonstrate, that ambroxol exhibits anti-inflammatory actions in concentrations achievable in vivo.

  16. Significance and changes of peripheral blood, placental tissue cytokines and NO in patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie-Ning Zou; Li Xiong; Jin-Tao Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate significance and changes of placental tissue cytokines and NO levels in peripheral blood of patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and their relationship. Methods: A total of 75 cases of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were selected as researching objects, including 26 cases of pregnancy-induced hypertension subgroup, 29 cases of patients with mild preeclampsia and 20 cases of subgroups severe preeclampsia subgroups;another 45 cases of healthy pregnant women were also selected as the control group. The maternal blood and placental tissue factor (TNF-α, IL-6, hs-CRP) and NO levels of the four groups were compared.Results:Peripheral blood and placental tissue cytokine levels of patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were significantly higher, NO levels were significantly lower than the control group (P<0.01). In subgroups peripheral blood and placenta cytokine levels were gradually increased, NO levels were increased with gestational hypertension disease degree (P<0.05); NO was significantly negatively correlated with TNF-α, IL-6, hs-CRP levels (P<0.01).Conclusions: During pregnancy, monitoring of TNF-α, IL-6, hs-CRP and NO in placental tissue is helpful in prediction and evaluation of early hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and is also helpful in treatment.

  17. FUCOIDIN INHIBITS OXIDIZED LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN FROM INDUCING HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONOCYTE EXPRESSION OF PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES mRNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷新军; 马爱群; 任冰稳; 耿涛; 张葳; 白玲

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the significance of scavenger receptor class A(SR-A)in mediating human peripheral blood monocyte to uptake oxidized low density lipoprotein(OxLDL) and promoting the atherosclerotic immuno-pathological lesion in the local blood vessel. Methods With the Digoxenin-labeled Oligonucleotide-probes In situ Hybridization, this research investigated the effects of OxLDL on the mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines including MCP-1, bFGF, PDGF and IL-10 in the human peripheral blood monocyte and whether fucoidin, a peculiarly inhibitory ligand for SR-A, would influence this process. Results Monocyte was significantly increased the mRNA expression of MCP-1, bFGF, PDGF and IL-10 in a dose-dependent manner after incubating with OxLDL (10,15,20,25,30·mg·L-1, respectively)for 24 hours(P<0.001). Fucoidin(50,100,150,200,250·mg·mL-1, respectively)completely inhibited OxLDL(20·mg·L-1)from inducing monocyte the mRNA expression of above proinflammatory cytokines(P<0.001). Conclusion OxLDL can stimulate human peripheral blood monocyte to give expression to proinflammatory cytokines mRNA in a dose-dependent manner, while a peculiarly inhibitory ligand for SR-A-fucoidin has an obviously opposed role.

  18. Chronic aspiration of gastric and duodenal contents and their effects on inflammatory cytokine production in respiratory system of rats.

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    Mitra Samareh Fekri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is defined with clinical symptoms of heart burning and regurgitation. It may be associated with external esophageal symptoms such as chronic cough, asthma, laryngitis, chronic lung disease, sinusitis and pulmonary fibrosis. In the present study, rats with chronic aspiration of gastroduodenal contents were studied for cellular phenotypes and cytokine concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage and lung tissue. Thirty-six male Albino N-MRI rats were randomly divided into six groups. After anesthesia and tracheal intubation, the animals received either 0.5ml/kg of normal saline (control, gastric juice, pepsin, hydrochloric acid or bile salts by injection into their lungs twice a week for 8 weeks. In sham group nothing was injected. Thereafter, cellular phenotypes and cytokine concentrations of Interleukine (IL-1α, IL-1β, Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-β, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α, and IL-6 were assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage and lung tissue homogenates. The numbers of epithelial cells, macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes in BAL and levels of cytokines IL-1α, IL-6, TNF-α and TGF-β in BAL and lung tissue of test groups were significantly higher than the control group. Aspiration of bile salts caused more cytokine levels and inflammatory cells compared to other reflux components. It can be concluded that GERD with increased cytokines and inflammatory cells in lung could cause or exacerbate asthma and pulmonary fibrosis.

  19. Production of dendritic cells and cytokine-induced killer cells from banked umbilical cord blood samples

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    Phuc Van Pham

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Umbilical cord blood (UCB is considered to be a source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs. All UCB banks have recently become interested in the isolation and storage of HSCs for the treatment of hematological diseases. However, UCB was also recently confirmed as a source of immune cells for immunotherapy such as dendritic cells (DCs and cytokine-induced killer cells (CIKs. This study aimed to exploit this source of immune cells in banked UCB samples. After collection of UCB samples, mononuclear cells (MNCs containing stem cells, progenitor cells, and mature cells were isolated by Ficoll-Hypaque-based centrifugation. The MNCs were subjected to freezing and thawing according to a previously published protocol. The banked MNCs were used to produce DCs and CIKs. To produce DCs, MNCs were induced in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with GM-CSF (50 ng/ml and IL-4 (40 ng/ml for 14 days. To produce CIKs, MNCs were induced in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented an anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, IL-3, and GMC-SF for 21 and ndash;28 days. Both DCs and CIKs were evaluated for their phenotypes and functions according to previously published protocols. The results showed that banked UCB samples can be successfully used to produce functional DCs and CIKs. These samples are valuable sources of immune cells for immunotherapy. The present results suggest that banked UCB samples are useful not only for stem cell isolation, but also for immune cell production. [Biomed Res Ther 2015; 2(11.000: 402-408

  20. Alteration of Peripheral Blood T-Reg Cells and Cytokines Production in Angiography Personnel Exposed to Scattered X-Rays

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    Ebrahim Torkabadi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Angiocardiography is an X-ray examination of the blood vessels or chambers of the heart. Cardiologists and staff members applying this procedure are exposed to high levels of scattered radiation. In our previous study the incidence of unstable chromosomal aberrations and cytokinesis-blocked micronuclei were found to be significantly higher in exposed individuals than the age and sex matched controls. In the present study we assessed cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the above cases and the percentage of Treg cells. According to film dosimeter analysis, personnels received 0.25-15 mSv during the previous year (average of 3 mSv/y. Isolated PBMCs from the test and control groups were stimulated with Phorbol Myristate Acetate/ Ionomycin (PMA/I. Cytokine production was measured in the supernatants of cultured lymphocytes. The percentage of Treg cells was studied by flow cytometry. The production of IL-10 and IL-5 was significantly down-regulated in the test group compared to the control group. In contrast, IL-12 was up-regulated. Yet, no statistically significant difference was found for IFN- γ between two groups. In addition, we found higher percentage of CD4+CD25+bright Treg cells in the study group compared to the controls. Taken together, it was shown that low doses of scattered X-rays could skew cytokine profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in favour of inflammatory response causing the increase of Treg cells.

  1. Effect of dexmedetomidine on cognitive function and related cytokine contents after sevoflurane anesthesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Bo Han

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of dexmedetomidine on cognitive function and related cytokine contents after sevoflurane anesthesia.Methods:A total of 118 who received surgical treatment in our hospital all received sevoflurane intravenous-inhalation combined anesthesia, and according to the intraoperative application of dexmedetomidine or not, all included patients were divided into observation group and control group by half. Control group received sevoflurane intravenous-inhalation combined anesthesia alone, observation group received dexmedetomidine on the basis of intravenous-inhalation combined anesthesia, and then differences in the values of hemodynamic parameters, immune function indicators, cognition-related indicators, illness-related indicators and so son were compared between two groups. Results:CVP values of observation group at T2 and T3 were higher than those of control group, and Rv, CO and CI values were lower than those of control group (P<0.05); CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD16+/CD56+ values of observation group at T2 and T3 were higher than those of control group, and TNF-α and IL-1β values were lower than those of control group (P<0.05); serum BDNF, S100β andβ-EP values of observation group immediately after operation were lower than those of control group, and ChAT and NGF values were higher than those of control group (P<0.05); serum HIF-1α value of observation group immediately after operation was higher than that of control group, and ALD, NF-κB and sICAM-1 values were lower than those of control group (P<0.05).Conclusions:Application of dexmedetomidine in sevoflurane anesthesia can protect patients’ cognitive function and stabilize circulation, and contributes to postoperative body function recovery.

  2. Blood cell mitochondrial DNA content and premature ovarian aging.

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    Marco Bonomi

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI is a critical fertility defect characterized by an anticipated and silent impairment of the follicular reserve, but its pathogenesis is largely unexplained. The frequent maternal inheritance of POI together with a remarkable dependence of ovarian folliculogenesis upon mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics suggested the possible involvement of a generalized mitochondrial defect. Here, we verified the existence of a significant correlation between blood and ovarian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA content in a group of women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation (OH, and then aimed to verify whether mtDNA content was significantly altered in the blood cells of POI women. We recruited 101 women with an impaired ovarian reserve: 59 women with premature ovarian failure (POF and 42 poor responders (PR to OH. A Taqman copy number assay revealed a significant mtDNA depletion (P<0.001 in both POF and PR women in comparison with 43 women of similar age and intact ovarian reserve, or 53 very old women with a previous physiological menopause. No pathogenic variations in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG gene were detected in 57 POF or PR women with low blood mtDNA content. In conclusion, blood cell mtDNA depletion is a frequent finding among women with premature ovarian aging, suggesting that a still undetermined but generalized mitochondrial defect may frequently predispose to POI which could then be considered a form of anticipated aging in which the ovarian defect may represent the first manifestation. The determination of mtDNA content in blood may become an useful tool for the POI risk prediction.

  3. Osteopathic manipulative therapy induces early plasma cytokine release and mobilization of a population of blood dendritic cells.

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    Stevan Walkowski

    Full Text Available It has been claimed that osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT is able to enhance the immune response of individuals. In particular, it has been reported that OMT has the capability to increase antibody titers, enhance the efficacy of vaccination, and upregulate the numbers of circulating leukocytes. Recently, it has been shown in human patients suffering chronic low back pain, that OMT is able to modify the levels of cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α in blood upon repeated treatment. Further, experimental animal models show that lymphatic pump techniques can induce a transient increase of cytokines in the lymphatic circulation. Taking into account all these data, we decided to investigate in healthy individuals the capacity of OMT to induce a rapid modification of the levels of cytokines and leukocytes in circulation. Human volunteers were subjected to a mixture of lymphatic and thoracic OMT, and shortly after the levels of several cytokines were evaluated by protein array technology and ELISA multiplex analysis, while the profile and activation status of circulating leukocytes was extensively evaluated by multicolor flow cytometry. In addition, the levels of nitric oxide and C-reactive protein (CRP in plasma were determined. In this study, our results show that OMT was not able to induce a rapid modification in the levels of plasma nitrites or CRP or in the proportion or activation status of central memory, effector memory or naïve CD4 and CD8 T cells. A significant decrease in the proportion of a subpopulation of blood dendritic cells was detected in OMT patients. Significant differences were also detected in the levels of immune molecules such as IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1α and most notably, G-CSF. Thus, OMT is able to induce a rapid change in the immunological profile of particular circulating cytokines and leukocytes.

  4. Osteopathic manipulative therapy induces early plasma cytokine release and mobilization of a population of blood dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkowski, Stevan; Singh, Manindra; Puertas, Juan; Pate, Michelle; Goodrum, Kenneth; Benencia, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    It has been claimed that osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) is able to enhance the immune response of individuals. In particular, it has been reported that OMT has the capability to increase antibody titers, enhance the efficacy of vaccination, and upregulate the numbers of circulating leukocytes. Recently, it has been shown in human patients suffering chronic low back pain, that OMT is able to modify the levels of cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α in blood upon repeated treatment. Further, experimental animal models show that lymphatic pump techniques can induce a transient increase of cytokines in the lymphatic circulation. Taking into account all these data, we decided to investigate in healthy individuals the capacity of OMT to induce a rapid modification of the levels of cytokines and leukocytes in circulation. Human volunteers were subjected to a mixture of lymphatic and thoracic OMT, and shortly after the levels of several cytokines were evaluated by protein array technology and ELISA multiplex analysis, while the profile and activation status of circulating leukocytes was extensively evaluated by multicolor flow cytometry. In addition, the levels of nitric oxide and C-reactive protein (CRP) in plasma were determined. In this study, our results show that OMT was not able to induce a rapid modification in the levels of plasma nitrites or CRP or in the proportion or activation status of central memory, effector memory or naïve CD4 and CD8 T cells. A significant decrease in the proportion of a subpopulation of blood dendritic cells was detected in OMT patients. Significant differences were also detected in the levels of immune molecules such as IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1α and most notably, G-CSF. Thus, OMT is able to induce a rapid change in the immunological profile of particular circulating cytokines and leukocytes.

  5. Assessment of the cytokine profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of naturally Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis infested dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shanker K; Dimri, Umesh; Sharma, Bhaskar; Saxena, Meeta; Kumari, Priyambada

    2014-12-15

    The mechanism of cytokine secretion from T lymphocytes plays an important role in the immune response of dogs and parasitic skin infestations. Assessment of the cytokine profile of naturally S. scabiei var. canis infested dogs could augment understanding of the pathobiology of canine sarcoptic mange. Therefore, the present study examined the cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of dogs suffering from sarcoptic mange. Thirteen dogs naturally infected with sarcoptic mange participated in the study. The dogs were found positive for S. scabiei var. canis mites in skin scraping examinations and revealed at least three clinical inclusion criteria. Another five clinically healthy dogs were kept as healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from heparinized blood samples and used for extraction of mRNA. Further, cDNA was synthesized by using 1 mg of mRNA by reverse transcription using oligonucleotide primers. Relative levels of cytokine expression were compared with normalized glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) transcripts. The levels of interleukin-4, interleukin-5 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) mRNA expression in dogs with sarcoptic mange were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.01), whereas the level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was significantly lower (P ≤ 0.01) in comparison with the healthy dogs. No remarkable difference was seen for interleukin-2 mRNA expression between these animals. An overproduction IL-4 and IL-5 might be involved in immuno-pathogenesis of canine sarcoptic mange. S. scabiei var. canis mites possibly induce an overproduction of TGF-β and reduced expression of TNF-α and thus could be conferring the immune suppression of infested dogs.

  6. Detection of Intracellular Cytokine Production in Peripheral Blood CD3+ T Cells of Patients with Recurrent Genital Herpes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Qifeng(钱起丰); GUO Hongwei(郭红卫)

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To study the role of Th1fTh2 cytokines in the pathogenesis of recurrent genital herpes (RGH), and to better understand the relationship between them.Methods: A two-color immunofluorescent staining of cell surface antigen and intracellular cytokines for flow cytometric analysis was used for CD3, IL-2, IL-10, IL-12,IFN-γ and TNF-α in CD3+ T-lymphocytes in activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with RGH.Results: Compared to controls, patients with RGH showed fewer CD3+T cells (P<0.05) and IL-2 producing and IFN-γ producing T cells (P<0.02 and P<0.001, respectively)after in vitro stimulation with PMA and ionomycin in the presence of a protein transport inhibitor. More IL-10 producing and IL-12 producing T cells were found in patients with RGH (P<0.01). There was no significant difference in the number of TNF-α producing cells between RGH patients and controls (P<0.05).Conclusion: RGH patients showed relatively more Th2 cytokines. The imbalance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines results in inhibitory effects on a series of cell-immune responses, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of RGH.

  7. The impact of maternal HIV infection on cord blood lymphocyte subsets and cytokine profile in exposed non-infected newborns

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    Reis-Alves Suiellen C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children born to HIV+ mothers are exposed intra-utero to several drugs and cytokines that can modify the developing immune system, and influence the newborn's immune response to infections and vaccines. We analyzed the relation between the distribution of cord blood lymphocyte subsets and cytokine profile in term newborns of HIV+ mothers using HAART during pregnancy and compared them to normal newborns. Methods In a prospective, controlled study, 36 mother-child pairs from HIV+ mothers and 15 HIV-uninfected mothers were studied. Hematological features and cytokine profiles of mothers at 35 weeks of pregnancy were examined. Maternal and cord lymphocyte subsets as well as B-cell maturation in cord blood were analyzed by flow cytometry. The non-stimulated, as well as BCG- and PHA-stimulated production of IL2, IL4, IL7, IL10, IL12, IFN-γ and TNF-alpha in mononuclear cell cultures from mothers and infants were quantified using ELISA. Results After one year follow-up none of the exposed infants became seropositive for HIV. An increase in B lymphocytes, especially the CD19/CD5+ ones, was observed in cord blood of HIV-exposed newborns. Children of HIV+ hard drug using mothers had also an increase of immature B-cells. Cord blood mononuclear cells of HIV-exposed newborns produced less IL-4 and IL-7 and more IL-10 and IFN-γ in culture than those of uninfected mothers. Cytokine values in supernatants were similar in infants and their mothers except for IFN-γ and TNF-alpha that were higher in HIV+ mothers, especially in drug abusing ones. Cord blood CD19/CD5+ lymphocytes showed a positive correlation with cord IL-7 and IL-10. A higher maternal age and smoking was associated with a decrease of cord blood CD4+ cells. Conclusions in uninfected infants born to HIV+ women, several immunological abnormalities were found, related to the residual maternal immune changes induced by the HIV infection and those associated with antiretroviral

  8. Altered cytokine gene expression in peripheral blood monocytes across the menstrual cycle in primary dysmenorrhea: a case-control study.

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    Hongyue Ma

    Full Text Available Primary dysmenorrhea is one of the most common gynecological complaints in young women, but potential peripheral immunologic features underlying this condition remain undefined. In this paper, we compared 84 common cytokine gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from six primary dysmenorrheic young women and three unaffected controls on the seventh day before (secretory phase, and the first (menstrual phase and the fifth (regenerative phase days of menstruation, using a real-time PCR array assay combined with pattern recognition and gene function annotation methods. Comparisons between dysmenorrhea and normal control groups identified 11 (nine increased and two decreased, 14 (five increased and nine decreased, and 15 (seven increased and eight decreased genes with ≥ 2-fold difference in expression (P<0.05 in the three phases of menstruation, respectively. In the menstrual phase, genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL1B, TNF, IL6, and IL8 were up-regulated, and genes encoding TGF-β superfamily members (BMP4, BMP6, GDF5, GDF11, LEFTY2, NODAL, and MSTN were down-regulated. Functional annotation revealed an excessive inflammatory response and insufficient TGF-β superfamily member signals with anti-inflammatory consequences, which may directly contribute to menstrual pain. In the secretory and regenerative phases, increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased expression of growth factors were also observed. These factors may be involved in the regulation of decidualization, endometrium breakdown and repair, and indirectly exacerbate primary dysmenorrhea. This first study of cytokine gene expression profiles in PBMCs from young primary dysmenorrheic women demonstrates a shift in the balance between expression patterns of pro-inflammatory cytokines and TGF-β superfamily members across the whole menstrual cycle, underlying the peripheral immunologic features of primary dysmenorrhea.

  9. Non-Anticoagulant Fractions of Enoxaparin Suppress Inflammatory Cytokine Release from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Allergic Asthmatic Individuals.

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    Madhur D Shastri

    Full Text Available Enoxaparin, a low-molecular-weight heparin, is known to possess anti-inflammatory properties. However, its clinical exploitation as an anti-inflammatory agent is hampered by its anticoagulant effect and the associated risk of bleeding.The aim of the current study was to examine the ability of non-anticoagulant fractions of enoxaparin to inhibit the release of key inflammatory cytokines in primed peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from allergic mild asthmatics.Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from allergic asthmatics were activated with phytohaemag glutinin (PHA, concanavalin-A (ConA or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA in the presence or absence of enoxaparin fractions before cytokine levels were quantified using specific cytokine bead arrays. Together with nuclear magnetic resonance analysis,time-dependent and target-specific effects of enoxaparin fractions were used to elucidate structural determinants for their anti-inflammatory effect and gain mechanistic insights into their anti-inflammatory activity.Two non-anticoagulant fractions of enoxaparin were identified that significantly inhibited T-cell activation. A disaccharide fraction of enoxaparin inhibited the release of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and TNF-α by more than 57% while a tetrasaccharide fraction was found to inhibit the release of tested cytokines by more than 68%. Our data suggest that the observed response is likely to be due to an interaction of 6-O-sulfated tetrasaccharide with cellular receptor(s.The two identified anti-inflammatory fractions lacked anticoagulant activity and are therefore not associated with risk of bleeding. The findings highlight the potential therapeutic use of enoxaparin-derived fractions, in particular tetrasaccharide, in patients with chronic inflammatory disorders.

  10. Effect of Blood Component Coatings of Enosseal Implants on Proliferation and Synthetic Activity of Human Osteoblasts and Cytokine Production of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulejova, Hana; Bartova, Jirina; Riedel, Tomas; Pesakova, Vlasta

    2016-01-01

    The study monitored in vitro early response of connective tissue cells and immunocompetent cells to enosseal implant materials coated by different blood components (serum, activated plasma, and plasma/platelets) to evaluate human osteoblast proliferation and synthetic activity and inflammatory response presented as a cytokine profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) under conditions imitating the situation upon implantation. The cells were cultivated on coated Ti-plasma-sprayed (Ti-PS), Ti-etched (Ti-Etch), Ti-hydroxyapatite (Ti-HA), and ZrO2 surfaces. The plasma/platelets coating supported osteoblast proliferation only on osteoconductive Ti-HA and Ti-Etch whereas activated plasma enhanced proliferation on all surfaces. Differentiation (BAP) and IL-8 production remained unchanged or decreased irrespective of the coating and surface; only the serum and plasma/platelets-coated ZrO2 exhibited higher BAP and IL-8 expression. RANKL production increased on serum and activated plasma coatings. PBMCs produced especially cytokines playing role in inflammatory phase of wound healing, that is, IL-6, GRO-α, GRO, ENA-78, IL-8, GM-CSF, EGF, and MCP-1. Cytokine profiles were comparable for all tested surfaces; only ENA-78, IL-8, GM-CSF, and MCP-1 expression depended on materials and coatings. The activated plasma coating led to uniformed surfaces and represented a favorable treatment especially for bioinert Ti-PS and ZrO2 whereas all coatings had no distinctive effect on bioactive Ti-HA and Ti-Etch.

  11. LPS-Stimulated Whole Blood Cytokine Production Is Not Related to Disease Behavior in Patients with Quiescent Crohn's Disease.

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    Mark M T J Broekman

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease (CD is a chronic inflammatory disease in which cytokines play a pivotal role in the induction and maintenance of inflammation. Innate cytokine production is genetically determined and varies largely between individuals; this might impact the severity of inflammation. We aimed to assess whether ex-vivo endotoxin-stimulated levels of cytokines could be associated with disease phenotype.Patients with quiescent CD (Harvey-Bradshaw Index ≤ 4 and negative inflammation markers who were not using immunomodulating drugs or biologicals were eligible. Historical disease characteristics (localization, behavior, number of bowel resections, drug history, extra-intestinal symptoms were extracted from medical records. We measured cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 in supernatants of lipopolysaccharide (LPS -stimulated whole blood cultures and correlated these with disease characteristics and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. In addition, we analyzed whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the promoter region of the TNF-α gene were related to TNF-α levels.We included 75 patients with CD and 24 healthy controls. Six patients were excluded because of increased inflammation markers resulting in a total of 69 patients. The mean age (SD of patients with CD was 51.2 (12.3 years with a mean (SD disease duration of 24.1 (11.5 years. Disease localization, peri-anal involvement and behavior were not related to LPS-stimulated TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 or IL-10 levels. In addition, combination of localization with behavior to differentiate mild from severe disease type showed no significant differences. TNF-α levels were higher in patients with CD (428 pg/ml IQR [267-468] compared to healthy controls (459 pg/ml IQR [364-570], p=0.02. We found no associations between SNPs in the promoter region and TNF-α levels.In this study, innate cytokine production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 was not

  12. Leptin enhances the release of cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from acute multiple sclerosis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of leptin on cytokine production by PBMCs obtained from MS patients either in acute (relapse) or in stable (nonrelapse) phase of disease. Methods PBMCs were collected from 25 untreated acute MS patients, 11 stable MS patients and 20 healthy controls. PBMCs were cultured either with RPMI-1640 alone or with leptin (1.25 nmol/ml), phytohemagglutinin (PHA) ( 100 μg/ml), and leptin + PHA. 72 h later the supernate of the culture medium were collected and stored at -70℃. The pro-inflammatory cytokine (IFN-γ) concentration were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA), and the anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-4) concentration were investigated by radioimmunity methods. Results Our data showed that leptin induced IFN-γproduction by PBMCs of patients in an acute phase of disease but not in a stable phase or in healthy controls. Moreover, we found that PHA induced IL-4 production by PBMCs of patients in an acute phase of disease, but leptin inhibited this ability of PHA. Conclusion Leptin can affect on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production by PBMCs collected from MS patients, may be this connected with leptin increase the susceptiveness of MS.

  13. Determination of blood ET-1 and related cytokines in pediatric patients with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the role of endothelin and related cytokines (IL-5, IL-6, IL-8) in the development of bronchial asthma in pediatric patients. Methods: Plasma ET-1 (with RIA) and serum IL-5 (with ELISA), IL-6, IL-8 (with RIA) levels were measured in 42 pediatric patients with bronchial asthma and 30 controls. Results: The plasma ET-1 levels in the patients during acute attack (n=22) were significantly higher than those in patients during remission (n=20) as well as in controls (P0.05). Levels of ET-1 were positively correlated with those of IL-5 (during attack, r=0.560, P<0.01; during remission, r=0.435, P<0.01). Conclusion: ET and the cytokines IL-5, IL-6, IL-8 participated in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma through different mechanisms and dynamic determination of which could reflect the progression of the disease. (authors)

  14. Synthesis of Th17 cytokines in the culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

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    Sambor Grygorczuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective. [/b]Th17 lymphocytes and their cytokines, interleukin 17A (IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22, participate in the response to extracellular bacteria and in the autoimmunity and may be engaged in the pathogenesis of Lyme borreliosis. Concentrations were measured of IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22 in the supernatant of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC culture stimulated with [i]Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato[/i] ([i]B. burgdorferi[/i]. [b]Materials and method.[/b] The study group consisted of 13 patients with early disseminated and late Lyme borreliosis and a control group of 7 healthy persons. PBMC cultures were stimulated for 48 hours with [i]B. burgdorferi [/i]spirochetes of three pathogenic species: [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] sensu stricto, B. afzelii or B. garinii, in the multiplicity of infection 10:1. Concentrations of Th17 cytokines IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22, as well as Th2/immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10 were measured with ELISA assays. [b]Results. [/b]Expression of IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22 increased under stimulation, simultaneously with the increased IL-10 expression. Concentration of IL-17F tended to be lower in early neuroborreliosis than in late Lyme borreliosis and than in controls. [i]B. afzelii[/i] elicited higher expression of IL-17A than the other two species. [b]Conclusions.[/b] IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22 are synthesized simultaneously by PBMC stimulated with [i]B. burgdorferi[/i]. There is no antagonism between Th17 response and IL-10 expression. The role of Th17 cytokines seems to differ depending on the clinical stage of Lyme borreliosis and on the [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] species.

  15. Investigation of the effects of a high fish diet on inflammatory cytokines, blood pressure, and lipids in healthy older Australians

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    Jessica A. Grieger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aging is a condition of chronic inflammation. In healthy Australians ≥64 years, the primary aim was to determine whether four servings/week of mixed fish (FISH improves serum cytokines (i.e. C-reactive protein (CRP, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α compared to a diet low in fish (<1 serving/week, CONTROL; the secondary aims were to assess the effect of the diet on blood pressure and serum lipids (TC, HDL-C, TG, calculated LDL-C. Methods: An 8-week randomized, parallel study, stratified by CRP (<3 mg/L vs. ≥3 mg/L on entry to the study. Compliance was measured using 3-day weighed food records in weeks 1 and 7 of the study. A 12-h fasting blood sample was taken at baseline and 8-weeks for erythrocyte fatty acids as confirmation of compliance, and measurement of serum cytokines and lipids. Blood pressure was measured at both time points. Results: Eighty participants completed the study (mean (SD age: 69.6 (5.8 years. During week 1 of the study, mean ± SEM daily dietary intake of very long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCN n-3 PUFA in FISH vs. CONTROL was 1,676±129 mg vs. 27±5 mg (p<0.001. Mean (SD gram intake of study fish and meat was 121 (45 g and 123 (78 g, for those allocated to FISH and CONTROL, respectively. Mean ± SEM percentage VLCN n-3 PUFA in erythrocytes at 8-weeks was higher in those allocated to FISH vs. CONTROL (10.2±0.2% vs. 8.2±0.3%, p<0.001. There was no between-group difference in CRP (n=80, IL-1β (n=33 or IL-6 (n=21 concentrations, blood pressure, or lipids, at 8-weeks. Conclusions: Eight weeks consumption of four servings/week fish did not affect serum cytokine concentrations, blood pressure or lipids compared to a diet low in fish. In healthy older adults with low inflammatory burden, our results do not support that short-term consumption of mixed fish has a beneficial effect on selected cardiovascular biomarkers.

  16. A human in vitro whole blood assay to predict the systemic cytokine response to therapeutic oligonucleotides including siRNA.

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    Christoph Coch

    Full Text Available Therapeutic oligonucleotides including siRNA and immunostimulatory ligands of Toll-like receptors (TLR or RIG-I like helicases (RLH are a promising novel class of drugs. They are in clinical development for a broad spectrum of applications, e.g. as adjuvants in vaccines and for the immunotherapy of cancer. Species-specific immune activation leading to cytokine release is characteristic for therapeutic oligonucleotides either as an unwanted side effect or intended pharmacology. Reliable in vitro tests designed for therapeutic oligonucleotides are therefore urgently needed in order to predict clinical efficacy and to prevent unexpected harmful effects in clinical development. To serve this purpose, we here established a human whole blood assay (WBA that is fast and easy to perform. Its response to synthetic TLR ligands (R848: TLR7/8, LPS: TLR4 was on a comparable threshold to the more time consuming peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC based assay. By contrast, the type I IFN profile provoked by intravenous CpG-DNA (TLR9 ligand in humans in vivo was more precisely replicated in the WBA than in stimulated PBMC. Since Heparin and EDTA, but not Hirudin, displaced oligonucleotides from their delivery agent, only Hirudin qualified as the anticoagulant to be used in the WBA. The Hirudin WBA exhibited a similar capacity as the PBMC assay to distinguish between TLR7-activating and modified non-stimulatory siRNA sequences. RNA-based immunoactivating TLR7/8- and RIG-I-ligands induced substantial amounts of IFN-α in the Hirudin-WBA dependent on delivery agent used. In conclusion, we present a human Hirudin WBA to determine therapeutic oligonucleotide-induced cytokine release during preclinical development that can readily be performed and offers a close reflection of human cytokine response in vivo.

  17. Production of cytokine and chemokines by human mononuclear cells and whole blood cells after infection with Trypanosoma cruzi

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    Karine Rezende-Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The innate immune response is the first mechanism of protection against Trypanosoma cruzi, and the interaction of inflammatory cells with parasite molecules may activate this response and modulate the adaptive immune system. This study aimed to analyze the levels of cytokines and chemokines synthesized by the whole blood cells (WBC and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of individuals seronegative for Chagas disease after interaction with live T. cruzi trypomastigotes. METHODS: IL-12, IL-10, TNF-α, TGF-β, CCL-5, CCL-2, CCL-3, and CXCL-9 were measured by ELISA. Nitrite was determined by the Griess method. RESULTS: IL-10 was produced at high levels by WBC compared with PBMC, even after incubation with live trypomastigotes. Production of TNF-α by both PBMC and WBC was significantly higher after stimulation with trypomastigotes. Only PBMC produced significantly higher levels of IL-12 after parasite stimulation. Stimulation of cultures with trypomastigotes induced an increase of CXCL-9 levels produced by WBC. Nitrite levels produced by PBMC increased after the addition of parasites to the culture. CONCLUSIONS: Surface molecules of T. cruzi may induce the production of cytokines and chemokines by cells of the innate immune system through the activation of specific receptors not evaluated in this experiment. The ability to induce IL-12 and TNF-α contributes to shift the adaptive response towards a Th1 profile.

  18. Effect of Blood Component Coatings of Enosseal Implants on Proliferation and Synthetic Activity of Human Osteoblasts and Cytokine Production of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulejova, Hana; Bartova, Jirina; Riedel, Tomas; Pesakova, Vlasta

    2016-01-01

    The study monitored in vitro early response of connective tissue cells and immunocompetent cells to enosseal implant materials coated by different blood components (serum, activated plasma, and plasma/platelets) to evaluate human osteoblast proliferation and synthetic activity and inflammatory response presented as a cytokine profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) under conditions imitating the situation upon implantation. The cells were cultivated on coated Ti-plasma-sprayed (Ti-PS), Ti-etched (Ti-Etch), Ti-hydroxyapatite (Ti-HA), and ZrO2 surfaces. The plasma/platelets coating supported osteoblast proliferation only on osteoconductive Ti-HA and Ti-Etch whereas activated plasma enhanced proliferation on all surfaces. Differentiation (BAP) and IL-8 production remained unchanged or decreased irrespective of the coating and surface; only the serum and plasma/platelets-coated ZrO2 exhibited higher BAP and IL-8 expression. RANKL production increased on serum and activated plasma coatings. PBMCs produced especially cytokines playing role in inflammatory phase of wound healing, that is, IL-6, GRO-α, GRO, ENA-78, IL-8, GM-CSF, EGF, and MCP-1. Cytokine profiles were comparable for all tested surfaces; only ENA-78, IL-8, GM-CSF, and MCP-1 expression depended on materials and coatings. The activated plasma coating led to uniformed surfaces and represented a favorable treatment especially for bioinert Ti-PS and ZrO2 whereas all coatings had no distinctive effect on bioactive Ti-HA and Ti-Etch. PMID:27651560

  19. The Effect of Long-Term Exercise on the Production of Osteoclastogenic and Antiosteoclastogenic Cytokines by Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and on Serum Markers of Bone Metabolism

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    J. Kelly Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is recognized that the mechanical stresses associated with physical activity augment bone mineral density and improve bone quality, our understanding of how exercise modulates bone homeostasis at the molecular level is lacking. In a before and after trial involving 43 healthy adults, we measured the effect of six months of supervised exercise training on the spontaneous and phytohemagglutinin-induced production of osteoclastogenic cytokines (interleukin-1α, tumor necrosis factor-α, antiosteoclastogenic cytokines (transforming growth factor-β1 and interleukins 4 and 10, pleiotropic cytokines with variable effects on osteoclastogenesis (interferon-γ, interleukin-6, and T cell growth and differentiation factors (interleukins 2 and 12 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We also measured lymphocyte phenotypes and serum markers of bone formation (osteocalcin, bone resorption (C-terminal telopeptides of Type I collagen, and bone homeostasis (25 (OH vitamin D, estradiol, testosterone, parathyroid hormone, and insulin-like growth factor 1. A combination of aerobic, resistance, and flexibility exercises done on average of 2.5 hours a week attenuated the production of osteoclastogenic cytokines and enhanced the production of antiosteoclastogenic cytokines. These changes were accompanied by a 16% reduction in collagen degradation products and a 9.8% increase in osteocalcin levels. We conclude that long-term moderate intensity exercise exerts a favorable effect on bone resorption by changing the balance between blood mononuclear cells producing osteoclastogenic cytokines and those producing antiosteoclastogenic cytokines. This trial is registered with Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT02765945.

  20. CYTOKINE LEVELS IN MATERNAL BLOOD AND UMBICAL CORD SERA FROM WOMEN WITH SYMPTOMS OF INTRAUTERINE INFECTION

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    I. A. Botvin’eva; L. V. Renge; V. N. Zorina; R. M. Zorina; A. N. Polukarov; L. G. Bazhenova

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We had investigated serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1ra and TNFα in peripheral blood of pregnant women at the terms of 38 to 40 weeks with polyhydramnios and serum IgG antibodies specific for Chlamydia trachomatis (titers of 1:20 to 1:40). Same parameters were tested in umbilical cord blood sera, obtained at delivery. We had found high levels of TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 in sera from umbilical cord blood, and increased levels of TNFα in maternal sera before delivery in a group o...

  1. The uranium content in the blood of some vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of fission track analysis has been used to estimate the uranium concentration in the blood of some vertebrates like lata fish (Ophiocephalus punctatus - class Pisces), toad (Bufo melanostictus -class Amphibia) and man (Homo Sapiens - class Mammalia). The uranium content in the blood of these vertebrates has been found to range from 0.20 ± 0.016 to 0.94 ± 0.038 microgram/litre. However, the concentration in toad is found to be the lowest (0.20 ± 0.016 to 0.40 ± 0.022 microgram/litre) as compared to that in fish (0.50 ± 0.027 to 0.94 ± 0.038 microgram/litre) and man (0.33 ± 0.023 to 0.74 ± 0.034 microgram/litre). The intervariation among the different classes of vertebrates as regards uranium concentration has been found to be statistically significant. (author)

  2. Mechanisms of modulation of cytokine release by human cord blood monocytes exposed to high concentrations of caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Valdez, Raul; Ahlawat, Rajni; Wills-Karp, Marsha; Gauda, Estelle B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum caffeine concentrations >20µg/mL (100 µM) in infants treated for apnea of prematurity increases TNF-α and decreases IL-10, change that perhaps is linked to co-morbidities. We hypothesize that this pro-inflammatory cytokine profile may be linked to differential binding of caffeine to adenosine receptor subtypes (AR), inhibition of phosphodiesterases (PDEs), and modulation of toll-like receptors (TLR). Methods LPS-activated cord blood monocytes (CBM) from 19 infants were exposed to caffeine (0 to 200 µM) with or without previous exposure to A1R, A3R, or PDE IV antagonists to determine changes in dose-response curves. Cytokines levels (ELISA), intracellular cAMP accumulation (EIA) and TLR gene expression (real time qRT PCR) were measured. Results Caffeine at ≤100µM decreased TNF-α levels (~25%, p=0.01) and cAMP. All caffeine concentrations decreased IL-10 levels (17 to 35%, p<0.01). A1R, A3R and PDE blockades decreased TNF-α (31%, 21%, and 88%, p≤0.01), but not IL-10. Caffeine further decreased TNF-α following A3R and PDE blockades. Caffeine concentrations directly correlated to TLR4 gene expression (r=0.84; p<0.001). Conclusion Neither A3R, nor PDE blockades are involved in caffeine’s modulation of cytokine release by CBM at any concentration. Besides A1R blockade, caffeine’s up-regulation of TLR4 may promote inflammation at high concentrations. PMID:26982450

  3. Phenotypic switch in blood: effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on breast cancer cell aggregation and adhesion.

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    Yue Geng

    Full Text Available Hematogeneous metastasis can occur via a cascade of circulating tumor cell adhesion events to the endothelial lining of the vasculature, i.e. the metastatic cascade. Interestingly, the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, which play an important role in potentiating the inflammatory cascade, are significantly elevated in metastatic breast cancer (BCa patients. Despite their high metastatic potential, human breast carcinoma cells MDA-MB-231 lack interactions with E-selectin functionalized surfaces under physiological shear stresses. We hypothesized that human plasma, 3-D tumor spheroid culture, and cytokine-supplemented culture media could induce a phenotypic switch that allows BCa cells to interact with E-selectin coated surfaces under physiological flow. Flow cytometry, immunofluorescence imaging, and flow-based cell adhesion assay were utilized to investigate the phenotypic changes of MDA-MB-231 cells with various treatments. Our results indicate that plasma, IL-6, and TNF-α promote breast cancer cell growth as aggregates and induce adhesive recruitment of BCa cells on E-selectin coated surfaces under flow. 3-D tumor spheroid culture exhibits the most significant increases in the interactions between BCa and E-selectin coated surfaces by upregulating CD44V4 and sLe(x expression. Furthermore, we show that IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations in blood may regulate the recruitment of BCa cells to the inflamed endothelium. Finally, we propose a mechanism that could explain the invasiveness of 'triple-negative' breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 via a positive feedback loop of IL-6 secretion and maintenance. Taken together, our results suggest that therapeutic approaches targeting cytokine receptors and adhesion molecules on cancer cells may potentially reduce metastatic load and improve current cancer treatments.

  4. Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines during Immune Stimulation: Modulation of Iron Status and Red Blood Cell Profile

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    A. M. Koorts

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight patients were subdivided according to C-reactive protein (CRP levels, resulting in 19 patients with normal (2.8 ± 2.8 mg/L and 29 with elevated (82.2 ± 76.2 mg/L CRP levels. The elevated CRP group had iron and red blood cell (RBC profiles characteristic of chronic immune stimulation (CIS, and the normal CRP group, profiles of true iron deficiency. Normal relationships between storage iron, bioavailable iron, and RBC indices were absent in the elevated CRP group—implying the role of iron as major determinant of the RBC profile to be diminished during CIS. The elevated CRP group had significant increases in proinflammatory cytokines (INF-γ, TNF-α, Il-1β, Il-6, and Il-8. Anti-inflammatory cytokine levels were normal, except for Il-10, supporting previous indications that Il-10 contributes to reducing bioavailable iron. Regression analysis suggested decreases in transferrin to be related to increases in Il-8 and an increase in ferritin to be related to a decrease in Il-12 levels. TGF-β levels were positively related to transferrin and negatively to ferritin.

  5. Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines during Immune Stimulation: Modulation of Iron Status and Red Blood Cell Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koorts, A. M.; Levay, P. F.; Becker, P. J.; Viljoen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Forty-eight patients were subdivided according to C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, resulting in 19 patients with normal (2.8 ± 2.8 mg/L) and 29 with elevated (82.2 ± 76.2 mg/L) CRP levels. The elevated CRP group had iron and red blood cell (RBC) profiles characteristic of chronic immune stimulation (CIS), and the normal CRP group, profiles of true iron deficiency. Normal relationships between storage iron, bioavailable iron, and RBC indices were absent in the elevated CRP group—implying the role of iron as major determinant of the RBC profile to be diminished during CIS. The elevated CRP group had significant increases in proinflammatory cytokines (INF-γ, TNF-α, Il-1β, Il-6, and Il-8). Anti-inflammatory cytokine levels were normal, except for Il-10, supporting previous indications that Il-10 contributes to reducing bioavailable iron. Regression analysis suggested decreases in transferrin to be related to increases in Il-8 and an increase in ferritin to be related to a decrease in Il-12 levels. TGF-β levels were positively related to transferrin and negatively to ferritin. PMID:21547258

  6. Cytokine profile in psoriatic arthritis: search for relationships with inflammation and blood rheological properties

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    Tat'yana Viktorovna Korotaeva

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion. The enhanced clinical and laboratory activity of PSA is attended by the systemic activation of immunological mediators of inflammation and neoangiogenesis and by impaired blood rheological properties, which supports the interaction of these factors in the immunopathogenesis of the diseases.

  7. THE CHANGE IN THE LEVEL OF CYTOKINES IN BLOOD AND SYNOVIAL FLUID IN THE POSTTRAUMATIC PERIOD OF PATIENTS WITH DEFORMING OSTEOARTHROSIS AS CONTINUOUS CHRONIC DISEASE

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    Velichkina A.B.

    2015-05-01

    all stages of the disease, in addition to IV, the contents of this cytokine exceeded the control values in varying degrees of severity. The highest levels of IL-1R in blood serum was revealed in patients with 1st stage of deforming osteoarthrosis. Then downwards in the following order : in patients with 2nd , 3rd and finally, 4th stage of disease on average, respectively, he was 234,4±12,4; 198,7±16,6; 88,2±6,15 (in all cases p<0.05 and 47.4±4,45 PCG/ml. While the levels of IL-1R in the serum of patients with the 1st stage of the disease was 4.0 times; stage 2 - 3.4 times; the third stage is 1.5 times Annals of Mechnikov Institute, N 2, 2015 208 www.imiamn.org.ua /journal.htm higher than in control. And only in patients with stage 4 of deforming osteoarthrosis contents IL-1R did not differ from the control. A similar pattern was observed when determining the contents of TNF-a in the serum of patients with deforming osteoarthrosis, and only in contrast to the level of IL-1R in patients with 4th stage of deforming osteoarthrosis contents of TNF-and remained significantly higher than in control. So, the content of TNF-a in patients with of deforming osteoarthrosis of the I, II, III and IV stage of disease on average, respectively, amounted to 330,7±24,5; 210,5±17,3; 123,4±15,3 and 98,5±12,7 PCG/ml (in all cases p<0.05 Conclusion. The results obtained in a comparative study of contents of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-a in the blood serum and synovial fluid at various stages of deforming osteoarthrosis showed that the determination of the spectrum of cytokines in the hearth of the pathological process, in our opinion, is the most perspective and can be a key marker for early detection of damage and organizations of the active preventive measures of deformation processes in the joints in the early post traumatic period of the accident victims, mainly affecting the lower limbs.

  8. LEVELS OF KEY CYTOKINES, MACROGLOBULINS AND THEIR SPECIFIC IMMUNE COMPLEXES IN BLOOD SERA OF WOMEN TAKING COMBINED ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES

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    V. N. Zorina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. We investigated effects of combined oral contraceptives (COC containing low- and microdoses of estrogenic components upon serum levels of macroglobulin family proteins (alpha-2-macroglobulin, α2-MG, and pregnancy-associated alpha-2-glycoprotein, α2-PAG, their immune complexes with IgG, as well as concentrations of some cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, IFNγ. It was shown that cytokine levels did not differ with control, whereas α2-MG concentrations showed a time-dependent decrease in a group of women taking COC with microdoses of estrogens, and α2-PAG levels increased tenfold, independent on dosage and time of COC application. Meanwhile, contents of PAG-IgG complexes exhibits a gradual decrease, along with increase in MG-IgG. Considering PAG as a marker of normal and malignant proliferation, we suggest, that the levels of α2-PAG may be useful in monitoring of women taking COC, in order to predict high risk of pathological  proliferation  by  evaluation  of  individuals with  elevated  α2-PAG  levels.  (Med.  Immunol.,  2011, vol. 13, N 6, pp 635-638 

  9. Effect of basic fibroblast growth factor combined with laser on content of a variety of cytokines in acne scar wound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-Xuan Dong

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor combined with laser on the content of a variety of cytokines in acne scar wound.Methods:A total of 64 patients with facial acne scars who received laser treatment in Dermatology Department of our hospital from June 2012 to October 2015 were studied and divided into two groups. Experimental group received collagen dressing combined with bFGF dressing change after surgery, and control group only received collagen dressing change after surgery. Wound healing as well as the content of type I collagen, type III collagen, TGF-β1, TAK and VEGF in the wound of two groups were compared.Results:Five days after surgery, the wound of experimental group had apparently scabbed and the scabby area was significantly greater than that of control group while the wound of control group showed visible granulation tissue proliferation and the scabby area was smaller; the levels of type I collagen, type III collagen, TGF-β1, TAK and VEGF in scab tissue of experimental group were significantly lower than those of control group.Conclusions:Basic fibroblast growth factor combined with laser can promote the healing of acne scar wound, decrease the type I collagen, type III collagen, TGF-β1 and VEGF content and prevent scar healing.

  10. Urea, sugar, nonesterified fatty acid and cholesterol content of the blood in prolonged weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakhovskiy, I. S.; Orlova, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    Biochemical blood composition studies on astronauts during weightlessness flight simulation tests and during actual space flights showed some disturbances of metabolic processes. Increases in blood sugar, fatty acid and cholesterol, and urea content are noted.

  11. Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and subsp. hominissuis give different cytokine responses after in vitro stimulation of human blood mononuclear cells.

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    Johanna Thegerström

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium is the principal etiologic agent of non-tuberculous lymphadenitis in children. It is also a known pathogen for birds and other animals. Genetic typing of M. avium isolates has led to a proposal to expand the set of subspecies to include M. avium subsp. hominissuis. Isolates associated with disease in humans belong to this subspecies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from six healthy blood donors were stimulated in vitro with ten isolates of M. avium avium and 11 isolates of M. avium hominissuis followed by multiplex bead array quantification of cytokines in supernatants. M. avium hominissuis isolates induced significantly more IL-10 and significantly less IL-12p70, TNF, IFN-γ and IL-17 when compared to M. avium avium isolates. All strains induced high levels of IL-17, but had very low levels of IL-12p70. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The strong association between M. avium subsp. hominissuis and disease in humans and the clear differences in the human immune response to M. avium subsp. hominissuis compared to M. avium subsp. avium isolates, as demonstrated in this study, suggest that genetic differences between M. avium isolates play an important role in the pathogenicity in humans.

  12. Effect of oat bran on time to exhaustion, glycogen content and serum cytokine profile following exhaustive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatto, Felipe F; Prestes, Jonato; Frollini, Anelena B; Palanch, Adrianne C; Verlengia, Rozangela; Cavaglieri, Claudia Regina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oat bran supplementation on time to exhaustion, glycogen stores and cytokines in rats submitted to training. The animals were divided into 3 groups: sedentary control group (C), an exercise group that received a control chow (EX) and an exercise group that received a chow supplemented with oat bran (EX-O). Exercised groups were submitted to an eight weeks swimming training protocol. In the last training session, the animals performed exercise to exhaustion, (e.g. incapable to continue the exercise). After the euthanasia of the animals, blood, muscle and hepatic tissue were collected. Plasma cytokines and corticosterone were evaluated. Glycogen concentrations was measured in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, and liver. Glycogen synthetase-α gene expression was evaluated in the soleus muscle. Statistical analysis was performed using a factorial ANOVA. Time to exhaustion of the EX-O group was 20% higher (515 ± 3 minutes) when compared with EX group (425 ± 3 minutes) (p = 0.034). For hepatic glycogen, the EX-O group had a 67% higher concentrations when compared with EX (p = 0.022). In the soleus muscle, EX-O group presented a 59.4% higher glycogen concentrations when compared with EX group (p = 0.021). TNF-α was decreased, IL-6, IL-10 and corticosterone increased after exercise, and EX-O presented lower levels of IL-6, IL-10 and corticosterone levels in comparison with EX group. It was concluded that the chow rich in oat bran increase muscle and hepatic glycogen concentrations. The higher glycogen storage may improve endurance performance during training and competitions, and a lower post-exercise inflammatory response can accelerate recovery. PMID:20955601

  13. Effect of oat bran on time to exhaustion, glycogen content and serum cytokine profile following exhaustive exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frollini Anelena B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oat bran supplementation on time to exhaustion, glycogen stores and cytokines in rats submitted to training. The animals were divided into 3 groups: sedentary control group (C, an exercise group that received a control chow (EX and an exercise group that received a chow supplemented with oat bran (EX-O. Exercised groups were submitted to an eight weeks swimming training protocol. In the last training session, the animals performed exercise to exhaustion, (e.g. incapable to continue the exercise. After the euthanasia of the animals, blood, muscle and hepatic tissue were collected. Plasma cytokines and corticosterone were evaluated. Glycogen concentrations was measured in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, and liver. Glycogen synthetase-α gene expression was evaluated in the soleus muscle. Statistical analysis was performed using a factorial ANOVA. Time to exhaustion of the EX-O group was 20% higher (515 ± 3 minutes when compared with EX group (425 ± 3 minutes (p = 0.034. For hepatic glycogen, the EX-O group had a 67% higher concentrations when compared with EX (p = 0.022. In the soleus muscle, EX-O group presented a 59.4% higher glycogen concentrations when compared with EX group (p = 0.021. TNF-α was decreased, IL-6, IL-10 and corticosterone increased after exercise, and EX-O presented lower levels of IL-6, IL-10 and corticosterone levels in comparison with EX group. It was concluded that the chow rich in oat bran increase muscle and hepatic glycogen concentrations. The higher glycogen storage may improve endurance performance during training and competitions, and a lower post-exercise inflammatory response can accelerate recovery.

  14. Changes in some pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines produced by bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells following foot and mouth disease vaccination

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    N. Delirezh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-17 is exclusively produced by CD4 helper T-cells upon activation. It most often acts as a pro-inflammatory cytokine, which stimulates the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF. In this study, we studied the in-vitro IL-17 response to specific antigens and a variety of mitogens and compared the IL-17 response to IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-γ responses. We used a foot and mouth disease (FMD vaccine as specific antigens and mitogens (phytohemagglutinin [PHA], pokeweed mitogen [PWM], and concanavalin A [Con A] to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of vaccinated calves. Cell culture supernatant was harvested and analyzed for cytokines, using commercially available bovine ELISA kits. The mitogens induced a significant increase in IL-17 production. IL-17 was produced at high levels in response to the T cell-stimulated mitogens, PHA, and Con A, and at low levels in response to PWM mitogens. In contrast, level of the produced IL-17 cytokines in response to the FMDV antigens was lower as compared to those produced by mitogens. The FMDV antigens and mitogens significantly increased IL-17 production. There was not a correlation between IL-17 production and type-1 cytokine, IFN-γ, and IL-2, while there was a correlation between type-2 cytokine, IL-4, and IL-5 at either cytokine level produced by PBMCs stimulated by FMDV antigens. Moreover, there was an interaction between IL-17 and IL-6, that is, as IL-6 cytokine level elevated or diminished, IL-17 cytokine level increased or decreased, as well.

  15. CYTOKINE-PRODUCING RESERVE OF IMMUNOCOMPETENT CELLS FROM BLOOD AND INVASIVE DUCTAL BREAST CANCER TISSUES: ITS CORRELATION WITH HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF MALIGNANT NEOPLASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Arkhipov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate a relationship between cytokine-producing reserve of invasive ductal cancer cells and its microenvironment, and cytokine-producing reserve of immunocompetent blood cells (IBC, as well as with histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of breast cancer. Using ELISA method we investigated the spontaneous and stimulated with polyclonal activators (PA cytokine-producing reserve of IBC and biopsy specimens from invasive ductal cancer (adenocarcinoma in 34 women. Appropriate values were expressed by the Influence Index of polyclonal activators (IIPA upon cytokine production (IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IL-18, IL-1β, IL-1ra, TNFα, IFNγ, G-CSF, GM-CSF, VEGF-A, MCP-1. In tumor biopsies, we studied expression of VEGF-A, estrogen receptor, progesteron receptor and pro-proliferation marker Ki-67 by means of immunohistochemical method. Activation values of blood IBC in most cases, except of IL-18, IL-1β and MCP-1, were higher than appropriate effects upon cytokine production by tumor tisuues. Meanwhile, the IIPA activation index upon IL-18 (a proinflammatory and prooncogene cytokine production by tumor cells and its microenvironment proved to be elevated, as compared to appropriate IIPA by the blood IBC. Statistical studies showed a direct correlation between IIPA and cytokine production in tumor supernates, IIPA of VEGF-A expression in tumor tissue, with pathohistological parameters and expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors and Ki-67 proliferation marker. A high positive correlation was obtained between IIPA TNFα production by the tumor tissue, and degree of tumor vascularization.We have revealed a negative correlation between IIPA for IL-6, MCP-1 and Ki-67 marker of cell proliferation. A direct correlation was found between IIPA values for IL-1ra/IL-1β production ratios in blood cells, and IIPA for VEGF-A expression in adenocarcinoma tissues, thus indicating to probable

  16. Lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and E. coli nissle induce pro- and anti-infiammatory cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ulf Helwig; Stefan Schreiber; Massimo Campieri; Karen M Lammers; Fernando Rizzello; Patricia Brigidi; Verena Rohleder; Elisabetta Caramelli; Paolo Gionchetti; Juergen Schrezenmeir; Ulrich R Foelsch

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether the stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) with the cell debris and cell extraction of different probiotic strains is similar or Species specific.METHODS: Three strains of bifidobacteria, 4 strains of lactobacilli, and E. colinissle were sonicated and centrifuged in order to divide them into cell extract and cell debris. PBMNC were separated by density gradient and incubated for 36 h with either the cell debris or the cell extract of single strains of probiotic bacteria in doses from 102 to 108 CFU/mL. Cell supernatants were taken and interleukin (IL)-10, IL-1β, and tumor necosis factor (TNF)-α were determined by El ISA.RESULTS: Depending on the species super-family, the strains had different stimulation patterns. Except for both L. casei strains, the cell extract of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli had less stimulating capacity than cell debris, whereas the cell extract of E. coli nissle had similar stimulating properties to that of the cell debris of the strain and significantly more stimulating capacity than that of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. The cell debris of bifidobacteria stimulated more cytokine release than the cell debris of lactobacilli. The cell debris of lactobacilli did not have a stimulating capacity when lower concentrations were used. Neither cell extraction nor cell debris had an inhibitory effect on the production of the tested cytokines by stimulated PBMNC.CONCLUSION: The incubation of probiotic strains,which have been used in clinical trials for inflammatory diseases, with immunocompetent cells leads to different species specific reactions. High IL-10 response to cell debris of bifidobacteria and E. coli nissle can be found. This corresponds to positive effects of bifidobacteria and E.coli nissle in clinical trials for inflammatory bowel disease compared to negative outcomes obtained with lactobacilli.

  17. Medroxyprogesterone acetate alters Mycobacterium bovis BCG-induced cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of contraceptive users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léanie Kleynhans

    Full Text Available Most individuals latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb contain the infection by a balance of effector and regulatory immune responses. This balance can be influenced by steroid hormones such as glucocorticoids. The widely used contraceptive medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA possesses glucocorticoid activity. We investigated the effect of this hormone on immune responses to BCG in household contacts of active TB patients. Multiplex bead array analysis revealed that MPA demonstrated both glucocorticoid and progestogenic properties at saturating and pharmacological concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and suppressed antigen specific cytokine production. Furthermore we showed that PBMCs from women using MPA produced significantly lower levels of IL-1α, IL-12p40, IL-10, IL-13 and G-CSF in response to BCG which corresponded with lower numbers of circulating monocytes observed in these women. Our research study is the first to show that MPA impacts on infections outside the genital tract due to a systemic effect on immune function. Therefore MPA use could alter susceptibility to TB, TB disease severity as well as change the efficacy of new BCG-based vaccines, especially prime-boost vaccine strategies which may be administered to adult or adolescent women in the future.

  18. Procalcitonin neutralizes bacterial LPS and reduces LPS-induced cytokine release in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matera Giovanni

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Procalcitonin (PCT is a polypeptide with several cationic aminoacids in its chemical structure and it is a well known marker of sepsis. It is now emerging that PCT might exhibit some anti-inflammatory effects. The present study, based on the evaluation of the in vitro interaction between PCT and bacterial lipopolisaccharide (LPS, reports new data supporting the interesting and potentially useful anti-inflammatory activity of PCT. Results PCT significantly decreased (p Salmonella typhimurium (rough chemotype and Escherichia coli (smooth chemotype. Subsequently, the in vitro effects of PCT on LPS-induced cytokine release were studied in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. When LPS was pre-incubated for 30 minutes with different concentrations of PCT, the release of interleukin-10 (IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα by PBMC decreased in a concentration-dependent manner after 24 hours for IL-10 and 4 hours for TNFα. The release of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 exhibited a drastic reduction at 4 hours for all the PCT concentrations assessed, whereas such decrease was concentration-dependent after 24 hours. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence of the capability of PCT to directly neutralize bacterial LPS, thus leading to a reduction of its major inflammatory mediators.

  19. The study on secretion of cytokine interleukin-4, interleukin-10 and interferon-γ in peripheral blood of multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-yan QIAO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective Multiple sclerosis (MS is a mainly cell-mediated autoimmune demyelinating disease in central nervous system (CNS, characterized by inflammatory demyelinating and infiltration of mononuclear cells around microvessels in CNS. It has been shown that MS is caused by the imbalance between T helper cell 1 (Th1 and Th2 or between inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines. However, the profile of cytokine according to the published data is contradictory. This study is to evaluate the status of cytokines from mononuclear T cells in MS patients and try to provide clues for clinical diagnosis and treatment.  Methods Enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT was used to test the spontaneous and antigen-specific [concanavalin A (ConA, myelin basic protein (MBP and acetyleholine receptor (AChR] Th1-related cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ and Th2-related cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4, IL-10 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells in MS patients, who had not received any immunological treatment over the last 3 months.  Results Compared with normal controls and patients with non-immune neurological diseases, MBP specific IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ of MS patients increased significantly (P = 0.000, for all. In addition, MBP specific IFN-γ level of MS patients increased signicantly in acute or exacerbating phase when compared with that in stable phase (P = 0.002, while MBP specific IL-4 and IL-10 levels did not differ significantly (P > 0.05, for all.  Conclusions The examinations of IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ cytokines using ELISPOT are helpful for the differential diagnosis and the disease course of MS. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.10.008

  20. 17β-Estradiol induces changes in cytokine levels in head kidney and blood of juvenile sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L., 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Frauke; Knigge, Thomas; Rocher, Béatrice; Minier, Christophe; Monsinjon, Tiphaine

    2013-01-01

    The cytokine network is involved in the immune system communication. As estrogens influence the cytokine expression in mammals, this study investigated the impact of exogenous estrogenic pollutants on selected cytokines in Dicentrarchus labrax. The gene expression of Interleukin 6, Tumour Necrosis Factor α, Transforming Growth Factor β1 and Interleukin 1β was assessed and accomplished with protein measurements in the blood for the last two. Impacts through 17β-estradiol mainly occurred at the beginning of organ regionalisation, thus falling together with a developmentally induced increase of Interleukin 1β and Tumour Necrosis Factor α gene expression in 102 dph fish. 17β-estradiol depressed this modification after 35 days of exposure and the cytokine gene expression tended to be generally down-regulated independently of the 17β-estradiol concentrations after 56 days of exposure. This impact was confirmed at the protein level, showing that 17β-estradiol affects the fine control of the cytokine network in sea bass. PMID:23602341

  1. Proliferation and TH1/TH2 Cytokine Production in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells after Treatment with Cypermethrin and Mancozeb In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Mandarapu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, human cell-based assays are gaining attention in assessments of immunomodulatory effects of chemicals. In the study here, the possible effects of cypermethrin and mancozeb on lymphocyte proliferation and proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor (TNF- α and immunoregulatory cytokine (interferon- (IFN- γ, interleukins (IL 2, 4, 6, and 10 formation in vitro were investigated. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were isolated and exposed for 6 hr to noncytotoxic doses (0.45–30 µM of cypermethrin or mancozeb in the presence of activating rat S9 fraction. Cultures were then further incubated for 48 or 72 hr in fresh medium containing phytohemagglutinin (10 µg/mL to assess, respectively, effects on cell proliferation (BrdU-ELISA method and cytokine formation (flow cytometric bead immunoassays. Mancozeb induced dose-dependent increases in lymphocyte proliferation, inhibition of production of TNFα and the TH2 cytokines IL-6 and IL-10, and an increase in IFNγ (TH1 cytokine production (at least 2-fold compared to control; mancozeb also induced inhibition of IL-4 (TH2 and stimulated IL-2 (TH1 production, albeit only in dose-related manners for each. In contrast, cypermethrin exposure did not cause significant effects on proliferation or cytokine profiles. Further studies are needed to better understand the functional significance of our in vitro findings.

  2. Near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of blood oxygenation content and its application in sports practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guodong; Gong, Hui; Ge, Xinfa; Luo, Qingming

    2003-12-01

    To research the change characteristics of blood oxygenation content in skeletal muscle, the change regularity between blood oxygenation content and exercise intensity as well as HbO2 and blood lactate acid while taking incremental exercises, we took an in vivo, real-time and continuous measurement on the blood oxygenation content of eight sportsmen when they did incremental exercises of five degrees on a power bicycle using a portable tissue oximeter which is based on the principle of near-infrared spectroscopy(NIRS), simultaneously, we detected the blood lactate acid of subjects after each degree of incremental physical load instantly using a blood lactate analysis equipment. The results showed that the content of HbO2 descended regularly while that of Hb ascended; blood volume decreased; and the density of lactate increased as the intensity of exercises was heightened. The statistics analyses showed that the relationship between HbO2 and blood lactate is rather close (correlation coefficient r=-0.918). With this discovery, a theoretical basis in measuring the relative change of blood oxygenation content non-invasively was evidenced, and a novel technology for assessing the physical situation of sportsman, grasping sports density and evaluating the training effect could be imported.

  3. Cytokine Response to Antigen Stimulation of Whole Blood from Patients with Mycobacterium ulcerans Disease Compared to That from Patients with Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, R; Horsfield, C.; Kuijper, S.; Sarfo, S. F.; Obeng-Baah, J.; Etuaful, S.; Nyamekye, B.; Awuah, P.; Nyarko, K M; Osei-Sarpong, F.; Lucas, S.; Kolk, A. H. J.; Wansbrough-Jones, M.

    2006-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans disease (Buruli ulcer) is a skin-ulcerating infection common in some parts of the tropics. We have investigated cytokine secretion after stimulation of whole blood from Buruli ulcer (BU) patients in a region of endemicity in Ghana with M. ulcerans sonicate or culture filtrate antigens to investigate the development of the response over time and its specificity by comparison with the response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis sonicate in human immunodeficiency virus-negative...

  4. The detection of subgingival microflora contents of type 2 diabetes patients with periodontitis and its correlation with gingival crevicular fluid cytokine levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-Hua Luo; Qian Chen; Huan Zhao; Ping Xu; Yong-Xiang Fan; Ji Shi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study subgingival microflora contents of type 2 diabetes patients with periodontitis and its correlation with gingival crevicular fluid cytokine levels. Methods: Type 2 diabetes patients with periodontitis and simple periodontitis patients treated in our hospital from March 2012 to August 2014 were selected for study and enrolled in diabetes with periodontitis group and simple periodontitis group respectively. Then subgingival microflora contents and levels of cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid were detected. Results: (1) Subgingival microflora: compared with simple periodontitis group, contents of porphyromonas gingivalis aeromonas, actinomycetes with haemophilus, Forsyth Tanner bacteria, middle Prairie Waugh bacteria and Treponema denticola of diabetes with periodontitis group were higher;(2) Antioxidants and oxidation products: compared with simple periodontitis group, MPO, CAT, SOD, GSH and VitC contents of diabetic with periodontitis group were lower; MDA and 8-OhdG contents were higher; (3) Signaling molecules: compared with simple periodontitis group, SFRP1, Fas, FasL, Wnt5a, NF-kb and p38 contents of diabetic with periodontitis group were higher. Conclusion: Contents of pathogens in subgingival microflora of type 2 diabetes patients with periodontitis significantly increase; antioxidants are extensively consumed and oxidation products are largely generated; there is dysfunction of multiple signaling pathways.

  5. Inflammatory cytokine detection in adenotonsill and peripheral blood mononuclear cells- culture in adenotonsillectomy patients: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Farhadi M; Tabatabaei A; Shekarabi M; Noorbakhsh S; Shokrollahi MR; Javadi Nia Sh; Faramarzi M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tonsils and adenoid hypertrophy is a major respiratory symptom in children which is partly due to recruitment of inflammatory cells in upper airway lymph nodes as a result of the effects of synthesis and release of different inflammatory cytokines. It seems that infections play role in concert with these cytokines leading to tonsilar hypertrophy and other pathologic consequences. It is proposed that cellular infiltrate of tonsils and adenoids may secrete different quantities of th...

  6. Increased miR-155 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of primary immune thrombocytopenia patients was correlated with serum cytokine profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Bao-Hua; Ye, Xin; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Yi; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Gu, Ming-Li; Qin, Qin; Chen, Jie; Deng, An-Mei

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the possible pathogenic role of a microRNA (miR-155) in primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). We used quantitative real-time PCR to determine the relative expression of miR-155 and SOCS1 (suppressor of cytokine signaling) mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 28 ITP patients and 28 healthy controls. Cytokine plasma levels were determined by ELISA. Possible associations between miR-155 levels and serum cytokine concentrations were assessed using Spearman or Pearson correlation analysis. Seven naive ITP patients were followed and the effects of medical treatment on miR-155 levels were assessed. Compared to healthy controls, ITP patients had increased miR-155 and decreased SOCS1 mRNA levels. ITP patients also had increased plasma IL-17A and decreased IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β1 levels. miR-155 levels were negatively correlated with platelet counts, SOCS1 mRNA levels, and the plasma levels of IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β1, but positively correlated with plasma IL-17A levels. Medical treatment for ITP decreased miR-155 levels. Thus, our results suggest that miR-155 might be involved in the pathogenesis of ITP by regulating cytokine profiles, which may be mediated by miR-155 targeting SOCS1. PMID:25413124

  7. The concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins in the peripheral blood and uterine washings in cows with pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzki, P; Kostro, K; Brodzki, A; Ziętek, J

    2015-06-01

    The development of pyometra in cows depends largely on the state of local immunity of the uterus. The objective of the study was to evaluate the concentration of the following proinflammatory cytokines: tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6); anti-inflammatory cytokine: interleukin-10 (IL-10); and acute-phase proteins (APPs): haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA), in serum and uterine washings in cows with pyometra and healthy animals. The study was performed on 20 cows divided into two groups based on the results of cytological and ultrasonographic tests: a pyometra and a healthy group (10 cows per group). Experimental material consisted of blood serum and uterine washings. The levels of the following cytokines, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and APPs - Hp and SAA, in the study material were determined by ELISA. The results showed that the values of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 as well as SAA and Hp were significantly higher in serum of cows with pyometra compared to controls (p pyometra cows compared to the control (p pyometra in cows based on the evaluation of the concentration of cytokines and Hp in the serum and uterine washings. Simultaneous evaluation of selected indicators of antagonistic interaction can be helpful in determining the current status of local immunity of the uterus. On this basis, it could be possible to properly select an adjunctive therapy in the form of immunomodulating preparations. PMID:25704413

  8. Inflammatory cytokine and acute phase protein concentrations in the peripheral blood and uterine washings of cows with subclinical endometritis in the late postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzki, Piotr; Kostro, Krzysztof; Krakowski, Leszek; Marczuk, Jan

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines: tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10), and acute phase proteins (APPs)--haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) in serum and uterine washings of cows with subclinical endometritis, and compare them to healthy animals. The study was performed on 24 cows on day 60 after delivery. The cows were divided into two groups based on the results of cytological tests: 12 cows with subclinical endometritis and 12 healthy cows. Experimental material consisted of blood serum and uterine washings. The levels of the following cytokines in the study material were determined with ELISA: TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and APPs - Hp and SAA. The results show that the levels of TNF-α (p < 0.01), IL-6, IL-10 as well as SAA and Hp were significantly higher in the serum of cows with subclinical endometritis compared to the controls (p < 0.001). Uterine washings had significantly higher levels of IL-6, IL-10, and Hp in the experimental cows compared to the controls (p < 0.001). The demonstrated differences in the concentration of cytokines and APP between cows with subclinical endometritis and healthy cows, in both the serum and uterine washings, may suggest the usefulness of these parameters in the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis in cows in the late postpartum period. PMID:25846950

  9. Downregulation of blood-brain barrier phenotype by proinflammatory cytokines involves NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation: consequences for interendothelial adherens and tight junctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith D Rochfort

    Full Text Available Blood-brain barrier (BBB dysfunction is an integral feature of neurological disorders and involves the action of multiple proinflammatory cytokines on the microvascular endothelial cells lining cerebral capillaries. There is still however, considerable ambiguity throughout the scientific literature regarding the mechanistic role(s of cytokines in this context, thereby warranting a comprehensive in vitro investigation into how different cytokines may cause dysregulation of adherens and tight junctions leading to BBB permeabilization.The present study employs human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMvECs to compare/contrast the effects of TNF-α and IL-6 on BBB characteristics ranging from the expression of interendothelial junction proteins (VE-cadherin, occludin and claudin-5 to endothelial monolayer permeability. The contribution of cytokine-induced NADPH oxidase activation to altered barrier phenotype was also investigated.In response to treatment with either TNF-α or IL-6 (0-100 ng/ml, 0-24 hrs, our studies consistently demonstrated significant dose- and time-dependent decreases in the expression of all interendothelial junction proteins examined, in parallel with dose- and time-dependent increases in ROS generation and HBMvEC permeability. Increased expression and co-association of gp91 and p47, pivotal NADPH oxidase subunits, was also observed in response to either cytokine. Finally, cytokine-dependent effects on junctional protein expression, ROS generation and endothelial permeability could all be attenuated to a comparable extent using a range of antioxidant strategies, which included ROS depleting agents (superoxide dismutase, catalase, N-acetylcysteine, apocynin and targeted NADPH oxidase blockade (gp91 and p47 siRNA, NSC23766.A timely and wide-ranging investigation comparing the permeabilizing actions of TNF-α and IL-6 in HBMvECs is presented, in which we demonstrate how either cytokine can similarly downregulate the

  10. Time course for the recovery of physical performance, blood hemoglobin, and ferritin content after blood donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegler, Andreas K; Grand, Johannes; Stangerup, Ida;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that blood donation negatively affects endurance performance, but data on physical recovery after a standard blood donation are scarce. This study aimed to elucidate the temporary impact of blood donation on endurance performance, measured as peak oxygen uptake (VO......2peak ) and time trial (TT) performance. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: VO2peak , TT performance, blood, iron, and anthropometric variables were determined before (baseline) and 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after blood donation in 19 healthy men. RESULTS: VO2peak was reduced by 6.5% from 49.7 ± 2 mL/kg/min at...... baseline to 46.3 ± 2 mL/kg/min on Day 3 (p < 0.001), and TT performance was reduced by 5.2% from 13:31 ± 00:42 to 14:13 ± 00:50 min:sec (p < 0.001). Both VO2peak and TT performance were back to baseline 14 days after blood donation. Blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration declined 7.9% from 9.3 ± 0.11 mmol...

  11. In vitro effects of monophthalates on cytokine expression in the monocytic cell line THP-1 and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from allergic and non-allergic donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glue, C; Millner, A; Bødtger, Uffe;

    2002-01-01

    It has recently been shown that plasticizers are present in indoor air dust, which may lead to human exposure via the inhalation route. Moreover, studies have indicated that plasticizers may possess adjuvant effects increasing the health damaging potential of allergens. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the in vitro effect of metabolites of phthalate plastisizers, such as whether an adjuvant effect is paralleled by changes of the cytokine expression in the monocytic cell line THP-1 and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from allergics and non-allergics. The toxicity monitored by cell...... determined using Quantitative Competitive RT-PCR. PBMCs from allergics and non-allergics were incubated with monophthalate 220 microg/ml) for up to 48 h and cytokine expression (IL-4, IL-5, IFN-gamma) was measured using real-time PCR. The cytotoxic level of monophthalates is 20-200 microg/ml, depending...

  12. Effect of sesamin against cytokine production from influenza type A H1N1-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cells: computational and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanhchaksai, Kanda; Kodchakorn, Kanchanok; Pothacharoen, Peraphan; Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, swine flu (H1N1) had spread significantly to levels that threatened pandemic influenza. There have been many treatments that have arisen for patients since the WHO first reported the disease. Although some progress in controlling influenza has taken place during the last few years, the disease is not yet under control. The development of new and less expensive anti-influenza drugs is still needed. Here, we show that sesamin from the seeds of the Thai medicinal plant Sesamum indicum has anti-inflammatory cytokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) induced by 2009 influenza virus type A H1N1. In this study, the combinatorial screening method combined with the computational approach was applied to investigate the new molecular binding structures of sesamin against the 2009 influenza virus type A H1N1 (p09N1) crystallized structure. Experimental methods were applied to propose the mechanisms of sesamin against cytokine production from H1N1-induced human PBMC model. The molecular dynamics simulation of sesamin binding with the p09N1 crystallized structure showed new molecular binding structures at ARG118, ILE222, ARG224, and TYR406, and it has been proposed that sesamin could potentially be used to produce anti-H1N1 compounds. Furthermore, the mechanisms of sesamin against cytokine production from influenza type A H1N1-induced PBMCs by ELISA and signaling transduction showed that sesamin exhibits the ability to inhibit proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α, and to enhance the activity of the immune cell cytokine IL-2 via downregulating the phosphorylated JNK, p38, and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathways. This information might very well be useful in the prevention and treatment of immune-induced inflammatory disorders. PMID:26424131

  13. Effect of sesamin against cytokine production from influenza type A H1N1-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cells: computational and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanhchaksai, Kanda; Kodchakorn, Kanchanok; Pothacharoen, Peraphan; Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, swine flu (H1N1) had spread significantly to levels that threatened pandemic influenza. There have been many treatments that have arisen for patients since the WHO first reported the disease. Although some progress in controlling influenza has taken place during the last few years, the disease is not yet under control. The development of new and less expensive anti-influenza drugs is still needed. Here, we show that sesamin from the seeds of the Thai medicinal plant Sesamum indicum has anti-inflammatory cytokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) induced by 2009 influenza virus type A H1N1. In this study, the combinatorial screening method combined with the computational approach was applied to investigate the new molecular binding structures of sesamin against the 2009 influenza virus type A H1N1 (p09N1) crystallized structure. Experimental methods were applied to propose the mechanisms of sesamin against cytokine production from H1N1-induced human PBMC model. The molecular dynamics simulation of sesamin binding with the p09N1 crystallized structure showed new molecular binding structures at ARG118, ILE222, ARG224, and TYR406, and it has been proposed that sesamin could potentially be used to produce anti-H1N1 compounds. Furthermore, the mechanisms of sesamin against cytokine production from influenza type A H1N1-induced PBMCs by ELISA and signaling transduction showed that sesamin exhibits the ability to inhibit proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α, and to enhance the activity of the immune cell cytokine IL-2 via downregulating the phosphorylated JNK, p38, and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathways. This information might very well be useful in the prevention and treatment of immune-induced inflammatory disorders.

  14. Effects of Supplementation with BCAA and L-glutamine on Blood Fatigue Factors and Cytokines in Juvenile Athletes Submitted to Maximal Intensity Rowing Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ga Hee; Woo, Jinhee; Kang, Sungwhun; Shin, Ki Ok

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to understand the impacts of BCAA (branched-chain amino acid) and glutamine supplementation on the degree of blood fatigue factor stimulation and cytokines along with performance of exercise at the maximal intensity. [Subjects] Five male juvenile elite rowing athletes participated in this study as the subjects; they took 3 tests and received placebo supplementation (PS), BCAA supplementation (BS), and glutamine supplementation (GS). [Methods] The exercise applied in the tests was 2,000 m of rowing at the maximal intensity using an indoor rowing machine, and blood samples were collected 3 times, while resting, at the end of exercise, and after 30 min of recovery, to analyze the blood fatigue factors (lactate, phosphorous, ammonia, creatine kinase (CK)) and blood cytokines (IL (interleukin)-6, 8, 15). [Results] The results of the analysis showed that the levels of blood phosphorous in the BS and GS groups at the recovery stage were decreased significantly compared with at the end of exercise, and the level of CK appeared lower in the GS group alone at recovery stage than at the end of exercise. The level of blood IL-15 in the PS and BS groups appeared higher at the end of exercise compared with the resting stage. [Conclusion] It seemed that glutamine supplementation had a positive effect on the decrease in fatigue factor stimulation at the recovery stage after maximal intensity exercise compared with supplementation with the placebo or BCAA. Besides, pre-exercise glutamine supplementation seemed to help enhance immune function and the defensive inflammatory reaction. PMID:25202189

  15. Modulation of Cytokine Production by Drugs with Antiepileptic or Mood Stabilizer Properties in Anti-CD3- and Anti-CD40-Stimulated Blood In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubertus Himmerich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased cytokine production possibly due to oxidative stress has repeatedly been shown to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. Recent in vitro and animal studies of valproic acid (VPA report antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, and suppression of interleukin (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. We tested the effect of drugs with antiepileptic or mood stabilizer properties, namely, primidone (PRM, carbamazepine (CBZ, levetiracetam (LEV, lamotrigine (LTG, VPA, oxcarbazepine (OXC, topiramate (TPM, phenobarbital (PB, and lithium on the production of the following cytokines in vitro: interleukin (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22, and TNF-α. We performed a whole blood assay with stimulated blood of 14 healthy female subjects. Anti-human CD3 monoclonal antibody OKT3, combined with 5C3 antibody against CD40, was used as stimulant. We found a significant reduction of IL-1 and IL-2 levels with all tested drugs other than lithium in the CD3/5C3-stimulated blood; VPA led to a decrease in IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α production, which substantiates and adds knowledge to current hypotheses on VPA’s anti-inflammatory properties.

  16. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits cytokine production by human blood monocytes at the post-transcriptional level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, K; Haahr, P M; Diamant, M;

    1992-01-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] inhibits lymphocyte proliferation and production of antibodies and lymphokines such as interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon gamma. These lymphocyte functions are dependent upon cytokines, including IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (...

  17. Generalized Liver- and Blood-Derived CD8+ T-Cell Impairment in Response to Cytokines in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C Burke Schinkel

    Full Text Available Generalized CD8+ T-cell impairment in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and the contribution of liver-infiltrating CD8+ T-cells to the immunopathogenesis of this infection remain poorly understood. It is hypothesized that this impairment is partially due to reduced CD8+ T-cell activity in response to cytokines such as IL-7, particularly within the liver. To investigate this, the phenotype and cytokine responsiveness of blood- and liver-derived CD8+ T-cells from healthy controls and individuals with HCV infection were compared. In blood, IL-7 receptor α (CD127 expression on bulk CD8+ T-cells in HCV infection was no different than controls yet was lower on central memory T-cells, and there were fewer naïve cells. IL-7-induced signalling through phosphorylated STAT5 was lower in HCV infection than in controls, and differed between CD8+ T-cell subsets. Production of Bcl-2 following IL-7 stimulation was also lower in HCV infection and inversely related to the degree of liver fibrosis. In liver-derived CD8+ T-cells, STAT5 activation could not be increased with cytokine stimulation and basal Bcl-2 levels of liver-derived CD8+ T-cells were lower than blood-derived counterparts in HCV infection. Therefore, generalized CD8+ T-cell impairment in HCV infection is characterized, in part, by impaired IL-7-mediated signalling and survival, independent of CD127 expression. This impairment is more pronounced in the liver and may be associated with an increased potential for apoptosis. This generalized CD8+ T-cell impairment represents an important immune dysfunction in chronic HCV infection that may alter patient health.

  18. Flow Cytometric Detection of p38 MAPK Phosphorylation and Intracellular Cytokine Expression in Peripheral Blood Subpopulations from Patients with Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Mavropoulos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow cytometric analysis of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK signaling cascade is optimally achieved by methanol permeabilization protocols. Such protocols suffer from the difficulties to accurately detect intracellular cytokines and surface epitopes of infrequent cell subpopulations, which are removed by methanol. To overcome these limitations, we have modified methanol-based phosphoflow protocols using several commercially available antibody clones suitable for surface antigens, intracellular cytokines, and p38 MAPK. These included markers of B cells (CD19, CD20, and CD22, T cells (CD3, CD4, and CD8, NK (CD56 and CD7, and dendritic cells (CD11c. We have also tested surface markers of costimulatory molecules, such as CD27. We have successfully determined simultaneous expression of IFN-γ, as well as IL-10, and phosphorylated p38 in cell subsets. The optimized phosphoflow protocol has also been successfully applied in peripheral blood mononuclear cells or purified cell subpopulations from patients with various autoimmune diseases. In conclusion, our refined phosphoflow cytometric approach allows simultaneous detection of p38 MAPK activity and intracellular cytokine expression and could be used as an important tool to study signaling cascades in autoimmunity.

  19. [Disturbances of blood lipid content after acute disorders of brain blood flow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, N E; Lebedev, I A; Akinina, S A; Anishchenko, L I; Koltsov, V V; Beliavskiĭ, A R; Sokolova, A A; Iakovlev, S V

    2011-01-01

    The parameters of blood lipid spectrum have been analyzed in 421 patients who survived cerebral stroke and transitory ischemic attacks in 2004-2008. The study included people of Khanty-Mansiysk and Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug and watchmen. The statistical analysis did not reveal differences between mean concentrations of total cholesterol, high and low density lipoproteins and triglycerides in the settled population and in watchmen. Mean values of all parameters, with the exception of high-density lipoprotein, were higher compared to normative values. The highest frequency of deviations was found for low-density lipoproteins (63.5% of cases). The highest concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density proteins were seen in patients after transitory ischemic attacks regardless of their sex. The comparison of blood lipid spectrum parameters in different age groups revealed significant differences only for total cholesterol.

  20. Effect of oat bran on time to exhaustion, glycogen content and serum cytokine profile following exhaustive exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Frollini Anelena B; Prestes Jonato; Donatto Felipe F; Palanch Adrianne C; Verlengia Rozangela; Cavaglieri Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oat bran supplementation on time to exhaustion, glycogen stores and cytokines in rats submitted to training. The animals were divided into 3 groups: sedentary control group (C), an exercise group that received a control chow (EX) and an exercise group that received a chow supplemented with oat bran (EX-O). Exercised groups were submitted to an eight weeks swimming training protocol. In the last training session, the animals performe...

  1. Lack of correlation between membrane CD30 expression and cytokine secretion pattern in allergen-primed naive cord blood T-cell lines and clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinozzi, F; Agea, E; Piattoni, S; Falini, B; Grignani, F; Bertotto, A

    1997-04-01

    Various surface molecules are expressed by activated T cells. Among them, the CD30 antigen has been proposed as a reproducible marker that identifies a subset of differentiated and/or activated T lymphocytes that produce T helper (Th)-2-type cytokines, i.e. interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5. However, because CD30 has mainly been detected on established T-cell clones, it is still unclear whether a priming allergen and/or cytokine can induce its membrane expression on naive T cells, perhaps in parallel with the up-regulation of other relevant activation markers, such as CD25, HLA-DR and L-selectin. It is also unknown whether proper allergen stimulation affects the cytokine secretion pattern by CD30+ T-cell clones derived from antigen-unprimed (naive) T lymphocytes. More information on these questions was sought by adopting a model that used cord blood as a source of virgin T cells and exposing them to native cypress allergen or cytokine (IL-2 or IL-4) stimulation, as well as to conventional polyclonal activators such as PHA or anti-CD3. Peripheral blood MC from four adult cypress-sensitive patients was also assayed and used as controls for all culture experiments. Freshly isolated cord and adult T cells did not express the CD30 antigen on their membrane. Many of the stimulating agents tested were able to up-regulate the expression of CD30. However, despite high expression of this molecule, cloned allergen-specific cord CD4+ T lymphocytes were unable to produce IFN-gamma and/or IL-4. In contrast, they retained the capability to produce IL-2. Thus, expression of the CD30 antigen on virgin T cells does not correlate with a polarized model of T helper (Th)-1 or Th-2 cytokine-producing cells, suggesting that these types of lymphokine-secreting lymphocytes are not a paradigmatic example of T-cell subpopulations that display stable phenotypical features. PMID:9105430

  2. Changes in cytokine and biomarker blood levels in patients with colorectal cancer during dendritic cell-based vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgdorf, Stefan K; Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Nielsen, Hans J;

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Immunotherapy based on dendritic cell vaccination has exciting perspectives for treatment of cancer. In order to clarify immunological mechanisms during vaccination it is essential with intensive monitoring of the responses. This may lead to optimization of treatment and prediction ......-inflammatory cytokines in serum of patients who achieved stable disease following vaccination suggest the occurrence of vaccine-induced Th1 responses. Since Th1 responses seem to be essential in cancer immunotherapy this may indicate a therapeutic potential of the vaccine....

  3. Blood Gasses Contents of Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas) Hatch Treated by Different Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    RINI PUSPITANINGRUM; SEPTELIA INAWATI WANANDI; RONDANG ROEMIATI SOEGIANTO; MOHAMAD SADIKIN

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to gain the profile of blood gasses of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) hatch. Blood gas of the green turtle was analysed after exposuring them at 28 oC and 50% of humidity for 24 hours in a pvc tube and at 34 oC under sunlight exposured with 47% of humidity for 30 minutes. The result showed the different values of blood gas contents. This result showed indication of metabolism activities and poikilothermic adaptation of green turtle hatch. This information can be u...

  4. The blood perfusion and NADH/FAD content combined analysis in patients with diabetes foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dremin, Victor V.; Sidorov, Victor V.; Krupatkin, Alexander I.; Galstyan, Gagik R.; Novikova, Irina N.; Zherebtsova, Angelina I.; Zherebtsov, Evgeny A.; Dunaev, Andrey V.; Abdulvapova, Zera N.; Litvinova, Karina S.; Rafailov, Ilya E.; Sokolovski, Sergei G.; Rafailov, Edik U.

    2016-03-01

    Skin blood microcirculation and the metabolism activity of tissue were examined on the patients with type 2 diabetes. Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) with 1064 nm laser light source and fluorescence spectroscopy (FS) with excitation light of 365 nm and 450 nm have been used to monitor the blood perfusion and the content of coenzymes NADH and FAD. Concluding, the proposed combined LDF and tissue FS approach allows to identify the significant violations in the blood microcirculation and metabolic activity for type 2 diabetes patients.

  5. Cytokine Response to Antigen Stimulation of Whole Blood from Patients with Mycobacterium ulcerans Disease Compared to That from Patients with Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R.; Horsfield, C.; Kuijper, S.; Sarfo, S. F.; Obeng-Baah, J.; Etuaful, S.; Nyamekye, B.; Awuah, P.; Nyarko, K. M.; Osei-Sarpong, F.; Lucas, S.; Kolk, A. H. J.; Wansbrough-Jones, M.

    2006-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans disease (Buruli ulcer) is a skin-ulcerating infection common in some parts of the tropics. We have investigated cytokine secretion after stimulation of whole blood from Buruli ulcer (BU) patients in a region of endemicity in Ghana with M. ulcerans sonicate or culture filtrate antigens to investigate the development of the response over time and its specificity by comparison with the response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis sonicate in human immunodeficiency virus-negative tuberculosis patients. Significant gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production in response to whole-blood stimulation with M. ulcerans sonicate was detected in patients with ulcers, which was higher than that in patients with nodules but similar to subjects with healed BU. The mean IFN-γ response in household contacts of BU patients was not significantly different from that in healthy control subjects from an area of nonendemicity. Results in patients with untreated, smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis and tuberculosis patients on treatment for more than 2 weeks showed that BU patients responded better to M. ulcerans antigens than tuberculosis patients. In contrast, interleukin-10 results were higher in patients with active M. ulcerans disease than in those with healed lesions, but the pattern of response was similar to that seen in tuberculosis. A similar pattern of cytokine secretion was found using M. tuberculosis sonicate as an antigen. Neither of the two culture filtrate antigens of M. ulcerans appeared to be more specific than M. ulcerans sonicate. In the early stages of M. ulcerans disease there was a mixed Th1 and Th2 cytokine response, but the Th1 response emerged as the dominant type. PMID:16467334

  6. Dogs infected with the blood trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi display an increase expression of cytokines and chemokines plus an intense cardiac parasitism during acute infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Sheler Martins; Vieira, Paula Melo de Abreu; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; da Silva Fonseca, Kátia; Nogueira, Nívia Carolina; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins

    2014-03-01

    The recent increase in immigration of people from areas endemic for Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi) to the United States and Europe has raised concerns about the transmission via blood transfusion and organ transplants in these countries. Infection by these pathways occurs through blood trypomastigotes (BT), and these forms of T. cruzi are completely distinct of metacyclic trypomastigotes (MT), released by triatomine vector, in relation to parasite-host interaction. Thus, research comparing infection with these different infective forms is important for explaining the potential impacts on the disease course. Here, we investigated tissue parasitism and relative mRNA expression of cytokines, chemokines, and chemokine receptors in the heart during acute infection by MT or BT forms in dogs. BT-infected dogs presented a higher cardiac parasitism, increased relative mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokines and of the chemokines CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL5/RANTES, and the chemokine receptor CCR5 during the acute phase of infection, as compared to MT-infected dogs. These results suggest that infection with BT forms may lead to an increased immune response, as revealed by the cytokines ratio, but this kind of immune response was not able to control the cardiac parasitism. Infection with the MT form presented an increase in the relative mRNA expression of IL-12p40 as compared to that of IL-10 or TGF-β1. Correlation analysis showed increased relative mRNA expression of IFN-γ as well as IL-10, which may be an immunomodulatory response, as well as an increase in the correlation of CCL5/RANTES and its CCR5 receptor. Our findings revealed a difference between inoculum sources of T. cruzi, as vectorial or transfusional routes of T. cruzi infection may trigger distinct parasite-host interactions during the acute phase, which may influence immunopathological aspects of Chagas disease.

  7. Determination and Difference Analysis of DNA Methylation Content Both in Blood and Muscle Tissue of Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this experiment, DNA samples from parental lines Large White, Landrace, and Meishan pigs, and their hybrids Large White×Landrace, Landrace×Large White, Large White×Meishan, and Meishan×Large White pigs were used for the determination of DNA methylation content in both blood and muscle tissue. The differences about DNA methylation content between parental lines and their hybrids were analyzed. These will offer theoretical support from molecular level for heterosis. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was firstly used to detect DNA methylation content. The average DNA methylation content in 163 DNA samples of muscle tissue was 16.92%, whereas, the average DNA methylation content in 182 samples of blood was 6.49%, the difference between which was especially prominent (P 0.05); and the differences between reciprocal cross hybrids in both hybrid systems were not significant (P > 0.05), but between different hybrid systems, the hybrids had a significant difference (P<0.05). The average methylation content in muscle samples was higher than that in blood samples, and the methylation in different tissues was different.

  8. Cytokine release from human peripheral blood leucocytes incubated with endotoxin with and without prior infection with influenza virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, Jytte; Smith, H; Sweet, C

    1993-01-01

    Previous work with a neonatal ferret model for human SIDS had indicated that inflammation caused by a combination of influenza virus and bacterial endotoxin may be a cause of human SIDS. To determine whether cytokines may be involved in this inflammatory response, levels of interleukin (IL)-1 bet...... determined using bioassays rather than ELISA assays, the pattern of increased yields from cells incubated with virus and endotoxin compared with either alone was still evident. The possible importance of these observations for SIDS victims is discussed....

  9. Was the Driver Drunk? An Instrumental Methods Experiment for the Determination of Blood Alcohol Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabzdyr, Jennifer L.; Lillard, Sheri J.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a laboratory experiment for determining blood alcohol content using a combination of instrumental analysis and forensic science. Teaches the importance of careful laboratory technique and that experiments are conducted for a reason. Includes the procedure of the experiment. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  10. Determination of cardiac output, tissue blood flow, volume and lipid content in Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One critical aspect of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model development is the choice of values for organ blood flows, cardiac output and tissue volumes for input into models. These values vary depending upon the strain, size, age, and sex of animal for which a PBPK model is being developed. Tissue blood flows, cardiac output, tissue volume, and lipid content were determined in male S-D rats, (350-375 g, N=8). A radiolabel microsphere method utilizing Scandium (46Sc), Tin (113Sn),and Gadolinium (153Gd) was used to determine blood flow. Each rat received 3 radiolabeled injections. After the third injection, animals were sacrificed, and radioactivity in each tissue was determined in a 3-channel gamma counter. Tissues sampled include brain, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, spleen, pancreas, adrenals, stomach, intestines, colon, testis, bone and skeletal muscle. Cardiac output was 142 ml/min. Blood flow values for eliminating organs were 0.49 (liver), 16.52 (kidney), and 1.77 (lung) ml/min/g tissue. Tissues which had significantly increased blood flow during the dark cycle included femur, abdonimal fat, triceps brachii and abdominal muscles, stomach, spleen and lung. Dissectable fat, organ volume, and organ lipid content were determined in a separate group of rats (N= 8). Volume and lipid content were determined for the same tissues as blood flow. Body fat was 7.35% of bw and extractable lipid content of eliminating organs was 42.3 (liver), 43.4 (kidney), and 35.9 (lung) mg/g tissue. Precise measurements should improve the accuracy of PBPK model predictions, and therfore help in reducing uncertainites in risk assessment of volatile organics and other pollutnats

  11. Cytokine responses of CD4+ T cells during a Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi (ER blood-stage infection in mice initiated by the natural route of infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butcher Geoffrey

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation of host responses to blood stages of Plasmodium spp, and the immunopathology associated with this phase of the life cycle are often performed on mice infected directly with infected red blood cells. Thus, the effects of mosquito bites and the pre-erythrocytic stages of the parasite, which would be present in natural infection, are ignored In this paper, Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi infections of mice injected directly with infected red blood cells were compared with those of mice infected by the bites of infected mosquitoes, in order to determine whether the courses of primary infection and splenic CD4 T cell responses are similar. Methods C57Bl/6 mice were injected with red blood cells infected with P. chabaudi (ER or infected via the bite of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Parasitaemia were monitored by Giemsa-stained thin blood films. Total spleen cells, CD4+ T cells, and cytokine production (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 were analysed by flow cytometry. In some experiments, mice were subjected to bites of uninfected mosquitoes prior to infectious bites in order to determine whether mosquito bites per se could affect a subsequent P. chabaudi infection. Results P. chabaudi (ER infections initiated by mosquito bite were characterized by lower parasitaemia of shorter duration than those observed after direct blood challenge. However, splenomegaly was comparable suggesting that parasitaemia alone does not account for the increase in spleen size. Total numbers of CD4 T cells and those producing IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-2 were reduced in comparison to direct blood challenge. By contrast, the reduction in IL-4 producing cells was less marked suggesting that there is a proportionally lower Th1-like response in mice infected via infectious mosquitoes. Strikingly, pre-exposure to bites of uninfected mosquitoes reduced the magnitude and duration of the subsequent mosquito-transmitted infection still further, but enhanced the

  12. A Hyperlipidic Diet Combined with Short-Term Ovariectomy Increases Adiposity and Hyperleptinemia and Decreases Cytokine Content in Mesenteric Adipose Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Nelson Inacio Pinto; Rodrigues, Maria Elizabeth Sousa; Hachul, Ana Claudia Losinskas; Moreno, Mayara Franzoi; Boldarine, Valter Tadeu; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Oyama, Lila Missae; Oller do Nascimento, Claudia Maria

    2015-01-01

    Four-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into two groups and fed a control diet (C) or a hyperlipidic diet (H) for 4 weeks. Rats from each group underwent ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery (SHAM). They received C or H for the next four weeks. The body weight gain (BW), food efficiency (FE), and carcass lipid content were higher in the OVX H than in the SHAM H. The OVX H exhibited a higher serum leptin level than other groups. IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 content of mesenteric (MES) adipose tissue was lower in the OVX H than in the OVX C. IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 content of retroperitoneal (RET) adipose tissue was lower in the SHAM H than in the SHAM C. The SHAM H showed decreased TG relative to the SHAM C. Similar results were obtained in relation to IL-6Rα, TNFR1, TLR-4, and MyD88 contents in the MES and RET white adipose tissue among the groups. A hyperlipidic diet for 8 weeks combined with short-term ovariectomy decreases the cytokine content of MES adipose tissues but increases BW, enhancing FE and elevating serum leptin levels. These suggest that the absence of estrogens promotes metabolic changes that may contribute to installation of a proinflammatory process induced by a hyperlipidic diet. PMID:26170534

  13. Cord blood Vα24-Vβ11 natural killer T cells display a Th2-chemokine receptor profile and cytokine responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Harner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fetal immune system is characterized by a Th2 bias but it is unclear how the Th2 predominance is established. Natural killer T (NKT cells are a rare subset of T cells with immune regulatory functions and are already activated in utero. To test the hypothesis that NKT cells are part of the regulatory network that sets the fetal Th2 predominance, percentages of Vα24(+Vβ11(+ NKT cells expressing Th1/Th2-related chemokine receptors (CKR were assessed in cord blood. Furthermore, IL-4 and IFN-γ secreting NKT cells were quantified within the single CKR(+ subsets. RESULTS: Cord blood NKT cells expressed the Th2-related CCR4 and CCR8 at significantly higher frequencies compared to peripheral blood NKT cells from adults, while CXCR3(+ and CCR5(+ cord blood NKT cells (Th1-related were present at lower percentages. Within CD4(negCD8(neg (DN NKT cells, the frequency of IL-4 producing NKT cells was significantly higher in cord blood, while frequencies of IFN-γ secreting DN NKT cells tended to be lower. A further subanalysis showed that the higher percentage of IL-4 secreting DN NKT cells was restricted to CCR3(+, CCR4(+, CCR5(+, CCR6(+, CCR7(+, CCR8(+ and CXCR4(+ DN subsets in cord blood. This resulted in significantly decreased IFN-γ /IL-4 ratios of CCR3(+, CCR6(+ and CCR8(+ cord blood DN NKT cells. Sequencing of VA24AJ18 T cell receptor (TCR transcripts in sorted cord blood Vα24Vβ11 cells confirmed the invariant TCR alpha-chain ruling out the possibility that these cells represent an unusual subset of conventional T cells. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the heterogeneity of cord blood NKT cells, we observed a clear Th2-bias at the phenotypic and functional level which was mainly found in the DN subset. Therefore, we speculate that NKT cells are important for the initiation and control of the fetal Th2 environment which is needed to maintain tolerance towards self-antigens as well as non-inherited maternal antigens.

  14. Ellagic acid and polyphenolics present in walnut kernels inhibit in vitro human peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and alter cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Koren C; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2010-03-01

    Tree nuts, including walnuts, are important elicitors of food allergy. We examined the ability of walnut kernel polyphenolics and purified ellagic acid (EA) to modulate cytokine production and cellular proliferation from stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). IL-13 and TNF-alpha production decreased while no change was observed in IL-4 production. Paradoxically, EA and the walnut polyphenolics all significantly and dose-dependently inhibited stimulated [phytohemagglutin (PHA), alpha-CD3, and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)/ionomycin] PBMC proliferation while simultaneously increasing IL-2 production. When added at time 0 min and 2 h, EA dose-dependently inhibited PHA-induced proliferation. However, at 30 min and 1 h, low doses of EA (10 and 1 muM) significantly increased proliferation above that of PHA alone, although higher doses led to inhibition. Our data do not support the hypothesis that walnut polyphenolics skew a cytokine response toward Th2 in an in vitro environment. However, immunomodulatory effects are present, including an inhibition of cellular proliferation despite no decrease in IL-4 or IL-2. PMID:20388139

  15. [Activity of Vegetative Nervous System and Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines During Glucose Tolerance Test in Subjects With Optimal and High Normal Blood Pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangileva, T A

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen patients with high normal (main group) and 15 subjects with optimal (control group) blood pressure (BP) were examined. Fasting and postprandial (60 and 120 min after oral intake of glucose) levels of glucose, insulin, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and C-reactive protein were measured. At the same time spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) was done. Body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance index (as HOMA-IR) were calculated. In patients with high normal BP total power of HRV was decreased (p glucose loading were blunted. In persons with optimal BP transient elevation of low frequency component and low/high ratio in 60 min after onset of glucose tolerance test (GTT) were registered; values of both parameters were higher than in the main group (p control group were accompanied by transient elevations of levels of inflammatory cytokines: IL-10 and TNF-α in 60 min, IL-6 in 120 min after GTT onset (p glucose level 60 min after glucose intake were higher in patients from the main group (p optimal and high normal BP have different variants of vegetative nervous system reactions to pulsatile hyperglycemia which is accompanied by changes of levels of inflammatory cytokines and worsening of carbohydrate metabolism in patients with high normal BP. PMID:26320287

  16. Detection of miRNAs contents in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of patients with epilepsy and their regulating effect on related cytokines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the contents of miRNAs in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of patients with epilepsy and their regulating effect on related cytokines. Methods:Serum and cerebrospinal fluid of epilepsy group and non-epilepsy group were collected to detect the contents of miR-146a, miR-221, miR-222, miR-21 and miR-34a as well as inflammatory factors and apoptosis molecules. Results:miR-146a, miR-221, miR-222 and miR-21 contents in cerebrospinal fluid of epilepsy group were significantly lower than those of non-epilepsy group, and miR-34a content was higher than that of non-epilepsy group;miR-146a, miR-221, miR-222 and miR-21 contents in serum were significantly higher than those of non-epilepsy group, and miR-34a content was lower than that of non-epilepsy group;TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6 and ICAM-1 contents in cerebrospinal fluid of epilepsy group were higher than those of non-epilepsy group and negatively correlated with miR-146a, miR-221 and miR-222 contents;Bax, Bim, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 contents in cerebrospinal fluid of epilepsy group were higher than those of non-epilepsy group and negatively correlated with miR-21, and Bcl-2 content was lower than that of non-epilepsy group and negatively correlated with miR-34a. Conclusion:miR-146a, miR-221, miR-222 and miR-21 contents decrease while miR-34a content increases in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with epilepsy, and miRNAs can regulate the expression of inflammatory factors and apoptosis molecules and be involved in the changes of neuron function.

  17. A content validated questionnaire for assessment of self reported venous blood sampling practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bölenius Karin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous blood sampling is a common procedure in health care. It is strictly regulated by national and international guidelines. Deviations from guidelines due to human mistakes can cause patient harm. Validated questionnaires for health care personnel can be used to assess preventable "near misses"--i.e. potential errors and nonconformities during venous blood sampling practices that could transform into adverse events. However, no validated questionnaire that assesses nonconformities in venous blood sampling has previously been presented. The aim was to test a recently developed questionnaire in self reported venous blood sampling practices for validity and reliability. Findings We developed a questionnaire to assess deviations from best practices during venous blood sampling. The questionnaire contained questions about patient identification, test request management, test tube labeling, test tube handling, information search procedures and frequencies of error reporting. For content validity, the questionnaire was confirmed by experts on questionnaires and venous blood sampling. For reliability, test-retest statistics were used on the questionnaire answered twice. The final venous blood sampling questionnaire included 19 questions out of which 9 had in total 34 underlying items. It was found to have content validity. The test-retest analysis demonstrated that the items were generally stable. In total, 82% of the items fulfilled the reliability acceptance criteria. Conclusions The questionnaire could be used for assessment of "near miss" practices that could jeopardize patient safety and gives several benefits instead of assessing rare adverse events only. The higher frequencies of "near miss" practices allows for quantitative analysis of the effect of corrective interventions and to benchmark preanalytical quality not only at the laboratory/hospital level but also at the health care unit/hospital ward.

  18. Inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins concentrations in the peripheral blood and uterus of cows that developed endometritis during early postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzki, P; Kostro, K; Brodzki, A; Wawron, W; Marczuk, J; Kurek, Ł

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], interleukin-6 [IL-6]), anti-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-10 [IL-10]), and acute-phase proteins (haptoglobin [Hp] and serum amyloid A [SAA]) in serum and uterine washings in cows that developed endometritis during the early postpartum period. The study was carried out on 40 cows. The experimental group consisted of 20 cows with subclinical endometritis and the control group of 20 cows without endometritis. Analyses in both groups of cows were carried out at 5, 22, and 40 days postpartum (DPP). Experimental material consisted of the blood serum and uterine washings. The levels of the following cytokines: TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and acute-phase proteins: Hp and SAA were determined using ELISA. Our study reported that the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, Hp, and SAA at 22 DPP were higher in cows with subclinical endometritis (P < 0.001). The levels of TNF-α (P = 0.01), IL-6 and IL-10 (P = 0.001), and Hp (P < 0.001) at 40 DPP were higher in cows with subclinical endometritis compared to healthy cows. The level of IL-10 in uterine washings at 5 DPP was higher (P = 0.001), whereas of SAA was lower (P = 0.01) in cows with subclinical endometritis. At 22 DPP, the levels of IL-6, IL-10, and Hp were higher (P < 0.001) in cows with endometritis. At 40 DPP, the level of TNF-α was lower, whereas these of IL-10 and Hp were elevated (P < 0.001) in cows with endometritis compared to healthy cows. The results indicate that the evaluation of the levels of cytokines and Hp in serum, but primarily in uterine washings, can be an important diagnostic indicator in cows that developed subclinical endometritis. High levels of IL-10 in cows with subclinical endometritis may contribute to the weakening of local resistance mechanisms of the uterus and lead to the persistence of the inflammation in the postpartum period. The present study also shows that the simultaneous examination

  19. SNP may modify the effect of vitamin A supplementation at birth on cytokine production in a whole blood culture assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mathias Jul; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Erikstrup, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    Within a neonatal vitamin A supplementation (VAS) trial, we investigated the effect of VAS on TNF-a, IL-10, IL-5 and IL-13 production after lipopolysaccharide, purified protein derivative (PPD) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and phytohaemagglutinin stimulation using a whole blood culture protocol....

  20. Methotrexate reduces hippocampal blood vessel density and activates microglia in rats but does not elevate central cytokine release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seigers, Riejanne; Timmermans, Jessica; van der Horn, Hans J.; de Vries, Erik F. J.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Visser, Lydia; Schagen, Sanne B.; van Dam, Frits S. A. M.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Buwalda, Bauke

    2010-01-01

    Methotrexate is a cytostatic drug applied in adjuvant chemotherapy and associated with cognitive impairment in part of the cancer patients. In this paper we studied in rats whether a reduction in blood supply to the brain or neuroinflammation are possible mediators of this cognitive dysfunctionality

  1. Effects of a Diet Enriched with Polyunsaturated, Saturated, or Trans Fatty Acids on Cytokine Content in the Liver, White Adipose Tissue, and Skeletal Muscle of Adult Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the effect of diet enriched with 30% lipids on cytokines content in different tissues. Swiss male mice were distributed into four groups treated for 8 weeks with control (C, normolipidic diet; soybean oil (S; lard (L; and hydrogenated vegetable fat (H. We observed an increase in carcass fat in groups S and L, and the total amount of fatty deposits was only higher in group L compared with C group. The serum levels of free fatty acids were lower in the L group, and insulin, adiponectin, lipid profile, and glucose levels were similar among the groups. IL-10 was lower in group L in mesenteric and retroperitoneal adipose tissues. H reduced IL-10 only in retroperitoneal adipose tissue. There was an increase in IL-6 in the gastrocnemius muscle of the L group, and a positive correlation between TNF-α and IL-10 was observed in the livers of groups C, L, and H and in the muscles of all groups studied. The results suggested relationships between the quantity and quality of lipids ingested with adiposity, the concentration of free fatty acids, and cytokine production in white adipose tissue, gastrocnemius muscle, and liver.

  2. Copper and ceruloplasmin contents in the blood serum of peripheral and pre-hepatic veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Canelas

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available Copper and ceruloplasmin contents were determined in samples of peripheral and pre-hepatic venous blood of 11 patients with Manson's schistosomiasis and one patient with hepatolenticular degeneration, all of çhich submitted either to porto-caval or spleno-renal shunt. Individual difference were not significant in any of the non-Wilsonian patients. The results are discussed in regard to the current knowledge on the pathogenesis of Wilson's disease.

  3. Combined treatment with antioxidants and immunosuppressants on cytokine release by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells - chemically injured keratocyte reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Kayoung; Chung, Tae Young; Hyon, Joon Young; Koh, Jae Woong; Wee, Won Ryang; Shin, Young Joo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of antioxidants and immunosuppresants on mixed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) - chemically injured keratocytes reaction (MLKR). Methods The PBMC stimulation assay was performed using chemically injured keratocytes treated with 0.05 N NaOH for 90 s (MLKR). MLKR were treated with various drugs including rapamycin, dexamethasone, mycophenoleic acid (MPA), alpha lipoic acid (ALA), and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9), transform...

  4. Evaluation of a content-based retrieval system for blood cell images with automated methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Woo Chaw; Mirisaee, Seyed Hadi

    2011-08-01

    Content-based image retrieval techniques have been extensively studied for the past few years. With the growth of digital medical image databases, the demand for content-based analysis and retrieval tools has been increasing remarkably. Blood cell image is a key diagnostic tool for hematologists. An automated system that can retrieved relevant blood cell images correctly and efficiently would save the effort and time of hematologists. The purpose of this work is to develop such a content-based image retrieval system. Global color histogram and wavelet-based methods are used in the prototype. The system allows users to search by providing a query image and select one of four implemented methods. The obtained results demonstrate the proposed extended query refinement has the potential to capture a user's high level query and perception subjectivity by dynamically giving better query combinations. Color-based methods performed better than wavelet-based methods with regard to precision, recall rate and retrieval time. Shape and density of blood cells are suggested as measurements for future improvement. The system developed is useful for undergraduate education. PMID:20703533

  5. Plasma PGE-2 levels and altered cytokine profiles in adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirschowitz Edward A

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction PGE-2 is constitutively produced by many non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC and its immunosuppressive effects have been linked to altered immune responses in lung cancer. We asked whether elevated levels of plasma PGE-2 correlated with monocyte IL10 production in the NSCLC environment. Looking for correlation in NSCLC patient blood we assayed plasma from NSCLC patients for PGE2 and IL10; we further evaluated production of IL10 by adherent mononuclear cells from a subset of these patients looking for an altered cytokine profile. Results Our initial in vitro experiments show that monocyte IL10 induction correlates with tumor cell PGE-2 production, confirming similar reports in the literature. Data show plasma PGE-2 levels in 38 NSCLC patients are elevated compared to normal controls. Plasma IL10 levels were not significantly elevated; however, adherent monocytes derived from NSCLC patient blood did produce significantly more IL10 in 24 hr primary culture than those from normal controls (p Conclusions Elevated plasma PGE-2 and monocyte IL10 production are associated with NSCLC. The biological significance to elevated PGE-2 levels in NSCLC are unclear. Further investigation of each as a nonspecific marker for NSCLC tumor is warranted.

  6. Cardiac Glycosides Inhibit LPS-induced Activation of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Whole Blood through an NF-kappa-B-dependent Mechanism

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    Shah VO*

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The process of hemodialysis (HD produces a pro-inflammatory state that can lead to an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. In part, this is the result of activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-B in response to uremia as well as in response to HD itself, which not only involves exposure of blood leukocytes to abnormal surfaces but also potentially to any bacterial contamination associated with HD. Previously, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS to activate isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, as a model of HD-induced stress, and demonstrated that specific natural products that are known to inhibit the activation of NF-B exhibited a broad anti-inflammatory activity. These natural products, however, were not effective when whole blood was used. In the present study, a natural product library (TimTec NPL480 was screened, using whole blood, for the abilities of these natural products to protect against LPS-induced expression and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-1 and IL-6. We report here that the cardiac glycosides strophanthidin, ouabain, proscillaridin A, digoxin, digitoxin and lanatoside C are effective natural products that limit the development of a pro-inflammatory state by preventing the activation of these pro-inflammatory signals. These active natural products also inhibited the stress-induced activation of NF-B in a reporter assay, suggesting that inhibition of NF-kappa-B is at least partly the mechanism by which these natural products protect whole blood leukocytes from activation by LPS. Industrial relevance: Media for hemodialysis is used millions of times annually for patients with end stage renal disease, each use representing a potential pro-inflammatory insult. It would be useful to have a drug that could be added to the media which would protect blood leukocytes from any pro-inflammatory activation that may accompany the dialysis procedure. A natural

  7. Contents of trace elements in blood of healthy old people assayed by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the levels of 11 trace elements in serum of healthy old people to provide scientific basis for prevention and treatment of geriatric diseases, the serum were separated from blood samples according to standard procedure. The serum samples were underwent digestion, elimination of nitric acid, volume fixation and then assayed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed that the contents of Al in elderly people's serum is higher than those in young people (P<0.01), while the contents of V, Cr, Cu and Se in elderly people's serum were lower than those in young people (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in other trace elements between two groups. The contents of some trace elements in elderly people's serum changed significantly. (authors)

  8. Expression Profile of Cytokines and Enzymes mRNA in Blood Leukocytes of Dogs with Leptospirosis and Its Associated Pulmonary Hemorrhage Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla A Maissen-Villiger

    Full Text Available Dogs with leptospirosis show similar organ manifestations and disease course as human patients, including acute kidney injury and pulmonary hemorrhage, making this naturally-occurring infection a good animal model for human leptospirosis. Expression patterns of cytokines and enzymes have been correlated with disease manifestations and clinical outcome in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to describe mRNA expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators in canine leptospirosis and to compare it with other renal diseases to identify patterns characterizing the disease and especially its pulmonary form.The mRNA abundance of cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, TGF-β and enzymes (5-LO, iNOS was measured prospectively in blood leukocytes from 34 dogs with severe leptospirosis and acute kidney injury, including 22 dogs with leptospirosis-associated pulmonary hemorrhages. Dogs with leptospirosis were compared to 14 dogs with acute kidney injury of other origin than leptospirosis, 8 dogs with chronic kidney disease, and 10 healthy control dogs. Canine leptospirosis was characterized by high 5-LO and low TNF-α expression compared to other causes of acute kidney injury, although the decreased TNF-α expression was also seen in chronic kidney disease. Leptospirosis-associated pulmonary hemorrhage was not characterized by a specific pattern, with only mild changes noted, including increased IL-10 and decreased 5-LO expression on some days in affected dogs. Fatal outcome from pulmonary hemorrhages was associated with low TNF-α, high IL-1β, and high iNOS expression, a pattern possibly expressed also in dogs with other forms of acute kidney injury.The patterns of cytokine and enzyme expression observed in the present study indicate a complex pro- and anti-inflammatory response to the infection with leptospires. The recognition of these signatures may be of diagnostic and prognostic relevance for affected individuals and they may

  9. A wearable diffuse reflectance sensor for continuous monitoring of cutaneous blood content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharov, P; Talary, M S; Caduff, A [Solianis Monitoring AG, Leutschenbachstrasse 46, CH-8050 Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: andreas.caduff@solianis.com

    2009-09-07

    An optical diffuse reflectance sensor for characterization of cutaneous blood content and optimized for continuous monitoring has been developed as part of a non-invasive multisensor system for glucose monitoring. A Monte Carlo simulation of the light propagation in the multilayered skin model has been performed in order to estimate the optimal geometrical separation of the light source and detector for skin and underlying tissue. We have observed that the pathlength within the upper vascular plexus of the skin which defines the sensor sensitivity initially grows with increasing source-detector distance (SDD) before reaching a maximum at 3.5 mm and starts to decay with further increase. At the same time, for distances above 2.4 mm, the sensor becomes sensitive to muscle blood content, which decreases the specificity to skin perfusion monitoring. Thus, the SDDs in the range from 1.5 mm to 2.4 mm satisfy the requirements of sensor sensitivity and specificity. The hardware implementation of the system has been realized and tested in laboratory experiments with a venous occlusion procedure and in an outpatient clinical study in 16 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. For both testing procedures, the optical sensor demonstrated high sensitivity to perfusion change provoking events. The general build-up of cutaneous blood under the sensor has been observed which can be associated with pressure-induced vasodilation as a response to the sensor application.

  10. Decreased mitochondrial DNA content in blood samples of patients with stage I breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fokas Emmanouil

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA have been implicated in carcinogenesis. We developed an accurate multiplex quantitative real-time PCR for synchronized determination of mtDNA and nuclear DNA (nDNA. We sought to investigate whether mtDNA content in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients is associated with clinical and pathological parameters. Methods Peripheral blood samples were collected from 60 patients with breast cancer and 51 age-matched healthy individuals as control. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood for the quantification of mtDNA and nDNA, using a one-step multiplex real-time PCR. A FAM labeled MGB probe and primers were used to amplify the mtDNA sequence of the ATP 8 gene, and a VIC labeled MGB probe and primers were employed to amplify the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase gene. mtDNA content was correlated with tumor stage, menstruation status, and age of patients as well as lymph node status and the expression of estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR and Her-2/neu protein. Results The content of mtDNA in stage I breast cancer patients was significantly lower than in other stages (overall P = 0.023. Reduced mtDNA was found often in post menopausal cancer group (P = 0.024. No difference in mtDNA content, in regards to age (p = 0.564, lymph node involvement (p = 0.673, ER (p = 0.877, PR (p = 0.763, and Her-2/neu expression (p = 0.335, was observed. Conclusion Early detection of breast cancer has proved difficult and current detection methods are inadequate. In the present study, decreased mtDNA content in the peripheral blood of patients with breast cancer was strongly associated with stage I. The use of mtDNA may have diagnostic value and further studies are required to validate it as a potential biomarker for early detection of breast cancer.

  11. Increased mitochondrial DNA content in peripheral blood lymphocytes from HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossarizza, Andrea; Riva, Agostino; Pinti, Marcello; Ammannato, Silvia; Fedeli, Paolo; Mussini, Cristina; Esposito, Roberto; Galli, Massimo

    2003-08-01

    We have evaluated mitochondrial (mt) DNA content in CD4 and CD8 peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from HIV-infected patients taking highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) who display different types of adipose tissue alterations. A cross-sectional study was performed in a total of 23 patients with lipodystrophy (LD): nine patients with fat accumulation, six patients with fat loss, eight patients with combined form, who were compared to 11 individuals infected by HIV without LD (HIV-positive) and 10 seronegative controls (CTRL). PBLs were obtained by standard methods, that is, gradient density centrifugation on Ficoll, and CD4 or CD8 cells were positively isolated by magnetic sorting to eliminate the contamination of platelets. mtDNA content was then measured by an original assay based upon real-time PCR. mtDNA content was significantly increased in CD4 T cells from patients with LD, while no differences were present between CD4 and CD8 cells from HIV-positive and CTRL individuals. Nor were any differences found when comparing LD or HIV-positive patients treated with stavudine or zidovudine, or taking D-drugs or non D-drugs. Patients with fat accumulation had significantly higher mtDNA content compared to HIV-positive and CTRL, this phenomenon regarding both CD4 and CD8 PBLs. Considering all HIV-positive patients (including LD), mtDNA content showed a significant, positive correlation with cholesterolaemia but not with triglyceridaemia and glycaemia. Relatively high mtDNA content in LD patients, as well as the correlation between mtDNA content and cholesterol in all HIV-positive subjects, suggest the involvement of mitochondria in such a pathology. However, further studies are needed to confirm these initial observations and ascertain whether the quantification of mtDNA in PBL is a useful and reliable marker to investigate and monitor HAART-related changes in fat distribution.

  12. INFLUENCE OF NATURAL IMMUNOMODULATORS ON PROTEIN FRACTIONS AND CORTISOL CONTENT IN RABBIT BLOOD UNDER STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabovskyi S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of determination of protein fractions, cortisol content in blood of rabbits, which further added to the feed of natural origin biologically active substances are presented in the article. As an antistressors and immunomodulators in pre-slaughter period are using of spleen extract biologically active substances were obtained with ultrasound application. The purpose of research — determination of changes of protein fractions, cortisol content in rabbits blood before slaughter and their correction of natural origin biologically active substances (spleen extract. Object and research methods. The experiment was conducted on 15 rabbits with standard diet. Three groups of rabbits five month of age (5 rabbits each was formed for research. The spleen extract were using as an biologically active substances to the feed rabbits in pre-slaughter period (five days before slaughter. The extracts were applied to feed by aerosol method (70 °alcohol solution of spleen extract volume of 1.4 ml per rabbit (group I. The rabbits (group II received to the feed in the same way of 70 °alcohol solution in the same volume. The control group rabbits received the standard feed in the same volume. The feed eating by rabbits was exercised daily. The rabbits ate food completely. The rabbits slaughter was carried out in the morning. The blood plasma protein fractions separation was carried out by horizontal electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel (PAAG. Mathematical treatment of the research results worked statistically using the software package Statistica 6.0 and Microsoft Excel for Windows XP. Probability differences was assessed by Student t-test and results considered likely at P ≤ 0.05. Results and discussion. We measured the ratio of blood plasma protein fractions of rabbits, which in addition to the feed fed of natural origin biologically active substances. As a result of research was found that aerosol introduction of the spleen extract to the rabbits

  13. Measurements of Intracellular Ca2+ Content and Phosphatidylserine Exposure in Human Red Blood Cells: Methodological Issues

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    Mauro C. Wesseling

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The increase of the intracellular Ca2+ content as well as the exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS on the outer cell membrane surface after activation of red blood cells (RBCs by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA has been investigated by a variety of research groups. Carrying out experiments, which we described in several previous publications, we observed some discrepancies when comparing data obtained by different investigators within our research group and also between batches of LPA. In addition, we found differences comparing the results of double and single labelling experiments (for Ca2+ and PS. Furthermore, the results of PS exposure depended on the fluorescent dye used (annexin V-FITC versus annexin V alexa fluor® 647. Therefore, it seems necessary to investigate these methodological approaches in more detail to be able to quantify results and to compare data obtained by different research groups. Methods: The intracellular Ca2+ content and the PS exposure of RBCs separated from whole blood have been investigated after treatment with LPA (2.5 µM obtained from three different companies (Sigma-Aldrich, Cayman Chemical Company, and Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc.. Fluo-4 and x-rhod-1 have been used to detect intracellular Ca2+ content, annexin V alexa fluor® 647 and annexin V-FITC have been used for PS exposure measurements. Both parameters (Ca2+ content, PS exposure were studied using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Results: The percentage of RBCs showing increased intracellular Ca2+ content as well as PS exposure changes significantly between different LPA manufacturers as well as on the condition of mixing of LPA with the RBC suspension. Furthermore, the percentage of RBCs showing PS exposure is reduced in double labelling compared to single labelling experiments and depends also on the fluorescent dye used. Finally, data on Ca2+ content are slightly affected whereas PS exposure data are not affected significantly

  14. The content of 153Sm-oxabifor in cancer patients blood in the treatment of bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentration 153Sm in the blood of patients with bone metastasis after radionuclide therapy was determined. Considerable variation of the content of 153Sm in blood of patients with various primary cancers from 10 to 65 Bq/ml is found. The effective half-life of 153Sm in the blood of patients was estimated at more than 10 days during the course of the therapy in time interval more than 7 days

  15. Three-Color Flow Cytometry Detection of Intracellular Cytokines in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells: Comparative Analysis of Phorbol Myristate Acetate-Ionomycin and Phytohemagglutinin Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Baran, Jarołsaw; Kowalczyk, Danuta; Ożóg, Mariola; Zembala, Marek

    2001-01-01

    The assessment of intracellular cytokines at the single-cell level by flow cytometry has recently become a potent tool in many areas of cell biology and in defining the role of cytokines in various human diseases. Three-color flow cytometry for detection of intracellular cytokines combined with simultaneous determination of lymphocytes (CD3+ and CD4+) or monocytes (CD33+ and CD14+) was used for comparison of phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-ionomycin-induced produc...

  16. A field investigation of perceived behavioral control and blood alcohol content: a pattern-oriented approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; Coyle, Patrick T; Baldner, Conrad; Bray, Bethany C; Geller, E Scott

    2013-04-01

    As the first field study of perceived behavioral control (PBC) to assess alcohol consumption with a physiological measure (i.e., blood alcohol content; BAC), the research examined the impact of intoxication on alcohol-specific PBC (APBC). In total, 665 passersby were recruited into the study at several late-night drinking locations near a large university campus. After answering questions regarding personal demographics and APBC, participants were administered a breath alcohol test (Lifeloc FC-20; ±.005mL/L). The average BAC of drinking participants was .096mL/L. A latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to classify participants based on APBC responses. Three classes emerged: high PBC, high controllability, and low controllability. Class membership varied as a function of gender and Greek-life membership. Blood alcohol content was a significant predictor of class membership. Results show a link between alcohol consumption and APBC that varies based on gender and Greek-life status. These findings are discussed with regard to their implications for a variety of prevention interventions.

  17. Haematological and serum biochemical indices of growing rabbits fed camel blood-rumen content mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Gambo,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-five crossbred rabbits (Dutch × New Zealand White of mixed sexes with age between 5 and 7 weeks were divided into 5 groups of 9 rabbits and fed camel blood–rumen content mixture (CBRCM for 10 weeks. The CBRCM which contained 36.40% crude protein and 22.36% crude fibre was included at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% levels in diets of group 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. The packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cells (RBC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the treatments groups, although the haemoglobin (Hb and white blood cells (WBC were significantly (P<0.05 influenced by the treatments. The number of basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils and lymphocytes were not affected by the levels of inclusion, however, only the monocytes differed significantly (P<0.05 among the treatments. All values for blood parameters were within the normal range for growing rabbit. Thus, the study indicated that up to 40% CBRCM could be incorporated into the diets of growing rabbits without compromising the health status of the rabbits.

  18. Polymorphisms within the IL-1 gene cluster: effects on cytokine profiles in peripheral blood and whole blood cell cultures of patients with aggressive periodontitis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anne Havemose; Sørensen, Lars Korsbaek; Bendtzen, Klaus;

    2007-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of cytokines have been associated with the susceptibility, severity, and clinical outcome of inflammatory diseases, such as periodontitis and chronic arthritis. An important question to address is how interleukin (IL)-1 polymorphisms affect the cytokine profiles of patients ...

  19. DNA Content in Extracellular Vesicles Isolated from Porcine Coronary Venous Blood Directly after Myocardial Ischemic Preconditioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Svennerholm

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EV are nano-sized membranous structures released from most cells. They have the capacity to carry bioactive molecules and gene expression signals between cells, thus mediating intercellular communication. It is believed that EV confer protection after ischemic preconditioning (IPC. We hypothesize that myocardial ischemic preconditioning will lead to rapid alteration of EV DNA content in EV collected from coronary venous effluent.In a porcine myocardial ischemic preconditioning model, EV were isolated from coronary venous blood before and after IPC by differential centrifugation steps culminating in preparative ultracentrifugation combined with density gradient ultracentrifugation. The EV preparation was validated, the DNA was extracted and further characterized by DNA sequencing followed by bioinformatics analysis.Porcine genomic DNA fragments representing each chromosome, including mitochondrial DNA sequences, were detected in EV isolated before and after IPC. There was no difference detected in the number of sequenced gene fragments (reads or in the genomic coverage of the sequenced DNA fragments in EV isolated before and after IPC. Gene ontology analysis showed an enrichment of genes coding for ion channels, enzymes and proteins for basal metabolism and vesicle biogenesis and specific cardiac proteins.This study demonstrates that porcine EV isolated from coronary venous blood plasma contain fragments of DNA from the entire genome, including the mitochondria. In this model we did not find specific qualitative or quantitative changes of the DNA content in EV collected immediately after an in vivo myocardial IPC provocation. This does not rule out the possibility that EV DNA content changes in response to myocardial IPC which could occur in a later time frame.

  20. Lethal effect of mononuclear cells derived from human umbilical cord blood differentiating into dendritic cells after in vitro induction of cytokines on neuroblastoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenghai Qu; Jianxin Zuo; Lirong Sun; Xindong Qu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dendritic cell is the most major antigen presenting cell of organism. It is proved in recent studies that human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells induced and cultured in vitro by recombinant human granuIocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (rhG-MCSF) and recombinant human interleukin-4 (rhlL-4) can generate a great many dendritic cells and promote the lethal effect of T cells on human neuroblastoma, but it is unclear that whether the lethal effect is associated with the most proper concentration of dendritic cells.OBJ ECTIVE: To investigate the lethal effect of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells induced in vitro by cytokines differentiating into dendritic cells on human neuroblastoma, and its best concentration range.DESIGN: Open experiment.SETTING: Department of Pediatrics, the Medical School Hospital of Qingdao University.MATERIALS: The study was carried out in the Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory (Laboratory for the Department of Pediatrics of the Medical School Hospital of Qingdao University) during September 2005 to May 2006.Human umbilical cord blood samples were taken from the healthy newborn infants of full-term normal delivery during October to November 2005 in the Medical School Hospital of Qingdao University, and were voluntarily donated by the puerperas. Main instruments: type 3111 CO2 incubator (Forma Scientific, USA), type 550 ELISA Reader (Bio-Rad, USA). Main reagents: neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH (Shanghai Institute of Life Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences), RPMI-1640 culture fluid and fetal bovine serum (Hyclone), rhlL-4 (Promega, USA), rhG-MCSF (Harbin Pharmaceutic Group Bioengineering Co. Ltd), rat anti-human CD1a monoclonal antibody and FITC-labeled rabbit anti-rat IgG (Xiehe Stem cell Gene Engineering Co. Ltd).METHODS: ① Human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells obtained with attachment methods differentiated into human umbilical cord blood dendritic cells, presenting typical morphology of

  1. Coagulation Factor and Hemostatic Protein Content of Canine Plasma after Storage of Whole Blood at Ambient Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, J.E.; Hale, A. S.; Brooks, M. B.; Boag, A.K.; Barnett, W.; Dean, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Standard practice in canine blood banking is to produce fresh frozen plasma (FFP) by separating and freezing plasma produced from blood within 8 hours of collection. Within canine blood donation programs, this can limit the number of units collected. Hypothesis/Objectives The aim was to compare the coagulation factor and hemostatic protein content (CF&HPC) of plasma produced from blood stored at ambient temperature for 8, 12, and 24 hours. Another aim was to compare the CF&HPC betw...

  2. Detraining differentially preserved beneficial effects of exercise on hypertension: effects on blood pressure, cardiac function, brain inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepmala Agarwal

    Full Text Available AIMS: This study sought to investigate the effects of physical detraining on blood pressure (BP and cardiac morphology and function in hypertension, and on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (PICs and AIC and oxidative stress within the brain of hypertensive rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hypertension was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by delivering AngiotensinII for 42 days using implanted osmotic minipumps. Rats were randomized into sedentary, trained, and detrained groups. Trained rats underwent moderate-intensity exercise (ExT for 42 days, whereas, detrained groups underwent 28 days of exercise followed by 14 days of detraining. BP and cardiac function were evaluated by radio-telemetry and echocardiography, respectively. At the end, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN was analyzed by Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot. ExT in AngII-infused rats caused delayed progression of hypertension, reduced cardiac hypertrophy, and improved diastolic function. These results were associated with significantly reduced PICs, increased AIC (interleukin (IL-10, and attenuated oxidative stress in the PVN. Detraining did not abolish the exercise-induced attenuation in MAP in hypertensive rats; however, detraining failed to completely preserve exercise-mediated improvement in cardiac hypertrophy and function. Additionally, detraining did not reverse exercise-induced improvement in PICs in the PVN of hypertensive rats; however, the improvements in IL-10 were abolished. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that although 2 weeks of detraining is not long enough to completely abolish the beneficial effects of regular exercise, continuing cessation of exercise may lead to detrimental effects.

  3. Seasonal Changes in Forage Nutrients and Mineral Contents in Water Resources,Forage and Yak Blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎萍

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports results of a study conducted to investigate the concentrations of seven mineral elements in yak blood, forage and water resources around the Qinghai Lake in Qinghai Province in different seasons. Meanwhile, the nutritional compositions of the forage were also surveyed. The results suggest that the mineral elements and the forage nutrients change in a seasonal pattern. In yak blood,the sodium(Na)concentration varies from 0.291 to 0.034 mg/mL,and this is lower than the normal value. In the forage,the ratio calcium(Ca)to phosphorus(P)is 4.06~7.47:1 and potassium(K)to Na 30~27:1. These results indicate that the nutrition of the yak in the area is deficient in Na but high in K. For the withered forage sampled in February,the protein content is only 31.14% of the total protein in the forage growing at puerile stage in June. The severe loss of protein by 68. 9% and decrease of effective nutrients in the wintered forage are considered to be the reasons resulting in the poor condition of yak in winter and spring seasons.

  4. Evaluation of serum enzymes polypeptide, chemokine levels and peripheral blood immune cells contents in children with bronchial asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Yong Xie; Wei-Ming Chen; Wei-Zhong Zhang; Shang-Hong Tang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate serum enzymes polypeptide, chemokine levels and peripheral blood immune cells contents of children with bronchial asthma.Methods:150 bronchial asthma children were enrolled as observation group, 120 healthy children received physical examination in our hospital over the same period were enrolled as control group. Then serum enzymes polypeptide, chemokine levels and peripheral blood immune cells contents were detected.Results:(1) Enzyme polypeptide: serum Cat K, MMP1, MMP2, MMP9 contents of observation group were significant higher than those of the control group; but TIMP1 content was lower than that of control group; (2)Chemokine: serum Eotaxin, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC and IL-8 contents of observation group were higher than those of the control group; (3) Immune cell: Th1 cell, CD4+CD25+T cell and CD8+CD28+T cell contents of observation group were significant lower than those of the control; but Th2 cells and Th17 cells were higher than those of control group.Conclusions:Serum enzymes polypeptide and chemokine levels of children with bronchial asthma abnormally increase with presence of peripheral blood T cell subsets contents disorder, which is correlated with airway remodeling and inflammatory cell infiltration process.

  5. Concomitant detection of IFNα signature and activated monocyte/dendritic cell precursors in the peripheral blood of IFNα-treated subjects at early times after repeated local cytokine treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizza Paola

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferons alpha (IFNα are the cytokines most widely used in clinical medicine for the treatment of cancer and viral infections. Among the immunomodulatory activities possibly involved in their therapeutic efficacy, the importance of IFNα effects on dendritic cells (DC differentiation and activation has been considered. Despite several studies exploiting microarray technology to characterize IFNα mechanisms of action, there is currently no consensus on the core signature of these cytokines in the peripheral blood of IFNα-treated individuals, as well as on the existence of blood genomic and proteomic markers of low-dose IFNα administered as a vaccine adjuvant. Methods Gene profiling analysis with microarray was performed on PBMC isolated from melanoma patients and healthy individuals 24 hours after each repeated injection of low-dose IFNα, administered as vaccine adjuvant in two separate clinical trials. At the same time points, cytofluorimetric analysis was performed on CD14+ monocytes, to detect the phenotypic modifications exerted by IFNα on antigen presenting cells precursors. Results An IFNα signature was consistently observed in both clinical settings 24 hours after each repeated administration of the cytokine. The observed modulation was transient, and did not reach a steady state level refractory to further stimulations. The molecular signature observed ex vivo largely matched the one detected in CD14+ monocytes exposed in vitro to IFNα, including the induction of CXCL10 at the transcriptional and protein level. Interestingly, IFNα ex vivo signature was paralleled by an increase in the percentage and expression of costimulatory molecules by circulating CD14+/CD16+ monocytes, indicated as natural precursors of DC in response to danger signals. Conclusions Our results provide new insights into the identification of a well defined molecular signature as biomarker of IFNα administered as immune adjuvants, and

  6. Changes of hemoglobin content and glucose levels in the blood of Rattus norvegicus by water extracts of Azadirachta indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shori; Amal Bakr

    2012-01-01

    Presently,there is a growing interest in herbal remedies.Neem (Azadirachta indica) has been used in traditional medicine over centuries.In the present study,the effects of water extracts of Azadirachta indica seeds,stems,flowers and bark on the changes of hemoglobin content (Hb) and glucose levels in the blood of Rattus norvegicus were investigated.Different doses of A.indica water extracts of seeds,stems,flowers and bark were injected to the tested animals every 48 h for 14 days.Significant decrease in both hemoglobin content and glucose levels in the blood samples in all groups of injected rats were compared to control group.However,in all groups higher decrease was shown in the rats injected with 1 g·mL-1 ofA.indica water extracts.In addition,the present study showed no significant relationship between decreased hemoglobin content and glucose levels in blood samples,and increased doses injected.In conclusion,A.indica has the potential to decrease both hemoglobin content and blood glucose levels.

  7. The Association Between Blood Alcohol Content and Cheerfulness, Focus Distraction, and Sluggishness Among Young Adults Attending High School Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Rod, Morten Hulvej; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine;

    2014-01-01

    The belief that alcohol makes you cheerful is one of the main reasons for engaging in high-risk drinking, especially among young adults. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between blood alcohol content (BAC) and cheerfulness, focus distraction, and sluggishness among students...

  8. Effects of Electroacupuncture at Weiwanxiashu and Zusanli Points on Blood Glucose and Plasma Pancreatic Glucagon Contents in Diabetic Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾志勇; 李永义

    2002-01-01

    The Effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at Weiwanxiashu (EX-B3) and Zusanli (ST 36) points on blood glucose (BG) and plasma pancreatic glucagon (PG) contents were dynamically observed in diabetic rabbits induced by Alloxan. It is found that acupuncture at Weiwanxiashu point can significantly lower the BG content and inhibit release of PG; no significant changes in BG and PG are found when acupuncture is given at Zusanli (ST 36) point alone, however BG and PG contents decrease more obviously when acupuncture employed at both Zusanli and Weiwanxiashu, suggesting that Zusanli has a marked synergetic action with Weiwanxiashu.

  9. Pecularities of peripheral blood morphological content in rats in case of combined irradiation of lungs and thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indices of morphological content of peripheral blood were studied in male rats at 1, 3, 7, 14 days following intratracheal administration of oxide suspension of 147Nd + 147Pm and oral administration of 131I. By 14 days the doses for lungs and thyroid were 5 Gy and 10 Gy respectively. It was shown that the doses of 134I don't influence morphological indices of peripheral blood but combined effect of radioisotopes leads to moderate increase of leukocyte, lymphocytes and neutrophils. Manifestation of changes in white blood turned out to be less than in case of similar effect of stable isotope on the lungs. Minor shifts in white blood and severity of patholoanatomical picture of inflammatory process in the lungs in case of radioactive isotopes effect can be attributed to specific effect of ionizing radiation. 4 refs.; 2 tabs

  10. Effects of Natural Eggshell Membrane (NEM) on Cytokine Production in Cultures of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells: Increased Suppression of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Levels After In Vitro Digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Kathleen F.; Ruff, Kevin J.; Jensen, Gitte S.

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays an important role in inflammatory processes. This study examined the effects of natural eggshell membrane (NEM®) (ESM Technologies, LLC, Carthage, MO, USA) on interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and TNF-α cytokine production by 4-day peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures exposed to serial dilutions of either an aqueous extract of natural eggshell membrane (NEM-AQ) or NEM subjected to in vitro digestion (NEM-IVD). The e...

  11. Vasculogenic Cytokines in Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor W. Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic wounds represent a growing healthcare burden that particularly afflicts aged, diabetic, vasculopathic, and obese patients. Studies have shown that nonhealing wounds are characterized by dysregulated cytokine networks that impair blood vessel formation. Two distinct forms of neovascularization have been described: vasculogenesis (driven by bone-marrow-derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells and angiogenesis (local endothelial cell sprouting from existing vasculature. Researchers have traditionally focused on angiogenesis but defects in vasculogenesis are increasingly recognized to impact diseases including wound healing. A more comprehensive understanding of vasculogenic cytokine networks may facilitate the development of novel strategies to treat recalcitrant wounds. Further, the clinical success of endothelial progenitor cell-based therapies will depend not only on the delivery of the cells themselves but also on the appropriate cytokine milieu to promote tissue regeneration. This paper will highlight major cytokines involved in vasculogenesis within the context of cutaneous wound healing.

  12. Vasculogenic Cytokines in Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Victor W.; Crawford, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic wounds represent a growing healthcare burden that particularly afflicts aged, diabetic, vasculopathic, and obese patients. Studies have shown that nonhealing wounds are characterized by dysregulated cytokine networks that impair blood vessel formation. Two distinct forms of neovascularization have been described: vasculogenesis (driven by bone-marrow-derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells) and angiogenesis (local endothelial cell sprouting from existing vasculature). Researc...

  13. Acanthamoeba castellanii Genotype T4 Stimulates the Production of Interleukin-10 as Well as Proinflammatory Cytokines in THP-1 Cells, Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, and Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Manuela; Cano, Antonella; Delogu, Giuseppe; Erre, Giuseppe; Roberts, Craig W.; Henriquez, Fiona L.; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Cappuccinelli, Piero

    2016-01-01

    Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba can cause severe and chronic infections in humans, mainly localized in immune privileged sites, such as the brain and the eye. Monocytes/macrophages are thought to be involved in Acanthamoeba infections, but little is known about how these facultative parasites influence their functions. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of Acanthamoeba on human monocytes/macrophages during the early phase of infection. Here, THP-1 cells, primary human monocytes isolated from peripheral blood, and human monocyte-derived macrophages were either coincubated with trophozoites of a clinical isolate of Acanthamoeba (genotype T4) or stimulated with amoeba-derived cell-free conditioned medium. Production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and IL-12), anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10), and chemokine (IL-8) was evaluated at specific hours poststimulation (ranging from 1.5 h to 23 h). We showed that both Acanthamoeba trophozoites and soluble amoebic products induce an early anti-inflammatory monocyte-macrophage phenotype, characterized by significant production of IL-10; furthermore, challenge with either trophozoites or their soluble metabolites stimulate both proinflammatory cytokines and chemokine production, suggesting that this protozoan infection results from the early induction of coexisting, opposed immune responses. Results reported in this paper confirm that the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines by monocytes and macrophages can play a role in the development of the inflammatory response during Acanthamoeba infections. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that Acanthamoeba stimulates IL-10 production in human innate immune cells, which might both promote the immune evasion of Acanthamoeba and limit the induced inflammatory response. PMID:27481240

  14. Cytokines in acute chikungunya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Venugopalan

    Full Text Available Acute chikungunya (CHIKV is predominantly an acute onset of excruciatingly painful, self-limiting musculoskeletal (MSK arbovirus illness and this was further reported by us during the 2006 Indian epidemic [Chopra et al. Epidemiol Infect 2012]. Selected serum cytokines profile in subjects within one month of onset of illness is being presented.Out of 509 clinical CHIKV cases (43% population identified during a rural population survey, 225 subjects consented blood investigations. 132 examined within 30 days of febrile onset are the study cohort. Anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG antibodies tested by immunochromatography and indirect immunofluorescence respectively. Interferons (IFN-α, -β and -γ, Interferon Gamma-Induced Protein-10 (CXCL-10/IP-10, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α, Interleukin-1β (IL-1β, Interleukin-6 (IL-6, Interleukin-13 (IL-13, Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1, Interleukin-4 (IL-4 and Interleukin-10 (IL-10 performed by ELISA. Samples collected from neighboring community a year prior to the epidemic used as healthy controls.Seropositivity for anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG was 65% and 52% respectively. IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, CXCL10/IP-10 and IL-1β showed intense response in early acute phase. Cytokines (particularly TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 was maximum in extended symptomatic phase and remained elevated in recovered subjects. Higher (p<0.05 IFN and IL-4 seen in patients seropositive for anti-CHIKV IgG. Elderly cases (≥65 years showed elevated cytokines (except IFN and anti-CHIKV antibodies near similar to younger subjects. Significant correlations (p<0.05 found between cytokines and clinical features (fatigue, low back ache, myalgia and anti-CHIKV antibodies.An intense cytokine milieu was evident in the early and immediate persistent symptomatic phase and in recovered subjects. Early persistent IgM and lower IgG to anti-CHKV and intense Th2 cytokine phenotype seem to be associated with delay in resolution of MSK symptoms

  15. Effects of iron supplementation on red blood cell hemoglobin content in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreet Schoorl

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although a mild degree of anemia is common in the third trimester of pregnancy, it remains a challenge to establish whether a decrease in hemoglobin (Hb concentration is physiological or pathological. The World Health Organization suggested a Hb concentration of 110 g/L to discriminate anemia. Several European investigators recommended Hb cut-off values of between 101-110 g/L. The aim of this study was to establish short-term effects of iron supplementation on the hemoglobin content of reticulocytes (Ret-He and red blood cells (RBC-He in case of suspected iron deficient erythropoiesis (IDE in the third trimester of pregnancy. Twenty-five subjects with suspected IDE during pregnancy (Hb ≤110g/L, Ret-He <29.6 pg, zinc protoporphyrin >75 mol/mol hem participated in the study. After iron supplementation, reticulocyte counts increased from 0.061±0.015x1012/L to 0.079±0.026x1012/L and Ret-He increased from 23.6±2.8 pg to 28.3±2.6 pg (P=<0.001. RBC-He increased from 26.9±1.9 pg to 27.4±1.8 pg (not significant, NS and Ret-He/RBC-He ratio increased from 0.97±0.06 towards 1.07±0.05 (P=<0.001. Hb concentrations demonstrated an obvious increase from 105±6 g/L towards 115±5 g/L (P≤0.001 after supplementation. An obvious increase in RBC distribution width was observed from 45.0±3.6 fL towards 52.3±7.0 fL (P≤0.001. We recommend that Ret-He and Ret-He/RBC-He ratio be integrated into the protocols for anemia screening and for monitoring effects of iron supplementation during pregnancy. In particular, the parameters should be considered in subjects with Hb results in the controversial range of 101-108 g/L.

  16. Influences of IL-17 cytokine in peripheral blood of patients with vitiligo with NB-UVB therapy%NB-UVB治疗对白癜风患者外周血IL-17表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭洪飞; 马学良; 张厚毅; 王宝林

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨NB-UVB对白癜风患者外周血IL-17表达的影响及其可能的免疫学机制。方法38例白癜风患者作为实验组,采用NB-UVB进行治疗,20例健康体检者作为对照组,采用酶联免疫吸附法测定NB-UVB治疗前后白癜风患者及健康体检者外周血IL-17的表达水平。结果白癜风患者外周血IL-17表达水平明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论 NB-UVB可能通过影响白癜风患者外周血中IL-17的表达来发挥治疗作用。%Objective To study the level of IL-17 in peripheral blood of patients with vitiligo, and to observe the possible mechanism of NB-UVB therapy. Methods The level cytokine in peripheral blood of patients with vitiligo, and to explore the possible immune mechanism of NB-UVB therapy of IL-17 in peripheral blood from 38 vitiligo patients and 20 normal control groups were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results The level of IL-17 in vitiligo patients was higher than the control group (P0.05), but the differences were not signiifcant. Conclusion NB-UVB may inlfuence the level of IL-17 cytokine in peripheral blood of patients with vitiligo to plays a therapeutic role.

  17. NB-UVB 治疗对白癜风患者外周血 IL-23表达的影响%Influences of IL-23 cytokine in peripheral blood of patients with vitiligo with NB-UVB therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭洪飞; 马学良; 张厚毅; 王宝林

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the level of IL-23 in peripheral blood of patients with vitiligo, and to observe the possible mechanism of NB-UVB therapy. Methods:The level cytokine in peripheral blood of patients with vitiligo, and to explore the possible immune mechanism of NB-UVB therapy of IL-23 in peripheral blood from 38 vitiligo patients and 20 normal control groups were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results:The level of IL-23 in vitiligo patients was higher than the control group (P0.05), but the differences were not significant. Conclusion:NB-UVB may influence the level of IL-23 cytokine in peripheral blood of patients with vitiligo to plays a therapeutic role.%目的:探讨 NB-UVB 对白癜风患者外周血 IL-23表达的影响及其可能的免疫学机制。方法:38例白癜风患者作为实验组,采用 NB-UVB 进行治疗,20例健康体检者作为对照组,采用酶联免疫吸附法测定 NB-UVB 治疗前后白癜风患者及健康体检者外周血 IL-23的表达水平。结果:白癜风患者外周血 IL-23表达水平明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论:NB-UVB 可能通过影响白癜风患者外周血中 IL-23的表达来发挥治疗作用。

  18. [Form and content of iodine-containing components of blood in liver pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirakhmedov, M

    1976-01-01

    In dynamics of development of toxic heptatitis and cirrhosis the alterations in functionality of thyroid glands were accompanied by qualitative and quantitative changes of separate iodine-containing components in blood. PMID:67708

  19. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...... a theoretical approach, which takes complexity as fundamental premise for modern society (Luhmann, 1985, 2002). In educational situations conditionally valuable content generally will exceed what can actually be taught within the frames of an education. In pedagogy this situation is often referred...... to as ‘abundance of material’, and in many cases it is not obvious, how the line between actually chosen and conditionally relevant content can be draw. Difficulties in drawing the line between actual educational content and conditionally relevant content can be handled in different way. One way, quite efficient...

  20. Antigen-induced cytokine and chemokine release test for tuberculosis infection using adsorption of stimulated whole blood on filter paper and multiplex analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogstrand, Kristin; Thysen, Anna H; Jørgensen, Charlotte S;

    2012-01-01

    (ELISA), as described in the kit insert. In parallel, activated blood was spotted on filter paper (Schleicher & Schuell) and dried. The dried blood spot samples were analysed for 21 inflammatory markers with an in-house assay based on Luminex technology. Results: Our multiplex measurements...

  1. No early effect of storage time of transfused red blood cells on fatigue and plasma cytokines in patients with anaemia from non-acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, Tommie; Dziegiel, Morten H; Kofoed, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    Background: Fatigue in anaemia is empirically reduced by blood transfusion. Long storage time of red cells may be associated with immunomodulatory effects, and blood stored for a long time may cause tissue hypoxia upon transfusion. Patients and Methods: 22 patients admitted with haemoglobin

  2. Effect of Treatment with Intranasal Corticosteroid and Oral Antihistamine on Cytokine Profiles of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Patients with Allergic Rhinitis Sensitive to Chenopodium album

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokrollah Farrokhi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with allergic rhinitis (AR show increased production of the Th2-related cytokines. Almost always, intranasal corticosteroid (INC and antihistamine are used as routine therapy of AR. This study was performed to determine the in vitro secretion of cytokines profiles of PBMCs in patients with AR sensitive to Chenopodium album (Ch.a pollens before and after treatment with INC (Fluticasone propionate and oral antihistamine (Loratadine. PBMCs of 20 patients with AR, were tested in vitro for cytokine production. These cells were stimulated with natural or recombinant Ch.a. The levels of IL-4, IL-13 and IFN-, were measured in supernatants of cultured cell 96h after stimulation using ELISA. The PBMCs of 20 normal individuals were also similarly treared for comparison of results. The production of IL-4 by the patients' cells stimulated with either Ch.a or rCh.a was significantly higher than normal levels before therapy (p=0.04 and p=0.02, respectively. After therapy, a significant decrease in production of IL-4 and a significant increase in production of IL-10 were found in PBMCs stimulated with natural Ch.a, in comparison to the results before stimulation (p=0.03 for IL-4; p=0.04 for IL-10. Similarly, these results were seen in the production of IL-4 and IL-10 stimulated with rCh.a allergen after therapy in comparison to the results before stimulation (p=0.01 for IL-4; p=0.03 for IL-10. This study suggests INC (Fluticasone propionate and oral antihistamine (Loratadine have the capacity to inhibit the production of IL-4 and shift Th2/Th1 responses, probably due to increase the level of immunoregulatory IL-10. Therefore, it could be concluded that therapy with INC and antihistamine has pharmacologic and immunologic therapeutic effects on AR patients.

  3. Heavy weight vehicle traffic and its relationship with antimony content in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Waldo; De Gregori, Ida; Basilio, Paola; Bravo, Manuel; Pinto, Marcela; Lobos, Maria Gabriela

    2009-05-01

    Brake pads systems are nowadays considered as one of the most important sources of antimony in airborne particulate matter. One way that antimony can enter the body is through the lungs and specially by the interaction of antimony with -SH groups present in erythrocyte membrane cells. In spite of that, there are no studies about antimony enrichment in blood of workers exposed to high vehicle traffic. Port workers are generally exposed to heavy weight vehicle traffic. In Chile the biggest marine port is found in Valparaíso City. In this study antimony in whole blood and its fractions (erythrocytes-plasma and erythrocytes membranes-cytoplasm) of 45 volunteers were determined. The volunteers were port workers from Valparaíso city, and two control groups, one from Valparaíso and another from Quebrada Alvarado, the latter being a rural area located about 100 Km away from Valparaíso. The results demonstrate that port workers are highly impacted by antimony emissions from heavy weight vehicle traffic showing an average concentration of 27 +/- 9 ng Sb kg(-1), 5-10 times higher than the concentration of antimony in the blood of control groups. These are the highest antimony levels in blood ever reported in the literature. The highest antimony percentages (>60%) were always found in the erythrocyte fractions. However, the exposure degree to vehicle traffic is significant over antimony distribution in plasma, erythrocytes and cytoplasm. This results shows that the antimony mass in the erythrocyte membranes, was approximately constant at 1.0 +/- 0.1 ng Sb g(-1) of whole blood in all blood samples analyzed.

  4. The change in cholesterol content of long chain fatty acid egg during processing and its influence to the Rattus norvegicus L. blood cholesterol content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Hardini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Egg containing long chain unsaturated fatty acids is a functional food, because it is highly nutritious and could prevent diseases, (omega 3 and 6 such as coronary heart attack. The research was aimed to measure the change of egg cholesterol content during proceesing: frying, oiless frying and boiling and their influence to the blood plasma cholesterol of normal and hypercholesterolemia rat. Seven treatments of egg yolk were frying at 170°C for 3 min (welldone = GM, and 1min (half medium fried = GSM using deep fryer , oilless frying at 70°C for10 min (fried = TM, and 6 min (half fried = TSM using Teflon pan, and boiling at 100°C for 10’ (boiled = RM dan 4 min (half boiled = RSM using pan provided with thermoregulator and a fresh omega egg as a control. The Completely randomized design was apllied for 4 weeks research period. The data from different treatments were analyzed by Orthogonal Contrast. Fifty 2 months old male rats Rattus norvegicus L. separated in 2 groups; normal and hypercholesterolemia (blood cholesterol > 200 mg dl-1. The rats were placed in individual cage, fed 15 g h-1 day-1 and water drinking ad libitum. The ration was composed of 90% basal commercial feed BR II and 10% egg yolk was given to each animal at 20% of live weight. Factorial 2 x 7 of completely randomized design was applied. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Processsing method of egg affected to cholesterol content of egg, The lowest and the highest cholesterol contents were observed in TSM (0.30 g/100g and GM (0.37 g/100g, respectively. Biological test using Rattus norvegicus L rat showed that either fresh and processed long chain fatty acid egg decreased plasma cholesterol. The highest and the lowest decreases of cholesterol content were found in the group consumed RSM (8.64% and GM (1.77% for normal rat; and control (46.3% followed by RSM (44.53% and GM (24.86%, respectively. To maintain normal cholesterol and decrease

  5. 荨麻疹外周血细胞因子表达模式研究进展%Cytokine expression patterns in peripheral blood of patients with urticaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈奇权; 郝飞

    2016-01-01

    Urticaria has various subtypes,and their mechanisms are different from each other.Cytokine levels in peripheral blood fully reflect the degree of inflammation and types of effector cells implicated in the pathogenesis of urticaria.High expressions of T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines and numerous pro-inflammatory cytokines suggest that acute urticaria is an allergic disease and an inflammatory disease respectively.The expression levels of cytokines in peripheral blood of patients with chronic urticaria hint that Th1/Th2 imbalance,activation of Th17,Tc17 and Th9 cells,massive release of pro-inflammatory factors and chemokines,and noninflammatory and non-immunological systems are all involved in the occurrence and development of chronic urticaria.It has been gradually revealed that cytokine expression patterns differ among chronic urticaria patients with different response to autologous serum skin test.In addition,expressions of some cytokines are also abnormal in patients with inducible urticaria,such as cold urticaria,delayed pressure urticaria,etc.%荨麻疹的类型多样,发病机制也各不相同.细胞因子在外周血中的水平充分反应疾病的炎症水平及发病机制所牵涉的效应细胞.在急性荨麻疹中,Th2系列因子的高表达证实了急性荨麻疹的过敏性,大量促炎症因子的高表达反映出急性荨麻疹的炎症性.在慢性荨麻疹中,透过外周血细胞因子的表达水平可以发现,不仅Th1/Th2失衡、还有Th17、Tc17和Th9的活化、促炎症因子和趋化因子的广泛激活和非炎症非免疫系统等均参与了慢性荨麻疹的发生发展过程.自体血清皮肤试验不同反应性的慢性荨麻疹的细胞因子表达模式差异也逐渐被证实.除此之外,可诱导性荨麻疹,如寒冷性荨麻疹和延迟压力性荨麻疹等在部分细胞因子表达上也存在差异.

  6. Cytokine profile in murine toxoplasmosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Funda Dogruman-Al; Isil Fidan; Bekir Celebi; Emine Yesilyurt; Berna Erdal; Cahit Babur; Semra Kustimur

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate which cytokines are produced after acute infection of mice withToxoplasma gondii (T. Gondii) RH strain. Methods: Mus domesticus domesticus mice in infected group were inoculated with with highly virulent T. Gondii RH strain by intraperitoneally. Serum samples were obtained from infected and non-infected mice for cytokine levels for ELISA assay. Results: The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α, interferonγ, interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-12 in the cardiac blood sample of the infected mice were significantly higher than those in uninfected controls (P0.05). Conclusions: According to our findings, immune response into T helper type 1 was predominant during acute T. gondii infection. Further characterization and purification of Toxoplasma molecule(s) implicated in the regulation of cytokines could lead to the development of new drug prospects to control Toxoplasma infection.

  7. Determination of bromine contents in blood and hair of workers exposed to methyl by radioactivation analysis method bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bromine contained in blood and hair samples obtained from workers exposed to methyl bromide was analyzed by nondestructive activation analysis. The samples were irradiated for 1 min in pneumatic irradiation facility of Kyoto University research reactor with an estimated thermal neutron flux density at 2 x 1013 n.cm-2.sec-1. The irradiation was counted with Ge(Li) detector. The duration of measurement of radionuclide bromine in blood and hair was 200 sec within 2 - 10 min after irradiation. The bromine content of serum sample obtained from a worker suspected of methyl bromide poisoning was found to be 412 μg/g on 13 days apart from exposure to methyl bromide. The biological half-life of bromine in this case was found to be about 16 days. Then bromine contents in serum and hair samples obtained from workers exposed to methyl bromide were found to be 1.7 and 2.6 times higher respectively than those of nonexposed workers. Any correlations of bromine contents were not observed between serum and hair samples obtained from workers exposed to methyl bromide, nor between bromine amount in the serum of workers exposed to methyl bromide and the terms exposed to it, but statistically significant positive correlation was observed between bromine amount in the hair of workers exposed to methyl bromide and the terms exposed to it. (author)

  8. Diagnostic performance of a cytokine and IFN-γ-induced chemokine mRNA assay after Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigen stimulation in whole blood from infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghyun; Lee, Hyejon; Kim, Hyunjung; Kim, Yeun; Cho, Jang-Eun; Jin, Hyunwoo; Kim, Dae Yeon; Ha, Sang-Jun; Kang, Young Ae; Cho, Sang-Nae; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2015-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-γ release assays have limited sensitivity and cannot differentiate between active tuberculosis (TB) disease and latent TB infection (LTBI). Numerous cytokines and regulator factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis and control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Additional cytokines and chemokines associated with M. tuberculosis infection may improve the performance of IFN-γ release assays. We developed a real-time RT-PCR TaqMan assay for targeting levels of eight human targets [IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-2R, IL-4, IL-10, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11] and evaluated the assay with three different study groups. Results showed that the sensitivity of TNF-α, IL-2R, and CXCL10 in the active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) group was 96.43%, 96.43%, and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity of IL-2R and CXCL10 in the latent tuberculosis infection group was 86.36% and 81.82%, respectively. Statistical results showed that TNF-α and CXCL9 were the best individual markers for differentiating between the PTB, LTBI, and non-TB groups. For optimal sensitivity and differentiation of M. tuberculosis infection status, the simultaneous detection of multiple targets was attempted. The combination of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2R, and the combination of TNF-α, IL-2R, CXCL9, and CXCL10 showed the best performance for detecting active PTB (both 100% positivity) and LTBI (86.36% and 81.82% positivity, respectively). These results imply that the combination of suitable markers is useful in efficiently diagnosing TB and differentiating M. tuberculosis infection status.

  9. Development of segmented polyurethane elastomers with low iodine content exhibiting radiopacity and blood compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofunctionally active and inherently radiopaque polymers are the emerging need for biomedical applications. Novel segmented polyurethane elastomer with inherent radiopacity was prepared using aliphatic chain extender 2,3-diiodo-2-butene-1,4-diol, polyol polytetramethylene glycol and 4,4'-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI) for blood compatible applications. Aliphatic polyurethane was also prepared using hexamethylene diisocyanate for comparison. X-ray analysis of the polyurethanes revealed good radiopacity even at a relatively low concentration of 3% iodine in aromatic polyurethane and 10% in aliphatic polyurethane. The polyurethanes also possessed excellent thermal stability. MDI-based polyurethane showed considerably higher tensile strength than the analogous HDI-based polyurethane. MDI-based aromatic polyurethane exhibited a dynamic surface morphology in aqueous medium, resulting in the segregation of hydrophilic domains which was more conducive to anti-thrombogenic properties. The polyurethane was cytocompatible with L929 fibroblast cells, non-hemolytic, and possessed good blood compatibility.

  10. Effects of Acupuncture on Hemorheology,Blood Lipid Content and Nail Fold Microcirculation in Multiple Infarct Dementia Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘清国

    2004-01-01

    Forty-six cases of multiple infarct dementia (MID) in the treatment group were treated by acupuncture with the principle of supplementing the inferiority to clear the superiority and regulating spirit to invigorate intelligence. Changes of the blood lipid content, hemorheological indexes and nail fold microcirculation in the treatment group were compared with those in the randomly assigned control group.The data collected showed that the changes in the treatment group were remarkable, and part of them were superior to their counterparts obtained in the control group by statistical analysis. It is indicated that acupuncture can effectivelv regulate the affected hemodvnamic state in MID.

  11. Detection of plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) content in peripheral blood and renal tissue of children with henoch-schonlein purpura and its clinical value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-Mei Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) content in peripheral blood and renal tissue of children with henoch-schonlein purpura and its clinical value.Methods:30 cases of henoch-schonlein purpura children with renal damage were enrolled in HSPN group, 30 cases of henoch-schonlein purpura children without renal damage were enrolled in NHSPN group, and 30 cases of healthy volunteers were enrolled in the control group. Then contents of pDC, Th2 cell, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13 in peripheral blood as well as contents of pDC, Th17 cell, IL-17, IL-21 and IL-23 in renal tissue of three groups were detected.Results: (1) pDC contents in peripheral blood of HSPN group and NHSPN group were lower than those of control group and the decrease of pDC contents in peripheral blood of HSPN group was more obvious; CD304 contents in renal tissue of HSPN group and NHSPN group were higher than those of control group and the increase of CD304 contents in renal tissue of HSPN group was more obvious; (2) Th2 cell as well as IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13 contents in peripheral blood of HSPN group and NHSPN group were higher than those of control group and the increase of related indexes in peripheral blood of HSPN group was more obvious; Th17 cell as well as IL-17, IL-21 and IL-23 contents in kidney tissue of HSPN group were higher than those of NHSPN group; (3) in peripheral blood, pDC content was negatively correlated with Th2 cell level as well as IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13 contents, and in renal tissue, pDC content was positively correlated with Th17 cell level as well as IL-17, IL-21 and IL-23 contents. Conclusions:Abnormal pDC content correlates with the pathogenesis of henoch-schonlein purpura, pDC content decreases in peripheral blood and will result in enhancement of Th2 cell function, and pDC content increases in kidney and will result in enhancement of Th17 cell function.

  12. EFFECT OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE OF DUMAI-ACUPOINTS ON CEREBRAL NO AND BLOOD ENDOTHELIN CONTENTS IN RATS WITH ACUTE CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马杨; 许能贵; 许冠荪; 钟平; 王联发; 朱舜丽; 陈全珠

    2000-01-01

    Thirty Wistar rats were randomly and evenly divided into control group, cerebral ischemia group and ischemia + electroacupuncture (EA) group. The bilateral common carotid arteries were occluded to induce acute cerebral ischemia. Nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin (ET) contents in the cerebral tissues and blood were measured under normal condition, immediately after ischemia and following EA. Results showed that after acute cerebral ischemia NO and ET contents in the cerebral tissues increased significantly (P < 0.01) while serum ET increased and serum NO lowered obviously (P<0.05). Following EA of Baihui (GV 20) and Dazhui (GV 14), both NO and ET in cerebral tissues and serum turned to normal basically. It showed that EA could protect the cerebral tissues from injury induced bv ischemia. NO and ET might oarticioate in the modulation orocess of EA.

  13. EFFECT OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE OF DUMAI-ACUPOINTS ON CEREBRAL NO AND BLOOD ENDOTHELIN CONTENTS IN RATS WITH ACUTE CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaYang; XuNenggui; XuGuansun; ZhongPing; WangLianfa; ZhuShunli; ChenQuanzhu

    2000-01-01

    Thirty Wistar rats were randomly and evenly divided into control group, cerebral ischemia group and ischemia + electroacupuncture (EA) group. The bilateral common carotid arteries were occluded to induce acute cerebral ischemia. Nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin (ET)contents in the cerebral tissues and blood were measured under normal condition, immediately after ischemia and following EA. Results showed that after acute cerebral ischemia NO and ET contents in the cerebral tissues increased significantly (P<0.01) while serum ET increased and serum NO lowered obviously (P<0.05). Following EA of Baihui (GV 20) and Dazhui (GV 14), both NO and ET in cerebral tissues and serum turned to normal basically. It showed that EA could protect the cerebral tissues from injury induced by ischemia, NO and ET might participate in the modulation process of EA.

  14. Content of non-esterified fatty acids in the blood plasma of rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis and its correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. F. Rivis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the content of non-esterified fatty acids in plasma and liver of rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis and its correction by linseed oil. The experiment was carried out on male rabbits breed gray giant with live weight 3.8–4.0 kg. The material for the study was sampled from blood and liver. Lipids from plasma and liver were extracted with a mixture of chloroform and methanol. After that the non-esterified fatty acids were isolated and methylated. Methyl esters of fatty acids were studied by the gas-liquid chromatography with the chromatograph ''Chrom 5'' (Prague,CzechRepublic. We have found that the content of non-esterified fatty acids decreases in the blood plasma and liver of rabbits with the acute arginine pancreatitis. It takes place at the expense of a reduce of saturated fatty acids with odd and even number of carbon atoms in a chain, monounsaturated fatty acids of the families ω-7 and ω-9 and polyunsaturated fatty acids of the families ω-3 and ω-6. That may indicate a greater use of non-esterified fatty acids for energy metabolism and esterification of lipids. We suppose that this is a consequence of the probable increase in content of non-esterified and esterified cholesterol in the rabbits’ blood plasma. Those processes provoke the cholesterol deposits in blood vessels and therefore cardiovascular diseases. We tried to influence on the processes by addition of linseed oil to the rabbits diet. We have found that in the linseed oil-fed rabbits the content of non-esterified fatty acids decreases at the expense of saturated fatty acids with odd and even number of carbon atoms in a chain and monounsaturated fatty acids of the families ω-7 and ω-9 inblood plasma and liver of the rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis. Furthermore the levels of non-esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids of ω-3 family increase in the rabbits’ plasma and liver. As this takes place the ratio of non

  15. The effect of a mixture of ionizing radiation and heat on biogenic amine content of guinea pig blood in the anaphylactic shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anaphylactic shock and alterations in the epinephrine and norepinephrine content of the blood were inhibited in guinea pigs which were repeatedly kept at high temperature (50 deg C). Preirradiation with a dose of 1 Gy prevented this effect

  16. DNA content determination of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes induced by clastogens and spindle poisons in mouse bone marrow and peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequencies and DNA distributions of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes from the bone marrow and peripheral blood of mice after four different treatments were determined by flow cytometry. Polychromatic erthrocytes were detected using the fluorescent RNA stain thiazole orange, while micronuclei were detected with the DNA stain Hoechst 33342. The treatments were X-irradiation (1 Gy), cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg), vincristine sulfphate (0.08 mg/kg), and cochicine (1 mg/kg). All treatments showed increased frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes at 30h after treatment in the bone marrow (colchicine 50h) and at 50h in the peripheral blood. The clostogenic agents X-irradiation and cyclophosphamide and the spindle poisons vincristine sulphate and cochicine could be grouped according to the fluorescent characteristics of the induced micronuclei as well as the relative frequency of small (0.5-2% if the diploid G1 DNA content) and large (2-10%) micronuclei. In the peripheral blood the relative frequency of large micronuclei was lower than in the bone marrow, indicating that they were partly eliminated before entrance into the peripheral circulation. The nature of presumed micronuclei was verified by sorting. The potential of this approach to give information on the mechanism of induction of micronuclei is discussed

  17. WATER EXTRACT OF SWEET POTATO LEAF IMPROVED LIPID PROFILE AND BLOOD SOD CONTENT OF RATS WITH HIGH CHOLESTEROL DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Sumardika

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Food stuffs with high flavonoids content  are believed to prevent various diseases caused by oxidative stress because of its antioxidants effect.  Purple sweet potato leaves have been proved containing high flavonoids, and can be developed very easily. To prove antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties of the water extract of purple sweet potato leaves, one research was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University. The study design was randomized control group pre- and post-test.  Twenty adult male wistar rats were divided into two groups of 10 rats. Both groups of rats were given high-cholesterol diet for three months to induce dyslipidemia. Control group of 10 rats were given only high-cholesterol diet alone, whereas the treatment group also treated with purple sweet potato leaf water extract with a dose of 6 cc per day divided into two doses. Before treatment and after treatment, lipid profile and blood SOD levels were measured. The results showed a decrease in total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol significantly in the treated group (P = 0.0001. In the treatment group there was also an increase in HDL cholesterol and blood SOD which was significantly differ than the control group (P = 0.0001. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that administration of water extract of purple sweet potato leaves can improve the lipid profile and increase blood SOD of rat given high-cholesterol diet.

  18. DNA content determination of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes induced by clastogens and spindle poisons in mouse bone marrow and peripheral blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grawe, J.; Amneus, H. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden) Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)); Zetterberg, G. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden))

    1993-01-01

    The frequencies and DNA distributions of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes from the bone marrow and peripheral blood of mice after four different treatments were determined by flow cytometry. Polychromatic erthrocytes were detected using the fluorescent RNA stain thiazole orange, while micronuclei were detected with the DNA stain Hoechst 33342. The treatments were X-irradiation (1 Gy), cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg), vincristine sulfphate (0.08 mg/kg), and cochicine (1 mg/kg). All treatments showed increased frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes at 30h after treatment in the bone marrow (colchicine 50h) and at 50h in the peripheral blood. The clostogenic agents X-irradiation and cyclophosphamide and the spindle poisons vincristine sulphate and cochicine could be grouped according to the fluorescent characteristics of the induced micronuclei as well as the relative frequency of small (0.5-2% if the diploid G1 DNA content) and large (2-10%) micronuclei. In the peripheral blood the relative frequency of large micronuclei was lower than in the bone marrow, indicating that they were partly eliminated before entrance into the peripheral circulation. The nature of presumed micronuclei was verified by sorting. The potential of this approach to give information on the mechanism of induction of micronuclei is discussed.

  19. Cytokines as cellular communicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Debets

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines and their receptors are involved in the pathophysiology of many diseases. Here we present a detailed review on cytokines, receptors and signalling routes, and show that one important lesson from cytokine biology is the complex and diverse regulation of cytokine activity. The activity of cytokines is controlled at the level of transcription, translation, storage, processing, posttranslational modification, trapping, binding by soluble proteins, and receptor number and/or function. Translation of this diverse regulation in strategies aimed at the control of cytokine activity will result in the development of more specific and selective drugs to treat diseases.

  20. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Development and Evolution of the Idea of the Mandate of Heaven in the Zhou Dynasty The changes in the idea of Mandate of Heaven during the Shang and Zhou dynasties are of great significance in the course of the development of traditional Chinese culture. The quickening and awakening of the humanistic spirit was not the entire content of the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven. In the process of annihilating the Shang dynasty and setting up their state, the Zhou propagated the idea of the Mandate of Heaven out of practical needs. Their idea of the Mandate of Heaven was not very different from that of the Shang. From the Western Zhou on, the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven by no means developed in a linear way along a rational track. The intermingling of rationality and irrationality and of awakening and non-awakening remained the overall state of the Zhou intellectual superstructure after their "spiritual awakening".

  1. 玉米地放养对肉鹅生长性能、屠宰性能和血清细胞因子含量的影响%Effects of Corn Stocking on Growth Performance, Slaughter Performance and Serum Cytokine Content of Meat Geese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王迪; 乔雪; 何晶; 杨焕民; 王秋菊; 司鸿飞

    2015-01-01

    试验旨在研究玉米地放养对肉鹅生长性能、屠宰性能和血清细胞因子含量的影响. 选取1 000只2~3周龄的肉鹅,随机分为2组,对照组为舍饲,试验组为玉米地放养,放养肉鹅在玉米拔节期进入玉米地. 每组鹅分别于2、4、8和12周龄时各选取5只,共40只鹅,称量其体重,采血进行血清细胞因子含量检测. 育肥结束后,从2组中随机选取体况均匀的鹅各12只进行屠宰性能检测. 结果显示,放养鹅的平均日增重( ADG)、屠宰率、半净膛率高于舍饲鹅;放养鹅血清中白细胞介素-2( IL-2)、白细胞介素-6( IL-6)、白细胞介素-12( IL-12)、干扰素-α( IFN-α)和干扰素-γ( IFN-γ)含量高于舍饲鹅:放养鹅与舍饲鹅血清中IL-2、IL-6和IL-12含量在不同日龄均存在极显著差异( P0.05). 由此可见,玉米地放养模式可以提高鹅的生长性能和屠宰性能,增加鹅血清细胞因子含量,提高鹅的免疫力,是值得大力推广的新型饲养模式.%This trial was designed to investigate the effects of corn stocking on growth performance, slaughter performance and serum cytokine content of meat geese. One thousand 2 to 3 weeks of age meat geese were ran-domly divided into two groups, the control group was feeding in house, the trial group was stocking in corn field which in corn jointing stage. Five geese were selected on 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks respectively for each group, total 40 geese, weighed the weight, collected blood for the test of serum cytokine content. At the end of fattening, 12 geese which were selected randomly in well-distributed physical condition from two groups were made test for slaughter performance. The results showed that the average daily gain, dressing percentage, percentage of half-eviscerated of stocking geese were higher than that of housing geese, the content of interleu-kin-2 ( IL-2) , interleukin-6 ( IL-6) , interleukin-12 ( IL-12) , interferon-α( IFN-α) and interferon-γ( IFN-γ) of serum

  2. The impact of blood hemoglobin content on the outcome of radiotherapy. The Freiburg experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frommhold, H.; Guttenberger, R.; Henke, M. [Universitaetsklinik, Freiburg (Germany). Abt. Strahlentherapie

    1998-12-01

    Background: Numerous publications have reported an impaired radiocurability when anemia is present. Tissue hypoxia and consecutive radioresistance are speculated to be the underlying causes. Own experience: Our own retrospective data impressively confirm these observations: in an analysis of 889 patients homogeneously irradiated for head and neck cancer for locoregional tumor control and survival, anemia has proven to be a highly significant risk factor. Furthermore, hemoglobin content is an independent and, at least equally powerful predictor for outcome when compared to the known risk factors of site, treatment modality, resection status, T-, and N-stage. Treatment: In an attempt to improve therapeutic outcome, 50 anemic patients undergoing radiotherapy were treated with erythropoietin (rhEPO). A weekly increment in hemoglobin content of 0.7 g/dl was documented without any major side effects. Additionally, it seems that patients reacting sufficiently to rhEPO stimulation can expect better locoregional tumor control within the irradiation volume. This, however, awaits confirmation in an ongoing trial. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: Anaemische Patienten sollen nur begrenzt von einer Bestrahlungsbehandlung profitieren. Als ursaechlich wird eine Radioresistenz, bedingt durch Gewebehypoxie, diskutiert. Eigene Befunde: Eigene Daten bestaetigen diese Befunde beeindruckend: Eine Anaemie zu Behandlungsbeginn (Haemoglobin <13 g/dl bei Maennern; <12 g/dl bei Frauen) war bei 889 untersuchten Bestrahlungspatienten mit Kopf-Hals-Tumoren hochsignifikant mit unzureichender lokaler Tumorkontrolle assoziiert. Der Bluthaemoglobinwert war dabei ein unabhaengiger Prognosefaktor und mindestens so bedeutend wie Tumorregion, Behandlungsmodalitaet, Resektionsradikalitaet, T- oder N-Stadium. Behandlung: Unter der Vorstellung, die Bestrahlungseffizienz zu verbessern, behandelten wir prospektiv 50 anaemische Bestrahlungspatienten mit Erythropoetin (rhEPO). Darunter stieg der

  3. Workers’ cytokines profiling upon exposure to MWCNT aerosol in occupational settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatkhutdinova, L. M.; Khaliullin, T. O.; Zalyalov, R. R.; Vasilyeva, O. L.; Valeeva, I. Kh; Mustafin, I. G.

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have found that upon pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) animals develop primarily fibrosis and granulomas in lungs. In vitro and in vivo studies also give reason to assume that local exposure could be related to remote effects, including immune system and the endothelium. To investigate the remote effect hypothesis, we have analyzed blood, nasal lavage and induced sputum samples taken from workers in the frame of the Russian epidemiological study on Carbon Nanotubes Exposure and Risk Assessment (CNT-ERA). In serum and nasal lavage no significant differences between exposure and control groups were observed with a high variability to the cytokines content. In the samples of induced sputum from exposed workers the content of IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-a, IL-4, IL-5, IFN-g exceeded the control group values, but after the regression models construction and bootstrap analysis, significant differences were found only for IL-1b. This study could not provide evidences of blood cytokines changes following local cytokine production in airways in workers exposed to MWCNTs. Cytokines variability in serum and nasal lavage may indicate the absence of severe systemic inflammatory response upon the existing occupational exposure to MWCNTs. Other systemic responses (including allergy-like or autoimmune reactions) should be regarded as well.

  4. Cytokines and brain excitability

    OpenAIRE

    Galic, Michael A.; Riazi, Kiarash; Pittman, Quentin J.

    2011-01-01

    Cytokines are molecules secreted by peripheral immune cells, microglia, astrocytes and neurons in the central nervous system. Peripheral or central inflammation is characterized by an upregulation of cytokines and their receptors in the brain. Emerging evidence indicates that pro-inflammatory cytokines modulate brain excitability. Findings from both the clinical literature and from in vivo and in vitro laboratory studies suggest that cytokines can increase seizure susceptibility and may be in...

  5. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  6. Analysis of Human Serum and Whole Blood for Mineral Content by ICP-MS and ICP-OES: Development of a Mineralomics Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, James M.; Young, Daniel J.; Essader, Amal S.; Sumner, Susan J.; Levine, Keith E.

    2014-01-01

    Minerals are inorganic compounds that are essential to the support of a variety of biological functions. Understanding the range and variability of the content of these minerals in biological samples can provide insight into the relationships between mineral content and the health of individuals. In particular, abnormal mineral content may serve as an indicator of illness. The development of robust, reliable analytical methods for the determination of the mineral content of biological samples is essential to developing biological models for understanding the relationship between minerals and illnesses. This manuscript describes a method for the analysis of the mineral content of small volumes of serum and whole blood samples from healthy individuals. Interday and intraday precision for the mineral content of the blood (250 μl) and serum (250 μl) samples was measured for eight essential minerals, sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se) by plasma spectrometric methods and ranged from 0.635 – 10.1% relative standard deviation (RSD) for serum and 0.348 – 5.98% for whole blood. A comparison of the determined ranges for ten serum samples and six whole blood samples provided good agreement with literature reference ranges. The results demonstrate that the digestion and analysis methods can be used to reliably measure the content of these minerals, and potentially to add other minerals. PMID:24917052

  7. Further investigations on the influence of ultraviolet irradiation on blood corpuscles hemoglobin content and differential leucocyte count in the chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of ultraviolet irradiation, applied for one hour, with a relatively high enerqy output of 95.5x103 erg. cm-2. sn-1, on some biological parameters of chicken's blood was determined. At the 24th hour after irradiation erythrocyte count, hemoglobin content and percentages of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils were decreased, but total leucocyte, thrombocyte counts and percentage of pseudoeosinophils were increased, significantly (P< 0,01). No significant changes were obtained in all parameters, at the 24th hour after a second irradiation. There were also found no differences between the values obtained at 24th hour after the second, and at 48th hour after the single irradiation, but all these values had a tendency taward the initial determinations

  8. Detection of Th17-related Cytokines in Peripheral Blood of Patients With Psoriasis Vulgaris%寻常型银屑病患者外周血Th17细胞型因子的检测及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘元林; 李晓鹏; 陈文辉; 杨闰平

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨Th17细胞相关因子在银屑病患者中的表达及意义.[方法]选择寻常型银屑病患者36例和健康体检人员18例,检测并比较银屑病患者和正常者外周血血清中白细胞介素-17(IL-17)、白细胞介素-23(IL-23)及转化生长因子-β(TGF-β) mRNA表达水平.[结果]银屑病患者血清中IL-17及IL-23水平均显著高于正常对照组(P<0.01);银屑病患者外周血PBMC中TGF-β mRNA表达水平显著低于正常对照组(P<0.01).[结论]Th17细胞相关因子在银屑病的免疫发病机理中可能起着重要作用.%[Objective] To explore the expression of Th17-related cytokines in patients with psoriasis and its significance. [Methods]Thirty six cases of psoriasis vulgaris and 18 healthy persons were selected. The expression of IL17, IL-23 and TGF-β mRNA in serum and peripheral blood of patients with psoriasis and normal people were detected and compared. [Results]The levels of IL-17 and IL- 23 in serum of patients with psoriasis were significantly higher than those in normal control group( P <0. 01). The level of TGF-β mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cell(PBMC) of patients with psoriasis was significantly lower than that in normal control group( P <0. 01). [Conclusion]Th17-related cytokines may play an important role in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis.

  9. CD38 Ligation in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Myeloma Patients Induces Release of Protumorigenic IL-6 and Impaired Secretion of IFNγ Cytokines and Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Fedele

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available CD38, a surface receptor that controls signals in immunocompetent cells, is densely expressed by cells of multiple myeloma (MM. The immune system of MM patients appears as functionally impaired, with qualitative and quantitative defects in T cell immune responses. This work answers the issue whether CD38 plays a role in the impairment of T lymphocyte response. To this aim, we analyzed the signals implemented by monoclonal antibodies (mAb ligation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC obtained from MM patients and compared to benign monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS. PBMC from MM both failed to proliferate and secrete IFNγ induced by CD38 ligation while it retained the ability to respond to TCR/CD3. The impaired CD38-dependent proliferative response likely reflects an arrest in the progression of cell cycle, as indicated by the reduced expression of PCNA. CD38 signaling showed an enhanced ability to induce IL-6 secretion. PBMC from MM patients displays a deregulated response possibly due to defects of CD38 activation pathways and CD38 may be functionally involved in the progression of this pathology via the secretion of high levels of IL-6 that protects neoplastic cells from apoptosis.

  10. Alterations in sheep peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and cytokine release by polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in the diet under high ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberti, Maria Giovanna; Albenzio, Marzia; Annicchiarico, Giovanni; Sevi, Agostino; Muscio, Antonio; Caroprese, Mariangela

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation from different sources in the diet of dairy sheep under high ambient temperatures on ex vivo lymphocyte proliferation and inflammatory responses. The experiment was carried out during summer: 32 Comisana ewes were divided into 4 groups of 8. The FS group was supplemented with whole flaxseed, the AG group was supplemented with Ascophyllum nodosum, the FS+AG group was supplemented with a combination of flaxseed and A. nodosum. The fourth group (CON group) was a control and received a diet containing no supplement. The average maximum temperature was around 33°C during wk 2 and 3, whereas the mean temperature never decreased below 26°C. Following 15 d of treatment with respective diets, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from sheep who received a diet supplemented with A. nodosum had impaired cell proliferation responses and IL-6 production after mitogen stimulation compared with PBMC from FS+AG sheep. In addition, PBMC from AG sheep displayed impaired cell proliferation compared with cells from the CON group. The FS+AG cells produced lower levels of IL-10 than CON cells, and higher IL-6 than AG and CON cells. Results demonstrated that the supplementation with PUFA from different sources in a sheep's diet can influence their immunological responses under high ambient temperatures depending on the composition of fatty acid supplementation. In particular, synergistic effects of different PUFA from flaxseed and A. nodosum, simultaneously administrated in the sheep diet, were observed on activation of inflammation response. PMID:25497814

  11. Phthalate Esters Used as Plasticizers in Packed Red Blood Cell Storage Bags May Lead to Progressive Toxin Exposure and the Release of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard T. Rael

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phthalate esters (PE's are plasticizers used to soften PVC-based medical devices. PE's are the most abundant man-made pollutants and increase the risk of developing an allergic respiratory disease or a malignancy. The leaching of PE's in donated packed red blood cells (PRBC during storage was assessed. PRBC transfusion bags containing CPD/AS-1 (ADSOL buffer were analyzed. Samples were collected on storage day 1 and day 42. Two PE's, di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LCMS. Interleukin-8 (IL-8 was measured by standard ELISA techniques. DEHP significantly increased from 34.3 µM (±20.0 SD on day 1 to 433.2 µM (±131.2 SD on day 42, a 12.6-fold increase. Similarly, MEHP significantly increased from 3.7 µM (±2.8 SD on day 1 to 74.0 µM (±19.1 SD on day 42, a 20.2-fold increase. Also, DEHP and MEHP increased the release of IL-8 from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. The transfusion of older units of PRBC could lead to an accumulation of PE's possibly resulting in inflammation and other effects. This accumulation could be exacerbated due to the decreased metabolism of PE's since trauma patients have a lower esterase activity, the enzymes responsible for metabolizing PE's. The effect of oxidative stress caused by PE's is discussed as a potential mechanism for increases in inflammation caused by older units of PRBC.

  12. Effects of Fufang Shexiang injection on ketamine-induced learning and memory impairments and changes of proinflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood of aging rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guocai Li; Weixian Zhao

    2006-01-01

    /kg perday)and Fufang Shexiang(2 and 6 Ml/kg per day)were intraperitoneally injected at 2-6 days respectively.②There were two parts for the Morris water maze test:Place navigation test:It lasted for 6 days.The rats swam freely for 2 minutes before anesthesia on the 1st day(DO):Rats were placed into from a fixed position to locate the platform after 1 hour of drug injection.The latencv to find the platform was recorded manually with the second stop-clock.The shorter the latency.the better the leaming ability.Spatlal probe test:At D5,after the last navigating experiment.the platform was removed away.The rats were placed Into the water facing against the wall to find the platform again.times of swimming through the quadrant which the platform had ever been in 2 minutes would be recorded.The more the times or the longer the duration,the better the memory.③Determinations of IL-6 and TNF-α in peripheral blood:At D5.IL-6 and TNF-α levels in peripheral blood were measured by ELISA.④Statistical analysis:The t test(within groups) or one-way analysis of vadance(between groups)were applied.HAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:①The escape latency;②The times of swimming through the hidden platform.quadrant after it was removed;③The levels IL-6 and TNF-αin penpheral blood.RESUL TS:Ail the 28 rats were involved in the final analysis.①Escape latency:As time prolonged.the latencles in the control group and ketamine +high-dosage Fufang Shexiang group were gradually shortened (p<0.05).The latencies in the ketamine group wore all longer than those in the control group except that on the 3rd day(P<0.05).The latency in the ketamine group on the 4th day was obviously longer than that in the ketamine +high-dosage Fufang Shexiang group [(1.7±0.3),(0.9±0.7)minutes,P<0.05].The Iatencies in the ketamine group on the 2nd to 5th days+low-dosage Fufang Shexiang group were close to those in the control group (P>0.05),whereas that on the 6th day was obviously longer than that in the control group

  13. INFLUENCE OF SELENIUM CONTENT AND OIL SOURCES IN FEED ON CONCENTRATION OF THYROID GLAND HORMONES AND ELECTROLYTE IN BROILER BLOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Kralik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to elaborate the influence of designed mixtures used in broilers fattening on the concentration of electrolytes and thyroid gland hormones in the blood.. The research was carried out on 120 male Ross 308 hybrid broilers. The fattening lasted for 42 days. During the first three weeks of fattening broilers were fed standard starter diet containing 22% crude protein and 13.90 MJ/kg ME. During the last three weeks of fattening, broilers were divided into 6 experimental groups, each fed specially prepared finisher diets (P1=6% sunflower oil+0.0 mg Se/kg of feed, P2=6% linseed oil+0.0 mg Se/kg of feed, P3=6% sunflower oil+0.3 mg Se/kg of feed, P4=6% linseed oil+0.3 mg Se/kg of feed, P5=6% sunflower oil+0.5 mg Se/kg of feed, P6=6% linseed oil+0.5 mg Se/kg of feed. Finisher diet was balanced at 18.02% crude protein and 14.40 MJ/kg ME. It was found out that the type of oil in chicken feed influenced to blood pH (P <0.001, whereas selenium level (P=0.014 in the feed, as well as the oil type and selenium level interaction (P<0.001 influenced the concentration of potassium in the blood. Oil type (P=0.037 influenced the concentration of fT3, which was lower in chickens fed mixtures with addition of linseed oil than in the chickens fed sunflower oil added mixtures. Interaction of selenium content and oil type had influence on differences in concentration of fT4 as well as on the ratio of fT3/fT4, (P<0.001, i.e. P=0.021. The research results indicated that oils supplemented to broiler diets and combined with different organic selenium concentrations affected pH, concentration of some electrolytes and thyroid gland hormones in broiler blood, however, all obtained values were within reference range for poultry.

  14. Decreased expression of microRNA-21 is associated with increased cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of obese type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloom, Hossein; Alizadeh, Samira; Esfahani, Ensieh Nasli; Razi, Farideh; Meshkani, Reza

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of miR-21 in inflammatory responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of type 2 diabetic (T2D) and healthy subjects. 20 healthy and 20 T2D subjects were enrolled in the study. miR-21 expression in PBMCs of the subjects was measured using real-time PCR. IL-6 and TNF-α levels in culture supernatants were quantified using ELISA. miR-21 expression was not significantly different between the diabetic and nondiabetic groups. A downregulation of miR-21 expression was observed in PBMCs of obese subjects in both diabetic and nondiabetic groups. In addition, miR-21 expression was negatively correlated with weight, waist circumference, body mass index, and triglyceride in both the diabetic and nondiabetic groups. Our results also demonstrated that the PBMCs of obese subjects significantly secreted a higher level of IL-6 and TNF-α in comparison with the PBMCs of nonobese subjects. Furthermore, a significant inverse correlation between miR-21 expression and TNF-α and IL-6 production from the PBMCs was observed. These data suggest that miR-21 expression is decreased in PBMCs of obese subjects and reduced expression appears to be associated with increased secreted cytokine level in media of PBMCs of obese subjects. PMID:27370645

  15. Blood Pressure Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Quiz Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents ... About High Blood Pressure / Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications / Blood Pressure Quiz Fall 2011 Issue: Volume 6 Number ...

  16. Alteration of insulin content in thermal and combined radiation-thermal burns and the insulin modulating activity of blood medium-weight molecular peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of thermal and combined radiation thermal burns on insulin content in blood plasma was studied in mice irradiated with 137Cs in 3.4 Gy. Insulin content in blood plasma of experimental animals and patients with thermal burns was determined with the help of radioimmune method. The insulin modulating activity of bolld medium-weight molecular peptides wqas considered. The investigations conducted showed that with the severity of burn in the period of toxemia the level of immunoreactive insulin and medium-weight molecular peptides increased

  17. Intraorgan differences of blood flow, oxygen supply and glycogen content in the multilobular liver of normal and hemorrhagic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, H P; Schywalsky, M

    1992-02-01

    In order to characterize intraorgan differences in blood supply of the rat liver, hepatic blood flow (HBF), surface oxygen tension (sPO2) and glycogen content of the largest and smallest lobi have been determined for normal and hemorrhagic rats (N = 68) in ketamin-xylazine anesthesia. 1. Mean HBF +/- SD of lobus sinister measured 1.07 +/- 0.23 ml/g min (n = 119 determinations, N = 9 rats); HBF of lob. caudatus dexter showed a left-shifted histogram (mean value = 0.77 ml/g.min, median = 0.72 ml/g.min, modul = 0.63 ml/g.min, p less than 0.005). 2. Mean sPO2 +/- SD of lob. sin. measured 23 +/- 6.8 mm Hg (n = 168, N = 16). The histograms of lob. caudat. dext. and sin. were left-shifted (mean value of l.c.d. = 9 mm Hg, median = 4 mm Hg, modul = 0 mm Hg, mean value of l.c.s. = 16 mm Hg, median = 17 mm Hg, modul = 0 mm Hg). Under hemorrhage sPO2 became almost zero in 91% of the measurements. 3. In response to an arterial bolus of fluorescence stained gamma-globulins, spreading of the dye showed a pronounced front and marked periportal area within lob. sin., while an irregular convective front and a much smaller area were detected within both of the lobi caudati. Under hemorrhage, intersinusoidal staining and undefined, irregular contours were observed within all lobes. 4. Compared with lob. sin. preferential glycogen depletion and partial centrilobular necrosis were detected within both of the lob. caudati while under hemorrhage the glycogen stores were empty and severe group necroses have been observed especially within the small lobi. From the data it is concluded that in comparison to lob. sin. an insufficient supply and pronounced vulnerability against hepatic ischemia exists within the small lobi caudati.

  18. Accurate measurement of circulating mitochondrial DNA content from human blood samples using real-time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaz, Saima; Czajka, Anna; Malik, Afshan

    2015-01-01

    We describe a protocol to accurately measure the amount of human mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) in peripheral blood samples which can be modified to quantify MtDNA from other body fluids, human cells, and tissues. This protocol is based on the use of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) to quantify the amount of MtDNA relative to nuclear DNA (designated the Mt/N ratio). In the last decade, there have been increasing numbers of studies describing altered MtDNA or Mt/N in circulation in common nongenetic diseases where mitochondrial dysfunction may play a role (for review see Malik and Czajka, Mitochondrion 13:481-492, 2013). These studies are distinct from those looking at genetic mitochondrial disease and are attempting to identify acquired changes in circulating MtDNA content as an indicator of mitochondrial function. However, the methodology being used is not always specific and reproducible. As more than 95 % of the human mitochondrial genome is duplicated in the human nuclear genome, it is important to avoid co-amplification of nuclear pseudogenes. Furthermore, template preparation protocols can also affect the results because of the size and structural differences between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Here we describe how to (1) prepare DNA from blood samples; (2) pretreat the DNA to prevent dilution bias; (3) prepare dilution standards for absolute quantification using the unique primers human mitochondrial genome forward primer (hMitoF3) and human mitochondrial genome reverse primer(hMitoR3) for the mitochondrial genome, and human nuclear genome forward primer (hB2MF1) and human nuclear genome reverse primer (hB2MR1) primers for the human nuclear genome; (4) carry out qPCR for either relative or absolute quantification from test samples; (5) analyze qPCR data; and (6) calculate the sample size to adequately power studies. The protocol presented here is suitable for high-throughput use.

  19. The Matrigel Cytokine Assay

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Ole Audun Haabeth, Bjarne Bogen & Alexandre Corthay ### Abstract Cytokines represent a diverse group of soluble proteins that play a key role in a number of physiological processes, including regulation of both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Cytokines are generally secreted in small amounts, and are relatively unstable. Therefore, detection and measurement of cytokine local concentrations in a tissue extracellular matrix can be challenging. To investigate cytok...

  20. Cytokine contents and apoptosis in apheresis platelets during storage%单采血小板储存期病变的分子表达和凋亡研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐健; 俞丽; 秦斐; 杨劲; 吕杭军

    2013-01-01

    目的 探索单采血小板储存期内细胞因子变化、血小板活化和凋亡的情况.方法 采用MCS+血细胞分离机采集18份SDP,在标准贮存条件下分别于第1、3、5、7d取样,采用ELISA法检测白介素8(IL-8)、T细胞表达与分泌调控蛋白(regulated upon activation,normal T cell expressed and secreted,RANTES)、CD154 和肿瘤生长因子β1(TGF-β1)、血管内皮细胞生长因子(VEGF)的含量.利用流式细胞仪检测血小板活化及凋亡情况.结果 在储存期间IL-8、CD154、TGF-β1及VEGF含量随时间延长逐渐增高,而RANTES含量无明显变化.在第ld、3d、5d、7d的血小板活化指数分别为42%、74%、115%、113%,在第1d、3d、5d血小板的凋亡率分别为0.77%、0.88%和7.49%.结论 随着单采血小板储存时间延长,部分细胞因子有升高的趋势,而血小板活化和凋亡逐渐增多,提示存在血小板储存损伤.%Objective To investigate the changes of cytokine conten ts,activation and apoptosis of apheresis platelets during storage.Methods Eighteen portions of apheresis platelets were collected by MCS + separators and preserved in standard condition of blood bank.The levels of cytokines such as IL-8,regulated upon activation,normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES),CD154,TGF-β1 and VEGF were detected by ELISA on the 1st day,the 3rd day,the 5th day and the 7th day during storage.Activation and apoptosis of platelets were detected by flow cytometry.Results The results showed that the levels of IL-8,CD154,TGF-β1 and VEGF in apheresis platelets gradually increased with prolonging the time during storage,but the level of RANTES had no significant change.The activation index of platelets was 42%,74%,115%,113% on the 1st day,the 3rd day,the 5th day and the 7th day.Apoptosis rates of platelets were 0.77%,0.88% and 7.49% on the 1st day,the 3rd day and the 5th day.Conclusion All collected apheresis platelets mentioned above express IL-8,CD154,TGF

  1. Effect of dietary Ximenia caffra kernel meal on blood and liver metabolic substrate content and the general clinical biochemistry of Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivandi, E; Moyo, D; Dangarembizi, R; Erlwanger, K

    2016-06-01

    We investigated (at the University of the Witwatersrand: GPS coordinates 26°10' 52.96″S; 28°2' 33.61″E) the effects of substituting soya bean meal (SBM) with Ximenia caffra kernel meal (XCKM) as a dietary protein source on blood and liver metabolic substrates content, serum markers of liver and kidney function and the general clinical biochemistry of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Five diets with similar energy and protein content were formulated (D1-D5) where XCKM replaced SBM on a crude protein basis at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. Forty weanling male SD rats were randomly assigned to diets D1-D5, fed for 37 days and weighed twice weekly. The rats were then fasted overnight, and fasting blood glucose and triglyceride concentrations were determined from tail-vein-drawn blood. Immediately thereafter, the rats were euthanised and blood was collected via cardiac puncture. Serum was used to assay for markers of the general health profile. Livers were removed and weighed, and samples were used to determine lipid and glycogen content. Rats fed D4 (75% substitution level) had significantly lower (p  0.05) fasting blood glucose and cholesterol concentrations, liver glycogen and lipid content. Additionally, it had no effect (p > 0.05) on serum activity/concentration of surrogate markers of liver (alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity and urea, total bilirubin, globulin and albumin concentrations) and kidney (phosphorus, calcium and creatinine concentrations) function and the general clinical biochemistry of the rats. Defatted XCKM could substitute SBM in rat diets without compromising blood glucose and cholesterol homeostasis, liver and kidney function and the general clinical biochemistry of growing male Sprague Dawley rats.

  2. A study on the relationship between smoking and blood inflammatory cytokines as well as atherosclerosis%吸烟与血液炎性因子及动脉硬化关系的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振东; 王宁夫; 黄进宇; 李佩璋

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨长期吸烟对健康中年男性血液炎性因子和动脉硬化的影响。方法纳入健康检查的中年男性吸烟组42人和非吸烟组42人,记录两组动脉硬化危险因子水平;同时检测白介素-6(IL -6)和高敏 C 蛋白(Hs -CRP);应用二维超声测量双侧颈动脉内膜中层厚度(IMT)及斑块情况。结果两组间各动脉硬化危险因子差异均无统计学意义(P >0.05)。吸烟组的各项炎性因子水平与非吸烟组比较,IL -6(1.46±0.27 vs 1.21±0.24)、Hs -CRP (6.57±2.47 vs 3.14±2.07)、白细胞(5.78±0.79 vs 5.25±0.64)和中性粒细胞(3.40±0.45 vs 2.87±0.42)均高于非吸烟组(P 均<0.01);同时,吸烟组的颈动脉 IMT 比非吸烟组厚(1.01±0.18 vs 0.82±0.16,P <0.01),斑块检出率高于非吸烟组(73.81% vs 33.33%,P <0.01),颈动脉狭窄率也高于非吸烟组(19.00% vs 0.00%,P <0.01)。结论长期吸烟不仅导致健康中年男性体内炎性因子增高,而且加重其动脉粥样硬化程度。长期吸烟的健康中年男性是潜在的心血管疾病患者。%Objective To explore the influence of long -term smoking on the level of blood inflammatory cytokines and the degree of atherosclerosis in healthy middle -aged men.Methods A total of 84 middle -aged men who accepted the health examination were divided into smoking group and non -smoking group.The risk factors of atherosclerosis,such as age,body mass index (BMI),systolic blood pressure (SBP),diastolic blood pressure (DBP),fasting blood glucose (GLU),total cholesterol (TC),low density lipoprotein (LDL),high density lipoprotein (HDL)and triglyceride (TG) were recorded.The white blood cell (WBC)level and neutrophil cell (NC)level were also recorded.The interleukin -6 (IL -6)concentration was assayed by using enzyme -linked immunosorbent double antibody method and

  3. [Peculiarities of cytokine status in patients with vitiligo and stress in anamnesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiskarishvili, N V; Katsitadze, A; Tsiskarishvili, N I; Chitanava, L

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the content of some proinflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6) in the serum of patients with vitiligo and stress in anamnesis. Cytokine levels in serum were measured in 50 patients with vitiligo (20 men and 30 women aged from 18 to 65 years old.) All the patients were divided according to anamnesis (27 patients with stress in anamnesis and 23 patients, where the onset of the disease was not preceded by stress). Patients of both groups were similar in terms of shape (according to T. Fitzpatrick classification) and in terms of the dermatosis stages. Concomitant autoimmune or inflammatory diseases of the skin in our vitiligo patients were not observed. The cytokines in the blood serum of vitiligo patients were determined by ELISA using the corresponding monoclonal antibodies. Student's t-test was used for evaluation of statistical significance of received results (p vitiligo, in which stress was not preceded dermatosis, was significantly higher than that in healthy individuals (25,5 ± 7,6 vs 10,5 ± 3,6 pg/ml, p vitiligo patients was a similar to changes in IL-2 content, and the most significant this indicator was in patients with generalized and progressive stage of the disease. Data on increased concentrations of IL-6 agree with the majority of studies conducted earlier. For a complete analysis of our results on the reduction of the cytokines (IL-2, IL-6) content in patients with a stress in anamnesis, that will allow to identify the most effective ways to treat patients with this pathology (including their cytokine status), further research is necessary.

  4. [Cytokines and osteogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Makoto; Ozono, Keiichi

    2014-06-01

    Many cytokines associate with proliferation, differentiation and activation of osteoblasts which have an important role in osteogenesis. TGF-β, BMP, IGF, FGF, Hedgehog, Notch, IL and WNT signaling pathways and their inhibitors have been revealed to correlate to osteogenesis, and those gene mutations have been shown to cause various bone disorders. It has been suggested that there are common pathways or crosstalk in these cytokine signaling each other, but mechanism of their complicated regulation on osteogenesis has been unclear. It was expected that the knowledge about these cytokines will apply to clinical therapies of bone diseases. PMID:24870835

  5. Cytokines in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj; Vedel Kessing, Lars

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current research and hypothesis regarding the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder suggests the involvement of immune system dysfunction that is possibly related to disease activity. Our objective was to systematically review evidence of cytokine alterations in bipolar disorder according...... to affective state. METHODS: We conducted a systemtic review of studies measuring endogenous cytokine concentrations in patients with bipolar disorder and a meta-analysis, reporting results according to the PRISMA statement. RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included, comprising 556 bipolar disorder patients...

  6. Amniotic fluid inflammatory cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Grove, Jakob;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy.......The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy....

  7. Recombinant Cytokines from Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Patrycja Redkiewicz; Anna Góra-Sochacka; Tomas Vaněk; Agnieszka Sirko

    2011-01-01

    Plant-based platforms have been successfully applied for the last two decades for the efficient production of pharmaceutical proteins. The number of commercialized products biomanufactured in plants is, however, rather discouraging. Cytokines are small glycosylated polypeptides used in the treatment of cancer, immune disorders and various other related diseases. Because the clinical use of cytokines is limited by high production costs they are good candidates for plant-made pharmaceuticals. S...

  8. Autotransfusion of blood contaminated by enteric contents: a potentially life-saving measure in the massively hemorrhaging trauma patient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberlake, G A; McSwain, N E

    1988-06-01

    The role of autotransfusion of shed blood is well established in thoracic, abdominal, vascular, and orthopedic elective surgery. When hollow viscera or infected organs are uninvolved, autotransfusion is also well accepted in trauma surgery. Less clear is whether shed blood from an injury violating hollow organs in the abdomen can be used safely in the trauma patient. We retrospectively identified 11 patients with penetrating thoracoabdominal trauma who had received enteric contaminated shed blood, processed by the Haemonetics Cell Saver, and reviewed their records for infectious morbidity or mortality. All patients received parenteral broad-spectrum antibiotics. Three patients developed infectious wound complications, one probably nosocomial from the intensive care unit. No patient developed intra-abdominal sepsis and no deaths were reported. Based on the results of this preliminary result, it may be appropriate to use autotransfusion of shed blood in trauma patients with gastrointestinal injuries, if banked blood is not readily available and the patients receive perioperative broad-spectrum antibiotics.

  9. Information content of the space-frequency filtering of blood plasma layers laser images in the diagnosis of pathological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, A. G.; Boychuk, T. M.; Mincer, O. P.; Bodnar, G. B.; Kushnerick, L. Ya.; Savich, V. O.

    2013-12-01

    The bases of method of the space-frequency of the filtering phase allocation of blood plasma pellicle are given here. The model of the optical-anisotropic properties of the albumen chain of blood plasma pellicle with regard to linear and circular double refraction of albumen and globulin crystals is proposed. Comparative researches of the effectiveness of methods of the direct polarized mapping of the azimuth images of blood plasma pcllicle layers and space-frequency polarimetry of the laser radiation transformed by divaricate and holelikc optical-anisotropic chains of blood plasma pellicles were held. On the basis of the complex statistic, correlative and fracta.1 analysis of the filtered frcquencydimensional polarizing azimuth maps of the blood plasma pellicles structure a set of criteria of the change of the double refraction of the albumen chains caused by the prostate cancer was traced and proved.

  10. Quantitative analysis of cytokine-induced vascular toxicity and vascular leak in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwan, Yetty Y; Feng, Yi; Gach, H Michael; Symanowski, James T; McGregor, John R; Veni, Gopalkrishna; Schabel, Matthias; Samlowski, Wolfram E

    2009-09-30

    A storm of inflammatory cytokines is released during treatment with pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-2 (IL-2), closely approximating changes initially observed during sepsis. These signals induce profound changes in neurologic function and cognition. Little is known about the mechanisms involved. We evaluated a number of experimental methods to quantify changes in brain blood vessel integrity in a well-characterized IL-2 treatment mouse model. Measurement of wet versus dry weight and direct measurement of small molecule accumulation (e.g. [(3)H]-H(2)O, sodium fluorescein) were not sensitive or reliable enough to detect small changes in mouse brain vascular permeability. Estimation of brain water content using proton density magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements using a 7T mouse MRI system was sensitive to 1-2% changes in brain water content, but was difficult to reproduce in replicate experiments. Successful techniques included use of immunohistochemistry using specific endothelial markers to identify vasodilation in carefully matched regions of brain parenchyma and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI. Both techniques indicated that IL-2 treatment induced vasodilation of the brain blood vessels. DCE MRI further showed a 2-fold increase in the brain blood vessel permeability to gadolinium in IL-2 treated mice compared to controls. Both immunohistochemistry and DCE MRI data suggested that IL-2 induced toxicity in the brain results from vasodilation of the brain blood vessels and increased microvascular permeability, resulting in perivascular edema. These experimental techniques provide us with the tools to further characterize the mechanism responsible for cytokine-induced neuropsychiatric toxicity.

  11. Health status of birds fed diets containing three differently processed discarded vegetable-bovine blood-rumen content mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekunseitan, D A; Balogun, O O; Sogunle, O M; Yusuf, A O; Ayoola, A A; Egbeyale, L T; Adeyemi, O A; Allison, I B; Iyanda, A I

    2013-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding three differently processed mixtures on health status of broilers. A total of 1080 day-old Marshal broilers were fed; discarded vegetable-fresh bovine blood-fresh rumen digesta (P1), discarded vegetable-ensiled bovine blood-fresh rumen digesta (P2) and discarded vegetable-fresh bovine blood-ensiled rumen digesta (P3) at three levels of inclusion (0, 3 and 6%). Data on blood parameters was taken and were subjected to 3 x 3 factorial arrangements in a completely randomized design. Birds fed P1 had least values (p cell volume, Haemoglobin, White blood cell and Red blood cell values. However, those fed at 0% level of inclusion recorded the highest albumin value. At finisher phase, birds fed P2 and P3 had the highest glucose, uric acid and creatinine values. 6% level of inclusion significantly (p vegetable-fresh bovine blood-ensiled rumen digesta (P3) up to 6% level of inclusion.

  12. The influence of atmospheric chromium on selenium content and glutathione peroxidase activity in blood of tannery workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromadzińska, J; Wasowicz, W; Sklodowska, M; Bulikowski, W; Rydzyński, K

    1996-01-01

    The concentration of selenium and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were determined in blood of 34 workers of a tannery in Gniezno, Poland, who worked in an area containing chromium compounds. Fourteen workers were exposed to chromium compounds at concentrations of 0.11 +/- 0.07 mg Cr/m3 (mean +/- SD) and 20 at concentrations 5-10 times lower i.e., 0.022 +/- 0.009 mg Cr/m3. Excretion of Se in urine was measured in all of the investigated workers. Decreased Se concentration in whole blood and blood plasma and elevated TBARS concentration in blood plasma were found in the whole group of investigated tanners as compared to controls. Tanners working in areas with high chromium concentrations had a statistically significant decrease in Se concentration in blood and plasma and decreased urinary excretion of the microelement as compared with other tanners. TBARS concentration was 2.5 times lower in workers exposed to higher chromium concentrations (p < 0.005) than in other workers. Positive linear correlations were found between the concentration of Se in blood and the amount of the element excreted in urine (r = 0.48; p < 0.005), the concentration of Se in blood plasma and in urine (r = 0.46; p < 0.01), and the concentration of Se in blood and erythrocyte GSH-Px activity (r = 0.42; p < 0.02). The observed differences between Se concentration in blood and urine of tannery workers and people who are not employed in the industry may indicate a kind of specific adaptation of the body to the working environment containing chromium compounds. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9118872

  13. 化瘀温胆汤对代谢综合征大鼠血脂、血压及脂肪细胞因子的干预作用%Effects of Huayu Wendan Decoction on Blood Pressure, Blood lipid and Adipose Cell Cytokine of Metabolic Sydrome Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福利; 曹昧; 马伯艳; 张洋; 宋琳

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨化瘀温胆汤对代谢综合征大鼠血压、血脂异常的治疗作用及部分机制.方法:健康雄性SD大鼠高温高湿环境下喂饲高脂高糖高盐饮食12周,复制大鼠代谢综合征模型.通过检测血压、血清胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)、低密度脂蛋白(LDL-C)、高密度脂蛋白(HDL -C),探讨化瘀温胆汤灌胃给药4周后对模型大鼠血压、血脂异常的改善作用.检测脂联素、瘦素、肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF -α)、白介素-6(IL -6)变化情况,探讨该方治疗代谢综合征的部分机制.结果:化瘀温胆汤可明显降低模型大鼠的血清TC、TG、LDL -C水平,升高HDL -C,与模型对照组比较有显著性差异(P<0.01);可降低模型大鼠血压,与模型对照组比较有显著性差异(P<0.01).化瘀温胆汤可使脂联素水平明显升高,与模型对照组比较有显著性差异(P<0.01);瘦素水平、TNF -α、IL -6水平均有不同程度的降低,与模型对照组比较均具有显著性差异(P<0.01).结论:化瘀温胆汤对代谢综合征模型大鼠血压、血脂异常有较好的疗效,其机制可能与其调节脂联素、瘦素、TNF -o、IL -6水平有关.%Objectives: To observe the therapeutic effects of HuaYu Wendan decoction on abnormal blood pressure and blood lipids of laboratory metabolic syndrome (MS) rats and its partial mechanism. Methods; To render rats by feeding high - lipid, high - glucose, high - salt diet in the high temperature and high humidity environment and then treated them with HuaYu Wendan decoction for four weeks. Then we observed the effects of the decoction on blood pressure, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein after four weeks'administration. We studied the mechanism through detecting several adipose cell cytokines such as adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor -alpha (TNF -a) and interleukin 6(IL - 6 ) . Results: Huayu Wendan decoction had functions of decreasing

  14. Effects of Bolus and Continuous Nasogastric Feeding on Gastric Emptying, Small Bowel Water Content, Superior Mesenteric Artery Blood Flow, and Plasma Hormone Concentrations in Healthy Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Abeed H.; Murray, Kathryn; Hoad, Caroline L; Costigan, Carolyn; Marciani, Luca; MacDonald, Ian A.; Bowling, Timothy E.; Lobo, Dileep N

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to demonstrate the effect of continuous or bolus nasogastric feeding on gastric emptying, small bowel water content, and splanchnic blood flow measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the context of changes in plasma gastrointestinal hormone secretion. Background: Nasogastric/nasoenteral tube feeding is often complicated by diarrhea but the contribution of feeding strategy to the etiology is unclear. Methods: Twelve healthy adult male participants who underwent naso...

  15. Urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins increases in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats without decreases in liver or blood vitamin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Eri; Sano, Mitsue; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    It is thought that the contents of water-soluble vitamins in the body are generally low in diabetic patients because large amounts of vitamins are excreted into urine. However, this hypothesis has not been confirmed. To investigate this hypothesis, diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats (6 wk old) by streptozotocin treatment, and they were then given diets containing low, medium or sufficient vitamins for 70 d. The contents of 6 kinds of B-group vitamins, namely vitamin B₁, vitamin B₂, vitamin B₆, vitamin B₁₂, folate and biotin, were determined in the urine, blood and liver. No basic differences among the dietary vitamin contents were observed. The urinary excretion of vitamins was higher in diabetic rats than in control rats. The blood concentrations of vitamin B₁₂ and folate were lowered by diabetes, while, those of vitamin B₁, vitamin B₂, vitamin B₆, and biotin were not. All liver concentrations of vitamins were increased in diabetic rats above those in control rats. These results showed that streptozotocin-induced diabetes increased urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins, though their blood and liver concentrations were essentially maintained in the rats.

  16. EFFECTS OF HEAT STRESS ON BLOOD ACID-BASE BALANCE AND MINERAL CONTENT IN GUINEA FOWLS WHEN DRINKING WATER TREATED WITH MAGNETIC FIELD WAS USED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata GŁOWIŃSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of 24-hour heat stress on blood acid-base balance parameters and mineral content in guinea fowls when drinking water treated with magnetic field was used. The maximum environmental temperature at the end of the present experiment was 32oC. The relative humidity was maintained at 55% (±2. Blood samples were collected from birds three times: in the 1st, 12th and 24th hour of stress. Exposure to heat stress significantly increased blood bicarbonate ion concentration (HCO3 -, content of buffer alkali (BB and decreased shortage of alkali (BE but only in the 12th hour of stress. In the level of oxygen pressure (pO2 and percentage of oxygen content (O2sat in the 12th and 24th hour of the experiment statistically high significant decrease occurred. In consequence of high environmental temperature the statistically significant decrease of sodium was found. No changes in the level of potassium and chlorine ions in guinea fowls watered magnetized water occurred.

  17. Effect of Spirulina Platensis Polysaccharide on Hematopoietic Recovery and Related Cytokines in Mice with Transplanted Tumor Treated by Chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓梅; 张洪泉

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of Spirulina platensis polysaccharide (SPP) on hematopoietic recovery and related cytokines in mice with transplanted tumor after chemotherapy. Methods:Mouse model of transplanted solid tumor was established and treated with chemotherapy. Peripheral blood cells, bone marrow nucleated cells, and colony forming unit-spleen (CFU-S) were counted; the content of DNA in bone marrow was inspected by ultraviolet spectrophotometer; serum content of cytokines, interleukin (IL)1, IL-3, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined by double antibody sandwich ELISA.Results:Cyclophosphamide (CTX) could induce evident myelosuppression, manifested as decrease of peripheral blood cells, bone marrow nucleated cell and DNA, and the CFU-S number. SPP could significantly ameliorate the myelosuppression induced by CTX without reducing anti-tumor effect of CTX. In addition, it could also increase the contents of IL-1, IL-3, GM-CSF, TNF-α in serum. Conclusion:SPP can probably accelerate the hematopoietic recovery in mice after chemotherapy through promoting endogenous secretion of cytokines.

  18. Study on the therapeutic effect of cytokine on acute radiation syndrome induced by 60Co γ ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To examine the therapeutic effect of combined administration of rhIL-11 and rhG-CSF on acute radiation syndrome induced by 60Coγ ray exposure in beagles. Methods: Sixteen beagles were randomly divided into the control (n=5), symptomatic treatment group (n=5) and cytokine treatment group (n=6). All the beagles in the three groups were exposed to the whole-body irradiation of 60Co γ ray at a dose of 4.5 Gy. The animals in the second group accepted active symptomatic treatment. The animals in the cytokine treatment group were sub-cutaneously administered rhIL -11 and rhG -CSF besides active symptomatic treatment. Hemogram of peripheral blood, pristine apoptosis and necrosis ratio of nucleated cells, the content of IL-2 and IFN-γ in plasma and formation of bone marrow were used to evaluate the therapeutic effect. Results: In the cytokine treatment group, the animal' survival rate 45 days after exposure was increased and hemogram of peripheral blood was improved significantly. The rate of pristine apoptosis and necrosis of nucleated cell declined obviously. Early, the content of both IL-2 and IFN-γ in plasma was up significantly, then the content of IL-2 rapidly descended, but that of IFN-γ was relatively stable. Conclusion: The combined administration of rhIL-11 and rhG-CSF significantly improved the recovery of hematopoietic and immunological function. (authors)

  19. Induction of inflammatory cytokines by cartilage extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merly, Liza; Simjee, Shabana; Smith, Sylvia L

    2007-03-01

    Shark cartilage extracts were examined for induction of cytokines and chemokines in human peripheral blood leukocytes. Primary leukocyte cultures were exposed to a variety of aqueous and organic extracts prepared from several commercial brands of shark cartilage. From all commercial sources of shark cartilage tested the acid extracts induced higher levels of TNFalpha than other extracts. Different commercial brands of shark cartilage varied significantly in cytokine-inducing activity. TNFalpha induction was seen as early as 4 h and IFNgamma at detectable levels for up to four days. Shark cartilage extracts did not induce physiologically significant levels of IL-4. Results suggest that shark cartilage, preferentially, induces Th1 type inflammatory cytokines. When compared to bovine cartilage extract, collagen, and chondroitin sulfate, shark cartilage induced significantly higher levels of TNFalpha. Treatment with digestive proteases (trypsin and chymotrypsin) reduced the cytokine induction response by 80%, suggesting that the active component(s) in cartilage extracts is proteinaceous. The induction of Th1 type cytokine response in leukocytes is a significant finding since shark cartilage, taken as a dietary supplement for a variety of chronic degenerative diseases, would be contraindicated in cases where the underlying pathology of the chronic condition is caused by inflammation. PMID:17276897

  20. Censored correlated cytokine concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Andreas; Benn, Christine Stabell; Jørgensen, Mathias J;

    2013-01-01

    Interest in cytokines as markers for the function of the immune system is increasing. Methods quantifying cytokine concentrations are often subject to detection limits, which lead to non-detectable observations and censored distributions. When distributions are skewed, geometric mean ratios (GMRs...... for both homogeneous and inhomogeneous normal distributions. For skewed mixture and heavy-tailed distributions, they perform reasonably well if censoring is less than 30%. We recommend these methods to estimate GMRRs. At least one of the methods is available in Stata, R or SAS....

  1. Serum cytokine levels in Kleine-Levin syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek; Rico, Thomas; Lin, Ling;

    2015-01-01

    unknown. The objective of this study was to determine serum cytokine levels in patients with KLS during and between episodes. PATIENTS/METHODS: Fifty-two typical KLS patients were included in the study of whom 17 patients donated blood samples both during and between episodes. Blood samples were collected...... patients and age- and gender matched healthy controls (n = 8/group) whose blood samples were all collected and processed at the same day; asymptomatic KLS patients had significantly higher levels of serum sVCAM1 cytokine compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that KLS episodes are not...

  2. Lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells : Intracellular localization of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta detected with a three-color immunofluorescence technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBont, ESJM; Niemarkt, AE; Tamminga, RYJ; Kimpen, JLL; Kamps, WA; deLeij, LHMF

    1996-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce monocytes to produce various cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta). In the present study, the kinetics of both intracellular and extra cellular accumulation of TNF alpha and IL-1 beta in LPS stimulated mononuc

  3. Cellular sources of dysregulated cytokines in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romme Christensen, Jeppe; Börnsen, Lars; Hesse, Dan;

    2012-01-01

    Numerous cytokines are implicated in the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), but studies are often limited to whole blood (WB) or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), thereby omitting important information about the cellular origin of the cytokines. Knowledge about the relation...

  4. Impaired production of cytokines is an independent predictor of mortality in HIV-1-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Gerstoft, Jan; Pedersen, Bente K;

    2003-01-01

    With regard to the natural history of HIV-1 infection this study investigated whether whole-blood culture cytokine production was associated with mortality in HIV-1-infected patients.......With regard to the natural history of HIV-1 infection this study investigated whether whole-blood culture cytokine production was associated with mortality in HIV-1-infected patients....

  5. [Changes in the contents of phosphoinositides in formed elements of blood and endometrial tissue in patients with hyperplastic processes and cancer of the endometrium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damirov, M M; Kulakov, V I; Sliusar', N N; Bakuleva, L P

    1995-01-01

    The levels of phosphoinositides were measured in blood macrophages, platelets, lymphocytes, granulocytes, neutrophils, and red cells, as well as in endometrial tissue of 175 patients with glandular hyperplasia of the endometrium, atypical hyperplasia, endometrial polyps and cancer. A reliable reduction of the content of phosphatidyl inositides and phosphatidyl inositide-S-phosphates was observed in all formed elements of the blood, the most marked decrease being observed in endometrial cancer. On the contrary, the content of phosphatidyl inositide-4-phosphates and phosphatidyl inositide-4.5-diphosphates in the macrophages, lymphocytes, and granulocytes was reliably increased in the patients as against healthy women. The process of phosphatidylinositide phosphorylation run an absolutely different course in pathologically altered endometrial tissue than in comparison with that in blood cells. A new phosphatidyl inositide-signal mechanism was revealed, which is unrelated to inositol-1.4.5-triphosphate, as a result of which the potentiality of appearance of new secondary messengers actively participating in cell growth increases. PMID:7485761

  6. Graves病患者外周血中Th17细胞及相关细胞因子的表达%Expression of Th17 cells and related cytokines in peripheral blood of patients with Graves′disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红林; 邓之奎; 郑云会; 刘艳秋; 刘小宁; 杨士军; 陆卫军; 高美华

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究Graves病患者外周血中Th17细胞及IL-17、IL-23的表达水平并探讨其临床意义。方法:用流式细胞仪检测29例Graves病患者治疗前后( GD组,GD缓解组)和29名健康对照者( NC组)外周血PBMC中CD4+IL-17+T细胞比例,用ELISA法检测血清中IL-17和IL-23浓度,用电化学发光法检测血清游离三碘甲状腺原氨酸( FT3)、游离甲状腺素(FT4)、促甲状腺激素(TSH)水平,用放射受体分析法测定抗促甲状腺激素受体抗体(TrAb)水平。结果:3组之间年龄、性别差异均无统计学意义( F=0.0075,P>0.05;χ2=0.4213,P>0.05)。 GD组和GD缓解组Th17比例、IL-17、IL-23的水平显著高于NC组,差异有统计学意义( P均<0.05)。 GD缓解组的Th17比例、IL-23浓度显著低于GD组,但GD缓解组IL-17浓度与GD组的差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。 Th17比例、IL-17、IL-23与FT3、FT4、TrAb均呈正相关( r值依次为:0.5882、0.3372、0.3710;0.5496、0.2875、0.3427;0.3610、0.4208、0.3308;P均<0.05)。 Th17比例、IL-17、IL-23与TSH均呈负相关( r值依次为-0.3197、-0.4728、-0.4282;P均<0.05)。结论:Th17细胞及其相关细胞因子IL-17、IL-23在GD患者外周血中均高表达;并与GD患者的甲功4项指标具有不同程度的相关性。 Th17细胞及相关细胞因子IL-17、IL-23能够作为GD的生物学标记物。%Objective:To explore the proportions of Th17 cells in the peripheral blood and levels of IL-17,IL-23 in the serum of patients with Graves′disease ( GD ) and their clinical significance.Methods: We studied 29 patients with GD ( GD group ) , and reevaluated the GD group after therapy ( euthyroid GD group ).29 gender-and age-matched volunteers were selected as the normal control ( NC group).The proportions of Th17 cells were investigated by flow cytometry.The levels of IL-23,IL-17 in the serums were measured by ELISA

  7. [Effect of dalargin on the content of endorphins, leucine-enkephalin ACTH and corticosterone of the blood of stressed rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkov, A I; Polonskiĭ, V M; Vinogradov, V A; Demina, D G; Smagin, V G

    1985-12-01

    Stress caused by acute cysteamine duodenal ulcer was induced in Wistar male rats. All the endogenous opioides under study were involved in the stress-reaction mechanism. Protective dalargin (synthetic enkephalin analogue) administration revealed a tendency towards normalization of endorphin, L-enkephalin and ACTH blood levels.

  8. Cytokines in Sjogren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Roescher; P.P. Tak; G.G. Illei

    2009-01-01

    Cytokines play a central role in the regulation of immunity and are often found to be deregulated in autoimmune diseases. Sjogren's syndrome is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation and loss of secretory function of the salivary and lachrymal glands. This review highlights the c

  9. Cytokines and antitumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ludmila; Pawelec, Graham

    2003-06-01

    Currently, the notion of immunosurveillance against tumors is enjoying something of a renaissance. Even if we still refuse to accept that tumors arising in the normal host are unable to trigger an immune response because of the lack of initiation ("danger") signals, there is no doubt that the immune system can be manipulated experimentally and by implication therapeutically to exert anti-tumor effects. For this activity to be successful, the appropriate cytokine milieu has to be provided, making cytokine manipulation central to immunotherapy. On the other hand, the major hurdle currently preventing successful immunotherapy is the ability of tumors to evolve resistant variants under the pressure of immune selection. Here, too, the cytokine milieu plays an essential role. The purpose of this brief review is to consider the current status of the application of cytokines in facilitating antitumor immunity, as well their role in inhibiting responses to tumors. Clearly, encouraging the former but preventing the latter will be the key to the effective clinical application of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:12779349

  10. Prerequisites for cytokine measurements in clinical trials with multiplex immunoassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijkers Ger T

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing knowledge about cellular interactions in the immune system, including the central role of cytokine networks, has lead to new treatments using monoclonal antibodies that block specific components of the immune system. Systemic cytokine concentrations can serve as surrogate outcome parameters of these interventions to study inflammatory pathways operative in patients in vivo. This is now possible due to novel technologies such as multiplex immunoassays (MIA that allows detection of multiple cytokines in a single sample. However, apparently trivial underappreciated processes, (sample handling and storage, interference of endogenous plasma proteins can greatly impact the reliability and reproducibility of cytokine detection. Therefore we set out to investigate several processes that might impact cytokine profiles such as blood collecting tubes, duration of storage, and number of freeze thawing cycles. Results Since under physiological conditions cytokine concentrations normally are low or undetectable we spiked cytokines in the various plasma and serum samples. Overall recoveries ranged between 80-120%. Long time storage showed cytokines are stable for a period up to 2 years of storage at -80°C. After 4 years several cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-15 and CXCL8 degraded up to 75% or less of baseline values. Furthermore we show that only 2 out of 15 cytokines remained stable after several freeze-thawing cycles. We also demonstrate implementation of an internal control for multiplex cytokine immunoassays. Conclusion All together we show parameters which are essential for measurement of cytokines in the context of clinical trials.

  11. 384-Well Multiplexed Luminex Cytokine Assays for Lead Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Huaping; Panemangalore, Reshma; Yarde, Melissa; Zhang, Litao; Cvijic, Mary Ellen

    2016-07-01

    Cytokines serve as a major mechanism of communication between immune cells and are the functional molecules at the end of immune pathways. Abnormalities in cytokines are involved in a wide variety of diseases, including chronic inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Cytokines are not only direct targets of therapeutics but also important biomarkers for assessing drug efficacy and safety. Traditionally, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were most popular for identifying and quantifying cytokines. However, ELISA is expensive, labor intensive, and low throughput. Here, we report the development of a miniaturized Luminex (Austin, TX) assay platform to establish a panel of high-throughput, multiplexed assays for measuring cytokines in human whole blood. The miniaturized 384-well Luminex assay uses animal studies and patient samples for translational research. PMID:27095819

  12. Influence of different histidine sources and zinc supplementation of broiler diets on dipeptide content and antioxidant status of blood and meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeć, W; Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The objective of this study was to investigate how a diet containing spray-dried blood cells (SDBC) (4%) with or without zinc (Zn) would affect the concentration of two histidine heterodipeptides and the antioxidant status of broiler blood and breast muscles. 2. The study was carried out on 920 male Flex chickens randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: I - control, II - diet I with SDBC, III - diet I with SDBC and supplemented with Zn and IV - diet I supplemented with L-histidine. Birds were raised on floor littered with wood shavings, given free access to water and fed ad libitum. Performance indices were measured on d 1, 21 and 42. 3. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was analysed in plasma, erythrocytes and muscle tissue. The total antioxidant capacity of plasma and breast muscles was measured by 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, as well as by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Carnosine/anserine content of meat and plasma were determined using HPLC. Diets and breast muscles were analysed for amino acid profile and selected microelement content. 4. Histidine supplementation of the diet increased glutathione peroxidase activity in plasma and superoxide dismutase activity in erythrocytes. Moreover, the addition of SDBC or pure histidine in the diet increased histidine dipeptide content and activated enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems in chicken blood and muscles. However, it led to lower growth performance indices. 5. The enrichment of broiler diets with Zn increased the antioxidant potential and the activity of superoxide dismutase in plasma, which was independent of the histidine dipeptide concentration. Zn supplementation combined with SDBC in a broiler diet led to the increase of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity, but it did not affect the radical

  13. Evaluation of the Effect of Low Dietary Fermentable Carbohydrate Content on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, and Meat Quality in Finishing Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, S. M.; Hwang, J H; Kim, I. H.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 96 pigs (49.23±3.20 kg) were used in an 11 wk growth trial to evaluate the effect of fermentable carbohydrate (FC) content on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrient, blood profile, and meat quality. The dietary treatments were: i) negative control (NC), basal diet, ii) positive control (PC), NC+antibiotics (positive control diet with 5 ppm flavomycin), iii) PCL, PC-13% lower FC, and iv) NCL, NC-13% lower FC. The growth performance (average daily g...

  14. Regulatory effects of electro-acupuncture at Zusanli on ir-SP content in rat pituitary gland and peripheral blood and their immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Gao; Yu Xin Huang; Qin Li Wang; Hong Chen; Da Yong Song

    2000-01-01

    It has been reported in many studies that electroacupuncture (EA) can positively regulate erythrocytic immunity and T-lymphocytic subgroups[1-8].Nevertheless, its mechanism remains to be explored. In the present study, a multi-group, multi-stepped and multiindexed observation was conducted on the effects of EA on erythyrocytic immunity and T-lymphocytic subgroups. A simultaneous assay of the changes in immunoreactivesubstance-P (ir-SP) content in the pituitary gland and peripheral blood was also carried out. The objective of the study was to investigate the regulatory effects of the immune system and their possible mechanism in the treatment of relevant diseases with EA.

  15. Effect of Fermented Chlorella Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics, Fecal Microbial and Fecal Noxious Gas Content in Growing Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, L.; Lim, S. U.; Kim, I. H.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 96 growing pigs ((Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc; BW = 26.58±1.41 kg) were used in a 6-wk feeding trail to evaluate the effects of fermented chlorella (FC) supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, fecal microbial and fecal noxious gas content in growing pigs. Pigs were randomly allotted into 1 of 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens (2 barrows and 2 gilts) per treatment. Dietary treatments were: i) negative control (NC), basal diet (wit...

  16. Aspergillus fumigatus Conidial Melanin Modulates Host Cytokine Response

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Louis; Netea, Mihai; SUGUI, JANYCE; Vonk, Alieke; van de Sande, Wendy; Warris, Adilia; Kwon-Chung, Kyung; Jan Kullberg, Bart

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMelanin biopigments have been linked to fungal virulence. Aspergillus fumigatus conidia are melanised and are weakly immunogenic. We show that melanin pigments on the surface of resting Aspergillus fumigatus conidia may serve to mask pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)-induced cytokine response. The albino conidia induced significantly more proinflammatory cytokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), as compared to melanised wild-type conidia. Blocking ...

  17. Effect of selective phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor,rolipram, on cytokine and gelatinase B (MMP-9) release in the whole blood from adult patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JouneauSTEPHANE; BelleguicCHANTAL; EpinceALEXANDRAD; BrinchaultORAZIELLA; DesruesBENOIT; CamusCHRISTOPHE; MichelROUSSEY; LagenteVINCENT; CorinneAEMartin-CHOULY

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Inflammation plays a critical role in lung disease progression in cystic fibrosis being able to be associated with the development of tissue remodeling. These processes are mainly due to pro-inflammatory cytokines release and to an imbalance between proteases and antiproteases involving matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors, by elevating intracellular cAMP, are known to be potent inhibitors of

  18. Autophagy and cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, James

    2011-11-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved homoeostatic mechanism for the lysosomal degradation of cytosolic constituents, including long-lived macromolecules, organelles and intracellular pathogens. Autophagosomes are formed in response to a number of environmental stimuli, including amino acid deprivation, but also by both host- and pathogen-derived molecules, including toll-like receptor ligands and cytokines. In particular, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-2, IL-6 and TGF-β have been shown to induce autophagy, while IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 are inhibitory. Moreover, autophagy can itself regulate the production and secretion of cytokines, including IL-1, IL-18, TNF-α, and Type I IFN. This review discusses the potentially pivotal roles of autophagy in the regulation of inflammation and the coordination of innate and adaptive immune responses.

  19. Plant cytokine or phytocytokine

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Li

    2012-01-01

    Peptide hormones play an important role in plant growth and development. Some of them are secreted by stem cells and also regulate plant immunity through cell-cell communication and reprogramming the expression of immune related genes, such as CLAVATA3p (CLV3p) and phytosulfokine (PSK). These peptides play similar roles as cytokines in plant innate immunity. As explosive progress of plant omics, more and more such functional peptides will be discovered. I recommend that they should be named a...

  20. Selenite Effect on the Content of Mercury in Chicken Blood and Tissue%硒对雏鸡血液及组织汞含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武瑞; 仝宗喜; 杨爽; 王伟; 康世良

    2001-01-01

    选用雏鸡作实验动物,采用分组对比的方法,通过测定血液、羽毛、粪便和组织中汞、硒含量,研究硒对雏鸡血液及组织汞含量的影响,进而探讨硒与汞的拮抗机理。实验结果表明:汞在鸡体内的分布具有较强的选择性,主要蓄积于肝脏和肾脏,其含量分布为肾脏>肝脏>大脑>心脏>肌肉>全血。血液和组织中汞含量相关回归分析表明,血汞不能反映体内汞负荷,但可粗略地反映近期汞摄入水平;肝脏和肾脏汞含量及其动态变化可较好地反映体内的汞负荷;毛汞可反映动物生长期体内吸收的汞量;粪汞含量升高可诊断为汞吸收;这对汞中毒的诊断及环境生物学的监测有一定的意义。硒与汞之间存在拮抗作用,汞可以影响硒的吸收、分布、利用,硒也可以改变汞的积累部位和积累方式。%In the study we selected the chickens as laboratory animal, derided groups for comparison, determiated the content of selenite and mercury in the chickan blood, feather, excrements and tissue for studing the selenie effect on the content of mercury, for the more to reveal the antagonistic mechanism between selenite and mercury. The results were shown that: 1. Mercury was selectively distributed to different organs.It mainly stored up in liver and kidey. Its content were in kidney, liver, brain, chest muscle and blood in order. The mercury content in the hlood did not reflect the mercury content in the body, but it could show rcent intake of mercury;The experiment showed the mercury content in liver and kindey and its dynamic change could perfectly reflect the mercury content in the body;The mercury content in the feather could show absorb of mercury content during grow; The mercury content in the excrements could diagnosis absorb of mercury content. All there were significent in diagnoaing mercury poisoning and envirimeatal biology monitoring. 2. It exist that the

  1. High content of pyridinic- and pyrrolic-nitrogen-modified carbon nanotubes derived from blood biomass for the electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •An ORR electrocatalyst was fabricated from blood biomass and carbon nanotube. •The N-CNT catalyst exhibits good ORR activity, methanol resistance and stability. •The pyrolysis process produces high contents of pyridinic and pyrrolic N species. •The pyridinic-N group may play more important role in the active sites for ORR. -- Abstract: Here we present a facile synthetic route to design nitrogen-doped nanostructured carbon-based electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) by the copyrolysis of blood biomass from pig and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at high temperatures. The nitrogen-doped CNTs obtained at 800 °C not only results in excellent ORR activity with four-electron transfer selectivity in alkaline medium, but also exhibits superior methanol-tolerant property and long-term stability. It is confirmed that high-temperature pyrolysis processes can facilitate to produce higher contents of pyridinic- and pyrrolic-N binding groups in electrocatalysts, contributing to the enhancement of ORR performance in terms of onset potential, half-wave potential, and limited current density. We also propose that the planar-N configuration may be the active site that is responsible for the improved ORR electrocatalytic performance. The straight-forward and cheap synthesis of the active and stable electrocatalyst makes it a promising candidate for electrochemical power sources such as fuel cells or metal-air batteries

  2. [Content and composition of lipoproteins of rat blood and liver and various parameters of oxidative stress during administration of cobalt chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, P A; Zagaĭko, A L; Shalamov, R V; Ganusova, G V; Barannik, T V; Skripnik, E V; Sokolik, V V; Shabi, B K

    1997-01-01

    Cobalt chloride effect on rat liver and serum blood lipoproteins content and composition and on some characteristics of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress was investigated. The activation of free-radical oxidation and oxidative stress development were judged from the dynamics of lipid peroxidation products accumulation, from cathepsin D unsedimental activity and from the alteration of microsomal cytochrome P-450 content and from activity of a number antioxidative enzymes. In order to evaluate the state of glutathione-defence system the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase and some NADPH-generating enzymes and reduced glutathione level alteration were studied in liver. The data obtained show that the cobalt chloride injection leads to the development of the oxidative stress and to activation of some antioxidant defence system, namely, glutathione-depending enzymes, and of microsomal cytochrome P-450 catabolism. The system blood lipoproteins (liver lipoproteins was found to participate in metabolism adaptation under oxidative stress and in maintenance of biological membranes structure and functioning. PMID:9606836

  3. Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Page Content What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood against the ... do I know if I have high blood pressure? High blood pressure is often called "the silent killer" because ...

  4. BLOOD CONTENTS OF DEFENSINS IN PATIENTS WITH PNEUMONIAS CAUSED BY INFLUENZA А/H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Romanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Defensin amounts in severe forms of influenza-associated pneumonia and acute respiratory distresssyndrome is increased to a lesser degree than in pneumonias with milder clinical course. This difference may be determined by selective accumulation of defensins in areas of infectious lesions. Mean content of α-defensins in non-severe pneumonias with influenza А/H1N1 accompanied by normocytosis or leukopenia, is higher than in bacterial pneumonias with leukocytosis. High levels of defensins, along with substantially increased neutrophil counts, associated with normocytosis or leukopenia, reflect a pronounced systemic inflammatory response caused by influenza А/H1N1.

  5. A study on the effects of the estrous cycle on uterine fluid and blood serum immunoglobulin G (IgG content in the cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mortaza Alavi-Shoushtari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the IgG content and its variations in uterine fluid (UF during the estrous cycle of the cow and to compare them with those of the blood serum (S, six pairs of serum and UF samples for each phase of the cycle selected out of 240 bovine genital tracts and blood samples were collected from Urmia abattoir. The UF samples were collected by gentle scraping of the endometrium using a curette after uterine incision and their IgG content and those of the serum were measured by single radial immuno-diffusion (SRID assay. Serum IgG values (Mean ± SEM were generally higher than the UF values throughout the cycle except for di-estrus (S: 38.50 ± 0.90, UF: 51.60 ± 2.10 mg mL-1, in which the highest values were observed in UF samples. In met-estrus the difference was not significant (S: 34.80 ± 1.80mg mL-1, UF: 30.80 ± 5.20 mg mL-1, however, in estrus the mean UF IgG value (12.50 ± 1.10 mg mL-1 was lower than that of the serum (31.30 ± 1.20 mg mL-1. In pro-estrus, the lowest values (S: 27.80 ± 1.30 mg mL-1, UF: 9.10 ± 1.50 mg mL-1 were obtained. The results showed a lower IgG values in the bovine UF than those of the serum in the follicular phase of the cycle, while in di-estrus the UF IgG content was the highest, suggesting some IgG production in the uterus at this phase.

  6. Plasma cytokine levels and risks of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Mengyang; Liu, Cong-Lin; Lv, Bing-Jie;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized by inflammatory cell accumulation in AAA lesions that produce inflammatory cytokines and advance its pathogenesis. Peripheral cytokines may predict the degree or risk of AAA. METHODS AND RESULTS: ELISA determined plasma interleukin-6 (IL6...... with systolic blood pressure, whereas CRP associated positively with diastolic blood pressure and body mass index. CRP was an independent AAA risk factor and correlated positively with aortic diameters before and after adjustments for other risk factors. IFN-γ, IL17A, and CRP correlated positively with cross...

  7. [The effect of muscle load on the post-prandial content of blood serum hydrolytic enzymes in men with different levels and specificity of daily physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griaznykh, A V

    2014-01-01

    The article presents data on the effect of the combined action of food and muscular load on the level of hydrolytic enzymes in blood serum of healthy young people 18-22 years old, with various levels of adaptation to the effects of physical activity. The first group (n = 8) of the examined persons were high-qualified athletes developing their speed and power qualities in anaerobic energetic regime (Greco-Roman wrestling, sambo, judo). The second group (n = 8) were athletes developing endurance in aerobic energetic regime (skiers, track and field athletes--stayers, biathletes). The control group (n = 8) consists of non-athletes. The content of hydrolytic enzymes: pepsinogen-1, pepsinogen-2, the activity of pancreatic alpha-amylase, lipase were defined by ELISA. The content and activity of ferments were defined in blood serum, taken in the morning fasting and post-prandial period in dynamics after 15, 45, 75 and 105 min after administration of the test breakfast (100 g of ground boiled beef and 200 ml of unsweetened tea) in a state of relative physiological rest and after the veloergometric exercise muscular load (at the level of 60-70% of maximal oxygen consumption) during an hour (in 7-14 days). Multidirectional changes of concentration of investigated enzymes in the postprandial period among examined were defined in the conditions of relative physiological rest and under the action of the muscular tension. For groups of athletes higher alpha-amylase and lipase blood activity were characteristic both in a state of physiological rest and under the action of muscular load. It was also determined that after the muscular tension there was an increase in activity of alpha-amylase at 75 min and lipases at 15 min relative to background indicators at non-athletes. For the athletes from the second group the increase (p enzyme activity on an empty stomach its increase can be occurred in the postprandial period. Lipase activity changed in groups of athletes unidirectionally

  8. [The effect of muscle load on the post-prandial content of blood serum hydrolytic enzymes in men with different levels and specificity of daily physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griaznykh, A V

    2014-01-01

    The article presents data on the effect of the combined action of food and muscular load on the level of hydrolytic enzymes in blood serum of healthy young people 18-22 years old, with various levels of adaptation to the effects of physical activity. The first group (n = 8) of the examined persons were high-qualified athletes developing their speed and power qualities in anaerobic energetic regime (Greco-Roman wrestling, sambo, judo). The second group (n = 8) were athletes developing endurance in aerobic energetic regime (skiers, track and field athletes--stayers, biathletes). The control group (n = 8) consists of non-athletes. The content of hydrolytic enzymes: pepsinogen-1, pepsinogen-2, the activity of pancreatic alpha-amylase, lipase were defined by ELISA. The content and activity of ferments were defined in blood serum, taken in the morning fasting and post-prandial period in dynamics after 15, 45, 75 and 105 min after administration of the test breakfast (100 g of ground boiled beef and 200 ml of unsweetened tea) in a state of relative physiological rest and after the veloergometric exercise muscular load (at the level of 60-70% of maximal oxygen consumption) during an hour (in 7-14 days). Multidirectional changes of concentration of investigated enzymes in the postprandial period among examined were defined in the conditions of relative physiological rest and under the action of the muscular tension. For groups of athletes higher alpha-amylase and lipase blood activity were characteristic both in a state of physiological rest and under the action of muscular load. It was also determined that after the muscular tension there was an increase in activity of alpha-amylase at 75 min and lipases at 15 min relative to background indicators at non-athletes. For the athletes from the second group the increase (p < 0.01) relative to background data of activity as alpha-amylase as lipase on an empty stomach was noted. However postprandial (15-45 min) alpha-amylase (p

  9. Influence of “Chelavite” Mineral Supplement Use on Cadmium and Lead Content in Blood, Wool and Milk of Heavy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Borisovna ANDREEVA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the influence of this supplement use on the concentration of cadmium and lead in blood serum, wool and milk of heavy cows. The cows of milking herd of black-and-white breed, of 3-5 years old were the object of research. Their yearly milk production was 6 thousand litters (control and experimental group, each having 15 heads. The cows have been fed according to the balanced ration for heavy cows. The mineral supplement dose was determined according to the instruction for application for cows of experimental group with feed. The curative dose was 0.6 ml for 10 kg of body mass 1 time a day during 30 days. The samples were taken before giving the mineral supplement “Chelavite” and after the course had finished. The device Unicam AAS-939 was used to determine the cadmium and lead content in blood, wool and milk by way of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. It has been found that the cadmium level reduced by 2.35 times, the lead level reduced by 1,5 times in cows blood, the cadmium level reduced by 1.33 times, the lead level reduced by 4.34 times in cows wool, the cadmium level reduced by 2.2 times, the lead level reduced by 3.7 times in cows milk after giving them mineral supplement “Chelavite”. Thus, the application of chelate compounds in form of “Chelavite” for cows reduces concentration of heavy metals such as cadmium and lead. Then this is one of the ways to improve the milk quality.

  10. Cytokines in the modulation of eosinophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faccioli Lúcia H

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review we discuss our recently results showing interleukin 5 (IL-5 involvement in eosinophil migration and in the maintenance of eosinophilia in blood, bone marrow, lung and peritoneal cavity, in a visceral larva migrans syndrome model using guinea-pigs infected with Toxocara canis. We also describe the sequential release of TNF-alpha and IL-8 during the course of infection, and the interaction between these cytokines and IL-5 during infection. Finally we propose a new biological role for IL-5, at least in our model, as a modulator of IL-8 release and secretion.

  11. Inflammatory cytokine production predominates in early Lyme disease in patients with erythema migrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickstein, Lisa; Moore, Brian; Bledsoe, Tara; Damle, Nitin; Sikand, Vijay; Steere, Allen C

    2003-10-01

    In a study of cytokine production ex vivo by Borrelia burgdorferi-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 27 patients with culture-positive erythema migrans, production of inflammatory cytokines predominated, particularly gamma interferon and, to a lesser degree, tumor necrosis factor alpha. In contrast, with the exception of interleukin-13, anti-inflammatory cytokine production was negligible. Thus, B. burgdorferi antigens in early Lyme disease often induce a strong inflammatory response.

  12. Cytokines and therapeutic oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G; Bidlingmaier, M; Eigler, A; Hacker, U; Endres, S

    1997-12-01

    Therapeutic oligonucleotides - short strands of synthetic nucleic acids - encompass antisense and aptamer oligonucleotides. Antisense oligonucleotides are designed to bind to target RNA by complementary base pairing and to inhibit translation of the target protein. Antisense oligonucleotides enable specific inhibition of cytokine synthesis. In contrast, aptamer oligonucleotides are able to bind directly to specific proteins. This binding depends on the sequence of the oligonucleotide. Aptamer oligonucleotides with CpG motifs can exert strong immunostimulatory effects. Both kinds of therapeutic oligonucleotides - antisense and aptamer oligonucleotides - provide promising tools to modulate immunological functions. Recently, therapeutic oligonucleotides have moved towards clinical application. An antisense oligonucleotide directed against the proinflammatory intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is currently being tested in clinical trials for therapy of inflammatory disease. Immunostimulatory aptamer oligonucleotides are in preclinical development for immunotherapy. In the present review we summarize the application of therapeutic oligonucleotides to modulate immunological functions. We include technological aspects as well as current therapeutic concepts and clinical studies. PMID:9740353

  13. CONTENT OF GLYCOGEN IN LIVER AND KETOBODIES IN BLOOD OF JAPANESE QUAILS (COTURNIX COTURNIX JAPONICA DURING STARVATION ENVISAGED IN THE METHODS OF BALANCE EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Batsalov

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The biochemical indexes “glycogen in liver” and “ketones in blood” of 0-72 hours feed deprived (according to methods for balanced experiments Japanese quails with and without energy additives were determined. There were 2 groups of birds- 1-st without energy supplement, 2-nd- fed with 1 g. glucose per os (as 25% solution – twice in 24 hours. The levels of liver glycogen in all the food-deprived quails were signifi cantly lower from -6910 (12-th hour of starving-to 4960mg/kg (72 hour of starving compared to the levels of the same index in fed birds (11990 mg/kg tissue. In the birds receiving energy additive they were higher compared to those deprived of the additive throughout the experimental period. The content of ketones in blood of the control birds was 0.015 mmol/l. The same index increased to 0.027 mmol/l in the feed and energy additive deprived group after the 36 hour of starving, but in the group became energy support, the contents of ketones were lower for the whole period of starving. The energy additive (1g glucose/24 hours helped the maintenance of the energy metabolism during continuous food depriving of the experimental quails.

  14. Engineering of blood vessel patterns by angio-morphogens [angiotropins]: non-mitogenic copper-ribonucleoprotein cytokins [CuRNP ribokines] with their metalloregulated constituents of RAGE-binding S100-EF-hand proteins and extracellular RNA bioaptamers in vascular remodeling of tissue and angiogenesis in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissler, J.H. [ARCONS Applied Research, Bad Nauheim (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    Tissue vascularization is requisite to successful cell-based therapies, biomaterial design and implant integration. Thus, known problems in ossointegration of avascular implants in connection with the generation of bone tissue reflect arrays of general problems of socio-economic relevance existing in reparative medicine still waiting for to be solved. For this purpose, morphogenesis and remodeling of endothelial angio-architectures in tissue and in vitro by isolated non-mitogenic angio-morphogens [angiotropins] are considered in terms of their structure, function and action mechanisms. Extracellular angiotropins are secreted by activated leukocytes/monocytes/macrophages. They are a family of cytokines with morphogen bioactivity selectively directed to endothelial cells. Their structure was deciphered as metalloregulated copper-ribonucleoproteins [CuRNP ribokines]. They are built up of angiotropin-related S100-EF-hand protein [ARP] and highly modified and edited 5'end-phosphorylated RNA [ARNA], complexed together by copper ions. Oxidant-sensitive ARNA and their precursors represent novel types in a RNA world: They are the first isolated and sequenced forms of extracellular RNA [eRNA], may act as cytokine and bioaptamer, contain isoguanosine [crotonoside] as modified nucleoside and show up copper as RNA-structuring transition metal ion. By metalloregulated bioaptamer functions, ARNA impart novel biofunctions to RAGE-binding S100-EF-hand proteins. Angiotropin morphogens were shown suitable for neointiation and remodeling of blood vessel patterns in different, adult, embryonal and artificial tissues. These neovascular patterns manifest regulated hemodynamics for preventing tissue necrosis, supporting tissue functions and promoting wound healing. As evaluated in skin and muscle vascularization, the neovascular patterns are integrated into homeostatic control mechanisms of tissue. Thus, the morphogens show up beneficial perspectives and are suggested useful tools

  15. Neonatal levels of cytokines and risk of autism spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Mortensen, Erik L;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in neonatal dried blood samples (n-DBSS) retrieved from The Danish Newborn Screening Biobank of children developing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) later in life and controls. Samples of 359 ASD cases and 741 controls were analyzed using Luminex...

  16. Detection of autoantibodies to cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, K; Hansen, M B; Ross, C;

    2000-01-01

    Autoantibodies to various cytokines have been reported in normal individuals and in patients with various infectious and immunoinflammatory disorders, and similar antibodies (Ab) may be induced in patients receiving human recombinant cytokines. The clinical relevance of these Ab is often difficul...

  17. Inhibition of cytokine production by methotrexate. Studies in healthy volunteers and patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, A.H.; Lathouder, de S; Groot, E.R.; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Aarden, L.A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse whether the beneficial effects of methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) could be due to inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production. METHODS: Cytokine production was studied using whole blood (WB) and mononuclear cells (MNC) of healthy volunteers and RA patients. Cultur

  18. Doxycycline Is Anti-Inflammatory and Inhibits Staphylococcal Exotoxin-Induced Cytokines and Chemokines

    OpenAIRE

    Krakauer, Teresa; Buckley, Marilyn

    2003-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines mediate the toxic effect of superantigenic staphylococcal exotoxins (SE). Doxycycline inhibited SE-stimulated T-cell proliferation and production of cytokines and chemokines by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These results suggest that the antibiotic doxycycline has anti-inflammatory effects and is therapeutically useful for mitigating the pathogenic effects of SE.

  19. Cytokine Expression in Homozygous Sickle Cell Anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnodim Johnkennedy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sickle cell anaemia is an inherited disease in which the red blood cells become rigid and sticky, and change from being disc-shaped to being crescent-shaped. The change in shape is due to the presence of an abnormal form of haemoglobin. This results in severe pain and damage to some organs. Aim and Objective: The study was carried out to determine the levels of cytokine in sickle cell anemia. Material and Methods: Thirty confirmed sickle cell patients in steady state (HbSS-SS and thirty persons with normal haemoglobin (HbAA as well as sixteen sickle cell disease in crises (HbSS-cr between the ages of 15 to 30 years were selected in this study. Cytokines including interleukin 1 beta (IL- 1β, interleukin 2 (IL- 2, interleukin (IL-6, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and interferon gamma (IFN- λ were measured by commercially available ELISA kits. Results: The results obtained showed that the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in sickle cell anaemia patients in crisis were significantly elevated when compared with sickle cell in steady state (P<0.05. Similarly, the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN- λ were significantly increased in sickle cell anaemia stable state when compared to HbAA subjects (P<0.05. Conclusion: This may probably implies that cytokine imbalance is implicated in the pathogenesis of sickle cell crisis. Also, cytokines could be used as an inflammatory marker as well as related marker in disease severity and hence therapeutic intervention.

  20. Acute pancreatitis and fibromyalgia: Cytokine link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadat Muzammil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Fibromyalgia is a widespread musculoskeletal pain disorder found in 2% of the general population and with a preponderance of 85% in females, and has both genetic and environmental contribution. Acute pancreatitis is a severe condition and in most cases gallstones disease represents approximately half of the cases of acute pancreatitis, and 20-25% are related to alcohol abuse. Small numbers of cases are caused by a variety of other reasons but a few cases have no obvious cause, referred to as ′idiopathic′. Here we present a case where fibromyalgia might be linked to acute pancreatitis. We believe this has not been reported in this context in literature. Case Report: Fibromyalgia is a widespread musculoskeletal pain disorder found in 2% of the general population and with a preponderance of 85% in females, and has both genetic and environmental contribution. Patient had a cholecystectomy eight years previously. Patient feels tired almost all the time due to her fibromyalgia and requires family support for daily routine. Patient′s blood results showed alanine transaminase 527 IU/L, alkaline phosphatase 604 IU/L, bilirubin 34 μmol/L, amylase 2257 IU/L, C-reactive protein 19 mg/L, Gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase 851 IU/L, renal function and electrolytes were within normal limits. The patient was admitted to the high dependency unit with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Conclusion: There is a known increase in levels of cytokines in patients with fibromyalgia. Part of the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis is related to raised cytokines and immune deregulations. We hypothesize that elevated levels of cytokines in fibromyalgia has led to acute pancreatitis in our patient. Further epidemiological research on the incidence of pancreatitis in cytokine mediated conditions such as fibromyalgia is required.

  1. Study on the Effects of Cytokine Level in Ducklings with Selenium Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Rui; LIAN Xue-zhao; TANG Xiao-yan; FU Yan-ling; HE Chong-yi

    2007-01-01

    One-day-old healthy ducklings (n = 100) were randomly allocated into two groups (n =50, respectively) to investigate the effect of cytokines on ducklings with selenium poisoning. The ducklings in control group (Group Ⅰ) were fed with full rations containing 0.3 mg kg-1 selenium, and the ducklings in selenium poisoning group (Group Ⅱ) were fed with selenium-excessive rations containing 8.0 mg kg-1 selenium. One mL blood was collected by cardiac puncture at d 15, 30, 60, and 90(n = 10, respectively), serum was separated by centrifugation. Contents of cytokines were determined by the radio-immunity method (RIA). The results showed that the contents of IL-1 β, IL-2β in Group Ⅱ were higher than that in control group at d 15 (P>0.05), but were significantly lower at d 30, 60, and 90 (P<0.01); the contents of IL-8β in Group Ⅱ were significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.01); the contents of erythropoietin (EPO) and IGF-2 in Group Ⅱ were significantly lower in different degree than that in control group at d 60 and 90 (P < 0.01); the contents of granulocytemacrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the two groups were lower in different degree and significantly lower at d 60 and 90 (P<0.01). It can be concluded that the excessive selenium could result in a decrease in immunity and a series of clinical pathology changes, such as anemia, tissue hemorrhage, and necrosis.

  2. THE DETERMINATION OF CORRELATION LINKAGES BETWEEN LEVEL OF REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES, CONTENTS OF NEUTROPHILES AND BLOOD GAS COMPOSITION IN EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE LUNG INJURY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marushchak, M; Krynytska, I; Petrenko, N; Klishch, I

    2016-04-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) remains a major cause of acute respiratory failure and death of patients. Despite the achievements at the current stage in treatment, morbidity and mortality of ALI remain high. However, a deeper understanding of the pathogenetic links of ALI, identifying of the predictors that positively or negatively influence on the course of the syndrome, the correlation between some pathogenetic mechanisms will improve therapeutic strategies for patients with ALI, which makes the actuality of this study. The aim of the research was to detect additional pathogenetic mechanisms of the acute lung injury development in rats based on a comparative analysis of the correlations between the level of reactive oxygen species in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage, contents of neutrophils and blood gas composition. The experiments were performed on 54 white nonlinear mature male rats 200-220g in weight. The animals were divided into 5 groups: the 1st - control group (n=6), the 2nd - animals affected by hydrochloric acid for 2 hours (n=12), the 3rd - animals affected by hydrochloric acid for 6 hours (n=12), the 4th - animals affected by hydrochloric acid for 12 hours (n=12), the 5th - animals affected by hydrochloric acid for 24 hours (n=12). Correlation analysis was performed between all the studied indices. Coefficient of linear correlation (r) and its fidelity (p) was calculated that was accordingly denoted in the tables (correlation matrices). The correlation coefficient was significant at palveoli. On this background non-specific inflammatory reaction is developed at lung microvessels level with violation of lung homeostasis, which is iniciated by neutrophils' activation, which are producing ROS. PMID:27249444

  3. DYNAMICS OF CYTOKINE PROFILE IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS AS INFLUENCED BY INFLIXIMAB (REMIKEID ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Zhugrova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic autoimmune systemic disease with predominantly destructive lesions of peripheral joints, with prevalence of 0.6 to 1.6% in general population. An important pathogenetic role in this disease is now attributed to imbalance between pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines. Clinical introduction of biological preparations, such as Infliximab (monoclonal antibodies to TNFα within last years have changed therapeutic approach to treatment of rheumatic diseases. The aim of our research was to evaluate dynamics of pro- and antiinflammatory cytokine profile in the patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RА during combined therapy with Infliximab and Methotrexate (MT. The study included 30 patients (27 females, 3 males, mean age of 52.5±2.0 years who received combined therapy with МТ and Infliximab (Inx. Inx was initially injected at a single dose of 3 mg/kg intravenously, followed by administration 2 and 6 weeks later, and then repeated every 8 weeks. Regular examination of the patients included clinical and laboratory studies (ESR, levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, IL-4, IL-10, GSM-CSF, IFNγ. Levels of antibodies against Infliximab in the groups of RА patients were determined before treatment and 22 weeks later. Efficiency of the therapy was estimated according to DAS28 3V Index and to HAQ Questionnaire.Upon decreased activity of disease, as assessed by DAS28, and improvement of HAQ parameters, a marked decrease in proinflammatory cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-8, TNFα was detected, that confirming a pathogenetic significance of cytokine in RА patients. In patients with marked clinical effect (group I, an initially normal contents of TNFα was found in blood serum, and this group showed better response to Infliximab therapy, than groups II and III (resp., moderate and absent response with initially high contents of TNFα and other cytokines, that was proven by correlations with ACR criteria and HAQ functional index

  4. Maternal and Cord Serum Cytokine Changes with Continuous and Intermittent Labor Epidural Analgesia: A Randomized Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mantha, Venkat R.; Vallejo, Manuel C.; Vimala Ramesh; Jones, Bobby L; Sivam Ramanathan

    2012-01-01

    Background. Maternal fever during labor epidural analgesia (LEA) may cause increased maternal and cord serum inflammatory cytokines. We report the effects of intermittent and continuous LEA on these cytokines. Methods. Ninety-two women were randomly assigned to continuous (CLEA) or intermittent (ILEA) groups, 46 in each. Maternal temperature was checked and blood drawn at epidural insertion (baseline) and four-hourly until 4 h postpartum (4 PP). Cord blood was drawn after placental delivery. ...

  5. 血尿酸水平与急性脑出血的关系研究%A Study on the Relation of blood uric acid content and acute cerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怀东

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Approach the relation of blood uric acid content and acute cerebral hemorrhage .Methods:A metered analysis was made of blood uric acid content among 178 cases of acute cerebral hemorrhage and 100 healthy controls ,and the relation between the blood uric acid content with acute cerebral hemorrhage was clarified as wel 1.Results:Blood uric acid content in the massive hemorrhage group was higher than the healthy controls and the small amounts hemorrhage group ( P<0.05).Blood uric acid content in the severe in-jury group was higher than the healthy controls and the minor injury group ( P<0.05) .Conclusion:Blood uric acid contentshould be the significant index to judge the pathogenetic conditions in acute cerebral hemorrhage .%目的:探讨血尿酸水平与急性脑出血之间的关系。方法:通过测定178例急性脑出血患者和100例正常对照人群的血尿酸水平的变化,分析血尿酸水平与急性脑出血的关系。结果:出血量多组血尿酸水平高于正常对照组、出血量少组( P<0.05);重型组血尿酸水平高于正常对照组、轻型组( P<0.05)。结论:血尿酸的测定可作为急性脑出血患者判断病情严重程度的重要指标。

  6. Suppressive Activity of a Macrolide Antibiotic, Roxithromycin, on Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Suzaki

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the influence of a macrolide antibiotic, roxithromycin (RXM, on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. In the first experiments, we examined the effect of RXM on in vitro cytokine production from lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated human peripheral blood monocytes. The monocytes were cultured in the presence of various doses of the agent. After 24 h, the culture supernatants were obtained and assayed for IL-1β and TNF-α contents by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RXM suppressed the in vitro production of IL-1β and TNF-α in response to LPS stimulation. This was dose dependent and first noted at a concentration of as little as 0.05 μg/ml, which is much lower than therapeutic blood levels. In the second part of the experiments, we examined the influence of RXM on the appearance of IL-1β and TNF-α in mouse lung extract induced by LPS inhalation. RXM was administered orally into BALB/c mice at a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg once a day for 5-12 weeks. These mice were then instilled with LPS into the trachea and examined for the presence of cytokines in aqueous lung extracts. Pretreatment of mice with RXM for 5 weeks did not influence of the appearance of both IL-1β and TNF-α in aqueous lung extracts. However, pretreatment for more than 7 weeks dramatically suppressed the cytokine appearance in the extracts.

  7. Proliferation and Apoptosis of Bone Marrow CD4~+ T Cells in Patients with Aplastic Anemia and Impacts of the Secreted Cytokines on Hematopoietic Stem Cells from Umbilical Cord Blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑邈; 孙汉英; 周剑峰; 徐慧珍; 黄丽芳; 刘文励

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that immune-associated aplastic anemia(AA)resembles such autoimmune diseases as insulin-dependent diabetes and chronic autoimmune thyroiditis that belong to organ-specific autoimmune diseases.Many independent investigation groups have successfully isolated the pathopoiesis-associated T cell clone causing hematopoiesis failure with a CD4 phenotype from peripheral blood and bone marrow(BM)in AA patients.In the current study,BM CD4+ T cells were isolated from AA patients and healthy con...

  8. Dietary exposure to benzoxazinoids enhances bacteria-induced monokine responses by peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Dres; Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Palarasah, Yaseelan;

    2015-01-01

    with LPS. No effect was observed on T-cell cytokines or proliferation. BX levels in serum after a single meal did not modify cytokine responses. CONCLUSION: High dietary intake of BXs enhances bacteria-induced production of pro-inflammatory monokines by PBMCs, but not T-cell responses; presumably due......-out, the groups switched diets. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or tetanus toxoid (TT). PBMCs from a healthy donor received the same stimuli in presence of serum from each participant receiving BXs. The production...... of monokines, T-cell cytokines and T-helper cell proliferation were assessed. A 3-wk diet with high BX content enhanced IL-1β responses against LPS and P. gingivalis, as well as TNF-α response against P. gingivalis, after 24 h of stimulation. Moreover, IL-6 was found to be increased after 7 days of stimulation...

  9. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) measurement by GC-MS in blood, urine and gastric contents, following an acute intoxication in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodson, Q; Denooz, R; Serpe, P; Charlier, C

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB, sodium oxybate) is a compound related to neuromodulator gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), emerging as a recreational drug of abuse and as a rape drug. GHB-related emergencies have dramatically increased in the 1990s, but a decrease is observed since 2000. We describe the case of an acute GHB intoxication in a 28-year-old male who fell unconscious after ingestion of a mouthful of an unknown beverage, and required medical support for 2 days. A cocaine abuse was also detected by preliminary toxicological screening, but the clinical presentation was not typical of cocaine intoxication. A simple liquid-liquid extraction was used for quantitation of GHB, followed by disilyl-derivatization and analysis in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), using GHB-d6 as internal standard. High concentrations of GHB were detected in urine (3020 mg/L) and gastric contents (71487 mg/L) at admission. After a 6-hours delay, GHB was still present in urine at 2324 mg/L and in blood at 43 mg/L. The clinical symptoms of cocaine intoxication were diminished by GHB consumption, and the cerebral scan was modified. Attention must thus be paid to acute intoxications with surprising clinical symptoms, and GHB has probably to be added to the preliminary toxicological screening. Data available regarding GHB are briefly reviewed, and our results are compared with previously published reports of non-fatal GHB intoxication.

  10. Selenium content of wheat for bread making in Scotland and the relationship between glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) levels in whole blood and bread consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, M N; MacPherson, A

    1992-07-01

    The selenium content of the 1989 harvest of wheat used for bread making in Scotland ranged from 0.028 microgram/g dry weight for home-grown wheat to 0.518 microgram/g for Canadian wheat. The tonnage values indicate that 13.8% of the wheat used in bread making came from Canada. This reflects in a calculated dietary intake of 31 micrograms/d which is well below the recommended levels of 70 and 55 micrograms for adult males and females respectively (National Research Council, 1989). The average glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) level in 478 samples of human whole blood was 6.08 (SE 0.065) units/ml. This increased to 6.65 (SE 0.321) in sixty-two subjects consuming brown or wholemeal bread but was unaffected by oily fish consumption. Analysis of a small number of samples of whole milk, eggs and meat indicated slightly higher concentrations than previously published values but this trend was insufficient to compensate for the lower cereal provision of Se.

  11. Simultaneous evaluation of myocardial blood flow, cardiac function and lung water content using [15O]H2O and positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study sought to evaluate an imaging approach using [15O]H2O and positron emission tomography (PET) for simultaneous assessment of myocardial perfusion, cardiac function and lung water content as a potential indicator of pulmonary oedema. Twenty-six subjects divided into two groups (group I, 13 patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy; group II, 13 healthy volunteers) underwent dynamic PET scanning after intravenous infusion of ∼995 MBq [15O]H2O. In both groups, echocardiograms were performed after the PET studies. From the dynamic [15O]H2O data, lung water content (LWC) at equilibrium, myocardial blood flow (MBF), cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV) and stroke volume indexes (SVI) using the indicator dilution principle were determined. LWC was 18% (p = 0.038) higher in patients than in controls. Global MBF did not differ significantly between the groups, but regional MBF values were significantly lower (p 0.1) of -0.02 ± 0.82 vs -0.05 ± 0.54 l/min (CO), -1.44 ± 14.31 vs 1.70 ± 10.56 ml/beat (SV) and 0.47 ± 6.21 vs 0.30 ± 5.02 ml/beat/m2 (SVI). The 95% limits of agreement were -1.62 to 1.59 vs -1.11 to 1.01 l/min (CO), -26.61 to 29.49 vs -22.39 to 18.99 ml/beat (SV) and -11.69 to 12.88 vs -9.53 to 10.14 ml/beat/m2 (SVI). Right ventricular CO was increased by 33% (p = 0.014) in the patient group as compared with normal controls. Our results demonstrate that additional analysis of cardiac function and lung water content are feasible from the dynamic cardiac [15O]H2O PET studies acquired for myocardial perfusion. The parameters appear to work as expected. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the clinical value of these new parameters. (orig.)

  12. Leucocytes, cytokines and satellite cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Gøran; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Raastad, Truls;

    2012-01-01

    -damaging exercise', primarily eccentric exercise. We review the evidence for the notion that the degree of muscle damage is related to the magnitude of the cytokine response. In the third and final section, we look at the satellite cell response to a single bout of eccentric exercise, as well as the role...... variation in individual responses to a given exercise should, however be expected. The link between cytokine and satellite cell responses and exercise-induced muscle damage is not so clear The systemic cytokine response may be linked more closely to the metabolic demands of exercise rather than muscle...... damage. With the exception of IL-6, the sources of systemic cytokines following exercise remain unclear The satellite cell response to severe muscle damage is related to regeneration, whereas the biological significance of satellite cell proliferation after mild damage or non-damaging exercise remains...

  13. Stability and reproducibility of ADVIA 120-measured red blood cell and platelet parameters in dogs, cats, and horses, and the use of reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CH(R)) in the diagnosis of iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.; van Leeuwen, M.W.; Teske, E.

    2009-01-01

    Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2009 Apr 1;134(7):272-8. Stability and reproducibility of ADVIA 120-measured red blood cell and platelet parameters in dogs, cats, and horses, and the use of reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CH(R)) in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. Prins M, van Leeuwen MW, Teske E. Departm

  14. Expansion of new type cytokine induced killer cells in vitro with peripheral blood mononuclearcells in ad-vanced breast cancer in PBMC%应用晚期乳腺癌患者外周血单个核细胞体外增殖诱导新型CIK细胞的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁祥石; 宋传健; 崔静; 秦莉; 梅芬; 张艳桥; 赵娟; 吕慧敏; 张本宁

    2014-01-01

    目的:应用晚期乳腺癌患者外周血来源的单个核细胞体外培养诱导产生新型( Cytokine in-duced killer cells ,CIK)细胞的可能性,为乳腺癌患者应用自体免疫细胞治疗提供理论基础。方法取8例晚期乳腺癌患者外周血提取单个核细胞,经体外培养诱导增殖,并应用细胞计数法和流式细胞仪检测增殖细胞表面特异性标志CD3、CD16和CD56,应用51Cr release assay 及MTT方法测定其对MCF7及BT20乳腺癌细胞株的杀伤能力。应用ELISA试验方法对诱导得到的新型CIK细胞的培养上清液进行解析。结果经过体外18天培养,平均得到8.2×108个以上纯度为95.2%~98.1%的CD16+、CD56+和CD16+CD56+阳性高纯度NK细胞的新型CIK细胞,且对乳腺癌细胞株MCF7及BT20具有明显的抑制作用。结论成功应用晚期乳腺癌外周血单个核细胞选择性扩增诱导高纯度NK细胞的新型CIK细胞,且证明其对MCF7及BT20乳腺癌细胞具有明显抑制作用,为应用自体高纯度NK细胞的新型CIK细胞为基础的过继性免疫细胞治疗乳腺癌提供理论研究基础。%Objective To investigate new type cytokine induced killer cells expansion using advanced breast cancer′s peripheral blood .Methods peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 8 advanced breast cancer volunteers and co -cultured with Cytokine induced killer cells .These cells were placed in plastic flasks containing CIK-MediumTM supplemented with 10% auto-plasma in the presence of IL -2 ( 1 000 IU/mL) .The cultures were fed with CIK-MediumTM supplemented with IL -2 following the proliferation capacity . Cell proliferation was measured by cell counting during the cultivation .Fourteen days after cultivation ,cell mark-ers CD3/CD16/CD56 were examined by flow cytometry .51Cr and MTT assays were employed in cytotoxicity as-says.Cytokines were assayed by ELISA method .Results CD16+,CD16+CD56+,CD56+CIK cells were 5

  15. Th2 cytokines inhibit lymphangiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira L Savetsky

    Full Text Available Lymphangiogenesis is the process by which new lymphatic vessels grow in response to pathologic stimuli such as wound healing, inflammation, and tumor metastasis. It is well-recognized that growth factors and cytokines regulate lymphangiogenesis by promoting or inhibiting lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC proliferation, migration and differentiation. Our group has shown that the expression of T-helper 2 (Th2 cytokines is markedly increased in lymphedema, and that these cytokines inhibit lymphatic function by increasing fibrosis and promoting changes in the extracellular matrix. However, while the evidence supporting a role for T cells and Th2 cytokines as negative regulators of lymphatic function is clear, the direct effects of Th2 cytokines on isolated LECs remains poorly understood. Using in vitro and in vivo studies, we show that physiologic doses of interleukin-4 (IL-4 and interleukin-13 (IL-13 have profound anti-lymphangiogenic effects and potently impair LEC survival, proliferation, migration, and tubule formation. Inhibition of these cytokines with targeted monoclonal antibodies in the cornea suture model specifically increases inflammatory lymphangiogenesis without concomitant changes in angiogenesis. These findings suggest that manipulation of anti-lymphangiogenic pathways may represent a novel and potent means of improving lymphangiogenesis.

  16. Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Heart Alternate Language URL Español Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers: Use Them to Manage Your Diabetes Page Content Checking your blood sugar, also called blood glucose, is an important part ...

  17. Rheumatoid factor and its interference with cytokine measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else Marie; Falbe Wätjen, Inger; Littrup Andersen, Eva;

    2011-01-01

    Use of cytokines as biomarkers for disease is getting more widespread. Cytokines are conveniently determined by immunoassay, but interference from present antibodies is known to cause problems. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), interference of rheumatoid factor (RF) may be problematic. RF covers a...... group of autoantibodies from immunoglobulin subclasses and is present in 65-80% of RA patients. Partly removal of RF is possible by precipitation. This study aims at determining the effects of presence of RF in blood and synovial fluid on cytokine measurements in samples from RA patients and finding...... possible solutions for recognized problems. IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-8 were determined with multiplex immunoassays (MIA) in samples from RA patients prior to and after polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) precipitation. Presence of RF does interfere with MIA. PEG 6000 precipitation abolishes this RF...

  18. Rheumatoid factor and its interference with cytokine measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else Marie; Falbe Wätjen, Inger; Littrup Andersen, Eva;

    2011-01-01

    Use of cytokines as biomarkers for disease is getting more widespread. Cytokines are conveniently determined by immunoassay, but interference from present antibodies is known to cause problems. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), interference of rheumatoid factor (RF) may be problematic. RF covers a...... group of autoantibodies from immunoglobulin subclasses and is present in 65-80% of RA patients. Partly removal of RF is possible by precipitation. This study aims at determining the effects of presence of RF in blood and synovial fluid on cytokine measurements in samples from RA patients and finding...... possible solutions for recognized problems. IL-1ß, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-8 were determined with multiplex immunoassays (MIA) in samples from RA patients prior to and after polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) precipitation. Presence of RF does interfere with MIA. PEG 6000 precipitation abolishes this RF...

  19. Cytokine profile associated with chronic and acute human schistosomiasis mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Neuenschwander Lins de Morais

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The production and regulation of interleukin (IL IL-13, IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-³ was evaluated in 43 schistosomiasis patients with different clinical forms. Whole-blood cultures cytokine production in response to soluble egg antigen (SEA, soluble worm adult preparation (SWAP, mitogens, neutralizing antibodies or recombinant IL-13 were measured by ELISA. After SWAP stimulation, chronic patients, particularly hepatointestinals, produced higher levels of IL-4 in comparison with acute patients, suggesting the presence of a type 2 cytokine profile in these patients. Following SEA and SWAP stimulation, hepatosplenic (HS patients showed increased levels of IFN-³ when compared with acute patients, indicating that HS disease in humans is associated with a type 1 cytokine response. The mechanisms of immune regulation are apparently different between the clinical stages of the disease, some of which are antigen-specific.

  20. Cytokines in Sjogren's syndrome: potential therapeutic targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Roescher; P.P. Tak; G.G. Illei

    2010-01-01

    The dysregulated cytokine network in Sjogren's Syndrome (SS) is reflected by local and systemic overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and absent or low levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines. To date, the use of cytokine based therapies in SS has been disappointing. Oral administration of low

  1. Determination and Significance of Cytokines in Peripheral Blood of Patients Infected with Blastocystis Hominis%人芽囊原虫病患者外周血细胞因子测定及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶霖; 姜海行; 金群馨; 唐国都; 伍玲园; 卢作超

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究白细胞介素-8(IL-8)、白细胞介素-18(IL-18)、粒-巨噬细胞集落刺激因子(GM-CSF)在人芽囊原虫病中的作用。方法用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)测定30例人芽囊原虫病患者外周血中IL-8、IL-18、GM-CSF水平,并与正常对照组进行比较。结果人芽囊原虫病患者外周血中IL-8、IL-18、GM-CSF水平显著高于正常对照组( P <0.05)。 IL-8、GM-CSF 水平随感染程度加重而升高( P <0.05)。结论 IL-8、IL-18、GM-CSF可能在人芽囊原虫感染发病中发挥作用。%Objective To investigate the role of interleukin-8 ( IL-8 ) , interleukin-18 ( IL-18 ) , granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor ( GM-CSF ) in Blastocystis hominis .Methods The levels of IL-8 , IL-18 , GM-CSF in peripheral blood of 30 cases of Blastocystis hominis were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).And the levels were compared with the normal controls .Results The levels of IL-8,IL-18,GM-CSF in peripheral blood of patients with Blastocystis homini were significantly higher than those of normal control group (P<0.05).The levels of IL-8,GM-CSF increased with increasing severity of infection (P <0.05).Conclusion IL-8 ,IL-18 ,GM-CSF may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Blastocystis hominis infection .

  2. 氯胺酮滥用大鼠心血中氯胺酮含量变化%CHANGE OF KETAMINE CONTENT IN BLOOD OF RATS ABUSING KETAMINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高渊; 刘美丽; 王玉瑾

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究长期腹腔注射(ip)不同剂量氯胺酮大鼠心血中氯胺酮含量变化规律.方法:120只(6)Wistar大鼠随机分为4大组,分别为生理盐水对照组、10mg·kg-1、30 mg· kg-1和60 mg·kg-1氯胺酮剂量组.每天按体重ip一次,制备大鼠氯胺酮滥用模型.对照组和3个剂量组又各分为5批,分别在染毒或给予生理盐水后45 min、1周、2周、3周和3周停药3d后各处死一批大鼠(6只/批),提取并用GC/MS和GC法分析不同时间点大鼠心血中氯胺酮含量.结果:氯胺酮连续滥用后大鼠血中氯胺酮浓度逐渐增加,且停药3d后仍可检出.结论:氯胺酮可能存在体内积蓄,长期服用可使氯胺酮半衰期延长.%Objective: To study the change rule of ketamine content in the blood of rats given different doses of ketamine through intraperitoneal injection (ip) for a long time. Methods:One hundred and twenty Wistar male rats were randomly divided into four large groups, physiologic saline control group,ketamine 10 mg · kg-1,30 mg · kg-1 and 60 mg · kg-1 experimental groups. The experimental groups were given ketamine hydrochloride (ip) everyday. Then the four groups were divided into five small groups (n - 6 ) , and were executed at 45 mins, one week, two weeks, three weeks after drug administration and the third day after drug withdrawal from three week drug administration,respectively. The heart blood of rats was collected for the detection of ketamine by GC/MS and GC equipped with nitrogen phosphorus detector ( NPD ) . Results : The content of ketamine in rats ' blopd was increased gradually with the extension of drug administration time, and still could be detected on the third day after drug withdrawal from three week drug administration. Conclusion; Ketamine might accumulate in body and make the half - life of ketamine in body extend when ketamine is long - time abussed.

  3. Docosahexaenoic diet supplementation, exercise and temperature affect cytokine production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capó, Xavier; Martorell, Miquel; Sureda, Antoni; Batle, Juan Miguel; Tur, Josep Antoni; Pons, Antoni

    2016-09-01

    Acute exercise induces changes in peripheral mononuclear cells' (PBMCs) capabilities to produce cytokines. The aim was to investigate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) diet supplementation on cytokine production, by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated PBMCs after exercise, and the in vitro influence of temperature. Fifteen male soccer players were randomly assigned to a placebo or an experimental group. The experimental group consumed an almond-based beverage enriched with DHA (1.16 g DHA/day) for 8 weeks, whereas the placebo group consumed a similar non-enriched beverage. Blood samples were taken before and after the nutritional intervention in basal conditions and 2 h after acute exercise. Nutritional intervention significantly increased the DHA content in erythrocytes only in experimental group (from 34 ± 3.6 to 43 ± 3.6 nmols DHA/10(9) erythrocytes). Exercise significantly increased Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in PBMCs but only in the placebo group (203 %). Exercise also significantly increased IL6, IL8, VEGF, INFγ, TNFα, IL1α, IL1β, MCP1, and EGG production rates by LPS-stimulated PBMCs, and this response was attenuated by DHA supplementation. Temperature but not DHA also affected the pattern of cytokine production increasing IL6, IL8, IL1β, and MCP1 synthesis. The higher change was evidenced in IL1β increasing the production rate at 39.5 °C from 3.19 ± 0.77 to 22.4 ± 6.1 pg/h 10(6) PBMC in placebo and from 2.36 ± 0.11 to 10.6 ± 0.38 pg/h 10(6) PBMC in the supplemented group. The profile of affected cytokines differs between temperature and exercise, suggesting a different PBMC activation pathway. DHA diet supplementation only attenuated cytokine production after exercise and not that induced by temperature. PMID:27139422

  4. Activity of selected cytokines in bipolar patients during manic and depressive episodes [Ocena aktywności wybranych cytokin w epizodzie maniakalnym i depresyjnym choroby afektywnej dwubiegunowej

    OpenAIRE

    Remlinger-Molenda, Agnieszka; Wójciak, Paweł; Michalak, Michał; Rybakowski, Janusz,

    2012-01-01

    Aim. The aim of the study was to examine the activity of selected cytokines in bipolar patients during manic and depressive episodes and in remission. Method. The cytokine status was assessed in 76 bipolar patients, 35 with mania – and 41 with depression. For cytokine measurements blood samples were drawn from each patient twice – while in an acute episode and in remission. 78 healthy individuals were examined once. Serum samples were tested for concentrations of : IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ß, TNF-., ...

  5. EFFECTS OF HERBAL CAKE-SEPARATED MOXIBUSTION ON BLOOD LIPIDS,PLASMA THROMOXANE B2 AND 6-KETO-PROSTAGLANDIN F1αCONTENTS IN THE RABBIT WITH HYPERLIPEMIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈菁; 常小荣; 严洁; 曹湘萍; 岳增辉

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe effects of herbal cake-separated moxibustion on blood lipids, including total cholesterol (TCh), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein-Ch (HDL-Ch), low density lipoprotein-Ch (LDL-Ch), apolipoprotein A (Apo A), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), and plasma thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α) contents and analyse its mechanism. Methods: The hyperlipemia rabbit model was established by breeding of high fat forage and injection of bovine serum albumin. They were treated respectively by continuously for 40 days. Blood TCh and TG contents were detected with enzymatic method, LDL-Ch and HDL-Ch with colorimetric method, Apo A and Apo B with electrophoretic method, and TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1α with radioimmunoassay. Results: Both the herbal cake-separated moxibustion and direct moxibustion could effectively decrease TCh, TG, LDL-Ch, Apo B and TXB2 contents and TXB2/6-keto-PGF1α, and increase HDL-CH and 6-keto-PGF1α contents in the rabbit of hyperlipemia. Conclusion: 6-keto-PGF1α and TXB2 are possibly involved in the mechanism of herbal cake-separated moxibustion decreasing blood lipids.

  6. Th17细胞相关因子在蕈样肉芽肿患者外周血中的表达和意义%Expression and significance of Th17 related cytokines in peripheral blood of patients with mycosis fungoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗丽敏; 李军; 刘菡; 刘劲松

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the expression and significance of T helper 17 cell (Th17) related cytokines in pe-ripheral blood of patients with mycosis fungoides. Methods 24 patients diagnosed as mycosis fungoides in Dongfeng General Hospital Affiliated to Hubei University of Medicine (“our hospital” for short) from January 2010 to October 2014 were taken as treatment group, 24 healthy persons at the same time in our hospital were taken as control group. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to analyze the expression of interleukin 17 (IL-17), interleukin 23 (IL-23) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in peripheral blood of the two groups, and the differences between the two groups were compared. Results The levels of IL-17, IL-23 and IL-6 in peripheral blood of treatment group [(210.14±33.47), (244.11±39.88), (24.54±7.66) ng/L] were significantly higher than those of control group [(162.34±35.11), (111.26±36.35), (10.90±6.81) ng/L], the differences were all statistically significant (all P<0.05). Conclusion The over-expres-sion of Th17 related cytokines in peripheral blood of patients with mycosis fungoides indicates that it may be related to the genesis of mycosis fungoides.%目的:探讨辅助性T细胞17(Th17)细胞相关因子在蕈样肉芽肿患者外周血中的表达及意义。方法以湖北医药学院附属东风总医院(以下简称“我院”)2010年1月~2014年10月确诊为蕈样肉芽肿的24例患者作为治疗组,以我院同期健康人群24例作为对照组。采用酶联免疫吸附测定(ELISA)法检测两组患者外周血中白介素17(IL-17)、白介素23(IL-23)和白介素16(IL-16)的表达水平,比较两组之间的差异。结果治疗组患者外周血中IL-17、IL-23和IL-6的表达水平分别为(210.14±33.47)、(244.11±39.88)、(24.54±7.66)ng/L,均高于对照组[(162.34±35.11)、(111.26±36.35)、(10.90±6.81)ng/L],差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05)。结论 Th17细胞相关因子在蕈样肉芽肿患者外周

  7. 308nm准分子激光治疗对白癜风患者外周血Th1及Th2细胞因子的影响%Effect of 308nm excimer laser therapy on Th1/Th2 cytokines in peripheral blood of patients with vitiligo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建英; 刘津民; 曹海育; 张玉红; 刘英权

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the level of Th1 cytokine(IFN-γ) and Th2 cytokine (IL-4) in peripher-al blood of patients with vitiligo , and to explore the possible immune mechanism of 308 nm excimer laser for vitiligo therapy.Methods 50 cases of vitiligo were treated by 308nm excimer laser therapy , twice a week for 24 times.The level of IFN-γand IL-4 in peripheral blood from 50 vitiligo patients before and after treatment and 20 healthy per-son in control group were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay .Results There was no difference be-tween two groups on the level of IL -4 (P>0.05).The level of IFN-γin vitiligo patients was higher than that in the control group (P0.05). Conclusion Th1 cytokine take advantage of vitiligo patients and involved in the pathogenesis of vitiligo .308nm ex-cimer laser therapy can restore the Th 1/Th2 balance .%目的:研究308 nm准分子激光对白癜风患者外周血Th1型细胞因子干扰素γ( IFN-γ)和Th2型细胞因子白细胞介素-4( IL-4)水平的影响,探讨其可能的作用机制。方法50例白癜风患者均采用308 nm准分子激光治疗,每周2次共治疗24次。采用酶联免疫吸附法( ELISA法)检测50例白癜风患者治疗前、后及20例正常健康者外周血IFN-γ及IL-4的水平,并统计临床疗效。结果治疗组治疗前IFN-γ水平较正常对照组升高,比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗后较治疗前明显降低(P<0.05),且与正常对照组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。治疗组治疗前IL-4水平与正常对照组及本组治疗后比较差异均无统计学意义( P>0.05)。结论白癜风患者体内Th1型细胞因子占优势,308 nm准分子激光可恢复白癜风患者Th1及Th2的平衡状态。

  8. Expressions of inflammatory cytokines and fat factors in placentas of patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and their relationship with glucose and lipid metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Du; Yi-Lin Zhu; Xue-Mei Gao

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the expressions of inflammatory cytokines and fat factors in the placentas of patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and their relationship with glucose and lipid metabolism.Methods:Maternal women who delivered in obstetric department of our hospital from May 2012 to August 2015 were studied, including 45 cases of gestational diabetes mellitus patients and 45 cases of healthy women who were enrolled in the GDM group and the control group respectively. Placentas were collected to detect inflammatory factor and fatty factor contents as well as glucose and lipid metabolism indicators, and serum was collected to detect blood glucose indexes.Results:Inflammatory factors NF-kB, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, leptin, visfatin, RBP-4, Chemerin and Nesfatin-1 contents in GDM placental tissues were significantly higher than those in control group while adiponectin content was significantly lower than that in control group. FBG, FINS and HOMA-IRG of GDM patients were higher than those of the control group while HOMA-β was lower than that of control group. IRS-1, ISR-2, FATP-4, El, LPL, FABP-1, FABP-3, FABP-4 and FABP-5 contents in GDM patients’ placentas were significantly lower than those in control group. Glycolipid metabolism indexes were correlated with inflammatory factor and fat factor contents.Conclusions: Inflammatory cytokines and fat factors were abnormally highly expressed in the placentas of gestational diabetes mellitus patients, and were correlated with the indexes of glucose and lipid metabolism.

  9. 不同倍性鱼的血细胞和精子DNA含量比较%Comparison of DNA content of blood cells and sperm among the different ploidy level fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少军; 赵如榕; 刘锦辉; 孙远东; 张纯; 罗凯坤; 刘筠

    2005-01-01

    The flow cytometer was used to compare the DNA content in the blood cells and sperm in the new type of tetraploid (G1×4n) and in red crucian carp used as the control. The new type of tetraploid (G1×4n) was produced by mating the diploid female gynogenetic progeny (first generation,G1) of the tetraploid hybrid of red crucain carp × common carp, with the male of the tetraploid hybrid. Chromosome spreads from the kidney tissue in the new type of tetraploid were also examined. The results from the flow cytometer indicated that the mean DNA content of the diploid sperm produced by the new type of tetraploid was twice that of the haploid sperm generated by the diploid red crucian carp, and the mean DNA content of the blood cells in the tetraploid was twice that in red crucian carp. Examination of chromosome spreads from the kidney tissue also indicated that the examined samples of the G1×4n were tetraploids with 200 chromosomes, which was in agreement with the results of the DNA content measurements from the sperm and the blood cells. The present study proved that the new type of tetraploids was able to produce normal diploid sperm, which fertilized diploid eggs from the new type of tetraploid to produce viable offspring. The flow cytometer was proved to be one of the accurate, secure and simple methods to distinguish the different ploidy fish in blood cells and sperm by measuring their DNA content [Acta Zoologica Sinica 51(2):360-364,2005].

  10. [Changes of content of regulatory lymphocytes and concentration of soluble interleukine-2 receptor in blood of patients with ischemic heart disease after coronary artery angioplasty with implantation of stents with rapamycin covering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potekhina, A V; Sokolov, V O; Pylaeva, E A; Provatorov, S I; Masenko, V P; Bosykh, E G; Noeva, E A; Krasnikova, T L; Aref'eva, T I

    2011-01-01

    We studied dynamics of content of subpopulation of lymphocytes including regulatory and effector T-lymphocytes as well as concentration of soluble form of interleukine-2 receptor (sCD25) in peripheral blood of patients after coronary stenting (CS) with implantation of stents with rapamycin covering (SRC). We included into the study 62 patients with stable effort II-III functional class angina. Coronary angiography (CA) was carried out in all, CS with implantation of 1 - 2 SRC - in 42 patients. Blood samples were taken before CA/CS, in 24, 48 hours, 7 days, 1 and 3 months after intervention. Content of T-, helper and cytotoxic T-cells, -, NK-, NKT-cells, activated effector T-lymphocytes (CD4+CD251owCD127high) and regulatory T-lymphocytes (CD4+CD25highCD1271ow) were measured by direct immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. CD4+ lymphocytes were isolated from mononuclear cell fraction of donor blood by magnetic separation. Content of regulatory T-lymphocytes in culture were determined by expression of a specific marker FOXP3+. Concentration of sCD25 was measured by chemiluminescent method. It was shown that content of main subpopulations of lymphocytes in blood changed after CS or CF. Blood content of regulatory T-lymphocytes and sCD25 significantly increased after 7 days and 1 month after CS but not after CA. Plasma sCD25 concentration correlated with content of regulatory T-lymphocytes in 1 month after SRC implantation. During cultivation of CD4+ lymphocytes in the presence of rapamycin we noted antiproliferative effect relative to FOXP3-cells and accumulation of regulatory +-lymphocytes. Thus implantation of SRC in coronary arteries leads to increase of number of circulating regulatory T-lymphocytes and blood concentration of sCD25. Changes of these parameters after CS can reflect peculiarities of local and systemic reaction arising in response to introduction of stent with drug covering and be significant for assessment of prognosis of the disease.

  11. Cytokines, STATs and Liver Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Gao

    2005-01-01

    The Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway, activated by more than 50 cytokines or growth factors, plays critical roles in a wide variety of cellular functions in the hematopoietic, immune, neuronal and hepatic systems. In the liver, this signaling pathway, activated by more than 20 cytokines, growth factors, hormones, and hepatitis viral proteins, plays critical roles in antiviral defense, acute phase response, hepatic injury, repair, inflammation, transformation, and hepatitis. This article reviews the biological significance of STAT1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 in hepatic functions and diseases. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.2005;2(2):92-100.

  12. Cytokines, STATs and Liver Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BinGao

    2005-01-01

    The Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway, activated by more than 50 cytokines or growth factors, plays critical roles in a wide variety of cellular functions in the hematopoietic, immune, neuronal and hepatic systems. In the liver, this signaling pathway, activated by more than 20 cytokines, growth factors, hormones, and hepatitis viral proteins, plays critical roles in antiviral defense, acute phase response, hepatic injury, repair, inflammation, transformation, and hepatitis. This article reviews the biological significance of STAT1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 in hepatic functions and diseases. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2005;2(2):92-100.

  13. Parameters оf cytokine regulation as additional criterion of immunodiagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ter-Pogosyan Z. R.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The work goal was to search more informative parameters of cytokine system for laboratory diagnosis in oncological and non-oncological pathology. Methods. The concentrations of some cytokines and chemokines (IL-4, 6, 8 and raIL-1, interferones (IFN-alpha, gamma, (VEGF have been investigated. Results. Outcoming levels of investigated cytokines have exceeded the norm mostly in patients with malignant tumor of brain. The serum level raIL-1 increased in patients with lung cancer and a decrease of this indicator was detected by the end of treatment. Concentration of IL-8 in blood serum, initially increased, in majority of them, 82 %, remained at the previous level by the end of investigation; the averaged level IL-6 was slightly increased and decreased by the end of investigation approximately reaching the norm limits. Serum level raIL-1 increased in 70 % of patients with polytrauma and decreased by the end of treatment. Indicators IL-6 and IL-8 in the same patients initially increased and slightly decreased by the end of investigation. Concentration of VEGF in patients with high level malignancy (G3 comprised 285.9 ± 27.2 pg/ml with a slight increase by the end of investigation while in low level malignancy a reliable decrease in its content was detected. The serum level VEGF in patients with polytrauma increased by the end of investigation, thus in majority of investigated patients with favorable illness process statistically sufficient decrease was detected. Conclusions. The results obtained will help to select much more informative biomarkers that have diagnostic and prognostic importance

  14. Changes in blood sugar content of dogs exposed to chronic gamma radiation for 6 years. [Combined effects of physical stress, heat stress, and acute radiation stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhunov, A.A.

    1978-10-26

    There have not been many studies of blood sugar concentration in animals exposed to chronic gamma radiation, and the results thereof are contradictory. Therefore, data on blood sugar levels in dogs during a 6-year exposure to gamma radiation and after discontinuation thereof are reported.

  15. Short-Term Stability of Whole Blood Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Content on Filter Paper During Storage at -28 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupillo, Daniele; Simonato, Manuela; Cogo, Paola E; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Carnielli, Virgilio P

    2016-02-01

    Finger or heel-pricked blood sampling for fatty acid analysis is suitable especially in newborn infants where blood sampling is difficult and phlebotomy for research can be unethical. The aim of this study was to evaluate dried blood long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) stability during storage at -28 °C. We collected 12 blood cord samples that were analyzed immediately after blood drawing, with and without drying the blood on filter paper. Dried samples were then analyzed 7 days and 1, 3, and 6 months after collection. Butylated hydroxytoluene was added to all samples. Fatty acid composition and (13)C enrichment were measured by gas chromatography and by gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry, respectively. The fatty acid composition, expressed in mol%, of the major LC-PUFA at day 7 was not statistically different from time 0, however lower values were found by the first month of storage. The (13)C enrichment of 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 did not differ during the whole study period. LC-PUFA analysis from dried umbilical cord blood in neonates should be performed within a week, major losses of LC-PUFA occur afterwards. However, fatty acids obtained from dried blood maintain their (13)C enrichment value for up to 6 months and thus these samples are suitable for natural abundance isotopic studies. PMID:26749585

  16. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Index A-Z Blood Clots Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood that can be stationary (thrombosis) ... treated? What are blood clots? Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood. Normally, blood flows freely through ...

  17. Cell surface adhesion molecules and cytokine profiles in primary progressive multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukkonen, Maritta; Wu, Xingchen; Reipert, Birgit;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the utility of adhesion molecule (AM) and cytokine/chemokine expressions in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as markers of disease activity in primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS). METHODS: The expressions of AMs and the levels of 17 cytokines in patients......) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in blood and CSF were higher in PPMS than in controls. Comparison between PPMS and SPMS showed higher levels of ICAM-1 in blood and CSF in PPMS, while the level of the vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) was higher only in blood. There was no difference in the levels...... of cytokines in serum or CSF between PPMS and SPMS or controls, but evidence suggesting intrathecal synthesis of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was found in PPMS. The expressions of CSF VLA-4 in PPMS correlated with the total volume of cerebral lesions and the number...

  18. Postnatal development of monocyte cytokine responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerkovich, Stephanie T; Wikström, Matthew E; Suriyaarachchi, Devinda; Prescott, Susan L; Upham, John W; Holt, Patrick G

    2007-11-01

    Early childhood is a period of heightened susceptibility to infection due to immaturity of the immune system, and the nature of these developmental deficiencies is only partially understood. In this study, we focused on the ontogeny of the innate immune system by investigating the capacity of mononuclear cells to secrete a wide spectrum of inflammatory cytokines in response to interferon (IFN)-gamma priming and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, namely IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-18, IL-23, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and myxovirus resistance protein A, induced by type-I IFN, at several time points between birth (cord blood) and adulthood. Competence to produce all these cytokines followed a similar developmental pattern, with slow postnatal up-regulation from the response observed in cord blood. Unexpectedly, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma showed slow postnatal up-regulation but also elevated cord blood responses equal to or greater than the adult level. This was transient and not observed at 2 mo of age, and was not related to predelivery stress of the newborns. Variations in Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 function may account for these age related differences in cytokine responses, as TLR4 expression on neonatal monocytes post LPS stimulation was elevated and sustained relative to infants and adults. PMID:17805207

  19. Anesthesiology and the cytokine network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Lisowska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The immune response is a highly specific reaction carried out by means of specialized cells that belong to the immune system. There are two types of immune response mechanisms aimed towards pathogens: non-specific, innate reactions, and specific, acquired reactions. Acquired immunity, characterized by its specificity, is comprised of lymphocytes, including both T cell and B cell populations. The role of B lymphocytes is not limited to the humoral response, though the cellular immune response is carried out mainly by various T lymphocyte subpopulations. The reactions of the humoral and cellular responses complement and stimulate one another mutually – cytokines are their common linking element. The attachment of cytokines to their specific receptors activates a sequence of signals – either intracellular or between the cells of various systems. This organization of respective connections and reactions, including the functional relations between cells of the immune response, in its complexity, is best described as a cytokine network. The response of the immune system to surgical trauma can be looked at from both a local and a general perspective. Not only surgical trauma caused by tissue damage, however, influences the functioning of the immune system, but also the drugs and techniques used during anesthesia. Our article is a presentation of the effects of medications used in anesthesia with respect to their influence on the cytokine network.

  20. Cytokines and the Skin Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Malte Baron

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The skin is the largest organ of the human body and builds a barrier to protect us from the harmful environment and also from unregulated loss of water. Keratinocytes form the skin barrier by undergoing a highly complex differentiation process that involves changing their morphology and structural integrity, a process referred to as cornification. Alterations in the epidermal cornification process affect the formation of the skin barrier. Typically, this results in a disturbed barrier, which allows the entry of substances into the skin that are immunologically reactive. This contributes to and promotes inflammatory processes in the skin but also affects other organs. In many common skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, a defect in the formation of the skin barrier is observed. In these diseases the cytokine composition within the skin is different compared to normal human skin. This is the result of resident skin cells that produce cytokines, but also because additional immune cells are recruited. Many of the cytokines found in defective skin are able to influence various processes of differentiation and cornification. Here we summarize the current knowledge on cytokines and their functions in healthy skin and their contributions to inflammatory skin diseases.

  1. Cytokine responses during chronic denervation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsson Tomas

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to examine inflammatory responses during Wallerian degeneration in rat peripheral nerve when the regrowth of axons was prevented by suturing. Methods Transected rat sciatic nerve was sutured and ligated to prevent reinnervation. The samples were collected from the left sciatic nerve distally and proximally from the point of transection. The endoneurium was separated from the surrounding epi- and perineurium to examine the expression of cytokines in both of these compartments. Macrophage invasion into endoneurium was investigated and Schwann cell proliferation was followed as well as the expression of cytokines IL-1β, IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF-α mRNA. The samples were collected from 1 day up to 5 weeks after the primary operation. Results At days 1 to 3 after injury in the epi-/perineurium of the proximal and distal stump, a marked expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β and of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was observed. Concurrently, numerous macrophages started to gather into the epineurium of both proximal and distal stumps. At day 7 the number of macrophages decreased in the perineurium and increased markedly in the endoneurium of both stumps. At this time point marked expression of TNF-α and IFN-γ mRNA was observed in the endo- and epi-/perineurium of the proximal stump. At day 14 a marked increase in the expression of IL-1β could be noted in the proximal stump epi-/perineurium and in the distal stump endoneurium. At that time point many macrophages were observed in the longitudinally sectioned epineurium of the proximal 2 area as well as in the cross-section slides from the distal stump. At day 35 TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 mRNA appeared abundantly in the proximal epi-/perineurium together with macrophages. Conclusion The present studies show that even during chronic denervation there is a cyclic expression pattern for the studied cytokines. Contrary to the

  2. Plasma Cytokine Concentrations in Workers Exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saberi Hosnijeh, F.; Boers, D.; Portengen, L.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Heederik, D.; Vermeulen, R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Few epidemiological studies have studied the effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on blood cytokine levels. In this study we investigated changes in plasma levels of a large panel of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors among workers from a Dutch historical cohort oc

  3. Increased muscle interstitial levels of inflammatory cytokines in polymyalgia rheumatica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Frederik; Langberg, Henning; Galbo, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is characterized by aching of the proximal muscles and increased blood levels of markers of inflammation. Despite the muscle complaints, the current view is that symptoms are caused by inflammation in synovial structures. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the...... the disease mechanisms in symptomatic muscles by measuring interstitial levels of cytokines before and after prednisolone treatment.......Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is characterized by aching of the proximal muscles and increased blood levels of markers of inflammation. Despite the muscle complaints, the current view is that symptoms are caused by inflammation in synovial structures. The purpose of this study was to elucidate...

  4. Decreased glutathione content and glutathione S-transferase activity in red blood cells of coal miners with early stages of pneumoconiosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Evelo, C T; Bos, R P; Borm, P J

    1993-01-01

    Blood samples of miners heavily exposed to coal dust were examined for changes in glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. Decreased GST activity was found in red blood cells of subjects with early stages of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (International Labour Office classification 0/1-1/2) when compared with control miners. At further progression of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (> or = 2/1), the activity of GST was not different from controls. In the same group with moderate coal workers' pne...

  5. Exogenous leptin reduce blood inflammatory cytokines in severe rats acute pancreatitis by suppressing NF-κB activity%外源性瘦素通过抑制NF-κB活性降低大鼠重症急性胰腺炎促炎因子的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英斌; 闫军; 王燕鹏; 刘卓林

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of leptin on transcription factor nuclear-κB (NF-κB) activity of pancreatic tissue and blood inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α,IL-1β) in severe acute pancreatitis. Methods Thirty-six rats were randomly divided into three groups, including sham group (group A, n = 12), AP model group(group B, n = 12) and Leptin treatment group (group C, n = 12). SAP was induced by intraductal injection of 5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic duct. Exogenous leptin was injected I. P. Fifteen minutes later. The concentration of serum amylase, leptin, TNF-α, IL-1βwere measured by radioimmunoassay 6 hours later. NF-κB activity of the pancreatic tissue were measured by immunohistochemistry. The changes of pathology of the pancreas were observed. Results The levels of serum amylase, cytokine TNF-αand IL-1βwere significantly reduced in group C, and the levels of serum leptin were significantly increased in group C. NF-κB activity in the pancreatic tissue in group B were significantly higher than that in group A. However, NF-κB activity of the pancreatic tissue in group C were significantly lower than that in group B. Furthermore, the extent of necrosis of the pancreatic tissue was re-lieved. Conclusion Exogenous leptin protected the rats pancreas against damage by sodium taurocholate. The protective effects of exoge-nous leptin were attributive to the reduction in cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β. The possible protective mechanism was that leptin decreased NF-κB activity.%目的 探讨外源性瘦素(leptin)对重症急性胰腺炎(SAP)大鼠胰腺组织NF-κB活性及血清炎症因子的影响.方法 Wister大鼠36只,分为假手术组、SAP动物模型组、瘦素治疗组,各12只.采用5%牛磺胆酸钠胰胆管顺行注射胰胆管制模,治疗组行外源性瘦素腹腔注射,6h后采血、取胰腺标本,检测各组动物血淀粉酶、瘦素、肿瘤坏死因子α、白细胞介素1β的含量,采用免疫组织化学法测定NF-κB活

  6. Autophagy activity is up-regulated in adipose tissue of obese individuals and modulates proinflammantory cytokine expression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.J.; Essen, van P.; Koenen, T.; Joosten, L.A.; Netea, M.G.; Tack, C.J.; Stienstra, R.

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy, an evolutionary conserved process aimed at recycling damaged organelles and protein aggregates in the cell, also modulates proinflammatory cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Because adipose tissue inflammation accompanied by elevated levels of proinflammatory cytok

  7. Autophagy activity is up-regulated in adipose tissue of obese individuals and modulates proinflammatory cytokine expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.J.; Essen, P. van; Koenen, T.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Netea, M.G.; Tack, C.J.J.; Stienstra, R.

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy, an evolutionary conserved process aimed at recycling damaged organelles and protein aggregates in the cell, also modulates proinflammatory cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Because adipose tissue inflammation accompanied by elevated levels of proinflammatory cytok

  8. Monitoring of the content of phenobarbital and dilantin in blood%苯巴比妥和苯妥英钠血药浓度监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛小琴; 贾雄飞; 张渊

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the content of phenobarbital and dilantin in blood of patients with epilepsia, so as to provide basis for content of drug and treatment strategy. METHODS A total of 247 patients with phenobarbital and dilantin treatment were collected. The content of phenobarbital and dilantin in blood were analyzed. The toxicity and adverse effects were also analyzed. RESULTS The effective blood drug concentration of phenobarbital in blood accounted for 42.59%, which significantly higher than patients with high concentration (2.78%). 54.63% of the patients were within the effective blood drug concentration. Among patients with dilantin, 29.50% of them had lower effective blood drug concentration, and 7.91% of them had higher effective blood drug concentration. 62.59% of them were within the effective blood drug concentration. Among 247 patients, no one showed toxic reaction. 3 patients showed gastrointestinal adverse effects. 2 patients were treated with phenobarbital, and the blood concentration was > 40μg/ml. One patient with dilantin had the blood concentration of > 20μg/ml. One patients with phenobarbital treatment showed adverse reactions in nervous system, and the blood drug concentration was > 40μg/ml. CONCLUSION We should give individual treatment according to the blood drug concentration.%目的 收集癫痫患者经苯巴比妥和苯妥英钠治疗的血药监测结果进行分析,为临床调整患者药物剂量及治疗方案提供参考.方法 收集247名癫痫患者经苯巴比妥和苯妥英钠治疗的患者信息及血药浓度监测结果,分析中毒、不良反应的发生情况.结果 服用苯巴比妥低于有效血药浓度的患者占42.59%,高于有效浓度的患者占2.78%,54.63%的患者血药浓度在有效浓度范围内;服用苯妥英钠的患者中,29.50%低于有效血药浓度,7.91%高于有效浓度,62.59%在有效血药浓度范围内.247名患者,均未发生毒性反应.3名患者出现轻微的胃

  9. Preterm Infants Have Deficient Monocyte and Lymphocyte Cytokine Responses to Group B Streptococcus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Currie, Andrew J.; Curtis, Samantha; Strunk, Tobias; Riley, Karen; Liyanage, Khemanganee; Prescott, Susan; Doherty, Dorota; Simmer, Karen; Richmond, Peter; Burgner, David

    2011-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) is an important cause of early- and late-onset sepsis in the newborn. Preterm infants have markedly increased susceptibility and worse outcomes, but their immunological responses to GBS are poorly defined. We compared mononuclear cell and whole-blood cytokine responses to heat-killed GBS (HKGBS) of preterm infants (gestational age [GA], 26 to 33 weeks), term infants, and healthy adults. We investigated the kinetics and cell source of induced cytokines and quantifie...

  10. Associations of Cytokines, Sleep Patterns, and Neurocognitive Function in Youth with HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Samuel B.; Lu, Ming; Glaze, Daniel G.; Reuben, James M; Harris, Lynnette L.; Cohen, Evan N.; Lee, Bang-Ning; Zhao, Enxu; Paul, Mary E.; Schwarzwald, Heidi; McMullen-Jackson, Chivon; Clark, Charla; Armstrong, F Daniel; Brouwers, Pim Y.; Tracie L. Miller

    2012-01-01

    Youth infected with HIV at birth often have sleep disturbances, neurocognitive deficits, and abnormal psychosocial function which are associated with and possibly resulted from elevated blood cytokine levels that may lead to a decreased quality of life. To identify molecular pathways that might be associated with these disorders, we evaluated 38 HIV-infected and 35 uninfected subjects over 18-months for intracellular cytokine levels, sleep patterns and duration of sleep, and neurodevelopmenta...

  11. Polymorphisms at Cytokine Genes May Determine the Effect of Vitamin E on Cytokine Production in the Elderly1–3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belisle, Sarah E.; Leka, Lynette S.; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Jacques, Paul F.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Meydani, Simin Nikbin

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin E has been shown to affect cytokine production. However, individual response to vitamin E supplementation varies. Previous studies indicate that cytokine production is heritable and common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) may explain differences in cytokine production between individuals. We hypothesize that the differential response to the immunomodulatory actions of vitamin E reflects genetic differences among individuals, including SNP at cytokine genes that modulate cytokine production. We used data from a double-blind, placebo-controlled 1-y vitamin E (182 mg d,l-α-tocopherol) intervention study in elderly men and women (mean age 83 y) to test this hypothesis (vitamin E, n = 47; placebo, n = 63). We found that the effect of vitamin E on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production in whole blood stimulated for 24 h with lipopolysaccharide (1.0 mg/L) is dependent on TNFα -308G > A. Participants with the A/A and A/G genotypes at TNFα -308G > A who were treated with vitamin E had lower TNFα production than those with the A allele treated with placebo. These observations suggest that individual immune responses to vitamin E supplementation are in part mediated by genetic factors. Because the A allele at TNFα has been previously associated with higher TNFα levels in whole blood and isolated immune cells, our observations suggest that the antiinflammatory effect of vitamin E is specific to those genetically predisposed to higher inflammation. Further studies are needed to determine the biological mechanism driving the interaction between vitamin E treatment and TNFα -308G > A and its implications for disease resistance. PMID:19710156

  12. Cytokine profile and lymphocyte subsets in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D is a metabolic disease with inflammation as an important pathogenic background. However, the pattern of immune cell subsets and the cytokine profile associated with development of T2D are unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate different components of the immune system in T2D patients' peripheral blood by quantifying the frequency of lymphocyte subsets and intracellular pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production by T cells. Clinical data and blood samples were collected from 22 men (51.6±6.3 years old with T2D and 20 nonsmoking men (49.4±7.6 years old who were matched for age and sex as control subjects. Glycated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and the lipid profile were measured by a commercially available automated system. Frequencies of lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood and intracellular production of interleukin (IL-4, IL-10, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ cytokines by CD3+ T cells were assessed by flow cytometry. No differences were observed in the frequency of CD19+ B cells, CD3+CD8+ and CD3+CD4+ T cells, CD16+56+ NK cells, and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells in patients with T2D compared with controls. The numbers of IL-10- and IL-17-producing CD3+ T cells were significantly higher in patients with T2D than in controls (P<0.05. The frequency of interferon-γ-producing CD3+ T cells was positively correlated with body mass index (r=0.59; P=0.01. In conclusion, this study shows increased numbers of circulating IL-10- and IL-17-producing CD3+ T cells in patients with T2D, suggesting that these cytokines are involved in the immune pathology of this disease.

  13. Optimal Method to Stimulate Cytokine Production and Its Use in Immunotoxicity Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Huiming Chen; Lei Li; Naining Song; Haishan Li; Wenchao Ai

    2013-01-01

    Activation of lymphocytes can effectively produce a large amount of cytokines. The types of cytokines produced may depend on stimulating reagents and treatments. To find an optimal method to stimulate cytokine production and evaluate its effect on immunotoxicity assessments, the authors analyzed production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-γ, TNF-α, GM-CSF, RANTES and TGF-β in undiluted rat whole blood culture (incubation for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 h) with different concentrations of PMA/io...

  14. 不同影像学特发性间质性肺炎患者外周血细胞因子及肺功能比较研究%Comparative study on cytokines in peripheral blood and lung function of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia patients with different imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白久武; 李惠萍; 李霞; 徐金富; 徐丽云; 卫平

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过对不同影像学特发性间质性肺炎(IIP)患者及正常人外周血几种细胞因子及肺功能对比研究,探讨细胞因子在IIP进展中的作用.方法 对蜂窝肺组、磨玻璃影组IIP患者及对照组外周血白介素1(IL-1)、白介索2受体(IL-2R)、IL-5、IL-6、干扰素(IFN)、肿瘤坏死因子(TNF)水平及用力肺活量(FVC)占预计值%、第1秒用力呼气容积(FEV1)占预计值%、FEV1/FVC、肺一氧化碳弥散量(DLCO)占预计值%进行测定.结果 ①蜂窝肺组患者外周血IL-1、IL-2R、IL-5、IL-6、TNF水平均较对照组升高(P<0.05或P<0.01);磨玻璃影组外周血IL-5、TNF水平均较对照组升高(P<0.05或P<0.01);蜂窝肺组患者外周血IL-2R、IL-5、TNF水平均较磨玻璃影组升高(P<0.05或P<0.01).②与对照组比较,蜂窝肺组和磨玻璃影组FVC占预计值0A、FEV1占预计值%、DLCO占预计值%均下降(P值均<0.01),磨玻璃影组FEV1/FVC较对照组升高(P<0.05),磨玻璃影组FVC占预计值%较蜂窝肺组降低(P<0.05).结论 外周血IL-1、IL-6、IL-2R水平在一定程度上可作为预测肺纤维化进展的标志物.%Objective To explore the roles of cytokines in the progress of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) through detecting the concentration of several cytokines in peripheral blood and lung function of IIP patients with different imaging and normal persons. Methods The concentration of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R), IL-5, IL-6, interferon (IFN), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in peripheral blood and lung function including forced vital capacity/predicted value (FVC pred%), forced expiratory volume in one second/predicted value (FEV^ pred%) , forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity ( FEV, /FVC), diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide/predicted value (DLCO pred%) were determined in honeycomb lung group, ground-glass opacity group,and normal control group. Results The concentration of IL-1,IL-2R

  15. Avian cytokines in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wigley P

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are proteins secreted by cells that play an important role in the activation and regulation of other cells and tissues during inflammation and immune responses. Although well described in several mammalian species, the role of cytokines and other related proteins is poorly understood in avian species. Recent advances in avian genetics and immunology have begun to allow the exploration of cytokines in health and disease. Cytokines may be classified in a number of ways, but may be conveniently arranged into four broad groups on the basis of their function. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 and interleukin-1beta play a role in mediating inflammation during disease or injury. Th1 cytokines, including interleukin-12 and interferon-gamma, are involved in the induction of cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cytokines such as interleukin-4 are involved in the induction of humoral immunity. The final group Th3 or Tr cytokines play a role in regulation of immunity. The role of various cytokines in infectious and non-infectious diseases of chickens and turkeys is now being investigated. Although there are only a few reliable ELISAs or bioassays developed for avian cytokines, the use of molecular techniques, and in particular quantitative RT-PCR (Taqman has allowed investigation of cytokine responses in a number of diseases including salmonellosis, coccidiosis and autoimmune thyroiditis. In addition the use of recombinant cytokines as therapeutic agents or as vaccine adjuvants is now being explored.

  16. Smoke exposure of human macrophages reduces HDAC3 activity, resulting in enhanced inflammatory cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Aaron R; Nocka, Karl N; Williams, Cara M M

    2012-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a debilitating condition resulting from exposure to pollutants such as cigarette smoke. Pulmonary macrophages secrete a plethora of inflammatory mediators that are increased in the lungs of COPD patients, but whether this phenotype results directly from smoke exposure remains unknown. Using an in vitro model for alveolar macrophages (AM) derived from human peripheral blood monocytes with granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor (GM-MØ), we analyzed the mechanistic connection between cigarette smoke exposure and histone deacetylase (HDAC) regulation, hypothesized to be a contributing factor in COPD pathophysiology. Here we show that acute smoke exposure inhibits HDAC enzymatic activity in GM-MØ. Analysis of mRNA and total cellular proteins for expression of class I (1, 2, 3 and 8), class II (4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10), and class IV (11) HDAC revealed no effect of smoke exposure, whereas nuclear HDAC3 protein content was reduced. To better understand the physiological significance of reduced HDAC3 activity, we utilized siRNA to knockdown HDAC1, 2 and 3 individually. Interestingly, siRNA-mediated reduction of HDAC3 resulted in increased production of IL8 and IL1β in response to LPS stimulation, while HDAC2 knockdown had no effect on either cytokine. Lower nuclear content of HDAC3 in the context of equivalent total HDAC protein levels following smoke exposure may reflect increased nuclear export of HDAC3, allowing increased nuclear factor kappa b (NF-κB ) driven cytokine expression that can contribute to inflammation. PMID:22613758

  17. Milk and Blood Cortisol and T3 Hormones Content and Milk Composition in Buffaloes as a Function of Lactating Number and Ambient Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of lactating number and ambient temperature on T3 and cortisol levels in each of milk and blood and milk composition of lactating Water buffaloes was the objective of this study. The experiment was carried out on 72 animals including two periods through 1994. The first was carried out on 36 animals in February where the average of ambient temperature was 17.5 degree, while the second was conducted on another 36 animals in July where the average of ambient temperature was 37.1 degree . In both two periods, the animals were classified according to lactating number into 6 equal groups from the 1st to 6 th lactation number. The data showed that milk yield and T3, either in milk or in blood and milk fat, protein and lactose were significantly lower in July than in February. Whereas the opposite was true with cortisol level either in milk or in blood. Concerning the effect of lactation number, it was observed that milk and blood T3, milk and blood cortisol and milk fat, protein and lactose were affected significantly due to lactation number

  18. Stability and reproducibility of ADVIA 120-measured red blood cell and platelet parameters in dogs, cats, and horses, and the use of reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CH(R)) in the diagnosis of iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, M; van Leeuwen, M W; Teske, E

    2009-04-01

    Modern laser-based haematology analysers such as the ADVIA 120 have species-specific software and offer the possibility of assessing new haematological parameters. These parameters have yet to be evaluated, and as these analysers are often used in referral laboratories, it is important to know whether the values of haematological parameters change during sample transport. Therefore, samples of EDTA-anticoagulated blood from nine healthy dogs and EDTA- and citrate-anticoagulated blood from six healthy horses were collected and stored at room temperature for 72 and 48 hours, respectively. In canine samples, WBC and the red blood cell parameters Hb, Hb(cell), Ht, MCV, and MCHC changed significantly after only 24 hours of storage. Thus if canine blood samples need to be stored for 24 hours or longer, Hb, RBC, and MCH would appear to be more reliable parameters than Ht, Hb(cell), MCV, and MCHC. The cytoplasmic haemoglobin content (CH(R)) remained stable up to 48 hours. Both dog and horse platelet numbers were stable over time when blood was anticoagulated with EDTA. Of the platelet-derived parameters, MPC was already significantly lower 2 hours after collection of equine blood samples and was also significantly lower 24 hours after collection of canine blood samples. In contrast, MPV levels were significantly higher 48 hours after sample collection. Initial platelet numbers and platelet parameters were significantly different in citrate-anticoagulated blood and EDTA-anticoagulated blood, and platelet numbers and MPM decreased significantly in citrate-anticoagulated blood samples after only 4 hours of storage. After reference intervals for CH(R) had been established using samples from 53 non-anaemic dogs and 150 non-anaemic cats, the use of CH(R) to detect iron deficiency anaemia was tested in 63 dogs and 55 cats with different diseases. With the help of ROC curves, the optimal cut-off point was determined to be 1.22 fmol in dogs and 0.88 fmol in cats, resulting in a

  19. A role for autoantibodies in enhancement of pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to a self-antigen, thyroid peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus H; Brix, Thomas H; Leslie, R Graham Q;

    2009-01-01

    individuals with no familiar disposition to AITD, and mixed each serum with normal mononuclear cells (MNCs). Following challenge with TPO, the MNCs' production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IFN-gamma, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, correlated with the TPOAb content...... that TPO-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from phagocytic cells and T-cell responses to TPO are promoted by TPOAbs....

  20. EVALUATION OF CYTOKINE GENE POLYMORPHISM IN B CELL LYMPHOID MALIGNANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Nazarova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies with some solid tumors has shown that polymorphisms of certain cytokine genes may be used as predictors of clinical outcome in the patients. It seemed important to evaluate potential correlations between production of certain pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and co-receptor molecules, and promoter polymorphism of the cytokine genes involved into regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism and blood clotting in the patients with hematological malignancies. The article contains our results concerning associations between of IL-1β, -2, -4, -10, -17, TNFα, and allelic polymorphisms of their genes in 62 patients with B cell lymphoid malignancies in an ethnically homogenous group (self-identified as Russians. We have shown that the GА and AA genotypes of the G-308A polymorphism in TNFα gene are significantly associated with increased production of this cytokine, being more common in aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas, more rare in multiple myeloma and in indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

  1. 不同细胞因子组合对脐血造血干细胞体外扩增效果分析%Effect of different human recombinant cytokine combinations on the expansion of cord blood haemopoietic stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆宝; 魏亚明; 张印则

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the expansion efficiency of cord blood haemopoietic stem cells when cultured with dif-feront human recombinant cytokine combinations. Methods Mononuclear cells separated from cord blood were cultured in Iscove Modified Dulbccoo's medium(IMDM). Seven experimental groups (A——-G) were set up according to the addition of different cytokine combinations. Mononuclear cells were counted by trypan blue exclusion and the CD34+ cells were sorted by flow eytometry on the 3rd, 7th, and 14th culture day. Results Compared with the control group, the amount of mononu-clear cells in each experimental group increased significantly. Except group F, which reached the peak expansion of (15.60 ± 10. 90) × 109/L, on the 14th culture day, all other six groups showed peak expansion on the 7th day, among which group E was the highest [(17. 11±6. 12) × 109/L]. The percentage of CD34+ cells in group A, D, E, F, and G peaked on the 7th culture day, and the peak expansion in group B and C was observed on the 14th culture day. The number of CD34+ cells in unit volume among the seven groups ranged from (34. 7 ± 10. 4) × 107/L (group A) to ( 168.6 ± 43. 5 ) × 107/L (group E), with 10——50 folds of expansion. Conclusion All the experimental groups with different human re-combinant cytokine combinations could improve the expansion efficiency of cord blood mononuclear cells and CD34+ cells. The group with the combination of SCF + IL-3,-6 ,-2,-4 achieved the peak expansion on the 7th culture day.%目的 观察不同细胞因子组合对脐血干细胞体外扩增效果的影响.方法 用含15%胎牛血清的改良细胞培养液,按加入的不同细胞因子组合分成7个实验组(A-G)进行细胞培养.分别于培养0d、3d、7d、14d取培养液,台盼蓝染色计数单个核细胞的总数、流式细胞仪分析CD34+细胞含量.结果 与对照组相比,含细胞因子的7个实验组单个核细胞的数量均显著增加,除F组在培养d14

  2. Blood lead levels, δ-ALAD inhibition, and hemoglobin content in blood of giant toad (Rhinella marina) to assess lead exposure in three areas surrounding an industrial complex in Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilizaliturri-Hernández, César Arturo; González-Mille, Donaji Josefina; Mejía-Saavedra, Jesús; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván

    2013-02-01

    The Coatzacoalcos Region in Veracruz, Mexico houses one of the most important industrial complexes in Mexico and Latin America. Lead is an ubiquitous environmental pollutant which represents a great risk to human health and ecosystems. Amphibian populations have been recognized as biomonitors of changes in environmental conditions. The purpose of this research is to measure exposure to lead and evaluate hematological and biochemical effects in specimens of giant toads (Rhinella marina) taken from three areas surrounding an industrial complex in the Coatzacoalcos River downstream. Lead levels in toads' blood are between 10.8 and 70.6 μg/dL and are significantly higher in industrial sites. We have found a significant decrease in the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity in blood from 35.3 to 78 % for the urban-industrial and industrial sites, respectively. In addition, we have identified a strong inverse relationship between the δ-ALAD activity and the blood lead levels (r = -0.84, p marina can be considered a good biomonitor of the δ-ALAD activity inhibition and hematological alterations at low lead concentrations. PMID:22580791

  3. 非重症及重症脓毒症患者外周血单核细胞炎性因子分泌及Toll样受体4表达的研究%Cytokine production and Toll-like receptor 4 expression of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with sepsis or severe sepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕国杰; 聂秀红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate cytokine production and Toll -like receptor 4 (TLR4)expression of peripheral blood mononuclear cells ( PBMCs ) stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in septic patients and severe septic patients with Gram -negative bacterial infections. Methods 52 patients who were diagnosed as sepsis in Intensive Care Unit of our hospital, infected with Gram -negative bacterial,were enrolled in this study: 28 with sepsis, 24 with severe sepsis, and 30 healthy volunteers were included as control. The morning blood samples were obtained for isolated PBMCs. The isolated PBMCs were cultured with LPS ( 1 μg/mL) for 24 hours. TLR4 expression of cultured PBMCs was also measured by flow cytometer. Concentrations of tumor necrosis factor - α (TNF - α),interleukin - 10 ( IL - 10 ) in serum and culture supernatant were measured by radioimmunoassay.Results ①After stimulated by LPS, the concentrations of TNF - α in culture supernatant from severe septic group were significantly decreased compared with those from septic group and healthy controls (P < 0. 05). Isolated PBMCs, cultured with LPS from severe septic group, had a markedly higher IL -10 production in culture supernatant than those from septic group and healthy controls(P < 0. 05). IL -10/TNF-α in culture supernatant from severe septic group were significantly higher than those from septic group and healthy controls(P < 0. 01 ). ②TLR4 expression of PBMCs, stimulated by LPS, has no significant differences in three groups (P > 0. 05 ). Conclusion After stimulated by LPS, down -regulation of pro -inflammatory cytokine release (compare with sepsis group )and up -regulation of anti - inflammatory cytokine release could be seen in monocytes isolated from patients with severe sepsis,IL - 10/TNF - c ratio are significantly higher than other groups. Patients with severe sepsis have severe immune dysfunction, which did not depend on the reductions of TLR4 expression on PBMCs surface, and other complex

  4. High content of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in red blood cells of Kenyan Maasai despite low dietary intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiage-Mokua Beatrice N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing land restrictions and a reduced livestock-to-human ratio during the 20th century led the Maasai to lead a more sedentary, market-orientated lifestyle. Although plant-derived food nowadays contributes substantially to their diet, dairy products being high in saturated fatty acids (SFA and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA still are an important energy source. Since reliable data regarding the Maasai diet date back to the 1980s, the study objective was to document current diet practices in a Kenyan Maasai community and to investigate the fatty acid distribution in diet and red blood cells. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 26 Maasai (20 women, 6 men from Loodokilani, Kajiado District, Kenya. Food intake was described by the subjects via 24-h recall, and both food and blood samples were analysed. Results Two main foods - milk and ugali - constituted the Maasai diet in this region. A total of 0.9 L of milk and 0.6 kg of ugali were consumed per person and day to yield an energy intake of 7.6 MJ/d per person. A major proportion of ingested food contributing 58.3% to the total dietary energy (en% was plant-derived, followed by dairy products representing 41.1 en%. Fat consumed (30.5 en% was high in SFA (63.8% and low in PUFA (9.2%. Long-chain n-3 PUFA (EPA, DPA and DHA made up only 0.15% of the ingested fatty acids, but 5.9% of red blood cell fatty acids. Conclusion The study indicates the Maasai diet is rich in SFA and low in PUFA. Nevertheless, red blood cells are composed of comparable proportions of long-chain n-3 PUFA to populations consuming higher amounts of this fatty acid group.

  5. Plasma cytokines in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Krarup; Boysen, Gudrun; Christensen, Erik;

    2011-01-01

    GOALS: The aim of this study was to test the relations between plasma cytokines and the clinical characteristics, course, and risk factors in acute stroke. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The analysis was based on 179 patients with acute stroke included within 24 hours of stroke onset. On inclusion and 3...... months later plasma levels of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNF-R1), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNF-R2) were...

  6. Malaria: toxins, cytokines and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Bate, C A; Taverne, J;

    1995-01-01

    In this review the old concept of severe malaria as a toxic disease is re-examined in the light of recent discoveries in the field of cytokines. Animal studies suggest that the induction of TNF by parasite-derived molecules may be partly responsible for cerebral malaria and anemia, while...... hypoglycaemia may be due to direct effects of similar molecules on glucose metabolism. These molecules appear to be phospholipids and we suggest that when fully characterized they might form the basis of antitoxic therapy for malaria....

  7. Impacts of Shisiwei Jianzhong Decoction on the Convulsion Latency and the Content of Cytokines in Brain Tissue of the Mice with Oxygen Convulsion%十四味建中汤对氧惊厥小鼠惊厥潜伏期及脑组织炎症细胞因子含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷箴; 王国忠

    2015-01-01

    Objective To discuss the impacts and significance of shisiwei jianzhong decoction on convulsion latency and the content of IL - 1β and IL - 10 in brain tissue of the mice with oxygen convulsion. Methods Fifty - six mice were randomized into 7 groups,named an oxygen - convulsion 6 h group(6 h group),a 24 h group,a 48 h group,a shisiwei jianzhong decoction + oxygen - convulsion 6 h group(a therapy 6 h group),a therapy 24 h group,a therapy 48group and a normal control group. In all of the therapy groups, 2 weeks before convulsion induced by oxygen,shishiwei jianzhong decoction was used for gastric perfusion, once every day. The mice in all of the oxygen convulsion groups and the therapy groups were placed in 500 kPa oxygen environment till the seizure so as to prepare the model of oxygen convulsion. The enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the content of IL - 1β and IL - 10 in brain tissue. Results There was no significant difference in convulsion latency between the therapy groups and the oxygen convulsion groups(P ﹥ 0. 05). In the 24 h group and the 48 h group,the content of IL - 1β was higher significantly than that in the normal control group,indicating the significant difference(P ﹤ 0. 05),and that in the therapy 24 h group and the therapy 48 h group was lower significantly than that in the corresponding oxygen convulsion groups of the same time point,indicating the significant difference in the pair comparison(P ﹤ 0. 05). At the same time point,the difference in the content of IL - 10 was not significant among the oxygen convulsion groups,the therapy groups and the normal control group(P ﹥ 0. 05). Conclusion Shisiwei jianzhong decoc-tion does not significantly prolong the latency of oxygen convulsion in the mice,but it effectively reduces the content of IL - 1β,benefits the re - balance of proinflammatory cytokine and anti - inflammatory cytokine and alleviates the convulsive brain damage.%目的:探讨十四味建中汤对氧惊

  8. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called homologous blood donation. Many communities have a blood bank at which any healthy person can donate blood. ... need to arrange with your hospital or local blood bank before your surgery to have directed donor blood. ...

  9. Forensic-metrological considerations on assessment of compliance (or non-compliance) in forensic blood alcohol content determinations: A case study with software application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamengo, Luca; Frison, Giampietro; Tedeschi, Gianpaola; Frasson, Samuela

    2016-08-01

    Blood alcohol concentration is the most frequent analytical determination carried out in forensic toxicology laboratories worldwide. It is usually required to assess if an offence has been committed by comparing blood alcohol levels with specified legal limits, which can vary widely among countries. Due to possible serious legal consequences associated with non-compliant alcohol levels, measurement uncertainty should be carefully evaluated, along with other metrological aspects which can influence the final result. The whole procedure can be time-consuming and error-generating in routine practice, increasing the risks for unreliable assessments. A software application named Ethanol WorkBook (EtWB) was developed at the author's laboratory by using Visual Basic for Application language and MS Excel(®), with the aim of providing help to forensic analysts involved in blood alcohol determinations. The program can (i) calculate measurement uncertainties and decision limits with different methodologies; (ii) assess compliance to specification limits with a guard-band approach; (iii) manage quality control (QC) data and create control charts for QC samples; (iv) create control maps from real cases data archives; (v) provide laboratory reports with graphical outputs for elaborated data and (vi) create comprehensive searchable case archives. A typical example of drink driving case is presented and discussed to illustrate the importance of a metrological approach for reliable compliance assessment and to demonstrate software application in routine practice. The tool is made freely available to the scientific community at request. PMID:26921868

  10. Clinical implication of perioperative inflammatory cytokine alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsing, Chung-Hsi; Wang, Jhi-Joung

    2015-03-01

    Cytokines are key modulators of inflammatory responses, and play an important role in the defense and repair mechanisms following trauma. After traumatic injury, an immuno-inflammatory response is initiated immediately, and cytokines rapidly appear and function as a regulator of immunity. In pathologic conditions, imbalanced cytokines may provide systemic inflammatory responses or immunosuppression. Expression of perioperative cytokines vary by different intensities of surgical trauma and types of anesthesia and anesthetic agents. Inflammatory cytokines play important roles in postoperative organ dysfunction including central nervous system, cardiovascular, lung, liver, and kidney injury. Inhibition of cytokines could protect against traumatic injury in some circumstances, therefore cytokine inhibitors or antagonists might have the potential for reducing postoperative tissue/organ dysfunction. Cytokines are also involved in wound healing and post-traumatic pain. Application of cytokines for the improvement of surgical wound healing has been reported. Anesthesia-related immune response adjustment might reduce perioperative morbidity because it reduces proinflammatory cytokine expression; however, the overall effects of anesthetics on postoperative immune-inflammatory responses needs to be further investigated. PMID:25837846

  11. A method for the determination of carbon 13 content in glucose and glycerol of blood plasma; Methode pour la determination de la teneur en carbone 13 du glucose et du glycerol dans les plasmas sanguins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koziet, J. [Centre de Recherche Pernod-Ricard, 94 - Creteil (France)

    1994-12-31

    The coupled gaseous chromatography and isotope ratio mass spectrometry approach was first validated on beet and maize glucose and glycerol aqueous solutions containing variable carbon 13 content. Then human plasma was used to prepare samples where glucose and glycerol were labelled with small amounts of (1.3-{sup 13}C{sub 2})-glycerol and D-(U{sup 13}-C{sub 6})-glucose. The samples are then de-proteinized with acetone before lyophilization and acetylation in order to be able to measure them in the form of acetates. Carbon 13 content evaluation should then take into account the exogenous carbons from the acetyl radicals. This method appears well adapted to the simultaneous metabolic monitoring of glycerol and glucose in the blood plasma. 1 fig., 3 tabs., 5 refs.

  12. An assessment of morphometric indices, blood chemistry variables and an energy meter as indicators of the whole body lipid content in Micropterus dolomieu, Sander vitreus and Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Rose, Brien P.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of several non-lethal techniques as indicators of total lipid content in smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, walleye Sander vitreus and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was investigated. The techniques included (1) the Fulton and relative condition factors, (2) relative mass, (3) plasma indicators of nutritional status (alkaline phosphatase, calcium, cholesterol, protein, triglycerides and glucose) and (4) readings from a hand-held, microwave energy meter. Although simple linear regression analysis showed that lipid content was significantly correlated with several predictor variables in each species, the r2 values for the relations ranged from 0·17 to 0·50 and no single approach was consistent for all species. Only one model, between energy-meter readings and lipid content in I. punctatus, had an r2 value (0·83) high enough to justify using it as a predictive tool. Results indicate that no single variable was an accurate and reliable indicator of whole body lipid content in these fishes, except the energy meter for I. punctatus.

  13. CCL2 modulates cytokine production in cultured mouse astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frugier Tony

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chemokine CCL2 (also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, or MCP-1 is upregulated in patients and rodent models of traumatic brain injury (TBI, contributing to post-traumatic neuroinflammation and degeneration by directing the infiltration of blood-derived macrophages into the injured brain. Our laboratory has previously reported that Ccl2-/- mice show reduced macrophage accumulation and tissue damage, corresponding to improved motor recovery, following experimental TBI. Surprisingly, Ccl2-deficient mice also exhibited delayed but exacerbated secretion of key proinflammatory cytokines in the injured cortex. Thus we sought to further characterise CCL2's potential ability to modulate immunoactivation of astrocytes in vitro. Methods Primary astrocytes were isolated from neonatal wild-type and Ccl2-deficient mice. Established astrocyte cultures were stimulated with various concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS and interleukin (IL-1β for up to 24 hours. Separate experiments involved pre-incubation with mouse recombinant (rCCL2 prior to IL-1β stimulation in wild-type cells. Following stimulation, cytokine secretion was measured in culture supernatant by immunoassays, whilst cytokine gene expression was quantified by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results LPS (0.1-100 μg/ml; 8 h induced the significantly greater secretion of five key cytokines and chemokines in Ccl2-/- astrocytes compared to wild-type cells. Consistently, IL-6 mRNA levels were 2-fold higher in Ccl2-deficient cells. IL-1β (10 and 50 ng/ml; 2-24 h also resulted in exacerbated IL-6 production from Ccl2-/- cultures. Despite this, treatment of wild-type cultures with rCCL2 alone (50-500 ng/ml did not induce cytokine/chemokine production by astrocytes. However, pre-incubation of wild-type astrocytes with rCCL2 (250 ng/ml, 12 h prior to stimulation with IL-1β (10 ng/ml, 8 h significantly reduced IL-6 protein and gene

  14. CYTOKINES AND HERPESVIRUSES IN CHILDREN WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Zheleznikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It was determined earlier (G.P. Ivanova, 2012 that a chronic course of leukoencephalitis in teenagers caused by inadequate response of cytokine system to the combination of two herpesviruses (HV — EBV and HHV-6, leads to the development of multiple sclerosis (MS in 44% of cases. The research objective was to characterize the cytokine response in children with MS with simultaneous screening of the presence of active HV infections. 39 children with the diagnosis “MS” were under observation, 34 of them had relapsing-remitting (RR MS, and 5 children had a progressing course of MS (PMS. Concentration of cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFNα, IFNγ, and IL-4 was identified in blood serum and cerebrospinal liquid (CSF by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, HV DNA was revealed by PCR. Cytokine status in children with MS had some differences depending on the phase of the disease, clinical severity of the relapse and the course of MS. The relapse phase of RRMS was associated with the accumulation of IL-8, IL-10, and IL-6 in the blood, and index IFNγ/IL-4 modulations in accordance with the clinical severity of the relapse. A severe aggravation of the disease in children with PMS was accompanied by the increase of IL-8 system response. HV DNA was revealed in 27 patients from 39 ones (69% in blood and in 17 patients (44% in CSF with the predominance of EBV (93%, frequently in combination with HHV-6. During an acute period the frequency of HV DNA identification increased 2–3 times to compare with the remission period. Unlike children with RRMS, a mixed-infection of 3–4 herpes viruses was revealed in all 5 patients with PMS. According to the results summary it is possible to make a conclusion that HV-infection has an important role in MS pathogenesis in teenagers, taking part in the aggravation and progression of the disease by its effect on the cytokine system response. EBV-infection dominates among HV, however the risk of MS development

  15. Optimal Method to Stimulate Cytokine Production and Its Use in Immunotoxicity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiming Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Activation of lymphocytes can effectively produce a large amount of cytokines. The types of cytokines produced may depend on stimulating reagents and treatments. To find an optimal method to stimulate cytokine production and evaluate its effect on immunotoxicity assessments, the authors analyzed production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-γ, TNF-α, GM-CSF, RANTES and TGF-β in undiluted rat whole blood culture (incubation for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 h with different concentrations of PMA/ionomycin, PHA, Con A, LPS and PWM. We also evaluated the effects of cyclosporin A and azathioprine on cytokine production. The results revealed a rapid increase of IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, RANTES and TGF-β secretion within 6 h after stimulation with 25 ng/mL PMA and 1 μg/mL ionomycin. The inhibition of these cytokine profiles reflected the effects of immunosuppressants on the immune system. Therefore, the results of this is study recommend the detection of cytokine profiles in undiluted whole blood stimulated 6 h with 25 ng/mL PMA and 1 μg/mL ionomycin as a powerful immunotoxicity assessment method.

  16. 尘螨变应性哮喘患儿外周血T淋巴细胞中协同刺激分子和细胞因子的异常表达及其意义%Abnormal Expressions of Costimulatory Molecules and Cytokines of Peripheral Blood T Lymphocyte Cell in Children with Dust Mite Allergic Asthma and Their Significances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施筠; 王婷; 於葛华; 王凤鸣

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析变应原刺激前后变应性哮喘患儿外周血T淋巴细胞表面协同刺激分子及胞内细胞因子表达的变化,探讨CD28家族不同协同刺激信号在变应性哮喘免疫病理机制中的作用.方法 选取尘螨变应性哮喘患儿(哮喘组)和健康儿童(健康对照组)各30例,密度梯度离心法分离其外周血单个核细胞,应用免疫荧光标记和流式细胞术检测尘螨刺激前后体外培养的CD4+T淋巴细胞表面协同刺激分子CD28可诱导共刺激分子(ICOS)和细胞毒T淋巴细胞相关抗原4(CTLA-4)的表达,运用细胞内染色技术检测CD4+T淋巴细胞内细胞因子γ干扰素(IFN-γ)、IL-4和IL-13的表达.并运用统计学方法比较哮喘组和健康对照组之间的差异.结果 哮喘组患儿外周血CD4+T淋巴细胞表面CD28和ICOS的表达与健康对照组比较差异均无统计学意义(Pa>0.05),而CTLA-4的表达显著降低(P<0.01);细胞内IFN-γ表达水平显著升高(P<0.0001),而IL-4和IL-13表达水平无明显变化(Pa>0.05).经尘螨刺激后,体外培养的哮喘患儿外周血CD4+T淋巴细胞表面ICOS的表达较健康对照组儿童显著上调(P<0.0001),CD28和CTA-4的表达则无明显变化(Pa>0.05);细胞内细胞因子IL-4和IL-13的表达显著上调(Pa<0.0001),而IFN-γ的表达则无明显差异(P>0.05).结论 变应性哮喘患儿外周血存在组成性的CTLA-4的表达下调和细胞因子IFN-γ的表达上调,介导Th1型细胞的异常活化;而变应原尘螨的刺激又介导了ICOS依赖的Th2型细胞的分化,导致Th1/Th2失衡.%Objective To analyze abnormal costimulatory molecules and cytokines secretion of T lymphocyte cell in peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated by allergens in children with dust mite { DM) allergic asthmatics. To explore the roles of inducible costimulatnry molecules (ICOS), CD28 and cytotoxic T - lymphocyte antigen - 4 ( CTLA - 4) in the immunnlogical pathogenesis of allergic asthma

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  18. Cytokine production by cells in cerebrospinal fluid during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in SJL/J mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renno, T; Lin, J Y; Piccirillo, C;

    1994-01-01

    , normalized to actin, were almost undetectable in control tissues, and only slightly elevated in whole CNS tissue from animals with mild EAE. Both cytokine messages were strongly upregulated in CNS tissues derived from severely affected animals, consistent with previous observations correlating disease...... progression with infiltration by memory/effector CD4+ T cells, the major source of these cytokines. This cytokine upregulation was specific to the CNS, since other organs from the same animals did not express significant levels of IL-2 and IFN-gamma. CSF was obtained from the cisterna magna of unperfused mice...... and verified as such by absence of red blood cells (RBCs) and by immunoglobulin concentration orders of magnitude lower than in serum. Cytokine message was measured in RNA isolated from cells in CSF. Levels of IL-2 and IFN-gamma mRNA in CSF cells were significantly elevated in mild EAE and strongly upregulated...

  19. Chalcones from Chinese liquorice inhibit proliferation of T cells and production of cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Lea; Kemp, Kåre; Hansen, Majbritt;

    2002-01-01

    out of five chalcones tested inhibited the proliferation of lymphocytes measured by thymidine incorporation and by flow cytometry. The production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines from monocytes and T cells was also inhibited by four of five chalcones. Furthermore, intracellular detection......Licochalcone A (LicA), an oxygenated chalcone, has been shown to inhibit the growth of both parasites and bacteria. In this study, we investigated the effect of LicA and four synthetic analogues on the activity of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and cytokine production. Four...... of cytokines revealed that the chalcones inhibited the production rather than the release of the cytokines. Taken together, these results indicate that LicA and some analogues may have immunomodulatory effects, and may thus be candidates not only as anti-microbial agents, but also for the treatment of other...

  20. THE CONTENT OF MICROELEMENTS IN BLOOD SERUM AND ERYTHROCYTES IN CHILDREN WITH DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE I DEPENDING ON LEVEL OF GLYCEMIC CONTROL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluschenko, N; Vasylyshyn, Kh; Roschupkin, A; Lekishvili, S; Gladchenko, O

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the content of chromium, cobalt and nickel in serum and erythrocytes in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, depending on the level of glycemic control. The study was conducted on 68 children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The patients were divided into four groups based on glycemic control. Group I was composed of 9 children with optimal level of glycemic control. Group II - 25 children with suboptimal level of glycemic control. Group III - 34 children with a high risk to life level of glycemic control. Group IV (control group) consisted of 30 healthy children. Compensation state of type 1 diabetes was evaluated according to ISPAD (Consensus for the Management of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Adolescens 2000). The content of trace elements in biological agents was determined by atomic absorbtion spectrophotometry method with C-115M1 mass-spectrophotometer, manufactured by «Selmi» enterprise (Ukraine). It is found that there is a decrease in serum concentrations of chromium and erythrocyte content of cobalt in patients with optimal level of glycemic control. The deficiency of chromium is accompanied by the deficiency of cobalt in patients with suboptimal level of glycemic control. The lower levels of cobalt and nickel are recorded simultaneously, but there is theexcess of chromium in the erythrocytes of these patients. Patients, who suffer from 1 type diabetes mellitus and high risk for life level of glycemic control have considerable polideficiency of cobalt, nickel and chromium in serum.The increasing level of chromium was recorded only in the erythrocytes. The level of glycemic control and the duration of 1 type diabetes mellitus are important in the forecasting of the development of chronic diabetic complications. It is found that the duration of 1 type diabetes mellitus influences the levels of cobalt and nickel in serum mostly, while the level of glycemic control influences the chromium content. PMID

  1. THE CONTENT OF MICROELEMENTS IN BLOOD SERUM AND ERYTHROCYTES IN CHILDREN WITH DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE I DEPENDING ON LEVEL OF GLYCEMIC CONTROL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluschenko, N; Vasylyshyn, Kh; Roschupkin, A; Lekishvili, S; Gladchenko, O

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the content of chromium, cobalt and nickel in serum and erythrocytes in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, depending on the level of glycemic control. The study was conducted on 68 children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The patients were divided into four groups based on glycemic control. Group I was composed of 9 children with optimal level of glycemic control. Group II - 25 children with suboptimal level of glycemic control. Group III - 34 children with a high risk to life level of glycemic control. Group IV (control group) consisted of 30 healthy children. Compensation state of type 1 diabetes was evaluated according to ISPAD (Consensus for the Management of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Adolescens 2000). The content of trace elements in biological agents was determined by atomic absorbtion spectrophotometry method with C-115M1 mass-spectrophotometer, manufactured by «Selmi» enterprise (Ukraine). It is found that there is a decrease in serum concentrations of chromium and erythrocyte content of cobalt in patients with optimal level of glycemic control. The deficiency of chromium is accompanied by the deficiency of cobalt in patients with suboptimal level of glycemic control. The lower levels of cobalt and nickel are recorded simultaneously, but there is theexcess of chromium in the erythrocytes of these patients. Patients, who suffer from 1 type diabetes mellitus and high risk for life level of glycemic control have considerable polideficiency of cobalt, nickel and chromium in serum.The increasing level of chromium was recorded only in the erythrocytes. The level of glycemic control and the duration of 1 type diabetes mellitus are important in the forecasting of the development of chronic diabetic complications. It is found that the duration of 1 type diabetes mellitus influences the levels of cobalt and nickel in serum mostly, while the level of glycemic control influences the chromium content.

  2. Effect of space flight on cytokine production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    Space flight has been shown to alter many immunological responses. Among those affected are the production of cytokines, Cytokines are the messengers of the immune system that facilitate communication among cells that allow the interaction among cells leading to the development of immune responses. Included among the cytokines are the interferons, interleukins, and colony stimulating factors. Cytokines also facilitate communication between the immune system and other body systems, such as the neuroendocrine and musculoskeletal systems. Some cytokines also have direct protective effects on the host, such as interferon, which can inhibit the replication of viruses. Studies in both humans and animals indicate that models of space flight as well as actual space flight alter the production and action of cytokines. Included among these changes are altered interferon production, altered responsiveness of bone marrow cells to granulocyte/monocyte-colony stimulating factor, but no alteration in the production of interleukin-3. This suggests that there are selective effects of space flight on immune responses, i.e. not all cytokines are affected in the same fashion by space flight. Tissue culture studies also suggest that there may be direct effects of space flight on the cells responsible for cytokine production and action. The results of the above study indicate that the effects of space flight on cytokines may be a fundamental mechanism by which space flight not only affects immune responses, but also other biological systems of the human.

  3. CYTOKINE REGULATION OF ULCEROGENESIS IN GASTRODUODENAL MUCOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Matveeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerogenesis in gastroduodenal mucosa area is a complex multistep process. Its, phases arecontrolled by interaction and activation of pro­ and antiinflammatory cytokine cascade. Present review article summarizes scientific data on impact of cytokines upon ulcerative and reparatory processes, a variety of their diagnostic and therapeutic options is defined. Evaluation of cytokine status, or, in some cases, cytokine genotyping in patients with stomach and duodenal ulcers, may predict clinical course of the disease, as well as efficiency of basic and eradication therapy, correction of the treatment.

  4. Impact of adding nitrate or increasing the lipid content of two contrasting diets on blood methaemoglobin and performance of two breeds of finishing beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, C-A; Rooke, J A; Troy, S; Hyslop, J J; Ross, D W; Waterhouse, A; Roehe, R

    2016-05-01

    Adding nitrate to the diet or increasing the concentration of dietary lipid are effective strategies for reducing enteric methane emissions. This study investigated their effect on health and performance of finishing beef cattle. The experiment was a two×two×three factorial design comprising two breeds (CHX, crossbred Charolais; LU, Luing); two basal diets consisting of (g/kg dry matter (DM), forage to concentrate ratios) 520 : 480 (Mixed) or 84 : 916 (Concentrate); and three treatments: (i) control with rapeseed meal as the main protein source replaced with either (ii) calcium nitrate (18 g nitrate/kg diet DM) or (iii) rapeseed cake (RSC, increasing acid hydrolysed ether extract from 25 to 48 g/kg diet DM). Steers (n=84) were allocated to each of the six basal diet×treatments in equal numbers of each breed with feed offered ad libitum. Blood methaemoglobin (MetHb) concentrations (marker for nitrate poisoning) were monitored throughout the study in steers receiving nitrate. After dietary adaptation over 28 days, individual animal intake, performance and feed efficiency were recorded for a test period of 56 days. Blood MetHb concentrations were low and similar up to 14 g nitrate/kg diet DM but increased when nitrate increased to 18 g nitrate/kg diet DM (P0.05). Neither basal diet nor treatment affected carcass quality (P>0.05), but CHX steers achieved a greater killing out proportion (Pbeef steers when used within the diets studied. PMID:26627142

  5. 大连市心脑血管疾病患者与健康者血硒水平的比较%Comparison of blood selenium content between cardio-cerebrovascular disease patients and healthy persons in Dalian City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世华; 张志慧; 徐国莉; 吴敦虎

    2006-01-01

    -cerebrovascular diseases and cancer.OBJECTIVE: To provide evidence for preventing and treating cardiocerebrovascular diseases via comparison of blood selenium content between patients and healthy persons.DESIGN: Case-control analysis.SETTING: Dalian Railway Medical School, Dalian Railway Hospital, Department of Applied Chemistry, Dalian Railway College.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 319 blood samples (169 males, 150 females)were collected from patients with cardio-cerebrovascular diseases from Dalian Railway Hospital from March 2000 to May 2001. Among them,there were 164 with hypertension, 97 with coronary atherosclerotic heart disease (CAHD), 41 with cardiac dysrhythmia and 17 with cerebral vascular accident. 300 healthy patients (159 males and 141 females) were in the healthy group.METHODS: The blood selenium content of patients with cardio-cerebrovascular diseases was detected with neopolarography.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ①Total level of blood selenium of testees of the two groups. ②Comparison of level of blood selenium between males and females. ③Comparison of level of blood selenium of patients with different diseases.RESULTS: A total of 619 testees were involved in the result analysis. ①The total level of blood selenium of the patient group was lower than that of the healthy group [(114.0±52.5), (146.5±51.0) μg/L,P < 0.001],which was only 76% of that of the healthy persons. ②Content of blood selenium of males and females was normal distribution. There was insignificant difference between males and females (P > 0.10), but the level of blood selenium in females was slightly higher than that of males. ③The levels of blood selenium of patients with hypertension, CAHD, cardiac dysrhythmia were 82.7%, 68.6% and 66.0% of that of healthy persons, respectively, but the difference between males and females was insignificant(P > 0.10). The level of blood selenium of patients with cerebrovascular accident (CVA) was the lowest, (84.4±28.9)μg/L, which was 57.6% of healthy persons

  6. Characteristics of human CD34+ cells exposed to ionizing radiation under cytokine-free conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To clarify the mechanisms underlying radiation-induced hematopoietic stem cell death, we investigated the effects of excessive ionizing radiation on the clonogenic potential of CD34+ cells obtained from human umbilical cord blood under cytokine-free conditions. The CD34+ cells were X-ray-irradiated (up to 2 Gy) and were cultured for 0-48 h under cytokine-free conditions. At various time-points, the CD34+ cells were investigated for survival, clonogenic potential and the generation of mitochondrial superoxide. At 12 h after X-ray irradiation, the number of viable cells had decreased to ∼70-80% compared with the 0-h non-irradiated control, whereas the clonogenic potential in the X-ray-irradiated cells had decreased to ∼50%-60% compared with the 0-h non-irradiated control. Furthermore, significant generation of mitochondrial superoxide was observed at 6 h, and reached a maximum value between 12 and 24 h after X-ray irradiation. However, no significant differences were observed between non-irradiated and X-ray-irradiated cells in terms of the generation of reactive oxygen species or in the intracellular mitochondrial contents. In addition, a cDNA microarray analysis showed that the majority of the altered genes in the CD34+ cells at 6 h after X-ray irradiation were apoptosis-related genes. These results suggest the possibility that the elimination of the clonogenic potentials of CD34+ cells involves the generation of mitochondrial superoxide induced by ionizing radiation. (author)

  7. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal with a unique focus on scholarly and educational content The Hematologist Features Diffusion President's Column ASH Clinical News Society News Clinical News Features ASH Self- ...

  8. Cortisol, Cytokines, and Hippocampal Volume in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Daniel Sudheimer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Separate bodies of literature report that elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines and cortisol negatively affect hippocampal structure and cognitive functioning, particularly in older adults. Although interactions between cytokines and cortisol occur through a variety of known mechanisms, few studies consider how their interactions affect brain structure. In this preliminary study, we assess the impact of interactions between circulating levels of IL-1Beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha, and waking cortisol on hippocampal volume. Twenty-eight community-dwelling older adults underwent blood draws for quantification of circulating cytokines and saliva collections to quantify the cortisol awakening response. Hippocampal volume measurements were made using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Elevated levels of waking cortisol in conjunction with higher concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were associated with smaller hippocampal volumes. In addition, independent of cortisol, higher levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were also associated with smaller hippocampal volumes. These data provide preliminary evidence that higher cortisol, in conjunction with higher IL-6 and TNF-alpha, are associated with smaller hippocampal volume in older adults. We suggest that the dynamic balance between the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis and inflammation processes may explain hippocampal volume reductions in older adults better than either set of measures do in isolation.

  9. Increased circulating cytokine receptors and ex vivo interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and interleukin-1 beta production but decreased tumour necrosis factor-alpha production after a 5-km run

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, JPH; Krebbers, RJM; Bijzet, J; van der Meer, JWM

    1998-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a 5-km run on blood leucocytes, acute-phase proteins and cytokines. In addition, cytokines were measured in the supernatants from whole-blood cell cultures incubated with lipolysaccharide (LPS). Methods Ten healthy, recreational train

  10. Increased circulating cytokine receptors and ex vivo interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and interleukin-1β production but decreased tumour necrosis factor-α production after a 5-km run

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, J.P.H.; Krebbers, R.J.M.; Bijzet, J.; Van Der Meer, J.W.M.

    1998-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a 5-km run on blood leucocytes, acute-phase proteins and cytokines. In addition, cytokines were measured in the supernatants from whole-blood cell cultures incubated with lipolysaccharide (LPS). Methods. Ten healthy, recreational tra

  11. 妊娠对小鼠外周血ROS、NO、细胞因子水平及T淋巴细胞活化的影响%Effects of pregnancy on the ROS, NO, cytokine levels and lymphocytes activation from mouse peripheral blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺芳; 陈敦金; 李连英; 陈启宪

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of pregnancy on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from mouse peripheral blood neutrophils (PMN),the levels of NO and cytokines from serum,the activation of T lymphocytes,and initially find the immune regulation effects of pregnancy on the mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes.Methods Take the BALB/c mice which were at the mid trimester of pregnancy (day 14) as the object,full blood staining using ROS probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA) combing with flow cytometry was used to test the levels of ROS from PMN.The production of NO from peripheral blood serum were analyzed by Griess kit while the soluble cytokines interleukin (IL) 6,IL-10,monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1),interferon γ (IFN-γ),tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and IL-12 were detected by liquid protein quantitative technology cytometric bead array (CBA) using flow cytometry.The activation of peripheral blood lymphocytes at early,middle and later phases which marked with CD69,CD25 and CD71 respectively were tested by flow cytometry and two-color fluorescent staining.Results Comparing to the normal non-pregnant mouse,pregnancy obviously promoted the production of ROS from PMN (101.1 ± 2.2 versus 134.5 ± 10.3,P < 0.05).Comparing to the normal non-pregnant mouse,pregnancy obviously promoted the secretion of NO [(22.7 ± 0.7) versus (36.3 ±1.2) μmol/L,P <0.01].In normal non-pregnant mouse,the serum levels of IL-6,IL-10,MCP-1,IFN-γ,TNF-αandlL-12were (9.3±0.5),(26.7±0.9),(21.2±1.6),(14.5 ±1.8),(22.6±1.6) and (8.4 ± 1.2) pg/ml,while in pregnancy group the levels were (26.5 ± 1.0),(40.4 ± 2.5),(25.1 ±0.7),(457.4 ± 17.9),(93.2 ± 4.3) and (7.5 ± 0.9) pg/ml correspondingly ; the levels of IL-6,IFN-γ,TNF-α from peripheral blood serum (P < 0.01),while had no effects on the production of IL-10 and MCP-1 (P > 0.05).About the CD3+ T lymphocytes activation,in normal non-pregnant mouse,the CD69,CD25 and CD71

  12. ACTIVATION OF HUMAN BLOOD MONONUCLEARS BY LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE OF DIFFERENT COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Zubova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS composition upon activation of human blood mononuclears was investigated, by measuring levels of pro-inflammatory TNFα and IL-6 cytokines released by the cells. It is shown that LPS from Rhodobacter capsulatus PG, in contrast to E. coli LPS, did not activate the target cells for synthesis of the cytokines.

  13. Effects of Subacute Ruminal Acidosis on Plasma Cytokine and Hormone Contents in Dairy Goats%亚急性瘤胃酸中毒对奶山羊血浆细胞因子和激素含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡红莲; 谢天宇; 杨淑青; 高民; 姚焰础

    2015-01-01

    本试验旨在研究以递增饲粮非纤维性碳水化合物与中性洗涤纤维比( NFC/NDF)方式诱导奶山羊发生亚急性瘤胃酸中毒( SARA)后,血浆细胞因子和激素含量的变化。选取9只体况良好,体重接近的泌乳期莎能奶山羊,随机分为3组(对照组、SARA组、恢复组, n=3),对照组饲喂基础饲粮,SARA组和恢复组先后饲喂NFC/NDF为1.40、1.79、2.31、3.23的4种试验饲粮诱导SARA发生,每种饲喂15 d,恢复组奶山羊诱导SARA后自由采食青干草30 d。对照组3只羊分别在饲养30、60(与SARA组同时)和90 d(与恢复组同时)屠宰。结果表明:1) SARA长期提高了血浆LPS浓度,恢复组与SARA组差异不显著( P>0.05)。2)与对照组相比,SARA组奶山羊血浆中促炎性细胞因子肿瘤坏死因子-α( TNF-α)、白细胞介素( IL)-1β和IL-6含量呈升高趋势(P>0.05),IL-2含量显著升高(P0.05),γ-干扰素(IFN-γ)含量显著降低(P0.05);SARA组奶山羊血浆中生长激素、胰岛素样生长因子-Ⅰ、胰岛素含量变化不显著(P>0.05),催乳素(PRL)和皮质醇(COR)含量均显著升高(P0.05),而COR含量则回归到对照组水平( P>0.05)。本研究结果显示,SARA可引起奶山羊血浆中长时间含有一定量的LPS,引发机体免疫和炎症反应,并引起内分泌激素的变化,这一系列变化导致奶山羊长期处于应激状态。%This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of subacute ruminal acidosis ( SARA) in-duced by gradually increasing dietary non-fiber carbohydrate/neutral detergent fiber ratios ( NFC/NDF ) on plasma hormone and cytokine contents in dairy goats. Nine healthy lactating Saanen dairy goats with similar body weight were randomly allocated to three groups ( control group, SARA group and recovery group, n=3 ) . Dairy goats in control group were fed a basal diet;those in SARA group and recovery group were fed diets with different NFC/NDF (1.40, 1.79, 2.31 and 3.23, respectively, each for 15 days

  14. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  15. Blood Thinners

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

  16. Blood Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Basics Blood is a specialized body fluid. It ... about 9 pints. Jump To: The Components of Blood and Their Importance Many people have undergone blood ...

  17. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart contracts, which ... as it relaxes, which is called diastole. Normal blood pressure is considered to be a systolic blood pressure ...

  18. The peri-operative cytokine response in infants and young children following major surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine; Andersen, J B;

    1998-01-01

    The peri-operative cytokine response was studied in 13 infants and young children undergoing major surgery. All children were anaesthetized with a combined general and epidural anaesthetic technique, followed by post-operative epidural analgesia with bupivacaine and fentanyl. Blood samples were...

  19. Cytokines and organ failure in acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrøm, Marie Louise; Hansen, Mark Berner; Andersen, Anders Møller;

    2012-01-01

    We aimed at synchronously examining the early time course of 4 proinflammatory cytokines as predictive factors for development of organ failure in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP).......We aimed at synchronously examining the early time course of 4 proinflammatory cytokines as predictive factors for development of organ failure in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP)....

  20. Cytokines and mood in healthy young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Fernstrand, A.M.; Van De Loo, A.J.A.E.; Garssen, J.; Verster, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A link between chronic inflammation and neuropsychiatric disorders has been demonstrated previously. For example, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines have shown to impact neurocircuits relevant to mood regulation. Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines have been associated with the deve

  1. Cytokines in clinical and experimental transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C.Th.M. Vossen (Ann); H.F.J. Savelkoul (Huub)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractAllograft rejection is a complex process, which requires interactions between different cell types and a variety of soluble factors, such as cytokines. In this review we discuss the role of cytokines in the induction and effector phases of the rejection process and in the induction and m

  2. Interactions between Autophagy and Inhibitory Cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tian-tian; Li, Wei-Min; Yao, Yong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a degradative pathway that plays an essential role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Most early studies of autophagy focused on its involvement in age-associated degeneration and nutrient deprivation. However, the immunological functions of autophagy have become more widely studied in recent years. Autophagy has been shown to be an intrinsic cellular defense mechanism in the innate and adaptive immune responses. Cytokines belong to a broad and loose category of proteins and are crucial for innate and adaptive immunity. Inhibitory cytokines have evolved to permit tolerance to self while also contributing to the eradication of invading pathogens. Interactions between inhibitory cytokines and autophagy have recently been reported, revealing a novel mechanism by which autophagy controls the immune response. In this review, we discuss interactions between autophagy and the regulatory cytokines IL-10, transforming growth factor-β, and IL-27. We also mention possible interactions between two newly discovered cytokines, IL-35 and IL-37, and autophagy. PMID:27313501

  3. Cytokines in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangge, H; Schauenstein, K

    1998-06-01

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), unlike rheumatoid arthritis of adulthood (RA), is a heterogenous disease comprising at least five subtypes that differ in clinical course and prognosis, and require different therapeutical approaches. As compared to RA, the production of local and systemic cytokines in JRA have not yet been as extensively investigated. In this article we review the available literature on cytokine expression in serum and synovial fluid in all five different subtypes of JRA. Even though the data are still fragmentary, the evidence so far suggests that the determination of serum cytokines yields relevant information as to clinical subtype and inflammatory activity of the disease. Furthermore, the cytokine data suggest that the pathogenesis of JRA may even by more heterogenous than defined by the clinical subtypes. Finally, future directions of research in this area are proposed, and-based on the latest results-arguments for (anti)cytokine therapies in JRA are critically discussed.

  4. Cytokine signalling in embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Kalisz, Mark; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2006-01-01

    pathways seem to converge on c-myc as a common target to promote self-renewal. Whereas LIF does not seem to stimulate self-renewal in human embryonic stem cells it cannot be excluded that other cytokines are involved. The pleiotropic actions of the increasing number of cytokines and receptors signalling......Cytokines play a central role in maintaining self-renewal in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells through a member of the interleukin-6 type cytokine family termed leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). LIF activates the JAK-STAT3 pathway through the class I cytokine receptor gp130, which forms a trimeric...... signalling pathways have been documented. In addition, gp130 activation leads to both PI3K and Src activation. The canonical Wnt pathway is sufficient to maintain self-renewal of both human ES cells and mouse ES cells. It seems quite possible that the main pathway maintaining self-renewal in ES cells...

  5. Interactions between Autophagy and Inhibitory Cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tian-Tian; Li, Wei-Min; Yao, Yong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a degradative pathway that plays an essential role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Most early studies of autophagy focused on its involvement in age-associated degeneration and nutrient deprivation. However, the immunological functions of autophagy have become more widely studied in recent years. Autophagy has been shown to be an intrinsic cellular defense mechanism in the innate and adaptive immune responses. Cytokines belong to a broad and loose category of proteins and are crucial for innate and adaptive immunity. Inhibitory cytokines have evolved to permit tolerance to self while also contributing to the eradication of invading pathogens. Interactions between inhibitory cytokines and autophagy have recently been reported, revealing a novel mechanism by which autophagy controls the immune response. In this review, we discuss interactions between autophagy and the regulatory cytokines IL-10, transforming growth factor-β, and IL-27. We also mention possible interactions between two newly discovered cytokines, IL-35 and IL-37, and autophagy.

  6. Retention of cytokine-inducing substances inside high-flux dialyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufft, V; Mahiout, A; Shaldon, S; Koch, K M; Schindler, R

    1996-01-01

    Reprocessing of dialyzers is often performed with nonsterile solutions possibly contaminated with bacterial-derived cytokine-inducing substances. We investigated the retention of cytokine-inducing substances inside the dialyzer during reprocessing in a closed loop in vitro hemodialysis system using a polyamide high flux membrane. After the first in vitro circulation of human whole blood, rinse of the blood compartment (BC) and reverse ultrafiltration (RUF) was performed with either cytokine-inducing substance-free saline or saline contaminated with filtrates from Pseudomonas cultures (6 ng/ml LAL-reactive material); subsequently, dialyzers were stored in 2% formaldehyde. Dialyzers were rinsed with approximately 15 liters pyrogen-free saline before the second circulation using blood from the same donor; the effluates were free of cytokine-inducing substances and formaldehyde. Before and after the blood circulations, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were separated and total production of IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta was determined after overnight incubation. In noncirculated PBMC as well as in PBMC separated after whole blood circulation with pyrogen-free processed dialyzers, production of IL-1 beta was not detectable. After contaminated rinse of the BC, production of IL-1 beta could be observed (1,600 +/- 1,100 pg/ml, mean +/- SEM). When pyrogen-free RUF was performed after contaminated BC rinse, IL-1 beta production averaged 163 +/- 92 pg/ml when using reused dialyzers, but 1,820 +/- 880 pg/ml when using new dialyzers. After reuse with pyrogen-free BC-rinse and contaminated RUF no IL-1 beta synthesis was observed; however, when pyrogen-free BC-rinse and contaminated RUF was applied to new dialyzers, IL-1 beta synthesis averaged 1,620 +/- 1,200 pg/ml. We conclude that cytokine-inducing substances are retained inside the dialyzer, probably by adsorption to the membrane as well as to the protein layer covering the membrane and are still biologically active after

  7. Soluble cytokine receptors in biological therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Crespo, Fabian A; Sun, Xichun

    2002-08-01

    Due to their fundamental involvement in the pathogenesis of many diseases, cytokines constitute key targets for biotherapeutic approaches. The discovery that soluble forms of cytokine receptors are involved in the endogenous regulation of cytokine activity has prompted substantial interest in their potential application as immunotherapeutic agents. As such, soluble cytokine receptors have many advantages, including specificity, low immunogenicity and high affinity. Potential disadvantages, such as low avidity and short in vivo half-lifes, have been addressed by the use of genetically-designed receptors, hybrid proteins or chemical modifications. The ability of many soluble cytokine receptors to inhibit the binding and biological activity of their ligands makes them very specific cytokine antagonists. Several pharmaceutical companies have generated a number of therapeutic agents based on soluble cytokine receptors and many of them are undergoing clinical trials. The most advanced in terms of clinical development is etanercept (Enbrel, Immunex), a fusion protein between soluble TNF receptor Type II and the Fc region of human IgG1. This TNF-alpha; antagonist was the first soluble cytokine receptor to receive approval for use in humans. In general, most agents based on soluble cytokine receptors have been safe, well-tolerated and have shown only minor side effects in the majority of patients. Soluble cytokine receptors constitute a new generation of therapeutic agents with tremendous potential for applications in a wide variety of human diseases. Two current areas of research are the identification of their most promising applications and characterisation of their long-term effects. PMID:12171504

  8. A High-Dimensional Atlas of Human T Cell Diversity Reveals Tissue-Specific Trafficking and Cytokine Signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michael Thomas; Ong, David Eng Hui; Lim, Frances Sheau Huei; Teng, Karen Wei Weng; McGovern, Naomi; Narayanan, Sriram; Ho, Wen Qi; Cerny, Daniela; Tan, Henry Kun Kiaang; Anicete, Rosslyn; Tan, Bien Keem; Lim, Tony Kiat Hon; Chan, Chung Yip; Cheow, Peng Chung; Lee, Ser Yee; Takano, Angela; Tan, Eng-Huat; Tam, John Kit Chung; Tan, Ern Yu; Chan, Jerry Kok Yen; Fink, Katja; Bertoletti, Antonio; Ginhoux, Florent; Curotto de Lafaille, Maria Alicia; Newell, Evan William

    2016-08-16

    Depending on the tissue microenvironment, T cells can differentiate into highly diverse subsets expressing unique trafficking receptors and cytokines. Studies of human lymphocytes have primarily focused on a limited number of parameters in blood, representing an incomplete view of the human immune system. Here, we have utilized mass cytometry to simultaneously analyze T cell trafficking and functional markers across eight different human tissues, including blood, lymphoid, and non-lymphoid tissues. These data have revealed that combinatorial expression of trafficking receptors and cytokines better defines tissue specificity. Notably, we identified numerous T helper cell subsets with overlapping cytokine expression, but only specific cytokine combinations are secreted regardless of tissue type. This indicates that T cell lineages defined in mouse models cannot be clearly distinguished in humans. Overall, our data uncover a plethora of tissue immune signatures and provide a systemic map of how T cell phenotypes are altered throughout the human body. PMID:27521270

  9. A High-Dimensional Atlas of Human T Cell Diversity Reveals Tissue-Specific Trafficking and Cytokine Signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michael Thomas; Ong, David Eng Hui; Lim, Frances Sheau Huei; Teng, Karen Wei Weng; McGovern, Naomi; Narayanan, Sriram; Ho, Wen Qi; Cerny, Daniela; Tan, Henry Kun Kiaang; Anicete, Rosslyn; Tan, Bien Keem; Lim, Tony Kiat Hon; Chan, Chung Yip; Cheow, Peng Chung; Lee, Ser Yee; Takano, Angela; Tan, Eng-Huat; Tam, John Kit Chung; Tan, Ern Yu; Chan, Jerry Kok Yen; Fink, Katja; Bertoletti, Antonio; Ginhoux, Florent; Curotto de Lafaille, Maria Alicia; Newell, Evan William

    2016-08-16

    Depending on the tissue microenvironment, T cells can differentiate into highly diverse subsets expressing unique trafficking receptors and cytokines. Studies of human lymphocytes have primarily focused on a limited number of parameters in blood, representing an incomplete view of the human immune system. Here, we have utilized mass cytometry to simultaneously analyze T cell trafficking and functional markers across eight different human tissues, including blood, lymphoid, and non-lymphoid tissues. These data have revealed that combinatorial expression of trafficking receptors and cytokines better defines tissue specificity. Notably, we identified numerous T helper cell subsets with overlapping cytokine expression, but only specific cytokine combinations are secreted regardless of tissue type. This indicates that T cell lineages defined in mouse models cannot be clearly distinguished in humans. Overall, our data uncover a plethora of tissue immune signatures and provide a systemic map of how T cell phenotypes are altered throughout the human body.

  10. Novel methods of cytokine detection: Real-time PCR, ELISPOT, and intracellular cytokine staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Turlej

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are small hormone-like proteins that play important roles in immune system control. Cytokines regulate the proliferation and differentiation of cells and hematopoiesis and act as mediators in the inflammatory reaction. Changes in cytokine levels are found in many diseases, such as sepsis, bowel inflammatory disease, autoimmune diseases, as well as graft-versus-host disease. Cytokines levels can be detected using in vivo, in vitro, and ex vivo techniques. The level of cytokine produced can be measured by immunoenzymatic test (ELISA in supernatant after cell culture with the addition of stimulant and in plasma by techniques that measure the level of cytokine secretion in cells (e.g. immunohistochemical staining, ELISPOT, and intracellular cytokine staining, and by molecular biological methods (RPA, real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and Northern blot. Detection of cytokine mRNA in tissues is useful in the direct determination of heterogenic populations of cytokine-producing cells. Nowadays the most frequently used methods for measuring cytokine level are ELISPOT, intracellular cytokine staining with flow cytometry detection, and real-time PCR. These methods have an important clinical role in vaccine efficacy, in viral, bacterial, and verminous diagnostics, and in determining the efficacy of cancer treatment.

  11. Effect of interleukin-33 on Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio in peripheral lymphocytes in asthmatic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Xinliang; Wu Wei; Lu Yan; Guo Yali; Hu Chaoliang; Huang Yuyun; Xu Yuzu

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease partly characterised by high concentration of T help 2 (Th2) cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF).There is no report on the relation of peripherally circulating blood lymphocytes and asthma.We explored the balance of Th2/Th1 cytokines in asthmatic mice.Exogenous recombinant interleukin (IL) 33 acted on mudne peripheral circulating blood lymphocytes,IL-5 cytokine was selected for assessing Th2 cytokines and interferon-gamma (IFN-y) for Th1 cytokines.Methods Female specific pathogen free BABL/c mice were sensitised by intraperitoneal injection of 20 μg of ovalbumin emulsified in 1 mg of aluminium hydroxide gel in a total volume of 200 μl,and challenged for 30 minutes in 7 consecutive days with an aerosol of 2 g ovalbumin in 100 ml of PBS.Then we collected BALF and isolated lymphocytes from the peripheral blood.The lymphocytes were divided into two groups:asthmatic group and normal group.Th1/Th2 cytokines was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits.Results In the asthma group,we found numerous eosinophils and lymphocytes on the glass slides.We then confirmed that the optimal concentration of IL-33 was 10 ng/ml and time of IL-33 stimulating lymphocytes was 24 hours.In the asthma group,the production of IL-5 was significantly increased over normal group after stimulation with IL-33 (P <0.05)and the production of IFNy was supressed from IL-33 stimulated lymphocytes (P <0.05).Conclusion IL-33 acts on lymphocytes of peripheral blood increasing secretion of Th2 cytokines and inhibiting secretion of Th1 cytokines.

  12. Efficient lysis of rhabdomyosarcoma cells by cytokine-induced killer cells: implications for adoptive immunotherapy after allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Kuçi, Selim; Rettinger, Eva; Voß, Bernhard; Weber, Gerrit; Stais, Miriam; Kreyenberg, Hermann; Willasch, Andre; Kuçi, Zyrafete; Koscielniak, Ewa; Klöss, Stephan; Laer, Dorothee von; Klingebiel, Thomas; Bader, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background: Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in childhood and has a poor prognosis. Here we assessed the capability of ex vivo expanded cytokine-induced killer cells to lyse both alveolar and embryonic rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines and investigated the mechanisms involved. Design and Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from six healthy donors were used to generate and expand cytokine-induced killer cells. The phenotype and composition of these cells were deter...

  13. Immunomodulating effect of blood transfusion: is storage time important?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Dybkjoer, E; Kronborg, Gitte;

    1998-01-01

    in stimulating TNF-alpha and IL-2 release in an ex vivo assay. METHODS: Supernatants of 10 units of whole blood and 10 units of SAGM blood were collected after 1, 21 and 35 days of standard blood bank storage. Heparinized blood from 20 healthy volunteers (as 'recipients'), corresponding in ABO and Rh type......OBJECTIVES: TNF-alpha and IL-2 are important cytokines in macrophage and T-lymphocyte activity against infection and dissemination of malignant cells. We studied the influence of supernatants from stored whole blood and buffy-coat-depleted SAGM (saline, adenine, glucose and mannitol) blood...... to the stored blood, were used in a culture system with LPS and PHA as stimulators of TNF-alpha and IL-2 release. The effect of added supernatants, from either stored whole blood or SAGM blood, on cytokine release was evaluated compared to saline as control. TNF-alpha concentration was analyzed by ELISA after...

  14. Spontaneous and cytokine induced basophil adhesion evaluated by microtiter assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quan, Sha; Poulsen, Lars K; Reimert, Claus Michael;

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a microtiter assay for evaluating basophil spontaneous adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins exemplified by fibronectin and cytokine induced basophil adhesion to bovine serum albumin (BSA). The percentage of basophils adhering to either ECM or BSA was quantified...... by the histamine content of the adhering basophils. The spontaneous adhesion to fibronectin was higher than to laminin and collagen type I. Both spontaneous adhesion to fibronectin and interleukin-3 (IL-3), interleukin-5 (IL-5), granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induced adhesion to BSA...

  15. Implantable synthetic cytokine converter cells with AND-gate logic treat experimental psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schukur, Lina; Geering, Barbara; Charpin-El Hamri, Ghislaine; Fussenegger, Martin

    2015-12-16

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by a relapsing-remitting disease course and correlated with increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 22 (IL22). Psoriasis is hard to treat because of the unpredictable and asymptomatic flare-up, which limits handling of skin lesions to symptomatic treatment. Synthetic biology-based gene circuits are uniquely suited for the treatment of diseases with complex dynamics, such as psoriasis, because they can autonomously couple the detection of disease biomarkers with the production of therapeutic proteins. We designed a mammalian cell synthetic cytokine converter that quantifies psoriasis-associated TNF and IL22 levels using serially linked receptor-based synthetic signaling cascades, processes the levels of these proinflammatory cytokines with AND-gate logic, and triggers the corresponding expression of therapeutic levels of the anti-inflammatory/psoriatic cytokines IL4 and IL10, which have been shown to be immunomodulatory in patients. Implants of microencapsulated cytokine converter transgenic designer cells were insensitive to simulated bacterial and viral infections as well as psoriatic-unrelated inflammation. The designer cells specifically prevented the onset of psoriatic flares, stopped acute psoriasis, improved psoriatic skin lesions and restored normal skin-tissue morphology in mice. The antipsoriatic designer cells were equally responsive to blood samples from psoriasis patients, suggesting that the synthetic cytokine converter captures the clinically relevant cytokine range. Implanted designer cells that dynamically interface with the patient's metabolism by detecting specific disease metabolites or biomarkers, processing their blood levels with synthetic circuits in real time, and coordinating immediate production and systemic delivery of protein therapeutics may advance personalized gene- and cell-based therapies. PMID:26676608

  16. Implantable synthetic cytokine converter cells with AND-gate logic treat experimental psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schukur, Lina; Geering, Barbara; Charpin-El Hamri, Ghislaine; Fussenegger, Martin

    2015-12-16

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by a relapsing-remitting disease course and correlated with increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 22 (IL22). Psoriasis is hard to treat because of the unpredictable and asymptomatic flare-up, which limits handling of skin lesions to symptomatic treatment. Synthetic biology-based gene circuits are uniquely suited for the treatment of diseases with complex dynamics, such as psoriasis, because they can autonomously couple the detection of disease biomarkers with the production of therapeutic proteins. We designed a mammalian cell synthetic cytokine converter that quantifies psoriasis-associated TNF and IL22 levels using serially linked receptor-based synthetic signaling cascades, processes the levels of these proinflammatory cytokines with AND-gate logic, and triggers the corresponding expression of therapeutic levels of the anti-inflammatory/psoriatic cytokines IL4 and IL10, which have been shown to be immunomodulatory in patients. Implants of microencapsulated cytokine converter transgenic designer cells were insensitive to simulated bacterial and viral infections as well as psoriatic-unrelated inflammation. The designer cells specifically prevented the onset of psoriatic flares, stopped acute psoriasis, improved psoriatic skin lesions and restored normal skin-tissue morphology in mice. The antipsoriatic designer cells were equally responsive to blood samples from psoriasis patients, suggesting that the synthetic cytokine converter captures the clinically relevant cytokine range. Implanted designer cells that dynamically interface with the patient's metabolism by detecting specific disease metabolites or biomarkers, processing their blood levels with synthetic circuits in real time, and coordinating immediate production and systemic delivery of protein therapeutics may advance personalized gene- and cell-based therapies.

  17. Determination of the total drug-related chlorine and bromine contents in human blood plasma using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem ICP-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klencsár, Balázs; Bolea-Fernandez, Eduardo; Flórez, María R; Balcaen, Lieve; Cuyckens, Filip; Lynen, Frederic; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2016-05-30

    A fast, accurate and precise method for the separation and determination of the total contents of drug-related Cl and Br in human blood plasma, based on high performance liquid chromatography - inductively coupled plasma - tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS/MS), has been developed. The novel approach was proved to be a suitable alternative to the presently used standard methodology (i.e. based on a radiolabelled version of the drug molecule and radiodetection), while eliminating the disadvantages of the latter. Interference-free determination of (35)Cl has been accomplished via ICP-MS/MS using H2 as reaction gas and monitoring the (35)ClH2(+) reaction product at mass-to-charge ratio of 37. Br could be measured "on mass" at a mass-to-charge of 79. HPLC was relied on for the separation of the drug-related entities from the substantial amount of inorganic Cl. The method developed was found to be sufficiently precise (repeatability 0.990) from the limit of quantification (0.05 and 0.01 mg/L for Cl and Br in blood plasma, respectively) to at least 5 and 1mg/L for Cl and Br, respectively. Quantification via either external or internal standard calibration provides reliable results for both elements. As a proof-of-concept, human blood plasma samples from a clinical study involving a newly developed Cl- and Br-containing active pharmaceutical ingredient were analysed and the total drug exposure was successfully described. Cross-validation was achieved by comparing the results obtained on Cl- and on Br-basis. PMID:26942335

  18. Cytokine medicines in clinical practice: current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Theresa; Moots, Robert J; Goodacre, John

    2005-10-21

    Cytokine medicines have been licensed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis since 2000. The rheumatology community has accrued a large amount of experience in the use of these medications. This experience has led to the development of guidelines for their use that include ongoing vigilance for long term adverse events and efficacy using the Biologics Register. Delivery of these expensive therapies has prompted extensive system developments within rheumatology. The cytokine medicines have provided important tools to probe the pathogenesis of rheumatoid and other inflammatory diseases. Further cytokine medicines, in various stages of development, are on the horizon and continue to stimulate excitement within this fast expanding field.

  19. Cytokine medicines in clinical practice: current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Theresa; Moots, Robert J; Goodacre, John

    2005-10-21

    Cytokine medicines have been licensed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis since 2000. The rheumatology community has accrued a large amount of experience in the use of these medications. This experience has led to the development of guidelines for their use that include ongoing vigilance for long term adverse events and efficacy using the Biologics Register. Delivery of these expensive therapies has prompted extensive system developments within rheumatology. The cytokine medicines have provided important tools to probe the pathogenesis of rheumatoid and other inflammatory diseases. Further cytokine medicines, in various stages of development, are on the horizon and continue to stimulate excitement within this fast expanding field. PMID:16188452

  20. Increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide metabolites in neuropsychiatric lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenungsson, E; Andersson, M; Brundin, L; van Vollenhoven, R; Khademi, M; Tarkowski, A; Greitz, D; Dahlstrom, M; Lundberg, I; Klareskog, L; Olsson, T

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate systemic and intrathecal production of proinflammatory cytokines in relation to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) nitric oxide (NO) release in patients with neuropsychiatric lupus erythematosus (NPLE).
METHODS—Thirty patients with NPLE rated as mild, moderate, or severe were studied and CSF was obtained from 21 of these. Cytokine mRNA expressing cells were detected by in situ hybridisation. Soluble cytokines were assessed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nitrite and nitrate were determined by capillary electrophoresis.
RESULTS—Patients with NPLE had high numbers of lymphocytes expressing mRNA for tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), interferon γ, and interleukin 10 in blood. The number of peripheral blood TNFα mRNA positive cells correlated strongly with the level of NO metabolites in the CSF (r2=0.69). Both the number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells expressing mRNA for TNFα as well as the CSF level of NO metabolites correlated with NPLE disease severity.
CONCLUSION—These data suggest that increased peripheral production of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNFα may contribute both to an increased production of NO in the central nervous system and to generation of clinical NPLE. The data also support the possibility that measurements of NO metabolites in CSF may be of value in the diagnosis of neurological symptoms related to SLE.

 PMID:11247868

  1. Circulating levels of platelet α-granule cytokines in trauma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windeløv, Nis Agerlin; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye; Johansson, Per Ingemar;

    2015-01-01

    TGs), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) and the pro-inflammatory platelet factor 4 (PF4) cytokines. We also measured soluble glycoprotein VI (sGPVI), procoagulant platelet microparticles (PMPs) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, and evaluated in vitro platelet function in primary and secondary haemostasis...... p PMPs levels correlated with TGFβ1 and PF4 whereas we found no significant association between cytokine levels and measures of haemostasis. By multivariate regression, a high WBC count was associated with high levels of TGFβ1 (p = 0.01) and β...

  2. Effect of praziquantel treatment during pregnancy on cytokine responses to schistosome antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tweyongyere, Robert; Mawa, Patrice A.; Ngom-Wegi, Sophy;

    2008-01-01

    of the treatment had not been investigated. METHODS: A cohort of 387 Schistosoma mansoni-infected women were recruited from a larger trial of deworming during pregnancy. Women were randomized to receive either praziquantel or placebo during pregnancy. Six weeks after delivery, all women received praziquantel....... Cytokine responses to S. mansoni worm and egg antigens were measured in whole blood culture before and 6 weeks after each treatment. RESULTS: Schistosome-specific cytokine responses were suppressed during pregnancy. Praziquantel treatment during pregnancy caused significant boosts in interferon-gamma (IFN...

  3. Cytokines and HCV-Related Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poupak Fallahi

    2012-01-01

    However, HCV interferes with cytokines at various levels and escapes immune response by inducing a T-helper (Th2/T cytotoxic 2 cytokine profile. Inability to control infection leads to the recruitment of inflammatory infiltrates into the liver parenchyma by interferon (IFN-gamma-inducible CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL-9, -10, and -11 chemokines, which results in sustained liver damage and eventually in liver cirrhosis. The most important systemic HCV-related extrahepatic diseases—mixed cryoglobulinemia, lymphoproliferative disorders, thyroid autoimmune disorders, and type 2 diabetes—are associated with a complex dysregulation of the cytokine/chemokine network, involving proinflammatory and Th1 chemokines. The therapeutical administration of cytokines such as IFN-alpha may result in viral clearance during persistent infection and reverts this process.

  4. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Blood Types KidsHealth > For Teens > Blood Types Print A A ... or straight hair instead of curly. ...Make Eight Blood Types The different markers that can be found in ...

  5. Environmental mold and mycotoxin exposures elicit specific cytokine and chemokine responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie H Rosenblum Lichtenstein

    Full Text Available Molds can cause respiratory symptoms and asthma. We sought to use isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs to understand changes in cytokine and chemokine levels in response to mold and mycotoxin exposures and to link these levels with respiratory symptoms in humans. We did this by utilizing an ex vivo assay approach to differentiate mold-exposed patients and unexposed controls. While circulating plasma chemokine and cytokine levels from these two groups might be similar, we hypothesized that by challenging their isolated white blood cells with mold or mold extracts, we would see a differential chemokine and cytokine release.Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were isolated from blood from 33 patients with a history of mold exposures and from 17 controls. Cultured PBMCs were incubated with the most prominent Stachybotrys chartarum mycotoxin, satratoxin G, or with aqueous mold extract, ionomycin, or media, each with or without PMA. Additional PBMCs were exposed to spores of Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum and Penicillium chrysogenum. After 18 hours, cytokines and chemokines released into the culture medium were measured by multiplex assay. Clinical histories, physical examinations and pulmonary function tests were also conducted. After ex vivo PBMC exposures to molds or mycotoxins, the chemokine and cytokine profiles from patients with a history of mold exposure were significantly different from those of unexposed controls. In contrast, biomarker profiles from cells exposed to media alone showed no difference between the patients and controls.These findings demonstrate that chronic mold exposures induced changes in inflammatory and immune system responses to specific mold and mycotoxin challenges. These responses can differentiate mold-exposed patients from unexposed controls. This strategy may be a powerful approach to document immune system responsiveness to molds and other inflammation-inducing environmental agents.

  6. Anti cytokine therapy in chronic inflammatory arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Charlotte; Davies, Ruth; Choy, Ernest

    2016-10-01

    This is a review looking at anti cytokine therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Psoriatic Arthritis (PSA) and Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS). The review explores the similarities and differences in the clinical features, as well as treatments and cytokines involved in the development and propagation of the disease. Particular attention is paid to TNFα inhibitors IL-1ra, IL-6 and JAK kinase Inhibitors, anti IL23 and IL-12 and the new developments with anti-IL-17. PMID:27497159

  7. Treatment of Cancer Pain by Targeting Cytokines

    OpenAIRE

    Vendrell, I.; Macedo, D.; Alho, I.; Dionísio, M. R.; Costa, L.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is one of the most important causes of the majority of cancer symptoms, including pain, fatigue, cachexia, and anorexia. Cancer pain affects 17 million people worldwide and can be caused by different mediators which act in primary efferent neurons directly or indirectly. Cytokines can be aberrantly produced by cancer and immune system cells and are of particular relevance in pain. Currently, there are very few strategies to control the release of cytokines that seems to be relate...

  8. Iron content in peripheral blood among healthy people aged 1 to 17 years in cities of China%中国城市<17岁健康人群末梢血铁元素水平分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张治青; 王玉; 赵波; 温晓玲; 马剑华; 张印红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish a database for reference range of iron content in peripheral blood among urban healthy people and to analyze the correlation betweem iron content and age and gender. Methods Totally 101 600 persons aged 0-17 years were sampled from nine cities. The iron contemt in peripheral blood was determined with atomic absorption spectroscopy. The reference range of the iron content was established with percentiles method and the data were analyzed with SPSS 16.0. Results The iron conternt in peripheral blood increased with age with an average level of 7.51 ±0.78 mmol/L. There were significant differences in iron content among different age groups (P < 0.05). There were significant gender differences in the content among the infants, school-age children,and puberty adolescents. The reference values of the iron content(percentiles 16 - 84, mmol/L) for different gender and age groups were 6.37 - 7. 82 for male infants,6.42 -7. 81 for female infants,6. 72-8. 17 for young children,7. 07 -8.51 for preschool children,7. 29 -8. 67 for male school-age children,7.20 -8.63 for female school-age children,7.72 -9.35 for male puberty addescents.and 7.29 -8. 80 for female puberty adolescents, respectively. The critical reference vlues of the iron content (percentiles 2.5 - 97.5, mmol/L) were 5.64-8.54 for male infants,5. 72 -8.57 for female infants,5.99 -8.92 for young children,6.38 -9.28 for male preschool children ,6.35 - 9.25 for female preschool children, 6.57 - 9.44 for male school-age children ,6.51 -9.42 for female school-age childrem,6. 81 - 10.08 for male puberty abolescents,and 6.95 -9. 58 for female puberty adolescents .respectively. Conclusion The results of the survey provide reference values of peripheval blood iorn for urban people aged 1-17 years for the diagnosis of iron deficiency in clinical practice.%目的 建立中国大中城市0~17岁健康人群末梢血铁元素临床参考值范围数据库,并分析其与年龄、性别的相

  9. Side effects of cytokines approved for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Brian A

    2014-11-01

    Cytokines, currently known to be more than 130 in number, are small MW (aldesleukin (rhIL-2), oprelvekin (rhIL-11), filgrastim and tbo-filgrastim (rhG-CSF), sargramostim (rhGM-CSF), metreleptin (rh-leptin) and the rh-erythropoietins, epoetin and darbepoietin alfa. Anakinra, a recombinant receptor antagonist for IL-1, is in the IL-1 family; recombinant interferons alfa-1, alfa-2, beta-1 and gamma-1 make up the interferon family; palifermin (rhKGF) and becaplermin (rhPDGF) are in the PDGF family; and rhBMP-2 and rhBMP-7 represent the TGFβ family. The main physicochemical features, FDA-approved indications, modes of action and side effects of these approved cytokines are presented. Underlying each adverse events profile is their pleiotropism, potency and capacity to release other cytokines producing cytokine 'cocktails'. Side effects, some serious, occur despite cytokines being endogenous proteins, and this therefore demands caution in attempts to introduce individual members into the clinic. This caution is reflected in the relatively small number of cytokines currently approved by regulatory agencies and by the fact that 14 of the FDA-approved preparations carry warnings, with 10 being black box warnings. PMID:25270293

  10. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture

  11. THE BASIC LAWS AND FEATURES OF CYTOKINE DYNAMICS IN PROCESS AND EARLY TERMS AFTER CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Suskov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic variants of cytokines reactions defining type of organ dysfunctions are revealed in the course of car- diopulmonary bypass and in the early postoperative period. Their character and expression, depends on gravity preoperative an immunodeficiency and initial degree of heart insufficiency. Diphasic dynamics of development of system inflammatory reaction is confirmed after cardiopulmonary bypass: increase of levels proinflammatory cytokines is in the first phase and anti-inflammatory cytokines with development immunodepression and cellular anergy in is the second phase. Also, key role IL-1Ra is revealed in restraint of hyperactivation of system inflam- matory reaction. Blood whey levels IL-6, IL-8, G-CSF, TNF-α and IL-1Ra should be defined to cardiopulmonary bypass, in 10–12 hours, 24 hours and 3 days after cardiopulmonary bypass and may be used as prognostic criteria of development of postoperative complications. 

  12. Plasma cytokine levels in Tanzanian HIV-1-infected adults and the effect of antiretroviral treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haissman, J.M.; Vestergaard, L.S.; Sembuche, S.;

    2009-01-01

    counts below 200 cells per microliter than individuals with CD4 cell counts above 200 cells per microliter. HIV RNA was the strongest predictor of all cytokine expression in multivariate analysis. ART leads to a decrease in all cytokines to levels close to those of HIV-uninfected individuals. CONCLUSIONS......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role immune activation leading to the production and circulation of cytokines has in the pathogenesis of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa and the effect of antiretroviral treatment (ART) on these parameters. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF......)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, IL-10, and IL-1 receptor antagonist; plasma HIV RNA; hemoglobin concentration; and white blood cells were measured in 229 HIV-infected, 54 HIV-uninfected, and after 2 and 4 months, respectively, of ART in 35 eligible individuals in northeastern...

  13. Divalent metal transporter 1 regulates iron-mediated ROS and pancreatic ß cell fate in response to cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Tonnesen, Morten Fog; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard;

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to target-cell damage in inflammatory and iron-overload diseases. Little is known about iron transport regulation during inflammatory attack. Through a combination of in vitro and in vivo studies, we show that the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1ß induces...... divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) expression correlating with increased ß cell iron content and ROS production. Iron chelation and siRNA and genetic knockdown of DMT1 expression reduce cytokine-induced ROS formation and cell death. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the absence of cytokines in Dmt1...

  14. [Blood-nerve barrier: structure and function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Takashi

    2011-06-01

    The blood-nerve barrier (BNB) is a dynamic interface between the endoneurial microenvironment and surrounding extracellular space or blood contents, and is localized the innermost layer of multilayered ensheathing perineurium and endoneurial microvessels. Since the BNB is a key structure controlling the internal milieu of the peripheral nerve parenchyma, adequate understanding of the BNB is crucial for developing treatment strategies for human peripheral nervous system disorders, including Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and diabetic and various metabolic/toxic neuropathies. However, fewer studies have been conducted on the BNB, if we compare against the number of studies on the blood-brain barrier. This is because of the lack of adequate human cell lines originating from the BNB. In our laboratory, human immortal cell lines from the BNB, namely, the endothelial cell line and pericyte cell line, have recently been established and vigorous investigations of their biological and physiological properties are now underway. Pericytes constituting the BNB were found to possess robust ability of controlling BNB integrity via secretion of various cytokines and growth factors including bFGF, VEGF, GDNF, BDNF, and angiopoietin-1. Unknown soluble factors secreted by pericytes also contribute to the upregulation of claudin-5 in endothelial cells in the BNB and thus, strengthen the barrier function of the BNB. In diabetic neuropathy, pericytes were shown to regulate the vascular basement membrane, while AGEs were shown to induce basement membrane hypertrophy and disrupt the BNB by increasing the autocrine secretion of VEGF and TGF-beta from pericytes. In this review article, we discuss the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the human BNB as well as the molecular mechanisms of mononuclear cell infiltration across the BNB. PMID:21613659

  15. A genetic contribution to circulating cytokines and obesity in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytokines are considered to be involved in obesity-related metabolic diseases. Study objectives are to determine the heritability of circulating cytokine levels, to investigate pleiotropy between cytokines and obesity traits, and to present genome scan results for cytokines in 1030 Hispanic children...

  16. Bone mineral density and circulating cytokines in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, S; Di Somma, C; Di Rella, F; Angelillo, N; Ferone, D; Colao, A; Merola, B; Lombardi, G

    1998-11-01

    Acromegalic patients present an increase of osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity, showing a different effect on the axial and appendicular skeletal structures. At this regard controversial data about bone mineral density (BMD) have been published in literature. In fact an increase of BMD levels in femoral neck and Ward's triangle without any difference in lumbar spine has been described. On the other hand normal BMD levels at forearm and reduced BMD levels at lumbar spine were found. These patients seem to have a reduction of trabecular BMD similar to postmenopausal osteoporotic patients despite normal or slightly elevated cortical BMD. Recently, it has been described that cytokines, in particular tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), are implicated in the pathogenetic mechanism of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Taking into account that growth hormone (GH) can increase TNF-alpha and IL-1 secretion by mononuclear blood cells, the evaluation of possible relationship between the reduced BMD at lumbar spine and circulating cytokines levels was carried out in acromegalic patients. In addition we evaluated the effect of acute octreotide administration on serum TNF-alpha and IL-I concentrations. Eleven patients with active acromegaly and eleven healthy age-, sex-, weight- and heightmatched subjects were enrolled in this study. BMD was significantly reduced at lumbar spine (0.80 +/- 0.29 g/cm2 vs 1.02 +/- 0.11 g/cm2; p affect bone turnover inducing an increase of cytokines acting by a paracrine/autocrine mechanism cannot be ruled out.

  17. Omega-3 fatty acids modulate neonatal cytokine response to endotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espiritu, Michael M; Lin, Hong; Foley, Elizabeth; Tsang, Valerie; Rhee, Eunice; Perlman, Jeffrey; Cunningham-Rundles, Susanna

    2016-08-01

    Neonatal immune response is characterized by an uncompensated pro-inflammatory response that can lead to inflammation-related morbidity and increased susceptibility to infection. We investigated the effects of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) pre-treatment on cytokine secretion to low-concentration endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) in THP-1 monocytes and neonatal cord blood (CB) from healthy full-term infants. Pre-treatment of THP-1 cells, with either n-3 PUFA at 25 or 100 μM significantly reduced IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12 secretion while DHA, but not EPA, reduced TNF-α response to LPS. DHA inhibition was stronger compared to EPA and effective at the low concentration. The same concentrations of n-3 PUFAs inhibited IL-12 but not IL-10 cytokine response in whole CB from 9 infants pre-treated for 24 h. To assess clinical relevance for acute response to LPS, the effects of low-concentration DHA at 25 μM or 12.5 μM were assessed before and after LPS exposure of isolated CB mononuclear cells from 20 infants for 1 h. When added before or after LPS, physiologic DHA treatment produced significant concentration-dependent inhibition of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-8 secretion. The results demonstrate prophylactic and therapeutic modulation of neonatal cytokine response to LPS and provide proof-of-concept that low-concentration administration of n-3 PUFA could attenuate or resolve neonatal inflammatory response. PMID:26812855

  18. T-lymphocyte cytokine profiles in compositae airborne dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stingeni, L; Agea, E; Lisi, P; Spinozzi, F

    1999-10-01

    Compositae airborne dermatitis is a well-recognized disorder characterized by erythematosquamous lesions and papules on light-exposed areas. The presence of positive patch test reactions and the absence of specific serum IgE suggest delayed-type hypersensitivity, the murine model of which is characterized by a Th1 cytokine production profile [high amounts of interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-2; little or no IL-4 and IL-5]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytokine profile of T-cell lines and T-cell clones from peripheral blood in a 38-year-old non-atopic male woodcutter affected by seasonal airborne contact dermatitis. The patient showed positive patch test reactions to several Compositae extracts (Achillea millefolium, Chamomilla recutita, Tanacetum parthenium, T. vulgare) and sesquiterpene lactone mix. On prick testing with Compositae and other plants, serum-specific IgE levels and phototesting were negative or normal. Allergen-specific T-cell lines produced with Compositae extracts showed a good in vitro cell proliferation only to C. recutita extract. Serial cloning performed using the C. recutita-specific T-cell lines revealed an alphabeta+CD4+ phenotype with high amounts of IFN-gamma and IL-4 in T-cell clones. Thus, these cells expressed a preferential Th0 phenotype. These data suggest that in addition to IFN-gamma, other T-cell derived cytokines, such as IL-4, may play a part in the immunopathogenesis of contact dermatitis. PMID:10583117

  19. Graft monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cell content predicts the risk of acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic transplantation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendramin, Antonio; Gimondi, Silvia; Bermema, Anisa; Longoni, Paolo; Rizzitano, Sara; Corradini, Paolo; Carniti, Cristiana

    2014-12-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are powerful immunomodulatory cells that in mice play a role in infectious and inflammatory disorders, including acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Their relevance in clinical acute GVHD is poorly known. We analyzed whether granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) administration, used to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells, affected the frequency of MDSCs in the peripheral blood stem cell grafts of 60 unrelated donors. In addition, we evaluated whether the MDSC content in the peripheral blood stem cell grafts affected the occurrence of acute GVHD in patients undergoing unrelated donor allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Systemic treatment with G-CSF induces an expansion of myeloid cells displaying the phenotype of monocytic MDSCs (Lin(low/neg)HLA-DR(-)CD11b(+)CD33(+)CD14(+)) with the ability to suppress alloreactive T cells in vitro, therefore meeting the definition of MDSCs. Monocytic MDSC dose was the only graft parameter to predict acute GVHD. The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD at 180 days after transplantation for recipients receiving monocytic MDSC doses below and above the median was 63% and 22%, respectively (P = .02). The number of monocytic MDSCs infused did not impact the relapse rate or the transplant-related mortality rate (P > .05). Although further prospective studies involving larger sample size are needed to validate the exact monocytic MDSC graft dose that protects from acute GVHD, our results strongly suggest the modulation of G-CSF might be used to affect monocytic MDSCs graft cell doses for prevention of acute GVHD.

  20. PATHOGENETIC ROLE OF CYTOKINES IN CHILDHOOD ROTAVIRUS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Benyova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Results of cytokine network studies system in children with rotavirus infection are presented. Concentrations of cytokines were determined at both local and systemic levels. Analysis of cytokine levels was performed at initial terms (day 1 to 3, and in the course of disease (day 7 to 10. It was revealed that mild and mid-severe cases of rotavirus infection in the children are characterized by early increase in proinflammatory cytokines with restricted overshoot of proinflammatory cytokines at early recovery period. Meanwhile, the patients with severe forms of viral gastroenteritis exhibited high levels of proinflammatory cytokines. However, this balance was shifted towards anti-inflammatory cytokines during early reconvalescence.

  1. 饮水砷暴露大鼠血砷、尿砷和组织砷含量测定分析%Detection of arsenic contents in blood, urine and organs of rats exposed to arsenic through drinking water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高怡; 仇玉兰; 田凤洁; 卿艳; 周楠楠; 张世鑫; 裴秋玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the contents of arsenic in blood , urine , liver, kidney ,lung, heart ,spleen , and brain of rats after exposure to arsenic. Methods Thirty-two healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into four goups. The rats were exposed to arsenic through drinking water at doses of O( control group) , 50 , 150 ,450 μg/ L for four weeks , respectively. The water consumption per day per rat was about 37 ml. Rats were sacrificed after four weeks. The weight of liver, kidney ,lung, heart . spteen and brain were recorded , organ coefficients were calculated and contents of arsenic in blood ,urine and organs were detected. Results Compared with control group,the body weight in low dose group was higher at the end of 2 weeks(P <0. 05) ,and the body weight in middle and high dose groups was lower at the end of 4 weeks ( P < 0. 05 ) . The liver organ coefficient in low and middle dose groups were significantly higher than that in control group ( P < 0. 05 ) , but there was no significant difference in organ coefficients of kidney . lung , heart , spleen and brain among 4 groups. The levels of arsenic in hlood , urine , spleen and kidney were significantly higher in three arsenic groups than in control group.Arsenic levels in heart , liver , lung and hrain were higher in middle and high-dose groups than that in control group( P < 0. 05 ) . Arsenic contents in blood , unne , liver, kidney , lung, heart , spleen and brain increased in a dose-dependant manner. The arsenic level was significandy different among different organs in the same group , and it was the highest in spleen and the lowest in brain ( P <0. 05 ) . The arsenic contents in hlood and urine were significantly correlated with the contents of arsenic in liver , kidney , lung , heart , spleen , hrain ( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion Arsenic can accumulate in certain important organs uf rats after exposure to arsenic, but the distribution of arsenic in various organs is different. Both blood

  2. Expression of Tim-3 and its relationship with Th17/Treg cytokine in the peripheral blood and airway in asthmatic murine%Tim-3在哮喘小鼠中的表达及与Th17/Treg细胞的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳丽; 陆小霞; 陈鹏; 陈和斌; 王莹

    2015-01-01

    目的:检测支气管哮喘小鼠外周血单个核细胞(PBMC)及肺泡灌洗液(BALF)炎性细胞中 T 细胞免疫球蛋白与黏蛋白域蛋白3(Tim-3)的表达及与Th17/Treg 细胞的关系,探讨其在哮喘发病中的作用。方法:建立小鼠哮喘动物模型,分为哮喘组和对照组。收集各组小鼠PBMC及BALF炎性细胞,应用实时荧光定量PCR检测PBMCs及BALF炎性细胞中的Tim-3 mRNA水平,流式细胞仪检测CD4细胞中IL-17(CD4+IL-17+)比例反映Th17水平,CD4细胞中CD4+CD25+FoxP3+反映Treg细胞水平;酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)检测PBMCs 上清液中 IL-10、IL-17、TGF-β水平,分析 Tim-3的表达与 Th17/Treg 水平的相关性。结果:哮喘组PBMCs及BALF炎性细胞中Tim-3 mRNA 水平、CD4+IL-17+表达及Th17/Treg 比例、IL-17均高于对照组(P <0.05),而CD4+CD25+FoxP3+水平、IL-10显著低于对照组。哮喘组PBMCs及BALF炎性细胞中的Tim-3 mRNA表达分别与CD4+IL-17+表达及Th17/Treg比例呈正相关(r=0.76,r=0.87,r=0.71,r=0.82,P<0.05),而与 CD4+CD25+FoxP3+的表达呈负相关(r=-0.84,r=-0.79,P<0.05)。结论:哮喘小鼠PBMCs及BALF炎性细胞中Tim-3 mRNA水平显著升高,Tim-3可能在哮喘发生发展中起着重要作用并与Th17/Treg失衡有关。%Objective To detect the expression of T cell immunoglobulin mucin 3 (Tim-3) and its relationship with Th17/Treg cytokine isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and broncho-alveolar lavage fluids (BALF) cells in the asthmatic murine model and to investigate the role of Tim-3 in the occurrence and development of the asthmatic inflammation. Methods The asthmatic murine model was established by the method of ovalbumin (OVA) injection and inhalation. The mice were randomly divided into 2 groups: the normal control and the asthma group. PBMCs and BALF cells in each group were

  3. Avian cytokines - the natural approach to therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, J W; Lambrecht, B; van den Berg, T P; Andrew, M E; Strom, A D; Bean, A G

    2000-01-01

    While the effective use of antibiotics for the control of human disease has saved countless lives and has increased life expectancy over the past few decades, there are concerns arising from their usage in livestock. The use of antibiotic feed additives in food production animals has been linked to the emergence in the food chain of multiple drug-resistant bacteria that appear impervious to even the most powerful antimicrobial agents. Furthermore, the use of chemical antimicrobials has led to concerns involving environmental contamination and unwanted residues in food products. The imminent banning of antibiotic usage in livestock feed has intensified the search for environmentally-friendly alternative methods to control disease. Cytokines, as natural mediators and regulators of the immune response, offer exciting new alternatives to conventional chemical-based therapeutics. The utilisation of cytokines is becoming more feasible, particularly in poultry, with the recent cloning of a number of avian cytokine genes. Chickens offer an attractive small animal model system with which to study the effectiveness of cytokine therapy in the control of disease in intensive livestock. In this report we will review the status of avian cytokines and focus on our recent studies involving the therapeutic potential of chicken interferon gamma (ChIFN-gamma) as a vaccine adjuvant and a growth promoter. PMID:10717298

  4. Regulation of human cytokines by Cordyceps militaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Sun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps (Cordyceps militaris exhibits many biological activities including antioxidant, inhibition of inflammation, cancer prevention, hypoglycemic, and antiaging properties, etc. However, a majority of studies involving C. militaris have focused only on in vitro and animal models, and there is a lack of direct translation and application of study results to clinical practice (e.g., health benefits. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of C. militaris micron powder (3 doses on the human immune system. The study results showed that administration of C. militaris at various dosages reduced the activity of cytokines such as eotaxin, fibroblast growth factor-2, GRO, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. In addition, there was a significant decrease in the activity of various cytokines, including GRO, sCD40L, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and a significant downregulation of interleukin-12(p70, interferon-γ inducible protein 10, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β activities, indicating that C. militaris at all three dosages downregulated the activity of cytokines, especially inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Different dosages of C. militaris produced different changes in cytokines.

  5. Interleukin-1 Family Cytokines in Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Tsutsui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The gene encoding IL-1 was sequenced more than 30 years ago, and many related cytokines, such as IL-18, IL-33, IL-36, IL-37, IL-38, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra, and IL-36Ra, have since been identified. IL-1 is a potent proinflammatory cytokine and is involved in various inflammatory diseases. Other IL-1 family ligands are critical for the development of diverse diseases, including inflammatory and allergic diseases. Only IL-1Ra possesses the leader peptide required for secretion from cells, and many ligands require posttranslational processing for activation. Some require inflammasome-mediated processing for activation and release, whereas others serve as alarmins and are released following cell membrane rupture, for example, by pyroptosis or necroptosis. Thus, each ligand has the proper molecular process to exert its own biological functions. In this review, we will give a brief introduction to the IL-1 family cytokines and discuss their pivotal roles in the development of various liver diseases in association with immune responses. For example, an excess of IL-33 causes liver fibrosis in mice via activation and expansion of group 2 innate lymphoid cells to produce type 2 cytokines, resulting in cell conversion into pro-fibrotic M2 macrophages. Finally, we will discuss the importance of IL-1 family cytokine-mediated molecular and cellular networks in the development of acute and chronic liver diseases.

  6. Protective effects of cytokines on bone marrow suppression by radioimmurotherapy in animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Seiji [Ehime Univ., Shigenobu (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-06-01

    In radioimmunotherapy, the dose limiting factor seems to be bone marrow suppression. Recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF), recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO), and recombinant human interleukin-6 (rhIL-6) are the hematopoietic growth factors which regulate the proliferation and differentiation of human bone marrow progenitor cell populations. We applied these cytokines to protect against bone marrow suppression induced by {sup 131}I-radioimmunotherapy in an animal model. Tumor (SCC-3: monocytic cell line)-bearing athymic mice were intraperitoneally injected with 13 MBq/35 {mu}g of {sup 131}I-labeled MoAb (YK-1: IgG1, Kappa). Three days after the injection, various cytokines were subcutaneously injected once a day for 15 days. In the control group, the peripheral blood cell counts decreased over the 20 days, but each cytokine shortened the period of cytopenia; rhG-CSF for granulocytes, rhEPO for erythrocytes, and rhIL-6 for platelets. The biodistribution of {sup 125}I-YK-1 was not changed by the various cytokines. Also, the growth of the tumor was not affected and the antitumor effect of {sup 131}I-YK-1 was not changed. Thus the application of cytokines for radioimmunotherapy was found to be effective in protecting against bone marrow suppression. (author).

  7. Interleukin-18 Increases TLR4 and Mannose Receptor Expression and Modulates Cytokine Production in Human Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Alarcão Dias-Melicio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-18 is a proinflammatory cytokine belonging to the interleukin-1 family of cytokines. This cytokine exerts many unique biological and immunological effects. To explore the role of IL-18 in inflammatory innate immune responses, we investigated its impact on expression of two toll-like receptors (TLR2 and TLR4 and mannose receptor (MR by human peripheral blood monocytes and its effect on TNF-α, IL-12, IL-15, and IL-10 production. Monocytes from healthy donors were stimulated or not with IL-18 for 18 h, and then the TLR2, TLR4, and MR expression and intracellular TNF-α, IL-12, and IL-10 production were assessed by flow cytometry and the levels of TNF-α, IL-12, IL-15, and IL-10 in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA. IL-18 treatment was able to increase TLR4 and MR expression by monocytes. The production of TNF-α and IL-10 was also increased by cytokine treatment. However, IL-18 was unable to induce neither IL-12 nor IL-15 production by these cells. Taken together, these results show an important role of IL-18 on the early phase of inflammatory response by promoting the expression of some pattern recognition receptors (PRRs that are important during the microbe recognition phase and by inducing some important cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-10.

  8. Quantification of llama inflammatory cytokine mRNAs by real-time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odbileg, Raadan; Konnai, Satoru; Usui, Tatsufumi; Ohashi, Kazuhiko; Onuma, Misao

    2005-02-01

    We have developed a method by which llama cytokine mRNAs can be quantified using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Total RNA was extracted from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of llama, reverse transcribed to cDNA, and cytokine profiles for interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha were quantified by real-time PCR. The expressions of mRNAs of inflammatory cytokines IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNFalpha were upregulated upon stimulation with LPS in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Incubation of PBMCs with 100 and 1,000 pg/ml of LPS for 3 to 6 hr resulted in the acceleration of the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines. Here, we describe a highly sensitive and reproducible method to quantify the transcription of llama cytokine mRNAs by real-time RT-PCR with the double-stranded DNA-binding dye SYBR Green I.

  9. Impact of Antidepressants on Cytokine Production of Depressed Patients in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Munzer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between immune and nervous systems plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of depression. In depressive episodes, patients show increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. There is limited information on the effect of antidepressant drugs on cytokines, most studies report on a limited sample of cytokines and none have reported effects on IL-22. We systematically investigated the effect of three antidepressant drugs, citalopram, escitalopram and mirtazapine, on secretion of cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22 and TNF-α in a whole blood assay in vitro, using murine anti-human CD3 monoclonal antibody OKT3, and 5C3 monoclonal antibody against CD40, to stimulate T and B cells respectively. Citalopram increased production of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-22. Mirtazapine increased IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-22. Escitalopram decreased IL-17 levels. The influence of antidepressants on IL-2 and IL-4 levels was not significant for all three drugs. Compared to escitalopram, citalopram led to higher levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 and IL-22; and mirtazapine to higher levels of IL-1β, IL-17, IL-22 and TNF-α. Mirtazapine and citalopram increased IL-22 production. The differing profile of cytokine production may relate to differences in therapeutic effects, risk of relapse and side effects.

  10. Relationship between T-lymphocyte cytokine levels and sero-response to hepatitis B vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijayakumar Velu; Shanmugam Saravanan; Subhadra Nandakumar; Esaki Muthu Shankar; Appasamy Vengatesan; Suresh Sakharam Jadhav; Prasad Suryakant Kulkarni; Sadras Panchatcharam Thyagarajan

    2008-01-01

    AIM: TO investigate the cellular defects by analyzing the (Th1/Th2) cytokine levels in vaccine responders and non-responders.METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) from responders and non-responders were stimulated with or with out recombinant HBsAg or PHA. Broad spectrum of cytokines viz (Th1) IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α, IL-12 and (Th2) IL-10, IL-4 were measured after in vitro stimulation with recombinant HBsAg and were compared with respective antibody titers.RESULTS: A significant decrease (P = 0.001) in Th1 and Th2 cytokines namely, IL-2, INF-γ, TNF-α and IL-10 in non-responders was observed. The level of IL-4 was not significant between the three groups. Furthermore, despite a strong Th1 and Th2 cytokine response, the level of IL-12 was elevated in high-responders compared to other groups (P=0.001) and demonstrated a positive correlation with anti-HBs titers and Th1 cytokine response.CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that unresponsiveness to recombinant hepatitis B vaccines (rHB) is multifactorial, including specific failure of antigen presentation or the lack of both T helper Th1 and Th2 response.

  11. Cytokine responses in camels (Camelus bactrianus) vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odbileg, Raadan; Purevtseren, Byambaa; Gantsetseg, Dorj; Boldbaatar, Bazartseren; Buyannemekh, Tumurjav; Galmandakh, Zagd; Erdenebaatar, Janchivdorj; Konnai, Satoru; Onuma, Misao; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2008-02-01

    In the present study, we determined the levels of cytokines produced by camel (Camelus bactrianus) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in response to live attenuated Brucella abortus (B. abortus) S19 vaccine. Seven camels were vaccinated with commercial B. abortus S19 vaccine, and their cytokine responses were determined using a real-time PCR assay. Cytokine responses to B. abortus S19 were examined at 6 hr, 48 hr and 1, 2 and 3 weeks post-vaccination. Serological tests were performed to further confirm these immune responses. The results revealed that IFN-gamma and IL-6 were upregulated during the first week post-vaccination. Low level expressions of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, TNFalpha and IL-10 and no expression of IL-2 and IL-4 were observed compared with the control camels. The findings showed that B. abortus stimulates cell-mediated immunity by directly activating camel Th1 cells to secrete IFN-gamma. This quantification of cytokine expression in camels is essential for understanding of Camelidae disease development and protective immune responses. This is the first report of in vivo camel cytokine quantification after vaccination. PMID:18319583

  12. Type Two Cytokines Predominance of Human Lung Cancer and Its Reverse by Traditional Chinese Medicine TTMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaimingWei; RuiSun; WeiXiao; JinboFeng; ChunyanZhen; XiaoqunXu; ZhigangTian

    2004-01-01

    Type 2 cytokines are usually predominant in tumor patients and associated with tumor progression. To explore whether reversing of type 2 predominance could be a promising strategy in tumor immunotherapy, PBMCs of 35 lung cancer patients and 19 healthy subjects were prepared and subjected to be examined for cytokine secretion and gene expression. Tetra-Methylpyrazine (TTMP), extracted from a traditional Chinese medicinal herb which has been used in clinic to reverse the Th2 status of cancer patients in China, was added to PBMC culture. Determined by RT-PCR, the positive percentages of mRNA expression of type 1 cytokines (8.6% for IFN-γ and 11.4% for IL-2) were lower than those of type 2 cytokines (71.4% for IL-4, 60% for IL-6 and 80% for IL-10) in patients' PBMCs. The potential of gene expressing (measured as relative intensity to the ratio of β-actin) in the patients for type 1 cytokines was also in a low level (0.111 for IFN-γ, 0.119 for IL-2) in comparison with a relative high level for type 2 cytokines (0.319 for IL-4, 0.303 for IL-6 and 0.377 for IL-10). Meanwhile, both positive percentage and relative intensity of gene expression were lower for a type 1 cytokine-related transcription factor T-bet (31.4% and 0.142, respectively) than those for type 2 cytokine-related GATA3 (85.7% and 0.378, respectively). The blood serum levels of IFN-7 and IL-2 in the patients were slightly lower but not significantly when compared with healthy control. In contrast, the levels IL-4 and IL-6 in patients were significantly higher than those in healthy subjects by ELISA analysis. TTMP could enhance supernatant concentration and gene expression levels of IFN-γ, IL-2 and T-bet, but reduced those of type 2 cytokines. These results demonstrate that the lung cancer patients had a predominant expression of type 2 cytokines and TTMP could reverse the type 2 dominant status, which might offer an alternative therapeutic regime for lung cancer patients. Cellular & Molecular Immunology

  13. Effect ofOcimum sanctum on the development of protective immunity against Salmonellatyphimurium infection through cytokines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anjana Goel; Sandeep Kumar; Ashok Kumar Bhatia

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the protective role of Ocimum sanctum (O. sanctum) leaves against Salmonella typhimurium(S. typhimurium) infection in rats by inducing TNF-α, IFN-γ& IL-2 cytokines.Methods:Wistar albino rats were fed with aqueous extract ofO. sanctum leaves using 250 mg/kg body weight dose once a day for20 consecutive days. Control rats were fed with placebo. Rats were infected withLD50 dose ofS.typhimuriuminfection and monitored for their survival. Bacterial blood burden in both the groups was compared and numbers of activated peritoneal macrophages were counted. Concentration of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-2 cytokines in serum during different time intervals was assayed by sandwich ELISA.Results:Rats of control group showed a high mortality rate and had higher bacterial blood burden when compared with O. sanctum extract fed rats. There was a significant increase in the number ofS. typhimurium engulfed peritoneal macrophages in the peritoneal fluid ofO. sanctum fed animals. The protective control against bacterial infection inO. sanctumfed rats was associated with elevated level of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-2 cytokines in serum.Conclusions: These findings suggest that orally administeredO. sanctum leaves extract effectively enhanced activation in macrophage and lymphocytes, depicted by the elevated serum concentration of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-2 cytokines, leading to induce a protective resistance againstSalmonellatyphimurium infection.

  14. T cell clones from Schistosoma haematobium infected and exposed individuals lacking distinct cytokine profiles for Th1/Th2 polarisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mduluza T

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available T cell clones were derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Schistosoma haematobium infected and uninfected individuals living in an endemic area. The clones were stimulated with S. haematobium worm and egg antigens and purified protein derivative. Attempts were made to classify the T cell clones according to production of the cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-gamma. All the T cell clones derived were observed to produce cytokines used as markers for the classification of Th1/Th2 subsets. However, the 'signature' cytokines marking each subset were produced at different levels. The classification depended on the dominating cytokine type, which was having either Th0/1 or Th0/2 subsets. The results indicated that no distinct cytokine profiles for polarisation of Th1/Th2 subsets were detected in these S. haematobium infected humans. The balance in the profiles of cytokines marking each subset were related to infection and re-infection status after treatment with praziquantel. In the present study, as judged by the changes in infection status with time, the T cell responses appeared to be less stable and more dynamic, suggesting that small quantitative changes in the balance of the cytokines response could result in either susceptibility or resistant to S. haematobium infection.

  15. Heroin use is associated with suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine response after LPS exposure in HIV-infected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinta Meijerink

    Full Text Available Opioid use is associated with increased incidence of infectious diseases. Although experimental studies have shown that opioids affect various functions of immune cells, only limited data are available from human studies. Drug use is an important risk factor for HIV transmission; however no data are available whether heroin and/or methadone modulate immune response. Therefore, we examined the effect of heroin and methadone use among HIV-infected individuals on the production of cytokines after ex vivo stimulation with various pathogens.Treatment naïve HIV-infected individuals from Indonesia were recruited. Several cohorts of individuals were recruited: 1 using heroin 2 receiving methadone opioid substitution 3 using heroin over 1 year ago and 4 controls (never used opioids. Whole blood was stimulated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Candida albicans and LPS for 24 to 48 hours. Cytokine production (IL-1 β, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-α, IFN-γ and TNF-α was determined using multiplex beads assay.Among 82 individuals, the cytokine levels in unstimulated samples did not differ between groups. Overall, heroin users had significantly lower cytokine response after exposure to LPS (p<0.05. After stimulation with either M. tuberculosis or C. albicans the cytokine production of all groups were comparable.The cytokine production after exposure to LPS is significantly down-regulated in HIV-infected heroin users. Interesting, methadone use did not suppress cytokine response, which could have implications guidelines of opioid substitution.

  16. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  17. Cytokine production associated with smallpox vaccine responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Whitney L; Salk, Hannah M; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Kennedy, Richard B; Poland, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Smallpox was eradicated 34 years ago due to the success of the smallpox vaccine; yet, the vaccine continues to be studied because of its importance in responding to potential biological warfare and the adverse events associated with current smallpox vaccines. Interindividual variations in vaccine response are observed and are, in part, due to genetic variation. In some cases, these varying responses lead to adverse events, which occur at a relatively high rate for the smallpox vaccine compared with other vaccines. Here, we aim to summarize the cytokine responses associated with smallpox vaccine response to date. Along with a description of each of these cytokines, we describe the genetic and adverse event data associated with cytokine responses to smallpox vaccination.

  18. [Plant-Producers Of Recombinant Cytokines (Review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlakovskii, M S; Yemel'yanov, V V; Lutova, L A

    2016-01-01

    Cytokines are a family of signaling polypeptides involved in cell-cell interactions in the process of the immune response, as well as in the regulation of a number of normal physiological functions. Cytokines are used in medicine for the treatment of cancer, immune disorders, viral infections, and other socially significant diseases, but the extent of their use is limited by the high production cost of the active agent. The development of this area of pharmacology is associated with the success of genetic engineering, which allows the production of significant amounts of protein by transgenic organisms. The review discusses the latest advances in the production of various cytokines with the use of genetically modified plants. PMID:27266244

  19. Th1/Th2 Cytokines in Psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Jadali

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the Th1 and Th2 serum cytokines, in patients with psoriasis and to com¬pare their cytokine levels with those of normal control subjects. Methods: Serum levels of Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, Interleukin-2 (IL-2, Interleukin-4 (IL-4, and Interleukin-10 (IL-10 were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in 40 patients with psoriasis and in 40 normal controls. Results: Compared with control subjects, patients with psoriasis had elevated levels of IFN-γ and IL-2 (P<0.001. In addi¬tion a positive correlation was found between the levels of IFN-γ, IL-2 and disease severity. Conclusion: Th1 secreting inflammatory cytokines may contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  20. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with 25-OH-D3 on Antibody and Cytokine Levels in Serum and Intestinal Contents of Weanling Pigs with or without Rotavirus Challenge%饲粮添加25-羟基维生素D3对轮状病毒攻毒和未攻毒断奶仔猪血清和肠内容物抗体和细胞因子水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖波; 张克英; 丁雪梅; 徐志文; 白世平

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲粮中添加25-羟基维生素D3(25-OH-D3)对轮状病毒攻毒和未攻毒断奶仔猪血清和肠内容物抗体和细胞因子水平的影响.选取48头28日龄断奶的平均体重为(7.35±0.75)kg的杜长大三元杂交仔猪,按体重随机分配到4个组,每组12个重复,每个重复1头猪,试验期21 d.C-、C+分别为未攻毒和攻毒对照组,饲粮添加25-OH-D3220 IU/kg;T-、T+分别为未攻毒和攻毒试验组,饲粮添加25-OH-D32 200 IU/吨.C+、T+组仔猪试验开始时灌服人轮状病毒1 mL(轮状病毒浓度为1×106TCID50/mL).结果表明,饲粮添加2 200 IU/kg25-OH-D3提高了攻毒仔猪试验第5、21天血清和肠内容物轮状病毒抗体(RV-Ab)水平(P<0.05);降低了未攻毒仔猪第5天血清免疫球蛋白G(IgG)、免疫球蛋白M(IgM)、免疫球蛋白A(IgA)含量(P<0.05)以及攻毒仔猪第5、15天血清IgA含量和第15天血清IgM含量(P<0.01);对未攻毒和攻毒仔猪血清和肠内容物白介素-2(IL-2)、白介素-6(IL-6)水平以及肠内容物干扰素-γ(IFN-γ)水平有降低趋势(P>0.05);提高了未攻毒仔猪血清和肠内容物白介素-4(IL-4)水平(P>0.05)以及攻毒仔猪第5天血清IL-4水平和第15天肠内容物IL-4水平(P<0.01).由结果可知,饲粮添加2 200 IU/kg的25-OH-D3可以提高轮状病毒攻毒和未攻毒断奶仔猪血清及肠内容物RV-Ab水平,降低促炎症细胞因子的分泌及其参与的炎症反应,促进抗炎症细胞因子的生成及其参与的免疫应答,进而表现出提高断奶仔猪抗病力的作用.%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary supplementation with 25-OH-D3 on the antibody and cytokines in serum and intestinal contents of weanling pigs with or without rotavirus challenge.Forty-eight 28-day-old three-way cross ( Duroc×Landrace × Yorkshine) weanling pigs with an average body weight of 7. 35 kg were randomly assigned into 4 treatments with 12 replicates and 1 pig in each replicate

  1. Environmental alkylphenols modulate cytokine expression in plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsing Hung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alkylphenols, such as nonylphenol (NP and 4-octylphenol (4-OP, have the potential to disturb immune system due to their weak estrogen-like activity, an effect with potential serious public health impact due to the worldwide distribution of these substances. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs can secrete large amounts of type I IFNs and are critical in immune regulation. However, there has been limited study about the influence of alkylphenols on the function of pDCs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of alkylphenols on pDC functions in vitro and in vivo and then further explored the involved signaling pathways and epigenetic changes. METHODS: Circulating pDCs from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with alkylphenols with or without CpG stimulation. Alkylphenol-associated cytokine responses, signaling events, histone modifications and viral activity were further examined. In NP-exposed mice, the effect of NP on splenic pDC function and allergic lung inflammation were also assessed. RESULTS: The results showed that NP increased the expression of TNF-α, but suppressed IL-10 production in the range of physiological doses, concomitant with activation of the MKK3/6-p38 signaling pathway and enhanced levels of acetylated histone 3 as well as histone 4 at the TNFA gene locus. Further, in CpG-stimulated pDCs, NP suppressed type I IFNs production, associated with down-regulation of IRF-7 and MKK1/2-ERK-Elk-1 pathways and led to the impaired anti-enterovirus 71 activity in vitro. Additionally, splenic pDCs from NP-exposed mice showed similar cytokine changes upon CpG stimulation under conditions relevant to route and level of exposure in humans. NP treatment also enhanced allergic lung inflammation in vivo. CONCLUSION: Alkylphenols may influence pDCs' functions via their abilities to induce expression of a pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, and to suppress regulatory cytokines, including IL-10, IFN

  2. Effects of water temperature on oxygen consumption rate, asphyxiant point, blood glucose content, and muscle and liver glycogen content of juvenile Coilia nasus%水温对刀鲚幼鱼耗氧率、窒息点、血糖及肌肝糖元指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐钢春; 聂志娟; 薄其康; 徐跑; 顾若波

    2012-01-01

    In order to supply reference for the rational breeding and transportation of Coilia na-sus , a laboratory experiment was conducted to measure the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and asphyxiation point ( AP) of juvenile C. nasus under different water temperature, and to study the diurnal variations of the OCR as well as the effects of water temperature on the blood glucose and muscle- and liver glycogen of the juveniles. At water temperature ( T, ℃) 16-28℃, the OCR (R, mg·L-1 ) of the juveniles increased with increasing temperature, and there was a linear re-lationship between the R and T (R = 0.988T2-32.36T+343. 7, R2 -0.96). The OCR revealed a diurnal rhythm, with the peak at 7:00 am and the bottom at 9:00 pm. The AP (A, mg·L-1) was significantly correlated to T (A =0. 9397T0.8001, R2 =0. 98). At water temperature 16-24 ℃, the blood glucose content of the juveniles kept relatively steady and ranged from 17. 24 to 19. 79 mmol·L-1, while the muscle- and liver glycogen content fluctuated. At water temperature 24-28℃, the blood glucose content increased significantly with increasing temperature, while the muscle- and liver glycogen content had a significant decrease.%实验测定了不同水温条件下刀鲚(Coilia nasus)幼鱼的耗氧率和窒息点,并对耗氧率的昼夜变化规律以及水温对刀鲚幼鱼血糖及肌肝糖元指标的影响进行了研究,旨在为刀鲚运输、养殖生产中制定合理的放养密度和养殖工艺提供参考依据.结果表明:在试验水温(16℃~28C)条件下,刀鲚幼鱼的耗氧率随水温的升高而增大,耗氧率(R)与水温(T)的回归方程为R=0.988T2-32.36T+343.7,相关系数为0.96;刀鲚幼鱼的耗氧率具有昼夜节律性,耗氧高峰出现在7:00,低谷在21:00;刀鲚幼鱼的窒息点与水温显著相关,窒息点A(mg·L-1)与水温T(℃)的回归关系为A=0.9397T0.8001,R2=0.98.刀鲚幼鱼血清中血糖含量在水温16℃~24℃阶段保持相对稳定,血糖含量在17.24

  3. Immunomodulating effect of blood transfusion: is storage time important?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Dybkjoer, E; Kronborg, Gitte;

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: TNF-alpha and IL-2 are important cytokines in macrophage and T-lymphocyte activity against infection and dissemination of malignant cells. We studied the influence of supernatants from stored whole blood and buffy-coat-depleted SAGM (saline, adenine, glucose and mannitol) blood in sti...

  4. [The cytokine profile in the acute period of tick-borne neuroinfections in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poponnikova, T V; Bedareva, T Iu; Vakhrameeva, T N; Galieva, G Iu

    2010-01-01

    Clinical peculiarities and blood levels of several cytokines were studied in 199 children, aged from 1 to 15 years, in the acute period of different tick-borne infections. The mixed infection manifested itself by the more severe progression of general clinical presentations compared to monoinfections. Etiologically unspecific changes of blood concentrations of cytokines in the acute period of the disease were found. These data were associated with different clinical forms of tick-borne infections. The decrease in the interferon gamma production was associated with the most severe disease progression with focal nervous system disorders. The use of cycloferon as immune modulator in the complex therapy led to the increase in the interferon gamma level and the decrease of general clinical manifestations during tick-borne encephalitis and mixed infection.

  5. Inflammatory conditions and cytokines and their roles in the regulation of heme and drug metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YoshT

    2002-01-01

    It has been well known that inflammation leads to the decreased ability of drug metabolism in human and animals.Since many inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines produced under the inflammatory conditions,their possible roles in the regulation of drug metabolizing enzymes,specifically cytochrome P450s(CYPs),have been examined to date.Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produces many cryokines and decreases drug medabolism.LPS is also a potent inducer of heme oxygenase(HO-1).We found that LPS produced the induction of HO-1 via TNFα rather than IL-1,be employing each cytokine knockout mice.Additionally,arthritis model mice exhibited the increase in HO-1 without any changes in total CYP content.Effects of chemicals on HO-1 and CYPs in cytokine knockout mice will also be discussed.

  6. Changes in Content of Von Willebrand Factor and Its Catenase in Placental-Abruption Preterm Infants Cord Blood and Maternal Blood%胎盘早剥早产儿脐血与产妇静脉血血管性血友病因子及其裂解酶水平的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许靖; 李秋平; 孔祥永; 孔令凯; 陈冲; 杨璐; 周丽; 马兴娜; 封志纯

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察胎盘早剥新生儿脐血与产妇静脉血血管性血友病因子(VWF)及血管性血友病因子裂解酶(ADAMTS13)水平变化,探讨胎盘早剥新生儿凝血功能异常的病理机制.方法 北京军区总医院、北京妇产医院、北京市海淀医院产科2010年11月-2011年11月产科住院病人中,纳入发生胎盘早剥的产妇及新生儿作为胎盘早剥观察组(早剥组);非胎盘早剥观察组(非早剥组)为上述单位早剥组每例患者后2名产科入院患者,以办理入院登记时间为准.采集产妇的静脉血及新生儿脐静脉血、脐动脉血,并收集胎盘组织,用ELISA法检测其VWF、ADAMTS13水平.结果 早剥组共纳入58例,非早剥组共纳入116例.根据非早剥组检测值计算出单侧95%参考值.产妇静脉血:VWF< 857.80 U·L-1,ADAMTS13> 119.63 U·L-1;脐静脉血:VWF<852.71 U·L-1,ADAMTS13 >28.12 U·L-1;脐动脉血:VWF<1416.96 U·L-1,ADAMTS13> 147.90 U·L-1;胎盘组织VWF<760.66 U·L-1,ADAMTS13 >27.53 U·L-1.早剥组各项VWF高于非早剥组(Pa<0.05);早剥组产妇血及脐血ADAMTS13水平均低于非早剥组(Pa<0.05).结论 胎盘早剥孕妇/产妇及胎儿/新生儿体内ADAMTS13水平随VWF水平的升高而下降,VWF是胎盘早剥发生时母儿高凝状态的因素之一,ADAMTS13具有保护作用.%Objective To observe the changes in content of von willebrand factor( VWF) and its catenase(a disintegrin and metallopro-teinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13, ADAMTS13) in the umbilical cord blood and maternal blood after placental abruption happening and to explore the pathophysiological mechanisms of the coagulation abnormalities of placental abruption. Methods The placental abruption group included the cases admitted to the General Hospital of Beijing Military Region, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Beijing and Haidian Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Beijing from Nov. 2010 to Nov. 2011 ,and the 2 non

  7. CHANGES OF SERUM CYTOKINE ACTIVITIES AND OTHER PARAMETERS IN DOGS WITH EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ENDOTOXIC SHOCK

    OpenAIRE

    Miyamoto, Toru; Fujinaga, Toru; YAMASHITA, Kazuto; Hagio, Mitsuyoshi

    1996-01-01

    To study the relationship of changes of cytokines in endotoxic shock, serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 like activities, together with physiologic and hemodynamic responses, were examined in dogs before and after intravenous administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) purified from Escherichia coli in a dose of 500 μg/kg of body weight. The blood endotoxin concentration increased significantly at 30 min after LPS administration, and maintained high levels for 24 hr...

  8. Differential effects of angiostatic steroids and dexamethasone on angiogenesis and cytokine levels in rat sponge implants.

    OpenAIRE

    Hori, Y.(University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan); Hu, D. E.; Yasui, K; Smither, R. L.; Gresham, G. A.; Fan, T. P.

    1996-01-01

    1. Subcutaneous implantation of sterile polyether sponges elicited a reproducible neovascular response in rats, as determined by blood flow measurement with a 133Xe clearance technique and confirmed histologically. This model was used to monitor the levels of two cytokines during angiogenesis and to compare the activities of angiostatic steroids and anti-inflammatory steroids. 2. Initial experiments followed the neovascular development over a 20-day period. Daily local injection of hydrocorti...

  9. Development and Application of Specific Cytokine Assays in Tissue Samples from a Bottlenose Dolphin with Hyperinsulinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Eberle, Kirsten C.; Waters, Theresa E.; Jensen, Eric D.; Venn-Watson, Stephanie K.; Sacco, Randy E.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic inflammation has been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans. Postmortem hepatic and splenic tissue from a 46-year-old geriatric male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) with insulin resistance (chronic hyperinsulinemia with hyperglycemia), chronic inflammation (white blood cell count greater than 12,000 cells/μL), and mild fatty liver disease was evaluated for elevated pro-inflammatory mediators. Cytokine mRNA expression in postmortem hepatic and s...

  10. Development and application of specific cytokine assays in tissue samples from a bottlenose dolphin with hyperinsulinemia

    OpenAIRE

    RandyESacco; EricJensen; StephanieVenn-Watson

    2013-01-01

    Chronic inflammation has been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans. Postmortem hepatic and splenic tissue from a 46-year-old geriatric male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) with insulin resistance (chronic hyperinsulinemia with hyperglycemia), chronic inflammation (white blood cell count greater than 12,000 cells/μL), and mild fatty liver disease was evaluated for elevated pro-inflammatory mediators. Cytokine mRNA expression in postmortem hepatic and...

  11. 线粒体DNA含量与HIV相关脂肪营养不良的关系%Association between the change regularity of peripheral blood mononuclear cell mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid content and human immunodeficiency virus-related lipodystrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴鹏; 顾卫斌; 张璐; 李雁凌; 邱志峰; 韩扬; 谢静; 李太生

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the change regularity of peripheral blood mononuclear cell ( PBMC) mtDNA ( mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid) content and its association with HIV-LD ( human immunodeficiency virus-related lipodystrophy ) in HAART ( highly active antiretroviral therapy). Methods At baseline, Months 6 and 24 of therapy, the cryopreserved PBMC were collected from 33 patients on a regular follow-up at our clinic. Among them, 17 had HIV-LD. Then total DNA was extracted and mtDNA content quantified by real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Results The HIV/AIDS patients had a lower content of PBMC mtDNA (2-△△Ct) than the healthy controls at baseline (9.578 vs 17. 195, P <0.01). The mtDNA content was lower in the HIV-LD group than that in the no LD (NLD) group at each timepoint of therapy (13.619 vs5.775, 6.360 vs 1.387, 7. 170 vs 1.266, all P<0.05). In the HIV-LD group, the half- and 2-year PBMC mtDNA content was markedly lower than those at baseline (both P <0. 05 ). And the change of mtDNA content (within half a year) was earlier than the onset of clinical HIV-LD at one year later. In the NLD group, the PBMC mtDNA content have an insignificant change after therapy.The mtDNA content decreased significantly in stavudine (d4T)-containing regimen group after treatment (P <0. 01) , but showed no significant change in zidovudine ( AZT) -containing regimen group after therapy.Conclusion The decreased content of PBMC mtDNA after HIV infection and during HAART therapy is associated with HIV-LD. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, especially d4T, plays an important role in the progression of HIV-LD.%目的 研究高效联合抗反转录病毒治疗(HAART)过程中外周血单核淋巴细胞(PBMC)内线粒体DNA(mtDNA)含量变化规律及其与人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)感染相关脂肪营养不良(HIV-LD)的相关性.方法 通过实时定量PCR(real-time PCR),对2002年5月至2008年5月北京协和医院感染内

  12. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... osmotic fragility ) Deficiency of an enzyme called lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase Abnormalities of hemoglobin , the protein in ... sickle and Pappenheimer Red blood cells, target cells Formed elements of blood References Bain BJ. The peripheral ...

  13. Pro-inflammatory cytokines downregulate Hsp27 and cause apoptosis of human retinal capillary endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahomi, Rooban B.; Palmer, Allison; Roth, Katelyn E.; Fort, Patrice E.; Nagaraj, Ram H.

    2013-01-01

    The formation of acellular capillaries in the retina, a hallmark feature of diabetic retinopathy, is caused by apoptosis of endothelial cells and pericytes. The biochemical mechanism of such apoptosis remains unclear. Small heat shock proteins play an important role in the regulation of apoptosis. In the diabetic retina, pro-inflammatory cytokines are upregulated. In this study, we investigated the effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on small heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) in human retinal endothelial cells (HREC). In HREC cultured in the presence of cytokine mixtures (CM), a significant downregulation of Hsp27 at the protein and mRNA level occurred, with no effect on HSF-1, the transcription factor for Hsp27. The presence of high glucose (25 mM) amplified the effects of cytokines on Hsp27. CM activated indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and enhanced the production of kynurenine and ROS. An inhibitor of IDO, 1-methyl tryptophan (MT), inhibited the effects of CM on Hsp27. CM also upregulated NOS2 and, consequently, nitric oxide (NO). A NOS inhibitor, L-NAME, and a ROS scavenger blocked the CM-mediated Hsp27 downregulation. While a NO donor in the culture medium did not decrease the Hsp27 content, a peroxynitrite donor and exogenous peroxynitrite did. The cytokines and high glucose-induced apoptosis of HREC were inhibited by MT and L-NAME. Downregulation of Hsp27 by a siRNA treatment promoted apoptosis in HREC. Together, these data suggest that pro-inflammatory cytokines induce the formation of ROS and NO, which, through the formation of peroxynitrite, reduce the Hsp27 content and bring about apoptosis of retinal capillary endothelial cells. PMID:24252613

  14. The effects of a single bout pilates exercise on mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines in osteopenia women

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Chang Sun; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyo Jin

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a single bout pilates exercise on mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines in elderly osteopenia women. [Methods] We selected 11 people of elderly osteopenia women and loaded a single bout pilates exercise about RPE 10-14 level. The blood samples were collected before, immediately after and 60 minute after pilates exercise, then examined calcium metabolic markers in serum and extracted peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)...

  15. EM发酵豆渣、鱼杂、鸡血及其粗蛋白含量测定分析%EM Fermentation of Bean Dregs,Fish Scraps and Chicken Blood and Its Crude Protein Content Determination Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辜澜涛; 董仲玺; 赵玉梅; 张妍; 宋德贵

    2012-01-01

    In people's daily life, varieties of agriculture byproducts,such as bean dregs,fish scraps and chicken blood contain high percentage of crude protein which could be made into kinds of high quality feed for animal husbandry. However,these materials have always been discarded because of uselessness. Which result in the problems of waste of resources and ecological environment pollution. In this research , the fermentation of environment microbiology is used to dispose the materials and measure the percentage of crude protein content. The results show that the nutritional value of bean dregs,fish scraps and chicken blood has increased 2. 63,2. 62,2. 71 and 2. 07 percentage points respectively and the harmful substance such as heavy mental could be reduced or eliminated. Pathogenic microorganisms can be well inhibited and feed palatability can greatly be improved.%生产生活中产生的农副产品,如豆渣、鱼杂、鸡血等,含有大量的粗蛋白,可以作为一种物美价廉的饲料.本实验在已有研究基础上,利用环境微生物(environment microbe,EM)菌种对其进行发酵处理,采用凯氏定氮法(GB/T6432-94)检测其粗蛋白质含量.发酵结果表明:处理后的豆渣+麦麸、玉米粉+鱼杂、玉米粉+鸡血、玉米粉+豆渣4组材料的粗蛋白含量分别提高2.63、2.62、2.71和2.07个百分点,其营养价值得到有效提高;其中残留的有害物质如重金属、抗生素等能够得以降解消除;病原微生物如某些致病厌氧细菌和大肠杆菌等能得到很好的抑制;同时,饲料的适口性大大提高.

  16. High Blood Pressure and Children: What Parents Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Blood Institute Alternate Language URL Español High Blood Pressure and Children: What Parents Need to Know Page Content Children can have high blood pressure. Did you know that children could have high ...

  17. Cytokines and the hepatic acute phase response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moshage, H

    1997-01-01

    The acute phase response is an orchestrated response to tissue injury, infection or inflammation. A prominent feature of this response is the induction of acute phase proteins, which are involved in the restoration of homeostasis. Cytokines are important mediators of the acute phase response. Uncont

  18. Cytokines and Organ Failure in Acute Pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrøm, Marie Louise; Hansen, Mark Berner; Andersen, Anders Møller;

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed at synchronously examining the early time course of 4 proinflammatory cytokines as predictive factors for development of organ failure in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). Methods: Interleukin (IL) 6, IL-8, IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor > were measured on admission...

  19. CYTOKINE PROFILING FOR CHEMICAL RESPIRATORY SENSITIZERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    CYTOKINE PROFILING FOR CHEMICAL RESPIRATORY SENSITIZERS. LM Plitnick1, SE Loveless2, GS Ladics2, MP Holsapple3, MJ Selgrade4, DM Sailstad4 & RJ Smialowicz4. 1UNC, Chapel Hill, NC; 2DuPont Co., Haskell Laboratory, Newark, DE; 3Dow Chemical, Midland, MI & 4USEPA, NHEERL, RTP, NC.

  20. Cytokines and Chemokines in Irritant Contact Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Haur Yueh Lee; Marco Stieger; Nikhil Yawalkar; Masato Kakeda

    2013-01-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is a result of activated innate immune response to various external stimuli and consists of complex interplay which involves skin barrier disruption, cellular changes, and release of proinflammatory mediators. In this review, we will focus on key cytokines and chemokines involved in the pathogenesis of irritant contact dermatitis and also contrast the differences between allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis.

  1. Role of cytokines in inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), rep- resents a group of chronic disorders characterized by inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, typically with a relapsing and remitting clinical course. Mucosal mac- rophages play an important role in the mucosal im- mune system, and an increase in the number of newly recruited monocytes and activated macrophages has been noted in the inflamed gut of patients with IBD. Activated macrophages are thought to be major con- tributors to the production of inflammatory cytokines in the gut, and imbalance of cytokines is contributing to the pathogenesis of IBD. The intestinal inflammation in IBD is controlled by a complex interplay of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. Cytokines play a key role in IBD that determine T cell differentiation of Th1, Th2, T regulatory and newly described Th17 cells. Cytokines levels in time and space orchestrate the development, recurrence and exacerbation of theinflammatory process in IBD. Therefore, several cyto- kine therapies have been developed and tested for the treatment of IBD patients.

  2. Cytokines in atherosclerosis: an intricate balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.S. Boshuizen

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the underlying pathology in the majority of clinical manifestations of cardiovascular diseases, which are nowadays the main global cause of mortality. Atherosclerosis is a lipid-driven chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall. This inflammatory response, with cytokines as

  3. Cytokine levels as biomarkers for leptospirosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirathaworn, C; Supputtamongkol, Y; Lertmaharit, S; Poovorawan, Y

    2016-09-01

    Inflammatory mediators were suggested to be biomarkers for prediction of disease severity. In this study, we investigated the levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α in leptospirosis patients with mild or severe illnesses. Sera samples were divided into two groups. The OI group and NOI groups included sera from patients with and without organ involvement, respectively. Each group consisted of 20 pairs of sera. Twenty-five sera from healthy individuals were included as controls. Cytokine levels were compared. Although IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 levels in acute sera from the OI group were significantly higher than NOI group, only IL-8 level was significantly higher in the OI group when cytokine levels in convalescent sera were compared. TNF-α, an inflammatory cytokine widely studied in leptospirosis was not significantly different between two groups of patients. Our data suggested that IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 were involved in disease severity. However, time of specimen collection could affect the significant levels of cytokines especially as biomarkers for monitoring disease severity. PMID:27295614

  4. Effect of dendritic cells stimulated by different ways on cytotoxic activity of cord blood derived cytokine induced killer cells and natural killer cells%不同方式刺激脐血树突状细胞对细胞因子诱导杀伤细胞和自然杀伤细胞杀伤活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎阳; 黄绍良; 吴燕峰; 魏菁; 包蓉; 周敦华

    2005-01-01

    目前对造血干细胞移植(hematopoietic stem cell transplantation,HSCT)后残留肿瘤细胞的清除需通过过继免疫治疗等手段来解决.通过特定细胞因子联合扩增脐血中细胞因子诱导杀伤(cytokine-induced killer,CIK) 细胞、自然杀伤(natural killer,NK)细胞,可增强脐血移植(UCBT)后的移植物抗白血病(graft-versus-leukemia,GVL)效应.树突状细胞(dendritic cells ,DC)在免疫应答的诱导中具有独特地位,

  5. Cytokine balance and cytokine-driven natural killer cell dysfunction in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avau, Anneleen; Put, Karen; Wouters, Carine H; Matthys, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is a severe inflammatory childhood disorder, characterized by a specific pattern of systemic features and a typical cytokine profile. Patients are at risk to develop macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), an acute life-threatening condition defined by excessive proliferation and activation of macrophages and T cells. Defects of unknown cause in the natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxic capacity are presumed to underlie the pathogenesis of MAS and have been detected in sJIA patients. Here, we provide an overview of the cytokine profiles in sJIA and related mouse models. We discuss the influence of cytokines on NK cell function, and hypothesize that NK cell dysfunction in sJIA is caused by altered cytokine profiles.

  6. Variability of blood alcohol content (BAC) determinations: the role of measurement uncertainty, significant figures, and decision rules for compliance assessment in the frame of a multiple BAC threshold law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamengo, Luca; Frison, Giampietro; Tedeschi, Gianpaola; Frasson, Samuela; Zancanaro, Flavio; Sciarrone, Rocco

    2014-10-01

    The measurement of blood-alcohol content (BAC) is a crucial analytical determination required to assess if an offence (e.g. driving under the influence of alcohol) has been committed. For various reasons, results of forensic alcohol analysis are often challenged by the defence. As a consequence, measurement uncertainty becomes a critical topic when assessing compliance with specification limits for forensic purposes. The aims of this study were: (1) to investigate major sources of variability for BAC determinations; (2) to estimate measurement uncertainty for routine BAC determinations; (3) to discuss the role of measurement uncertainty in compliance assessment; (4) to set decision rules for a multiple BAC threshold law, as provided in the Italian Highway Code; (5) to address the topic of the zero-alcohol limit from the forensic toxicology point of view; and (6) to discuss the role of significant figures and rounding errors on measurement uncertainty and compliance assessment. Measurement variability was investigated by the analysis of data collected from real cases and internal quality control. The contribution of both pre-analytical and analytical processes to measurement variability was considered. The resulting expanded measurement uncertainty was 8.0%. Decision rules for the multiple BAC threshold Italian law were set by adopting a guard-banding approach. 0.1 g/L was chosen as cut-off level to assess compliance with the zero-alcohol limit. The role of significant figures and rounding errors in compliance assessment was discussed by providing examples which stressed the importance of these topics for forensic purposes.

  7. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  8. Fatigue in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: Is It Related to Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan Malekzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the pathophysiological role of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in primary multiple sclerosis-related fatigue. Methods. Fatigued and non-fatigued patients with multiple sclerosis (MS were recruited and their cytokine profiles compared. Patients with secondary fatigue were excluded. Fatigue was assessed with the self-reported Checklist Individual Strength (CIS20r, subscale fatigue. A CIS20r fatigue cut-off score of 35 was applied to differentiate between non-fatigued (CIS20r fatigue ≤34 and fatigued (CIS20r fatigue ≥35 patients with MS. Blood was collected to determine the serum concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p70, IL-17, TNFα, and IFN-γ and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13. We controlled for the confounding effect of age, gender, duration of MS, disease severity, type of MS, and use of immunomodulatory drugs. Results. Similar cytokine levels were observed between MS patients with (n=21 and without fatigue (n=14. Adjusted multiple regression analyses showed a single significant positive relationship, that of IL-6 with CIS20r fatigue score. The explained variance of the IL-6 model was 21.1%, once adjusted for the confounding effect of age. Conclusion. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6 may play a role in the pathophysiology of primary fatigue in patients with MS. Trial Registrations. ISRCTN69520623, ISRCTN58583714, and ISRCTN82353628.

  9. Modulation of PBMC-decay accelerating factor (PBMC-DAF) and cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Roma; Kumar, Uma; Das, Nibhriti

    2016-03-01

    Studies have suggested that abnormal expression of complement regulatory proteins and cytokines contribute significantly to the path-physiology of rheumatoid arthritis. In this context, Decay accelerating factor (DAF) a complement regulatory protein is gaining increased attention. With the notion that immune effecter mechanisms are all interlinked and circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) should have a role in a systemic disease like rheumatoid arthritis, we studied the modulation and significance of PBMC-DAF and cytokines in RA. Seventy-five RA patients and 75 healthy controls were recruited. Expression of DAF and cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-17A and IL-10) in the PBMCs of patients and controls was determined. Correlations among DAF, cytokines, and disease activity were evaluated by standard statistical methods. The effect of IFN-γ, IL-17A, and IL-10 on the expression of DAF in patients and controls was studied in vitro. Expression of PBMC-DAF declined in patients both at mRNA and surface level and correlated negatively with the disease activity. Expression of IFN-γ also declined in patients but correlated positively with DAF and negatively with disease activity. Expression of IL-17A and IL-10 was higher in patients. The levels correlated positively with disease activity and negatively with DAF both in patients and controls. In vitro studies indicated that IFN-γ up-regulated DAF expression in PBMCs, whereas IL-17A and IL-10 had negative effect on the same. The decline in the PBMC-DAF is a contributing factor in manifestations of RA. Cytokine environment contributes to this decline. These findings brought novel insights into the complement-cytokine axis in the path-physiology of RA. PMID:26906204

  10. Influence of irbesartan on the urinary excretion of cytokines in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Jie; HUANG Hai-quan; L(O) Lin-li; ZHENG Min; LIU Bi-cheng

    2012-01-01

    Background The non-hemodynamic effects of angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) in the delay of progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) remain unclear.In this study,we investigated the influence of irbesartan on the urinary excretion of cytokines in patients with CKD.Methods In this randomized perspective clinical trial,different doses of irbesartan (150 mg/d and 300 mg/d) were given to two groups of patients in a cross-over design.Blood pressure (BP),creatinine clearance (Ccr) and 24-hour proteinuria were examined.Urinary excretion of cytokines was determined by human inflammatory cytokine antibody array.A two-fold change in spot intensity was considered significant.Results Urinary excretion of cytokines (granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF),intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1),interferon γ (IFN-γ),intedeukin 1β (IL-1β),IL-2,IL-6,IL-8,IL-11,IL-15 and macrophage inflammatory protein 1δ (MIP-1δ)) in group B (irbesartan 300 mg/d) was significantly decreased in comparison to group A (irbesartan 150 mg/d) after 8-week treatment.In group A,8 weeks of treatment induced a two- to nine-fold reduction in urinary cytokine levels (GCSF,GM-CSF,IFN-γ,IL-1α,IL-11,IL-12p40,MCP-2,MIP-1α),while increasing the dosage to 300 mg/d further decreased the excretion of GCSF,GM-CSF,IL-12p40,MCP-2 and MIP-1α by week 18.There was no significant difference in BP or Ccr between the two groups.However,24-hour proteinuria was significantly reduced in both groups,and in group A the reduction was dose dependent.Conclusion Irbesartan offers additional renoprotection in a dose-dependent manner by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines excretion in the urine of CKD patients.

  11. Modeling Blood Filtration in the Treatment of Septic Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Glenn; Hubler, Alfred

    2007-03-01

    Sepsis, the overreaction of the inflammation and coagulation responses to infection, is the leading cause of death in non-coronary intensive care unit patients in the US. Anti-mediator drugs have been generally ineffective, but by considering the network of cytokine interactions, we illustrate how filtering the cytokines in the blood leads to a reduced response. We further illustrate by applying an appropriate filter to existing immune response models as well as discuss both practical and optimal filter parameters.

  12. Risk allelic load in Th2 and Th3 cytokines genes as biomarker of susceptibility to HPV-16 positive cervical cancer: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    K. Torres-Poveda; A. I. Burguete-García; Bahena-Román, M.; Méndez-Martínez, R.; Zurita-Díaz, M. A.; López-Estrada, G.; Delgado-Romero, K.; Peralta-Zaragoza, O.; Bermúdez-Morales, V. H.; Cantú, D; García-Carrancá, A.; Madrid-Marina, V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alterations in the host cellular immune response allow persistent infections with High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) and development of premalignant cervical lesions and cervical cancer (CC). Variations of immunosuppressive cytokine levels in cervix are associated with the natural history of CC. To assess the potential role of genetic host immunity and cytokines serum levels in the risk of developing CC, we conducted a case–control study paired by age. Methods Peripheral blood...

  13. The change of toll-like receptor 4 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the serum Thl/Th2 cytokine levels in patients with chronic hepatitis B receiving interferon-α therapy%α-干扰素治疗慢性乙型肝炎患者外周血单个核细胞TLR4表达和血清Th1/Th2型细胞因子的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文莉; 吴茂盛; 黄育波; 刘细玲; 朱计芬; 许瑞荣

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the change of toll-like receptor 4 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the serum Thl/Th2 cytokine levels in patients with chronic hepatitis B receiving interferon-a therapy. Methods 50 patients with chronic hepatitis B were treated with interferon a for six months. After 12 weeks, they were devided into response and non-response group. Serum HBV DNA was detected by PCR;The Thl/Th2 cytokines were measured by ELISA;TLR4 was measured by flow cytometry. Results The IL-4 and TLR4 c ontents in the two groups at 3rd and 6th month were significantly lower than that before interferon-α therapy (P0.05). Conclusions The changes of IFN-γ and IL-4 level in CHB patients received 12 week interferon-α therapy may be not releted to the changes of TLR4 level; the changes of TLR4 level probably is releted to the early response in CHB patients received interferon-a therapy.%目的 探讨慢性乙型肝炎患者在α-干扰素治疗前后外周血单个核细胞Toll样受体4(TLR4)的表达及血清Thl/Th2型细胞因子水平的变化及其临床意义.方法 50例HBeAg阳性慢性乙型肝炎患者予以普通α-干扰素治疗.在治疗前及治疗后3月和6月,使用流式细胞仪检测外周血单个核细胞表面TLR4表达;采用ELISA法检测血清IFN-γ和IL-4水平,并同时检测ALT、HBV DNA水平.结果 在治疗3个月和6个月时,早期应答组和无应答组患者血清IFN-γ水平均升高,IL-4水平均降低;两组TLR4水平较治疗前均下降,但应答组患者TLR4下降更明显,有显著性差异(P0.05),TLR4与ALT呈正相关(r=0.78,P<0.01),TLR4的变化与HBV DNA变化无相关(P>0.05).结论 在干扰素-α治疗后,慢性乙型肝炎患者Thl/Th2型细胞因子的变化可能与TLR4表达的变化无相关,而对干扰素治疗的疗效可能与TLR4表达的变化有关.

  14. Changes in serum cytokines in response to musculoskeletal surgical trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Reikeras, Olav; Borgen, Pål; Reseland, Janne E; Lyngstadaas, Staale P

    2014-01-01

    Background Trauma induces local and subsequent systemic inflammatory reactions, and when the cytokine production is deregulated, a systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a potentially lethal outcome can occur. The understanding of the physiological mechanism of the cytokine network would be useful to better comprehend pathological conditions. Methods We analysed a panel of 30 cytokines in the serum of 20 patients operated with total hip replacement. Cytokine release was assessed postope...

  15. Comparison of blood leukocyte telomere DNA content and vascular telomere DNA content in human carotid atherosclerotic plaques%人颈动脉粥样硬化斑块组织及外周血白细胞相对端粒长度的检测及相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宇; 刘继斌; 刘鹏; 叶志东; 张伟丽; 惠汝太

    2012-01-01

    in pairs of leukocytes and carotid plaque specimens from the same subject (Standardized coefficient (5=0.87; P=0.0001).The telomere length was inversely correlated with age in blood leukocytes (Standardized coefficient (5= -0.704, P0.001) and in atherosclerotic plaque specimens (Standardized coefficient p= -0.528, P=0.002). Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that the leukocyte DNA content is a predictor of telomere content of vascular tissue and is an appropriate surrogate for human vascular age.

  16. Serum cytokines are increased and circulating micronutrients are not altered in subjects with early compared to advanced knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Tyler; Rogers, Victoria E; Henriksen, Vanessa T; Aguirre, Dale; Trawick, Roy H; Rasmussen, G Lynn; Momberger, Nathan G

    2014-08-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of physical disability. At the early stage of knee OA, the increase in synovial fluid cytokine concentrations could contribute to the pathogenesis of OA by degrading articular cartilage. It is unknown, however, if inflammatory cytokines increase systemically at the early or advanced stage of knee OA. The systemic increase of inflammatory cytokines could be detrimental to the endogenous status of micronutrients that protect against excessive inflammation and cytokine-mediated events. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that an increase in serum cytokines associate with a decrease in circulating micronutrients in subjects with early compared to advanced knee OA. Advanced knee OA subjects (n=14) displayed radiographic, pain, and muscular weakness symptoms of knee OA. Early knee OA subjects (n=14) were matched (age, gender, and body mass index) to the advanced OA group and displayed one or two of the aforementioned symptoms of knee OA. Inflammatory cytokines, vitamins C (ascorbic acid), D (25-hydroxyvitamin D), and E (α- and γ-tocopherols), and β-carotene were measured in fasting blood samples. In the early OA group, serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-5, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-13 concentrations were significantly (all pmicronutrients in subjects with early compared to advanced knee OA.

  17. Understanding Autoimmune Mechanisms in Multiple Sclerosis Using Gene Expression Microarrays: Treatment Effect and Cytokine-related Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Achiron

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a central nervous system disease in which activated autoreactive T-cells invade the blood brain barrier and initiate an inflammatory response that leads to myelin destruction and axonal loss. The etiology of MS, as well as the mechanisms associated with its unexpected onset, the unpredictable clinical course spanning decades, and the different rates of progression leading to disability over time, remains an enigma. We have applied gene expression microarrays technology in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC to better understand MS pathogenesis and better target treatment approaches. A signature of 535 genes were found to distinguish immunomodulatory treatment effects between 13 treated and 13 untreated MS patients. In addition, the expression pattern of 1109 gene transcripts that were previously reported to significantly differentiate between MS patients and healthy subjects were further analyzed to study the effect of cytokine-related pathways on disease pathogenesis. When relative gene expression for 26 MS patients was compared to 18 healthy controls, 30 genes related to various cytokine-associated pathways were identified. These genes belong to a variety of families such as interleukins, small inducible cytokine subfamily and tumor necrosis factor ligand and receptor. Further analysis disclosed seven cytokine-associated genes within the immunomodulatory treatment signature, and two cytokine-associated genes SCYA4 (small inducible cytokine A4 and FCAR (Fc fragment of IgA, CD89 that were common to both the MS gene expression signature and the immunomodulatory treatment gene expression signature. Our results indicate that cytokine-associated genes are involved in various pathogenic pathways in MS and also related to immunomodulatory treatment effects.

  18. Screening the cytokines for diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽豪

    2014-01-01

    Objective To select cytokines for diagnosis of tuber-culous meningitis.Methods One hundred and twenty kinds of cytokines were detected with protein chips among two tuberculous meningitis cases,two viral meningitis cases and two noninfectious neurologic disease cases.The results were compared among different disease groups to select the differential cytokines,which were

  19. Cytokine-producing T cell subsets in human leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, Kåre

    2000-01-01

    Leishmania specific Th1/Th2 cells have been identified in humans as well as in mice. There is a correlation between the clinical outcome of the infection and the cytokine response profile. Generally, the production of Th2 cytokines leads to severe infection, whereas the production of Th1 cytokine...

  20. Changes of inflammation-associated cytokine expressions during early phase of experimental endotoxic shock in macaques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hui Ji; Ke-Yi Sun; Yan-Hong Feng; Guo-Qing Yin

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study changes of inflammation-associated cytokine expressions during early phase of endotoxic shock in macague.METHODS: Experiments were performed in Macaque mulatta treated with LPS 2.8 mg/kg in shock model group or with normal saline in control group. Blood samples were collected before, or 60 min, or 120 min after LPS injection,respectively. Liver and spleen tissues were obtained at 120 min after LPS injection. The plasma levels of TNF-α,IL-1 β, IL-10 and IL-12P40 were determined by doubleantibody sandwich ELISA with antibodies against human cytokines. The mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1 β, and IL-18 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), liver and spleen were examined by real-time fluorescence semi-quantitative RT-PCR with the primers based on human genes.RESULTS: Mean systemic arterial pressure (MAP), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) and left ventricular work index (LVWI) of macaques were significant declined in shock model group on average 60 min after LPS injection. The plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-10 were significantly increased 60 min after LPS injection and then decreased.The plasma levels of IL-1 β and IL-12P40 were significantly increased at 120 min after LPS injection. The mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-1 β were significantly increased 60 min after LPS stimulation in PBMCs and 120 min after LPS stimulation in livers. The mRNA level of IL-18 was significantly increased 120 min after LPS stimulation in PBMCs and livers. But in spleen, only TNF-α mRNA level in LPS group was significantly higher 120 min after LPS stimulation, compared with that in control group.CONCLUSION: An endotoxic shock model of Macaque mulatta was successfully established. Both antibodies for ELISA and PCR primers based on human cytokine assays were successfully applied to detect macaque cytokines. In the model, inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1 β,IL-12 and IL-18 as well as anti-inflammation cytokine IL-10,were released at very early phase of

  1. Blood / Money

    OpenAIRE

    Strong, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Marilyn Strathern has argued that "nature" in Euro-American culture has appeared as constraint; it has figured the givens of existence on which human artifice is seen to construct "society" or "culture."(5) Among those givens is the notion that human beings are naturally individuals. And blood, too, images individuality: "The very thought of blood, individual blood, touches the deepest feelings in man about life and death" ([RIchard Titmuss] 16.) Transfusion medicine, then, draws on a series ...

  2. Cytokines: muscle protein and amino acid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hall, Gerrit

    2012-01-01

    of IL-6 on the regulation of muscle protein metabolism but indirectly via IL-6 reducing amino acid availability. SUMMARY: Recent studies suggest that the best described cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 are unlikely to be the major direct mediators of muscle protein loss in inflammatory diseases. However....... However, this does not seem applicable for inflammatory diseases or human models of sepsis, in which the enhanced imbalance between these two processes is observed within an enhanced, normal or reduced muscle protein turnover.......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the role of cytokines, in particular tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), in relation to the nature of human in-vivo muscle wasting in disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Infusion of human TNF-α and IL-6 in healthy individuals, acutely...

  3. Alteration of cytokine profile following hemorrhagic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sumin; Aguilar, Alex; Subramani, Kumar; Poulose, Ninu; Ayub, Ahmar; Raju, Raghavan

    2016-05-01

    Hemorrhage is one of the leading causes of death in patients with trauma. We recently demonstrated that resveratrol can improve cardiac function and prolong life following severe hemorrhagic injury (HI) in a rat model. The present work is focused on determining changes in NF-κB dependent gene expression in the heart and the systemic cytokine milieu following HI and the effect of resveratrol treatment. The results indicate an increase in phosphorylated NF-κB in the heart with a concomitant increase in the expression of NF-κB dependent genes following HI. There was also a significant increase of systemic cytokine levels, both pro and anti-inflammatory, following HI and resolution when treated with resveratrol. This study demonstrates the potential role NF-κB has in the physiological response to HI and the effectiveness of resveratrol in reducing immune activation. PMID:26851979

  4. The Role of Cytokines in Sleep Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, James M.

    2008-01-01

    Interleukin-1 beta (IL1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) promote non-rapid eye movement sleep under physiological and inflammatory conditions. Additional cytokines are also likely involved but evidence is insufficient to conclude that they are sleep regulatory substances. Many of the symptoms induced by sleep loss, e.g. sleepiness, fatigue, poor cognition, enhanced sensitivity to pain, can be elicited by injection of exogenous IL1 or TNF. We propose that ATP, released during neurotransm...

  5. Proteolytic inactivation of cytokines by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Parmely, M; Gale, A; Clabaugh, M.; Horvat, R; Zhou, W W

    1990-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa alkaline protease and elastase are thought to contribute to bacterial invasiveness, tissue damage, and immune suppression in animals and patients infected with the bacterium. This study examined the ability of the two proteases to inactivate a number of cytokines that mediate immune and inflammatory responses. Human recombinant gamma interferon (rIFN-gamma) and human recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha were inactivated by both proteases. Murine rIFN-gamma was relati...

  6. The diagnostic accuracy of acute phase proteins and proinflammatory cytokines in sheep with pneumonic pasteurellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Deeb, Wael M; Elmoslemany, Ahmed M

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of acute phase proteins and proinflammatory cytokines in sheep with pneumonic pasteurellosis. Blood samples were collected from 56 sheep (36 naturally infected with Pasteurella multocida and 20 healthy controls) belonging to one farm in Eastern region, Saudi Arabia. Serum samples were evaluated for acute phase proteins (Haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and fibrinogen (Fb)), and the proinflammatory cytokines (interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interferon-gamma (IFN-ϒ)). Additionally, nasopharyngeal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavages were collected from all animals for bacteriological examinations. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to assess the diagnostic performance of each parameter. All parameters showed moderate to high degree of positive correlation with case-control status. There was no significant difference in the area under the curve (AUC) among acute phase proteins; however, both Hp and SAA showed better sensitivity and specificity than Fb. The proinflammatory cytokines (IL1-α, IL1-β, and IL6) showed similar and highly accurate diagnostic performance (AUC > 0.9), whereas IFN-ϒ was moderately accurate (AUC = 0.79). In conclusion, this study confirms the value of acute phase proteins and cytokines as diagnostic biomarkers of naturally occuring pneumonic pasteurellosis in sheep. PMID:27547520

  7. Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines Release in Mice Injected with Crotalus durissus terrificus Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hernández Cruz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Cdt were analyzed with respect to the susceptibility and the inflammatory mediators in an experimental model of severe envenomation. BALB/c female mice injected intraperitoneally presented sensibility to Cdt, with changes in specific signs, blood biochemical and inflammatory mediators. The venom induced reduction of glucose and urea levels and an increment of creatinine levels in serum from mice. Significant differences were observed in the time-course of mediator levels in sera from mice injected with Cdt. The maximum levels of IL-6, NO, IL-5, TNF, IL-4 and IL-10 were observed 15 min, 30 min, 1, 2 and 4 hours post-injection, respectively. No difference was observed for levels of IFN-γ. Taken together, these data indicate that the envenomation by Cdt is regulated both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses at time-dependent manner. In serum from mice injected with Cdt at the two first hours revealed of pro-inflammatory dominance. However, with an increment of time an increase of anti-inflammatory cytokines was observed and the balance toward to anti-inflammatory dominance. In conclusion, the observation that Cdt affects the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines provides further evidence for the role played by Cdt in modulating pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance.

  8. Cytokine-Induced Modulation of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Lukas F; Wasmer, Marie-Hélène; Rau, Tilman T; Krebs, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of novel immunomodulatory cancer therapies over the last decade, above all immune checkpoint blockade, has significantly advanced tumor treatment. For colorectal cancer (CRC), a novel scoring system based on the immune cell infiltration in tumors has greatly improved disease prognostic evaluation and guidance to more specific therapy. These findings underline the relevance of tumor immunology in the future handling and therapeutic approach of malignant disease. Inflammation can either promote or suppress CRC pathogenesis and inflammatory mediators, mainly cytokines, critically determine the pro- or anti-tumorigenic signals within the tumor environment. Here, we review the current knowledge on the cytokines known to be critically involved in CRC development and illustrate their mechanisms of action. We also highlight similarities and differences between CRC patients and murine models of CRC and point out cytokines with an ambivalent role for intestinal cancer. We also identify some of the future challenges in the field that should be addressed for the development of more effective immunomodulatory therapies.

  9. Cytokines as Biomarkers in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Burska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available RA is a complex disease that develops as a series of events often referred to as disease continuum. RA would benefit from novel biomarker development for diagnosis where new biomarkers are still needed (even if progresses have been made with the inclusion of ACPA into the ACR/EULAR 2010 diagnostic criteria and for prognostic notably in at risk of evolution patients with autoantibody-positive arthralgia. Risk biomarkers for rapid evolution or cardiovascular complications are also highly desirable. Monitoring biomarkers would be useful in predicting relapse. Finally, predictive biomarkers for therapy outcome would allow tailoring therapy to the individual. Increasing numbers of cytokines have been involved in RA pathology. Many have the potential as biomarkers in RA especially as their clinical utility is already established in other diseases and could be easily transferable to rheumatology. We will review the current knowledge’s relation to cytokine used as biomarker in RA. However, given the complexity and heterogeneous nature of RA, it is unlikely that a single cytokine may provide sufficient discrimination; therefore multiple biomarker signatures may represent more realistic approach for the future of personalised medicine in RA.

  10. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  11. INFLUENCE OF PROBIOTICS ON CYTOKINE PRODUCTION IN THE IN VITRO AND IN VIVO SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Averina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modulatory effects of three probiotic bacterial strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus K32 (L, Bifidobacterium longum GT15 (B, Enterococcus faecium L-3 (E on expression level and contents of key cytokines were studied using PCR techniques with reverse transcription, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Both cell cultures and an experimental model of intestinal dysbiosis were used in this study.The genes encoding bacteriocins, surface membrane component, pili and exopolysaccharides involved in host immune system modulation were previously identified in the B and Ebacterial strains.Investigation of probiotic strains and effects of their supernatants expression of cytokines in cell cultures of promonocyte origin (HTP-1 showed increased expression of TNFα, due to E and L supernatants. Moreover, the Bl culture induced IL-8 and IL-10 expression.In a model of Wistar rats with ampicillinand metronidazole-induced intestinal dysbiosis corrected with probiotics we have shown that the dysbiosis was accompanied by sufficient alterations in microbiota composition (Klebsiella spp. overgrowth and low contents of Faecalobacterium prausnitzii that were observed only in the animals untreated with probiotics (control, or after administration of L.In contrast to these results, the animals treated with E and B, the following changes were revealed: 1 low expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-8, TNFα, MCP-1 inmesenteric lymph nodes and appropriate changes of their serum contents, 2 increased serum content of the anti-inflammatory TGFβ cytokine. Hence, the present study, having used two complementary models, has detected some individual features of immune modulation produced by the probiotictic strains of L. rhamnosus K32, B. longum GT15 и E. faecium L-3 which exert differential effects upon the intestinal microbiota. 

  12. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  13. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  14. The cytokine profile of human NKT cells and PBMCs is dependent on donor sex and stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernin, Hannah; Fehling, Helena; Marggraff, Claudia; Tannich, Egbert; Lotter, Hannelore

    2016-08-01

    Sex-related variations in natural killer T (NKT) cells may influence immunoregulation and outcome of infectious and autoimmune diseases. We analyzed sex-specific differences in peripheral blood NKTs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from men and women and determined the frequencies of NKT cells and their subpopulations [CD4(+); CD8(+); double negative (DN)] and the levels of cytokine production following stimulation with the NKT cell ligands α-Galactosylceramide (αGalCer) and Entamoeba histolytica lipopeptidephosphoglycan (Lotter et al. in PLoS Pathog 5(5):e1000434, 2009). Total and DN NKT cells were more abundant in women than in men. In women, αGalCer induced higher production of intracellular IFNγ, IL-4, IL-17 and TNF by CD4(+) and DN(+)NKT cells. Both ligands induced expression of multiple cytokines in PBMCs and influenced the ratio of NKT cell subpopulations during long-term culture. Although the sex-specific differences in frequencies of NKT cells and their subpopulations were marginal, the significant sex-specific differences in cytokine production might influence disease outcomes. PMID:26895635

  15. Inflammatory cytokine response to Bacillus anthracis peptidoglycan requires phagocytosis and lysosomal trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Janaki K; Khurana, Taruna; Langer, Marybeth; West, Christopher M; Ballard, Jimmy D; Metcalf, Jordan P; Merkel, Tod J; Coggeshall, K Mark

    2010-06-01

    During advanced stages of inhalation anthrax, Bacillus anthracis accumulates at high levels in the bloodstream of the infected host. This bacteremia leads to sepsis during late-stage anthrax; however, the mechanisms through which B. anthracis-derived factors contribute to the pathology of infected hosts are poorly defined. Peptidoglycan, a major component of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria, can provoke symptoms of sepsis in animal models. We have previously shown that peptidoglycan of B. anthracis can induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines by cells in human blood. Here, we show that biologically active peptidoglycan is shed from an active culture of encapsulated B. anthracis strain Ames in blood. Peptidoglycan is able to bind to surfaces of responding cells, and internalization of peptidoglycan is required for the production of inflammatory cytokines. We also show that the peptidoglycan traffics to lysosomes, and lysosomal function is required for cytokine production. We conclude that peptidoglycan of B. anthracis is initially bound by an unknown extracellular receptor, is phagocytosed, and traffics to lysosomes, where it is degraded to a product recognized by an intracellular receptor. Binding of the peptidoglycan product to the intracellular receptor causes a proinflammatory response. These findings provide new insight into the mechanism by which B. anthracis triggers sepsis during a critical stage of anthrax disease. PMID:20308305

  16. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...... need to move beyond the bifurcation of the social and medical aspects of blood supply as two separate issues and approach social dynamics as key medical safety questions....

  17. Regulation of cytokines by small RNAs during skin inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkelsen Jacob G

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intercellular signaling by cytokines is a vital feature of the innate immune system. In skin, an inflammatory response is mediated by cytokines and an entwined network of cellular communication between T-cells and epidermal keratinocytes. Dysregulated cytokine production, orchestrated by activated T-cells homing to the skin, is believed to be the main cause of psoriasis, a common inflammatory skin disorder. Cytokines are heavily regulated at the transcriptional level, but emerging evidence suggests that regulatory mechanisms that operate after transcription play a key role in balancing the production of cytokines. Herein, we review the nature of cytokine signaling in psoriasis with particular emphasis on regulation by mRNA destabilizing elements and the potential targeting of cytokine-encoding mRNAs by miRNAs. The proposed linkage between mRNA decay mediated by AU-rich elements and miRNA association is described and discussed as a possible general feature of cytokine regulation in skin. Moreover, we describe the latest attempts to therapeutically target cytokines at the RNA level in psoriasis by exploiting the cellular RNA interference machinery. The applicability of cytokine-encoding mRNAs as future clinical drug targets is evaluated, and advances and obstacles related to topical administration of RNA-based drugs targeting the cytokine circuit in psoriasis are described.

  18. How does Chinese medicine target cytokine imbalance in rheumatoid arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Sun, Yue

    2013-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) manifests as an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Cytokine imbalance is suggested to play critical roles in the development of RA. Currently, various treatments for RA, including biological agents such as antibodies against inflammation mediators, or Chinese herbal medicines, intervene the disease by restoring the balance of cytokines. Chinese medicine (CM) can not only suppress the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but also induce the expression of cytokines with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Thus, Chinese medicine can effectively reduce inflammatory cell infiltration into synovial tissue, pannus formation, and degradation of the extracellular matrix surrounding cartilage cells, thereby reducing subchondral bone damage. This paper reviews the changes of cytokine profiling during development of RA and discuss the mechanisms by which Chinese medicine restores the cytokine balance.

  19. How does Chinese medicine target cytokine imbalance in rheumatoid arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Sun, Yue

    2013-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) manifests as an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Cytokine imbalance is suggested to play critical roles in the development of RA. Currently, various treatments for RA, including biological agents such as antibodies against inflammation mediators, or Chinese herbal medicines, intervene the disease by restoring the balance of cytokines. Chinese medicine (CM) can not only suppress the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but also induce the expression of cytokines with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Thus, Chinese medicine can effectively reduce inflammatory cell infiltration into synovial tissue, pannus formation, and degradation of the extracellular matrix surrounding cartilage cells, thereby reducing subchondral bone damage. This paper reviews the changes of cytokine profiling during development of RA and discuss the mechanisms by which Chinese medicine restores the cytokine balance. PMID:24170633

  20. Soluble heparan sulfate fragments generated by heparanase trigger the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines through TLR-4.

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    Katharine J Goodall

    Full Text Available Heparanase is a β-D-endoglucuronidase that cleaves heparan sulfate (HS, facilitating degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM and the release of HS-bound biomolecules including cytokines. The remodeling of the ECM by heparanase is important for various physiological and pathological processes, including inflammation, wound healing, tumour angiogenesis and metastasis. Although heparanase has been proposed to facilitate leukocyte migration through degradation of the ECM, its role in inflammation by regulating the expression and release of cytokines has not been fully defined. In this study, the role of heparanase in regulating the expression and release of cytokines from human and murine immune cells was examined. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells treated ex vivo with heparanase resulted in the release of a range of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF. In addition, mouse splenocytes treated ex vivo with heparanase resulted in the release of IL-6, MCP-1 and TNF. A similar pattern of cytokine release was also observed when cells were treated with soluble HS. Furthermore, heparanase-induced cytokine release was abolished by enzymatic-inhibitors of heparanase, suggesting this process is mediated via the enzymatic release of cell surface HS fragments. As soluble HS can signal through the Toll-like receptor (TLR pathway, heparanase may promote the upregulation of cytokines through the generation of heparanase-cleaved fragments of HS. In support of this hypothesis, mouse spleen cells lacking the key TLR adaptor molecule MyD88 demonstrated an abolition of cytokine release after heparanase stimulation. Furthermore, TLR4-deficient spleen cells showed reduced cytokine release in response to heparanase treatment, suggesting that TLR4 is involved in this response. Consistent with these observations, the pathway involved in cytokine upregulation was identified as being NF-κB-dependent. These data identify a new