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Sample records for blood component removal

  1. Leukodepleted blood components do not remove the potential for long-term transfusion-associated microchimerism in Australian major trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, Rena; Balogh, Zsolt J; Lott, Natalie J; Hsu, Jeremy M; Irving, David O

    2014-01-01

    Despite the introduction of leukodepleted blood components, it has been shown that donor leukocyte engraftment (microchimerism) remains a long-term consequence of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. The incidence of microchimerism may be affected by international disparities in blood processing methods or variations in transfusion practices. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of microchimerism in Australian trauma patients. A secondary aim was to examine whether any patient complications correlated to the incidence of microchimerism. Australian trauma patients (n = 86) who had been transfused with red blood cell (RBC) units between 2000 and 2012 with an injury severity score (ISS) of greater than 15 were recruited. The prevalence of microchimerism was determined using genetic screening with a panel of insertion/deletion biallelic polymorphisms. The mean storage age of the transfused RBC units was 20 ± 8 days and the mean length of stay (LOS) in hospital was 40 ± 39 days. There were no significant associations in this study sample to bias for patient age, gender, number of transfused RBC units or ISS. Nine of the 55 (16.3%) patients transfused with non-leukodepleted blood components displayed an incidence of microchimerism. Of the 31 patients transfused with leukodepleted RBC units, 3 (9.6%) displayed an incidence of microchimerism. Therefore, despite the universal introduction of leukodepleted blood components in Australia, the prevalence of transfusion-associated microchimerism was found to be unchanged. Furthermore, half of the patients exhibiting microchimerism were recorded to have had splenic injury or required splenectomy at the time of transfusion.

  2. [Blood components and good practices in transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Georges

    2015-02-01

    Each year, more than three millions of blood components are transfused to more than five hundred thousand patients in France. The optimal use of blood components requires that physicians prescribing blood components master the clinical indications of red blood cells concentrates, platelet concentrates and fresh frozen plasma. In addition, physicians in charge of blood component prescription should provide adequate pre- and post-transfusion information to their patients. Compliance of blood components administration in patients with safety guidelines contributes as well to their optimal use. In addition, for each blood component transfused, a proper evaluation of its safety and its efficacy should be done. Finally, a regular evaluation of transfusion practice in hospital services were blood components are used, through audits made in cooperation with their blood component provider, either blood transfusion centre or the hospital blood bank, enables to appreciate the level of compliance with safety and clinical guidelines, and more globally how the transfusion process is mastered.

  3. Processing, testing and selecting blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alister; Heyes, Jennifer

    Transfusion of blood components can be an essential and lifesaving treatment for many patients. However, components must comply with a number of national requirements to ensure they are safe and fit for use. Transfusion of incorrect blood components can lead to mortality and morbidity in patients, which is why patient testing and blood selection are important. This second article in our five-part series on blood transfusion outlines the requirements for different blood components, the importance of the ABO and RhD blood group systems and the processes that ensure the correct blood component is issued to each patient.

  4. Profiles of blood and blood component transfusion recipients in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Khoza, Star; Hassall, Oliver; Faragher, Brian E.; Kajja, Isaac; Mvere, David A.; Emmanuel, Jean C.; Postma, Maarten J.; van Hulst, Marinus

    2015-01-01

    Background. There are limited published data on the characteristics of blood transfusion recipients in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the demographic characteristics of blood transfusion recipients and patterns of blood and blood component use in Zimbabwe. Materials and methods. Data on th

  5. Overview of blood components and their preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debdatta Basu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The whole blood which is a mixture of cells, colloids and crystalloids can be separated into different blood components namely packed red blood cell (PRBC concentrate, platelet concentrate, fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate. Each blood component is used for a different indication; thus the component separation has maximized the utility of one whole blood unit. Different components need different storage conditions and temperature requirements for therapeutic efficacy. A variety of equipments to maintain suitable ambient conditions during storage and transportation are in vogue. The blood components being foreign to a patient may produce adverse effects that may range from mild allergic manifestations to fatal reactions. Such reactions are usually caused by plasma proteins, leucocytes, red cell antigens, plasma and other pathogens. To avoid and reduce such complications, blood products are modified as leukoreduced products, irradiated products, volume reduced products, saline washed products and pathogen inactivated products. The maintenance of blood inventory forms a major concern of blood banking particularly of rare blood groups routinely and common blood groups during disasters. PRBCs can be stored for years using cryopreservation techniques. New researches in red cell cultures and blood substitutes herald new era in blood banking.

  6. Overview of blood components and their preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Debdatta; Kulkarni, Rajendra

    2014-09-01

    The whole blood which is a mixture of cells, colloids and crystalloids can be separated into different blood components namely packed red blood cell (PRBC) concentrate, platelet concentrate, fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate. Each blood component is used for a different indication; thus the component separation has maximized the utility of one whole blood unit. Different components need different storage conditions and temperature requirements for therapeutic efficacy. A variety of equipments to maintain suitable ambient conditions during storage and transportation are in vogue. The blood components being foreign to a patient may produce adverse effects that may range from mild allergic manifestations to fatal reactions. Such reactions are usually caused by plasma proteins, leucocytes, red cell antigens, plasma and other pathogens. To avoid and reduce such complications, blood products are modified as leukoreduced products, irradiated products, volume reduced products, saline washed products and pathogen inactivated products. The maintenance of blood inventory forms a major concern of blood banking particularly of rare blood groups routinely and common blood groups during disasters. PRBCs can be stored for years using cryopreservation techniques. New researches in red cell cultures and blood substitutes herald new era in blood banking.

  7. Intracorneal blood removal six weeks after canaloplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rossetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a 71-year-old patient with bilateral open-angle glaucoma, intracorneal blood was found after a canaloplasty procedure in the right eye. Six weeks after surgery on ultrasound biomicroscopy examination, liquified blood and blood clots could be observed nasally in the deep corneal stroma close to the Descemet′s membrane. The intracorneal blood was washed out with balanced saline solution following deep corneal incision and lamellar dissection. Descemet′s membrane was reattached with air injection into the anterior chamber. Two months later, visual acuity improved to 20/50, intraocular pressure was 16 mm Hg without medication and confocal microscopy showed deep stromal folds and limited endothelial cell loss. Viscoelastic entering the cornea at Schwalbe′s line and reflux of blood from the collector channels to Schlemm′s canal can account for corneal hematoma. Even six weeks after canaloplasty, successful blood removal could be fulfilled without rupturing the Descemet′s membrane.

  8. Photoacoustic removal of occlusions from blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visuri, Steven R.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Celliers, Peter M.; London, Richard A.; Maitland, IV, Duncan J.; Esch, Victor C.

    2002-01-01

    Partial or total occlusions of fluid passages within the human body are removed by positioning an array of optical fibers in the passage and directing treatment radiation pulses along the fibers, one at a time, to generate a shock wave and hydrodynamics flows that strike and emulsify the occlusions. A preferred application is the removal of blood clots (thrombin and embolic) from small cerebral vessels to reverse the effects of an ischemic stroke. The operating parameters and techniques are chosen to minimize the amount of heating of the fragile cerebral vessel walls occurring during this photo acoustic treatment. One such technique is the optical monitoring of the existence of hydrodynamics flow generating vapor bubbles when they are expected to occur and stopping the heat generating pulses propagated along an optical fiber that is not generating such bubbles.

  9. 77 FR 6463 - Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug... Blood Components, Including Source Plasma,'' which provided incorrect publication information...

  10. 30 CFR 7.508 - Harmful gas removal components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harmful gas removal components. 7.508 Section 7... Harmful gas removal components. (a) Each refuge alternative shall include means for removing harmful gases... monoxide concentration to 25 ppm or less and the methane concentration to 1.0 percent or less as...

  11. Leucoreduction of blood components: an effective way to increase blood safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Maria; Vaglio, Stefania; Pupella, Simonetta; Marano, Giuseppe; Facco, Giuseppina; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M; Grazzini, Giuliano

    2016-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, it has been demonstrated that removal of white blood cells from blood components is effective in preventing some adverse reactions such as febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions, immunisation against human leucocyte antigens and human platelet antigens, and transmission of cytomegalovirus. In this review we discuss indications for leucoreduction and classify them into three categories: evidence-based indications for which the clinical efficacy is proven, indications based on the analysis of observational clinical studies with very consistent results and indications for which the clinical efficacy is partial or unproven.

  12. Blood component therapy: Which, when and how much

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Chand Arya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood transfusion refers to the perioperative administration of blood and blood components. Adherence to proper indications for blood component therapy is essential because of its potential adverse effects and costs of transfusion. Over the years, the significance of blood components in treating certain diseases or conditions has been recognized. In this article, the most commonly used blood components along with the new developments in component therapy have been discussed. Recommendations by different academic and clinical trials and studies have been presented for quick reference. The individual coagulation factors are discussed in brief.

  13. Systems and methods for removing components of a gas mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    None

    2016-09-06

    A system for removing components of a gaseous mixture is provided comprising: a reactor fluid containing vessel having conduits extending therefrom, aqueous fluid within the reactor, the fluid containing a ligand and a metal, and at least one reactive surface within the vessel coupled to a power source. A method for removing a component from a gaseous mixture is provided comprising exposing the gaseous mixture to a fluid containing a ligand and a reactive metal, the exposing chemically binding the component of the gaseous mixture to the ligand. A method of capturing a component of a gaseous mixture is provided comprising: exposing the gaseous mixture to a fluid containing a ligand and a reactive metal, the exposing chemically binding the component of the gaseous mixture to the ligand, altering the oxidation state of the metal, the altering unbinding the component from the ligand, and capturing the component.

  14. Removal of Chronic Intravascular Blood Clots using Liquid Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae-Chul; Choi, Myeong; Koo, Il; Yu, Zengqi; Collins, George

    2011-10-01

    An electrical embolectomy device for removing chronic intravascular blood clots using liquid plasma under saline environment was demonstrated. We employed a proxy experimental blood clot model of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and actual equine blood clot. Thermal damage to contiguous tissue and the collagen denaturing via the plasma irradiation were investigated by histological analysis using birefringence of the tissue and verified by FT-IR spectroscopic study, respectively, which showed the high removal rate up to 2 mm per minute at room temperature and small thermal damage less than 200 μm.

  15. 77 FR 7 - Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ...) Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma AGENCY: Food and... requirements for blood and blood components, including Source Plasma, into one section of the Code of Federal..., and Source Plasma,'' which amended Sec. 606.121(d)(2) by adding ``or in solid black,''...

  16. Compact NMR relaxometry of human blood and blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cistola, David P; Robinson, Michelle D

    2016-11-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry is a uniquely practical and versatile implementation of NMR technology. Because it does not depend on chemical shift resolution, it can be performed using low-field compact instruments deployed in atypical settings. Early relaxometry studies of human blood were focused on developing a diagnostic test for cancer. Those efforts were misplaced, as the measurements were not specific to cancer. However, important lessons were learned about the factors that drive the water longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation times. One key factor is the overall distribution of proteins and lipoproteins. Plasma water T2 can detect shifts in the blood proteome resulting from inflammation, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. In whole blood, T2 is sensitive to hemoglobin content and oxygenation, although the latter can be suppressed by manipulating the static and applied magnetic fields. Current applications of compact NMR relaxometry include blood tests for candidiasis, hemostasis, malaria and insulin resistance.

  17. Ambient overnight hold of whole blood prior to the manufacture of blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Stephen

    2010-12-01

    Blood services routinely separate whole blood into components that are then stored under different conditions. The storage conditions used for whole blood prior to separation must therefore be a compromise between the needs of the red cells (which benefit from refrigeration) and plasma and platelets (which are better preserved at ambient temperature). For many years, the approach has been to manufacture plasma and platelet components on the day of blood collection, and to refrigerate any unprocessed blood for manufacture into red cell components on the following day. However, this can make it challenging to maintain adequate stocks of all components. The European practice of 'ambient hold' of whole blood for up to 24 hours prior to processing allows greater flexibility in blood component manufacture, and the data reviewed suggest there is relatively little impact on the quality of red cell or plasma components, and an improvement in the quality of platelet components.

  18. Deposition and removal of radioactive isotopes from LMFBR components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, E.F.; Lutton, J.M.; Maffei, H.P.

    1980-01-01

    The development of an analytical model to describe the production, transport and eventual removal of radioactive materials in the primary sodium of LMFBR's is a continuing Sodium Technology activity sponsored by the Department of Energy. This paper describes studies directed toward obtaining an understanding of the deposition from sodium of fuel cladding activated corrosion products onto stainless steel alloys and the effect of their diffusion into the base metal on the process required to decontaminate it. The objective of the decontamination operation is to reduce the activity to a level allowing hands on maintenance without causing unacceptable damage to the component.

  19. Removal of cytomegalovirus DNA from donor blood by filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K L; Cobain, T; Dunstan, R A

    1993-04-01

    Blood from five donors, previously shown to be positive for cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA following polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, was filtered through commercially available leucocyte filters. Analysis of pre- and post-filtration samples by PCR with ethidium bromide staining has shown that filtration was successful in removing CMV DNA from all samples. This is evidence that leucocyte filtration of red cell concentrates may greatly decrease the risk of CMV disease following transfusion to susceptible patients.

  20. Blood borne: bacterial components in mother's blood influence fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, Allister J; Tuomanen, Elaine I

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial or viral infection of the mother during the course of pregnancy can cross the placenta and actively infect the fetus. However, especially for bacteria, it is more common for mothers to experience an infection that can be treated without overt fetal infection. In this setting, it is less well understood what the risk to fetal development is, particularly in terms of neurological development. This research highlight reviews recent findings indicating that bacterial components generated during infection of the mother can cross the placenta and activate the fetal innate immune system resulting in changes in the course of brain development and subsequent progression to postnatal cognitive disorders. Bacterial cell wall is a ubiquitous bacterial PAMP (pathogen-associated molecular pattern) known to activate inflammation through the stimulation of TLR2. Cell wall is released from bacteria during antibiotic treatment and new work shows that embryos exposed to cell wall from the mother demonstrate anomalous proliferation of neuronal precursor cells in a TLR2 dependent manner. Such proliferation increases the neuronal density of the cortical plate and alters brain architecture. Although there is no fetal death, subsequent cognitive development is significantly impaired. This model system suggests that bacterial infection of the mother and its treatment can impact fetal brain development and requires greater understanding to potentially eliminate a risk factor for cognitive disorders such as autism.

  1. Quality Assessment of Established and Emerging Blood Components for Transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason P. Acker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood is donated either as whole blood, with subsequent component processing, or through the use of apheresis devices that extract one or more components and return the rest of the donation to the donor. Blood component therapy supplanted whole blood transfusion in industrialized countries in the middle of the twentieth century and remains the standard of care for the majority of patients receiving a transfusion. Traditionally, blood has been processed into three main blood products: red blood cell concentrates; platelet concentrates; and transfusable plasma. Ensuring that these products are of high quality and that they deliver their intended benefits to patients throughout their shelf-life is a complex task. Further complexity has been added with the development of products stored under nonstandard conditions or subjected to additional manufacturing steps (e.g., cryopreserved platelets, irradiated red cells, and lyophilized plasma. Here we review established and emerging methodologies for assessing blood product quality and address controversies and uncertainties in this thriving and active field of investigation.

  2. Quality Assessment of Established and Emerging Blood Components for Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Denese C.

    2016-01-01

    Blood is donated either as whole blood, with subsequent component processing, or through the use of apheresis devices that extract one or more components and return the rest of the donation to the donor. Blood component therapy supplanted whole blood transfusion in industrialized countries in the middle of the twentieth century and remains the standard of care for the majority of patients receiving a transfusion. Traditionally, blood has been processed into three main blood products: red blood cell concentrates; platelet concentrates; and transfusable plasma. Ensuring that these products are of high quality and that they deliver their intended benefits to patients throughout their shelf-life is a complex task. Further complexity has been added with the development of products stored under nonstandard conditions or subjected to additional manufacturing steps (e.g., cryopreserved platelets, irradiated red cells, and lyophilized plasma). Here we review established and emerging methodologies for assessing blood product quality and address controversies and uncertainties in this thriving and active field of investigation. PMID:28070448

  3. Interferences from blood collection tube components on clinical chemistry assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Raffick A R; Remaley, Alan T

    2014-01-01

    Improper design or use of blood collection devices can adversely affect the accuracy of laboratory test results. Vascular access devices, such as catheters and needles, exert shear forces during blood flow, which creates a predisposition to cell lysis. Components from blood collection tubes, such as stoppers, lubricants, surfactants, and separator gels, can leach into specimens and/or adsorb analytes from a specimen; special tube additives may also alter analyte stability. Because of these interactions with blood specimens, blood collection devices are a potential source of pre-analytical error in laboratory testing. Accurate laboratory testing requires an understanding of the complex interactions between collection devices and blood specimens. Manufacturers, vendors, and clinical laboratorians must consider the pre-analytical challenges in laboratory testing. Although other authors have described the effects of endogenous substances on clinical assay results, the effects/impact of blood collection tube additives and components have not been well systematically described or explained. This review aims to identify and describe blood collection tube additives and their components and the strategies used to minimize their effects on clinical chemistry assays.

  4. Quality Assessment of Established and Emerging Blood Components for Transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Jason P; Marks, Denese C; Sheffield, William P

    2016-01-01

    Blood is donated either as whole blood, with subsequent component processing, or through the use of apheresis devices that extract one or more components and return the rest of the donation to the donor. Blood component therapy supplanted whole blood transfusion in industrialized countries in the middle of the twentieth century and remains the standard of care for the majority of patients receiving a transfusion. Traditionally, blood has been processed into three main blood products: red blood cell concentrates; platelet concentrates; and transfusable plasma. Ensuring that these products are of high quality and that they deliver their intended benefits to patients throughout their shelf-life is a complex task. Further complexity has been added with the development of products stored under nonstandard conditions or subjected to additional manufacturing steps (e.g., cryopreserved platelets, irradiated red cells, and lyophilized plasma). Here we review established and emerging methodologies for assessing blood product quality and address controversies and uncertainties in this thriving and active field of investigation.

  5. Revisions to labeling requirements for blood and blood components, including source plasma. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is revising the labeling requirements for blood and blood components intended for use in transfusion or for further manufacture by combining, simplifying, and updating specific regulations applicable to labeling and circulars of information. These requirements will facilitate the use of a labeling system using machine-readable information that would be acceptable as a replacement for the ``ABC Codabar'' system for the labeling of blood and blood components. FDA is taking this action as a part of its efforts to comprehensively review and, as necessary, revise its regulations, policies, guidances, and procedures related to the regulation of blood and blood components. This final rule is intended to help ensure the continued safety of the blood supply and facilitate consistency in labeling.

  6. Pathogen inactivation technologies for cellular blood components: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenke, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Nowadays patients receiving blood components are exposed to much less transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases than three decades before when among others HIV was identified as causative agent for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the transmission by blood or coagulation factors became evident. Since that time the implementation of measures for risk prevention and safety precaution was socially and politically accepted. Currently emerging pathogens like arboviruses and the well-known bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates still remain major concerns of blood safety with important clinical consequences, but very rarely with fatal outcome for the blood recipient. In contrast to the well-established pathogen inactivation strategies for fresh frozen plasma using the solvent-detergent procedure or methylene blue and visible light, the bench-to-bedside translation of novel pathogen inactivation technologies for cell-containing blood components such as platelets and red blood cells are still underway. This review summarizes the pharmacological/toxicological assessment and the inactivation efficacy against viruses, bacteria, and protozoa of each of the currently available pathogen inactivation technologies and highlights the impact of the results obtained from several randomized clinical trials and hemovigilance data. Until now in some European countries pathogen inactivation technologies are in in routine use for single-donor plasma and platelets. The invention and adaption of pathogen inactivation technologies for red blood cell units and whole blood donations suggest the universal applicability of these technologies and foster a paradigm shift in the manufacturing of safe blood.

  7. Interaction of blood components with cathelicidins and their modified versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Lai, Benjamin F L; Gani, Jurnorain; Mikut, Ralf; Hilpert, Kai; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N

    2015-11-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (cAMPs) serve as effective components of the innate host defense against microbial infections. cAMPs often show broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, but narrow-band activity is also observed. Despite their great potential, the polycationic nature of cAMPs could cause serious side effects once in the bloodstream which may limit their applications. However, there is very limited knowledge available on AMPs interaction with blood components in spite of the fact that the most likely route of administration to treat systemic microbial infections for these peptides is intravenous, where they immediately come in contact with all blood components. In order to evaluate the therapeutic potential of cAMPs as new alternative to antibiotics, we investigated the impact of cathelicidin related cAMPs on red blood cell lysis, aggregation, platelet activation, blood coagulation, and complement activation. The influence of cAMPs on blood depends on hydrophobicity and number of charges in the peptides. The hemolytic activity of cathelicidin (bactenecin) variants was much less than that of indolicidin due to their lower hydrophobicity. Except indolicidin, none of the peptides induce platelet activation. Some of bactenecin variants (R3, Sub3 and W3) with higher charge inhibited the blood coagulation. The cAMPs did not activate or inhibit complement at the concentrations studied, expect for the peptide (Sub3). Our data shows that it is important to investigate cAMP-based drug candidates regarding their interaction with blood components early on in the development process. We anticipate that this new knowledge on blood interaction of antimicrobial peptides will help to design peptides with a better therapeutic window and with less side effects.

  8. ANALYSIS OF DISCARD OF WHOLE BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS IN GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL BLOOD BANK IN CENTRAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedita Bobde

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transfusion requests are always more than the supply due to advances in health care delivery . Injudicious use of whole blood and blood components strains the transfusion services. This mandates the proper analysis of real need of transfusion and the discard of this scarce resource. MATERIALS & METHODS: Total 31143 voluntary and replacement donors donated blood during January 2012 to December 2014 in blood bank of tertiary care Government hospital in Central India. The donors record, transfusion transmitted infections (TTI testing record, component preparation record & discard record during the same period were screened for analysis. RESULT: Out of total 31143 blood collection during study period TTI positive blood were 377 (1.21% comprising of 13.4% of total discarded blood bags. Components prepared 19545 and discarded 1610 (8.2%. Among components discarded most common units were platelets due to date expiry followed by FFP discarded due to leakage of bag. CONCLUSION: Analysis of reasons of discard of whole blood and blood components helps in forming policies to reduce the gap between demand and supply at local as well as national level

  9. Interaction of dispersed cubic phases with blood components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bode, J C; Kuntsche, Judith; Funari, S S;

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of aqueous nanoparticle dispersions, e.g. based on monoolein/poloxamer 407, with blood components is an important topic concerning especially the parenteral way of administration. Therefore, the influence of human and porcine plasma on dispersed cubic phases was investigated...

  10. Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor in various blood transfusion components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Werther, K; Mynster, T;

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion may reduce survival after curative surgery for solid tumors. This may be related to extracellular content of cancer growth factors present in transfusion components. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent stimulator of angiogenesis in solid tumors....... The potential content of VEGF in various blood components for transfusion was evaluated. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Soluble VEGF (sVEGF, isotype 165) was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) in serum and plasma samples and in lysed cells from healthy volunteers. Subsequently, total content...... of platelet-derived soluble plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (sPAI-1) was determined by an EIA in the same samples. Finally, the extracellular accumulation of sVEGF was determined in nonfiltered WB and SAGM blood during storage for 35 days and in BCP pools during storage for 7 days. RESULTS...

  11. Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor in various blood transfusion components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Werther, K; Mynster, T

    1999-01-01

    of sVEGF was determined in nonfiltered and prestorage white cell-reduced whole blood (WB), buffy coat-depleted saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAGM) blood, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and buffy coat-derived platelet (BCP) pools obtained from volunteer, healthy blood donors. As a control, total content....... The potential content of VEGF in various blood components for transfusion was evaluated. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Soluble VEGF (sVEGF, isotype 165) was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) in serum and plasma samples and in lysed cells from healthy volunteers. Subsequently, total content......: In the healthy volunteers, median total sVEGF content was 97 (range, 20-303) pg per mL in serum and 19 (13-37) pg per mL in plasma (n = 12, p plasma, and 95 (78...

  12. Reasons for discarding whole blood and its components in a tertiary care teaching hospital blood bank in South India

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh B; Sreedhar Babu KV; Arun R; Chandra Mouli P; Jothibai DS

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Each unit of blood is precious and has to be utilized properly with minimal discards. The aim of this study was to find out the reasons for discarding blood and blood components. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively studied all whole blood and blood components collected during January 2013 to June 2014 at our tertiary care teaching hospital blood bank in South India. Results: Of the 5261 whole blood bags, 298 (5.7%) were discarded. Of these, 146 (49%) were discarded b...

  13. [Discussion on "removing stasis and regulating qi and blood" in the scraping therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Song; Liang, Zhong

    2016-04-01

    Stasis is the critical causative factor and pathological production considered in clinic treatment. Promoting the circulation in blood vessel and removing stasis are equally important in treatment. Stasis is interactive with qi and blood. Removing stasis aims to regulating the circulation of qi and blood. Scraping therapy is one of the major approaches to stasis removal in TCM. In clinical practice, the stasis can be removed with scraping, bleeding and cupping, etc. Additionally, removing stasis with scraping should be combined with regulating qi and blood to enhance the therapeutic effect.

  14. Storage and handling of blood components – perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervig, Tor; Kaada, Silje; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2014-10-01

    The storage and handling conditions of cellular blood components and plasma are often rigorous, which is causing extensive discard of components that may be of acceptable quality as the rules for “out of optimal storage conditions” seem to be based more on tradition than scientific investigations. This short review summarizes some of the key papers indicating that it should be time for reconsideration of these rules, and some new suggestions are carefully indicated. Red cell concentrates, platelet concentrates and FFP are considered;lyophilized plasma and never-frozen liquid plasma are not included in this paper.

  15. Changes in Blood Components in Aphtha Patients with Excess Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lu; Li, Yan; Jiao, Yifeng; Fu, Danqing; Ye, Li; Ji, Jinjun; Xie, Guanqun; Fan, Yongsheng; Xu, Li

    2016-01-01

    "Superior heat" is a popularization expression in TCM heat syndrome and has no counterpart in the modern medical system concept. Oral ulcer is considered to be a kind of clinical manifestation of "superior heat." Aphtha is a common and frequently occurring disease, which can be divided into excess heat and Yin deficiency. The aphtha of excess heat manifests the syndromes of acute occurrence, severe local symptoms, obvious swelling and pain, red tongue, yellow coating, and fast-powerful pulse. In this study, we found that there was an abnormal immune regulation in aphtha patients induced by excess heat. There are changes in the blood components, including abnormal serum protein expression (IL-4, MMP-19, MMP-9, and Activin A) and a higher percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+)Treg cells in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of the EXP group. Changes in the blood environment may be an important factor in the occurrence of aphtha caused by excess heat.

  16. Requirements for blood and blood components intended for transfusion or for further manufacturing use. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-22

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulations applicable to blood and blood components, including Source Plasma, to make the donor eligibility and testing requirements more consistent with current practices in the blood industry, to more closely align the regulations with current FDA recommendations, and to provide flexibility to accommodate advancing technology. In order to better assure the safety of the nation's blood supply and to help protect donor health, FDA is revising the requirements for blood establishments to test donors for infectious disease, and to determine that donors are eligible to donate and that donations are suitable for transfusion or further manufacture. FDA is also requiring establishments to evaluate donors for factors that may adversely affect the safety, purity, and potency of blood and blood components or the health of a donor during the donation process. Accordingly, these regulations establish requirements for donor education, donor history, and donor testing. These regulations also implement a flexible framework to help both FDA and industry to more effectively respond to new or emerging infectious agents that may affect blood product safety.

  17. Lysophosphatidylcholines: bioactive lipids generated during storage of blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maślanka, Krystyna; Smoleńska-Sym, Gabriela; Michur, Halina; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Lachert, Elżbieta; Brojer, Ewa

    2012-02-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is suggested to be a "two hit" event, resulting from priming and activation of pulmonary neutrophils. It is known that neutrophil activation may result from infusion of lysophosphatidylcholines (LysoPCs) accumulated during storage of blood components. The aim of our study was to verify whether the LysoPCs are released into the storage medium of blood components. We measured the LysoPCs concentration in the supernatants from stored apheresis platelet concentrates (PLTs), packed non-leukoreduced red blood cell concentrates (RBCs), leukoreduced red blood cell concentrates (L-RBCs), fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and donor plasma (control). Lipids were separated on high-performance thin-layer chromatography, detected by primulin spray and quantified by photodensitometric scanning. The LysoPCs concentration in donor plasma was similar to that in FFP. During storage the LysoPCs content in PLTs increased almost two-fold as compared to the fresh isolated platelets. In RBCs and L-RBCs the LysoPC level was very low or below detection limit and did not increase throughout the storage period. According to our observations bioactive LysoPCs may be considered a neutrophil-activating factor only following PLT transfusions but not RBCs transfusions.

  18. Rethinking blood components and patients: Patient blood management. Possible ways for development in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folléa, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    As any therapeutic means, blood transfusion requires regular evaluation, particularly for its indications, effectiveness and risks. A better awareness of the risks of blood transfusion, the availability of randomized clinical trials, the evolution of the quality of blood components, and the economic constraints shared by all countries, all have led to rethink both transfusion therapy as a whole and the organization of the transfusion chain from donor to recipient. In this context, patient blood management (PBM) appears as an evidence-based, patient centred, multidisciplinary approach, aiming to optimise the care of patients who might need transfusion and consequently the use of blood products. This paper presents updated scientific bases of PBM and the three pillars founding it. As PBM is developing fast in other European countries, this review proposes ways to explore for its development in France. It finally proposes to integrate PBM in a wider and coordinated approach of the blood supply management, with tools to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the transfusion chain, starting with the needs of the patients and ending with an optimum treatment of the patient, including the appropriate number of blood components of the required quality. A better understanding, implementation and assessment of this coordinated global approach, allowing to adapt donor collections to the patients' needs in compliance with safety requirements for patients and donors, in a coordinated way, will certainly be a major challenge for transfusion medicine in the near future, for the benefit of patients, donors and all other stakeholders involved in the transfusion chain.

  19. Biomechanopharmacology in Evaluation of Herbs of Activating Blood Circulation to Remove Blood Stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Fu-long; CAO Jun

    2005-01-01

    Herbs of activating blood circulation to remove blood stasis(ABCRBS) are a category of over 10% in the modern Chinese Pharmacopoeia. A new borderline discipline, biomechanopharmacology, is shaping by the efforts of applying biomechanics in pharmacological studies of ABCRBS herbs. Biomechanics is involved in modeling of blood stasis syndrome (BSS) with mechanical force induced injury and model evaluation by shear stress monitoring for blood coagulation. Investigations showed that tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) contained in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort and diallyl trisulfide (DT) extracted from garlic demonstrated inhibiting characteristics on vWF mediated platelet activation and thrombus formation occurring under high shear rates. The effect of TMP on shear-induced platelet aggregation might be due to inhibition of calcium channel activity since it showed significant inhibition on intracellular level of calcium demonstrated by laser confocal microscope. The combined effects of TMP and shear stress on rat cerebral microvascular endothelial cell (rCMEC) were investigated by various doses of TMP incorporated with different levels of shear stress generated by a rotational coneplate rheometer. The results indicated that apoptosis of rCMECs could be restrained by a combination of medial level of shear stress with a suitable dose of TMP. To study the influences of shear stress, pressure and TMP on angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cell, cultured rCMEC was pretreated in a flow chamber with independent adjustment for levels of shear stress and pressure, and then 3D cultured on Matrigel. The results indicate that combined effects of shear stress, pressure and TMP may influence angiogenesis significantly. We believe that research on interactions among blood shear stress, secretion of endothelial cell, and pharmacodynamics will be an interesting area of biomechanopharmacology. Herbs of ABCRBS and their extracts for protecting endothelial cells to maintain their normal functions are

  20. Leukoreduced blood components: Advantages and strategies for its implementation in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Removal of leucocytes from various blood products has been shown to minimize Febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions, HLA alloimmunization, platelet refractoriness in multitransfused patients and prevention of transmission of leukotropic viruses such as EBV and CMV. Rapidly growing size of hemato-oncological patients in our country requiring multiple transfusion of blood and components during the course of their management pose a great challenge to transfusion services to provide them red cell and platelet antigen matched products in alloimmunized subjects. Thus removal of leucocytes below a certain threshold, ≤ 5 x 10 6 in a blood component certainly helps in prevention of alloimmunization and associated risks in these patients. Currently the best Leucoreduction can be achieved with the help of 3rd and 4th generation leukofilters, both in laboratory and patient bed side, and state of the art apheresis devices. The present article briefly reviews the current literature for pros and cons of leucofilteration and its scope of implementation in the cost constrained settings.

  1. Multi-component removal in flue gas by aqua ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, James T.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2007-08-14

    A new method for the removal of environmental compounds from gaseous streams, in particular, flue gas streams. The new method involves first oxidizing some or all of the acid anhydrides contained in the gas stream such as sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) and nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N.sub.2O) to sulfur trioxide (SO.sub.3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2). The gas stream is subsequently treated with aqua ammonia or ammonium hydroxide which captures the compounds via chemical absorption through acid-base or neutralization reactions. The products of the reactions can be collected as slurries, dewatered, and dried for use as fertilizers, or once the slurries have been dewatered, used directly as fertilizers. The ammonium hydroxide can be regenerated and recycled for use via thermal decomposition of ammonium bicarbonate, one of the products formed. There are alternative embodiments which entail stoichiometric scrubbing of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides with subsequent separate scrubbing of carbon dioxide.

  2. Blood flows and metabolic components of the cardiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassingthwaighte, J B; Li, Z; Qian, H

    1998-01-01

    This is a plan for the first stage of The Cardiome Project. The cardiome is the representation, in quantitative, testable form, of the functioning of the normal heart and its responses to intervention. The goal is to integrate the efforts of many years into a comprehensive understandable scheme. Past efforts have spanned the fields of transport within blood vessels, the distributions of regional coronary blood flows, permeation processes through capillary and cell walls, mediated cell membrane transport, extra- and intracellular diffusion, cardiac electrophysiology, the uptake and metabolism of the prime substrates (fatty acid and glucose), the metabolism of the purine nucleosides and nucleotides (mainly adenosine and ATP), the regulation of the ionic currents and of excitation-contraction coupling and finally the regulation of contraction. The central theme is to define the coronary flows and metabolic components of a computer model that will become a part of a three-dimensional heart with appropriate fibre shortening and volume ejection. The components are: (a) coronary flow distributions with appropriate heterogeneity, (b) metabolism of the substrates for energy production, (c) ATP, PCr and energy metabolism and (d) calcium metabolism as it relates to excitation-contraction coupling. The modeling should provide: (1) appropriate responses to regional ischemia induced by constriction of a coronary artery, including tissue contractility loss and aneurysmal dilation of the ischemic region; (2) physiological responses to rate changes such as treppe and changes in metabolic demand and (3) changes in local metabolic needs secondary to changes in the site of pacing stimulation and shortening inactivation or stretch activation of contraction.

  3. Processing and storage of blood components: strategies to improve patient safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietersz RNI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ruby NI Pietersz, Pieter F van der Meer Department of Product and Process Development, Sanquin Blood Bank, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Abstract: This review focuses on safety improvements of blood processing of various blood components and their respective storage. A solid quality system to ensure safe and effective blood components that are traceable from a donor to the patient is the foundation of a safe blood supply. To stimulate and guide this process, National Health Authorities should develop guidelines for blood transfusion, including establishment of a quality system. Blood component therapy enabled treatment of patients with blood constituents that were missing, only thus preventing reactions to unnecessarily transfused elements. Leukoreduction prevents many adverse reactions and also improves the quality of the blood components during storage. The safety of red cells and platelets is improved by replacement of plasma with preservative solutions, which results in the reduction of isoantibodies and plasma proteins. Automation of blood collection, separation of whole blood into components, and consecutive processing steps, such as preparation of platelet concentrate from multiple donations, improves the consistent composition of blood components. Physicians can better prescribe the number of transfusions and therewith reduce donor exposure and/or the risk of pathogen transmission. Pathogen reduction in cellular blood components is the latest development in improving the safety of blood transfusions for patients. Keywords: blood components, red cell concentrates, platelet concentrates, plasma, transfusion, safety 

  4. Modifications to Blood Components: When to Use them and What is the Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrie, Eric A; Dunbar, Nancy M

    2016-06-01

    Blood component modifications can be performed by the hospital blood bank for select clinical indications. In general, modification of blood components increases costs and may delay availability of the blood component because of the additional time required for some modification steps. However, the benefit of blood product modification may outweigh these concerns. Common modifications include leukoreduction, irradiation, volume reduction, splitting, and washing. Modification availability and selection practice may vary from hospital to hospital. In this article, available blood component modifications are described along with the benefits, drawbacks, and specific clinical indications supporting their use.

  5. Processing and storage of blood components: strategies to improve patient safety

    OpenAIRE

    Pietersz RNI; van der Meer PF

    2015-01-01

    Ruby NI Pietersz, Pieter F van der Meer Department of Product and Process Development, Sanquin Blood Bank, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Abstract: This review focuses on safety improvements of blood processing of various blood components and their respective storage. A solid quality system to ensure safe and effective blood components that are traceable from a donor to the patient is the foundation of a safe blood supply. To stimulate and guide this process, National Health Authorities should d...

  6. A selective sorbent for removing bacterial endotoxins from blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, A. S.; Kopitsyna, M. N.; Bessonov, I. V.; Karelina, N. V.; Nuzhdina, A. V.; Sarkisov, I. Yu.; Pavlova, L. A.; Tsyurupa, M. P.; Blinnikova, Z. K.; Davankov, V. A.

    2016-12-01

    Synthetic ligands carrying a positive charge and capable of selective binding of bacterial endotoxins are covalently immobilized on surfaces of domestic hemosorbent Styrosorb-514 based on hypercrosslinked polystyrene. It is shown that the resulting sorbent aimed at treating sepsis exceeds imported specific hemosorbent in Toraymyxin™ columns in removing lipopolysaccharides, and can be used in domestically-produced Desepta columns.

  7. Development of dismantling and sodium removal technique for large sodium components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirakawa, Yasushi; Nakai, Satoru [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    2002-06-01

    Large sodium test facilities that had been constructed to perform R and D for Monju were dismantled after the removal of sodium. Because experience of such tasks in limited, for the establishment of the technology, information on past experiences, R and D results, the results of small-scale sodium removal experiments and related information were gathered worldwide. Different sodium removal processes such as the alcohol process, water vapor nitrogen process, aestivation process etc. were selected based on the component structure and were applied to various components such as the steam generator, cold trap, intermediate heat exchanger etc. As a result, sodium removal and dismantling of these facilities were conducted successfully without sodium fires, injuries caused by sodium and with little burden to the environment. Furthermore, problems to be solved when applying these processes to the radioactive sodium components were identified and an R and D plan was drawn up. (author)

  8. AAGBI guidelines: the use of blood components and their alternatives 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, A A; Arnold, P; Bingham, R M; Brohi, K; Clark, R; Collis, R; Gill, R; McSporran, W; Moor, P; Rao Baikady, R; Richards, T; Shinde, S; Stanworth, S; Walsh, T S

    2016-07-01

    Blood transfusion can be life-saving. Anaesthetists regularly request and administer blood components to their patients. All anaesthetists must be familiar with indications and appropriate use of blood and blood components and their alternatives, but close liaison with haematology specialists and their local blood sciences laboratory is encouraged. Considerable changes in approaches to optimal use of blood components, together with the use of alternative products, have become apparent over the past decade, leading to a need to update previous guidelines and adapt them for the use of anaesthetists working throughout the hospital system.

  9. Plasma selenium status in a group of Australian blood donors and fresh blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Charles; Colebourne, Kathryn; Faddy, Helen M; Flower, Robert; Fraser, John F

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess plasma selenium levels in an Australian blood donor population and measure extra-cellular selenium levels in fresh manufactured blood components. Selenium levels were measured using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background correction. The mean plasma selenium level in healthy plasmapharesis donors was 85.6±0.5 μg/L and a regional difference was observed between donors in South East Queensland and Far North Queensland. Although participants had selenium levels within the normal range (55.3-110.5 μg/L), 88.5% had levels below 100 μg/L, a level that has been associated with sub-optimal activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Extra-cellular selenium levels in clinical fresh frozen plasma (cFFP) and apheresis-derived platelets (APH Plt) were within the normal range. Packed red blood cells (PRBC) and pooled buffy coat-derived platelets (BC Plt) had levels at the lower limit of detection, which may have clinical implications to the massively transfused patient.

  10. Assessment of removal of components containing hazardous substances from small WEEE in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhofer, Stefan; Tesar, Maria

    2011-02-28

    Minimum treatment requirements for waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) established by Directive 2002/96/EC provide for the removal of specific components containing hazardous substances. To date, no comparative analysis of removal rates has been undertaken. The present paper examines the state of de-pollution of sWEEE in Austrian treatment plants. The mass of selected components removed and the corresponding mass of hazardous substances is compared to estimated values for sWEEE input material. The results obtained reveal that components are only partly removed, featuring a high variation between components and plants assessed. The overall rate of removal ranged from 72% of the estimated value for batteries to 21% of the estimated value for liquid crystal panels. This implies the forwarding of substantial quantities of hazardous substances to mechanical treatment processes, particularly relevant in terms of dispersion of pollutants. Furthermore, easily releasable pollutants, such as Hg from LCD-backlights, Cd from batteries or highly contaminated dust in general, pose substantial health risks for plant workers. Low removal rates of printed circuit boards, batteries and toner cartridges also lead to a reduction in quantities of valuable recyclable materials (precious metals, plastics).

  11. Is the antimicrobial removal device a cost-effective addition to conventional blood cultures?

    OpenAIRE

    R. Munro; Collignon, P J; Sorrell, T C; Tomlinson, P.

    1984-01-01

    Two hundred and thirty-four blood cultures from 140 patients receiving antibiotics were processed using the antimicrobial removal device (ARD) in parallel with conventional blood cultures. One hundred and seventy cultures were obtained from patients suspected to have bacteraemia and 64 from patients known to have a positive conventional blood culture within the preceding three days. A total of 38 (16.2%) ARD-processed cultures were positive, compared with 21 (8.9%) conventional cultures (p le...

  12. Analysis of reasons for discarding blood and blood components in a blood bank of tertiary care hospital in central India: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many modern surgical procedures could not be carried out without the use of blood. There are no substitutes for human blood. Thus, proper utilization of blood is necessary with minimal wasting. Materials and Methods: A total of 10,582 donors donated blood during the study period of 19 months in blood bank of a tertiary care hospital, central India from 1 st of November 2009 to 31 st May 2011, which were screened. Results: A total of 346 whole blood bags were discarded. Out of these 346 blood bags, 257 (74.30% were discarded because of seropositivity for transfusion transmissible infectious diseases. A total of 542 blood components were discarded against 3702 blood components prepared during the study period. Among blood components discarded, most common units were platelets. The most common cause of discarding the blood components was expiry of date due to non-utilization (87.00%. Conclusion: A properly conducted donor interview, notification of permanently deferred donors will help in discarding less number of bags from collected units. Similarly, properly implemented blood transfusion policies will also help in discarding less number of blood bags due to expiry. These discarded bags, because they are unutilized are both financially as well as socially harmful to the blood bank.

  13. Current state of methodological and decisions for radiation treatment of blood, its components and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordeev A.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents currently used blood transfusion media — components and blood products, therapeutic effects, reactions and complications of blood transfusion, use of radiation treatment for blood transfusion fluids. There had been discussed in detail the practice of radiation processing of blood components and for the prevention of reaction "graft versus host" and studies of plasma radiation treatment for its infectious safety. There was presented the current state of techniques and technical solutions of radiation treatment of transfusion-transmissible environments. There were also considered an alternative to radiation treatment of blood.

  14. Precautions and Adverse Reactions during Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... given washed red blood cells. Washing the red blood cells removes components of the donor blood that may cause allergic ... cross-matching of blood, mismatches due to subtle differences between donor and recipient blood (and, very rarely, ...

  15. [Blood components: Are they drugs or special medicines?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraud, O; Tissot, J-D

    2016-09-01

    Blood transfusion and plasma derived-drugs significantly differ from other medicines in that their availability strictly depends on blood and plasma collected from healthy donors. Blood collection must comply with a double objective: to maintain donor heath safety, and to avoid any transmitted infections in recipients. This raises several ethical concerns that appear to be different from usual ethical and deontological issues linked to other pharmaceutical and industrial processes. The main concern is the non-commercialization of the human body. Words and concept are of major importance in this context. This short review aims at presenting the main issues relevant to those questions with respect to the various stakeholders.

  16. 76 FR 5386 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction... blood components intended for transfusion, including recommendations for validation and quality control... for transfusion, including recommendations for validation and quality control monitoring of...

  17. Blood Components Interactions to Ionic and Nonionic Glyconanogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Ravin; Wang, Yinan; Ahmed, Marya; Lai, Benjamin F L; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N

    2015-09-14

    Nanogels are prominent examples of "smart" nanomaterials, which are designed to incorporate biologically relevant (macro)molecules for systemic delivery. Although these systems are carefully engineered, only a handful of studies discuss the blood compatibility of nanogels, and no systematic studies are available on how the presence of net or surface charges impacts the hemocompatibility of these nanomaterials. Therefore, in this study, temperature responsive, galactose based nanogels bearing net positive, negative, or neutral charges, either in the core or shell of nanogels, are prepared and are subsequently evaluated for their blood compatibility profiles. The nanogels containing neutral core and shell, cationic core with neutral shell, anionic core with neutral shell, neutral core with cationic shell, and neutral core with anionic shell are prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization approach. The evaluation of complement activation, blood clot formation, platelet activation, red blood cells aggregation, and hemolysis provides a detailed analysis of structure activity relationship of blood compatibility profile of these nanogels. The data reveal that the physical and biological (blood compatibility) properties can be carefully tuned by embedding the charges in the core of temperature-responsive nanomaterials, protected by neutral carbohydrate based shells.

  18. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments...

  19. A maxillary laser-welded component removable partial denture: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagala, Daniel M; Waliszewski, Michael P

    2009-01-01

    Component removable partial dentures (RPDs) are fabricated in pieces and assembled on the definitive cast. The treatment modality described is believed by the authors to optimize the passive fit and frictional retention of the RPD. Increased frictional retention and stability is believed to improve the clinical performance of the RPD. Patients may thereby benefit from more esthetic and more durable prostheses.

  20. Suction Curettage for Removal of Retained Intrathoracic Blood Clots and Pleural Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Redan, Jay Alan; Palmer, Meade Todd; Tylutki, Francis John

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To develop a thoracoscopic technique for correcting and/or removing an intrathoracic disease process using our existing operating room equipment and without a “small thoracotomy.” Methods and Procedures: Fifty-eight patients from October 1994 to April 1998 were prospectively studied. All were undergoing procedures involving the removal of a suspected benign (or infectious) pleural process or a retained blood clot. Three or four thoracic ports were used in all cases. Straight and cu...

  1. Thirty-six Cases of Hyperglycemia Treated by Promoting Blood Circulation to Remove Stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Thirty-six cases with hyperglycemia were treated with the method of promoting blood circulation and removing stasis in a course of 4 weeks. The treatment was significantly effective in correcting the abnormal viscosity of the blood by reducing the contents of total plasmic cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and apoprotein B (apoB), while the level of the apoprotein A (apoA) was elevated.

  2. Sb(V reactivity with human blood components: redox effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana López

    Full Text Available We assessed the reactivity of Sb(V in human blood. Sb(V reactivity was determined using an HPLC-HG-AFS hyphenated system. Sb(V was partially reduced to Sb(III in blood incubation experiments; however, Sb(III was a highly unstable species. The addition of 0.1 mol L(-1 EDTA prevented Sb(III oxidation, thus enabling the detection of the reduction of Sb(V to Sb(III. The transformation of Sb(V to Sb(III in human whole blood was assessed because the reduction of Sb(V in human blood may likely generate redox side effects. Our results indicate that glutathione was the reducing agent in this reaction and that Sb(V significantly decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio from 0.32 ± 0.09 to 0.07 ± 0.03. Moreover, the presence of 200 ng mL(-1 of Sb(V increased the activity of superoxide dismutase from 4.4 ± 0.1 to 7.0 ± 0.4 U mL(-1 and decreased the activity of glutathione peroxidase from 62 ± 1 to 34 ± 2 nmol min(-1 mL(-1.

  3. Sb(V) reactivity with human blood components: redox effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Silvana; Aguilar, Luis; Mercado, Luis; Bravo, Manuel; Quiroz, Waldo

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the reactivity of Sb(V) in human blood. Sb(V) reactivity was determined using an HPLC-HG-AFS hyphenated system. Sb(V) was partially reduced to Sb(III) in blood incubation experiments; however, Sb(III) was a highly unstable species. The addition of 0.1 mol L(-1) EDTA prevented Sb(III) oxidation, thus enabling the detection of the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III). The transformation of Sb(V) to Sb(III) in human whole blood was assessed because the reduction of Sb(V) in human blood may likely generate redox side effects. Our results indicate that glutathione was the reducing agent in this reaction and that Sb(V) significantly decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio from 0.32 ± 0.09 to 0.07 ± 0.03. Moreover, the presence of 200 ng mL(-1) of Sb(V) increased the activity of superoxide dismutase from 4.4 ± 0.1 to 7.0 ± 0.4 U mL(-1) and decreased the activity of glutathione peroxidase from 62 ± 1 to 34 ± 2 nmol min(-1) mL(-1).

  4. Goals for Educating Residents in the Use of Blood Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstaedt, Richard S.; Glanz, Karen

    1988-01-01

    Medical care evaluation studies suggest that doctors often do not use blood resources appropriately and key educational objectives in the field are not being met. The Delphi method was used to achieve a consensus opinion among transfusion medicine educators to determine goals and objectives. (MLW)

  5. EXTRACORPOREAL CIRCULATION: EFFECT OF LONG-TERM (24-HOUR) CIRCULATION ON BLOOD COMPONENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, Robert Glen

    2010-01-01

    Extracorporeal circulation damages blood and causes harmful side effects such as stroke and/or systemic inflammatory response in patients. Reactions of blood components to extracorporeal circulation include complement and inflammatory reactions, coagulation and thrombogenesis, frank hemolysis, and platelet activation and adhesion to the extracorporeal circuit. Non-physiologic pressure and flow produced by blood pumps contribute to blood injury. Two pump types, roller and centrifugal, are u...

  6. RemoveYoung: A tool for the removal of the young stellar component in galaxies within an adjustable age cutoff

    CERN Document Server

    Gomes, Jean Michel

    2016-01-01

    The optical morphology of galaxies holds the cumulative record of their assembly history, and techniques for its quantitative characterization offer a promising avenue toward understanding galaxy formation and evolution. However, the morphology of star-forming galaxies is generally dictated by the youngest stellar component, which can readily overshine faint structural/morphological features in the older underlying stellar background (e.g., relics from recent minor mergers) that could hold important insights into the galaxy build-up process. Stripping off galaxy images from the emission from stellar populations younger than an adjustable age cutoff tcut can, therefore, provide a valuable tool in extragalactic research. RemoveYoung (RY), a publicly available tool that is presented here, exploits the combined power of integral field spectroscopy (IFS) and spectral population synthesis (SPS) toward this goal. Two-dimensional (2D) post-processing of SPS models to IFS data cubes with RY permits computation of the ...

  7. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maternity. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  8. Enhanced membrane fluorescence of CDC-labelled paramecium subsequent to removal of surface components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyroba, E; Bottiroli, G; Giordano, P

    1983-01-01

    Cytofluorimetric analysis of cycloheptaamylose-dansyl chloride (CDC) labelled Paramecium indicates that after mild trypsin removal of surface components the localization of CDC on the outer surface of living cells was not modified by the treatment. After such treatment the intensity of fluorescence emission was found about 3-fold higher in treated single cell than in the untreated one. These findings indicate that CDC labelling can be used to follow alteration occurred on the membrane of the living cell prior to labelling.

  9. Behavioral responses to mammalian blood odor and a blood odor component in four species of large carnivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Nilsson

    Full Text Available Only little is known about whether single volatile compounds are as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in animals as the whole complex mixture of a behaviorally relevant odor. Recent studies analysing the composition of volatiles in mammalian blood, an important prey-associated odor stimulus for predators, found the odorant trans-4,5-epoxy-(E-2-decenal to evoke a typical "metallic, blood-like" odor quality in humans. We therefore assessed the behavior of captive Asian wild dogs (Cuon alpinus, African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus, South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus, and Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica when presented with wooden logs that were impregnated either with mammalian blood or with the blood odor component trans-4,5-epoxy-(E-2-decenal, and compared it to their behavior towards a fruity odor (iso-pentyl acetate and a near-odorless solvent (diethyl phthalate as control. We found that all four species displayed significantly more interactions with the odorized wooden logs such as sniffing, licking, biting, pawing, and toying, when they were impregnated with the two prey-associated odors compared to the two non-prey-associated odors. Most importantly, no significant differences were found in the number of interactions with the wooden logs impregnated with mammalian blood and the blood odor component in any of the four species. Only one of the four species, the South American bush dogs, displayed a significant decrease in the number of interactions with the odorized logs across the five sessions performed per odor stimulus. Taken together, the results demonstrate that a single blood odor component can be as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in large carnivores as the odor of real blood, suggesting that trans-4,5-epoxy-(E-2-decenal may be perceived by predators as a "character impact compound" of mammalian blood odor. Further, the results suggest that odorized wooden logs are a suitable manner of environmental

  10. [Research on the blood components detecting by multi-optical path length spectroscopy technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Zhao, Zhe; Liu, Rui; Wang, Hui-quan; Wu, Hong-jie; Lin, Ling

    2010-09-01

    To discuss the feasibility of using the serum's multi-optical path length spectroscopy information for measuring the concentration of the human blood components, the automatic micro-displacement measuring device was designed, which can obtain the near-infrared multi-optical path length from 0 to 4.0 mm (interval is 0.2 mm) spectra of 200 serum samples with multioptical path length spectrum of serum participated in building the quantitative analysis model of four components of the human blood: glucose (GLU), total cholesterol (TC), total protein (TP) and albumin (ALB), by mean of the significant non-linear spectral characteristic of blood. Partial least square (PLS) was used to set up the calibration models of the multi-optical path length near-infrared absorption spectrum of 160 experimental samples against the biochemical analysis results of them. The blood components of another 40 samples were predicted according to the model. The prediction effect of four blood components was favorable, and the correlation coefficient (r) of predictive value and biochemical analysis value were 0.9320, 0.9712, 0.9462 and 0.9483, respectively. All of the results proved the feasibility of the multi-optical path length spectroscopy technique for blood components analysis. And this technique established the foundation of detecting the components of blood and other liquid conveniently and rapidly.

  11. Blood transfusion practice in obstetric and gynecology: impact of educational programs to create awareness for judicious use of blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupte, Snehalata C; Patel, Pratima N

    2014-09-01

    The study presents the data analysis (1) To find out the trend of blood component use during the period 2003-2010 and to determine impact of component awareness programs on reduction in whole blood (WB) and single unit transfusions. (2) To determine Hb trigger. The details about blood units issued were entered in the integrated blood bank management software as well as in Microsoft Excel. The data of 4,838 cases of pregnancy anemia; 2,244 receiving blood for obstetric (Ob) hemorrhage including 270 cases of disseminated intravascular coagulation; 1,413 women having Gynecological (Gy) bleeding; 911 Ob, 2,032 Gy and 740 surgeries for Gy malignancy were analyzed. During the years 2003-2010 there was gradual increase in component utilization for pregnancy anemia, Ob/Gy surgeries and Ob/Gy bleeding and significant reduction in WB transfusions due to component awareness programs. But single unit transfusions showed comparatively lower trend of reduction. The mean Hb was 6.4 g/dL for pregnancy anemia, 8.1 g/dL for surgeries and 7.3 g/dL for Ob/Gy bleeding.

  12. Optical sensor technology for a noninvasive continuous monitoring of blood components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraitl, Jens; Timm, Ulrich; Lewis, Elfed; Ewald, Hartmut

    2010-02-01

    NIR-spectroscopy and Photoplethysmography (PPG) is used for a measurement of blood components. The absorptioncoefficient of blood differs at different wavelengths. This fact is used to calculate the optical absorbability characteristics of blood which is yielding information about blood components like hemoglobin (Hb), carboxyhemoglobin (CoHb) and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2). The measured PPG time signals and the ratio between the peak to peak pulse amplitudes are used for a measurement of these parameters. Hemoglobin is the main component of red blood cells. The primary function of Hb is the transport of oxygen from the lungs to the tissue and carbon dioxide back to the lungs. The Hb concentration in human blood is an important parameter in evaluating the physiological status of an individual and an essential parameter in every blood count. Currently, invasive methods are used to measure the Hb concentration, whereby blood is taken from the patient and subsequently analyzed. Apart from the discomfort of drawing blood samples, an added disadvantage of this method is the delay between the blood collection and its analysis, which does not allow real time patient monitoring in critical situations. A noninvasive method allows pain free continuous on-line patient monitoring with minimum risk of infection and facilitates real time data monitoring allowing immediate clinical reaction to the measured data.

  13. Consequences of Transfusing Blood Components in Patients With Trauma: A Conceptual Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Allison R; Frazier, Susan K

    2017-04-01

    Transfusion of blood components is often required in resuscitation of patients with major trauma. Packed red blood cells and platelets break down and undergo chemical changes during storage (known as the storage lesion) that lead to an inflammatory response once the blood components are transfused to patients. Although some evidence supports a detrimental association between transfusion and a patient's outcome, the mechanisms connecting transfusion of stored components to outcomes remain unclear. The purpose of this review is to provide critical care nurses with a conceptual model to facilitate understanding of the relationship between the storage lesion and patients' outcomes after trauma; outcomes related to trauma, hemorrhage, and blood component transfusion are grouped according to those occurring in the short-term (≤30 days) and the long-term (>30 days). Complete understanding of these clinical implications is critical for practitioners in evaluating and treating patients given transfusions after traumatic injury.

  14. Storage-induced increase in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in red blood cell components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kücükakin, Bülent; Kocak, Volkan; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    Background. Transfusion of blood components may increase the risk of complications in relation to surgery. During storage, red blood cells (RBCs) undergo structural and functional changes that may reduce function and viability after transfusion. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality...

  15. Automatic Classification of Artifactual ICA-Components for Artifact Removal in EEG Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangermann Michael

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artifacts contained in EEG recordings hamper both, the visual interpretation by experts as well as the algorithmic processing and analysis (e.g. for Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI or for Mental State Monitoring. While hand-optimized selection of source components derived from Independent Component Analysis (ICA to clean EEG data is widespread, the field could greatly profit from automated solutions based on Machine Learning methods. Existing ICA-based removal strategies depend on explicit recordings of an individual's artifacts or have not been shown to reliably identify muscle artifacts. Methods We propose an automatic method for the classification of general artifactual source components. They are estimated by TDSEP, an ICA method that takes temporal correlations into account. The linear classifier is based on an optimized feature subset determined by a Linear Programming Machine (LPM. The subset is composed of features from the frequency-, the spatial- and temporal domain. A subject independent classifier was trained on 640 TDSEP components (reaction time (RT study, n = 12 that were hand labeled by experts as artifactual or brain sources and tested on 1080 new components of RT data of the same study. Generalization was tested on new data from two studies (auditory Event Related Potential (ERP paradigm, n = 18; motor imagery BCI paradigm, n = 80 that used data with different channel setups and from new subjects. Results Based on six features only, the optimized linear classifier performed on level with the inter-expert disagreement (10% Mean Squared Error (MSE on the RT data. On data of the auditory ERP study, the same pre-calculated classifier generalized well and achieved 15% MSE. On data of the motor imagery paradigm, we demonstrate that the discriminant information used for BCI is preserved when removing up to 60% of the most artifactual source components. Conclusions We propose a universal and efficient classifier of

  16. Blood transport and genomic effects of olive oil components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest that consuming diets rich in (extra virgin olive oil is associated with a low incidence of chronic disease, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Recent evidence has emerged which implicates raised concentrations of plasma triglycerides in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD. It has been demonstrated that olive oil contributes to modulate metabolic processes related to secretion and transport of triglycerides. Intestinal triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from olive oil are very efficiently cleared during postprandial metabolism compared to other oils. Then, there is a massive interaction of nascent and remnant triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, as well as lipid metabolites and fat-soluble components, with hepatic and non-hepatic tissues. A diet-related response involves a multitude of gene products, including proteins implicated in lipid synthesis, oxidation and cell differentiation. Particularly, it has been reported a health beneficial effect of several components from (extra virgin olive oil (fatty acids and minor compounds, which are functioning as regulators of gene transcription . This review reaffirm that a diet rich in extra virgin olive oil is of vital importance in the prevention of cardiovascular and other diseases.Estudios epidemiológicos asocian el consumo de una dieta rica en aceite de oliva (virgen extra con una baja incidencia de enfermedades crónicas, como las enfermedades cardiovasculares y el cáncer. Una concentración elevada de triglicéridos en plasma, tanto en ayunas como durante el metabolismo postprandial, está implicada en la patogénesis cardiovascular. Se ha demostrado que el aceite de oliva contribuye a modular los procesos metabólicos relativos a la secreción y al transporte de triglicéridos. Con respecto a otros aceites comestibles, el aceite de oliva genera lipoproteínas intestinales ricas en triglicéridos que se metabolizan con rapidez. En este contexto, se

  17. RemoveYoung: A tool for the removal of the young stellar component in galaxies within an adjustable age cutoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, J. M.; Papaderos, P.

    2016-10-01

    The optical morphology of galaxies holds the cumulative record of their assembly history, and techniques for its quantitative characterization offer a promising avenue toward understanding galaxy formation and evolution. However, the morphology of star-forming galaxies is generally dictated by the youngest stellar component, which can readily overshine faint structural/morphological features in the older underlying stellar background (e.g., relics from recent minor mergers) that could hold important insights into the galaxy build-up process. Stripping off galaxy images from the emission from stellar populations younger than an adjustable age cutoff tcut can therefore provide a valuable tool in extragalactic research. RemoveYoung (), a publicly available tool that is presented here, exploits the combined power of integral field spectroscopy (IFS) and spectral population synthesis (SPS) toward this goal. Two-dimensional (2D) post-processing of SPS models to IFS data cubes with permits computation of the spectral energy, surface brightness, and stellar surface density distribution of stellar populations older than a user-defined tcut. This suggests a variety of applications of star-forming galaxies, such as interacting or merging galaxy pairs and lower mass starburst galaxies near and far; these include blue compact and tidal dwarf galaxies.

  18. Computational assessment of the effects of a pulsatile pump on toxin removal in blood purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shim Eun

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For blood purification systems using a semipermeable membrane, the convective mass transfer by ultrafiltration plays an important role in toxin removal. The increase in the ultrafiltration rate can improve the toxin removal efficiency of the device, ultimately reducing treatment time and cost. In this study, we assessed the effects of pulsatile flow on the efficiency of the convective toxin removal in blood purification systems using theoretical methods. Methods We devised a new mathematical lumped model to assess the toxin removal efficiency of blood purification systems in patients, integrating the mass transfer model for a human body with a dialyser. The human body model consists of a three-compartment model of body fluid dynamics and a two-compartment model of body solute kinetics. We simulated three types of blood purification therapy with the model, hemofiltration, hemodiafiltration, and high-flux dialysis, and compared the simulation results in terms of toxin (urea and beta-2 microglobulin clearance and the treatment dose delivered under conditions of pulsatile and non-pulsatile pumping. In vivo experiments were also performed to verify the model results. Results Simulation results revealed that pulsatile flow improved the convective clearance of the dialyser and delivered treatment dose for all three types of therapy. Compared with the non-pulsatile pumping method, the increases in the clearance of urea and beta-2 microglobulin with pulsatile pumping were highest with hemofiltration treatment (122.7% and 122.7%, respectively, followed by hemodiafiltration (3.6% and 8.3%, respectively, and high-flux dialysis (1.9% and 4.7%, respectively. EKRc and std Kt/V averaged 28% and 23% higher, respectively, in the pulsatile group than in the non-pulsatile group with hemofiltration treatment. Conclusions The pulsatile effect was highly advantageous for all of the toxins in the hemofiltration treatment and for β2-microglobulin in

  19. Hollow-Fiber Cartridges: Model Systems for Virus Removal from Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobitz, Frank; Menon, Jeevan

    2005-11-01

    Aethlon Medical is developing a hollow-fiber hemodialysis device designed to remove viruses and toxins from blood. Possible target viruses include HIV and pox-viruses. The filter could reduce virus and viral toxin concentration in the patient's blood, delaying illness so the patient's immune system can fight off the virus. In order to optimize the design of such a filter, the fluid mechanics of the device is both modeled analytically and investigated experimentally. The flow configuration of the proposed device is that of Starling flow. Polysulfone hollow-fiber dialysis cartridges were used. The cartridges are charged with water as a model fluid for blood and fluorescent latex beads are used in the experiments as a model for viruses. In the experiments, properties of the flow through the cartridge are determined through pressure and volume flow rate measurements of water. The removal of latex beads, which are captured in the porous walls of the fibers, was measured spectrophotometrically. Experimentally derived coefficients derived from these experiments are used in the analytical model of the flow and removal predictions from the model are compared to those obtained from the experiments.

  20. Use of statistical process control in the production of blood components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, K.; Quere, S.; Winkel, P.

    2008-01-01

    components produced and gives an example of how to meet EU legislative requirements in a small-scale production centre. Data included quality control measurements in 363 units of red blood cells, 79 units of platelets produced by an occasional staff with 11 technologists and 79 units of platelets produced......Introduction of statistical process control in the setting of a small blood centre was tested, both on the regular red blood cell production and specifically to test if a difference was seen in the quality of the platelets produced, when a change was made from a relatively large inexperienced...... occasional component manufacturing staff to an experienced regular manufacturing staff. Production of blood products is a semi-automated process in which the manual steps may be difficult to control. This study was performed in an ongoing effort to improve the control and optimize the quality of the blood...

  1. Pathogen Inactivation Technologies: The Advent of Pathogen-Reduced Blood Components to Reduce Blood Safety Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Dana V; Schubert, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Pathogen inactivation technologies represent a shift in blood safety from a reactive approach to a proactive protective strategy. Commercially available technologies demonstrate effective killing of most viruses, bacteria, and parasites and are capable of inactivating passenger leukocytes in blood products. The use of pathogen inactivation causes a decrease in the parameters of products that can be readily measured in laboratory assays but that do not seem to cause any alteration in hemostatic effect of plasma or platelet transfusions. Effort needs to be made to further develop these technologies so that the negative quality impact is ameliorated without reducing the pathogen inactivation effectiveness.

  2. Preoperative predictors of blood component transfusion in living donor liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Makroo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Extensive bleeding associated with liver transplantation is a major challenge faced by transplant surgeons, worldwide. Aims: To evaluate the blood component consumption and determine preoperative factors that predict the same in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT. Settings and Design: This prospective study was performed for a 1 year period, from March 2010 to February 2011. Materials and Methods: Intra- and postoperative utilization of blood components in 152 patients undergoing LDLT was evaluated and preoperative patient parameters like age, gender, height, weight, disease etiology, hemoglobin (Hb, hematocrit (Hct, platelet count (Plt, total leukocyte count (TLC, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, international normalized ratio (INR, serum bilirubin (T. bilirubin, total proteins (T. proteins, albumin to globulin ratio (A/G ratio, serum creatinine (S. creatinine, blood urea (B. urea, and serum electrolytes were assessed to determine their predictive values. Univariate and stepwise discriminant analysis identified those factors, which could predict the consumption of each blood component. Results: The average utilization of packed red cells (PRCs, cryoprecipitates (cryo, apheresis platelets, and fresh frozen plasma was 8.48 units, 2.19 units, 0.93 units, and 2,025 ml, respectively. Disease etiology and blood component consumption were significantly correlated. Separate prediction models which could predict consumption of each blood component in intra and postoperative phase of LDLT were derived from among the preoperative Hb, Hct, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD score, body surface area (BSA, Plt, T. proteins, S. creatinine, B. urea, INR, and serum sodium and chloride. Conclusions: Preoperative variables can effectively predict the blood component requirements during liver transplantation, thereby allowing blood transfusion services in being better prepared for surgical procedure.

  3. IS BLOOD LACTATE REMOVAL DURING WATER IMMERSED CYCLING FASTER THAN DURING CYCLING ON LAND?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrízio Di Masi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare lactate removal during active recovery performed during cycling in water immersion (CW and during cycling on land (CL, after a similar exercise bout in male adults. Eleven healthy and physically active men, aged between 20 and 26 years old participated in the experiment. Before the experimental tests, the ventilatory threshold of the subjects was determined. Each subject completed the experimental tests twice, with one week separating the two periods of experiment. The subjects exercised on the treadmill during 6 min at a speed 10% above the speed corresponding to their ventilatory threshold. Subsequently, the subjects recovered from the exercise bout either on a stationary bike (CL or on a aquatic-specific bike (CW. On the subsequent week the subjects performed the same protocol but with a different recovery condition. Recovery condition assignment for the first test was counterbalanced (six subjects started with one condition and five with the other. Capillary blood samples were collected after each test and during the recovery period (at 3, 6, 9 and 15 minutes and blood lactate was measured. The blood lactate values during CW were lower than during CL and significant differences were observed at the 6th minute (p < 0.05 and at the 15th minute of recovery (p < 0.05. Therefore, we may conclude that active recovery using cycling in water immersion may be more efficient than cycling on land for blood lactate removal.

  4. Effects of the gene carrier polyethyleneimines on structure and function of blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Dagen; Jiao, Yanpeng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Wei; Li, Nan; Zuo, Qinhua; Wang, Qian; Xue, Wei; Liu, Zonghua

    2013-01-01

    As a synthetic polycation, polyethylenimine (PEI) is currently one of the most effective non-viral gene carriers. For in vivo applications, PEI will enter systemic circulation and interact with various blood components and then affect their individual bio-functions. Up to now, overall and systematic investigation on the interaction of PEI with multiple blood components at cellular, membrane, and molecular levels is lacking, even though it is critically important for the in vivo safety of PEI. To learn a structure-activity relationship, we investigated the effects of PEI with different molecular weight (MW) and shape (branched or linear) on key blood components and function, specifically, on RBC aggregation and morphological change, platelet activation, conformation change of albumin (as a representative of plasma proteins), and blood coagulation process. Additionally, more proteins from plasma were screened and identified to have associations with PEI by a proteomic analysis. It was found that, the PEIs have severe impact on RBC membrane structure, albumin conformation, and blood coagulation process, but do not significantly activate platelets at low concentrations. Furthermore, 41 plasma proteins were identified to have some interaction with PEI. This indicates that, besides albumin, PEI does interact with a variety of blood plasma proteins, and could have unexplored effects on their structures and bio-functions. The results provide good insight into the molecular design and blood safety of PEI and other polycations for in vivo applications.

  5. Removing the thermal component from heart rate provides an accurate VO2 estimation in forest work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Philippe-Antoine; Imbeau, Daniel; Dubeau, Denise; Lebel, Luc; Kolus, Ahmet

    2016-05-01

    Heart rate (HR) was monitored continuously in 41 forest workers performing brushcutting or tree planting work. 10-min seated rest periods were imposed during the workday to estimate the HR thermal component (ΔHRT) per Vogt et al. (1970, 1973). VO2 was measured using a portable gas analyzer during a morning submaximal step-test conducted at the work site, during a work bout over the course of the day (range: 9-74 min), and during an ensuing 10-min rest pause taken at the worksite. The VO2 estimated, from measured HR and from corrected HR (thermal component removed), were compared to VO2 measured during work and rest. Varied levels of HR thermal component (ΔHRTavg range: 0-38 bpm) originating from a wide range of ambient thermal conditions, thermal clothing insulation worn, and physical load exerted during work were observed. Using raw HR significantly overestimated measured work VO2 by 30% on average (range: 1%-64%). 74% of VO2 prediction error variance was explained by the HR thermal component. VO2 estimated from corrected HR, was not statistically different from measured VO2. Work VO2 can be estimated accurately in the presence of thermal stress using Vogt et al.'s method, which can be implemented easily by the practitioner with inexpensive instruments.

  6. Automatic Identification of Artifact-Related Independent Components for Artifact Removal in EEG Recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan; Nathan, Viswam; Jafari, Roozbeh

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is the recording of electrical activity produced by the firing of neurons within the brain. These activities can be decoded by signal processing techniques. However, EEG recordings are always contaminated with artifacts which hinder the decoding process. Therefore, identifying and removing artifacts is an important step. Researchers often clean EEG recordings with assistance from independent component analysis (ICA), since it can decompose EEG recordings into a number of artifact-related and event-related potential (ERP)-related independent components. However, existing ICA-based artifact identification strategies mostly restrict themselves to a subset of artifacts, e.g., identifying eye movement artifacts only, and have not been shown to reliably identify artifacts caused by nonbiological origins like high-impedance electrodes. In this paper, we propose an automatic algorithm for the identification of general artifacts. The proposed algorithm consists of two parts: 1) an event-related feature-based clustering algorithm used to identify artifacts which have physiological origins; and 2) the electrode-scalp impedance information employed for identifying nonbiological artifacts. The results on EEG data collected from ten subjects show that our algorithm can effectively detect, separate, and remove both physiological and nonbiological artifacts. Qualitative evaluation of the reconstructed EEG signals demonstrates that our proposed method can effectively enhance the signal quality, especially the quality of ERPs, even for those that barely display ERPs in the raw EEG. The performance results also show that our proposed method can effectively identify artifacts and subsequently enhance the classification accuracies compared to four commonly used automatic artifact removal methods.

  7. An overview of the role of microparticles/microvesicles in blood components: Are they clinically beneficial or harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnouf, Thierry; Chou, Ming-Li; Goubran, Hadi; Cognasse, Fabrice; Garraud, Olivier; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2015-10-01

    Blood cells and tissues generate heterogeneous populations of cell-derived vesicles, ranging from approximately 50 nm to 1 µm in diameter. Under normal physiological conditions and as an essential part of an energy-dependent natural process, microparticles (MPs) are continuously shed into the circulation from membranes of all viable cells such as megakaryocytes, platelets, red blood cells, white blood cells and endothelial cells. MP shedding can also be triggered by pathological activation of inflammatory processes and activation of coagulation or complement systems, or even by shear stress in the circulation. Structurally, MPs have a bilayered phospholipid structure exposing coagulant-active phosphatidylserine and expressing various membrane receptors, and they serve as cell-to-cell shuttles for bioactive molecules such as lipids, growth factors, microRNAs, and mitochondria. It was established that ex vivo processing of blood into its components, involving centrifugation, processing by various apheresis procedures, leucoreduction, pathogen reduction, and finally storage in different media and different types of blood bags, can impact MP generation and content. This is mostly due to exposure of the collected blood to anticoagulant/storage media and due to shear stresses or activation, contact with artificial surfaces, or exposure to various leucocyte-removal filters and pathogen-reduction treatments. Such artificially generated MPs, which are added to the original pool of MPs collected from the donor, may exhibit specific functional characteristics, as MPs are not an inert element of blood components. Not surprisingly, MPs' roles and functionality are therefore increasingly seen to be fully relevant to the field of transfusion medicine, and as a parameter of blood safety that must be considered in haemovigilance programmes. Continual advancements in assessment methods of MPs and storage lesions are gradually leading to a better understanding of the impacts of

  8. How do we transfuse blood components in cirrhotic patients undergoing gastrointestinal procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Sean G; Gavva, Chakri; Agrawal, Deepak; Sarode, Ravi

    2016-04-01

    The liver plays a pivotal role in hemostasis. Consequently, patients with cirrhosis frequently demonstrate abnormal coagulation profiles on routine laboratory tests. These tests mainly reflect decreased procoagulant proteins. However, in cirrhosis, complex changes also occur in anticoagulant and fibrinolytic pathways. Recent evidence demonstrates that patients with cirrhosis exist in a state of hemostatic rebalance. Accordingly, routine tests inadequately represent hemostatic alterations in these patients. Unfortunately, these tests are regularly used to guide the transfusion of blood components with the assumption that they will correct laboratory abnormalities and improve hemostasis in a bleeding patient or prevent excessive bleeding following a procedure. With an absence of both accurate laboratory testing to assess hemostasis and evidence-based guidelines to direct the transfusion of blood components, management of patients with cirrhosis poses a significant challenge to clinicians. Therefore, we developed multidisciplinary guidelines for the periprocedural transfusion of blood components in patients with cirrhosis based on concurrent evidence and personal experience at our medical center.

  9. Prevention of post-transfusion hepatitis c transmission through donor blood and its components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Chechetkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of organizational aspects of preventing the transmission of hepatitis C virus with donor blood and its components.Materials and methods. An activity of the blood service establishments in Russia for the prevention of HCV infection through transfusion of blood and its components on the basis of the analysis of sectoral statistical surveys was studied.Results. The frequency of detection of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in blood donors and its components during 2009–2013 decreased by more than 1,5 times. The percentage of donors who have identified markers of hepatitis C virus was significantly different in different regions: from 0,51% to 1,36%. The activity of the blood service implemented method of plasma quarantine resulting annually rejected from 0,32% to 0,23% as a result of the identified markers of HCV. Pathogen inactivated plasma volume increased in 3 times, the platelet concentrate in 3,2 times.Conclusion. To ensure the safety of donated blood and its components in the blood service effectively the modern technology use for to prevention transmission of the HCV: quarantine of plasma, donor selection and development, inactivation of pathogens. The degree of implementation in practice of nonpaid voluntary blood transfusions significantly increased and is characterized by regional features in recent years .

  10. The effects of different beverage intake on blood components during exercise under high-temperature environment

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Soon Gi

    2013-01-01

    High temperature environment causes detrimental effects on health. In the present study, the effects of intake of several kinds of beverage on blood components during exercise under the high temperature environment were evaluated. The 10 subjects were student of the H University. Exercise intensity was 50–60% O2maxx and treadmill exercise was continued for 1 h. The kinds of beverage were water, ion beverage, cucumber drink. Blood sampling was performed before the exercise, immediately finishi...

  11. Spectrophotometric Study of the Effect of a Magnetic Field on Human Blood Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazin, V. N.; Makaryin, V. V.; Guzov, E. A.; Moshareva, V. A.; Kovchiy, K. A.

    2016-07-01

    We have used electronic spectroscopy and optical aggregometry to study the effect of a constant magnetic fi eld on blood components. Based on the absorption spectra, we observe a decrease in optical density for both plasma and whole blood samples. Based on the results of platelet aggregation studies, we identifi ed two groups of test subjects with opposite types of responses to exposure to a magnetic fi eld. The observed behavior is probably associated with changes in the spatial structure of the proteins.

  12. Advances of Studies on Mechanisms of Drugs for Activating Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis in Treatment of Primary Liver Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Primary liver cancer is mainly characterized by the mass in hypochondriac region, stabbing pain at a fixative region, tenderness, dim complexion,vascular spider, vein exposure, livid tongue,ecchymosis, taut and uneven pulse and other symptoms of blood stasis. Experimental studies have found that the patient with liver cancer is often accompanied with disturbance of microcirculation,increase of blood viscosity and high blood agglutinative state. Therefore, activating blood circulation to remove blood stasis is clinically an important therapy for primary liver cancer. A great number of studies on the mechanisms have been carried out in China and other countries. The follow is a review about the mechanisms.

  13. BAYESIAN SEMI-BLIND COMPONENT SEPARATION FOR FOREGROUND REMOVAL IN INTERFEROMETRIC 21 cm OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Le; Timbie, Peter T. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bunn, Emory F. [Physics Department, University of Richmond, Richmond, VA 23173 (United States); Karakci, Ata; Korotkov, Andrei; Tucker, Gregory S. [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope Street, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Sutter, P. M. [Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Wandelt, Benjamin D., E-mail: lzhang263@wisc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 W Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    In this paper, we present a new Bayesian semi-blind approach for foreground removal in observations of the 21 cm signal measured by interferometers. The technique, which we call H i Expectation–Maximization Independent Component Analysis (HIEMICA), is an extension of the Independent Component Analysis technique developed for two-dimensional (2D) cosmic microwave background maps to three-dimensional (3D) 21 cm cosmological signals measured by interferometers. This technique provides a fully Bayesian inference of power spectra and maps and separates the foregrounds from the signal based on the diversity of their power spectra. Relying only on the statistical independence of the components, this approach can jointly estimate the 3D power spectrum of the 21 cm signal, as well as the 2D angular power spectrum and the frequency dependence of each foreground component, without any prior assumptions about the foregrounds. This approach has been tested extensively by applying it to mock data from interferometric 21 cm intensity mapping observations under idealized assumptions of instrumental effects. We also discuss the impact when the noise properties are not known completely. As a first step toward solving the 21 cm power spectrum analysis problem, we compare the semi-blind HIEMICA technique to the commonly used Principal Component Analysis. Under the same idealized circumstances, the proposed technique provides significantly improved recovery of the power spectrum. This technique can be applied in a straightforward manner to all 21 cm interferometric observations, including epoch of reionization measurements, and can be extended to single-dish observations as well.

  14. Research opportunities for pathogen reduction/inactivation of blood components: summary of an NHLBI workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Harvey G; Glynn, Simone A; Ness, Paul M; Blajchman, Morris A

    2009-06-01

    In July 2008, a workshop sponsored by the Division of Blood Diseases and Resources of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) was convened to identify potential research opportunities that could advance our understanding of both the biologic and the clinical impact of the various available pathogen reduction/inactivation (PR/PI) methods of blood components (platelets [PLTs], red blood cells, and plasma) intended for allogeneic transfusion. These discussions resulted in consensus that, even though several PR/PI technologies have already been licensed and are being used in Europe and elsewhere for PLTs and plasma, concerns about possible side effects, particularly component quality and pulmonary toxicity, have impeded regulatory approval in North America (United States and Canada). Such concerns thus threaten to stall further development of these technologies. As a consequence, the NHLBI workshop participants focused on formulating a series of research-related recommendations to better understand, mitigate, and prevent these adverse effects. Other important issues identified included the need for a single method to inactivate pathogens in whole blood without damaging the various blood components; new ways to monitor the efficacy of treated components, including animal models to screen for safety; a better understanding of the effect of PR/PI-treated products on recipient alloimmunization, tolerance, and immune modulation; understanding the impact of PR/PI on various other noninfectious hazards of transfusion; and establishing methods to evaluate risk-benefit and cost-effectiveness, in particular with reference to emerging pathogens. The working group also discussed issues related to specific blood components, such as improving the process of clinical evaluation, investigating the impact of PR/PI on component storage lesions, understanding mechanisms that reduce component viability, and addressing the underlying resistance to the adoption of PR

  15. A Removal of Eye Movement and Blink Artifacts from EEG Data Using Morphological Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagatsuma, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    EEG signals contain a large amount of ocular artifacts with different time-frequency properties mixing together in EEGs of interest. The artifact removal has been substantially dealt with by existing decomposition methods known as PCA and ICA based on the orthogonality of signal vectors or statistical independence of signal components. We focused on the signal morphology and proposed a systematic decomposition method to identify the type of signal components on the basis of sparsity in the time-frequency domain based on Morphological Component Analysis (MCA), which provides a way of reconstruction that guarantees accuracy in reconstruction by using multiple bases in accordance with the concept of “dictionary.” MCA was applied to decompose the real EEG signal and clarified the best combination of dictionaries for this purpose. In our proposed semirealistic biological signal analysis with iEEGs recorded from the brain intracranially, those signals were successfully decomposed into original types by a linear expansion of waveforms, such as redundant transforms: UDWT, DCT, LDCT, DST, and DIRAC. Our result demonstrated that the most suitable combination for EEG data analysis was UDWT, DST, and DIRAC to represent the baseline envelope, multifrequency wave-forms, and spiking activities individually as representative types of EEG morphologies. PMID:28194221

  16. A Removal of Eye Movement and Blink Artifacts from EEG Data Using Morphological Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbir Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available EEG signals contain a large amount of ocular artifacts with different time-frequency properties mixing together in EEGs of interest. The artifact removal has been substantially dealt with by existing decomposition methods known as PCA and ICA based on the orthogonality of signal vectors or statistical independence of signal components. We focused on the signal morphology and proposed a systematic decomposition method to identify the type of signal components on the basis of sparsity in the time-frequency domain based on Morphological Component Analysis (MCA, which provides a way of reconstruction that guarantees accuracy in reconstruction by using multiple bases in accordance with the concept of “dictionary.” MCA was applied to decompose the real EEG signal and clarified the best combination of dictionaries for this purpose. In our proposed semirealistic biological signal analysis with iEEGs recorded from the brain intracranially, those signals were successfully decomposed into original types by a linear expansion of waveforms, such as redundant transforms: UDWT, DCT, LDCT, DST, and DIRAC. Our result demonstrated that the most suitable combination for EEG data analysis was UDWT, DST, and DIRAC to represent the baseline envelope, multifrequency wave-forms, and spiking activities individually as representative types of EEG morphologies.

  17. Change in metabolic status of glutathione by palladium nitrate in blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtiar, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Farid; Jan, Syed Umer; Khan, Haroon; Ullah, Naseem; Badshah, Amir

    2013-01-01

    This piece of research work present the toxicological impact of varied concentrations of palladium nitrate [Pd (NO3)2] by changing the chemical status of glutathione and the way how glutathione plays its role in detoxification and conjugation processes of [Pd (NO(3))(2))] in whole blood components (plasma and cytosolic fraction). The impact of different concentration of [Pd (NO3)2] on reduced glutathione level in whole blood component (plasma and cytosolic fraction) were measured spectrophotometrically following Standard Ellman's method. Compared with control sample, significant decrease in the GSH content in whole blood components (plasma and cytosolic fraction) was obtained with various concentrations (100µM-1000µM) of palladium nitrate. Depleted GSH level was more pronounced with time incubation period (0-90) minutes. These finding shows that changes in the GSH status produced by palladium nitrate could either be due to palladium nitrate and glutathione( Pd-SG) complex formation or by conversion of reduce glutathione (2GSH + Pd(+2) - GSSG). This change in the GSH metabolic status provides information regarding the mechanism of palladium, in blood components.

  18. The effect of chicken blood and its components on wastewater characteristics and sewage surcharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, R A; Nieman, C M; Haylock, R A; Rosentrater, K A; Piazza, G J

    2016-08-01

    Local wastewater treatment authorities levy surcharges from their non-residential customers that are based, in part, on the concentration of various pollutants in the customer's wastewater. Blood has long been recognized as the most potent contributor to pollutant loads in chicken processing plant wastewater. Quantification of the impact of blood on wastewater characteristics and sewage surcharges is hindered by lack of information on specific characteristics of chicken blood, and by the highly variable methods used by local authorities for calculating surcharges. In this study, the most commonly used wastewater characteristics are determined for whole chicken blood as well as its individual components. The characteristics measured include biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, fats oil and grease, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, ammonia, and total phosphorus. Sewage surcharge calculation methods were collected from 71 local wastewater authorities. The results show all components of the blood to be extremely high-strength pollutants. The impact of blood on sewage surcharges is shown to be highly variable depending on the rates applied by the local authority.

  19. Surface modifying of microporous PTFE capillary for bilirubin removing from human plasma and its blood compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Gu [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, HeFei, 230026 (China)], E-mail: Gjin@ustc.edu.cn; Yao Qizhi; Zhang Shanzi [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, HeFei, 230026 (China); Zhang Lei [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, HeFei, 230026 (China); AnHui Entry Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, HeFei, 230001 (China)

    2008-12-01

    In this study, human serum albumin (HSA) was covalently immobilized onto the inner surface of microporous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (MPTFE) capillaries for direct bilirubin removal from human plasma. To obtain active binding sites for HSA, the MPTFE capillaries were chemically functionalized by using a coating of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) copolymers. Characterization of grafted MPTFE capillaries was verified by XPS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Non-specific adsorption on the PVA-GMA coated capillary remains low (< 0.38 mg bilirubin/g), and higher affinity adsorption capacity, of up to 73.6 mg bilirubin/g polymer was obtained after HSA is immobilized. Blood compatibility of the grafted MPTFE capillary was evaluated by SEM and platelet rich plasma (PRP) contacting experiments. The experimental data on blood compatibility indicated that PVA-coated and PVA-GMA-HSA coated PTFE capillary showed a sharp suppress on platelets adhesion. The proposed method has the potential of serving in bilirubin removal in clinical application.

  20. Progress in the removal of di-[2-ethylhexyl]-phthalate as plasticizer in blood bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmchen, Juliane; Ventura, Rosa; Segura, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Polyvinylchloride (PVC) is used in blood component containers as well as in many other medical devices because it shows optimal inertness, durability, and resistance to heat and chemicals. However, the polymer itself does not provide good handling characteristics or the necessary properties for red blood cell (RBC) survival. PVC thus needs to be plasticized, and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) has been the most common plasticizer to produce the required flexibility to PVC. However, DEHP has been found to leach out from the containers, causing toxic effects, as demonstrated mainly in rodents. It is considered to be a possible carcinogen and suspected to also produce endocrine effects especially in young males. Although controversial, it is commonly accepted that in vulnerable patients such as newborns, trauma patients, or pregnant women, high exposure to DEHP should be avoided. The replacement of the common PVC + DEHP blood bags poses technical challenges due to the positive influence of the DEHP molecules on the red blood cell (RBC) membrane, and thus it has been shown to affect RBC storage and survival after transfusion. Different approaches are thus being taken to find a suitable alternative to DEHP for blood components bags. Environmentalists even favor the substitution of the PVC to avoid not only the plasticizers but even the other residues contained in the polymer material. Consequently, whereas the simplest solution is the substitution of the DEHP by other plasticizers, alternative plasticizer-free materials are becoming explored. Even modifications of existing materials are being presented by some research groups, ranging from covering of the DEHP-containing materials to alloys or special additive solutions. Different strategies as well as the most promising approaches are presented in this review. In any case, the degree of stabilization of RBCs undergoing prolonged storage will dictate the final acceptance for such alternatives.

  1. Selective Removal of Hemoglobin from Blood Using Hierarchical Copper Shells Anchored to Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaokun; Yan, Mingyang

    2017-01-01

    Hierarchical copper shells anchored on magnetic nanoparticles were designed and fabricated to selectively deplete hemoglobin from human blood by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Briefly, CoFe2O4 nanoparticles coated with polyacrylic acid were first synthesized by a one-pot solvothermal method. Hierarchical copper shells were then deposited by immobilizing Cu2+ on nanoparticles and subsequently by reducing between the solid CoFe2O4@COOH and copper solution with NaBH4. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The particles were also tested against purified bovine hemoglobin over a range of pH, contact time, and initial protein concentration. Hemoglobin adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and reached equilibrium in 90 min. Isothermal data also fit the Langmuir model well, with calculated maximum adsorption capacity 666 mg g−1. Due to the high density of Cu2+ on the shell, the nanoparticles efficiently and selectively deplete hemoglobin from human blood. Taken together, the results demonstrate that the particles with hierarchical copper shells effectively remove abundant, histidine-rich proteins, such as hemoglobin from human blood, and thereby minimize interference in diagnostic and other assays.

  2. Blood component therapy in trauma guided with the utilization of the perfusionist and thromboelastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Mark; Thomas, Scott G; Howard, Janet C; Evans, Edward; Guyer, Kirk; Medvecz, Andrew; Swearingen, Andrew; Navari, Rudolph M; Ploplis, Victoria; Castellino, Francis J

    2011-09-01

    25-35% of all seriously injured multiple trauma patients are coagulopathic upon arrival to the emergency department, and therefore early diagnosis and intervention on this subset of patients is important. In addition to standard plasma based tests of coagulation, the thromboelastogram (TEG) has resurfaced as an ideal test in the trauma population to help guide the clinician in the administration of blood components in a goal directed fashion. We describe how thromboelastographic analysis is used to assist in the management of trauma patients with coagulopathies presenting to the emergency department, in surgery, and in the postoperative period. Indications for the utilization of the TEG and platelet mapping as point of care testing that can guide blood component therapy in a goal directed fashion in the trauma population are presented with emphasis on the more common reasons such as massive transfusion protocol, the management of traumatic brain injury with bleeding, the diagnosis and management of trauma in patients on platelet antagonists, the utilization of recombinant FVIIa, and the management of coagulopathy in terminal trauma patients in preparation for organ donation. The TEG allows for judicious and protocol assisted utilization of blood components in a setting that has recently gained acceptance. In our program, the inclusion of the perfusionist with expertise in performing and interpreting TEG analysis allows the multidisciplinary trauma team to more effectively manage blood products and resuscitation in this population.

  3. [Contributions of the Council of Europe's Blood Transfusion Steering Committee to the determination of rules for the selection of donors of blood and blood components and the study of sexual behaviors having an impact on blood safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr-Gross, M-E; Heiden, M; Norda, R

    2013-05-01

    In November 2009, the Council of Europe's Blood Transfusion Steering Committee created a group of experts to explore the problem of behaviors having an impact on the management of donors of blood and blood components and on blood transfusion safety in Europe. This ad hoc group sought a harmonised interpretation of temporary exclusion (or temporary deferral), as opposed to permanent exclusion (or permanent deferral), in the context of the selection of donors of blood and blood components. It was also given the mandate to assess, on the basis of available data, the possibility of differentiating "at risk" behaviours from behaviours "at high risk" of contamination by serious infectious diseases transmitted by blood, blood components or derived therapeutic products. The primary objective of this work was to ensure the safety of blood, blood components and derived therapeutic products for future recipients by promoting a risk analysis-based approach, given that some countries envisaged amending their provisions for donor selection. However, a risk analysis can only be performed on groups, not individuals, which may give the impression of a discriminatory approach, so it needed to be justified in the context of transfusion safety. A collaborative project, which included an investigation phase, led to the drafting of a technical memorandum that summarised the data collected in ten Council of Europe member states on the selection criteria for blood donors and the epidemiology of infectious diseases (with a focus on human immunodeficiency virus) in the general population and among blood donors. The technical memorandum was published in 2011 on the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and Healthcare website dedicated to this project. A draft resolution of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe was then developed by the Council of Europe's Blood Transfusion Steering Committee. This text was circulated among member and observer states of the Council

  4. Investigation of variation in gene expression profiling of human blood by extended principle component analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human peripheral blood is a promising material for biomedical research. However, various kinds of biological and technological factors result in a large degree of variation in blood gene expression profiles. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human peripheral blood samples were drawn from healthy volunteers and analysed using the Human Genome U133Plus2 Microarray. We applied a novel approach using the Principle Component Analysis and Eigen-R(2 methods to dissect the overall variation of blood gene expression profiles with respect to the interested biological and technological factors. The results indicated that the predominating sources of the variation could be traced to the individual heterogeneity of the relative proportions of different blood cell types (leukocyte subsets and erythrocytes. The physiological factors like age, gender and BMI were demonstrated to be associated with 5.3% to 9.2% of the total variation in the blood gene expression profiles. We investigated the gene expression profiles of samples from the same donors but with different levels of RNA quality. Although the proportion of variation associated to the RNA Integrity Number was mild (2.1%, the significant impact of RNA quality on the expression of individual genes was observed. CONCLUSIONS: By characterizing the major sources of variation in blood gene expression profiles, such variability can be minimized by modifications to study designs. Increasing sample size, balancing confounding factors between study groups, using rigorous selection criteria for sample quality, and well controlled experimental processes will significantly improve the accuracy and reproducibility of blood transcriptome study.

  5. Current concepts on the transmission of bacteria and parasites by blood components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Wendel Neto

    Full Text Available Several bacterial and parasite transfusion-transmitted diseases have been described in the medical literature. This review deals with the main bacterial (Syphilis, Lyme disease, Gram positive and Gram negative agents, parasite (Chagas disease, malaria, leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis and babesiosis and rickettsial diseases that are carried by blood products. Preventional aspects (e.g. storage, screening tests, use of leukocyte-depleted components, diagnosis, geographical distribution and the incidence of these transfusional hazards are also discussed.

  6. [Equalization of whole-band signal's SNR in the blood components noninvasive measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Wang, Hui-quan; Zhang, Hao; Lin, Ling; Wu, Xiao-rong; Zhang, Bao-ju

    2012-02-01

    To fully extend the category of blood components that can be noninvasively measured by dynamic spectrum (DS) method and to increase its measuring precision, an overall consideration of light source, tissue absorption and sensor's sensitivity was made. Compensating the light source and adding the telecentric lens not only expand the spectral effective detecting range, but also balance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the photoelectric pulse in the whole band equalization. The integral SNR of DS signal was increased and the measurement bandwidth was expanded. The effectiveness of this method was validated by the quality evaluation criterion of DS data: the effective detecting range of visible DS was widened from 600-1 000 nm to 500-1 135 nm; the effective detecting range of near-infrared DS was widened from 900-1 100 nm to 900-1 700 nm. The results show that the design can create the condition for detection of new blood components noninvasively, and enhance the prediction accuracy of the blood components, for which noninvasive measuring using DS method has been achieved.

  7. Effect of rhamnolipid on the aerobic removal of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and COD components from petrochemical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Gök, Oğuzhan

    2010-02-01

    The removal efficiencies of 15 PAHs and some COD components (inert, readily degradable, slowly degradable and metabolic products) from a wastewater taken from a petrochemical industry treatment plant (Izmir, Turkey) have been determined using an aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Addition of rhamnolipid surfactant (15 mg l(-1)) increased the removal efficiencies of PAHs and soluble COD from 72% and 90% to 80% and 99%, respectively. The rhamnolipid treatment caused a significant increase of 5- and 6-ring PAH degradation. The soluble COD removal efficiency was 93%, in CSTR reactors with rhamnolipid added. The inert COD removal efficiency was 60% in a CSTR reactor containing rhamnolipid. Batch tests showed that removal arising from the adsorption of the PAHs was low (between 1.88% and 4.84%) while the removal of PAHs from the petrochemical industry wastewater via volatilization varied between 0.69% and 5.92%. Low sorption capacity (K(p)) values for refinery activated sludge (approximately 2.98 l g(-1)) confirmed that bio-sorption was not an important mechanism controlling the fate of PAHs in aerobic CSTR reactors. Models proposed to simulate the PAH removal indicated that 94% of the PAHs were removed via biodegradation.

  8. An investigation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities from blood components of Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosri, Santi; Mahakunakorn, Pramote; Lueangsakulthai, Jiraporn; Jangpromma, Nisachon; Swatsitang, Prasan; Daduang, Sakda; Dhiravisit, Apisak; Thammasirirak, Sompong

    2014-10-01

    Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were found from Crocodylus siamensis (C. siamensis) blood. The 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and linoleic peroxidation assays were used to investigate the antioxidant activities of the crocodile blood. Results show that crocodile blood components had antioxidant activity, especially hemoglobin (40.58 % nitric oxide radical inhibition), crude leukocyte extract (78 % linoleic peroxidation inhibition) and plasma (57.27 % hydroxyl radical inhibition). Additionally, the anti-inflammatory activity of the crocodile blood was studied using murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) as a model. The results show that hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. Also they showed anti-inflammatory activity by reduced nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) productions from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells. The NO inhibition percentages of hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma were 31.9, 48.24 and 44.27 %, respectively. However, only crude leukocyte extract could inhibit IL-6 production. So, the results of this research directly indicate that hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma of C. siamensis blood provide both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which could be used as a supplementary agent in pharmaceutical products.

  9. The Effects Of Antiretroviral Drugs On The Absorbance Characteristics Of Blood Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Ani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of antiretroviral drugs on the absorbance characteristics of blood components have been studied. The methodology involved the serial dilution of the five different antiretroviral drugs two HAARTFDC and three single drugs and the subsequent incubation with the blood samples collected from ten blood samples of HIV negative persons for the absorbance measurement using a digital Ultraviolet Visible MetaSpecAE1405031Pro Spectrophotometer. Reflectance Dielectric constant etc were derived from the absorbance data. For these drugs to be effective as HIV blockers they should be able to coat the surfaces of the lymphocytes. The question therefore arises as to what extent these drugs are able to coat the surfaces of the blood cells This was established using the extent of absorbance change. Models for coating effectiveness were formulated. The coating effectiveness was therefore calculated from peak absorbance values. Red blood cells were shown not to give reliable results. The results obtained however establish the fact that some coating of the drug had really occurred on the surfaces of the lymphocytes. The drug films were determined for lymphocytes and used to explain some observed clinical findings. The use of the findings of this work in drug design may be expected to yield good results.

  10. Pathogen inactivation of whole blood and red cell components: an overview of concept, design, developments, criteria of acceptability and storage lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghatchian, Jerard; Putter, Jeffrey S

    2013-10-01

    Multilayer preventative strategies have been instituted to enhance transfusion safety for patients in need of critical blood components. Presently blood safety is at its highest levels, with the implementation of precautionary/preventative measures against vCJD, bacterial and viral contamination of the blood supply. The implementation of these strategies together with advances in automation and computerization led to significant improvements in standardisation for transfusion practices. These include validation, verification, adherence to GLP and GMP and other regulatory requirements. In most European countries, universal prestorage leukodepletion is routine practice. In France proactive pathogen inactivation treatments [PITs] have been implemented emphasizing patient safety. This at least conceptually reduces the risk of transfusing viable WBCs, emerging bacteria and viruses, all with potential transfusion complications. In the UK, prion removal filters for red cell products are used selectively for special groups of patients. Some research establishments are exploring the potential impact of pathogen inactivation of whole blood or red cell components, using the new generation of S-303 PIT and the prion removal filters in combination. It needs to be determined whether such a combined strategy, applied synergistically, enhances red cell transfusion safety without compromising the overall criteria of acceptability. It is necessary to critically examine the impact of a new generation of PIT technologies, which may exacerbate the red cell storage lesion and cause the development of undesirable antibodies in the recipient. The development of innovative laboratory tools is vital to study impacts of these measures on the quality of stored blood and their clinical outcome. The ultimate aim of red cell transfusion is to provide oxygen enriched red blood cells to the microcirculations and tissues. Definitive studies are needed to establish the potential unforeseen negative

  11. Protein-associated water and secondary structure effect removal of blood proteins from metallic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Gaurav; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J; Belfort, Georges

    2011-03-01

    Removing adsorbed protein from metals has significant health and industrial consequences. There are numerous protein-adsorption studies using model self-assembled monolayers or polymeric substrates but hardly any high-resolution measurements of adsorption and removal of proteins on industrially relevant transition metals. Surgeons and ship owners desire clean metal surfaces to reduce transmission of disease via surgical instruments and minimize surface fouling (to reduce friction and corrosion), respectively. A major finding of this work is that, besides hydrophobic interaction adhesion energy, water content in an adsorbed protein layer and secondary structure of proteins determined the access and hence ability to remove adsorbed proteins from metal surfaces with a strong alkaline-surfactant solution (NaOH and 5 mg/mL SDS in PBS at pH 11). This is demonstrated with three blood proteins (bovine serum albumin, immunoglobulin, and fibrinogen) and four transition metal substrates and stainless steel (platinum (Pt), gold (Au), tungsten (W), titanium (Ti), and 316 grade stainless steel (SS)). All the metallic substrates were checked for chemical contaminations like carbon and sulfur and were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). While Pt and Au surfaces were oxide-free (fairly inert elements), W, Ti, and SS substrates were associated with native oxide. Difference measurements between a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR) provided a measure of the water content in the protein-adsorbed layers. Hydrophobic adhesion forces, obtained with atomic force microscopy, between the proteins and the metals correlated with the amount of the adsorbed protein-water complex. Thus, the amount of protein adsorbed decreased with Pt, Au, W, Ti and SS, in this order. Neither sessile contact angle nor surface roughness of the metal substrates was useful as predictors here. All three globular proteins

  12. Brazilian situation of blood component irradiation practice for the prevention of transfusion associated Graft-versus-Host disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goes, E.G.; Borges, J.C. [EE/COPPE-UFRJ (Brazil); Covas, D.T. [Faculdade deMedicina-USP-RP (Brazil); Motta, I. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer- Rio deJaneiro (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) is a usually complication of transfusion of blood component containing T lymphocytes what recently has also involved immunocompetent patient. Gamma irradiation of cellular blood components has been the mainstay against TA-GVHD, nevertheless there is little information in the literature about current transfusion medicine practices regarding gamma irradiation of blood products. This work presents an overview of the Brazilian reality and suggests policies to optimize TA-GVHD prevention. (Author)

  13. Distribution of N-isopropyl-p-(I-123)iodoamphetamine among the peripheral blood components; An in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumazaki, Satoshi (Kanto Teishin Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)); Oriuchi, Noboru; Tomiyoshi, Katsumi; Inoue, Tomio; Sasaki, Yasuhito

    1990-03-01

    With the purpose to clarify dynamics of N-isopropyl-p-(I-123)iodoamphetamine (I-123 IMP) in the blood stream its binding to the peripheral blood components was determined by in vitro experiment. I-123 IMP was added to the peripheral venous blood obtained from healthy volunteers to be incubated for different length of time (0-30 min) at 37deg C. The blood was then separated into blood cells and plasma. From the latter platelet rich plasma were separated. Radioactivity in each blood component was counted in a well type scintillation counter respectively. To evaluate the affinity of I-123 IMP to red blood cell the component containing blood cells were washed repeatedly with salines. It was found that the fraction of radioactivity in the blood cell component was 68.0{plus minus}6.3% (m{plus minus}1 S.D.), which was higher than that in the plasma (32.0%{plus minus}6.3%). The radioactivity in the platelet-rich plasma was only 1.7{plus minus}1.1% of the total I-123 IMP activity. This percentage did not change by the incubation time. When Tc-99m DTPA was incubated with blood, radioactivity in the blood cell component was only 22.5%, which is further lowered by 32{plus minus}2.1% after each washing to reach 6.8% after three times washing. In contrast the radioactivity of I-123 IMP in blood cell component remained as high as 31.1% after eight times washing. Almost constant fraction (8.20{plus minus}0.57%) of radioactivity was freed into supernate by each washing. These findings suggest that a certain specific binding mechanism is involved in the binding of I-123 IMP to red blood cells. (author).

  14. Efficacy of submucosal injection of different solutions inclusive blood components on mucosa elevation for endoscopic resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Taie OH

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Oliver H Al-Taie1, Yildiz Bauer2, Christoph G Dietrich3, Wolfgang Fischbach21Department of Internal Medicine, Sankt Elisabeth-Hospital, Gütersloh, 2Department of Internal Medicine II, Klinikum Aschaffenburg, Aschaffenburg, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Bethlehem-Hospital, Stolberg, GermanyBackground: Endoscopic resection has become the standard treatment for noninvasive gastrointestinal malignancies. In flat mucosal tumors, normal saline is frequently used for submucosal fluid injection in order to reduce the risk of complications during endoscopic resection. Recent studies have demonstrated longer-lasting mucosa elevation by injection of agents such as hyaluronic acid or glyceol, rather than normal saline. We investigated the efficacy of different blood components in comparison with other solutions for use as a submucosal fluid cushion.Methods: Normal saline, sodium hyaluronate, glyceol, hydroxyethyl starch, serum, plasma, and whole blood were evaluated for their effectiveness in creating a submucosal cushion. One milliliter of each solution was injected into the submucosa of 5 × 5 cm specimens of resected porcine stomach. Mucosa elevation was measured before and up to 60 minutes after injection.Results: The shortest duration of mucosa elevation was observed after injection of normal saline, glyceol, and 0.125% hyaluronic acid. A significantly longer duration was obtained after injection of hydroxyethyl starch, 0.25% and 0.5% hyaluronic acid, serum, and plasma. However, whole blood generated a longer-lasting mucosa elevation than all other agents.Conclusion: The results of the current study suggest that whole blood is more effective in generating long-lasting mucosa elevation than any other commonly used solution. Because autologous blood is readily available at almost no cost, this seems to be an optimal agent for creating the mucosa elevation needed for endoscopic resection. Further in vivo studies in humans are needed to clarify the

  15. Design of a sedimentation hole in a microfluidic channel to remove blood cells from diluted whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Chiaki; Ohki, Yoshimichi; Ashiba, Hiroki; Fujimaki, Makoto; Awazu, Koichi; Makishima, Makoto

    2017-03-01

    With the aim of developing a sensor for rapidly detecting viruses in a drop of blood, in this study, we analyze the shape of a hole in a microfluidic channel in relation to the efficiency of sedimentation of blood cells. The efficiency of sedimentation is examined on the basis of our calculation and experimental results for two types of sedimentation hole, cylindrical and truncated conical holes, focusing on the Boycott effect, which can promote the sedimentation of blood cells from a downward-facing wall. As a result, we demonstrated that blood cells can be eliminated with an efficiency of 99% or higher by retaining a diluted blood sample of about 30 µL in the conical hole for only 2 min. Moreover, we succeeded in detecting the anti-hepatitis B surface antigen antibody in blood using a waveguide-mode sensor equipped with a microfluidic channel having the conical sedimentation hole.

  16. Effect of malaria components on blood mononuclear cells involved in immune response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuchard Punsawad

    2013-01-01

    During malaria infection, elevated levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and nitric oxide production have been associated with pathogenesis and disease severity. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have proposed that both Plasmodium falciparum hemozoin and glycosylphosphatidylinositols are able to modulate blood mononuclear cells, contributing to stimulation of signal transduction and downstream regulation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, and subsequently leading to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and nitric oxide. The present review summarizes the published in vitro and in vivo studies that have investigated the mechanism of intracellular signal transduction and activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway in blood mononuclear cells after being inducted by Plasmodium falciparum malaria components. Particular attention is paid to hemozoin and glycosylphosphatidylinositols which reflect the important mechanism of signaling pathways involved in immune response.

  17. Effect of malaria components on blood mononuclear cells involved in immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punsawad, Chuchard

    2013-09-01

    During malaria infection, elevated levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and nitric oxide production have been associated with pathogenesis and disease severity. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have proposed that both Plasmodium falciparum hemozoin and glycosylphosphatidylinositols are able to modulate blood mononuclear cells, contributing to stimulation of signal transduction and downstream regulation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, and subsequently leading to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and nitric oxide. The present review summarizes the published in vitro and in vivo studies that have investigated the mechanism of intracellular signal transduction and activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway in blood mononuclear cells after being inducted by Plasmodium falciparum malaria components. Particular attention is paid to hemozoin and glycosylphosphatidylinositols which reflect the important mechanism of signaling pathways involved in immune response.

  18. [Effect of water on silica gel adsorption of blood plasma components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall', L N; Malakhova, M Ia; Melenevskaia, E Iu; Podosenova, N G; Sharonova, L V

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the study of properties of silica gel as an adsorbent for plasmasorption has been performed. Investigations have been realized of the effect of silica gel preliminary treatment conditions and a period of plasma with silica gel contact on plasmasorption characteristics of human blood plasma components, such as protein, triglycerides, cholesterol (high-density and low-density one). The results obtained can be used for variation of silica gel adsorption properties, in situ at the adsorbent preparation process. For explanation of the experimental concentration and kinetic (temporal) characteristics of plasmasorption, the model of silica gel grains charging at the hydration was used.

  19. Cervical cancer detection by time-resolved spectra of blood components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivani, Rudran; Masilamani, Vadivel; AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Ramamurthy, P.; Palled, Siddanna R.; Ganesh, K. M.

    2014-05-01

    Fluorescence spectral techniques are very sensitive, and hence they are gaining importance in cancer detection. The biomarkers indicative of cancer could be identified and quantified by spectral or time domain fluorescence spectroscopy. The results of an investigation of time-resolved spectra of cellular components of blood obtained from cervical cancer patients and normal controls are given. The cancer indicative biomarker in this paper is porphyrin; it has a fluorescence decay time of 60% more in samples of cancer patients than those of normal controls. Based on such measurements, a randomized set comprising samples from cancer patients and controls (N=27 in total) could be classified with sensitivity (92%) and specificity (86%).

  20. Heavy metal removal capacity of individual components of permeable reactive concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ryan R.; Hart, Megan L.; Kevern, John T.

    2017-01-01

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are a well-known technique for groundwater remediation using industrialized reactive media such as zero-valent iron and activated carbon. Permeable reactive concrete (PRC) is an alternative reactive medium composed of relatively inexpensive materials such as cement and aggregate. A variety of multimodal, simultaneous processes drive remediation of metals from contaminated groundwater within PRC systems due to the complex heterogeneous matrix formed during cement hydration. This research investigated the influence coarse aggregate, portland cement, fly ash, and various combinations had on the removal of lead, cadmium, and zinc in solution. Absorption, adsorption, precipitation, co-precipitation, and internal diffusion of the metals are common mechanisms of removal in the hydrated cement matrix and independent of the aggregate. Local aggregates can be used as the permeable structure also possessing high metal removal capabilities, however calcareous sources of aggregate are preferred due to improved removal with low leachability. Individual adsorption isotherms were linear or curvilinear up, indicating a preferred removal process. For PRC samples, metal saturation was not reached over the range of concentrations tested. Results were then used to compare removal against activated carbon and aggregate-based PRBs by estimating material costs for the remediation of an example heavy metal contaminated Superfund site located in the Midwestern United States, Joplin, Missouri.

  1. Clinical Observation on Influence of Chinese Medicines for Promoting Blood Circulation to Remove Blood Stasis on FIB and DD in Plasma of Patients with Cerebral Thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晖; 陈甦; 陈少芳

    2002-01-01

    Objective: to study the influence of Chinese medicines for promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis on fibrinogen (FIB) and D-dimer (DD) in plasma of patients with cerebral thrombosis. Method: 73 inpatients with acute cerebral thrombosis were randomly divided into a control group of 34 cases and a treatment group of 39 cases. The content of FIB and DD in plasma was detected before treatment and on the 7th and 14th days after treatment. Result: FIB content in plasma after treatment was lower than that before treatment in the control group (P<0.01) and more remarkable in the treatment group (P<0.001). There was an obvious difference in DD content before and after treatment in both groups. DD content on the 7th and 14th days after treatment in the treatment group was obviously higher than that in the control group (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively). Conclusion: Chinese medicines for promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis can reduce the FIB content in plasma of patients with cerebral thrombosis, raise the DD content in plasma, cause the peak of DD content appear earlier and obviously improve hypercoagulability of blood in patients with cerebral thrombosis.

  2. A comprehensive protocol to evaluate the use of blood and its components in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Ana E del; Pérez-Rosales, Maria D; Almeida-Neto, Cesar de; Remesar, Mirta C; Cortes, Armando D; Delgado, Raquel Baumgratz; Mendrone, Alfredo; Sabino, Ester

    2015-06-01

    Blood transfusion safety is a critical part of appropriate health care. Considering the limited information available on the use of blood and its components in Latin America and the Caribbean, the Grupo Cooperativo iberoamericano de Medicina Transfusional (Ibero-American Cooperative Group for Transfusion Medicine; GCIAMT), through its Research and International Affairs committees, carried out a project to develop a protocol that would facilitate the evaluation of blood usage at the country, jurisdiction, and institutional levels in varied country contexts. Experts in blood safety from the Pan American Health Organization (Washington, DC, United States), the University of São Paulo (São Paulo, Brazil), the Hemocentro of São Paulo (São Paulo, Brazil), and GCIAMT designed a 2-step comprehensive blood-use evaluation protocol: step 1 collects data from blood requests, and step 2, from medical charts. At a minimum, 1 000 analyzed requests are necessary; as such, study periods vary depending on the number of transfusion requests issued. An Internet-based application, the Modular Research System-Study Management System (MRS-SMS), houses the data and produces reports on how hospitals request blood, how blood is issued, who requires blood and blood components, and as an added benefit, how many blood units are wasted and what the real demand for blood is.

  3. Evaluation of the interaction of vanadium with glutathione in human blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtiar, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Farid; Jan, Syed Umer; Khan, Haroon; Ullah, Naseem; Asim-ur-Rehman

    2012-07-01

    Metallo-elements including Vanadium (V) have strong affinity for sulfhydryl (-SH) groups in biological molecules including Glutathione (GSH) in tissues. Because of this fact it was of interest to further investigate the interaction of Ammonium Vanadate [NH(4)VO(3)] with Glutathione as a biomarker of toxicity and the role of Glutathione in the detoxification and conjugation pr(o)Cesses in whole blood components including plasma and cytosolic fraction. Effects of different concentrations of Ammonium Vanadate [NH(4)VO(3)] on the level of reduced Glutathione in whole blood components (Plasma and Cytosolic fraction) were examined. GSH depletion in plasma and cytosolic fraction was Ammonium Vanadate's concentration-dependent. Depleted GSH level was more pronounced with more incubation time period. These findings show that changes in the GSH status produced by Ammonium Vanadate could be due to either by adduct formation of Vanadium and glutathione i.e. (V-SG) or by increased production of oxidized Glutathione (2GSH +V(+5) → GSSG). This change in GSH metabolic status provides some information regarding the mechanism of toxicity by Ammonium Vanadate and the protective role of glutathione.

  4. [The analysis for improving the SNR of blood components noninvasive measurement with DS method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Wang, Hui-quan; Zhao, Zhe; Lin, Ling; Zhang, Bao-ju; Wu, Xiao-rong

    2012-08-01

    In order to increase the accuracy of blood components measurement and enhance the stability of prediction model, the quantitative signal-noise-ratio (SNR) analysis of measuring instruments based on dynamic spectrum (DS) and preprocessing method was conducted. The SNR of DS is increased after adding boxcar integrator, decreasing wavelength revolution, balancing the DS's SNR and excluding gross errors in preprocessing according to experiment results. Two volunteers were tested continuously for many times using the DS data acquiring system. The correlation coefficients of the each volunteer's DS data was increased from 0.934 and 0.953 to 0.991 and 0.987, respectively. Moreover, the gap between the correlation coefficient of the same volunteer's DS and different volunteers' DS is increased too, which shows that the SNR can be improved by these methods. The quantitative SNR analysis can guide the way of choosing preprocessing method efficiently, which will create the condition for clinical application of the blood components noninvasive measurement.

  5. Unanswered questions in the use of blood component therapy in trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashuk Jeffry L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent advances in our approach to blood component therapy in traumatic hemorrhage have resulted in a reassessment of many of the tenants of management which were considered standards of therapy for many years. Indeed, despite the use of damage control techniques, the mortality from trauma induced coagulopathy has not changed significantly over the past 30 years. More specifically, a resurgence of interest in postinjury hemostasis has generated controversies in three primary areas: 1 The pathogenesis of trauma induced coagulopathy 2 The optimal ratio of blood components administered via a pre-emptive schedule for patients at risk for this condition, ("damage control resuscitation", and 3 The appropriate use of monitoring mechanisms of coagulation function during the phase of active management of trauma induced coaguopathy, which we have previously termed "goal directed therapy". Accordingly, recent experience from both military and civilian centers have begun to address these controversies, with certain management trends emerging which appear to significantly impact the way we approach these patients.

  6. Practices for rational use of blood components in a universitary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydney Correia Leão

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available SummaryObjective:to produce improvements in transfusion practices through the implementation of an educational program for health professionals in a university hospital.Methods:this is an interventional and prospective study, with pre- and postanalysis of an educational intervention. The research was developed at the University Hospital of the Universidade Federal de Sergipe, involving participation of health professionals in the stage of training, during the month of February 2011, in addition to the monitoring of blood transfusions performed in the preand post-intervention periods. Transfusion practices were investigated upon request for transfusion or devolution of unused blood components. Knowledge of health professionals was assessed based on the responses to a questionnaire about transfusion practices.Results:during the educative campaign, 63 professionals were trained, including 33 nurses or nursing technicians and 30 physicians. Among the doctors, there was a statistically significant gain of 20.1% in theoretical knowledge (p=0.037. Gain in the nursing group was even higher: 30.4% (p=0.016. The comparative analysis of transfusion request forms showed a non-significant decrease from 26.7 to 19.5% (p=0.31 in all forms with incomplete information. We also observed a statistically significant improvement in relation to the filling of four items of transfusion request.Conclusion:there was a significant improvement of the entire process related to blood transfusions after interventional project conducted in February 2011.

  7. Distinct mechanisms of relaxation to bioactive components from chamomile species in porcine isolated blood vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.E., E-mail: Richard.roberts@nottingham.ac.uk; Allen, S.; Chang, A.P.Y.; Henderson, H.; Hobson, G.C.; Karania, B.; Morgan, K.N.; Pek, A.S.Y.; Raghvani, K.; Shee, C.Y.; Shikotra, J.; Street, E.; Abbas, Z.; Ellis, K.; Heer, J.K.; Alexander, S.P.H., E-mail: steve.alexander@nottingham.ac.uk

    2013-11-01

    German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), a widely-used herbal medicine, has been reported to have a wide range of biological effects, including smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of representative compounds from chamomile (apigenin, luteolin, (−)-α-bisabolol, farnesene, umbelliferone; 3–30 μM) on vascular tone using porcine coronary and splenic arteries mounted for isometric tension recording in isolated tissue baths and precontracted with the thromboxane-mimetic U46619. Apigenin, luteolin, and (−)-α-bisabolol produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in both the coronary and splenic arteries that were not blocked by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase or potassium channels. Removal of extracellular calcium inhibited the relaxations to all three compounds, and these compounds also inhibited calcium re-addition-evoked contractions, indicating that the relaxation response may be mediated through inhibition of calcium influx. Apigenin and luteolin, but not (−)-α-bisabolol, enhanced the relaxation to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, indicating that apigenin and luteolin may act to regulate cyclic GMP levels. Umbelliferone produced a rapid, transient relaxation in the splenic artery, but not the coronary artery, that was inhibited by L-NAME and removal of the endothelium, suggesting an influence on nitric oxide production. Farnesene, at concentrations up to 30 μM, was without effect in either blood vessel. In conclusion, hydroxylated compounds (apigenin, luteolin and (−)-α-bisabolol) found in chamomile all caused a slow relaxation of isolated blood vessels through an effect on calcium influx. Umbelliferone, on the other hand, produced a rapid, transient relaxation dependent upon release of nitric oxide from the endothelium. - Highlights: • Apigenin, luteolin, and (-)-α-bisabolol are present in chamomile. • They produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in arteries. • These

  8. Distribution of dipyridamole in blood components among post-stroke patients treated with extended release formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebruany, Victor; Sabaeva, Elena; Booze, Christopher; Atar, Oliver D; Eisert, Christian; Hanley, Dan

    2009-09-01

    Extended release dipyridamole (ERD) is widely used in patients after ischaemic stroke; however, the ability of this antithrombotic agent to be stored in different blood cells has never been explored in post-stroke patients. We hypothesised that since ERD is known to be highly lipophilic, the drug may be present not only in plasma, but also accumulated in platelets, leukocytes, and erythrocytes. Fifteen patients after documented ischaemic stroke were treated with Aggrenox (ERD and low-dose aspirin combination) BID for 30 days, and 12 of them completed the study. ERD concentrations in blood cells and platelet-poor plasma were measured by spectrofluorimetry at Baseline, Day 14, and Day 30 after the initiation of therapy. The background level of spectrofluorometry readings differs slightly among the blood components (132-211 ng/ml) due to the differences in the preparation of samples and cell isolation techniques. As expected, two weeks of ERD therapy produced steady-state plasma concentration of dipyridamole already at Day 14 (1,680 +/- 542 ng/ ml), followed by a slight not significant decrease at one month (1,619 +/- 408 ng/ml). Two weeks of therapy was sufficient to achieve a consistent dipyridamole accumulation in erythrocytes (361 +/- 43 ng/ml), but not in platelets (244 +/- 78 ng/ml), or leukocytes (275 +/- 49 ng/ml). In fact, white blood cells continued dipyridamole intake beyond 14 days period, and this increase (398 +/- 66 ng/ml) was significant (p = 0.02) at 30 days. Treatment with ERD in post-stroke patients resulted not only in achievement of therapeutic plasma dipyridamole concentrations, but also deposition of the drug in erythrocytes and leukocytes, but not in platelets. If confirmed, these data will affect our better understanding of dipyridamole pleiotropy, and may explain long-term benefit of ERD formulation.

  9. Drug-induced blood consumption: the impact of adverse drug reactions on demand for blood components in German departments of internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenkolber, Dominik; Schmiedl, Sven; Rottenkolber, Marietta; Thuermann, Petra A; Hasford, Joerg

    2012-10-01

    Therapy for adverse drug reactions (ADRs) often results in the application of blood components. This study aims to assess the demand for blood components and the resulting economic burden (hospital perspective) in German hospitals induced by ADRs leading to admissions to departments of internal medicine. In this prospective study, ADRs leading to hospitalization were surveyed in four regional pharmacovigilance centres in Germany during the years 2000-2007. ADRs assessed as 'possible', 'likely' or 'very likely' were included. Market prices for blood components and hospitalization data were determined by desktop research. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed. A total of 6099 patients were admitted to internal medicine departments because of an outpatient ADR of whom 1165 patients (19.1%; mean age, 73.0 ± 13.0 years) required treatment with blood components owing to major bleeding events. Overall consumption was 4185 erythrocyte concentrates (EC), 426 fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and 48 thrombocyte (TC) units. On the basis of statistical hospital data, we estimated a nationwide demand of approximately 132,020 EC, 13,440 FFP and 1515 TC units, resulting in total costs of €12.66 million per year for all German hospitals. Some 19.2% of all ADR cases were assessed as preventable. Theoretically, a nationwide decreased demand for blood components and a savings potential of €2.43 million per year could be achieved by preventing ADRs in Germany. Blood components are used in one-fifth (mainly gastrointestinal bleeding) of all ADRs, leading to hospitalizations in internal medicine departments. Both blood demand and hospital procurement costs can be significantly lowered by preventing ADRs.

  10. Rudimentary study on humanization of porcine red blood cells: Enzymatic removal of galactose-α1,3-galactose antigen from porcine red blood cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The serological and biochemical characterization of porcine red blood cells (pRBCs) are similar to human red blood cells. Porcine erythrocytes are considered as an alternative source for human blood transfusion. But there exist galactose-α1,3-galactose antigens (Galα1,3Galβ1, 4GalNAc-R, abbreviated αGal antigen) on pRBCs, which can induce anti-(Gal antibodies in human serum. The (Galepitopes are the major antigen responsible for hyperacute rejection in xenotransfusion. In this study, recombined soybean α-galactosidase (rSα-GalE) was usedto remove the (Gal antigens from pPRCs for humanization. The results showed that (Gal antigen was cleared by rSα-GalE and the structure and function of rSα-GalE treated pRBC were normal.

  11. [Application of wavelet transform on improving detecting precision of the non-invasive blood components measurement based on dynamic spectrum method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Men, Jian-Long; Sun, Zhao-Min; Wang, Hui-Quan; Lin, Ling; Tong, Ying; Zhang, Bao-Ju

    2011-02-01

    Time-varying noises in spectra collection process have influence on the prediction accuracy of quantitative calibration in the non-invasive blood components measurement which is based on dynamic spectrum (DS) method. By wavelet transform, we focused on the absorbance wave of fingertip transmission spectrum in pulse frequency band. Then we increased the signal to noise ratio of DS data, and improved the detecting precision of quantitative calibration. After carrying out spectrum data continuous acquisition of the same subject for 10 times, we used wavelet transform de-noising to increase the average correlation coefficient of DS data from 0.979 6 to 0.990 3. BP neural network was used to establish the calibration model of subjects' blood components concentration values against dynamic spectrum data of 110 volunteers. After wavelet transform de-noising, the correlation coefficient of prediction set increased from 0.677 4 to 0.846 8, and the average relative error was decreased from 15.8% to 5.3%. Experimental results showed that the introduction of wavelet transform can effectively remove the noise in DS data, improve the detecting precision, and accelerate the development of non-invasive blood components measurement based on DS method.

  12. The effect of holding times of whole blood and its components during processing on in vitro and in vivo quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Pieter F; de Korte, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Whole blood is not usually collected close to the processing site, which results in a holding time between collection and processing. In some countries, the holding time is limited to 8 hours, after which the units are cooled, rendering them useless for platelet preparation. Other countries allow a 24-hour (“overnight”) ambient hold to allow platelet preparation. The impact of this holding time on subsequent blood components will be reviewed in this article. In addition, there are various “in-process” holding times that further prolong the time before the final blood component is ready. Particularly, these in-process holding times are not well defined and poorly controlled,but can nevertheless affect the biochemical and functional characteristics of blood components. Furthermore, current, non–evidence-based, guidelines have restricted the length of some of these holding times. This article summarizes the evidence and fills gaps where evidence is lacking.

  13. Different chronological patterns of appearance of blood derived milk components during mastitis indicate different mechanisms of transfer from blood into milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellnitz, Olga; Zbinden, Christina; Lüttgenau, Johannes; Bollwein, Heinrich; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to describe chronological patterns of changes of various candidate blood components in milk during the acute phase of a mammary immune response in detail. Eight dairy cows were challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide in one udder quarter. Milk from challenged and control quarters and blood samples were taken before, and 1 and 2 h after challenge and then every 15 min until 5 h after challenge. The SCC, serum albumin, immunoglobulin (Ig)G1, IgG2, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and L-lactate in milk and blood, and α-lactalbumin in blood were analysed. All selected parameters in milk increased in challenged quarters but did not increase in control quarters. Milk IgG1, IgG2, serum albumin, and LDH were already significantly increased at 2 h after challenge whereas a significant increase of SCC was detectable at 2.75 h and L-lactate was increased at 2.25 h after challenge. In blood L-lactate was increased at 3.75 h after challenge, however, other factors in blood did not change significantly within the 5 h of experiment. In conclusion, the increase of blood components in milk during inflammation follows two different patterns: There is a rapid increase for IgG1, IgG2, or LDH, before the increase of SCC, and their concentrations reach a plateau within 3 h. On the other hand, SCC and L-lactate show a slower but consistent increase not reaching a plateau within 5 h after LPS challenge. L-lactate increases to higher concentrations in milk than in blood. This clearly shows that the increase of blood components follows different patterns and is therefore a controlled and compound-specific process and not exclusively an unspecific type of leakage.

  14. Effects of intravenous solutions on acid-base equilibrium: from crystalloids to colloids and blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Thomas; Ferrari, Michele; Zazzeron, Luca; Gattinoni, Luciano; Caironi, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Intravenous fluid administration is a medical intervention performed worldwide on a daily basis. Nevertheless, only a few physicians are aware of the characteristics of intravenous fluids and their possible effects on plasma acid-base equilibrium. According to Stewart's theory, pH is independently regulated by three variables: partial pressure of carbon dioxide, strong ion difference (SID), and total amount of weak acids (ATOT). When fluids are infused, plasma SID and ATOT tend toward the SID and ATOT of the administered fluid. Depending on their composition, fluids can therefore lower, increase, or leave pH unchanged. As a general rule, crystalloids having a SID greater than plasma bicarbonate concentration (HCO₃-) cause an increase in plasma pH (alkalosis), those having a SID lower than HCO₃- cause a decrease in plasma pH (acidosis), while crystalloids with a SID equal to HCO₃- leave pH unchanged, regardless of the extent of the dilution. Colloids and blood components are composed of a crystalloid solution as solvent, and the abovementioned rules partially hold true also for these fluids. The scenario is however complicated by the possible presence of weak anions (albumin, phosphates and gelatins) and their effect on plasma pH. The present manuscript summarises the characteristics of crystalloids, colloids, buffer solutions and blood components and reviews their effect on acid-base equilibrium. Understanding the composition of intravenous fluids, along with the application of simple physicochemical rules best described by Stewart's approach, are pivotal steps to fully elucidate and predict alterations of plasma acid-base equilibrium induced by fluid therapy.

  15. Nanomedicine: Interaction of biomimetic apatite colloidal nanoparticles with human blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choimet, Maëla; Hyoung-Mi, Kim; Jae-Min, Oh; Tourrette, Audrey; Drouet, Christophe

    2016-09-01

    This contribution investigates the interaction of two types of biomimetic-apatite colloidal nanoparticles (negatively-charged 47nm, and positively-charged 190nm NPs) with blood components, namely red blood cells (RBC) and plasma proteins, with the view to inspect their hemocompatibility. The NPs, preliminarily characterized by XRD, FTIR and DLS, showed low hemolysis ratio (typically lower than 5%) illustrating the high compatibility of such NPs with respect to RBC, even at high concentration (up to 10mg/ml). The presence of glucose as water-soluble matrix for freeze-dried and re-dispersed colloids led to slightly increased hemolysis as compared to glucose-free formulations. NPs/plasma protein interaction was then followed, via non-specific protein fluorescence quenching assays, by contact with whole human blood plasma. The amount of plasma proteins in interaction with the NPs was evaluated experimentally, and the data were fitted with the Hill plot and Stern-Volmer models. In all cases, binding constants of the order of 10(1)-10(2) were found. These values, significantly lower than those reported for other types of nanoparticles or molecular interactions, illustrate the fairly inert character of these colloidal NPs with respect to plasma proteins, which is desirable for circulating injectable suspensions. Results were discussed in relation with particle surface charge and mean particle hydrodynamic diameter (HD). On the basis of these hemocompatibility data, this study significantly complements previous results relative to the development and nontoxicity of biomimetic-apatite-based colloids stabilized by non-drug biocompatible organic molecules, intended for use in nanomedicine.

  16. All clinically-relevant blood components transmit prion disease following a single blood transfusion: a sheep model of vCJD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra McCutcheon

    Full Text Available Variant CJD (vCJD is an incurable, infectious human disease, likely arising from the consumption of BSE-contaminated meat products. Whilst the epidemic appears to be waning, there is much concern that vCJD infection may be perpetuated in humans by the transfusion of contaminated blood products. Since 2004, several cases of transfusion-associated vCJD transmission have been reported and linked to blood collected from pre-clinically affected donors. Using an animal model in which the disease manifested resembles that of humans affected with vCJD, we examined which blood components used in human medicine are likely to pose the greatest risk of transmitting vCJD via transfusion. We collected two full units of blood from BSE-infected donor animals during the pre-clinical phase of infection. Using methods employed by transfusion services we prepared red cell concentrates, plasma and platelets units (including leucoreduced equivalents. Following transfusion, we showed that all components contain sufficient levels of infectivity to cause disease following only a single transfusion and also that leucoreduction did not prevent disease transmission. These data suggest that all blood components are vectors for prion disease transmission, and highlight the importance of multiple control measures to minimise the risk of human to human transmission of vCJD by blood transfusion.

  17. Optical nanosphere sensor based on shell-by-shell fabrication for removal of toxic metals from human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Safty, S A; Abdellatef, S; Ismael, M; Shahat, A

    2013-06-01

    Because toxic heavy metals tend to bioaccumulate, they represent a substantial human health hazard. Various methods are used to identify and quantify toxic metals in biological tissues and environment fluids, but a simple, rapid, and inexpensive system has yet to be developed. To reduce the necessity for instrument-dependent analysis, we developed a single, pH-dependent, nanosphere (NS) sensor for naked-eye detection and removal of toxic metal ions from drinking water and physiological systems (i.e., blood). The design platform for the optical NS sensor is composed of double mesoporous core-shell silica NSs fabricated by one-pot, template-guided synthesis with anionic surfactant. The dense shell-by-shell NS construction generated a unique hierarchical NS sensor with a hollow cage interior to enable accessibility for continuous monitoring of several different toxic metal ions and efficient multi-ion sensing and removal capabilities with respect to reversibility, longevity, selectivity, and signal stability. Here, we examined the application of the NS sensor for the removal of toxic metals (e.g., lead ions from a physiological system, such as human blood). The findings show that this sensor design has potential for the rapid screening of blood lead levels so that the effects of lead toxicity can be avoided.

  18. Evaluation of the quality of blood components obtained after automated separation of whole blood by a new multiunit processor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerberg, Johan W; Salado-Jimena, Jose A; Löf, Helena;

    2013-01-01

    The Reveos system (Terumo BCT) is a fully automated device able to process four whole blood (WB) units simultaneously into a plasma unit, a red blood cell (RBC) unit, and an interim platelet (PLT) unit (IPU). Multiple IPUs can be pooled to form a transfusable PLT product. The aim of our study was...

  19. Facile synthesis of copper(II)-decorated magnetic particles for selective removal of hemoglobin from blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chun; Ma, Xiangdong; Yao, Xin; Jia, Li

    2015-12-11

    In this report, the Cu(2+)-immobilized magnetic particles were prepared by a facile route and they were used as adsorbents for removal of high abundance of hemoglobin in blood based on immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid modified magnetic particles (EDTA-Fe3O4) were first synthesized through a one-pot solvothermal method and then charged with copper ions. The as-prepared Cu(2+)-EDTA-Fe3O4 particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry and zeta potential. Factors affecting the adsorption of bovine hemoglobin on Cu(2+)-EDTA-Fe3O4 particles (including contact time, solution pH, ionic strength and initial concentration of protein) were investigated. The adsorption process followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the adsorption equilibrium could be achieved in 60min. The adsorption isotherm data could be well described by a Langmuir model and the maximum adsorption capacity was 1250mgg(-1). The as-prepared particles showed high efficiency and excellent selectivity for removal of hemoglobin from bovine and human blood. The removal process integrated the selectivity of immobilized metal affinity chromatography and the convenience of magnetic separation. The results demonstrated that Cu(2+)-EDTA-Fe3O4 particles had potential application in removal of abundant histidine-rich proteins in biomedical diagnosis analysis.

  20. Bacterial histo-blood group antigens contributing to genotype-dependent removal of human noroviruses with a microfiltration membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasiri, Mohan; Hashiba, Satoshi; Miura, Takayuki; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nakagomi, Osamu; Ishii, Satoshi; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrated the genotype-dependent removal of human norovirus particles with a microfiltration (MF) membrane in the presence of bacteria bearing histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). Three genotypes (GII.3, GII.4, and GII.6) of norovirus-like particles (NoVLPs) were mixed with three bacterial strains (Enterobacter sp. SENG-6, Escherichia coli O86:K61:B7, and Staphylococcus epidermidis), respectively, and the mixture was filtered with an MF membrane having a nominal pore size of 0.45 μm. All NoVLP genotypes were rejected by the MF membrane in the presence of Enterobacter sp. SENG-6, which excreted HBGAs as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). This MF membrane removal of NoVLPs was not significant when EPS was removed from cells of Enterobacter sp. SENG-6. GII.6 NoVLP was not rejected with the MF membrane in the presence of E. coli O86:K61:B7, but the removal of EPS of E. coli O86:K61:B7 increased the removal efficiency due to the interaction of NoVLPs with the exposed B-antigen in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of E. coli O86:K61:B7. No MF membrane removal of all three genotypes was observed when S. epidermidis, an HBGA-negative strain, was mixed with NoVLPs. These results demonstrate that the location of HBGAs on bacterial cells is an important factor in determining the genotype-dependent removal efficiency of norovirus particles with the MF membrane. The presence of HBGAs in mixed liquor suspended solids from a membrane bioreactor (MBR) pilot plant was confirmed by immune-transmission electron microscopy, which implies that bacterial HBGAs can contribute to the genotype-dependent removal of human noroviruses with MBR using MF membrane.

  1. Analysis of Removal Alternatives for the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, M.B. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1996-08-01

    This engineering study was developed to evaluate different options for decommissioning of the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) at the Savannah River Site. This document will be placed in the DOE-SRS Area reading rooms for a period of 30 days in order to obtain public input to plans for the demolition of HWCTR.

  2. Components of Height and Blood Pressure among Ellisras Rural Children: Ellisras Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nthai Ramoshaba

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To date, there has been no study done investigating the relationship between the components of height and blood pressure (BP in rural South African children. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between height, sitting height (SH, leg length (LL, and SH-to-height ratio (SH/H with BP in Ellisras rural children. All children underwent anthropometric and BP measurements using standard procedure. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between height, SH, LL, SH/H, and BP. The regression showed a positive significant (p < 0.001 association between systolic BP (SBP with height and SH (β ranged from 0.127 to 0.134 and 95% CI ranged from 0.082 to 0.415. Diastolic BP (DBP also showed a positive significant (p < 0.001 association with height and SH (β ranged from 0.080 to 0.088 and 95% CI ranged from 0.042 to 0.259. After having been adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and waist circumference, DBP showed a positive significant (p < 0.05 association with height. There was a positive significant association between DBP and SBP together with the components of height amongst Ellisras rural children.

  3. Impact of the amount of working fluid in loop heat pipe to remove waste heat from electronic component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitka Martin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the options on how to remove waste heat from electronic components is using loop heat pipe. The loop heat pipe (LHP is a two-phase device with high effective thermal conductivity that utilizes change phase to transport heat. It was invented in Russia in the early 1980’s. The main parts of LHP are an evaporator, a condenser, a compensation chamber and a vapor and liquid lines. Only the evaporator and part of the compensation chamber are equipped with a wick structure. Inside loop heat pipe is working fluid. As a working fluid can be used distilled water, acetone, ammonia, methanol etc. Amount of filling is important for the operation and performance of LHP. This work deals with the design of loop heat pipe and impact of filling ratio of working fluid to remove waste heat from insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT.

  4. Sparse Component Analysis (SCA) in Random-valued and Salt and Pepper Noise Removal

    CERN Document Server

    Zayyani, Hadi; Babaie-Zadeh, Massoud

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for impulse noise removal from images. It uses the sparsity of images in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain. The zeros in this domain give us the exact mathematical equation to reconstruct the pixels that are corrupted by random-value impulse noises. The proposed method can also detect and correct the corrupted pixels. Moreover, in a simpler case that salt and pepper noise is the brightest and darkest pixels in the image, we propose a simpler version of our method. In addition to the proposed method, we suggest a combination of the traditional median filter method with our method to yield better results when the percentage of the corrupted samples is high.

  5. Analysis of removal alternatives for the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor at the Savannah River Site. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, M.B.

    1997-04-01

    This engineering study evaluates different alternatives for decontamination and decommissioning of the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR). Cooled and moderated with pressurized heavy water, this uranium-fueled nuclear reactor was designed to test fuel assemblies for heavy water power reactors. It was operated for this purpose from march of 1962 until December of 1964. Four alternatives studied in detail include: (1) dismantlement, in which all radioactive and hazardous contaminants would be removed, the containment dome dismantled and the property restored to a condition similar to its original preconstruction state; (2) partial dismantlement and interim safe storage, where radioactive equipment except for the reactor vessel and steam generators would be removed, along with hazardous materials, and the building sealed with remote monitoring equipment in place to permit limited inspections at five-year intervals; (3) conversion for beneficial reuse, in which most radioactive equipment and hazardous materials would be removed and the containment building converted to another use such as a storage facility for radioactive materials, and (4) entombment, which involves removing hazardous materials, filling the below-ground structure with concrete, removing the containment dome and pouring a concrete cap on the tomb. Also considered was safe storage, but this approach, which has, in effect, been followed for the past 30 years, did not warrant detailed evaluation. The four other alternatives were evaluate, taking into account factors such as potential effects on the environment, risks, effectiveness, ease of implementation and cost. The preferred alternative was determined to be dismantlement. This approach is recommended because it ranks highest in the comparative analysis, would serve as the best prototype for the site reactor decommissioning program and would be most compatible with site property reuse plans for the future.

  6. Clinical Observation in 45 Cases of Hemorrhagic Apoplexy of the Acute Stage Treated by Promoting Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国柱

    2003-01-01

    To explore the therapeutic effects of the method of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis on hemorrhagic apoplexy of acute stage, 45 cases were treated by the method and observed for their conscious state and motor function, which were compared with 40 cases treated with regular western drugs. The results showed that the effective rate in the treated group was 82.2% and that in control group 60% with a significant difference (P<0.05) between the two groups. In the treated group, the scores of the conscious state and the motor function after treatment were elevated dramatically (P<0.01), indicating a much better effect in the treated group than in the control group.

  7. Effects of soy components on blood and liver lipids in rats fed high-cholesterol diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Yi Lin; Cheng-Yu Tsai; Shyh-Hsiang Lin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effects of soy protein, isoflavone, and saponin on liver and blood lipid in rats that consumed high-cholesterol diets.METHODS: High-cholesterol diets (1%) with or without soy material were fed to 6-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats for 8 wk. Blood lipids, liver lipids, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) levels were measured. The in vitro bile acid-binding ability of soy materials was analyzed.RESULTS: The results of in vitro studies showed that soy protein isolate had a significantly higher bile acid-binding ability (8.4±0.8%) than soy saponin (3.1±0.7%) and isoflavone (1.3±0.4%, P<0.05). On the other hand, at the end of the experimental period, rats that consumed soy protein diets had lower GOT and GPT levels than rats that consumed casein under high-cholesterol diets.Rats that consumed soy protein also had lower total cholesterol (TC) levels in the liver than those that consumed casein under high-cholesterol diets. Rats that consumed the soy protein diet containing both saponin and isoflavone had lower hepatic TC level than those that consumed the soy protein diet without isoflavone alone.The effect of different types of proteins on triglyceride was not significant.CONCLUSION: Consumption of soy provided benefits to control lipid levels under high-cholesterol dieting conditions in this rat model of hypercholesterolemia. The major component that reduced hepatic TC was not saponin, but possibly isoflavone.

  8. What Happens to Donated Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... week. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  9. Evaluate an impact of incident alpha particle and gamma ray on human blood components: A comparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Asaad H.; Yaba, Sardar P.; Ismail, Haider J. [Medical Physics Research Group, Physics Department, Education College, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan (Iraq)

    2015-07-01

    An impact of alpha and gamma irradiation on human blood components have been evaluated and compared for healthy blood samples (male and females). Irradiation dose and time of irradiation calibrated and considered as a main comparison factors. Density of blood components measured for each in vitro irradiation before and after irradiation for males and females. Survey radiation dosimeter (Inspector Exp) and nuclear track detectors type CR-39 used to evaluate exposure dose rate and incident density of alpha particles, respectively. Experiment results verified that the irradiation of blood makes ionizing of blood components, either alpha or gamma irradiation dose, and the impacts of ionizing radiation were relativity for WBC, RBC, and PLT. Limited irradiation doses of 1-5 μSv/hr considered as a low radiation dose of alpha and gamma radiation sources ({sup 226}Ra, and {sup 137}Cs). Density of alpha particles accumulated on the blood surface was 34 (alpha particle/cm{sup 2}) for selected dose of incident alpha particle. Optimum value of irradiation dose and time of irradiation were 5 μSv/hr and 4 second for males and females. On the other hands, the values of irradiation dose and time of irradiation were 2.1 μSv/hr and 2 second for males and females for gamma irradiation. Thus, present results demonstrated that densities of RBC and WBC cells are capable of inducing reproduction in vitro for both type of irradiation. (authors)

  10. Using CF11 cellulose columns to inexpensively and effectively remove human DNA from Plasmodium falciparum-infected whole blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Meera

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome and transcriptome studies of Plasmodium nucleic acids obtained from parasitized whole blood are greatly improved by depletion of human DNA or enrichment of parasite DNA prior to next-generation sequencing and microarray hybridization. The most effective method currently used is a two-step procedure to deplete leukocytes: centrifugation using density gradient media followed by filtration through expensive, commercially available columns. This method is not easily implemented in field studies that collect hundreds of samples and simultaneously process samples for multiple laboratory analyses. Inexpensive syringes, hand-packed with CF11 cellulose powder, were recently shown to improve ex vivo cultivation of Plasmodium vivax obtained from parasitized whole blood. This study was undertaken to determine whether CF11 columns could be adapted to isolate Plasmodium falciparum DNA from parasitized whole blood and achieve current quantity and purity requirements for Illumina sequencing. Methods The CF11 procedure was compared with the current two-step standard of leukocyte depletion using parasitized red blood cells cultured in vitro and parasitized blood obtained ex vivo from Cambodian patients with malaria. Procedural variations in centrifugation and column size were tested, along with a range of blood volumes and parasite densities. Results CF11 filtration reliably produces 500 nanograms of DNA with less than 50% human DNA contamination, which is comparable to that obtained by the two-step method and falls within the current quality control requirements for Illumina sequencing. In addition, a centrifuge-free version of the CF11 filtration method to isolate P. falciparum DNA at remote and minimally equipped field sites in malaria-endemic areas was validated. Conclusions CF11 filtration is a cost-effective, scalable, one-step approach to remove human DNA from P. falciparum-infected whole blood samples.

  11. Unmasking local activity within local field potentials (LFPs) by removing distal electrical signals using independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Nathan W; Lin, Shih-Chieh

    2016-05-15

    Local field potentials (LFPs) are commonly thought to reflect the aggregate dynamics in local neural circuits around recording electrodes. However, we show that when LFPs are recorded in awake behaving animals against a distal reference on the skull as commonly practiced, LFPs are significantly contaminated by non-local and non-neural sources arising from the reference electrode and from movement-related noise. In a data set with simultaneously recorded LFPs and electroencephalograms (EEGs) across multiple brain regions while rats perform an auditory oddball task, we used independent component analysis (ICA) to identify signals arising from electrical reference and from volume-conducted noise based on their distributed spatial pattern across multiple electrodes and distinct power spectral features. These sources of distal electrical signals collectively accounted for 23-77% of total variance in unprocessed LFPs, as well as most of the gamma oscillation responses to the target stimulus in EEGs. Gamma oscillation power was concentrated in volume-conducted noise and was tightly coupled with the onset of licking behavior, suggesting a likely origin of muscle activity associated with body movement or orofacial movement. The removal of distal signal contamination also selectively reduced correlations of LFP/EEG signals between distant brain regions but not within the same region. Finally, the removal of contamination from distal electrical signals preserved an event-related potential (ERP) response to auditory stimuli in the frontal cortex and also increased the coupling between the frontal ERP amplitude and neuronal activity in the basal forebrain, supporting the conclusion that removing distal electrical signals unmasked local activity within LFPs. Together, these results highlight the significant contamination of LFPs by distal electrical signals and caution against the straightforward interpretation of unprocessed LFPs. Our results provide a principled approach to

  12. Nutritional interventions and blood pressure : role of specific micronutrients and other food components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierlo, van L.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Elevated blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Modest reductions in blood pressure at the population level, as can be achieved by dietary and lifestyle changes, have a large impact on the burden of CVD. Blood pressure is regulated by several physio

  13. Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Tot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A unique case of metaplastic breast carcinoma with an epithelial component showing tumoral necrosis and neuroectodermal stromal component is described. The tumor grew rapidly and measured 9 cm at the time of diagnosis. No lymph node metastases were present. The disease progressed rapidly and the patient died two years after the diagnosis from a hemorrhage caused by brain metastases. The morphology and phenotype of the tumor are described in detail and the differential diagnostic options are discussed.

  14. 77 FR 59000 - Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of... components intended for transfusion, including recommendations for validation and quality control monitoring... intended for transfusion, including recommendations for validation and quality control monitoring of...

  15. Quantitative assessment of oscillatory components in blood circulation: classification of the effect of aging, diabetes, and acute myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernjak, Alan; Stefanovska, Aneta; Urbancic-Rovan, Vilma; Azman-Juvan, Katja

    2005-04-01

    The human cardiovascular system is a complex system with the pumping activity of the heart as the main generator of oscillations. Besides the heartbeat there are several other oscillatory components which determine its dynamics. Their nonlinear nature and a weak coupling between them both require special treatment while studying this system. A particular characteristic of the oscillatory components is their frequency fluctuations in time. Consequently, their interactions also fluctuate in time. Therefore the wavelet transform is applied to trace the oscillatory components in time, and specific quantitative measures are introduced to quantify the contribution of each of the oscillatory components involved on the time scale of up to three minutes. Oscillatory components are then analysed from signals obtained by simultaneous measurements of blood flow in the microcirculation, ECG, respiration and blood pressure. Based on quantitative evaluation of the oscillatory components related to (I) the heart beat (0.6-2Hz), (II) respiration (0.145-0.6Hz), (III) intrinsic myogenic activity (0.052-0.145Hz), (IV) sympathetic activity (0.021-0.052Hz), (V, VI) endothelial related activity (0.0095-0.021Hz, 0.005 - 0.0095 Hz), 30-minutes recording taken on 109 healthy subjects, 75 patients with diabetes, and 82 patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were analysed. Classification of the effect of ageing, diabetes and AMI from blood flow signals simultaneously recorded in the skin of four extremities, the heart rate and heart rate variability from R-R intervals will be presented and discussed.

  16. Innovative Strategy in Treating Angina Pectoris with Chinese Patent Medicines by Promoting Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis: Experience from Combination Therapy in Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Moreover, angina pectoris is one of the most important types of CHD. Therefore, prevention and effective treatment of angina pectoris is of utmost importance in both China and western countries. However, undesirable effects of antianginal therapy do influence treatment adherence to a certain extent. Therefore, it's not surprising that, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including Chinese medicine (CM), are widely welcomed among patients with CHD, hoping that it might complement western medicine. In our previous studies, blood stasis syndrome (BSS) (Xueyu Zheng) was the main syndrome (Zheng-hou) of angina pectoris. Currently, China Food and Drug Administration authoritatively recommended more than 200 Chinese patent medicines (CPMs) as complementary or adjunctive therapies for symptom management and enhancing quality of life along with mainstream care on angina pectoris management in mainland China. This paper reviewed 4 kinds of most frequently-used CPMs by promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis in the treatment of angina pectoris. It aims to evaluate the current evidence of CPMs in combination therapy for angina pectoris. This review indicated that CPMs as adjunctive treatment to routine antianginal therapy play an active role in reducing the incidence of primary endpoint events, decreasing anginal attack rate, and improving electrocardiogram. Additionally, CPMs have been proven relatively safe. Further rigorously designed clinical trials should be conducted to confirm the results.

  17. Hemostatic, milk clotting and blood stain removal potential of cysteine proteases from Calotropis gigantea (L. R. Br. Latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omana Sukumaran Bindhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Plant latex is a natural source of biologically active compounds and several hydrolytic enzymes responsible for their diverse health benefits. Recent past has witnessed substantial progress in understanding their supplementary industrial and pharmaceutical utility. Calotropis gigantea is one of the important latex producing plants belonging to asclepediaceae family with wide ethnopharmacological applications and is rich in proteolytic enzymes. Present study investigates hemostatic, milk clotting and blood stain removal potential of C. gigantea latex proteases. Materials and Methods: The protease activity of crude enzyme (CE, obtained by centrifugation followed by ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis, was assayed using casein as the substrate. Effect of pH, temperature and specific inhibitors on protease activity was determined. Native PAGE and in gel protease activity of CE was performed. Hemostatic (Fibrinogen polymerization, fibrinogen agarose plate and blood clot lysis assays, milk clotting and blood stain removal efficacies of CE were determined. Results: CE exhibited high caseinolytic activity. Enzyme activity was optimum at 37-50ºC and pH 8.0. Fibrinogen polymerization assay showed concentration dependent increase in turbidity indicating thrombin like activity which was further confirmed by fibrinogen agarose plate assays. Clot lysis assay indicated 92.41% thrombolysis by CE in 90 min. CE also revealed significantly high ratio of milk clotting to protease activity (Milk Clotting Index, MCI = 827.59 ± 1.52. Complete destaining of blood stained fabric was observed when incubated with 1% detergent incorporated with 0.1mg/ml CE. The study highlights and validates the compound application potential of latex cysteine proteases from C. gigantea.

  18. Dynamic Monitoring on the Bacterial Endotoxin Concentration in Whole Blood and Blood Component%全血及成分血内毒素动态监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍自谦; 刘怡; 王飞; 陈云龙

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过监测全血及成分血的内毒素含量动态变化,探讨内毒素监控的意义,为评估血液安全提供依据,保证安全输血.方法 选择2009年3月至4月本血液中心献血者中,符合国家《献血者健康检查要求》的自愿献血者血液样品300份为研究对象.按血液成分分为3组:全血组(n=50)、悬浮RBC成分血组(n=150)及PLT成分血组(n=100).采用动态浊度法内毒素定量检测技术分别于各组血液保存前期、中期及后期检测各个血液样品内毒素含量,并采用方差分析比较各个检测时间点血样内毒素变化情况.结果 全血保存期前中后期中,内毒素含量在部分时段差异有统计学意义(W=0.860,P<0.05);而PLT悬液、悬浮RBC在3个时间段的内毒素含量差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 对全血及成分血的内毒素含量监测,结果显示血液保存期的内毒素含量稳定与其细菌培养阴性相吻合,表明现行的采供血流程的质量控制是有效的,可有效保障血液的安全.%Objective To explore the importance of dynamic monitoring on the bacterial endotoxin and assess the blood safety to guarantee the safety of blood transfusion,through dynamically monitoring the bacterial endotoxin concentration in whole blood and blood component. Methods From March to April 2009,300 donors' samples,which had met the requirements of donors' health check,were included in this study.According to the blood component,all these samples were performed into three groups:whole blood group (n=50),red blood cells (RBC) suspension group (n=150),platelet (PLT) components group (n=100).Dynamic turbidity in blood which were respectively stored at early stage,metaphase and later stage,were used as the detection quantitative method of bacterial endotoxin.And the results were further analyzed by variance of repeated measurement data. Results There was no difference of the bacterial endotoxin concentration during the preservation in

  19. Effects of broccoli extract on biodistribution and labeling blood components with {sup 99m}Tc-GH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cekic, Betul; Muftuler, Fazilet Zumrut Biber; Kilcar, Ayfer Yurt; Ichedef, Cigdem; Unak, Perihan [Ege University, Izmir (Turkey). Inst. of Nuclear Sciences. Dept. of Nuclear Applications

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: people consume vegetables without the knowledge of the side effects of the biological and chemical contents and interactions between radiopharmaceuticals and herbal extract. To this end, current study is focused on the effects of broccoli extract on biodistribution of radiolabeled glucoheptonate ({sup 99m}Tc-GH) and radiolabeling of blood components. Methods: GH was labeled with {sup 99m}Tc. Quality control studies were done utilizing TLC method. Biodistribution studies were performed on male rats which were treated via gavage with either broccoli extract or SF as control group for 15 days. Blood samples were withdrawn from rats' heart. Radiolabeling of blood constituents performed incubating with GH, SnCl{sub 2} and {sup 99m} Tc. Results: radiochemical yield of {sup 99m}Tc-GH is 98.46{+-}1.48 % (n=8). Biodistribution studies have shown that according to the control, the treated group with broccoli has approximately 10 times less uptake in kidney. The percentage of the radioactivity ratios of the blood components is found to be same in both groups. Conclusions: although there is no considerable effect on the radiolabeling of blood components, there is an outstanding change on the biodistribution studies especially on kidneys. The knowledge of this change on kidney uptake may contribute to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis and/or repetition of the examinations in Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  20. Impact of graphene oxide on the structure and function of important multiple blood components by a dose-dependent pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ru; Yu, Yueping; Shen, Chaoxuan; Jiao, Yanpeng; Zhou, Changren

    2015-06-01

    Graphene and its derivatives have become great concern in biomedical fields. Though many investigations about their toxicity have been reported, systematic investigation on the interaction with multiple blood components is lacking. In this work, we studied the effects of the graphene oxide (GO) on the structure and function of the blood components, especially, on morphology and hemolysis of red blood cells (RBCs), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fibrinogen conformation, complement activation, and blood coagulation function. Scanning electron microscopy observation and hemolysis test results showed that the GO can affect RBC morphology and membrane integrity in a concentration-dependent way. Fluorescence and circular dichroism spectra showed that GO could alter the secondary structures and conformation of BSA and fibrinogen. In addition, the presence of GO could also trigger complement activation by detecting their key biomarker molecules in plasma. In the blood clotting process, the GO showed significant adverse effect on the activated partial thromboplastin time but not on prothrombin time of the platelet-poor plasma. Meanwhile, the GO also caused abnormal thromboelastography parameters of the whole blood coagulation. The results obtained in this study provides good insight into understanding the biomedical application of GO in vivo.

  1. Quantification of Transfusion Recipients at Risk of Receiving Hepatitis B Virus-Contaminated Blood Components: A Korean Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kunsei; Kim, Hyeongsu; Chang, Sounghoon; Hur, Mina; Kim, Vitna; Jeong, Hyoseon; Seo, Dong Hee; Lee, SangWon; Kim, Eun Jung; Shin, Eunyoung; Kim, Young Tack

    2016-09-01

    Although there are lots of studies about the risk for the hepatitis B virus infection such as the residual risk for donated blood, there is no research on the risk of HBV infection, from the viewpoint of recipients in Korea. Using the data about HBsAg status of donated blood in 2008 and 2009, the distribution of blood components from the claim data of health insurance in 2009, the distribution of HBsAg and HBsAb of recipients, and some assumptions, we quantified the number of recipients in Korea that might be expected to receive HBV-contaminated blood components, as a proxy index for HBV infection by transfusion in 2009. Of the 376,211 recipients, the number who might be expected to receive blood components with HBV in 2009 was 23.2 (95 % CI 13.6, 36.8) in the basic model, 43.2 (95 % CI 25.4, 68.7) in extended model I, 55.2 (95 % CI 32.5, 87.7) in extended model II and 101.6 (95 % CI 59.8, 161.4) in extended model III. The number of HBV-positive samples per 100,000 transfused units was 0.6 in the basic model (95 % CI 0.3, 0.9), 1.1 in extended model I (95 % CI 0.6, 1.8), 1.4 in extended model II (95 % CI 0.8, 2.2), and 2.6 in extended model III (95 % CI 1.5, 4.1). This study showed that a few recipients might receive HBV-contaminated blood component by transfusion. These results could be used as a scientific evidence for health policy on HBV transfusion infection.

  2. Correlation Analysis between Complex Relative Permittivity and Biochemical Components for Blood of Dialysis Patients before and after Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Akira; Takata, Kazuyuki; Nagao, Hirotomo; Wang, Jianqing; Fujiwara, Osamu

    We previously measured for healthy subjects and patients who require hemodialysis the complex relative permittivity (εr´-jεr´´) of whole blood, and found that εr´-axis intercept εrt´ of straight line approximation to the Cole-Cole plots at frequencies from 200 MHz to 1GHz is significantly different with a level of less than 1% among its averaged values for healthy subjects and patients before and after dialysis, though any correlations between εrt´ and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine being used as main indices for hemodialysis evaluation have not so far been clarified. In this study, to make correlation analyses between the intercept εrt´ and blood biochemical components for nine patients before and after hemodialysis, we measured six kinds of their blood components including BUN and creatinine, and calculated their Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients for εrt´ along with significant probability P based on a t-test. It should be noted that P is a reference probability to determine whether or not a null hypothesis can be rejected, and that the P value of 0.05 is commonly used as a significance level for statistical test. As a result, we found that a strong correlation with P 0.05 between εrt´ and other blood components including BUN and creatinine. Although albumin is not used as an index for hemodialysis efficiency, it can reflect water amount in blood vessels and liver operation. This finding implies that εrt´ could be used as an index for evaluating blood viscosity and liver function.

  3. Skin and muscle components of forearm blood flow in directly heated resting man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detry, J.-M. R.; Brengelmann, G. L.; Rowell, L. B.; Wyss, C.

    1972-01-01

    Changes in forearm muscle blood flow (FMBF) during direct whole-body heating were measured in 17 normal subjects using three different methods. We conclude that FMBF is not increased by direct whole-body heating. Since renal and splanchnic blood flow fall 30% under these conditions, maximal total skin blood flow in 12 previously studied subjects can be estimated from the rise in cardiac output to be 7.6 L/min (3.0-11.1 L/min).

  4. Using independent component analysis to remove artifacts in visual cortex responses elicited by electrical stimulation of the optic nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yiliang; Cao, Pengjia; Sun, Jingjing; Wang, Jing; Li, Liming; Ren, Qiushi; Chen, Yao; Chai, Xinyu

    2012-04-01

    In visual prosthesis research, electrically evoked potentials (EEPs) can be elicited by one or more biphasic current pulses delivered to the optic nerve (ON) through penetrating electrodes. Multi-channel EEPs recorded from the visual cortex usually contain large stimulus artifacts caused by instantaneous electrotonic current spread through the brain tissue. These stimulus artifacts contaminate the EEP waveform and often make subsequent analysis of the underlying neural responses difficult. This is particularly serious when investigating EEPs in response to electrical stimulation with long duration and multi-pulses. We applied independent component analysis (ICA) to remove these electrical stimulation-induced artifacts during the development of a visual prosthesis. Multi-channel signals were recorded from visual cortices of five rabbits in response to ON electrical stimulation with various stimulus parameters. ON action potentials were then blocked by lidocaine in order to acquire cortical potentials only including stimulus artifacts. Correlation analysis of reconstructed artifacts by ICA and artifacts recorded after blocking the ON indicates successful removal of artifacts from electrical stimulation by the ICA method. This technique has potential applications in studies designed to optimize the electrical stimulation parameters used by visual prostheses.

  5. Molecular biosensing mechanisms in the spleen for the removal of aged and damaged red cells from the blood circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Yoshiaki; Hayashi, Yuko; Shigemasa, Yuki; Abe, Yoko; Ohgushi, Ikumi; Ueno, Eriko; Shimamoto, Fumio

    2010-01-01

    Heinz bodies are intraerythrocytic inclusions of hemichrome formed as a result of hemoglobin (Hb) oxidation. They typically develop in aged red cells. Based on the hypothesis that hemichrome formation is an innate characteristic of physiologically normal Hb molecules, we present an overview of our previous findings regarding the molecular instability of Hb and the formation of hemichrome, as well as recent findings on Heinz body formation within normal human erythrocytes. Human adult Hb (HbO(2) A) prepared from healthy donors showed a tendency to produce hemichrome, even at close to physiological temperature and pH. Recent studies found that the number of Heinz bodies formed in red cells increased with increasing temperature when freshly drawn venous blood from healthy donors was subjected to mild heating above 37 °C. These findings suggest that Hb molecules control the removal of non-functional erythrocytes from the circulation via hemichrome formation and subsequent Heinz body clustering. In this review, we discuss the molecular biosensing mechanisms in the spleen, where hemichrome formation and subsequent Heinz body clustering within erythrocytes play a key role in the removal of aged and damaged red cells from the blood circulation.

  6. Molecular Biosensing Mechanisms in the Spleen for the Removal of Aged and Damaged Red Cells from the Blood Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriko Ueno

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Heinz bodies are intraerythrocytic inclusions of hemichrome formed as a result of hemoglobin (Hb oxidation. They typically develop in aged red cells. Based on the hypothesis that hemichrome formation is an innate characteristic of physiologically normal Hb molecules, we present an overview of our previous findings regarding the molecular instability of Hb and the formation of hemichrome, as well as recent findings on Heinz body formation within normal human erythrocytes. Human adult Hb (HbO2 A prepared from healthy donors showed a tendency to produce hemichrome, even at close to physiological temperature and pH. Recent studies found that the number of Heinz bodies formed in red cells increased with increasing temperature when freshly drawn venous blood from healthy donors was subjected to mild heating above 37 °C. These findings suggest that Hb molecules control the removal of non-functional erythrocytes from the circulation via hemichrome formation and subsequent Heinz body clustering. In this review, we discuss the molecular biosensing mechanisms in the spleen, where hemichrome formation and subsequent Heinz body clustering within erythrocytes play a key role in the removal of aged and damaged red cells from the blood circulation.

  7. Evaluation of shear stress accumulation on blood components in normal and dysfunctional bileaflet mechanical heart valves using smoothed particle hydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriari, S; Maleki, H; Hassan, I; Kadem, L

    2012-10-11

    Evaluating shear induced hemodynamic complications is one of the major concerns in design of the mechanical heart valves (MHVs). The monitoring of these events relies on both numerical simulations and experimental measurements. Currently, numerical approaches are mainly based on a combined Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. A more straightforward evaluation can be based on the Lagrangian analysis of the whole blood. As a consequence, Lagrangian meshfree methods are more adapted to such evaluation. In this study, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), a fully meshfree particle method originated to simulate compressible astrophysical flows, is applied to study the flow through a normal and a dysfunctional bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs). The SPH results are compared with the reference data. The accumulation of shear stress patterns on blood components illustrates the important role played by non-physiological flow patterns and mainly vortical structures in this issue. The statistical distribution of particles with respect to shear stress loading history provides important information regarding the relative number of blood components that can be damaged. This can be used as a measure of the response of blood components to the presence of the valve implant or any implantable medical device. This work presents the first attempt to simulate pulsatile flow through BMHVs using SPH method.

  8. Simulation and experimental determination of the online separation of blood components with the help of microfluidic cascading spirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Lisa; Dutz, Silvio; Schneider, Thomas; Odenbach, Stefan; Häfeli, Urs O

    2015-07-01

    Microfluidic spirals were used to successfully separate rare solid components from unpretreated human whole blood samples. The measured separation ratio of the spirals is the factor by which the concentration of the rare component is increased due to the Dean effect present in a flow profile in a curved duct. Different rates of dilution of the blood samples with a phosphate-buffered solution were investigated. The diameters of the spherical particles to separate ranged from 2 μm to 18 μm. It was found that diluting the blood to 20% is optimal leading to a separation ratio up to 1.97. Using two spirals continuously placed in a row led to an increase in separation efficacy in samples consisting of phosphate-buffered solution only from 1.86 to 3.79. Numerical investigations were carried out to display the flow profiles of Newtonian water samples and the shear-thinning blood samples in the cross-section of the experimentally handled channels. A macroscopic difference in velocity between the two rheologically different fluids could not be found. The macroscopic Dean flow is equally present and useful to help particles migrate to certain equilibrium positions in blood as well as lower viscous Newtonian fluids. The investigations highlight the potential for using highly concentrated, very heterogeneous, and non-Newtonian fluidic systems in known microsystems for screening applications.

  9. Reactivity and Speciation of Anti-Diabetic Vanadium Complexes in Whole Blood and Its Components: The Important Role of Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, Aviva; McLeod, Andrew I; Gasparini, Sylvia J; Nguyen, Annie; De Silva, W G Manori; Aitken, Jade B; Harris, Hugh H; Glover, Chris; Johannessen, Bernt; Lay, Peter A

    2015-08-17

    Reactions with blood components are crucial for controlling the antidiabetic, anticancer, and other biological activities of V(V) and V(IV) complexes. Despite extensive studies of V(V) and V(IV) reactions with the major blood proteins (albumin and transferrin), reactions with whole blood and red blood cells (RBC) have been studied rarely. A detailed speciation study of Na3[V(V)O4] (A), K4[V(IV)2O2(citr)2]·6H2O (B; citr = citrato(4-)); [V(IV)O(ma)2] (C; ma = maltolato(-)), and (NH4)[V(V)(O)2(dipic)] (D; dipic = pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylato(2-)) in whole rat blood, freshly isolated rat plasma, and commercial bovine serum using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy is reported. The latter two compounds are potential oral antidiabetic drugs, and the former two are likely to represent their typical decomposition products in gastrointestinal media. XANES spectral speciation was performed by principal component analysis and multiple linear regression techniques, and the distribution of V between RBC and plasma fractions was measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy. Reactions of A, C, or D with whole blood (1.0 mM V, 1-6 h at 310 K) led to accumulation of ∼50% of total V in the RBC fraction (∼10% in the case of B), which indicated that RBC act as V carriers to peripheral organs. The spectra of V products in RBC were independent of the initial V complex, and were best fitted by a combination of V(IV)-carbohydrate (2-hydroxyacid moieties) and/or citrate (65-85%) and V(V)-protein (15-35%) models. The presence of RBC created a more reducing environment in the plasma fraction of whole blood compared with those in isolated plasma or serum, as shown by the differences in distribution of V(IV) and V(V) species in the reaction products of A-D in these media. At physiologically relevant V concentrations (blood plasma. The results reported herein have broad implications for the roles of RBC in the transport and speciation of metal pro

  10. Use of statistical process control in the production of blood components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, K; Quere, S; Winkel, P

    2008-01-01

    Introduction of statistical process control in the setting of a small blood centre was tested, both on the regular red blood cell production and specifically to test if a difference was seen in the quality of the platelets produced, when a change was made from a relatively large inexperienced...... by an experienced staff with four technologists. We applied statistical process control to examine if time series of quality control values were in statistical control. Leucocyte count in red blood cells was out of statistical control. Platelet concentration and volume of the platelets produced by the occasional...

  11. Components of the complete blood count as risk predictors for coronary heart disease: in-depth review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjid, Mohammad; Fatemi, Omid

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease, and several inflammatory biomarkers, such as C-reactive protein, have been used to predict the risk of coronary heart disease. High white blood cell count is a strong and independent predictor of coronary risk in patients of both sexes, with and without coronary heart disease. A high number of white blood cells and their subtypes (for example, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and eosinophils) are associated with the presence of coronary heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, and stroke. The coronary heart disease risk ratios associated with a high white blood cell count are comparable to those of other inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein. In addition, other components of the complete blood count, such as hematocrit and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, also are associated with coronary heart disease, and the combination of the complete blood count with the white blood cell count can improve our ability to predict coronary heart disease risk. These tests are inexpensive, widely available, and easy to order and interpret. They merit further research.

  12. The Effect of Ethanol Intoxication on the Spectral Characteristics for Blood Components of White Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Korobova O.; Dudok T.; Trach I.; Moroz O.; Vlokh I.; Vlokh R.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to studying, with the aid of different organic dyes, the transmittance spectra of hemoglobin and immunoglobulin G extracted from the blood of laboratory rats, which have been chronically intoxicated with ethanol. The differences in the spectra are detected, when compare with those for the control group. It is shown that the presence of ethanol in blood probably leads to uncoiling partially the hemoglobin molecules. The essential difference is also found in the tra...

  13. Detection and identification of microparticles/nanoparticles and blood components using optical resonance of whispering-gallery modes in microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcherniavskaia, E. A.; Saetchnikov, V. A.

    2010-11-01

    We present experimental data on the dependence of optical resonance spectra of whispering-gallery modes in dielectric microspheres on the constituent composition of solutions modeling blood plasma and also containing disease indicators and virus ghosts. We observe substantial changes in the optical resonance spectra of whispering-gallery modes, associated both with a change in the macroscopic parameters of the microsphere environment and with possible interaction between the microsphere surface and components of the solution.

  14. Blood Components Prevent Sulfide Poisoning of Respiration of the Hydrothermal Vent Tube Worm Riftia pachyptila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mar A.; Somero, George N.

    1983-01-01

    Respiration of plume tissue of the hydrothermal vent tube worm Riftia pachyptila is insensitive to sulfide poisoning in contrast to tissues of animals that do not inhabit vents. Permeability barriers may not be responsible for this insensitivity since plume homogenates are also resistant to sulfide poisoning. Cytochrome c oxidase of plume, however, is strongly inhibited by sulfide at concentrations less than 10 μ M. Factors present in blood, but not in cytosol, prevent sulfide from inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase. Avoidance of sulfide poisoning of respiration in Riftia pachyptila thus appears to involve a blood-borne factor having a higher sulfide affinity than that of cytochrome c oxidase, with the result that appreciable amounts of free sulfide are prevented from accumulating in the blood and entering the intracellular compartment.

  15. Improving quality of components and protein preparations of blood plasma by introduction of quality management according to the principles of GMP and ISO 9001 in the blood service institutions with benchmarking effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubchack V.V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of harmonious introduc¬tion of the new standards of quality management in the institutions of blood service were considered. It was proved that it does not contradict to current legislation and significantly increases pathogenic security of blood components and blood products.

  16. Raising the standard: changes to the Australian Code of Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) for human blood and blood components, human tissues and human cellular therapy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Craig; Velickovic, Zlatibor; Brown, Ross; Larsen, Stephen; Macpherson, Janet L; Gibson, John; Rasko, John E J

    2014-04-01

    In Australia, manufacture of blood, tissues and biologicals must comply with the federal laws and meet the requirements of the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) Manufacturing Principles as outlined in the current Code of Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP). The Therapeutic Goods Order (TGO) No. 88 was announced concurrently with the new cGMP, as a new standard for therapeutic goods. This order constitutes a minimum standard for human blood, tissues and cellular therapeutic goods aimed at minimising the risk of infectious disease transmission. The order sets out specific requirements relating to donor selection, donor testing and minimisation of infectious disease transmission from collection and manufacture of these products. The Therapeutic Goods Manufacturing Principles Determination No. 1 of 2013 references the human blood and blood components, human tissues and human cellular therapy products 2013 (2013 cGMP). The name change for the 2013 cGMP has allowed a broadening of the scope of products to include human cellular therapy products. It is difficult to directly compare versions of the code as deletion of some clauses has not changed the requirements to be met, as they are found elsewhere amongst the various guidelines provided. Many sections that were specific for blood and blood components are now less prescriptive and apply to a wider range of cellular therapies, but the general overall intent remains the same. Use of 'should' throughout the document instead of 'must' allows flexibility for alternative processes, but these systems will still require justification by relevant logical argument and validation data to be acceptable to TGA. The cGMP has seemingly evolved so that specific issues identified at audit over the last decade have now been formalised in the new version. There is a notable risk management approach applied to most areas that refer to process justification and decision making. These requirements commenced on 31 May 2013 and a 12 month

  17. Process Improvement by Eliminating Mixing of Whole Blood Units after an Overnight Hold Prior to Component Production Using the Buffy Coat Method

    OpenAIRE

    Cherie Mastronardi; Peter Schubert; Elena Levin; Varsha Bhakta; Qi-Long Yi; Adele Hansen; Tamiko Stewart; Craig Jenkins; Wanda Lefresne; William Sheffield; Acker, Jason P.

    2013-01-01

    The elimination of a thorough manual mixing of whole blood (WB) which takes place following the overnight hold, but before the first centrifugation step, during buffy coat component production at Canadian Blood Services (CBS) was investigated. WB was pooled after donation and split. Pairs of platelet, red blood cell (RBC), and plasma components were produced, with half using the standard method and half using a method in which the mixing step was eliminated. Quality assessments included yiel...

  18. 冠心巴布膏活血化瘀作用研究%Study of Promoting Blood Circulation for Removing Blood Stasis by Guanxin Cataplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岚; 杜茂波; 刘淑芝; 梁日欣; 王彦礼; 杨伟鹏; 王怡薇; 殷小杰; 杨庆

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨冠心巴布膏(冠心膏)的活血化瘀作用,为其临床应用提供实验依据.方法:采用大鼠sc肾上腺素加冰浴的血瘀证模型,观察冠心膏高、中、低3个剂量(含生药10.0,5.0,2.5 g·kg-1)外用涂抹给药5d对模型动物全血黏度、血浆黏度、纤维蛋白原含量、红细胞压积、血小板聚集的影响.采用iv脑垂体后叶素(0.5 U·kg-1)造成大鼠急性心肌缺血模型,观察冠心膏(剂量同前)外用涂抹给药7d对模型动物心律失常的发生时间、持续时间及室性心律失常发生率的影响.结果:冠心膏高剂量能降低血浆黏度[由(1.101±0.064) mPa·s降至(1.039±0.025) mPa·s]、血小板聚集率[由(54.92±6.53)%降至(49.05±4.15)%]、200 s-1切变率下的全血黏度[由(3.81±0.31) mPa·s降至(3.53±0.27) mPa·s],延迟心律失常的开始时间[由(20.90±7.74)s升至(36.08±16.91)s],并降低心律失常的发生率(由75%降至37.5%)及持续时间[由(1133.75±298.71)s降至(881.20±115.48)s].低剂量能降低10 s-1切变率下的全血黏度[由(7.14 ±0.88) mPa·s降至(6.38±0.69) mPa·s]以及200 s -1切变率下的全血黏度[由(3.81±0.31) mPa·s降至(3.48±0.15) mPa·s],中剂量可以降低心律失常发生率(由75%降至37.5%)和持续时间[由(1133.75±298.71)s降至(816.43±243.46)s],与模型组比较均具有显著性差异(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论:冠心巴布膏可以改善血瘀证大鼠的血液流变学指标,防止心律失常的发生,具有一定的活血化瘀作用.%Objective: To investigate the actions of promoting blood circulation for removing blood stasis by Guanxin Cataplasm and provide the experimental basis for clinical applications of the cataplasm. Method; The rat blood stasis syndrome model was induced by subcutaneous injection of adrenalin with ice-bath, the indexes of hemorheology including fibrinogen, whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, packed cell volume and platelet aggregation. The acute rat

  19. Evaluation of low dose ionizing radiation effect on some blood components in animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. El-Shanshoury

    2016-07-01

    The present findings suggest that damage from IR causes a significant reduction in blood cell counts in a dose-dependent manner, which may be considered a potential health risk during exposure to irradiation. Much effort must be done and focused on establishment of protocols for medical management of radiation injuries based on hematopoietic changes for biodosimetry.

  20. Design and Testing of a Minimally Invasive Blood Clot Removal Device ConstructedWith Elements of Superelastic Nitinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Andrew J.

    Many vascular system problems stem from insufficient blood return flow to the heart. One of the main causes is a blockage within veins or arteries known as a blood clot, or thrombus. This can occur after trauma, surgery, or other phenomenological reasons. Each year in the U.S. more than 175,000 bypass procedures and more than 160,000 amputations resulting from peripheral vessel disease are performed. Clinical data indicates that clot removal devices and procedures can reduce the need for an amputation by 80 percent. Percutaneous thrombectomy refers to the removal of thrombus using catheter based non-surgical methods. The ultimate goal of any modality to treat these conditions of the arterial or venous system is to restore patency, quickly, safely, and cost effectively. Catheter directed thrombectomy and thrombolysis is less traumatic and avoids the morbidity and mortality associated with conventional surgical technique. As a result, there has been a push recently for the use of percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT) devices. However, all devices have their own set of drawbacks: distal embolization, vessel wall trauma, hemolysis, to name a few. Ongoing efforts have been made to create a prototype thrombectomy device that uses elements of superelastic nitinol (a type of shape memory alloy), that seeks to address some of the drawbacks of current devices. The prototype was designed and tested in a simulated human circulatory system along side a commercially available device (The DiverCE Clot Extraction Catheter). The test evaluated how well the devices minimized distal embolization of a human blood clot created in vitro.. Results of the testing showed that the prototype device created significantly less embolization when compared to the DiverCE particles greater than 102mum (p = 0.0332). Means were statistically not different for particles between 25mum and 102mum (p = 0.2454), and particles between 5mum and 25mum (p = 0.6524). In addition the prototype was shown

  1. Improved dialytic removal of protein-bound uraemic toxins with use of albumin binding competitors: an in vitro human whole blood study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xia; Thijssen, Stephan; Kotanko, Peter; Ho, Chih-Hu; Henrie, Michael; Stroup, Eric; Handelman, Garry

    2016-03-22

    Protein-bound uraemic toxins (PBUTs) cause various deleterious effects in end-stage kidney disease patients, because their removal by conventional haemodialysis (HD) is severely limited by their low free fraction in plasma. Here we provide an experimental validation of the concept that the HD dialytic removal of PBUTs can be significantly increased by extracorporeal infusion of PBUT binding competitors. The binding properties of indoxyl sulfate (IS), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and hippuric acid (HIPA) and their binding competitors, ibuprofen (IBU), furosemide (FUR) and tryptophan (TRP) were studied in uraemic plasma. The effect of binding competitor infusion on fractional removal of PBUT was then quantified in an ex vivo single-pass HD model using uraemic human whole blood. The infusion of a combination of IBU and FUR increased the fractional removal of IS from 6.4 ± 0.1 to 18.3 ± 0.4%. IAA removal rose from 16.8 ± 0.3 to 34.5 ± 0.7%. TRP infusion increased the removal of IS and IAA to 10.5 ± 0.1% and 27.1 ± 0.3%, respectively. Moderate effects were observed on HIPA removal. Pre-dialyzer infusion of PBUT binding competitors into the blood stream can increase the HD removal of PBUTs. This approach can potentially be applied in current HD settings.

  2. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  3. Measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in forensic blood samples using UV-visible spectrometry and improved principal component regression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, William; Morgan, Stephen L. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States)] Brewer, William E. [Toxicology Department, South Carolina Law Enforcement Division, 4416 Broad River Road, Columbia, South Carolina 29210 (United States)

    1999-02-01

    The forensic determination of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in blood was performed by using an improved principal component regression (PCR) technique applied to UV-visible spectra. Calibration data were decomposed into principal components, and the principal components useful for prediction were selected by their correlation with calibration spectra. Cross-validation of prediction results was done by leverage-corrected residuals. Confidence and prediction intervals derived from classical regression theory were found to be reasonable in size. The results compared favorably to a comparison study conducted by using a CO Oximeter method. In analysis of forensic case study samples, the improved PCR method allowed detection of abnormal samples and successfully predicted percentages of COHb and methemoglobin (MetHb), and provided error estimates for those predictions. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  4. Investigation of endogenous blood lipids components that contribute to matrix effects in dried blood spot samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaiel, Omnia A; Jenkins, Rand G; Karnes, H Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is a rapidly developing approach in the field of biopharmaceutical analysis. DBS sampling enables analysis of small sample volumes with high sensitivity and selectivity while providing a convenient easy to store and ship format. Lipid components that may be extracted during biological sample processing may result in matrix ionization effects and can significantly affect the precision and accuracy of the results. Glycerophosphocholines (GPChos), cholesterols and triacylglycerols (TAG) are the main lipid components that contribute to matrix effects in LC-MS/MS. Various organic solvents such as methanol, acetonitrile, methyl tertiary butyl ether, ethyl ether, dichloromethane and n-hexane were investigated for elution of these lipid components from DBS samples. Methanol extracts demonstrated the highest levels of GPChos whereas ethyl ether and n-hexane extracts contained less than 1.0 % of the GPChos levels in the methanol extracts. Ethyl ether extracts contained the highest levels of cholesterols and TAG in comparison to other investigated organic solvents. Acetonitrile is recommended as an elution solvent due to low lipid recoveries. Matrix effects resulted from different extracted lipid components should be studied and assessed carefully in DBS samples.

  5. Influence of antiplatelet-anticoagulant drugs on the need of blood components transfusion after vesical transurethral resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Julio Virseda-Rodríguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effect of the antithrombotic preventive therapy on haemorrhage keeps uncertain. We investigate the influence of the antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs (AP/AC drugs on the transfusion requirement after vesical transurethral resection (VTUR. We also describe the epidemiology of the blood components transfusion in our department. Materials and Methods: Retrospective observational study of a series of patients needing blood transfusion at the Urology Department between June 2010 and June 2013. Selection of 100 consecutive patients who were transfused after VTUR due to bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC (group A = GA. Control group: 100 consecutive patients who underwent VTUR due to BTCC and were not transfused (group B = GB. Transfusion criteria: Haemoglobin < 8 g/dl + anaemia symptoms. Age, gender, associated AP/AC treatment, secondary diagnoses, toxics, tumour stage and grade were analysed. Results: 212 patients required transfusion of a blood component. 169 were men (79% and 43 women (21%. Median age 77.59 years (SD 9.42, range 50-92. Secondary diagnoses: Diabetes Mellitus 64%, high blood pressure 77%, dyslipidemia 52%. 60% of patients were previously treated with AP/AC drugs. Average Haemoglobin pre-transfusion values: 7.4 g/dl (DE ± 0.7. Average Haemoglobin post-transfusion values: 8.9 g/Dl (DE ± 0.72. Most frequent transfusion indications were bladder cancer (37%, kidney cancer (11%, prostate cancer (8%, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BHP (8%, other urological diagnoses (36%. Intraoperative transfusions indicated by the anaesthesiologist: kidney cancer (33%, BPH (28%. Patients who underwent VTUR due to BTCC were older in GA (77.59 years SD 9.42 than in GB (68.98 years SD 11.78 (p = 0.0001. Similar gender distribution (15 women in GA and 24 in GB. Less patients were asked to keep their treatment with ASA 100mg (AcetylSalicylicAcid in GA (25.64% than in GB (50% (p = 0.0330. More aggressive tumour grade in GA (p = 0.0003 and

  6. An Experimental Study on RBC Count and Serum Potassium Concentration Changes During Compres-sion Transfusion of WBC-removal Whole Blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Lian Cheng; Shi-Fan Han; Ya-Qin Li; Yin-Ping Chu; Yu-Mei Sun; Jin-Feng Guo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe changes in RBC count, changes, RBC morphology, and serum potassium during compressed transfusion of WBC-removal whole blood. Methods: Prepared human WBC-removal whole blood and connected transfusion apparatus with different sizes of intravenous detaining needles ( 18G, 20G, 22G and 24G) . Observed RBC count and serum potassium concentration under different pressures ( 100 mmHg, 200 mmHg, and 300 mmHg) as blood flowed out of the pinhead end of the intravenous detaining needle. Samples ob-tained with the 20G needle were smeared on glass slides, and RBC morphologic changes were ob-served under an oil immersion lens. Results: RBC count and serum potassium changed slightly under different pressures with differ-ent sizes of intravenous detaining needles as blood flowed through the transfusion apparatus. In ad-dition, the observation of blood samples under a common light microscope revealed that coarse-prick, oblong, and spindle cell counts in the visual fields increased gradually as the pressure in-creased. Additionally, a portion of cells had undergone splintering. Conclusions: While applying 18G, 20G, 22G and 24G intravenous detaining needles for blood transfusion under less than 300 mmHg of pressure, no significant RBC count change was found in blood samples in the short term. However, there were significant RBC morphologic changes. The results could offer more basis to ensure the clinical safety of patients undergoing blood transfusion.

  7. Extracellular vesicles in transfusion-related immunomodulation and the role of blood component manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almizraq, Ruqayyah J; Seghatchian, Jerard; Acker, Jason P

    2016-12-01

    There is an emerging interest in the risks posed by the ability of blood transfusion to modulate the immune system of recipients. Observational trials suggest that RBC transfusions may be associated with increased morbidity and mortality, however studies demonstrating the deleterious consequences of transfusion-related immunomodulation have had conflicting results. Efforts to understand the biological mechanisms responsible for TRIM are under way, and are focusing on the role that the extracellular vesicles (EVs) that accumulate in a red cell concentrate (RCC) during storage may play. EVs are heterogeneous submicron-sized vesicles that vary in size, composition and surface biomarkers. The biophysical and biochemical parameters of EVs reflect their mechanism of formation and cell sources. RCCs have been shown to contain a mixed population of EVs and not all EVs in RCC are solely from the constituent RBCs. The concentration of the different EVs (the RBC EVs and the non-RBC EVs), their composition, as well as their effects on the quality of the blood product vary depending on the manufacturing methods used to produce the RCC units. This article will review current evidence of the role of extracellular vesicles in transfusion-related immunomodulation and will discuss the impact that different methods used to collect, manufacture and store blood have on the composition and characteristics of EVs in RCCs.

  8. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts about the blood ... to Top Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells ...

  9. Analyzing the adsorption of blood plasma components by means of fullerene-containing silica gels and NMR spectroscopy in solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenevskaya, E. Yu.; Mokeev, M. V.; Nasonova, K. V.; Podosenova, N. G.; Sharonova, L. V.; Gribanov, A. V.

    2012-10-01

    The results from studying the adsorption of blood plasma components (e.g., protein, triglycerides, cholesterol, and lipoproteins of low and high density) using silica gels modified with fullerene molecules (in the form of C60 or the hydroxylated form of C60(OH) x ) and subjected to hydration (or, alternatively, dehydration) are presented. The conditions for preparing adsorbents that allow us to control the adsorption capacity of silica gel and the selectivity of adsorption toward the components of blood plasma, are revealed. The nature and strength of the interactions of the introduced components (fullerene molecules and water) with functional groups on the silica surface are studied by means of solid state NMR spectroscopy (NMR-SS). Conclusions regarding the nature of the centers that control adsorption are drawn on the basis of NMR-SS spectra in combination with direct measurements of adsorption. The interaction of the oxygen of the hydroxyl group of silica gel with fullerene, leading to the formation of electron-donor complexes of C60-H, C60-OH, or C60-OSi type, is demonstrated by the observed changes in the NMR-SS spectra of silica gels in the presence of fullerene.

  10. Comparison of rice husk- and dairy manure-derived biochars for simultaneously removing heavy metals from aqueous solutions: role of mineral components in biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyun; Cao, Xinde; Zhao, Ling

    2013-08-01

    Rice husk biochar (RHBC) and dairy manure biochar (DMBC) were prepared as sorbents for simultaneously removing Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cd from aqueous solutions. DMBC was more effective in removing all the four heavy metals than RHBC, with the removal capacities of above 486 mmol kg(-1) for each metal, much higher than those of RHBC (65.5-140 mmol kg(-1)). RHBC showed stronger competition for metal removal than DMBC when the four metals coexisted, with Pb the least affected and Cd the most inhibited. When each metal was 1mM in the multi-metal system, the metal removal by RHBC was reduced by 38.4-100%, much higher than that reduced by 2-40.9% for DMBC. The stronger competition for metals removal by RHBC was due to the fact that all metals competed only for the ionized phenolic-O(-) groups, while the removal of metals by DMBC resulted not only from the complexation with ionized hydroxyl-O(-) groups but also from the precipitation of metals with CO3(2-) and/or PO4(3-) that were rich in DMBC, resulting in less competition. The different mechanisms for the removal of metals by the two biochars were evidenced by the instrumental analysis of XRD, FTIR, and SEM as well as chemical modeling of Visual MINTEQ. Results indicated the waste biomass can be converted into value-added biochar as sorbents for removal of heavy metals and the removal ability varies with different biochar feedstock sources where the mineral components such as CO3(2-), PO4(3-) originated from the feedstock play an important role in the sorption nature of biochar.

  11. Efficient removal of platelets from peripheral blood progenitor cell products using a novel micro-chip based acoustophoretic platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Dykes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excessive collection of platelets is an unwanted side effect in current centrifugation-based peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC apheresis. We investigated a novel microchip-based acoustophoresis technique, utilizing ultrasonic standing wave forces for the removal of platelets from PBPC products. By applying an acoustic standing wave field onto a continuously flowing cell suspension in a micro channel, cells can be separated from the surrounding media depending on their physical properties. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: PBPC samples were obtained from patients (n = 15 and healthy donors (n = 6 and sorted on an acoustophoresis-chip. The acoustic force was set to separate leukocytes from platelets into a target fraction and a waste fraction, respectively. The PBPC samples, the target and the waste fractions were analysed for cell recovery, purity and functionality. RESULTS: The median separation efficiency of leukocytes to the target fraction was 98% whereas platelets were effectively depleted by 89%. PBPC samples and corresponding target fractions were similar in the percentage of CD34+ hematopoetic progenitor/stem cells as well as leukocyte/lymphocyte subset distributions. Median viability was 98%, 98% and 97% in the PBPC samples, the target and the waste fractions, respectively. Results from hematopoietic progenitor cell assays indicated a preserved colony-forming ability post-sorting. Evaluation of platelet activation by P-selectin (CD62P expression revealed a significant increase of CD62P+ platelets in the target (19% and waste fractions (20%, respectively, compared to the PBPC input samples (9%. However, activation was lower when compared to stored blood bank platelet concentrates (48%. CONCLUSION: Acoustophoresis can be utilized to efficiently deplete PBPC samples of platelets, whilst preserving the target stem/progenitor cell and leukocyte cell populations, cell viability and progenitor cell colony-forming ability

  12. 儿童围手术期的成分输血%Perioperative transfusion of blood components in pediatric patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向波; 陈祖德; 赵一洋

    2014-01-01

    儿童在围手术期的循环和代谢稳定性较成人更加脆弱,大量输血时尤其需要非常警惕不良后果.在同等失血情况下,年龄因素是儿童输血治疗评估时重要参考指标之一.目前,成分输血法已得到认可,将血液中各种有效成分分离提纯后依据病情需要针对性地输注有效的血液成分,更科学地利用极为有限的血液资源.现就儿童围手术期成分输血中各主要制品输注的输血指征、输血剂量及管理等实际问题进行讨论.%Circulatory state and metabolic homeostasis could be more easily disturbed during perioperative periods for children compared with those of adults especially when receiving massive transfusions.Patient's age would be an important factor for clinical evaluation if certain amount of blood was lost.Component transfusions have now gained wide recognitions.Specific blood components should be considered according to different diseases,which would make transfusion more accurate and blood resources used more efficiently.This article focused on the indications,doses and several specific issues for perioperative component transfusions among pediatric patients.

  13. Bacterial contamination of blood components: Norwegian strategies in identifying donors with higher risk of inducing septic transfusion reactions in recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausen, Sofie Strand; Hervig, Tor; Seghatchian, Jerard; Reikvam, Håkon

    2014-10-01

    Bacterial contamination of blood and its cellular components remains the most common microbiological cause of transfusion associated morbidity and mortality, even in developed countries. This yet unresolved complication is seen more often in platelet transfusions, as platelet concentrates are stored at room temperature, in gas permeable containers with constant agitation, which support bacterial proliferation from relatively low undetectable levels, at the beginning of storage time, to relatively high virulent bacteria titers and endotoxin generation, at the end of shelf life. Accordingly, several combined strategies are introduced and implemented to at least reduce the potential risk of bacterial contaminated products for transfusion. These embody: improved donors arms cleaning; bacterial avoidance by diversion of the first portion of collection; reducing bacterial growth through development of newer storage media for longer platelet shelf life; bacterial load reduction by leucoreduction/viral inactivation, in some countries and eliminating the use potentially contaminated units through screening, through current available testing procedures, though none are not yet fully secure. We have not seen the same reduction in bacterial associated transfusion infections as we have observed for the sharp drop in transfusion associated transmission rates of HIV and hepatitis B and C. This great viral reduction is not only caused by the introduction of newer and more sensitive and specific detection methods for different viruses, but also the identification of donor risk groups through questionnaires and personal interviews. While search for more efficient methods for identifying potential blood donors with asymptomatic bacteremia, as well as a better way for detecting bacteria in stored blood components will be continuing, it is necessary to establish more standardized guidelines for the recognition the adverse reactions in recipients of potentially contaminated units

  14. Blood serum components and serum protein test of Hybro-PG broilers of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRL Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood serum samples of HYBRO PG broilers were analyzed, with 30 samples collected from 21-day-old broilers (G1, 30 from 35-day-old birds (G2, and 30 from 42-day-old birds (G3, with the aim of establishing normal values of some blood serum parameters. The activities of the enzymes gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, serum levels of total calcium, calcium ion, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, chlorides, creatinine, uric acid, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, total and indirect and direct bilirubin, and electrophoretic profile of serum proteins in acrylamide (SDS-PAGE and agarose gel were determined. There was no influence of age on total bilirubin and albumin levels. All the other evaluated parameters presented differences in at least one age group. Protein electrophoretic profile also changed as a function of age. The obtained results can be considered as normal for the studied ages, and therefore be used as references for the interpretation of laboratory exams of broilers of this genetic line in the evaluated ages.

  15. Cardiovascular age of aviation personnel:based on the principal component analysis of heart rate and blood pressure variability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛有国; 王守岩; 张玉海; 王兴邦; 张立藩

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To introduce a method to calculate cardiovascular age, a new, accurate and much simpler index for assessing cardiovascular autonomic regulatory function, based on statistical analysis of heart rate and blood pressure variability (HRV and BPV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) data. Methods: Firstly, HRV and BPV of 89 healthy aviation personnel were analyzed by the conventional autoregressive (AR) spectral analysis and their spontaneous BRS was obtained by the sequence method. Secondly, principal component analysis was conducted over original and derived indices of HRV, BPV and BRS data and the relevant principal components, Pciorig and Pcideri (I=1, 2, 3,...) were obtained. Finally, the equation for calculating cardiovascular age was obtained by multiple regression with the chronological age being assigned as the dependent variable and the principal components significantly related to age as the regressors. Results: The first four principal components of original indices accounted for over 90% of total variance of the indices, so did the first three principal components of derived indices. So, these seven principal components could reflect the information of cardiovascular autonomic regulation which was embodied in the 17 indices of HRV, BPV and BRS exactly with a minimal loss of information. Of the seven principal components, PC2orig, PC4orig and PC2deri were negatively correlated with the chronological age (P<0.05), whereas the PC3orig was positively correlated with the chronological age (P<0.01). The cardiovascular age thus calculated from the regression equation was significantly correlated with the chronological age among the 89 aviation personnel (r=0.73, P<0.01). Conclusion: The cardiovascular age calculated based on a multi-variate analysis of HRV, BPV and BRS could be regarded as a comprehensive indicator reflecting the age dependency of autonomic regulation of cardiovascular system in healthy aviation personnel.

  16. Use of blood components in critically ill patients in the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makroo R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The art of fluid administration and hemodynamic support is one of the most challenging aspects of treating critically ill patients. Transfusions of blood products continue to be an important technique for resuscitating patients in the intensive care settings. Concerns about the rate of inappropriate transfusion exist, particularly given the recognized risks of transfusions and the decreasing availability of donor blood. We investigated the current transfusion practice in the critically ill patients at our hospital. Materials and Methods: A total of 1817 consecutive critically ill patients admitted between January 2006 and December 2006 were included in this retrospective study. The blood request forms of the patients were analyzed, and their pretransfusion investigations, indications for transfusions, etc. were studied. Results: Nine hundred and eleven (50.1% critically ill patients, comprising 71.6% males and 28.4% females, received blood/blood components. About 43.8% patients were administered packed red cells (PRC, 18.27% fresh frozen plasma (FFP and 8.4% transfused platelets. Among those receiving PRC, 31.1% had a pretransfusion Hb below 7.5g%, 34.4% had Hb between 7.5 and 9g%, while 21.4% had Hb above 9g%. Among those receiving FFP, 14.5% had an international normalized ratio INR < 1.5, and 19% had a pretransfusion platelet count above 50,000/cumm. During the study, there were 7% of the patients who received red cells and FFP, 2% of the patients received red cells and platelets, 1% of the patients received platelets and FFP, and 5% of the patients had received all the three components, i.e., red cells, FFP and Platelets. The baseline investigations and/or clinical indications were not mentioned in 13.1% of patients receiving PRC, 57% receiving FFP and 49.7% receiving platelets. Conclusion: About 21.4% of PRC, 14.5% of FFP, and 19% of platelets were inappropriately indicated. Clinicians in our centre were conservative in keeping

  17. The effect of density and inflorescence removing on yield and yield components of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nasrollahzadeh Asl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to assess the effect of florescence removing and plant density on yield of potato as factorial based on the randomized complete block design with two factors and three replications in a farm located in Majid Abad region of Khoy province, Iran during spring of 2014. The first factor was florescence removing at two levels of florescence removing and not removing florescence; second factor included density at 6 levels of 3/5, 4/5, 5/5, 6/5, 7/5 and 8/5 plants per square meter. The obtained results indicated that florescence removing and density had a significant effect on tuber size, tuber weight, number of leaves, number of branches and tuber yield. The tuber yield increased to 3/7 tons per hectares when florescence was removed and the most tuber yield was equal to 39/63 tons per hectares under conditions of density of 6/5 plants per square meter and removed florescence.

  18. Manifestation of the Se, Cd and Mo levels in different components of the peripheral blood of Sprague-Dawley rats poisoned via the respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Fang; Sun, Xuan; Cao, Bing; Wen, Hua; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Duo-Jian; Yan, Lai-Lai; Liu, Ya-Qiong; Lu, Qing-Bin; Wang, Jing-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of exogenous element exposure via the respiratory tract on the Se, Cd and Mo concentrations in different components of the peripheral blood in rats as well as to determine the correlations of the three trace elements concentrations among the components. The Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group and several experimental groups treated with different doses. The rats were exposed to a mixed trace element solution through 10 days of intratracheal instillation. The whole blood of all rats was collected and separated into three parts with Percoll density gradient centrifugation. The Se, Cd and Mo levels in whole blood, plasma, red blood cells (RBCs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The concentrations of the three trace elements increased together with the increase of the given doses (Pcomponents of the peripheral blood (r, 0.806-0.934). The correlation coefficients were higher (0.842-0.962) among the whole blood, plasma and RBCs than between PBMCs and other components, such as Se (0.376-0.529), Cd (0.495-0.604) and, especially, Mo (0.160-0.257). In conclusion, PBMCs might provide information about endogenous factors, and whole blood could more accurately reflect the effects of exogenous factors compared to other blood components.

  19. A novel method for sample preparation of fresh lung cancer tissue for proteomics analysis by tumor cell enrichment and removal of blood contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orre Lotta

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In-depth proteomics analyses of tumors are frequently biased by the presence of blood components and stromal contamination, which leads to large experimental variation and decreases the proteome coverage. We have established a reproducible method to prepare freshly collected lung tumors for proteomics analysis, aiming at tumor cell enrichment and reduction of plasma protein contamination. We obtained enriched tumor-cell suspensions (ETS from six lung cancer cases (two adenocarcinomas, two squamous-cell carcinomas, two large-cell carcinomas and from two normal lung samples. The cell content of resulting ETS was evaluated with immunocytological stainings and compared with the histologic pattern of the original specimens. By means of a quantitative mass spectrometry-based method we evaluated the reproducibility of the sample preparation protocol and we assessed the proteome coverage by comparing lysates from ETS samples with the direct lysate of corresponding fresh-frozen samples. Results Cytological analyses on cytospin specimens showed that the percentage of tumoral cells in the ETS samples ranged from 20% to 70%. In the normal lung samples the percentage of epithelial cells was less then 10%. The reproducibility of the sample preparation protocol was very good, with coefficient of variation at the peptide level and at the protein level of 13% and 7%, respectively. Proteomics analysis led to the identification of a significantly higher number of proteins in the ETS samples than in the FF samples (244 vs 109, respectively. Albumin and hemoglobin were among the top 5 most abundant proteins identified in the FF samples, showing a high contamination with blood and plasma proteins, whereas ubiquitin and the mitochondrial ATP synthase 5A1 where among the top 5 most abundant proteins in the ETS samples. Conclusion The method is feasible and reproducible. We could obtain a fair enrichment of cells but the major benefit of the method

  20. Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma complicated by Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon: ultrastructural observation and immunohistochemistry staining reveal the trapping of blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Si-Ming; Hong, Zhi-Jian; Chen, Hai-Ni; Shen, Wei-Min; Zhou, Xiao-Jun

    2013-12-01

    Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE), a borderline tumor of endothelial origin, is associated with Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon, characterized by profound thrombocytopenia and consumptive coagulopathy resulting from the localized intravascular coagulation (LIC) in the tumor. Previous studies have suggested that the trapping of blood components, including platelets, may underlie the LIC in KHE. However, more evidence is needed to support this hypothesis. In this study, one case of a Chinese infant with a KHE in the left arm was complicated by Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon. The tumor was partially resected and the sample was used for ultrastructural observation and immunohistochemistry staining of Glut-1. Ultrastructural observation found the trapping of erythrocytes, platelets, macrophages, and lymphocytes in the slit-like channels of the tumor nodules, and phagocytic vesicles in the cytoplasm of neoplastic cells. Immunohistochemistry staining further showed numerous Glut-1(+) erythrocytes in the channels. In conclusion, our results provided compelling morphological evidence of the trapping of blood components in KHE, which may interpret the LIC in the tumor and subsequent consumptive coagulopathy.

  1. Interactions of PLGA nanoparticles with blood components: protein adsorption, coagulation, activation of the complement system and hemolysis studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaguera, Cristina; Calderó, Gabriela; Mitjans, Montserrat; Vinardell, Maria Pilar; Solans, Conxita; Vauthier, Christine

    2015-03-01

    The intravenous administration of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles has been widely reported as a promising alternative for delivery of drugs to specific cells. However, studies on their interaction with diverse blood components using different techniques are still lacking. Therefore, in the present work, the interaction of PLGA nanoparticles with blood components was described using different complementary techniques. The influence of different encapsulated compounds/functionalizing agents on these interactions was also reported. It is worth noting that all these techniques can be simply performed, without the need for highly sophisticated apparatus or skills. Moreover, their transference to industries and application of quality control could be easily performed. Serum albumin was adsorbed onto all types of tested nanoparticles. The saturation concentration was dependent on the nanoparticle size. In contrast, fibrinogen aggregation was dependent on nanoparticle surface charge. The complement activation was also influenced by the nanoparticle functionalization; the presence of a functionalizing agent increased complement activation, while the addition of an encapsulated compound only caused a slight increase. None of the nanoparticles influenced the coagulation cascade at low concentrations. However, at high concentrations, cationized nanoparticles did activate the coagulation cascade. Interactions of nanoparticles with erythrocytes did not reveal any hemolysis. Interactions of PLGA nanoparticles with blood proteins depended both on the nanoparticle properties and the protein studied. Independent of their loading/surface functionalization, PLGA nanoparticles did not influence the coagulation cascade and did not induce hemolysis of erythrocytes; they could be defined as safe concerning induction of embolization and cell lysis.The intravenous administration of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles has been widely reported as a promising

  2. Analysis of component blood transfusion in certain hospital from 2008 to 2010%某院2008~2010年成分输血分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董立君

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析该院过去三年成分输血情况,指导临床科学、合理用血.方法 对该院2008~2010年用血量进行统计,计算出各种成分输血率.结果 成分输血使用量逐年增加,以红细胞、血浆为主,血浆的应用比例逐年下降.结论 该院成分输血率已达较高水平(≥99.9%),但是临床血浆的滥用情况应该得到进一步遏制,仍需继续加强对成分输血的监督管理,强调血小板和冷沉淀的配合使用,以便节约有限的血液资源.%Objective To analyze the state of component blood transfusion in certain hospital during 2008 and 2010 and to guide reasonable and effective blood transfusion. Methods The mount of blood for clinical transfusion and the rate of different component blood transfusion were statistically analyzed. Results The mount of component blood transfusion increased gradually. Red blood cells and plasma transfusion were the most common blood component for clinical transfusion, but the proportion of plasma decreased gradually. Conclusion The percentage of component blood transfusion had attained a relatively advanced level (≥99. 9%), but the abuse of plasma should be reduced further. More effective managing and supervising of component blood transfusion should be strengthened, combined usage of platelet and cryoprecipitate should be further utilized to save the limited blood resources.

  3. Saponin, an inhibitory agent of carbon dioxide production by white cells : its use in the microbiologic examination of blood components in an automated bacterial culture system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorne, H; van der Tuuk Adriani, WPA; van de Ven, LI; Bosch, EH; de Natris, T; Sibinga, CTS

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood components with a white cell count >100 x 10(9) per L may cause false-positive results when the BacT/Alert system is used for the microbiologic examination. The effects of different concentrations of saponin on bacterial growth and on carbon dioxide production by blood fractions wi

  4. NOTE: Wavelet analysis of blood flow dynamics: effect on the individual oscillatory components of iontophoresis with pharmacologically neutral electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veber, Mitja; Bandrivskyy, Andriy; Clarkson, Peter B. M.; McClintock, Peter V. E.; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2004-04-01

    Iontophoresis currents are used in the transcutaneous delivery of vasoactive substances for noninvasive assessment of skin vascular properties. The blood flow rate can be recorded by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), its average value and the amplitudes of its oscillatory components being used to evaluate the effect of the drugs. Because non-drug-specific, current-induced, vasodilation could confound the interpretation of the response, we have investigated the effect of currents of both polarities on the spectral components of the LDF signal in the absence of vasoactive substances. It was recorded for healthy volunteers with both high conductance (5 mol/l NaCl) and low conductance (deionized water) electrolytes. The oscillatory components were analysed by wavelet transform within 0.0095 1.6 Hz, divided into five sub-intervals. Only cathodal iontophoresis with deionized water increased the oscillatory energy and amplitude. It did so at all frequencies, but none of the sub-intervals associated with vasodilation (0.0095 0.145 Hz) was selectively affected compared to the others.

  5. Wavelet analysis of blood flow dynamics: effect on the individual oscillatory components of iontophoresis with pharmacologically neutral electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veber, Mitja [Group of Nonlinear Dynamics and Synergetics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Trzaska 25, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Bandrivskyy, Andriy [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Clarkson, Peter B M [Cardiology Department, Royal Lancaster Infirmary, Ashton Road, Lancaster LA1 4RP (United Kingdom); McClintock, Peter V E [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Stefanovska, Aneta [Group of Nonlinear Dynamics and Synergetics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Trzaska 25, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2004-04-21

    Iontophoresis currents are used in the transcutaneous delivery of vasoactive substances for noninvasive assessment of skin vascular properties. The blood flow rate can be recorded by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), its average value and the amplitudes of its oscillatory components being used to evaluate the effect of the drugs. Because non-drug-specific, current-induced, vasodilation could confound the interpretation of the response, we have investigated the effect of currents of both polarities on the spectral components of the LDF signal in the absence of vasoactive substances. It was recorded for healthy volunteers with both high conductance (5 mol/l NaCl) and low conductance (deionized water) electrolytes. The oscillatory components were analysed by wavelet transform within 0.0095-1.6 Hz, divided into five sub-intervals. Only cathodal iontophoresis with deionized water increased the oscillatory energy and amplitude. It did so at all frequencies, but none of the sub-intervals associated with vasodilation (0.0095-0.145 Hz) was selectively affected compared to the others. (note)

  6. 试论慢性肺心病以瘀为本%A Discussion on the Treatment of Chronic Cor Pulmonale by Dealing with Removing Blood Stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤伟

    2001-01-01

    Cor pulmonale is one of intractable dis eases in clinical practice. The author considered that the pathogennic factor of the disease is a complication of phlegm, blood stasis and debility, with blood stasis as the chief pathogenesis. Its basic treatment should be activat ing blood circulation and removing blood stasis, associat ed with expelling sputum, or invigorating debility or clearing heat.%肺心病是临床常见的难治证之一。认为在肺心病痰瘀虚交互错杂的基础上,以“瘀”为最基本和最主要的病机,治疗上以活血化瘀为基础,或佐豁痰、补虚、清热等法。

  7. Blood component use in a sub-Saharan African country: results of a 4-year evaluation of diagnoses associated with transfusion orders in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, John P; Wilkinson, Robert; Liu, Yang; von Finckenstein, Bjorn; Smit Sibinga, Cees Th; Lowrance, David W; Marfin, Anthony A; Postma, Maarten J; Mataranyika, Mary; Basavaraju, Sridhar V

    2015-01-01

    National blood use patterns in sub-Saharan Africa are poorly described. Although malaria and maternal hemorrhage remain important drivers of blood demand across Africa, economic growth and changes in malaria, HIV/AIDS, and noncommunicable disease epidemiology may contribute to changes in blood demand. We evaluated indications for blood use in Namibia, a country in southern Africa, using a nationally representative sample and discuss implications for the region. Clinical and demographic data related to the issuance of blood component units in Namibia were reviewed for a 4-year period (August 1, 2007-July 31, 2011). Variables included blood component type, recipient age and sex, and diagnosis. Diagnoses reported by clinicians were reclassified into International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision categories. Multiple imputation methods were used to complete a data set missing age, sex or diagnosis data. Descriptive analyses were conducted to describe indications for transfusions and use of red blood cells (RBCs), platelets, and plasma. A total of 39,313 records accounting for 91,207 blood component units were analyzed. The median age of Namibian transfusion recipients was 45 years (SD, ±19). A total of 78,660 RBC units were issued in Namibia during the study period. Red blood cells transfused for "unspecified anemia" accounted for the single largest category of blood issued (24,798 units). Of the overall total, 38.9% were for diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs (D50-D89). Infectious disease (A00-B99), pregnancy (O00-O99), and gastrointestinal (K20-K93) accounted for 14.8%, 11.1%, and 6.1% of RBC units issued, respectively. Although a specific diagnosis of malaria accounted for only 2.7% of pediatric transfusions, an unknown number of additional transfusions for malaria may have been categorized by requesting physicians as unspecified anemia and counted under diseases of blood forming organs. During the study period, 9751 units of fresh

  8. Analysis of the clinical application of irradiated blood components%分析辐照血液成分的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁晶; 张跃进

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the blood center blood irradiation of various blood components in clinical application. Methods a retrospective 2014 (control group) and 2015 (experimental group) two years the blood center of irradiated blood for blood component used in clinical treatment, irradiation of blood components in clinical usage and compare whether there are differences in different years.Results in the experimental group, the 2015 group compared to the control group in the year 2014 group, the amount of irradiated blood accounted for the total blood volume increased significantly, also irradiated blood components such as red blood cell components, platelet components more application in clinical, the difference is statistically significant (P<0.05Conclusion the application of irradiated blood components in clinical, does not affect the quality of blood transfusion and reduce the incidence of transfusion associated graft versus host disease, and can be widely used in clinic.%目的:探究本血液中心辐照血的血液各种成分在临床的应用情况。方法回顾2014年9月至次年三月(对照组)与2015年4月至今(实验组)两年本血液中心辐照血的血液成分应用于临床治疗的情况,研究辐照血液成分在临床的使用率并比较不同年限是否有差异。结果实验组即2015年组相比于对照组即2014年组,辐照血用量占总用血量明显增多,同时辐照血液成分如红细胞血液成分、血小板成分更多的应用于临床,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论辐照血液成分应用于临床,不影响输血质量的同时减少了输血相关性移植物抗宿主病的发生情况,临床可以广泛应用。

  9. Effect of Blood Component Coatings of Enosseal Implants on Proliferation and Synthetic Activity of Human Osteoblasts and Cytokine Production of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulejova, Hana; Bartova, Jirina; Riedel, Tomas; Pesakova, Vlasta

    2016-01-01

    The study monitored in vitro early response of connective tissue cells and immunocompetent cells to enosseal implant materials coated by different blood components (serum, activated plasma, and plasma/platelets) to evaluate human osteoblast proliferation and synthetic activity and inflammatory response presented as a cytokine profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) under conditions imitating the situation upon implantation. The cells were cultivated on coated Ti-plasma-sprayed (Ti-PS), Ti-etched (Ti-Etch), Ti-hydroxyapatite (Ti-HA), and ZrO2 surfaces. The plasma/platelets coating supported osteoblast proliferation only on osteoconductive Ti-HA and Ti-Etch whereas activated plasma enhanced proliferation on all surfaces. Differentiation (BAP) and IL-8 production remained unchanged or decreased irrespective of the coating and surface; only the serum and plasma/platelets-coated ZrO2 exhibited higher BAP and IL-8 expression. RANKL production increased on serum and activated plasma coatings. PBMCs produced especially cytokines playing role in inflammatory phase of wound healing, that is, IL-6, GRO-α, GRO, ENA-78, IL-8, GM-CSF, EGF, and MCP-1. Cytokine profiles were comparable for all tested surfaces; only ENA-78, IL-8, GM-CSF, and MCP-1 expression depended on materials and coatings. The activated plasma coating led to uniformed surfaces and represented a favorable treatment especially for bioinert Ti-PS and ZrO2 whereas all coatings had no distinctive effect on bioactive Ti-HA and Ti-Etch. PMID:27651560

  10. White Blood Cell Counts as Risk Markers of Developing Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in the Predimed Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babio, Nancy; Ibarrola-Jurado, Núria; Bulló, Mònica; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Wärnberg, Julia; Salaverría, Itziar; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Estruch, Ramón; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Covas, Maria Isabel; Sorli, José Vicente; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Background The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hyperglucemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity, conferring an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell (WBC) count has been proposed as a marker for predicting cardiovascular risk. However, few prospective studies have evaluated the relationship between WBC subtypes and risk of MetS. Methods Participants were recruited from seven PREDIMED study centers. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 4,377) and a prospective assessment (n = 1,637) were performed. Participants with MetS at baseline were excluded from the longitudinal analysis. The median follow-up was 3.9 years. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile and WBC counts were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Participants were categorized by baseline WBC and its subtype count quartiles. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to assess the risk of MetS and its components. Results Of the 4,377 participants, 62.6% had MetS at baseline. Compared to the participants in the lowest baseline sex-adjusted quartile of WBC counts, those in the upper quartile showed an increased risk of having MetS (OR, 2.47; 95%CI, 2.03–2.99; P-trend<0.001). This association was also observed for all WBC subtypes, except for basophils. Compared to participants in the lowest quartile, those in the top quartile of leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte count had an increased risk of MetS incidence. Leukocyte and neutrophil count were found to be strongly associated with the MetS components hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were found to be associated with the incidence of the MetS components low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose. An increase in the total WBC during the follow-up was also associated with an increased risk of MetS. Conclusions Total WBC counts, and some subtypes, were positively

  11. White blood cell counts as risk markers of developing metabolic syndrome and its components in the PREDIMED study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Babio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hyperglucemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity, conferring an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell (WBC count has been proposed as a marker for predicting cardiovascular risk. However, few prospective studies have evaluated the relationship between WBC subtypes and risk of MetS. METHODS: Participants were recruited from seven PREDIMED study centers. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 4,377 and a prospective assessment (n = 1,637 were performed. Participants with MetS at baseline were excluded from the longitudinal analysis. The median follow-up was 3.9 years. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile and WBC counts were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Participants were categorized by baseline WBC and its subtype count quartiles. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to assess the risk of MetS and its components. RESULTS: Of the 4,377 participants, 62.6% had MetS at baseline. Compared to the participants in the lowest baseline sex-adjusted quartile of WBC counts, those in the upper quartile showed an increased risk of having MetS (OR, 2.47; 95%CI, 2.03-2.99; P-trend<0.001. This association was also observed for all WBC subtypes, except for basophils. Compared to participants in the lowest quartile, those in the top quartile of leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte count had an increased risk of MetS incidence. Leukocyte and neutrophil count were found to be strongly associated with the MetS components hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were found to be associated with the incidence of the MetS components low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose. An increase in the total WBC during the follow-up was also associated with an increased risk of MetS. CONCLUSIONS: Total WBC counts, and some subtypes

  12. Protective action of proanthocyanidin fraction from Medemia argun nuts against oxidative/nitrative damages of blood platelet and plasma components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Agnieszka; Hamed, Arafa I; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna; Głowacki, Rafał; Olas, Beata

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative/nitrative stress induced by different factors plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various disorders, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Proanthocyanidins have antioxidative properties and may protect biomolecules (lipids, DNA, and proteins) exposed to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, including peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). The effects of proanthocyanidin fraction from Medemia argun nuts on oxidative/nitrative protein damages (determined by such parameters as level of thiol groups, carbonyl groups, and nitrotyrosine residues) and on the amount of glutathione (as an important component of redox status; using HPLC) in human blood platelets and plasma after treatment with peroxynitrite were studied in vitro. The preincubation of blood platelets and plasma with proanthocyanidin fraction from M. argun nuts (0.5-50 µg/ml) reduced the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine, diminished oxidation of thiol groups, and decreased the level of carbonyl groups in proteins caused by 100 µM peroxynitrite. An action of tested plant fraction and ONOO(-) evoked a significant increase of GSH in platelets and plasma in comparison with platelets and plasma treated with ONOO(-) only. The proanthocyanidin fraction from M. argun nuts can be useful as a protecting factor against oxidative/nitrative stress associated with different diseases (cancer, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases) and proanthocyanidins of M. argun nuts may be promising antioxidants.

  13. Distribution of iodine into blood components of the Sprague-Dawley rat differs with the chemical form administered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrall, K. D.; Bull, R. J.; Sauer, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    It has been reported previously that radioactivity derived from iodine distributes differently in the Sprague-Dawley rat depending on the chemical form administered (Thrall and Bull, 1990). In the present communication we report the differential distribution of radioactivity derived from iodine (I2) and iodide (I-) into blood components. Twice as much radioiodine is in the form of I- in the plasma of animals treated with 125I- compared to 125I2-treated rats. No I2 could be detected in the plasma. With an increase in dose, increasing amounts of radioactivity derived from 125I2-treated animals distribute to whole blood compared to equivalent doses of 125I-, reaching a maxima at a dose of 15.8 mumol I/kg body weight. Most of the radioactivity derived from I2 associates with serum proteins and lipids, in particular with albumin and cholesteryl iodide. These data indicate a differential distribution of radioactivity depending on whether it is administered as iodide or iodine. This is inconsistent with the commonly held view that iodine (I2) is reduced to iodide (I-) before it is absorbed systemically from the gastrointestinal tract.

  14. Evaluation of a biofilter deliberately inoculated with bacteria capable of removing specific kraft pulp mill air emission components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, R.N.; Dombroski, E.C. [Microbiology Research and Development, Vegreville (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    A biofilter inoculated with Thiobacillus thiooxidans was used to treat Kraft pulp mill green liquor clarifier emissions, which typically contain hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S), dimethyl sulphide (DMS), methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl disulphide. Results from lab-scale and demonstration-scale trials indicate that biofilters inoculated with bacteria capable of oxidizing reduced sulphur compounds have been extremely successful in removing relatively high concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Less successful results were observed with respect to the oxidation of DMS, possibly due to this compound having a relatively low solubility in water. Preliminary results from the demonstration-scale biofilter indicate that H{sub 2}S, DMS and other compounds are removed from green liquor emissions. The variable results are primarily due to erratic temperature fluctuations and the presence of alkaline substances in the gas stream.

  15. Effects of dragon's blood resin and its component loureirin B on tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated sodium currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiangming; CHEN Su; YIN Shijin; MEI Zhinan

    2004-01-01

    Using whole-cell patch clamp technique on the membrane of freshly isolated dorsal root ganglion(DRG)neurons,the effects of dragon's blood resin and its important component Ioureirin B on tetrodotoxin-sensitive(TTX-S)voltage-gated sodium currents were observed.The results show that both blood resin and loureirin B could suppress TTX-S voltage-gated sodium currents in a dose-dependent way.The peak current amplitudes and the steady-state activation and inactivation curves are also made to shift by 0.05% blood resin and 0.2 mmol/L loureirin B.These results demonstrate that the effects of blood resin on TTX-S sodium current may contribute to loureirin B in blood resin.Perhaps the analgesic effect of blood resin is caused partly by loureirin B directly interfering with the nociceptive transmission of primary sensory neurons.

  16. 成分输血对急性失血患者酸碱平衡的影响%The acid-base balance influence of blood component transfusion on acute blood loss patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴胜楠; 洪澄英; 温隽珉; 周志强; 赖旭春

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨成分输血对急性失血患者酸碱平衡的影响.方法:对88例急性失血患者进行输血前及输血后定时血气分析监测,根据血气监测结果分析成分输血对酸碱平衡的影响.结果:观察期间14例患者存在其他影响酸碱平衡因素退出.纳入分析的74例中,44例输血前存在不同程度代谢性酸中毒的患者输血后26例酸中毒消失,17例减轻,1例略加重.74例患者中输血后发生输血相关性碱中毒24例,其24 h内新鲜冰冻血浆(FFP)平均用量2 063 ml,明显高于非碱中毒患者.输血相关性碱中毒的病例未使用酸性药物进行治疗,停止输血后13~48 h自动恢复.结论:急性失血患者输血前大部分存在程度不同的代谢性酸中毒,经有效止血、输血后多能缓解.成分输血对急性失血患者酸碱平衡的影响主要表现为代谢性碱中毒,代谢性酸中毒罕见.输血相关性碱中毒一般为自限性,停止输血后可自行恢复.%Objective:To investigate the acid-base balance influence of blood component transfusion on acute blood loss patients. Methods:We detected the blood gas analysis of 88 acute blood loss patients before and after blood component transfusion, to analyze the acid-base balance influence of blood component transfusion according to the blood gas analysis. Results:Fourteen patients were quit for the acid-base balance influence of other factors during the observation, Seventy-four patients were bring into the acid-base balance analysis; Among the forty-four patients with different degree acidosis before, Twenty-six patient's acidosis vanished after blood component transfusion,Seventeen patient's acidosis alleviated af-ter blood componenttransfusion, One patient's acidosis aggravated slightly after blood component transfusion;Twenty-four patients had blood transfusion relevent alkalosis in all seventy-four patients after transfusion, And their average usage amount of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) was 2 063

  17. 人血液及其组分的荧光光谱研究%Study on Fluorescence Spectra of Human Blood and Its Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    降雨强; 李昌勇; 周源; 张临杰; 肖连团; 贾锁堂; 马存根; 周国生

    2001-01-01

    A 532 nm laser was used as exciting source to measure the fluorescence spectra of human blood and its components (red blood cell, blood platelet and blood plasma). The spectra of blood have peaks near 630 nm and 710 nm, and the spectra of blood components are obviously different from them. The spectrum of plasma has a clear peak at 738 nm. Contrary to the normal blood plasma, the plasma spectrum of HBsAg positive blood has a very strong peak at 738 nm,which can be used for diagnosis of hepatitis B.%用532 nm的激光作为激发光源,分别测量正常人血液及血液组分(血浆、血小板、红细胞)的荧光光谱。结果显示,全血在630 nm及710 nm附近出现荧光峰值,其各组分的荧光光谱有明显差异,其中血浆的荧光光谱可作为临床诊断依据。另外,比较正常人及乙型肝炎患者血浆标本的荧光光谱发现,其738 nm处的峰值强度有显著差异。

  18. Field test results for nitrogen removal by the constructed wetland component of an agricultural water recycling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetland Reservoir Subirrigation Systems (WRSIS) are innovative agricultural water recycling systems that can provide economic and environmental benefits. A constructed wetland is a main component of WRSIS, and an important function of this constructed wetland is drainage water treatment of nitrog...

  19. Electrodialytic removal of nitrate from pineapple juice: effect on selected physicochemical properties, amino acids, and aroma components of the juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackarabanpojoue, Yuwadee; Chindapan, Nathamol; Yoovidhya, Tipaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of nitrate removal from pineapple juice by electrodialysis (ED) on selected properties of the ED-treated juice. Single-strength pineapple juice with reduced pulp content was treated by ED to reduce the nitrate concentration to 15, 10, or 5 ppm. After ED, the removed pulp was added to the ED-treated juice and its properties, including electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), color, amino acids, and selected aroma compounds, were determined and compared with those of the untreated juice. ED could reduce the nitrate content of 1 L of pineapple juice from an initial value of 50 ppm to less than 5 ppm within 30 min. A significant decrease in the electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, TSS, and yellowness, but a significant increase in the lightness, of the juice was observed upon ED. Concentrations of almost all amino acids of the ED-treated juice significantly decreased. The concentrations of 8 major compound contributors to the pineapple aroma also significantly decreased. Adding the pulp back to the ED-treated juice increased the amino acids concentrations; however, it led to a significant decrease in the concentrations of the aroma compounds.

  20. Experimental removal of sexual selection leads to decreased investment in an immune component in female Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangartner, Sandra; Michalczyk, Łukasz; Gage, Matthew J G; Martin, Oliver Y

    2015-07-01

    Because of divergent selection acting on males and females arising from different life-history strategies, polyandry can be expected to promote sexual dimorphism of investment into immune function. In previous work we have established the existence of such divergence within populations where males and females are exposed to varying degrees of polyandry. We here test whether the removal of sexual selection via enforced monogamy generates males and females that have similar levels of investment in immune function. To test this prediction experimentally, we measured differences between the sexes in a key immune measurement (phenoloxidase (PO) activity) and resistance to the microsporidian Paranosema whitei in Tribolium castaneum lines that evolved under monogamous (sexual selection absent) vs polyandrous (sexual selection present) mating systems. At generation 49, all selected lines were simultaneously assessed for PO activity and resistance to their natural parasite P. whitei after two generations of relaxed selection. We found that the polyandrous regime was associated with a clear dimorphism in immune function: females had significantly higher PO activities than males in these lines. In contrast, there was no such difference between the sexes in the lines evolving under the monogamous regime. Survival in the infection experiment did not differ between mating systems or sexes. Removing sexual selection via enforced monogamy thus seems to erase intersexual differences in immunity investment. We suggest that higher PO activities in females that have evolved under sexual selection might be driven by the increased risk of infections and/or injuries associated with exposure to multiple males.

  1. Clinical observation of factors in the efficacy of blood component transfusion in patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Factors affecting the efficacy of platelet and red blood cell (RBC transfusion in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT have not been studied extensively. We aimed to evaluate platelet and RBC transfusion efficacy by measuring the platelet corrected count increment and the hemoglobin increment, respectively, 24 h after transfusion in 105 patients who received HSCT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using retrospective analysis, we studied whether factors, including gender, time of transplantation, the compatibility of ABO group between HSC donors and recipients, and autologous or allogenic transplantation, influence the efficacy of blood component transfusion. We found that the infection rate of HSCT patients positively correlated with the transfusion amount, and the length of stay in the laminar flow room was associated with transfusion. We found that platelet transfusion performed during HSCT showed significantly better efficacy than that performed before HSCT. The effect of platelet transfusion in auto-transplantation was significantly better than that in allo-transplantation. The efficacy of RBC transfusion during HSCT was significantly lower than that performed before HSCT. The efficacy of RBC transfusion in auto-transplantation was significantly higher than that in allo-transplantation. Allo-transplantation patients who received HSCs from compatible ABO groups showed significantly higher efficacy during both platelet and RBC transfusion. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the efficacy of platelet and RBC transfusions does not correlate with the gender of patients, while it significantly correlates with the time of transplantation, type of transplantation, and ABO compatibility between HSC donors and recipients. During HSCT, the infection rate of patients positively correlates with the transfusion amount of RBCs and platelets. The total volume of RBC units transfused positively correlates with the length of

  2. Theoretical discussion on promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis therapy for restless leg syndrome%活血化瘀法治疗不宁腿综合征的理论探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵阳; 刁倩; 李涛

    2012-01-01

    传统治疗思路认为具有柔肝养阴、缓急止痛作用的芍药甘草汤是治疗不宁腿综合征(restless legs syndrome,RLS)的有效方剂.但笔者通过临床实践、结合古代文献及中医药理论认为,血脉瘀阻是RLS的主要病机,活血化瘀应是治疗RLS的核心疗法.%Peony and Licorice Decoction was effective in treating Restless leg syndrome(RLS) with the function of nourishing yin for softening liver,relaxing spasm and relieving pain.Clinical practice,ancient literature and Chinese medicine theory were comprehensively studied to conclude that blood stasis is the key cause of RLS.Promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis was the crucial therapy for RLS.

  3. Effects of Blood-Activating and Stasis-Removing Drugs Combined with VEGF Gene Transfer on Angiogenesis in Ischemic Necrosis of the Femoral Head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun-hui; WU Ya-ling; YE Jian-hong; NING Ya-gong; YU Hai-ying; PENG Zhong-jie; LUAN Xiao-wen

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To observe the promoting effects of blood-activating and stasis-removing Chinese drugs combined with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene transfer on angiogenesis in ischemic necrosis of the femoral head.Methods:Forty Japanese giant-ear rabbits were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, a Chinese drug group, a gene group, and a combined group.After 8 weeks of treatment, the rate of VEGF positive cell expression in the synovium of the femoral head was measured using the immunohistochemical method, and the number of blood vessels in the femoral head was measured by digital subtraction angiography.Results:The rate of VEGF positive cell expression in the model group was significantly lower than that in the Chinese drug group (P<0.05) and very significantly lower than those in other groups (P<0.01);but in the combined group it was significantly higher than in the Chinese drug group (P<0.05).The differences in the number of blood vessels in area A between the model group and other groups were not statistically significant.However, in area B, the number of blood vessels significantly increased in the control group, the gene group and the combined group as compared with the model group (P<0.05), and in the combined group the number of blood vessels was significantly more than in the gene group (P<0.05);but in the Chinese drug group it was not significantly different than the model group P>0.05).Conelusion:Either the blood-activating and stasis-removing Chinese drugs or VEGF gene transfer can promote the angiogenesis and building of collateral circulation for femoral head ischemic necrosis, and the combined therapy with Chinese drugs or VEGF gene transfer may show a better therapeutic effect.The present study provides an experimental basis for clinical application of the combined therapy with the blood-activating and stasis-removing Chinese drugs and VEGF gene transfer.

  4. Disentangling the developmental and neurobehavioural effects of perinatal exposure to a chemical mixture found in blood of Arctic populations: differential toxicity of mixture components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, W.; Nakai, J.; Yagminas, A.; Chu, I.; Moir, D. [Health Canada (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    The current study was designed to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of perinatal exposure to a chemical mixture that is based on relative concentrations of persistent organic pollutants found in the blood of Canadian Arctic populations and contains 14 PCB congeners, 12 organochlorine pesticides and methyl mercury. This study compared the effects of the complete mixture with the effects of three major components of the mixture (the PCB component, the organochlorine pesticide component, and the methyl mercury component). By examining a range of neurobehavioural functions over development we also determine if specific neurobehavioural disturbances produced by the mixture can be attributed to components of the mixture and if neurobehavioural effects produced by components of the mixture are altered by concurrent exposure to other components in the mixture. Ninety-two nulliparious female Sprague-Dawley rats served as subjects.

  5. Intervention analysis of a large number of component blood transfusion on blood coagulation mechanism%大量成分输血对患者凝血机制的干预分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董永光

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨大量成分输血对患者凝血机制的干预。方法73例大量成分输血患者,输注悬浮红细胞量平均11 U,输注冰冻血浆量平均8 U。输血前、输血后4 h检测凝血指标。结果73例患者输血前后凝血因子差异有统计学意义(P均<0.01);血小板显著下降,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论大量成分输血对凝血功能有重要影响,应及时检测凝血因子及血小板,并通过血液加温以及针对性的补充血小板和凝血因子来减少出血风险。%ObjectiveTo analyze intervention of a large number of component blood transfusion on blood coagulation mechanism.MethodsRetrospectively analyzed clinical data of 73 patients with a large number of component blood transfusion. The infusion of suspension red blood cell volume average of 11 U, infusion of average frozen plasma volume of 8 U. Blood clotting index 4 h before and after blood transfusion was detected.Results73 cases of patients before and after blood transfusion blood coagulation factor had significant changes, the difference was statistically significant(P<0.01), blood platelet reducted significantly, the difference was statistically significant(P<0.01).ConclusionA large number of component blood transfusion has important influence on blood coagulation function, blood platelet and clotting factors should be timely detected, and through blood heat and corresponding platelet and blood coagulation factor supplementary to reduce risk of bleeding.

  6. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here for the Professional Version Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  7. Chinese Drugs That Invigorate Spleen to Remove Dampness and Activate Blood Circulation to Eliminate Turbid for Retarding Progression of Chronic Renal Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Chinese drugs (CD) that invigorate Spleen to remove Dampness and activate the blood circulation to eliminate Turbid for retarding progression of chronic renal failure (CRF). Methods: Thirty-nine patients with CRF were divided into two groups at random: the 18 patients in group A (the control group) were treated with low protein diet and controlling blood pressure and 21 patients in group B (the treatment group) were treated similarly with that of the control group and additional CD. Levels of serous creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), blood albumin (Alb), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and hemoglobin (Hb) were checked every two months and the rate of progression of CRF was estimated by slope of the creatinine reciprocal (1/SCr) with time (months). Results: Levels of SCr and BUN in group B were lower and HDL higher than those in group A significantly, P<0.05. Mean slopes of the creatinine reciprocal with time in the two groups were markedly different, P<0.01. Conclusion: Additional CD treatment based upon the low protein diet and controlling blood pressure could retard the rate of progression of CRF evidently.

  8. Biochemical assessment of growth factors and circulation of blood components contained in the different fractions obtained by centrifugation of venous blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corigiano, M; Ciobanu, G; Baldoni, E; Pompa, G

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a biochemical marker with different elements of a normal blood serum and centrifuged blood serum after a different rotation system. For this technique, we used five fractions of a blood Concentrated Growth Factors system (bCGF) and a particular device for the different rotation program. Blood samples were collected from 10 volunteers aged between 35 and 55 in the Operative Unit of the “Sapienza” University of Rome with only a fraction of different biochemical elements. Through an individual blood phase separator tube of venous blood, active factions of serum and 4 fractions of red buffy coat were taken. The biochemical markers with 14 elements were examined at times: P1-11 minutes, P2-12minutes, P3-15 minutes. Exclusively biological materials which are normally applied in the regeneration techniques for different defects and lesions were used with this technique. After specific rotation programs, a different result was obtained for each cycle: P1, P2, P3. In test tubes obtained by separated blood, we observed a higher concentration of proteins, ions, and other antigens compared to normal blood plasma. Examining the biochemical results of different elements, we observed an increase (P≤0,01). Since each person’s DNA is different, we could not have the same results in 5 fractions of blood concentration, we did, however, find a good increase in only a fraction of proteins, immunoglobulin and different ions. We obtained five fractions after centrifugation, and we had an increase in different biochemical elements compared to normal blood (P≤0,01) which is significant at different times. These biochemical elements were stimulated by different growth factors, which are used by the immune system, and they induced the formation of hard and soft tissues and good regeneration.

  9. 2004-2010年度我院成分血应用分析%Blood components used in our hospital from 2004 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑英; 庄远; 李卉; 陈麟凤; 汪德清

    2012-01-01

    Objective To provide the evidence for collection and storage of blood in Department of Blood Transfusion and use of blood in clinicians by investigating the blood components used in our hospital. Methods Blood components used in our hospital from 2004 to 2010 were analyzed. Results The total volume of blood components used in our hospital from 2004 to 2010 tended to increase. Of the blood components, whole blood, red blood cells, plasma, platelets and cryoprecipitate accounted for 99%, 021%, 52.90%, 37.38%, 5.16% and 4.35%, respectively. Red blood cells, plasma, and cryoprecipitate in particular were mainly used in surgical operation, while platelets were mainly used in departments of internal medicine. The average volume of red blood cells and cryoprecipitate used in operation tended to increase, while that of platelets and plasma used in operation tended to decrease slowly. Conclusion The total blood volume used in our hospital increases rapidly, thus Department of Blood Transfusion need to actively enlist donors. The proportion of blood components is rational in our hospital. However, platelets are seldom used and the use of cryoprecipitate increases sharply, thus clinicians should follow the strictly indications for the transfusion of blood components.%目的 了解我院成分血应用现状,为输血科采血、备血及临床医生用血提供依据.方法 对我院2004-2010年各成分血的应用情况进行统计分析.结果 我院临床用血总量呈上升趋势;成分用血比例在99%以上,各种血液成分中,全血占0.21%,红细胞占52.90%,血浆占37.38%,血小板占5.16%,冷沉淀占4.35%;红细胞、血浆尤其冷沉淀主要用于外科,血小板主要用于内科;手术平均用血量红细胞和冷沉淀呈上升趋势,血小板与血浆缓慢下降.结论 我院用血总量急剧增加,需要输血科积极招募献血员;我院成分血比例合理,但血小板应用比例太低,冷沉淀用量剧增,需要临床

  10. Effects of the blood components on the AMPA and NMDA synaptic responses in brain slices in the onset of hemorrhagic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrushin, Anatoly A; Pavlinova, Larisa I

    2013-12-01

    Blood-borne events play a major role in post bleeding disturbances of the neuronal network. However, very little is known about the early effects of blood plasma, leucocytes, and the red blood cells on the AMPA and NMDA-mediated synaptic responses in the onset of experimental intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). In this study, we used the technique of on-line monitoring of electrophysiological parameters referred to synaptic activity in piriform cortex of SHR rat slice. We exposed the olfactory cortex slices to diluted autologous blood or its components and compared with effects of ferric chloride. Whole blood exerted a total inhibition of synaptic activity in piriform cortex within first 5 min. Dilution of blood induced prolonged epileptic synaptic activation of NMDA receptors. Blood plasma and fraction of leucocytes induced hyperactivation of neurons transforming to epileptiform discharges. Fraction of red blood cells acted biphasic, an initial sharp activity of AMPA- and NMDA-mediated receptors replaced by a following total depression. Our slice-based models of experimental stroke revealed the mechanism of the earliest pathophysiologic events occur in brain tissue during bleeding that may be relevant to the human ICH.

  11. Blood Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Blood donation By Mayo Clinic Staff Blood donation is a voluntary procedure. You agree to have blood drawn so that it can ... have a disease that requires blood components. Blood donation makes all of this possible. There are several ...

  12. Decomposing cerebral blood flow MRI into functional and structural components: a non-local approach based on prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Benjamin M; Wang, Danny J J; Detre, John A; Gee, James C; Avants, Brian B

    2015-01-15

    We present RIPMMARC (Rotation Invariant Patch-based Multi-Modality Analysis aRChitecture), a flexible and widely applicable method for extracting information unique to a given modality from a multi-modal data set. We use RIPMMARC to improve the interpretation of arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion images by removing the component of perfusion that is predicted by the underlying anatomy. Using patch-based, rotation invariant descriptors derived from the anatomical image, we learn a predictive relationship between local neuroanatomical structure and the corresponding perfusion image. This relation allows us to produce an image of perfusion that would be predicted given only the underlying anatomy and a residual image that represents perfusion information that cannot be predicted by anatomical features. Our learned structural features are significantly better at predicting brain perfusion than tissue probability maps, which are the input to standard partial volume correction techniques. Studies in test-retest data show that both the anatomically predicted and residual perfusion signals are highly replicable for a given subject. In a pediatric population, both the raw perfusion and structurally predicted images are tightly linked to age throughout adolescence throughout the brain. Interestingly, the residual perfusion also shows a strong correlation with age in selected regions including the hippocampi (corr = 0.38, p-value <10(-6)), precuneus (corr = -0.44, p < 10(-5)), and combined default mode network regions (corr = -0.45, p < 10(-8)) that is independent of global anatomy-perfusion trends. This finding suggests that there is a regionally heterogeneous pattern of functional specialization that is distinct from that of cortical structural development.

  13. Effect of instrumentation using curettes, piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler and Er,Cr:YSGG laser on the morphology and adhesion of blood components on root surfaces: a SEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumaki, Jackeline do Nascimento; Souto, Bráulio Henrique Marques; Oliveira, Guilherme José Pimentel Lopes de; Sampaio, José Eduardo Cézar; Marcantonio Júnior, Elcio; Marcantonio, Rosemary Adriana Chiérici

    2011-01-01

    This study used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the morphology and adhesion of blood components on root surfaces instrumented by curettes, piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler and Er,Cr:YSGG laser. One hundred samples from 25 teeth were divided into 5 groups: 1) Curettes; 2) Piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler; 3) Curettes plus piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler; 4) Er,Cr:YSGG laser; 5) Curettes plus Er,Cr:YSGG laser. Ten samples from each group were used for analysis of root morphology and the other 10 were used for analysis of adhesion of blood components on root surface. The results were analyzed statistically by the Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests with a significance level of 5%. The group treated with curettes showed smoother surfaces when compared to the groups were instrumented with piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler and the Er,Cr:YSGG laser. The surfaces instrumented with piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler and Er,Cr:YSGG laser, alone or in combination with hand scaling and root planing, did not differ significantly (p>0.05) among themselves. No statistically significant differences (p>0.05) among groups were found as to the adhesion of blood components on root surface. Ultrasonic instrumentation and Er,Cr:YSGG irradiation produced rougher root surfaces than the use of curettes, but there were no differences among treatments with respect to the adhesion of blood components.

  14. A novel method for sample preparation of fresh lung cancer tissue for proteomics analysis by tumor cell enrichment and removal of blood contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    Orre Lotta; Bergman Per; Elmberger Göran; Pernemalm Maria; De Petris Luigi; Lewensohn Rolf; Lehtiö Janne

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In-depth proteomics analyses of tumors are frequently biased by the presence of blood components and stromal contamination, which leads to large experimental variation and decreases the proteome coverage. We have established a reproducible method to prepare freshly collected lung tumors for proteomics analysis, aiming at tumor cell enrichment and reduction of plasma protein contamination. We obtained enriched tumor-cell suspensions (ETS) from six lung cancer cases (two ade...

  15. Fast removal of ocular artifacts from electroencephalogram signals using spatial constraint independent component analysis based recursive least squares in brain-computer interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bang-hua YANG; Liang-fei HE; Lin LIN; Qian WANG

    2015-01-01

    Ocular artifacts cause the main interfering signals within electroencephalogram (EEG) signal measurements. An adaptive filter based on reference signals from an electrooculogram (EOG) can reduce ocular interference, but collecting EOG signals during a long-term EEG recording is inconvenient and uncomfortable for the subject. To remove ocular artifacts from EEG in brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), a method named spatial constraint independent component analysis based recursive least squares (SCICA-RLS) is proposed. The method consists of two stages. In the first stage, independent component analysis (ICA) is used to decompose multiple EEG channels into an equal number of independent components (ICs). Ocular ICs are identified by an automatic artifact detection method based on kurtosis. Then empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is employed to remove any cerebral activity from the identified ocular ICs to obtain exact artifact ICs. In the second stage, first, SCICA applies exact artifact ICs obtained in the first stage as a constraint to extract artifact ICs from the given EEG signal. These extracted ICs are called spatial constraint ICs (SC-ICs). Then the RLS based adaptive filter uses SC-ICs as reference signals to reduce interference, which avoids the need for parallel EOG recordings. In addition, the proposed method has the ability of fast computation as it is not necessary for SCICA to identify all ICs like ICA. Based on the EEG data recorded from seven subjects, the new approach can lead to average classification accuracies of 3.3% and 12.6% higher than those of the standard ICA and raw EEG, respectively. In addition, the proposed method has 83.5% and 83.8% reduction in time-consumption compared with the standard ICA and ICA-RLS, respectively, which demonstrates a better and faster OA reduction.

  16. Calculating the transfer function of noise removal by principal component analysis and application to AzTEC observations

    CERN Document Server

    Downes, Thomas Patrick; Scott, Kimberly; Austermann, Jason; Wilson, Grant W

    2011-01-01

    Instruments using arrays of many bolometers have become increasingly common in the past decade. The maps produced by such instruments typically include the filtering effects of the instrument as well as those from subsequent steps performed in the reduction of the data. Therefore interpretation of the maps is dependent upon accurately calculating the transfer function of the chosen reduction technique on the signal of interest. Many of these instruments use non-linear and iterative techniques to reduce their data because such methods can offer improved signal-to-noise over those that are purely linear, particularly for signals at scales comparable to that subtended by the array. We discuss a general approach for measuring the transfer function of principal component analysis (PCA) on point sources that are small compared to the spatial extent seen by any single bolometer within the array. The results are applied to previously released AzTEC catalogues of the COSMOS, Lockman Hole, Subaru XMM-Newton Deep Field,...

  17. Effect of Er,Cr:YSGG and Er:YAG laser irradiation on the adhesion of blood components on the root surface and on root morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Guilherme José Pimentel Lopes de; Theodoro, Letícia Helena; Marcantonio Junior, Elcio; Sampaio, José Eduardo Cezar; Marcantonio, Rosemary Adriana Chiérici

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an in vitro evaluation, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), of the adhesion of blood components on root surfaces irradiated with Er,Cr:YSGG (2.78 µm) or Er:YAG (2.94 µm) laser, and of the irradiation effects on root surface morphology. Sixty samples of human teeth were previously scaled with manual instruments and divided into three groups of 20 samples each: G1 (control group) - no treatment; G2 - Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation; G3 - Er:YAG laser irradiation. After performing these treatments, blood tissue was applied to 10 samples of each group, whereas 10 samples received no blood tissue application. After performing the laboratory treatments, the samples were observed under SEM, and the resulting photomicrographs were classified according to a blood component adhesion scoring system and root morphology. The results were analyzed statistically (Kruskall-Wallis and Mann Whitney tests, α= 5%). The root surfaces irradiated with Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers presented greater roughness than those in the control group. Regarding blood component adhesion, the results showed a lower degree of adhesion in G2 than in G1 and G3 (G1 × G2: p = 0.002; G3 × G2: p = 0.017). The Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser treatments caused more extensive root surface changes. The Er:YAG laser treatment promoted a greater degree of blood component adhesion to root surfaces, compared to the Er,Cr:YSGG treatment.

  18. Analysis on the causes of blood scrapped during the preparation of component%成分制备过程中血液报废原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张捷

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the causes of blood scrapped during the preparation of component, in order to reduce the waste of blood resources and reduce the blood scrapped rate. Methods 20 844 bags of blood collected in our central blood station from January to December 2012 were selected as the research subjects. In addition to the normal qualified blood samples, for normal and abnormal blood scrapped phenomena, the blood collection, transportation, storage and preparation aspects were specially examined for problems and the causes of blood samples scrapped were analyzed, classified and recorded. Results The statistical results of different varieties blood scrapped for the 20 844 bags of blood samples showed that there were 19 385 bags of qualified blood that accounted for 93%of the total study samples, and 1459 bags of unqualified scrapped blood that accounted for 7%of the total study samples, of which in the unqualified scrapped blood samples, there were 459 bags caused by abnormal blood fat, anti-HIV, anti-HCV that accounted for 2.2% of the total samples, and 1000 bags caused by lipemia, insufficient collection amount that accounted for 4.8%of the total samples. Conclusion In the course of the blood supply, only taking the effective measures, strengthening the blood collection quality management, controlling the blood preservation conditions strictly and improving the level of component preparation can reduce the blood scrapped rate, save the blood resources.%目的:对成分制备的过程中出现血液报废的情况进行原因分析,以减少血液资源浪费和降低血液报废率。方法采取2012年1~12月一整年期间血站采集的20844袋血液作为研究对象,除正常合格血液样本外,针对正常报废和非正常报废等现象设立专人检查血液采集、运输、储存、制备等各个环节是否存在问题,并对样本血液报废的原因进行分析、归类和记录。结果针对20844袋试验样本中出现的不同

  19. Initial Resuscitation with Plasma and Other Blood Components Reduced Bleeding Compared to Hetastarch in Anesthetized Swine with Uncontrolled Splenic Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Cole Parmer, Inc, Vernon Hills, IL) was placed occlusively into the same SONDEEN ET AL. 780 TRANSFUSION Volume 51, April 2011 jugular vein for blood...collection set, citrate-phosphate- dextrose-adenine [CPDA] and AS-5, Terumo Products, Somerset , NJ). A pump with computerized drive (Master- flex, Cole-Parmer...Instrument Co., Vernon Hills, IL) was used to withdraw the blood from the femoral artery cath- eter and collected in the blood bags, which were

  20. Process Improvement by Eliminating Mixing of Whole Blood Units after an Overnight Hold Prior to Component Production Using the Buffy Coat Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherie Mastronardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The elimination of a thorough manual mixing of whole blood (WB which takes place following the overnight hold, but before the first centrifugation step, during buffy coat component production at Canadian Blood Services (CBS was investigated. WB was pooled after donation and split. Pairs of platelet, red blood cell (RBC, and plasma components were produced, with half using the standard method and half using a method in which the mixing step was eliminated. Quality assessments included yield, pH, CD62P expression and morphology for platelets, hemoglobin, hematocrit, hemolysis, and supernatant K+ for RBCs, and volume and factor VIII activity levels for plasma. All components, produced using either method, met CBS quality control criteria. There were no significant differences in platelet yield between components produced with and without mixing. A significant difference was seen for RBC hemolysis at expiry (P=0.03, but for both groups, levels met quality control requirements. Noninferiority of components produced without mixing was confirmed for all parameters. Manual mixing is laborious and has a risk of repetitive strain for production staff and its significance is unclear. Elimination of this step will improve process efficiencies without compromising quality.

  1. Establishment of the model of white blood cell membrane chromatography and screening of antagonizing TLR4 receptor component from Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A model of white blood cell membrane chromatography (WB-CMC) was established to screen active component from Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. The component can antagonize Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and inhibit inflammatory reaction. In the model of WB-CMC, cell membrane stationary phase (CMSP) was prepared by immobilizing the rabbit white blood cell membrane (WBCM) onto the surface of silica carrier and taxinol was used as a model molecule. The active component which can act on WBCM and its receptor (such as TLR4) as an effective target in A. macrocephala was determined by using a replacement experiment. The anti-inflammatory effects of the active component were tested by using pharmacological methods in vivo. The results indicated that the retention characteristics of atractylenolide I as active component was similar to that of taxinol in the model of WB-CMC. And so, atractylenolide I acted on the WBCM and TLR4 and its anti-inflammatory activity was related with antagonizing TLR4. Therefore, the interaction between the active component and WBCM and its receptor can be simulated by the model of WB-CMC in vitro. This model can be used to screen active components and to study effective characteristics for acting on definite targets.

  2. Effect of storage levels of nitric oxide derivatives in blood components [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/WDkFtz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Qazi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Potential deleterious effects of red blood cell (RBC transfusions, especially from blood kept at length, have been ascribed to biochemical changes during storage, including those of nitric oxide (NO metabolism. Study methods and design: In this study, NO metabolites, nitrite and nitrate, were quantified in RBCs and whole blood with time of storage. Whole blood (WB, leukoreduced (LR, and non-leukoreduced (NLR components were obtained from healthy volunteer donors and stored in polyvinyl chloride bags for 42 days. Nitrite and nitrate were measured using reductive gas-phase chemiluminescence. Results: Nitrite concentrations initially decreased rapidly from about 150nmol/L, but stabilized at about 44nmol/L in room air for up to 42 days. Nitrate concentrations remained stable during storage at about 35µmol/L. Cells from bags maintained in an argon chamber showed decreased nitrite levels compared to those maintained in room air. Inhibition of enzymes implicated in the NO cycle did not alter nitrite levels. Conclusion: As erythrocytes may contribute to the control of blood flow and oxygen delivery through reduction of nitrite to NO under hypoxic conditions, the present findings provide insight into possible effects of blood transfusion. These measurements may explain some adverse effects of RBC transfusion and suggest ways of optimizing the preservation of stored blood.

  3. Components and Functional Characteristics of Crocodile Blood%鳄鱼血的成分组成和功能特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄和平; 陈孙福; 罗永康

    2014-01-01

    测定和分析了鳄鱼血浆粉和血球粉的主要组分及其功能特性。结果表明,鳄鱼血浆粉和血球粉的蛋白含量丰富,脂肪含量低,是一种高蛋白、低脂肪的营养物质,含有丰富的必需氨基酸,其不饱和脂肪酸含有二十碳五烯酸( EPA)和二十二碳六烯酸( DHA)。此外,鳄鱼血浆粉中的免疫球蛋白G的含量也达到了20.89%。本文研究为鳄鱼血产品的开发提供理论依据。%This article measured and analyzed the components and functional characteristics of blood plasma powder and blood cell powder of crocodile, and results showed that crocodile blood was a kind of nutritive material with high protein and low lipid. The unsaturated fatty acid of crocodile blood contained EPA and DHA. Besides, the crocodile blood was rich in essential amino acids, and the content of immunoglobulin G in crocodile plasma reached 20. 89%. The research would contribute to understand crocodile blood sufficiently and provide theoretical foundation for the development of crocodile blood products.

  4. Supraphysiological oxytocin increases the transfer of immunoglobulins and other blood components to milk during lipopolysaccharide- and lipoteichoic acid-induced mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Samantha K; Wellnitz, Olga; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Ahmadpour, Amir; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial mastitis causes pathogen-dependent changes of the blood-milk barrier, and these changes can influence the differential transfer of blood components to milk. It is well known that gram-negative pathogens such as Escherichia coli can cause a greater activation of the immune system and thus a more comprehensive transfer of blood components including IgG than gram-positive pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. Supraphysiological doses of oxytocin (OT) have been shown to increase the permeability of the blood-milk barrier; however, the effect of OT during experimentally induced mastitis has not been investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine if intravenous administration of OT during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-induced mastitis could influence the transfer of blood components to milk. The hypothesis was that OT could induce a greater transfer of blood components during mastitis. Twenty-seven dairy cows were injected via the teat canal with LPS, LTA, or a saline control followed by an intravenous injection of OT 2h following intramammary challenge. Milk samples were collected every half hour and analyzed for somatic cell count (SCC), IgG, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and serum albumin (SA). Due to the chosen dosage of LPS and LTA, there was no difference in SCC between quarters challenged with only LPS or LTA. Quarters challenged with LPS and OT had a higher SCC and a greater transfer of IgG, LDH, and SA compared with quarters challenged with only LPS. Quarters challenged with LTA and OT had a greater transfer of IgG, LDH, and SA, whereas the SCC increase did not differ from quarters only treated with LTA. In quarters treated only with OT, SCC, LDH, and SA increased, but no difference was observed in IgG concentration from untreated control quarters. In conclusion, there are pathogen-specific changes in the blood-milk barrier and OT can induce a greater transfer of blood components to milk in both LPS- and

  5. Blood compatibility and permeability of heparin-modified polysulfone as potential membrane for simultaneous hemodialysis and LDL removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Jun; Guduru, Deepak; Xu, Zhi-Kang; Vienken, Jörg; Groth, Thomas

    2011-01-10

    Heparin was covalently immobilized on PSf membranes to obtain a dialysis membrane with high affinity for LDL. WCA and streaming potential measurements were performed to investigate wettability and surface charge of the membranes. The morphology of the membranes was investigated by SEM. An ELISA was used to measure the adsorption and desorption of LDL on plain and modified PSf. Blood compatibility was studied by measurement of thrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, kallikrein activity and platelet adhesion. It was found that the blood compatibility of the membrane was improved by covalent immobilization of heparin at its surface. However, PSf-Hep membrane showed higher flux recovery after BSA solution filtration, which revealed antifouling property of PSf-Hep membranes.

  6. Laser-induced removal of co-deposits from graphitic plasma-facing components: Characterization of irradiated surfaces and dust particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąsior, P.; Irrek, F.; Petersson, P.; Penkalla, H. J.; Rubel, M.; Schweer, B.; Sundelin, P.; Wessel, E.; Linke, J.; Philipps, V.; Emmoth, B.; Wolowski, J.; Hirai, T.

    2009-06-01

    Laser-induced fuel desorption and ablation of co-deposited layers on limiter plates from the TEXTOR tokamak have been studied. Gas phase composition was monitored in situ, whereas the ex situ studies have been focused on the examination of irradiated surfaces and broad analysis of dust generated by ablation of co-deposits. The size of the dust grains is in the range of few nanometers to hundreds of micrometers. These are fuel-rich dust particles, as determined by nuclear reaction analysis. The presence of deuterium in dust indicates that not all fuel species are transferred to the gas phase during irradiation. This also suggests that photonic removal of fuel and the ablation of co-deposit from plasma-facing components may lead to the redistribution of fuel-containing dust to surrounding areas.

  7. Effective removal of sulfur components from Brazilian power-coals by ultrasonication (40kHz) in presence of H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Binoy K; Dalmora, Adilson C; Choudhury, Rahul; Das, Tonkeswar; Taffarel, Silvio R; Silva, Luis F O

    2016-09-01

    The present investigation reports a preliminary attempt of using ultrasonic energy (40kHz) to clean some low rank high sulfur Brazilian power-coal samples in presence of H2O2 solution. All types of sulfur components (i.e. pyritic, sulfate and organic) could be removed from the coal samples by this process. The raw and ultrasonicated coal samples were characterized by chemical analysis, Fourier Transformation Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), focused ion beam (FIB), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) with selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and/or microbeam diffraction (MBD), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), and Thermogravimetry (TG-DTG) techniques to evaluate the clean-coal quality. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis demonstrated the formation of oxidized sulfur species (SO and -SO2) and their subsequent removals after ultrasonication. The XRD profiles supported the presence of mineral matters in the coals. The TG-DTG profiles of the beneficiated coals revealed their improved quality for using in thermal plants with better combustion efficiency.

  8. [Recent circumstances in the supply and demand of various blood products in Japan, and appropriate use of blood components or plasma protein derivatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohyama, H

    1986-10-01

    In Japan, as in the United States and several other advanced countries, the use of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and albumin has increased dramatically over the past 10 years. Especially in Japan the increase has been at least tenfold, and half of this usage has been for surgery. Most reviews of albumin usage acknowledge that there is a high ratio of wastage, or use in clinical circumstances without a firm scientific basis. Recently Japan has imported an enormous volume of various plasma fraction products such as albumin, Factor VIII etc., or plasma as raw material from foreign countries, especially the United States. As a result, Japan has come to monopolized a quarter of the albumin manufactured in the world, and has therefore received much internal and external criticism from or ethical standpoint. As countermeasures against shortage of these blood products, it will be necessary for doctors to use these blood products more sparingly and to increase the yield of volunteer donor's blood, especially plasma. More red blood cell concentrate should be utilized for hemorrhage in routine surgical operations. Because whole blood transfusion is rarely used except in cases of massive bleeding that cannot be stopped immediately, exchange transfusion has been performed in the United States and European countries recently. Transfusion of FFP is appropriately used only for replacement of coagulation factor deficiencies, massive transfusion etc. in the United States. It should be particularly noted that these carry the risk of transmission of diseases such as hepatitis and possibly AIDS. Albumin is an effective oncotic agent in the treatment of acute shock and in the maintenance of intravascular volume and cardiac output. However, albumin and FFP have no demonstrable effect in the general supportive management of chronic hypoproteinemia and undernutrition.

  9. Non-invasive submilligram level quantification of in vivo blood components with slitless high-sensitivity spectrometer and noncooled NIR detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribayashi, Ryosuke; Furukawa, Hiromitsu

    2015-03-01

    By using a "slit-less" Fourier-transform spectrometer, we demonstrate that cardiac-pulsation amplitude of absorbance can be extracted from 3.5-level absorbance unit (AU) spectra of a human fingertip with a resolution of blood components (water, HbO2, and lipids/proteins) in a fingertip are deduced in the sub-milligram order. The results indicate the capacity of the spectrometer for a portable non-invasive blood monitor as well as for a high-end analytic instrument.

  10. Study the Clinical Application of Irradiated Red Blood Cell Components%辐照血液成分的临床应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟; 孙美贞

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨分析辐照血液成分的临床用量及所占比例。方法:统计分析青岛地区2010-2014年辐照血液成分的临床用血量及占总用血量的比例,对比分析近几年辐照血液成分比例变化。结果:青岛地区近5年临床用血量中辐照红细胞类成分占红细胞类总用血量的0.91%,辐照血小板类占血小板总用量的7.40%。与前两年相比,近3年辐照血液成分占总用血量的比例大幅增加。结论:随着对TA-GVHD认识的进一步深入,临床对辐照血液成分的重视程度加大,辐照血液成分的使用量也不断增加。%Objective:To analyze the clinical application and the proportion of irradiated red blood cell components.Method: The clinical application in irradiation blood components of Qingdao from 2010 to 2014 were statistical analyzed,the irradiated blood composition changes in recent years were compared and analyzed.Result:Nearly the five years, the percentage of irradiated red blood cells in the total clinical usage was 0.91%,and the percentage of irradiated aphaeresis platelet in the total clinical usage was 7.40%. Compared with the previous two years, a big increasion in the clinical usage of irradiated red blood cell components in the nearly three years.Conclusion:Along with the further understanding of TA-GVHD,clinical doctors pay more attention to the application in irradiation blood components and the use of irradiation blood components also increased.

  11. Pseudocatalytic scavenging of the nerve agent VX with human blood components and the oximes obidoxime and HI-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Timo; von der Wellen, Jens; Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz

    2017-03-01

    Despite six decades of extensive research in medical countermeasures against nerve agent poisoning, a broad spectrum acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivator is not yet available. One current approach is directed toward synthesizing oximes with high affinity and reactivatability toward butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in plasma to generate an effective pseudocatalytic scavenger. An interim solution could be the administration of external AChE or BChE from blood products to augment pseudocatalytic scavenging with slower but clinically approved oximes to decrease nerve agent concentrations in the body. We here semiquantitatively investigate the ability of obidoxime and HI-6 to decrease the inhibitory activity of VX with human AChE and BChE from whole blood, erythrocyte membranes, erythrocytes, plasma, clinically available fresh frozen plasma and packed red blood cells. The main findings are that whole blood showed a VX concentration-dependent decrease in inhibitory activity with HI-6 being more potent than obidoxime. Using erythrocytes and erythrocyte membranes again, HI-6 was more potent compared to obidoxime. With freshly prepared plasma, obidoxime and HI-6 showed comparable results for the decrease in VX. The use of the clinically available blood products revealed that packed red blood cells showed similar kinetics as fresh erythrocytes. Fresh frozen plasma resulted in a slower and incomplete decrease in inhibitory plasma compared to freshly prepared plasma. In conclusion, the administration of blood products in combination with available oximes augments pseudocatalytic scavenging and might be useful to decrease the body load of persistent, highly toxic nerve agents.

  12. Do blood components affect the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS by equine synovial cells in vitro?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M. Brossi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood-derived products are commonly administered to horses and humans to treat many musculoskeletal diseases, due to their potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Nevertheless, antioxidant effects have never been shown upon horse synovial fluid cells in vitro. If proved, this could give a new perspective to justify the clinical application of blood-derived products. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant effects of two blood-derived products - plasma (unconditioned blood product - UBP and a commercial blood preparation (conditioned blood product - CBP¹ - upon stimulated equine synovial fluid cells. Healthy tarsocrural joints (60 were tapped to obtain synovial fluid cells; these cells were pooled, processed, stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, and evaluated by flow cytometry for the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Upon addition of any blood-derived product here used - UBP and CBP - there was a significant decrease in the oxidative burst of synovial fluid cells (P<0.05. There was no difference between UBP and CBP effects. In conclusion, treatment of stimulated equine synovial cells with either UBP or CBP efficiently restored their redox equilibrium.

  13. Effect of Chinese Herbs for Activating Blood Circulation,Removing Stasis and Supplementing Qi on the Circulating Endothelial Cells in Patients with Unstable Angina Pectoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽红; 阮英茆; 焦增绵; 李晓惠

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect and clinical significance of circulating endothelial cells (CEC) in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease with unstable angina pectoris (CHD-UAP), and to explore the protective effect of Chinese herbs for activating blood circulation, removing stasis and supplementing Qi (CH) on CHD-UAP patient's CEC. Methods: Sixty patients with diagnosis of CHD-UAP confirmed and differentiated to be Qi-deficiency and blood stasis by TCM were randomly divided into two groups and treatime, with 1 month as one therapeutic course. The number of CEC in patients' blood circulation was counted before and after treatment. Besides, the number of CEC in 30 healthy persons was also counted for control.Results: The number of CEC in CHD-UAP patients was significantly higher than that in the healthy persons (P<0.01). After the patients were treated with CH, either TXL or HXTM, it significantly decreased (P<0.01)with insignificant difference between the two treated groups. Conclusion: CEC in CHD-UAP patients is severely damaged and endothelial function in disorder, Chinese herbs have protective effect on patients' CEC.

  14. 全血与成分血在婴幼儿心脏手术中的应用效果比较%Clinical study on whole blood and blood components transfusion in the pediatric cardiac surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨婴幼儿心脏手术应用全血与成分输血的利弊。方法选取60例施行体外循环心内直视手术治疗的先天性心脏病患儿,随机分为两组,分别采用输全血与成分输血(红细胞悬液结合新鲜冰冻血浆),观察对比两组术前与术后红细胞比容、胶体渗透压和动脉血气等指标,以及两组术后引流量、机械通气时间、ICU停留时间和病死率等指标,进行临床对照研究。结果输全血组用血量高于成分输血组;输全血组患儿的乳酸值在体外循环转流初期明显高于对照组(P<0.05),其他各时点两组间无统计学差异(P>0.05);两组患儿术后引流量无显著性差异(P>0.05);机械通气时间、ICU停留时间无显著性差异(P>0.05);两组患儿术后均无严重并发症发生,均无院内死亡。结论应用全血与使用红细胞悬液结合新鲜冰冻血浆对婴幼儿先心病体外循环术后引流量、早期恢复无明显差异。与使用全血相比,采用红细胞悬液结合新鲜冰冻血浆,可减少婴幼儿先心病体外循环手术总用血量,达到节约用血的目的。%Objective To explore the difference of whole blood and blood component transfusion in pediatric cardiac surgery.Methods 60 cases of children with congenital heart disease were randomly divided into two groups,who were treated with open heart surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass .Of the two groups,one was used whole blood transfusion and the other one was used blood component transfusion .Indicators such as hematocrit,colloid osmotic pressure and arterial blood gas analysis ,as well as postoperative mechanical ventilation time and ICU care duration were compared between two groups .Results The total volume of transfusion was more in the whole blood transfusion group than the components blood transfusion group .The level of lactic acid was higher in the whole blood transfusion group than the

  15. Effect of instrumentation using curettes, piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler and er,cr:Ysgg laser on the morphology and adhesion of blood components on root surfaces - A SEM study

    OpenAIRE

    Tsurumaki, Jackeline do Nascimento [UNESP; Souto,Bráulio Henrique Marques; de Oliveira, Guilherme José Pimentel Lopes; Sampaio, José Eduardo Cezar [UNESP; Marcantonio Júnior, Elcio [UNESP; Marcantonio, Rosemary Adriana Chierici [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    This study used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the morphology and adhesion of blood components on root surfaces instrumented by curettes, piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler and Er,Cr:YSGG laser. One hundred samples from 25 teeth were divided into 5 groups: 1) Curettes; 2) Piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler; 3) Curettes plus piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler; 4) Er,Cr:YSGG laser; 5) Curettes plus Er,Cr:YSGG laser. Ten samples from each group were used for analysis of root morphology an...

  16. Process to remove turbidity-causing components from a fluid by micro-filtration - passes the fluid across an asymmetric membrane with inlet pores larger than those of nominal size, and cleans the membrane by backwashing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    turbidity-causing components from beer, wine, fruit juice, milk and blood, and from bacterial and enzyme suspensions. ADVANTAGE-The process greatly reduces the lost production time associated with earlier filtration methods, and beneficial components can pass through the membrane, thereby improving...

  17. Suspension properties of whole blood and its components under glucose influence studied in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Dovgalevsky, Pavel Y.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2004-05-01

    The protocol of our study includes men with acute myocardial infarction, stable angina pectoris of II and III functional classes and unstable angina pectoris. Patients with arterial hypertension, disorders in carbohydrate metabolism were excluded from the study. Blood samples taken under standardized conditions, were stabilized with citrate sodium 3,8% (1:9). Erythrocytes and platelets aggregation activity under glucose influence (in vitro) was studied by means of computer aided microphotometer -- a visual analyzer. Erythrocyte and platelets were united in special subsystem of whole blood. Temporal and functional characteristics of their aggregation were analyzed by creation of phase patterns fragments. The received data testify to interrelation of erythrocytes and platelets processes of aggregation under conditions of increasing of glucose concentration of the incubatory environment, which temporal and functional characteristics may be used for diagnostics and the prognosis of destabilization coronary blood flow at an acute coronary syndrome.

  18. 活血化瘀法治疗类风湿性关节炎的疗效观察%Therapeutic Effect of Promoting Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis on Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨活血化瘀法治疗类风湿性关节炎的疗效。方法:将72例类风湿性关节炎患者按照治疗方法分为治疗组和对照组各36例,治疗组采用活血化瘀法治疗,对照组采用常规西医治疗,观察两组临床疗效、临床症状和体征以及相关实验室指标。结果:治疗组总有效率优于对照组(P<0.05);两组治疗后晨僵时间、关节疼痛评分均下降(P<0.05),握力明显提高(P<0.05),且治疗组改善水平优于对照组(P<0.05);两组治疗后红细胞沉降率(ESR)、C-反应蛋白(CRP)和类风湿因子(RF)均下降(P<0.05),且治疗组下降水平优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:采用活血化瘀法治疗类风湿性关节炎能够有效改善患者的临床症状和体征,缓解关节疼痛。%Objective: To study the effect of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis on rheumatoid arthritis. Method: The 72 cases of patients with rheumatoid arthritis were selected and divided into treatment and control groups, ac-cording to the methods of treatment, 36 cases in each. Patients were treated by blood circulation and removing blood stasis therapy in treatment group and conventional western medicine treatment in control group. The clinical efficacy, clinical symp-toms and signs, as well as relevant laboratories indicators were observed in two groups. Results: The total efficiency of the observation group was significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05); the morning stiffness time and joint pain score sig-nificantly decreased after treatment both in two groups (P<0.05), and grip strength significantly increased both in two groups (P<0.05); the improvement levels of the treatment group was significantly better than the control group (P<0.05); the erythro-cyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and c-reactive protein (CRP) and rheumatoid factors (RF) decreased significantly after treatment both in two groups (P<0

  19. Era of blood component therapy: time for mandatory pre-donation platelet count for maximizing donor safety and optimizing quality of platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudipta Sekhar; Zaman, R U; Biswas, Dipak

    2013-12-01

    Blood bank regulatory agencies including the Drug and Cosmetics Act (DCA) of India do not mandate a predonation platelet count in whole blood donation. Mandating such practice will definitely optimize the quality of random donor platelets (RDP) in terms of platelet yield and patient therapeutic benefit. We observed poor platelet yield in RDP concentrates prepared at our center with a significant number not meeting the DCA guideline of ≥ 4.5 × 10(10) per bag processed from 450 ml of whole blood. Therefore we planned this study to evaluate the pre-donation hematological values in our blood donor population and effect of these values on the quality of platelet concentrates. The prospective study included 221 blood donors eligible for donating 450 ml of whole blood (WB). Following the departmental standard operating procedure (SOP) RDPs were prepared using the 'Top & Bottom' quadruple bag system and automated component extractor. Quality of RDP was assessed as per departmental protocol. All results were recorded and subsequently transcribed to SPSS working sheet. A significant (pblood counts has been observed after WB donation. Mean donor Hb and platelets reduced by 0.72 g/dl and 22.1 × 10(6)/ml respectively. Quality of RDPs in terms of platelet yield was significantly better (pcount was >200 × 10(6)/ml. Although platelet yield significantly correlated with the donor platelet count however quality of RDPs in terms of red cell contamination showed no correlation with the donor hematocrit. Platelet yield in random donor platelets is a concern in Eastern India. A platelet yield of 4.5 × 10(10) per bag as mandated by the DCA of India was only achieved when the donor platelet count was >200 × 10(6)/ml. Posttransfusion platelet recovery (PPR) was unsatisfactory in the transfused patient. Introduction of pre-donation platelet count in whole blood donation will maximize donor safety and optimize patient platelet transfusion management.

  20. Development and application of an UHPLC-MS method for comparative pharmacokinetic study of phenolic components from dragon's blood in rats under simulated microgravity environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yujuan; Li, George Q; Li, Yongzhi; Deng, Yulin; Deng, Li

    2016-03-20

    Dragon's blood is a commonly used Chinese herbal medicine shown to have protective effects in simulated microgravity in rats and mice. The current study aimed to develop an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) method for simultaneous determination of four phenolic components from the herb: loureirin A, loureirin C, 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone and pterostilbene in rats, and use the method for comparative study on the pharmacokinetics (PK) and excretion of these components in rats after oral dosage of dragon's blood under simulated microgravity environments. The results showed the developed UHPLC-MS method was sensitive and rapid. The comparative pharmacokinetic study in rats showed loureirin A, loureirin C and 7,4-dihydroxyflavone had decreased Cmax and AUC and increased Vd and CL in simulated microgravity environment; but pterostilbene had the opposite changes. The four phenolic components also showed increased or decreased excretions in simulated microgravity rats. These results indicate the chemical structure and physicochemical property, as well as physiological conditions may have an impact on the absorption and excretion of phenolic components in simulated microgravity environment. It also implies that different drug may behave differently in the same spaceflight condition leading to an increase or a reduction in pharmacodynamic outcomes.

  1. Physical components of soft-tissue ballistic wounding and their involvement in the generation of blood backspatter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Peter L; Taylor, Michael C; Wilson, Suzanne J; Walsh, Kevan A J; Kieser, Jules A

    2012-09-01

    Gunshot backspatter comprises biological material expelled backward through bullet entry holes. Crime scene investigators analyze backspatter patterns to infer wounding circumstances. An understanding of the mechanism of backspatter generation, and the relationship between spatter patterns and bullet and tissue characteristics, would enhance the predictive value of such analysis. We examined soft-tissue ballistic wounding responses to determine the underlying components and how these might be relevant to the generation of backspatter. We identified five mechanistic components to ballistic wounding (elastic, viscous, crushing, cutting, and thermal), each related to mechanical disciplines (respectively, solid mechanics, fluid mechanics, fracture mechanics, rheology, and thermodynamics). We identified potential roles for these five components in backspatter formation and provide a scenario whereby a sequence of events incorporating these components could lead to backspatter generation and expulsion. This research provides a framework for the mathematical representation, and subsequent computational predictive modeling, of backspatter generation and pattern formation.

  2. 东北马鹿鹿心血中营养成分研究%Study on the nutrition component of cardiac blood of Cerv

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑寿光

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the nutrient components of the heart blood of red deer .Methods The c acid, protein, crude fat and different nutrient elements were determined and analyzed .Results The heart blood of red deer is rich in nutrient components .Conclusions The determined results of the heart blood of red deer provide the scientific theory basis for medical use .%目的 研究东北马鹿鹿心血中的各种营养物质. 方法 对东北马鹿鹿心血中的氨基酸、蛋白质、粗脂肪及各种营养元素进行测定分析. 结果 东北马鹿鹿心血中含有氨基酸、蛋白质等营养物质.结论 东北马鹿鹿心血中营养成分的研究数据,为其医用价值提供理论依据.

  3. Availability of Floating-Reference Theory to Non-Invasive Blood Component Measurement by Optical Technology%血液成分无创光学检测中浮动基准理论的适用性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋景英; 龚启亮; 徐可欣

    2012-01-01

    Based on the studies of floating-reference theory(FRT) applied to non-invasive optical blood glucose sensing, this paper further investigated the availability of FRT in measuring other blood compo-nents, like bilirubin. According to the conditions of the radial reference location, the results of Monte Carlo simulation show no appearance of radial reference location in non-invasive bilirubin measurement. While the study on the replacement effect of bilirubin and water shows that, at the wavelength of 524 run, the absorption value of bilirubin solution has no relationship with its concentration. Therefore, this wave-length is regarded as the reference wavelength, and in the further study, it can be used to remove the in-fluence caused by the change of environment and background. In general, the application of FRT in blood glucose and bilirubin shows the specificity of floating reference location and floating reference wave-length in measuring different blood components by optical technology within the designated wavelength, which further improves and extends the application of FRT.%在浮动基准理论(FRT)应用于血糖无创光学检测研究成果的基础上,进一步研究其在其他血液成分(如胆红素)无创光学检测中的适用性.根据径向检测基准位置存在的条件,经蒙特卡洛模拟的结果表明胆红素测量中难以找到浮动基准位置;而通过研究胆红素与水的置换效应,发现在波长524 nm处吸光度值与胆红素的浓度无关,将该波长作为基准波长,实际测量中可以用于去除背景噪声和环境干扰.综合FRT在血糖及胆红素两种不同血液成分中应用的研究结果表明:对于不同检测成分,在相应的检测波段,浮动基准位置和浮动基准波长有一定的特异性,从而进一步完善和扩展了FRT的应用领域.

  4. Evaluation and Safety Control Mechanism of Endotoxin Detection in Whole Blood and Blood Components%全血和成分血内毒素检测评估及其安全控制机制的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍自谦; 刘怡

    2013-01-01

    Objective Through dynamic monitoring bacterial endotoxin and cultivating whole blood and blood components,consistence between endotoxin level and bacterial culture results,association between the clinic fever reaction and blood endotoxin were evaluated.Furthermore,the effectiveness of safety control mechanism on bacterium and endotoxin was assessed.Methods From March to April 2009,a total of 300 blood samples of volunteer donors from our blood center were included in this study.Based on the sample varieties,all of these samples were divided into 3 groups:the whole blood group (n=50),suspended red blood cell (RBC) components group (n=150) and platelet (PLT) components group (n=100).Meanwhile 361 healthy donors from the street during January to February 2009,were chosen as a control group,and their endotoxin results would be used as normal reference range.Dynamic turbidity was used as the quantitative detection method of bacterial endotoxin.Endotoxin content in each group was individually detected during their blood preservations.And the endotoxin content results of each group in different blood preservation period and their bacterial cultivating results were analyzed by variance of repeated measurement data.Moreover,the samples from clinical transfusion fever reaction were detected for endotoxin level.Results Normal blood endotoxin reference range from the control group was (0-0.193) EU/mL.PLT suspension group (W=0.635,P =0.0585),and suspended RBC group (W =0.334,P =0.583) had no significant differences in endotoxin concentration of three periods.There were significant differences in endotoxin in whole blood group of three periods (W=0.860,P=0.014).The endotoxin level of whole blood and blood components was (0.005-0.188) EU/mL,and all bacterial cultivating results were negative.Endotoxin concentration in blood samples of transfusion fever reaction was (0.023-0.145) EU/mL.Conclusions While cultivating results of whole blood and blood components were negative

  5. Effect of Er,Cr:YSGG and Er:YAG laser irradiation on the adhesion of blood components on the root surface and on root morphology

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an in vitro evaluation, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), of the adhesion of blood components on root surfaces irradiated with Er,Cr:YSGG (2.78 mu m) or Er:YAG (2.94 mu m) laser, and of the irradiation effects on root surface morphology. Sixty samples of human teeth were previously scaled with manual instruments and divided into three groups of 20 samples each: G1 (control group) - no treatment; G2 - Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation; G3 - Er:YAG laser irr...

  6. 祛瘀止痛汤治疗心血瘀阻型胸痹%Remove stasis and pain decoction treating blood stasis type thoracic obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯公楷; 张彦峰

    2015-01-01

    objective To observe the analgesic decoction in the treatment of dispelling blood stasis and blocking clini-cal curative effect. Methods Choose 120 patients with obstruction of heartache as the research object,were random-ly divided into control group and test group,each 60 cases. Control group given conventional western medicine treat-ment,treatment group patients give the quasi square and remove stasis pain herb tea soup oral treatment;Two groups of patients with 7 days for a period of treatment,after treatment of 4 patients clinical symptoms and electrocardiogram curative effect. Results The treatment group patients clinical symptoms relieve the total effective rate was 83. 3% ;Control group was 68. 3%( P < 0. 05),the treatment group electrocardiogram period 86. 7% ,control group is 73. 3% ;Compare between the two groups have statistical significance( P < 0. 05). Conclusion Since the quasi square and remove stasis pain decoction in the treatment of blood stasis resistance type obstruction clinical curative effect is distinct.%目的:观察自拟方祛瘀止痛汤治疗心血瘀阻型胸痹的临床疗效。方法选取胸痹心痛患者120例为研究对象,随机分为对照组和试验组各60例,对照组给予西医常规治疗,试验组给予自拟方祛瘀止痛汤口服汤药治疗;2组均以7 d 为1个疗程,治疗4个疗程后观察临床症状及心电图疗效。结果治疗组临床症状缓解总有效率为83.3%,对照组为68.3%(P <0.05);治疗组心电图改善率86.7%,对照组为73.3%,2组比较差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论自拟祛瘀止痛汤治疗心血瘀阻型胸痹,具有活血化瘀、行气止痛之功,能明显改善临床症状及心电图疗效。

  7. Cash component of conditional cash transfer program is associated with higher body mass index and blood pressure in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Lia C H; Gertler, Paul J; Hou, Xiaohui

    2008-11-01

    The cash component of Oportunidades, a large conditional cash transfer (CCT) program in Mexico, has previously been shown to be associated with better outcomes for child growth and development. The objective of this analysis was to determine whether the cash transfers were also associated with positive outcomes for adult health. Oportunidades was originally randomized across 506 rural (cash transfers because they were living in communities randomized to begin receiving transfers earlier and/or they accumulated cash at a faster rate because they had more school-aged children at baseline. Our primary findings were that a doubling of cumulative cash transfers to the household was associated with higher BMI (beta = +0.83, 95% CI 0.46, 1.20; P cash component of Oportunidades may be negatively associated with some adult health outcomes.

  8. The evaluation between the component blood and whole blood transfusion on obstetric hemorrhagic rescue%成分血和全血输注在产科大出血抢救中的效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄雨; 王卓

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价成分输血和输全血在产科大出血急救治疗中的效果。方法将解放军第457医院符合临床大出血输血指征的29例患者分为两组,一组为成分输血治疗组(22例),根据《临床输血技术规范》制订成分输血综合治疗方案,按比例输注悬浮红细胞和血浆、血小板、凝血因子等血液制品;另一组(7例)在抢救过程中给予全血输注。两个治疗组在输血前和输血2~4 h 内分别采血进行血常规和凝血功能测定,监测输血治疗的效果。结果成分输血组在血红蛋白、血细胞比容和血小板的改善效果明显好于全血治疗组(P <0.05);凝血功能在输血后的降低程度,成分输血组明显小于全血治疗组(P <0.05);成分输血组使用红细胞总量和住院天数均明显低于全血治疗组(P <0.05)。结论成分输血较输全血在产科大出血的抢救中具有更加良好的治疗效果。%Objective To evaluate the effects of component blood and whole blood transfusion on obstetric hemorrhagic rescue.Methods Twenty-nine patients were divided into two groups,patients in group one(n=22)re-ceived treatment by receiving different ratio of suspension RBC with other blood products according to “Clinical Blood Transfusion Technological Specification”;patients in group two(n=7)only received whole blood products treatment. The hemorrhagic symptoms presented in patients were consistent with blood transfusion indications.Blood cell count and routine coagulation tests were executed before and with in 2 hours~4 hours after blood transfusion.Results The improvement of hemoglobin,haematocrit and platelet in group one were significantly better than group two(P <0.05);the blood clotting function damage was appeared after transfusion,however,the damaged degree in group one was significantly lower than group two(P <0.05);prognosis in group one was also significantly better than group two

  9. Estratégias para redução do uso de hemoderivados em cirurgia cardiovascular Strategies to reduce the use of blood components in cardiovascular surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmgton José Brito de Souza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar as estratégias adotadas por nossa equipe para reduzir o uso de hemoderivados em pacientes submetidos a cirurgia cardiovascular. MÉTODOS: Entre outubro de 2005 e janeiro de 2007, foram operados 101 pacientes. Destes, 51 (50,5% eram do sexo masculino e 50 (49,5% do feminino. A idade variou de 13 a 80 anos (média de 50,76 anos. A estratégia utilizada consiste em uso de antifibrinolíticos, hemodiluição normovolêmica e reposição total do perfusato. RESULTADOS: A média de utilização de hemoderivados por paciente foi de 1,45 UI de CH; 0,75 UI de PF; 0,89 UI de crioprecipitados e 1,43 UI de plaquetas. Em 59 (58,4% pacientes, não foram usados hemoderivados e somente 12 (11,9% pacientes necessitaram mais de quatro UI de CH. Dentre os 27 (26,7% pacientes cujo tempo de circulação extracorpórea (CEC excedeu os 120 minutos, 17 (63% necessitaram de hemotransfusão. Apenas três (2,97% pacientes desenvolveram coagulopatia, sendo dois (1,98% reoperados por sangramento. Dos três pacientes que desenvolveram coagulopatia, dois pertenciam ao subgrupo de idosos. CONCLUSÃO: Na série apresentada, as medidas adotadas conseguiram reduzir a necessidade de hemotransfusão no pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca. Pacientes com tempo de CEC maior que 120 minutos tenderam a necessitar de hemotransfusão. A associação de cirurgia em pacientes idosos e tempo de CEC superior a 120 minutos resultou em maior utilização de sangue e hemoderivados no período pós-operatório.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the strategies adopted by our team to reduce the use of bloods components in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgical procedures. METHODS: Between October 2005 and January 2007, 101 patients were operated. Fifty-one (50.5% were male and 50 (49.5% female. Patients' age ranged from 13 to 80 years (mean of 50.76 years. The strategy consisted in using antifibrinolytics and normovolemic

  10. Alterations of growth, blood biochemical components and hormone profiles by intensified nutrition in growth retarded Japanese Black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Daisaku; Ikeda, Hiroki; Kazamatsuri, Hiroyuki; Ando, Takaaki; Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Oikawa, Masaaki; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu

    2010-09-01

    In order to determine the clinical conditions of Japanese Black (JB) cattle with growth retardation, we determined the changes of body growth, blood profiles of metabolism and hormones caused by intensified nutrition (sufficient total digestible nutrients and digestible crude protein for a target daily gain set at 1.2-1.3 kg/day) in three cattle. The daily gain (DG) was increased during the intensified period (Intense) compared with the preparation period (Pre), but the DG in the Intense period was 36-66% of the target DG. Serum albumin, total cholesterol, insulin and IGF-1 increased during the Intense period compared with the Pre period. Serum GH showed high levels in the Pre period, whereas it showed lower levels in the Intense period. These results suggested that the present growth retarded cattle had abnormalities in their metabolic systems and lacked nutrient absorption.

  11. Ex Vivo induction of Cytokines by mould components in whole blood of atopic and non-atopic volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Tanja; Sigsgaard, Torben; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the time-course release of IL-1beta and IL-8 protein as well as the steady state mRNA level of their genes in human whole blood after stimulation with LPS, beta-1,3-D-glucan and mould extracts. We compared the response of 10 non-atopic and 10 atopic individuals. In parallel......, cytokine protein release and the corresponding steady state mRNA level was determined by the standard ELISA and real-time on-line RT-PCR methods, respectively. Glucan induced the highest level of IL-1beta mRNA and protein release after 3 h. IL-8 was induced at 3 h after glucan, but not after LPS, induction...

  12. Qi and removing blood stasis in treating early stage cirrhosis%益气化瘀法治疗早期肝硬化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶思文

    2012-01-01

      目的:就益气化瘀法治疗早期肝硬化进行探讨。方法:选取三个案例进行分析,将益气健脾,活血化瘀辨证治疗肝硬化。结果:案例1:服上方治疗3个月后病愈。随访至今未见再发。案例2诸症悉除,复查肝功能,肝胆脾彩超均属正常范围。后用上方加减研末冲服月余,以巩固疗效,随访1年未见再发。案例3诸症悉除,复查肝功能及肝胆脾彩超,其中彩超示:脾脏肿大,余项均属正常范围。后用上方加减蜜丸服药月余,病告痊愈,随访2年未见再发。结论:臌胀为临床四大疑难重症之一,其病机为肝脾肾三脏功能失调,气、血、水停于腹中,本虚标实,虚实夹杂的病理过程。%  Objective:Yiqi Huayu method treatment early time liver cirrhosis of. Methods:a total of three cases were analyzed, the Qi of the spleen, promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis syndrome differentiation and treatment of liver cirrhosis. Results:the case of 1: served 3 months after the treatment was over. Up to now no longer hair. 2 cases are in addition to all disease, the liver function, liver spleen ultrasound within the normal range. After using the above addition and subtraction grind end each month, in order to consolidate the curative effect, follow-up of 1 years again. 3 cases are in addition to all disease, the liver function and liver spleen ultrasound, including ultrasonography indicated: enlargement of spleen, the remainder were within normal range. After taking over addition and subtraction pill month, disease to cure, follow-up of 2 years showed no recurrence. Conclusion:swelling for clinical four severe problems, its pathogenesis is spleen kidney three dirty function disorders, gas, blood, water stop in the abdomen, the superficial, inclusion of actual pathological process.

  13. The effect of different apheresis modalities on coagulation factor XIII level during antibody removal in ABO-blood type incompatible living related renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafusa, Norio; Hamasaki, Yoshifumi; Kawarasaki, Hiroo; Kido, Ryo; Shibagaki, Yugo; Ishikawa, Akira; Enomoto, Yutaka; Fujita, Toshiro; Noiri, Eisei; Nangaku, Masaomi

    2013-10-01

    Apheresis therapy is used to remove pathogenic antibodies within the recipient blood during ABO-incompatible living related renal transplantation (LRRT). Factor XIII (FXIII) is a coagulating factor. Its deficiency reportedly engenders perioperative bleeding. This study compared apheresis modalities from the perspective of the FXIII level. Cases 1-3 were treated only with double-filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) without (case 1) or with (cases 2 and 3) fresh frozen plasma (FFP) supplementation. Cases 4 and 5 were treated with simple plasma exchange (PEx) with FFP supplementation for the last session. Cases 1-3 showed a marked (case 1, 8.6%) or moderate (case 2, 26.2%; case 3, 28.4%) decrease in FXIII on the day before the procedure after the last apheresis session, although cases 4 (81.9%) and 5 (66.2%) did not. Case 1 experienced perioperative bleeding. The last session is usually performed the day before the surgical procedure. Therefore, FXIII elimination by DFPP might cause bleeding complications because of its slow recovery. The fact warrants that the last apheresis modality during the course might be PEx from the viewpoint of FXIII depletion.

  14. Changes in Central Aortic Pressure Levels, Wave Components and Determinants Associated with High Peripheral Blood Pressure States in Childhood: Analysis of Hypertensive Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Espinosa, Victoria; Curcio, Santiago; Marotta, Marco; Castro, Juan M; Arana, Maite; Peluso, Gonzalo; Chiesa, Pedro; Giachetto, Gustavo; Bia, Daniel; Zócalo, Yanina

    2016-10-01

    The aims were to determine whether children's high peripheral blood pressure states (HBP) are associated with increased central aortic blood pressure (BP) and to characterize hemodynamic and vascular changes associated with HBP in terms of changes in cardiac output (stroke volume, SV), arterial stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity, PWV), peripheral vascular resistances (PVR) and net and relative contributions of reflected waves to the aortic pulse amplitude. We included 154 subjects (mean age 11; range 4-16 years) assigned to one of two groups: normal peripheral BP (NBP, n = 101), defined as systolic and diastolic BP wave-derived parameters (augmentation index, forward and backward wave components' amplitude) were measured using gold-standard techniques, applanation tonometry (SphygmoCor) and oscillometry (Mobil-O-Graph). Independent of the presence of dyslipidemia and/or obesity, aortic systolic and pulse BP were higher in HBP than in NBP children. The increase in central BP could not be explained by an increase in the relative contribution of reflections to the aortic pressure wave, higher PVR or by an augmented peripheral reflection coefficient. Instead, the rise in central BP would be explained by an increase in the amplitude of both incident and reflected wave components.

  15. Multi-Component Profiling of Trace Volatiles in Blood by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry with Dynamic Headspace Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuta, Shoji; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Nishiumi, Shin; Yoshida, Masaru; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic headspace extraction method (DHS) with high-pressure injection is described. This dynamic extraction method has superior sensitivity to solid phase micro extraction, SPME and is capable of extracting the entire gas phase by purging the headspace of a vial. Optimization of the DHS parameters resulted in a highly sensitive volatile profiling system with the ability to detect various volatile components including alcohols at nanogram levels. The average LOD for a standard volatile mixture was 0.50 ng mL(-1), and the average LOD for alcohols was 0.66 ng mL(-1). This method was used for the analysis of volatile components from biological samples and compared with acute and chronic inflammation models. The method permitted the identification of volatiles with the same profile pattern as in vitro oxidized lipid-derived volatiles. In addition, the concentration of alcohols and aldehydes from the acute inflammation model samples were significantly higher than that for the chronic inflammation model samples. The different profiles between these samples could also be identified by this method. Finally, it was possible to analyze alcohols and low-molecular-weight volatiles that are difficult to analyze by SPME in high sensitivity and to show volatile profiling based on multi-volatile simultaneous analysis.

  16. Analysis of component blood transfusion in 249 cases of burned patients%249例烧伤患者的成分输血分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小丽; 张晓萍; 郭萍; 张晓晶

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析烧伤患者血液成分使用情况,为指导烧伤患者在治疗过程中实施科学合理输血提供依据。方法回顾性分析甘肃省人民医院2013年8月至2014年5月收治的249例烧伤患者输注的血液成分种类、数量。结果249例烧伤患者共用血液成分3962.50 U ,其中红细胞683.00 U (17.24%),血浆3274.50 U (82.64%),血小板5.00 U (0.12%)。O型血患者成分血用量最多(34.80%),AB型血患者用量最少(12.22%)。3岁以下烧伤患儿例数最多,占40.16%;40~<55岁年龄段患者的输血量最大。结论该院烧伤患者血浆用量较多,临床医生应权衡输注价值和输注风险,正确把握输血治疗时机,根据患者情况制订不同的输血治疗方案。%Objective To analyze status of utilization of blood components in burned patients so as to provide references for sci‐entific and rational transfusion during therapy .Methods 249 cases of burned patients in the Gansu Provincial Hospital from Aug . 2013 to May 2014 were retrospectively analyzed ,including types and amount of component blood transfusion .Results The total blood components transfused were 3 962 .50 U ,including red blood cells 683 .00 U (accounted for 17 .24% ) ,plasma 3 274 .50 U (accounted for 82 .64% ) ,platelet 5 .00 U (accounted for 0 .12% ) .O‐type blood was the maximum amount (34 .80% ) ,AB‐type blood was the minimum amount (12 .22% ) .The most amount were found in burned patients under the age of three (40 .16% ) .The maximum amount of blood transfusion was found in patients from 40 - <55 years old .Conclusion Burn patients in this hospital use more plasma ,clinicians should measure the value and transfusion risk before infusion of plasma .And it is necessary to grasp the opportunity of transfusion therapy correctly and make different transfusion regimens for burned patients .

  17. Blood Component Therapy and Coagulopathy in Trauma: A Systematic Review of the Literature from the Trauma Update Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Daniele; Cortegiani, Andrea; Chieregato, Arturo; Russo, Emanuele; Pellegrini, Concetta; De Blasio, Elvio; Mengoli, Francesca; Volpi, Annalisa; Grossi, Silvia; Gianesello, Lara; Orzalesi, Vanni; Fossi, Francesca; Chiara, Osvaldo; Coniglio, Carlo; Gordini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background Traumatic coagulopathy is thought to increase mortality and its treatment to reduce preventable deaths. However, there is still uncertainty in this field, and available literature results may have been overestimated. Methods We searched the MEDLINE database using the PubMed platform. We formulated four queries investigating the prognostic weight of traumatic coagulopathy defined according to conventional laboratory testing, and the effectiveness in reducing mortality of three different treatments aimed at contrasting coagulopathy (high fresh frozen plasma/packed red blood cells ratios, fibrinogen, and tranexamic acid administration). Randomized controlled trials were selected along with observational studies that used a multivariable approach to adjust for confounding. Strict criteria were adopted for quality assessment based on a two-step approach. First, we rated quality of evidence according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Then, this rating was downgraded if other three criteria were not met: high reporting quality according to shared standards, absence of internal methodological and statistical issues not detailed by the GRADE system, and absence of external validity issues. Results With few exceptions, the GRADE rating, reporting and methodological quality of observational studies was “very low”, with frequent external validity issues. The only two randomized trials retrieved were, instead, of high quality. Only weak evidence was found for a relation between coagulopathy and mortality. Very weak evidence was found supporting the use of fibrinogen administration to reduce mortality in trauma. On the other hand, we found high evidence that the use of 1:1 vs. 1:2 high fresh frozen plasma/packed red blood cells ratios failed to obtain a 12% mortality reduction. This does not exclude lower mortality rates, which have not been investigated. The use of tranexamic acid in trauma was supported by

  18. Screening of the components with blood-anticoagulant activity from marine algae Sargassum fusiforme and Undaria pinnatifida%羊栖菜和裙带菜中抗凝血活性物质的初步筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘承初; 周颖; 邬英睿; 甘建红; 周培根

    2004-01-01

    Components with blood-anticoagulant activity were fractionated from marine algae Sargassumfusiforrne and Undaria pinnatifida and the activity of the components was investigated by using the method of bioassay. It was found that the 80% ethanol soluble fraction of Sargassumfusiforme exhibited no blood-anticoagulant activity, while the components obtained from the 80 % ethanol insoluble fraction (hot water extract) gave obvious bloodanticoagulant activity. A further study suggests that the principal component in the hot water extract from Sargassumfusiforrne with high blood-anticoagulant activity should be sulfated polysaccharides, in which the activity was positively correlated with the content of total sugar and fucose in sulfated polysaccharides. As for Undaria pinnatifida, the n-butanol extract fractionated from the 80% ethanol soluble fraction had blood anticoagulant activity, while the petroleum ether, ether, ethyl acetate, or water extract showed no bloodanticoagulant activity.

  19. Hydroxycarbamide modulates components involved in the regulation of adenosine levels in blood cells from sickle-cell anemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Pinto, Ana C; Dias-Carlos, Carolina; Saldanha-Araujo, Felipe; Ferreira, Flávia I S; Palma, Patrícia V B; Araujo, Amélia G; Queiroz, Regina H C; Elion, Jacques; Covas, Dimas T; Zago, Marco A; Panepucci, Rodrigo A

    2014-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the role of adenosine (ADO) in sickle-cell anemia (SCA). ADO is produced by CD39 and CD73 and converted to inosine by adenosine deaminase (ADA). We evaluated the effects of hydroxycarbamide (HU) treatment on the modulation of adenosine levels in SCA patients. The expressions of CD39, CD73, and CD26 were evaluated by flow cytometry on blood cells in 15 HU-treated and 17 untreated patients and 10 healthy individuals. RNA was extracted from monocytes, and ADA gene expression was quantified by real-time PCR. ADA activity was also evaluated. We found that ADA transcripts were two times higher in monocytes of HU-treated patients, compared with untreated (P = 0.039). Monocytes of HU-treated patients expressed CD26, while monocytes of controls and untreated patients did not (P = 0.023). In treated patients, a lower percentage of T lymphocytes expressed CD39 compared with untreated (P = 0.003), and the percentage of T regulatory (Treg) cells was reduced in the treated group compared with untreated (P = 0.017) and controls (P = 0.0009). Besides, HU-treated patients displayed increased ADA activity, compared with untreated. Our results indicate a novel mechanism of action of HU mediated by the reduction of adenosine levels and its effects on pathophysiological processes in SCA.

  20. Expression polymorphism of the blood-brain barrier component P-glycoprotein (MDR1) in relation to Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuno, Taku; Landi, Maria-Teresa; Ceroni, Mauro; Caporaso, Neil; Bernucci, Ilaria; Nappi, Giuseppe; Martignoni, Emilia; Schaeffeler, Elke; Eichelbaum, Michel; Schwab, Matthias; Zanger, Ulrich M

    2002-10-01

    Because drug transporters such as P-glycoprotein, the product of the multidrug resistance (MDR1 ) gene, contribute to the function of the blood-brain barrier, we hypothesized that differences in their expression could affect the uptake of neurotoxic xenobiotics, thereby modulating interindividual susceptibility for neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. In a pilot case-control study comprising 95 Parkinson's disease patients (25 early-onset patients with onset age T in exon 26, 2677G > T,A in exon 21, and -129T > C in exon 1b. There were no statistically significant associations between any of these polymorphisms and Parkinson's disease. However, a distribution pattern consistent with our hypothesis was observed in that the frequency of the 3435T/T genotype, which had previously been associated with decreased P-glycoprotein expression and function, was highest in the early-onset Parkinson's disease group (36.0%), second-highest in the late-onset Parkinson's disease group (22.9%), and lowest in the control group (18.9%). Furthermore, we confirmed that the MDR1 exon 21 and exon 26 polymorphisms are in significant linkage disequilibrium since the [2677G, 3435C] and [2677T, 3435T] haplotypes were far more frequently observed than expected. In conclusion, MDR1 and other drug transporters represent plausible candidates as Parkinson's disease risk genes. Larger studies are required to confirm this role in the etiology of Parkinson's disease.

  1. 桑枝降血糖的活性部位研究%Study on Active Components of Reducing Blood Glucose from Ramulus Mori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛凤菊; 周祉延

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the active part of Ramulus Mori that reduces blood glucose,so as to extract it and obtain the active parts. Methods The percentage of reduction blood glucose was taken as in-dex and the in vivo hypoglycemic experiment was used to optimize the active components which can lower the blood glucose percolated from Ramulus Mori extracting solution. Polyamide was used to separate the active ex-traction,and the percentage of reduction blood glucose was also taken as index and the same experiment was used to optimize the active separated components which could lower the blood. Chromogenic reaction was used to identify the active extraction preliminarily. Results The experiment proved that the most effective extrac-tion was Ramulus Mori extracted by n - butyl alcohol and the percentage of reducing blood glucose was 26. 20% . The active extraction was separated by polyamide used different concentration of ethanol,then the most effective part was eluted by 10% ethanol and the percentage of reducing blood glucose was 31% . The result of chromogenic reaction proved that alkaloid compounds and amino acids were existed in the effective part. Conclusion It is initially identified that alkaloid compounds exist in active sites of reducing blood glu-cose in Ramulus Mori.%目的:研究桑枝降血糖的活性部位,对桑枝进行提取分离,初步得出降糖活性成分。方法桑枝渗漉后经过不同溶剂萃取,通过小鼠体内降糖实验,以高糖小鼠的血糖下降百分率为指标,确定桑枝的降糖活性萃取部位。采用聚酰胺树脂对活性萃取部位进行分离,同样通过降糖实验,以高糖小鼠的血糖下降百分率为指标,确定桑枝的降糖活性分离部位。采用理化显色反应,初步鉴别降糖活性物质。结果通过对桑枝提取液萃取后,降糖效果最明显的为正丁醇萃取部位,高糖小鼠血糖下降百分率为26.20%。正丁醇萃取部位采用聚酰胺树脂分

  2. A novel peptide delivers plasmids across blood-brain barrier into neuronal cells as a single-component transfer vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailing Fu

    Full Text Available There is no data up to now to show that peptide can deliver plasmid into brain as a single-component transfer vector. Here we show that a novel peptide, RDP (consisted of 39 amino acids, can be exploited as an efficient plasmid vector for brain-targeting delivery. The plasmids containing Lac Z reporter gene (pVAX-Lac Z and BDNF gene (pVAX-BDNF are complexed with RDP and intravenously injected into mice. The results of gel retardation assay show that RDP enables to bind DNA in a dose-dependent manner, and the X-Gal staining identity that Lac Z is specifically expressed in the brain. Also, the results of Western blot and immunofluorescence staining of BDNF indicate that pVAX-BDNF complexed with RDP can be delivered into brain, and show neuroprotective properties in experimental Parkinson's disease (PD model. The results demonstrate that RDP enables to bind and deliver DNA into the brain, resulting in specific gene expression in the neuronal cells. This strategy provides a novel, simple and effective approach for non-viral gene therapy of brain diseases.

  3. A novel peptide delivers plasmids across blood-brain barrier into neuronal cells as a single-component transfer vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ailing; Zhang, Miaomiao; Gao, Feiyan; Xu, Xingran; Chen, Zhangbao

    2013-01-01

    There is no data up to now to show that peptide can deliver plasmid into brain as a single-component transfer vector. Here we show that a novel peptide, RDP (consisted of 39 amino acids), can be exploited as an efficient plasmid vector for brain-targeting delivery. The plasmids containing Lac Z reporter gene (pVAX-Lac Z) and BDNF gene (pVAX-BDNF) are complexed with RDP and intravenously injected into mice. The results of gel retardation assay show that RDP enables to bind DNA in a dose-dependent manner, and the X-Gal staining identity that Lac Z is specifically expressed in the brain. Also, the results of Western blot and immunofluorescence staining of BDNF indicate that pVAX-BDNF complexed with RDP can be delivered into brain, and show neuroprotective properties in experimental Parkinson's disease (PD) model. The results demonstrate that RDP enables to bind and deliver DNA into the brain, resulting in specific gene expression in the neuronal cells. This strategy provides a novel, simple and effective approach for non-viral gene therapy of brain diseases.

  4. Appropriate utilization of blood and blood components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PaulM.Ness

    2001-01-01

    IntroductionThediscoveryoftheacquiredimmunedeficiencysyndrome (AIDS)inthe 1980’sanditsrapidevolutionasamajorconcernforphysiciansandtheirpatientshasleadtomanyquestionsaboutthesafetyofthebloodsupply .TheattentionplaceduponAIDShasresultedinnewdiscoveriesandtechnologiestoreducetheriskofothertransfusioncomplicationssuchashepatitis ,bacterialcontamination ,andtransfusion associatedgraftversushostdisease .Concernsaboutbloodsafetyhavefocusedmuchattentiononalternativebloodtransfusionstrategiessuchasautologousblood ,...

  5. Highlights of PBTI Coimbra Conference on PRT of Plasma & Current Opinions on Pathogen Reduction Treatment of Blood Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Gracinda; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2015-04-01

    Two experts from Octapharma and from Cerus addressed, in very concise ways, the concerns about non-viral inactivated FFP and how they managed to obtain highest standard of safety margin for pathogen reduction treatment [PRT] of plasma. The session was moderated by Portuguese Institute of Blood and Transplantation (PIBT) consultant advisor [Jerard Seghatchian] with long standing familiarity and international recognition in PR technologies for plasma, platelets and WB/red cells. The focus of conference was mainly on the criteria of acceptability of PRT-FFP; added values of having diversity in choice without fears of liability, as both of PRT technologies provide an excellent safeguard margins, for more than a decade of usage. In most European countries, it is believed that patients' safety come first followed by the safe usage initiatives, in particular using locally available products. Portugal is finally going forward with the implementation PRT plasma using its own FFP for their clinical use. The round table Q&A session focused on the impacts of the additional processing, which is still continuously improving, on the residual/emerging pathogen infectivity; eliminating the clinical impacts of donors viable leukocytes; the degree of altered product potency in particular cold activation of FVII; and loss of endothelial permeability factors during fluid storage of plasma. Both speakers highlighted their product safety and clinical efficacy using both routine in vitro, including the modern proteomic tests to establish the relevant changes in various parameters and in the overall clinical outcomes. The advancements in pharmacovigilance and hemovigilance, regulatory aspects and cost effectiveness were also highlighted. A local speaker [from the PIBT] described the state of the art of local processing issues and overall required standards used both during validation and the intercept process scale up, which is going ahead smoothly to providing the highest safety standards

  6. Down-regulation of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1 in peripheral nucleated blood cells associated with premature ovarian failure (POF and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlström Per-Olof

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1 is a member of a progesterone-binding complex implicated in female reproduction. We aimed i to determine the natural expression of PGRMC1 in peripheral nucleated blood cells throughout the menstrual cycle and ii to investigate any association between PGRMC1 levels in leukocytes and conditions characterized by reduced fertility. Methods We analyzed PGRMC1 expression in peripheral leukocytes from 15 healthy cycling women over four weeks. Additionally, we determined PGRMC1 levels in samples from patients with premature ovarian failure (POF and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS as well as in healthy postmenopausal women and male controls. The levels of PGRMC1 protein in nucleated peripheral blood cells were quantified by Western blot analysis. Results PGRMC1 levels did not vary significantly throughout the menstrual cycle. We observed a significant down-regulation of PGRMC1 in postmenopausal women and in patients with premature ovarian failure (POF and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS when compared to early follicular phase of healthy women. Conclusion This study suggests that reduced levels of PGRMC1 in peripheral leukocytes are associated with perturbed ovulatory function.

  7. Effect of blood components, abdominal distension, and ecdysone therapy on the ultrastructural organization of posterior midgut epithelial cells and perimicrovillar membranes in Rhodnius prolixus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Albuquerque-Cunha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of blood components, nerve-cord severance, and ecdysone therapy on the posterior midgut epithelial cells of 5th-instar Rhodnius prolixus nymphs 10 days after feeding were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Cutting the nerve-cord of the blood-fed insects partially reduced the development of microvilli and perimicrovillar membranes (PMM, and produced large vacuoles and small electrondense granules; insects fed on Ringer's saline diet exhibited well developed microvilli and low PMM production; swolled rough endoplasmatic reticulum and electrondense granules; Ringer's saline meal with ecdysone led to PMM development, glycogen particles, and several mitochondria in the cytoplasm; epithelial cells of the insects fed on Ringer's saline meal whose nerve-cord was severed showed heterogeneously distributed microvilli with reduced PMM production and a great quantity of mitochondria and glycogen in the cytoplasm; well developed microvilli and PMM were observed in nerve-cord severed insects fed on Ringer's saline meal with ecdysone; Ringer's saline diet containing hemoglobin recovered the release of PMM; and insects fed on human plasma showed slightly reduced PMM production, although the addition of ecdysone in the plasma led to a normal midgut ultrastructural organization. We suggest that the full development of microvilli and PMM in the epithelial cells depends on the abdominal distension in addition to ingestion of hemoglobin, and the release of ecdysone.

  8. Unresolved clinical aspects and safety hazards of blood derived- EV/MV in stored blood components: From personal memory lanes to newer perspectives on the roles of EV/MV in various biological phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghatchian, Jerard; Amiral, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Blood cells generate heterogeneous populations of vesicles that are delivered, as small-specialized packages of highly active cell fragments in blood circulation, having almost similar functional activities, as the mother cells. These so called extracellular vesicles are the essential part of an energy-dependent natural apoptotic process; hence their beneficial and harmful biological functions cannot be ignored. Evidence is accumulating, that cellular derived vesicles, originate from all viable cells including: megakaryocytes, platelets, red blood cells, white blood cells and endothelial cells, the highest in proportions from platelets. Shedding can also be triggered by pathological activation of inflammatory processes and activation of coagulation or complement pathways, or even by shear stress in the circulation. Structurally, so called MV/EV appear to be, sometimes inside-out and sometimes outside-in cell fragments having a bilayered phospholipid structure exposing coagulant-active phosphatidylserine, expressing various membrane receptors, and they serve as cell-to-cell shuttles for bioactive molecules such as lipids, growth factors, microRNAs, and mitochondria. Ex vivo processing of blood into its components, embodying centrifugation, processing by various apheresis procedures, leukoreduction, pathogen reduction, and finally storage in different media and different types of blood bags, also have major impacts on the generation and retention of MV content. These artificially generated small, but highly liable packages, together with the original pool of MVs collected from the donor, do exhibit differing biological activities, and are not inert elements and should be considered as a parameter of blood safety in haemovigilance programmes. Harmonization and consensus in sampling protocols, sample handling, processing, and assessment methods, in particular converting to full automation, are needed to achieve consensual interpretations. This review focuses on some of

  9. An investigation and analysis on blood component transfusions in our hospital from 2005 to 2009%2005-2009年我院成分输血的调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永贤; 黄瑞玉; 林倩清

    2011-01-01

    Objective To provide support for reasonable, safe blood use by analyzing the clinical data on blood transfusion. Methods The clinical uses of blood components and whole blood during the period of 2005 to 2009 in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Results The rate of blood component transfusions was 96.66% in 2005, 98.33% in 2006, 98.73% in 2007, 99.63% in 2008, and 99.74% in 2009, all above 96%. Mainly were suspended red cells(54.63% in 2009)and blood plasma(34.03% in 2009). Uses of white cells were eliminated. Conclusions The use of blood components in our hospital is increasing year by year. The blood recipients are mostly women and children, which is different from the other medical reports on blood component transfusions.%目的 统计和分析临床输血资料,为指导临床科学、合理、安伞用血提供依据.方法 收集资料,对本院2005-2009年临床各成分血和全血用量进行回顾性分析.结果 2005-2009年成分血的使用率分别为96.66%、98.33%、98.73%、99.63%和99.74%,均大于96%以上,以悬浮红细胞(2009,54.63%)、血浆为主(2009,34.03%),白细胞的使用被淘汰.结论 我院成分血的使用有逐年上升趋势,开展较满意;用血对象以妇婴为主,成分血的使用与报道有所不同.

  10. What Is Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foundation for America's Blood Centers ADRP What is blood? PUBLICATIONS EDUCATION PRESS ROOM BLOG CAREERS CONTACT ABC ... for patients who need it. One unit of blood can be separated into the following components: Nearly ...

  11. Safety of autologous blood component transfusion during cesarean section in patients with Rh(D)-negative blood group%Rh(D)阴性血型病人剖宫产术中成分式自体输血的安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春波; 叶松; 严海雅; 张檀; 黄巧波; 陈俊妍; 孙志强

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the safety of autologous blood component transfusion during cesarean section in patients with Rh (D)-negative blood group.Methods Thirty ASA Ⅰ or Ⅱ patients of Rh (D)-negative blood group, aged 20-35 yr, weighing 50-80 kg, undergoing elective cesarean section, were enrolled in this study.After lactated Ringer' s solution 7 ml/kg was infused, blood was obtained from radial artery at a rate of 60-80ml/min, and blood volume was maintained by simultaneous infusion of 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 at the same rate. The collected blood was subjected to two cycles of autologous blood component separation. Blood collecting during each cycle was stopped 15 s after red blood cells were separated. The autologous blood was infused when the blood loss≥20% of blood volume. The autologous blood was infused after suture of the uterus when the blood loss 0.05).脐动脉血pH值、BE和乳酸浓度均在正常范围内.胎儿娩出后1、5 min时Apgar评分分别为(9.0±0.8)、(9.2±0.8)分;术中出血量(405±28)ml,所有病人未输注异体血.结论 Rh(D)阴性血型病人剖宫产术中成分式自体输血的安全性良好.

  12. Establishment and application of viral inactivation/removal technology for blood products%血液制品病毒灭活/去除技术平台的建立与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹惠琼; 王蕊; 朱凤宣; 王建国; 章金刚

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish viral inactivation/removal techniques for blood products , and apply them to inacti-vation/removal process validation of blood products .Methods Enveloped and non-enveloped model viruses were propaga-ted.Viral inactivation/removal techniques for blood products ,including solvent/detergent (S/D) treatment, low pH incuba-tion, dry heat method, pasteurization,and nanofiltration, were established.The virus titer was evaluated using cytopathic effects ( CPE) and Spearman and Karber method .The viral inactivation/removal techniques were believed to be effective when LRV≥4.These techniques were used in viral inactivation /removal validation of blood products .Results Enveloped model viruses were inactivated through S/D treatment and the low pH incubation method .Enveloped and non-enveloped model viruses were inactivated through dry heat and pasteurization .Within a certain range of filtration capacity , PPV was removed through nanofiltration .Conclusion The established viral inactivation/removal techniques can be used in viral inactivation/removal process validation of blood products , which can improve viral safety of blood products .%目的:建立血液制品病毒灭活/去除技术并应用于血液制品的病毒灭活/去除工艺验证。方法建立指示病毒库以及S/D处理法、低pH孵放法、干热法、巴氏消毒法、纳米膜过滤法等血液制品病毒灭活/去除技术,采用细胞病变法测定病毒滴度,Spearman和Karber法计算病毒滴度,病毒滴度降低量( LRV)≥4判为有效,对企业的血液制品样品进行病毒灭活/去除验证。结果 S/D处理法和低pH孵放法可有效灭活有包膜指示病毒,干热法和巴氏消毒法可有效灭活有、无包膜指示病毒,纳米膜过滤法可在一定过滤量范围内去除PPV指示病毒。结论所建立的血液制品病毒灭活/去除技术可用于血液制品的病毒灭活/去除工艺验证,以提高血液制品的病毒安全性。

  13. Effects of feeding dry glycerol on milk production, nutrients digestibility and blood components in primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafilzadeh, F.; Piri, V.; Karami-Shabankareh, H.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucogenic property of glycerol supplementation in the dairy cow’s diet. Sixty primiparous cows (control, n=30, and glycerol supplemented, n=30) were used to measure milk yield and components, blood hormone and metabolite profiles, and body condition score. Feed intake and apparent total-tract digestibility were also measured using 10 primiparous cows (control, n=5, and glycerol supplemented, n=5). Dry glycerol was top dressed at 250 g/day/cow from parturition to 21 days postpartum. Average feed intake, milk yield and components were not affected by glycerol supplementation. Apparent total–tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were not influenced by dry glycerol supplementation, but lipid digestibility was greater (p=0.01) in cows fed glycerol. The serum concentration of glucose and insulin tended to be higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p=0.1; p=0.06, respectively). While, serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were not affected. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1 to 5 after calving (p=0.09). The glucogenic effect of glycerol did not affect milk yield during the first 3 weeks of lactation. However, daily milk yield during the 13 weeks recording period was higher in the glycerol-supplemented cows (28.5 vs. 30.3 kg, p<0.001). Percentages of cows cycling at the planned breeding date was greater (p=0.01) for cows fed dry glycerol. The results demonstrated that feeding dry glycerol as a glucogenic supply could be useful in saving body reserves and improving energy balance of primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period. (Author)

  14. Effects of feeding dry glycerol on milk production, nutrients digestibility and blood components in primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farokh Kafilzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucogenic property of glycerol supplementation in the dairy cow’s diet. Sixty primiparous cows (control, n=30, and glycerol supplemented, n=30 were used to measure milk yield and components, blood hormone and metabolite profiles, and body condition score. Feed intake and apparent total-tract digestibility were also measured using 10 primiparous cows (control, n=5, and glycerol supplemented, n=5. Dry glycerol was top dressed at 250 g/day/cow from parturition to 21 days postpartum. Average feed intake, milk yield and components were not affected by glycerol supplementation. Apparent total–tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were not influenced by dry glycerol supplementation, but lipid digestibility was greater (p=0.01 in cows fed glycerol. The serum concentration of glucose and insulin tended to be higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p=0.1; p=0.06, respectively. While, serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were not affected. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1 to 5 after calving (p=0.09. The glucogenic effect of glycerol did not affect milk yield during the first 3 weeks of lactation. However, daily milk yield during the 13 weeks recording period was higher in the glycerol-supplemented cows (28.5 vs. 30.3 kg, p<0.001. Percentages of cows cycling at the planned breeding date was greater (p=0.01 for cows fed dry glycerol. The results demonstrated that feeding dry glycerol as a glucogenic supply could be useful in saving body reserves and improving energy balance of primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period.

  15. Clinical Experience in Treating Pregnancy Uterine Cavity Effusion by Tonifying Kidney to Remove Blood Stasis%补肾祛瘀法治疗妊娠宫腔积液临床体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓芳; 楼凯凌

    2016-01-01

    Objective]To explore clinical experience in treating pregnancy uterine cavity effusion by tonifying kidney to remove blood stasis. [Method] With the study of TCM literature on pregnancy uterine cavity effusion, by combining with clinical practice, it expounds pathogenesis and treatment of syndrome differentiation of pregnancy uterine cavity effusion. [Result]The main pathogenesis of this disease focuses on kidney deficiency and blood stasis which can impair Chong and Ren channels,inducing insecurity of the fetal origin,so the clinical treatment principle centers on tonifying kidney to remove blood stasis,and the self-decoction that is the basic recipe may change with symptom, making the fetal origin secure. [Conclusion] Method of tonifying kidney to remove blood stasis is quite effective for pregnancy uterine cavity effusion in clinic,and it is worth further study.%[目的]探讨补肾祛瘀法治疗妊娠宫腔积液的临床体会。[方法]通过研习有关妊娠宫腔积液的中医文献,并结合临床实践,论述妊娠宫腔积液的发病机理和辨证论治。[结果]妊娠宫腔积液的主要病机以肾虚为本,血瘀为标,肾虚夹瘀,冲任受损,胎元不固,临床治疗以“补肾祛瘀”为大法,并以自拟方为基本方,随症加减治疗,使肾旺血充,胎元稳固。[结论]临床上采用补肾祛瘀法治疗妊娠宫腔积液疗效确切,值得进一步深入研究。

  16. Blood Component Use in a Sub-Saharan African Country : Results of a 4-Year Evaluation of Diagnoses Associated With Transfusion Orders in Namibia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitman, John P.; Wilkinson, Robert; Liu, Yang; von Finckenstein, Bjorn; Sibinga, Cees Th. Smit; Lowrance, David W.; Marfin, Anthony A.; Postma, Maarten J.; Mataranyika, Mary; Basavaraju, Sridhar V.

    2015-01-01

    National blood use patterns in sub-Saharan Africa are poorly described. Although malaria and maternal hemorrhage remain important drivers of blood demand across Africa, economic growth and changes in malaria, HIV/AIDS, and noncommunicable disease epidemiology may contribute to changes in blood deman

  17. The Effect of Blood Component Transfusion Training on Rational Clinical Use of Plasma%成分输血培训教育对血浆临床合理使用率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任民; 丁显平

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the method to improve rational use rate of plasma through all-round blood component transfusion training. Methods:The cases of clinical blood component transfusion from February,2012 to march,2013 were selected and investigated. After all-round blood component transfusion training for clinician under the requirements of〞the technical specifications of clinical blood transfusion〞 and〞the management measures of blood for clinical use in medical institutions〞 issued by the ministry of health,the rational usage of blood component was analyzed and compared before and af-ter training. Results:Before training,in terms of the rate of irrational use of blood components,the highest was plasma,followed by platelets and cryoprecipitate. After training,the rate of rational use increased from 47. 92% to 84. 56% and the difference was statistically significant( P <0. 05 ). Conclusion:The blood component transfusion training can obviously improve the rate of rational use of plasma.%目的:通过对成分输血知识的培训后效果调查,探讨提高血浆合理使用率的方法。方法:调查2012年2月~2013年3月临床成份输注情况,按照卫生部《临床输血技术规范》、《医疗机构临床用血管理办法》要求对临床医生进行培训,比较培训前后血浆成份输注合理利用的变化。结果:培训前临床输注血液成份不合理使用率中,血浆最高,其次为血小板和冷沉淀;培训后血浆合理使用率由培训前47.92%提升到84.56%,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论:临床医生规范输血培训能提高血浆的合理使用率。

  18. Hair Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hair Removal KidsHealth > For Teens > Hair Removal A A A ... recommend an electrologist with the proper credentials. Laser Hair Removal How It Works: A laser is directed through ...

  19. Clinical Research of Expelling Phlegm and Removing Blood Stasis Method Combined with Acupuncture in the Treatment of Tinnitus%豁痰祛瘀法配合针刺疗法治疗耳鸣临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟渠; 宋红梅; 袁淼; 熊大经; 郑桃晓

    2012-01-01

    目的:评价豁痰祛瘀法配合针刺疗法治疗耳鸣的临床疗效.方法:将60例耳鸣患者随机分为对照组30例和治疗组30例,对照组采用豁痰祛瘀法治疗,治疗组在对照组的基础上配合针刺治疗,均以30 d为1个疗程.结果:对照组有效率为73.33%,治疗组有效率为90.00%,两组有效率比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:豁痰祛瘀法配合针刺治疗耳鸣疗效显著.%Objective:To evaluate the curative effect of expelling phlegm and removing blood stasis method combined with acupuncture in the treatment of tinnitus. Methods:60 cases with tinnitus were randomly divided into control group and treatment group,30 cases of each group. The control group was given expelling phlegm and removing blood stasis method and the treatment group was given additional acupuncture treatment based on control group ,30 d as one course of treatment. Results: The effective rate was 73.33% in the control group and 90.00% in the treatment group. Conclusion: The curative effect of expelling phlegm and removing blood stasis method combined with acupuncture in the treatment of tinnitus is distinct.

  20. Synthesis and evaluation of the potential deleterious effects of ZnO nanomaterials (nanoneedles and nanoflowers) on blood components, including albumin, erythrocytes and human isolated primary neutrophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrello, Bruna; Paracatu, Luana Chiquetto; de Carvalho Bertozo, Luiza; Paino, Iêda Maria Martinez; Lisboa-Filho, Paulo Noronha; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias

    2016-07-01

    The application of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in biomaterials has increased significantly in the recent years. Here, we aimed to study the potential deleterious effects of ZnO on blood components, including human serum albumin (HSA), erythrocytes and human isolated primary neutrophils. To test the influence of the morphology of the nanomaterials, ZnO nanoneedles (ZnO-nn) and nanoflowers (ZnO-nf) were synthesized. The zeta potential and mean size of ZnO-nf and ZnO-nn suspensions in phosphate-buffered saline were -10.73 mV and 3.81 nm and -5.27 mV and 18.26 nm, respectively. The incubation of ZnO with HSA did not cause its denaturation as verified by the absence of significant alterations in the intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence and in the circular dichroism spectrum of the protein. The capacity of HSA as a drug carrier was not affected as verified by employing site I and II fluorescent markers. Neither type of ZnO was able to provoke the activation of neutrophils, as verified by lucigenin- and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence and by the extracellular release of hydrogen peroxide. ZnO-nf, but not ZnO-nn, induced the haemolysis of erythrocytes. In conclusion, our results reinforce the concept that ZnO nanomaterials are relatively safe for usage in biomaterials. A potential exception is the capacity of ZnO-nf to promote the lysis of erythrocytes, a discovery that shows the importance of the morphology in the toxicity of nanoparticles.

  1. [Indices of static and dynamic components of pressure load (assessed by 24-hour blood pressure monitoring) and the state of renal function in patients with essential hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelveian, P A; Buniatian, M S; Oshchepkova, E V; Lazareva, N V; Rogoza, A N

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate possible relationship between parameters of blood pressure (BP) profile and glomerular filtration rate in patients (pts) with I-II stage essential hypertension (EH). Material and methods. We studied 120 pts (97 men), aged 23-65 (50,2+/-0,6) years with I (n=98) and II (n=22) stage EH. In BP profile (SL-90207) we calculated 24-hour, daytime, nighttime values of systolic, diastolic, pulse pressures (SBP, DBP, PP), time load (TL), variability and nocturnal fall (NF) of BP. The state of renal function was assessed by measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) calculated by the Cockcroft formula. Results. After nonlinear statistical analysis by Gauss-Newton all patients were divided into three groups according to GFR tertiles. Significant differences were found between these groups by 24-hour, nighttime and daytime values of SBP and DBP. Values of SBP were the lowest in group II. In group II lowest values of PP were also observed, but statistically significant differences were found only in nocturnal PP values between groups II and III. There were no significant differences between groups by TL and NF of BP. In group Ill (high GFR) variability of daytime values of SBP and DBF were significantly higher. Univariate correlation analysis showed statistically significant negative relationship between GFR and nocturnal PP in patients with lowest level of GFR. Positive correlations between nocturnal values of PP and GFR in groups II and III were also observed. Conclusion. These results indicated the presence of strong relationship between high values of nocturnal PP and decreasing of glomerular filtration rate in patients with EH and thus confirmed significance of "constant" and "dynamic" components of pressure load as a marker of impairment of renal function.

  2. 补肾祛瘀法治疗先兆流产的研究进展%Research progress of invigorating the kidney and removing blood stasis on the treatment of threatened abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚文姣; 罗纳新

    2015-01-01

    先兆流产是孕期最常见的一种并发症,据流行病学调查其发病率高达10%~15%,属于中医学中的"胎漏、胎动不安"、"妊娠腹痛"等范畴.导致胎漏、胎动不安的主要病机是冲任受损、胎元不固.常见分型有肾虚、血热、气血虚弱和血瘀型[1].但临床上以肾虚血瘀型最为常见,现就近年来临床上用补肾祛瘀法治疗肾虚血瘀型先兆流产的研究进展作综述.%Threatened abortion is a complication of pregnancy is the most common, according to the epidemiological survey of the incidence rate of up to 10% ~ 15%, which belongs to in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) "tire leakage, disturbed fetal movement", "abdominal pain in pregnancy" category. Result the main pathogenesis of fetal leakage, fetal irritability is damaged, not solid Taiyuan chongren. Common types of kidney deficiency, blood heat, Qi and blood deficiency and blood stasis type [1]. But clinical to kidney deficiency and blood stasis type is most common, now in recent years come bed with the research progress of threatened abortion with tonifying kidney and removing blood stasis method treatment of kidney deficiency and blood stasis are reviewed.

  3. Comparative tissue distribution profiles of five major bio-active components in normal and blood deficiency rats after oral administration of Danggui Buxue Decoction by UPLC-TQ/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xuqin; Tang, Yuping; Zhu, Huaxu; Li, Weixia; Li, Zhenhao; Li, Wei; Duan, Jin-ao

    2014-01-01

    Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) were frequently combined and used in China as herbal pair called as Danggui Buxue Decoction (DBD) for treatment of blood deficiency syndrome, such as women's ailments. This study is to investigate the tissue distribution profiles of five major bio-active constituents (ferulic acid, caffeic acid, calycosin-7-O-β-glucoside, ononin and astragaloside IV) in DBD after oral administration of DBD in blood deficiency rats, and to compare the difference between normal and blood deficiency rats. The blood deficiency rats were induced by bleeding from orbit at the dosages of 5.0mLkg(-1) every day, and the experimental period was 12 days. At the finally day of experimental period, both normal and blood deficiency rats were orally administrated with DBD, and then the tissues samples were collected at different time points. Ferulic acid, caffeic acid, calycosin-7-O-β-glucoside, ononin and astragaloside IV in different tissues were detected simultaneously by UPLC-TQ/MS, and the histograms were drawn. The results showed that the overall trend was CLiver>CKidney>CHeart>CSpleen>CLung, CC-30min>CM-30min>CM-60min>CC-5min>CM-5min>CC-60min>CM-240min>CC-240min. The contents of the detected compounds in liver were more than that in other tissues no matter in normal or blood deficiency rats. Compared to normal rats, partial contents of the compounds in blood deficiency rats' tissues at different time points had significant difference (Pblood deficiency animals which is conducted by bleeding. And the results demonstrated that the five DBD components in normal and blood deficiency rats had obvious differences in some organs and time points, suggesting that the blood flow and perfusion rate of the organ were altered in blood deficiency animals.

  4. Core bioactive components promoting blood circulation in the traditional Chinese medicine compound xueshuantong capsule (CXC) based on the relevance analysis between chemical HPLC fingerprint and in vivo biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Liang, Jie-ping; Li, Pei-bo; Peng, Wei; Peng, Yao-yao; Zhang, Gao-min; Xie, Cheng-shi; Long, Chao-feng; Su, Wei-wei

    2014-01-01

    Compound xueshuantong capsule (CXC) is an oral traditional Chinese herbal formula (CHF) comprised of Panax notoginseng (PN), Radix astragali (RA), Salvia miltiorrhizae (SM), and Radix scrophulariaceae (RS). The present investigation was designed to explore the core bioactive components promoting blood circulation in CXC using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and animal studies. CXC samples were prepared with different proportions of the 4 herbs according to a four-factor, nine-level uniform design. CXC samples were assessed with HPLC, which identified 21 components. For the animal experiments, rats were soaked in ice water during the time interval between two adrenaline hydrochloride injections to reduce blood circulation. We assessed whole-blood viscosity (WBV), erythrocyte aggregation and red corpuscle electrophoresis indices (EAI and RCEI, respectively), plasma viscosity (PV), maximum platelet aggregation rate (MPAR), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time (PT). Based on the hypothesis that CXC sample effects varied with differences in components, we performed grey relational analysis (GRA), principal component analysis (PCA), ridge regression (RR), and radial basis function (RBF) to evaluate the contribution of each identified component. Our results indicate that panaxytriol, ginsenoside Rb1, angoroside C, protocatechualdehyde, ginsenoside Rd, and calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside are the core bioactive components, and that they might play different roles in the alleviation of circulation dysfunction. Panaxytriol and ginsenoside Rb1 had close relevance to red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, angoroside C was related to platelet aggregation, protocatechualdehyde was involved in intrinsic clotting activity, ginsenoside Rd affected RBC deformability and plasma proteins, and calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside influenced extrinsic clotting activity. This study indicates that angoroside C, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, panaxytriol, and

  5. 中药活血化淤法改善脑出积压患者运动功能疗效观察%Observation of improvement of movement function by Chinese drugs through promoting circulation by removing blood stasis in patients with brain hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹德铭; 高聪; 沈岩松

    2002-01-01

    @@ Background:Disability rate following brain hemorrhage is high.Rcovery and improvement of movement function is closely related to management of brain hemorrhage during acute phage,absorption of hematoma.According to traditional medicine principle,Chinese drugs promote absorption and functional recovery through promoting blood circulation by removing blood stasis.The Chinese drugs are safe in clinic

  6. Hot gas filtration: Investigations to remove gaseous pollutant components out of flue gas during hot gas filtration. Final report; HGR: Untersuchung zur Minimierung von gasfoermigen Schadstoffen aus Rauchgasen bei der Heissgasfiltration. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, A.; Gross, R.; Renz, U.

    1998-07-01

    Power plants with gas and steam turbines in pressurized fluidized bed or pressurized gasification processes enable power generation of coal with high efficiency and little emissions. To run these plants the cleaning of the flue gas is necessary before entering the turbines under the conditions of high temperature and pressure. Ceramic filter elements are the most probable method for hot gas cleaning. A simultaneous reduction of gaseous pollutant components under these conditions could help to make the whole process more efficient. The aim of the project is to integrate the catalytic reduction of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitric oxides into the hot gas filtration with ceramic filter elements as a one step mecanism. The project is focused on: - the catalytic behaviour of ferruginous ashes of brown coal, - the effectiveness of calcinated aluminates as a catalyst to remove uncombusted hydrocarbons in a hot gas filtration unit, - numerical simulation of the combined removal of particles and gaseous pollutant components out of the flue gas. (orig.) [Deutsch] Gas- und Dampfturbinen-Kraftwerke mit Druckwirbelschicht- oder mit Druckvergasungsverfahren ermoeglichen die Verstromung von Kohle mit hohem Wirkungsgrad und niedrigen Emissionen. Eine Voraussetzung fuer den Betrieb dieser Anlagen ist die Entstaubung der Rauchgase bei hohen Temperaturen und Druecken. Abreinigungsfilter mit keramischen Elementen werden dazu eingesetzt. Eine Reduzierung gasfoermiger Schadstoffe unter den gleichen Bedingungen koennte die Rauchgaswaesche ersetzen. Ziel des Gesamtvorhabens ist es, die Integration von Heissgasfiltration und katalytischem Abbau der Schadstoffe Kohlenmonoxid, Kohlenwasserstoffe und Stickoxide in einem Verfahrensschritt zu untersuchen. Die Arbeitsschwerpunkte dieses Teilvorhabens betreffen - die katalytische Wirkung eisenhaltiger Braunkohlenaschen, - die Wirksamkeit des Calciumaluminats als Katalysator des Abbaus unverbrannter Kohlenwasserstoffe im Heissgasfilter

  7. Tick Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ticks Tickborne diseases abroad Borrelia miyamotoi Borrelia mayonii Tick Removal Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir If ... a tick quite effectively. How to remove a tick Use fine-tipped tweezers to grasp the tick ...

  8. Fc-fragment removal allows the EPO-Fc fusion protein to be detected in blood samples by IEF-PAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnikov, Pavel; Krotov, Grigory; Mesonzhnik, Natalia; Efimova, Yulia; Rodchenkov, Grigory

    2015-01-01

    EPO-Fc proteins have been under investigation as a potential drug for treating anaemia and have shown larger half-life values than other erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). Sodium dodecyl sulfate/sodium N-lauroylsarcosinate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS/SAR-PAGE) methods and subsequent immunoblotting are used for routine anti-doping analysis. This paper reports that EPO-Fc fusion proteins can be detected in serum samples by isoelectric focusing-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (IEF-PAGE) in carrier ampholyte-based gels with a pH 2-6 gradient after removing the Fc part via site-specific IdeS protease cleavage. The IdeS-digested EPO-Fc protein yields three fragments: two Fc fragments and one dimeric EPO-hinge fragment. After IEF-PAGE was followed by double Western blotting with chemiluminescent detection, the dimeric EPO-hinge fragment showed a unique isoelectric pattern, which differed from those of any other currently known analogue of EPO. We observed that the removal of the Fc fragment from EPO-Fc reduced the apparent molecular weight of entire fusion protein and increased its electrophoretic mobility. As a result, the band for the EPO-hinge fragment was located in a region between the rEPO and NESP standards, at which lower amounts of serum proteins are present. Simple and selective protocols for determining the EPO-Fc protein in human serum were developed to extend the methodological anti-doping arsenal. This protocol has been characterized. The limit of detection (LOD) of the IEF-PAGE method was 20 pg, and that of SDS/SAR-PAGE was 15 pg.

  9. Leukocyte-depletion of blood components does not significantly reduce the risk of infectious complications. Results of a double-blinded, randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titlestad, I. L.; Ebbesen, L. S.; Ainsworth, A. P.

    2001-01-01

    Allogeneic blood transfusions are claimed to be an independent risk factor for postoperative infections in open colorectal surgery due to immunomodulation. Leukocyte-depletion of erythrocyte suspensions has been shown in some open randomized studies to reduce the rate of postoperative infection...

  10. Blood sugar test - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood glucose level ( hypoglycemia ) may be due to: Hypopituitarism (a pituitary gland disorder) Underactive thyroid gland or ... tonic-clonic seizure Glucagon blood test Glucagonoma Hyperthyroidism Hypopituitarism Hypothyroidism Insulinoma Low blood sugar Multiple endocrine neoplasia ( ...

  11. Volume Tracking: A new method for quantitative assessment and visualization of intracardiac blood flow from three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-component magnetic resonance velocity mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arheden Håkan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional and morphological changes of the heart influence blood flow patterns. Therefore, flow patterns may carry diagnostic and prognostic information. Three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-directional phase contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (4D PC-CMR can image flow patterns with unique detail, and using new flow visualization methods may lead to new insights. The aim of this study is to present and validate a novel visualization method with a quantitative potential for blood flow from 4D PC-CMR, called Volume Tracking, and investigate if Volume Tracking complements particle tracing, the most common visualization method used today. Methods Eight healthy volunteers and one patient with a large apical left ventricular aneurysm underwent 4D PC-CMR flow imaging of the whole heart. Volume Tracking and particle tracing visualizations were compared visually side-by-side in a visualization software package. To validate Volume Tracking, the number of particle traces that agreed with the Volume Tracking visualizations was counted and expressed as a percentage of total released particles in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Two independent observers described blood flow patterns in the left ventricle using Volume Tracking visualizations. Results Volume Tracking was feasible in all eight healthy volunteers and in the patient. Visually, Volume Tracking and particle tracing are complementary methods, showing different aspects of the flow. When validated against particle tracing, on average 90.5% and 87.8% of the particles agreed with the Volume Tracking surface in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Inflow patterns in the left ventricle varied between the subjects, with excellent agreement between observers. The left ventricular inflow pattern in the patient differed from the healthy subjects. Conclusion Volume Tracking is a new visualization method for blood flow measured by 4D PC-CMR. Volume Tracking

  12. Cooling system for electronic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, William James; Colgan, Evan George; Gerken, James Dorance; Marroquin, Christopher Michael; Tian, Shurong

    2016-05-17

    Embodiments of the present invention provide for non interruptive fluid cooling of an electronic enclosure. One or more electronic component packages may be removable from a circuit card having a fluid flow system. When installed, the electronic component packages are coincident to and in a thermal relationship with the fluid flow system. If a particular electronic component package becomes non-functional, it may be removed from the electronic enclosure without affecting either the fluid flow system or other neighboring electronic component packages.

  13. Cooling system for electronic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, William James; Colgan, Evan George; Gerken, James Dorance; Marroquin, Christopher Michael; Tian, Shurong

    2015-12-15

    Embodiments of the present invention provide for non interruptive fluid cooling of an electronic enclosure. One or more electronic component packages may be removable from a circuit card having a fluid flow system. When installed, the electronic component packages are coincident to and in a thermal relationship with the fluid flow system. If a particular electronic component package becomes non-functional, it may be removed from the electronic enclosure without affecting either the fluid flow system or other neighboring electronic component packages.

  14. The Metabolism Analysis of the Specific Transitional Component in the Rat Blood After Oral Administration of Da Cheng Qi Tang%大承气汤血中移行成分的代谢分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿耘; 肖秋元; 李海霖; 马超英

    2011-01-01

    Objective;To determine the direct effective compounds in vivo of DT by analyzing the rats' serum after oral administration of DT. Methods-. Rats 'blood is gathered after DT administration, and then transitional components in bloodare detected by HPLC - DAD. Conclusion:The contents of ingredients into the blood serum in different parts are different after DT administration in rats. It can be speculated that the contents of transitional components of serum are different as a result of different blood obtained ways, and on the chromatographic condition of 68.79min, there was a specific transitional component of serum with a great absorption at 401nm.%目的:通过分析口服给药后大鼠血清中成分,以确定中药及复方的体内直接作用物质.方法:待大鼠给药大承气汤吸收入血后取血,利用HPLC-DAD方法分析检测血中移行成分.结论:大鼠给药大承气汤复方后,不同部位血清中入血成分含量不同,因此可以推测,大鼠不同取血方法获得的血液中血清移行成分含量不同,且在色谱条件68.79min处,存在一特定的某血清移行成分,物质在401 nm处有很大吸收.

  15. Removal of HCl, NH3, Organic Sulphur and Tar Component from High Temperature Coal Gas%高温煤气中NH3、有机硫、HCl及焦油蒸气的同时脱除

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    豆斌林; 鲁军; 申文琴; 沙兴中; 高晋生

    2001-01-01

    The experiments were designed to remove HCl, NH3, organic sulphur and coal tar component from high temperature coal gas, first separately and individually and then in combination and simultaneously by using a fixed-bed reactor. 1-methylnaphthalene was used as a tar model compound, and CS2 as organic sulphur model compound. The tests show that Ni-3 catalyst is an effective catalyst for NH3 and 1-methylnaphthalene decomposition, Ni-3 catalyst sulphurized is also effective for CS2 conversion, and the self-prepared ECl sorbent displays the highest adsorption capacity for HCl vapor. The simultaneous removal of HCl, NH3, organic sulphur and tar component was studied at the reaction temperature range from 300°C to 550°C. The maximum removal efficiencies are 100%, 100%, 79%, 88% for HCl, 1-methylnaphthalene, NH3, and CS2 respectively.%在固定床反应器中对高温煤气中NH3、有机硫化物、HCl及焦油蒸气4种污染物进行了单独和同时脱除的研究,其中选择CS2和1-甲基萘分别作为高温煤气中有机硫化物和焦油蒸气的模型化合物。研究得出,高温煤气中氨催化分解和1-甲基萘催化裂解的最佳催化剂同为Ni-3催化剂,CS2转化的最佳催化剂为硫化态的Ni-3催化剂,最好的脱氯剂为ECl。在NH3、CS2、HCl及1-甲基萘4种污染物同时存在时,将上述脱除剂组合在一起进行同时脱除实验表明:ECl脱氯剂对HCl的转化率和Ni-3催化剂对1-甲基萘的转化率均为100%,氧化态的Ni-3催化剂对NH3的转化率和硫化态的Ni-3催化剂对CS2的转化率则随温度的升高而增加,在300~550°C之间,氨的最大转化率为79%,CS2的最大转化率为88%。

  16. Tattoo removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adatto, Maurice A; Halachmi, Shlomit; Lapidoth, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Over 50,000 new tattoos are placed each year in the United States. Studies estimate that 24% of American college students have tattoos and 10% of male American adults have a tattoo. The rising popularity of tattoos has spurred a corresponding increase in tattoo removal. Not all tattoos are placed intentionally or for aesthetic reasons though. Traumatic tattoos due to unintentional penetration of exogenous pigments can also occur, as well as the placement of medical tattoos to mark treatment boundaries, for example in radiation therapy. Protocols for tattoo removal have evolved over history. The first evidence of tattoo removal attempts was found in Egyptian mummies, dated to have lived 4,000 years BC. Ancient Greek writings describe tattoo removal with salt abrasion or with a paste containing cloves of white garlic mixed with Alexandrian cantharidin. With the advent of Q-switched lasers in the late 1960s, the outcomes of tattoo removal changed radically. In addition to their selective absorption by the pigment, the extremely short pulse duration of Q-switched lasers has made them the gold standard for tattoo removal.

  17. Caracterização, produção e indicação clínica dos principais hemocomponentes Characterization, production and indication of the principal blood components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda H. Razouk

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A prática da transfusão de sangue é uma ciência que cresce rapidamente, modifica-se continuamente e que apresenta uma grande perspectiva de desenvolvimento futuro. A rotina habitual dos serviços de hemoterapia requer o aperfeiçoamento de técnicas, pois o fracionamento do sangue coletado se faz necessário, uma vez que cada unidade doada pode beneficiar diversos pacientes e permitir que sejam transfundidas grandes quantidades de um determinado componente que o paciente necessite. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi revisar os procedimentos de coleta, produção, armazenamento e a indicação clínica dos principais hemocomponentes, como concentrado de hemácias, concentrado de hemácias lavadas, eritrócitos pobres em leucócitos, concentrado de plaquetas, concentrado de plaquetas por aférese, concentrado de granulócitos, plasma fresco congelado, plasma normal ou comum e crioprecipitado. Perspectivas futuras apontam para mudanças na terapia transfusional, e o maior foco será no aperfeiçoamento da segurança, havendo aumento de produtos manufaturados, desenvolvimento de produtos acelulares, tecnologias em aféreses, atenuação microbiana e proteínas recombinantes do plasma, que poderão substituir produtos derivados plasmáticos dentro de poucas décadas.The practice of blood transfusion is a science which has been showing fast growth, continuous changes and a great perspective of future development. The day-to-day routines of hemotherapy services require the improvement of techniques, as the fractionation of collected blood is necessary and each donated unit may benefit several patients and allow large amounts of a certain component to be transfused. The purpose of the present work is to revise the collection, production and storage procedures and the clinical indication of the main blood components such as concentrated red blood cells, concentrated washed red blood cells, erythrocytes with low numbers of leucocytes, concentrated

  18. 血压是代谢综合征中对心血管疾病影响最大的组分%Elevated Blood Pressure is the Most Important Component of Metabolic Syndrome in the Association with Cardiovascular Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞浩; 郭志荣; 胡晓抒; 周正元; 武鸣

    2009-01-01

    背景 代谢综合征(MS)能显著增加心血管疾病的发病风险,其单个组分对心血管疾病发生的影响尚存在争议.目的 评估MS各组分与心血管疾病的联系,寻找其中最主要的心血管疾病危险组分.方法 研究对象来自江苏省多代谢异常和MS综合防治研究队列的资料,具有完整分析数据的对象共3598人(男:1451人,女:2147人).MS诊断采用美国胆固醇教育计划成人治疗组第3次指南标准,X2检验和COX回归模型用于估计MS及其各个组分与心血管疾病的联系.结果 在MS的5个组分中,仅血压和三酰甘油在两性中随年龄有增高趋势(P<0.05);调整年龄、性别、吸烟、饮酒和心血管病家族史以及将MS组分代人模型互为调整,结果均显示仅血压升高和高三酰甘油是心血管疾病独立的危险因素(P<0.05),其中血压与心血管疾病的相对危险比最大,调整后相对危险比为2.34(95%CI:1.41~3.90);仅血压升高者发生心血管疾病的危险性高于无血压升高的MS患者.结论 MS的各组分预测心血管疾病的能力不同,其中血压是MS中对心血管疾病影响最大的组分.%Background Metabolic syndrome (MS) significantly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the association between each individual component and CVD remains uncertain. Objective To evaluate the association between each component of MS and CVD and try to find the most important one. Methods Subjects were recruited from a cohort study on the prevention of multiple metabolic disorders in Jiangsu province, China. A total of 3598(1451 men and 2147 women) subjects were recruited and follow up for 6. 3 years. MS was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel Ⅲ report criteria.χ~2 Test and Cox proportional hazard regression model were used to examine the association of each component of the MS and the risk of CVD. Results Only blood pressure and triglyceride were increased

  19. Cognitive Functions and Cognitive Reserve in Relation to Blood Pressure Components in a Population-Based Cohort Aged 53 to 94 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzia Giordano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 288 men and women from general population in a cross-sectional survey, all neuropsychological tests were negatively associated with age; memory and executive function were also positively related with education. The hypertensives (HT were less efficient than the normotensives (NT in the test of memory with interference at 10 sec (MI-10 (−33%, P=0.03, clock drawing test (CLOX (−28%, P<0.01, and mini-mental state examination (MMSE (−6%, P=0.02. Lower MMSE, MI-10, and CLOX were predicted by higher systolic (odds ratio, OR, 0.97, P=0.02; OR 0.98, P<0.005; OR 0.95, P<0.001 and higher pulse blood pressure (BP (OR 0.97, P=0.02; OR 0.97, P<0.01; and 0.95, P<0.0001. The cognitive reserve index (CRI was 6% lower in the HT (P=0.03 and was predicted by higher pulse BP (OR 0.82, P<0.001. The BP vectors of lower MMSE, MI-10, and CLOX were directed towards higher values of systolic and diastolic BP, that of low CRI towards higher systolic and lower diastolic. The label of hypertension and higher values of systolic or pulse BP are associated to worse memory and executive functions. Higher diastolic BP, although insufficient to impair cognition, strengthens this association. CRI is predicted by higher systolic BP associated to lower diastolic BP.

  20. Addition of a sequence from α2-antiplasmin transforms human serum albumin into a blood clot component that speeds clot lysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gataiance Sharon

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plasma protein α2-antiplasmin (α2AP is cross-linked to fibrin in blood clots by the transglutaminase factor XIIIa, and in that location retards clot lysis. Competition for this effect could be clinically useful in patients with thrombosis. We hypothesized that fusion of N-terminal portions of α2-antiplasmin to human serum albumin (HSA and production of the chimeric proteins in Pichia pastoris yeast would produce a stable and effective competitor protein. Results Fusion protein α2AP(13-42-HSA was efficiently secreted from transformed yeast and purified preparations contained within a mixed population the full-length intact form, while fusions with longer α2AP moieties were inefficiently secreted and/or degraded. The α2AP(13-42-HSA protein, but not recombinant HSA, was cross-linked to both chemical lysine donors and fibrin or fibrinogen by factor XIIIa, although with less rapid kinetics than native α2AP. Excess α2AP(13-42-HSA competed with α2AP for cross-linking to chemical lysine donors more effectively than a synthetic α2AP(13-42 peptide, and reduced the α2AP-dependent resistance to fibrinolysis of plasma clots equally effectively as the peptide. Native α2AP was found in in vivo clots in rabbits to a greater extent than α2AP(13-42, however. Conclusion In this first report of transfer of transglutamination substrate status from one plasma protein to another, fusion protein α2AP(13-42-HSA was shown to satisfy initial requirements for a long-lasting, well-tolerated competitive inhibitor of α2-antiplasmin predicted to act in a clot-localized manner.

  1. Neuroendocrine humoral and vascular components in the pressor pathway for brain angiotensin II: a new axis in long term blood pressure control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Hamlyn

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS administration of angiotensin II (Ang II raises blood pressure (BP. The rise in BP reflects increased sympathetic outflow and a slower neuromodulatory pressor mechanism mediated by CNS mineralocorticoid receptors (MR. We investigated the hypothesis that the sustained phase of hypertension is associated also with elevated circulating levels of endogenous ouabain (EO, and chronic stimulation of arterial calcium transport proteins including the sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX1, the type 6 canonical transient receptor potential protein (TRPC6, and the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA2. Wistar rats received a chronic intra-cerebroventricular infusion of vehicle (C or Ang II (A, 2.5 ng/min, for 14 days alone or combined with the MR blocker, eplerenone (A+E, 5 µg/day, or the aldosterone synthase inhibitor, FAD286 (A+F, 25 µg/day. Conscious mean BP increased (P50-fold in the A+F group. Central Ang II increased arterial expression of NCX1, TRPC6 and SERCA2 (2.6, 1.75 and 3.7-fold, respectively; P<0.01 but not when co-infused with E or F. Adrenal and pituitary EO were unchanged. We conclude that brain Ang II activates a CNS-humoral axis involving plasma EO. The elevated EO reprograms peripheral ion transport pathways known to control arterial Na(+ and Ca(2+ homeostasis; this increases contractility and augments sympathetic effects. The new axis likely contributes to the chronic pressor effect of brain Ang II.

  2. Hair removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths...... suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair......, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available...

  3. 成分输血治疗重度子痫前期的实验性疗效分析%Therapeutic Efficacy of Blood Component Transfusion in the Treatment of Severe Preeclampsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李会; 吴振兰; 李新菊

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore effectiveness of component transfusion in cure severe preeclampsia (PE),by monitoring the changes of prothrombin fragment 1+2(F1+2) and thrombomodulin(TM) in severe preeclampsia from blood transfusion before and after . Methods Forty severe PE patients were treated by component blood transfusion ,analysed the change of F1+2 and TM,observed status of clinical symptoms,and counted up the blood volume before and after the termination of pregnancy .Results The level of F1+2 and TM in severe preeclampsia had significant difference (P<0.01,P<0.05) before and after component blood transfusion treatment .Conclusions ①The value of F1+2 and TM is rising as pregnancy advanced in the normal pregnancy women ,but have more significantly increase in the se-vere PE patients.Dynamic monitoring the levels of TM and F1+2 in severe preeclampsia can reflect the process of the disease development and the order of severity.②The hemoglutination mechanism of DIC condition in PE can be obviously improved through component blood transfusion treatment.%  目的 通过测定重度子痫前期患者输血治疗前后止凝血分子标志物凝血酶原片断1+2(F1+2)、凝血酶调节蛋白(TM)的变化,观察成分输血治疗重度子痫前期的疗效。方法 选择40例重度子痫前期患者,给予预防性成分输血治疗,分析输血治疗前后止凝血分子标志物F1+2,TM 的变化及临床症状情况的改善,并统计终止妊娠前后的用血量。结果 重度子痫前期患者成分输血治疗后F1+2,TM等反应高凝状态指标与输血前比较均明显改善,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01或P<0.05)。结论 ①正常妊娠妇女随孕周增加F1+2及TM呈增加趋势,但重度子痫前期患者增加更显著,动态监测重度子痫前期患者体内血浆F1+2及TM水平升高的情况可了解病情的进展程度及严重程度。②成分输血预防性输注治疗能明显改善重

  4. Comportamento de componentes bioquímicos do sangue em equinos submetidos à ozonioterapia Profile of blood biochemistry components in horses treated with ozone therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Haddad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento de constituintes bioquímicos sanguíneos (glicose, fibrinogênio, creatina fosfoquinase e gama-glutamiltransferase foi monitorado, in vivo, em 12 equinos mestiços (seis machos e seis fêmeas, com idade entre 4 e 20 anos, submetidos à ozonioterapia. O tratamento foi realizado mediante administração de 500 ou 1000mL da mistura de oxigênio-ozônio (O2-O3 por via intravenosa, a cada três dias, durante 24 dias. Os equinos foram distribuídos em quatro grupos: MT500 constituído por três machos tratados com 500mL; MT1000 por três machos tratados com 1000mL; FT500, por três fêmeas tratadas com 500mL e FT1000, por três fêmeas tratadas com 1000mL. A ozonioterapia por via intravenosa não ocasionou alterações clínicas nos equinos. Os valores médios mínimos e máximos de glicose, fibrinogênio, creatina fosfoquinase e gama-glutamiltransferase mantiveram-se dentro dos limites de referência para a espécie equina. Houve diminuição nas concentrações da glicose e gama-glutamiltransferase ao longo dos períodos de aplicação e aumento nos valores do fibrinogênio. A creatina fosfoquinase não sofreu efeito do tratamento.The profile of blood biochemistry variables (glucose, fibrinogen, creatine phosphokinase, and gamma glutamyltransferase was in vivo monitored in 12 crossbred horses (six males and six females, aging from four to 20-years-old treated with ozone therapy. Treatments were carried out by applying 500 or 1000mL of the mixture oxygen-ozone (O2-O3 via intravenous route, every three days, during 24 days. Horses were assigned to four groups: MT500 (three males given 500mL, MT1000 (three males given 1000mL, FT500 (three females given 500mL and FT1000 (three females given 1000mL. Ozone therapy by intravenous route caused no clinical changes in the horses. Minimum and maximum mean values of glucose, fibrinogen, creatine phosphokinase, and gamma glutamyltransferase were within the range considered as normal reference

  5. Design of Critical Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2001-01-01

    Critical component design is based on minimizing product failures that results in loss of life. Potential catastrophic failures are reduced to secondary failures where components removed for cause or operating time in the system. Issues of liability and cost of component removal become of paramount importance. Deterministic design with factors of safety and probabilistic design address but lack the essential characteristics for the design of critical components. In deterministic design and fabrication there are heuristic rules and safety factors developed over time for large sets of structural/material components. These factors did not come without cost. Many designs failed and many rules (codes) have standing committees to oversee their proper usage and enforcement. In probabilistic design, not only are failures a given, the failures are calculated; an element of risk is assumed based on empirical failure data for large classes of component operations. Failure of a class of components can be predicted, yet one can not predict when a specific component will fail. The analogy is to the life insurance industry where very careful statistics are book-kept on classes of individuals. For a specific class, life span can be predicted within statistical limits, yet life-span of a specific element of that class can not be predicted.

  6. Less is more: removing membrane attachments stiffens the RBC cytoskeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gov, Nir S [Department of Chemical Physics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, PO Box 26, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2007-11-15

    The polymerized network of the cytoskeleton of the red-blood cell (RBC) contains different protein components that maintain its overall integrity and attachment to the lipid bilayer. One of these key components is the band 3-ankyrin complex that attaches the spectrin filaments to the fluid bilayer. Defects in this particular component result in the shape transformation called spherocytosis, through the shedding of membrane nano-vesicles. We show here that this transition and membrane shedding can be explained through the increased stiffness of the network when the band 3-ankyrin complexes are removed. ATP-induced transient dissociations lead to network softening, which offsets the stiffening to some extent, and causes increased fragility of these mutant cells, as is observed.

  7. 滋阴降火、活血化瘀法治疗子宫内膜异位症的临床研究%Clinical research on Nourishing Yin, Promoting Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis in Treatment of Endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邰晶

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical curative ef ect of Nourishing Yin, promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis in treatment of endometriosis. Methods 40 cases of endometriosis patients were randomly divided into control group (Guizhi Fuling Capsule group), treatment group (New plus Zishui Jianghuo drink group), clinical observation. Results Treatment group total ef ectiveness 80%, the comparison group total ef ectiveness 65%, the curative ef ect of treatment group was bet er than that of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion The dialectical to hyperactivity of fire due to yin deficiency type of EMS patients, the curative ef ect of Zishuijianghuoyin on new and exact, reliable, improve symptoms, signs after treatment. The new plus Zishui Jianghuo drink treatment of endometriosis significant ef ect, can reduce serum EMAb, regulating immunity.%目的观察滋阴降火、活血化瘀法治疗子宫内膜异位症的临床疗效。方法将40例子宫内膜异位症患者随机分成对照组(桂枝茯苓胶囊组),治疗组(新加滋水降火饮组),观察临床疗效。结果治疗组总有效率80%,对照组总有效率65%,治疗组疗效明显优于对照组(<0.05)。结论辩证为阴虚火旺型的EMS患者,用新加滋水降火饮治疗疗效确切、可靠,治疗后症状、体征改善。新加滋水降火饮治疗子宫内膜异位症疗效显著,还能降低血清EMAb,调节自身免疫。

  8. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some red blood cells shaped like spheres ( hereditary spherocytosis ) Increased breakdown of RBCs Presence of RBCs with ... normal Red blood cells, elliptocytosis Red blood cells, spherocytosis Acute lymphocytic leukemia - photomicrograph Red blood cells, multiple ...

  9. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  10. Blood Thinners

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

  11. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000431.htm Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this ... several sources of blood which are described below. Blood From the Public (Volunteer Blood Donation) The most ...

  12. Value of thromboelastograph in guiding blood components transfusion in patients with heparin%血栓弹力图对肝素抗凝患者血液成分输注指导初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓云; 贾军会; 王新华; 田华

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨血栓弹力图(TEG)对肝素抗凝患者血液成分输注的指导作用。方法对300例接受肝素抗凝治疗患者应用传统凝血项检测进行筛选,87例入选本研究。对入选患者进行枸橼酸化高岭土激活样品血栓弹力图检测(CK-TEG)和枸橼酸化高岭土激活样品肝素酶杯对比检测(CKH-TEG),对两种TEG检测参数进行比较,并对两种检测方法所提示需要输注的血液成分的种类及用量进行比较。结果两种血栓弹力图检测参数R、K、Angle、CI差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),所提示的血浆和血小板需要输注量差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论 CKH-TEG能够排除肝素抗凝患者体内残留肝素对凝血功能的干扰,准确反映患者真实的凝血功能,对肝素抗凝患者进行血液成分输注治疗具有指导意义。%Objective To investigate the value of thromboelastograph in guiding blood components transfusion in patients with heparin anticoagulantion therapy. Methods Three hundred patients with heparin anticoagulantion therapy were selected to measure conventional coagulation tests. Patients with coagulopathy were selected as research subjects. Cit-rated kaolin-activated samples thrombelastometry (CK-TEG) and citrated kaolin-activated samples thrombelastometry tests in heparins cup (CKH-TEG) were measured respectively for the research subjects. The parameters between CK-TEG and CKH-TEG were compared, and the need of blood components transfusion before and after the heparins cup neutralization were compared. Results The result of TEG tests showed that the values of R、K、Angle and CI were significantly different between CK-TEG and CKH-TEG tests (P< 0.05), and there was significant difference in the need of plasma and platelet transfusion before and after heparins cup neutralization (P< 0.05). Conclusion Since the interference of heparin to an-ti-coagulation tests could be excluded, the

  13. Doença do enxerto contra hospedeiro pós-transfusional-guia para irradiação gama de hemocomponentes Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease-guideline on gamma irradiation of blood components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Landi

    1999-07-01

    syndrome. Clinical manifestations are fever, maculopapular skin rash, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hepatitis and pancytopenia owing to bone marrow hypoplasia. lt can occur in recipients with severe immunossuppression and in immunocompetent recipients after transfusion of ceillular components from HLA homozygous donor to recipients heterozygous for that HLA haplotype. The diagnosis is made by clinical manifestation and skin biopsy. Antithymocyte globulin and high dose systemic corticosteroids are both the most used therapy. The back of knowledge about this syndrome, the rapid evolution and the absence of treatement response are related to patients bad evolution. Gamma irradiation of blood products has been the mainstay of TA-GVHD prevention. Dose of 2500 cGy is required to completly inactivate T cells. lrradiation damage red cells membrane and the red celis units can not be storage for long time after irradiation. High potassium levels is the mainly change in red cells units.White cell-reduction filters do not prevent TA-GVHD and gamma irradiation does not prevent alloimmunization or blood reactions. Oniy cellular components like whole blood, red cells, platelets and granulocytes need be irradiated. Ali blood components should be irradiated to: first or second-degree relatives, patients need HLA-matched platelets, recipients of allogeneic or autologous bone marrow transplantation, patients with Hodgkin's disease, patients treated with purine analogue drugs, intrauterine transfusions, pre-term infants and when congenítal immunodeficiency states is suspected. lt is recomended irrradiated blood to patients with neoplastic disease when they receive intensive chemoterapy.

  14. Clinical Observation of the Method of Removing Phlegm-Heat and Promoting Blood Circulation in Treating Acne with Phlegm Accumulate with Stagnant Blood Syndrome and Effect on Serum IL-4, IFN-γ%清热化痰活血法治疗痰瘀互结型痤疮疗效观察及对血清IL-4,IFN-γ的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张虹亚; 许光仓; 曹宇; 刘涛峰; 吴敏; 王建锋; 孙洪波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effect of the method of removing phlegm-heat and promoting blood circulation in treating acne with phlegm accumulate with stagnant blood syndrome. Methods Ninety patients with phlegm accumulate with stagnant blood syndrome of acne were randomly divided into treatment group and control. 51 patients in treatment group were treated with the method of removing phlegm-heat and promoting Blood circulation, 39 patients in control group took danshentong capsule, the treatment duration was 12 weeks. The levels of serum IL-4 and IFN-7 were detected before and after the treatment. Results The total effective rate was 49.02% in treatment group, which was higher than that in the control group(41.02%). There was no significant difference between the two groups (P> 0.05). After the treatment , the level of Iiy-4 decreased and the level of IFN-"y increased significant in two groups (P < 0.01). Conclusion Clinical effi cacy of the method of removing phlegm-heat and promoting Blood circulation was obvious, which can decrease the level of IL-4 and increase the level of IFN--y.%目的 观察清热化痰活血法对痰瘀互结型痤疮的临床疗效.方法 90例痰瘀互结型痤疮患者随机分为两组,治疗组51例用清热化痰活血方,1剂/d,水煎分2次服用,对照组39例口服丹参酮胶囊1g,3次-/d,4周为一疗程,两组均治疗3个疗程.同时检测两组治疗前后血清IL-4,IFN-γ水平.结果 治疗组有效率为49.02%,对照组41.02%,两组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).治疗后两组的IL-4,FN-γ均有不同的变化,IL-4水平降低,IFN-γ水平升高,与治疗前相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 清热化痰活血法能明显改善痰瘀互结型痤疮患者的临床症状,降低IL-4水平,升高IFN-γ水平.

  15. Blood Far Forward - A Whole Blood Research and Training Program for Austere Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    to the use of whole blood and blood components far forward, hence the name BFF research program. After communication with Norwegian and interna- tional...medical personnel. Optimal hemotherapy in patients with massive bleeding is still debated in relation to usage of blood components , crystalloids, and...safety of collection and administration for whole blood or blood components , especially when it is provided by personnel without formal health care

  16. Military walking blood bank and the civilian blood service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berséus, Olle; Hervig, Tor; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2012-06-01

    In most countries whole blood transfusions have been replaced by component therapy. This has allowed for both better usage of the blood donations and better quality during storage. While this strategy was initially motivated by the commercial need for plasma the plasma reduction also reduced the levels of low grade proteases and sialidase, hence minimizing the cellular storage lesion/microvesiculation during prolonged storage. Plasma reduction also reduces transfusion reactions associated with plasma. During special military conditions, however, blood transfusion is urgently needed without corresponding access to blood components, in particular platelets. Accordingly, new focus on whole blood has aroused and added a new challenge to the blood transfusion services. This special issue of "what is happening" highlights the planed efforts by Swedish and Norwegian groups in the developments of military walking blood bank, which is applicable to civil blood services.

  17. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can't get an infection or disease from giving blood. The needles and other equipment used are sterile ... part of blood (plasma) within 72 hours after giving blood. It generally takes about 4–8 weeks to ...

  18. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  19. Virtual blood bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kit Fai

    2011-01-24

    Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time.

  20. Virtual blood bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Fai Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time.

  1. [Blood Count Specimen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Takako

    2015-12-01

    The circulating blood volume accounts for 8% of the body weight, of which 45% comprises cellular components (blood cells) and 55% liquid components. We can measure the number and morphological features of blood cells (leukocytes, red blood cells, platelets), or count the amount of hemoglobin in a complete blood count: (CBC). Blood counts are often used to detect inflammatory diseases such as infection, anemia, a bleeding tendency, and abnormal cell screening of blood disease. This count is widely used as a basic data item of health examination. In recent years, clinical tests before consultation have become common among outpatient clinics, and the influence of laboratory values on consultation has grown. CBC, which is intended to count the number of raw cells and to check morphological features, is easily influenced by the environment, techniques, etc., during specimen collection procedures and transportation. Therefore, special attention is necessary to read laboratory data. Providing correct test values that accurately reflect a patient's condition from the laboratory to clinical side is crucial. Inappropriate medical treatment caused by erroneous values resulting from altered specimens should be avoided. In order to provide correct test values, the daily management of devices is a matter of course, and comprehending data variables and positively providing information to the clinical side are important. In this chapter, concerning sampling collection, blood collection tubes, dealing with specimens, transportation, and storage, I will discuss their effects on CBC, along with management or handling methods.

  2. The heritability of blood donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Birger; Axel, Skytthe; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary blood donation is believed to be mostly motivated by altruism. Because studies have suggested that altruistic personality is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, we speculated that willingness to donate blood could also be governed by constitutional factors...... active Danish blood donors from 2002 to 2012, to establish blood donor status for Danish twins, who at age 17 years became eligible for donation in 2002 or later. Casewise concordance in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were presented and heritability was estimated in Mx by variance component...... to donate blood, respectively. CONCLUSION: Becoming a volunteer blood donor is determined by both genetic and environmental factors shared within families....

  3. Removal of root filling materials.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, H.F. Chong, B.S.

    2011-05-01

    Safe, successful and effective removal of root filling materials is an integral component of non-surgical root canal re-treatment. Access to the root canal system must be achieved in order to negotiate to the canal terminus so that deficiencies in the original treatment can be rectified. Since a range of materials have been advocated for filling root canals, different techniques are required for their removal. The management of commonly encountered root filling materials during non-surgical re-treatment, including the clinical procedures necessary for removal and the associated risks, are reviewed. As gutta-percha is the most widely used and accepted root filling material, there is a greater emphasis on its removal in this review.

  4. Paint removal activities in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Terry

    1993-03-01

    Paint removal activities currently under way in Canada include: research and development of laser paint stripping; development and commercialization of a new blasting medium based on wheat starch; commercialization of a new blasting medium and process using crystalline ice blasting for paint removal and surface cleaning; and the development of automated and robotic systems for paint stripping applications. A specification for plastic media blasting (PMB) of aircraft and aircraft components is currently being drafted by NDHQ for use by the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) and contractors involved in coating removal for the CAF. Defense Research Establishment Pacific (DREP) is studying the effects of various blast media on coating removal rates, and minimizing the possibility of damage to substrates other than aluminum such as graphite epoxy composite and Kevlar. The effects of plastic media blasting on liquid penetrant detection of fatigue cracks is also under investigation.

  5. Regional cerebral blood flow as assessed by principal component analysis and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET in healthy subjects at rest: normal distribution and effect of age and gender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagani, M. [Inst. of Neurobiology and Molecular Medicine, CNR, Rome (Italy); Dept. of Hospital Physics, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Salmaso, D. [Inst. of Psychology, CNR, Rome (Italy); Jonsson, C.; Hatherly, R.; Larsson, S.A. [Dept. of Hospital Physics, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, H. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Waegner, A. [Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-01-01

    The increasing implementation of standardisation techniques in brain research and clinical diagnosis has highlighted the importance of reliable baseline data from normal control subjects for inter-subject analysis. In this context, knowledge of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) distribution in normal ageing is a factor of the utmost importance. In the present study, rCBF was investigated in 50 healthy volunteers (25 men, 25 women), aged 31-78 years, who were examined at rest by means of single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using technetium-99m d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO). After normalising the CBF data, 27 left and 27 right volumes of interest (VOIs) were selected and automatically outlined by standardisation software (computerised brain atlas). The heavy load of flow data thus obtained was reduced in number and grouped in factors by means of principal component analysis (PCA). PCA extracted 12 components explaining 81% of the variance and including the vast majority of cortical and subcortical regions. Analysis of variance and regression analyses were performed for rCBF, age and gender before PCA was applied and subsequently for each single extracted factor. There was a significantly higher CBF on the right side than on the left side (P<0.001). In the overall analysis, a significant decrease was found in CBF (P=0.05) with increasing age, and this decrease was particularly evident in the left hemisphere (P=0.006). When gender was specifically analysed, CBF was found to decrease significantly with increasing age in females (P=0.037) but not in males. Furthermore, a significant decrease in rCBF with increasing age was found in the brain vertex (P=0.05), left frontotemporal cortex (P=0.012) and temporocingulate cortex (P=0.003). By contrast, relative rCBF in central structures increased with age (P=0.001). The ability of standardisation software and PCA to identify functionally connected brain regions might contribute to a better

  6. Preliminary study on the influence of ivermectin on blood component of Carassius auratus%伊维菌素对鲫血液成分影响的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭章晓; 江敏; 吴昊; 何琳; 杨李

    2012-01-01

    The influence of ivermectin on Carassius auratus blood component was studied after oral administration at ivermectin doses of 3. 0, 1.0 and 0. 4 mg/kg. The results showed that RBC, WBC, HCT and HGB in Carassius auratus blood had no obvious difference among control group and treatment groups. The contents of PLT in treated fish were obviously higher than those in untreated fish. The contents of PLT increased quickly at 8 ~ 16 h after administration, and began to decrease at 24 h, and the fluctuation was greater than that in control group. The contents of Ca2+ , Tbil, ALP, ALT and ALB didn' t be affected by ivermectin. While the contents of TP in blood of fish administrated with 3. 0 or 1. 0 mg/kg ivermectin were lower than untreated fish, and with the increase of dose, the greater the influence was, while 0. 4 mg/kg ivermectin didn' t affect the content of TP obviously. Some adverse reactions were observed including darkened color, loss of appetite, and balance in treated fishes with the increasing dose. There was external hemorrhage in kidneys when the fish in group of 3. 0 mg/kg was dissected.%采用三种给药剂量(3.0、1.0、0.4 mg/kg)研究伊维菌素对鲫(Carassius auratus)血液指标的影响,结果显示:各实验组鲫血液中红细胞(RBC)、白细胞(WBC)、红细胞压积(HCT)、血红蛋白(HGB)与对照组间均无显著性差异;但血小板(PLT)指标则显著高于对照组,且在给药后8~16h快速上升、24 h后开始下降,波动幅度亦显著高于对照组.三种口灌剂量对鲫血液中钙离子(Ca2+)、总胆红素(Tbil)、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)和白蛋白(ALB)含量均无明显影响;而3.0、1.0 mg/kg的口灌剂量组鲫血液中总血清蛋白(TP)含量较对照组有下降,且剂量越大影响越大,而0.4 mg/kg组TP含量变化不大.随着剂量的增大,鲫体色逐渐变深,食欲减退、身体失衡,3.0 mg/kg组的鲫解剖后显示肾脏出血迹象.

  7. Increasing demands on today's blood donors

    OpenAIRE

    McClelland, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    Recently in Northern Ireland there has been a rapid increase in demand for a variety of blood components. To meet this need a large proportion of routine blood donations must be processed at the Transfusion Centre. In addition, several blood components are collected direct from donors by apheresis techniques. Apheresis is currently restricted to the collection of components from highly selected donors, but in future this method is likely to be employed for collection of some routine component...

  8. How much blood is needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifried, E; Klueter, H; Weidmann, C; Staudenmaier, T; Schrezenmeier, H; Henschler, R; Greinacher, A; Mueller, M M

    2011-01-01

    Demographic changes in developed countries as their populations age lead to a steady increase in the consumption of standard blood components. Complex therapeutic procedures like haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, cardiovascular surgery and solid organ transplantation are options for an increasing proportion of older patients nowadays. This trend is likely to continue in coming years. On the other hand, novel aspects in transplant regimens, therapies for malignant diseases, surgical procedures and perioperative patient management have led to a moderate decrease in blood product consumption per individual procedure. The ageing of populations in developed countries, intra-society changes in the attitude towards blood donation as an important altruistic behaviour and the overall alterations in our societies will lead to a decline in regular blood donations over the next decades in many developed countries. Artificial blood substitutes or in vitro stem cell-derived blood components might also become alternatives in the future. However, such substitutes are still in early stages of development and will therefore probably not alleviate this problem within the next few years. Taken together, a declining donation rate and an increase in the consumption of blood components require novel approaches on both sides of the blood supply chain. Different blood donor groups require specific approaches and, for example, inactive or deferred donors must be re-activated. Optimal use of blood components requires even more attention.

  9. INTRAOPERATIVE PREDONATION CONTRIBUTES TO BLOOD SAVING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHONBERGER, JPAM; BREDEE, JJ; TJIAN, D; EVERTS, PAM; WILDEVUUR, CRH

    1993-01-01

    The merits of reinfusing prebypass-removed autologous blood (intraoperative predonation) to salvage blood and improve postoperative hemostasis are still debated, specifically for patients at a higher risk for bleeding. To evaluate the effect of intraoperative predonation on the platelet count, blood

  10. Overview of paint removal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Terry

    1995-04-01

    With the introduction of strict environmental regulations governing the use and disposal of methylene chloride and phenols, major components of chemical paint strippers, there have been many new environmentally safe and effective methods of paint removal developed. The new methods developed for removing coatings from aircraft and aircraft components include: mechanical methods using abrasive media such as plastic, wheat starch, walnut shells, ice and dry ice, environmentally safe chemical strippers and paint softeners, and optical methods such as lasers and flash lamps. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages, and some have unique applications. For example, mechanical and abrasive methods can damage sensitive surfaces such as composite materials and strict control of blast parameters and conditions are required. Optical methods can be slow, leaving paint residues, and chemical methods may not remove all of the coating or require special coating formulations to be effective. As an introduction to environmentally safe and effective methods of paint removal, this paper is an overview of the various methods available. The purpose of this overview is to introduce the various paint removal methods available.

  11. Microwaves initiated synthesis of activated carbon-based composite hydrogel for simultaneous removal of copper(II) ions and direct red 80 dye: A multi-component adsorption system

    OpenAIRE

    Oladipo, Akeem Adeyemi; Gazi, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel microwave initiated preparation of polyacrylamide/activated carbon hydrogel (PAAm-FAc) in this article and characterized by FT-IR, pHzpc and Boehm titration. The adsorbent was assessed for competitive adsorption of copper(II) and direct red 80 from a binary mixture in a single-staged batch process as a function of volume of binary mixture/mass of adsorbent (V0/M0) ratio at varying orders of second pollutant concentration. A competitive, multi-component Langmuir isotherm was...

  12. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  13. Artificial blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman

    2008-07-01

    Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  14. Preparation of surface-modified poly(butylene terephthalate) nonwovens and their application as leukocyte removal filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jin; Yeo, Gwu-Dong; Pai, Chaul-Min; Kang, Inn-Kyu

    2009-08-01

    Blood transfusion-related adverse reactions have been reported to be caused by leukocytes in blood products. It is now generally accepted that it would be highly desirable to reduce leukocytes level as low as possible. In this study, melt-blown poly(butylene terephthalate) nonwoven (PBT-NW) was treated with a hydroxyapatite (HA) surface-modification method for removal of leukocytes from blood components. Acrylic acid was graft-polymerized onto the surface of the PBT-NW after oxygen plasma glow discharge treatment. The PBT-NW surface was covered with a thin layer of HA produced by immersing the polymer surface in an aqueous solution containing high concentrations of PO(4) (3-) and Ca(2+) after graft-polymerization of acrylic acid, which provided the nucleus for HA crystallization. The surface was characterized using water contact angles, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR), and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. When filtration was performed with a unit of red blood cell concentrates, HA-deposited PBT-NW (PBT-HA) removed 98.5% of the leukocytes and recovered 99.5% of the erythrocytes, suggesting that HA-deposited PBT-NW is a very promising blood filter for selective removal of leukocytes.

  15. Bottlenecks of blood processing in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kajja, I.; Kyeyune, D.; Bimenya, G. S.; Sibinga, C. T. S.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To identify where and why delays occur in Uganda blood banks. Background: The timely provision and supply of safe and efficacious blood components to hospitals depends on sound systems in the processing blood banks. Poorly managed systems lead to apparent blood shortages in hospitals and increa

  16. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or prevent blood clots from dissolving properly. Risk factors for excessive blood clotting include Certain genetic disorders Atherosclerosis Diabetes Atrial fibrillation Overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome Some medicines Smoking deep vein ...

  17. Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to their work or home. The availability of plastic bags that can have one or more satellite bags ... in preparing the donated blood. The use of plastic bags allows the blood center to make a variety ...

  18. Parathyroid gland removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Removal of parathyroid gland; Parathyroidectomy; Hyperparathyroidism - parathyroidectomy; PTH - parathyroidectomy ... and pain-free) for this surgery. Usually the parathyroid glands are removed using a 2- to 4- ...

  19. 顶空萃取-气相色谱-质谱法测定一种儿童专用防痱止痒水的挥发性成分%Analysis of Volatile Flavor Components in One Type of Remove Philippine and Itching Water by Headspace Extraction-GC/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红; 熊爽; 田福林; 赵海波

    2011-01-01

    采用顶空萃取-气相色谱/质谱法分析鉴定防痱止痒水的挥发性成分。结果表明:共检测出35种挥发性成分,主要成分为乙醇和酞酸二乙酯,其它成分主要包括醇、烯、酯、甘菊环等。检出的物质中,α-蒎烯、β-蒎烯、莰烯、桉叶醇、樟脑、α-萜品醇、龙脑、醋酸异龙脑酯、石竹烯为野菊花挥发油的有效成分;苯甲酸甲酯、苯甲酸苄酯、丁香酚为金银花挥发油的有效成分;广藿香醇为广藿香提取物的主要成分。α-蒎烯、β-月桂烯、β-蒎烯、莰烯、薄荷醇、丁香酚等成分都具有较强的驱避蚊虫的作用。%The volatile components in one type of remove philippine and itching water were analyzed by headspace extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(HS-GC/MS).The results showed that HS-GC/MS is effective in the analysis of remove philippine and itching water.35 components are separated and identified.The main components are ethyl alcohol and diethyl phthalate acid,the others are alcohols,terpenes,esters and azulenes.alpha.-Pinene,beta.-pinene,camphene,eucalyptol,camphor,p-menth-1-en-8-ol,borneol,isobornyl acetate,caryophyllene are the effective components of the volatile oil in chrysanthemum indicum L.Benzoic acid methyl ester,benzyl benzoate,eugenol are the effective components of the volatile oil in flos lonicerae.Patchouli alcohol is the effective components of the volatile oil in pogostemon cablin(blanco) benth.alpha.-Pinene,beta.-myrcene,beta.-pinene,camphene,menthol,eugenol are all effictive repellent.

  20. Method for Reducing Pumping Damage to Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor); VanDamm, George Arthur (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Robert J. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Methods are provided for minimizing damage to blood in a blood pump wherein the blood pump comprises a plurality of pump components that may affect blood damage such as clearance between pump blades and housing, number of impeller blades, rounded or flat blade edges, variations in entrance angles of blades, impeller length, and the like. The process comprises selecting a plurality of pump components believed to affect blood damage such as those listed herein before. Construction variations for each of the plurality of pump components are then selected. The pump components and variations are preferably listed in a matrix for easy visual comparison of test results. Blood is circulated through a pump configuration to test each variation of each pump component. After each test, total blood damage is determined for the blood pump. Preferably each pump component variation is tested at least three times to provide statistical results and check consistency of results. The least hemolytic variation for each pump component is preferably selected as an optimized component. If no statistical difference as to blood damage is produced for a variation of a pump component, then the variation that provides preferred hydrodynamic performance is selected. To compare the variation of pump components such as impeller and stator blade geometries, the preferred embodiment of the invention uses a stereolithography technique for realizing complex shapes within a short time period.

  1. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  2. Clinical Observation on the Treatment of Primary Parkinson Disease With the Effect of Invigorating the Kidney and Activating Blood Circulation and Removing Collaterals Capsule%补肾活血通络胶囊治疗原发性帕金森病临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of the treatment of primary Parkinson's disease with the treatment of the kidney and activating blood circulation and collaterals capsule. Methods 98 cases of primary Parkinson's disease patients, the patients were randomly divided into control group and observation group of 49 cases in our hospital from April March 2012 ~ 2013, control group was treated with western medicine treatment, the observation group in the control group based on the use of kidney and activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis capsule, retrospectively compared two groups of clinical curative effect. Results The UPDRS-I, UPDRS-II, UPDRS-, LSIB, PDQ and UPDRS-IV in the observation group were superior to the control group, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion Kidney and activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis capsule with attenuated effect, can improve the comprehensive function of patients with, reduce parkinsonian disability rate and its application in the treatment of idiopathic Parkinson's disease, its clinical efficacy is better than that with simple western medicine, to improve patients quality of life has a positive meaning.%目的:探讨补肾活血通络胶囊治疗原发性帕金森病的临床疗效。方法选取我院2012年3月~2013年4月收治的原发性帕金森病患者98例,随机将患者分为对照组及观察组各49例,对照组给予单纯西药治疗,观察组在对照组基础上加用补肾活血通络胶囊,回顾性比较两组的临床疗效。结果观察组的 UPDRS-I、UPDRS-II、UPDRS-Ⅲ、UPDRS-IV、LSIB 和 PDQ 评定均优于对照组,比较差异均具有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论补肾活血通络胶囊具有减毒作用,可改善患者综合功能,降低帕金森病致残率,应用其治疗原发性帕金森病,其临床疗效优于单用西药,对提高患者生活治疗具有积极意义。

  3. Microfluidic Devices for Blood Fractionation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chwee Teck Lim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood, a complex biological fluid, comprises 45% cellular components suspended in protein rich plasma. These different hematologic components perform distinct functions in vivo and thus the ability to efficiently fractionate blood into its individual components has innumerable applications in both clinical diagnosis and biological research. Yet, processing blood is not trivial. In the past decade, a flurry of new microfluidic based technologies has emerged to address this compelling problem. Microfluidics is an attractive solution for this application leveraging its numerous advantages to process clinical blood samples. This paper reviews the various microfluidic approaches realized to successfully fractionate one or more blood components. Techniques to separate plasma from hematologic cellular components as well as isolating blood cells of interest including certain rare cells are discussed. Comparisons based on common separation metrics including efficiency (sensitivity, purity (selectivity, and throughput will be presented. Finally, we will provide insights into the challenges associated with blood-based separation systems towards realizing true point-of-care (POC devices and provide future perspectives.

  4. Development and application of two noninvasive methods for estimation of volume of red blood cell components%两种非侵入性评估红细胞成分血血容量方法的建立及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡雪仰; 伍伟健; 林梅珍; 郭如华; 余晋林

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立两种非侵入性评估红细胞成分血血容量的方法,为准确评估红细胞成分血血容量提供参考.方法 检测130袋红细胞成分血的净重量及容量,计算平均血液密度,对血净重量及容量进行相关性及线性回归分析,建立回归方程;利用血液平均密度与血净重量,建立血容量计算方程.利用上述两种方程,对100袋红细胞成分血进行检测与分析,由血净重量计算出血容量作为预期值,以实际检测出的血容量作为观察值,经t检验,分析其观察值与预期值有无显著差异,以证实该方法的可靠性.结果 130袋红细胞成分血的净重量与容量呈正相关(r=0.998,P<0.01),线性回归方程为y=0.9423x-2.394 1(r2=0.996,d.f=128,F=29 819.8,P<0.01);130例袋红细胞成分血的平均密度为1.072 8,血容量计算方程为y=0.932 2 x;100袋红细胞成分血血容量的预期值与观察值比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 已成功建立了评估红细胞成分血血容量的两种方法,该方法操作简便、安全,结果可靠,可在输血实践中推广应用.%Objective To develop two noninvasive methods and provide a reference for accurate estimation of volume of red blood cell components. Methods The net weights and volumes of 130 bags of red blood cell components were measured, based on which the mean blood density was calculated. The correlation between the net weight and volume of red blood cell components was analyzed and assessed by a linear regression model, based on which a regression equation was established. Another equation for calculation of blood volume was established based on the mean density and net weight of blood. One hundred bags of red blood cell components were tested and analyzed by the two equations, of which the volumes were calculated from net weight and used as the expected values. The difference between practically measured volumes and the expected values was analyzed by / test to verify

  5. Communication adapter for use with a drilling component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Hall; Jr.; H. Tracy; Bradford, Kline; Rawle, Michael

    2007-04-03

    A communication adapter is disclosed that provides for removable attachment to a drilling component when the drilling component is not actively drilling and for communication with an integrated transmission system in the drilling component. The communication adapter comprises a data transmission coupler that facilitates communication between the drilling component and the adapter, a mechanical coupler that facilitates removable attachment of the adapter to the drilling component, and a data interface.

  6. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis; Amyloidosis - electrophoresis serum; Multiple myeloma - serum electrophoresis; Waldenström - serum electrophoresis

  7. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  8. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  9. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  10. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  11. Establishment and Application of a Noninvasive Method for Estimation of Total Haemoglobin Content in Red Blood Cell Components%非侵入性评估红细胞成分血中血红蛋白总量方法的建立及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍伟健; 黄敏桃; 罗媚佳; 庞晓丹; 余晋林

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish and apply a noninvasive method for estimation of total hemoglobin (Hb)content in red blood cell components to improve the level of standardization of transfusion.Methods Two hundred and thirty leukocyte-reduced red blood cells were elected as research objects,which were randomly selected in stock bloods of Foshan Blood Station.The weight,volume and Hb concentration of one hundred and thirty red blood cell components were tested.The correlation between Hb content with weight of red blood cell components was analyzed.A linear regression model was used to assess the relationship.Regression equation was built. One hundred red blood cell components were tested and analysed by the regression equation.The results were compared with the actual detection value in order to verify the reliability of the method we built. Results There was a positive correlativity of the weight and Hb concentration of red blood cell components(r=0.971,P<0.001) ;The regression equation was y=0.1913x-2.9373,y was Hb concentration,x was weight of red blood cell components.Linear regression analysis results showed that the weight was closely related to Hb concentration of red blood cell components.Partial regression value(b)was -2.9373 and 0.1913(r2 =0.944,df=128,F=2138.12;P<0.01).The estimation of total Hb content in one hundred red blood cell components showed that the assessment and the actual results were no significant differences(P>0.05).Conclusions The noninvasive method for estimation of total Hb content in red blood cell components was simple,safe,reliable and contributed to improve the level of standardization of transfusion. But it need to be confirmed by a multi-center and large sample and randomized controlled research before popularization in transfusion.%目的 探讨建立并应用一种非侵入性准确评估红细胞成分血中血红蛋白(Hb)总量的方法,以提高临床输血标准化水平.方法 自本血站库存血液中,随机抽取230袋

  12. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...... need to move beyond the bifurcation of the social and medical aspects of blood supply as two separate issues and approach social dynamics as key medical safety questions....

  13. Phenol removal pretreatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Bonnie R.

    2004-04-13

    A process for removing phenols from an aqueous solution is provided, which comprises the steps of contacting a mixture comprising the solution and a metal oxide, forming a phenol metal oxide complex, and removing the complex from the mixture.

  14. The influence of platelets, plasma and red blood cells on functional haemostatic assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochsen, Louise; Johansson, Pär I; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Daugaard, Gedske; Ostrowski, Sisse R

    2011-04-01

    Functional whole blood haemostatic assays are used increasingly to guide transfusion therapy and monitor medical treatment and are also applied for in-vitro evaluations of the haemostatic potential of stored platelets. We investigated how the cellular and plasmatic elements, both isolated and combined, influenced the two methodologically different assays, thrombelastography (TEG) and impedance aggregometry (Multiplate). Platelet-rich plasma (200 × 10/l) or pure plasma (0 platelets), with and without added red blood cells (RBCs), hematocrit 0, 0.15 or 0.29, were produced in vitro from platelet concentrates, fresh frozen plasma and stored RBC. Pure platelets were investigated by removing plasma components from platelet concentrates by diafiltration against the platelet storage solution Intersol. Plasma was readded by diafiltration against plasma in Intersol. Haemostatic function was evaluated by TEG and Multiplate. In the TEG, increasing amounts of RBC reduced clot strength and clot kinetics (α-angle), most markedly in plasma/RBC without platelets. In contrast, RBC in a platelet concentrate matrix enhanced Multiplate aggregation in response to weak agonists (ADP and arachidonic acid). Furthermore, removing plasma from platelet concentrates eliminated the TEG response and diminished the Multiplate aggregation response, but readding plasma to the pure platelet concentrates restored the response. Each of the elements in whole blood, plasma, platelets and RBC, affected the Multiplate and TEG results differently. The results emphasize that the concentrations of all cellular and plasmatic components in whole blood should be taken into account when interpreting results obtained by TEG and multiplate.

  15. PROGRAMMING OFFICE REMOVALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe ST-HM

    2000-01-01

    The Removals Service recommends you to plan your removals well in advance, taking into account the fact that the Transport and Handling Group’s main priority remains the dismantling of LEP and the installation of the LHC. The requests can be made by: http://st.web.cern.ch/st/hm/removal/DEMEE.HTM Thank you for your cooperation.

  16. Enzymes Enhance Biofilm Removal Efficiency of Cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiefel, Philipp; Mauerhofer, Stefan; Schneider, Jana; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Rosenberg, Urs; Ren, Qun

    2016-06-01

    Efficient removal of biofilms from medical devices is a big challenge in health care to avoid hospital-acquired infections, especially from delicate devices like flexible endoscopes, which cannot be reprocessed using harsh chemicals or high temperatures. Therefore, milder solutions such as enzymatic cleaners have to be used, which need to be carefully developed to ensure efficacious performance. In vitro biofilm in a 96-well-plate system was used to select and optimize the formulation of novel enzymatic cleaners. Removal of the biofilm was quantified by crystal violet staining, while the disinfecting properties were evaluated by a BacTiter-Glo assay. The biofilm removal efficacy of the selected cleaner was further tested by using European standard (EN) for endoscope cleaning EN ISO 15883, and removal of artificial blood soil was investigated by treating TOSI (Test Object Surgical Instrument) cleaning indicators. Using the process described here, a novel enzymatic endoscope cleaner was developed, which removed 95% of Staphylococcus aureus and 90% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in the 96-well plate system. With a >99% reduction of CFU and a >90% reduction of extracellular polymeric substances, this cleaner enabled subsequent complete disinfection and fulfilled acceptance criteria of EN ISO 15883. Furthermore, it efficiently removed blood soil and significantly outperformed comparable commercial products. The cleaning performance was stable even after storage of the cleaner for 6 months. It was demonstrated that incorporation of appropriate enzymes into the cleaner enhanced performance significantly.

  17. Frontal sinus osteoma removal with the ultrasonic bone aspirator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehieli, Eric; Chu, Jaemi; Gordin, Eli; Pribitkin, Edmund A

    2012-04-01

    Osteomas, the most common skull tumors, are typically excised through either an open or endoscopic ostectomy using a high-speed drill, a technically challenging procedure that can result in injury to adjacent soft tissue structures. Osteoma removal through ultrasonic bone emulsification and aspiration (UBA) offers the advantages of decreased blood loss, preservation of adjacent soft tissue structures, and precise bone removal. UBA was used to successfully remove a forehead osteoma without injury to adjacent nerves and with a satisfactory cosmetic outcome. We describe skull osteoma removal with an ultrasonic bone aspirator, which offers potential advantages over conventional bone removal techniques.

  18. Blood Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you need repeated transfusions, as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia patients do. If blood transfusions are not closely ... the News Article Index About This Site Send Us Your Comments For ...

  19. Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people with blood disorders. Magnitude of the Problem Complications from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) kill more people each year than breast cancer, motor vehicle accidents, and HIV combined. Sickle cell trait ...

  20. What's Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rh" because scientists found it while studying Rhesus monkeys. If your blood is positive, you have this ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  1. Artificial blood.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    #Blood substitutes have been developed for almost a century. The various type of artificial blood was continuously available on the market. The theme of this report is to identify the best substitute in emergency situation for some patients and science students. The definition of best is given; thus, as the vital part of the report, the comparison between them is described and discussed. Modified hemoglobin, bovine-based hemoglobin and PFCs are three basic types. In terms of the perfor...

  2. Estudo do método da extração da camada leucoplaquetária na produção de hemocomponentes: avaliação laboratorial A study of the Buffy-coat extraction method for blood component processing: laboratorial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario I. Serinolli

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os métodos para a obtenção de hemocomponentes destaca-se o método do plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP e o método da extração da camada leucoplaquetária (ECLP. Este estudo tem por objetivo comparar os métodos do PRP e da ECLP na produção de hemocomponentes. Foram processadas 88 bolsas de sangue total (ST pelo método do PRP, 130 bolsas triplas pelo método da ECLP (ECLPT e 215 bolsas coletadas em bolsas quádruplas pelo método da ECLP (ECLPQ com o uso de extrator automático. Encontramos diferença estatisticamente significante na quantidade de Hb total /unidade entre ECLPT e ECLPQ (p=0,005 e entre ECLPT e PRP (p=0,007 no ST. Houve diferença estatisticamente entre ECLPT e ECLPQ (pThe most commonly used methods for blood component processing are the "plasma rich in platelets method" (PRP, and the Buffy-coat extraction method (BC.The purpose of this study was to compare these two methods in the processing of blood components. Eighty-eight whole blood units (WB were processed by the PRP method, 130 blood units were processed by the BC triple blood bag method (BCT and 215 blood units were collected in quadruple blood bags by the BC method (BCQ using an automatic extractor. A statistically significant difference was observed in the number in the total Hb per unit of WB between the BCT and BCQ methods (p=0.005 and between the BCT and PRP methods (p=0.007. There were also statistically significant differences between the BCT and BCQ methods (p<0.001 and between BCQ and PRP methods (p<0.001 in relation to leukocytes/mL. In the RBC concentrates, we found statistically significant differences between the PRP method and both the BCT and BCQ methods in respect to hematocrit levels, Hb recovery, total Hb, leukocytes, leukocyte depletion, platelets and platelet depletion (p<0.001 in all cases. We also found statistically significant differences between the PRP, BCT and BCQ methods for the volume, platelet recovery, and leukocyte depletion (p<0

  3. A wavelet space based approach for Doppler ultrasound blood signals separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Dawei; WANG Yuanyuan; WANG Weiqi

    2007-01-01

    In medical Doppler ultrasound systems, a high-pass filter which is usually employed to filter wall clutter components, will remove the information of the low velocity blood flow.To extract intact Doppler ultrasound blood signals, a novel approach is proposed based on the spatially selective noise filtration. The wall signals are firstly estimated by the spatially selective noise filtration from wavelet spatial correlation property. Then the wall clutters are exactly obtained by a wavelet threshold de-noising technique which eliminates the residual blood flow signals. Finally the intact blood flow signals are achieved by subtracting the wall signals from the mixed signals. This approach is applied to both computer simulated and in vivo carotid Doppler ultrasound signals. The experiment results show that the wavelet space based approach can exactly extract the blood flow signals, and achieve about 45% lower results in the mean absolute error than that of the high-pass filtering. This approach is expected to be an effective method to remove the wall clutters in Doppler ultrasound systems.

  4. Sprayed skin turbine component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  5. Blood Transfusion and Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... receiving the blood transfusion. To keep blood safe, blood banks carefully screen donated blood. The risk of catching ... one or more times before the surgery. A blood bank will store your blood for your use. NIH: ...

  6. Blood (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood A A A What's ... about the mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood. Blood Basics Two types of blood vessels carry blood ...

  7. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norepinephrine -- blood; Epinephrine -- blood; Adrenalin -- blood; Dopamine -- blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  9. Controlled biomass removal - the key parameter to achieve enhanced biological phosphorus removal in biofilm systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgenroth, E.

    1999-01-01

    In contrast to enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in activated sludge systems mass transfer processes have a major influence on overall phosphorus removal in biofilm reactors. Based on results from a laboratory scale sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) and from a mathematical model......) had only a minor effect on overall phosphorus removal. Soluble components fully penetrate the biofilm at certain times during the SBBR cycle as a consequence of SBBR operation with large concentration variations over the cycle time. The limiting processes for EBPR is the efficient removal...... of phosphorus rich biomass from the reactor. Biomass at the base of the biofilm that is not removed during backwashing will release accumulated phosphorus due to lysis or endogenous respiration and will not contribute to net phosphorus removal. For efficient operation of EBPR in biofilm systems regular...

  10. Proteomics in extracorporeal blood purification and peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2010-01-03

    Extracorporeal blood purification and peritoneal dialysis are widely used in renal replacement therapy for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and acute kidney injury (AKI). Additionally, extracorporeal blood purification can be used also for treatment of non-renal disorders to remove endogenous or exogenous toxins from the blood circulation. Efforts have been made to characterize these toxins removed by diffusion (dialysis), convection (ultrafiltration), and/or adsorption (toxins are adsorbed onto the dialysis membrane and are thus removed) using different types of dialysis membrane. This review summarizes important findings obtained from recent proteomic studies applied to extracorporeal blood purification and peritoneal dialysis in settings of ESRD, AKI and hepatic failure.

  11. Clinical observation of method of clearing heat and promoting diuresis, promoting blood circulation to remove meridian obstruction on acute gout%清热利湿、活血通络法治疗急性期痛风74例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 王朝旭; 高晶月; 史军月; 杨小茜

    2016-01-01

    [目的]通过临床与常规西药治疗比较,观察清热利湿、活血通络法治疗急性期痛风的临床疗效与安全性。[方法]将明确诊断的74例患者随机分为治疗组37例和对照组37例。治疗组给予萆薢汤化裁中药汤剂口服,对照组口服双氯芬酸钠缓释片及秋水仙碱,入组期间两组患者均采用低嘌呤饮食。1周后进行中医证候疗效评价,观察治疗前后受试者关节疼痛评分、肿胀评分、全身症状评分、血尿酸、血沉及不良反应发生情况。[结果]与对照组比较,治疗组中医证侯疗效评分差异无统计学意义(P﹥0.05)。两组治疗后关节疼痛评分、肿胀评分、全身症状评分、血尿酸、血沉较治疗前均明显改善,差异有统计学意义(P﹤0.05)。治疗后治疗组全身症状评分、血尿酸及血沉改善情况均优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P﹤0.05)。研究期间,治疗组未见不良反应发生,对照组不良反应4例,停药或经对症处理后即恢复正常。[结论]清热利湿、活血通络法治疗急性期痛风疗效显著,在改善全身症状,降低血尿酸及血沉方面优于常规西药治疗,且具有良好的安全性,值得临床推广应用。%Objective] Through clinical compared with conventional Western medicine treatment, to observe the clinical effect and security of method of clearing heat and promoting diuresis, promoting blood circulation to remove meridian obstruction of acute gout. [Methods] Diagnosis of 74 patients were randomly divided into treatment group (37 cases) and control group (37 cases). Patients in treatment group were treated by traditional Chinese medicine of oral Bixie decoction, wlile the control group was treated with diclofenac sodium sustained release tablets and colchicine. Two groups of patients were sustained low purine diet. Evaluated syndrome of traditional Chinese medicine efficacy after one week. Patients before

  12. Blood Vessel Tension Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, a medical researcher is using a specially designed laboratory apparatus for measuring blood vessel tension. It was designed by Langley Research Center as a service to researchers of Norfolk General Hospital and Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia. The investigators are studying how vascular smooth muscle-muscle in the walls of blood vessels-reacts to various stimulants, such as coffee, tea, alcohol or drugs. They sought help from Langley Research Center in devising a method of measuring the tension in blood vessel segments subjected to various stimuli. The task was complicated by the extremely small size of the specimens to be tested, blood vessel "loops" resembling small rubber bands, some only half a millimeter in diameter. Langley's Instrumentation Development Section responded with a miniaturized system whose key components are a "micropositioner" for stretching a length of blood vessel and a strain gage for measuring the smooth muscle tension developed. The micropositioner is a two-pronged holder. The loop of Mood vessel is hooked over the prongs and it is stretched by increasing the distance between the prongs in minute increments, fractions of a millimeter. At each increase, the tension developed is carefully measured. In some experiments, the holder and specimen are lowered into the test tubes shown, which contain a saline solution simulating body fluid; the effect of the compound on developed tension is then measured. The device has functioned well and the investigators say it has saved several months research time.

  13. [Blood donation in urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, F

    2013-05-01

    Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes.

  14. Managing your blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

  15. Hair removal in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pereira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to hormonal stimulation during puberty, changes occur in hair type and distribution. In both sexes, body and facial unwanted hair may have a negative psychological impact on the teenager. There are several available methods of hair removal, but the choice of the most suitable one for each individual can raise doubts. Objective: To review the main methods of hair removal and clarify their indications, advantages and disadvantages. Development: There are several removal methods currently available. Shaving and depilation with chemicals products are temporary methods, that need frequent repetition, because hair removal is next to the cutaneous surface. The epilating methods in which there is full hair extraction include: epilation with wax, thread, tweezers, epilating machines, laser, intense pulsed light, and electrolysis. Conclusions: The age of beginning hair removal and the method choice must be individualized and take into consideration the skin and hair type, location, dermatological and endocrine problems, removal frequency, cost and personal preferences.

  16. Removal of heavy metals using waste eggshell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The removal capacity of toxic heavy metals by the reused eggshell was studied. As a pretreatment process for the preparation of reused material from waste eggshell, calcination was performed in the furnace at 800℃ for 2 h after crushing the dried waste eggshell. Calcination behavior, qualitative and quantitative elemental information, mineral type and surface characteristics before and after calcination of eggshell were examined by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. After calcination, the major inorganic composition was identified as Ca (lime, 99.63%) and K, P and Sr were identified as minor components. When calcined eggshell was applied in the treatment of synthetic wastewater containing heavy metals, a complete removal of Cd as well as above 99% removal of Cr was observed after 10 min. Although the natural eggshell had some removal capacity of Cd and Cr, a complete removal was not accomplished even after 60 min due to quite slower removal rate. However, in contrast to Cd and Cr, an efficient removal of Pb was observed with the natural eggshell rather than the calcined eggshell. From the application of the calcined eggshell in the treatment of real electroplating wastewater, the calcined eggshell showed a promising removal capacity of heavy metal ions as well as had a good neutralization capacity in the treatment of strong acidic wastewater.

  17. Relationship between T lymphocytes counts and peripheral blood components in HIV/AIDS patients%HIV/AIDS患者T淋巴细胞计数与外周血组份间关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾海英; 陈莉霞; 马慧霞; 米吉提.买买提

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between peripheral T lymphocyte count and blood test results among HIV/AIDS patients. Methods Anticoagulant were collected from 78 cases of HIV/AIDS (HIV/AIDS group) and 55 cases of healthy volunteers (healthy control group), CD4+T and CD8+T lymphocytes in peripheral blood by flow cytometry were detected , while detected blood cells routine testing were by automatic hematology analyzer.Results 71.79% (56/78) in 78 patients CD4+ T lymphocyte count were <200 cells /μl, 98.72% patients CD47CD8Vere<0.8,among which 75.64% (59/78) patients CD4/CD8 between 0.1~0.5. Those six projects CD4+,CD8+, CD3+,CD4/CD8,WBC and LYMPH both had statistics significance when HIV/ AIDS group compared with control group. While those three projects NEUT,% NEUT and % LYMPH had no statistics significance. Conclusion It is closely related to CD4+,CD8+, CD3+, CD4+CD8+ and LYMPH in the disease process of HIV/ AIDS patients. CD4+,CD8+, blood cells routine testing are detected early to understand the progression of the disease and antiviral therapy time.%目的 分析HIV/AIDS患者外周血T淋巴细胞计数和血常规检测结果.方法 收集78例HIV/AIDS患者(HIV/AIDS组)、55例健康体检人员(健康对照组)的抗凝血,用流式细胞仪技术检测外周血CD4+T及CD8+T淋巴细胞,全自动血细胞分析仪检测血常规.结果 78例患者中有71.79%(56/78) CD4+T淋巴细胞数<200个/μl,98.72%的HIV/AIDS患者CD4+/CD8+比值<0.8,其中75.64% (59/78)患者4/8介于0.1~0.5之间.CD4+、CD8+、CD3+、CD4/CD8、WBC、LYMPH六个项目HIV/AIDS组与健康对照组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),NEUT、%NEUT及%LYMPH三个项目两组间比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 HIV/AIDS患者在发病过程中与CD4+、CD8+、CD3+、CD4+/CD8+及LYMPH密切相关,建议HIV感染者尽早进行医学咨询并做CD4+、CD8+和血常规的检测,以了解病情的进展及进行抗病毒治疗.

  18. Particle adhesion and removal

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, K L

    2015-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive and easily accessible reference source covering all important aspects of particle adhesion and removal.  The core objective is to cover both fundamental and applied aspects of particle adhesion and removal with emphasis on recent developments.  Among the topics to be covered include: 1. Fundamentals of surface forces in particle adhesion and removal.2. Mechanisms of particle adhesion and removal.3. Experimental methods (e.g. AFM, SFA,SFM,IFM, etc.) to understand  particle-particle and particle-substrate interactions.4. Mechanics of adhesion of micro- and  n

  19. Region 9 Removal Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of CERCLA (Superfund) Removal sites. CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act)...

  20. Effect of the Herbal Compound Prescription of Removing Blood Stasis and Reducing Phlegm, Dispersing Stagnated Mass on Regulative System of ECM Decomposition and TGF-β1 mRNA%祛瘀化痰、散结消癥中药复方对细胞外基质降解调控系统及TGF-β1mRNA的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪晨; 王倩; 冯天保

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究祛瘀化痰、散结消癥中药复方对肾小球硬化中细胞外基质(ECM)降解调控系统及转化生长因子(TGF)-β1mRNA的影响.方法:采用脂多糖刺激体外培养的大鼠肾小球系膜细胞,复制细胞增殖模型,用给药动物血清干预后,酶联免疫吸附法检测细胞上清液中基质金属蛋白酶(MMP-9)、基质金属蛋白酶抑制物(TIMP-1)的表达,计算MMP-9与TIMP-1比值,荧光定量PCR法检测细胞TGF-β1mRNA表达.结果:各祛瘀化痰、散结消癥中药复方均能不同程度地抑制TIMP-1、上调MMP-9的表达,提高MMP-9与TIMP-1的比值,并下调细胞中TGF-β1mRNA表达,其中以川芎+鳖甲+海藻组作用最明显.结论:祛瘀化痰、散结消癥中药复方能增强ECM降解,下调肾小球系膜细胞中TGF-β1mRNA表达.%OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the herbal compound prescription of removing blood stasis and reducing phlegm, dispersing stagnated mass on regulative system of ECM decomposition and TGF-β1 mRNA. METHODS: LPS as a stimulating factor was used to culture rat mesangial cells in vitro to induce cell proliferation model. After intervention with the administration of animal serum, the expressions of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in culture supernatant were determined by ELISA and the ratio of MMP-9/TIMP-1 was calculated. The expression of TGF-β1 mRNA in mesangial cells was detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR.RESULTS: The herbal compound prescriptions of removing blood stasis and reducing phlegm, dispersing stagnated mass were able to inhibit the expression of TIMP-1, increase the expression of MMP-9, then enhance the ratio of MMP-9/TIMP-1 and down-regulate the expression of TGF-β1 mRNA. The effect of Ligusticum chuanxiong+Trionyx sinensis+Sargassum group was the most significant. CONCLUSION: The herbal compound prescription of removing blood stasis and reducing phlegm, dispersing stagnated mass could enhance the degradation of ECM, decrease the expression of TGF-β1 mRNA.

  1. Tonifying kidney,resolving phlegm and removing blood stasis in treating 35 cases clinical observations of obesity -type polycystic ovary syndrome%补肾化痰祛瘀方治疗肥胖型多囊卵巢综合征35例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘舒婷; 陈木柯; 李冰

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察自拟补肾化痰祛瘀方治疗肥胖型多囊卵巢综合征的疗效。方法:选取70例肥胖型多囊卵巢综合征患者作为研究对象,其中35例为治疗组,采用自拟补肾化痰祛瘀中药方治疗;35例为对照组,采用二甲双胍治疗,比较两组患者治疗3个月后在临床疗效、体重指数(BMI)、血清性激素(LH、FSH、T)、空腹血糖(FPG)、空腹胰岛素(FINS)、副作用等方面的差异。结果:两组总有效率比较,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05);治疗前后组内比较,所有观察指标均较治疗前明显改善(P <0.05);治疗后,两组组间比较,治疗组 BMI、LH、FSH、T 指标均较对照组有统计学差异(P <0.05)。结论:自拟补肾化痰祛瘀中药方治疗肥胖型多囊卵巢综合征疗效较好,能从整体上调节内分泌代谢,并且治疗中未出现不良反应,值得在临床推广运用。%Objective To observe the effect of self -prepared formula for tonifying kidney,resolving phlegm and removing blood stasis on obese polycystic ovary syndrome.Method Among 70 patients with obese polycystic ovary syndrome,35 cases were included in the treatment group,treated with self -prepared Chinese herbal formula for tonifying kidney,resolving phlegm and removing blood stasis;the other 35 cases were included in the control group,treated with Metformin.Compare the differences of the patients in the two groups in clinical efficacy,body mass index (BMI),serum sexual hormone (LH,FSH,T),fasting plasma glucose (FPG),fasting insulin (FINS),side effects after 3 -month treatment.Results Indicators were significantly lower in the treatment group after treat-ment (P 0.05),FINS after treatment there is no advantage in the treatment group,compared with the control group was not statistically significant.Conclusion Self -pre-pared Chinese herbal formula for tonifying kidney,resolving phlegm and removing blood stasis had a

  2. Research and Application of Promoting Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis in Treatment of Children with Bronchial Asthma%浅谈活血化瘀法治疗小儿支气管哮喘的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王增玲; 吴航

    2014-01-01

    Infantile bronchial asthma is pediatric common disease,The disease often repeated attacks or continue without remission. In recent years,Many physicians recognize the important role in the pathogenesis of asthma stasis in plays,Children with asthma and confirmed the performance of the body evident from the microscopic point of stasis,Consider the use of Chinese medicine treatment of blood circulation, Satisfactory results in terms of exacerbation or remission can be. I realized that in the clinical, On the basis of the syndrome differentiation accompanied by traditional blood circulation drugs, can achieve better results.%小儿哮喘是儿科常见病,本病常反复发作或持续不解。近年来,许多医家认识到血瘀在哮喘病的发病机制中所起的重要作用,并且从微观角度证实了哮喘患儿机体明显存在血瘀表现,认为运用中医活血化瘀药治疗,无论在发作期还是缓解期均可取得满意疗效。本研究发现,在传统辨证施治的基础上佐以活血化瘀药,可取得较好的疗效。

  3. Effect of promoting blood circulation by removing blood stasis on serum transforming growth factor - β1, interleukin -4 and interleukin - 10 levels in female rats with chronic pelvic inflammatory disease%活血化瘀法对慢性盆腔炎雌性大鼠血清TGF-β1和IL-4、IL-10水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师伟; 刘瑞芬; 杨晓娜; 徐丽

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨活血化瘀法对慢性盆腔炎雌性大鼠血清TGF -β1、IL -4、IL - 10水平的影响.方法:采用混合细菌加机械损伤方法,建立慢性盆腔炎大鼠模型,对60只大鼠随机分为模型组、桂枝茯苓胶囊治疗高、中、低剂量组、对照组,各组均为12只,另外选择假手术慢性盆腔炎造模大鼠(假手术组)、正常饲养未干预大鼠(正常组)各12只.检测各组大鼠血清TGF -β1、IL-4、IL - 10的水平.结果:①血清TGF -β1水平:模型组较正常组、假手术组显著升高(P<0.01);实验组较模型组显著降低(P<0.01或P<0.05),且中、高剂量组水平接近正常组(P>0.05);低剂量实验组较对照组显著升高(P<0.01);中剂量实验组较高、低剂量实验组均降低.②血清IL -4、IL - 10水平:模型组较正常组、假手术组显著降低(P<0.01);中剂量实验组较模型组明显升高(P<0.01),且接近正常组水平(P>0.05);中、高剂量实验组较对照组均升高,其中IL-4升高有统计学意义(P<0.01),IL - 10升高无统计学意义(P>0.05),低剂量实验组较对照组均降低,其中IL -4无统计学意义(P>0.05),IL - 10有统计学意义(P<0.01);中剂量实验组较高、低剂量实验组均升高.③中剂量实验组各指标间相关性分析:TGF-β1与IL -4、IL - 10有显著负相关性(P<0.01),IL-4与IL - 10有显著正相关性(P<0.01).结论:活血化瘀法能影响慢性盆腔炎大鼠血清TGF -β1、IL-4、IL - 10水平,与药物剂量存在相关性,这可能是活血化瘀法抗粘连和抑制炎症反应,从而治疗慢性盆腔炎和缓解盆腔粘连的机制之一.%Objective: To explore the effect of promoting blood circulation by removing blood stasis on serum transforming growth factor-pi (TGF-β1), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin- 10 (IL-10) levels in female rats with chrome pelvic inflammatory dis-ease. Methods; Mixed bacteria plus mechanical damage method were used to establish

  4. Safety of blood and blood products in Scandinavia today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, A

    1988-01-01

    The safety of blood and blood products in Scandinavia today is high. An absolutely safe blood supply is, however, an unattainable goal. The dominating risk is transmission of non-A, non-B virus (NANBV). The calculated per blood unit risk is 1:200. The incidence of cirrhosis due to post-transfusion hepatitis NANB is calculated to at most 0.1% among recipients of blood components from about 5 donors. Other risk factors are transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). The prevalence of HBsAg among first time donors is about 0.05% (Sweden). In Scandinavia, anti-HIV-1 has been found in 0.001% of donations from start of screening in 1985 to December 1987. The prevalence was higher in Denmark, lower in Finland (and perhaps Iceland). The prevalence has declined during the last years. As of June 1988, 117 patients in the Scandinavian countries have been infected by blood components, all but 2 before screening was introduced. Besides these, 226 haemophiliacs have been infected by, in almost all cases, imported clotting factor concentrates before heat treatment was introduced. Most of the infected patients are still asymptomatic. About 70% of blood donors have anti-CMV, a few percent of which will transmit CMV-infection, with severe symptoms, to immunosuppressed patients without anti-CMV.

  5. Quality indicators for discarding blood in the National Blood Center, Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Morish

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The implementation of quality system and continuous evaluation of all activities of the Blood Transfusion Services (BTS can help to achieve the maximum quantity and quality of safe blood. Optimizing blood collection and processing would reduce the rate of discard and improve the efficiency of the BTS. The objective of this study is to determine the rate of discard of blood and blood component and identify its reasons at the National Blood Centre (NBC, Kuala Lumpur, during the year of 2007 in order to introduce appropriate intervention. Study Designs and Methods: Data on the number of discarded whole blood units and its components, reasons for discard, and the number of blood components processed as well as the number of collected blood units were obtained from the Blood Bank Information System - NBC database. These were analyzed. Results: The total number of blood units collected in 2007 was 171169 from which 390636 units of components were prepared. The total number of discarded whole blood units and its components was 8968 (2.3%. Platelet concentrate recorded the highest of discard at 6% (3909 followed by whole blood at 3.7% (647, fresh frozen plasma (FFP at 2.5% (2839, and cryoprecipitate at 2% (620. The rate of discarded packed red blood cells RBCs, plasma aphaeresis, and PLT aphaeresis was less than 1% at 0.6% (902, 0.6% (37, and 0.29% (14, respectively. RBC contamination of PLT and plasma were the major cause of discard at 40% (3558. Other causes include leakage (26% - 2306, lipemia (25% - 2208, and underweight (4% - 353. Conclusion: Good donor selection, training and evaluation of the staff, as well as implementation of automation will help to improve processes and output of BTS. This would reduce discard of blood components and wastage caused by non conformance.

  6. Blood Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of ASH ASH Meeting on Hematologic Malignancies Consultative Hematology Course ASH Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ASH Workshop on Genome Editing Publications Blood The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH Self-Assessment Program Hematology , ASH Education Program About Awards Membership ASH Foundation ...

  7. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of ASH ASH Meeting on Hematologic Malignancies Consultative Hematology Course ASH Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ASH Workshop on Genome Editing Publications Blood The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH Self-Assessment Program Hematology , ASH Education Program About Awards Membership ASH Foundation ...

  8. 探究通络祛痛膏治疗膝关节骨性关节炎风湿瘀阻证的疗效%To Explore the Curative Effect of Treating Knee Joint Osteoarthritis with Rheumatism and Blood Stasis Syndrome by Dredging Collaterals and Re-moving Pain Plaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃艳梅

    2016-01-01

    目的:探究治疗风湿瘀阻型KOA时应用通络祛痛膏的疗效。方法整群选择该院2014年2月—2016年3月收治的105例KOA患者作为临床疗效研究对象,依据随机数字表分为贴膏组55例(通络祛痛膏治疗)、参照组50例(应用塞来昔布),结果参照组总有效率为72.00%,贴膏组为92.73%;经过30 d的治疗后参照组的WOMAC评分明显高于贴膏组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论应用通络祛痛膏可以改善风湿瘀阻型KOA的治疗效果。%Objective To explore the therapeutic effect of dredging collaterals and relieving pain cream in treating rheumat-ic blood stasis type KOA. Methods Group choose in February 2014 — March 2016 from 105 cases of KOA patients in the hospital as the research object of the clinical curative effect, according to the random number table will be 105 points for plaster group 55 cases (Tongluo Qutong ointment in treating), reference group 50 cases (celecoxib). Results The reference group, the total efficiency was 72.00%, plaster group was 92.73%; after 30 d after treatment with reference to WOMAC score group was obviously higher than that in the plaster group (P< 0.05). Conclusion The application of dredging meridi-ans and removing pain ointment can improve the therapeutic effect of KOA in the treatment of rheumatism and blood stasis.

  9. Section of CMS Beam Pipe Removed

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Seven components of the beam pipe located at the heart of the CMS detector were removed in recent weeks. The delicate operations were performed in several stages as the detector was opened. Video of the extraction of one section: http://youtu.be/arGuFgWM7u0

  10. Testosterone therapy has positive effects on anthropometric measures, metabolic syndrome components (obesity, lipid profile, Diabetes Mellitus control), blood indices, liver enzymes, and prostate health indicators in elderly hypogonadal men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canguven, O; Talib, R A; El Ansari, W; Yassin, D-J; Salman, M; Al-Ansari, A

    2017-03-10

    To alleviate late-onset hypogonadism, testosterone treatment is offered to suitable patients. Although testosterone treatment is commonly given to late-onset hypogonadism patients, there remains uncertainty about the metabolic effects during follow-ups. We assessed the associations between testosterone treatment and wide range of characteristics that included hormonal, anthropometric, biochemical features. Patients received intramuscular 1,000 mg testosterone undecanoate for 1 year. Patient anthropometric measurements were undertaken at baseline and at each visit, and blood samples were drawn at each visit, prior to the next testosterone undecanoate. Eighty-eight patients (51.1 ± 13.0 years) completed the follow-up period. Testosterone treatment was associated with significant increase in serum testosterone levels and significant stepladder decrease in body mass index, total cholesterol, triglycerides and glycated haemoglobin from baseline values among all patients. There was no significant increase in liver enzymes. There was an increase in haemoglobin and haematocrit, as well as in prostate-specific antigen and prostate volume, but no prostate biopsy intervention was needed for study patients during 1-year testosterone treatment follow-up. Testosterone treatment with long-acting testosterone undecanoate improved the constituents of metabolic syndrome and improved glycated haemoglobin in a stepladder fashion, with no adverse effects.

  11. High blood pressure in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, D A; Oparil, S

    1997-01-01

    There is a sexual dimorphism in blood pressure of humans and experimental animals: males tend to have higher blood pressure than females with functional ovaries, while ovariectomy or menopause tends to abolish the sexual dimorphism and cause females to develop a "male" pattern of blood pressure. Hypertensive male laboratory animals tend to have NaCl-sensitive blood pressure, while females are NaCl resistant unless their ovaries are removed, in which case NaCl sensitivity appears. The hormonal basis of NaCl sensitivity of blood pressure and of the sexual dimorphism of hypertension remains to be defined. Synthetic estrogens and progestins, as found in oral contraceptives, tend to elevate blood pressure, while naturally occurring estrogens lower it, or have no effect. Hypertension increases cardiovascular risk in women, as well as men, although the benefits of antihypertensive treatment have been more difficult to demonstrate in women. In the population of the United States, women are more aware of their hypertension, more likely to be treated medically, and more likely to have their blood pressure controlled.

  12. Blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The lower ...

  13. Blood Count Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  14. Removal of broken hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hak, David J; McElvany, Matthew

    2008-02-01

    Despite advances in metallurgy, fatigue failure of hardware is common when a fracture fails to heal. Revision procedures can be difficult, usually requiring removal of intact or broken hardware. Several different methods may need to be attempted to successfully remove intact or broken hardware. Broken intramedullary nail cross-locking screws may be advanced out by impacting with a Steinmann pin. Broken open-section (Küntscher type) intramedullary nails may be removed using a hook. Closed-section cannulated intramedullary nails require additional techniques, such as the use of guidewires or commercially available extraction tools. Removal of broken solid nails requires use of a commercial ratchet grip extractor or a bone window to directly impact the broken segment. Screw extractors, trephines, and extraction bolts are useful for removing stripped or broken screws. Cold-welded screws and plates can complicate removal of locked implants and require the use of carbide drills or high-speed metal cutting tools. Hardware removal can be a time-consuming process, and no single technique is uniformly successful.

  15. Variation in postsampling treatment of avian blood affects ecophysiological interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoye, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    1. The fluid component of blood is widely used in ecophysiological investigations, including measures of immune function and stable isotope ecology. After blood collection, delayed separation of blood extracellular fluids from red blood cells is known to affect the concentration of a wide range of b

  16. Laser removal of tattoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman-Beade, M; Levine, V J; Ashinoff, R

    2001-01-01

    Tattoos are placed for different reasons. A technique for tattoo removal which produces selective removal of each tattoo pigment, with minimal risk of scarring, is needed. Nonspecific methods have a high incidence of scarring, textural, and pigmentary alterations compared with the use of Q-switched lasers. With new advances in Q-switched laser technology, tattoo removal can be achieved with minimal risk of scarring and permanent pigmentary alteration. There are five types of tattoos: amateur, professional, cosmetic, medicinal, and traumatic. Amateur tattoos require less treatment sessions than professional multicolored tattoos. Other factors to consider when evaluating tattoos for removal are: location, age and the skin type of the patient. Treatment should begin by obtaining a pre-operative history. Since treatment with the Q-switched lasers is painful, use of a local injection with lidocaine or topical anaesthesia cream may be used prior to laser treatment. Topical broad-spectrum antibacterial ointment is applied immediately following the procedure. Three types of lasers are currently used for tattoo removal: Q-switched ruby laser (694 nm), Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 1064 nm), and Q-switched alexandrite laser (755 nm). The Q-switched ruby and alexandrite lasers are useful for removing black, blue and green pigments. The Q-switched 532 nm Nd:YAG laser can be used to remove red pigments and the 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser is used for removal of black and blue pigments. The most common adverse effects following laser tattoo treatment with the Q-switched ruby laser include textural change, scarring, and pigmentary alteration. Transient hypopigmentation and textural changes have been reported in up to 50 and 12%, respectively, of patients treated with the Q-switched alexandrite laser. Hyperpigmentation and textural changes are infrequent adverse effects of the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and the incidence of hypopigmentary changes is much lower than with the ruby laser

  17. Determination of organic chemicals in human whole blood: Preliminary method development for volatile organics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, P.H.; Boggess, K.E.; Hosenfeld, J.M. (Midwest Research Institute, Kansas City, MO (USA)); Remmers, J.C.; Breen, J.J.; Robinson, P.E.; Stroup, C. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (USA))

    1988-05-01

    Extensive commercial, industrial, and domestic use of volatile organic chemicals, virtually assures that the general population will be exposed to some level of this class of chemicals. Because blood interacts with the respiratory system and is a major component of the body, it is likely that the analysis of blood will show exposure to volatile organics. Monitoring of the blood in conjunction with monitoring of xenobiotic levels in urine and adipose tissue is an effective way to assess the total body burden resulting from exposure to a chemical. This article introduces a method for the detection and confirmation of selected volatile organics at parts-per-trillion (ppt) levels in whole human blood. Intended for routine use, the method consists of a dynamic headspace purge of water-diluted blood where a carrier gas sweeps the surface of the sample and removes a quantifiable amount of the volatile organics from the blood and into an adsorbent trap. The organics are thermally desorbed from the adsorbent trap and onto the analytical column in a gas-chromatographic/mass-spectrometric (GC/MS) system where limited mass-scan data are taken for qualitative and quantitative identification. Method validation results and limited population-survey results are also presented here.

  18. Profile of Blood Transfusion Requests from Hospitals to Bandung Blood Transfusion Unit, Indonesian Red Cross in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahla Nisaa Amalia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood transfusion as a part health services should be provided under appropriate indications and in a safe manner. In Indonesia, blood collection is run by the Blood Transfusion Unit of Indonesian Red Cross, where the blood is screened, processed into blood components, and finally distributed to hospitals. The purpose of this study was to describe the profile of blood transfusion requests from hospitals that do not have blood bank facility to the Bandung Blood Transfusion Unit, Indonesian Red Cross. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out using secondary data from Bandung Blood Transfusion Unit Indonesian Red Cross (UTD PMI Bandung. All blood request forms from hospitals during 2011 were collected and analyzed. Variables in this study were the amount of blood units, blood components, blood type, and indications of blood transfusion. Results: The number of blood units requested by hospitals were 35,841 units. The most blood units requested was in August 2011. The blood component requested was the packed red cell (61.1%, whole blood (17.4%, thrombocyte concentrate (10.6%, and fresh frozen plasma (7%. The total percentage of O, A, B and AB blood types were 36.1%, 28.6%, 27.5%, and 7.9% respectively. The most frequent indication for transfusion was anemia (61.7%, followed by surgery and other causes of bleeding. Conclusions: The total blood units requested by hospitals vary each month. The most blood component requested is Packed Red Cell and the type of blood is O blood type. The most frequent indication is anemia.

  19. Asymmetric membrane filters for the removal of leukocytes from blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruil, A.; Aken, van W.G.; Beugeling, T.; Feijen, J.; Steneker, I.; Huisman, J.G.; Prins, H.K.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a study on the mechanisms of leukocyte filtration, the influence of pore size distribution on filter efficiency was investigated. Conventional leukocyte filters are not suitable for model studies, as these filters are composed of tightly packed synthetic fibers, with a poorly defined poro

  20. Reactor for removing ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Weifang; Stewart, Kenneth D.

    2009-11-17

    Disclosed is a device for removing trace amounts of ammonia from a stream of gas, particularly hydrogen gas, prepared by a reformation apparatus. The apparatus is used to prevent PEM "poisoning" in a fuel cell receiving the incoming hydrogen stream.

  1. Nephrectomy (Kidney Removal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if your entire kidney needs to be removed. Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery. In a variation of laparoscopic ... living kidney donor. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2014. AskMayoExpert. Partial nephrectomy. Rochester, ...

  2. Asbestos Removal Case History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Stanley J.

    1986-01-01

    The engineer for a California school district describes the asbestos removal from the ceilings of El Camino High School. Discusses forming a design team, use of consultants, specifications, relations with contractors, and staff notification. (MLF)

  3. Breast lump removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cannot feel it when examining you, a wire localization will be done before the surgery. A radiologist ... send the lump to a laboratory for more testing. Why the Procedure is Performed Surgery to remove ...

  4. Advanced Coating Removal Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Jon

    2006-01-01

    An important step in the repair and protection against corrosion damage is the safe removal of the oxidation and protective coatings without further damaging the integrity of the substrate. Two such methods that are proving to be safe and effective in this task are liquid nitrogen and laser removal operations. Laser technology used for the removal of protective coatings is currently being researched and implemented in various areas of the aerospace industry. Delivering thousands of focused energy pulses, the laser ablates the coating surface by heating and dissolving the material applied to the substrate. The metal substrate will reflect the laser and redirect the energy to any remaining protective coating, thus preventing any collateral damage the substrate may suffer throughout the process. Liquid nitrogen jets are comparable to blasting with an ultra high-pressure water jet but without the residual liquid that requires collection and removal .As the liquid nitrogen reaches the surface it is transformed into gaseous nitrogen and reenters the atmosphere without any contamination to surrounding hardware. These innovative technologies simplify corrosion repair by eliminating hazardous chemicals and repetitive manual labor from the coating removal process. One very significant advantage is the reduction of particulate contamination exposure to personnel. With the removal of coatings adjacent to sensitive flight hardware, a benefit of each technique for the space program is that no contamination such as beads, water, or sanding residue is left behind when the job is finished. One primary concern is the safe removal of coatings from thin aluminum honeycomb face sheet. NASA recently conducted thermal testing on liquid nitrogen systems and found that no damage occurred on 1/6", aluminum substrates. Wright Patterson Air Force Base in conjunction with Boeing and NASA is currently testing the laser remOval technique for process qualification. Other applications of liquid

  5. Preparation of Blood-Deficient Model and Research of Angelica Polysaccharide on Enriching Blood in Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Haifeng Hou; Yongzhan Bao; Qian Li; Wanyu Shi

    2012-01-01

    In this study cyclophosphamide was used to prepare the blood-deficient model. The red blood cell count and hemoglobin content were measured. The experimental chickens presented the symptoms of blood-deficient syndrome, dullness, shrinkinginto oneself, broken winded, loose feather, waxy eyelid, and pale tongue. At the same time, red blood cell count and hemoglobin content decreased significantly. Angelica polysaccharide as the effective component of Angelica Sinensis could significantly increa...

  6. Laser hair removal pearls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Emily P; Goldberg, David J

    2008-03-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the follicle through the targeting of melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Pearls of laser hair removal are presented in this review, focusing on four areas of recent development: 1 treatment of blond, white and gray hair; 2 paradoxical hypertrichosis; 3 laser hair removal in children; and 4 comparison of lasers and IPL. Laser and light-based technologies to remove hair represents one of the most exciting areas where discoveries by dermatologists have led to novel treatment approaches. It is likely that in the next decade, continued advancements in this field will bring us closer to the development of a more permanent and painless form of hair removal.

  7. Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, also called low blood glucose or low blood sugar, occurs when ...

  8. Determination of Rate and Causes of Wastage of Blood and Blood Products in Iranian Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat Mohebbi Far

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the rate and causes of wastage of blood and blood products (packed red cells, plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate in Qazvin hospitals. METHODS: The study was conducted in all hospitals in Qazvin, including 5 teaching hospitals, 2 social welfare hospitals, 3 private hospitals, 1 charity hospital, and 1 military hospital. This descriptive study was based on available data from hospital blood banks in the province of Qazvin. The research instrument was a 2-part questionnaire. The first part was related to demographic characteristics of hospitals and the second part elicited information about blood and blood component wastage. The collected data were then analyzed using descriptive statistic methods and SPSS 11.5. RESULTS: Blood wastage may occur for a number of reasons, including time expiry, wasted imports, blood medically or surgically ordered but not used, stock time expired, hemolysis, or miscellaneous reasons. Data indicated that approximately 77.9% of wasted pack cell units were wasted for the reason of time expiry. Pack cell wastage in hospitals is reported to range from 1.93% to 30.7%. Wastage at all hospitals averaged 9.8% among 30.913 issued blood products. Overall blood and blood product (packed red cells, plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate wastage was 3048 units and average total wastage per participant hospital for all blood groups was 254 units per year. CONCLUSION: Blood transfusion is an essential part of patient care. The blood transfusion system has made significant advancements in areas such as donor management, storage of blood, cross-matching, rational use of blood, and distribution. In order to improve the standards of blood banks and the blood transfusion services in Iran, comprehensive standards have been formulated to ensure better quality control in collection, storage, testing, and distribution of blood and its components for the identified major factors

  9. Mixture for removing tar and paraffin deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    kamenshchikov, F.A.; Frolov, M.A.; Golovin, I.N.; Khusainov, Z.M.; Smirnov, Ya.L.; Suchkov, B.M.

    1981-05-23

    Mixture is claimed for removing tar and paraffin deposits (TPD) on the basis of the butyl-benzene fraction (BBF), which is intended to more efficiently remove TPD from the surface of refinery equipment, additionally has piperylene, isoprene and isoamine with the following ratio of the components: piperylene, 19-31%; isoprene, 8-12%; isoamines, 8-12%, while BBF, the rest. The efficiency of the given compositions was assessed by the rate at which the plates were cleaned of TPD and pure commercial paraffin. It has been shown that BBF dissolves 4-6 times faster in the given mixture than in BBF and pyperylene.

  10. Analysis of Laboratory Data of Children with Hemophagocytic Syndromes and Their Treatment by Blood Component Transfusion%82例儿童噬血细胞综合征检验指标分析及成分输血治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马曙轩; 徐樨巍; 宋文琪; 赵宇东; 靳剑芸; 邵华

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨噬血细胞综合征患儿检验指标变化及成分输血在该病支持治疗中的作用.方法 将符合噬血细胞综合征诊断条件的患几分为输血组和未输血组,统计分析患儿病原体检测结果,分别比较其白细胞计数、血红蛋白、血小板计数、丙氨酸氨基转移酶、单纯天冬氨酸转移酶、乳酸脱氢酶、甘油三酯、纤维蛋白原、部分凝血活酶时间及C-反应蛋白等结果,统计输血组不同ABO血型患儿输注成分血的品种和数量.结果 在78.05% (64/82)的患儿体内检出病原体,其中巨细胞病毒感染占大多数(73.44%,47/64).2组患儿的多项检验指标均有异常,输血组患儿的血红蛋白水平、血小板计数、纤维蛋白原含量、部分凝血活酶时间等检验指标较未输血组的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).其他检验指标的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).输血组患儿输注最多的血液成分是新鲜冰冻血浆(人均700 ml),其次是悬浮红细胞(入均4.44U).结论 巨细胞病毒感染是导致噬血细胞综合征患儿发病的主要诱因,该病患儿为多脏器受累,多种检验指标严重异常.成分输血,尤其是新鲜冰冻血浆的输注在重症噬血细胞综合征患儿支持治疗中发挥了重要作用.%Objective To research the range of laboratory data and the role of blood component transfusion in the treatment of children with hemophagocytic syndrome(HPS). Methods The causative agents were analysed in all the patients. Children diagnosed with HPS were divided into two groups: transfusion group and non transfusion group. Children' s laboratory data such as white blood cell count, hemoglobin, platelet count, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate amino-transferase. lactate dehydrogenase, triglyceride, fibrinogen, activated partial thromboplastin time and C-reactive protein were compared respectively. The amount of blood component transfusion was figured out. Results Causative agents were

  11. Approach to Reduction of Blood Atherogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Orekhov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have earlier found that blood sera of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD increase lipid levels in cells cultured from subendothelial intima of human aorta. We have also revealed that the ability of blood sera to raise intracellular cholesterol; that is, their atherogenicity is caused by at least modified low density lipoprotein (LDL circulating in the blood of patients and autoantibodies to modified LDL. In the present work we have demonstrated significant impact of nonlipid factor(s to blood atherogenicity. We have developed an approach to removal of nonlipid atherogenicity factor(s from blood serum based on the use of immobilized LDL. This approach was used for extracorporeal perfusion of patient’s blood through the column with immobilized LDL. Pilot clinical study confirmed the efficacy of this approach for prevention of coronary atherosclerosis progression.

  12. [Perioperative salvage and use of autologous blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, B; Dich-Nielsen, J O

    1999-01-18

    Pre-operative blood donation gives ready availability of large volumes of patient compatible blood, up to four units and five when erythropoietin is used. It is recommended that autologous pre-donated blood is leucocyte depleted immediately after the donation. During normovolaemic haemodilution it is mandatory to monitor haemodynamics during the donation. Usually 1-2 units are removed pre-operatively and returned during or after the operation. Intra and postoperative salvage and recycling is performed either with washing and haemoconcentration of the blood or with salvage and immediate retransfusion. When salvaged blood is retransfused unwashed there are high levels of free haemoglobin, degradation products of fibrin/fibrinogen, interleukin-6 and activated complement. Clinically, this has not been shown to be of importance. Taking the patient's health status into account, we suggest that a level of B-haemoglobin should be determined pre-operatively to indicate use of transfusions both with autologous and allogeneic blood.

  13. [Blood--a special resource].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisen, Christof; Schmidt, Michael; Klarmann, Dieter; Schüttrumpf, Jörg; Müller, Markus M; Seifried, Erhard

    2012-06-01

    Haemotherapy is an integral part of modern high-tech medicine. Without supportive care including red blood cell (RBC), platelet concentrate (PC) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion, invasive therapies such as high-dose chemotherapy regimens for haematological and solid malignancies, haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and solid organ transplantation as well as major surgery and modern trauma management would not be possible. In this article we describe the current state of haemotherapy, the risk of adverse effects and risk minimization measures, specifically focussing on haemolytic transfusion reactions (HTR), transfusion-related lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI). Aided by the introduction of NAT technology for blood component screening, the residual risk of transfusion transmitted infections was reduced to 1:10.8 million for HCV, to 1:4.3 million for HIV-1, and to 1:360,000 for HBV for blood products of the German Red Cross Blood Service.

  14. Clinical Research of Supplementing Qi and Nourishing Yin,Removing Toxin and Activating Blood Circulation Method in Treating Acute Coronary Syndrome%益气养阴、解毒活血法治疗急性冠脉综合征临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曦

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察益气养阴、解毒活血法治疗急性冠脉综合征的临床疗效。方法:将120例急性冠脉综合征患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组各60例,对照组采用西医常规治疗,治疗组在对照组基础上加服自拟中药方,治疗4周后观察两组临床疗效,两组患者心电图疗效、两组患者中医证候积分、血清基质金属蛋白酶-7、热休克蛋白60水平的变化。结果:两组患者临床疗效比较,治疗组有效率为95.0%,对照组有效率为86.7%,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。治疗组在提高心电图疗效,降低中医证候积分、降低血清基质金属蛋白酶-7和热休克蛋白60水平方面显著优于对照组,具有统计学意义(P <0.01或 P <0.05)。结论:益气养阴、解毒活血法疗在改善患者临床症状和心电图表现,减轻急性冠脉综合征发病的炎性反应、降低斑块的不稳定性方面疗效显著。%Objective:To observe the effect of supplementing Qi and nourishing Yin,removing toxin and activating blood circulation method in treating acute coronary syndrome.Methods:1 20 cases of acute coronary syndrome patients were randomly divided into treat-ment group and control group,60 cases in each group.The control group was treated with routine western medicine and treatment group was given Chinese herbal medicine based on control group.After 4 weeks of treatment,observe the clinical efficacy of the two groups, ECG curative effect of two groups of patients,two groups of patients with TCMsymptoms integral,serum levels of matrix metalloprotein-ase-7 and heat shock protein 60 levels.Results:The clinical efficacy was 95.0% in treatment group and 86.7% in control group,the difference was statistically significant(P <0.05).Combined with traditional Chinese medicine treatment group in improving the effect of electrocardiogram(ECG),reduce TCMsyndrome integral,reduce serum matrix metalloproteinase

  15. Arsenic removal from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2007-07-24

    Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  16. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Initiative Research Programs and Awards View all Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer- ... Get email updates View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer- ...

  17. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) Print ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  18. White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  19. Lead levels - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  20. Blood donation before surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000367.htm Blood donation before surgery To use the sharing features on ... described here. Blood From the Public (Volunteer Blood Donation) The most common source of blood given during ...

  1. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... infection) back to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated ... history of blood clots or blood clotting disorders in your family. Remain active, with your doctor's approval. ...

  2. High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Cholesterol What is High Blood Cholesterol? What is Cholesterol? Cholesterol is a ... heart disease. If Your Blood Cholesterol Is Too High Too much cholesterol in your blood is called ...

  3. Low Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a problem. Sometimes blood pressure that is too low can also cause problems. Blood pressure is the ... reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure ...

  4. Blood Transfusion (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Transfusions KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Transfusions A A ... and help put your child at ease. About Blood Transfusions Blood is like the body's transportation system. ...

  5. Optimising Laser Tattoo Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardana, Kabir; Ranjan, Rashmi; Ghunawat, Sneha

    2015-01-01

    Lasers are the standard modality for tattoo removal. Though there are various factors that determine the results, we have divided them into three logical headings, laser dependant factors such as type of laser and beam modifications, tattoo dependent factors like size and depth, colour of pigment and lastly host dependent factors, which includes primarily the presence of a robust immune response. Modifications in the existing techniques may help in better clinical outcome with minimal risk of complications. This article provides an insight into some of these techniques along with a detailed account of the factors involved in tattoo removal. PMID:25949018

  6. Optimising laser tattoo removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir Sardana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lasers are the standard modality for tattoo removal. Though there are various factors that determine the results, we have divided them into three logical headings, laser dependant factors such as type of laser and beam modifications, tattoo dependent factors like size and depth, colour of pigment and lastly host dependent factors, which includes primarily the presence of a robust immune response. Modifications in the existing techniques may help in better clinical outcome with minimal risk of complications. This article provides an insight into some of these techniques along with a detailed account of the factors involved in tattoo removal.

  7. Variability and component composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, T. van der

    2004-01-01

    In component-based product populations, feature models have to be described at the component level to be able to benefit from a product family approach. As a consequence, composition of components becomes very complex. We describe how component-level variability can be managed in the face of compone

  8. Plate removal following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mhairi; Langford, Richard Julian; Bhanji, Adam; Farr, David

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the removal rates of orthognathic plates used during orthognathic surgery at James Cook University Hospital and describe the reasons for plate removal. 202 consecutive orthognathic cases were identified between July 2004 and July 2012. Demographics and procedure details were collected for these patients. Patients from this group who returned to theatre for plate removal between July 2004 and November 2012 were identified and their notes were analysed for data including reason for plate removal, age, smoking status, sex and time to plate removal. 3.2% of plates were removed with proportionally more plates removed from the mandible than the maxilla. 10.4% of patients required removal of one or more plate. Most plates were removed within the first post-operative year. The commonest reasons for plate removal were plate exposure and infection. The plate removal rates in our study are comparable to those seen in the literature.

  9. The influence of platelets, plasma and red blood cells on functional haemostatic assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsen, Louise; Johansson, Pär I.; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri

    2011-01-01

    and combined, influenced the two methodologically different assays, thrombelastography (TEG) and impedance aggregometry (Multiplate). Platelet-rich plasma (200 × 10/l) or pure plasma (0 platelets), with and without added red blood cells (RBCs), hematocrit 0, 0.15 or 0.29, were produced in vitro from platelet...... concentrates, fresh frozen plasma and stored RBC. Pure platelets were investigated by removing plasma components from platelet concentrates by diafiltration against the platelet storage solution Intersol. Plasma was readded by diafiltration against plasma in Intersol. Haemostatic function was evaluated by TEG...... and Multiplate. In the TEG, increasing amounts of RBC reduced clot strength and clot kinetics (α-angle), most markedly in plasma/RBC without platelets. In contrast, RBC in a platelet concentrate matrix enhanced Multiplate aggregation in response to weak agonists (ADP and arachidonic acid). Furthermore, removing...

  10. 78 FR 32668 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Changes to an Approved Application: Biological Products: Human Blood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Changes to an Approved Application: Biological Products: Human Blood and Blood Components Intended for Transfusion or for Further Manufacture'' dated June 2013. The draft guidance document provides manufacturers of licensed Whole Blood and blood components intended for......

  11. The Impact of Blood Component Transfusion on Coagulation Function and Treatment Effect in Obstetric Patients with Acute Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation%成分输血对产科急性弥散性血管内凝血患者凝血功能及治疗效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时慧挺

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study effect blood component transfusion on coagulation function and treat-ment effect in obstetric patients with acute disseminated intravascular coagulation ( DIC ) . Methods Retro-spective analysis clinical data of 66 cases patients with obstetric acute DIC,they were randomly divided into blood component transfusion observation group(34 cases) and whole blood transfusion control group(32 cases) according to the different way of transfusion:coagulation function index,therapeutic effect and adverse reac-tions were compared between two groups. Results observation group PLT,Fbg were significantly higher than that of control group,PT,aPTT were significantly lower than the control group(t=2. 843~27. 343,P<0. 01, P<0. 05);Rescue success rate were significantly higher than the control group(χ2 =4. 128,P<0. 05),hys-terectomy rate were significantly lower than the control group (χ2 =4. 686 , P <0. 05 ) , adverse reactions (8. 82%)was significantly lower than the control group(28. 13%) (χ2 =4. 128,P <0. 05). Conclusion Blood component transfusion help to improve coagulation function of obstetric patients with acute DIC c,im-prove the rescue success rate,reduce the adverse reaction.%目的:探讨成分输血对产科急性弥散性血管内凝血( DIC)患者凝血功能及治疗效果的影响。方法回顾性分析66例采取综合治疗措施救治的产科急性DIC者的临床资料,根据输血方式的不同分为成分输血的观察组(34例)和全血输血的对照组(32例),比较两组凝血功能指标、治疗效果、不良反应。结果观察组PLT、Fbg明显高于对照组,PT、aPTT明显低于对照组(t=2.843~27.343,P<0.01,P<0.05);观察组抢救成功率明显高于对照组(χ2=4.128,P<0.05),子宫全切率明显低于对照组(χ2=4.686,P<0.05);观察组不良反应(8.82%)明显低于对照组(28.13%)(χ2=4.128,P<0.05)。结论成分输血有助于改善产科急性DIC患者的凝血功能,提高抢救成功率,降低不良反应。

  12. Arsenic removal from contaminated soil using phosphoric acid and phosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory batch experiments were conducted to study Arsenic (As) removal from a naturally contaminated soil using phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4). Both H3PO4 and KH2PO4 proved to clearly reduce toxicity of the soil in terms of soil As content, attaining more than 20% As removal at a concentration of 200 mmol/L, although soil As tolerance limit of 30 mg/kg, according to Chinese Environmental quality standard for soil (EQSS), was not satisfied by using these two extractants. At the same time, acidification of soil and dissolution of soil components (Ca, Mg, and Si) resulted from using these two extractants, especially H3PO4. The effectiveness of these two extractants could be attributed to the replacement of As by phosphate ions (PO43-). The function of H3PO4 as an acid to dissolve soil components had little effects on As removal. KH2PO4 almost removed as much As as H3PO4, but it did not result in serious damage to soils, indicating that it was a more promising extractant. The results of a kinetic study showed that As removal reached equilibrium after incubation for 360 min, but dissolution of soil components, especially Mg and Ca, was very rapid. Therefore dissolution of soil components would be inevitable if As was further removed. Elovich's model best described the kinetic data of As removal among the four models used in the kinetic study.

  13. Removal Of Optical Coatings Without Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, Helen

    1980-11-01

    A process for removing antireflection, mirror and polarizer coatings has been developed at ILC, based on work begun by LLL (Applied Optics Vol. 17, No. 12, 15 June 1978 - "Notes on Optical Coating Removal", N.J. Brown). Because of the danger (personnel hazard) involved in the hydrofluoric acid process, we employed an ammonium bifluoride solution, combined with various polishing components. The substrates, generally BK7, are fairly soft and also sensitive to chemical action. Therefore we have limited our polishing materials to aluminum oxide powder graded at 0.1 pm or smaller. For some coatings, no polishing material is used, as the ammonium bifluoride solution is adequate to remove the coating. The resulting clean surface is washed and neutralized, and is then ready for recoating.

  14. Nanofibrous polymeric beads from aramid fibers for efficient bilirubin removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zihang; Yang, Ye; Luo, Jiyue; Nie, Chuanxiong; Ma, Lang; Cheng, Chong; Zhao, Changsheng

    2016-08-16

    Polymer based hemoperfusion has been developed as an effective therapy to remove the extra bilirubin from patients. However, the currently applied materials suffer from either low removal efficiency or poor blood compatibility. In this study, we report the development of a new class of nanofibrous absorbent that exhibited high bilirubin removal efficiency and good blood compatibility. The Kevlar nanofiber was prepared by dissolving micron-sized Kevlar fiber in proper solvent, and the beads were prepared by dropping Kevlar nanofiber solutions into ethanol. Owing to the nanofiborous structure of the Kevlar nanofiber, the beads displayed porous structures and large specific areas, which would facilitate the adsorption of toxins. In the adsorption test, it was noticed that the beads possessed an adsorption capacity higher than 40 mg g(-1) towards bilirubin. In plasma mimetic solutions, the beads still showed high bilirubin removal efficiency. Furthermore, after incorporating with carbon nanotubes, the beads were found to have increased adsorption capacity for human degradation waste. Moreover, the beads showed excellent blood compatibility in terms of a low hemolysis ratio, prolonged clotting times, suppressed coagulant activation, limited platelet activation, and inhibited blood related inflammatory activation. Additionally, the beads showed good compatibility with endothelial cells. In general, the Kevlar nanofiber beads, which integrated with high adsorption capacity, good blood compatibility and low cytotoxicity, may have great potential for hemoperfusion and some other applications in biomedical fields.

  15. Improved Paint Removal Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-25

    4 (Phenol)1: p1P4 ji:i Condition of Point Surface Condition of Paint: Surface 4 after 45 minutes ufter 25 minutes Ten~t Pronsidure No. I. on~ Tent ...the ,.I .- pit so high velume water flow can be used to flush the pit floor clean at I the end of each day. Installation of removable grating is also

  16. Passive heat removal characteristics of SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jae Kwang; Kang, Hyung Seok; Yoon, Joo Hyun; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Cho, Bong Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    A new advanced integral reactor of 330 MWt thermal capacity named SMART (System-Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) is currently under development in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for multi-purpose applications. Modular once-through steam generator (SG) and self-pressurizing pressurizer equipped with wet thermal insulator and cooler are essential components of the SMART. The SMART provides safety systems such as Passive Residual Heat Removal System (PRHRS). In this study, a computer code for performance analysis of the PRHRS is developed by modeling relevant components and systems of the SMART. Using this computer code, a performance analysis of the PRHRS is performed in order to check whether the passive cooling concept using the PRHRS is feasible. The results of the analysis show that PRHRS of the SMART has excellent passive heat removal characteristics. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  17. Independent Component Analysis in a convoluted world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrholm, Mads

    2006-01-01

    instantaneousICA, then select a physiologically interesting subspace, then remove the delayed temporal dependencies among the instantaneous ICA components by using convolutive ICA. By Bayesian model selection, in a real world EEG data set, it is shown that convolutive ICA is a better model for EEG than...

  18. Blood microcirculation of ischemic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrieva, Irina V.; Arakelian, Sergei M.; Antonov, Olga V.

    1998-06-01

    Blood Microcirculation includes many of different components, which are joined by unique multiple system. Capillaries are one of the main link in this morpho-functional chain. Changes in any components of blood microcirculation are revealed by many of pathological processes in different organs and systems of the whole organism. We investigated 250 patients from 30 to 77 ages. Men included 149, women -- 101. The main diagnosis of all patients was the ischaemic pancreatitis. For verification of this diagnosis we used the whole spectrum of clinical, laboratorial and instrumental methods. These were the following: the definition of amylase of blood and urine, sonography and computer's tomography of pancreas, angiography of vessels of pancreas and Doppler's sonography of abdominal aorta and her branches: arteria mesenterica superior (AMS), truncus coeliacus (TC), arteria hepatica communis (AHC) and arteria lienalis (AL). We investigated the blood microcirculation of the mucous of the inferior lip, using Laser Dopplerography. The equipment for this research was LACC-01 with modified computer's program. The normal levels of blood microcirculation were from 120 to 180 Units. But patients with ischaemic pancreatitis had more lower level than in normal situation. This method are suggested as express diagnostic in the cases of abdominal ischaemic pathology. It can used as singel method or in combined with ultrasound Dopplerography.

  19. Water Distribution and Removal Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Deng; N. Chipman; E.L. Hardin

    2005-08-26

    The design of the Yucca Mountain high level radioactive waste repository depends on the performance of the engineered barrier system (EBS). To support the total system performance assessment (TSPA), the Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is developed to describe the thermal, mechanical, chemical, hydrological, biological, and radionuclide transport processes within the emplacement drifts, which includes the following major analysis/model reports (AMRs): (1) EBS Water Distribution and Removal (WD&R) Model; (2) EBS Physical and Chemical Environment (P&CE) Model; (3) EBS Radionuclide Transport (EBS RNT) Model; and (4) EBS Multiscale Thermohydrologic (TH) Model. Technical information, including data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documents will be provided to defend the applicability of these models for their intended purpose of evaluating the postclosure performance of the Yucca Mountain repository system. The WD&R model ARM is important to the site recommendation. Water distribution and removal represents one component of the overall EBS. Under some conditions, liquid water will seep into emplacement drifts through fractures in the host rock and move generally downward, potentially contacting waste packages. After waste packages are breached by corrosion, some of this seepage water will contact the waste, dissolve or suspend radionuclides, and ultimately carry radionuclides through the EBS to the near-field host rock. Lateral diversion of liquid water within the drift will occur at the inner drift surface, and more significantly from the operation of engineered structures such as drip shields and the outer surface of waste packages. If most of the seepage flux can be diverted laterally and removed from the drifts before contacting the wastes, the release of radionuclides from the EBS can be controlled, resulting in a proportional reduction in dose release at the accessible environment. The purposes

  20. Evaluation of some procedures relevant to the determination of trace elemental components in biological materials by destructive neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a simplified procedure for the analysis of biological materials by destructive neutron activation analysis (DNAA) is described. The sample manipulations preceding gamma ray assay were investigated as five specific stages of processing: (1) pre-irradiation treatment; (2) sample irradiation; (3) removal of the organic matrix; (4) removal of interfering radioactivities; and (5) concentration and separation of analyte activities. Each stage was evaluated with respect to susceptibility to sample contamination, loss of trace elemental components, and compatibility with other operations in the overall DNAA procedures. A complete DNAA procedure was proposed and evaluated for the analysis of standard bovine liver and blood samples. The DNAA system was effective for the determination of As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mo, Rb, Sb, Se, and Zn without yield determinations and with a minimum turn-around time of approximately 3 days.

  1. Multiscale modeling of blood flow: from single cells to blood rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosov, Dmitry A; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Gompper, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    Mesoscale simulations of blood flow, where the red blood cells are described as deformable closed shells with a membrane characterized by bending rigidity and stretching elasticity, have made much progress in recent years to predict the flow behavior of blood cells and other components in various flows. To numerically investigate blood flow and blood-related processes in complex geometries, a highly efficient simulation technique for the plasma and solutes is essential. In this review, we focus on the behavior of single and several cells in shear and microcapillary flows, the shear-thinning behavior of blood and its relation to the blood cell structure and interactions, margination of white blood cells and platelets, and modeling hematologic diseases and disorders. Comparisons of the simulation predictions with existing experimental results are made whenever possible, and generally very satisfactory agreement is obtained.

  2. Dynamic Effect of Rolling Massage on Blood Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yan-Yan; YI Hou-Hui; LI Hua-Bing; FANG Hai-Ping

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese traditional medical massage has been used as a natural therapy to eliminate some diseases.Here, the effect of the rolling massage frequency to the blood flow in the blood vessels under the rolling massage manipulation is studied by the lattice Boltzmann simulation.The simulation results show that when the frequency is smaller than or comparable to the putsatile frequency of the blood flow, the effect on the blood flux by the rolling massage is small.On the contrast, if the frequency is twice or more times of the putsatile frequency of the blood flow, the blood flux is greatly enhanced and increases linearly with respect to the frequency.Similar behavior has also been observed on the shear stress on the blood vessel waits.The result is helpful for understanding that the rolling massage has the function of promoting the blood circulation and removing the blood stasis.

  3. Dynamic Effect of Rolling Massage on Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Yan; Yi, Hou-Hui; Li, Hua-Bing; Fang, Hai-Ping

    2009-02-01

    The Chinese traditional medical massage has been used as a natural therapy to eliminate some diseases. Here, the effect of the rolling massage frequency to the blood flow in the blood vessels under the rolling massage manipulation is studied by the lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulation results show that when the frequency is smaller than or comparable to the pulsatile frequency of the blood flow, the effect on the blood flux by the rolling massage is small. On the contrast, if the frequency is twice or more times of the pulsatile frequency of the blood flow, the blood flux is greatly enhanced and increases linearly with respect to the frequency. Similar behavior has also been observed on the shear stress on the blood vessel walls. The result is helpful for understanding that the rolling massage has the function of promoting the blood circulation and removing the blood stasis.

  4. Blood transfusion practices in obstetric anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Jadon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood transfusion is an essential component of emergency obstetric care and appropriate blood transfusion significantly reduces maternal mortality. Obstetric haemorrhage, especially postpartum haemorrhage, remains one of the major causes of massive haemorrhage and a prime cause of maternal mortality. Blood loss and assessment of its correct requirement are difficult in pregnancy due to physiological changes and comorbid conditions. Many guidelines have been used to assess the requirement and transfusion of blood and its components. Infrastructural, economic, social and religious constraints in blood banking and donation are key issues to formulate practice guidelines. Available current guidelines for transfusion are mostly from the developed world; however, they can be used by developing countries keeping available resources in perspective.

  5. Investigations in gallium removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip, C.V.; Pitt, W.W. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Beard, C.A. [Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, TX (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Gallium present in weapons plutonium must be removed before it can be used for the production of mixed-oxide (MOX) nuclear reactor fuel. The main goal of the preliminary studies conducted at Texas A and M University was to assist in the development of a thermal process to remove gallium from a gallium oxide/plutonium oxide matrix. This effort is being conducted in close consultation with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) personnel involved in the development of this process for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Simple experiments were performed on gallium oxide, and cerium-oxide/gallium-oxide mixtures, heated to temperatures ranging from 700--900 C in a reducing environment, and a method for collecting the gallium vapors under these conditions was demonstrated.

  6. Runaway Rubber Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    High hysteresis Good tract;on characteristic Poor affinity for blending Polyisoprene PI Strong wear resistance Very similar to natural rubber Low...with a "base of cresylic acid and a blend of benzene, with a synthetic detergent for a wetting agent" are recommended [8]. For AC runways, alkaline...you expect the runway to change after rubber is removed? Response Maintenance Operations Pilots Improved Skid Resistance! Brak inq Act ion/Fr ictior 7

  7. Facilities removal working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This working group`s first objective is to identify major economic, technical, and regulatory constraints on operator practices and decisions relevant to offshore facilities removal. Then, the group will try to make recommendations as to regulatory and policy adjustments, additional research, or process improvements and/or technological advances, that may be needed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the removal process. The working group will focus primarily on issues dealing with Gulf of Mexico platform abandonments. In order to make the working group sessions as productive as possible, the Facilities Removal Working Group will focus on three topics that address a majority of the concerns and/or constraints relevant to facilities removal. The three areas are: (1) Explosive Severing and its Impact on Marine Life, (2) Pile and Conductor Severing, and (3) Deep Water Abandonments This paper will outline the current state of practice in the offshore industry, identifying current regulations and specific issues encountered when addressing each of the three main topics above. The intent of the paper is to highlight potential issues for panel discussion, not to provide a detailed review of all data relevant to the topic. Before each panel discussion, key speakers will review data and information to facilitate development and discussion of the main issues of each topic. Please refer to the attached agenda for the workshop format, key speakers, presentation topics, and panel participants. The goal of the panel discussions is to identify key issues for each of the three topics above. The working group will also make recommendations on how to proceed on these key issues.

  8. 不同组分、不同纯度中药复方多糖对小鼠血液指标的影响%Research on Chinese Medicinal Compound Polysaccharide's Influence on Mice Blood Index with Different Components and Different Degrees of Purity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李赞阳; 刘红; 罗燕; 邵永斌; 谷新利

    2012-01-01

    This experiment aims to investigate Chinese medicinal compound polysaccharide' s (CMCP) influence on mice blood index with different components and different degrees of purity. In our experiment firstly we select cyclophosphamide to build mice immunity-inhibition model and then we respectively gavage CMCP with different components and different degrees of purity, compound total polysaccharide and compound water decoction into mice to measure their effects on mice's peripheral hemogram. The result shows that polysaccharide A2, purity polysaccharide B2, compound total polysaccharide and compound water decoction can significantly increase the number of erythrocytes, the number of leukocytes, neutrophilic granulocyte' s percentage in leukocyte classification number and the percentage of lymphocytes in mice. The result also shows a very significant difference from the model group (P<0. 01). Therefore it can be seen that polysaccharide A2, purity polysaccharide B2, compound total polysaccharide and compound water decoction can improve reduced peripheral hemogram in mice blood index, which is caused by cyclophosphamide, to regulate immune imbalance.%本试验旨在观察不同组分、不同纯度中药复方多糖对小鼠血液指标的影响.选用环磷酰胺造成小鼠免疫抑制模型,灌服不同组分、不同纯度中药复方多糖、复方总多糖和复方水煎剂,测定它们对小鼠外周血象的影响.结果表明A2多糖组分、B2纯度多糖、复方总多糖、复方水煎剂均能使小鼠红细胞数、白细胞数、白细胞分类数中的嗜中性粒细胞百分比、淋巴细胞百分比明显升高,与模型组比较有极显著性差异(P<0.01).A2多糖组分、B2纯度多糖、复方总多糖、复方水煎剂可改善环磷酰胺所致小鼠血液参数减少的外周血象,调节免疫失衡.

  9. The technology and mechanism of removal of plastic mulch and land preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Huiyou; HOU Shulin; NA Mingjun; YANG Xiaoli; BAI Shengnan

    2007-01-01

    In this article ,the characteristic of the field plastic mulch, the craft for mechanization removal and land preparation of plastic mulch and the mechanism frequently used in the removal and land preparation of plastic mulch were introduced, which offered references for the design of removal mechanism and land preparation of plastic mulch and structural optimization combination of working components.

  10. Effect of detoxicating and promoting blood circulation to remove meridian obstruction compound drug serum to the mRNA expression of LOX-1, TNF-α, ICAM-1 in Huvecs%解毒活血通络中药复方含药血清对人脐静脉内皮细胞LOX-1、TNF-α、ICAM-1表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱爱松; 郑洪新

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To find out the mechanism and the target of the detoxicating and promoting blood circulation to remove meridian obstruction compound in treating AS. Methods: 18 New Zealand albino rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups: normal control group, Chinese herbal treating group and atorvastatin treating group. Rabbits got inlragastric administrated for 7 days, normal control group with NS, Chinese herbal treating group with detoxicating and promoting blood circulation to remove meridian obstruction compound, and atorvastatin treating group with aiorvastatin. Finally the blood was collected from heart and the serum was separated out of the blood, which were ready for vitro cultured ECUV after in stimulated by LPS. mRNA expression of LOX-1, TNF-α, ICAM-1 was measured by Ihe way of Real time PCR. Protein expression of LOX-1 is examined by Western Blotting. Results: Compared to blank controlling group, result of model group showed a significantly higher mRNA expression of LOX-1, TNF-α, ICAM-1 (P<0.01). Compared with model group, result of medical serum group was significantly depressed (P<0.01). Result of LOX-1 protein showed the same as that of mRNA. Conclusion: Detoxicating and promoting blood circulation to remove meridian obstruction compound can protect the HUVEC stimulated with LPS and the mechanism may be related to that it can inhibit the expression of LOX-1, TNF-α, ICAM-1 so as to deduce cell adhesion between MC and VEC.%目的:研究解毒活血通络中药复方防治动脉粥样硬化的作用机制及其效应靶点.方法:选取新西兰大耳白兔18只,随机分为3组,分别以生理盐水和解毒活血通络中药复方、阿托伐他汀连续灌胃7d,心脏采血,分离血清;体外培养人脐静脉内皮细胞,用脂多糖( LPS)刺激后,用含药血清干预,收集细胞,用Real-time PCR方法和Western Blot方法分别检测凝集素样氧化低密度脂蛋白受体-1(LOX-1) mRNA和蛋白表达、肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF

  11. Simulink Component Recognition Using Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya R

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In early stages of engineering design pen-and-paper sketches are often used to quickly convey concepts and ideas. Free-form drawing is often preferable to using computer interfaces due to its ease of use fluidity and lack of constraints. The objective of this project is to create a trainable sketched Simulink component recognizer and classifying the individual Simulink components from the input block diagram. The recognized components will be placed on the new Simulink model window after which operations can be performed over them. Noise from the input image is removed by Median filter the segmentation process is done by K-means clustering algorithm and recognition of individual Simulink components from the input block diagram is done by Euclidean distance. The project aims to devise an efficient way to segment a control system block diagram into individual components for recognition.

  12. Blood vessels, circulation and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, describes the vessels of the body's blood and lymphatic circulatory systems. Blood pressure and its regulatory systems are examined. The causes and management of hypertension are also explored. It is important that nurses and other healthcare professionals understand the various mechanisms involved in the regulation of blood pressure to prevent high blood pressure or ameliorate its damaging consequences.

  13. Blood serum mercury test report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberge, J; Moodie, A S; Keller, R E

    1977-06-01

    A clinical blood serum mercury test of 111 dentists and auxiliaries revelaed that more than 50% had above normal serum mercury levels. This study showed that there may be a mercury health hazard in some dental environments. Acute mercury poisoning may be corrected simply by removing the cause, but long-term chronic effects are not known. Frequent screening of offices and personnel is advised. Experience reported here indicates that large amounts of mercury vapor are emitted when an amalgam carrier is heated over a flame ot dislodge particles, and also, that water-covered amalgam scrap relesases mercury vapor.

  14. Blood Culture (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Culture KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Culture Print A A ... adjust the treatment choice. Why Do a Blood Culture? During some illnesses, certain infection-causing bacteria and ...

  15. Coughing up blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gastrointestinal tract. Blood that comes up with a cough often looks bubbly because it is mixed with ... conditions, diseases, and medical tests may make you cough up blood. These include: Blood clot in the ...

  16. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  17. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  18. Ketones blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight ... there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  19. Magnesium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight pain. Others feel a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  20. CEA blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcinoembryonic antigen blood test ... A blood sample is needed . ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. ...

  1. Glucagon blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type I - glucagon test; Hypoglycemia - glucagon test; Low blood sugar - glucagon test ... A blood sample is needed . ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel ... Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This ...

  2. Special Blood Donation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... takes about 10 minutes. Double red blood cell donation In the so-called double red blood cell ... can be cured with apheresis. Directed or designated donation Family members or friends can donate blood specifically ...

  3. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing ... Usual times to test your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your provider may ask you to check your blood sugar 2 hours after a meal. Ask ...

  4. High blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High blood glucose - self-care; Diabetes - high blood sugar ... Symptoms of high blood sugar can include: Being very thirsty or having a dry mouth Having blurry vision Having dry skin Feeling weak or tired ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  6. Blood and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patient diversity. For example, U-negative and Duffy-negative blood types are unique to the African-American community. ... most common blood type and because type O negative blood, in particular, is the universal type needed for ...

  7. Blood Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an online personal health record or blood pressure tracker, for example. This gives you the option of ... lower your blood pressure. Exercise regularly. Regular physical activity can help lower your blood pressure and keep ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal with a unique focus ... help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the ...

  9. Symptoms of Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leg (causing most often swelling, redness, and/or warmth of the leg or shortness of breath) Petechiae ( ... Disorders Symptoms of Blood Disorders Medical History and Physical Examination for Blood Disorders Laboratory Tests for Blood ...

  10. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rises sharply on waking. Blood pressure: How low can you go? What's considered low blood pressure ... even life-threatening disorders. Conditions that can cause low blood pressure Some medical conditions can cause low ...

  11. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to one part of the body or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job ... is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of ...

  12. How safe is blood, really?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Harvey G

    2010-01-01

    Blood is safer than it has ever been, however the progression of transfusion from dangerous intervention to reliable supportive care been non-linear. Disparities resulting from geography, economy, and social class persist. Some risks are known, others are unknown but predictable, and still others may be totally unpredictable. Among the known risks are infectious and immunologic events that can be calculated per unit of blood transfused. These risks vary by component. Among the unknown risks are the potential for emerging pathogens transmitted by blood and for processing or storage lesions to result in short or long-term toxicity. National registries provide some reassurance that transfusion may not affect mortality significantly beyond the first few weeks after administration. Nevertheless, transmission of novel pathogens, repeated allogeneic stimulation, and infusion of cytokines or chemokines may have unrecognized consequences. Blood safety can be effected dramatically with small investment in developing countries. In the developed world, technologies such as pathogen inactivation, antigen camouflage, component substitutes, or cell expansion promise relatively small advances in safety at substantial cost. No strategy guarantees zero-risk.

  13. Money for Blood and Markets for Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derpmann, Simon; Quante, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Ontario's Bill 178 proposing a Voluntary Blood Donations Act declares the offer or acceptance of payment for the donation of blood a legal offence and makes it subject to penalty. The bill reinvigorates a fundamental debate about the ethical problems associated with the payment of money for blood. Scarcity of blood donors is a recurring problem in most health systems, and monetary remuneration of the willingness to donate blood is regularly discussed--and sometimes practiced--as a means to overcome scarcity in blood. However, making blood an object of economic exchange has long aroused ethical concerns that often refer to the specific meaning of blood. From the perspective of a modern understanding of money as a metric of economic value, the exchange of money for blood--shed or given--is seen as ethically troubling, because it appears to imply a commensurability of the value of human life and economic wealth. In this paper, we begin with a general taxonomy of the types of arguments that speak in favour or against compensating donors for giving blood. We then describe the context in which the discussion about payment for blood arises, and of the specific aims and concerns that are brought forward in this context. This is used to reconstruct the normative background that supports the rejection of payment for blood as it is envisaged in Bill 178 and the aims of the proposal. We then argue that while a payment indeed changes the nature of a blood donation in an ethically considerable way, we do not believe that decisive arguments against the monetary remuneration of blood donations can be substantiated, at least not independently of assuming specific societal circumstances. Thus it may be possible to establish a stable and safe blood supply through just gratification while at the same time taking strong provisions against social disconnection, injustice, exploitation or heteronomy.

  14. Spleen removal - open - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splenectomy - adult - discharge; Spleen removal - adult - discharge ... You had surgery to remove your spleen. This operation is called splenectomy . The surgeon made a cut (incision) in the middle of your belly or on the left side ...

  15. Regenerable Contaminant Removal System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Regenerable Contaminant Removal System (RCRS) is an innovative method to remove sulfur and halide compounds from contaminated gas streams to part-per-billion...

  16. Mower/Litter Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Burg Corporation needed to get more power out of the suction system in their Vac 'N Bag grass mower/litter remover. The president submitted a problem statement to the Marshall Space Flight Center Technology Transfer Office, which devised a way to guide heavier items of trash to a point where suction was greatest, and made changes to the impeller and the exhaust port, based on rocket propulsion technology. The improved system is used by highway departments, city governments and park authorities, reducing work time by combining the tasks of grass cutting and vacuuming trash and grass clippings.

  17. Reusable Component Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reusable Component Services (RCS) is a super-catalog of components, services, solutions and technologies that facilitates search, discovery and collaboration in...

  18. Blood Compatibility Evaluations of Fluorescent Carbon Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Guo, Zhong; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Wei; Liu, Zonghua

    2015-09-02

    Because of their unique advantages, fluorescent carbon dots are gaining popularity in various biomedical applications. For these applications, good biosafety is a prerequisite for their use in vivo. Studies have reported the preliminary biocompatibility evaluations of fluorescent carbon dots (mainly cytotoxicity); however, to date, little information is available about their hemocompatibility, which could impede their development from laboratory to bedside. In this work, we evaluated the hemocompatibility of fluorescent carbon dots, which we prepared by hydrothermal carbonization of α-cyclodextrin. The effects of the carbon dots on the structure and function of key blood components were investigated at cellular and molecular levels. In particular, we considered the morphology and lysis of human red blood cells, the structure and conformation of the plasma protein fibrinogen, the complement activation, platelet activation, and in vitro and in vivo blood coagulation. We found that the carbon dots have obvious concentration-dependent effects on the blood components. Overall, concentrations of the fluorescent carbon dots at ≤0.1 mg/mL had few adverse effects on the blood components, but at higher doses, the carbon dots impair the structure and function of the blood components, causing morphological disruptions and lysis of red blood cells, interference in the local microenvironments of fibrinogen, activation of the complement system, and disturbances in the plasma and whole blood coagulation function in vitro. However, the carbon dots tend to activate platelets only at low concentrations. Intravenous administration of the carbon dots at doses up to 50 mg/kg did not impair the blood coagulation function. These results provide valuable information for the clinical application of fluorescent carbon dots.

  19. Mercury removal sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2016-03-29

    Sorbents and methods of using them for removing mercury from flue gases over a wide range of temperatures are disclosed. Sorbent materials of this invention comprise oxy- or hydroxyl-halogen (chlorides and bromides) of manganese, copper and calcium as the active phase for Hg.sup.0 oxidation, and are dispersed on a high surface porous supports. In addition to the powder activated carbons (PACs), this support material can be comprised of commercial ceramic supports such as silica (SiO.sub.2), alumina (Al.sub.2O.sub.3), zeolites and clays. The support material may also comprise of oxides of various metals such as iron, manganese, and calcium. The non-carbon sorbents of the invention can be easily injected into the flue gas and recovered in the Particulate Control Device (PCD) along with the fly ash without altering the properties of the by-product fly ash enabling its use as a cement additive. Sorbent materials of this invention effectively remove both elemental and oxidized forms of mercury from flue gases and can be used at elevated temperatures. The sorbent combines an oxidation catalyst and a sorbent in the same particle to both oxidize the mercury and then immobilize it.

  20. Prosthetic stomatitis with removable dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozalieva Yu.Yu.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Research Objective: To study patients with prosthetic stomatitis, who use the removable laminar dentures. Materials: The consultations and treatment of 79 patients aged 47-65 years have been conducted. The patients have been divided into two clinical groups. The first clinical group (39 persons with the performance of immediate prosthet-ics; the second control clinical group (40 persons — the permanent dentures were produced without the preliminary instruction. Results: All the patients, having the laminar dentures without the preliminary use of immediate constructions of dentures, in spite of repeated correction of them, have had changes of dentures and transitory fold. Patients have been exposed to prosthetic stomatitis of different etiology (without trauma; the single-shot or multiple correction of dentures by the method of rebasing with using of cold cure plastics has been made. Conclusion: Structural and functional changes of dentition during the prosthetic stomatitis lead to disorders, associated by the mucositis. Use of the term of «prosthetic stomatitis» reflects etiological and pathogenetic component of changes in the denture-supporting tissues