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Sample records for blood coagulation tests

  1. Influence of Blood Lipids on Global Coagulation Test Results

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jung-Ah; Kim, Ji-Eun; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Background High levels of blood lipids have been associated with high levels of coagulation factors. We investigated whether blood lipids influence the results of global coagulation tests, including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thrombin generation assay (TGA). Methods PT, aPTT, and TGA, along with procoagulant and anticoagulant factors, were measured in 488 normal individuals. Vitamin K status was assessed with prothrombin-induced by vitamin K absen...

  2. Influence of Blood Collection Systems on Coagulation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Yavaş

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Coagulation tests are influenced by pre-analytic conditions such as blood collection systems. Change of glass collection tubes with plastic ones will cause alteration of the test results. The aim of this study was to compare three plastic blood collection tubes with a standard glass blood collection tube and each plastic collection tube with the other two for possible additional tube-to- tube differences. METHODS: A total of 284 blood samples were obtained from 42 patients receiving warfarin during their routine controls, besides 29 healthy volunteers. Subgroup analyses were done according to health status. RESULTS: Our study demonstrated that different blood collection tubes have a statistically significant influence on coagulation tests. The magnitude of the effect depends on the tube used. However most of the tests performed on samples obtained from any tube correlated significantly with results obtained from other tube samples. CONCLUSION: Although blood collection tubes with different brands or properties will have distinct effects on coagulation tests, the influence of these blood collection tubes may be relatively small to interfere with decision-making on dose prescription, therefore lack clinical importance. Correlations between the results showed that, one of these plastic blood collection tubes tested in our study, can be used interchangably for a wide variety of coagulation assays.

  3. Principles of dielectric blood coagulometry as a comprehensive coagulation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Brun, Marc-Aurèle; Machida, Kenzo; Nagasawa, Masayuki

    2015-10-01

    Dielectric blood coagulometry (DBCM) is intended to support hemostasis management by providing comprehensive information on blood coagulation from automated, time-dependent measurements of whole blood dielectric spectra. We discuss the relationship between the series of blood coagulation reactions, especially the aggregation and deformation of erythrocytes, and the dielectric response with the help of clot structure electron microscope observations. Dielectric response to the spontaneous coagulation after recalcification presented three distinct phases that correspond to (P1) rouleau formation before the onset of clotting, (P2) erythrocyte aggregation and reconstitution of aggregates accompanying early fibrin formation, and (P3) erythrocyte shape transformation and/or structure changes within aggregates after the stable fibrin network is formed and platelet contraction occurs. Disappearance of the second phase was observed upon addition of tissue factor and ellagic acid for activation of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, respectively, which is attributable to accelerated thrombin generation. A series of control experiments revealed that the amplitude and/or quickness of dielectric response reflect platelet function, fibrin polymerization, fibrinolysis activity, and heparin activity. Therefore, DBCM sensitively measures blood coagulation via erythrocytes aggregation and shape changes and their impact on the dielectric permittivity, making possible the development of the battery of assays needed for comprehensive coagulation testing. PMID:26368847

  4. C-reactive protein prolongs blood coagulation time in phospholipids-dependent coagulation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L D Kozmin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available C-refctive protein prolongs blood coagulation time in phospholipids-dependent coagulation tests. O.P. Bliznukov, L.D. Kostin, A.J. Martinov, T.A. Lisitsina, T.M. Reshetnyak, V.J. Lauga Objective. To study influence of different CRP forms on blood clotting time in standard phospholipid clotting tests. Material and methods. Purified native CRP. monomeric CRP (0-1.6 M, immune complexes of native CRP and rabbit polyclonal anti-CRP antibodies (1.6 M were added to blood plasma of healthy donors. Blood clotting time was registered using optical coagulometer. Phospholipid dependent prothrombin time (PT, activated partial tromboplastin time (APTT, kaolin clotting time (KCT with kaolin and ellagic acid, dilute Russel viper venom time (dRVVT were determined. Results. Native CRP was able to increase blood clotting time in all mentioned clotting tests, excluding prothrombin time. CRP influence on blood clotting time showed a concentration dependence. Polyclonal rabbit anti-CRP antibodies had no inhibitory effect on CRP prolonged blood clotting time. Monomeric CRP (0-1.6 M had no influence on blood clotting time in all phospholipid-dependent clotting tests.

  5. PHYSIOLOGY OF BLOOD COAGULATION (II)

    OpenAIRE

    B. Ţuţuianu

    2007-01-01

    Coagulation cascade was untill recently the only model used to explain the physiological and pathological reactions during clot formation. Dr. Maureane Hoffman and her team suggested a cell-based model for coagulation, which takes place (according to this model) in three phases: initiation, amplification and propagation. This theory does not deny the coagulation cascade. It only says that the leading role in the whole process is held by the cells and that the „intrinsic” and the „extinsic” pa...

  6. PHYSIOLOGY OF BLOOD COAGULATION (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ţuţuianu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation cascade was untill recently the only model used to explain the physiological and pathological reactions during clot formation. Dr. Maureane Hoffman and her team suggested a cell-based model for coagulation, which takes place (according to this model in three phases: initiation, amplification and propagation. This theory does not deny the coagulation cascade. It only says that the leading role in the whole process is held by the cells and that the „intrinsic” and the „extinsic” pathways operate in parallel on different cell surfaces. Using this model, a better understanding of the reactions in vivo during coagulation is achieved, together with answers related to clinical-based questions like „why haemophiliacs bleed?”.

  7. Thymoquinone Modulates Blood Coagulation in Vitro via Its Effects on Inflammatory and Coagulation Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Vandhana Muralidharan-Chari; Jaehan Kim; Ahlam Abuawad; Mubeena Naeem; Huadong Cui; Mousa, Shaker A

    2016-01-01

    Thymoquinone (THQ) is a major component of black seeds. Given that both THQ and black seeds exhibit anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities, we hypothesized that THQ will affect cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT), which is primarily triggered by tissue factor (TF) and inflammation. The effect of both black seed-extracted and purchased (“pure”) THQ on normal blood coagulation was tested with in vitro thromboelastography (TEG) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) coagulation as...

  8. Blood coagulation factor VIII: An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G M Bhopale; R K Nanda

    2003-12-01

    Factor VIII (FVIII) functions as a co-factor in the blood coagulation cascade for the proteolytic activation of factor X by factor IXa. Deficiency of FVIII causes hemophilia A, the most commonly inherited bleeding disorder. This review highlights current knowledge on selected aspects of FVIII in which both the scientist and the clinician should be interested.

  9. Thymoquinone Modulates Blood Coagulation in Vitro via Its Effects on Inflammatory and Coagulation Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan-Chari, Vandhana; Kim, Jaehan; Abuawad, Ahlam; Naeem, Mubeena; Cui, Huadong; Mousa, Shaker A

    2016-01-01

    Thymoquinone (THQ) is a major component of black seeds. Given that both THQ and black seeds exhibit anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities, we hypothesized that THQ will affect cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT), which is primarily triggered by tissue factor (TF) and inflammation. The effect of both black seed-extracted and purchased ("pure") THQ on normal blood coagulation was tested with in vitro thromboelastography (TEG) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) coagulation assays. The effect of pure THQ on CAT was tested with aPTT assay using pancreatic cancer cell lines that are either positive or negative for TF, and with TEG assay using lipopolysaccharide as an inflammatory trigger. Additionally, the direct effect of THQ on the inactivation of factors IIa and Xa was assessed. Since TNF-α facilitates crosstalk between inflammation and thrombosis by triggering the NF-κB pathway, we tested THQ's ability to interfere with this communication with a luciferase assay. Both extracted and pure THQ had minimal effects on normal blood coagulation. Pure THQ reversed CAT initiated by both TF and inflammation to basal levels (p coagulation and can reverse CAT in vitro, possibly by interfering with the crosstalk between inflammation and coagulation. This study suggests the utility of THQ as a preventative anticoagulant and/or as a supplement to existing chemotherapies and anticoagulant therapies. PMID:27043539

  10. Mathematical Model of Extrinsic Blood Coagulation Cascade Dynamic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The blood coagulation system is very important to life. This paper presents a mathematical blood coagulation model for the extrinsic pathway. This model simulates clotting factor VIII, which plays an important role in the coagulation mechanism. The mathematical model is used to study the equilibrium stability, orbit structure, attractors and global stability behavior, with conclusions in accordance with the physiological phenomena. Moreover, the results provide information about blood related illnesses, which can be used for further study of the coagulation mechanism.

  11. Thymoquinone Modulates Blood Coagulation in Vitro via Its Effects on Inflammatory and Coagulation Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandhana Muralidharan-Chari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thymoquinone (THQ is a major component of black seeds. Given that both THQ and black seeds exhibit anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities, we hypothesized that THQ will affect cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT, which is primarily triggered by tissue factor (TF and inflammation. The effect of both black seed-extracted and purchased (“pure” THQ on normal blood coagulation was tested with in vitro thromboelastography (TEG and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT coagulation assays. The effect of pure THQ on CAT was tested with aPTT assay using pancreatic cancer cell lines that are either positive or negative for TF, and with TEG assay using lipopolysaccharide as an inflammatory trigger. Additionally, the direct effect of THQ on the inactivation of factors IIa and Xa was assessed. Since TNF-α facilitates crosstalk between inflammation and thrombosis by triggering the NF-κB pathway, we tested THQ’s ability to interfere with this communication with a luciferase assay. Both extracted and pure THQ had minimal effects on normal blood coagulation. Pure THQ reversed CAT initiated by both TF and inflammation to basal levels (p < 0.001. Mechanistically, while THQ had minimal to no effect on factor IIa and Xa inactivation, it strongly reduced the effects of TNF-α on NF-κB elements (p < 0.001. THQ has a minimal effect on basal coagulation and can reverse CAT in vitro, possibly by interfering with the crosstalk between inflammation and coagulation. This study suggests the utility of THQ as a preventative anticoagulant and/or as a supplement to existing chemotherapies and anticoagulant therapies.

  12. Contact activation of blood-plasma coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golas, Avantika

    Surface engineering of biomaterials with improved hemocompatibility is an imperative, given the widespread global need for cardiovascular devices. Research summarized in this dissertation focuses on contact activation of FXII in buffer and blood plasma frequently referred to as autoactivation. The extant theory of contact activation imparts FXII autoactivation ability to negatively charged, hydrophilic surfaces. According to this theory, contact activation of plasma involves assembly of proteins comprising an "activation complex" on activating surfaces mediated by specific chemical interactions between complex proteins and the surface. This work has made key discoveries that significantly improve our core understanding of contact activation and unravel the existing paradigm of plasma coagulation. It is shown herein that contact activation of blood factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) in neat-buffer solution exhibits a parabolic profile when scaled as a function of silanized-glass-particle activator surface energy (measured as advancing water adhesion tension t°a=g° Iv costheta in dyne/cm, where g°Iv is water interfacial tension in dyne/cm and theta is the advancing contact angle). Nearly equal activation is observed at the extremes of activator water-wetting properties --36 moderated by adsorption of plasma proteins unrelated to coagulation through an "adsorption-dilution" effect that blocks FXII contact with hydrophobic activator surfaces. The adsorption-dilution effect explains the apparent specificity for hydrophilic activators pursued by earlier investigators. Finally a comparison of FXII autoactivation in buffer, serum, protein cocktail, and plasma solutions is shown herein. Activation of blood plasma coagulation in vitro by contact with material surfaces is demonstrably dependent on plasma-volume-to-activator-surface-area ratio. However, activation of factor XII dissolved in buffer, protein cocktail, heat-denatured serum, and FXI deficient plasma does not

  13. Real-time electrical impedimetric monitoring of blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations conducted in a microfluidic chip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Fong Lei

    Full Text Available Blood coagulation is an extremely complicated and dynamic physiological process. Monitoring of blood coagulation is essential to predict the risk of hemorrhage and thrombosis during cardiac surgical procedures. In this study, a high throughput microfluidic chip has been developed for the investigation of the blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations. Electrical impedance of the whole blood was continuously recorded by on-chip electrodes in contact with the blood sample during coagulation. Analysis of the impedance change of the blood was conducted to investigate the characteristics of blood coagulation process and the starting time of blood coagulation was defined. The study of blood coagulation time under temperature and hematocrit variations was shown a good agreement with results in the previous clinical reports. The electrical impedance measurement for the definition of blood coagulation process provides a fast and easy measurement technique. The microfluidic chip was shown to be a sensitive and promising device for monitoring blood coagulation process even in a variety of conditions. It is found valuable for the development of point-of-care coagulation testing devices that utilizes whole blood sample in microliter quantity.

  14. Numerical Simulation of the Coagulation Dynamics of Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Bodnár, T.; Sequeira, A.

    2008-01-01

    The process of platelet activation and blood coagulation is quite complex and not yet completely understood. Recently, a phenomenological meaningful model of blood coagulation and clot formation in flowing blood that extends existing models to integrate biochemical, physiological and rheological factors, has been developed. The aim of this paper is to present results from a computational study of a simplified version of this coupled fluid-biochemistry model. A generalized Newtonian model with...

  15. Influence of blood flow on the coagulation cascade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The influence of diffusion and convetive flows on the blood coagulation cascade is investigated for a controlled perfusion experiment. We present a cartoon model and reaction schemes for parts of the coagulation cascade with sunsequent set up of a mathematical model in two space dimensions plus one...

  16. [The effects of Arnica Montana on blood coagulation. Randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, L; Drouin, J; Desjardins, L; Leroux, D; Audet, D

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of this study, which took the form of a two-period cross-over clinical trial, was to determine whether a homeopathic substance, Arnica Montana, significantly decreased bleeding time (Simplate II) and to describe its impact on various blood coagulation tests. It was not shown that this substance had a significant impact on various parameters of blood coagulation in healthy volunteers in the period immediately following administration [corrected].

  17. Fibrinolysis and the control of blood coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Chapin, John C.; Hajjar, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrin plays an essential role in hemostasis as both the primary product of the coagulation cascade and the ultimate substrate for fibrinolysis. Fibrinolysis efficiency is greatly influenced by clot structure, fibrinogen isoforms and polymorphisms, the rate of thrombin generation, the reactivity of thrombus-associated cells such as platelets, and the overall biochemical environment. Regulation of the fibrinolytic system, like that of the coagulation cascade, is accomplished by a wide array of...

  18. Activation of blood coagulation in autoimmune skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugno, Massimo; Tedeschi, Alberto; Crosti, Carlo; Marzano, Angelo V

    2009-09-01

    The immune system and blood coagulation are simultaneously activated in several inflammatory systemic disorders, such as lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel diseases. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF-alpha, induce the expression of tissue factor, the main initiator of blood coagulation. Activated proteases of coagulation in turn act on protease-activated receptors, inducing the expression of various proinflammatory cytokines. This cross-talk between inflammation and coagulation amplifies and maintains the activation of both systems. This review focuses on three skin disorders: chronic urticaria (CU), which is considered autoimmune in approximately 50% of cases, bullous pemphigoid (BP), which is the prototype of autoimmune blistering disease, and psoriasis, which is an immune-mediated dermatitis. In CU, the activation of coagulation, which is due to the involvement of eosinophils and tissue factor pathways with the generation of thrombin, has local implications by increasing dermal vascular permeability. Preliminary data indicate that anticoagulant treatment with heparin and warfarin may be effective in reducing the symptoms of this disorder. In BP, the activation of coagulation seems to have both local and systemic implications. Locally, eosinophils and thrombin participate in bulla formation and tissue damage; systemically, the activation of coagulation may explain the increased thrombotic risk observed in these patients. In psoriasis, the activation of coagulation seems to be mainly systemic, potentially contributing to the increased cardiovascular risk associated with this disease. PMID:20477646

  19. Laboratory testing in disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2010-06-01

    The diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) relies on clinical signs and symptoms, identification of the underlying disease, the results of laboratory testing, and differentiation from other pathologies. The clinical features mainly depend on the underlying cause of the DIC. The laboratory diagnosis of DIC uses a combination of tests because no single test result alone can firmly establish or rule out the diagnosis. Global tests of hemostasis may initially provide evidence of coagulation activation and later in the process provide evidence of consumption of coagulation factors, but their individual diagnostic efficiency is limited. Fibrinolytic markers, in particular D-dimer, are reflective of activation of both coagulation and fibrinolysis, so that a normal finding can be useful for ruling-out DIC. Decreased levels of the natural anticoagulants (in particular, antithrombin and protein C) are frequently observed in patients with DIC, but their measurement is not normally incorporated into standard diagnostic algorithms. New tests are being explored for utility in DIC, and some additional tests may be useful on a case-by-case basis, depending on the proposed cause of the DIC or their local availability. For example, clot waveform analysis is useful but currently limited to a single instrument. Also, procalcitonin is an inflammatory biomarker that may be useful within the context of septic DIC, and activated factor X clotting time is an emerging test of procoagulant phospholipids that also seems to hold promise in DIC.

  20. Effect of fibrinogen on blood coagulation detected by optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our previous work demonstrated that an optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique and the parameter 1/e light penetration depth (d1/e) were able to characterize the whole blood coagulation process in contrast to existing optical tests that are performed on plasma samples. To evaluate the feasibility of the technique for quantifying the effect of fibrinogen (Fbg) on blood coagulation, a dynamic study of d1/e of blood in various Fbg concentrations was performed in static state. Two groups of blood samples of hematocrit (HCT) in 35, 45, and 55% were reconstituted of red blood cells with: 1) treated plasma with its intrinsic Fbg removed and commercial Fbg added (0–8 g L−1); and 2) native plasma with commercial Fbg added (0–8 g L−1). The results revealed a typical behavior due to coagulation induced by calcium ions and the clotting time is Fbg concentration-dependent. The clotting time was decreased by the increasing amount of Fbg in both groups. Besides, the blood of lower HCT with various levels of Fbg took shorter time to coagulate than that of higher HCT. Consequently, the OCT method is a useful and promising tool for the detection of blood-coagulation processes induced with different Fbg levels. (paper)

  1. Biomarkers of coagulation, fibrinolysis, endothelial function, and inflammation in arterialized venous blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Anne Sofie; Skov, Jane; Ploug, Thorkil;

    2014-01-01

    Effects of venous blood arterialization on cardiovascular risk markers are still unknown. We evaluated biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation, fibrinolysis, and endothelial function in arterialized compared with regular venous blood. Cubital venipunctures were obtained from 10 healthy volunteers...... (1929 nmol/l*min vs. 1872 nmol/l*min, P = 0.02). Addition of the FXIIa inhibitor Corn Trypsin Inhibitor (CTI) prior to the thrombin generation test eliminated the ETP difference suggesting that hand heating activates the FXII-dependent coagulation pathway.......Effects of venous blood arterialization on cardiovascular risk markers are still unknown. We evaluated biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation, fibrinolysis, and endothelial function in arterialized compared with regular venous blood. Cubital venipunctures were obtained from 10 healthy volunteers...

  2. Quality Control and Assurance for Coagulation Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭黎明

    2006-01-01

    @@ The coagulation laboratory aids the clinician in assessing not only the bleeding patient but also the thrombotic patient. The techniques of coagulation laboratory are used to evaluate not only the coagulation system but also the anti-coagulation system, fibrinolytic system,platelet and vascular endothelial function. Enzymes, inhibitors, plasma factors and co-factors, cellular release products, and cell receptors can be measured in coagulation laboratory.

  3. Disseminated intravascular coagulation: testing and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Hideo; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yoshiki; Hatada, Tsuyoshi

    2014-09-25

    Abnormalities of the hemostatic system in patients with DIC result from the sum of vectors for hypercoagulation and hyperfibrinolysis. DIC is classified into hyperfibrinolysis, hypercoagulation, massive bleeding or nonsymptomatic types according to the balance of the two vectors. Both the antithrombin (AT) and protein C (PC) levels are significantly low in patients with septic DIC, and reduced amounts of AT and PC result in the lack of inhibition of thrombin and activated FVIII, respectively. Thrombin activates FVIII, while activated FVIII accelerates the coagulation pathway to generate thrombin; thus activation of the coagulation system persists. Three sets of diagnostic criteria have been established by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis and Japanese Association for Acute Medicine, respectively. Although these three diagnostic criteria score hemostatic abnormalities using similar global coagulation tests, the sensitivity and/or specificity for death differ. Treatment with AT or activated PC may not improve the outcomes of patients with sepsis at the early stage, although they may improve the outcomes in those with DIC. Therefore, new diagnostic criteria for determining the appropriate time to initiate anticoagulant treatment are required.

  4. Multifrequency acoustics as a probe of mesoscopic blood coagulation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Adarsh; Rajendran, Gokulnath; Ercole, Ari; Seshia, Ashwin

    2016-08-01

    Coagulation is a complex enzymatic polymerisation cascade. Disordered coagulation is common in medicine and may be life-threatening yet clinical assays are typically bulky and/or provide an incomplete picture of clot mechanical evolution. We present the adaptation of an in-plane acoustic wave device: quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation at multiple harmonics to determine the time-evolution of mesoscale mechanical properties of clot formation in vitro. This approach is sensitive to changes in surface and bulk clot structure in various models of induced coagulopathy. Furthermore, we are able to show that clot formation at surfaces has different kinetics and mechanical strength to that in the bulk, which may have implications for the design of bioprosthetic materials. The "Multifrequency acoustics" approach thus enables unique capability to portray biological processes concerning blood coagulation.

  5. The effect of garlic on coagulation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Yeganeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose: There are many reports on anti-thrombotic properties of garlic. Also, regarding the simultaneous consumption of garlic and Warfarine or non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, some warning recommendations are published. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of garlic on coagulation tests, and in case of any demonstrative anticoagulation effect, the patients, particularly those with coagulation disorders, could be given appropriate advice on proper consumption of garlic.Materials and Methods: This was a clinical trial in which 50 volunteer students were selected based on information collected using appropriate questionnaires. The students were tested for coagulation assays including bleeding time (BT, clotting time (CT, prothrombin time (PT, partial thromboplastin time (PIT, clot retraction (CR, and platelets count (PC before and after consumption of garlic. Data were analyzed using SPPS and T-test. The average values of tests obtained in two stages of experiment were further compared statistically. Results: The results of our study on subjects (30 females and 20 males with an average age of 21.7 years showed that there was no significant change in values obtained for CT, PT, PC and CR (p>0.05 following consumption of garlic. However, a significant increase in PTT values was found following consumption of garlic (the p values for samples collected after 24 hours and 4 hours were 0.001 and 0.012 respectively. There was also a significant difference (p=0.027 in BT 24 hours after garlic consumption. Regarding the results of similar tests among two genders, no significant difference was found.Conclusion: Following consumption of garlic, there was a significant increase in PIT and BT, the effect being more obvious after 24 hours. The data of present study regarding the inhibitory effect of garlic on platelet activities is consistent with those reported by some other researches which is also

  6. Numerical simulations of a reduced model for blood coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Jevgenija; Fasano, Antonio; Sequeira, Adélia

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the three-dimensional numerical resolution of a complex mathematical model for the blood coagulation process is presented. The model was illustrated in Fasano et al. (Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 51:1-14, 2012), Pavlova et al. (Theor Biol 380:367-379, 2015). It incorporates the action of the biochemical and cellular components of blood as well as the effects of the flow. The model is characterized by a reduction in the biochemical network and considers the impact of the blood slip at the vessel wall. Numerical results showing the capacity of the model to predict different perturbations in the hemostatic system are discussed.

  7. Spatial localization of bacteria controls coagulation of human blood by ‘quorum acting'

    OpenAIRE

    Kastrup, Christian J; Boedicker, James Q.; Pomerantsev, Andrei P.; Moayeri, Mahtab; Bian, Yao; Pompano, Rebecca R; Kline, Timothy R.; Sylvestre, Patricia; Shen, Feng; Leppla, Stephen H.; Tang, Wei-Jen; Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    2008-01-01

    Blood coagulation often accompanies bacterial infections and sepsis and is generally accepted as a consequence of immune responses. Though many bacterial species can directly activate individual coagulation factors, they have not been shown to directly initiate the coagulation cascade that precedes clot formation. Here we demonstrated, using microfluidics and surface patterning, that the spatial localization of bacteria substantially affects coagulation of human and mouse blood and plasma. Ba...

  8. 不同孕期妊娠妇女凝血四项指标变化及意义%Analysis of the blood coagulation test of pregnant women in different stage and discuss its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏文迅; 林进考

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the results of blood coagulation test,including PT,APTT,FG and TT of pregnant women in different stage,and to discuss its clinical significance.Methods Blood coagulation monitor(STA-GO-ArT4,French)was used in this study.The experiment samples were divided into four grroups:group intermediate stage gestation(30 persons),group advanced stage gestation(26 persons),group in labor(30 persons)and group normal of none-gestation(37 persons).The prothrombin time(PT),activated partiat thromboplastin time(APTT).fibrinogen(FG)and thrombin time(TT)of these persons were detected.At last,the data of the test was analysised.Results The PT,FG and TT of the group advanced stage gestation and group in labor were higher compared with the group normal of none-gestation(P<0.05).Conclusion The blood coagulation function of pregnant women in different stage is different from the none-pregnant women,and it is important to know the PT,APTT,FG and TT promptly.%目的 探讨妊娠妇女不同孕期凝血酶原时间(PT)、部分凝血活酶时间(APTT)、纤维蛋白原(FG)和凝血酶时间(TT)四项反映凝血功能指标的变化及其临床意义.方法 采用法国STAGO-ArT4血凝仪检测86例正常中孕、晚孕、临产妇女和37例正常非孕妇女的PT、APTT、FG和TT,并对检测结果进行比较.结果:晚孕组和临产组与健康对照组比较,PT、FG和TT差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 不同孕期妊娠妇女凝血功能发生改变,及时了解这些变化具有重要临床意义.

  9. Zeolite-based hemostat QuikClot releases calcium into blood and promotes blood coagulation in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Wei CAO; Xiao-xing LV; Li JIANG; Yue-jun LI; Wang-zhou LI; Shao-zong CHEN

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To examine the changes in electrolyte concentrations after addition of zeolite-based hemostat QuikClot in blood and the effects of zeolite on blood coagulation in vitro.Methods:Fresh blood was taken from healthy adult volunteers and sheep,and the electrolyte concentrations in blood were measured using a blood electrolyte analyzer.Zeolite Saline Solution (ZSS) was prepared by addition of 2 g zeolite to 0.9% NaCl solution (4,8,or 16 mL).The electrolytes in ZSS were measured using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.The prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of blood were measured using the test tube method.The activated clotting time (ACT) and clotting rate (CR) of blood were measured with Sonoclot Coagulation and Platelet Function Analyzer.Results:Addition of zeolite (50 and 100 mg) in 2 mL human blood significantly increased Ca2+ concentration,while Na+ and K+ concentrations were significantly decreased.Addition of zeolite (50 and 100 mg) in 0.9% NaCl solution (2 mL) caused similar changes in Ca2+ and Na+ concentrations.Si4+ (0.2434 g/L) and Al3+ (0.2575 g/L) were detected in ZSS (2 g/8 mL).Addition of ZSS in sheep blood shortened APTT in a concentration dependent manner,without changing PT.ZSS or aqueous solution of CaCl2 that contained Ca2+ concentration identical to that of ZSS significantly shortened ACT in human blood without significantly changing CR,and the effect of ZSS on ACT was not significantly different from that of CaCl2.Conclusion:Zeolite releases Ca2+ into blood,thus accelerating the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation and shortening the clot formation time.

  10. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norepinephrine -- blood; Epinephrine -- blood; Adrenalin -- blood; Dopamine -- blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  11. Tissue Factor, Blood Coagulation, and Beyond: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur J. Chu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence shows a broad spectrum of biological functions of tissue factor (TF. TF classical role in initiating the extrinsic blood coagulation and its direct thrombotic action in close relation to cardiovascular risks have long been established. TF overexpression/hypercoagulability often observed in many clinical conditions certainly expands its role in proinflammation, diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, angiogenesis, tumor metastasis, wound repairs, embryonic development, cell adhesion/migration, innate immunity, infection, pregnancy loss, and many others. This paper broadly covers seminal observations to discuss TF pathogenic roles in relation to diverse disease development or manifestation. Biochemically, extracellular TF signaling interfaced through protease-activated receptors (PARs elicits cellular activation and inflammatory responses. TF diverse biological roles are associated with either coagulation-dependent or noncoagulation-mediated actions. Apparently, TF hypercoagulability refuels a coagulation-inflammation-thrombosis circuit in “autocrine” or “paracrine” fashions, which triggers a wide spectrum of pathophysiology. Accordingly, TF suppression, anticoagulation, PAR blockade, or general anti-inflammation offers an array of therapeutical benefits for easing diverse pathological conditions.

  12. In Vitro impairment of whole blood coagulation and platelet function by hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Görlinger Klaus

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch (HH has been recommended for first line treatment of hemorrhagic shock. Its effects on coagulation are unclear. We studied in vitro effects of HH dilution on whole blood coagulation and platelet function. Furthermore 7.2% hypertonic saline, 6% hydroxyethylstarch (as ingredients of HH, and 0.9% saline solution (as control were tested in comparable dilutions to estimate specific component effects of HH on coagulation. Methods The study was designed as experimental non-randomized comparative in vitro study. Following institutional review board approval and informed consent blood samples were taken from 10 healthy volunteers and diluted in vitro with either HH (HyperHaes®, Fresenius Kabi, Germany, hypertonic saline (HT, 7.2% NaCl, hydroxyethylstarch (HS, HAES6%, Fresenius Kabi, Germany or NaCl 0.9% (ISO in a proportion of 5%, 10%, 20% and 40%. Coagulation was studied in whole blood by rotation thrombelastometry (ROTEM after thromboplastin activation without (ExTEM and with inhibition of thrombocyte function by cytochalasin D (FibTEM, the latter was performed to determine fibrin polymerisation alone. Values are expressed as maximal clot firmness (MCF, [mm] and clotting time (CT, [s]. Platelet aggregation was determined by impedance aggregrometry (Multiplate after activation with thrombin receptor-activating peptide 6 (TRAP and quantified by the area under the aggregation curve (AUC [aggregation units (AU/min]. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to evaluate HyperHaes induced cell shape changes of thrombocytes. Statistics: 2-way ANOVA for repeated measurements, Bonferroni post hoc test, p Results Dilution impaired whole blood coagulation and thrombocyte aggregation in all dilutions in a dose dependent fashion. In contrast to dilution with ISO and HS, respectively, dilution with HH as well as HT almost abolished coagulation (MCFExTEM from 57.3 ± 4.9 mm (native to 1.7 ± 2.2 mm (HH 40

  13. Modelling of the Blood Coagulation Cascade in an In Vitro Flow System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Marianne; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Efendiev, Messoud A.;

    2010-01-01

    We derive a mathematical model of a part of the blood coagulation cascade set up in a perfusion experiment. Our purpose is to simulate the influence of blood flow and diffusion on the blood coagulation pathway. The resulting model consists of a system of partial differential equations taking into...

  14. [New oral anticoagulants - influence on coagulation tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, L; Nagler, M; Wuillemin, W A

    2014-01-01

    The new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) represent alternative antithrombotic agents for prophylaxis and therapy of thromboembolic diseases. They act either by inhibition of the clotting factor Xa or IIa (thrombin). As a consequence, they influence several coagulation assays (for example prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time). Because of the short half-life of these new agents, these changes show great variations in the course of 24 hours. Furthermore, there are significant differences of laboratory results depending on the used reagents. We explain the influence of apixaban, rivaroxaban (factor Xa inhibitors) and dabigatran (thrombin inhibitor) on the most commonly used coagulation assays. Besides we show that this influence depends on the way of action of the drug as well as on the principle of the coagulation assay. Being aware of this relationships helps to interpret the results of coagulation assays under influence of NOACs correctly.

  15. Blood Count Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  16. Treatment of Epilepsy with Bipolar Electro-coagulation: An Analysis of Cortical Blood Flow and Histological Change in Temporal Lobe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Qiang Cui; Guo-Ming Luan; Jian Zhou; Feng Zhai; Yu-Guang Guan; Min Bao

    2015-01-01

    Background:Bipolar electro-coagulation has a reported efficacy in treating epilepsy involving functional cortex by pure electro-coagulation or combination with resection.However,the mechanisms of bipolar electro-coagulation are not completely known.We studied the acute cortical blood flow and histological changes after bipolar electro-coagulation in 24 patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy.Methods:Twenty-four patients were consecutively enrolled,and divided into three groups according to the date of admission.The regional cortical blood flow (rCBF),electrocorticography,the depth of cortex damage,and acute histological changes (H and E staining,neuronal staining and neurofilament (NF) staining) were analyzed before and after the operation.The t-test analysis was used to compare the rCBF before and after the operation.Results:The rCBF after coagulation was significantly reduced (P < 0.05).The spikes were significantly reduced after electro-coagulation.For the temporal cortex,the depth of cortical damage with output power of 2-9 W after electro-coagulation was 0.34 ± 0.03,0.48 ± 0.06,0.69 ± 0.06,0.84 ± 0.09,0.98 ± 0.08,1.10 ± 0.1 l,1.11 ± 0.09,and 1.22 ± 0.11 mm,respectively.Coagulation with output power of 4-5 W completely damaged the neurons and NF protein in the molecular layer,external granular layer,and external pyramidal layer.Conclusions:The electro-coagulation not only destroyed the neurons and NF protein,but also reduced the rCBF.We concluded that the injuries caused by electro-coagulation would prevent horizontal synchronization and spread of epileptic discharges,and partially destroy the epileptic focus.

  17. Surface-mediated molecular events in material-induced blood-plasma coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Kaushik

    amounts of FXIIa generated at material surfaces in plasma using a mathematical model for measured coagulation responses indicate that the relative contributions of the individual pathways of enzyme generation are similar at both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces, only the amounts of enzyme generated scale with surface energy and area of the activating surface. Further, from direct measurement of enzyme activation at test surfaces we observed that contact activation reactions are not specific to negatively-charged hydrophilic surfaces. Rather, the molecular interactions are attenuated at hydrophobic surfaces due to protein adsorption so that poorly-adsorbent hydrophilic surfaces exhibit an apparent specificity for contact activation reactions. Preliminary studies were preformed to assay the plasma coagulation response to low-fouling surfaces prepared by either grafting poly(ethylene glycol) chains or using zwitterions. Results indicate that poly(ethylene glycol)-modified surfaces are significantly weaker procoagulants than surfaces containing zwitterions underscoring a need to specifically evaluate the coagulation response despite similarities in observed protein adsorption to both surfaces. In summary, our studies demonstrate a need to incorporate protein-adsorption competition at procoagulant surfaces into the mechanism of contact activation to account for the observed moderation of FXII activation by blood proteins unrelated to the plasma coagulation cascade.

  18. Anthrax - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The best test for diagnosing anthrax is a culture of affected tissue or blood. Alternative Names Anthrax serology test; Antibody test for anthrax; Serologic test for B anthracis Images Blood test Bacillus anthracis References Hall GS, Woods GL. Medical bacteriology. ...

  19. Benign intracranial hypertension associated to blood coagulation derangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niglio Alferio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benign Intracranial Hypertension (BIH may be caused, at least in part, by intracranial sinus thrombosis. Thrombosis is normally due to derangements in blood coagulation cascade which may predispose to abnormal clotting activation or deficiency in natural inhibitors' control. The aim of the study is to examine the strength of the association between risk factors for thrombosis and BIH. Patients and methods The incidence of prothrombotic abnormalities among a randomly investigated cohort of 17 patients with BIH, was compared with 51 healthy subjects matched for sex, age, body mass index, height and social background. Results The number of subjects with protein C deficiency was significantly higher in patients than in controls (3 vs 1, p Increased plasma levels of prothrombin fragment 1+2, fibrinopeptide A (FPA, and PAI-1 were demonstrated in patients group (5.7 ± 1.15 nM vs 0.45 ± 0.35 nM; 8.7 ± 2.5 ng/mL vs 2.2 ± 1.25 ng/mL; 45.7 ± 12.5 ng/mL vs 8.5 ± 6.7 ng/mL, respectively; p Discussion In agreement with other authors our data suggest a state of hypercoagulability in BIH associated with gene polymorphisms. Our findings also showed that mutations in cardiovascular genes significantly discriminate subjects with a BIH history. The association between coagulation and gene derangements, usually regarded to as cryptogenic, may suggest a possible pathogenetic mechanism in BIH. So, a prothrombotic tendency may exist that would, at least in part, explain some cases of BIH. Although based on a small population, these findings raise the exciting possibility of using these haemostatic factors as markers for selecting high-risk subjects in BIH disease.

  20. Mesoscopic Modeling of Blood Clotting: Coagulation Cascade and Platelets Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Alireza; Li, Zhen; Karniadakis, George

    2015-11-01

    The process of clot formation and growth at a site on a blood vessel wall involve a number of multi-scale simultaneous processes including: multiple chemical reactions in the coagulation cascade, species transport and flow. To model these processes we have incorporated advection-diffusion-reaction (ADR) of multiple species into an extended version of Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method which is considered as a coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics method. At the continuum level this is equivalent to the Navier-Stokes equation plus one advection-diffusion equation for each specie. The chemistry of clot formation is now understood to be determined by mechanisms involving reactions among many species in dilute solution, where reaction rate constants and species diffusion coefficients in plasma are known. The role of blood particulates, i.e. red cells and platelets, in the clotting process is studied by including them separately and together in the simulations. An agonist-induced platelet activation mechanism is presented, while platelets adhesive dynamics based on a stochastic bond formation/dissociation process is included in the model.

  1. Lyme disease blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... antibodies in the blood sample using the ELISA test . If the ELISA test is positive, it must be confirmed with another ... were seen in your blood sample. If the ELISA test is negative, usually no other testing is needed. ...

  2. Analysis of the coagulation of human blood cells on diamond surfaces by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranauskas, V.; Fontana, M.; Guo, Zhao Jing; Ceragioli, H. J.; Peterlevitz, A. C.

    2004-11-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the morphology and coagulation of human blood cells in contact with solid surfaces. Blood was extracted from the veins of healthy adult donors and the samples were used immediately after extraction, deposited either on borosilicate glass or diamond substrates. Some blood samples were anti-coagulated by adding heparin for single cell AFM imaging. No chemicals were used for attaching or immobilizing the cells. The diamond substrates were produced by chemical vapour deposition (CVD diamond) using a hot-filament CVD system fed with ethanol highly diluted in hydrogen. AFM imaging of isolated cells (anti-coagulated by heparin) was only possible on the glass substrates due to the lack of adherence of the cells to the diamond surface. The coagulation results suggest that blood clotting on diamond produces a less rough surface than blood clotting on glass.

  3. Back to the future: testing in disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Cheng-Hock; Downey, Colin

    2005-11-01

    Following on from the first clinical observations on disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in the nineteenth century, the dawn of laboratory testing for DIC began with the availability of assays that characterized the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of coagulation. Markedly increased clotting times were the hallmark of DIC. As the understanding of the biochemistry of haemostasis and thrombosis improved, new tests were developed based on the molecular players that participate in the process. However, many are non-specific for DIC and/or are unwieldy in performance to keep apace with the demands of the acute clinical setting. The renewed emphasis in DIC for the modern laboratory of the twenty-first century has seen a return to the simple, rapid and practical global tests of coagulation within scoring systems that also capture the pathophysiological continuum by trend analysis. Additionally, new technologies based on these simple tests of coagulation hold promise in also indicating the in vivo interplay between coagulation and inflammation during DIC.

  4. CEA blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcinoembryonic antigen blood test ... A blood sample is needed . ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. ...

  5. Ketones blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight ... there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  6. Establishment of FMEA risk management procedures for blood coagulation tests in clinical laboratories%临床实验室按照 FM EA 模式构建凝血功能检测项目的风险管理程序

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛广华; 高玉洁; 崔百慧

    2016-01-01

    使用FMEA模型确定检验医学中心风险管理工作流程和关键环节。根据IS015189认可准则、CAP实验室认可检查条款等的相关标准,识别出实验室凝血功能检测工作流程中关键环节的风险。针对凝血功能检测的评价活动,采取积极的纠正措施,通过监测系统周期性地审核性能数据,可以对凝血功能检测的质量持续改进。(中华检验医学杂志,2016,39:13-17)%Definiting the workflow and key link of the risk management in medical laboratory by FMEA.Identifying risk factors of the workflow and key link of blood coagulation test by the criteria for laboratory accreditation , such as ISO15189 recognition criteria and CAP laboratory accreditation inspection . Through the evaluation of the blood coagulation test , effective corrective actions and examining performance data periodically , the quality of the blood coagulation test can be improved continuously.

  7. Diagnostic criteria and laboratory tests for disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Hideo; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Hatada, Tuyoshi

    2012-12-01

    Three diagnostic criteria for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) have been established by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) and the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine. The diagnostic criteria involving global coagulation tests, such as the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare criteria and the ISTH overt diagnostic criteria, are first-generation DIC diagnostic criteria, those involving global coagulation tests and changes in these tests such as the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine criteria, are second-generation DIC diagnostic criteria, and those including non-overt DIC diagnostic criteria involving global coagulation tests, changes in these tests and hemostatic molecular markers will be the future (third-generation) DIC diagnostic criteria. There are no significant differences in the three diagnostic criteria with respect to predicting poor outcomes. Therefore, the third generation of diagnostic criteria including hemostatic molecular markers is expected to be established. Standardization and the determination of adequate cutoff values should be required for each laboratory test.

  8. ACTION OF HIGH-DISPERSED SILICA ON BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS ACTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Chernyshenko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Using of high-dispersed silica based sorbents is a new and prospective method of bleeding arrest. Studies of high-dispersed silica haemostatic action during superficial wounds were promising for its surgery usage. However the mechanisms of haemostatic effects of high-dispersed silica are still unknown. Our investigations were focused on high-dispersed silica action on activation of some blood coagulation factors and clearing of its blood arresting mechanisms. Activation of individual coagulation factors was measured using specific chromogenic substrates. It was shown that high-dispersed silica increases the activation of intrinsic and extrinsic blood coagulation pathway factors which was initiated by «Activated partial thromboplastin time» and thromboplastin. Blood coagulation factor X was determined as a target of high-dispersed silica using highspecific activators from the snake venoms. Observed increasing of factor X activation could be the consequence of the adsorption of the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway factors on sorbent surface. Obtained results give a possibility to speculate about high-dispersed silica effects on blood coagulation increasing.

  9. Blood Test: Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Glucose Print A A A Text Size What's in ... de sangre: glucosa What It Is A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose (the main ...

  10. Monitoring time course of human whole blood coagulation using a microfluidic dielectric sensor with a 3D capacitive structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Debnath; Suster, Michael A; Stavrou, Evi; Gurkan, Umut A; Mohseni, Pedram

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports on the design, fabrication, and testing of a microfluidic sensor for dielectric spectroscopy (DS) of human whole blood during coagulation. The sensor employs a three-dimensional (3D), parallel-plate, capacitive sensing structure with a floating electrode integrated into a microfluidic channel. Using an impedance analyzer and after a 5-point calibration, the sensor is shown to measure the real part of complex relative dielectric permittivity of human whole blood in a frequency range of 10kHz to 100MHz. The temporal variation of dielectric permittivity at 1MHz for human whole blood from three different healthy donors shows a peak in permittivity at ~ 4 to 5 minutes, which also corresponds to the onset of CaCl2-initiated coagulation of the blood sample verified visually. PMID:26737635

  11. BUN - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood urea nitrogen ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this ...

  12. Optical coherence tomography-guided laser microsurgery for blood coagulation with continuous-wave laser diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Yu; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Wang, Zu-Yi; Chi, Chun-Kai; Lee, Cheng-Kuang; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Chan, Ming-Che; Lee, Ya-Ju

    2015-11-16

    Blood coagulation is the clotting and subsequent dissolution of the clot following repair to the damaged tissue. However, inducing blood coagulation is difficult for some patients with homeostasis dysfunction or during surgery. In this study, we proposed a method to develop an integrated system that combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) and laser microsurgery for blood coagulation. Also, an algorithm for positioning of the treatment location from OCT images was developed. With OCT scanning, 2D/3D OCT images and angiography of tissue can be obtained simultaneously, enabling to noninvasively reconstruct the morphological and microvascular structures for real-time monitoring of changes in biological tissues during laser microsurgery. Instead of high-cost pulsed lasers, continuous-wave laser diodes (CW-LDs) with the central wavelengths of 450 nm and 532 nm are used for blood coagulation, corresponding to higher absorption coefficients of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. Experimental results showed that the location of laser exposure can be accurately controlled with the proposed approach of imaging-based feedback positioning. Moreover, blood coagulation can be efficiently induced by CW-LDs and the coagulation process can be monitored in real-time with OCT. This technology enables to potentially provide accurate positioning for laser microsurgery and control the laser exposure to avoid extra damage by real-time OCT imaging.

  13. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban using a computer model for blood coagulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Burghaus

    Full Text Available Rivaroxaban is an oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor approved in the European Union and several other countries for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in adult patients undergoing elective hip or knee replacement surgery and is in advanced clinical development for the treatment of thromboembolic disorders. Its mechanism of action is antithrombin independent and differs from that of other anticoagulants, such as warfarin (a vitamin K antagonist, enoxaparin (an indirect thrombin/Factor Xa inhibitor and dabigatran (a direct thrombin inhibitor. A blood coagulation computer model has been developed, based on several published models and preclinical and clinical data. Unlike previous models, the current model takes into account both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of the coagulation cascade, and possesses some unique features, including a blood flow component and a portfolio of drug action mechanisms. This study aimed to use the model to compare the mechanism of action of rivaroxaban with that of warfarin, and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of different rivaroxaban doses with other anticoagulants included in the model. Rather than reproducing known standard clinical measurements, such as the prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time clotting tests, the anticoagulant benchmarking was based on a simulation of physiologically plausible clotting scenarios. Compared with warfarin, rivaroxaban showed a favourable sensitivity for tissue factor concentration inducing clotting, and a steep concentration-effect relationship, rapidly flattening towards higher inhibitor concentrations, both suggesting a broad therapeutic window. The predicted dosing window is highly accordant with the final dose recommendation based upon extensive clinical studies.

  14. A critical appraisal of point-of-care coagulation testing in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, M; Hunt, B J

    2015-11-01

    Derangement of the coagulation system is a common phenomenon in critically ill patients, who may present with severe bleeding and/or conditions associated with a prothrombotic state. Monitoring of this coagulopathy can be performed with conventional coagulation assays; however, point-of-care tests have become increasingly attractive, because not only do they yield a more rapid result than clinical laboratory testing, but they may also provide a more complete picture of the condition of the hemostatic system. There are many potential areas of study and applications of point-of-care hemostatic testing in critical care, including patients who present with massive blood loss, patients with a hypercoagulable state (such as in disseminated intravascular coagulation), and monitoring of antiplatelet treatment for acute arterial thrombosis, mostly acute coronary syndromes. However, the limitations of near-patient hemostatic testing has not been fully appreciated, and are discussed here. The currently available evidence indicates that point-of-care tests may be applied to guide appropriate blood product transfusion and the use of hemostatic agents to correct the hemostatic defect or to ameliorate antithrombotic treatment. Disappointingly, however, only in cardiac surgery is there adequate evidence to show that application of near-patient thromboelastography leads to an improvement in clinically relevant outcomes, such as reductions in bleeding-related morbidity and mortality, and cost-effectiveness. More research is required to validate the utility and cost-effectiveness of near-patient hemostatic testing in other areas, especially in traumatic bleeding and postpartum hemorrhage.

  15. Blood coagulation factor Xa as an emerging drug target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Borensztajn; C.A. Spek

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Factor (F) Xa is well-known as an important player in the coagulation cascade responsible for thrombin generation. More recently, FXa emerged as an essential player in cell biology via activation of proteaseactivated receptors (PAR)-1 and -2. This pleiotropic role of FXa forms the basi

  16. An optical approach for non-invasive blood clot testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Brill, Alexander; Fine, Ilya; Harmelin, Alon

    2007-02-01

    Physiological blood coagulation is an essential biological process. Current tests for plasma coagulation (clotting) need to be performed ex vivo and require fresh blood sampling for every test. A recently published work describes a new, noninvasive, in vivo approach to assess blood coagulation status during mechanical occlusion1. For this purpose, we have tested this approach and applied a controlled laser beam to blood micro-vessels of the mouse ear during mechanical occlusion. Standard setup for intravital transillumination videomicroscopy and laser based imaging techniques were used for monitoring the blood clotting process. Temporal mechanical occlusion of blood vessels in the observed area was applied to ensure blood flow cessation. Subsequently, laser irradiation was used to induce vascular micro-injury. Changes in the vessel wall, as well as in the pattern of blood flow, predispose the area to vascular thrombosis, according to the paradigm of Virchow's triad. In our experiments, two elements of Virchow's triad were used to induce the process of clotting in vivo, and to assess it optically. We identified several parameters that can serve as markers of the blood clotting process in vivo. These include changes in light absorption in the area of illumination, as well as changes in the pattern of the red blood cells' micro-movement in the vessels where blood flow is completely arrested. Thus, our results indicate that blood coagulation status can be characterized by non-invasive, in vivo methodologies.

  17. Vitamin A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003570.htm Vitamin A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The vitamin A test measures the level of vitamin A ...

  18. CO2 blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test. DO ...

  19. Dynamic and quantitative assessment of blood coagulation using optical coherence elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangqun; Zhu, Jiang; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-04-01

    Reliable clot diagnostic systems are needed for directing treatment in a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases and coagulopathy. Here, we report on non-contact measurement of elastic modulus for dynamic and quantitative assessment of whole blood coagulation using acoustic radiation force orthogonal excitation optical coherence elastography (ARFOE-OCE). In this system, acoustic radiation force (ARF) is produced by a remote ultrasonic transducer, and a shear wave induced by ARF excitation is detected by the optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. During porcine whole blood coagulation, changes in the elastic property of the clots increase the shear modulus of the sample, altering the propagating velocity of the shear wave. Consequently, dynamic blood coagulation status can be measured quantitatively by relating the velocity of the shear wave with clinically relevant coagulation metrics, including reaction time, clot formation kinetics and maximum shear modulus. The results show that the ARFOE-OCE is sensitive to the clot formation kinetics and can differentiate the elastic properties of the recalcified porcine whole blood, blood added with kaolin as an activator, and blood spiked with fibrinogen.

  20. Assessment of blood coagulation under various flow conditions with ultrasound backscattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Chung; Wang, Shyh-Hau

    2007-12-01

    Several in vitro studies have employed ultrasonic techniques to detect varying properties of coagulating blood under static or stirred conditions. Most of those studies mainly addressed on the development and feasibility of modalities and however were not fully considering the effect of blood flow. To better elucidate this issue, ultrasonic backscattering were measured from the coagulating porcine blood circulated in a mock flow loop with various steady laminar flows at mean shear rates from 10 to 100 s(-1). A 3 ml of 0.5 M CaCl2 solution for inducing blood coagulation was added to that of 30 ml blood circulated in the conduit. For each measurement carried out with a 10-MHz transducer, backscattered signals digitized at 100-MHz sampling frequency were acquired for a total of 20 min at temporal resolution of 50 A-lines per s. The integrated backscatter (IB) was calculated for assessing backscattering properties of coagulating blood. The results show that blood coagulation tended to be increased corresponding to the addition of CaCl2 solution: the IB was increased approximately 6.1 +/- 0.6 (mean +/- standard deviation), 5.4 +/- 0.9, and 4.5 +/- 1.2 dB at 310 +/- 62, 420 +/- 88, and 610 +/- 102 s associated with mean shear rates of 10, 40, and 100 s(-1), respectively. The rate of increasing IB for evaluating the growth of clot was estimated to be 0.075 +/- 0.017, 0.052 +/- 0.027, and 0.038 +/- 0.012 delta dB delta s(-1) corresponding to the increase of mean shear rates. These results consistently demonstrate that higher shear rate tends to prolong the duration for the flowing blood to be coagulated and to decrease the rate of IB. Moreover, the laminar flow was changed to turbulent flow during that the blood was clotting discerned by spatial variations of ultrasound backscattering in the conduit. All these results validate that ultrasound backscattering is feasible to be utilized for detecting and assessing blood coagulation under dynamic conditions.

  1. Effect of magnetic bracelets on the coagulation and anticoagulation systems of the blood of patients with hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublis, V. V.; Zabrodina, L. V.; Platonova, A. T.; Meyerova, Y. A.

    1974-01-01

    The data which have been obtained on the influence of magnetic bracelets on the coagulation and anticoagulation systems of the blood indicate that the wearing of magnetic bracelets results in a decrease in the coagulation activity of the blood and an increase in the activity of the anticoagulation system. These changes must be viewed as favorable for patients with cardiovascular pathology.

  2. Blood Test: Bilirubin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the blood. Babies with high levels may need phototherapy (treatment with a special light that makes bilirubin ... are afraid of needles. Explaining the test in terms your child can understand might help ease some ...

  3. Analysis of Test Results of Four Items of Blood Coagulation Indexes of Pregnant Women in Labor%临产孕妇凝血四项指标检测结果探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏会真

    2014-01-01

    Objective Pregnant women in labor coagulation four indicators change.Methods Choose 100 cases of pregnant women in labor as observation group, 30 cases of healthy non pregnant women as control group, the determination of two groups of PT, APTT, TT, FIB indicators, analysis and research.Results PT the value of the observation group was obviously lower,FIB levels increased significantly,al have significant dif erence,APTT,TT test results compared with control group,no significant dif erence.Conclusion Coagulation four indicators in pregnant women in labor,importance to preventing obstetric complications,security and safety of clinical significance.%目的:探讨临产孕妇凝血四项指标变化意义。方法选择100例临产孕妇作为观察组,30例健康非孕妇作为对照组,测定两组的 PT、APTT、TT、FIB指标,并进行分析研究。结果观察组PT的值明显降低,FIB水平明显升高,均有显著性差异,而APTT、TT检测结果与对照组比较无显著性差异。结论对临产孕妇进行凝血四项指标检测,对预防产科并发症、保障母婴安全有重要性的临床指导意义。

  4. Evaluation of periodontal tissues condition in children with blood coagulability pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrilenko, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Actuality of the problem is determined by the high prevalence of inflammatory diseases of periodontal tissues in children with blood pathology (100%). Primary prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases has the exceptional importance in the dentist’s work with children who have blood coagulability disorders. Prevention of dental diseases of the oral cavity in this category of patients has a number of features because there is the risk of bleeding during both home oral hyg...

  5. [Coagulation hemostasis and fibrinolytic potential of blood in conditions of chronic stress and terahertz therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichuk, V F; Tsymbal, A A; Antipova, O N; Tupikin, V D; Maĭborodin, A V; Krenitskiĭ, A P; Betskiĭ, O V

    2007-01-01

    The effects of electromagnetic rays of maximum high frequencies of radiation molecular spectrum and absorption of nitrogen oxide 150, 176-150, 664 GHz on blood coagulation properties of white laboratory rats subjected to chronic immobilization stress have been studied. It is shown that preventive course of electromagnetic irradiation with terahertz range at the frequencies of molecular spectrum of radiation and absorption of nitrogen oxide 150, 176-150, 664 GHz warns about development of stress disturbances of coagulation component of the hemostasis system and fibrinolysis in animals. PMID:17465273

  6. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... medicines you take. These include: Birth control pills Hormone therapy Testosterone DHEA (a supplement) If you are ...

  7. EVALUATION OF PERIODONTAL TISSUES CONDITION IN CHILDREN WITH BLOOD COAGULABILITY PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gavrilenko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Actuality of the problem is determined by the high prevalence of periodontal tissues inflammatory diseases in children with blood pathology (100%. Primary prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases has the exceptional importance in the dentist’s work with children who have blood coagulability disorders. Prevention of dental diseases of the oral cavity in this category of patients has a number of features because there is risk of bleeding during both home oral hygiene and professional hygiene. Exogenous prevention (fluoride-containing gels, varnishes, solutions, sealants also has its own peculiarities in these children. On the other hand, the impossibility of preventive measures implementation is the significant factor in the pathogenesis of gingivitis and subsequently periodontitis in children with disorders of blood coagulability. Aim. To examine the status of oral hygiene in children with blood coagulability disorders. To examine the severity of inflammatory and destructive changes in the periodontal tissues in children with disorders of blood coagulability. To investigate timing and frequency of oral hygiene implementation in children with disorders of blood coagulability. To reveal the interrelations between the intensity, prevalence of periodontal tissues disorders in children with blood coagulability pathology and the periods of tooth development, taking into account the influence of risk factors and frequency of oral hygiene. Materials and methods. 120 children between 2 and 18 years old with blood coagulability disorders (hemophilia A, B, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopathy were examined. Children were divided into following age groups: I – 2-5 years old (40 children, II – 6-10 years old (40 children, III – 11-18 years old (40 children, according to the periods of tooth development, with an equal number of children in groups according to diagnoses. Hygiene index value was determined according to Fedorov and

  8. Change of Coagulation Factor Ⅷ and Antithrombin Ⅲ Activity in Bank-Stored Blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Coagulation factor Ⅷ and antithrombin Ⅲ activity were detected in 15 health donors. It was found that antithrombin Ⅲ activity decreased obviously 12 h after blood drawing. It lost 56 % of the activity at the 3rd day, and 70 % of the activity at the 7th day. FⅧ:c showed no obvious change after 24 h, until the 3rd day. It lost 40 %-60 % of the activity after 36 h and was reduced to the 30 % of the original activity at the 5th day. Our results suggested that at the 3rd day coagulation factor Ⅷ of bank-stored blood can be used to replenish antithrombin Ⅲ, while bank-stored blood in one day can be used to replenish FⅧ.

  9. Hydroxyethyl Starch Reduces Coagulation Competence and Increases Blood Loss During Major Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten C; Johansson, Pär I; Højskov, Michael;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether administration of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 affects coagulation competence and influences the perioperative blood loss. BACKGROUND: Artificial colloids substitute blood volume during surgery; with the administration of HES 130/0.4 (Voluven, Fresenius...... Kabi, Uppsala, Sweden) only a minor effect on coagulation competence is expected. METHODS: Eighty patients were scanned for enrollment in the study, and 40 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two patients withdrew their consent to participate in the study, and 5 patients were excluded. Thus, 16...... patients were randomized to receive lactated Ringer's solution and 17 to receive HES 130/0.4. RESULTS: Among the patients receiving HES 130/0.4, thrombelastography indicated reduced clot strength (P < 0.001) and blinded evaluation of the perioperative blood loss was 2.2 (range 0.5 to 5.0) versus 1.4 (range...

  10. Influence of low molecular heparin on blood coagulation function and lung function in AECOPD patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Deng

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the influence of low molecular heparin on the blood coagulation function and lung function in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) patients.Methods:A total of 100 cases AECOPD patients were divided into observation group and control group according to the present order and odd number by half. They were all given AECOPD conventional symptomatic treatment, on this basis, patients in the observation group were treated with low molecular heparin, 10 d after treatment, arterial blood gas index such as oxygen partial pressure (PaO2), oxygen saturation (SaO2), carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2), pulmonary function index such as forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, blood coagulation function index such as fibrinogen (Fib), D-dimer (D-D), activated partial blood coagulation time (APTT) live enzymes, plasma prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT) between two groups before and after treatment were compared.Results:Compared with before treatment, the levels of PaO2, SaO2, FEV1 and FVC, FEV1/FVC in control group after treatment were significantly elevated, PaCO2, D-D were significantly reduced, the difference were statistically significant (P<0.05); The levels of PaO2, SaO2, FEV1 and FVC, FEV1/FVC, PT, TT and APTT in observation group after treatment were significantly increased, and were significantly higher than the control group after treatment, PaCO2, D-D, Fib were significantly lower, and were lower than the control group after treatment, the differences were statistically significant (allP<0.05).Conclusions:AECOPD patients treated with low molecular heparin can help to improve the arterial blood gas, lung function and blood coagulation function.

  11. Changes and significance of coagulation function, hemodynamics and blood rheology in women with pregnancy induced hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bang-Zhi Zeng; Bo Zhang; Yu-Na Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the changes of coagulation function, hemodynamics and blood rheology in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension, and to explore its clinical significance. Methods: A total of 88 cases of women with pregnancy induced hypertension who were admitted in our hospital from July 2011 to February 2016 were selected as the research objects, at the same time, 90 normal pregnant women were selected as normal late pregnancy group. The coagulation parameters, hemodynamics, blood rheology indexes were detected in the two groups.Results:Before delivery, values of the PT and AT-Ⅲ in pregnancy induced hypertension group were significantly lower than those in the normal late pregnancy group, and the values of D-D and FIB were significantly higher than those in the normal late pregnancy group. After delivery, values of the PT and AT-Ⅲ in pregnancy induced hypertension group were significantly higher, and the FIB value was significantly lower, there were no significant differences between the two group. But the D-D value was still significantly higher than that in the normal late pregnancy group. The blood flow dynamics parameter in pregnancy induced hypertension group were significantly higher than that in the normal late pregnant group, the differences were statistically significant. The whole blood high and low shear viscosity, plasma viscosity, low shear reduction viscosity, hematocrit, erythrocyte deformation index, erythrocyte electrophoresis time and fibrinogen in pregnancy induced hypertension group were significantly higher than those in normal late pregnancy group.Conclusion:The blood indexes in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension showed a high coagulation state compared with the normal late pregnancy women. Timely detection of patients’ coagulation function, hemodynamics, and blood rheology indexes has important significance for the detection, auxiliary diagnosis and prevention of the disease.

  12. Flushable reagent stool blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stool occult blood test - flushable home test; Fecal occult blood test - flushable home test ... This test is performed at home with disposable pads. You can buy the pads at the drug store without ...

  13. Effects of plateletpheresis on blood coagulation parameters in healthy donors at National Blood Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti Nadiah, A K; Nor Asiah, M; Nur Syimah, A T; Normi, M; Anza, E; Aini, A Nor; Mohd Zahari, T H; Shahnaz, M; Faraizah, A K; Faisal, M A

    2013-12-01

    Plateletpheresis is a method used to remove platelet from the body either from random volunteer donors, patient's family members or HLA matched donors. A cross sectional study was carried out on 59 plateletpheresis donors aged between 18 and 55 years at National Blood Center (NBC), Kuala Lumpur. We compared the blood parameters before and after plateletpheresis and we found that the platelet count, FVIII, fibrinogen and thrombophilia markers anti-thrombin (AT), protein C and protein S were significantly reduced (p<0.05) with prolonged PT and APTT. There were significant changes in blood coagulation parameters but it is within acceptable range.

  14. Obstetric hemorrhage and coagulation: an update. Thromboelastography, thromboelastometry, and conventional coagulation tests in the diagnosis and prediction of postpartum hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Natascha M; Lancé, Marcus D; de Groot, Reneé; Beckers, Erik A M; Henskens, Yvonne M; Scheepers, Hubertina C J

    2012-07-01

    Globally, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. In the current treatment of severe PPH, first-line therapy includes transfusion of packed cells and fresh-frozen plasma in addition to uterotonic medical management and surgical interventions. In persistent PPH, tranexamic acid, fibrinogen, and coagulation factors are often administered. Secondary coagulopathy due to PPH or its treatment is often underestimated and therefore remains untreated, potentially causing progression to even more severe PPH. In most cases, medical and transfusion therapy is not based on the actual coagulation state because conventional laboratory test results are usually not available for 45 to 60 minutes. Thromboelastography and rotational thromboelastometry are point-of-care coagulation tests. A good correlation has been shown between thromboelastometric and conventional coagulation tests, and the use of these in massive bleeding in nonobstetric patients is widely practiced and it has been proven to be cost-effective. As with conventional laboratory tests, there is an influence of fluid dilution on coagulation test results, which is more pronounced with colloid fluids. Fibrinogen seems to play a major role in the course of PPH and can be an early predictor of the severity of PPH. The FIBTEM values (in thromboelastometry, reagent specific for the fibrin polymerization process) decline even more rapidly than fibrinogen levels and can be useful for early guidance of interventions. Data on thromboelastography and thromboelastometry in pregnant women are limited, particularly during the peripartum period and in women with PPH, so more research in this field is needed. PMID:22926249

  15. TO INVESTIGATE THE ACTION OF GINGER-JUICE ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSCOE (ZINGIBERACEAE ON BLOOD COAGULATION PROCESS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S.Prasad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of ginger-juice (zingiber officinale roscoe action on blood coagulation process in rat. Methods: (A Albino Wister rats (n=6-12 were administered G.J at two doses (2ml & 4 ml/rat, p.o as single administration and chronic treatment over period of 30 days. Following this assessment was done for possible effects on the blood coagulation. Parameters used during assessment were on the bleeding time, clotting time. prothrombin time, thrombin time, partial thromboplastin with kaolin (PTTk and platelet count. Results: Chronicadministration of G.J (2ml & 4ml/rat, p.o caused an increase in the bleeding time. There is no effect of gingerjuice treatment (2ml & 4ml/rat, p.o for 30 days on the clotting time, prothrombin time, thrombin time, partial thromboplastin time with kaolin (PTTk, and Platelet counts. Conclusion: Ginger administration increasedbleeding time on chronic administration G.J in two different doses.

  16. [Evaluation of the severity course and prognosis of disseminated intravascular blood coagulation syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinakh, M V; Chaplyk, V V; Fedchyshyn, N R

    2009-01-01

    Activation of the peroxidal oxidation of lipids (POL) processes with its primary and secondary products levels raising constitutes a favourable sign, according to data of examination of 66 patients, suffering different phases of disseminated intravascular blood coagulation syndrome (DIBCS). The POL products contents reduction (areactive course) characterizes the process severity and constitutes an unfavourable prognostical sign. The areactive course rate is the highest in the patients, suffering DIBCS, phase III.

  17. Extensive small-angle X-ray scattering studies of blood coagulation factor VIIa reveal interdomain flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Charlotte Rode; Nolan, David; Persson, Egon;

    2010-01-01

    Blood coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) is used in the treatment of replacement therapy resistant hemophilia patients, and FVIIa is normally activated upon complex formation with tissue factor (TF), potentially in context with structural rearrangements. The solution behavior of uncomplexed FVIIa...

  18. Blood Coagulation Studies on modified Surfaces using Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    OpenAIRE

    Eurlings, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    Het onderscheid tussen geactiveerde en niet-geactiveerde bloedplaatjes is een uitdaging voor de huidige platelet function tests. Daarom wordt een nieuwe test ontwikkeld om het bloedstollingsproces op te volgen. Onze hypothese was dat bloedstolling en aggregatie van bloedplaatjes kan worden geïnduceerd op quartz crystal microbalances (QCM). QCM kristallen werden gefunctionalizeerd zodat thrombine covalent gebonden kon worden. Deze binding werd eerst onderzocht en vervolgens het effect van het ...

  19. Cord blood testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to evaluate the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH levels) Blood sugar level Blood type and Rh Complete blood count ( ... means you have a blood infection (septicemia). High levels of blood sugar (glucose) in the cord blood may be found ...

  20. Origin of serpin-mediated regulation of coagulation and blood pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjie Wang

    Full Text Available Vertebrates evolved an endothelium-lined hemostatic system and a pump-driven pressurized circulation with a finely-balanced coagulation cascade and elaborate blood pressure control over the past 500 million years. Genome analyses have identified principal components of the ancestral coagulation system, however, how this complex trait was originally regulated is largely unknown. Likewise, little is known about the roots of blood pressure control in vertebrates. Here we studied three members of the serpin superfamily that interfere with procoagulant activity and blood pressure of lampreys, a group of basal vertebrates. Angiotensinogen from these jawless fish was found to fulfill a dual role by operating as a highly selective thrombin inhibitor that is activated by heparin-related glycosaminoglycans, and concurrently by serving as source of effector peptides that activate type 1 angiotensin receptors. Lampreys, uniquely among vertebrates, thus use angiotensinogen for interference with both coagulation and osmo- and pressure regulation. Heparin cofactor II from lampreys, in contrast to its paralogue angiotensinogen, is preferentially activated by dermatan sulfate, suggesting that these two serpins affect different facets of thrombin's multiple roles. Lampreys also express a lineage-specific serpin with anti-factor Xa activity, which demonstrates that another important procoagulant enzyme is under inhibitory control. Comparative genomics suggests that orthologues of these three serpins were key components of the ancestral hemostatic system. It appears that, early in vertebrate evolution, coagulation and osmo- and pressure regulation crosstalked through antiproteolytically active angiotensinogen, a feature that was lost during vertebrate radiation, though in gnathostomes interplay between these traits is effective.

  1. Effects of long and short carboxylated or aminated multiwalled carbon nanotubes on blood coagulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Meng

    Full Text Available In this work the effects of four different multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, including long carboxylated (L-COOH, short carboxylated (S-COOH, long aminated (L-NH(2 and short aminated (S-NH(2 ones, on the integrity of red blood cells, coagulation kinetics and activation of platelets were investigated with human whole blood. We found that the four MWCNTs induced different degrees of red blood cell damage as well as a mild level of platelet activation (10-25%. L-COOH and L-NH(2 induced a higher level of platelet activation than S-COOH and S-NH(2 respectively; meanwhile L-NH(2 caused marked reductions in platelet viability. The presence of the four MWCNTs led to earlier fibrin formation, L-NH(2 increased the clots hardness significantly, while L-COOH and S-NH(2 made the clots become softer. It was concluded that the four MWCNTs affected blood coagulation process and the clots mechanical properties; they also altered the integrity of the red blood cells and the viability of the platelets, as well as induced platelets activation. The effects of MWCNTs depended on the size and chemistry of the nanotubes and the type of cells they contacted.

  2. Development of a method for measuring blood coagulation using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and an alternating magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Murase, Kenya

    2016-01-01

    We developed a method for measuring blood coagulation using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The 3rd and 5th harmonic signals from SPIONs mixed with blood induced by AMF were detected using a gradiometer coil. Blood coagulation was induced artificially by adding CaCl2 solution to whole blood of sheep at various temperatures and hematocrits. We calculated the coagulation rate (k) and normalized signal intensity at infinite time (Sinf) by fitting the time course of the normalized 3rd harmonic signal to S(t)=(1-Sinf)exp(-kt)+Sinf. The k values increased significantly with increasing temperature and decreased significantly with increasing hematocrit. The Sinf values decreased significantly with increasing temperature and tended to increase with increasing hematocrit. Blood anticoagulation was induced by adding heparin to the whole blood sampled from mice. There were significant differences in both the 3rd and 5th harmonic signals between groups with and ...

  3. Magnesium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight pain. Others feel a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  4. Blood coagulation parameters and activity indices in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Arshinov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess coagulation parameters and activity indices in pts with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Material and methods . 86 pts with SLE (83 female and 3 male were examined. 12 of them had antiphospholipid syndrome. Mean age was 35,9±1,5 years (from 18 to 58 years, mean disease duration was 9,8+1,4 years. Control group consisted of 60 healthy volunteers with mean age 37,1+4,1 years. SLE activity assessment was performed with SLAM, SLEDAI and ECLAM indices. Results. SLE pts showed 5-fold (p<0,01 increase of spontaneous platelets aggregation and more than 3-fold increase of factor von Willebrand antigen (FWA concentration. Platelet activation in pts was accompanied by decrease of platelet aggregation with collagen (on 27%, p<0,01. Characteristic sign of coagulation hemostasis activation was significant increase of soluble fibrin-monomer complexes (SFMC concentration on 81 % (p<0,01 so as increase D-dimers level in 53,3% of pts. Fibrinogen concentration was increased on 29%, spontaneous fibrinolysis parameters were decreased on 20%, antithrombin (AT 111 - on 21% in comparison with control. Direct correlation between activity indiccs and SFMC(ECLAM, r=0,5, fibrinogen concentration (SLAM, r=0,34, D- dimers level (ECLAM, r=0,5, spontaneous platelet aggregation (ECLAM, r=0,5 so as inverse correlation with AT III activity (SLEDAI, r-0,73 was revealed. Conclusion. Changes of hemostasis parameters in SLE may serve as predictors of thrombotic disorders development and indication to drug correction of blood coagulation disorders. Direct correlation between blood coagulation system activity and indices of SLE activity.

  5. Clot Retraction: A Miniaturized Hemoretractometer for Blood Clot Retraction Testing (Small 29/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zida; Li, Xiang; McCracken, Brendan; Shao, Yue; Ward, Kevin; Fu, Jianping

    2016-08-01

    Whole blood coagulation testing provides valuable diagnostic information on diseases such as bleeding disorders, heart attack, deep venous thrombosis, etc. On page 3926, J. Fu and co-workers develop a miniaturized hemoretractometer to measure clot contraction upon blood coagulation with good reproducibility and robustness. This device design shows great application potential in point-of-care testing. Photo credit: David Peyer from University of Michigan. PMID:27477258

  6. PLATELET-LEUKOCYTE INTERACTIONS : MULTIPLE LINKS BETWEEN INFLAMMATION , BLOOD COAGULATION AND VASCULAR RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Cerletti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to summarize the contribution of platelets and leukocytes and their interactions in inflammation and blood coagulation and its possible relevance in the pathogenesis of  thrombosis. There is some evidence of an association between infection/inflammation and thrombosis. This is likely a bidirectional relationship. The presence of a thrombus may serve as a nidus of infection. Vascular injury indeed promotes platelet and leukocyte activation and thrombus formation and the thrombus and its components facilitate adherence of bacteria to the vessel wall. Alternatively, an infection and the associated inflammation can trigger platelet and leukocyte activation and thrombus formation. In either case platelets and leukocytes co-localize and interact in the area of vascular injury, at sites of inflammation and/or at sites of thrombosis. Following vascular injury, the subendothelial tissue, a thrombogenic surface, becomes available for interaction with these blood cells. Tissue factor, found not only in media and adventitia of the vascular wall, but also on activated platelets and leukocytes, triggers blood coagulation. Vascular-blood cell interactions, mediated by the release of preformed components of the endothelium, is modulated by both cell adhesion and production of soluble stimulatory or inhibitory molecules that alter cell function: adhesion molecules regulate cell-cell contact and facilitate the modulation of biochemical pathways relevant to inflammatory and/or thrombotic processes.

  7. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Saunders; 2016:chap 73. Read More Acute kidney failure Acute pancreatitis Alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test ALP - blood test Burns Cardiac catheterization Enzyme Heart attack Hemolytic anemia Hepatic Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma Liver disease Mononucleosis Muscular ...

  8. Effects on fibrinogen, fibrin, and blood coagulation of proteolytic extracts from fruits of Pseudananas macrodontes, Bromelia balansae, and B. hieronymi (Bromeliaceae) in comparison with bromelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errasti, María E; Prospitti, Anabela; Viana, Carolina A; Gonzalez, Mariana M; Ramos, Márcio V; Rotelli, Alejandra E; Caffini, Néstor O

    2016-06-01

    Extracts rich in cysteine proteases obtained from fruits of Pseudananas macrodontes (Pm), Bromelia balansae (Bb), and B. hieronymi (Bh) have previously shown an anti-inflammatory effect on animal models. Given the close relationship between hemostasis and inflammation, it is attractive to investigate therapeutic agents capable of modulating both systems. The aim of this work was to study the effect of Pm, Bb, and Bh on fibrin(ogen) and blood coagulation compared with stem bromelain (Bro). Action on fibrinogen was electrophoretically and spectrophotometrically evaluated, fibrinolytic activity was measured both electrophoretically and by the fibrin plate assay, and the effect on blood coagulation was studied by conventional coagulation tests (PT and APPT). All extracts showed the same proteolytic preference for fibrinogen subunits, that is Aα > Bβ, whereas γ was partially hydrolyzed by 100-fold concentration increase. Unlike Bro, cysteine proteases of Pm, Bb, and Bh increased absorbance at 540 nm of fibrinogen solution, suggesting thrombin-like activity, which was time-dependent and reached maximum values at lower concentration. All extracts showed the same proteolytic preference for fibrin subunits; however Pm, Bb, and Bh showed lower fibrinolytic activity than Bro at the assayed concentrations. Although Bb acted only as anticoagulant, Pm, Bh, and unexpectedly Bro showed dual action on blood coagulation: at low concentration showed procoagulant effect and at high concentration anticoagulant effect. Results reveal new plant species as potential sources of pharmacological agents for the treatment of a wide range of hemostatic disorders as well as to wound healing.

  9. Effects of Replenishing Qi, Promoting Blood Circulation and Resolving Phlegm on Vascular Endothelial Function and Blood Coagulation System in Senile Patients with Hyperlipemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Huimin; Han Libei; Sheng Tong; He Qiong; Liang Jinpu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the curative effect of the method of replenishing qi, promoting blood circulation and resolving phlegm on senile hyperlipemia and its effects on vascular endothelial function and blood coagulation system. Method: 96 patients with senile hyperlipemia were randomly divided into a treatment group and a of blood lipid, vascular endothelial function, blood coagulation system and safety. Results: After treatment,the treatment group was obviously superior to the control group (P<0.05) in reducing plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as well as in the ratio of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) to 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α), D-dimer (D-D) and fibrinogen (FIB). Conclusion: Danshen Jueming Granules have the effect of regulating metabolism of blood lipid, and improving vascular endothelial function and blood coagulation system in senile patients with hyperlipemia.

  10. A Comparison Study of the Effects Injectable Contraceptive Cyclofem on Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丹利; 卢凤英; 陈爱军; 沈康元; 蒋海瑛; 童琮

    1995-01-01

    Forty-six healthy women received Cyclofem (25mg medroxyprogesterone acetate with 5mg estradiol cypionate) and other forty-five women, as control, received oral contraceptive pill (Orttm-Novum 1/35, containing norethisterone enantate 1mg and estradiol valerate 35μg) for nine months. Blood samples were taken during the follicular and luteal phases of pre- treatment, and for Cyclofem group, immediately prior to the 3rd and 9th injections and 1 and 3 weeks after the 3rd and 9th injections; for Ortho-Novum group, blood samples were taken on the irst day of the 3rd and 9th pill cycles and 1 and 3 weeks later in both cycles. For both groups after at least 3 months nonhormonal method of contraception, blood sampling was repeated at follicular and luteal phases of a normal mentrual cycle. Coagulation and fibrinolysis parameter were detected including hemoglobin, platelet count, prothrombin time, APTT, fibrinogen, factor Ⅶ, factor Ⅹ, plasminogen, t-PAL AT Ⅲ(functional and immunological assays) and protein C. In the Cyclofem group, hemoglobin, platelet count, fibrinogen and factor Ⅹ were not changed. Factor Ⅶ significantly reduced. Prothrombin time and APTT showed minor changes. Plasminogen and protein C decreased while t-PAI aad AT Ⅲ increased. These changes showed a dynamic balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis. In Ortho-Novum 1/35 group, platelet count, factor Ⅹ and fibrinogen increased and prothrombin time and APTT accelerated. In fibrinolysis and anticoagutation system, plasminogen increased as well as protein C, but AT Ⅲ declined. Those changes showed a tendency of hyper-eoagutability state, fibrinolysis and anticoagulation were enhanced to a certain extent.The result of our study is that there are slight changes on coagulation and fibrinolysis in Cyclofem injectable contraceptive users.

  11. Expression patterns and action analysis of genes associated with blood coagulation responses during rat liver regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Feng Zhao; Wei-Min Zhang; Cun-Shuan Xu

    2006-01-01

    AIM:To study the blood coagulation response after partial hepatectomy (PH) at transcriptional level.METHODS:After PH of rats, the associated genes with blood coagulation were obtained through reference to the databases, and the gene expression changes in rat regenerating liver were analyzed by the Rat Genome 230 2.0 array.RESULTS: It was found that 107 genes were associated with liver regeneration. The initially and totally expressing gene numbers occurring in initiation phase of liver regeneration (0.5-4 h after PH), G0/G1 transition (4-6 h after PH), cell proliferation (6-66 h after PH), cell differentiation and structure-function reconstruction (66-168 h after PH) were 44, 11, 58, 7 and 44, 33,100, 71 respectively, showing that the associated genes were mainly triggered in the forepart and prophase, and worked at different phases. According to their expression similarity, these genes were classified into 5 groups:only up-, predominantly up-, only down-, predominantly down-, up- and down-regulation, involving 44, 8, 36,13 and 6 genes, respectively, and the total times of their up- and down-regulation expression were 342 and 253, respectively, demonstrating that the number of the up-regulated genes was more than that of the downregulated genes. Their time relevance was classified into 15 groups, showing that the cellular physiological and biochemical activities were staggered during liver regeneration. According to gene expression patterns,they were classified into 29 types, suggesting that their protein activities were diverse and complex during liver regeneration.CONCLUSION: The blood coagulation response is enhanced mainly in the forepart, prophase and anaphase of liver regeneration, in which the response in the forepart, prophase of liver regeneration can prevent the bleeding caused by partial hepatectomy, whereas that in the anaphase contributes to the structure-function reorganization of regenerating liver. In the process,107 genes associated with liver

  12. Blood hibernation: a novel strategy to inhibit systemic inflammation and coagulation induced by cardiopulmonary bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jing; WU Xiao-dong; LIN Ke; Raphael C. Lui; AN Qi; TAO Kai-yu; DU Lei; LIU Jin

    2010-01-01

    Background Inflammation and coagulation are two intimately cross-linked defense mechanisms of most, if not all organisms to injuries. During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), these two process-is are activated and interact with each other through several common pathways, which may result in subsequent organ dysfunction. In the present study, we hypothesized that the addition of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), and aprotinin to the systemic circulation, hereby referred to as blood hibernation, would attenuate the inflammation and coagulation induced by CPB. Methods Thirty adult mongrel dogs were equally divided into five groups, anesthetized and placed on hypothermic CPB (32 C). Each group received respectively the following treatments: (1) inhalation of 40 ppm nitric oxide; (2) intravenous infusion of 20 ng·kg-1·min-1 of PGE1; (3) 80 000 kallikrein inhibitor units (KIU)/kg of aprotinin; (4) the combination of all three agents (blood hibernation group); and (5) no treatment (control group) during CPB. Activation of leukocyte, platelet, endothelial cell, and formation of thrombin were assessed after CPB.Results As compared with the other four groups, leukocyte counts were higher, while plasma elastase, interleukin-8, CD11b mRNA expression, myeloperoxidase activities and lung tissue leukocyte counts were lower in the blood hibernation group (P<0.05 versus other four groups after CPB). Plasma prothrombin fragment (PTF)1+2, and platelet activation factors were lower, while platelet counts were higher in the blood hibernation group (P<0.05 versus other four groups at 6 and 12 hours after CPB). Electron microscopy showed endothelial pseudopods protrusion, with cell adherence in all four groups except the blood hibernation group where endothelial cells remained intact.Conclusion Blood hibernation, effected by the addition of nitric oxide, PGE1 and aprotinin to the circulating blood during extra-corporeal circulation, was observed to attenuate the inflammation and

  13. Ferritin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum ferritin level ... The amount of ferritin in the blood (serum ferritin level) is directly related to the amount of iron stored in your body. Iron is important for red blood cell production. Your doctor ...

  14. Blood Culture Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difficult to grow in culture, and additional blood cultures using special nutrient media may be done to try to grow and identify the pathogen . Viruses cannot be detected using blood culture bottles designed to grow bacteria. If the health ...

  15. Whole blood coagulation and platelet activation in the athlete: A comparison of marathon, triathlon and long distance cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanke AA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Serious thrombembolic events occur in otherwise healthy marathon athletes during competition. We tested the hypothesis that during heavy endurance sports coagulation and platelets are activated depending on the type of endurance sport with respect to its running fraction. Materials and Methods 68 healthy athletes participating in marathon (MAR, running 42 km, n = 24, triathlon (TRI, swimming 2.5 km + cycling 90 km + running 21 km, n = 22, and long distance cycling (CYC, 151 km, n = 22 were included in the study. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after completion of competition to perform rotational thrombelastometry. We assessed coagulation time (CT, maximum clot firmness (MCF after intrinsically activation and fibrin polymerization (FIBTEM. Furthermore, platelet aggregation was tested after activation with ADP and thrombin activating peptide 6 (TRAP by using multiple platelet function analyzer. Results Complete data sets were obtained in 58 athletes (MAR: n = 20, TRI: n = 19, CYC: n = 19. CT significantly decreased in all groups (MAR -9.9%, TRI -8.3%, CYC -7.4% without differences between groups. In parallel, MCF (MAR +7.4%, TRI +6.1%, CYC +8.3% and fibrin polymerization (MAR +14.7%, TRI +6.1%, CYC +8.3% were significantly increased in all groups. However, platelets were only activated during MAR and TRI as indicated by increased AUC during TRAP-activation (MAR +15.8% and increased AUC during ADP-activation in MAR (+50.3% and TRI (+57.5%. Discussion While coagulation is activated during physical activity irrespective of type we observed significant platelet activation only during marathon and to a lesser extent during triathlon. We speculate that prolonged running may increase platelet activity, possibly, due to mechanical alteration. Thus, particularly prolonged running may increase the risk of thrombembolic incidents in running athletes.

  16. Analysis of blood coagulation in mice: pre-analytical conditions and evaluation of a home-made assay for thrombin-antithrombin complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijers Joost CM

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of mouse models for the study of thrombotic disorders has gained increasing importance. Methods for measurement of coagulation activation in mice are, however, scarce. The primary aim of this study was to develop a specific mouse thrombin-antithrombin (TAT ELISA for measurement of coagulation activation and to compare it with two commercially available assays for human TAT complexes. In addition, we aimed to improve methods for mouse plasma anticoagulation and preparation. Methods and results First, for the measurement of TAT-complexes in plasma a mouse specific TAT-ELISA was developed using rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against mouse thrombin and rat antithrombin, respectively. This ELISA detected an increase in TAT levels in a mouse model of endotoxemia. Two commercial human TAT ELISAs appeared to be less specific for mouse thrombin-rat antithrombin complexes. Second, to prevent clotting of mouse blood sodium citrate was either mixed with blood during collection in a syringe or was injected intravenously immediately prior to blood collection. Intravenous sodium citrate completely inhibited blood coagulation resulting in plasma with consistently low TAT levels. Sodium citrate mixed with blood during collection resulted in increased TAT levels in 4 out of 16 plasma samples. Third, heparinase was added to plasma samples after in vivo injection of different heparin doses to test its neutralizing effect. Heparinase neutralized up to a 20 U of heparin/mouse and resulted in accurate APTT and factor VIII determinations. Conclusion These procedures and reagents for plasma preparation and coagulation testing will improve studies on thrombotic disorders in mice.

  17. A comparative study of tissue factor and kaolin on blood coagulation assays using rotational thromboelastometry and thromboelastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Henry T; Grodecki, Richard; Rizoli, Sandro; Shek, Pang N

    2016-01-01

    Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and thromboelastography (TEG) have been increasingly used to diagnose acute coagulopathy and guide blood transfusion. The tests are routinely performed using different triggering activators such as tissue factor and kaolin, which activate different pathways yielding different results. To optimize the global blood coagulation assays using ROTEM and TEG, we conducted a comparative study on the activation methods employing tissue factor and kaolin at different concentrations as well as standard reagents as recommended by the manufacturer of each device. Key parameter values were obtained at various assay conditions to evaluate and compare coagulation and fibrinolysis profiles of citrated whole blood collected from healthy volunteers. It was found that tissue factor reduced ROTEM clotting time and TEG R, and increased ROTEM clot formation time and TEG K in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, tissue factor affected ROTEM alpha angle, and maximum clot firmness, especially in the absence of kaolin activation, whereas both ROTEM and TEG clot lysis (LI30, CL30, and LY30) remained unaffected. Moreover, kaolin reduced ROTEM clotting time and TEG R and K, but to a lesser extent than tissue factor, in-tem and ex-tem. Correlations in all corresponding parameters between ROTEM and TEG were observed, when the same activators were used in the assays compared with lesser correlations between standard kaolin TEG and ROTEM (INTEM/EXTEM). The two types of viscoelastic point-of-care devices provide different results, depending on the triggering reagent used to perform the assay. Optimal assay condition was obtained to reduce assay time and improve assay accuracy. PMID:26340454

  18. Overview of the coagulation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Palta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation is a dynamic process and the understanding of the blood coagulation system has evolved over the recent years in anaesthetic practice. Although the traditional classification of the coagulation system into extrinsic and intrinsic pathway is still valid, the newer insights into coagulation provide more authentic description of the same. Normal coagulation pathway represents a balance between the pro coagulant pathway that is responsible for clot formation and the mechanisms that inhibit the same beyond the injury site. Imbalance of the coagulation system may occur in the perioperative period or during critical illness, which may be secondary to numerous factors leading to a tendency of either thrombosis or bleeding. A systematic search of literature on PubMed with MeSH terms ′coagulation system, haemostasis and anaesthesia revealed twenty eight related clinical trials and review articles in last 10 years. Since the balance of the coagulation system may tilt towards bleeding and thrombosis in many situations, it is mandatory for the clinicians to understand physiologic basis of haemostasis in order to diagnose and manage the abnormalities of the coagulation process and to interpret the diagnostic tests done for the same.

  19. Activation of Blood Coagulation in Two Prototypic Autoimmune Skin Diseases: A Possible Link with Thrombotic Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Cugno

    Full Text Available Coagulation activation has been demonstrated in two prototypic autoimmune skin diseases, chronic autoimmune urticaria and bullous pemphigoid, but only the latter is associated with increased thrombotic risk. Two markers of coagulation activation (prothrombin fragment F1+2 and fibrin fragment D-dimer were measured by immunoenzymatic methods in plasma samples from 30 patients with active chronic autoimmune urticaria, positive for autologous serum skin test, 30 patients with active bullous pemphigoid and 30 healthy subjects. In skin biopsies, tissue factor expression was evaluated by both immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. F1+2 and D-dimer levels were higher in active chronic autoimmune urticaria (276.5±89.8 pmol/L and 5.56±4.40 nmol/L, respectively than in controls (145.2±38.0 pmol/L and 1.06±0.25 nmol/L; P=0.029 and P=0.011 and were much higher in active bullous pemphigoid (691.7±318.7 pmol/L and 15.24±9.09 nmol/L, respectively (P<0.0001. Tissue factor positivity was evident in skin biopsies of both disorders with higher intensity in bullous pemphigoid. F1+2 and D-dimer, during remission, were markedly reduced in both disorders. These findings support the involvement of coagulation activation in the pathophysiology of both diseases. The strong systemic activation of coagulation in bullous pemphigoid may contribute to increase the thrombotic risk and provides the rationale for clinical trials on anticoagulant treatments in this disease.

  20. Blood Test: Lead (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood Test: Lead KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Lead Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Análisis de sangre: plomo What It Is A lead test is used to determine the amount of ...

  1. Duvernoy's gland secretion of Philodryas patagoniensis from the northeast of Argentina: its effects on blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peichoto, M E; Leiva, L C; Guaimás Moya, L E; Rey, L; Acosta, O

    2005-03-15

    Duvernoy's gland secretion of Philodryas patagoniensis exhibits high hemorrhagic activity, containing enzymes that are able to degrade the vascular wall. In this work we aim to determine if the secretion can also affect the hemostatic system by causing changes in blood coagulation. Procoagulant and coagulant activities were evaluated on plasma and fibrinogen, respectively. The delay in the thrombin clotting time of fibrinogen previously incubated with the secretion was also determined. Specific hydrolysis of fibrinogen and fibrin incubated with the secretion at different time intervals was shown by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel. To determine the structural characteristics of the enzymes degrading fibrinogen and fibrin, secretion were incubated in the presence of 45 mM Na(2)EDTA, 40 mM Benzamidine, and/or 2 mM PMSF before the incubation with fibrinogen or fibrin, respectively. The effect in vivo was investigated in adult male rats injected with different dose of secretion, aliquots of blood were withdrawn at different time intervals, and the fibrinogen concentration was determined. Duvernoy's gland secretion of P. patagoniensis did not clot plasma or fibrinogen. It exhibited a potent fibrinogenolytic activity degrading the Aalpha-chain faster than the Bbeta-chain, whereas gamma-chain was resistant. This latter corresponded with a strong delay in the thrombin clotting time of fibrinogen (4 mg/ml) pre-incubated with the secretion, being 9.53 microg the amount of protein from Duvernoy's gland secretion that increased the thrombin clotting time from 20 to 60 s. In vivo, the loss of rat plasma fibrinogen was proportional to the amount of secretion injected. The secretion also hydrolyzed fibrin degrading the alpha-monomer. Inhibition studies with Na(2)EDTA, Benzamidine, and/or PMSF showed that metalloproteinases and serinoproteinases are the main enzymes responsible for the hydrolyzing activity on fibrinogen and fibrin. All these results demonstrate that Duvernoy

  2. Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses induced by laser coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogami, M; Kulkarni, R; Wang, H; Reif, R; Wang, R K [University of Washington, Department of Bioengineering, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-08-31

    We report application of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), i.e., a fast imaging technique utilising backscattered light to distinguish such moving objects as red blood cells from such stationary objects as surrounding tissue, to localise skin injury. This imaging technique provides detailed information about the acute perfusion response after a blood vessel is occluded. In this study, a mouse ear model is used and pulsed laser coagulation serves as the method of occlusion. We have found that the downstream blood vessels lacked blood flow due to occlusion at the target site immediately after injury. Relative flow changes in nearby collaterals and anastomotic vessels have been approximated based on differences in intensity in the nearby collaterals and anastomoses. We have also estimated the density of the affected downstream vessels. Laser speckle contrast imaging is shown to be used for highresolution and fast-speed imaging for the skin microvasculature. It also allows direct visualisation of the blood perfusion response to injury, which may provide novel insights to the field of cutaneous wound healing. (laser biophotonics)

  3. Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses induced by laser coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogami, M.; Kulkarni, R.; Wang, H.; Reif, R.; Wang, R. K.

    2014-08-01

    We report application of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), i.e., a fast imaging technique utilising backscattered light to distinguish such moving objects as red blood cells from such stationary objects as surrounding tissue, to localise skin injury. This imaging technique provides detailed information about the acute perfusion response after a blood vessel is occluded. In this study, a mouse ear model is used and pulsed laser coagulation serves as the method of occlusion. We have found that the downstream blood vessels lacked blood flow due to occlusion at the target site immediately after injury. Relative flow changes in nearby collaterals and anastomotic vessels have been approximated based on differences in intensity in the nearby collaterals and anastomoses. We have also estimated the density of the affected downstream vessels. Laser speckle contrast imaging is shown to be used for highresolution and fast-speed imaging for the skin microvasculature. It also allows direct visualisation of the blood perfusion response to injury, which may provide novel insights to the field of cutaneous wound healing.

  4. Thrombin generation by exposure of blood to endotoxin: a simple model to study disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stief, T W

    2006-04-01

    Pathologic disseminated intravascular coagulation (PDIC) is a serious complication in sepsis. In an in-vitro system consisting of incubation of fresh citrated blood with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or glucans and subsequent plasma recalcification plasmatic thrombin was quantified. Five hundred microliters of freshly drawn citrated blood of healthy donors were incubated with up to 800 ng/mL LPS (Escherichia coli) or up to 80 microg/mL Zymosan A (ZyA; Candida albicans) for 30 minutes at room temperature (RT). The samples were centrifuged, and 30 microL plasma were recalcified with 1 volume or less of CaCl(2) (25 micromoles Ca(2+)/mL plasma). After 0 to 12 minutes (37 degrees C), 20 microL 2.5 M arginine, pH 8.6, were added. Thirty microliters 0.9 mM HD-CHG-Ala-Arg-pNA in 2.3 M arginine were added, and the absorbance increase at 405 nm was determined. Fifty microliters plasma were also incubated with 5 microL 250 mM CaCl2 for 5, 10, or 15 minutes (37 degrees C). Fifty microliters 2.5 M arginine stops coagulation, and 50 microL 0.77 mM HD-CHG-Ala-Arg-pNA in 2.3 M arginine starts the thrombin detection. The standard was 1 IU/mL thrombin in 7% human albumin instead of plasma. Arginine was also added in the endotoxin exposure time (EET) or in the plasma coagulation reaction time (CRT). Tissue factor (TF)-antigen and soluble CD14 were determined. LPS at blood concentrations greater than 10 ng/mL or ZyA at greater than 1 microg/mL severalfold enhance thrombin generation, when the respective plasmas are recalcified. After 30 minutes EET at RT, the thrombin activity at 12 minutes CRT generated by the addition of 200 ng/mL LPS or 20 microg/mL ZyA is approximately 200 mIU/mL compared to approximately 20 mIU/mL without addition of endotoxin, or compared to about 7 mIU/mL thrombin at 0 minutes CRT. Arginine added to blood or to plasma inhibits thrombin generation; the inhibitory concentration 50% (IC 50) is approximately 15 mM plasma concentration. Endotoxin incubation of blood

  5. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate and Its Receptors: A Mutual Link between Blood Coagulation and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailaja Mahajan-Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P is a versatile lipid signaling molecule and key regulator in vascular inflammation. S1P is secreted by platelets, monocytes, and vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. It binds specifically to a family of G-protein-coupled receptors, S1P receptors 1 to 5, resulting in downstream signaling and numerous cellular effects. S1P modulates cell proliferation and migration, and mediates proinflammatory responses and apoptosis. In the vascular barrier, S1P regulates permeability and endothelial reactions and recruitment of monocytes and may modulate atherosclerosis. Only recently has S1P emerged as a critical mediator which directly links the coagulation factor system to vascular inflammation. The multifunctional proteases thrombin and FXa regulate local S1P availability and interact with S1P signaling at multiple levels in various vascular cell types. Differential expression patterns and intracellular signaling pathways of each receptor enable S1P to exert its widespread functions. Although a vast amount of information is available about the functions of S1P and its receptors in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological conditions, S1P-mediated mechanisms in the vasculature remain to be elucidated. This review summarizes recent findings regarding the role of S1P and its receptors in vascular wall and blood cells, which link the coagulation system to inflammatory responses in the vasculature.

  6. Estradiol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    E2 test ... temporarily stop taking certain medicines that may affect test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ... helps prevent sperm from dying too early. This test may be ordered to check: How well your ...

  7. Blood Coagulation Induced by Iranian Saw-Scaled Viper (Echis Carinatus Venom: Identification, Purification and Characterization of a Prothrombin Activator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Babaie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Echis carinatus is one of the venomous snakes in Iran. The venom of Iranian Echis carinatus is a rich source of protein with various factors affecting the plasma protein and blood coagulation factor. Some of these proteins exhibit types of enzymatic activities. However, other items are proteins with no enzymatic activity.   Materials and Methods: In order to study the mechanism and effect of the venom on human plasma proteins, the present study has evaluated the effect of crude venom and all fractions. A procoagulant factor (prothrombin activator was isolated from the venom of the Iranian snake Echis carinatus with a combination of gel filtration (Sephadex G-75, ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE- Sepharose and reverse phase HPLC. Furthermore, proteolytic activity of the crude venom and all fractions on blood coagulation factors such as prothrombin time (PT was studied. Results: In the present study, the PT test was reduced from 13.4 s to 8.6 s when human plasma was treated with crude venom (concentraion of venom was 1 mg/ml. The purified procoagulant factor revealed a single protein band in SDS polyacrylamide electrophoresis under reducing conditions and its molecular weight was estimated at about 65 kDa. A single-band protein showed fragment patterns similar to those generated by the group A prothrombin activators, which convert prothrombin into meizothrombin independent of the prothrombinase complex. Conclusion: This study showed that the fraction which separated from Iranian snake Echis carinatus venom can be a prothrombin activators. It can be concluded that this fraction is a procoagulant factor.

  8. [Basic values of blood coagulation parameters in pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, N; Popov-Cenic, S; Dorer, A

    1996-01-01

    On 23 clinical healthy pigs (2-4 months of age, body weight 13-42 kg) under ketamin-pentobarbital anaesthesia blood plasma coagulation parameters have been investigated. To obtain basic values 26 parameters were measured: number of thrombocytes, parameters of thrombelastogram and resonance-thrombogram, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, reptilase time, factors I, II, V, VII, VIII, X, antithrombin III, plasminogen, alpha 1-antitrypsin, alpha 2-antiplasmin, alpha 2-macroglobulin, fibrin degradation products D and E and euglobulin lysis-time. Parameters calculated in percent should be measured against a pig plasma pool. Measurement against a human plasma pool are hardly valid in values higher than 100%. In comparison to man the results indicate modifications of fibrinogenesis and fibrinolysis in pigs.

  9. Comparison of coagulation factors and blood loss between O and non-O blood types following hydroxyethyl starch infusion

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Soo Joo; Ahn, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jae Ik

    2010-01-01

    Background Individuals with type O blood are more likely to have reduced factor VIII and von Willebrand factor levels compared to their non-O counterparts. Hydroxyethyl starch (HES), which is widely used for blood volume replacement, can induce coagulopathy. Therefore, we tested whether blood type O patients show more coagulopathy and blood loss than non-O patients after infusion of 6% HES. Methods Thirty-four non-O and 20 type O patients scheduled for posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF)...

  10. Preparation, blood coagulation and cell compatibility evaluation of chitosan-graft-polylactide copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Liu, Pei; Liu, Peifeng; Gong, Tao; Li, Suming; Duan, Yourong; Zhang, Zhirong

    2014-02-01

    Biodegradable chitosan-graft-polylactide (PLA-CS) copolymers were prepared by the grafting of a poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) or poly(D-lactide) (PDLA) precursor to the backbone of chitosan using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC ⋅ HCl) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) as a coupling agent. The blood and cell compatibility of the graft copolymers were investigated in comparison to PLLA and PDLA homopolymers. The coagulation properties of PLA-CS were evaluated by hemolysis, plasma recalcification, dynamic blood clotting and protein absorption assays. PLA-CS copolymers present similar hemolysis ratio and plasma recalcification time as PLA, but slower dynamic blood clotting and lower protein absorption. The cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), agar diffusion and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) experiments. All the samples presented no effect on the viability to cells. Inflammatory cytokine analysis using sandwich ELISAs revealed that PLA-CS would not stimulate inflammatory activity. PMID:24448591

  11. Preparation, blood coagulation and cell compatibility evaluation of chitosan-graft-polylactide copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodegradable chitosan-graft-polylactide (PLA–CS) copolymers were prepared by the grafting of a poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) or poly(D-lactide) (PDLA) precursor to the backbone of chitosan using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC ⋅ HCl) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) as a coupling agent. The blood and cell compatibility of the graft copolymers were investigated in comparison to PLLA and PDLA homopolymers. The coagulation properties of PLA–CS were evaluated by hemolysis, plasma recalcification, dynamic blood clotting and protein absorption assays. PLA–CS copolymers present similar hemolysis ratio and plasma recalcification time as PLA, but slower dynamic blood clotting and lower protein absorption. The cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), agar diffusion and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) experiments. All the samples presented no effect on the viability to cells. Inflammatory cytokine analysis using sandwich ELISAs revealed that PLA–CS would not stimulate inflammatory activity. (paper)

  12. Extraction of mRNA from coagulated horse blood and analysis of inflammation-related cytokine responses to coagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovbjerg, Kirsten Katrine Lindegaard; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    available. Here, a protocol for RNA extraction from highly clotted blood was optimized and the regulation of a number of cytokine genes compared to stabilized blood was studied. Whole blood samples from 10 clinically healthy horses were incubated for 24 hours at 37°C and RNA was extracted from...

  13. The change and significance of platelet parameters and blood coagulation function index in patients with hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Xia Shi; Yi-Xin Yang; Qian Xu; Yanhua Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the change and significance of platelet parameters and blood coagulation function index in patients with hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy.Methods: Chose 89 patients with HDCP, they were set as HDCP group, chose another 60 cases health late pregnancy women and 42 cases non pregnant female, they were set as late pregnant group and non-pregnant control group, detected the platelet parameters: the average blood platelet count (PLT), platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW) and blood coagulation indexes, plasma prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), fibrinogen (FIB), D-dimer (D-D), activated partial blood coagulation time (APTT) live enzymes in three groups.Results: (1) Compared with the non-pregnant group and late pregnant group, PLT was significantly lower, while the MPV and PDW were significantly higher in HDCP group; PLT in late pregnant group was significantly lower than that in non-pregnant group, and there were no significantly difference of MPV and PDW in the two groups; (2) Compared with the non-pregnant group and late pregnant group, PT and APTT levels were significantly lower, while FIB and D-D were significantly higher in HDCP group; The level of PT and APTT in late pregnant group were significantly lower, and FIB and D-D levels were significantly higher than that in non-pregnant group, However, The level of TT were no statistical significance difference among the three groups.Conclusion: HDCP existence phenomenon of platelet activation and apparent high coagulation state, dynamic detection of HDCP patients platelet parameters and blood coagulation indexes to prevent related complications, improve obstetrics safety is of great significance.

  14. Coagulation Factor and Hemostatic Protein Content of Canine Plasma after Storage of Whole Blood at Ambient Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, J.E.; Hale, A. S.; Brooks, M. B.; Boag, A.K.; Barnett, W.; Dean, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Standard practice in canine blood banking is to produce fresh frozen plasma (FFP) by separating and freezing plasma produced from blood within 8 hours of collection. Within canine blood donation programs, this can limit the number of units collected. Hypothesis/Objectives The aim was to compare the coagulation factor and hemostatic protein content (CF&HPC) of plasma produced from blood stored at ambient temperature for 8, 12, and 24 hours. Another aim was to compare the CF&HPC betw...

  15. Aldosterone blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy High- or low-sodium diet Strenuous exercise Stress How the Test will Feel When the needle is inserted to ... pressure. Aldosterone increases the reabsorption of sodium and water and the release of potassium in the kidneys. ...

  16. Effects on fibrinogen, fibrin, and blood coagulation of proteolytic extracts from fruits of Pseudananas macrodontes, Bromelia balansae, and B. hieronymi (Bromeliaceae) in comparison with bromelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errasti, María E; Prospitti, Anabela; Viana, Carolina A; Gonzalez, Mariana M; Ramos, Márcio V; Rotelli, Alejandra E; Caffini, Néstor O

    2016-06-01

    Extracts rich in cysteine proteases obtained from fruits of Pseudananas macrodontes (Pm), Bromelia balansae (Bb), and B. hieronymi (Bh) have previously shown an anti-inflammatory effect on animal models. Given the close relationship between hemostasis and inflammation, it is attractive to investigate therapeutic agents capable of modulating both systems. The aim of this work was to study the effect of Pm, Bb, and Bh on fibrin(ogen) and blood coagulation compared with stem bromelain (Bro). Action on fibrinogen was electrophoretically and spectrophotometrically evaluated, fibrinolytic activity was measured both electrophoretically and by the fibrin plate assay, and the effect on blood coagulation was studied by conventional coagulation tests (PT and APPT). All extracts showed the same proteolytic preference for fibrinogen subunits, that is Aα > Bβ, whereas γ was partially hydrolyzed by 100-fold concentration increase. Unlike Bro, cysteine proteases of Pm, Bb, and Bh increased absorbance at 540 nm of fibrinogen solution, suggesting thrombin-like activity, which was time-dependent and reached maximum values at lower concentration. All extracts showed the same proteolytic preference for fibrin subunits; however Pm, Bb, and Bh showed lower fibrinolytic activity than Bro at the assayed concentrations. Although Bb acted only as anticoagulant, Pm, Bh, and unexpectedly Bro showed dual action on blood coagulation: at low concentration showed procoagulant effect and at high concentration anticoagulant effect. Results reveal new plant species as potential sources of pharmacological agents for the treatment of a wide range of hemostatic disorders as well as to wound healing. PMID:26886361

  17. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not produce enough PTH ( hypoparathyroidism ) Low levels of magnesium in the blood Radiation to the parathyroid glands Sarcoidosis Excess vitamin D intake Other conditions for which the test may be ...

  18. Metalloproteases Affecting Blood Coagulation, Fibrinolysis and Platelet Aggregation from Snake Venoms: Definition and Nomenclature of Interaction Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kini, R. Manjunatha; Koh, Cho Yeow

    2016-01-01

    Snake venom metalloproteases, in addition to their contribution to the digestion of the prey, affect various physiological functions by cleaving specific proteins. They exhibit their activities through activation of zymogens of coagulation factors, and precursors of integrins or receptors. Based on their structure–function relationships and mechanism of action, we have defined classification and nomenclature of functional sites of proteases. These metalloproteases are useful as research tools and in diagnosis and treatment of various thrombotic and hemostatic conditions. They also contribute to our understanding of molecular details in the activation of specific factors involved in coagulation, platelet aggregation and matrix biology. This review provides a ready reference for metalloproteases that interfere in blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation. PMID:27690102

  19. New lab-made coagulant based on Schinopsis balansae tannin extract: synthesis optimization and preliminary tests on refractory water pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, J.; Beltrán-Heredia, J.; Coco-Rivero, B.

    2014-09-01

    Quebracho colorado tannin extract was used as a coagulant raw material for water and wastewater treatment. The chemical synthesis follows a Mannich reaction mechanism and provides a fully working coagulant that can remove several pollutants from water. This paper addresses the optimization of such synthesis and confirms the feasibility of the coagulant by testing it in a preliminary screening for the elimination of dyes and detergents. The optimum combination of reagents was 6.81 g of diethanolamine (DEA) and 2.78 g of formaldehyde (F) per g of tannin extract. So obtained coagulant was succesfully tested on the removal of 9 dyes and 8 detergents.

  20. EPCR-dependent PAR2 activation by the blood coagulation initiation complex regulates LPS-triggered interferon responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hai Po H; Kerschen, Edward J; Hernandez, Irene; Basu, Sreemanti; Zogg, Mark; Botros, Fady; Jia, Shuang; Hessner, Martin J; Griffin, John H; Ruf, Wolfram; Weiler, Hartmut

    2015-04-30

    Infection and inflammation are invariably associated with activation of the blood coagulation mechanism, secondary to the inflammation-induced expression of the coagulation initiator tissue factor (TF) on innate immune cells. By investigating the role of cell-surface receptors for coagulation factors in mouse endotoxemia, we found that the protein C receptor (ProcR; EPCR) was required for the normal in vivo and in vitro induction of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-regulated gene expression. In cultured bone marrow-derived myeloid cells and in monocytic RAW264.7 cells, the LPS-induced expression of functionally active TF, assembly of the ternary TF-VIIa-Xa initiation complex of blood coagulation, and the EPCR-dependent activation of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) by the ternary TF-VIIa-Xa complex were required for the normal LPS induction of messenger RNAs encoding the TLR3/4 signaling adaptor protein Pellino-1 and the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 8. In response to in vivo challenge with LPS, mice lacking EPCR or PAR2 failed to fully initiate an interferon-regulated gene expression program that included the Irf8 target genes Lif, Iigp1, Gbp2, Gbp3, and Gbp6. The inflammation-induced expression of TF and crosstalk with EPCR, PAR2, and TLR4 therefore appear necessary for the normal evolution of interferon-regulated host responses.

  1. The link between inflammation and coagulation: influence on the interpretation of diagnostic laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Teresa; Mathews, Karol; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony; Wood, Darren

    2011-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the complex relationship between inflammation and coagulation and a review of routinely available laboratory and point-of-care tests for the detection of inflammation and coagulopathies. In the management of cases requiring ongoing laboratory and clinical evaluation, examination of these two major pathologic processes may assist with diagnosis and improve outcome. Early identification of a pathologic inflammatory process may allow prevention of its progression to syndromes carrying a poorer prognosis, such as disseminated intravascular coagulation and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

  2. Obstetrical disseminated intravascular coagulation score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takao

    2014-06-01

    Obstetrical disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is usually a very acute, serious complication of pregnancy. The obstetrical DIC score helps with making a prompt diagnosis and starting treatment early. This DIC score, in which higher scores are given for clinical parameters rather than for laboratory parameters, has three components: (i) the underlying diseases; (ii) the clinical symptoms; and (iii) the laboratory findings (coagulation tests). It is justifiably appropriate to initiate therapy for DIC when the obstetrical DIC score reaches 8 points or more before obtaining the results of coagulation tests. Improvement of blood coagulation tests and clinical symptoms are essential to the efficacy evaluation for treatment after a diagnosis of obstetrical DIC. Therefore, the efficacy evaluation criteria for obstetrical DIC are also defined to enable follow-up of the clinical efficacy of DIC therapy.

  3. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate as a Link between Blood Coagulation and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Hermann Rauch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P is a multifunctional signaling lipid generated from sphingosine by sphingosine kinases. S1P formation has been shown in numerous cells in the circulation, including platelets, vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells and monocytes. S1P also exerts multiple effects on these cells, i.e. cell proliferation and migration, activation of proinflammatory signaling pathways and release of additional inflammatory mediators. Similar activities and targets have also been identified for activated clotting factors such as thrombin or the activated factor-X (FXa, suggesting a possible involvement of S1P in thrombus-associated cellular signaling and thrombin-induced inflammatory reactions. Several levels of S1P-mediated, thrombin /FXa-induced signaling have already been identified: regulation of sphingosine kinase expression and activity, stimulation of S1P release from platelets and other cells and, possibly regulation of S1P-receptors on target cells. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about S1P as a clotting factor-regulated molecular link between blood coagulation and inflammation. It is concluded that S1P might represent an until now underestimated lipid mediator of inflammatory reactions following activation of the clotting system and, in this context, also involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis.

  4. Massive Exploration of Perturbed Conditions of the Blood Coagulation Cascade through GPU Parallelization

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    Paolo Cazzaniga

    2014-01-01

    high-performance computing solutions is motivated by the need of performing large numbers of in silico analysis to study the behavior of biological systems in different conditions, which necessitate a computing power that usually overtakes the capability of standard desktop computers. In this work we present coagSODA, a CUDA-powered computational tool that was purposely developed for the analysis of a large mechanistic model of the blood coagulation cascade (BCC, defined according to both mass-action kinetics and Hill functions. coagSODA allows the execution of parallel simulations of the dynamics of the BCC by automatically deriving the system of ordinary differential equations and then exploiting the numerical integration algorithm LSODA. We present the biological results achieved with a massive exploration of perturbed conditions of the BCC, carried out with one-dimensional and bi-dimensional parameter sweep analysis, and show that GPU-accelerated parallel simulations of this model can increase the computational performances up to a 181× speedup compared to the corresponding sequential simulations.

  5. Massive exploration of perturbed conditions of the blood coagulation cascade through GPU parallelization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzaniga, Paolo; Nobile, Marco S; Besozzi, Daniela; Bellini, Matteo; Mauri, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of general-purpose Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) is boosting scientific applications in Bioinformatics, Systems Biology, and Computational Biology. In these fields, the use of high-performance computing solutions is motivated by the need of performing large numbers of in silico analysis to study the behavior of biological systems in different conditions, which necessitate a computing power that usually overtakes the capability of standard desktop computers. In this work we present coagSODA, a CUDA-powered computational tool that was purposely developed for the analysis of a large mechanistic model of the blood coagulation cascade (BCC), defined according to both mass-action kinetics and Hill functions. coagSODA allows the execution of parallel simulations of the dynamics of the BCC by automatically deriving the system of ordinary differential equations and then exploiting the numerical integration algorithm LSODA. We present the biological results achieved with a massive exploration of perturbed conditions of the BCC, carried out with one-dimensional and bi-dimensional parameter sweep analysis, and show that GPU-accelerated parallel simulations of this model can increase the computational performances up to a 181× speedup compared to the corresponding sequential simulations.

  6. [The pathogenesis of subclinical laminitis in dairy cattle: studies of the hoof status, rumen status and blood coagulation factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandejsky, F; Stanek, C; Schuh, M

    1994-02-01

    In 50 dairy cows of the breed "Braunvieh" (36 heifers, 14 cows) of one herd the claw score was recorded over a period of 2 months before parturition until 6 months after parturition. The claw scores were correlated with the clinical findings, the ruminal function and the blood coagulation factors calcium-thromboplastin (TPZ), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), thrombin time (TZ) and antithrombin III (AT III) evaluated one day and one week after calving. The claw score increased from the first to the second examination, remaining on the same level in the postpartal period. No correlation between the claw scores and the ruminal function was evident. In comparison with a control group, TPZ and PTT were found higher one day and one week after parturition in the experimental group. Blood coagulation factors and claw scores were found uncorrelated.

  7. Blood Coagulation Induced by Iranian Saw-Scaled Viper (Echis Carinatus) Venom: Identification, Purification and Characterization of a Prothrombin Activator

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Babaie; Hossein Salmanizadeh; Hossein Zolfagharian

    2013-01-01

      Objective(s): Echis carinatus is one of the venomous snakes in Iran. The venom of Iranian Echis carinatus is a rich source of protein with various factors affecting the plasma protein and blood coagulation factor. Some of these proteins exhibit types of enzymatic activities. However, other items are proteins with no enzymatic activity.   Materials and Methods: In order to study the mechanism and effect of the venom on human plasma proteins, the present study has evaluated the effect of crud...

  8. Influence of red blood cell concentration on the initiation time of blood coagulation: risk of thrombus formation in pregnant females with anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagesaka, Toshiaki; Juen, Hiroyasu; Hayashi, Masatoshi

    2007-01-01

    The influence of a change in red blood cell (RBC) concentration on the initiation time of blood coagulation (Ti) in pregnant and non-pregnant females was investigated using a damped oscillation rheometer to evaluate the risk of hemorrhagic tendency or thrombus formation. The blood samples from 40 female volunteers (20 pregnants and 20 non-pregnants) were examined. After centrifuging some portion of each blood sample, an appropriate volume was taken from the RBC layer to make an artificially diluted blood, or to add it to the autologous blood, making an artificially concentrated blood. The Ti of non-pregnant females was significantly reduced with increasing the RBC concentration from 3.75+/-0.25 to (5.75+/-0.25)x10(6)/mm(3). However, the Ti of pregnant females showed almost no change in the RBC concentrations from 3.25+/-0.25 to (5.25+/-0.25)x10(6)/mm(3). These results suggest that RBC concentration plays an important role in accelerating the initial coagulation reaction of blood of non-pregnant females and that a hypercoagulant condition caused by pregnancy conceals the effect that changes in RBC concentration have in pregnant females. PMID:17325439

  9. Blood coagulation parameters and platelet indices: changes in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies and predictive values for preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Han

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is an obstetric disorder with high morbidity and mortality rates but without clear pathogeny. The dysfunction of the blood coagulation-fibrinolysis system is a salient characteristic of PE that varies in severity, and necessitates different treatments. Therefore, it is necessary to find suitable predictors for the onset and severity of PE.We aimed to evaluate blood coagulation parameters and platelet indices as potential predictors for the onset and severity of PE.Blood samples from 3 groups of subjects, normal pregnant women (n = 79, mild preeclampsia (mPE (n = 53 and severe preeclampsia (sPE (n = 42, were collected during early and late pregnancy. The levels of coagulative parameters and platelet indices were measured and compared among the groups. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curves of these indices were generated, and the area under the curve (AUC was calculated. The predictive values of the selected potential parameters were examined in binary regression analysis.During late pregnancy in the normal pregnancy group, the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, prothrombin time (PT, thrombin time (TT and platelet count decreased, while the fibrinogen level and mean platelet volume (MPV increased compared to early pregnancy (p<0.05. However, the PE patients presented with increased APTT, TT, MPV and D-dimer (DD during the third trimester. In the analysis of subjects with and without PE, TT showed the largest AUC (0.743 and high predictive value. In PE patients with different severities, MPV showed the largest AUC (0.671 and ideal predictive efficiency.Normal pregnancy causes a maternal physiological hypercoagulable state in late pregnancy. PE may trigger complex disorders in the endogenous coagulative pathways and consume platelets and FIB, subsequently activating thrombopoiesis and fibrinolysis. Thrombin time and MPV may serve as early monitoring markers for the onset and severity of PE

  10. The Changes of Blood Coagulation in Surgical Patients with Lung Cancer

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    Xiangning FU

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Patients with malignant tumor are at high risk of thrombophilia, which contributes to thromboembolism. Surgical treatment is one of the critical risk factors. In this study, changes and clinical significances of blood coagulation of lung cancer patients pre- and post operation were investigated. Methods A prospective, controlled study were carried out in 74 lung disease patients, who were divided into lung cancer group and benign lung disease group. In each group, pre-and postoperative changes in prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, platelet count (PLT, D-dimer (D-D and fibrinogen (Fib and clinical performances were observed and compared in intra- and intergroups. Results The concentration of Fib both in lung cancer group and its subgroup (adenocarcinoma of lung increased, preoperative differences between benign lung disease group and subgroup (squamous cell carcinoma of lung was significant (P < 0.05. PT(postoperative 1st to7th day in lung cancer group prolonged, APTT (postoperative 3rd to7th day reduced, Fib (postoperative 3rd to7th day and D-D (postoperative 1st to 7th day increased, PLT reduced on the 1st, 3rd day but then increased on the 5th, 7th day after operation, the difference between pre- and post-operation was significant (P < 0.05. D-D and PT in lung cancer group on the 7th day was longer than in benign lung disease group (P < 0.05. One pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE case in lung cancer group occurred, while in benign lung disease group none venous thromboembolism (VTE appeared. Conclusion Patients with lung cancer are in high hypercoagulable state, and prone to VTE. It is necessary to take some interventions to avoid VTE.

  11. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles supporting activated protein C-mediated regulation of blood coagulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzica Livaja Koshiar

    Full Text Available Elevated levels of erythrocyte-derived microparticles are present in the circulation in medical conditions affecting the red blood cells. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles expose phosphatidylserine thus providing a suitable surface for procoagulant reactions leading to thrombin formation via the tenase and prothrombinase complexes. Patients with elevated levels of circulating erythrocyte-derived microparticles have increased thrombin generation in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether erythrocyte-derived microparticles are able to support the anticoagulant reactions of the protein C system. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles were isolated using ultracentrifugation after incubation of freshly prepared erythrocytes with the ionophore A23187 or from outdated erythrocyte concentrates, the different microparticles preparations yielding similar results. According to flow cytometry analysis, the microparticles exposed phoshatidylserine and bound lactadherin, annexin V, and protein S, which is a cofactor to activated protein C. The microparticles were able to assemble the tenase and prothrombinase complexes and to stimulate the formation of thrombin in plasma-based thrombin generation assay both in presence and absence of added tissue factor. The addition of activated protein C in the thrombin generation assay inhibited thrombin generation in a dose-dependent fashion. The anticoagulant effect of activated protein C in the thrombin generation assay was inhibited by a monoclonal antibody that prevents binding of protein S to microparticles and also attenuated by anti-TFPI antibodies. In the presence of erythrocyte-derived microparticles, activated protein C inhibited tenase and prothrombinase by degrading the cofactors FVIIIa and FVa, respectively. Protein S stimulated the Arg306-cleavage in FVa, whereas efficient inhibition of FVIIIa depended on the synergistic cofactor activity of protein S and FV. In summary, the erythrocyte

  12. Correction of disorders in tissue perfusion, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis with Orbita apparatus on terahertz waves of cell metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav F. Kirichuk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article contains information on principle of operation, technical parameters and possible application of Orbita {transliteration from Russian} apparatus for hemodynamic, fibrinolytic and peripheral perfusion disorders treatment. A single exposure to terahertz waves emitted by Orbita apparatus, corresponding to frequencies of molecular absorption and emission spectra of atmospheric oxygen (129.0 GHz, completely cures coagulant and fibrinolytic disorders of animals with acute immobilization stress. A course of treatment with electromagnetic waves corresponding to frequencies of molecular absorption and emission spectra of nitrogen oxide (150.176 – 150.664 leads to normalization of disrupted peripheral tissue perfusion parameters of animal undergoing treatment and stimulates basal and induced output of nitrogen oxide. This leads to decrease in peripheral vascular resistance to microcirculation and increase in blood flow to microvasculature. Experimental data provided in this article serves as a proof of viability of Orbita apparatus for treatment of coagulant, fibrinolytic and tissue perfusion disorders.

  13. 临产凝血四项检测与产时失血量的相关性研究%Research on the Relationship Between the Detection of 4 Indicators of Blood Coagulation and Blood Loss in Labor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁荣伟; 兰枝; 杨善业; 刘新雄; 宁儒凤

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To explore the relationship between 4 indicators of blood coagulation and blood loss of pregnant women during the labor. [Methods]Totally 2000 pregnant women in obstetric department of our hospital were selected and divided into natural delivery group and cesarean section group with 1000 cases in each group. Prenatal automated coagulation analyzer was used to detect 4 indicators of blood coagulation. Maternal bleeding volume of parturients at labor was estimated by obstetricians. The relationship between 4 indicators of blood coagulation and blood loss was analyzed. [Results] There was no relationship between 4 indicators of blood coagulation at labor and blood loss during natural delivery and cesarean section( P >0. 05) , while the abnormal rate of 4 prenatal indicators of blood coagulation had obvious relation with intrapartum hemorrhage( P 0.05),而产前凝血四项结果异常率与产时出血量多少有明显的相关性(P<0.05);同一孕妇四项结果异常项目越多产程大出血的几率越高.[结论]产前凝血四项结果异常率与产时出血量有一定的相关性,同一孕妇四项结果异常率与出血量明显相关,临床应给予高度重视.

  14. Effect of artificial colloids on blood coagulation during shock stage of severe burn injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jian-jun; XING Nan; CHEN Jiong; SHI Jian-wu; SU Guo-liang

    2013-01-01

    Background There are controversies about the use of artificial colloids.This research was aimed to determine the effect of various artificial colloids on blood coagulation in the shock stage of severe burn injury.Methods Totally,18 female Ba-Ma mini-pigs were subjected to a 40% total body surface third-degree flame burn under anesthesia.Resuscitation therapy was applied 2 hours after the injury,using the burn shock fluid resuscitation formula commonly accepted in the surgical treatment of burns.The Ba-Ma mini-pigs were randomly assigned to three groups (six pigs in each group):succinylated gelatin group (the artificial colloid used was succinylated gelatin Injection),hydroxyethyl starch group (the artificial colloid used was hydroxyethyl starch (130/0.4)),and allogeneic plasma group (the colloid used was allogeneic plasma).Blood samples were collected from the animals prior to the burn injury and again at intervals of 4,8,24 and 48 hours post-injury.The platelet count (PLT),prothrombin time (PT),international normalized ratio (INR),activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT),and fibrinogen (Fib) were measured,followed by a statistical analysis of all results.Results The PLT of succinylated gelatin group and hydroxyethyl starch group at intervals of 24 and 48 hours were (124.3±52.7),(78.8±16.4)×109/L and (159.0±62.8),(87.3±32.0)×109/L respectively.But in the allogeneic plasma group at intervals of 8,24,and 48 hours were (234.3±52.6),(136.0±47.4),(75.8±31.0)×109/L.The decrease were all statistically significant (P <0.05,P <0.01) when compared to pre-burn ((383.3±77.9),(382.7±65.7),(381.0±49.4)×109/L).The PLT among the three groups,at all the time points,had no statistical difference (P >0.05).Compared to pre-burn ((10.8±0.9),(11.4±0.8),(10.6±0.7) seconds),the PT of succinylated gelatin group and hydroxyethyl starch group at 24 hours were (14.5±1.5) and (16.2±1.3) seconds,whereas in the allogeneic plasma group at 8 and 24 hours the PT were

  15. Blood tests: One too many? Evaluating blood requesting guidance developed for acute patients admitted to trauma and orthopaedic units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Alastair; Reidy, Mike; Scicluna, Gabrielle; Love, Gavin J; Joss, Judith

    2016-03-01

    In a recently published report from the Academy of Medical Royal Colleges, around 20% of clinical practice which encompasses blood science investigations is considered wasteful. Blood tests including liver function tests (LFTs), C-reactive protein (CRP), coagulation screens, and international normalising ratios (INR) are frequently requested for patients who undergo emergency hospital admission. The paucity of guidance available for blood requesting in acute trauma and orthopaedic admissions can lead to inappropriate requesting practices and over investigation. Acute admissions over a period of one month were audited retrospectively for the frequency and clinical indications of requests for LFTs, coagulation screens/INR, and CRP. The total number of blood tests requested for the duration of the patient's admission was recorded. Initial auditing of 216 admissions in January 2014 demonstrated a striking amount of over-investigation. Clinical guidelines were developed with multidisciplinary expert input and implemented within the department. Re-audit of 233 admissions was carried out in September 2014. Total no. of LFTs requested: January 895, September 336 (-62.5%); coagulation screens/INR requested: January 307, September 210 (-31.6%); CRPs requested: January 894, September 317 (-64.5%). No. of blood requests per patient: January (M=4.81, SD 4.75), September (M=3.60, SD=4.70). Approximate combined total cost of LFT, coagulation/INR, CRP in January £2674.14 and September £1236.19 (-£1437.95, -53.77%). A large decrease was observed in admission requesting and subsequent monitoring (p<0.01) following the implementation. This both significantly reduced cost and venepuncture rates.

  16. Effects of puerarin on blood coagulation%葛根素对凝血功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晨; 范华英

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Through the study on different doses of puerarin on blood coagulation time, platelet aggregation and the role of hemorheology to investigate the effect of puerarin on coagulation function and its mechanism of action. METHODS Three different doses of oral liquid of puerarin were given respectively in normal mice, the clotting time and bleeding time were measured; after dose conversion the three different doses of oral liquid of puerarin were given in normal rats for the study onthe index of platelet aggregation hemorheology. RESULTS Different doses of puerarin group could significantly prolong the coagulation time; significantly inhibited platelet aggregation and reduce the high, medium and low shear rate whole blood viscosity. CONCLUSION These results suggest that puerarin has potent anti-coagulant. The anti-coagulant effect is related to inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation and improve hemorheology.%目的:通过研究不同剂量葛根素对凝出血时间、血小板聚集以及血流变学的作用,探讨其对凝血功能方面的影响及作用机制.方法:分别将3种不同剂量的葛根素药液灌胃给予正常小鼠,测凝血时间和出血时间;剂量转换后再将3种不同剂量的葛根素药液灌胃给予正常大鼠测定血小板聚集率和血液流变学指标.结果:不同剂量葛根素组可显著延长出、凝血时间;明显抑制血小板聚集率;能显著降低高、中、低切变率下的全血黏度.结论:葛根素有较强的抗凝血作用,其抗凝作用与其抑制血小板聚集作用和改善血流变有关.

  17. Relation of thromboelastography parameters to conventional coagulation tests used to evaluate the hypercoagulable state of aged fracture patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Guan, Zhao; Xu, Qinzhu; Zhao, Lei; Song, Ying; Wang, Hui

    2016-06-01

    Fractures are common among aged people, and rapid assessment of the coagulation status is important. The thromboelastography (TEG) test can give a series of coagulation parameters and has been widely used in clinics. In this research, we looked at fracture patients over 60 and compared their TEG results with those of healthy controls. Since there is a paucity of studies comparing TEG assessments with conventional coagulation tests, we aim to clarify the relationship between TEG values and the values given by conventional coagulation tests.Forty fracture patients (27 femur and 13 humerus) over 60 years old were included in the study. The change in their coagulation status was evaluated by TEG before surgery within 4 hours after the fracture. Changes in TEG parameters were analyzed compared with controls. Conventional coagulation test results for the patients, including activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), international normalized ratio (INR), fibrinogen, and platelets, were also acquired, and correlation analysis was done with TEG parameters, measuring similar aspects of the coagulation cascade. In addition, the sensitivity and specificity of TEG parameters for detecting raised fibrinogen levels were also analyzed.The K (time to 20 mm clot amplitude) and R (reaction time) values of aged fracture patients were lower than controls. The values for angle, maximal amplitude (MA), and coagulation index (CI) were raised compared with controls, indicating a hypercoagulable state. Correlation analysis showed that there were significant positive correlations between fibrinogen and MA/angle, between platelets and MA, and between APTT and R as well. There was significant negative correlation between fibrinogen and K. In addition, K values have better sensitivity and specificity for detecting elevated fibrinogen concentration than angle and MA values.Aged fracture patients tend to be in a hypercoagulable state, and this could be effectively reflected by a TEG test

  18. Home Use Tests: Fecal Occult Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Home Use Tests Fecal Occult Blood Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... test kit to measure the presence of hidden (occult) blood in your stool (feces). What is fecal ...

  19. Deep Bleeder Acoustic Coagulation (DBAC)—part II: in vivo testing of a research prototype system

    OpenAIRE

    Sekins, K. Michael; Barnes, Stephen R.; Fan, Liexiang; Hopple, Jerry D.; Hsu, Stephen J.; Kook, John; Lee, Chi-Yin; Maleke, Caroline; Zeng, Xiaozheng; Moreau-Gobard, Romain; Ahiekpor-Dravi, Alexis; Funka-Lea, Gareth; Eaton, John; Wong, Keith; Keneman, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Background Deep Bleeder Acoustic Coagulation (DBAC) is an ultrasound image-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) method proposed to automatically detect and localize (D&L) and treat deep, bleeding, combat wounds in the limbs of soldiers. A prototype DBAC system consisting of an applicator and control unit was developed for testing on animals. To enhance control, and thus safety, of the ultimate human DBAC autonomous product system, a thermal coagulation strategy that minimized cavit...

  20. Virus host protein interaction network analysis reveals that the HEV ORF3 protein may interrupt the blood coagulation process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yansheng Geng

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is endemic worldwide and a major cause of acute liver disease in developing countries. However, the molecular mechanisms of liver pathology and clinical disease are not well understood for HEV infection. Open reading frame 3 (ORF3 of HEV encodes a small phosphoprotein, which is assumed to be involved in liver pathology and clinical disease. In this study, the interactions between the HEV ORF3 protein and human proteins were investigated using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid (Y2H analysis. Thirty two proteins were shown to interact with genotype 1 ORF3, 28 of which have not been reported previously. These novel interactions were evaluated by coimmunoprecipitation of protein complexes from transfected cells. We found also that the ORF3 proteins of genotype 4 and rabbit HEV interacted with all of the human proteins identified by the genotype 1 ORF3 protein. However, the putative ORF3 protein derived from avian HEV did not interact with the majority of these human proteins. The identified proteins were used to infer an overall interaction map linking the ORF3 protein with components of the host cellular networks. Analysis of this interaction map, based on functional annotation with the Gene Ontology features and KEGG pathways, revealed an enrichment of host proteins involved in complement coagulation, cellular iron ion homeostasis and oxidative stress. Additional canonical pathway analysis highlighted the enriched biological pathways relevant to blood coagulation and hemostasis. Consideration of the clinical manifestations of hepatitis E reported previously and the results of biological analysis from this study suggests that the ORF3 protein is likely to lead to an imbalance of coagulation and fibrinolysis by interacting with host proteins and triggering the corresponding pathological processes. These results suggest critical approaches to further study of the pathogenesis of the HEV ORF3 protein.

  1. Polyphosphate, Platelets, and Coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Travers, Richard J.; Smith, Stephanie A.; Morrissey, James H

    2015-01-01

    While we have understood the basic outline of the enzymes and reactions that make up the traditional blood coagulation cascade for many years, recently our appreciation of the complexity of these interactions has greatly increased. This has resulted in unofficial “revisions” of the coagulation cascade to include new amplification pathways and connections between the standard coagulation cascade enzymes, as well as the identification of extensive connections between the immune system and the c...

  2. Network-Based Biomarkers for Cold Coagulation Blood Stasis Syndrome and the Therapeutic Effects of Shaofu Zhuyu Decoction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulan Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the reverse docking methodology was applied to predict the action targets and pathways of Shaofu Zhuyu decoction (SFZYD bioactive ingredients. Furthermore, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM cold coagulation blood stasis (CCBS syndrome was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats with an ice-water bath and epinephrine, and SFZYD was used to treat CCBS syndrome. A metabolomic approach was used to evaluate changes in the metabolic profiles and to analyze the pharmacological mechanism of SFZYD actions. Twenty-three potential protein targets and 15 pathways were discovered, respectively; among these, pathways are associated with inflammation and immunological stress, hormone metabolism, coagulation function, and glycometabolism. There were also changes in the levels of endogenous metabolites of LysoPCs and glucuronides. Twenty endogenous metabolites were identified. Furthermore, the relative quantities of 6 endogenous metabolites in the plasma and 5 in the urine were significantly affected by SFZYD (P<0.05. The pharmacological mechanism of SFZYD was partially associated with glycerophospholipid metabolism and pentose and glucuronate interconversions. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that TCM CCBS pattern induced by ice water and epinephrine was complex and related to multiple metabolic pathways. SFZYD did regulate the TCM CCBS by multitargets, and biomarkers and SFZYD should be used for the clinical treatment of CCBS syndrome.

  3. Prophylactic use of tranexamic acid combined with thrombelastogram guided coagulation management may reduce blood loss and allogeneic transfusion in pediatric hemispherectomy: case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Fu, Wenya; Wang, Tianlong; Zhao, Lei

    2016-09-01

    Hemispherectomy is an established surgical procedure to treat medically refractory epilepsy caused by diffuse hemispheric diseases. The most common complication of hemispherectomy is intraoperative bleeding. Perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion increases mortality and morbidity in pediatric patients. Etiologies of massive blood loss during hemispherectomy include intraoperative diffuse vascular damage, antileptic drugs induced coagulation dysfunction, hyperfibrinolysis and dilutional coagulopathy. Great efforts should be made to minimize the need of blood transfusion. We present a series of three cases undergoing pediatric hemispherectomy, where a new algorithm was employed to manage coagulation. This new algorithm was mainly based on timely thrombelastogram analyses guided clotting factors supplement and continuous administration of tranexamic acid. In our cases, the amount of blood loss and subsequent allogeneic blood transfusion seemed to be less than literature reported. PMID:27555151

  4. Study on Blood Coagulant/Fibrinolytic Activity at Plasma andMonocytic Levels in Coronary Heart Disease Patients withBlood-Stasis Syndrome of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To explore and compare the changes of coagulant/fibrinolytic activity in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients with Blood Stasis Syndrome of TCM and evaluate the roles of these changes. Methods: Eighty patients of CHD were divided into two groups by Syndrome Differentiation of TCM, the Blood-Stasis (BS) group (30 cases) and the non-Blood-Stasis (NBS) group (50 cases, including 27 cases of Phlegm-Dampness Syndrome and 23 cases of Qi-Stagnation Syndrome); and 20 healthy persons were enrolled as normal control group. Tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and its inhibitor (PAI-1) in plasma and in human peripheral blood monocyte cell (PBMC), as well as the procoagulant activity (PCA) in PBMC were measured by chromogenic substrate method. Results: The plasma PAI-1 activity and PCA of PBMC in the BS group were significantly higher than those in the NBS group and the normal control group (P<0.01). PAI-1 activity of PBMC in the two groups of CHD patients was higher than those in the normal control group significantly (P<0.01), but no significant difference was found between the BS group and the NBS group (P>0.05). The difference of plasma t-PA activity between the two groups of CHD was insignificant. The PBMC t-PA activity in the BS group was lower than that in the NBS and normal control groups (P<0.01). Conclusion: In the CHD patients with BS, the PBMC PCA was increased and the fibrinolytic activity at both plasma and monocyte levels lowered significantly, these changes in coagulant/fibrinolytic activity may be the important pathologic factors in forming BS which suggests that CHD patients with BS were in the prothrombotic state.

  5. Structural and functional characterization of protein complexes in the blood coagulation cascade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jesper Jonasson

    In this dissertation, components of coagulation factor (F)X-activating (tenase; fXase) complexes are studied using computational biophysics and the molecular dynamics (MD) method. The main focus is on structure-function relationships of the two central tenase complexes with respect to activation...... processes, complex formation, and platelet membrane association. Both the intrinsic and the extrinsic tenase complex consists of a trypsin-like serine protease and auxiliary domains complexed with the appropriate cofactor; FIXa with FVIIIa and FVIIa with tissue factor (TF), respectively. Topics covered...... are explained. Furthermore, the inter-domain linker connecting the two epidermal growth factor-like domains of FVIIa will be discussed with respect to consequences for its ability to form a productive complex with tissue factor. Finally, membrane binding of FVIIIa as mediated by the tandem C2-like domains...

  6. Fecal Occult Blood Test and Fecal Immunochemical Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visit Global Sites Search Help? Fecal Occult Blood Test and Fecal Immunochemical Test Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Test Common Questions Ask Us Related Pages The Test How is it used? When is it ordered? ...

  7. Quartz crystal microbalance-with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) for real time measurements of blood coagulation density and immune complement activation on artificial surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Marcus; Andersson, Jonas; Sellborn, Anders; Berglin, Mattias; Nilsson, Bo; Elwing, Hans

    2005-07-15

    A recently developed variant of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) called QCM-with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) allows simultaneous and simple measurements of changes in adsorbed mass as well as the viscoelastic property (D-factor) of deposited protein layers on the sensor surface. We have taken the QCM-D technology a step further and demonstrated its advantages in the study of protein assembly as a consequence of surface induced immune complement activation, or contact activated blood coagulation. In the present study we have continued our QCM-D investigations of surface assembly of fibrin clot formation and complement activation and incubated differently modified quartz sensor surfaces in blood plasma and sera. Polymer surfaces used were spin-coated polyethylene, poly(ethylene terephtalate), poly(methylmetacrylate) and poly(dimethylsiloxane). Also used were sputtered titanium and heparin grafted surfaces. In this investigation we found that we could describe the surface induced coagulation with four independent parameters: (1) Time of onset of coagulation, (2) fibrin deposition rate, (3) total frequency shift at stable plateau, and (4) fibrin clot density. The most important finding was that the blood plasma clot density can be assessed with the use of D determinations and that the clot density varied significantly with the chemical composition of the surface. However, the D-factor did not give any new analytical information about the possible complement activation mechanisms. Nevertheless, the QCM-D was found to be a reliable tool for the analysis of surface induced complement activation. We also compared the QCM-D technique with traditional enzyme immuno assay (EIA) measurements of soluble products from the surface activation of the complement and coagulation systems. We found that the results from EIA and QCM-D measurements corresponded well for the complement activation but not for the coagulation, probably due to the biological complexity of the coagulation

  8. 58例妊娠高血压疾病凝血四项结果分析%The Study on Four Blood Coagulation Indexes of 58 Cases of Gestational Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑玲; 武雪征; 任淑媛

    2011-01-01

    Objective To detect the function of blood coagulation for pregnant women with gestational hypertension, and to elucidate its clinical significance and application. Methods The results of prothrombin time,activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen( FIB ), D-Dimer ( D-D )for pregnant women with or without hypertension( each group 58 cases ), and randomly selected normal unpregnant women( 88 cases ) were compared using BECKMAN( ACL9000 )to test the four parameters of blood coagulation. Results Blood coagulation tests showed that FIB and D-D of pregnant women were slightly or notably increased compared with unpregnant women( P < 0.01 ). FIB and D-D of pregnant women with hypertension were higher than those of normal pregnancy( P < 0.01 ). Conclusion Regular inspection of the blood coagulation for pregnant women is significant to early diagnosis and treatment for the gestational hypertension, which is also a guidance to monitor the pregnant women' s blood coagulation, providing scientfic laboratory basis for the pregnant woman health and normal fetus development.%目的通过对妊娠高血压疾病的妇女凝血四项结果的分析,总结其变化规律并应用于临床.方法用美国贝克曼ACL9000血凝仪对正常妊娠和患有妊娠期高血压疾病患者(各58例)及随机抽取的正常非妊娠妇女(88例为对照组)进行血凝四项的测定:凝血酶原时间、活化部分凝血酶时间、纤维蛋白原(FIB)、D-二聚体(D-D),并进行分析.结果妊娠高血压组血浆FIB、D-D的含量均高于非妊娠组(P<0.01).妊娠高血压疾病组的FIB及D-D高于正常妊娠组(P<0.01).结论定期检测孕妇血浆中凝血四项,对妊娠高血压疾病的早期诊断和治疗具有重要意义,対妊娠孕妇凝血机制的监测具有指导意义,为孕妇健康和胎儿的正常发育提供科学的实验依据.

  9. Beta-carotene blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotene test ... anything for up to 8 hours before the test. You may also be asked not to eat ... vitamin A (carotene) for 48 hours before the test. Your provider may also tell you to temporarily ...

  10. Coagulation competence and fluid recruitment after moderate blood loss in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaar, Morten; Mørkeberg, Jakob; Pott, Frank C;

    2014-01-01

    blood cell count (4.80 ± 0.33 to 4.64 ± 0.37 × 10(12) cells l(-1), P < 0.05) indicating that 218 ± 173 ml fluid was recruited to the circulation. Withdrawing 450 ml blood reduced the time until initial fibrin formation (R: 6.5 ± 0.9 to 5.1 ± 1.0 min, P < 0.01), whereas the rate of clot formation...

  11. Systems biology of coagulation initiation: kinetics of thrombin generation in resting and activated human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manash S Chatterjee

    Full Text Available Blood function defines bleeding and clotting risks and dictates approaches for clinical intervention. Independent of adding exogenous tissue factor (TF, human blood treated in vitro with corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI, to block Factor XIIa will generate thrombin after an initiation time (T(i of 1 to 2 hours (depending on donor, while activation of platelets with the GPVI-activator convulxin reduces T(i to ∼20 minutes. Since current kinetic models fail to generate thrombin in the absence of added TF, we implemented a Platelet-Plasma ODE model accounting for: the Hockin-Mann protease reaction network, thrombin-dependent display of platelet phosphatidylserine, VIIa function on activated platelets, XIIa and XIa generation and function, competitive thrombin substrates (fluorogenic detector and fibrinogen, and thrombin consumption during fibrin polymerization. The kinetic model consisting of 76 ordinary differential equations (76 species, 57 reactions, 105 kinetic parameters predicted the clotting of resting and convulxin-activated human blood as well as predicted T(i of human blood under 50 different initial conditions that titrated increasing levels of TF, Xa, Va, XIa, IXa, and VIIa. Experiments with combined anti-XI and anti-XII antibodies prevented thrombin production, demonstrating that a leak of XIIa past saturating amounts of CTI (and not "blood-borne TF" alone was responsible for in vitro initiation without added TF. Clotting was not blocked by antibodies used individually against TF, VII/VIIa, P-selectin, GPIb, protein disulfide isomerase, cathepsin G, nor blocked by the ribosome inhibitor puromycin, the Clk1 kinase inhibitor Tg003, or inhibited VIIa (VIIai. This is the first model to predict the observed behavior of CTI-treated human blood, either resting or stimulated with platelet activators. CTI-treated human blood will clot in vitro due to the combined activity of XIIa and XIa, a process enhanced by platelet activators and which proceeds

  12. Effect of hyperbilirubunemia on coagulation system of blood in patients with obstructive jaundice

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkisian Z.O.; Tolstokorov A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective of the study: determination of the degree of influence of bilirubin in the blood during obstructive jaundice, on blood clotting. Methods. A retrospective study of case histories of patients with obstructive jaundice who have been treated at the Regional Hospital of Saratov in the period from 2000 to 2010. Results. The results confirm the assumption that the causes of bleeding in obstructive jaundice is hepatic failure. Conclusion. Absence of bile in the small intestine in obstructiv...

  13. Perioperative blood transfusion of coagulation factor deficiency in children%凝血因子缺乏患儿的围手术期输血

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马廉; 王鸿武; 蒋学武

    2014-01-01

    Perioperative blood transfusion therapy for coagulation factor deficiency in children is very important to save patient's life or conducive to the postoperative recovery.With the advances in transfusion medicine,the cooperation through pediatric hematologists and surgeons in the perioperative period,more and more operation of children accompany coagulation factor deficiency can be safety finished.Different types of coagulation factor deficiency in children are treated by high-purity clotting factor,in order to correct abnormal coagulation factors levels.Clinical data showed that coagulation factor deficiency in children after proper treatment can be safely performed surgical procedure.%凝血因子缺乏症患儿的围手术期输血治疗十分重要,能挽救患儿的生命或有利于患儿术后恢复.随着输血医学的不断进步,在围手术期针对不同类型凝血因子缺乏的患儿通过补充高纯度的凝血因子等替代疗法,纠正凝血因子异常,保障各类手术的安全进行.临床数据显示凝血因子缺乏症患儿经过适当的处理、治疗,可安全地进行手术操作.

  14. Limited promiscuity of HLA-DRB1 presented peptides derived of blood coagulation factor VIII.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D van Haren

    Full Text Available The formation of inhibitory antibodies directed against coagulation factor VIII (FVIII is a severe complication in the treatment of hemophilia A patients. The induction of anti-FVIII antibodies is a CD4(+ T cell-dependent process. Activation of FVIII-specific CD4(+ T cells is dependent on the presentation of FVIII-derived peptides on MHC class II by antigen-presenting cells. Previously, we have shown that FVIII-pulsed human monocyte-derived dendritic cells can present peptides from several FVIII domains. In this study we show that FVIII peptides are presented on immature as well as mature dendritic cells. In immature dendritic cells half of the FVIII-loaded MHC class II molecules are retained within the cell, whereas in LPS-matured dendritic cells the majority of MHC class II/peptide complexes is present on the plasma membrane. Time-course studies revealed that presentation of FVIII-derived peptides was optimal between 12 and 24 hours after maturation but persisted for at least 96 hours. We also show that macrophages are able to internalize FVIII as efficiently as dendritic cells, however FVIII was presented on MHC class II with a lower efficiency and with different epitopes compared to dendritic cells. In total, 48 FVIII core-peptides were identified using a DCs derived of 8 different donors. Five HLA-promiscuous FVIII peptide regions were found - these were presented by at least 4 out of 8 donors. The remaining 42 peptide core regions in FVIII were presented by DCs derived from a single (30 peptides or two to three donors (12 peptides. Overall, our findings show that a broad repertoire of FVIII peptides can be presented on HLA-DR.

  15. Contact activation of blood coagulation on a defined kaolin/collagen surface in a microfluidic assay

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Shu; Diamond, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Generation of active Factor XII (FXIIa) triggers blood clotting on artificial surfaces and may also enhance intravascular thrombosis. We developed a patterned kaolin (0 to 0.3 pg/μm2)/type 1 collagen fibril surface for controlled microfluidic clotting assays. Perfusion of whole blood (treated only with a low level of 4 μg/mL of the XIIa inhibitor, corn trypsin inhibitor) drove platelet deposition followed by fibrin formation. At venous wall shear rate (100 s−1), kaolin accelerated onset of fi...

  16. Plasma fractionation for blood products: isolation and purification of coagulating factors, albumin and immunoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 12 million liters of human plasma are fractionated world-wide annually. However, with the market for clotting factors and other haemoderivatives steadily increasing from year to year, the amount processed will also increase correspondingly to keep up with the demand. In Malaysia, part of the need for the blood products are obtained commercially but a major portion of the requirement involves sending the plasma collected by the National Blood Centre to Australia for processing. Following purification and isolation of the blood products, they are sent back to Malaysia for local consumption. As yet there are no plasma fractionation plants in the South East Asia region, it would be advantageous to establish a local fractionation plant as it would be able to cater for local demands of the haemoderivatives and thus reduces the cost of importing these products. Besides, this facility will be able to provide contract fractionation services to the surrounding region. Early work in MINT has started in trying to purify plasma obtained from rats. Purification of the plasma was performed by using Sephadex G-25 column. Short term objective of this project is to develop the technique of extraction, fractionation and purification of blood products such as albumin, globulin and clotting factors (Factor VIII and Factor IX). The long term emphasis will be to scale up the production facility to a pilot plant stage and eventually to a national fractionation and purification plant. (Author)

  17. A high fat meal activates blood coagulation factor VII in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Aage K; Bladbjerg, Else M; Hansen, Axel K;

    2002-01-01

    LEW/Mol rat. We gavaged 3 mL of a fat emulsion (n = 42) or 3 mL isotonic glucose (n = 42). Blood was sampled by heart puncture 2, 4 and 6 h (n = 14/group at each time) after the fat/glucose load. Furthermore, blood was sampled from 16 untreated rats to determine the baseline levels. Triglyceride....../L), and FVIIa was significantly raised at 4 h (54 U/L) and 6 h (58 U/L) compared with baseline (29 U/L). No postprandial changes in FVIIc, FVIIam and TAT were observed. Glucose administration did not affect any variable. We conclude that the LEW/Mol rat is a promising model for use in future studies of...

  18. Comparison of aPTT and CT Parameter of the ROTEM Test to Monitor Heparin Anti-Coagulation Effect in ICU Patients: an Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atabak Najafi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Heparin is frequently used in different clinical settings to reduce the coagulating ability of the blood. Because of probable adverse effects owing to heparin therapy and regarding variability of patients’ responses to heparin, which make it very unreliable, it seems prudent to monitor meticulously its effects on the human body. There are a lot of laboratory tests to watch its effects on the body for example; aPTT and ROTEM are the most widely used tests that are performed today. We aimed to compare the aPTT test results against changes of CT parameter of the ROTEM test due to heparin administration. This study was conducted on 45 critically ill patients who needed to receive heparin according to their clinical status. All patients received 550 to 1500 unit heparin per hour (on average 17.5 unit heparin per kilogram weight. While the patients were under infusion of heparin, two blood samples (5 ml were taken from a newly established cubital vein, just five hours after commencement of heparin therapy. One sample was used for aPTT and the other one for ROTEM. The correlation between aPTT and the changes of CT parameter of the ROTEM with heparin dosage and infusion was the primary outcome. The correlation between heparin therapy and the changes of other parameters like MCF, CFT, and a number of platelets were the secondary outcome of the study. The only significant correlation was between changes of CT and aPTT (P=0.000. The other variables were not correlated. Changes of CT parameter of ROTEM test can be used for monitoring of reduced coagulability during heparin infusion instead of aPTT test.

  19. Behavior of optical properties of coagulated blood sample at 633 nm wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Cruzado, Beatriz; Vázquez y Montiel, Sergio; Delgado Atencio, José Alberto

    2011-03-01

    Determination of tissue optical parameters is fundamental for application of light in either diagnostics or therapeutical procedures. However, in samples of biological tissue in vitro, the optical properties are modified by cellular death or cellular agglomeration that can not be avoided. This phenomena change the propagation of light within the biological sample. Optical properties of human blood tissue were investigated in vitro at 633 nm using an optical setup that includes a double integrating sphere system. We measure the diffuse transmittance and diffuse reflectance of the blood sample and compare these physical properties with those obtained by Monte Carlo Multi-Layered (MCML). The extraction of the optical parameters: absorption coefficient μa, scattering coefficient μs and anisotropic factor g from the measurements were carried out using a Genetic Algorithm, in which the search procedure is based in the evolution of a population due to selection of the best individual, evaluated by a function that compares the diffuse transmittance and diffuse reflectance of those individuals with the experimental ones. The algorithm converges rapidly to the best individual, extracting the optical parameters of the sample. We compare our results with those obtained by using other retrieve procedures. We found that the scattering coefficient and the anisotropic factor change dramatically due to the formation of clusters.

  20. VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL INJURIES AND CHANGES OF BLOOD COAGULATION AND FIBRINOLYSIS INDEXES IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-lin He; Zhi Liu; Shu-yue Xia

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study endothelial damage by observing changes of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) in blood, coagulation and fibrinolysis index in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.Methods CECs were separated by isopycnic centrifugation method in 14 patients with acute lung injury (ALI), 7patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), 10 intensive care unit (ICU) controls, and 15 healthy controls.Plasma prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FG), fibrin degradation products (FDP), and D-dimer were examined simultaneously. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) Ⅱ and lung injury score (LIS) were recorded to evaluate severity of illness and lung injury.Results (1) The number of CECs in ALI (10.4 ± 2.3 ) and ARDS groups ( 16.1 ± 2.7) was higher than that in the healthy (1.9 ± 0.5) (P < 0.01). In both ALI and ARDS, the number of CECs correlated with APACHE Ⅱ (r = 0.55, P < 0.05 and r =0.62, P < 0.05, respectively) and LIS (r = 0.60, P < 0.05 and r = 0.53, P < 0.05, respectively). CEC number was negatively correlated with PaO2 in ALI and ARDS (r=-0.49, P< 0.05 and r=-0.64, P< 0.05, respectively). (2) The level of FDP and D-dirmer were higher in ALI and ARDS patients than that in ICU and healthy control groups (P<0.05). The level of FG in ARDS group was significantly higher than in the ICU and healthy control groups (P < 0.05). But in ALI group, the level of FG was significantly higher than only healthy control group (P < 0.05).Conclusions Endothelial cell damage occurs in ARDS patients, which may play a major role in the pathophysiology of ARDS. Changes of endothelial cell activation and damage markers, such as CECs, plasma coagulation and fibrinolysis index,to some extent reflect severity of illness and lung injury in ARDS.

  1. 21 CFR 640.53 - Testing the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.53 Section 640.53 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Cryoprecipitate § 640.53 Testing the blood. (a) Blood... sample of blood collected at the time of collecting the source blood, and such sample container shall...

  2. ACL-TOP700血凝仪凝血4项正常参考区间的建立%Establishment of normal reference interval for four items of blood coagulation on ACL-TOP Automatic coagulation analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锐; 鲁燕飞; 周志兰; 姚振国; 陈国强

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish normal reference interval for four items of blood coagulation on ACL‐TOP Automatic coagu‐lation analyzer .Methods The fasting anti‐coagulation blood samples were collected from 1 268 inpatients and people conducted physical examination ,all subjects without liver disease ,history of blood disease and coagulation disfunction .The prothrombin time (PT) ,activated partical prothrombin time(APTT) ,thrombin time(TT) and serum levels of fibrinogen(FIB) were determined by u‐sing ACL‐TOP automatic coagulation analyzer which was producted by America IL company .And data of determination results were used to establish the normal reference intervals of indexes in this laboratory .Results The precision and accuracy of this analy‐zer was good .There were differences of normal reference intervals between which established in this laboratory and which provided by the manufacturer .Conclusion Each laboratory should establish its own normal reference interval ,not blindly refer to reference interval provided by regents manual .%目的:建立ACL‐TOP700全自动血凝分析仪本实验室凝血4项的正常参考区间。方法筛选1268住院患者及门诊体检者,均无肝病、血液病史及出凝血功能障碍,空腹采集其静脉抗凝血。采用美国IL公司生产的ACL‐TOP700全自动血凝分析仪进行凝血酶原时间(PT)、活化部分凝血酶原时间(APTT)、凝血酶时间(TT)、纤维蛋白原(FIB)测定,建立本实验室 PT、APTT、TT、FIB的正常参考区间。结果该仪器精密度、正确度均良好,各参考区间与厂家提供的参考区间有一定的差异。结论各个实验室应建立自己的参考区间,不可盲目引用厂家试剂说明书上提供的正常参考区间。

  3. Acknowledging the results of blood tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdottir á; Hertzum, Morten

    At the studied hospital, physicians from the Medical and Surgical Departments work some of their shifts in the Emergency Department (ED). Though icons showing the blood-test process were introduced on electronic whiteboards in the ED, these icons did not lead to increased attention to test...

  4. Integrated laboratory coagulation tests in hypercoagulation diagnosis and thrombosis risk assessment. Part I. The pathophysiology of thrombosis and hypercoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Lipets

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombosis is a fatal hemostatic disorders occurring in various conditions ranging from pregnancy and surgery to cancer, sepsis and heart attack. Despite the availability of different anticoagulants and accumulated clinical experience, proving their effectiveness, thrombosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. This is largely due to the fact that conventional laboratory coagulation tests are not sufficiently sensitive to the hypercoagulable state, and they are difficult to use for assessing the risk of thrombosis. Specific molecular markers (D-dimers, fibrinopeptide, thrombin-antithrombin complex are more effective, but also have a large number of disadvantages. A possible solution is the use of integrated test, which simulate in vitro the majority of the physiological coagulation processes. In the first part of this paper the biochemical processes that cause the risk of thrombosis were discussed.

  5. Production and properties of monoclonal antibodies to human blood coagulation factor VII and factor VIIa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human factor VII is a trace vitamin K-dependent protein that circulates in blood as a single-chain precursor to a serine protease. Upon activation, two-chain factor VIIa activates factor x in the presence of tissue factor and calcium. Purified preparations of single-chain (SC) human factor VII and two-chain (TC) factor VIIa were utilized to immunize Balb/c mice. Spleen cells from these immunized mice were fused to a non-secreting NS-1 derivative of X63-Ag8 myeloma cells and grown in selective medium. Analysis of culture supernatants by EIA revealed several hybridomas that were secreting IgG specific for Sc-factor VII and TC-factor VIIa. In addition, several hybridomas secreted IgG that reacted equally well with factor VII and factor VIIa. One of the latter McAb (A-29) reacted with the heavy chain of factor VIIa and the intact factor VII molecule equally as judged by Western blotting. A-29 was produced in ascites fluid, purified and coupled to activated CH-Sepharose. Application of one liter of normal human plasma to 10 ml of this immunoadsorbent column, elution of factor VII and subsequent Western blot using 125I-rabbit anti-human factor VII indicated a single species of factor VII(M/sub r/ = 50 KDa) in normal plasma. These specific factor VII/VIIa McAbs may prove useful in the analysis of these factors, and in the separation of SC-factor VII from TC-factor VIIa

  6. A novel mutation in a patient with congenital coagulation factor Ⅻ deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ying; YE Xu; PANG Ying; DAI Jing; WANG Xue-feng; ZHOU Xu-hong

    2008-01-01

    @@ Human coagulation factor Ⅻ(FⅫ),also called Hageman factor,is a plasma plycoprotein that is functionally deficient in individuals with Hageman trait:which is an inhefited trait discovered by chance during preoperative blood coagulation screening tests.FⅫ is a single-chain 596-amino-acid zymogen of a serine protease with an approximate molecular weight of 80 000.

  7. Early activation of the coagulation system during lower body negative pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaar, M; Johansson, P I; Nielsen, L B;

    2009-01-01

    We considered that a moderate reduction of the central blood volume (CBV) may activate the coagulation system. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) is a non-invasive means of reducing CBV and, thereby, simulates haemorrhage. We tested the hypothesis that coagulation markers would increase following...

  8. Blood coagulation factor XII drives adaptive immunity during neuroinflammation via CD87-mediated modulation of dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Kerstin; Pankratz, Susann; Asaridou, Chloi-Magdalini; Herrmann, Alexander M; Bittner, Stefan; Merker, Monika; Ruck, Tobias; Glumm, Sarah; Langhauser, Friederike; Kraft, Peter; Krug, Thorsten F; Breuer, Johanna; Herold, Martin; Gross, Catharina C; Beckmann, Denise; Korb-Pap, Adelheid; Schuhmann, Michael K; Kuerten, Stefanie; Mitroulis, Ioannis; Ruppert, Clemens; Nolte, Marc W; Panousis, Con; Klotz, Luisa; Kehrel, Beate; Korn, Thomas; Langer, Harald F; Pap, Thomas; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Wiendl, Heinz; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Meuth, Sven G

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant immune responses represent the underlying cause of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent evidence implicated the crosstalk between coagulation and immunity in CNS autoimmunity. Here we identify coagulation factor XII (FXII), the initiator of the intrinsic coagulation cascade and the kallikrein-kinin system, as a specific immune cell modulator. High levels of FXII activity are present in the plasma of MS patients during relapse. Deficiency or pharmacologic blockade of FXII renders mice less susceptible to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (a model of MS) and is accompanied by reduced numbers of interleukin-17A-producing T cells. Immune activation by FXII is mediated by dendritic cells in a CD87-dependent manner and involves alterations in intracellular cyclic AMP formation. Our study demonstrates that a member of the plasmatic coagulation cascade is a key mediator of autoimmunity. FXII inhibition may provide a strategy to combat MS and other immune-related disorders. PMID:27188843

  9. Study on contrast test of PPC pre-oxidation and coagulation for algae removal and deodorization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The effect of treating algae-bearing water and induced odor by use of permanganate potassium composite (PPC) pre-oxidation was investigated, and was compared with the effect of treatments by pre-chlorination, permanganate potassium pre-oxidation and simple coagulation. The results showed that simple coagulation and pre-chlorination were less effective in removing algae and its odor, whereas PPC pre-oxidation was the most effective in algae removal and deodorization. Upon oxidation with PPC, the cells of Oscillatoria agardhic were inactivated and some intra-cellular and extra-cellular components were released into the water, which may help the coagulation by their bridging effect. The efficient removal of algae by PPC pre-oxidation is believed to be the joint contribution of several mechanisms.

  10. Determining the effect of freezing on coagulation testing: comparison of results between fresh and once frozen-thawed plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Robert C; Dwyre, Denis W

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of the results from coagulation testing can be affected by numerous preanalytic and analytic variables including the stability of the citrated sample at room temperature. Samples not tested within 2-4 h of collection should be processed and frozen for later analysis. As limited data exist about the impact of freezing samples on coagulation testing, we sought to evaluate the effect of freezing on coagulation testing. Plasma samples into 3.2% sodium citrate tubes, centrifuged to yield platelet-poor plasma, were evaluated for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen, D-dimer, antithrombin (AT) activity, factors V, VII, VIII, IX, lupus anticoagulant and anti-Xa measurements for both unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparins. Samples were then frozen at -70°C for at least 1 week and testing was repeated using the same lot of material. All tests strongly correlated (R > 0.85) between fresh and frozen sample results. Using paired t test analysis, significant differences between fresh and frozen tested plasma existed for PT, APTT, factors V, VIII and AT. Significant differences existed between fresh and frozen lupus anticoagulant ratios (lupus anticoagulant screen but not lupus anticoagulant confirm), and single centrifugation process underestimated the presence of lupus anticoagulant as compared to double centrifugation processing. Freezing significantly affects the results for PT, APTT, factors V and VIII activity, and AT activity, although these differences were not considered to be clinically significant. Double centrifugation is required for accurate lupus anticoagulant testing, regardless of whether platelet-poor plasma is achieved with single centrifugation.

  11. Factors affecting the lung perfused blood volume in patients with intrapulmonary clots after anti-coagulation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Munemasa, E-mail: radokada@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Masuda, Yu [4th Grade of 6-year Medicine Doctor Program, Department of Medicine, Yamaguchi University Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Nakashima, Yoshiteru [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, Oosaki 77, Hofu, Yamaguchi 747-8511 (Japan); Nomura, Takafumi; Nakao, Sei [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Suga, Kazuyoshi [Department of Radiology, St Hills Hospital, Imamurakita 3-7-18, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-0155 (Japan); Kido, Shoji [Computer-aided Diagnosis and Biomedical Imaging Research Biomedical Engineering, Applied Medical Engineering Science Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai 2-16-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan); Matsunaga, Naofumi [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Dual-energy CT can provide morphological and functional lung images in the same examination. • The subsequent dual-energy CT demonstrates the increased whole lung perfused blood volume (V{sub 120}) despite the residual intrapulmonary clots after treatment in one examination. • The increased whole lung perfusion (V{sub 120}) and a decreased low perfusion volume (V{sub 5}) result in the improvement in the low perfusion rate (%V{sub 5}) in the patients with acute pulmonary embolism after treatment. - Abstract: Objectives: Factors affecting the improvement in the lung perfused blood volume (LPBV) were evaluated based on the presence of intrapulmonary clots (IPCs) after anti-coagulation therapy using 64-slice dual-energy CT. Materials and methods: 96 patients exhibiting venous thromboembolism underwent initial and repeated LPBV examinations between December 2008 and July 2014. Fifteen patients were excluded due to pulmonary comorbidities, and a total of 81 patients were included in this study. Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) was diagnosed in 46 of the patients (56.7%). LPBV images were three-dimensionally reconstructed with two threshold ranges: 1–120 HU (V{sub 120}) and 1–5 HU (V{sub 5}), and the relative value of V{sub 5} per V{sub 120} expressed as %V{sub 5}. These values were subsequently compared with indicators of the severity of PE, such as the D-dimer level, heart rate and CT measurements. This study was approved by the local ethics committee. Results: In patients with IPCs, the D-dimer, V{sub 5} and %V{sub 5}values were significantly larger (p ≤ 0.01) in the initial LPBV, although these differences disappeared in subsequent LPBV after treatment. The right ventricular (RV) diameter, RV/left ventricular (RV/LV) diameter ratio and %V{sub 5} values were also significantly reduced, whereas the V{sub 5} value did not significantly decrease (p = 0.07), but V{sub 120} value significantly increased (p < 0.001) after treatment. However, in

  12. Dynamics of change of lipid and monoamine metabolisms and the blood coagulation system during experimental atherosclerosis caused by restriction of movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvishiani, G. S.; Kobakhidze, N. G.

    1980-01-01

    Shifts in lipid, catecholamine, and blood coagulation systems following various periods (1, 2, 3, and 4 months) of experimentally induced atherosclerosis were studied. The same indices were studied in the tissues of the myocardium, liver, and brain stem-reticular formation after decapitation of the animals at the end of the experiment. Periodic motion restriction caused an increase in blood beta-lipoproteins in the rabbits at the beginning of the experiment. An increase in general cholesterol content and a decrease in the lecithincholesterol index were established at the end of the experiment. Myocardial beta-lipoprotein and brain stem reticular formation general cholesterol contents were elevated; catecholamine content was increased at the end of the experiment. In the initial months, free adrenaline basically increased, while in later months blood adrenaline decreased and blood noradrenaline increased.

  13. 慢性荨麻疹与凝血机制的研究进展%Chronic urticaria and blood coagulation mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朵勤; 唐慧; 徐金华

    2011-01-01

    Blood coagulation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic urticaria. Both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of the coagulation cascade are activated in chronic urticaria, which in turn induce the generation of thrombin. Thrombin, as the agonist of proteinase-activated receptors, can induce histamine release from mast cells, and then cause the development of urticaria. The severity of urticaria is parallel to the quantity of coagulation factors. Anticoagulants and protease inhibitors have shown certain efficacy in the treatment of some refractory urticaria. This paper summarizes recent progress in the development of blood coagulation-targeting strategies for the treatment of chronic urticaria.%凝血机制在慢性荨麻疹的发病中起着重要的作用。内、外源性凝血途径同时被激活,产生凝血酶。凝血酶是一种蛋白酶激活受体激动剂,可诱导肥大细胞释放组胺,从而诱发荨麻疹的发生。其病情严重性随着凝血因子数量的增高而加重。抗凝药物及蛋白酶抑制剂对部分难治性荨麻疹有一定疗效。概述近几年针对凝血机制治疗慢性荨麻疹的研究进展。

  14. 临产孕妇凝血功能检测的临床意义%Clinical significance of detecting the function of blood coagulation for parturient women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉; 李耀军

    2011-01-01

    To study the function of coagulation, anti coagulation and fibrinolysis in later pregnant women, and to study the clinical value of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thrombopastin time ( APTT), thrombin time (TT), fibrinogen (Fib) in later pregnant women. Methods The difference of function of blood coagulation between 320 parturient women and 130 healthy women without pregnant were analyzed. Results The results of PT,APTT and TT in the later pregnant women were low er than those in healthy controls(P<0.05). The concentration of Fib in later pregnant women were significantly higher than that in healthy controls(P<0.05). Conclusion In the process of parturition,it is important to detect the function of blood coagulation for parturient woman,especially when parturient woman shows abnormal bleeding.%目的 了解孕妇分娩前的凝血功能,探讨临产孕妇检测凝血酶原时间(PT)、活化部分凝血酶时间(APTT)、凝血酶时间(TT)、纤维蛋白原(Fib)的临床意义.方法 对320例临产孕妇和130例健康非孕妇女的凝血四项指标检测结果进行比较分析.结果 临产孕妇与健康非孕妇女比较,PT、APTT、TT显著降低,Fib明显升高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 在产前及分娩过程中及时监测各项凝血指标对预测、预防和治疗产妇异常出血有重要意义.

  15. 21 CFR 864.6550 - Occult blood test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occult blood test. 864.6550 Section 864.6550 Food... DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6550 Occult blood test. (a) Identification. An occult blood test is a device used to detect occult blood in urine or feces. (Occult blood...

  16. Treatment of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makruasi, Nisa

    2015-11-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by systemic activation of blood coagulation, generation of thrombin, and leading to disturbance of the microvasculature. In this article, definition and diagnostic criteria of DIC depend on the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH). There is no gold standard for diagnosis of DIC, only low quality evidence is used in general practice. Many diagnostic tests and repeated measurement are required. For the treatment of DIC, there is no good quality evidence. The most important treatment for DIC is the specific treatment of the conditions associated DIC. Platelets and/or plasma transfusion may be also necessary if indicated. Nevertheless, there is no gold standard for diagnosis and treatment of DIC, we use only low quality evidence in general practice.

  17. 21 CFR 640.14 - Testing the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.14 Section 640.14 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.14 Testing the blood. Blood from which Red Blood Cells are prepared shall be tested as prescribed in § 610.40 of this chapter...

  18. FDA Recommends All Blood Donations Be Tested for Zika

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FDA Recommends All Blood Donations Be Tested for Zika Updated guidance provides further protection for U.S. blood ... entire blood supply be routinely screened for the Zika virus. In February, the FDA recommended testing of ...

  19. Different brand automatic instrument of coagulation test results contrast analysis%不同品牌全自动血凝仪检测结果对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭欣

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Based on the same clinical laboratory automatic blood coagulation analyzer method comparison of different brands. Discuss different between blood coagulation analyzer test results are comparable or check whether the deviation of the results in the permitted range. Method:collecting 112 cases of fresh plasma specimens, using ACL ADVANCE and Sysmex CA7000 two kinds of blood coagulation analyzer, respectively prothrombin time (PT), activated partial prothrombin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and fibrinogen (FIB), and compare the results, to medical decision level of judging system error detection system for clinical result, and calculate the two blood coagulation instrument testing results of the correlation coefficient and linear regression equation. Results:the ACL ADVANCE and Sysmex CA7000 blood coagulation analyzer test of PT, APTT, TT and FIB result comparison, there were no statistically significant difference (t=0.974, t=0.649, t=0.765, t=1.163;P>0.05), the correlation coefficient respectively;Medical decision level of system error were less than half the total margin of error. Conclusion:to the ACL ADVANCE as standard test system, Sysmex CA7000 determination results have clinical acceptability, two blood coagulation test results with good correlation. Should be conducted on a regular basis in the same laboratory coagulation analyzer compares different experiments, to ensure the comparability of the same in the laboratory test results.%目的:通过对同一临床实验室不同品牌的全自动血凝分析仪进行方法对比,探讨不同血凝分析仪之间检测结果是否具有可比性,或检测结果的偏差是否在允许的范围内。方法:收集112例新鲜血浆标本,采用ACL ADVANCE和Sysmex CA7000两种凝血分析仪,分别测定凝血酶原时间(PT)、活化部分凝血酶原时间(APTT)、凝血酶时间(TT)和纤维蛋白原(FIB),并比对结果,以医学决定水平的系统误差来判断检测系统

  20. [Comparative blood coagulation studies in PGF2a- and 15-methyl-PGF2a-induced therapeutic abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    During, R; Junge, W D; Klausch, B

    1980-01-01

    In 15 pregnant women of the first trimenon of gravidity an interruption was performed by means of extra-amnial application of PGF2a and in 10 pregnant women by means of i. m. application of 15-methyl-PGF2a. Bleeding time, recalcification time, number of thrombocytes, heat fibrin, and thrombocyte adhesiveness were determined before, during and after treatment. Statistically significant changes could be observed during bleeding time, heat fibrin, and thrombocyte number. The investigations of coagulation, however, did not reveal any considerable impairment of the coagulation system, thus confirming the positive evaluation of prostaglandines used for therapeutic induction of abortion.

  1. Thromboelastometry in patients with severe sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivula, Mirka; Pettilä, Ville; Niemi, Tomi T; Varpula, Marjut; Kuitunen, Anne H

    2009-09-01

    Severe sepsis induces coagulopathy, which may lead to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Thromboelastometry is a point-of-care whole blood coagulation monitor, which has been validated in human endotoxemia model. We assessed thromboelastometry in severe sepsis and overt DIC and investigated its applicability in differentiating sepsis-related coagulation disturbances. Thromboelastometry (EXTEM and FIBTEM tests) and traditional coagulation assays were analyzed in 28 patients with severe sepsis, 12 of who fulfilled the criteria of overt DIC on admission. Ten healthy persons served as controls. Coagulation parameters, clotting time, clot formation time (CFT), alpha angle, maximal clot firmness (MCF) and lysis index at 60 min, were registered. In patients with overt DIC, EXTEM MCF, CFT and alpha angle differed from that in both healthy controls and patients without DIC, indicating hypocoagulation (MCF 52, 63 and 68 mm; CFT 184, 88 and 73 s; and alpha angle 58, 72 and 76 degrees , respectively, P coagulation assays showed progressively worsening coagulopathy from controls to septic patients without DIC and further to those with overt DIC. We conclude that thromboelastometry may be a valuable tool in assessing whole blood coagulation capacity in patients with severe sepsis with and without overt DIC.

  2. 21 CFR 640.33 - Testing the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.33 Section 640.33 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.33 Testing the blood. (a) Blood...

  3. Gas exchange and the coagulation system of the blood during the effect on the body of high concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosh, L.; Agadzhanyan, N. A.; Davydov, G. A.; Rybakov, B. K.; Sergiyenko, A. S.

    1974-01-01

    Maximum permissible concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide in a controlled atmosphere were determined by evaluating their effects on human gas exchange, blood coagulation, and tolerances to acute hypoxia, acceleration, and physical loads. It was found that functional disturbances depend on the concentration of respiratory gases and the length of stay in an altered atmosphere. By changing the atmospheric composition and by bringing the gaseous environment into accordance with the work and rest regimen and energy expenditures, the general reactivity of the body changes favorably.

  4. 肺癌患者凝血功能与肺癌分期的关系%The Relationship Between Blood Coagulation Function and Lung Cancer Staging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丽钦; 钟可芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between the function of blood coagulation in patients with lung cancer and lung cancer staging. Methods EIISA assay for detection of 140 cases of advanced malignant tumor patients and 30 cases of normal human blood coagulation and anticoagulation activity related to laboratory indexes, including plasma fibrinogen ( Fb) , antithrombin III( AT-III) , von Willebrand factor ( Vwf ) , D-D ( D-dimer ). Results The patients with advanced malignant plasma D- dimer, fibrinogen, thrombin antithrombin III and von Willebrand factor antigen levels were significantly elevated and indexes in patients with lung cancer clinical staging with increased. Conclusion The patients with lung cancer usually presence of coagulation, anticoagulation and activation of fibrinolytic system, exists high coagulation state, thus, high coagulation state and clinical staging of lung cancer was positively related to.%目的 探讨肺癌患者凝血功能与肺癌分期的关系.方法 采用ELISA、免疫比浊法检测140例晚期恶性肿瘤患者和30例正常人的凝血、抗凝活性相关的实验室指标,包括血浆纤维蛋白原( Fb),抗凝血酶Ⅲ (AT-Ⅲ),血管性血友病因子 ( vWF),D-二聚体( D-D).结果 晚期恶性肿瘤患者的血浆D-D、Fb、AT-Ⅲ、vWF抗原的水平较正常人显著升高;在肺癌Ⅲ期、Ⅳ期与Ⅰ期相比明显增高(P<0.05),差异有统计学意义;Ⅱ期与Ⅰ期相比增高不明显(P>0.05),差异没有统计学意义.结论 肺癌患者存在凝血、抗凝、纤溶系统的激活,机体呈现高凝状态,并且高凝状态与肺癌临床分期呈正相关.

  5. 21 CFR 640.5 - Testing the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.5 Section 640.5 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.5 Testing the blood. All laboratory tests shall be made on a specimen of blood taken from the donor at the time of collecting the unit...

  6. Clinical Analysis of the First Coagulation Test Abnormality in 32 Patients with Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation%32例弥散性血管内凝血患者首次凝血检验异常分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋剑玲; 董雪琴

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the test results for the first time in patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation.Methods Comparative observation group (n=32) and control group (n=73) of coagulation index.Results Statistical y significant dif erence between the two groups in coagulation index level ( <0.05).Conclusion DIC patients with first coagulation test indexes were significantly abnormal,can be used as a diagnostic index.%目的分析弥散性血管内凝血(dis eminated intarvaseulareoagulatino,DCI)患者首次凝血检验结果。方法取显性DIC患者32例纳入观察组,非显性DCI患者73例纳入对照组,对比两组患者凝血指标。结果观察组与对照组各凝血指标水平差异具有统计学意义(<0.05)。结论 DIC患者首次凝血检验各指标均呈明显异常;FIB可作为DIC诊断指标、PLT诊断符合率较高,联合诊断有助于诊断效用。

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of blood coagulation factor V-activating proteinase (RVV-V) from Russell’s viper venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of blood coagulation factor V-activating proteinase are reported. The best crystal diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution. Russell’s viper venom blood coagulation factor V activator (RVV-V) is a thrombin-like serine proteinase that specifically activates factor V by cleaving a single peptide bond between Arg1545 and Ser1546. Activated factor V combines with activated factor X produced by the enzyme RVV-X in the venom to form the prothombinase complex, which can induce disseminated intravascular coagulopathy in envenomated animals. In the current study, RVV-V was crystallized in order to attempt to understand its substrate specificity for factor V. Four distinct crystal forms of RVV-V were obtained using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffraction data sets were collected on SPring-8 beamlines. The best crystal of RVV-V generated data sets to 1.9 Å resolution

  8. Systemic coagulation parameters in mice after treatment with vascular targeting agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gottstein Claudia

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular targeting of malignant tumors has become a clinically validated new treatment approach with clear patient benefit. However clinical studies have also revealed that some types of vascular targeting agents (VTAs are prone to coagulation system side effects. It is therefore essential to predetermine coagulation parameters in preclinical studies. As of to date, this has rarely been done, predominantly due to technical issues. The goal of this study was to establish and apply a standardized process, whereby systemic coagulation activation can be routinely measured in mice. Results We have evaluated a number of sampling techniques and coagulation tests regarding their suitability for this purpose. We were able to adapt two assays measuring soluble fibrin, a marker for a prethrombotic status. Thus, soluble fibrin could be measured for the first time in mice. All assays were validated in a positive control model for systemic coagulation activation, i.e. lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia. Based on our results, we selected a panel of coagulation tests, which are both feasable and informative for preclinical testing of VTAs: soluble fibrin, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, free antithrombin III, white blood cell counts and platelet counts. The effect of tumor transplants on coagulation parameters was evaluated using this panel. We then applied this set of assays in treatment studies with a VTA developed in our laboratory to investigate a potential systemic coagulation activation. Conclusion We have established a standardized panel of assays that can be used to test murine blood samples for coagulation activation in preclinical studies. All tests are feasible to perform in any research laboratory without specialized equipment. In addition, this is the first report to measure soluble fibrin, an early marker of systemic coagulation activation, in mice. The panel was applied on tumor bearing mice and mice treated with a VTA

  9. 21 CFR 862.1130 - Blood volume test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood volume test system. 862.1130 Section 862...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1130 Blood volume test system. (a) Identification. A blood volume test system is a device intended...

  10. 21 CFR 640.23 - Testing the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.23 Section 640.23 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Platelets § 640.23 Testing the blood. (a) Blood from... this chapter and § 640.5 (a), (b), and (c). (b) The tests shall be performed on a sample of...

  11. Coagulation parameters as a guide for fresh frozen plasma transfusion practice: A tertiary hospital experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Haslindawani W

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The appropriate use of blood and blood products means the transfusion of safe blood products only to treat a condition leading to significant morbidity or mortality, which cannot be prevented or managed effectively by other means. The safety and effectiveness of transfusion depend on the appropriate clinical use of blood and blood products. This study was conducted to review the practice of fresh frozen plasma usage (FFP for transfusion, based on the coagulation profile, requested by various departments in the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM. Methodology: A retrospective review of blood bank records and coagulation profile results of the patients given FFP from October to December 2006, in Hospital USM was undertaken. The criteria set by the College of American Pathologists in 1994, were used as the guidelines. Results: One thousand six hundred and ninety-eight units of FFP were used during this study period. Only 806 (47.47% FFP units were deemed appropriate. 20.38% were based on studies without any coagulation tests prior to transfusion and 21.13% were transfused for mild prolongation of coagulation test results. About 6.41% requested FFP in the setting of normal coagulation results. Conclusion: Our results showed that a significant proportion of the FFP transfusion was not guided by the coagulation profile. We recommend that a continuous education on FFP transfusion may help to guide the appropriate request for FFP.

  12. AIDS患者凝血功能检测的临床探索%Explore the AIDS Clinical Testing in Patients with Coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕青; 荣维江

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究探讨AIDS患者的治疗对其凝血功能的影响。方法选取我院收治的AIDS患者32例作为研究对象,将其作为观察组,同时选择自愿参与实验研究的健康受试者40例作为对照组,对两组受试者的凝血功能进行检测,对比较其血液中血小板、D-二聚体、血浆纤维蛋白原的水平以及血浆凝血酶原时间、活化部分凝血酶时间等相关指标,分析高效抗逆转录病毒联合治疗对AIDS患者凝血功能的影响情况。结果凝血各项相关检查指标的比较显示,观察组AIDS患者的D-二聚体、血浆纤维蛋白原的水平以及血浆凝血酶原时间、活化部分凝血酶时间等显著高于健康对照组的受试者,而血小板参数显著低于对照组受试者,各项凝血检查指标之间的比较均差异显著,且P<0.05,具有统计学意义。结论高效抗逆转录病毒联合治疗艾滋病会导致患者血液处于严重高凝状态,因而在临床要考虑联合抗凝血药物进行治疗。%Objective Study investigated the effects of AIDS patients treated its clotting function. Methods Select the AIDS patients in our hospital 32 cases as a research object, as in the observation group, while voluntarily participating in the experiment studied 40 cases of healthy subjects as the control group, two groups of subjects coagulation testing, comparative their blood platelets, D-dimer, ifbrinogen levels and prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and other related indicators, the analysis of highly active antiretroviral combination therapy for AIDS patients affect coagulation situation. Results Compare coagulation indicators show the relevant checks, signiifcantly higher than the healthy control group subjects AIDS patients in the observation group D-dimer, ifbrinogen levels and prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and platelet parameters were signiifcantly lower than control subjects

  13. A comparative study of the effect of continuous combined conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate and tibolone on blood coagulability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, SO; Sidelmann, JJ; Nilas, Lisbeth;

    2007-01-01

    in the tibolone group than in the CEE/MPA group. Both doses of tibolone increased APC-R significantly (P pathway inhibitor (TFPI) was lower in the CEE/MPA group than in the tibolone group (67.8 versus 79.9 ng ml(-1); P = 0.03). CEE/MPA reduced the concentration of antithrombin (P = 0.......002), protein S (P coagulability than CEE/MPA and has a potentially favourable effect on APC-R. This may translate...

  14. Effects of different progestin regimens in hormone replacement therapy on blood coagulation factor VII and tissue factor pathway inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Skouby, S O.; Andersen, L F;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT) reduces cardiovascular risk, but an early increased risk was reported in women with coronary heart disease. In such women the arterial intima can express tissue factor, and changes in coagulation factor VII (factor VII) and tissue factor...... pathway inhibitor (TFPI) may be deleterious. METHODS: We measured factor VII clotting activity, activated factor VII, and concentrations of factor VII and TFPI during 12 months in healthy post-menopausal women randomized to: (i). cyclic oral estrogen/progestin (n = 25); (ii). long-cycle oral estrogen...

  15. Observation in vitro of ulinastatin on human blood coagulation%乌司他丁对人凝血功能影响的体外观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐震; 王卓强; 刘秀珍; 张斌; 王恒林; 范里莉

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of ulinastatin on blood coagulation in vitro. Methods Ulinastatin was mixed with venous blood samples obtained from 16 healthy adult volunteers to reach the plasma concentration of 25U/ml, 50U/ml, 75U/ml,100U/ml and 200U/ml, respectively. Coagulation function was measured with Sonoclot coagulation and platelet function analyzer. The parameters measured included activated clotting time (ACT), clot rate (CR) and platelet function (PF). Blood sample without ulinastatin treatment was taken as control group. Results Compared with control value, no significant difference of ACT was observed in 25U/ml, 50U/ml and 75U/ml of ulinastatin treated groups (P>0. 05), while in 100U/ml and 200U/ml groups, ACT was significantly prolonged (P0. 05). Similarly, PF in 25U/ml and 50U/ml groups showed no significant difference compared with that in control group (P>0.05) , while in 75U/ml,100U/ml and 200U/ml groups, PF decreased significantly (P0.05),而:100、200U/ml组ACT较对照组显著延长(.P0.05);25、50tJ/ml组PF与对照组比较无显著差异(P>0.05),而75、100、200[J/IIll组PF均显著低于对照组(P<0.05).结论 乌司他丁在全血中的浓度达到100[J/rnl以上时,能有效地延迟内源性凝血通路的活化,并在一定程度上抑制血小板功能,从而延缓病理性凝血过程的出现,改善大型手术围术期凝血功能.

  16. 常见影响凝血四项检测结果的因素%Common Factors affect the Test Results of Coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金卫华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the blood specimen col ection, transport, storage time on four items of blood coagulation determination were investigated. Methods: the prothrombin time for some this wil be found in the work of the common influencing factors (PT), fibrinogen (FIB), activated partial thromboplastin time (AFTT) and thrombin time (determination of TT). Results:the status of the instrument has a direct impact on the experimental results, the accuracy of operator's ability and the sense of responsibility for the result plays an important role. Conclusion:strict control of blood with anticoagulant ratio, avoid using glass tube, in pay at ention to every detail and at ention, to ensure the accuracy of test results, the reliability and authenticity.%目的:观察血液标本、采集、运送、放置时间对凝血四项测定结果的影响。方法本文将在工作中发现的一些常见影响因素进行凝血酶原时间(PT),纤维蛋白原(FIB),活化部分凝血活酶时间(AFTT)和凝血酶时间(TT)测定。结果仪器状态的好坏直接影响实验的结果,操作人员的能力及责任心对于结果的准确性起至关重要的作用。结论严格控制血液与抗凝剂比例,忌用玻璃管,检测中重视每一个细小环节并加以注意,才能保证检测结果的准确性、可靠性和真实性。

  17. COAGULATION ACTIVITY IN LIVER DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sheikh Sajjadieh Mohammad Reza

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Patients with advanced hepatic failure may present with the entire spectrum of coagulation factor deficiencies. This study was designed to determine laboratory abnormalities in coagulation in chronic liver disease and the association of these abnormalities with the extent of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Coagulation markers were assayed in 60 participants: 20 patients with chronic hepatitis, 20 patients with cirrhosis, and 20 healthy individuals (control. Plasma levels of anti-thrombin III were determined by a chromogenic substrate method, and plasma concentrations of fibrinogen were analyzed by the Rutberg method. Commercially available assays were used for laboratory coagulation tests. The levels of coagualation activity markers in patients with chronic liver disease were significantly different in comparison to those in healthy participants. These results indicate the utility of measuring markers for coagulation activity in determining which cirrhosis patients are more susceptible to disseminated intravascular coagulation.

  18. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    A critical component of the DNA Medicine Institute's Reusable Handheld Electrolyte and Lab Technology for Humans (rHEALTH) sensor are nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, that enable multiplexed blood analysis. Nanostrips are conceptually similar to the standard urinalysis test strip, but the strips are shrunk down a billionfold to the microscale. Each nanostrip can have several sensor pads that fluoresce in response to different targets in a sample. The strips carry identification tags that permit differentiation of a specific panel from hundreds of other nanostrip panels during a single measurement session. In Phase I of the project, the company fabricated, tested, and demonstrated functional parathyroid hormone and vitamin D nanostrips for bone metabolism, and thrombin aptamer and immunoglobulin G antibody nanostrips. In Phase II, numerous nanostrips were developed to address key space flight-based medical needs: assessment of bone metabolism, immune response, cardiac status, liver metabolism, and lipid profiles. This unique approach holds genuine promise for space-based portable biodiagnostics and for point-of-care (POC) health monitoring and diagnostics here on Earth.

  19. 分娩方式与不同体重新生儿凝血四项的研究%Study on 4 items of blood coagulation in neonates with childbirth fashions and different body weights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伟东; 梁贵方; 郭小芳; 方文; 梁永钊; 胡玉转; 何美巧

    2012-01-01

    Objective To probe into the relationship among the 4 items of blood coagulation with the childbirth fashions and the body weights in neonates.The clinical reference basis was provided to analyze the blood coagulation physiology and influence factors in neonates.Methods The 4 items of blood coagulation,which included prothrombin time (PT),activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT),fibrinogen (FIB) and thrombin time (TT),were determined in plasma for 644 neonates with different childbirth fashions and different body weights.Results Compared with control group,the 4 items of blood coagulation in the first groups (<1500 g) of natural childbirth and caesarean section group for neonates with different body weights were all obviously extended (P<0.01); PT,APTT was extended (P<0.05) and TT,FIB was not apparently changed (P>0.05) for second group (1500~2500 g),the 4 items of blood coagulation were all not apparendy changed (P>0.05) for fourth group (>4000 g).First group of to cut the belly open childbirth was compared with first group of natural childbirth,PT,APTT is extended (P<0.05) and TT,FIB is not changed (P>0.05).The 4 items of blood coagulation are not apparently changed (P>0.05) for other corresponding body weights in caesarean section group and natural childbirth.Conclusions The 4 items of blood coagulation of neonates are affected by body weights.The smaller the body weights,the longer time of the blood coagulation.The blood coagulation times gradually shorten with the increasing body weight,but with FIB gradually increased.The childbirth fashions affect the blood coagulation neonates with the weight <1500 g.%目的 探讨新生儿凝血四项功能与分娩方式、体重的关系,分析新生儿凝血生理及其影响因素,为临床提供参考依据.方法 取644例不同分娩方式和体重的新生儿的血浆进行凝血四项即凝血酶原时间(PT)、活化部分凝血活酶时间(APTT)、纤维蛋白原(FIB)和凝

  20. Interpreting coagulation assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David

    2010-09-01

    The interpretation of coagulation assays requires knowledge of the principal clotting pathways. The activated partial thromboplastin time is sensitive to all hemostatic factors except FVII, whereas the prothrombin time reflects levels of prothrombin and FV, FVII, and FX. Using the two tests in concert is helpful in identifying hemophilia, the coagulopathy of liver disease, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. In addition, the activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time are used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with heparin and warfarin, respectively. Measurement of D-dimer is informative in patients suspected of having thrombotic disorders and determining the risk of thrombosis recurrence. Mixing tests distinguish clotting factor deficiencies from circulating anticoagulants such as heparin, the lupus anticoagulant, and antibodies directed against specific clotting factors. The modified Bethesda assay detects and provides an indication of the strength of FVIII inhibitors. However, interpreting the results of coagulation assays is not always straightforward, and expert consultation is occasionally required to resolve difficult clinical situations. PMID:20855988

  1. SC response characteristics of two kinds of coagulant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨万东; 宋爽; 史惠祥

    2002-01-01

    Automatic coagulant dosage control with streaming current (SC) technique is in troduced inthis paper. Aluminum and ferric coagulants are widely used in surface water treatment. The SC response characteristics of P-AiCI3 aluminum coagulant and P-FeCI3 ferric coagulant were investigated in this work. Bench-scale water treatment results were obtained from jar tests including rapid mixing,flocculation and undisturbed sedimentation. Results showed that aluminum coagulant is more sensitive than ferric coagulant to SC response.

  2. SC response characteristics of two kinds of coagulant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨万东; 宋爽; 史惠祥

    2002-01-01

    Automatic coagulant dosage control with streaming current (SC) technique is introduced in this paper. Aluminum and ferric coagulants are widely used in surface water treatment. The SC response characteristics of P-AlCl3 aluminum coagulant and P-FeCl3 ferric coagulant were investigated in this work. Bench-scale water treatment results were obtained from jar tests including rapid mixing, flocculation and undisturbed sedimentation. Results showed that aluminum coagulant is more sensitive than ferric coagulant to SC response.

  3. 不同全自动凝血仪检测结果的分析研究%Comparative Analysis of Results with Different Automatic Blood Coagulation Analyzers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 刘文康; 詹颉; 解娟; 李博; 任健康

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨不同全自动凝血分析仪检测结果是否具有可比性,同时对其检测结果临床可接受性进行评估,使不同全自动凝血分析仪检测结果标准化.方法:连续30天用SYSMEX CA- 1500及CA-7000全自动凝血分析仪同时检测并比对仪器配套定值质控物的PT、INR、APTT、FIB、TT值;同时连续30天利用两台仪器检测并对比新鲜血标本的PT、INR、APTT、FIB、TT值.结果:SYSMEX CA- 1500及CA-7000日间质控物各检测项目:PT、INR、APTT、FIB、TT变异系数均小于5%.CA- 1500及CA-7000全自动凝血分析仪检测新鲜血标本:PT、INR、APTT、FIB、TT统计分析结果,t检验其P值均>0.05;相关系数r在0.993-0.999之间;两台仪器的偏差均符合1/2美国CLIA’88能力验证分析质量要求.结论:两台仪器PT、INR、APTT、FIB、TT的检测结果具有很好的相关性,经统计分析两台仪器检测结果无统计学意义.对不同凝血分析仪进行比对分析,不仅能够及时发现仪器存在的系统误差.而且使其检测结果具有很好的一致性,给临床可提供一个准确、可靠一致的实验室检测结果,使临床对疾病的诊断、疗效观察有一个统一的评判标准.%Objective: The purpose of our study was to analyze results comparability with different automatic blood coagulation analyzers and to estimate clinical acceptability in order to standardize the results with different automatic blood coagulation analyzers. Methods:The values of PT, INR, APTT, FIB and TT were obtained and compared in fresh blood samples and quality controls with instrument matching definite values with SYSMEX CA-1500 and CA-7000 analyzers for 30 days continuously. Results: The coefficient of variations of values of PT, INR, APTT, FIB and TT in inter-day quality controls with SYSMEX CA-1500 and CA-7000 were all less than 5%. Statistical analysis on values of PT, INR, APTT, FIB and TT in fresh blood samples with CA-1500 and CA-7000 analyzers

  4. Investigation on change regulation of blood coagulation function before and after treatment of snake bite patients%凝血功能在毒蛇咬伤治疗前后变化规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁剑宁; 唐荣德; 张跃; 陈森雄; 张冠新; 郭伟文; 曾燕玲

    2015-01-01

    coagulation indexes were determined before and after treatment various pe‐riods for these patients .The tested results were made to statistical analysis according to kind of snakes ,periods and disease condi‐tion .Results D‐D level obvious .rise before treatment for the severe cases patients of coral snake bite (P0 .05) before and after treatment ,only D‐D level of the severe cases had statistical significance before treat‐ment in contrast to the mild cases of cobra bite (P< 0 .05) .The changes of 5 item blood coagulation indexes were all very large whether mild or severe for viper bite patients ,a number of comparisons had statistical significance difference (P<0 .05) whether before or after treatment and whether mild or severe for viper bite patients .Conclusion The bite of coral snake ,cobra and king co‐bra affect little for the blood coagulation function .The severe cases patients of trimeresurus stejnegeri bite might lead to more seri‐ous blood coagulation function abnormality but the recovery is faster after treatment .The viper bite might lead to maximum blood coagulation function abnormality and the recovery is slow after treatment .

  5. Effects of Xuezhikang Capsule(血脂康胶囊) on Blood Lipids,Platelet Activation and Coagulation-Fibrinolysis Activity in Patients with Hyperlipidemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志高; 余细勇

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of Xuezhikang capsule (XZK, 血脂康胶囊) on blood lipids level, platelet activation and coagulation-fibrinolysis activity in patients with hyerlipidemia. Methods:Seventy-six patients of hyperlipidemia were randomly divided into two groups, the XZK group (n = 38) treated with XZK 600mg, taken two times per day and the Simvastatin (SIM) group (n = 38) treated with SIM 20mg per day, with the treatment lasting 8 weeks for both groups. Levels of fasting serum lipids, including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high and low density l ipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C),plasma GMP-140, fibrinogen (FIB), tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAl-) and prothrombin time (PT) were all measured before and 8 weeks after treatment. Data were compared before and after treatment and also compared with those measured in 20 healthy subjects of control. Results: Before treantment the levels of TC, TG and LDL-C were obviously higher and HDL-C level was significantly lower in hyperlipidemia patients than those in healthy subjects ( P<0.05 or P<0.01). After 4-8 weeks of XZK treatment, the levels of TC, TG, LDL-C and FIB and activities of GMP-140 and PAl-1 were obviously lowered (P<0.05 or P<0.01). But in the SIM group there was no obvious change in FIB (P>0.05), instead it showed obvious increase of HDL-C and decrease of TC and LDL-C after treatment ( P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion: XZK could inhibit platelet activity and improve coagulation-fibrinolysis function, besides its lipids lowering effect.

  6. Momordica charantia seed extract exhibits strong anticoagulant effect by specifically interfering in intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation and dissolves fibrin clot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjappa, Bhagyalakshmi; Gangaraju, Sowmyashree; Girish, Kesturu S; Kemparaju, Kempaiah; Gonchigar, Sathish J; Shankar, Rohit L; Shinde, Manohar; Sannaningaiah, Devaraja

    2015-03-01

    The current study explores the anticoagulant and fibrin clot-hydrolyzing properties of Momordica charantia seed extract (MCSE). MCSE hydrolyzed casein with the specific activity of 0.780 units/mg per min. Interestingly, it enhanced the clot formation process of citrated human plasma from control 146 to 432 s. In addition, the intravenous injection of MCSE significantly prolonged the bleeding time in a dose-dependent manner from control 150 to more than 800 s, and strengthened its anticoagulant activity. Interestingly, MCSE specifically prolonged the clotting time of only activated partial thromboplastin time, but not prothrombin time, and revealed the participation of MCSE in the intrinsic pathway of the blood coagulation cascade. Furthermore, MCSE completely hydrolyzed both Aα and Bβ chains of the human fibrinogen and partially hydrolyzed the γ chain. However, it hydrolyzed all the chains (α polymer, α chain, β chain and γ-γ dimmers) of partially cross-linked human fibrin clot. The proteolytic activity followed by the anticoagulant effect of the MCSE was completely abolished by the 1,10-phenanthroline and phenyl methyl sulphonyl fluoride, but iodoacetic acid, EDTA, and ethylene glycol-N,N,N',N'-tetra acetic acid did not. Curiously, MCSE did not hydrolyze any other plasma proteins except the plasma fibrinogen. Moreover, MCSE was devoid of RBC lysis, edema and hemorrhagic properties, suggesting its nontoxic nature. Taken together, MCSE may be a valuable candidate in the treatment of blood clot/thrombotic disorders. PMID:25192240

  7. 基于锥板磁珠法的全自动凝血分析仪应用评价%Based on the Cone Board Magnetic Beads Method of the Full-Automatic Blood Coagulation Analyzer Application Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海; 邸平; 乐家新; 李健

    2012-01-01

    rate of Fbg is 1.08% ;PT,INR,aPTT,Fbg,TT measurement results with the French STA-B coagulation analyzer on the closely related ,r are:0. 995,0. 995,0. 947,0. 962,0. 984; Compared with the French STA-R coagulation analyzer,D- dimer positive coincidence rate is 96.9%. The anti-interference ability without the influence of jaundice, chylus.hemolysis, opacity and other optical interference ; Linear range is wider. Conclusion Destiny Max full- automatic blood coagulation analyzer accuracy of performance, machine structure is rigorous,reasonable design,high testing speed,simple operation,and you can make fast and accurate clinical blood analysis report.

  8. Thromboelastometry (TEM) findings in disseminated intravascular coagulation in a pig model of endotoxinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöchl, Herbert; Solomon, Cristina; Schulz, Arthur; Voelckel, Wolfgang; Hanke, Alexander; Van Griensven, Martijn; Redl, Heinz; Bahrami, Soheyl

    2011-01-01

    Standard coagulation tests have a low specificity and sensitivity for diagnosing disseminated intravascular coagulation. The aim of this study was to determine whether whole blood thromboelastometry (TEM) detects lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced changes in coagulation. Blood samples from 10 pigs were drawn at baseline, before and at the end of LPS infusion and 2, 3, 4 and 5 h after the start of endotoxinemia. Simultaneous to TEM, standard coagulation tests and extended coagulation analysis including tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) were performed. Endotoxinemia resulted in a significant acceleration of the nonactivated TEM (NATEM) clotting time 2 h after the end of LPS infusion; in contrast, the changes in international normalized ratio and activated partial thromboplastin time suggested delayed initiation of coagulation. NATEM maximum clot firmness (MCF) and fibrin-based thromboelastometry test (FIBTEM)-MCF decreased significantly from baseline until the last time point (from 64.6 ± 7.8 and 35.1 ± 12.8 mm to 52.8 ± 4.6 and 21.4 ± 11.8 mm, respectively; P = 0.01 for both parameters). A sharp, transient increase of t-PA had no effect on maximum lysis in the NATEM test. PAI-1 increased significantly 3 h after the start of LPS infusion, paralleled by a decrease in maximum lysis. In conclusion, TEM was superior to standard coagulation tests in reflecting initial activation of coagulation during endotoxinemia. TEM further suggested consumption of coagulation substrate; at the same time, inhibition of plasminogen activation was accompanied by improved clot stability. Further investigations are necessary to establish the clinical relevance of these findings.

  9. SYSMEX CS 5100全自动血凝分析仪的性能评价%Evaluation on the performance of Sysmex CS 5100 automatic blood coagulation analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 张军; 徐唯傑; 乐军; 陈晓燕; 陈晋

    2015-01-01

    目的:对Sysmex CS 5100(下简称CS 5100)全自动血凝仪进行性能评价。方法对CS 5100血凝仪的准确性、不精密度、Fg 线性(可报告范围)、参考范围、携带污染率进行评价,并与 Sysmex 公司生产的 CA 7000全自动血凝分析仪进行相关性试验,所测指标为 PT、PT(INR)、APTT、Fbg、TT、AT、D 二聚体(DD)和 FDP。结果准确性试验测定结果在质控说明书给定的范围内。批内最大变异系数(CV)与日间最大 CV 均符合符合相关行业文件要求。Fbg 线性验证试验结果显示 Fbg 线性范围为1.071~5.355,相关系数(r)值为0.9950,符合规定要求(r≥0.975)。参考范围验证试验结果显示各项检测指标 R 值均>0.9,实验室预设参考范围可适用于该仪器。CS 5100与 CA 7000的各项检测项目 r 值均>0.95,两仪器结果有很好的对比性。结论CS 5100有优异的准确性、精密度良好、Fbg 检测范围宽、抗生物干扰能力强,完全可满足临床实验室要求。%Objective To evaluate the performance of Sysmex CS 51 00 automatic blood coagulation analyzer. Methods PT,PT(INR),APTT,Fbg,TT,AT,D-dimer (DD)and FDP were measured by Sysmex CS 51 00 automatic blood coagulation analyzer.The accuracy,imprecision,Fg linearity (reportable range),reference range, carry-over rate were evaluated,and the correlation with Sysmex CA 7000 automatic blood coagulation analyzer was analyzed.Results The accuracy was in the range provided by quality control instructions.The maximum within-run and inter-day coefficients of variation met the requirements of Clia′88.Fbg linear validation test showed that the linearity of Fbg was from 1 .071 to 5.355,and the correlation coefficient (r)was 0.9950,which met the specified requirements (r≥0.975).The reference range verification tests showed that the R values of all the tests were >0.9,which proved that the laboratory preset reference range can be

  10. Test and Analysis of Coagulation Time of Four Kinds of Coagulation Factors in Captive Bred Tree Shrew and Rhesus Monkey%人工饲养树鼩和猕猴的部分凝血因子凝集时间的测定及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄璋琼; 代解杰; 孙晓梅; 李辛斌; 高家红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To test and analyze the coagulation time of four kinds of coagulation factors in healthy , captive bred tree shrew and rhesus monkey, and to establish the reference values range of coagulation factors values in the two animals. Methods Prothrombin time ( PT) , activated partial thromboplastin time ( APTT) , fibrinogen time ( FIB) , and thrombin time ( TT) of captive bred tree shrews and rhesus monkeys were tested by using the Sysmex CA-510 automated blood coagulation analyzer, then the data were analyzed in using the statistics analysis software SPSS vl7. 0. Results In Tree shrew and Rhesus monkey, TT was respectively 19. 27 s and 20. 81 s;PT was respectively 17.34 s and 9.82 s; FIB was respectively 30.51 s and 18.73s; APPT was respectively 27. 88 s and 33. 56 s. The differences in PT and FIB were highly significant(P <0. 01) between captive bred tree shrew and rhesus monkey;and the differences in TT and APTT were also statistical significant(P <0. 05) between the captive bred tree shrew and the rhesus monkey. Conclusion There were significant differences in coagulation time of the four kinds of coagulation factors between animals, but there had no differencees in the different gender of same species.%目的 目前有关人工饲养树鼩与猕猴部分凝血因子凝集时间的资料甚少,拟初步建立这两种动物部分凝血因子凝集时间的参考值范围.方法采用全自动血凝仪测定树鼩、猕猴的血浆凝血酶时间(TT)、纤维蛋白原(Fib)、活化部分凝血活酶时间(APTT)、凝血酶原时间(PT).结果树鼩的TT、PT、Fib和APTT值分别为19.27、17.34、30.51和27.88s.猕猴的TT、PT、Fib和APTT值分别为20.81、9.82、18.73和33.56 s.人工饲养树鼩与猕猴的PT值、Fib值存在显著性差异(P<0.01),APTT值、TT值存在差异(P<0.05).结论人工饲养树鼩和猕猴部分凝血因子的凝集时间存在一定差异,同一物种雌雄个体间部分凝血因子的凝集时间没有明显差异.

  11. Random blood glucose testing in dental practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barasch, Andrei; Safford, Monika M; Qvist, Vibeke;

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasing. Instances of patients' not having received a diagnosis have been reported widely, as have instances of poor control of DM or prediabetes among patient's who have the disease. These facts indicate that blood glucose screening is needed....

  12. Automated nucleic acid amplification testing in blood banks: An additional layer of blood safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati Chigurupati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: A total of 30 million blood components are transfused each year in India. Blood safety thus becomes a top priority, especially with a population of around 1.23 billion and a high prevalence rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV in general population. Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT in blood donor screening has been implemented in many developed countries to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections (TTIs. NAT takes care of the dynamics of window period of viruses and offers the safest blood pack for donation. Aims: The aim of this study is to show the value of NAT in blood screening. Settings and Design: Dhanavantari Blood Bank, Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, India. Subjects and Methods: Over a period of 1 year from January 2012 to December 2012, a total number of 15,000 blood donor samples were subjected to tests for HIV, HBV, and HCV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method and 8000 ELISA nonreactive samples were subjected for NAT using multiplex polymerase chain reaction technology. Results: Of the 15,000 donors tested, 525 were seroreactive. In 8000 ELISA negative blood samples subjected to NAT, 4 donor samples were reactive for HBV. The NAT yield was 1 in 2000. Conclusions: NAT could detect HIV, HBV, and HCV cases in blood donor samples those were undetected by serological tests. NAT could interdict 2500 infectious donations among our approximate 5 million annual blood donations.

  13. Effects of three novel metalloproteinases from the venom of the West African saw-scaled viper, Echis ocellatus on blood coagulation and platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, J-M; Kamiguti, A S; Theakston, R D G; Wilkinson, M C; Laing, G D

    2005-06-20

    Two metalloproteinases, a 24-kDa P-I EoVMP1 and a 56-kDa P-III EoVMP2, have recently been isolated from the venom of the West African saw-scaled viper Echis ocellatus. We now reveal a new 65-kDa haemorrhagic group P-III metalloproteinase which we have designated EoVMP3. The aim of this study was to determine whether these three snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) affect platelets and blood coagulation. EoVMP1 had no effect on the aggregation of washed human platelets, whereas EoVMP2 inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation. In contrast, EoVMP3 did not inhibit the aggregation of platelets by collagen but instead activated platelets in the absence of any additional co-factors. All three SVMPs were capable of activating prothrombin to varying degrees and can therefore be described as procoagulants. EoVMP1, EoVMP2 and EoVMP3 share sequence identity with other members of the reprolysin family, but differ greatly in their effects on some of the components that control haemostasis. PMID:15863354

  14. Skeletal muscle-specific expression of human blood coagulation factor Ⅸ rescues factor Ⅸ deficiency mouse by AAV-mediated gene transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖立辉; 陈立; 卢大儒; 王琪; 高啸波; 邱信芳; Jerry; L.Hsueh; 薛京伦; 王健民; 周虹

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector to deliver and express human blood clotting factor DC (hFIX) gene in skeletal muscle of coagulation factor IX deficiency mouse strain (FactorIX-knockout) is e-valuated. The muscle creatine kinase enhancer (MCK) and βactin promoter ((3A) were used to drive the hFIX minigene (hFIXml), which was flanked by AAV inverted terminal repeats (ITRs). Following intramuscular injection of high liter (2.5 x 1011 vector genomes/mL) of AAV, increased hFIX expression (256 ng/mL of plasma) was achieved. The time course of hFIX expression demonstrated that the expression level gradually increased over a period of two weeks before anti-hFIX antibodies developed in mouse circulating plasma. Those results provided a promising evidence that rAAV-me-diated gene transfer and skeletal muscle-specific expression of hFIX is a feasible strategy for treating patients for hemophilia B.

  15. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate-specific antigen; Prostate cancer screening test; PSA ... PSA testing is an important tool for detecting prostate cancer, but it is not foolproof. Other conditions can cause a rise in PSA, including: A larger prostate ...

  16. The effects of infrasound on the blood coagulation function of guinea pigs%次声对豚鼠凝血功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文敏; 亓鹏; 张建中; 易勇; 陈兴明; 张军; 韩瑞刚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the change of the blood coagulation function of guinea pigs exposed to 16 Hz/120 dB, 16 Hz/125 dB infrasound and to explore the mechanism of circulation system damage.Methods Seventy-two guinea pigs were divided into 3 groups: the control group, the group exposed to 16 Hz/120 dB infrasound for 1.5 h a day and the group exposed to 16 Hz/125 dB infrasound for 1.5 h a day. Each exposure group was divided into 4 sub-groups (8 guinea pigs a sub-group) which were exposed to infrasound for 1, 7, 14 and 21 d, respectively. The coagulation function and serum nitric oxide (NO) were measured for control group and all sub-groups after exposure to infrasound. Results The prothrombin time (PT),international normalized ratio (INR) and serum NO of group exposed to 16 Hz/125 dB infrasound were (31.16±3.05) s, 2.53±1.21 and (88.304±52.601)μmol/L, respectively, which were significantly higher than those [(21.36±0.10) s, 1.65±0.07 and (30.943±26.864) μ mol[L] of control group (P<0.05). PT and INR of sub-groups exposed to 16 Hz/125 dB infrasound for 14 and 21 d were significantly higher than those of control group. NO of sub-groups exposed to 16 Hz/125 dB infrasound for 1 week and 2 weeks were significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.05), but NO of sub-group exposed to 16 Hz/125 dB infrasound for 3 weeks decreased slightly. Conclusion The blood coagulation function of guinea pigs exposed to 16 Hz/125 dB infrasound decreased, PT and INR may be used as the indexes to assess of blood coagulation function change induced by the infrasound exposure.%目的 研究16 Hz、120 dB,16 Hz、125 dB次声暴露后豚鼠凝血功能的变化规律,探讨次声造成生物体循环系统损害的机制.方法 将豚鼠分为对照组及16 Hz、120 dB,16 Hz、125 dB 2个暴露组,每个暴露组均按暴露时间再分成1、7、14、21 d 4个时间亚组,每个亚组8只豚鼠.各个暴露亚组每日暴露1.5 h,分别连续暴露相应的天数后抽取血

  17. Size-Resolved Ultrafine Particle Deposition and Brownian Coagulation from Gasoline Vehicle Exhaust in an Environmental Test Chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Jianing

    2015-10-20

    Size-resolved deposition rates and Brownian coagulation of particles between 20 and 900 nm (mobility diameter) were estimated in a well-mixed environmental chamber from a gasoline vehicle exhaust with a total peak particle concentration of 10(5)-10(6) particles/cm(3) at 12.24-25.22 °C. A deposition theory with modified friction velocity and coagulation model was also employed to predict particle concentration decay. Initially during particle decay, approximately 85% or more of the particles had diameters of vehicle exhaust particle dynamics and assess human exposure to vehicle particle pollutants in urban areas, tunnels, and underground parking lots.

  18. Analysis of blood transfusion in the treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation secondary to severe placental abruption%限制性成分输血在重型胎盘早剥合并弥漫性血管内凝血救治中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉英; 范琦慧; 陈安儿; 张霞珍

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨重型胎盘早剥合并弥漫性血管内凝血( DIC)的输血策略.方法 回顾性分析宁波市妇女儿童医院2003年1月至2010年12月30例在终止妊娠和产科止血的基础上采用了限制性成分输血治疗的重型胎盘早剥合并DIC患者的临床资料,记录产后出血量、输血的种类及数量、止血时间、妊娠结局,治疗前后血液学指标变化.结果 30例患者均抢救成功,28例保全子宫,凝血功能逐渐好转,出血逐渐停止,止血时间中位数3.45(3 ~7)h,无明显并发症.输注红细胞前平均血红蛋白质量浓度(Hb)( 75.36±7.39) g/L,输注红细胞24 h后平均Hb(97.30±6.26)g/L,两者差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),97%的输血前Hb质量浓度和95%的输血后Hb质量浓度符合推荐标准.结论 限制性成分输血可有效利用血液,改善凝血功能,帮助止血,是重型胎盘早剥合并DIC救治成功的关键措施.%Objective To explore the strategy of blood transfusion in disseminated intravascular coagulation secondary to severe placenta! Abruption. Method Between Jan. 2003 to Dec. 2010, 30 patients with disseminated coagulation secondary to severe placental abruption underwent blood component transfusion in Women and Children Hospital of Ningbo were analyzed retrospectively. Based on ending pregnancy and obstetric haemostasis, a restrictive blood component transfusion strategy was adopted in all of the cases. The amount of postpartum hemorrhage,the time of hemorrhage stop,the kinds and amount of blood products tansfused, the outcome of the pregnancies and the result of Routine blood test and Routine coagulation test before the transfusion and after the transfusion were recorded. Results All of the cases were rescued successfully. 28 of them did not need hysterectomy. The coagulation function was improved and the haemorrhage was stopped gradually. Median hemostatic time was 3. 45 (range 3-7 ) hour. No any complication occurred on them. Mean pretranfu

  19. Characterization of the gene for the a subunit of human factor XIII (plasma transglutaminase), a blood coagulation factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichinose, A.; Davie, E.W. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1988-08-01

    Factor XIII (plasma transglutaminase, fibrin stabilizing factor) is a glycoprotein that circulates in blood as a tetramer (a{sub 2}b{sub 2}) consisting of two a and two b subunits. The primary structures of the a and b subunits of human factor XIII have been reported by a combination of cDNA cloning and amino acid sequence analysis. To establish the gene structure of the a subunit for factor XIII, several human genomic libraries were screened by using the cDNA encoding the a subunit as a probe. Among {approx}5 {times} 10{sup 7} recombinant phage, 121 have been shown to contain an insert encoding a portion of the a subunit. Twenty-five unique clones were than characterized by restriction mapping, Southern blotting, and DNA sequencing. Overlapping clones encoding the a subunit of factor XIII span >160 kilobases. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the activation peptide released by thrombin, the active site cysteine region, the two putative calcium-binding regions, and the thrombin cleavage site leading to inactivation are encoded by separate exons. This suggest that the introns may separate the a subunit into functional and structural domains. A comparison of the amino acid sequence deduced from the genomic DNA sequence with those deduced from cDNA or determined by amino acid sequence analysis of the plasma and placental proteins revealed apparent amino acid polymorphisms in six positions of the polypeptide chain of the a subunit.

  20. Blood: Tests Used to Assess the Physiological and Immunological Properties of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J. G.; Tansey, E. A.; Johnson, C. D.; Roe, S. M.; Montgomery, L. E. A.

    2016-01-01

    The properties of blood and the relative ease of access to which it can be retrieved make it an ideal source to gauge different aspects of homeostasis within an individual, form an accurate diagnosis, and formulate an appropriate treatment regime. Tests used to determine blood parameters such as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, hemoglobin…

  1. Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galactosemia screen; GALT; Gal-1-PUT ... This is a screening test for galactosemia . In normal diets, most galactose comes from the breakdown ( metabolism ) of lactose, which is found in milk and dairy products. 1 out ...

  2. Spatial coagulation with bounded coagulation rate

    CERN Document Server

    Bailleul, Ismael

    2010-01-01

    We prove that the spatial coagulation equation with bounded coagulation rate is well-posed for all times in a given class of kernels if the convection term of the underlying particle dynamics has divergence bounded above by a negative constant. Multiple coagulations, fragmentation and scattering are also considered.

  3. INFECTIOUS-DISEASE TESTING FOR BLOOD-TRANSFUSIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DESFORGES, JF; ATHARI, F; COOPER, ES; JOHNSON, CS; LEMON, SM; LINDSAY, KL; MCCULLOUGH, J; MCINTOSH, K; ROSS, RK; WHITSETT, CF; WITTES, J; WRIGHT, TL

    1995-01-01

    Objective.-To provide physicians and other transfusion medicine professionals with a current consensus on infectious disease testing for blood transfusions. Participants.-A nonfederal, nonadvocate, 12-member consensus panel representing the fields of hematology, infectious disease, transfusion medic

  4. Evaluation of Verigene Blood Culture Test Systems for Rapid Identification of Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Seok; Kang, Go-Eun; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Hyun Soo; Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Kyu Man

    2016-01-01

    The performance of molecular tests using the Verigene Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Blood Culture nucleic acid tests (BC-GP and BC-GN, resp.; Naosphere, Northbrook, IL, USA) was evaluated for the identification of microorganisms detected from blood cultures. Ninety-nine blood cultures containing Gram-positive bacteria and 150 containing Gram-negative bacteria were analyzed using the BC-GP and BC-GN assays, respectively. Blood cultures were performed using the Bactec blood culture system (BD Diagnostic Systems, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) and conventional identification and antibiotic-susceptibility tests were performed using a MicroScan system (Siemens, West Sacramento, CA, USA). When a single strain of bacteria was isolated from the blood culture, Verigene assays correctly identified 97.9% (94/96) of Gram-positive bacteria and 93.8% (137/146) of Gram-negative bacteria. Resistance genes mecA and vanA were correctly detected by the BC-GP assay, while the extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M and the carbapenemase OXA resistance gene were detected from 30 cases cultures by the BC-GN assay. The BC-GP and BC-GN assays showed high agreement with conventional identification and susceptibility tests. These tests are useful for rapid identification of microorganisms and the detection of clinically important resistance genes from positive Bactec blood cultures.

  5. Advances on Mechanisms of Coagulation with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yanhua LI; Suju WEI

    2013-01-01

    Recently, researchers have been increasingly finding coagulation disorders are commonly the first sign of malignancy. It has now been established that cancer development leads to an increased risk of thrombosis, and conversely, excessive activation of blood coagulation profoundly influences cancer progression. In patients with lung cancer, a sustained stimulation of blood coagulation takes place. Cancer cells trigger coagulation through expression of tissue factor, and affect coagulation thro...

  6. Investigation of coagulation activity of natural coagulants from seeds of different leguminose species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćiban Marina B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of seeds of plants: Phaseolus vulgaris, Robinia pseudoacacia Ceratonia siliqua and Amorpha fruticosa, to act as natural coagulants was tested using synthetic turbid water. This water was prepared by adding kaolin into tap water, just before the test. Active components were extracted from ground seeds with distilled water. The coagulation ability of this extract was assessed by the use of standard jar test measurements in water with various initial turbidity. Investigation of these natural coagulants was confirmed their positive coagulation activity. Of all plants that have been examined, the seed extract from Ceratonia siliqua appeared to be one of the most effective coagulants for water treatment. A dose of 20 mg/l of this coagulant resulted in 100% coagulation activity for clarification of water with 17.5 NTU initial turbidity.

  7. Performance Verification of Precil C2000-A Automatic Blood Coagulation Instrument%普利生C2000-A全自动血凝仪的性能验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟坚; 刘光明; 梁凤琼

    2014-01-01

    proj ects,within-run precision was less than 3% and between-run precision was less than 5%.The deviations of constant quality control products and calibration results from the target values were less than 8%,respectively.After dilution,theoreti-cal values and measured values of linear test specimens were measured for regression analysis. The a values ranged from 0.97 to 1.03 and the r values were greater than 0.975,which were in accordance with the requirements of the linear correlation.The carryover rate and deviation of in-terference test were less than 3%.The full automatic blood coagulation analyzer precil C2000-A showed a good channel consistency with no significant differences in measuring results among the four channels (P>0.05 ).Conclusion Domestic automatic blood coagulation analyzer precil C2000-A has a good analytical performance.The accuracy,precision,linear range,carryover and other indicators are in accordance with the requirements of the quality management.Especially,anti-interference capability against hemolysis,j aundice and lipid turbidity can fully meet the re-quirements of clinical detection.

  8. Disseminated intravascular coagulation does not play a major role in the pathogenesis of classical swine fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Sandra; Meindl-Böhmer, Alexandra; Nowak, Götz; Moennig, Volker

    2013-03-23

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a multi-systemic disease that can be accompanied by severe haemorrhagic lesions. The underlying pathogenetic mechanisms are still far from being understood, though disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) was discussed as a major factor. In the presented study, the direct thrombin inhibitor hirudin was used in an attempt to elucidate the role of the coagulation system in the pathogenesis of CSF-induced haemorrhagic lesions. Two groups of piglets (n=5) were infected with highly virulent CSF virus (CSFV) strain CSF0634. One group underwent daily treatment with hirudin, the other served as untreated challenge infection control. Assessment of clinical signs using a clinical score system, coagulation tests, and blood counts were performed daily. Both groups developed acute-lethal CSF with haemorrhagic lesions. Although changes in the coagulation system were seen in the late stages of CSFV infection, our results strongly suggest that DIC does not present the crucial event in the pathogenesis of haemorrhagic lesions.

  9. Developmental validation of a novel lateral flow strip test for rapid identification of human blood (Rapid Stain Identification--Blood).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweers, Brett A; Old, Jennifer; Boonlayangoor, P W; Reich, Karl A

    2008-06-01

    Human blood is the body fluid most commonly encountered at crime scenes, and blood detection may aid investigators in reconstructing what occurred during a crime. In addition, blood detection can help determine which items of evidence should be processed for DNA-STR testing. Unfortunately, many common substances can cause red-brown stains that resemble blood. Furthermore, many current human blood detection methods are presumptive and prone to false positive results. Here, the developmental validation of a new blood identification test, Rapid Stain Identification--Blood (RSID--Blood), is described. RSID--Blood utilizes two anti-glycophorin A (red blood cell membrane specific protein) monoclonal antibodies in a lateral flow strip test format to detect human blood. We present evidence demonstrating that this test is accurate, reproducible, easy to use, and highly specific for human blood. Importantly, RSID--Blood does not cross-react with ferret, skunk, or primate blood and exhibits no high-dose hook effect. Also, we describe studies on the sensitivity, body fluid specificity, and species specificity of RSID--Blood. In addition, we show that the test can detect blood from a variety of forensic exhibits prior to processing for DNA-STR analysis. In conclusion, we suggest that RSID--Blood is effective and useful for the detection of human blood on forensic exhibits, and offers improved blood detection when compared to other currently used methods.

  10. Trauma and Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yılmaz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bleeding and coagulation disorders related to trauma are pathological processes which are frequently seen and increase mortality. For the purpose, trauma patients should be protected from hypoperfusion, hypothermia, acidosis and hemodilution which may aggravate the increase in physiological responses to trauma as anticoagulation and fibrinolysis. Performing damage control surgery and resuscitation and transfusion of adequate blood and blood products in terms of amount and content as stated in protocols may increase the rate of survival. Medical treatments augmenting fibrin formation (fibrinogen, desmopressin, factor VIIa or preventing fibrin degradation (tranexamic acid have been proposed in selected cases but the efficacy of these agents in trauma patients are not proven. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9:71-6

  11. DNA methylation profiling for a confirmatory test for blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwan Young; Jung, Sang-Eun; Lee, Eun Hee; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-09-01

    The ability to predict the type of tissues or cells from molecular profiles of crime scene samples has important practical implications in forensics. A previously reported multiplex assay using DNA methylation markers could only discriminate between 4 types of body fluids: blood, saliva, semen, and the body fluid which originates from female reproductive organ. In the present study, we selected 15 menstrual blood-specific CpG marker candidates based on analysis of 12 genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of vaginal fluid and menstrual blood. The menstrual blood-specificity of the candidate markers was confirmed by comparison with HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array data obtained for 58 samples including 12 blood, 12 saliva, 12 semen, 3 vaginal fluid, and 19 skin epidermis samples. Among 15CpG marker candidates, 3 were located in the promoter region of the SLC26A10 gene, and 2 of them (cg09696411 and cg18069290) showed high menstrual blood specificity. DNA methylation at the 2CpG markers was further tested by targeted bisulfite sequencing of 461 additional samples including 49 blood, 52 saliva, 34 semen, 125 vaginal fluid, and 201 menstrual blood. Because the 2 markers showed menstrual blood-specific methylation patterns, we modified our previous multiplex methylation SNaPshot reaction to include these 2 markers. In addition, a blood marker cg01543184 with cross reactivity to semen was replaced with cg08792630, and a semen-specific unmethylation marker cg17621389 was removed. The resultant multiplex methylation SNaPshot allowed positive identification of blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood using the 9CpG markers which show a methylation signal only in the target body fluids. Because of the complexity in cell composition, menstrual bloods produced DNA methylation profiles that vary with menstrual cycle and sample collection methods, which are expected to provide more insight into forensic menstrual blood test. Moreover, because the developed

  12. DNA methylation profiling for a confirmatory test for blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwan Young; Jung, Sang-Eun; Lee, Eun Hee; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-09-01

    The ability to predict the type of tissues or cells from molecular profiles of crime scene samples has important practical implications in forensics. A previously reported multiplex assay using DNA methylation markers could only discriminate between 4 types of body fluids: blood, saliva, semen, and the body fluid which originates from female reproductive organ. In the present study, we selected 15 menstrual blood-specific CpG marker candidates based on analysis of 12 genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of vaginal fluid and menstrual blood. The menstrual blood-specificity of the candidate markers was confirmed by comparison with HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array data obtained for 58 samples including 12 blood, 12 saliva, 12 semen, 3 vaginal fluid, and 19 skin epidermis samples. Among 15CpG marker candidates, 3 were located in the promoter region of the SLC26A10 gene, and 2 of them (cg09696411 and cg18069290) showed high menstrual blood specificity. DNA methylation at the 2CpG markers was further tested by targeted bisulfite sequencing of 461 additional samples including 49 blood, 52 saliva, 34 semen, 125 vaginal fluid, and 201 menstrual blood. Because the 2 markers showed menstrual blood-specific methylation patterns, we modified our previous multiplex methylation SNaPshot reaction to include these 2 markers. In addition, a blood marker cg01543184 with cross reactivity to semen was replaced with cg08792630, and a semen-specific unmethylation marker cg17621389 was removed. The resultant multiplex methylation SNaPshot allowed positive identification of blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood using the 9CpG markers which show a methylation signal only in the target body fluids. Because of the complexity in cell composition, menstrual bloods produced DNA methylation profiles that vary with menstrual cycle and sample collection methods, which are expected to provide more insight into forensic menstrual blood test. Moreover, because the developed

  13. 晚期血吸虫病肝硬化患者凝血功能检测分析%Analysis of blood coagulation function in patients with cirrhosis due to advanced schistosomiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛长生; 余永辉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To detect the indexes of blood coagulation in patients with advanced schistosomiasis (AS) compared with chronic schistosomiasis (CS), probe its coagulation mechanism, monitor the bleeding tendency timely and provide basis for clinical treatment. Methods Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT) of 37 patients with AS and 80 with CS were detected by Rayto RT-2204C coagulation analyzer. Results PT, APTT and TT of patients with AS were obvious higher than patients with CS(P<0.01). Conclusion The blood coagulation function of patients with AS is obvious abnormal. Detecting the indexes of blood coagulation is significant to monitoring the bleeding tendency and instructing the clinical medication for patients with AS.%目的:对比检测晚期血吸虫病与慢性血吸虫病患者的凝血指标,探讨晚血病人的凝血功能机制,及时监测晚血病人的出血倾向并为临床指导用药提供依据。方法运用国产雷杜RT-2204C血凝仪检测37例晚血病人和80例慢血病人的血浆凝血酶原时间(PT)、活化部分凝血活酶时间(APTT)和凝血酶时间(TT)。结果晚血病人PT、APTT和TT值均大于慢血病人,差异有统计学意义(P均<0.01)。结论晚血患者凝血功能明显异常,处于低凝状态且纤溶系统受损,检测该指标对监测晚血病人出血倾向与指导临床用药具有重要的意义。

  14. Disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gando, Satoshi; Levi, Marcel; Toh, Cheng-Hock

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is an acquired syndrome characterized by widespread intravascular activation of coagulation that can be caused by infectious insults (such as sepsis) and non-infectious insults (such as trauma). The main pathophysiological mechanisms of DIC are inflammatory cytokine-initiated activation of tissue factor-dependent coagulation, insufficient control of anticoagulant pathways and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1-mediated suppression of fibrinolysis. Together, these changes give rise to endothelial dysfunction and microvascular thrombosis, which can cause organ dysfunction and seriously affect patient prognosis. Recent observations have pointed to an important role for extracellular DNA and DNA-binding proteins, such as histones, in the pathogenesis of DIC. The International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) established a DIC diagnostic scoring system consisting of global haemostatic test parameters. This scoring system has now been well validated in diverse clinical settings. The theoretical cornerstone of DIC management is the specific and vigorous treatment of the underlying conditions, and DIC should be simultaneously managed to improve patient outcomes. The ISTH guidance for the treatment of DIC recommends treatment strategies that are based on current evidence. In this Primer, we provide an updated overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of DIC and discuss the future directions of basic and clinical research in this field. PMID:27250996

  15. Fecal Occult Blood Test and Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed H. Wakid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stool specimens of 1238 workers in western region of Saudi Arabia were examined for infection with intestinal parasites and for fecal occult blood (FOB to investigate the possibility that enteroparasites correlate to occult intestinal bleeding. Direct smears and formal ether techniques were used for detection of diagnostic stages of intestinal parasites. A commercially available guaiac test was used to detect fecal occult blood. 47.01% of the workers were infected with intestinal parasites including eight helminthes species and eight protozoan species. The results provided no significant evidence (P-value=0.143 that intestinal parasitic infection is in association with positive guaiac FOB test.

  16. Demonstrating Hemostasis with a Student-Designed Prothrombin Time Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardy, Richard Wiley

    1978-01-01

    Describes a blood coagulation test developed by two high school biology students. Although the test lacks some precision, results indicate that the technique is comparable to standard methods used in laboratories. (MA)

  17. Blood trauma testing for mechanical circulatory support devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridharan, Guruprasad A; Sobieski, Michael A; Ising, Mickey; Slaughter, Mark S; Koenig, Steven C

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical hemolysis testing is a critical requirement toward demonstrating device safety for U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 510(k) approval of mechanical circulatory support devices (MCSD). FDA and ASTM (formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials) have published guidelines to assist industry with developing study protocols. However, there can be significant variability in experimental procedures, study design, and reporting of data that makes comparison of test and predicate devices a challenge. To overcome these limitations, we present a hemolysis testing protocol developed to enable standardization of hemolysis testing while adhering to FDA and ASTM guidelines. Static mock flow loops primed with fresh bovine blood (600 mL, Hematocrit = 27±5%, heparin titrated for ACT >300 sec) from a single-source donor were created as a platform for investigating test and predicate devices. MCSD differential pressure and temperature were maintained at 80 mmHg and 25°±2° C. Blood samples (3 ml) were collected at 0, 5, 90, 180, 270, 360 minutes to measure CBC and plasma free hemoglobin. This protocol led to 510(k) approval of two adult MCSD and has been used to test novel cannulae and a pediatric MCSD. Standardization of hemolysis testing procedures and transparency of results may enable better blood trauma characterization of MCS devices to facilitate the FDA 510(k) and PMA submission processes and improve clinical outcomes. PMID:21812617

  18. Comparison of coagulation performance and floc properties using a novel zirconium coagulant against traditional ferric and alum coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Peter; Sharp, Emma; Pidou, Marc; Molinder, Roger; Parsons, Simon A; Jefferson, Bruce

    2012-09-01

    Coagulation in drinking water treatment has relied upon iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al) salts throughout the last century to provide the bulk removal of contaminants from source waters containing natural organic matter (NOM). However, there is now a need for improved treatment of these waters as their quality deteriorates and water quality standards become more difficult to achieve. Alternative coagulant chemicals offer a simple and inexpensive way of doing this. In this work a novel zirconium (Zr) coagulant was compared against traditional Fe and Al coagulants. The Zr coagulant was able to provide between 46 and 150% lower dissolved organic carbon (DOC) residual in comparison to the best traditional coagulant (Fe). In addition floc properties were significantly improved with larger and stronger flocs forming when the Zr coagulant was used with the median floc sizes being 930 μm for Zr; 710 μm for Fe and 450 μm for Al. In pilot scale experiments, a similar improved NOM and particle removal was observed. The results show that when optimised for combined DOC removal and low residual turbidity, the Zr coagulant out-performed the other coagulants tested at both bench and pilot scale.

  19. Changing the Price of Marriage: Evidence from Blood Test Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Kasey; Guldi, Melanie; Price, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    We use state repeals of blood test requirements (BTRs) for a marriage license that occurred between 1980 and 2008 to examine the impact of changes in the price of marriage on the marriage decision. Using a within-group estimator that holds constant state and year effects and exploits variation in the repeal dates of BTRs across states, we find…

  20. Forensic Identification of Human Blood: comparison of two one-step presumptive tests for blood screening of crime scene samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Flávia Belchior Andrade; Maria Emília Cambria Guimaro Siqueira; Luciano Chaves Arantes; Larissa Silva Queiroz; Rayane Luiza Viegas Silva; Eduardo Dias Ramalho

    2014-01-01

    Blood is the most common body fluid found at crime scenes. One-step presumptive tests have been designed as a rapid immunological test for the qualitative detection of human hemoglobin in stool samples (faecal occult blood) their usefulness for forensic purposes has been demonstrated before. In this study we compare Hexagon OBTI kit and FOB One-step Bioeasy kit sensitivity in the analysis of diluted blood samples. With Hexagon OBTI, positive test results are achieved in whole blood dilutions ...

  1. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in obstetric and gynecologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnana, Martina; Franchi, Massimo; Danese, Elisa; Gotsch, Francesca; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2010-06-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by a massive, widespread, and ongoing activation of the coagulation system, secondary to a variety of clinical conditions. Many obstetric complications, such as abruptio placentae, amniotic fluid embolism, endotoxin sepsis, retained dead fetus, post-hemorrhagic shock, hydatidiform mole, and gynecologic malignancies, might trigger DIC. In these gynecologic and obstetric settings, DIC is usually associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. No single laboratory test is sensitive or specific enough to diagnose DIC definitively, but it can be diagnosed by using a combination of multiple clinical and laboratory tests that reflect the pathophysiology of the syndrome. At present, the therapeutical approach to pregnancy- and gynecologic-related DIC comprises the specific and aggressive treatment of the underlying disease, eventually followed by a supportive blood product replacement therapy and restoration of physiological anticoagulant pathways. This article reviews the etiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations, laboratory diagnosis, and therapy of pregnancy- and gynecologic-related DIC.

  2. Real time blood testing using quantitative phase imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hoa V; Bhaduri, Basanta; Tangella, Krishnarao; Best-Popescu, Catherine; Popescu, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a real-time blood testing system that can provide remote diagnosis with minimal human intervention in economically challenged areas. Our instrument combines novel advances in label-free optical imaging with parallel computing. Specifically, we use quantitative phase imaging for extracting red blood cell morphology with nanoscale sensitivity and NVIDIA's CUDA programming language to perform real time cellular-level analysis. While the blood smear is translated through focus, our system is able to segment and analyze all the cells in the one megapixel field of view, at a rate of 40 frames/s. The variety of diagnostic parameters measured from each cell (e.g., surface area, sphericity, and minimum cylindrical diameter) are currently not available with current state of the art clinical instruments. In addition, we show that our instrument correctly recovers the red blood cell volume distribution, as evidenced by the excellent agreement with the cell counter results obtained on normal patients and those with microcytic and macrocytic anemia. The final data outputted by our instrument represent arrays of numbers associated with these morphological parameters and not images. Thus, the memory necessary to store these data is of the order of kilobytes, which allows for their remote transmission via, for example, the cellular network. We envision that such a system will dramatically increase access for blood testing and furthermore, may pave the way to digital hematology. PMID:23405194

  3. Effects of nucleotides and nucleosides on coagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bune, Laurids; Thaning, Pia; Johansson, Pär I;

    2010-01-01

    Nucleotides, including ADP, ATP and uridine triphosphate (UTP), are discharged profusely in the circulation during many pathological conditions including sepsis. Sepsis can cause hypotension and systemic activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems in humans, which may cause disseminated...... intravascular coagulation. We investigated whether nucleotide-induced cardiovascular collapse as provoked by systemic infusion of adenosine, ADP, ATP, UTP and nitric oxide affected the haemostatic system as assessed by whole blood thromboelastography (TEG) analysis. Ten pigs received a randomized infusion...

  4. Inflammation and coagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Levi; T. van der Poll

    2010-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of sepsis, inflammation and coagulation play a pivotal role. Increasing evidence points to an extensive cross-talk between these two systems, whereby inflammation leads to activation of coagulation, and coagulation also considerably affects inflammatory activity. Molecular pathwa

  5. Polymerase chain reaction and blood culture in blood donors screened by ELISA test for Chagas' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Tieko Kinoshita-Yanaga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate, through blood culture and PCR, the results of the ELISA for Chagas' disease in the screening of blood donors in the public blood-supply network of the state of Paraná, Brazil, and to map the epidemiological profile of the donors with respect to their risk of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. The negative and positive results of the ELISA were confirmed by blood culture and PCR for 190/191 individuals (99.5%. For one individual (0.5%, the ELISA was inconclusive, blood culture and IIF were negative, and IHA and PCR positive. Three individuals (1.6% were positive for T. cruzi on all the tests. Donors were predominantly female, and natives of Paraná, of rural origin, had observed or been informed of the presence of the vector in the municipalities where they resided, had never received a blood transfusion, had donated blood 1 to 4 times, and reported no cases of Chagas' disease in their families. We concluded that PCR and blood culturing have excellent potential for confirming the results of the ELISA, and that candidate blood donors with negative or positive tests have a similar risk of infection by T. cruzi, indicating that the ELISA test is sufficiently safe for screening blood prior to use.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, pela hemocultura e PCR, os resultados do teste ELISA utilizado para doença de Chagas na triagem de doadores de sangue na rede pública do Estado do Paraná, Brasil, e traçar o perfil epidemiológico dos doadores quanto ao risco de infecção pelo Trypanosoma cruzi. Os resultados negativos e positivos do ELISA foram confirmados pela hemocultura e PCR em 190/191 indivíduos (99,5%. Para um indivíduo (0,5%, o teste de ELISA foi inconclusivo, hemocultura e IFI foram negativas, HAI e PCR foram positivas. Três indivíduos (1,6% foram positivos para T. cruzi em todos os testes. A maioria dos doadores era do sexo feminino, oriundos do Estado do Paraná, de origem rural, tinham

  6. 丹红注射液对严重脓毒症凝血功能及预后的影响%Effect of Danhong Injection on Severe Sepsis Blood Coagulation Function and Prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志云; 杜仲平; 王春雨; 王恩燕; 戴坤鹏; 王滨; 白桦

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨丹红注射液对严重脓毒症患者凝血功能及血乳酸的影响。方法:选择重症医学科收治的严重脓毒症患者100例,随机分为治疗组(n =52)和对照组(n =48),2组患者入院开始即给予充分的液体复苏、积极的抗感染治疗,必要时予血管活性药物、选择性的给予氢化可的松、呼吸机辅助通气等支持治疗,治疗组加用丹红注射液40 mL 静脉滴注,1次/d。2组患者在入院时及入院第7天时监测急性生理学及慢性健康状况评分(APACHE Ⅱ评分)、凝血指标及血乳酸水平,并监测患者28 d 死亡率。结果:2组患者入院第7天的凝血指标、血乳酸(Blood Lactic Acid,BLA)及 APACHE Ⅱ评分比较均有统计学意义(P <0.05);患者28天死亡率治疗组比对照组低,但差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。结论:丹红注射液可改善严重脓毒症患者凝血状态及低灌注缺氧代谢。%Objective:To observe the effect of Danhong injection on blood coagulation function and blood lactic acid in patients with severe sepsis.Methods:A hundred patients with severe sepsis from the Intesive Care Unite were randomly classified into treat-ment group(n =52)and control group(n =48).Patients in both groups were treated with fluid resuscitation,anti infection drugs at admission and given the vasoactive drug,hydrocortisone and mechanical ventilation support when necessary.The treatment group was treated with Danhong injection intravenous infusion of 40 mL once a day.APACHE Ⅱscore,blood coagulation indexes and blood lactic acid were measured at admission and the seventh day of hospitalization.The mortality was monitored at the 28th day of hospitalization.Results:The blood coagulation indexes,blood lactic acid and APACHE Ⅱscore of the treatment group and the control group were of significant difference at the seventh day(P 0.05).Conclusion:Danhong injection can improve the blood

  7. Enhanced coagulation for high alkalinity and micro-polluted water: the third way through coagulant optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mingquan; Wang, Dongsheng; Qu, Jiuhui; Ni, Jinren; Chow, Christopher W K

    2008-04-01

    Conventional coagulation is not an effective treatment option to remove natural organic matter (NOM) in water with high alkalinity/pH. For this type of water, enhanced coagulation is currently proposed as one of the available treatment options and is implemented by acidifying the raw water and applying increased doses of hydrolyzing coagulants. Both of these methods have some disadvantages such as increasing the corrosive tendency of water and increasing cost of treatment. In this paper, an improved version of enhanced coagulation through coagulant optimization to treat this kind of water is demonstrated. A novel coagulant, a composite polyaluminum chloride (HPAC), was developed with both the advantages of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) and the additive coagulant aids: PACl contains significant amounts of highly charged and stable polynuclear aluminum hydrolysis products, which is less affected by the pH of the raw water than traditional coagulants (alum and ferric salts); the additives can enhance both the charge neutralization and bridging abilities of PACl. HPAC exhibited 30% more efficiency than alum and ferric salts in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal and was very effective in turbidity removal. This result was confirmed by pilot-scale testing, where particles and organic matter were removed synergistically with HPAC as coagulant by sequential water treatment steps including pre-ozonation, coagulation, flotation and sand filtration.

  8. Implementation of immunochemical faecal occult blood test in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jakob Søgaard; Bro, Flemming; Hornung, Nete;

    2016-01-01

    anvendelsen af immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) i almen praksis. iFOBT detekterer humant globin i fæces og indikerer gastrointestinal blødning. Studiet udgør en del af et ph.d.-studie, der bidrager med ny viden til at optimere udredningen af patienter med tarmkræft. Der er et stort behov...

  9. Evaluation of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in the Craniocerebral Traumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Altinel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injury is one of the most important cause of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC. It occurs because of blood loss and hemodilution due to fluid resuscitation. The incidence of trauma associated DIC is mainly higher in the craniocerebral traumas. Even though craniocerebral trauma related DIC is well defined, the pathophysiology has been poorly characterized in the literature. Due to the fact that brain tissue is highly significant for procoagulant molecules, craniocerebral traumas are closely related to DIC. In the current study, 30 patients admitted to emergency room have been considered on the first and fifth day of admission to the hospital for the coagulation tests to evaluate DIC in both two groups. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 488-495

  10. Urine Test Strips to Exclude Cerebral Spinal Fluid Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall, Robin A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Determining the presence or absence of red blood cells (RBC or their breakdown products in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is essential for the evaluation of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH in headache patients. Current methodology for finding blood in the CSF is either spectrophotometric detection of pigment, which is time consuming and labor intensive, or visual assesment of samples for color change (xanthochromia, which is inaccurate. Bayer Multistix® urine test strips are designed to test urine for RBC by detecting the presence of hemoglobin. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the perfomance of urine reagent test strips for ruling out the presence of RBC in CSF.Methods: We compared color changes on Multistix® urine test strips to the standard of spectrophotometric absorbtion at 415nm and initial RBC counts in 138 visually clear CSF samples.Results: We performed Pearson Chi-Square and likelihood ratios on the results and found a correlation between a negative result on the urine test strip and less than 5 RBC per high power field and a spectrophotometric absorbance of less than 0.02% at 415nm in a CSF sample.Conclusion: These results warrant further investigation in the form of a prospective clinical validation as it may alter the emergency department evaluation for SAH. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:63-66.

  11. Quiz: Does Your Blood Pressure Pass the Test? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Special Section: Healthy Blood Pressure Quiz: Does Your Blood Pressure Pass the Test? Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Blood pressure changes throughout the day. It is highest while ...

  12. Changing characteristic of blood coagulation factors and their correlation with blood coagulation status in different hepatic diseases%不同类型肝病患者凝血因子变化规律及其与凝血状态的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静; 段钟平; 白丽; 赵军; 丁美; 童新元; 丛玉隆

    2012-01-01

    202.9;肝衰竭组:344.7±214.6;均高于正常对照组的12.9±8.1;F=8.619,P<0.05);FⅧ∶C检测值(慢性乙型肝炎组:157.2±53.4;肝硬化组:206.9±86.9;肝衰竭组:335.7±117.7;均高于正常对照组的105.5±46.2;F=13.418,P<0.05).结论 肝脏疾病随着病情发展,由肝实质细胞合成的促抗凝成分伴发平行减少、纤溶活性增强、肝外合成凝血相关蛋白TFPI、TM、vWF及TF释放入血增多.终末期肝病患者凝血与抗凝平衡失调,可能与以上原因有关.TFPI、TM、vWF及TF在肝病轻度阶段即发生明显变化,可作为早期监测血管内皮细胞损伤敏感指标.%Objective To investigate the correlation between procoagulation factors and anticoagulation factors synthesized by the liver,and the correlation between fibrin degradation products (FDP) and D-dimer (D-D) concentration and coagulation proteins synthesized by extra-hepatic tissues,in different liver diseases; to explore the relationship between coagulation and bleeding in hepatic diseases.Methods Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients,CHB-related liver cirrhosis patients,CHB-related liver failure patients and healthy (normal) controls were selected for study and provided blood samples for analysis.The activity of coagulation factors (F) Ⅱ,Ⅴ,Ⅶ ,Ⅷ , Ⅸ,Ⅹ,Ⅺ,and Ⅻ was detected using the one-stage clotting method.Coagulogram analysis,including activated partial thromboplastia time (APTT),thrombin time (TT),and prothrombin time (PT),was conducted by the solidification method.Antithrombin Ⅲ (AT-Ⅲ ) and protein C (PC) activities were measured by chromogenic substrate assay.FDP concentration was detected using immunoturbidimetry.Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI),thrombomodulin (TM),von Willebrand factor (vWF),and tissue factor (TF) concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results With the exception of FⅧ ,coagulation factors and anticoagulant proteins synthesized by the liver were decreased

  13. A Study of the Relation between Systemic Blood Coagulation and Leukopenia in Local Irradiation%放疗局部照射中全身凝血功能与白细胞减少的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿冲; 张旭光; 郭峰; 叶涛; 刘亚洲; 沈文彬; 顾峰

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察放疗局部照射下全身凝血功能的变化,并探讨华法令干预缓解白细胞减少的效果.方法 新西兰白兔分为阴性对照组、单纯照射组、照射+抗凝组.照射前、照射后24 h检测凝血酶原时间、PT国际标准化比值、外周血白细胞计数.单纯照射组仅接受一次全胸部照射,总剂量20 Gy.照射+抗凝组照射前喂服抗凝血药华法令.照射后24 h处死动物,采取左胸第十肋骨骨髓代表照射靶区内骨髓,第三腰椎左侧横突骨髓代表靶区外骨髓,行骨髓像观察.结果 单纯照射组照射前后凝血功能无明显变化,白细胞明显减少.照射+抗凝组照射前后凝血功能均被阻断,白细胞明显减少.2组动物照射靶区内骨髓有核细胞明显减少,靶区外骨髓有核细胞计数正常.结论 造成白细胞减少的局部照射剂量不能够改变全身的凝血状态;完全阻断凝血所消耗的白细胞减少也不能阻断局部照射造成的白细胞减少.%Objective To observe systemic blood coagulation changes in local irradiation, and to study the influence of warfarin on leukocypenia. Methods New Zealand white rabbits were divided into negative control group, radiation group, irradiation + anticoagulant group. Before irradiation and 24 hours after irradiation, prothrombin time, PT international normalized ratio and WBC count were detected. The radiation group only accepted a full chest irradiation of 20 Gy. In the irradiation + anticoagulant group,rabbits was fed with the anti-clotting drug warfarin before irradiation. The animals were sacrificed in 24 hours after irradiation, bone marrow of the tenth rib of left chest represented irradiation target region bone marrow, and the third lumbar transverse process bone marrow represented target line bone marrow, and the bone marrow was examined. Results Coagulation function before and after the irradiation of the radiation group had no significant change, white blood cells was

  14. Coagulation behavior of polyaluminum chloride:Effects of pH and coagulant dosage☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Wei; Zhongguo Zhang; Dan Liu; Yue Wu; Jun Wang; Qunhui Wang

    2015-01-01

    Coagulation mechanisms of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) at various dosages were studied using a conventional jar test at different final and initial pH values during treating kaolin suspension. The optimal final pH and dosages for PACl were obtained based on residual turbidity and zeta potential of flocs. The coagulation zones at various PACl dosages and solution pH values were developed and compared with those of alum. It is found that the optimal mechanism under acidic condition is charge neutralization, while alkaline condition wil facilitate the coagulation of PACl. Both charge neutralization coagulation and sweep coagulation can achieve high coagulation efficiency under the alkaline condition ranging from final pH 7.0 to 10.0. Stabilization, charge neutralization destabilization, restabilization and sweep zones occur successively with increasing PACl dosages with the final pH values fixed at 7.0 and 8.0, but restabilization zone disappears at final pH 10.0. When the final pH is not controlled and consequently decreases with increasing PACl dosage, no typical sweep zone can be observed and the coagulant efficiency decreases at high PACl dosage. It seems that the final pH is more meaningful than the initial pH for coagulation. Charge neutralization coagulation efficiency is dominated by zeta potential of flocs and PACl precipitates. The charge neutralization and sweep coagulation zones of PACl are broader in the ranges of coagulant dosage and pH than those of alum. The results are helpful for us to treat water and wastewa-ter using PACl and to understand the coagulation process of PACl.

  15. 2型糖尿病患者凝血状态研究%The study of blood coagulation status in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆志静; 王立

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨2型糖尿病患者合并血管病变对凝血状态的影响.方法 纳入2型糖尿病住院患者311例,依据有无大血管并发症分为3组,即单纯糖尿病组130例,糖尿病合并高血压组151例,糖尿病合并冠心病组30例,同时选择我院同期健康体检者30例作为健康对照组.检测抗凝血酶-III(AT-III)、蛋白C(PC)、蛋白S(PS)、活化部分凝血活酶时间(APTT)、血浆凝血酶原时间(PT)、血浆纤维蛋白原(Fib)、血浆凝血酶时间(TT))水平评价凝血功能.结果 与健康对照组相比较,糖尿病组AT-III、PC、PS活性明显降低,凝血四项中APTT、PT降低、Fib升高,2组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).糖尿病合并冠心病组与单纯糖尿病组相比,PC、PS差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).糖尿病合并冠心病组Fib及PLT升高较单纯糖尿病组更为明显,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 糖尿病患者抗凝血功能紊乱,处于血栓前状态,合并心血管并发症患者尤为明显.AT-III、PC、PS及凝血四项的测定可能有利于糖尿病患者凝血状态的评估,有利于血管并发症的早期干预.%Objective To explore the changes and clinical significance in coagulation anti-coagulation and fibrinolysis system in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus ( DM ). Methods To measure thrombin time ( TT ), activated partial thrombo-plastin time ( APTT ), prothrombin time ( PT ), and fibrinogen ( Fib ), anti-thrombin Ⅲ ( AT-Ⅲ ), protein C ( PC ), protein S ( PS ) in 311 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from 2010 to 2011. These patients were categorized as single DM group, DM with hypertension group, DM with coronary heart disease group. At the same time, 30 health)' people were selected as contrast group. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis. Results The activity of AT-Ⅲ,PC,PS of type 2 diabetes melli-tus were progressively lower than those of control group. There was a significant difference between single DM

  16. Inhibition of amikacin on platelet aggregation and blood coagulation%丁胺卡那霉素对血小板聚集和凝血功能的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费鲜明; 周永列; 邱莲女; 吴建国; 张可

    2010-01-01

    Objective To observe the inhibition of amikacin in vitro on platelet aggregation and blood coagulation tests, and to study its effects on hemostasis and the related mechanisms.Methods Plateletrich plasma and platelet-poor plasma from donors were mixed with different concentration of amikacin, which was divided into four groups:0 mg/L, 30 mg/L, 91 mg/L and 910 mg/L group.The maximial ratio of platelet aggregation induced by ADP were measured with Platelet Aggregation Analyzer.The expression levels of P-selectin, GP Ⅱ b/Ⅲ a and Fg-R were determined with Flow Cytometer.The PT, APTT, TT and Fg of platelet-poor plasma were detected with Blood Coagulation Analyzer. The four concentration of amikacin mentioned above and two anticoagulants (62.5 U/ml of sodium heparin and 109 mmol/L of sodium citrate)were interacted with fresh whole blood, in which the blood CT and plasma Ca2+ were detected. Blood samples were collected from 10 patients with acute lower respiratory tract infection before and 30 minutes after routine amikcin treatment respectively.The maximial ratio of platelet aggregation, the expression levels of P-selectin, GPⅡ b/Ⅲa and Fg-R induced by ADP were measured; while PT, APTT, CT and plasma Ca2+ were determined.Results At 30 mg/L of amikacin group, the maximal ratios of platelet aggregation (65.8±3.9)%, the expression levels of P-selectin (9.2 ± 1.0)% and Fg-R (12.6 ± 1.7)% were statistically lower than those [(88.0 ±4.6%, (16.1 ± 1.3)% and (31.0 ±2.5)%]at 0 mg/L of amikacin group ( t = 9.442,8.432,9.993,P < 0.01 ).At 30 mg/L of amikacin group, the APTT (80.5 ±6.8) s and CT ( 857 ± 66) s were significantly higher than those [(33.0 ± 3.6) s and (447 ± 35 ) s] at 0 mg/L of amikacin group ( t = 11.312, 13.211, P < 0.01 ). There was a negative correlation between amikacin concentration and maximial ratio of platelet aggregation ( r = - 0.832, P < 0.05 ), but a positive correlation between amikacin concentration and inhibitory rates of

  17. 产后出血患者大量输血治疗时血浆和红细胞的比例对凝血功能的影响%Effect of ratio of fresh frozen plasma to red blood cells on coagulation function in patients with massive blood transfusion for postpartum hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂芳; 金勇; 夏和凤

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨产后大出血患者早期大量输血时,输入新鲜冰冻血浆(FFP)和红细胞(RBC)的比例对凝血功能的影响.方法 因产后大出血24 h内需输注RBC大于10 U的患者45例,按输注FFP与悬浮RBC的比例,随机分为低血浆组(A组,FFP∶ RC=1∶2.5,15例)、中血浆组(B组,FFP∶ RBC=1∶1,16例)和高血浆组(C组,FFP∶ RBC=1.5∶1,14例).检测产前和输血后24h凝血功能和血常规,比较三组患者大量输血后24h内RBC和冷沉淀输入量的差异.结果 三组患者产前凝血功能、血常规比较无统计学差异(P>0.05).大量输血24 h后,A组凝血酶原时间(PT)、活化部分凝血活酶时间(APTT)延长,纤维蛋白原(Fbg)含量降低(P<0.05),B、C组凝血功能无明显变化(P>0.05);三组患者大量输血后血小板计数(Plt)及血红蛋白(Hb)均降低(P<0.05),B组优于A、C组(P<0.05).三组间24 h内输注RBC和冷沉淀的量无统计学差异(P>0.05).结论 产后大出血患者输血时,FFP与RBC比例过低,可造成血液稀释性低凝,建议以1∶1比例输注为宜.%Objective To investigate the effect of ratio of fresh frozen plasma(FFP) to red blood cells (RBC) on coagulation function in the patients with massive blood transfusion for postpartum hemorrhage.Methods Forty-five patients with blood transfusion more than 10 U in 24 hours were randomly assigned into three groups of A(ratio of FFP to RBC 1 ∶ 2.5,15 cases),B(ratio of FFP to RBC 1 ∶ 1,16 cases) and C(ratio of FFP to RBC 1.5 ∶ 1,14 cases).The coagulation function was examined before delivery and at 24 hours after transfusion.The volumes of RBC and cryoprecipitate infused in 24 hours were compared among three groups.Results The tests of coagulation function,platelet and hemoglobin (Hb) of three groups were similar before delivery (P>0.05).The prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were significantly prolonged and fibrinogen was decreased at 24 hours after

  18. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes (red blood cells) and to detect antibodies to blood group antigens. (b) Classification. Class II (performance... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test...

  19. Coagulation And Hemagglutination Properties Of The Crude Extract Derived From The Leaves Of Euphorbia Hirta L. Tridax Procumbens L. And Vernonia Cinerea L Less

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo C. Ongpoy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the potential of selected wild grasses from the Philippines as coagulant and typing sera. To do this Euphorbia hirta L. Tridax procumbens L. and Vernonia cinerea L Less aqueous infusions were each subjected to blood components from healthy individuals. The plasma part of the blood was used to test for coagulation where Plasma Clotting Time PCT and Factor VIII screening test were the procedures used to test the different leaf extracts. On the other hand the Packed Red Blood Cell part of the blood was used to test for hemagglutination where microscopic and macroscopic evaluations were the procedures used to test the different leaf extracts against the blood groups from the ABO system. About this study it was found out that all the wild grasses did not give a comparable coagulation to the commercially available positive control which is Calcium Chloride while Euphorbia hirta L. gave a positive hemagglutination to Type A and Type B cells Tridax procumbens L. gave a positive hemagglutination to Type A cell and Vernonia cinerea L Less gave a positive hemagglutination to Type B cells both in macroscopic and microscopic evaluations. The results show that all the wild grasses tested may not be used as a coagulant but all of them may have a potential as a typing sera.

  20. 采血管中添加剂对血样中乙醇含量的影响%Effects of Additives in Blood Collection Tubes on Testing the Alcohol Concentra-tion in Blood Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬娴; 贺江南

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss blood collection tubes with different additives and their effects on the testing results of alcohol concentration in blood sam ples. Methods Blood sam ples from 10 volunteers were collected 2 hours after drinking with seven different types of disposable vacuum blood collection tubes, including ordinary tube without anticoagulant, coagulant tube, separating gel-coagulant tube, sodi-um citrate (1∶4) tube, sodium citrate (1∶9) tube, sodium citrate (9∶1) tube and EDTA-K2 tube. The al-cohol concentrations in these blood sam ples were analyzed by headspace gas chrom atography. Results The concentration testing results of the sam e blood sam ples in different types of tubes were different from one to another. The sequence was as follows:separating gel-coagulant tube>coagulant tube>ordi-nary tube without anticoagulant>EDTA-K2 tube>sodium citrate (1∶9) tube>sodium citrate (1∶4) tube, whereas the results of the sam e blood sam ple in sodium citrate (1∶9) tube and sodium citrate (9∶1) tube showed no obvious difference. Conclusion It is better to collect a suspicious drunk driver’s blood sam-ple using a disposable vacuum blood collection tube, with the EDTA-K2 tube being preferred.%目的:探讨不同种类采血管对血样中乙醇含量检测结果的影响。方法分别用7种一次性真空采血管[无抗凝剂管、促凝剂管、分离胶-促凝剂管、枸橼酸钠(1∶4)管、枸橼酸钠(1∶9)管、柠檬酸钠(9∶1)管、EDTA-K2管]采集10名志愿者饮酒后2 h血液,用顶空气相色谱法检测血样中乙醇含量。结果相同血样用不同的采血管,其乙醇含量检测结果不同,依次为分离胶-促凝剂管>促凝剂管>无抗凝剂管>EDTA-K2管>枸橼酸钠(1∶9)管>枸橼酸钠(1∶4)管,柠檬酸钠(9∶1)管与枸橼酸钠(1∶9)管检测结果基本一致。结论采集涉嫌酒后驾驶的驾驶员血样,应选用一次性真空采血管,首选EDTA-K2管。

  1. The Massive Bleeding after the Operation of Hip Joint Surgery with the Acquired Haemorrhagic Coagulation Factor XIII(13) Deficiency: Two Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Akio; Kaneko, Kazuo; Obayashi, Osamu; Mogami, Atsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Two women, aged 81 and 61, became haemorrhagic after surgery. Their previous surgeries were uneventful with no unexpected bleeding observed. Blood tests prior to the current surgeries indicated normal values including those related to coagulation. There were no problems with the current surgeries prior to leaving the operating room. At 3 hours after the surgery, the 81-year-old patient had an outflow of the drain at 1290 grams and her blood pressure decreased. She had disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The 61-year-old woman had repeated haemorrhages after her current surgery for a long time. Their abnormal haemorrhages were caused by a deficiency of coagulation factor XIII(13). The mechanism of haemorrhagic coagulation factor XIII(13) deficiency is not understood, and it is a rare disorder. The only diagnostic method to detect this disorder is to measure factor XIII(13) activity in the blood. In this paper, we used Arabic and Roman numerals at the same time to avoid confusion of coagulation factor XIII(13) with coagulation factor VIII(8) that causes hemophilia A. PMID:23533879

  2. The Massive Bleeding after the Operation of Hip Joint Surgery with the Acquired Haemorrhagic Coagulation Factor XIII(13 Deficiency: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Kanda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two women, aged 81 and 61, became haemorrhagic after surgery. Their previous surgeries were uneventful with no unexpected bleeding observed. Blood tests prior to the current surgeries indicated normal values including those related to coagulation. There were no problems with the current surgeries prior to leaving the operating room. At 3 hours after the surgery, the 81-year-old patient had an outflow of the drain at 1290 grams and her blood pressure decreased. She had disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC. The 61-year-old woman had repeated haemorrhages after her current surgery for a long time. Their abnormal haemorrhages were caused by a deficiency of coagulation factor XIII(13. The mechanism of haemorrhagic coagulation factor XIII(13 deficiency is not understood, and it is a rare disorder. The only diagnostic method to detect this disorder is to measure factor XIII(13 activity in the blood. In this paper, we used Arabic and Roman numerals at the same time to avoid confusion of coagulation factor XIII(13 with coagulation factor VIII(8 that causes hemophilia A.

  3. 9 CFR 147.3 - The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The...

  4. In vitro inhibitory effect of papain on blood coagulation function and the related mechanism%木瓜蛋白酶对凝血功能的抑制作用及机制的体外研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟红; 吕远栋; 陶萍华; 吴国友; 俞蔚; 胡细连

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察木瓜蛋白酶体外对凝血功能的抑制作用,并探讨其可能机制.方法:将不同剂量木瓜蛋白酶分别与贫血小板血浆(PPP)和富血小板血浆(PRP)作用,分为生理盐水组、10 U/L组和20 U/L组,分别以血凝仪测定PPP和PRP的凝血酶原时间(PT)和活化部分凝血活酶时间(APTT),以血气分析仪和血凝仪分别测定PPP的Ca2+浓度和凝血因子Ⅴ、Ⅶ、Ⅷ、Ⅸ、Ⅸ和Ⅺ活性(FV:C、FⅦ:C、FⅧ:C、FⅨ:C、FⅩ:C和FⅪ:C);将新鲜全血与前述3种浓度木瓜蛋白酶作用,采用硅化管法测定全血凝血时间(CT).同时测定0、20、40、60和80 U/L木瓜蛋白酶PPP的PT和APTT值.结果:10 U/L和20 U/L木瓜蛋白酶组PPP和PRP的PT和APTT值、全血CT值分别显著高于生理盐水组和10 U/L木瓜酶组(P<0.01),FⅤ:C和FⅧ:C水平分别显著低于生理盐水组和10 U/L木瓜酶组(P<0.05);三组PPP与PRP之间PT和APTT值、各组间Ca2+浓度以及其余凝血因子活性差异均无显统计学意义(P>0.05).PPP的PT和APTT值均与木瓜蛋白酶剂量呈显著正相关(r=0.995和0.991,P<0.01).结论:木瓜蛋白酶可通过抑制凝血因子Ⅴ和Ⅷ活性,从而对凝血功能有剂量依赖性的抑制作用,具有抗凝的功效.%AIM: To observe the in vitro effect of papain on blood coagulation function, and to explore the possible mechanism.METH ODS: Human platelet poor plasma (PPP) and platelet rich plasma (PRP) were mixed with dif ferent dose of papain which were assigned into three groups (group 0 U/L, group 10 U/L and group 20 U/L).PPP and PRP were measured for prothrombin time(PT) and actvated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) with blood coagu lation analyzer, the PPP was also measured for Ca2+ and activity of coagulable factor V, VII, VIII, IX, X and XI(FV:C、FVII:C、FVIII:C、 FIX:C、FX:C and FXI:C) with blood-gas analy zer and blood coagulation analyzer, respectively.Fresh blood from volunteers was mixed with the three dose of papain

  5. Coagulation sensors based on magnetostrictive delay lines for biomedical and chemical engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maliaritsi, E. [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, School of Mining and Metallurgy Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, Athens 15780 (Greece); Zoumpoulakis, L. [Laboratory of Materials Science and Technology, Inter-disciplinary Postgraduate Programme of NTUA, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 157 73 Athens (Greece); Simitzis, J. [Laboratory of Materials Science and Technology, Inter-disciplinary Postgraduate Programme of NTUA, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 157 73 Athens (Greece); Vassiliou, P. [Iaso General Hospital, Athens (Greece); Hristoforou, E. [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, School of Mining and Metallurgy Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, Athens 15780 (Greece)]. E-mail: eh@metal.ntua.gr

    2006-04-15

    Coagulation sensors based on the magnetostrictive delay line technique are presented in this paper. They are based on magnetostrictive ribbons and are used for measuring the coagulation, curing or solidification time of different liquids. Experimental results indicate that the presented sensing elements can determine the blood coagulation with remarkable repeatability, thus allowing their use as blood coagulation sensors. Additionally, results indicate that they can also measure curing time of resins, solidification of fluids and coagulation of chemical substances, therefore allowing their implementation in chemical engineering applications.

  6. Post-treatment of sanitary landfill leachate by coagulation-flocculation using chitosan as primary coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Inara Oliveira do Carmo; Guedes, Ana Rosa Pinto; Perelo, Louisa Wessels; Queiroz, Luciano Matos

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan was chosen as an alternative primary coagulant in a complementary coagulation-flocculation treatment of sanitary landfill leachate with the aim of removing recalcitrant organic matter. In order to optimize the process conditions, central composite design and response surface methodology were applied. To evaluate the performance of the process using chitosan, we also carried out tests with aluminium sulphate (Al(2) (SO(4))(3).14 H(2)O) as coagulant. In addition, acute toxicity tests were carried using the duckweed Lemna minor and the guppy fish Poecilia reticulata as test organisms. The analytic hierarchy process was employed for selecting the most appropriate coagulant. Mean values of true colour removal efficiency of 80% and turbidity removal efficiency of 91.4% were reached at chitosan dosages of 960 mg L(-1) at pH 8.5. The acute toxicity tests showed that organisms were sensitive to all samples, mainly after coagulation-flocculation using chitosan. CE(50) for L. minor was not determined because there was no inhibition of the average growth rate and biomass production; LC(50) for P. reticulata was 23% (v v(-1)). Multi-criteria analysis showed that alum was the most appropriate coagulant. Therefore, chitosan as primary coagulant was not considered to be a viable alternative in the post-treatment of landfill leachate. PMID:27387003

  7. Application of psyllium husk as coagulant and coagulant aid in semi-aerobic landfill leachate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamadani, Yasir A J; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Umar, Muhammad; Bashir, Mohammed J K; Adlan, Mohd Nordin

    2011-06-15

    Landfill leachate is a heavily polluted and a likely hazardous liquid that is produced as a result of water infiltration through solid wastes generated industrially and domestically. This study investigates the potential of using psyllium husk as coagulant and coagulant aid for the treatment of landfill leachate. Psyllium husk has been tested as primary coagulant and as coagulant aid with poly-aluminum chloride (PACl) and aluminum sulfate (alum). As primary coagulant, the optimum dosage and pH for PACl were 7.2 and 7.5 g/L, respectively, with removal efficiencies of 55, 80 and 95% for COD, color and TSS, respectively. For alum, the optimum conditions were 11 g/L alum dosage and pH 6.5 with removal efficiencies of 58, 79 and 78% for COD, color and TSS, respectively. The maximum removal efficiencies of COD, color and TSS were 64, 90 and 96%, respectively, when psyllium husk was used as coagulant aid with PACl. Based on the results, psyllium husk was found to be more effective as coagulant aid with PACl in the removal of COD, color and TSS as compared to alum. Zeta potential test was carried out for leachate, PACl, alum and psyllium husk before and after running the jar test to enhance the results of the jar test experiments. PMID:21507572

  8. Increasing the specificity of the forensic luminol test for blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quickenden, T I; Cooper, P D

    2001-01-01

    It is shown that the presumptive luminol chemiluminescence test for the presence of traces of blood can be made more determinative by measuring the peak emission wavelength of the luminol chemiluminescence. When sprayed onto a surface containing traces of human haemoglobin, a 1 g/L solution of aqueous luminol containing 7 g/L sodium perborate gives an emission peak at 455 +/- 2 nm, whereas the same mixture gives an emission peak at 430 +/- 3 nm when sprayed onto a surface containing traces of sodium hypochlorite (household bleach). This spectral difference can readily be determined using spectroscopic equipment that either scans the spectrum before significant luminescence decay occurs or corrects the spectrum for the effects of any decay. It was found that bovine haemoglobin and human haemoglobin showed no significant spectral differences.

  9. Effects of the Bracts and Bars of Zea mays L.on Blood Coagulation%玉蜀黍轴及苞叶对凝血作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾海鹏; 周大鹏; 顾雪竹; 康文艺

    2013-01-01

    The effect of extracts of the bracts and bars of Zea mays L.on blood coagulation was investigated using Vitamin K1 as coagulant control and breviscapine as anti-coagulant control.Petroleum ether,ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts of Z.mays bracts and bars and the total methanol extract of bracts were assayed using plasma recalcification time method in vitro.n-Butanol extract of bars and ethyl acetate extract of bract significantly reduced the plasma recalcification time(P < 0.001).Petroleum ether extract of the bracts significantly prolonged the plasma recalcification time (P < 0.001).The results indicated that the n-butanol extract of bars and bract ethyl acetate extract had better procoagulant effect,and the petroleum ether extract of the bracts had good anticoagulant effect.%采用体外血浆复钙时间法,以维生素k1作为促凝血和灯盏花素作为抗凝血作用阳性对照,对玉蜀黍轴及苞叶石油醚、乙酸乙酯和正丁醇提取物及玉蜀黍苞叶甲醇总浸膏对体外血浆复钙时间的影响进行测定.结果显示玉蜀黍轴正丁醇及苞叶乙酸乙酯提取物,均可显著缩短体外血浆复钙时间(P<0.001);玉蜀黍苞叶石油醚提取物可显著延长体外血浆复钙时间(P<0.001).提示玉蜀黍轴正丁醇及苞叶乙酸乙酯提取物具有较好的促凝血活性,玉蜀黍苞叶石油醚提取物具有较好的抗凝作用.

  10. Blood lactate diagnostics in exercise testing and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneke, Ralph; Leithäuser, Renate M; Ochentel, Oliver

    2011-03-01

    A link between lactate and muscular exercise was seen already more than 200 years ago. The blood lactate concentration (BLC) is sensitive to changes in exercise intensity and duration. Multiple BLC threshold concepts define different points on the BLC power curve during various tests with increasing power (INCP). The INCP test results are affected by the increase in power over time. The maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) is measured during a series of prolonged constant power (CP) tests. It detects the highest aerobic power without metabolic energy from continuing net lactate production, which is usually sustainable for 30 to 60 min. BLC threshold and MLSS power are highly correlated with the maximum aerobic power and athletic endurance performance. The idea that training at threshold intensity is particularly effective has no evidence. Three BLC-orientated intensity domains have been established: (1) training up to an intensity at which the BLC clearly exceeds resting BLC, light- and moderate-intensity training focusing on active regeneration or high-volume endurance training (Intensity MLSS). High-performance endurance athletes combining very high training volume with high aerobic power dedicate 70 to 90% of their training to intensity domain 1 (Intensity < Threshold) in order to keep glycogen homeostasis within sustainable limits. PMID:21487146

  11. 胆红素对凝血功能检测结果的影响%Influence of bilirubin on the coagulation function test results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑芹

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨不同胆红素浓度对血浆凝血酶原时间(PT)和活化部分凝血活酶时间(APTT)检测结果的影响.方法:对含有不同总胆红素浓度的质控血浆进行血浆凝血酶原时间和活化部分凝血活酶时间指标测定,比较不同浓度的胆红素对上述指标的影响.结果:随着血浆总胆红素浓度的升高,PT、APTT检测结果升高,胆红素水平低于20 μmol/L时,对血浆PT、APTT测定结果影响的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),当胆红素浓度高于41 μmol/L时,APTT检测结果显著高于对照血浆水平(P0.05).When the bilirubin concentration was more than 41 μmol/L,the APTT test result was significantly higher than the controlled plasma level(P<0.05).When the bilirubin concentration was more than 62 μ mol/L,the PT test result was significantly higher than the controlled plasma level(P<0.05).Conclusion:When the bilirubin level is less than 20 μ mol/L,the influence on the coagulation function test results is not big.However the plasma bilirubin concentration is significantly increased,it has distraction on the PT and APTT test results.When simply because of elevated bilirubin levels lead to PT, APTT results abnormal increase,it could be used the regression equation for correction to provide more accurate detection results in clinic.

  12. Collection, processing and testing of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood and haematopoietic stem cells by European Blood Alliance members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Närhi, M; Natri, O; Desbois, I;

    2013-01-01

    A questionnaire study was carried out in collaboration with the European Blood Alliance (EBA) Tissues and Cells (T&C) working group. The aim was to assess the level of involvement and commonality of processes on the procurement, testing and storage of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood (UCB...

  13. 不同年龄发绀型先心病患儿围体外循环期凝血功能的比较%Changes in blood coagulation during cardiopulmonary bypass in children of different ages with cyanotic congenital heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈煜; 黄延辉; 白洁

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes in blood coagulation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in children of different ages undergoing open heart surgery for cyanotic congenital heart disease.Methods Sixty children with cyanotic congenital heart disease undergoing open heart surgery under CPB were divided into 3 age groups: Group A(age≤12 mort, n=25), Group B (12mon<age≤24 mon, n= 17) and Group C (24 mon< age<4 yr, n=18). Venous blood samples were taken immediately after induction of anesthesia(T1) and at 10 min after protamine administration (T2)for determination of activated coagulation time (SonACT), clot rate and platelet function (PF) using Sonoclot coagulation and platelet function analyzer-type DP2951 (Sieuco Co., USA).Results There was significant difference in SonACT, clot rate and PF at T1 among the 3 groups: the SonACT was significantly shorter in Groups B and C than in Group A, the clot rate was significantly higher in Group B than in Group C, and the PF was significantly lower in Group C than in Group A. At T2 , the SonACT was significantly prolonged in all 3 groups, the clot rate was significantly decreased in Groups A and B, and the PF was significantly decreased in Group A.Conclusion There are significant differences in blood coagulation and PF among the 3 different age groups of children with cyanotic congenital heart disease after induction of anesthesia and CPB has different effects on their blood coagulation and PF.

  14. 肠系膜淋巴管结扎对急性失血大鼠血液凝固性的影响%Effect of mesenteric lymph duct ligation on coagulability of blood after acute loss of blood in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵自刚; 刘春艳; 张玉平; 张静; 赵永泉; 牛春雨

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of mesenteric lymph duct ligation on platelet function, thrombus formation in vitro and coagulation function in rats with acute loss of blood, and investigate the role of intestinal lymphatic pathway on coagulability change during acute loss of blood. Methods Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into loss of blood group (n=10) and ligation group (n=10). The acute loss of blood model was reproduced by withdrawing blood (one fourth of body whole blood volume) with an automatic withdrawal-infusion machine through right common carotid artery. In ligation group, the mesenteric lymph duct was ligated after loss of blood, and in loss of blood group only a thread was passed under the mesenteric lymph duct. The rats′ survival rate at 24 hours was recorded. After 24 hours, surviving rats were anesthetized again, and 6 ml of blood was withdrew from left common carotid artery rapidly. The platelet adhesive rate, platelet aggregation rate, thrombus formation in vitro, coagulation function were determined before and after experiment, and the cerebral blood flow was measured. Results There were 6 rats alive in loss of blood group (60%), and 9 rats alive in ligation group (90%). The platelet adhesive rate, platelet aggregation rate, fibrinogen (Fib) content were increased in both groups, and cerebral blood flow was lower compared with before experiment significantly. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) in loss of blood group, and thrombin time (TT) in both groups were prolonged. And the length of wet thrombus, wet weight of thrombus, length of dry thrombus, dry weight of thrombus and thrombus formation rate in loss of blood group were significantly increased compared with before experiment (P0.05).与实验前相比,两组血小板黏附率、血小板聚集率、纤维蛋白原(Fib)均显著升高,凝血酶时间(TT)显著延长,脑血流量显著降低;失血组活化部分凝血活酶时间(APTT)显著延长,

  15. Ovarian cancer, the coagulation pathway, and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xipeng; Wang, Ena; Kavanagh, John J; Freedman, Ralph S

    2005-06-21

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) represents the most frequent cause of death in the United States from a cancer involving the female genital tract. Contributing to the overall poor outcome in EOC patients, are the metastases to the peritoneum and stroma that are common in this cancer. In one study, cDNA microarray analysis was performed on fresh tissue to profile gene expression in patients with EOC. This study showed a number of genes with significantly altered expression in the pelvic peritoneum and stroma, and in the vicinity of EOC implants. These genes included those encoding coagulation factors and regulatory proteins in the coagulation cascade and genes encoding proteins associated with inflammatory responses. In addition to promoting the formation of blood clots, coagulation factors exhibit many other biologic functions as well as tumorigenic functions, the later including tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Coagulation pathway proteins involved in tumorigenesis consist of factor II (thrombin), thrombin receptor (protease-activated receptors), factor III (tissue factor), factor VII, factor X and factor I (fibrinogen), and fibrin and factor XIII. In a recent study we conducted, we found that factor XII, factor XI, and several coagulation regulatory proteins, including heparin cofactor-II and epithelial protein C receptor (EPCR), were also upregulated in the peritoneum of EOC. In this review, we summarize evidence in support of a role for these factors in promoting tumor cell progression and the formation of ascites. We also discuss the different roles of coagulation factor pathways in the tumor and peritumoral microenvironments as they relate to angiogenesis, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Since inflammatory responses are another characteristic of the peritoneum in EOC, we also discuss the linkage between the coagulation cascade and the cytokines/chemokines involved in inflammation. Interleukin-8, which is considered an

  16. Ovarian cancer, the coagulation pathway, and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavanagh John J

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC represents the most frequent cause of death in the United States from a cancer involving the female genital tract. Contributing to the overall poor outcome in EOC patients, are the metastases to the peritoneum and stroma that are common in this cancer. In one study, cDNA microarray analysis was performed on fresh tissue to profile gene expression in patients with EOC. This study showed a number of genes with significantly altered expression in the pelvic peritoneum and stroma, and in the vicinity of EOC implants. These genes included those encoding coagulation factors and regulatory proteins in the coagulation cascade and genes encoding proteins associated with inflammatory responses. In addition to promoting the formation of blood clots, coagulation factors exhibit many other biologic functions as well as tumorigenic functions, the later including tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Coagulation pathway proteins involved in tumorigenesis consist of factor II (thrombin, thrombin receptor (protease-activated receptors, factor III (tissue factor, factor VII, factor X and factor I (fibrinogen, and fibrin and factor XIII. In a recent study we conducted, we found that factor XII, factor XI, and several coagulation regulatory proteins, including heparin cofactor-II and epithelial protein C receptor (EPCR, were also upregulated in the peritoneum of EOC. In this review, we summarize evidence in support of a role for these factors in promoting tumor cell progression and the formation of ascites. We also discuss the different roles of coagulation factor pathways in the tumor and peritumoral microenvironments as they relate to angiogenesis, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. . Since inflammatory responses are another characteristic of the peritoneum in EOC, we also discuss the linkage between the coagulation cascade and the cytokines/chemokines involved in inflammation. Interleukin

  17. Coagulation function in patients with pancreatic carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hang-yan; XIU Dian-rong; LI Zhi-fei; WANG Gang

    2009-01-01

    Background The coagulation function in patients with pancreatic carcinoma is abnormal and the reason is not very clear. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the coagulation function in patients with pancreatic carcinoma.Methods From June 2004 to December 2007, 132 patients received diagnosis and treatment in our hospital. The coagulative parameters including the prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and fibrinogen levels were collected and studied retrospectively.Results The average fibrinogen levels in patients with pancreatic carcinoma, (476.21±142.05) mg/dl, were significantly higher than in patients with cholangiolithiasis, (403.28±126.41) mg/dl (P 0.05).Conclusions The level of fibrinogen in patients with pancreatic carcinoma was elevated. The elevated fibrinogen level may be associated with invasiveness and lymphatic metastasis. Using vitamin K in perioperation management did not reduce intraoperative blood loss.

  18. Coagulation and Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Hoirisch-Clapauch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The neurovascular unit is a key player in brain development, homeostasis, and pathology. Mental stress affects coagulation, while severe mental illnesses, such as recurrent depression and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased thrombotic risk and cardiovascular morbidity. Evidence indicates that the hemostatic system is involved to some extent in the pathogenesis, morbidity, and prognosis of a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The current review focuses on emerging data linking coagulation and some psychiatric disorders.

  19. Coagulation properties of milk

    OpenAIRE

    Hallén, Elin

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of the different proteins in milk are important for the outcome of the coagulation processes which yield our dairy products, whereas total milk protein content is a poor indicator of coagulation properties of milk. In order to design the milk protein composition to meet dairy processing requirements, selection for genetic variants of milk proteins have been proposed. This work aimed to study genetic milk protein polymorphism and its association with the detailed milk protein co...

  20. Effect of taurine on platelets and the plasma coagulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglis, Mitchell; Wilder, Donna; Reid, Thomas; Bakaltcheva, Irina

    2002-02-01

    It is not yet clear what exact mechanisms are at work in hibernating animals that prevent clot formation and maintain tissue perfusion under conditions of very slow blood flow and increased blood viscosity brought about by the low temperatures. It has been shown that the total amino acid pool increases more then two fold in hibernating animals with taurine accounting for about 50% of this increase [Storey et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1988; 85(21): 8350-4]. This work investigates the effect of taurine on platelets and the plasma coagulation system. Taurine was added at different concentrations in the range between 5 and 25 mM to donor plasma. Using STA/STA Compact coagulation analyzer the following tests were performed: prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and thrombin time (TT). At the highest concentration tested (25 mM) taurine prolonged TT by 9%. The prolongation was statistically significant but not clinically significant retaining TT within normal limits (16.7-20.7 s). PT and APTT remained unchanged by taurine. The effect of taurine on platelets was assessed by platelet aggregation by thrombin, extent of platelet shape change (ESC) induced by ADP, and thrombelastography. Taurine at 5 mM final concentration inhibited platelet aggregation by 10%. Increasing taurine concentration to 25 mM did not result in a further augmentation of the inhibitory effect. ESC was unaffected by taurine. Clot strength determined by thrombelastography also remained unchanged by taurine. PMID:11918831

  1. Forensic Identification of Human Blood: comparison of two one-step presumptive tests for blood screening of crime scene samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Belchior Andrade

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood is the most common body fluid found at crime scenes. One-step presumptive tests have been designed as a rapid immunological test for the qualitative detection of human hemoglobin in stool samples (faecal occult blood their usefulness for forensic purposes has been demonstrated before. In this study we compare Hexagon OBTI kit and FOB One-step Bioeasy kit sensitivity in the analysis of diluted blood samples. With Hexagon OBTI, positive test results are achieved in whole blood dilutions up to 1:1.000. Sensitivity decreased with aged samples, if samples were not stored under low temperatures regardless of which presumptive test is used. Whole blood tests must take into consideration that “hook” effect may interfere. Comparing both tests, OBTI Hexagon Kit is more sensible to detect diluted blood, showing a wider detection window in all conditions. This is interesting when analyzing forensic samples as forensic analysts usually do not know about the history of the analyzed sample before its collection.

  2. Evaluation of the Roche CoaguChek XS handheld coagulation analyzer in a cardiac outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Myung-Hyun; Roh, Kyoung Ho; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Chang Kyu; Kim, Young-Hoon; Lee, Kap No; Cho, Yunjung

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of a handheld coagulation analyzer for measurements of capillary blood specimens of 93 outpatient cardiology patients with atrial fibrillation who were receiving oral anti-coagulant therapy. The international normalized ratio (INR) results of the CoaguChek XS system (Roche Diagnostics) were compared with those obtained in the central laboratory with citrated venous blood specimens using the ACL9000 coagulation analyzer (Instrumentation Laboratory). The INR results for prothrombin time by the CoaguChek XS analyzer were closely correlated with the central laboratory's results in the INR range of 0.96 approximately 8.53 (r = 0.964). A statistically significant difference was noted between 2 lots of test strips, but the difference was miniscule (mean +/- 95% confidence interval: 0.04+/-0.02). The CV of 8 replicate assays with the CoaguChek XS for a blood specimen with high INR value (INR=3.9) was 1.4%; for a blood specimen with medium INR value (INR=1.3), the CV of 8 replicate assays was XS analyzer is precise and reliable for assessment of INR results at clinically significant ranges in cardiac outpatients.

  3. Variation of Sensitive Blood Coagulation Indexes in Infants with Hemorrhagic Disease of the Newborn Treated with Vitamin K%维生素 K治疗新生儿出血症凝血指标的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明静

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价维生素K治疗新生儿出血症( HDN)对凝血指标的影响。方法在维生素K治疗前后分别检测37例HDN患儿凝血酶原前体蛋白( PIVKA-Ⅱ)、凝血酶原时间( PT)、部分活化凝血活酶时间( APTT)、凝血酶原活动度( PTA)、凝血酶时间( TT)及纤维蛋白原( FIB)。结果维生素K治疗后凝血指标PIVKA-Ⅱ、PT明显降低(P<0.05),PTA、APTT明显升高(P<0.05),维生素K治疗后凝血指标PIVKA-Ⅱ、PTA、PT、APTT异常率较治疗前明显降低( P<0.05)。而TT、FIB异常率未出现明显变化( P>0.05)。结论 HDN患儿在使用维生素K治疗后,PIVKA-Ⅱ、PTA、PT、APTT变化明显,反应敏感,能较好地反映HDN的凝血水平,可作为HDN的诊断依据及转归指标。%Objective To evaluate the effect of Vitamin K on blood coagulation indexes in infants with hemorrhagic disease of the newborn(HDN).Methods Thirty-seven cases of HDN were meausred for protein induced by Vitamin K absence or antagonist-Ⅱ(PIVKA-Ⅱ),prothrombin time(PT),activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT),prothrombin time activity(PTA),thrombin time(TT),human fibrinogen(FIB) before and after treatment of Vitamin K.Results PIVKA-Ⅱ, PT decreased significantly after treatment of Vitamin K (P0.05).Conclusion PIVKA-Ⅱ, PT,APTT,and PTA have improved significantly after the treatment of Vitamin K in infants with HDN ,which can reflect the blood coagulation level .They can be applied to the diagnosis and prognosis of HDN .

  4. The impact of statins for the network between blood coagulation and inflammation in sepsis%他汀类调脂药物对脓毒症凝血-炎症网络的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎永琳; 周红

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome by infection , which can develop into severe sepsis or sepsis shock.The case fatality rate is still 30%~70%, although with the evolutive anti-inflective therapy and multi-organ support therapy.It was found that lipid metabolism was chaotic in sepsis in some recent studies. Stains are known for reducing blood lipid and improving the atherosclerosis, but they are also noted by improving inflammation, coagulation,endothelial function and so on in sepsis.This paper will introduce the impact of statins for the network between blood coagulation and inflammation in sepsis.%目的脓毒症是由于感染引起的全身系统性炎症反应,可发展为严重脓毒症和感染性休克。尽管抗感染治疗和器官功能支持技术取得了长足的进步,脓毒症的病死率仍高达30%~70%。近年来的研究表明,脓毒症发生时,脂质代谢同样发生紊乱。他汀类药物因为其能有效地降低血脂,改善动脉粥样硬化情况而被大家所认识。随着对该药物的进一步研究发现,他汀类药物降脂以外的作用越来越受到重视,如改善内皮功能、抑制血管炎症、改善凝血功能、减少血栓形成和改善总体血管功能等。本文就目前他汀类药物治疗脓毒症时抗炎、抗凝影响的研究做一简述。

  5. Strategies to Improve Repeat Fecal Occult Blood Testing Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Terry C.; Arnold, Connie L.; Bennett, Charles L.; Wolf, Michael S.; Reynolds, Cristalyn; Liu, Dachao; Rademaker, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Background A comparative effectiveness intervention by this team improved initial fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) rates from 3% to 53% among community clinic patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and costs associated with a literacy-informed intervention on repeat FOBT testing. Methods Between 2008 and 2011, a three-arm quasi-experiential comparative effectiveness evaluation was conducted in 8 community clinics in Louisiana. Clinics were randomly assigned to receive: enhanced care, a screening recommendation and FOBT kit annually; a brief educational intervention where patients additionally received a literacy appropriate pamphlet and simplified FOBT instructions; or nurse support where a nurse manager provided the education and followed up with phone support. In year 2 all materials were mailed. The study consisted of 461 patients, ages 50–85, with a negative initial FOBT. Results Repeat FOBT rates were 38% enhanced care, 33% education, and 59% with nurse support (p=0.017). After adjusting for age, race, gender, and literacy, patients receiving nurse support were 1.46 times more likely to complete repeat FOBT screening than those receiving education (95% CI 1.14–1.06, p=0.002) and 1.45 times more likely than those in enhanced care but this was not significant (95% CI 0.93–2.26 p=0.10). The incremental cost per additional person screened was $2,450 for nurse over enhanced care. Conclusion A mailed pamphlet and FOBT with simplified instructions did not improve annual screening. Impact Telephone outreach by a nurse manager was effective in improving rates of repeat FOBT yet this may be too costly for community clinics. PMID:24192009

  6. “ STUDY OF COAGULATION PROFILE IN CLINICALLY DIAGNOSED CASES OF ACUTE DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION USING ISTH CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chopade

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC is a pathological activation of coagulation (blood clotting mechanisms that happens in response to a variety of diseases. It involves the generation of intravascular fibrin (small blood c lots and the consumption of pro - coagulants and platelets. It results in the disruption of normal coagulation mechanism and abnormal bleeding occurs from the skin, the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract and surgical wounds. It was the prospecti ve study of 60 patients of acute DIC, in which coagulation profile were studied from December 2010 to October 2012 . 40 controls were studied. Control group include healthy voluntary blood donors. The coagulation profile was studied and DIC scoring was p erformed using the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis [ISTH] criteria. Among the coagulation profile, the sensitivity and specificity of the parameters to diagnose and to assess the severity of DIC, in the decreasing order of frequency wer e of platelet count, D - dimer, PT and APTT. Fibrinogen level was not depleted below the significant level (<1 gm/l in majority cases of DIC. According to the ISTH criteria, DIC scores among cases was ≥ 5.

  7. Advances on Mechanisms of Coagulation with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua LI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers have been increasingly finding coagulation disorders are commonly the first sign of malignancy. It has now been established that cancer development leads to an increased risk of thrombosis, and conversely, excessive activation of blood coagulation profoundly influences cancer progression. In patients with lung cancer, a sustained stimulation of blood coagulation takes place. Cancer cells trigger coagulation through expression of tissue factor, and affect coagulation through expression of thrombin, release of microparticles that augment coagulation and so on. Coagulation also facilitates tumour progression through release of platelet granule contents, inhibition of natural killer cells and recruitment of macrophages. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC accounts for about 80%-85% of all lung malignancies. In the present review, we summarized the newly updated data about the physiopathological mechanisms of various components of the clotting system in different stages of carcinogenesis in NSCLC.

  8. Diagnosis of overt disseminated intravascular coagulation in critically Ill adults by Sonoclot coagulation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Peng; Tong, Hua-Sheng; Zhang, Xing-Qin; Duan, Peng-Kai; Tang, You-Qing; Su, Lei

    2014-08-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) diagnosis is hampered by the limited availability of reliable clinical or laboratory tests. Currently available tests are time consuming and expensive. We investigated whether coagulation and platelet function analyses using the Sonoclot system were suitable for overt DIC diagnosis in critically ill adults. This was an observational diagnostic study performed in 498 patients presenting with an underlying disorder associated with DIC. Overt DIC patients were identified according to an International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) score of >5. Coagulation and platelet parameters were analyzed using the Sonoclot system, and compared with ISTH as the gold standard. Receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curves were used to evaluate the value of the Sonoclot parameters. There were no differences for age or gender between the groups. Significant correlations were observed between activated clotting time (ACT) and ISTH score (r = 0.7; P coagulation dysfunction in patients with overt DIC.

  9. Coagulant and anticoagulant activities in Jatropha curcas latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osoniyi, Omolaja; Onajobi, Funmi

    2003-11-01

    Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae), a medicinal plant commonly grown in the Tropics, is traditionally used as a haemostatic. Investigation of the coagulant activity of the latex of Jatropha curcas showed that whole latex significantly (Platex, however, prolonged the clotting time: at high dilutions, the blood did not clot at all. This indicates that Jatropha curcas latex possesses both procoagulant and anticoagulant activities. Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) tests on plasma confirm these observations. Solvent partitioning of the latex with ethyl acetate and butanol led to a partial separation of the two opposing activities: at low concentrations, the ethyl acetate fraction exhibited a procoagulant activity, while the butanol fraction had the highest anticoagulant activity. The residual aqueous fraction had no significant effect on the clotting time of blood and the PT but slightly prolonged the APTT.

  10. The Clinical Significance of the Combined Detection between Blood Coagulation Function and Cystatin C in Patients with Hepatitis B%乙型肝炎患者凝血功能与胱抑素C联合检测的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈素丽; 毕波; 陈程; 郭淑丽; 陈功

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨乙型肝炎患者凝血功能与血清胱抑素C联合检测的临床诊断价值.方法:收集260例乙型肝炎患者为实验组及健康者70例为对照组,采用全自动凝血分析仪进行活化部分凝血酶时间(APTT)、凝血酶原时间(PT)、纤维蛋白原(FIB)的测定,采用全自动生化分析仪进行血清胱抑素C、丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)、天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST)、血清γ谷氨酰转肽酶(GGT)的检测.结果:除急性肝炎组外,其他各组乙型肝炎患者的APTT、PT值均高于对照组(P<0.05).重型肝炎和肝炎肝硬化组FIB值均低于对照组(P<0.05);对于血清胱抑素C水平,除急性肝炎组外,其他各组值均明显高于健康对照组(P<0.05),且肝炎肝硬化组依次高于重型肝炎组和慢性肝炎组.各实验组ALT和AST水平均明显高于对照组(P<0.05),而对于GGT水平,重型肝炎组和肝炎肝硬化组明显高于对照组(P<0.05).结论:联合检测APTT、PT、FIB凝血功能指标与血清胱抑素C水平,对临床判断乙型肝炎患者病变程度及预后具有重要意义.%Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of the combined detection of blood coagulation function and serum cystatin C in patients with hepatitis B. Methods: Two hundred and sixty cases of patients with hepatitis B (test group) and seventy healthy individuals(control group) were enrolled in the study. We measured activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time(PT) and fibrinogen (FIB) by Automated coagulation analyzer,and detected the content of cystatin C, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) , aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and y-glutamyl transferase (GGT) by Automatic biochemical analyzer in the test and control groups.Results: Except the acute hepatitis group, APTT and PT value of the test group were all higher than the control (P<0.05).FIB of the severe hepatitis group and hepatitis cirrhosis group were both significantly lower than the control group (P

  11. Comparative study of Treponemal and non-Treponemal test for screening of blood donated at a blood center

    OpenAIRE

    Naidu, Narinder Kaur; Bharucha, Z. S.; Sonawane, Vandana; Ahmed, Imran

    2012-01-01

    The non-Treponemal tests such as Rapid Plasma Reagin test (RPR) or the Venereal Disease Reference Laboratory test are the most commonly used test for screening of syphilis in the blood centers in India. Now, with the availability of Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Immunochromatographic assays in the market, we decided to evaluate these assays in comparison with Treponema pallidum Haemagglutination Assay (TPHA) which was considered as a gold standard for this study. A total of 8 ...

  12. Coagulation-Inflammatory Network: Anti-inflammatory Effect of Natural Coagulation Inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺石林

    2001-01-01

    @@ Considerable evidence has accumulated to indicated that the serine protease in blood clotting process not only participate in the activation of coagulation factors,but also result in a series of cell responses particularly involved in inflammation process through appropriate receptors.

  13. A quantitative comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation for boron removal from boron-containing solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)], E-mail: aerdemy@atauni.edu.tr; Boncukcuoglu, Recep [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Kocakerim, M. Muhtar [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2007-10-22

    This paper provides a quantitative comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation approaches based on boron removal. Electrocoagulation process delivers the coagulant in situ as the sacrificial anode corrodes, due to a fixed current density, while the simultaneous evolution of hydrogen at the cathode allows for pollutant removal by flotation. By comparison, conventional chemical coagulation typically adds a salt of the coagulant, with settling providing the primary pollutant removal path. Chemical coagulation was carried out via jar tests using aluminum chloride. Comparison was done with the same amount of coagulant between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation processes. Boron removal obtained was higher with electrocoagulation process. In addition, it was seen that chemical coagulation has any effect for boron removal from boron-containing solution. At optimum conditions (e.g. pH 8.0 and aluminum dose of 7.45 g/L), boron removal efficiencies for electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation were 94.0% and 24.0%, respectively.

  14. Cerebral Blood Flow, Heart Rate, and Blood Pressure Patterns during the Tilt Test in Common Orthostatic Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Novak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The head-up tilt test is widely used for evaluation of orthostatic intolerance. Although orthostatic symptoms usually reflect cerebral hypoperfusion, the cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv profile in orthostatic syndromes is not well described. This study evaluated CBFv and cardiovascular patterns associated with the tilt test in common orthostatic syndromes. Methods. This retrospective study analyzed the tilt test of patients with history of orthostatic intolerance. The following signals were recorded: ECG, blood pressure, CBFv using transcranial Doppler, respiratory signals, and end tidal CO2. Results. Data from 744 patients were analyzed. Characteristic pattern associated with a particular orthostatic syndrome can be grouped into abnormalities predominantly affecting blood pressure (orthostatic hypotension, orthostatic hypertension syndrome, vasomotor oscillations, and neurally mediated syncope—cardioinhibitory, vasodepressor, and mixed, cerebral blood flow (orthostatic hypoperfusion syndrome, primary cerebral autoregulatory failure, and heart rate (tachycardia syndromes: postural tachycardia syndrome, paroxysmal sinus tachycardia, and inappropriate sinus tachycardia. Psychogenic pseudosyncope is associated with stable CBFv. Conclusions. The tilt test is useful add-on in diagnosis of several orthostatic syndromes. However diagnostic criteria for several syndromes had to be modified to allow unambiguous pattern classification. CBFv monitoring in addition to blood pressure and heart rate may increase diagnostic yield of the tilt test.

  15. Cerebral Blood Flow, Heart Rate, and Blood Pressure Patterns during the Tilt Test in Common Orthostatic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The head-up tilt test is widely used for evaluation of orthostatic intolerance. Although orthostatic symptoms usually reflect cerebral hypoperfusion, the cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) profile in orthostatic syndromes is not well described. This study evaluated CBFv and cardiovascular patterns associated with the tilt test in common orthostatic syndromes. Methods. This retrospective study analyzed the tilt test of patients with history of orthostatic intolerance. The following signals were recorded: ECG, blood pressure, CBFv using transcranial Doppler, respiratory signals, and end tidal CO2. Results. Data from 744 patients were analyzed. Characteristic pattern associated with a particular orthostatic syndrome can be grouped into abnormalities predominantly affecting blood pressure (orthostatic hypotension, orthostatic hypertension syndrome, vasomotor oscillations, and neurally mediated syncope—cardioinhibitory, vasodepressor, and mixed), cerebral blood flow (orthostatic hypoperfusion syndrome, primary cerebral autoregulatory failure), and heart rate (tachycardia syndromes: postural tachycardia syndrome, paroxysmal sinus tachycardia, and inappropriate sinus tachycardia). Psychogenic pseudosyncope is associated with stable CBFv. Conclusions. The tilt test is useful add-on in diagnosis of several orthostatic syndromes. However diagnostic criteria for several syndromes had to be modified to allow unambiguous pattern classification. CBFv monitoring in addition to blood pressure and heart rate may increase diagnostic yield of the tilt test. PMID:27525257

  16. Analysis of Unmatched Blood Cross Test with Micro-column Gel%微柱凝胶法交叉配血不合原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱奕; 张爱根; 李妙珊

    2013-01-01

    Objective Analysis the cause of unmatched test of blood cross with micro-column gel and find out how to avoid. Methods Match the blood cross test with micro-column gel. Results 31 positive cases were checked out, about 0.64%, of which there are 27 false positive cases, about 87.1%. Conclusion The blood cross test with micro-column gel has High sensitivity, but can cause false positive. Be attention to anti-coagulated and centrifuged fuly. cross-unmatched can also appear with Some malignancies and blood disorders. We should be attention of the factors that affect blood cross matching to ensure the safety of blood transfusions.%  目的分析微柱凝胶法交叉配血不合的原因和处理方法.方法用微柱凝胶法对本院输血患者进行交叉配血.结果4826例配血检出阳性31例占0.64%,其中假阳性27例占阳性例数87.1%,真阳性4例占阳性例数12.9%.结论微柱凝胶法配血灵敏度高,但易引起假阳性,交叉配血前要注意标本充分抗凝及离心.一些恶性肿瘤及血液性疾病也可能出现同型交叉配型不合,应根据不同病因去除影响交叉配血不合的因素,以确保输血安全.

  17. Development of a new test for the global fibrinolytic capacity in whole blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, D.C.; Hoegee-de Nobel, E.; Jie, A.F.H.; Atsma, D.E.; Schalij, M.J.; Nieuwenhuizen, W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The development of global tests for the fibrinolytic capacity in blood is hampered by the low base-line fibrinolytic activity in blood, by the involvement of both plasmatic components and blood cells in the fibrinolytic system and by the loss of fibrinolytic activity as a result of the a

  18. Can latent heat safely warm blood? – in vitro testing of a portable prototype blood warmer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwen Mark P

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma/retrieval patients are often in shock and hypothermic. Treatment of such patients usually involves restoring their blood volume with transfusion of blood (stored at 2°C – 6°C and/or crystalloids or colloids (stored at ambient temperature. Rapid infusion of these cold fluids can worsen or even induce hypothermia in these patients. Warming of intravenous fluids at accident sites has traditionally been difficult due to a lack of suitable portable fluid warmers that are not dependent on mains electrical or battery power. If latent heat, the heat released when a liquid solidifies (an inherently temperature limiting process can warm intravenous fluids, portable devices without a reliance on electrical energy could be used to reduce the incidence of hypothermia in trauma patients. Methods Rapid infusion of red cells into patients was timed to sample typical clinical flow rates. An approved dry heat blood warmer was compared with a prototype blood warmer using a supercooled liquid latent heat storage material, to warm red cells whilst monitoring inlet and outlet temperatures. To determine the effect of warming on red cell integrity compared to the normal storage lesion of blood, extracellular concentrations of potassium, lactate dehydrogenase and haemoglobin were measured in blood which had been warmed after storage at 2°C – 6°C for 1 to 42 days. Results A prototype latent heat fluid warmer consistently warmed red cells from approximately 4°C to approximately 35°C at typical clinical flow rates. Warming of stored blood with latent heat did not affect red cell integrity more than the approved dry heat blood warmer. Conclusion Using latent heat as an energy source can satisfactorily warm cold blood or other intravenous fluids to near body temperature, without any adverse affects.

  19. IMPROVEMENT OF COAGULATION PROCESS FOR THE PRUT RIVER WATER TREATMENT USING ALUMINUM SULPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Postolachi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of presented research was to optimize the treatment process of the Prut River water. In order to realize the proposed goal, there were studied the following factors which can improve the process of coagulation: (i the influence of stirring speed during coagulation and (ii the influence of the concentration of the coagulant solution added in the process of coagulation. The optimal conditions of coagulation were established using the Jar-test method. Application of the recommended procedure contribute to the reduction of the coagulant dose, the contact time, the aluminum concentration in water and the expenses for water treatment.

  20. Whiteboard Icons to Support the Blood-Test Process in an Emergency Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdottir á; Hertzum, Morten; From, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    The competent treatment of emergency department (ED) patients requires an effective and efficient process for handling laboratory tests such as blood tests. This study investigates how ED clinicians go about the process, from ordering blood tests to acknowledging their results and, specifically......, assesses the use of whiteboard icons to support this process. On the basis of observation and interviews we find that the blood-test process is intertwined with multiple other temporal patterns in ED work. The whiteboard icons, which indicate four temporally distinct steps in the blood-test process......, support the nurses in maintaining the flow of patients through the ED and the physicians in assessing test results at timeouts. The main results of this study are, however, that the blood-test process is temporally and collaboratively complex, that the whiteboard icons pass by most of this complexity...

  1. Effect of hemocoagulase actutus for injection on blood coagulation function in rabbits%注射用尖吻蝮蛇凝血酶对兔凝血功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊华; 张鹏; 康强; 王秀英

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of hemocoagulase actutus for injection (Hem) on the blood coagulation system in rabbits. METHODS The rabbits were divided into four groups. Three groups were given 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 U·kg-1 of Hem separately by ear intravenous injection, and one group was given hemocoagulase atrox for injection (HAI) 1.0 Klobusitzky unit (KU)·kg-1 as positive control group. Before administration and 10 min, 30 min, 2 h and 12 h after administration, the coagulation time (CT) and platelet ( PLT) were determined with Lee-White tube method and globulimeter, respectively. The prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), fibrinogen( FIB) and activated partial thromboplatin (APTT) were measured by C2000-4 high performance blood coagulation analyzer. RESULTS No index at different times in normal control group had obvious change. CT was shorted 10 min-12 h after Hem0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 U·kg-1 and HAI 1.0 KU·kg-1were given (P<0.05). PLT was increased 10-30 min after Hem 1.0 U· kg-1 ( P < 0. 05) was adminstered. APTT was declined 10 min-2 h after Hem 1.0 U·kg-1 was given and 30 min-12 h after HAI 1.0 KU·kg-1 (P<0.05) was given. PT was shorted 10 min after Hem 0.25 U·kg-1,10 min -2 h after Hem 0.5 U·kg-1,10 -30 min after Hem 1.0 U·kg-1 and 10-30 min after HAI 1.0 KU·kg-1 (P<0.05). TT was decreased 10 min-12 h after Hem 1.0 U·kg-1 and 30 min after HAI 1. 0 KU ·kg-1 (P <0. 05). FIB was increased 30 min after Hem 0.25 U·kg-1,10-30 min after Hem0.5 U·kg-1, 10 min-2 h after Hem 1.0 U·kg-1 and 10-30 min after HAl 1.0 KU · kg-1 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Hem 1.0 U · kg-1 remarkably promotes blood coagulation 10 min after administration, and the decrease of TT lasts for 12 h.%目的 研究注射用尖吻蝮蛇凝血酶(Hem)对兔凝血功能的影响,为临床应用提供实验依据.方法 于日本大耳白兔耳静脉分别一次性iv给予Hem 0.25,0.5和1.0 U·kg-1和阳性对照药注射用血凝酶(HAI)1.0克氏单位(KU)·kg-1,于给药前(0 min

  2. Change in blood coagulation indices as a function of the incubation period of plasma in a constant magnetic field. [considering heparin tolerance and recalcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepishina, S. G.

    1974-01-01

    The influence of a constant magnetic field (CMF) with a strength of 250 and 2500 oersteds on the recalcification reaction and the tolerance of plasma to heparin was studied as a function of the exposure time of the plasma to the CMF. The maximum and reliable change in the activation of the coagulatory system of the blood was observed after a 20-hour incubation of the plasma in a CMF. As the exposure time increased, the recalcification reaction changed insigificantly; the difference between the mean arithmetic of the experiment and control values was not statistically reliable. The tolerance of the plasma to heparin as a function of the exposure time to the CMF of the plasma was considerably modified, an was statistically reliable.

  3. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Ippolito, Luigi; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2010-06-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a complex and multifaceted disorder characterized by the activation of coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways, consumption of coagulation factors, and depletion of coagulation regulatory proteins. The introduction into the circulation of cellular debris characterized by strong thromboplastic activity due to tissue factor exposition or release (in or from burned tissues), which can thereby activate extrinsic pathway of coagulation system and trigger massive thrombin generation when present in sufficient concentration, represents the most plausible biological explanation to support the development of intravascular coagulation in patients with burn injury. Severe burns left untreated might also lead to an immunological and inflammatory response (activation of the complement cascade), which can amplify fibrinolysis and blood clotting. Overall, the real prevalence of DIC in patients with burns is as yet unclear. Postmortem, retrospective, and even longitudinal investigations are in fact biased by several factors, such as the objective difficulty to establish whether DIC might have occurred as a primary complication of burns or rather as a consequence of other superimposed pathologies (e.g., sepsis, multiple organ failure), the different diagnostic criteria for assessing DIC, and the heterogeneity of the patient samples studied. Nevertheless, the current scientific evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that biochemical changes suggestive for DIC (hypercoagulability, hypo- and hyperfibrinolysis) are commonplace in patients with burn trauma, and their severity increases exponentially with the severity of injury. Overt DIC seems to occur especially in critically ill burn patients or in those with severe burns (up to third degree) and large involvement of body surface area, in whom an appropriate therapy might be effective to prevent the otherwise fulminant course. Although early prophylaxis with antithrombin concentrates

  4. Current concepts in the management of disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thachil, Jecko; Toh, Cheng Hock

    2012-04-01

    Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation is a clinicopathological syndrome where widespread intravascular coagulation occurs in response to an inciting process. The pathophysiology for this disorder is complex with an important role for thrombin, the central regulator of the coagulation process. Since the clinical spectrum of DIC is variable due to its dynamic nature, the laboratory diagnosis should ideally be not based on a single marker or an isolated set of results. The treatment should primary focus on the management of the underlying triggering condition with blood products used as resuscitative measures. Newer therapeutic modalities have been recently tried with success although the management of DIC still remains a major challenge.

  5. Research on Pyrogen Test by Replacing Domestic Rabbit with Whole Blood or Cell%用全血或细胞替代家兔进行热原检查的方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冠民; 黄清泉; 张云河; 贺争鸣

    2003-01-01

    The pyrogen test is an important index of quality-management relating to druggery injection and instillation and the current common methods are domestic-rabbit test and Bacterial Endotoxins Test. Since there are shortcomings and limitations of resources in these two methods , it's necessary to look for another new substitute. We have done the preliminary study of the feasibility of the pyrogen test with domestic rabbit's blood plasm, human's plasm and THP-1.The principle is as follows: after incubating the standard sample of bacterial endotoxins, glycogen anti-coagulation whole blood extracting from the healthy domestic rabbit, extralin anti-congealable whole blood from healthy volunteers,THP-1 cells together, measure the releasing amount of TNF and IL-6 from cell gene by the method of ELISA as a endogenesis index judging the pro-heat role of endotoxin.The results indicate: the blood-rabbit's whole blood, human's whole blood, or THP-lcelI, their releasing amount of TNF and IL-6 are closely connected with the amount of acting endotoxins within a certain range. Three methods have their own peculiarities and some feasibilities as a new substitute method for pyrogen test with domestic rabbit.

  6. Coagulation factor Xa drives tumor cells into apoptosis through BH3-only protein Bim up-regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borensztajn, Keren S.; Bijlsma, Maarten F.; Groot, Angelique P.; Bruggemann, Lois W.; Versteeg, Henri H.; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2007-01-01

    Coagulation Factor (F)Xa is a serine protease that plays a crucial role during blood coagulation by converting prothrombin into active thrombin. Recently, however, it emerged that besides this role in coagulation, FXa induces intracellular signaling leading to different cellular effects. Here, we sh

  7. Recovery of struvite via coagulation and flocculation using natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifian, Maryam; Liu, Jing; Mattiasson, Bo

    2014-01-01

    One of the major setbacks of struvite recovery processes is the difficulty in harvesting struvite crystals. This study evaluates the use of different coagulants to improve precipitation of struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H20) crystals. Chitosan and poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride) (Poly-DADMAC) as a coagulant-flocculent and alginate and bentonite as a coagulant aid have been examined in jar tests. Also, a continuous three-phase process, i.e., struvite crystallization, coagulation/flocculation and precipitation process, was set up for real wastewater. Addition of chitosan as the coagulant and bentonite as the coagulant aid was significantly more efficient in forming struvite flocs in comparison to Poly-DADMAC alone or with coagulant aid, which did not show any positive effect. The calculated average settling velocity of struvite with chitosan-bentonite addition in synthetic and in real wastewater increased by approximately 5.3 and 2.8 folds, respectively, compared with that of no coagulant/flocculent addition. Phosphorus recovery of over 70% was achieved by the continuous process. Findings in this study clearly confirmed the possibility of using chitosan and bentonite as an efficient coagulant-flocculent to enhance the recovery of struvite crystals.

  8. Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment by Combined Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Edris Bazrafshan; Ferdos Kord Mostafapour; Mehdi Farzadkia; Kamal Aldin Ownagh; Amir Hossein Mahvi

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation an...

  9. Global fibrinolytic capacity in pediatric patients with sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Ali; Oner, Ahmet Faik; Kose, Dogan; Dogan, Murat

    2006-10-01

    There are many complex pathophysiologic changes of the coagulation system in sepsis. The fibrinolytic system was evaluated in septic children using the global fibrinolytic capacity (GFC), a new technique reflecting the overall fibrinolytic activity. The study consisted of 24 children with sepsis, 36 children with sepsis plus disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and 20 healthy age-matched control individuals. Compared with controls, 86% of sepsis patients and 87% of sepsis plus DIC patients had decreased GFC levels. Between the sepsis plus DIC and sepsis groups there was no significant difference in terms of GFC levels. While 19 patients (52.7%) died in the sepsis plus DIC group, only three patients (12.5%) died in the sepsis group. When survivors and nonsurvivors were compared in terms of coagulation tests, there were significant differences for protein C, antithrombin, platelet, fibrinogen, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, prothrombin time, and white blood cell values. In conclusion, the level of GFC reduced in most of the pediatric sepsis patients but no difference was observed between patients with sepsis and patients with sepsis plus DIC. While inhibition of fibrinolysis is an important finding in sepsis, the mortality is mainly associated with the presence of end-organ damage and the status of coagulation parameters.

  10. Coagulation Factor IX for Hemophilia B Therapy


    OpenAIRE

    Orlova, N.; Kovnir, S.; Vorobiev, I.; Gabibov, A.

    2012-01-01

    Factor IX is a zymogen enzyme of the blood coagulation cascade. Inherited absence or deficit of the IX functional factor causes bleeding disorder hemophilia B, which requires constant protein replacement therapy. Reviewed herein are the current state in the manufacturing of FIX, improved variants of the recombinant protein for therapy, transgenic organisms for obtaining FIX, and the advances in the gene therapy of hemophilia B.

  11. The effect of large amount of suspended red blood cell transfusion on blood coagulation function in patients with surgery%大量输注悬浮红细胞对手术患者凝血功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭鹏豪; 杨小立

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the effects of large amount of suspended red blood cell transfusion and different injection rates between fresh plasma (FP) and red blood cell on blood coagulation function in patients with surgery. Methods 85 massive transfusion surgical patients from January 2014 to December 2015 in the fifth people''s hospital of Dongguan city were divided into observation group and control group according to the amount of suspended red blood cell transfusion. According to the ratios of plasma and suspended red blood cell transfusion, the patients were divided into high ratio group (≥1∶ 1),middle ratio group (1∶1-1∶2) and low ratio group (≤1∶2). Collecting venous blood, the hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT) and coagulation related indicators’ changes of the before and after blood transfusion were compared. The coagulation related indicators contained platelet (PLT), fibrinogen (FIB), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). ResultsAfter blood transfusion of all the patients, the HGB and HCT levels were significantly increased, and the PT, TT and APTT values were dramatically prolonged. The PLT and FIB of the observation group were significantly decreased, the differences were statistically significant (allP<0.05). In the middle and low ratio group, the PLT and FIB levels were significantly decreased, while the PT, TT and APTT values were dramatically prolonged. The levels’ changes of the low ratio group were more apparent. All the differences were statistically significant (allP<0.05). Conclusion Large amount of suspended red blood cell transfusion could lead to coagulation dysfunction in surgical patients. Increasing the ratios of plasma and suspended red blood cell transfusion could relieve the coagulation dysfunction.%目的:分析大量输注悬浮红细胞以及新鲜血浆与红细胞不同输注比例对手术患者凝血功能的影响。方法选择东莞市第五人民医院2014

  12. Comparison of serum, salivary, and rapid whole blood diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori and their validation against endoscopy based tests.

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, T G; Poxon, V; Sanders, D S; Elliott, T S; Walt, R P

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A rapid, reliable, and accurate test for the diagnosis of infection with Helicobacter pylori is needed for screening dyspeptic patients before referral for endoscopy. AIM: To compare a new rapid whole blood test (Helisal rapid blood, Cortecs), two serum enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs; Helico-G, Shield and Helisal serum, Cortecs), and a salivary assay (Helisal saliva, Cortecs), with slide biopsy urease, 13C-urea breath test, and histology. METHODS: Three hundred and thr...

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, M

    2014-06-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition in which systemic activation of coagulation without a specific localization occurs, resulting in extensive formation of intravascular fibrin, particularly in small and midsize vessels. Disseminated intravascular coagulation may lead to several altered coagulation parameters, including a low platelet count, abnormal global clotting assays, low levels of physiological anticoagulant proteases, or increased fibrin degradation products. Also, more complex assays for activation of coagulation factors or pathways may indicate involvement of these molecules in DIC. None of these tests alone, however, can accurately ascertain or rebuff a diagnosis of DIC. Nonetheless, a combination of readily available routine assays may be instrumental in establishing a diagnosis of DIC and can also be useful to point to a subset of patients with DIC that may need definite, often costly, interventions in the hemostatic system. Current insights on relevant etiological pathways that may contribute to the occurrence of DIC have led to innovative therapeutic and adjunctive approaches to patient with DIC. Management options directed at the amelioration of hemostatic activation may tentatively be indicated and were found to be advantageous in experimental and clinical investigations. These treatments encompass elimination of tissue factor-mediated thrombin generation or restitution of normal anticoagulant function.

  14. The Role for Coagulation Markers in Mild Snakebite Envenomations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa S. Moriarity

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The majority of patients seeking medical treatment for snakebites do not suffer from severe envenomation. However, no guidelines exist for ordering coagulation markers in patients with minimal or moderate envenomation, nor in those who do not receive antivenom. In this study, we sought to determine whether it was possible to limit the practice of ordering coagulation studies to those patients suffering severe envenomation, rattlesnake envenomation, or both.Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on all cases of crotalid snakebite presenting to an adult emergency department (ED from April 1998 to June 2006. Each chart was abstracted for patient’s age, gender, type of snake (if known, severity of envenomation at initial presentation, coagulation test results, whether antivenom was administered, and whether the patient was admitted.Results: Over an approximately 8-year period, 131 snakebite cases presented that met the inclusion criteria, of which 35 (26.7% had some type of coagulation marker abnormality. Limiting coagulation testing to patients suffering severe envenomation or rattlesnake envenomation would have resulted in failure to identify 89% or 77%, respectively, of the 35 patients who were found to have at least 1 abnormal coagulation marker.Conclusion: Our study failed to identify a subset of patients that could be defined as low risk or for whom coagulation marker testing could be foregone. This study suggests that coagulation tests should be routinely performed on all patients presenting to the ED with complaints of envenomation by copperheads, moccasins, or rattlesnakes. Further clarification of when coagulation markers are indicated may require a prospective study that standardizes snake identification and the timing of coagulation marker testing. [West J Emerg Med. 2012;13(1:68–74.

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus test-seeking blood donors in a large blood bank in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Goncalez, T; Sabino, E; Sales, N; Chen, YH; D. Chamone; Busch, M.; Murphy, E; Custer, B; McFarland, W

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors are excluded from donation to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection. Persons donating to be tested for HIV may therefore deny risk behaviors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A random sample of donors completed a survey on motivations, knowledge, and attitudes on the screening process. Donors were considered test seekers if they agreed with two statements "I think that blood donation is a good, fast, and anonym...

  16. Application of Combined Chemical Coagulation-Electro  Coagulation Process for Treatment  of the Zahedan Cattle Slaughterhouse Wastewater 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Bazrafshan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat, and lard. In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards.Materials and Methods: At present study, slaughterhouse wastewater after initial analysis was tested for survey of coagulation process using Poly aluminum chloride (PAC at various doses (25-100 mg/L. Then we measured the concentrations of wastewater pollutants (BOD5, COD, TKN, TSS and fecal Coliforms. Later, we transferred the effluent to the electrocoagulation unit and we evaluated the removal efficiency of pollutants in the range 10 to 40 volts of electric potential during 60 min.Results: It was found that the efficiency of chemical coagulation process using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC as coagulant increases with increasing doses (from 25 to 100 mg/L; we achieved maximum removal efficiency during the chemical coagulation for parameters of BOD5, COD, TSS, and TKN at 100 mg/L of PAC equivalent to 44.78%, 58.52%, 59.9%, and 39.58% respectively. Moreover, the results showed that with increasing the electric potential and reaction time, the yield increases linearly so that maximum removal efficiency at a dose of 100 mg/L PAC, an electrical potential of 40 volts and a reaction time of 60 minutes for the parameters BOD5, COD, TSS, and TKN was 99.18% 99.25%, 82.55%, and 93.97% respectively.Conclusion: The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation processes for pollutants removal from the slaughterhouse wastewaters

  17. A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR PURIFICATION OF WATER USING NATURAL COAGULANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Pise

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of chemical coagulants is not suitable due to health and economic considerations. Studies are carried out in laboratory scale on deionized and river water containing synthetic turbidity of kaolinite. Experiments are carried out in three turbidity ranges: 150, 450, 1000 (NTU and the pH range 6-8. The efficiency of Moringa oleifera (MO seed extract and alum is examined with jar test, settling column and pilot test. The aim of this study is to find out the optimum combination of MO and alum using alum as a coagulant aid in household treatment of natural river surface water for domestic use. The various coagulant combinations with which the raw water from the river is treated include Moringa oleifera seed powder only, Alum coagulant only and blended Moringa oleifera seeds and alum in different combinations. When Moringa oleifera seed powder is used as the sole coagulant, a filter was needed to obtain an acceptable turbidity value but there was no need for pH adjustment or correction. Moringa oleifera seed powder can be used in treating household drinking water either as a sole coagulant or in combination with alum as a coagulant aid. The recommended ratio for the combined coagulant dose is 60% MO seed powder and 40% alum.

  18. Comparative study of Treponemal and non-Treponemal test for screening of blood donated at a blood center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinder Kaur Naidu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-Treponemal tests such as Rapid Plasma Reagin test (RPR or the Venereal Disease Reference Laboratory test are the most commonly used test for screening of syphilis in the blood centers in India. Now, with the availability of Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and Immunochromatographic assays in the market, we decided to evaluate these assays in comparison with Treponema pallidum Haemagglutination Assay (TPHA which was considered as a gold standard for this study. A total of 8 685 samples of voluntary blood donors were tested on Trepolisa 3.0 and then the initially reactive samples were retested in duplicate on the same assay as well as on Omega Pathozyme, RPR, RAPHA (Rapid Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay, and TPHA. Of the 158 initially reactive samples, 104 were repeatedly reactive on the same assay, 85 were reactive with RPR, 77 were reactive with RAPHA, 60 were reactive on Omega, and 53 were confirmed reactive on TPHA. 48 (56.4% of the results on RPR were biological false positive, while 21.9% of results were false negative on RPR. We evaluated that Omega Pathozyme was quite in agreement with TPHA as compared with Trepolisa 3.0, RAPHA, and RPR. We concluded that Omega Pathozyme (ELISA can be considered as a suitable test for screening of syphilis in a blood center.

  19. 血栓弹力图评价全髋置换术围手术期应用利伐沙班后的凝血功能改变%Thromboelastography in assessment of blood coagulation dysfunction after administration of rivaroxaban in perioperative patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    恩和; 陈继营; 杨瑞; 李恒; 杨云建; 张玄

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the blood coagulation before and after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and the effect of rivaroxaban on blood coagulation after THA. Methods Sixty-six patients who underwent THA in our department in 2011 were included in this study. They began to have oral rivaroxaban on day 1 after operation and received thromboelastography (TEG) before THA and on days 1 and 4 after THA. Difference in TEG findings at different stages was compared. Results TEG showed that the coagulation reaction time(r), blood cell clot formation time(k)and coagulation time(r+k)were significantly shorter while the blood cell clot formation rate(α), maximal amplitude (ma)and coagulation index(CI)were significantly higher after THA than before THA(P < 0.05). The r and r+k were significantly longer after taking rivaroxaban than before taking rivaroxaban(P<0.05). However, no significant difference was found in k,α, ma and CI before and after taking rivaroxaban. Conclusion THA can significantly increase blood coagulation and thrombosis risk. Short-term oral administration of rivaroxaban can decrease blood coagulation.%  目的研究血液凝固性在全髋关节置换术前、后的改变以及术后服用利伐沙班对其影响。方法随机选择2011年在我科行全髋关节置换术的患者66例。所有患者术后第1天开始口服利伐沙班,并分别于术前、术后第1天、术后第4天行血栓弹力图(thromboelastography,TEG)检查。比较各阶段TEG重要指标的差异。结果全髋关节置换术后TEG各指标中凝血反应时间(r)、血细胞凝集块形成时间(k)、凝血时间(r+k)值短于术前,血细胞凝集块形成速率(α)、最大振幅(ma)、凝血指数(CI)值高于术前,差异有统计学意义;术后服用利伐沙班后TEG各指标中r、r+k时间长于服药前,差异有统计学意义;k、α、ma、CI无显著变化,差异无统计学意义。结论全髋关节置换术可明显增加患者的血液凝固性,

  20. An Arthrobacter spp. bacteremia leading to fetal death and maternal disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, Naoya; Ozaki, Kimiaki; Hori, Kensuke; Ito, Kimihiko; Nakayama, Masahiro; Nakahira, Kumiko; Yanagihara, Itaru

    2013-02-01

    A 34-year-old parous woman developed high fever and threatened preterm labor after a 1-day trip, for which she was receiving prenatal care at a hospital. Three days after onset, at 24 4/7 weeks of gestation, she was transferred to our hospital in an emergency. Soon after the woman's arrival at our hospital, the infant was spontaneously stillborn via a transvaginal delivery. Laboratory tests revealed severe maternal disseminated intravascular coagulation with renal and liver insufficiency. Histopathologic examination of the placenta revealed vast fibrin deposition and remarkable neutrophilic infiltration in the intervillous space, suggesting a rare bacterial infection caused by Arthrobacter spp. The bacteria were predominantly detected in the placenta and maternal blood serum by common bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing after polymerase chain reaction amplification. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of bacteremia with Arthrobacter spp., which may lead to maternal disseminated intravascular coagulation and intrauterine fetal death.

  1. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in term and preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Alex; Fischer, Doris; Nold, Marcel F; Wong, Flora Y

    2010-06-01

    Among critically ill patients, the risk of developing disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is probably highest in neonates. Low plasma reserves in pro- and anticoagulant coagulation factors, intravascular volume contraction after birth, and a high incidence of hypoxia and sepsis in critically ill newborns rapidly lead to a decompensation of the coagulation system in this population. Global coagulation tests and single-factor plasma levels have to be interpreted in the context of age-corrected normal ranges. Platelet consumption and reduced protein C plasma levels have diagnostic value; the latter also has prognostic potential in neonates with DIC and sepsis. Therapeutic success relies heavily on reversal of the underlying condition. Some coagulation-specific therapies have been explored in small studies and case series with varying success and sometimes conflicting results. Therefore, larger controlled trials in this common and serious condition are urgently needed.

  2. 脉血康胶囊对不同疾病患者凝血功能的影响%Effects of Maixuekang capsule on blood coagulation with different diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琦晖; 李增高

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察脉血康胶囊对不同疾病患者凝血功能的影响.方法 选择2011年5月至2011年9月重庆第一人民医院心内科50例不同疾病患者,观察口服脉血康胶囊前后凝血功能的改变.结果 在观察的50例患者中,活化部分凝血活酶时间(APTT-sec)、活化部分凝血活酶比率(APTT-ratio)在用药后84 d[(35.64±3.07)、(1.11±0.10)]与用药前[(35.29±3.32)、(1.10±0.10)]比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);凝血酶原活性度(PT%)、凝血酶原标准化比值(PT-INR)、凝血酶原比率(PT-ratio)、凝血酶原时间PT-sec)、纤维蛋白原(Fib)、凝血酶时间(TT-sec)、凝血酶比率(TT-ratio)在用药后84 d分别为[(105.22±11.69)%、(0.98±0.07)、(1.00±0.05)、(13.08±0.69)、(3.37±0.74) g/L、(18.12±1.41)、(1.07±0.08)]均较治疗前[(114.64±9.10)%、(0.93±0.04)、(0.94±0.03)、(12.50±0.42)、(3.66±0.59) g/L、(16.84±0.71)、(0.99±0.04)]有明显改善(P<0.05).结论 脉血康胶囊对不同疾病患者有抗凝作用.%Objective To investigate the effects of Maixuekang capsule on blood coagulation.Methods 50 patients with different diseases from cardiologic department of Chongqing First People's Hospital from 2011 May to 2011 September were selected.The changes of their blood coagulation function were observed after taking Maixuekang capsule.Results Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT-sec) and activated partial thromboplastin ratio (APTT-ratio) in 84 ds [(35.64±3.07),(1.11±0.10)] after using the medicine showed no statistical difference compared with the value before taking the medicine [(35.29±3.32) before treatment),(1.10±0.10)] (P>0.05); while coagulation zymogen activity (PT%),prothrombin normalized ratio (PT-INR),prothrombin ratio (PT-ratio),prothrombin time(PT-sec),fibrinogen (Fib),thrombin time (TT-sec),and thrombin ratio (TT-ratio) in 84 ds after using the medicine [(105.22 ± 11.69)%,(0.98 ±0.07),(1.00±0.05),(13.08±0.69),(3.37±0.74)g

  3. Coagulation and Mental Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Hoirisch-Clapauch; Antonio Egidio Nardi; Jean-Christophe Gris; Benjamin Brenner

    2014-01-01

    The neurovascular unit is a key player in brain development, homeostasis, and pathology. Mental stress affects coagulation, while severe mental illnesses, such as recurrent depression and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased thrombotic risk and cardiovascular morbidity. Evidence indicates that the hemostatic system is involved to some extent in the pathogenesis, morbidity, and prognosis of a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The current review focuses on emerging data linking ...

  4. Coagulation inhibitors in inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmon, C T

    2005-04-01

    Coagulation is triggered by inflammatory mediators in a number of ways. However, to prevent unwanted clot formation, several natural anticoagulant mechanisms exist, such as the antithrombin-heparin mechanism, the tissue factor pathway inhibitor mechanism and the protein C anticoagulant pathway. This review examines the ways in which these pathways are down-regulated by inflammation, thus limiting clot formation and decreasing the natural anti-inflammatory mechanisms that these pathways possess. PMID:15787615

  5. Analysis and optimization of coagulation and flocculation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saritha, V.; Srinivas, N.; Srikanth Vuppala, N. V.

    2015-02-01

    Natural coagulants have been the focus of research of many investigators through the last decade owing to the problems caused by the chemical coagulants. Optimization of process parameters is vital for the effectiveness of coagulation process. In the present study optimization of parameters like pH, dose of coagulant and mixing speed were studied using natural coagulants sago and chitin in comparison with alum. Jar test apparatus was used to perform the coagulation. The results showed that the removal of turbidity was up to 99 % by both alum and chitin at lower doses of coagulant, i.e., 0.1-0.3 g/L, whereas sago has shown a reduction of 70-100 % at doses of 0.1 and 0.2 g/L. The optimum conditions observed for sago were 6 and 7 whereas chitin was stable at all pH ranges, lower coagulant doses, i.e., 0.1-0.3 g/L and mixing speed—rapid mixing at 100 rpm for 10 min and slow mixing 20 rpm for 20 min. Hence, it can be concluded that sago and chitin can be used for treating water even with large seasonal variation in turbidity.

  6. Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, May Devan; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Stewart, Tom

    2010-02-01

    The formation of silica scale is a problem for thermoelectric power generating facilities, and this study investigated the potential for removal of silica by means of chemical coagulation from source water before it is subjected to mineral concentration in cooling towers. In Phase I, a screening of many typical as well as novel coagulants was carried out using concentrated cooling tower water, with and without flocculation aids, at concentrations typical for water purification with limited results. In Phase II, it was decided that treatment of source or make up water was more appropriate, and that higher dosing with coagulants delivered promising results. In fact, the less exotic coagulants proved to be more efficacious for reasons not yet fully determined. Some analysis was made of the molecular nature of the precipitated floc, which may aid in process improvements. In Phase III, more detailed study of process conditions for aluminum chloride coagulation was undertaken. Lime-soda water softening and the precipitation of magnesium hydroxide were shown to be too limited in terms of effectiveness, speed, and energy consumption to be considered further for the present application. In Phase IV, sodium aluminate emerged as an effective coagulant for silica, and the most attractive of those tested to date because of its availability, ease of use, and low requirement for additional chemicals. Some process optimization was performed for coagulant concentration and operational pH. It is concluded that silica coagulation with simple aluminum-based agents is effective, simple, and compatible with other industrial processes.

  7. Analysis on Coagulation Test Value in Diagnosis of Viral Hepatitis%凝血四项检测对病毒性肝炎诊断的价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭鹏; 闫晓琳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze coagulation test value in diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Methods 38 patients with viral hepatitis were chosen who are received in hospital from January 2014 to January 2015 into Group A, and separate 38 persons taking physical examination into Group B. And have these patients tested with coagulation test and then compare test results between two groups. Results Test results of PT, TT and APTT value from patients with chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, acute hepatitis and severe hepatitis are much higher than counterparts in control group (P<0.05), there is great differential between test results in two groups. Besides, acute hepatitis patients’ FIB test results are much higher than that in control group (P<0.05) and FIB value from patients of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and severe hepatitis are lower than counterparts in control group (P<0.05), there is great differential between test results in two groups. Conclusion Coagulation test is of great value in diagnosis of viral hepatitis, therefore, it is suggested to be paid attention.%目的:分析凝血四项检测对病毒性肝炎诊断的价值。方法搜集2014年1月~2015年1月我院病毒性肝炎38例作为甲组;将同期健康体检者38例作为乙组。对甲组和乙组进行凝血四项检测,比较检测结果。结果甲组慢性肝炎、肝硬化、急性肝炎、重症肝炎者PT、TT和APTT检测结果高于对照组(P<0.05),差异有统计学意义;甲组急性肝炎者FIB检测结果高于对照组(P<0.05),慢性肝炎、肝硬化、重症肝炎者FIB小于对照组(P<0.05),差异有统计学意义。结论凝血四项检测在病毒性肝炎临床诊断中应用价值较大,应予以重视。

  8. How-to-Do-It: A Simulation of the Blood Type Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, John D., Sr.; Smailes, Deborah L.

    1989-01-01

    Explains an activity that allows students to visualize antigen-antibody type reactions and learn about antibodies and antigens without performing blood typing tests. Provides directions for students and a comparison chart of a blood typing simulation with procedure which is based on the reactions of certain ionic solutions when mixed. (RT)

  9. [Disseminated intravascular coagulation: clinical and biological diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touaoussa, Aziz; El Youssi, Hind; El Hassani, Imane; Hanouf, Daham; El Bergui, Imane; Zoulati, Ghizlane; Amrani Hassani, Moncef

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by the systemic activation of blood coagulation. Its pathophysiological mechanisms are complex and dependent on the underlying pathology, making the clinical and biological expression of quite variable DIC. Among the various biological parameters disrupted, most are not specific, and none of them allows in itself to make the diagnosis. All this does not facilitate the task of the practitioner for diagnosis of overt DIC, much less that of the non-overt DIC, early stage whose treatment would improve the prognosis. These considerations have led to develop scores, combining several parameters depending on their availability in daily practice, as well as their diagnostic relevance. Of all the scores, the ISTH (International society of thrombosis and hemostasis) remains the most used.

  10. Paper-based assay for red blood cell antigen typing by the indirect antiglobulin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, Natasha; McLiesh, Heather; Guan, Liyun; Shen, Wei; Garnier, Gil

    2016-07-01

    A rapid and simple paper-based elution assay for red blood cell antigen typing by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) was established. This allows to type blood using IgG antibodies for the important blood groups in which IgM antibodies do not exist. Red blood cells incubated with IgG anti-D were washed with saline and spotted onto the paper assay pre-treated with anti-IgG. The blood spot was eluted with an elution buffer solution in a chromatography tank. Positive samples were identified by the agglutinated and fixed red blood cells on the original spotting area, while red blood cells from negative samples completely eluted away from the spot of origin. Optimum concentrations for both anti-IgG and anti-D were identified to eliminate the washing step after the incubation phase. Based on the no-washing procedure, the critical variables were investigated to establish the optimal conditions for the paper-based assay. Two hundred ten donor blood samples were tested in optimal conditions for the paper test with anti-D and anti-Kell. Positive and negative samples were clearly distinguished. This assay opens up new applications of the IAT on paper including antibody detection and blood donor-recipient crossmatching and extends its uses into non-blood typing applications with IgG antibody-based diagnostics. Graphical abstract A rapid and simple paper-based assay for red blood cell antigen typing by the indirect antiglobulin test. PMID:27185543

  11. Impact of a confirmatory RhD test on the correct serologic typing of blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cayres Schmidt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The RHD gene is highly polymorphic, which results in a large number of RhD variant phenotypes. Discrepancies in RhD typing are still a problem in blood banks and increase the risk of alloimmunization. In this study, the RhD typing strategy at a blood bank in Brazil was evaluated.METHODS: One-hundred and fifty-two samples typed as RhD negative and C or E positive by routine tests (automated system and indirect antiglobulin test using the tube technique were reevaluated for RhD status by three methods. The method with the best performance was implemented and evaluated for a period of one year (n = 4897 samples. Samples that were D positive exclusively in the confirmatory test were submitted to molecular analysis.RESULTS: The gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing with anti-D immunoglobulin G (clone ESD1 presented the best results. Seventy samples (1.43% previously typed as RhD negative showed reactivity in the gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing and were reclassified as D positive. D variants that may cause alloimmunization, such as weak D type 2 and partial DVI, were detected.CONCLUSION: The confirmatory RhD test using the gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing represents a breakthrough in transfusion safety in this blood center. Our results emphasize the importance of assessing the blood group typing strategy in blood banks.

  12. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of our nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, is to provide rapid, low-cost, powerful multiplexed analyses in a diminutive form so that whole body health...

  13. Defective CFTR expression and function are detectable in blood monocytes : development of a new blood test for cystic fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sorio, C.; Buffelli, M.; C. Angiari; Ettorre, M; Johansson, J; M. Vezzalini; Viviani, L; Ricciardi, M.; G. Verzè; Assael, B M; P. Melotti

    2011-01-01

    Background Evaluation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) functional activity to assess new therapies and define diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) is cumbersome. It is known that leukocytes express detectable levels of CFTR but the molecule has not been characterized in these cells. In this study we aim at setting up and validating a blood test to evaluate CFTR expression and function in leukocytes. Description Western blot, PCR, immunofluorescence and cell membrane ...

  14. Comparison of Moringa stenopetala seed extract as a clean coagulant with Alum and Moringa stenopetala-Alum hybrid coagulant to remove direct dye from Textile Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvand, Arash; Gholibegloo, Elham; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Golchinpoor, Najmeh; Khazaei, Mohammad; Kamani, Hossein; Hosseini, Sara Sadat; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the efficiency of Moringa stenopetala seed extract was compared with alum and M. stenopetala-alum hybrid coagulant to remove Direct Red 23 azo dye from textile wastewater. The effects of parameters such as pH, coagulant dose, type of salt used for the extraction of coagulant and initial dye concentration on dye removal efficiency were investigated. Moreover, the existing functional groups on the structure of M. stenopetala coagulant (MSC) were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the morphology of sludge produced by MSC, alum, and hybrid coagulant was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Ninhydrin test was also used to determine the quantity of primary amines in the MSC and Moringa oleifera coagulant (MOC). According to the results, with increasing the coagulant dose and decreasing the initial dye concentration, dye removal efficiency has increased. The maximum dye removal of 98.5, 98.2, and 98.3 % were obtained by using 240, 120, and 80 mg/L MSC, alum and hybrid coagulant at pH 7, respectively. The results also showed MSC was much more effective than MOC for dye removal. The volume of sludge produced by MSC was one fourth and half of those produced by alum and hybrid coagulant, respectively. Based on the results, hybrid coagulant was the most efficient coagulant for direct dye removal from colored wastewater. PMID:27164876

  15. Comparison of Moringa stenopetala seed extract as a clean coagulant with Alum and Moringa stenopetala-Alum hybrid coagulant to remove direct dye from Textile Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvand, Arash; Gholibegloo, Elham; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Golchinpoor, Najmeh; Khazaei, Mohammad; Kamani, Hossein; Hosseini, Sara Sadat; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the efficiency of Moringa stenopetala seed extract was compared with alum and M. stenopetala-alum hybrid coagulant to remove Direct Red 23 azo dye from textile wastewater. The effects of parameters such as pH, coagulant dose, type of salt used for the extraction of coagulant and initial dye concentration on dye removal efficiency were investigated. Moreover, the existing functional groups on the structure of M. stenopetala coagulant (MSC) were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the morphology of sludge produced by MSC, alum, and hybrid coagulant was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Ninhydrin test was also used to determine the quantity of primary amines in the MSC and Moringa oleifera coagulant (MOC). According to the results, with increasing the coagulant dose and decreasing the initial dye concentration, dye removal efficiency has increased. The maximum dye removal of 98.5, 98.2, and 98.3 % were obtained by using 240, 120, and 80 mg/L MSC, alum and hybrid coagulant at pH 7, respectively. The results also showed MSC was much more effective than MOC for dye removal. The volume of sludge produced by MSC was one fourth and half of those produced by alum and hybrid coagulant, respectively. Based on the results, hybrid coagulant was the most efficient coagulant for direct dye removal from colored wastewater.

  16. Value of routine blood tests for prediction of mortality risk in hip fracture patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosfeldt, Mathias; Pedersen, Ole B; Riis, Troels;

    2012-01-01

    There is a 5- to 8-fold increased risk of mortality during the first 3 months after a hip fracture. Several risk factors are known. We studied the predictive value (for mortality) of routine blood tests taken on admission....

  17. Screening for Saponins Using the Blood Hemolysis Test. An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotheeswaran, Subramaniam

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experiment for undergraduate chemistry laboratories involving a chemical found in plants and some sea animals. Discusses collection and identification of material, a hemolysis test, preparation of blood-coated agar plates, and application of samples. (CW)

  18. Nucleic acid testing: Is it the only answer for safe Blood in India?

    OpenAIRE

    N K Naidu; Bharucha, Z. S.; Vandana Sonawane; Imran Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background: With the implementation of NAT in countries around the world, there is a growing pressure on the transfusion services in India to adopt NAT testing. India has about 2545 licensed Blood Centres. The Transfusion Services in India are fragmented, poorly regulated and the quality standards are poorly implemented. Blood Centres are still dependent on replacement/family donors and in most places laboratory testing for Transfusion transmitted infections is not quality assured, laboratory...

  19. Honey Bee Venom (Apis mellifera Contains Anticoagulation Factors and Increases the Blood-clotting Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Zolfagharian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Bee venom (BV is a complex mixture of proteins and contains proteins such as phospholipase and melittin, which have an effect on blood clotting and blood clots. The mechanism of action of honey bee venom (HBV, Apis mellifera on human plasma proteins and its anti-thrombotic effect were studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-coagulation effect of BV and its effects on blood coagulation and purification. Methods: Crude venom obtained from Apis mellifera was selected. The anti-coagulation factor of the crude venom from this species was purified by using gel filtration chromatography (sephadex G-50, and the molecular weights of the anti-coagulants in this venom estimated by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Blood samples were obtained from 10 rabbits, and the prothrombin time (PT and the partial thromboplastin time (PTT tests were conducted. The approximate lethal dose (LD values of BV were determined. Results: Crude BV increased the blood clotting time. For BV concentrations from 1 to 4 mg/mL, clotting was not observed even at more than 300 seconds, standard deviations (SDs = ± 0.71; however, clotting was observed in the control group 13.8 s, SDs = ± 0.52. Thus, BV can be considered as containing anti-coagulation factors. Crude BV is composed 4 protein bands with molecular weights of 3, 15, 20 and 41 kilodalton (kDa, respectively. The LD50 of the crude BV was found to be 177.8 μg/mouse. Conclusion: BV contains anti-coagulation factors. The fraction extracted from the Iranian bees contains proteins that are similar to anti-coagulation proteins, such as phospholipase A2 (PLA2 and melittin, and that can increase the blood clotting times in vitro.

  20. The ethics of blood testing as an element of doping control in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, A; Lachance, V; Pipe, A

    1999-04-01

    Sport authorities continue to confront a variety of perplexing issues as they attempt to address effectively and efficiently the problems posed by doping. The emergence of the phenomena of blood doping and the administration of erythropoietin have added to the challenges faced by doping control authorities. Some sport organizations have introduced blood tests in an attempt to deal with these issues despite the absence of any effective test for the detection of the administration of homologous blood products or eythropoietin. A number of ethical issues are raised by such developments. Even in the presence of an effective test it is suggested that the decision to implement a specific testing approach can be reached by considering the wishes of a hypothetical "Fair Competitor" and an analysis of the costs involved. In this respect the Fair Competitor assumes in the sport community the role that the "reasonable person" occupies in law, permitting an analysis of a proposed course of action. In making any decision regarding the implementation of any test, a Fair Competitor would be guided by considerations of the postulated advantage and incidence of a doping technique, the likelihood of false positive and negative results, the risk of unwanted consequences of a testing process, and a concern that a specific test not accelerate the likelihood of the use of other doping methods. This approach is applied to a consideration of the appropriateness of blood testing in sport. It is concluded, using such an analysis, that in their present state of development, blood tests should not be implemented. It is recognized that certain sport authorities currently use blood tests to exclude competitors whose blood values exceed certain predetermined levels on the grounds of concerns regarding health and safety. Screening of this kind is beyond the purview of this discussion.

  1. Development of a model based scoring system for diagnosis of canine disseminated intravascular coagulation with independent assessment of sensitivity and specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiinberg, Bo; Jensen, Asger Lundorff; Johansson, Per Ingemar;

    2010-01-01

    A template for a scoring system for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in humans has been proposed by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH). The objective of this study was to develop and validate a similar objective scoring system based on generally available...... coagulation tests for the diagnosis of DIC in dogs. To develop the scoring system, 100 dogs consecutively admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with diseases predisposing for DIC were enrolled prospectively (group A). The validation involved 50 dogs consecutively diagnosed with diseases predisposing...... for DIC, admitted to a different ICU (group B). Citrated blood samples were collected daily during hospitalisation and diagnosis of DIC was based on the expert evaluation of an extended coagulation panel. A multiple logistic regression model was developed in group A for DIC diagnosis. The integrity...

  2. 重组腺相关病毒2型/人凝血因子IX的质量研究%Quality control of recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2/human blood coagulation factor IX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凯; 王军志; 饶春明; 吴小兵

    2003-01-01

    目的研究并建立重组腺相关病毒2型/人凝血因子IX(recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2/human blood coagulation factor IX,rAAV-2/hFIX)的质量标准.方法采用PCR法确认病毒所携带的重组核酸结构和测定辅助病毒(helper virus)和野生型腺相关病毒(wtAAV)的残留片段.SDS-PAGE电泳测定病毒外壳蛋白分子量及纯度,TSK gel SP-NPR阳离子交换柱系统测定病毒颗粒纯度.以斑点杂交法测定病毒颗粒数.一期法于IX因子基因剔除小鼠体内测定rAAV-2/hFIX生物学活性,并通过ELISA法测定感染BHK-21细胞后hFIX的表达量.结果 PCR法确证病毒的重组核酸结构与构建预期相同;在1×107 VG的rAAV-2/hFIX颗粒中,残留辅助病毒的基因片段数少于1个拷贝;在1×108 VG的rAAV-2/hFIX颗粒中,野生型AAV-2基因片段数少于1个拷贝.病毒颗粒及外壳蛋白纯度均大于98%,病毒颗粒数大于1.0×1015 VG*L-1(virus genome*L-1).IX因子剔除小鼠肌肉注射病毒后21 d,小鼠血液中人凝血因子IX活性达到大于正常人因子IX活性的15%,IX因子的体外表达水平大于20.0 μg*L-1.其他各项检测指标均符合规定.结论建立了rAAV-2/hFIX的质量标准,用于控制产品质量.

  3. Air pollution source apportionment before, during, and after the 2008 Beijing Olympics and association of sources to aldehydes and biomarkers of blood coagulation, pulmonary and systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress in healthy young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemose, Brent A.

    Based on principal component analysis (PCA) of air pollution data collected during the Summer Olympic Games held in Beijing, China during 2008, the five source types of air pollution identified -- natural soil/road dust, vehicle and industrial combustion, vegetative burning, oil combustion, and secondary formation, were all distinctly lower during the Olympics. This was particularly true for vehicle and industrial combustion and oil combustion, and during the main games period between the opening and closing ceremonies. The reduction in secondary formation was reflective of a reduction in nitrogen oxides, but this also contributed to increased ozone concentrations during the Olympic period. Among three toxic aldehydes measured in Beijing during the same time period, only acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Accordingly, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion, and with several pollutants emitted mainly from primary sources. In contrast, formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the Olympic air pollution control period; accordingly both were significantly correlated with ozone and with the secondary formation source type. These findings indicate primary sources may dominate for acetaldehyde while secondary sources may dominate for formaldehyde and acrolein. Biomarkers for pulmonary inflammation (exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH, exhaled nitric oxide, and EBC nitrite) and hemostasis and blood coagulation (vWF and sCD62p) were most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion, oil combustion, and vegetative burning. The systemic inflammation biomarker 8-OHdG was most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion. In contrast, the associations between the biomarkers and the aldehydes were generally not significant or in the hypothesized direction, although

  4. Evaluation and Improved Use of Fecal Occult Blood Test in the Constipated Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilway, Denise M

    2016-01-01

    This quality improvement project examined the use of fecal occult blood test in the constipated child in a pediatric gastroenterology outpatient clinic. A retrospective chart review was completed on 100 children seen for an initial visit with the gastroenterology provider. The number of fecal occult blood tests performed and the child's coinciding symptoms were tallied and compared with the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition recommendations. An educational intervention was held with the pediatric gastroenterology providers consisting of a PowerPoint presentation summarizing aims of the quality improvement project and reviewing recommendations for use of fecal occult blood test in the constipated child. Pre- and post-intervention chart review data sets were compared. Results showed a 19.6% decrease in the use of fecal occult blood tests performed during the post-intervention timeframe. However, when used in conjunction with North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition recommendations, the appropriateness of fecal occult blood test use increased by 71.4% in the post-intervention patients. Reviewing the recommendations with gastroenterology providers assisted in optimizing the meaningful use of fecal occult blood test, improving quality and safety of care for children seen in the pediatric gastroenterology outpatient clinic.

  5. Evaluation and Improved Use of Fecal Occult Blood Test in the Constipated Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilway, Denise M

    2016-01-01

    This quality improvement project examined the use of fecal occult blood test in the constipated child in a pediatric gastroenterology outpatient clinic. A retrospective chart review was completed on 100 children seen for an initial visit with the gastroenterology provider. The number of fecal occult blood tests performed and the child's coinciding symptoms were tallied and compared with the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition recommendations. An educational intervention was held with the pediatric gastroenterology providers consisting of a PowerPoint presentation summarizing aims of the quality improvement project and reviewing recommendations for use of fecal occult blood test in the constipated child. Pre- and post-intervention chart review data sets were compared. Results showed a 19.6% decrease in the use of fecal occult blood tests performed during the post-intervention timeframe. However, when used in conjunction with North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition recommendations, the appropriateness of fecal occult blood test use increased by 71.4% in the post-intervention patients. Reviewing the recommendations with gastroenterology providers assisted in optimizing the meaningful use of fecal occult blood test, improving quality and safety of care for children seen in the pediatric gastroenterology outpatient clinic. PMID:27070795

  6. Internet-Based Contingency Management to Improve Adherence with Blood Glucose Testing Recommendations for Teens with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiff, Bethany R.; Dallery, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    The current study used Internet-based contingency management (CM) to increase adherence with blood glucose testing to at least 4 times daily. Four teens diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes earned vouchers for submitting blood glucose testing videos over a Web site. Participants submitted a mean of 1.7 and 3.1 blood glucose tests per day during the 2…

  7. 赛科希德 SF-8000凝血测试系统性能评价%Performance evaluation of SUCCEEDER SF-8000 coagulation testing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴启娇; 童毅; 曹丽琰; 杨德琴; 徐君全; 常俊; 范林霞

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of domestic SUCCEEDER SF-8000 coagulation testing system (SF-8000).Methods The precision, accuracy, linearity, comparability and so on of SF-8000 were evaluated.The 200 g/L hemoglobin solution was added to 12 cases of fresh plasma in the proportions of 1∶200, 2∶200, 3∶200, 4∶200 and 5∶200, and the experimental plasma was prepared.The differences of the results in the experimental plasma, the original plasma and the brine-diluted control plasma were analyzed.The differences of 15 cases of bubble specimens and control specimens′results were analyzed by paired t-test.The 12 fresh specimens were measured with fresh dissolved-reagents and 24h-refrigerated reagents separately, and the differences of the 2 sets of results were analyzed.A total of 13 cases of 4h-refrigerated specimens, 24h-refrigerated specimens and fresh specimens were measured, and the differences were analyzed.Results The basic properties of the instrument were all in accordance with the requirements of manufacturers. Hemolysis and bubbles affected the results of SF-8000 in different levels. When hemoglobin concentration reached 1-1.5 g/L, the results of activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT)and prothrombin time(PT) had significantly statistical differences from those of the original plasma group(P<0.01), when it reached 4 g/L, they had statistically significant differences from the control plasma group(P<0.01).In addition to the reagent of APTT (P<0.01), the results of 24 h-refrigerated reagents and fresh refrigerated reagents had no statistical differences with good stability.The results of 4h-refrigerated specimens and fresh specimens had no statistical difference, but the results of 24 h-refrigerated specimens and fresh specimens in APTT, PT and fibrinogen( FIB) had statistical significance( P<0.01).Conclusions The performance of SF-8000 meets the national and industrial standards.The manual operation should be strictly carried out to avoid

  8. The effects of chemical coagulants on the decolorization of dyes by electrocoagulation using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Erick B.; Hung, Yung-Tse; Mulamba, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed the efficiency of electrocoagulation (ECF) coupled with an addition of chemical coagulant to decolorize textile dye. Tests were conducted using Box Behnken methodology to vary six parameters: dye type, weight, coagulant type, dose, initial pH and current density. The combination of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation was able to decolorize dye up to 99.42 % in 30 min of treatment time which is remarkably shorter in comparison with using conventional chemical coagulation. High color removal was found to be contingent upon the dye type and current density, along with the interactions between the current density and the coagulant dose. The addition of chemical coagulants did enhanced treatment efficiency.

  9. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Levi

    2009-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome that may complicate a variety of diseases, including malignant disease. DIC is characterized by widespread, intravascular activation of coagulation (leading to intravascular fibrin deposition) and simultaneous consumption of coagulation fact

  10. A loop of coagulation factor VIIa influencing macromolecular substrate specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelke, Jais R; Persson, Egon; Rasmussen, Hanne B;

    2006-01-01

    . The resulting variant exhibited increased intrinsic activity, concurrent with maturation of the active site, a less accessible N-terminus, and, interestingly, an altered macromolecular substrate specificity reflected in an increased ability to cleave factor IX (FIX) and a decreased rate of FX activation....../Met(298{156})Lys-FVIIa with almost the same activity and specificity profile. We conclude that a lysine residue in position 298{156} of FVIIa requires a hydrophilic environment to be fully accommodated. This position appears critical for substrate specificity among the proteases of the blood coagulation......Coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) belongs to a family of proteases being part of the stepwise, self-amplifying blood coagulation cascade. To investigate the impact of the mutation Met(298{156})Lys in FVIIa, we replaced the Gly(283{140})-Met(298{156}) loop with the corresponding loop of factor Xa...

  11. Treatment of Leachate by Coagulation-Flocculation using different Coagulants and Polymer: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Mao Rui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leachate will be treated by using coagulation-flocculation. Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in a number of diverse disciplines, including biochemistry, cheese manufacturing, rubber manufacturing, and in water and waste water treatment. It is effective for removing high concentration organic pollutant and heavy metals in wastewater. However, coagulationflocculation examined the effectiveness of alum, ferric chloride and polyaluminum chloride (PAC1  as well as the use of synthetic polymers on the removal of suspended solid (SS, color, COD and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3N from leachate. The coagulant dosage has typically been determined through jar test, which requires a long experiment time in a field water treatment plant.

  12. [Results of Training for Personnel Involved in Blood-Transfusion Testing Outside of Regular Work Hours at Saga University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Marie; Yamada, Naotomo; Higashitani, Takanori; Ohta, Shoichiro; Sueoka, Eisaburo

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory testing prior to blood transfusion outside of regular hours in many hospitals and clinics is frequently conducted by technicians without sufficient experience in such testing work. To obtain consistent test results regardless of the degree of laboratory experience with blood transfusion testing, the number of facilities introducing automated equipment for testing prior to blood transfusion is increasing. Our hospital's blood transfusion department introduced fully automated test equipment in October of 2010 for use when blood transfusions are conducted outside of regular hours. However, excessive dependence on automated testing can lead to an inability to do manual blood typing or cross-match testing when necessitated by breakdowns in the automated test equipment, in the case of abnormal specimen reactions, or other such case. In addition, even outside of normal working hours there are more than a few instances in which transfusion must take place based on urgent communications from clinical staff, with the need for prompt and flexible timing of blood transfusion test and delivery of blood products. To address this situation, in 2010 we began training after-hours laboratory personnel in blood transfusion testing to provide practice using test tubes manually and to achieve greater understanding of blood transfusion test work (especially in cases of critical blood loss). Results of the training and difficulties in its implementation for such after-hours laboratory personnel at our hospital are presented and discussed in this paper. [Original

  13. Validation of four Helicobacter pylori rapid blood tests in a multi-ethnic Asian population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lee-Guan Lim; Khay-Guan Yeoh; Bow Ho; Seng-Gee Lim

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To validate the accuracy of four rapid blood tests in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori.METHODS: Consecutive dyspeptic patients scheduled for endoscopy at the National University Hospital,Singapore, were interviewed and had blood drawn for serology. The first 109 patients were tested with BM-test (BM), Pyloriset Screen (PS) and QuickVue (QV), and the next 99 subjects were tested with PS and Unigold (UG).Endoscopies were performed blinded to rapid blood test results and biopsies were taken for culture and rapid urease test. Urea breath tests were performed after endoscopies. The rapid blood test results were compared with four reference tests (rapid urease test, culture,serology, and breath test).RESULTS: The study population composed of 208patients (mean age 43.1 years; range 18-73 years; 119males; 174 Chinese). The number of evaluable patientsfor BM, QV, UG and PS were 102, 102, 95, and 197,respectively. The sensitivity and specificity, respectively were: PS 80.2%, 95.8%; UG 55.9%, 100%; QV 43.3%,100%; BM 67.2%, 97.1%.CONCLUSION: The rapid blood test kits showed high specificity and positive predictive value (97-100%), while sensitivity and negative predictive value ranged widely (43%-80% and 47%-73%, respectively). Among test kits, PS showed the best sensitivity (80%), best negative predictive value (73%) and best negative likelihood ratio (0.207). PS had a specificity of 96%, positive predictive value of 97% and positive likelihood ratio of 19.1.

  14. Blood agar validation for susceptibility testing of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and streptomycin to Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yilmaz Coban

    Full Text Available In recent studies, it was shown that blood agar can be used at least as effectively as Löwenstein-Jensen medium for growing Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It was also shown that susceptibility testing can be performed on blood agar. Additional validation of blood agar was performed on regional M. tuberculosis isolates from Turkey to determine critical concentrations of isoniazid (INH, rifampicin (RIF, ethambutol (ETM, and streptomycin (STR. In the current study, 40 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates were tested. H37Rv, which is susceptible to all antituberculosis agents, ATCC 35822 (INH-resistant, ATCC 35838 (RIF-resistant, ATCC 35837 (ETM-resistant, and ATCC 35820 (STR-resistant quality control strains were used as control strains. Proportion method on 7H11 agar was considered as gold standard in the study. MIC values of the control strains and clinical isolates were detected on blood and 7H11 agar. Categorical agreements were 100% for each antibiotic, and essential agreements were 100%, 97.5%, 82.5%, and 95% for INH, RIF, ETM, and STR, respectively. According to the data, 0.2 µg/mL for INH, 1 µg/mL for RIF, 4 µg/mL for ETM, and 2 µg/mL for STR were appropriate breakpoint values for susceptibility testing on blood agar. Blood agar may be recommended for use in both developed and developing countries for the susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis isolates to primary antituberculosis drugs.

  15. A comparison of the presumptive luminol test for blood with four non-chemiluminescent forensic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Joanne L; Creamer, Jonathan I; Quickenden, Terence I

    2006-01-01

    Presumptive blood detection tests are used by forensic investigators to detect trace amounts of blood or to investigate suspicious stains. Through the years, a number of articles have been published on the popular techniques of the day. However, there is no single paper that critiques and compares the five most common presumptive blood detection tests currently in use: luminol, phenolphthalein (Kastle-Meyer), leucomalachite green, Hemastix and the forensic light source. The present authors aimed to compare the above techniques with regard to their sensitivity, ease of use and safety. The luminol test was determined to be the most sensitive of the techniques, while Hemastix is a suitable alternative when the luminol test is not appropriate.

  16. Noninvasive cerebral blood oxygenation monitoring: clinical test of multiwavelength optoacoustic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Y. Y.; Prough, D. S.; Petrova, I.; Patrikeev, I. A.; Cicenaite, I.; Esenaliev, R. O.

    2007-02-01

    Continuous monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation is critically important for treatment of patients with life-threatening conditions like severe brain injury or during cardiac surgery. We designed and built a novel multiwavelength optoacoustic system for noninvasive, continuous, and accurate monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation. We use an Optical Parametric Oscillator as a light source. We successfully tested the system in vitro as well as in vivo in large animals (sheep) through thick tissues overlying blood vessels which drain venous blood out of the brain (e.g., superior sagittal sinus or jugular vein). Here we present the results of clinical tests of the system for continuous noninvasive cerebral blood oxygenation monitoring in the internal jugular vein of healthy volunteers. We applied our custom-built optoacoustic probe (which incorporated a wide-band acoustic transducer and an optical fiber) to the neck area overlying the internal jugular vein. We performed measurements with volunteers at 18 wavelengths in the near-infrared spectral range. Despite a thick layer of overlying connective tissue and low energy used in the experiments, we recorded signals with high signal-to-noise ratios for all volunteers. We found that the temporal (independent of signal amplitude) parameters of recorded profiles for different levels of blood oxygenation correlated well with the spectrum of effective attenuation coefficients of blood.

  17. Functional regions in coagulation factor VIII explored by mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, E.

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms behind the function of factor VIII (FVIII) have remained poorly understood. FVIII acts in the blood coagulation cascade as cofactor for activated factor IX (FIXa) in the membrane bound activated factor X generating (FXase) complex. A functional absence in FVIII leads to the

  18. An assessment of various blood collection and transfer methods used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baik Fred

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four blood collection and transfer devices commonly used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs were assessed for their consistency, accuracy and ease of use in the hands of laboratory technicians and village health workers. Methods Laboratory technicians and village health workers collected blood from a finger prick using each device in random order, and deposited the blood either on filter paper or into a suitable casette-type RDT. Consistency and accuracy of volume delivered was determined by comparing the measurements of the resulting blood spots/heights with the measurements of laboratory-prepared pipetted standard volumes. The effect of varying blood volumes on RDT sensitivity and ease of use was also observed. Results There was high variability in blood volume collected by the devices, with the straw and the loop, the most preferred devices, usually transferring volumes greater than intended, while the glass capillary tube and the plastic pipette transferring less volume than intended or none at all. Varying the blood volume delivered to RDTs indicated that this variation is critical to RDT sensitivity only when the transferred volume is very low. Conclusion None of the blood transfer devices assessed performed consistently well. Adequate training on their use is clearly necessary, with more development efforts for improved designs to be used by remote health workers, in mind.

  19. Cell free fetal DNA testing in maternal blood of Romanian pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Radoi, Viorica E; Camil L Bohiltea; Roxana E Bohiltea; Dragos N Albu

    2015-01-01

    Background: The discovery of circulating fetal DNA in maternal blood led to the discovery of new strategies to perform noninvasive testing for prenatal diagnosis. Objective: The purpose of the study was to detect fetal aneuploidy at chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y by analysis of fetal cell-free DNA from maternal blood, without endangering pregnancy. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study has been performed in Bucharest at Medlife Maternal and Fetal Medicine Department between ...

  20. 两种血凝分析仪检测系统性能验证及结果比对%Comparison and evaluation of testing results for two different coagulation analyzers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯军林; 赵旭宏; 张曼

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价新投入使用的一台全自动血凝分析仪性能,并与临床上现用的凝血仪进行结果一致性的比较.方法根据审核标准对新投入使用的一台血凝分析仪进行精密度、线性、携带污染率、正确度评价;参照美国国家临床实验室标准化协会(NCCLS)的EP-5和EP-9文件,对新投入使用的血凝分析仪与临床正在使用并且性能稳定的血凝分析仪进行结果比对以及偏倚分析.结果 新投入使用的血凝分析仪的批内精密度(低值、中值、高值)在检测凝血酶原时间(PT)时分别为0.93%、1.32%、1.27%,活化部分凝血酶时间(APTT)为1.42%、0.84%、1.17%,纤维蛋白原(FIB)为1.82%、3.13%、3.19%,凝血酶时间(TT)为1.78%、1.76%、1.38%;FIB的实际检测值与理论值的线性回归方程为y=1.012x+0.0219(P>0.05),截距与0之间差异无统计学意义(t=0.2287,P>0.05),直线斜率与1之间差异无统计学意义(t=0.3221,P>0.05),FIB线性回归方程与y=x直线方程差异无统计学意义;携带污染率为-2.33%;两台仪器PT、FIB的检测结果在医学决定水平处偏倚95%CI小于美国临床实验室修正法规1988(CLIA'88)规定的可接受偏倚.结论 新投入使用的一台血凝分析仪性能符合仪器说明书的要求;两台血凝分析仪结果一致.%Objective To evaluate the performance of a newly installed fully automatic coagulation analyzer and compare the consistency of its testing results with the confirmed clinical automatic coagulation analyzer at our department MethodsPrecision,linearity,carryover and accuracy of the newly installed coagulation analyzer were evaluated according to the national required standards.Then the testing results were analyzed between the newly installed and confirmed coagulation analyzers according to the EP-5 and EP-9 documents of national committee for clinical laboratory standards(NCCLS).Results For the newly installed coagulation analyzer,the low,median and high values of

  1. Treatment of landfill leachate by using lateritic soil as a natural coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafalni; Lim, Han Khim; Ismail, Norli; Abustan, Ismail; Murshed, Mohamad Fared; Ahmad, Anees

    2012-12-15

    In this research, the capability of lateritic soil used as coagulant for the treatment of stabilized leachate from the Penang-Malaysia Landfill Site was investigated. The evaluation of lateritic soil coagulant in comparison with commercialized chemical coagulants, such as alum, was performed using conventional jar test experiments. The optimum pH and coagulant dosage were identified for the lateritic soil coagulant and the comparative alum coagulant. It was found that the application of lateritic soil coagulant was quite efficient in the removal of COD, color and ammoniacal-nitrogen content from the landfill leachate. The optimal pH value was 2.0, while 14 g/L of lateritic soil coagulant was sufficient in removing 65.7% COD, 81.8% color and 41.2% ammoniacal-nitrogen. Conversely, the optimal pH and coagulant dosage for the alum were pH 4.8 and 10 g/L respectively, where 85.4% COD, 96.4% color and 47.6% ammoniacal-nitrogen were removed from the same leachate sample. Additionally, the Sludge Volume Index (SVI) ratio of alum and lateritic soil coagulant was 53:1, which indicated that less sludge was produced and was an environmentally friendly product. Therefore, lateritic soil coagulant can be considered a viable alternative in the treatment of landfill leachate.

  2. Treatment of sugar beet extraction juice stillage by natural coagulants extracted from common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović Jelena M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Distillery wastewaters have a great pollution potential, and pollution caused by them is one of the most critical environmental issues. This study is concerned with the coagulation efficiency of a new, environmental friendly, natural coagulant extracted from common bean seeds in the primary treatment of distillery wastewater in the bioethanol production from sugar beet juice. Active coagulation components were extracted from ground seeds of common bean with 0.5 mol/L NaCl. The obtained raw extract was used as a coagulant. The coagulation efficiency was measured by jar test at different pH values of wastewater, and a decrease in organic matter content was determined. The experiments confirmed that natural coagulant from common bean could be successfully used for the treatment of extraction juice distillery wastewater. The highest coagulation efficiencies were achieved at the pH 5.2 with a coagulant dose of 30 mL/L, and at the pH 8.5 with a coagulant dose of 5 mL/L, and they were 64.71% and 68.75% respectively. These encouraging results indicate that natural coagulant from common bean seeds is a potential alternative to conventional chemical coagulant/flocculant agents for treatment of wastewaters.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43005

  3. Multicenter evaluation of the Verigene Gram-negative blood culture nucleic acid test for rapid detection of bacteria and resistance determinants in positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Naoki; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Yamakawa, Hiromi; Yamada, Maiko; Yaguchi, Yuji; Notake, Shigeyuki; Tamai, Kiyoko; Yanagisawa, Hideji; Misawa, Shigeki; Yanagihara, Katsunori

    2015-12-01

    The Verigene Gram-Negative Blood Culture Nucleic Acid Test (BC-GN) is a microarray-based assay that enables rapid detection of 9 common Gram-negative bacteria and 6 resistance determinants directly from positive blood cultures. We compared the performance of BC-GN with currently used automated systems, testing 141 clinical blood cultures and 205 spiked blood cultures. For identification of BC-GN target organisms in clinical and spiked blood cultures, the BC-GN assay showed 98.5% (130/132) and 98.9% (182/184) concordance, respectively. Of 140 resistance genes positively detected in clinical and spiked blood cultures with the BC-GN test, 139 (99.3%) were confirmed by PCR, and the detection results were consistent with the resistance phenotypes observed. The BC-GN assay, thus, can potentially improve care for sepsis patients by enabling timely detection and targeted antimicrobial therapy.

  4. Coagulation/Flocculation of Tannery Wastewater Using Immobilized Chemical Coagulants

    OpenAIRE

    Q. Imran; M. A. Hanif; M. S. Riaz; S. Noureen; T. M. Ansari; Bhatti, H.N.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical coagulants were immobilized into bead form using sodium alginate to treat tannery wastewater samples. The used chemical coagulants were ammonium aluminium sulphate (NH4Al(SO4)2), aluminium sulphate (Al2(SO4)2, calcium carbonate (CaCO3), sodium citrate (Na3C6HsO7). The effect of the chemical coagulant dose and tannery wastewater pH was studied on wastewater electrical conductance (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), sulphates, chlorides, phenolphthalein alkalinity, total alkalinity and...

  5. 血液标本存放时间及存放方式对血糖检测结果的影响%Influence of storage time and storage way of blood sample on blood glucose testing result

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周正国

    2015-01-01

    Objective To research and observe the influence of storage time and storage way of blood sample on blood glucose testing result, for providing reference for clinical detection in clinical practice. Methods 20 cases were selected randomly, and the patients were collected blood samples with empty belly. 14mL blood was collected for each patient, and 2mL once. The blood samples were stored in vacuum tubes which were marked as control(1), indoor temperature(2), 37℃thermostatic waterbath(2) and 0℃fridge(2). And the influence of storage time and storage way of blood sample on blood glucose testing result was analyzed. Results The influence of storage time of blood on blood glucose test is very evident. After 6h, the blood glucose level was 60%of the initial value. After 18h, he blood glucose level was 27%of initial value.And the blood glucose level after 24 h is 22%of initial value. The longer blood glucose was stored, the faster the blood glucose level reduced. After blood samples were stored in indoor temperature and 37℃thermostatic waterbath for 2.5h and 5h, the blood glucose testing result had evident difference from the initial value, which had statistical significance. Blood samples are stored in sodium fluoride potassium oxalate tube and separation gel coagulant tube, and the influence of it on blood glucose detection had no evident difference, which had no statistical significance. Conclusion In order to ensure that the result of blood glucose detection is accurate, the blood samples should be stored in the environment with low temperature, and the blood samples should be detected timely, to reduce the error of detection results and ensure that the result is reliable and accurate.%目的:研究和探讨血液标本存放时间和存放方式对血糖检测结果的影响,为日后临床检验提供参考价值。方法随机抽取20例患者,空腹采集血液标本,每位患者共采集14mL,每次2mL,存放于真空

  6. Current Pathological and Laboratory Considerations in the Diagnosis of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Cheng Hock; Alhamdi, Yasir; Abrams, Simon T

    2016-11-01

    Systemically sustained thrombin generation in vivo is the hallmark of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Typically, this is in response to a progressing disease state that is associated with significant cellular injury. The etiology could be infectious or noninfectious, with the main pathophysiological mechanisms involving cross-activation among coagulation, innate immunity, and inflammatory responses. This leads to consumption of both pro- and anticoagulant factors as well as endothelial dysfunction and disrupted homeostasis at the blood vessel wall interface. In addition to the release of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and soluble thrombomodulin (sTM) following cellular activation and damage, respectively, there is the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) such as extracellular histones and cell-free DNA. Extracellular histones are increasingly recognized as significantly pathogenic in critical illnesses through direct cell toxicity, the promotion of thrombin generation, and the induction of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. Clinically, high circulating levels of histones and histone-DNA complexes are associated with multiorgan failure, DIC, and adverse patient outcomes. Their measurements as well as that of other DAMPs and molecular markers of thrombin generation are not yet applicable in the routine diagnostic laboratory. To provide a practical diagnostic tool for acute DIC, a composite scoring system using rapidly available coagulation tests is recommended by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Its usefulness and limitations are discussed alongside the advances and unanswered questions in DIC pathogenesis.

  7. Current Pathological and Laboratory Considerations in the Diagnosis of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Cheng Hock; Alhamdi, Yasir; Abrams, Simon T

    2016-11-01

    Systemically sustained thrombin generation in vivo is the hallmark of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Typically, this is in response to a progressing disease state that is associated with significant cellular injury. The etiology could be infectious or noninfectious, with the main pathophysiological mechanisms involving cross-activation among coagulation, innate immunity, and inflammatory responses. This leads to consumption of both pro- and anticoagulant factors as well as endothelial dysfunction and disrupted homeostasis at the blood vessel wall interface. In addition to the release of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and soluble thrombomodulin (sTM) following cellular activation and damage, respectively, there is the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) such as extracellular histones and cell-free DNA. Extracellular histones are increasingly recognized as significantly pathogenic in critical illnesses through direct cell toxicity, the promotion of thrombin generation, and the induction of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. Clinically, high circulating levels of histones and histone-DNA complexes are associated with multiorgan failure, DIC, and adverse patient outcomes. Their measurements as well as that of other DAMPs and molecular markers of thrombin generation are not yet applicable in the routine diagnostic laboratory. To provide a practical diagnostic tool for acute DIC, a composite scoring system using rapidly available coagulation tests is recommended by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Its usefulness and limitations are discussed alongside the advances and unanswered questions in DIC pathogenesis. PMID:27578502

  8. Coagulant and anticoagulant activities of Bothrops lanceolatus (Fer de lance) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lôbo de Araújo, A; Kamiguti, A; Bon, C

    2001-01-01

    Bothrops lanceolatus venom contains caseinolytic, phospholipase, esterase and haemorrhagic activities. We have investigated the coagulant and anticoagulant actions of B. lanceolatus venom on human citrated plasma and on purified plasma components. Although B. lanceolatus venom up to 50 microg/ml was unable to clot citrated plasma, at concentrations > or = 5 microg/ml the venom dose-dependently clotted purified human fibrinogen, indicating the presence of a thrombin-like enzyme. Human plasma (final concentration > or = 12.5%) dose-dependently inhibited the venom-induced fibrinogen clotting. This finding suggested that endogenous plasma protease inhibitors can affect the venom's action on fibrinogen. To investigate this possibility, B. lanceolatus venom was incubated with different plasma protease inhibitors and the activity on fibrinogen tested. alpha(2)-Macroglobulin and alpha(1)-antitrypsin did not interfere with the coagulant activity of the venom whereas the antithrombin-III/heparin complex partially inhibited this activity. A non-toxic, acidic phospholipase A(2) purified from B. lanceolatus venom prolonged the activated partial thromboplastin time in human plasma from 39.7+/-0.5 s (control with saline) to 60.2+/-0.9 s with 50 microg of PLA(2) (p<0.001), suggesting an anticoagulant activity associated with this enzyme. This anticoagulant activity may account for some of the effects of the venom on blood coagulation. PMID:10978756

  9. [Immunoblot as a supplemental test to detect antibodies to hepatitis C virus in blood donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Francisco José Dutra; Ribeiro, Luciano Côrrea; Perazolo, Gustavo Faria; Fortes, Hildenete Monteiro; Saldanha, Alzira Almeida

    2002-01-01

    Supplemental tests using Immunoblot are recommended to improve specificity of anti-HCV by ELISA. In Brazil immunoblot is not officially recommended. Aiming to identify EIA false-positive rate 70 positive EIA anti-HCV blood donors were submitted to 3rd generation immunoblot at Hemocentro of Mato Grosso State where polymerase chain reaction tests are not performed. There were 44 (62.9%) immunoblot-positive, 22 (31.4%) negative and 4 (5.7%) indeterminate. Anti-HCV immunoblot can distinguish blood donors with false-positive ELISA from those who need medical assessment. Our data suggest that immunoblot could be useful in Brazilian blood banks where molecular biology tests are not available. PMID:11873265

  10. In vitro blood flow model with physiological wall shear stress for hemocompatibility testing-An example of coronary stent testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Gerwin Erik; Blok, Sjoerd Leendert Johannes; van Oeveren, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Hemocompatibility of blood contacting medical devices has to be evaluated before their intended application. To assess hemocompatibility, blood flow models are often used and can either consist of in vivo animal models or in vitro blood flow models. Given the disadvantages of animal models, in vitro blood flow models are an attractive alternative. The in vitro blood flow models available nowadays mostly focus on generating continuous flow instead of generating a pulsatile flow with certain wall shear stress, which has shown to be more relevant in maintaining hemostasis. To address this issue, the authors introduce a blood flow model that is able to generate a pulsatile flow and wall shear stress resembling the physiological situation, which the authors have coined the "Haemobile." The authors have validated the model by performing Doppler flow measurements to calculate velocity profiles and (wall) shear stress profiles. As an example, the authors evaluated the thrombogenicity of two drug eluting stents, one that was already on the market and one that was still under development. After identifying proper conditions resembling the wall shear stress in coronary arteries, the authors compared the stents with each other and often used reference materials. These experiments resulted in high contrast between hemocompatible and incompatible materials, showing the exceptional testing capabilities of the Haemobile. In conclusion, the authors have developed an in vitro blood flow model which is capable of mimicking physiological conditions of blood flow as close as possible. The model is convenient in use and is able to clearly discriminate between hemocompatible and incompatible materials, making it suitable for evaluating the hemocompatible properties of medical devices. PMID:27435456

  11. Red cell antigen prevalence predicted by molecular testing in ethnic groups of South Texas blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Lorena I; Smith, Linda A; Jones, Scott; Beddard, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and Scianna. Donors tested to be group 0 or A were serologically tested for the Rh (C, E, c, e) antigens. Those that tested as presumably R1R1, R2R2, or Ror were then genotyped. Donors constituted three major ethnicities: black (18.3%), Hispanic (36.3%), and Caucasian (41.1%); ethnicities comprised of Asian, American Indian, multiracial, and other accounted for the remaining donors (4.3%). The most likely common Rh phenotype for each ethnicity is as follows: black -Ror (44.4%), Hispanic -R1R1 (59.0%), and Caucasian -R1R1 (38.9%). The prevalence of Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group system antigens in black and Caucasian donors is comparable with published reports for the entire U.S. The black South Texas donor population had an 8.8 percent increase in prevalence of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype as compared with these published reports; the Hispanic South Texas donor population had a prevalence of 36.1 percent of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype. Regarding the Diego blood group system, the Hispanic donor population in South Texas had a prevalence of 93.5 percent for the Di(a-b+) phenotype as compared with published reports for the entire U.S. (>99.9%). The Hispanic population had a prevalence of 7.9 percent of donors testing as M-N+S-s+ as compared with 20.2 percent and 15.6 percent for black and Caucasian donors, respectively. This study helped us determine the prevalence of each of the blood group antigens in the South Texas donor population to establish and maintain adequate rare inventory of

  12. Red cell antigen prevalence predicted by molecular testing in ethnic groups of South Texas blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Lorena I; Smith, Linda A; Jones, Scott; Beddard, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and Scianna. Donors tested to be group 0 or A were serologically tested for the Rh (C, E, c, e) antigens. Those that tested as presumably R1R1, R2R2, or Ror were then genotyped. Donors constituted three major ethnicities: black (18.3%), Hispanic (36.3%), and Caucasian (41.1%); ethnicities comprised of Asian, American Indian, multiracial, and other accounted for the remaining donors (4.3%). The most likely common Rh phenotype for each ethnicity is as follows: black -Ror (44.4%), Hispanic -R1R1 (59.0%), and Caucasian -R1R1 (38.9%). The prevalence of Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group system antigens in black and Caucasian donors is comparable with published reports for the entire U.S. The black South Texas donor population had an 8.8 percent increase in prevalence of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype as compared with these published reports; the Hispanic South Texas donor population had a prevalence of 36.1 percent of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype. Regarding the Diego blood group system, the Hispanic donor population in South Texas had a prevalence of 93.5 percent for the Di(a-b+) phenotype as compared with published reports for the entire U.S. (>99.9%). The Hispanic population had a prevalence of 7.9 percent of donors testing as M-N+S-s+ as compared with 20.2 percent and 15.6 percent for black and Caucasian donors, respectively. This study helped us determine the prevalence of each of the blood group antigens in the South Texas donor population to establish and maintain adequate rare inventory of

  13. Effects of xuebijing parenteral solution on blood coagulation function and blood gas analysis in severe sepsis patients%血必净注射液对严重脓毒症患者凝血功能及血气分析的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张连东; 裴新军

    2012-01-01

    increased, Fib increased, parameter of blood plalelels improved and the oxygenalion were improved in trealmenl group ( P 0. 05 ). Conclusion Xuebijing parenteral solulion could improve blood coagulation funclion and oxygenation in severe sepsis palients. So, it could be a new approach for clinical trealment of severe sepsis.

  14. Utility of point of care test devices for infectious disease testing of blood and oral fluid and application to rapid testing in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen R.; Kardos, Keith W.; Yearwood, Graham D.; Guillon, Geraldine B.; Kurtz, Lisa A.; Mokkapati, Vijaya K.

    2008-04-01

    Rapid, point of care (POC) testing has been increasingly deployed as an aid in the diagnosis of infectious disease, due to its ability to deliver rapid, actionable results. In the case of HIV, a number of rapid test devices have been FDA approved and CLIA-waived in order to enable diagnosis of HIV infection outside of traditional laboratory settings. These settings include STD clinics, community outreach centers and mobile testing units, as well as identifying HIV infection among pregnant women and managing occupational exposure to infection. The OraQuick ® rapid test platform has been widely used to identify HIV in POC settings, due to its simplicity, ease of use and the ability to utilize oral fluid as an alternative specimen to blood. More recently, a rapid test for antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been developed on the same test platform which uses serum, plasma, finger-stick blood, venous blood and oral fluid. Clinical testing using this POC test device has shown that performance is equivalent to state of the art, laboratory based tests. These devices may be suitable for rapid field testing of blood and other body fluids for the presence of infectious agents.

  15. 蛇伤胶囊对竹叶青蛇伤患者凝血功能的影响%A study on effects of Sheshang capsule on blood coagulation function of patients bitten by Trimeresurus stejnegeri snake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文丹; 陈宏杰; 何卫东; 王缓缓; 陈腾飞; 王华新; 吴晖; 吴天生; 邵丹; 李明

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Sheshang capsule for treatment of blood coagulation dysfunction in patients bitten by Trimeresurus stejnegeri snake. Methods A prospective study was conducted. Seventy Trimeresurus stejnegeri snake envenoming patients whose manifestations conformed to the diagnostic criteria of the fire toxin syndrome in TCM were assigned into therapy group and control group by random number table (each, 35 cases). The basic treatments (including wound disinfection, intramuscular injection of 1 500 U tetanus antitoxin, conventional dose of antibiotics, 10 mg dexamethasone, 40 mg omeprazole) and 10 Jidesheng Sheyao tablets three times a day were applied in the control group. In the therapy group, the basic treatments the same as those of the control group were given, and in the mean time 5 Sheshang capsules (the drug was prepared in our hospital including ingredients:rhubarb, coptidis rhizoma, pleione bulbocodioides, elecampane inula root, bayberry bark, borneol and so on) were administered three times a day. The therapeutic course in the two groups was 1 week. The levels of platelet α-granule membrane protein (CD62p), thromboxane B2 (TXB2), platelet factor 3 (PF3) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) in serum were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) before and after treatment. Results Before treatment, there were no significant differences in CD62p, TXB2, PF3 and vWF between therapy group and control group [CD62p (μg/L):3.81±1.64 vs. 3.52±1.43, TXB2 (μg/L):13.04±1.67 vs. 13.31±1.14, PF3 (μg/L): 2.84±1.08 vs. 2.88±1.23, vWF (μg/L):12.36±2.42 vs. 11.89±2.08, all P>0.05]. After treatment, the levels of CD62p, TXB2 and PF3 were increased, while vWF decreased compared with those before treatment in both groups, the level changes in therapy group being more remarkable [CD62p (μg/L): 6.73±1.77 vs. 5.81±1.62, TXB2 (μg/L):18.65±1.77 vs. 17.90±1.68, PF3 (μg/L):5.61±1.48 vs. 4.77±1

  16. Evaluation of HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and VDRL test results in blood donors

    OpenAIRE

    Deveci, Özcan; Tekin, Alicem; Günbay, Seda Sibel; Kılıç, Dilek; KAYGUSUZ, Sedat; Ağalar, Canan; Özer, Türkan Toka

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The most frequently encountered complication in the transfusion of blood and blood products are transmitted infections from these products. Infections caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain the leading most important health problems in the transfusion of blood and blood products worldwide. Therefore, screening tests such as HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV, and RPR or VDRL for Treponema pallidum are mandatory tests to loo...

  17. Profile of blood donors with serologic tests reactive for the presence of syphilis in São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Almeida Neto, C; Murphy, EL; McFarland, W.; Junior, AM; Chen, S.; Chamone, DA; Sabino, EC

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Syphilis screening of blood donors is a common practice worldwide, but very little is known about the meaning of a positive serologic test for syphilis in blood donors and the risk profile of these donors. The aim of this study was to determine the demographic characteristics and risk behaviors of blood donors with recent and past syphilis and their implications for blood bank testing and deferral strategies. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Demographic characteristics, category of donat...

  18. Interference of iron as a coagulant on MIB removal by powdered activated carbon adsorption for low turbidity waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckler, Ferreira Filho Sidney; Margarida, Marchetto; Rosemeire, Alves Laganaro

    2013-08-01

    Powered activated carbon (PAC) is widely used in water treatment plants to minimize odors in drinking water. This study investigated the removal of 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) by PAC adsorption, combined with coagulation using iron as a coagulant. The adsorption and coagulation process were studied through different case scenarios of jar tests. The analysis evaluated the effect of PAC dosing in the liquid phase immediately before or after the coagulant addition. Ferric sulphate was used as the coagulant with dosages from 10 to 30 mg/L, and PAC dosages varied from 10 to 40 mg/L. The highest MIB removal efficiency (about 70%) was achieved without the coagulant addition and with the highest PAC dosage (40 mg/L). Lower MIB removal efficiencies were observed in the presence of coagulant, showing a clear interference of the iron precipitate or coagulant in the adsorption process. The degree of interference of the coagulation process in the MIB removal was proportional to the ratio of ferric hydroxide mass to the PAC mass. For both cases of PAC dosing, upstream and downstream of the coagulant injection point, the MIB removal efficiency was similar. However, MIB removal efficiency was 15% lower when compared with experiments without the coagulant application. This interference in the MIB adsorption occurs potentially because the coagulant coats the surface of the carbon and interferes with the MIB coming in contact with the carbon's surface and pores. This constraint requires an increase of the PAC dosage to provide the same efficiency observed without coagulation. PMID:24520695

  19. Evaluation of oxidative stress and whole blood viscosity for clinical laboratory testing of smoking toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel U. Nwose

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are no clearly established clinical biochemical markers for cigarette smoking despite the knowledge that cigarette smoking is a risk factor for various diseases, especially cardiovascular complications of respiratory pathologies. However, there are reports of significant increases in blood viscosity and oxidative stress among smokers. The main objective of the study was to ascertain the association of toxicity from cigarette smoking on whole blood viscosity in our data. Methods: This study analysed the archived clinical data of 20 cigarette smokers and 20 apparently healthy individuals. Results: The data show that on average, oxidative stress levels are relatively the same between groups, while whole blood viscosity is statistically significantly lower in non-smokers compared to smokers. Conclusions: This report suggests that oxidative stress induced whole blood hyper-viscosity could be a valid biomarker for laboratory testing of smoking toxicity among cigarette smokers. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2332-2336

  20. Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water by Adsorption and Coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Sugita, H.; Hara, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Removal of arsenic from drinking water has been an important issue worldwide, which has attracted greater attentions in recent years especially for supplying safe drinking water in developing countries. Although many kinds of treatment approaches that are available or applicable both in principle and practice, such as adsorption, coagulation, membrane filtration, ion exchange, biological process, electrocoagulation and so on, the first 2 approaches (i.e., adsorption and coagulation) are most promising due to the low-cost, high-efficiency, simplicity of treating systems, and thus can be practically used in developing countries. In this study, a literature survey on water quality in Bangladesh was performed to understand the ranges of arsenic concentration and pH of groundwater in Bangladesh. A series of tests were then organized and performed to investigate the effects of arsenic concentration, arsenic forms, pH, chemical compositions of the materials used for adsorption and coagulation, particle size distribution and treatment time on quality of treated water. The experimental results obtained in the study illustrated that both adsorption and coagulation can be used to effectively reduce the concentrations of either arsenic (V) or arsenic (III) from the contaminated water. Coagulation of arsenic with a magnesium-based material developed in this study can be very effective to remove arsenic, especially arsenic (V), from contaminated water with a concentration of 10 ppm to an undetectable level of 0.002 ppm by ICP analyses. Compared to arsenic (III), arsenic (V) is easier to be removed. The materials used for adsorption and coagulation in this study can remove arsenic (V) up to 9 mg/g and 6 mg/g, and arsenic (III) up to 4 mg/g and 3 mg/g, respectively, depending on test conditions and compositions of the materials being used. The control of pH during treatment can be a challenging technical issue for developing both adsorbent and coagulant. Keywords: Water Treatment

  1. Estudo farmacognóstico e atividade in vitro sobre a coagulação sanguínea e agregação plaquetária das folhas de Passiflora nitida Kunth (Passifloraceae Pharmacognostic study and in vitro activity on blood coagulation and platelet aggregation of leaves of Passiflora nitida Kunth (Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José de Carvalho

    2010-03-01

    fruits of this species by the local population for gastrointestinal disorders. Considering the pharmacological potential of the genus, this work aimed to carry out study of phytochemical characterization of this species and study the effects of the aqueous (AE, ethanol (EE and hexane (HE extracts from its leaves on blood coagulation and platelet aggregation. Thin-layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance were carried out for the phytochemical characterization. The effect of the extracts on the coagulation was evaluated by prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT tests. The effect on the platelet aggregation was evaluated in platelet-rich plasma by spectrophotometric method, using adenosine diphosphate (ADP and adrenaline (ADR as inducers of aggregation. The AE, EE and HE extracts showed coagulant activity by the PT test, and the EE showed anticoagulant activity by the aPTT. When induced by ADP, the AE, EE and HE extracts showed 50% inhibitory concentration values (IC50, µg/mL of 450.5 ± 50.7, 511.2 ± 35.5 and 394.4 ± 8.9, respectively, and when induced by ADR showed values of 438.7 ± 5.2, 21.0 ± 1.9 and 546.9 ± 49.9, respectively. The EE showed inhibitory effect on the aggregation. The phytochemical characterization was suggestive of the presence of flavonoids and coumarins, which can be attributed in part to the biological effects studied.

  2. Observation on thrombelastogram of blood coagulable states before and after Alteplase intravenous thrombolysis in patients with acute ischemic stroke%急性缺血性脑卒中患者阿替普酶静脉溶栓前后血凝状态的血栓弹力图观测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王自然; 崔言森; 雷红艳; 郑梅; 杨代群; 孙全余

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the changes of blood coagulable states before and after Alteplase intravenous thromboly-sis in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods Forty cases of patients with acute ischemic stroke who used Al-teplase for intravenous thrombolysis were selected, the thrombelastogram before thrombolysis and 1, 3, 12 h after thrombolysis was detected. The detected parameters included R value (blood clotting response time), K value (blood co-agulation formation time), α angle (solidified angle), MA value (the most wide distance between the two sides of the curve or called maximum amplitude). Results Before thrombolysis, the R value of all patients were shortened compared with normal value, K value, α angle and MA value was normal; 1 h after thrombolysis, R, K values were increased compared with before thrombolysis; MA value and α angel was decreased, the differences were statistically significant (P0.05). Conclusion The thrombelastogram can observe the blood coagulable states before and after Alteplase intravenous thrombolysis in patients with acute ischemic stroke, which is of great importance for further clinical guiding pharmacy.%目的:研究急性缺血性脑卒中患者阿替普酶静脉溶栓前后血凝状态的变化。方法选取静脉应用阿替普酶溶栓的急性缺血性脑卒中患者40例,测定溶栓前及溶栓后1、3、12 h的血栓弹力图。测定参数包括R值(凝血反应时间)、K值(凝血形成时间)、Angle角(凝固角)、MA值(两侧曲线最宽距离或称最大振幅)。结果溶栓前所有患者R值较正常值缩短,K值、Angle角和MA值正常;溶栓后1 h,R、K值较溶栓前增加;MA值、Angel角减小,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),溶栓后3、12 h数值基本接近于溶栓前状态,差异无统计学意义(P跃0.05)。结论血栓弹力图可以观察急性缺血性脑卒中患者阿替普酶静脉溶栓前后血凝状态的变化,对下一步临床治疗指导用药具有重要意义。

  3. [Traumatic abruption of the placenta with disseminated intravascular coagulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, R; Malär, A-U; Benz-Wörner, J; Scherer, M; Hodel, M; Gähler, A; Haberthür, C; Konrad, C

    2012-10-01

    Trauma in pregnancy is infrequent and a systematic primary strategy constitutes a real challenge for the interdisciplinary team. With a high fetal mortality rate and a substantial maternal mortality rate traumatic placental abruption is a severe emergency which every anesthetist should be aware of. After hemodynamic stabilization of the mother and control of the viability of the fetus the therapy of traumatic placental abruption consists mostly of an immediate caesarean section. Coagulopathy by depletion of coagulation factors as well as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) have to be expected and consequently a massive blood loss must be anticipated. Thrombelastography provides assistance for fast differential diagnosis and goal-directed treatment of the disturbed sections of the coagulation cascade.

  4. 21 CFR 864.7300 - Fibrin monomer paracoagulation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to detect fibrin monomer in the diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation (nonlocalized clotting within a blood vessel) or in the differential diagnosis between disseminated intravascular coagulation and primary fibrinolysis (dissolution of the fibrin in a blood clot). (b) Classification. Class...

  5. 低分子肝素钙对妊娠子痫患者肾功能、凝血功能及血压的影响%The effects of low molecular heparin calcic on the renal function, blood coagulation function and blood pressure in treatment of pregnancy patients with preeclampsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛小刚; 江红; 刘韵; 兰艳丽; 权效珍; 周敏; 邢辉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of low molecular heparin calcic on the renal function, blood coagulation function index and blood pressure in the treatment of pregnancy patients with preeclampsia.Methods Seventy-two pregnancy patients with preeclampsia in our hospital from January 2013 to August 2015 were divided into observation group and control group according to the draw method, 36 cases in each group.Control group were given magnesium sulfate, on the basis of con-trol group, the observation group were treated combined with heparin calcium.The renal function, blood coagulation function, blood pressure, pregnancy outcome of the two groups were compared.Results The concentration of serum creatinine, urea ni-trogen concentration of the two groups of patients had no obvious difference before and after treatment.After treatment, blood uric acid, urine protein quantitation of observation group were obviously lower than the control group[(235.24 ±10.21)μmol/L vs.(305.16 ±12.12)μmol/L, (0.87 ±0.08)g/24h vs.(1.26 ±0.45)g/24h, P 0.05).After treatment, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the observa-tion group were respectively (141 ±18) mmHg, (92 ±9)mmHg ,and in the control group were respectively (142 ±17) mm-Hg, (93 ±8) mmHg, lower than before treatment ( P 0 .05) .There were no differences in the incidence of delivery cycle, neonatal body quality, the incidence of fetal dis-tress, neonatal mortality, rate of placental abruption, incidence rate of postpartum hemorrhage, fetal growth restriction be-tween the two groups( P >0.05), but the Apgar score≥7 in the observation group was 88.89% (32/36), higher than the control group 66.67%(24/36), while cesarean section rate was 13.89% (5/36) , lower than the control group 36.11%(13/36), with a statistical significance difference ( P <0.05).Conclusion Low molecular heparin calcic, which belong to the safe and effective drugs, will not affect the maternal blood pressure, can improve kidney and blood

  6. Coagulation competence for predicting perioperative hemorrhage in patients treated with lactated Ringer's vs. Dextran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten C; Højskov, Michael; Johansson, Per Ingemar;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perioperative hemorrhage may depend on coagulation competence and this study evaluated the influence of coagulation competence on blood loss during cystectomy due to bladder cancer. METHODS: Forty patients undergoing radical cystectomy were included in a randomized controlled trial to...... receive either lactated Ringer's solution or Dextran 70 (Macrodex ®) that affects coagulation competence. RESULTS: By thrombelastography evaluated coagulation competence, Dextran 70 reduced "maximal amplitude" (MA) by 25 % versus a 1 % reduction with the administration of lactated Ringer's solution (P <0.......001). Blinded evaluation of the blood loss was similar in the two groups of patients - 2339 ml with the use of Dextran 70 and 1822 ml in the lactated Ringer's group (P = 0.27). Yet, the blood loss was related to the reduction in MA (r = -0.427, P = 0.008) and by multiple regression analysis independently...

  7. 9 CFR 71.21 - Tissue and blood testing at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tissue and blood testing at slaughter. 71.21 Section 71.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL...

  8. Determinants of participation in colorectal cancer screening with faecal occult blood testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Brasso, Klaus; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and women. Participation rates in faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) screening activities are, however, relatively low. In terms of lowering the colorectal cancer mortality, high participation rates are essential, and therefor...

  9. Endoscopic Follow-Up of Positive Fecal Occult Blood Testing in the Ontario FOBT Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Paszat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Ontario FOBT Project is a pilot study of fecal occult blood testing (FOBT for colorectal cancer screening conducted among age-eligible volunteers (50 to 75 years in 12 of 37 public health regions in Ontario.

  10. Sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis of blood as a diagnostic test in mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Vestergaard, Hanne; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten;

    2014-01-01

    The recent progress in sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis suggests that mutation analysis of peripheral blood (PB) represents a promising diagnostic test in mastocytosis. However, there is a need for systematic assessment of the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the approach in order t...

  11. Impact of Epidemic Rates of Diabetes on the Chinese Blood Glucose Testing Market

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jamie; Zhang, Xian-En

    2011-01-01

    China has become the country with the largest diabetes mellitus population in the world since the 1990s. About 100 million diabetes cases have been diagnosed since 2008. Handheld blood glucose meters and test strips are urgently needed for daily patient measurement. The glucose monitor with a screen-printed carbon-based glucose electrode has been in commercial production since 1994. Since then, approximately 20 companies have been involved in manufacturing and marketing meters and test strips...

  12. Phase III study on surface construction and biocompatibility of polymer materials as cardiovascular devices:coagulant and anti-coagulant surface modification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Bao-lin; Wang Dong-an

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As the cardiovascular device, biomaterials applied under the blood-contact conditions should have anti-thrombotic, anti-biodegradable and anti-infective properties. OBJECTIVE: To develop novel polymer materials for implantation and intervention in cardiovascular tissue engineering and to explore the biocompatibility, blood compatibility and cytocompatibility of the surface-modified polymer biomaterials based on the coagulant and anti-coagulant coating modification. METHODS:We retrieved PubMed and WanFang databases for relevant articles publishing from 1983 to 2014. The key words were "biocompatibility, blood compatibility, biomedical materials, biomedical polymer materials" in English and Chinese, respectively. Those unrelated, outdated and repetitive papers were excluded. Literatures addressing the blood compatibility of biomedical polymer materials were summarized. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The blood-implant interaction and the anti-coagulant surface modification of biomaterials were analyzed. The biocompatibility, blood compatibility and cytocompatibility of the surface-modified polymer biomaterials were determined based on the coagulant and anti-coagulant coating modification. The coagulant and anti-coagulant surface modification of polymer biomaterials and the research on their biocompatibility and endothelial cel compatibility are crucial for developing novel polymer materials for implantation and intervention in cardiovascular tissue engineering. Through in-depth studies of the types and applications of polymer biomaterials, cardiovascular medical devices and implantable soft tissue substitutes, the differences between the surface and the body wil be reflected in the many layers of molecules extending from the surface to the body. Two major factors, surface energy and molecular mobility, determine the body/surface behaviors that include body/surface differences and phase separation. Considering the difference between the body/surface composition

  13. Coagulation-flocculation in leachate treatment using modified micro sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaldiri, Nur Hanani; Halim, Azhar Abdul

    2013-11-01

    Sanitary landfill leachate is considered as highly polluted wastewater, without any treatment, discharging into water system will cause underground water and surface water pollutions. This study was to investigate the treatability of the semi-aerobic landfill leachate via coagulation-flocculation using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC), cationic polymer, and modified micro sand. Leachate was collected from Pulau Burung Sanitary Landfill (PBSL) located in Penang, Malaysia. Coagulation-flocculation was performed by using jar test equipment and the effect of pH, dose of coagulant and dose of polymer toward removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), color and suspended solid (SS) were examined. Micro sand was also used in this study to compare settling time of coagulation-flocculation process. The optimum pH, dose of coagulant (PAC) and dose of polymer (cationic) achieved were 7.0, 1000 mg/L and 8 mg/L, respectively. The dose of micro sand used for the settling time process was 300 mg/L. Results showed that 52.66% removal of COD, 97.16% removal of SS and 96.44% removal of color were achieved under optimum condition. The settling times for the settling down of the sludge or particles that formed during coagulation-flocculation process were 1 min with modified sand, 20 min with raw micro sand and 45 min without micro sand.

  14. Coagulation properties of anelectrochemically prepared polyaluminum chloride containing active chlorine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Chengzhi; LIU Huijuan; QU Jiuhui

    2006-01-01

    With high content of the Al13 species and the active chloride, an electrochemically prepared polyaluminum chloride (E-PACl) presents integrated efficiency of coagulation and oxidation. The coagulation properties of E-PACl were systemically investigated through jar tests in the various water quality conditions. The active chlorine in E-PACl can significantly influence the coagulation behavior due to the active chlorine preoxidation, which can change the surface charge characteristic of organic matter (OM) in water. The active chlorine preoxidation could improve the E-PACl coagulation efficiency if the water possessed the characteristics of relatively low OM content (2 mg/L) and high hardness (278 mg CaCO3/L). In the water with medium content of OM (5 mg/L), dosage would be a crucial factor to decide whether the active chlorine in E-PACl aided coagulation process or not. Comparing with alkaline condition, active chlorine would show a more significant influence on the coagulation process in acidic region.

  15. Hepatitis B core antibody testing in Indian blood donors: A double-edged sword!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Makroo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Until lately, anti-HBc antibodies were considered an effective marker for occult Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and have served their role in improving blood safety. But, with the development of advanced tests for HBV DNA detection, the role of anti-HBc in this regard stands uncertain. Materials and Methods: Anti-HBc and HBsAg ELISA and ID-NAT tests were run in parallel on donor blood samples between April 1, 2006 and December 31, 2010 at the Department of Transfusion Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, New Delhi. A positive ID-NAT was followed by Discriminatory NAT assay. Results: A total of 94 247 samples were tested with a total core positivity rate of 10.22%. We identified nearly 9.17% of donors who were reactive for anti-HBc and negative for HBsAg and HBV DNA. These are the donors who are potentially non-infectious and may be returned to the donor pool. Conclusion: Although anti HBc testing has a definite role in improving blood safety, centers that have incorporated NAT testing may not derive any additional benefit by performing anti-HBc testing, especially in resource-limited countries like ours.

  16. EFFECT OF PRANAYAMA ON BLOOD PRESSURE AND HEART RATE IN HYPERREACTOR TO COLD PRESSOR TEST

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    Krishan Bihari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Stress is a dangerous and significant problem of World, which affects physical, mental, behavioral, and emotional health. Yoga has been reported to control stress, to be beneficial in treating stress related disorders, improving autonomic functions, lower blood pressure, increase strength and flexibility of muscles, improve the sense of well-being, slow ageing process, control breathing, reducing signs of oxidative stress and improving spiritual growth. AIMS: The aim of present study was to investigate whether regular practice of Yoga for three months can reduce the cardiovascular hyper-reactivity induced by cold pressor test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group comprised 62 healthy male subjects of 17-27 years age group. Initially there were 30 hyper reactors to cold pressor test. The hyper-reactivity of 23 volunteers converted to hypo-reactivity after the yoga therapy of three months (76.66%. Other parameters like basal blood pressure, rise in blood pressure, pulse rate and rate of respiration were also statistically significantly reduced (by using student ‘t’ test. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: 2 tail student‘t’ test was done by using the standard formulas. RESULTS: Regular practice of yoga significantly reduces the cardiovascular hyper-reactivity in basal blood pressure, rise in blood pressure after one minute of cold stress, heart rate, and rate of respiration, after three month of yoga practice. CONCLUSION: Regular practice of yoga for three months reduced the cardiovascular hyper-reactivity to cold pressor test in subjects, who were hyper reactive to cold stress, possibly by inducing parasympathetic predominance and cortico-hypothalamomedullary inhibition.

  17. Nucleic acid testing: Is it the only answer for safe Blood in India?

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    N K Naidu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the implementation of NAT in countries around the world, there is a growing pressure on the transfusion services in India to adopt NAT testing. India has about 2545 licensed Blood Centres. The Transfusion Services in India are fragmented, poorly regulated and the quality standards are poorly implemented. Blood Centres are still dependent on replacement/family donors and in most places laboratory testing for Transfusion transmitted infections is not quality assured, laboratory equipment are not calibrated and maintained, and validation of results is not carried out. Against the current scenario introducing NAT for screening of blood donors in India would pose a challenge. Aim: To study the prudence of universal NAT testing in India. Materials and Methods : A retrospective study of 5 years from 2008-2012 was undertaken to study the true reactivity of donors using WHO strategy II and III and therefore the true seroprevalence of TTI infections in the donor populations. Results : The true reactivity of the donors was much less as compared to the initially reactive donors due to the use of a well designed testing algorithm. In addition having a total voluntary blood collection along with good pre-donation counseling program also reduces the transmission of infections. Conclusions : What India essentially needs to do is religiously implement the strategies outlined in the WHO Aide-memoire. The blood should be collected only from voluntary non remunerative and repeat donors , there should be stringent donor selection with pre-donation counseling instituted. Strict implementation of quality management system, development of well defined testing startegies and strong haemovigilance system could take us a step in the right direction.

  18. Blood Culture (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... BMP) Blood Test: Complete Blood Count Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Getting a Blood Test (Video) Blood Test: ...

  19. Italian national survey of blood donors: external quality assessment (EQA) of syphilis testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulcano, Francesca; Milazzo, Luisa; Volpi, Sabrina; Battista, Mara Maria; Barca, Alessandra; Hassan, Hamisa Jane; Pimpinelli, Fulvia; Giampaolo, Adele

    2010-03-01

    The detection of syphilis among blood donors may reveal high-risk sexual behavior, which can go unreported at the time of donor selection and compromise the safety of the donated blood. In Italy, blood is collected, tested, and distributed by transfusion services (TSs), which also perform outpatient transfusions. Although the TSs must screen for syphilis by law, there are no indications of the specific type of method to be used, generating discrepancies in the results obtained by the different TSs. To determine the proficiency of the TSs in screening for syphilis, we performed an external quality assessment (EQA). The EQA was based on two shipments of serum panels; 133 and 118 of the 326 existing TSs participated in the first and second shipments, respectively. Each panel consisted of both positive and negative serum samples. The results confirmed that the use of a single nontreponemal test (the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory [VDRL] and the rapid plasma reagin [RPR] tests) is the least sensitive means of identifying samples that are positive for syphilis antibodies. We also found that the interpretation of the results of manual techniques, such as the RPR test, the VDRL test, the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA) assay, and the T. pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay, can vary greatly among different TSs and operators. Total Ig enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) are the most sensitive. However, the determination of syphilis on the basis of the results of a single test is not sufficient for an accurate screening; and all blood units should thus be assessed by two distinct treponemal tests, that is, a total Ig EIA and the TPHA or the TPPA assay. PMID:20042617

  20. Multiplex method for initial complex testing of antibodies to blood transmitted diseases agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltavchenko, Alexander G; Nechitaylo, Oleg V; Filatov, Pavel V; Ersh, Anna V; Gureyev, Vadim N

    2016-10-01

    Initial screening of donors and population at high risk of infection with blood transmitted diseases involves a number of analyses using monospesific diagnostic systems, and therefore is expensive labor- and time-consuming process. The goal of this work is to construct a multiplex test enabling to carry out rapid initial complex testing at a low price. The paper describes a kit making it possible to detect simultaneously antibodies to six agents of the most significant blood transmitted diseases: HIV virus, hepatitis B and C viruses, cytomegalovirus, T. pallidum and T. gondii in blood products. The kit comprises multiplex dot-immunoassay based on plane protein arrays (immune chips) using colloidal gold conjugates and silver development. It provides an opportunity to carry out complex analysis within 70min at room temperature, and there is no need of well-qualified personnel. We compared laboratory findings of the kit with monospecific kits for ELISA produced by two Russian commercial companies. Dot-assay results correlate well with data obtained using commercial kits for ELISA. Furthermore, multiplex analysis is quicker and cheaper in comparison with ELISA and can be carried out in non-laboratory conditions. The kit for multiplex dot-immunoassay of antibodies to blood transmitted agents can significantly simplify initial complex testing. PMID:27497868

  1. The impact of interactions between algal organic matter and humic substances on coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivokonsky, Martin; Naceradska, Jana; Brabenec, Tomas; Novotna, Katerina; Baresova, Magdalena; Janda, Vaclav

    2015-11-01

    This study focuses on the effects of molecular interactions between two natural organic matter (NOM) fractions, peptides/proteins derived from cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa (MA proteins) and peat humic substances (HS), on their removal by coagulation. Coagulation behaviour was studied by the jar tests with MA protein/HS mixtures and with single compounds (MA proteins or HS). Aluminium sulphate was used as a coagulant. Besides MA proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a model protein. For the MA protein/HS mixture, the removal rates were higher (80% versus 65%) and the dose of coagulant substantially lower (2.8 versus 5.5 mg L(-1) Al) than for coagulation of single HS, indicating the positive effect of protein-HS interactions on the coagulation process. The optimum coagulation pH was 5.2-6.7 for MA proteins and 5.5-6 for HS by alum. The optimum pH for the removal of MA protein/HS mixture ranged between pH 5.5-6.2, where the charge neutralization of negatively charged acidic functional groups of organic molecules by positively charged coagulant hydroxopolymers lead to coagulation. MA proteins interacted with HS, probably through hydrophobic, dipole-dipole and electrostatic interactions, even in the absence the coagulant. These interactions are likely to occur within a wide pH range, but they result in coagulation only at low pH values (pH coagulation process and a rise in coagulant demand.

  2. The Survey of Normal Pregnant Women's Routine Blood Coagulation Reference Interval in Different Periods and Post Partum%正常孕妇不同孕期及产后常规凝血功能检测指标参考区间调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧英

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过对我院正常孕妇在不同孕期及产后凝血功能指标的分析,建立本实验室孕妇在不同孕期及产后常规凝血试验参考区间.方法:应用日本Symex-CA500全自动血凝分析仪对凝血四项:凝血酶原时间(PT),活化部分凝血酶原时间(APTT),纤维蛋白原(FIB)浓度,凝血酶时间(TT)进行检测.结果:孕早期及产后72h凝血四项结果与健康对照组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);孕中期、孕晚期PT、APTT较健康对照组下降,差异有统计学意义(P0.05).结论:孕妇随孕期延长血液逐渐呈现高凝状态,产后72h趋于正常,针对自己实验室的具体实验条件、仪器、试剂等相关因素,建立本实验室正常孕妇不同孕期及产后常规凝血试验参考区间,对凝血指标进行动态检测,对于分娩过程中或产后大出血及其他并发症的预防和治疗有重要意义.%Objective: To establish our lab s reference interval of routine blood coagulation in different periods and post partum by analysing their blood coagulation indices. Method: The prothrombin time( PT ), activated partial thrombopastin time( APTT ), fibrinogen( FIB ) and thrombin time( TT ) were detected by u-sing the hemagglutinin analyzer. Result: The results of early pregnancy and 72 hours after delivery have no significant difference ( P>0. 05 )compared with the healthy control group. The levels of PT and APTT in middle and late pregnant were lower than the health control group and showed statistically significant! P<0. 05-0.01 ). The FIB was obviously higher and showed significant difference^ P<0.01 )compared with the healthy control group . There was no significant difference in TT level between the two groups. Conclusion: The blood of pregnant women is in a hypercoagulable state before delivery and it returns to normal at 72 hours after delivery. Dynamic detection of four indices of blood coagulation in connection with our lab s condition, anglyzer, reagent, establishing our

  3. Validation studies of an immunochromatographic 1-step test for the forensic identification of human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochmeister, M N; Budowle, B; Sparkes, R; Rudin, O; Gehrig, C; Thali, M; Schmidt, L; Cordier, A; Dirnhofer, R

    1999-05-01

    An immunochromatographic 1-step test for the detection of fecal occult blood was evaluated for applicability for the forensic identification of human blood in stained material. The following experiments were conducted: 1) determination of the sensitivity and specificity of the assay; 2) evaluation of different extraction media for bloodstains (sterile water, Tris buffer pH 7.5 provided in the test kit, 5% ammonia); 3) analysis of biological samples subjected to a variety of environmental insults; and 4) evaluation of casework samples. This immunochromatographic 1-step occult blood test is specific for human (primate) hemoglobin and is at least an order of magnitude more sensitive than previous methods for detecting human hemoglobin in bloodstains. The antigen is insensitive to a variety of environmental insults, except for exposure to certain detergents and household bleaches and prolonged exposure to certain preparations of luminol. The entire assay can be conducted in field testing conditions within minutes. When in the laboratory the supernatant from a DNA extraction is used for the assay, there is essentially no consumption of DNA for determining the presence of human hemoglobin in a forensic sample. The data demonstrate that this test is robust and suitable for forensic analyses.

  4. Cell free fetal DNA testing in maternal blood of Romanian pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica E Radoi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The discovery of circulating fetal DNA in maternal blood led to the discovery of new strategies to perform noninvasive testing for prenatal diagnosis. Objective: The purpose of the study was to detect fetal aneuploidy at chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y by analysis of fetal cell-free DNA from maternal blood, without endangering pregnancy. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study has been performed in Bucharest at Medlife Maternal and Fetal Medicine Department between 2013-2014. In total 201 women were offered noninvasive prenatal test. Maternal plasma samples were collected from women at greater than 9 weeks of gestation after informed consent and genetics counseling. Results: From 201 patients; 28 (13.93% had screening test with high risk for trisomy 21, 116 (57.71% had advanced maternal age, 1 (0.49% had second trimester ultrasound markers and the remaining 56 patients (27.86% performed the test on request. Of those patients, 189 (94.02% had a “low risk” result (99% risk all for trisomy 21 (T21. T21 was confirmed by amniocentesis in 1 patient and the other 4 patients declined confirmation. The 7 remaining patients (3.48% had a low fetal fraction of DNA. Conclusion: It is probably that prenatal diagnosis using fetal DNA in maternal blood would play an increasingly role in the future practice of prenatal testing because of high accuracy.

  5. Forensic Luminol Blood Test for Preventing Cross-contamination in Dentistry: An Evaluation of a Dental School Clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Carlos Bortoluzzi; Peterson Cadore; Andrea Gallon; Soraia Almeida Watanabe Imanishi

    2014-01-01

    Background: More than 200 different diseases may be transmitted from exposure to blood in the dental setting. The aim of this study is to identify possible faults in the cross-contamination chain control in a dental school clinic searching for traces of blood in the clinical contact surfaces (CCS) through forensic luminol blood test. Methods: Traces of invisible blood where randomly searched in CCS of one dental school clinic. Results: Forty eight surfaces areas in the CCS were tes...

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Four Presumptive Tests for Blood to Detect Epithelial Injury on Fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Smokorowski, Karen; Haxton, Tim; Cooke, Steven J.

    2014-06-01

    Current methods of fish epithelial injury detection are limited to gross macroscopic examination that has a subjective bias as well as an inability to reliably quantify the degree of injury. Fluorescein, a presumptive test for blood, has been shown to have the capability to detect and quantify fish epithelial injury. However, there are several other presumptive tests for blood (Bluestar*, phenolphthalein, and HemastixH) that may have benefits over the use of fluorescein, particularly for field research on wild fish. This study investigated the capabilities of these four tests to detect and quantify a variety of injuries commonly encountered by fish (abrasion, cuts, fin frays, and punctures) using the freshwater bluegill Lepomis macrochirus as a model. Fluorescein was consistently found to be the most reliable (i.e., detected the highest proportion of true positive results and rarely detected false positive reactions) of the four presumptive tests for blood compared. Further testing was conducted to examine the reliability of fluorescein. By 24 h after an injury was inflicted, the injury was no longer detectable by fluorescein, and when fluorescein was applied to an injured fish, the fluorescein was no longer detectable 3 h after application. In a comparison of two common anaesthetics used in fisheries research, there was no significant difference in the proportion of injury detected when 3- aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester methanesulfate (tricaine) was used compared with a clove oil and ethanol (1:9) solution. In summary, fluorescein was the most reliable presumptive test for blood examined in this study for the detection and quantification of recent (hours) fish epithelial injury.

  7. Early detection of Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep using three different faecal occult blood tests

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    A.V. Rodríguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking parasite causing the presence of faecal occult blood (FOB. The objective was to study three different FOB tests in order to have a new indicator of H. contortus infection in sheep that could be included in the genetic evaluation system as an alternative selection criterion to faecal worm egg count (FEC. A total of 29 Corriedale lambs were experimentally infected with 10.000 larvae of H. contortus. Stool samples were recorded for FEC and FOB tests (Hexagon, Hematest® and Multistix®, blood for packed cell volume (PCV, haemoglobin, white and red blood cell count (RBC, and FAMACHA© for scoring anaemia. At the end of the experiment lambs were slaughtered to worm burden count. Field infection was achieved in 309 Merino lambs under natural parasite challenge. FEC data were normalized through logarithmic transformation (LnFEC. Pearson correlation was estimated to examine the relationship between all traits. The three tests were able to detect the presence of FOB at day 11. FEC, PCV and RBC decreased to sub-normal values from day 18. FAMACHA© score 3 was considered to be indicative of anaemia. Most of the correlations were of high magnitude, with the exception of Multistix® test that was moderately correlated with haematological parameters, LnFEC and FEC. In field infection, most samples were negative to FOB tests and the correlations were lower than those calculated under experimental infection. In conclusion, FOB tests were able to detect haemonchosis earlier than FEC under high experimental parasite challenge. However, they were not able to detect FOB under natural mixed parasite challenge. FAMACHA© and PCV demonstrated to be good indicators of Haemonchosis, having moderate to high correlations with FEC.

  8. Disposable glucose test strip for whole blood with integrated sensing/diffusion-limiting layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zhencheng [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Fang Cheng, E-mail: fangpingchuan@163.co [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wang Hongyan; He Jishan [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2009-12-30

    A disposable glucose test strip with an integrated sensing/diffusion-limiting layer was developed. A formulation containing filler, glucose oxidase and electronic mediator was screen-printed over two carbon electrodes to form an integrated sensing/diffusion-limiting layer. On rehydration, the integrated layer does not break up, but swells to form a gelled and three-dimensional meshy reaction zone on the surface of the underlying conductive elements in which reactants and mediator move freely, but interfering species such as red blood cells containing oxygenated hemoglobin are excluded. On the same time, the integrated layer maintains a rate of permeation of the analyte through it with a variation of less than 10% at temperatures ranging from 15 deg. C to 42 deg. C. This biosensor is substantially insensitive to interferents and essentially independent to relevant temperature, which provides a more reliable reading of actual blood glucose value in human whole blood.

  9. Regional blood flow in rats after a single low-protein, high-carbohydrate test meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Z; Wickler, S J; Stern, J S; Horwitz, B A

    1984-07-01

    It was previously observed that a single low-protein, high-carbohydrate test meal results in increased in vitro thermic activity of brown adipose tissue. In the present study, we have examined whether such a meal increases the in vivo thermic activity, estimated from measurement of the rate of blood flow. With radioactively labeled microspheres, blood flows into brown fat and several other tissues were determined in meal-deprived (n = 11) and meal-fed (n = 11) rats. The microspheres were injected into the heart of anesthetized animals about 2-2.5 h after the test meal, one injection in the resting state and one during maximal norepinephrine stimulation. In the resting state, blood flow per gram tissue more than doubled in the brown fat (P less than 0.05) and was increased more than 50% in the heart (P less than 0.01) of the fed group. Blood flows into liver and retroperitoneal white fat were reduced by 40 (P less than 0.01) and 30%, respectively, in the fed group. During norepinephrine infusion, significant meal-associated increases in blood flow were evident only in brown fat (P less than 0.05) and the soleus muscle (P less than 0.05), whereas a significant decrease was observed in the liver (P less than 0.05). No statistically significant meal-associated changes in norepinephrine-stimulated blood flow were found in the other tissues examined (i.e., heart, gastrocnemius, and diaphragm muscles, kidneys, white fat, spleen, and adrenals). Our in vivo data thus support the view that brown fat plays a role in the thermic effect of a meal. PMID:6742226

  10. 2型糖尿病肾病患者不同时期凝血功能与血脂水平的变化及其临床意义%Changes of coagulation function and blood lipid level of patients with type 2 diabetes nephropathy during different periods and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈日寿

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test coagulation function and blood lipid level of patients with type 2 diabetes nephropathy during different periods and explore its clinical significance.Methods 150 patients with type 2 diabetes nephropathy who were hospitalized and treated in Dongguan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine were selected as research subject including 50 patient with normal proteinuria, 50 patients with microalbuminuria and 50 patient with clinical proteinuria. 50 people who were received physical examination in our hospital were selected as control group. Fasting blood-glucose, triglycerid, homocysteine, glycosylated hemoglobin, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen and thrombin time of research subjects were tested, and all the index and data were compared and analyzed. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used and set MTP as dependent variable and set FBG, TG, HCY, HbA1C as independent variable to analyze correlation of these index. ResultsFBG, TG and FIB of patients with T2DN were significantly higher than those of control group, and those of patients with clinical proteinuria were significantly higher than those of patient with normal proteinuria and patients with microalbuminuria (P<0.05). Patients' TT was significantly prolonged (P<0.05). HCY of patients with clinical proteinuria was significantly higher than that of patients with normal proteinuria (P<0.05). The influence extent of independent variable including FBG, TG, HCY, HbA1C on dependent variable of MTP was HCY, FBG, TG and HbA1C in sequence. Conclusion Compared with common people, patients with T2DN have the symptoms of abnormal blood lipid levels and coagulation function disturbance. With the increase of MAU, the patients' HCY, HbA1C and FIB are gradually increased and TT is gradually prolonged. The greatest influence factors to MTP are HCY and FBG.%目的:检测2型糖尿病肾病患者不同时期的凝血功能和血脂水平,探讨其临床意义。方

  11. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  12. Extraction and partial purification of coagulation active components from common bean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćiban Marina B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An active coagulation component was extracted from common bean seed by NaCl solution and the obtained crude extract was partially purified through a sequence of steps that included precipitation of protein by ammonium sulphate, desalting by dialysis and anion exchange. A turbid water was treated by protein fractions obtained in the anion- exchange elution process by stepwise increase in NaCl concentration. The jar tests were conducted at various dosages of eluates. Different mode of relation between coagulation activity and applied coagulant dose for each protein fraction indicated the existence of different mechanisms of coagulation/flocculation, depending of characteristics of different proteins in the fractions.

  13. Removal of water turbidity by natural coagulants obtained from chestnut and acorn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sćiban, Marina; Klasnja, Mile; Antov, Mirjana; Skrbić, Biljana

    2009-12-01

    The ability of seed extracts of several species of chestnut and acorn to act as natural coagulants was tested using a synthetic turbid water. Active components were extracted from ground seeds of Horse chestnut and acorns of some species of family Fagaceae: Common oak, Turkey oak, Northern red oak and European chestnut. All investigated extracts had coagulation capabilities and their amounts depended on pH values and initial turbidities. The seed extracts from European chestnut and Common oak acorn were the most efficient expressing the highest coagulation activities, about 80% and 70%, respectively, in both low and medium investigated water turbidities at the lowest coagulant dose 0.5 ml/L.

  14. Automatic system for blood donors control with seropositive results in epidemiological tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Menéndez Barrios

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevention of infectious diseases transmission through blood transfusion is one of the biggest challenges in the transfusion field of medicine. Objective: to design a computerized system for blood donors control with seropositive results in epidemiological tests. Methods: A system designed by the Provincial Blood Bank using Microsoft Access as a data base system and DELFHI 7 as associated language. It runs under Windows 2000 or any other superior system with 64 RAM and do not need special requirements of software or hardware. It includes the following data: Full name, age, sex, race, Id number, home address, number of the clinical record in the blood bank, date when the trial took place in each patient, kind of disease diagnosed, technical data of the trial such as: fluorescence, sectional level of the 1st trial as well as the repetition, name of the technician who performed it. Results: It permits to consult general data of donors as well as the disease diagnosed. It also permits to elaborate reports of these patients from any PC of the blood bank acceding with the security password of the program. Conclusions: It constitutes a beneficial tool which permits to improve the notification system established in the program of the web about sexually transmitted diseases from the Minister of Public Health in Cuba.

  15. It’s More Than a Blood Test: Patients’ Perspectives on Noninvasive Prenatal Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M. Farrell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT offers pregnant women a new risk assessment tool for fetal aneuploidy that is superior to conventional screening tests. We conducted focus groups with women who were currently pregnant or had recently delivered in the past year to characterize their perspectives about NIPT and to explore factors they would consider during decision making about its use. Women identified accuracy, early timing, testing ease, and determination of fetal sex as advantages of NIPT over other screens, and the noninvasive method of NIPT as an advantage over diagnostic tests. False positive and false negative results, anxiety, cost and insurance coverage were seen as disadvantages of NIPT. Women who do not want fetal aneuploidy information most likely will not undergo NIPT, despite its advantages over other screening tests. However, given its advantages, the decision to have NIPT is straightforward for women who want genetic information about the fetus. Women emphasized the need to make autonomous, private, and informed choices about NIPT, as they would with any prenatal genetic testing option. These perspectives may guide clinicians to conduct effective and clinically relevant counseling with pregnant women who consider utilizing this new genetic technology.

  16. Point of care testing in the management of coagulation dysfunction in cardiovascular surgery%即时检验在心血管手术出凝血管理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周珊

    2012-01-01

    即时检验是指现场采样即刻分析、快速得到检验结果的一类新方法,主要优势在于检测方法简单易行、耗时较短,能在手术室内操作完成.心血管手术患者术后失血量大,血小板功能异常是重要原因之一.本文综述了目前常用的几种血小板功能即时检验方法在心脏手术中的应用.%Point of care testing is a new developing technology, which can reduce the turn-around time of results and provide quick information for clinicians. Platelet dysfunction is one of the major reasons of postoperative bleeding after cardiovascular surgery. In this review , we focused on the use of point of care testing in the management of coagulation dysfunction in cardiovascular surgey.

  17. Application of low-mixing energy input for the coagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadasarukkai, Yamuna S; Gagnon, Graham A

    2015-11-01

    Rapid-mixing tanks with mechanical mixers are a common design used in treatment plants. Yet, the role of such rapid-mixing systems on the effectiveness of the coagulation performance is unclear. This study looked at optimizing the direct energy used in the coagulation process for removal of natural dissolved organic matter (DOM). The role of coagulation mixing intensity (G-value) on total organic carbon (TOC) and turbidity removal was examined for the water types with high organic content, with a specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) of at least 2-2.5 units of m(-1) of absorbance per mg/L. A standard jar test using ferric sulfate coagulant was performed to optimize the chemical condition in coagulation for removal of dissolved organics as well as particles. The jar test analysis at an acidic pH (4.5 ± 0.3) required an iron dose coagulant concentration and resulted in above 75% of TOC removal. The influence of coagulation mixing on TOC and turbidity removal was evaluated at G varying from 0 to 1500 s(-1) at the optimized coagulant dose and pH conditions for enhanced coagulation. In this study, a combined effective removal of TOC and turbidity was achieved at a low-mixing intensity range of 110 s(-1) Coagulation operated at G greater than 450 s(-1) showed negligible improvement in TOC removal. Minimizing energy consumption in enhanced coagulation is feasible at the proposed mixing intensity range (i.e., 110 s(-1) coagulation. These findings represent an opportunity for energy savings for the water industry without sacrificing quality.

  18. Testing of models of flow-induced hemolysis in blood flow through hypodermic needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangsheng; Kent, Timothy L; Sharp, M Keith

    2013-03-01

    Hemolysis caused by flow in hypodermic needles interferes with a number of tests on blood samples drawn by venipuncture, including assays for metabolites, electrolytes, and enzymes, causes discomfort during dialysis sessions, and limits transfusion flow rates. To evaluate design modifications to address this problem, as well as hemolysis issues in other cardiovascular devices, computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based prediction of hemolysis has potential for reducing the time and expense for testing of prototypes. In this project, three CFD-integrated blood damage models were applied to flow-induced hemolysis in 16-G needles and compared with experimental results, which demonstrated that a modified needle with chamfered entrance increased hemolysis, while a rounded entrance decreased hemolysis, compared with a standard needle with sharp entrance. After CFD simulation of the steady-state velocity field, the time histories of scalar stress along a grid of streamlines were calculated. A strain-based cell membrane failure model and two empirical power-law blood damage models were used to predict hemolysis on each streamline. Total hemolysis was calculated by weighting the predicted hemolysis along each streamline by the flow rate along each streamline. The results showed that only the strain-based blood damage model correctly predicted increased hemolysis in the beveled needle and decreased hemolysis in the rounded needle, while the power-law models predicted the opposite trends. PMID:23419169

  19. The effects of hydroxyethyl starch on renal function and blood coagulation of patients with acute pancreatitis%羟乙基淀粉对急性胰腺炎患者肾功能和凝血功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李邦一; 张玫; 朱鸿明; 赵丹丹; 杨燕

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨羟乙基淀粉(HES)200/0.5对急性胰腺炎(AP)患者肾功能和凝血功能的影响。方法:回顾151例AP病例,其中62例使用HES者为治疗组,89例使用晶体液者为对照组,比较两组治疗前后的血肌酐(Scr)、血尿素氮(Bun)、血小板计数(Plt)、凝血酶原时间活动度(PTA)、国际标准化比值(INR)、激活的凝血酶原时间(APTT)和纤维蛋白原(FIB)的变化。结果:与入院时比较,治疗组输HES后24 h的Scr、Bun差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),出院前Scr、Bun升高(P<0.05);与入院时比较,对照组输晶体液后24 h的Bun降低(P<0.05),出院前Scr、Bun差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);组间比较Scr、Bun差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。综合组内及组间比较结果,各项凝血指标中,治疗组使用HES后APTT升高相对明显(P<0.05)。治疗组住院时间长于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:HES对AP患者的肾功能及内源性凝血功能有一定不利影响,使用时应注意监测患者的肾功能和凝血功能指标。%Objective To evaluate the effects of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) on the renal function and blood coagulation of patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). Methods 151 patients with acute pancreatits were divided into treatment group (treated with HES, n=62) and control group (treated with crystalloid solutions, n =89). The two groups were compared by retrospective analysis of the indices such as serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen (Bun), platelet count(Plt), prothrombin time activity (PTA), international normalized ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and fibrinogen (FIB) before and after treatment. Results Before hospitalization, there were insignificant differences in respect of Scr and Bun in the two groups respectively. But at discharge, Scr and Bun in the treatment group were significantly increased (P<0

  20. Comparative study on efficacy and influence on blood coagulation between low molecular weight heparin and unfractionated heparin in the treatment of elderly patients with severe pneumonia%低分子肝素与普通肝素佐治老年重症肺炎中疗效及对凝血功能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁玉荣

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical efficacy and influence on blood coagulation between low mo-lecular weight heparin (LMWH) and unfractionated heparin (UFH) in the adjuvant treatment of elderly patients with severe pneumonia (SP). Methods 105 elderly SP cases were randomly divided into the LMWH group and the UFH group. All patients were treated with comprehensive treatment, such as anti-infection, anti-inflammation, spasm re-lieving, oxygen therapy, anti-coagulation and preventing complications, etc. Anticoagulation of the LMWH group was adopted with LMWH subcutaneous injection, 5000IU per time, twice a day for 7 days. The UFH group was used FUH subcutaneous injection, 6250IU per time, twice a day for 7 days. Their oxygenation indexes, APACHE Ⅱscore, clinical efficacy, blood coagulation indexes and bleeding were compared between the two groups. Results Af-ter the treatment, the levels of PaO2 and SpO2 were significantly higher, and the levels of PaCO2 and APACHE Ⅱscore were significantly lower in the LMWH group than in the UFH group (P 0. 05). After the treatment, the level of TXB2 decreased significantly in both groups, and 6-keto-PGF1α increased significantly, but there was no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0. 05). The level of CD62p was significantly lower in the LMWH group than in the UFH group (P 0.05);两组治疗后 TXB2明显下降,6-keto-PGF1α明显上升,治疗后差异无统计学意义(P >0.05);LMWH 组治疗后 CD62p 水平明显低于 UFH组(P <0.05)。结论老年重症肺炎患者在常规治疗基础上联合使用低分子肝素较普通肝素在改善肺部氧合与降低 APACHE Ⅱ评分方面具有显著优势,在抗凝效果与出血发生率方面具有比较优势。

  1. New method for rapid Susceptibility Testing on blood culture with HB&L system: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Rondinelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood culture, although represents the gold standard in detecting the ethiological agent of sepsis, is rather rarely required in relation to the real diagnostic importance. The result of this test depends in fact on many factors (sample volume, time of collection, accuracy, antibiotic therapy, contamination, number of drawings, drawing site, interpretation difficulties, etc. that are often considered by many clinicians so limited as to doubt about their actual value. The disadvantages are therefore represented by the lack of standardization but also by the low sensitivity and above all by the technical times too long for the clinical needs. Blood culture begins with the drawing of samples from the “septic” patient followed incubation of the bottles in automatic thermostated systems. In case of positive result (36 hours, the culture is Gram stained and streaked on solid media in order to obtain isolated colonies for the identification and the susceptibility testing (48 hours from positive result. The long time required for pathogen identification and susceptibility testing involves empirical broad spectrum antibiotic therapy that can promote the increase of bacterial resistance but also patient management costs. A clinically useful report should be available on short notice in order to guide the clinician to choose the most appropriate antibiotic. The microbiologist has therefore the hard work of reviewing the organization and the management of the procedures.We have therefore started to consider the possibility of treating the blood as an biological liquid in order to quickly determine the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics.

  2. A study of common interferences with the forensic luminol test for blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quickenden, T I; Creamer, J I

    2001-01-01

    A wide range of domestic and industrial substances that might be mistaken for haemoglobin in the forensic luminol test for blood were examined. The substances studied were in the categories of vegetable or fruit pulps and juices; domestic and commercial oils; cleaning agents; an insecticide; and various glues, paints and varnishes. A significant number of substances in each category gave luminescence intensities that were comparable with the intensities of undiluted haemoglobin, when sprayed with the standard forensic solution containing aqueous alkaline luminol and sodium perborate. In these cases the substance could be easily mistaken for blood when the luminol test is used, but in the remaining cases the luminescence intensity was so weak that it is unlikely that a false-positive test would be obtained. In a few cases the brightly emitting substance could be distinguished from blood by a small but detectable shift of the peak emission wavelength. The results indicated that particular care should be taken to avoid interferences when a crime scene is contaminated with parsnip, turnip or horseradish, and when surfaces coated with enamel paint are involved. To a lesser extent, some care should be taken when surfaces covered with terracotta or ceramic tiles, polyurethane varnishes or jute and sisal matting are involved.

  3. Effectiveness of saliva and fingerprints as alternative specimens to urine and blood in forensic drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    In forensic drug testing, it is important to immediately take biological specimens from suspects and victims to prove their drug intake. We evaluated the effectiveness of saliva and fingerprints as alternative specimens to urine and blood in terms of ease of sampling, drug detection sensitivity, and drug detection periods for each specimen type. After four commercially available pharmaceutical products were administered to healthy subjects, each in a single dose, their urine, blood, saliva, and fingerprints were taken at predetermined sampling times over approximately four weeks. Fourteen analytes (the administered drugs and their main metabolites) were extracted from each specimen using simple pretreatments, such as dilution and deproteinization, and were analyzed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Most of the analytes were detected in saliva and fingerprints, as well as in urine and blood. The time-courses of drug concentrations were similar between urine and fingerprints, and between blood and saliva. Compared to the other compounds, the acidic compounds, for example ibuprofen, acetylsalicylic acid, were more difficult to detect in all specimens. Acetaminophen, dihydrocodeine, and methylephedrine were detected in fingerprints at later sampling times than in urine. However, a relationship between the drug structures and their detection periods in each specimen was not found. Saliva and fingerprints could be easily sampled on site without using special techniques or facilities. In addition, fingerprints could be immediately analyzed after simple and rapid treatment. In cases where it would be difficult to immediately obtain urine and blood, saliva and fingerprints could be effective alternative specimens for drug testing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in Infectious Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Levi; M. Schultz; T. van der Poll

    2010-01-01

    Severe infection and inflammation almost invariably lead to hemostatic abnormalities, ranging from insignificant laboratory changes to severe disseminated intravascular coagulation. Systemic inflammation as a result of severe infection leads to activation of coagulation, due to tissue factor-mediate

  5. Evaluation of latex agglutination tests for fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products in the forensic identification of menstrual blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, Tomoko; Watanabe, Ken; Motani, Hisako; Iwase, Hirotaro; Sakurada, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    The identification of menstrual blood is important when discriminating menstruation from vaginal trauma in sexual assault cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate two fibrin-fibrinogen degradation product (FDP)-latex agglutination test kits, FDPL® Test (FDP-L) and FDP Plasma "RD" (FDP-P), for their ability to forensically identify menstrual blood. Sensitivity and specificity of the two kits were compared for menstrual blood and various body fluids, and the sensitivity of the FDP-latex agglutination test kit was also compared with that of an immunochromatographic test for human hemoglobin. The robustness of the FDP-latex agglutination test was compared with that of gene expression analysis of menstrual blood specific markers. The FDP-L kit was more sensitive than the FDP-P kit, but it cross-reacted with peripheral bloodstains from healthy volunteers. The FDP-P kit was specific for menstrual blood, with the exception of postmortem blood samples, and was not affected by other body fluids. In an FDP-negative menstrual blood sample, the sensitivity of human hemoglobin detection was lower than for FDP-positive samples and peripheral blood stains, suggesting that determination of human hemoglobin could be useful in interpreting negative results in the FDP-latex agglutination test. In menstrual blood samples incubated in wet conditions, FDP was found to be a robust marker in the identification of menstrual blood compared with mRNA markers. FDP-P testing was shown to be a suitable and highly efficient rapid screening test for the laboratory identification of menstrual blood.

  6. Optimisation of chemical purification conditions for direct application of solid metal salt coagulants: Treatment of peatland-derived diffuse runoff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elisangela Heiderscheidt; Jaakko Saukkoriipi; Anna-Kaisa Ronkanen; Bjφrn Klφve

    2013-01-01

    The drainage of peatland areas for peat extraction,agriculture or bioenergy requires affordable,simple and reliable treatment methods that can purify waters rich in particulates and dissolved organic carbon.This work focused on the optimisation of chemical purification process for the direct dosage of solid metal salt coagulants.It investigated process requirements of solid coagulants and the influence of water quality,temperature and process parameters on their performance.This is the first attempt to provide information on specific process requirements of solid coagulants.Three solid inorganic coagulants were evaluated:aluminium sulphate,ferric sulphate and ferric aluminium sulphate.Pre-dissolved aluminium and ferric sulphate were also tested with the objective of identifying the effects of in-line coagulant dissolution on purification performance.It was determined that the pre-dissolution of the coagulants had a significant effect on coagulant performance and process requirements.Highest purification levels achieved by solid coagulants,even at 30% higher dosages,were generally lower (5%-30%) than those achieved by pre-dissolved coagulants.Furthermore,the mixing requirements of coagulants pre-dissolved prior to addition differed substantially from those of solid coagulants.The pH of the water samples being purified had a major influence on coagulant dosage and purification efficiency.Ferric sulphate (70 mg/L) was found to be the best performing solid coagulant achieving the following load removals:suspended solids (59%-88%),total organic carbon (56%-62%),total phosphorus (87%-90%),phosphate phosphorus (85%-92%) and total nitrogen (33%-44%).The results show that the use of solid coagulants is a viable option for the treatment of peatland-derived runoff water if solid coagulant-specific process requirements,such as mixing and settling time,are considered.

  7. Impact of epidemic rates of diabetes on the Chinese blood glucose testing market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jamie; Zhang, Xian-En

    2011-09-01

    China has become the country with the largest diabetes mellitus population in the world since the 1990s. About 100 million diabetes cases have been diagnosed since 2008. Handheld blood glucose meters and test strips are urgently needed for daily patient measurement. The glucose monitor with a screen-printed carbon-based glucose electrode has been in commercial production since 1994. Since then, approximately 20 companies have been involved in manufacturing and marketing meters and test strips in China. The current market and production volume and updates on technology issues are discussed in this article. PMID:22027332

  8. Using chloramine as a coagulant aid in enhancing coagulation of Yellow River water in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Considering that contaminated raw water mostly contains high Ammonia-N and a majority of water treatment plants use prechlorination process in China, efficiency of chloramines as a coagulant aid in enhancing coagulation was investigated by Jar stirring and pilot-scale tests, using Yellow River water containing high concentration of natural organic matters (NOM) and bromide in winter. The jar tests results showed that, compared with no preoxidation, preformed chloramine apparently decreased the turbidity of settled and filtered water with low dosage (2.0 mg/L), and the aid-coagulation efficiency was further enhanced with the increase of chlorine (Cl2) to Ammonia-N (N) ratio. Pilot-scale studies indicated that, in comparison to the case without preoxidation, the turbidity removal efficiency of flotation and filtration effluent water was significantly improved, the particle counts of filtered water were decreased 63.4%, the average rate of filter head loss was reduced 18.2%, and filter run time was prolonged 15.7%. Therefore, chloramine preoxidation may substantially enhance the particle separation efficiency.

  9. The determination of phenazone in blood plasma for obtained sistem suitable test of monitoring drug level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Lazuardi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The determining of Phenazone to human blood plasma from healthy man after separated by solid phase extraction (SPE and spectroscopic measurements has been investigated. The objective of that research was to obtain system suitable test for determine the Phenazone level in biological fluids (human blood plasma, for new performed dosage regimented in clinical dentistry. The method can be divided into the following four steps. 1. Centrifugation the blood sample, 2. Extraction from blood plasma and, 3. Separation by SPE with manual pressured, 4. Elution to SPE followed by the measurement on a spectrophotometer in the ultra violet region. The critical value of  │t │at the 5% confidence level indicates that there is no systematic error in the linearity proposed method. Recoveries for this research were obtained at ranging 93.460 to 95.598%. The coefficient variation precision of this procedure was clearly good at smallest than 2%. The analytical procedure can be carried out in one working operation as a monitored therapeutic activity.

  10. Calcium Chloride as a Co-Coagulant

    OpenAIRE

    Hägg, Kristofer

    2015-01-01

    As populations continue to grow, the demand for fresh drinking water is increasing. This puts a lot of pressure on drinking water producers to strive for more efficient solutions and techniques. Many producers worldwide use surface water as a raw water source, which they often treat through coagulation and flocculation techniques. This is done by adding coagulant (e.g. metal coagulants), creating instability in the suspension, causing flocculation. In this work, PIX-311 (a FeCl3 coagulant pro...

  11. Explorative investigation of biomarkers of brain damage and coagulation system activation in clinical stroke differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Undén, Johan; Strandberg, Karin; Malm, Jan;

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A simple and accurate method of differentiating ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is potentially useful to facilitate acute therapeutic management. Blood measurements of biomarkers of brain damage and activation of the coagulation system may potentially serve as nov......: This exploratory study indicated that blood levels of biomarkers GFAP and APC-PCI, prior to neuroimaging, may rule out ICH in a mixed stroke population.......INTRODUCTION: A simple and accurate method of differentiating ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is potentially useful to facilitate acute therapeutic management. Blood measurements of biomarkers of brain damage and activation of the coagulation system may potentially serve as novel...... diagnostic tools for stroke subtypes. METHODS: Ninety-seven stroke patients were prospectively investigated in a multicenter design with blood levels of brain biomarkers S100B, neuron specific enolase (NSE), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) as well as a coagulation biomarker, activated protein C...

  12. The effects of ropivacaine hydrochloride on coagulation and fibrinolysis. An assessment using thromboelastography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Porter, J M

    2012-02-03

    Amide local anaesthetics impair coagulation by inhibition of platelet function and enhanced fibrinolysis. The potential therefore exists that the presence of amide local anaesthetics in the epidural space could contribute to the therapeutic failure of an epidural autologous blood patch. Ropivacaine is an aminoamide local anaesthetic increasingly used for epidural analgesia and anaesthesia, particularly in obstetric practice. This study was undertaken to investigate whether concentrations of ropivacaine in blood, which could occur clinically in the epidural space, alter coagulation or fibrinolysis. Thromboelastography was used to assess clotting and fibrinolysis of blood to which ropivacaine had been added. Although modest alterations in maximum amplitude, coagulation time and alpha angle were observed, the effect of ropivacaine on clotting and fibrinolysis was not clinically significant. We conclude that it is unlikely that the presence of ropivacaine in the epidural space would reduce the efficacy of an early or prophylactic epidural blood patch.

  13. INTERNET-BASED CONTINGENCY MANAGEMENT TO IMPROVE ADHERENCE WITH BLOOD GLUCOSE TESTING RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TEENS WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES

    OpenAIRE

    Raiff, Bethany R.; Dallery, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    The current study used Internet-based contingency management (CM) to increase adherence with blood glucose testing to at least 4 times daily. Four teens diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes earned vouchers for submitting blood glucose testing videos over a Web site. Participants submitted a mean of 1.7 and 3.1 blood glucose tests per day during the 2 baseline conditions, respectively, compared to 5.7 tests per day during the intervention. Participants and their guardians rated the program favorably...

  14. Interplay between coagulation and vascular inflammation in sickle cell disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sparkenbaugh, Erica; Pawlinski, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is the most common inherited hematologic disorder that leads to the irreversible damage of multiple organs. Although sickling of red blood cells and vaso-occlusion are central to the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease the importance of hemolytic anemia and vasculopathy has been recently recognized. Hypercoagulation state is another prominent feature of sickle cell disease and is mediated by activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways. Growing eviden...

  15. Blood Samples of Peripheral Venous Catheter or The Usual Way: Do Infusion Fluid Alters the Biochemical Test Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeganzadeh, Mahboobeh; Yazdankhahfard, Mohammadreza; Farzaneh, Mohammadreza; Mirzaei, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most blood tests require venous blood samples. Puncturing the vein also causes pain, infection, or damage to the blood, and lymph flow, or long-term healing. This study aimed to determine and compare the biochemical laboratory value of the blood samples that were provided through: peripheral vein infusion (PVI) receiving continuous intravenous fluid; and the usual method of blood sampling. Methods: This is an interventional, quasi-experimental, and controlled study. The selected study sample included 60 patients, who were hospitalized during 2014, in the Internal Medicine, part of Martyrs of Persian Gulf, teaching hospital at Bushehr. Three blood samples were taken from each patient that were provided through PVI line (5 ml blood collected at beginning of IVC and then another 5 cc), and another case was prepared by common blood sampling (control). All the samples were analyzed in terms of sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine using SPSS Ver.19 software, by paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the amount of sodium and potassium in the first blood samples taken from the intravenous infusion line and vein puncture. However, no significant differences were found among the biochemical amount in the second blood samples taken from the intravenous infusion line and vein puncture. Conclusions: We can use blood samples taken from peripheral intravenous infusion lines after 5cc discarding from the first part of the sample for measuring the value of sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine.

  16. The coagulant response in sepsis and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Levi

    2010-01-01

    Critically ill patients often have systemic activation of both inflammation and coagulation. Increasing evidence points to an extensive cross-talk between these two systems, whereby inflammation not only leads to activation of coagulation, but coagulation also considerably affects inflammatory activ

  17. 21 CFR 864.5400 - Coagulation instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coagulation instrument. 864.5400 Section 864.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....5400 Coagulation instrument. (a) Identification. A coagulation instrument is an automated...

  18. Refreezing previously thawed fresh-frozen plasma. Stability of coagulation factors V and VIII:C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzik, W H; Riibner, M A; Linehan, S K

    1989-09-01

    With the growth in autologous blood programs and the increased scrutiny of the indications for transfusion of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP), an increase has been seen in the number of occasions on which FFP was requested and thawed but then not transfused. The coagulation properties of FFP units that were refrozen and then rethawed were therefore studied. Fifty-eight units of plasma were studied, with each experimental unit of FFP paired with an identical control unit. Experimental units were frozen, stored at -65 degrees C, thawed, stored at 1 to 6 degrees C for various periods of time up to 24 hours, and then refrozen, stored at -65 degrees C, rethawed, and stored again in the refrigerator for up to 24 hours. Control units were frozen once at the time the experimental units were first frozen and thawed once at the time of the second thaw of the experimental units. Aliquots of plasma were sampled periodically and were later batch-tested for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and factor V and VIII:C activity. The results of coagulation testing of the twice-frozen plasmas were always within the normal range. There was a slight but statistically valid prolongation of the PT and aPTT and a decrease in the factor V and VIII:C levels for twice-frozen plasma compared with control plasma. The greatest decline occurred in the level of factor VIII:C. The measured deterioration in coagulation of twice-frozen FFP is unlikely to be of clinical importance. Refreezing FFP may eventually prove useful for rare donor, autologous, and massive transfusion programs.

  19. Novel determinants in coagulation pathophysiology: reappraising the role of β2-glycoprotein I, factor seven activating protease and protein S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dienava-Verdoold, I.

    2012-01-01

    Blood coagulation cascade ensures the arrest of bleeding and restoration of vascular integrity after physical damage and therefore is essential to normal physiology. However, many pathological conditions can disturb the tightly regulated haemostatic balance. Inflammation or malignancies may promote

  20. The results of nucleic acid testing in remunerated and non-remunerated blood donors in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalibatas, Vytenis; Kalibatienė, Lina

    2014-01-01

    Background In Lithuania, governmentally covered remuneration for whole blood donations prevails. Donors may choose to accept or reject the remuneration. The purpose of this study was to compare the rate of nucleic acid testing (NAT) discriminatory-positive markers for human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in seronegative, first-time and repeat, remunerated and non-remunerated donations at the National Blood Centre in Lithuania during the period from 2005 to 2010. Materials and methods All seronegative whole blood and blood component donations were individually analysed by NAT for HIV-1, HBV and HCV. Only discriminatory-positive NAT were classified. The prevalence of discriminatory-positive NAT per 100,000 donations in the donor groups and the odds ratios comparing the remunerated and non-remunerated donations were determined. Results Significant differences were observed for HBV NAT results: 47.42 and 26.29 per 100,000 remunerated first-time and repeat donations, respectively, compared to 10.6 and 3.58 per 100,000 non-remunerated first-time and repeat, seronegative donations, respectively. The differences were also significant for HCV NAT results: 47.42 and 51.99 for remunerated first-time and repeat donations, respectively, compared to 2.12 and 0 per 100,000 non-remunerated first-time and repeat, seronegative donations, respectively. No seronegative, discriminatory-positive NAT HIV case was found. The odds of discriminatory HBV and HCV NAT positive results were statistically significantly higher for both first-time and repeat remunerated donations compared to first-time and repeat non-remunerated donations. Discussion First-time and repeat remunerated seronegative donations were associated with a statistically significantly higher prevalence and odds for discriminatory-positive HBV and HCV NAT results compared to first-time and repeat non-remunerated donations at the National Blood Centre in Lithuania. PMID

  1. Changing common sense: Anti-platelet/coagulation therapyagainst cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, anti-platelet/coagulation therapy hadnot been recommended for patients with cirrhosis.Although venous thrombosis is one of the representativecomplications of cirrhosis and ischemic disordersassociated with atherosclerosis are not infrequent incirrhotic patients, many clinicians have tended to hesitateto introduce anti-platelet/coagulation therapy to theirpatients. Undoubtedly, this is due to the increased riskof hemorrhagic diathesis in cirrhotic patients. However,accumulating evidence has revealed the benefits ofanti-platelet/coagulation therapy for cirrhotic patients.In addition to the safety of the therapy carried outagainst cardiovascular diseases in cirrhotic patients,some clinical data have indicated its preventive effecton venous thrombosis. Moreover, the efficacy of antiplatelet/coagulation therapy against cirrhosis itself hasbeen demonstrated both clinically and experimentally.The conceptual basis for application of anti-platelet/coagulation therapy against cirrhosis was constructedthrough two pathologic studies on intrahepatic thrombosisin cirrhotic livers. It may be better to use thrombopoietinreceptoragonists, which have been tested as a treatmentfor cirrhosis-related thrombocytopenia, in combinationwith anti-platelet drugs to reduce the risk of venousthrombosis. During the last decade, the World Journalof Gastroenterology , a sister journal of World Journal ofHepatology , has been one of the main platforms of activediscussion of this theme.

  2. FibroMeters: a family of blood tests for liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calès, P; Boursier, J; Oberti, F; Hubert, I; Gallois, Y; Rousselet, M-C; Dib, N; Moal, V; Macchi, L; Chevailler, A; Michalak, S; Hunault, G; Chaigneau, J; Sawadogo, A; Lunel, F

    2008-09-01

    FibroMeters are blood tests for liver fibrosis with several specificities: two main diagnostic targets (fibrosis stage and area of fibrosis); adaptation to specific causes; and results confirmed by an expert system. Thus, FibroMeters comprise six different tests: one for staging and one for quantitation of liver fibrosis in each of the three main causes of chronic liver disease-chronic viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). FibroMeters display a high overall diagnostic accuracy and are the only tests to correctly classify 100% of HCV patients without fibrosis or with cirrhosis. They have 90% predictive values in a higher proportion of patients than with other usual blood tests. A 90% correct classification is available in 100% of HCV patients with the following reliable diagnostic intervals: F0/1, F1/2, F2+/-1, F3+/-1. In real-life conditions, the reproducibility of FibroMeters is higher than that of liver biopsy or ultrasonographic elastometry. FibroMeters are robust tests with the most stable diagnostic performance across different centers. Optional tests are also available, such as a specific one for cirrhosis, which has a diagnostic accuracy of 93.0% (AUROC: 0.92) and a 100% positive predictive value for diagnosis of HCV cirrhosis. Determination by FibroMeters of the area of fibrosis - the only direct, non-invasive, quantitative measurement of liver fibrosis - are especially useful for following-up cirrhosis as it correlates well with clinical events. FibroMeters are also very accurate in HVB or HIV-HCV co-infected patients. The tests specific for ALD and NAFLD also have a high diagnostic accuracy (AUROCs: 0.96 and 0.94, respectively, for significant fibrosis). PMID:18973845

  3. New strategies for blood donor screening for hepatitis B virus: nucleic acid testing versus immunoassay methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Mary C; Busch, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    Serologic testing for hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) has historically been the foundation of blood screening, while HBV nucleic acid testing (NAT) was recently developed to detect HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-negative blood units donated during early acute infection. Comparison data on seroconversion panels using HBsAg assays of varying sensitivities and pooled- or single-sample NAT, along with viral load estimates corresponding to HBsAg assay detection limits, have provided information on the theoretical benefits of NAT relative to HBsAg. Model-derived estimates have generally been predictive of the yields of DNA-positive, HBsAg-negative window period blood units detected in a number of studies from Europe, Japan, and the US. Studies indicate that the added benefit of pooled-sample NAT is relatively small in areas of low endemicity, with greater yields in areas highly endemic for HBV. Single-sample NAT would offer more significant early window period closure and could prevent a moderate number of residual HBV transmissions not detected by HBsAg assays; however, no fully automated single-sample HBV NAT systems are currently available.Even single-sample HBV NAT may not substitute for anti-HBc screening, as indicated by studies of donors with isolated anti-HBc who have extremely low DNA levels undetectable by standard single-sample NAT and who have been associated with transfusion-transmitted HBV. Moreover, HBsAg testing may still be needed even in the setting of combined anti-HBc and NAT screening. HBsAg-positive units from donors in the chronic stage of infection may contain very low or intermittently detectable DNA levels that single-sample NAT would miss. Although such donors are usually anti-HBc reactive and would be interdicted by anti-HBc screening, some lack anti-HBc. Extensive parallel testing will be needed to determine whether single-sample NAT in combination with anti-HBc might be sufficient to

  4. Home water treatment by direct filtration with natural coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Raveendra; Chaudhuri, Malay

    2005-03-01

    Seeds of the plant species Strychnos potatorum and Moringa oleifera contain natural polyelectrolytes which can be used as coagulants to clarify turbid waters. In laboratory tests, direct filtration of a turbid surface water (turbidity 15-25 NTU, heterotrophic bacteria 280-500 cfu ml(-1), and fecal coliforms 280-500 MPN 100 ml(-1)), with seeds of S. potatorum or M. oleifera as coagulant, produced a substantial improvement in its aesthetic and microbiological quality (turbidity 0.3-1.5 NTU, heterotrophic bacteria 5-20 cfu ml(-1) and fecal coliforms 5-10 MPN 100 ml(-1)). The method appears suitable for home water treatment in rural areas of developing countries. These natural coagulants produce a 'low risk' water; however, additional disinfection or boiling should be practised during localised outbreaks/epidemics of enteric infections.

  5. Determination of lead in whole blood: Comparison of the LeadCare blood lead testing system with zeeman longitudinal electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study compares the efficiency of blood lead level analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and the portable LeadCare Blood lead testing system (LCS). Recoveries of two added lead concentrations of 22 and 42 μg/dL ranged from 102.4 to 105.5% for LCS and from 96.3 to 97.2% for GFAAS. Measurement of a certified sample (Certified Danish Whole Blood) at a blood lead concentration of 26.2 μg/dL gave within- and between-run coefficients of variation which were both approximately 8% by LCS and 2% by GFAAS. Comparison of the tested method (LCS) versus GFAAS from analysis of 76 samples of blood lead collected from workers in different industrial sectors showed imperfect overall correlation (r = 0.95). The LCS is quite suitable for screening purposes, but requires the use of non-frozen blood collected less than 24 h before. Conservative threshold values should be applied when using the LCS for initial screening in the field. (orig.)

  6. The measurement of peripheral blood volume reactions to tilt test by the electrical impedance technique after exercise in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the distribution of peripheral blood volumes in different regions of the body in response to the tilt-test in endurance trained athletes after aerobic exercise. Distribution of peripheral blood volumes (ml/beat) simultaneously in six regions of the body (two legs, two hands, abdomen, neck and ECG) was assessed in response to the tilt-test using the impedance method (the impedance change rate (dZ/dT). Before and after exercise session cardiac stroke (CSV) and blood volumes in legs, arms and neck were higher in athletes both in lying and standing positions. Before exercise the increase of heart rate and the decrease of a neck blood volume in response to tilting was lower (p <0.05) but the decrease of leg blood volumes was higher (p<0.001) in athletes. The reactions in arms and abdomen blood volumes were similar. Also, the neck blood volumes as percentage of CSV (%/CSV) did not change in the control but increased in athletes (p <0.05) in response to the tilt test. After (10 min recovery) the aerobic bicycle exercise (mean HR = 156±8 beat/min, duration 30 min) blood volumes in neck and arms in response to the tilting were reduced equally, but abdomen (p<0.05) and leg blood volumes (p <0.001) were lowered more significantly in athletes. The neck blood flow (%/CSV) did not change in athletes but decreased in control (p<0.01), which was offset by higher tachycardia in response to tilt-test in controls after exercise. The data demonstrate greater orthostatic tolerance in athletes both before and after exercise during fatigue which is due to effective distribution of blood flows aimed at maintaining cerebral blood flow.

  7. Characteristics of meso-particles formed in coagulation process causing irreversible membrane fouling in the coagulation-microfiltration water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Q; Yamamura, H; Murata, N; Aoki, N; Yonekawa, H; Hafuka, A; Watanabe, Y

    2016-09-15

    In coagulation-membrane filtration water treatment processes, it is still difficult to determine the optimal coagulation condition to minimize irreversible membrane fouling. In microfiltration (MF), meso-particles (i.e., 20 nm-0.5 μm) are thought to play an important role in irreversible membrane fouling, especially their characteristics of particle number (PN) and zeta potential (ZP). In this study, a new nanoparticle tracker combined a high-output violet laser with a microscope was developed to identify the physicochemical characteristics of these microscopic and widely dispersed meso-particles. The effects of pH and coagulant dose on ZP and PN of micro-particles (i.e., >0.5 μm) and meso-particles were investigated, and then coagulation-MF tests were conducted. As the result, irreversible membrane fouling was best controlled for both types of membranes, while meso-particle ZP approached zero at around pH 5.5 for both types of natural water. Since PN was greatest under these conditions, ZP is more important in determining the extent of irreversible membrane fouling than PN. However, the acidic condition to neutralize meso-particles is not suitable for actual operation, as considering residual aluminum concentration, pipe corrosion, and chlorination efficiency. It is therefore necessary to investigate coagulants or other methods for the appropriate modification of meso-particle characteristics.

  8. Study on the Efficacy of Abstergent Autologous Blood Transfusion Combined with Fresh Frozen Plasma in Preventing Coagulation Disorders after Operation%洗涤式自体血回输联合新鲜冰冻血浆预防术后凝血功能障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐新桥; 陈建明; 李慧梁; 蔡丹; 周巧群; 罗旭倩

    2014-01-01

    【目的】探讨洗涤自体血回输联合使用新鲜冰冻血浆预防术后凝血障碍的疗效。【方法】选取2012年1月至2013年12月本院收治的大出血患者90例,按照患者的术中失血量大小,将其分为小量组(<400mL,n=50)、中量组(400~800mL,n=20)和大量组(>800mL,n=20)。根据回输血量多少与患者凝血功能的量化关系,制定联合新鲜冰冻血浆输注的具体方案。比较分析三组患者纤维蛋白原(FIB)、血小板(PLT)及凝血酶原时间(PT)变化情况。【结果】回输血液后三组患者机体FIB、PLT均较术前显著降低,PT明显延长(P<0.05);术后18h三组患者FIB、PLT均较回输血液后明显升高,PT显著缩短(P<0.05)。【结论】联合新鲜冰冻血浆输注的具体方案能提高洗涤自体血回输的安全性和实用性,有效预防凝血功能障碍的发生。%Objective To explore the efficacy of abstergent autologous blood transfusion combined with fresh frozen plasma in preventing coagulation disorders after operation .[Methods] Totally 90 patients with hemorrhea in our hospital from Jan .2012 to Sept .2013 were chosen .According to blood loss volume ,all pa-tients were divided into small volume group(800ml) .On the basis of the quantitative relation between blood transfusion volume and coagulation function of patients ,the concrete scheme about the combined fresh frozen plasma transfusion was made .Fi-brinogen(FIB) ,platelet(PLT) and prothrombin time(PT ) in 3 groups at different time point were analyzed and compared .[Results] Compared with before blood transfusion ,FIB and PLT in 3 groups after blood trans-fusion were decreased significantly and PT was prolonged obviously ( P <0 .05) .Compared with after blood transfusion ,FIB and PLT in 3 groups 18h after blood transfusion were increased obviously and PT was short-ened significantly( P < 0 .05) .[Conclusion]The concrete scheme about the

  9. Removal of dyes from textile wastewater by chemical coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Janezcko, Marta; GAYDARDZHIEV, Stoyan

    2006-01-01

    Dye removal mechanisms from textile effluents has been studied by means of surface charge measurempents and image analysis of floc sludge (size, shape, sedimentation properties). Reactive Black 5 and Acid Black 1 commercial dyes have been tested as simulated effluent water solutions treated with synthetic primary coagulants.

  10. Improving Detection of Prediabetes in Children and Adults: Using Combinations of Blood Glucose Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ike Solomon Okosun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine combinations of blood glucose tests: oral glucose tolerance (OGT, fasting plasma glucose (FBG and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C that are associated with highest diagnostic rates of prediabetes in non-diabetic American children and adults.Methods: The 2007-2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys data were used for this study. Overall and specific prevalence of prediabetes (defined using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were determined across age, race/ethnicity, sex and BMI categories.Results: FPG+HbA1C test was associated with significantly higher diagnostic rates of prediabetes across age, race/ethnicity and BMI. Estimates of overall prevalence of prediabetes using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were 20.3%, 24.2%, 33% and 34.3%, respectively. Compared to OGT+FPG, the use of HbA1C+FPG test in screening was associated with 44.8%, 135%, 38.6% and 35.9% increased prevalence of prediabetes in non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Mexican-American and other racial/ethnic men, respectively. The corresponding values in women were 67.8%, 140%, 37.2% and 42.6%, respectively. Combined use of all blood glucose tests did not improve the overall and gender-specific prediabetes prevalence beyond what was observed using HbA1C+FPG test.Conclusions: HbA1C criteria were associated with higher diagnosis rates of prediabetes than FPG and OGT tests in non-diabetic American children and adults. Using a combination of HbA1C and FPG test in screening for prediabetes reduces intrinsic systematic bias in using just HbA1C testing and offers the benefits of each test. A well-defined HbA1C that takes into consideration race/ethnicity, gender, age and body mass index may improve detection of prediabetes in population and clinical settings.

  11. Blood lactate minimum of rats during swimming test using three incremental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Souza Sena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of this study was to determine the lactate minimum intensity (LMI by swimming LACmintest using three incremental stages (LACmintest3 and to evaluate its sensitivity to changes in aerobic fitness (AF. Twenty Wistar rats performed: LACmintest3 (1: induction of hyperlactacidemia and incremental phase (4%, 5% and 6.5% of bw; Constant loads tests on (2 and above (3 the LMI. Half of the animals were subjected to training with the individual LMI and the tests were performed again. The mean exercise load in LACmintest3 was 5.04 ± 0.13% bw at 5.08 ± 0.55 mmol L-1 blood lactate minimum (BLM. There was a stabilize and disproportionate increase of blood lactate in tests 2 and 3, respectively. After the training period, the mean BLM was lower in the trained animals. The LACmintest3 seems to be a good indicator of LMI and responsive to changes in AF in rats subjected to swim training.

  12. Evaluation of the effect of presence of blood in the stomach on endoscopic diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mittal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Presence of blood in the stomach has been thought to affect the performance of diagnostic tests used in detecting Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori in the stomach. This study evaluated the effect of blood on the efficacy of rapid urease test (RUT and microscopic appearance of the biopsy after staining with Giemsa stain. Materials and Methods: Patients with bleeding oesophageal varices who met the inclusion criteria were tested for H. pylori by RUT and microscopic examination of the biopsy. A repeat endoscopy, RUT and histology were done one month following initial presentation. The performance of the diagnostic tests was evaluated with and without the presence of intraluminal blood. A combined result of the two tests, RUT and histology, carried out in presence or absence of blood for the diagnosis of H. pylori, when considered together was considered as the gold standard. Results: Thirty six patients included in the study were in the ages ranging between 15-60 years (mean age = 44.14 years ±2.1. The combination of tests at both visits showed 20/36 (55.6% patients were positive for H. pylori. The decrease in H. pylori positivity in the presence of blood was significant for RUT (8.3% vs. 38.9%; P=0.005 and combined test (19.4% vs. 47.2%; P=0.02 but the decrease in positivity for histology (11.1% vs 30.6% was not significant (P=0.08. In the presence of blood, the sensitivity of RUT, histology and combined tests were 15%, 20% and 35%, respectively. In the absence of blood, the sensitivity of RUT, histology and combination of tests was 70%, 55% and 85%, respectively. Conclusion: Blood in the stomach significantly decreased the sensitivity of RUT, histology and the combination of both. Negative results of these tests in acute upper gastro intestinal (GI bleeding should therefore be interpreted carefully.

  13. Evaluation of coagulation factors in fresh frozen plasma treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antić Ana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Pathogen inactivation in blood products using riboflavin and ultraviolet (UV light represents a proactive approach to blood safety, not only for known infectious agents but also for new ones or not yet recognized as threats to the blood supply. This method inactivates a virus, bacteria, fungus, or protozoan pathogen from the blood product without damaging its function or shelf-life. The aim of the study was to study the influence of photoinactivation using riboflavin on the concentration of coagulation factors and coagulation inhibitors in plasma that was treated before freezing. Methods. The examination included 30 units of plasma, separated from whole blood donated by voluntary blood donors around 6 h from the moment of collection. They were treated by riboflavin (35 mL and UV rays (6.24 J/mL, 265-370 nm on Mirasol aparature (Caridian BCT Biotechnologies, USA in approximate duration of 6 min. The samples for examining were taken before (K - control units and after illumination (I - illuminated units. Results. Comparing the middle values of coagulation factors in the control and illuminated units we noticed their statistically significant decrease in illuminated units (p < 0.001, but the activity of coagulation ones was still in the reference range. The most sensitive coagulation factors to photoinactivation were FVIII, FIX and FXI (21.99%, 20.54% and 17.26% loss, respectively. Anticoagulant factors were better preseved than coagulation factors. Conclusion. Plasma separated from whole blood donation within 6 h, treated with riboflavin and UV light within 6 h from separation and frozen at temperature below -30ºC within 24 h, shows good retention of pro- and anticoagulation activity.

  14. Coagulation Changes During Graded Orhostatic Stress and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Nandu; Cvirn, Gerhard; Schlagenhauf, Aaxel; Leschnik, Bettina; Koestenberger, Martin; Roessler, Andreas; Jantscher, Andreas; Waha, James Elvis; Wolf, Sabine; Vrecko, Karoline; Juergens, Guenther; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut

    2013-02-01

    Background: Orthostatic stress has been introduced as a novel paradigm for activating the coagulation system. We examined whether graded orthostatic stress (using head up tilt, HUT + lower body negative pressure, LBNP) until presyncope leads to anti / pro-coagulatory changes and how rapidly they return to baseline during recovery. Methodology: Eight male subjects were enrolled in this study. Presyncopal runs were carried out using HUT + LBNP. At minute zero, the tilt table was brought from 0° (supine) to 70 ° head-up position for 4 min, after which pressure in the LBNP chamber was reduced to -15, -30, and -45 mm Hg every 4 min. At presyncope, the subjects were returned to supine position. Coagulatory responses and plasma mass density (for volume changes) were measured before, during and 20 min after the orthostatic stress. Whole blood coagulation was examined by means of thrombelastometry. Platelet aggregation in whole blood was examined by using impedance aggregometry. Thrombin generation parameters, prothrombin levels, and markers of endothelial activation were measured in plasma samples. Results: At presyncope, plasma volume was 20 % below the initial supine value. Blood cell counts, prothrombin levels, thrombin peak, endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) levels increased during the protocol, commensurate with hemoconcentration. The markers of endothelial activation (tissue factor, TF, tissue plasminogen activator, t-PA) and the markers of thrombin generation (Prothrombin fragments 1 and 2, F1+2, and thrombin-antithrombin complex, TAT) increased significantly. During recovery, all the coagulation parameters returned to initial supine values except F1 +2 and TAT. Conclusion: Head-up tilt/LBNP leads to activation of the coagulation system. Some of the markers of thrombin formation are still at higher than supine levels during recovery.

  15. Forensic application of the luminol reaction as a presumptive test for latent blood detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Filippo; Lewis, Simon W; Berti, Andrea; Miskelly, Gordon M; Lago, Giampietro

    2007-05-15

    The forensic application of the luminol chemiluminescence reaction is reviewed. Luminol has been effectively employed for more than 40 years for the presumptive detection of bloodstains which are hidden from the naked eye at crime scenes and, for this reason, has been considered one of the most important and well-known assays in the field of forensic sciences. This review provides an historical overview of the forensic use of luminol, and the current understanding of the reaction mechanism with particular reference to the catalysis by blood. Operational use of the luminol reaction, including issues with interferences and the effect of the luminol reaction on subsequent serological and DNA testing is also discussed.

  16. Defibrination of Blood Plasma for Use in Serological Tests for Syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Arnold R.; Kikkert, Susan E.; Fears, Martha B.; Pope, Victoria

    2002-01-01

    Syphilitic plasma can be salvaged from discarded blood donations and converted to serum by defibrination. Sixty-nine units of plasma were treated with a stock solution of 100 U of thrombin per ml in 1 M calcium chloride and then with a 10% (wt/vol) solution of kaolin. Fibrinogen concentrations detected in initial plasma samples ranged from 94 to 4,970 mg/liter (mean, 2,532 mg/liter) for samples that were reactive by the rapid plasma reagin circle card test (RPR) and from 314 to 2,742 mg/liter...

  17. Changes in cerebral blood oxygenation induced by active standing test in children with POTS and NMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Ayumi; Fujita, Yukihiko; Fuchigami, Tatsuo; Takahashi, Shori; Mugishima, Hideo; Skatani, Kaoru

    2014-01-01

    Orthostatic dysregulation (OD) has been classified into subtypes by heart rate and blood pressure; however, the hemodynamics of brains have not yet been revealed. Therefore, we investigated changes in cerebral blood flow and oxygenation during an active standing test to clarify the pathophysiology of two subtypes: postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and neurally mediated syncope (NMS). We studied 31 children (15 boys, 16 girls; mean age, 14.0 ± 1.7 years) who presented with OD at the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Nihon University School of Medicine between 2009 and 2011. OD was diagnosed using the Japanese clinical guidelines for juvenile orthostatic dysregulation. After a 10-min resting period in the supine position, patients were asked to quickly stand up and keep upright for 10 min. Cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygenation were measured using transcranial Doppler sonography and near-infrared spectroscopy. POTS showed a significant decrease of oxy-Hb and resistance index (RI), suggesting transient ischemia with maintainable cerebral autoregulation. NMS showed a decrease of oxy-Hb and an increase of RI, suggesting ischemia and impairment of autoregulation.

  18. [Interpretation and use of routine pulmonary function tests: Spirometry, static lung volumes, lung diffusion, arterial blood gas, methacholine challenge test and 6-minute walk test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokov, P; Delclaux, C

    2016-02-01

    Resting pulmonary function tests (PFT) include the assessment of ventilatory capacity: spirometry (forced expiratory flows and mobilisable volumes) and static volume assessment, notably using body plethysmography. Spirometry allows the potential definition of obstructive defect, while static volume assessment allows the potential definition of restrictive defect (decrease in total lung capacity) and thoracic hyperinflation (increase in static volumes). It must be kept in mind that this evaluation is incomplete and that an assessment of ventilatory demand is often warranted, especially when facing dyspnoea: evaluation of arterial blood gas (searching for respiratory insufficiency) and measurement of the transfer coefficient of the lung, allowing with the measurement of alveolar volume to calculate the diffusing capacity of the lung for CO (DLCO: assessment of alveolar-capillary wall and capillary blood volume). All these pulmonary function tests have been the subject of an Americano-European Task force (standardisation of lung function testing) published in 2005, and translated in French in 2007. Interpretative strategies for lung function tests have been recommended, which define abnormal lung function tests using the 5th and 95th percentiles of predicted values (lower and upper limits of normal values). Thus, these recommendations need to be implemented in all pulmonary function test units. A methacholine challenge test will only be performed in the presence of an intermediate pre-test probability for asthma (diagnostic uncertainty), which is an infrequent setting. The most convenient exertional test is the 6-minute walk test that allows the assessment of walking performance, the search for arterial desaturation and the quantification of dyspnoea complaint. PMID:26657268

  19. Influence of Chyle Blood with Different Pretreatment Methods to Coagulation Indexes Results Detected by Optical Method%乳糜血不同前处理方法对光学法凝血指标检测结果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何亚萍; 乔国昱; 张国栋; 刘树平; 轩维清

    2013-01-01

    Objective Comparison of high speed centrifugation and dilution method in celiac blood coagulation detection in which one was more able to meet the clinical demand. Methods Collected 30 normal (no hemolysis,no chyle,without jaun dice,TG0. 05). In severe chyle blood group,dilution method in the detection of PT was significantly higher than that of high speed centrifugation,the difference was statistically significant (tPT =4. 013, P0.05).在重度乳糜血组,稀释法中PT的检测结果明显高于高速离心法,差异有统计学意义(tPT=4.013,P<0.05),FIB的含量明显高于高速离心法,差异有统计学意义(tFIB=3.689,P<0.05).结论 高速离心法优于稀释法,抗干扰能力强,更适合于临床对溶栓治疗监测、疗效观察及出血性疾病诊断的需要.

  20. New Zealand's breath and blood alcohol testing programs: further data analysis and forensic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, A R; Gainsford, A R; Gullberg, R G

    2008-07-01

    Paired blood and breath alcohol concentrations (BAC, in g/dL, and BrAC, in g/210 L), were determined for 11,837 drivers apprehended by the New Zealand Police. For each driver, duplicate BAC measurements were made using headspace gas chromatography and duplicate BrAC measurements were made with either Intoxilyzer 5000, Seres 679T or Seres 679ENZ Ethylometre infrared analysers. The variability of differences between duplicate results is described in detail, as well as the variability of differences between the paired BrAC and BAC results. The mean delay between breath and blood sampling was 0.73 h, ranging from 0.17 to 3.1 8h. BAC values at the time of breath testing were estimated by adjusting BAC results using an assumed blood alcohol clearance rate. The paired BrAC and time-adjusted BAC results were analysed with the aim of estimating the proportion of false-positive BrAC results, using the time-adjusted BAC results as references. When BAC results were not time-adjusted, the false-positive rate (BrAC>BAC) was 31.3% but after time-adjustment using 0.019 g/dL/h as the blood alcohol clearance rate, the false-positive rate was only 2.8%. However, harmful false-positives (defined as cases where BrAC>0.1 g/210L, while BACtest results were used as the evidential results instead of the means, the harmful false-positive rate dropped to 0.04%.

  1. Significance of tests for HBeAg and anti-HBe in HBsAg positive blood donors.

    OpenAIRE

    Dow, B C; Macvarish, I; Barr, A.; Crawford, R J; Mitchell, R.

    1980-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay method for HBeAg and anti-HBe allowed 98.4% of HBsAg positive blood donors to be classified. HBeAg was more prevalent in blood donors under 30 years of age and anti-HBe was more prevalent in those over 30 years. The mean HBsAg concentration was four times greater in donors with HBeAg than in those with anti-HBe. No significant associations were found with sex, blood groups, or HBsAg subtypes. It is likely that this test system will be extremely useful to blood tra...

  2. Establishment and performance assessment of preparation technology of internal quality control products for blood transfusion compatibility testing

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yang; MA, CHUNYA; Feng, Qian; Chen, Xin; GUAN, XIAOZHEN; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Chen, Linfeng; Lin, Zilin; Pan, Jichun; Zhang, Ting; Luo, Qun; Wang, Deqing

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish and to optimize the preparation technology of whole blood internal quality control (IQC) products for blood transfusion compatibility testing. Several B-type RhD-negative blood samples collected from healthy donors were mixed. Two groups of whole blood IQC products, namely, the preservative solution group (PS group) and the saline group, were prepared. The agglutination intensity of IQC sample red cells and anti-B antibody, IgM anti-A antibody and revers...

  3. Role of heparin and non heparin binding serpins in coagulation and angiogenesis: A complex interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakuni, Teena; Ali, Mohammad Farhan; Ahmad, Irshad; Bano, Shadabi; Ansari, Shoyab; Jairajpuri, Mohamad Aman

    2016-08-15

    Pro-coagulant, anti-coagulant and fibrinolytic pathways are responsible for maintaining hemostatic balance under physiological conditions. Any deviation from these pathways would result in hypercoagulability leading to life threatening diseases like myocardial infarction, stroke, portal vein thrombosis, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Angiogenesis is the process of sprouting of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones and plays a critical role in vascular repair, diabetic retinopathy, chronic inflammation and cancer progression. Serpins; a superfamily of protease inhibitors, play a key role in regulating both angiogenesis and coagulation. They are characterized by the presence of highly conserved secondary structure comprising of 3 β-sheets and 7-9 α-helices. Inhibitory role of serpins is modulated by binding to cofactors, specially heparin and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) present on cell surfaces and extracellular matrix. Heparin and HSPGs are the mainstay of anti-coagulant therapy and also have therapeutic potential as anti-angiogenic inhibitors. Many of the heparin binding serpins that regulate coagulation cascade are also potent inhibitors of angiogenesis. Understanding the molecular mechanism of the switch between their specific anti-coagulant and anti-angiogenic role during inflammation, stress and regular hemostasis is important. In this review, we have tried to integrate the role of different serpins, their interaction with cofactors and their interplay in regulating coagulation and angiogenesis.

  4. Role of heparin and non heparin binding serpins in coagulation and angiogenesis: A complex interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakuni, Teena; Ali, Mohammad Farhan; Ahmad, Irshad; Bano, Shadabi; Ansari, Shoyab; Jairajpuri, Mohamad Aman

    2016-08-15

    Pro-coagulant, anti-coagulant and fibrinolytic pathways are responsible for maintaining hemostatic balance under physiological conditions. Any deviation from these pathways would result in hypercoagulability leading to life threatening diseases like myocardial infarction, stroke, portal vein thrombosis, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Angiogenesis is the process of sprouting of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones and plays a critical role in vascular repair, diabetic retinopathy, chronic inflammation and cancer progression. Serpins; a superfamily of protease inhibitors, play a key role in regulating both angiogenesis and coagulation. They are characterized by the presence of highly conserved secondary structure comprising of 3 β-sheets and 7-9 α-helices. Inhibitory role of serpins is modulated by binding to cofactors, specially heparin and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) present on cell surfaces and extracellular matrix. Heparin and HSPGs are the mainstay of anti-coagulant therapy and also have therapeutic potential as anti-angiogenic inhibitors. Many of the heparin binding serpins that regulate coagulation cascade are also potent inhibitors of angiogenesis. Understanding the molecular mechanism of the switch between their specific anti-coagulant and anti-angiogenic role during inflammation, stress and regular hemostasis is important. In this review, we have tried to integrate the role of different serpins, their interaction with cofactors and their interplay in regulating coagulation and angiogenesis. PMID:27372899

  5. International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis Scoring System for disseminated intravascular coagulation ≥ 6: a new predictor of hemorrhagic early death in acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovic, Mirjana; Suvajdzic, Nada; Bogdanovic, Andrija; Kurtovic, Nada Kraguljac; Sretenovic, Aleksandra; Elezovic, Ivo; Tomin, Dragica

    2013-03-01

    High-hemorrhagic early death (ED) rate is a major impediment in the managing of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). In our group of 56 newly diagnosed APL patients, ED occurred in 12 subjects, due to endocranial bleeding (8/12), differentiation syndrome (2/12), or infection (2/12). Predictors of hemorrhagic ED were as follows: white blood cells count ≥ 20 × 10(9)/L (P = 0.002337), Eastern cooperative oncology group performance status ≥ 3 (P = 0.00173), fibrinogen level disseminated intravascular coagulation (ISTH DIC score) ≥ 6 (P = 0.00741). Multivariate analysis indicated ISTH DIC score ≥ 6 to be the most significant predictor for hemorrhagic ED (P = 0.008). The main finding of this study is that simple coagulation-related tests, performed on hospital admission and combined in the ISTH DIC score, might help to identify patients at high risk for fatal bleeding needing more aggressive supportive measures.

  6. Perioperative coagulation management--fresh frozen plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kor, Daryl J; Stubbs, James R; Gajic, Ognjen

    2010-03-01

    Clinical studies support the use of perioperative fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in patients who are actively bleeding with multiple coagulation factor deficiencies and for the prevention of dilutional coagulopathy in patients with major trauma and/or massive haemorrhage. In these settings, current FFP dosing recommendations may be inadequate. However, a substantial proportion of FFP is transfused in non-bleeding patients with mild elevations in coagulation screening tests. This practice is not supported by the literature, is unlikely to be of benefit and unnecessarily exposes patients to the risks of FFP. The role of FFP in reversing the effects of warfarin anticoagulation is dependent on the clinical context and availability of alternative agents. Although FFP is commonly transfused in patients with liver disease, this practice needs broad reconsideration. Adverse effects of FFP include febrile and allergic reactions, transfusion-associated circulatory overload and transfusion-related acute lung injury. The latter is the most serious complication, being less common with the preferential use of non-alloimmunised, male-donor predominant plasma. FP24 and thawed plasma are alternatives to FFP with similar indications for administration. Both provide an opportunity for increasing the safe plasma donor pool. Although prothrombin complex concentrates and factor VIIa may be used as alternatives to FFP in a variety of specific clinical contexts, additional study is needed.

  7. Immunochemical faecal occult blood tests have superior stability and analytical performance characteristics over guaiac-based tests in a controlled in vitro study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Chun Seng

    2011-06-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to determine the measurement accuracy of a widely used guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) compared with an immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) during in vitro studies, including their analytical stability over time at ambient temperature and at 4°C; and (2) to compare analytical imprecision and other characteristics between two commercially available iFOBT methods.

  8. Analysis of HbA1c and Blood Coagulation Function in GDM Women%妊娠期糖尿病患者糖化血红蛋白水平与凝血功能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石祖亮; 杨林

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analysis the changes of glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1c)and coagulation function in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM),and to investigate the correlation between HbA1c and the index in labor.Method:High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)was used to measure HbA1c of pregnant women (n=659 cases)with GDM,then according to HbA1c was less than 6.5% (n=584 cases)and HbA1c was more than or equal to 6.5% (n=75 cases),patients were divided into two groups,the normal pregnant women as control group (n=120 cases).Clauss coagulation method was used to measure prothrombin time (PT),the activa-ted partial thromboplastin time (APTT),fibrinogen (Fib)concentration in parallel.Results:In HbA1c ≥ 6.5%group,PT was shorter and the Fib concentration was higher when compared with the control group and HbA1c<6. 5% group,the difference was statistically significant (P <0.05).Correlation analysis showed that the level of Fib were positively correlated with the Index of HbA1c(r=0.1 92,P <0.01).Conclusion:GDM women probably have the state of significant hypercoagulation.%目的::检测分析妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)患者临产时糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)水平和凝血功能变化及其相关性。方法:659例 GDM 患者,采用高效液相色谱法检测 HbA1c,依据其水平分为 HbA1c<6.5%组(n =584)和HbA1c≥6.5%组(n=75),另选同期正常孕妇作为对照组(n=120)。采用 Clauss 凝固法平行检测三组血浆凝血酶原时间(PT)、活化部分凝血活酶时间(APTT)和纤维蛋白原(Fib)浓度。统计学分析组间差异及凝血指标与HbA1c 的相关性。结果:HbA1c ≥6.5%组 PT 时间短于对照组和 HbA1c <6.5%组,Fib 水平高于对照组和HbA1c<6.5%组,差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05)。相关性分析显示 Fib 与 HbA1c 呈正相关关系(r =0.192,P <0.01)。结论:GDM 患者可能存在血栓前状态。

  9. [Changes of circulation, blood gases, acid-base-and metabolism during neurolept-analgesia with and without beta-receptor blockers in electro coagulation of Gasser's ganglion (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knitza, R; Olbermann, M; Fischer, F; Bässler, K H

    1978-05-01

    The cardiovascular, blood gas, acid-base and metabolic changes occurring during operative stress were studied in 10 elderly, metabolically healthy patients, suffering from idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia, who underwent electrocoagulation of the gasserian ganglion under neuroleptanalgesia. In a group of 12 patients undergoing the same operative procedure and anesthesthetic management, we investigated the effects of administration of a beta blocking agent on these parameters. Intraoperative rises of blood pressure and tachycardia were prevented by intravenous administration of 0.4 mg Pindolol (Visken), whereas increases in the blood glucose levels at the end of the operation were the same. The increase of glycerol, free fatty acids and ketone bodies was markedly reduced after pretreatment with the beta blocker compared with the controlgroup. In the patients without beta blocker treatment pH and standard bicarbonate at the end of the operation were lower as the result of the stimulation of ketogenesis. PMID:27127

  10. Test-Retest Repeatability of Myocardial Blood Flow Measurements using Rubidium-82 Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efseaff, Matthew

    Rubidium-82 positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been proposed for routine myocardial blood flow (MBF) quantification. Few studies have investigated the test-retest repeatability of this method. Same-day repeatability of rest MBF imaging was optimized with a highly automated analysis program using image-derived input functions and a dual spillover correction (SOC). The effects of heterogeneous tracer infusion profiles and subject hemodynamics on test-retest repeatability were investigated at rest and during hyperemic stress. Factors affecting rest MBF repeatability included gender, suspected coronary artery disease, and dual SOC (p stress, and 0.95 for stress / rest myocardial flow reserve (MFR). Subjects with heterogeneous tracer infusion profiles and hemodynamic conditions had significantly less repeatable MBF measurements at rest, stress, and stress/rest flow reserve (p < 0.05).

  11. Measurement of regional cerebral blood flow with H215O positron emission tomography during Matas test - report of three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors carried out a Matas test with a regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) study using H215O positron emission tomography (PET) for three cases of large internal carotid artery aneurysms. There is a likely correlation between the cerebral blood flow (CBF) reduction rate obtained by PET, and the mean stump pressure available from a conventional balloon occlusion test. The advantages of this noninvasive and quantitative method are presented in comparison with other methods. (author)

  12. Blood Component Therapy in Trauma Guided with the Utilization of the Perfusionist and Thromboelastography

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Mark; Thomas, Scott G.; Howard, Janet C.; Evans, Edward; Guyer, Kirk; Medvecz, Andrew; Swearingen, Andrew; Navari, Rudolph M; Ploplis, Victoria; Castellino, Francis J.

    2011-01-01

    25–35% of all seriously injured multiple trauma patients are coagulopathic upon arrival to the emergency department, and therefore early diagnosis and intervention on this subset of patients is important. In addition to standard plasma based tests of coagulation, the thromboelastogram (TEG®) has resurfaced as an ideal test in the trauma population to help guide the clinician in the administration of blood components in a goal directed fashion. We describe how thromboelastographic analysis is ...

  13. Gene Therapy for Coagulation Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swystun, Laura L; Lillicrap, David

    2016-04-29

    Molecular genetic details of the human coagulation system were among the first successes of the genetic revolution in the 1980s. This information led to new molecular diagnostic strategies for inherited disorders of hemostasis and the development of recombinant clotting factors for the treatment of the common inherited bleeding disorders. A longer term goal of this knowledge has been the establishment of gene transfer to provide continuing access to missing or defective hemostatic proteins. Because of the relative infrequency of inherited coagulation factor disorders and the availability of safe and effective alternative means of management, the application of gene therapy for these conditions has been slow to realize clinical application. Nevertheless, the tools for effective and safe gene transfer are now much improved, and we have started to see examples of clinical gene therapy successes. Leading the way has been the use of adeno-associated virus-based strategies for factor IX gene transfer in hemophilia B. Several small phase 1/2 clinical studies using this approach have shown prolonged expression of therapeutically beneficial levels of factor IX. Nevertheless, before the application of gene therapy for coagulation disorders becomes widespread, several obstacles need to be overcome. Immunologic responses to the vector and transgenic protein need to be mitigated, and production strategies for clinical grade vectors require enhancements. There is little doubt that with the development of more efficient and facile strategies for genome editing and the application of other nucleic acid-based approaches to influence the coagulation system, the future of genetic therapies for hemostasis is bright. PMID:27126652

  14. The clinical research of the Quyu prescriptions in treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer with high coagulation state Qi-deficiency blood stasis%祛瘀汤治疗晚期非小细胞肺癌高凝状态气虚血瘀证的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡传杏子

    2016-01-01

    Objective :To investigate the improvement effect of the Quyu prescriptions in treatment of advanced non‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with high coagulation state Qi‐deficiency blood stasis .Methods :Selected 80 cases of advanced NSCLC patients divided into observation group and control group (n= 40) ,according to random number table method .The two groups were given conventional anti‐tumor and symptomatic treatment ,the observation group was giv‐en Quyu prescriptions ,with 2 weeks for a period of treatment .Observed the blood platelet indexes ,coagulation indexes and TCM symptom integral and KPS score before and after treatment .Results :The FBI ,plasma DD ,FDP level of the control group after treatment was higher than that of the before treatment ,the observation group was significantly lower than that of the before treatment ,the difference had statistical significance .The TCM symptom integral of the control group after treatment had no statistically significant difference compared with the before treatment .The total TCM symp‐tom integral of the observation group after treatment was obviously improved ,mainly reflected in the body tired weakness and tongue dark and ecchymosis ,had statistically significant difference .The the total effective rate of the observation group was 92 .5% .The KPS score of the two groups before and after treatment has no statistically significant difference . Conclusion :The Quyu prescriptions can obviously improving the high blood coagulation state of the patients with NSCLC , and can obviously relieve symptoms of TCM ,worthy of clinical popularization and application .%目的:探讨祛瘀汤对非小细胞肺癌(NSCLC )高凝状态气虚血瘀证的改善作用。方法:NSCLC 合并血液高凝状态患者80例,按照随机数字表法分为观察组和对照组各40例,两组均给予常规抗肿瘤及对症处理,观察组给予祛瘀汤口服,以两周为1个疗程。观察治疗前后血

  15. Factors Affecting Initial Training Success of Blood Glucose Testing in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamer, Lisa A.; Haller, Rachel L.; Thiele, Erica J.; Freeman, Hani D.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can be a problem for captive chimpanzees. Accurate blood glucose (BG) readings are necessary to monitor and treat this disease. Thus, obtaining voluntary samples from primates through positive reinforcement training (PRT) is critical. The current study assessed the voluntary participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger/toe; allowing digit disinfection; holding for the lancet device; and allowing blood collection onto a glucometer test strip for analysis. We recorded the level of participation (none, partial, or complete) when each chimpanzee was first asked to perform the testing procedure. Nearly 30% of subjects allowed the entire procedure in one session, without any prior specific training for the target behavior. Factors that affected this initial successful BG testing included sex, personality (chimpanzees rated higher on the factor “openness” were more likely to participate with BG testing), and past training performance for “present-for-injection” (chimpanzees that presented for their most recent anesthetic injection were more likely to participate). Neither age, rearing history, time since most recent anesthetic event nor social group size significantly affected initial training success. These results have important implications for captive management and training program success, underlining individual differences in training aptitude and the need for developing individual management plans in order to provide optimal care and treatment for diabetic chimpanzees in captivity. PMID:24706518

  16. PILOT PLANT STUDY ON NATURAL WATER COAGULANTS AS COAGULAN AIDS FOR WATER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B BINA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Natural plant coagulants have an important role to play in provision of portable water to rural communities in the developing world. The plant material that their coagulation properties have been confirmed in previous lab scale studies and can be found widely in Iran was selected as coagulant aids. Pilot plant study was done to evaluate the efficiency of natural material such as Starch/Gum Tragacanth, Fenugreek and Yeast as coagulant aids in conjunction with comercial alum. Methods: The pilot was placed in Isfahan Water Treatment Plant (IWTP and efficiency of these materials in removal of turbidity from raw water enters the IWTP was evaluated. The results indicated while these materials were used as coagulant aids in concentration of 1-5 mg/l conjunction with alum are able to reduced the turbidity and final residuals turbidity meets the standards limits. Results: The coagulation efficiency of these material were found to be effected by certain physico-chemical factors, namely, concentration of suspended solids, divalent cation metal and time of agitation. The relative importance of these variable was evaluated. The results of COD test proved that the natural coagulant aids in the optimum doses produce no any significant organic residual. Discussion: Economical considerations showed that using of these material as coagulant aids can cause reduction in alum consumption and in some cases are more econmical than synthetic polyelectrolyte.

  17. Application of Moringa Oleifera Seed Powder For Iron (III Coagulation on Local Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadillah Utami Prasetyaningtyas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know the effect of the use of powder moringa seed to coagulant mass and coagulation process, and its effectiveness to increase the quality of pure water. This research uses factorial research design and statistic test MANOVA. To analyse water quality, the researcher uses Fe parameter.  A graphic of coagulant mass and time for each parameter is used to analyse the data. Based on the research result, the uses of moringa seed as coagulant in each 300 mL mineral water gives a possitives result to the river water sample using 100 mg coagulant mass and sedimentations time for 60 minutes, well water sample using 500 mg coagulant mass and sedimentations time for 60 minutes, tap water sample using 300 mg  coagulant mass and sedimentations time for 90 minutes. The effective coagulant that increase the water quality on well water is 98,32% of moringa seed powder, on river water is 96,64%  and for tap water is 25,62%.

  18. Repeat Confirmatory Testing for Persons with Discordant Whole Blood and Oral Fluid Rapid HIV Test Results: Findings from Post Marketing Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Wesolowski, Laura G.; MacKellar, Duncan A.; Ethridge, Steven F.; Zhu, Julia H.; S Michele Owen; Patrick S Sullivan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reactive oral fluid and whole blood rapid HIV tests must be followed with a confirmatory test (Western blot (WB), immunofluorescent assay (IFA) or approved nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)). When the confirmatory result is negative or indeterminate (i.e. discordant with rapid result), repeat confirmatory testing should be conducted using a follow-up specimen. Previous reports have not described whether repeat testing adequately resolves the HIV-infection status of persons wi...

  19. Evaluation of the Verigene® Blood Culture Nucleic Acid test for rapid identification of gram positive pathogens from positive blood cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnese Cellini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The rapid identification of the etiology and the evaluation of the antimicrobial susceptibility of the bacteria causing bacteremia is of outmost relevance to set up an adequate treatment of sepsis. In this study we evaluated the microarray based method, Verigene Gram-positive blood cultures (BC-GP nucleic acid test (Nanosphere Inc., Northbrook, IL, USA for the identification of Gram positive pathogens from positive blood cultures. The panel BC-GP is capable to identify 13 germs and 3 genes associated with antimicrobial resistance. Materials and Methods. In this study a total of 100 positive, non replicated and monomicrobic blood cultures have been evaluated. For testing on the Verigene platform using the BC-GP assay, 350 L of blood culture media from a positive the blood culture bottle.Results. A total of 100 positive blood cultures were tested by the Verigene BC-GP assay: out of these a total of 100 Gram-positive cocci were identified. The most frequent bacteria identified included staphylococci, streptococci and enterococci. Among staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 25% (15/60, with 38% of S. epidermidis 37% (23/60 and 37% (22/60 other CoNS. All the S. aureus isolates were correctly identified by BC-GP whereas in 2/45 cases (4% BC-GP misidentified CoNS. In the case of enterococci 7/10 were E. faecalis and 3 E. faecium, all of these were correctly identified.Conclusions. The overall agreement with the results obtained by standard procedure is quite elevated (88% and as a consequence the BC-GP panel could be used as a rapid diagnostic tool to give a faster response in the case of bacteremia associated with sepsis.

  20. A Preliminary Study of Banana Stem Juice as a Plant-Based Coagulant for Treatment of Spent Coolant Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Habsah Alwi; Juferi Idris; Mohibah Musa; Ku Halim Ku Hamid

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of banana stem juice as a natural coagulant for treatment of spent coolant wastewater was investigated . Three main parameters were studied, namely, chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SSs), and turbidity of effluent. Coagulation experiments using jar test were performed with a flocculation system where the effects of spent coolant wastewater pH as well as banana stem juice dosage on coagulation effectiveness were examined. The highest recorded COD, SS, and turbi...

  1. Combined removal of phosphorus and organic micro pollutants by adsorption onto powdered activated carbon and coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Godo Pla, Lluís

    2012-01-01

    Jar test experiments were collected to study the removal of phosphorus and of the dissolved chemical oxygen demand (CODf) at different coagulant dosages. Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) Waßmannsdorf, Münchehofe and Ruhleben, and influent water from the surface water treatment plant (SWTP) Tegel were tested for this study. The CODf removal depends on the coagulant dose. CODf was removed from 10%, applying a coagu-lant dose of 4 mg Fe/l, to 23% applying a 12 mg Fe/l dose. Rem...

  2. 妊高征孕妇凝血功能、血流动力学、血液流变学的变化及意义%Changes and significance of coagulation function,hemodynamics and blood rheology in women with pregnancy induced hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾帮智; 张博; 王余娜

    2016-01-01

    目的::观察妊高征孕妇凝血功能、血流动力学、血液流变学的变化,并探讨其临床意义.方法:选择2011年7月~2016年2月我院收治的88例妊娠期高血压患者为研究对象,同时选择入院的90例正常妊娠孕妇为正常晚孕组,检测两组各凝血参数、血流动力学、血液流变学指标.结果:分娩前,妊高征组的凝血酶原时间(PT)、抗凝血酶Ⅲ(AT-Ⅲ)值明显低于正常晚孕组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)、D-D、血浆纤维蛋白原(FIB)值明显高于正常晚孕组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05).分娩后,妊高征组的 PT、AT-Ⅲ值明显升高,FIB 值明显降低,差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05),且与正常晚孕组无显著差异.但 D-D 值仍然明显高于正常晚孕组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05).妊高征组的各血流动力学参数明显高于正常晚孕组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05).妊高征组的全血高低切黏度、血浆黏度、高低切还原黏度、红细胞压积、红细胞变形指数、红细胞电泳时间及纤维蛋白原值均明显高于正常晚孕组(P<0.05).结论:妊高征患者的血液各项指标相对于正常妊娠孕晚期孕妇呈现高凝状态.适时检测患者的各项凝血功能、血流动力学、血液流变学指标,对于监测病情,辅助诊断及预防有重要意义.%Objective:To observe the changes of coagulation function,hemodynamics and blood rheology in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension,and to explore its clinical significance.Methods:A total of 88 cases of patients with preg-nancy induced hypertension admitted in our hospital from July 201 1 to February 201 6 were selected as the research objects,at the same time,90 normal pregnant women were selected as normal late pregnancy group.The coagulation parameters,hemo-dynamics,blood rheology indexes were detected in the two groups.Results:Before delivery,values of the PT and AT-Ⅲ in pregnancy induced

  3. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF FLUIDO-COAGULANT BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Tase

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood fluidity is controlled by complex physiological systems. Normally, the fine balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis prevents both bleeding and thrombosis. The accelerated urbanization we are living last decades modifies the basic environment, confining the human being to biochemical and metabolic remodeling. The alteration of this balance in favour of coagulation leads to thrombosis, the major challenge of the 21st century medicine. There are interesting changes not only in human’s anthropological evolution, but also from birth to death. The HORUS study performed by american and egyptian researchers investigated the prevalence of atherosclerosis in antique and modern Egyptians. Despite the belief that atherosclerosis is a modern disease, it seems to be evidences of atherosclerosis in Egyptian mummies. Despite multiple differences, between 30 and 60 years, the prevalence of atherosclerosis was quite similar in antique and modern Egyptians, respectively.

  4. Usefulness of human coagulation and fibrinolysis assays in domestic pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Anna-Marie Bloch; Olsen, Aage Kristian; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie

    2002-01-01

    of commercial human coagulation and fibrinolysis assays for use with porcine plasma. In total, 22 functional and immunologic assays were applied to plasma obtained from domestic pigs, and the following blood coagulation and fibrinolysis variables were measured: prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin...... that 11 of 12 functional assays, but only 3 of 10 immunoassays, were applicable to porcine plasma, and we determined the normal range of these variables. We conclude that human functional assays are useful in porcine plasma, whereas only a few immunologic assays can be used. However, precautions must...... be taken in interpretation of the results and in extrapolation toward human results because possible differences between porcine and human values can be due to species variations and/or methodologic errors....

  5. Reduction of turbidity of water using locally available natural coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrafuzzaman, Md; Fakhruddin, A N M; Hossain, Md Alamgir

    2011-01-01

    Turbidity imparts a great problem in water treatment. Moringa oleifera, Cicer arietinum, and Dolichos lablab were used as locally available natural coagulants in this study to reduce turbidity of synthetic water. The tests were carried out, using artificial turbid water with conventional jar test apparatus. Optimum mixing intensity and duration were determined. After dosing water-soluble extracts of Moringa oleifera, Cicer arietinum, and Dolichos lablab reduced turbidity to 5.9, 3.9, and 11.1 nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU), respectively, from 100 NTU and 5, 3.3, and 9.5, NTU, respectively, after dosing and filtration. Natural coagulants worked better with high, turbid, water compare to medium, or low, turbid, water. Highest turbidity reduction efficiency (95.89%) was found with Cicer arietinum. About 89 to 96% total coliform reduction were also found with natural coagulant treatment of turbid water. Using locally available natural coagulants, suitable, easier, and environment friendly options for water treatment were observed.

  6. Treatment of melanoidin wastewater by anaerobic digestion and coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimi, Milton M; Zhang, Yongjun; Götz, Gesine; Geißen, Sven-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Melanoidins are dark-coloured recalcitrant pollutants found in many industrial wastewaters including coffee-manufacturing effluent, molasses distillery wastewater (MDWW) and other wastewater with molasses as the raw material. The wastewaters are mostly treated with anaerobic digestion after some dilution to minimize the inhibition effect. However, the dark colour and recalcitrant dissolved organic carbon (DOC) mainly caused by melanoidin are not effectively removed. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of colour and remnant DOC by different coagulants from anaerobically digested MDWW. From the six coagulants tested, ferric chloride had the highest melanoidin (48%), colour (92.7%) and DOC (63.3%) removal at pH 5 and a dosage of 1.6 g/l. Both polymer and inorganic salt coagulants tested had optimal colour, melanoidin and DOC removal at acidic pH. The molecular size distribution of synthetic melanoidins by liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection indicated a preferential removal of high-molecular-weight melanoidins over low weight melanoidins by the coagulation. Further studies should focus on how to improve biodegradability of the treated effluent for it to be reused as dilution water for anaerobic digestion. PMID:25799161

  7. The gangue preparation coagulant (PFASS) experiment research and application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jing-hua; LIU Zhi-bin; LUO Ke-Jie

    2007-01-01

    In order to design a new technological process system to take the polymeric ferric aluminum silicate sulfate(PFASS) and to apply it in wastewater processing, the chemical composition analysis was carried on to the Fuxin gangue, adopted the orthogonal experiment method to obtain optimum response condition of with the acid pickling taking the aluminum in the gangue and with alkali extracting taking the silicon in the gangue,The experiments indicate that the sample chemistry content which tests elect completely conform to the preparation inorganic polymer water treatment coagulant request standard.Used the polymeric ferric aluminum silicate sulfate results in which with the system take as the coagulant of treatment wastewater, used the mercerizing degree, the wastewater pH value, the coagulation time, the coagulant throws increment factors and so on to test and verify its influence on the waste water processing. The result indicates that by using this craft production PFASS in waste water processing, after the processed waste water achieves the emission standard, the processing effect is good.

  8. Prehospital point of care testing of blood gases and electrolytes — an evaluation of IRMA

    OpenAIRE

    Prause, Gerhard; Ratzenhofer-Komenda, Beatrice; Offner, Anton; Lauda, Peter; Voit, Henrika; Pojer, Horst

    1997-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated the feasibility of blood gas analysis and electrolyte measurements during emergency transport prior to hospital admission. Results: A portable, battery-powered blood analyzer was used on patients in life threatening conditions to determine pH, pCO2, pO2, sodium, potassium and ionized calcium. Arterial blood was used for blood gas analysis and electrolyte measurements. Venous blood was used for electrolyte measurement alone. During the observation period of 4 m...

  9. REMOVAL OF BERYLLIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CHEMICAL COAGULATION AND LIME SOFTENING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatment and lime softening was evaluated for beryllium removal from two drinking water sources. ar test studies were conducted to determine how common coagulants (aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride and lime softening performed ...

  10. Evaluation of geotextile filtration applying coagulant and flocculant amendments for aquaculture biosolids dewatering and phosphorus removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastes contained in the microscreen backwash discharged from intensive recirculating aquaculture systems were removed and dewatered in simple geotextile bag filters. Three chemical coagulation aids, (aluminum sulfate (alum), ferric chloride, and calcium hydroxide (hydrated lime)), were tested in com...

  11. Keeping and Centrifuge Time Affect the Results of Blood Coagulation Assay at Room Temperature%常温下凝血标本的放置和离心时间对结果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茅蔚; 俞赞临; 薛济鸿; 毛尤静

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察凝血标本不同的放置和离心时间对凝血酶原时间(PT)、纤维蛋白原(FIB)、活化部分凝血活酶时间(APTT)、凝血酶时间(TT)测定结果的影响,并提出合理化建议,提高检验质量.方法 采用STA Compact全自动血凝仪测定凝血四项结果的精密度.对40名患者的新鲜抗凝血分离血浆即刻检测,然后将标本放置2,4,6,8 h重复测定,并与即刻测定结果进行比较.将30名患者凝血标本用相同的离心力分别离心5 min和10 min进行四项检测结果的比较.结果 STA Compact全自动血凝仪检测凝血四项指标的重复性好,变异系数(CV)均≤4.0%.标本在常温下放置2 h,PT,APTT与即刻检测结果比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);放置4 h,PT缩短(P0. 05). For 4 hours,PT decreased (P0. 05). Same centrifuge speed and different centrifuge time had no roles in affecting anti-coagulating determination results,no significant differences (P>0. 05). Conclusion Keeping time exerts effects on the results of PT and APTT assays. It's better to keep the samples no more than two hours at room temperature. If the amount of samples is big, sacrificing the centrifuge time is acceptable.

  12. Interference of iron as a coagulant on MIB removal by powdered activated carbon adsorption for low turbidity waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ferreira Filho SIDNEY SECKLER; Marchetto MARGARIDA; Alves Laganaro ROSEMEIRE

    2013-01-01

    Powered activated carbon (PAC) is widely used in water treatment plants to minimize odors in drinking water.This study investigated the removal of 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) by PAC adsorption,combined with coagulation using iron as a coagulant.The adsorption and coagulation process were studied through different case scenarios of jar tests.The analysis evaluated the effect of PAC dosing in the liquid phase immediately before or after the coagulant addition.Ferric sulphate was used as the coagulant with dosages from 10 to 30 mg/L,and PAC dosages varied from 10 to 40 mg/L.The highest MIB removal efficiency (about 70%) was achieved without the coagulant addition and with the highest PAC dosage (40 mg/L).Lower MIB removal efficiencies were observed in the presence of coagulant,showing a clear interference of the iron precipitate or coagulant in the adsorption process.The degree of interference of the coagulation process in the MIB removal was proportional to the ratio of ferric hydroxide mass to the PAC mass.For both cases of PAC dosing,upstream and downstream of the coagulant injection point,the MIB removal efficiency was similar.However,MIB removal efficiency was 15% lower when compared with experiments without the coagulant application.This interference in the MIB adsorption occurs potentially because the coagulant coats the surface of the carbon and interferes with the MIB coming in contact with the carbon's surface and pores.This constraint requires an increase of the PAC dosage to provide the same efficiency observed without coagulation.

  13. The Two-Tier Fecal Occult Blood Test: Cost-Effective Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Rae

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-tier test represents a strategy combining HO Sensa and Hemeselect fecal occult blood tests (FOBTs with the aim of greater specificity and consequent economic advantages. If patients register a positive result on any HO Sensa guaiac test, they are once again tested by a hemoglobin-specific Hemeselect test. This concept was applied to a multicentre study involving persons 40 years or older. One component of the study enrolled 573 high risk patients while the second arm recruited an additional 1301 patients (52% asymptomatic/48% symptomatic stratified according to personal history and symptoms. The two-tier test produced fewer false positives than traditional tests in both groups evaluated in the study. In the high risk group, specificity (88.7% for two-tier versus 80.6% for Hemoccult and 69.5% for HO Sensa was higher and false positive rates were lower (11.3% for two-tier versus 19.5% for Hemoccultand 30.5% for HO Sensa for the two-tier test versus Hemoccult and HO Sensa FOBTs (95% CI for all colorectal cancers [CRCs] and polyps greater than 1 cm, α=0.05 . No significant differences in sensitivity were observed between tests in the same group. Also, in the high risk group, benefits of the two-tier test outweighed the costs. Due to the small number of cancers and polyps in the second arm of the study, presentation of data is meant to be descriptive and representative of trends in a ‘normal’ population. Nevertheless, specificity of the two-tier test was higher (96.8% for two-tier versus 87.2% for Hemoccult and 69.5% for HO Sensa and false positive rate lower (3.2% for two-tier versus 12.8% for Hemoccult and 22.3% for HO Sensa than either the Hemoccult or HO Sensa FOBT (95% CI for all CRCs and polyps greater than 1 cm. This initial study, focusing on the cost-benefit relationship of increased specificity, represents a new way of economically evaluating existing FOBTs.

  14. THE EFFECTS OF INJURIES IN THE EXTREMITIES ON HUMAN COAGULATION STATUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张先龙; 陈云丰; 曾炳芳

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of blood coagulation status and the safety of emergency microsurgery in patients with acute trauma to their extremities. Methods Forty seven patients with open injuries to the extremities were divided into 3 groups: in Group Ia (n=20), the patients presented with open injury to a single limb without traumatic shock and chest or head injuries, and they did not undergo microsurgery; while in Group Ib (n=13), an emergency microsurgery was done. In Group Ⅱ, the patients suffered from multiple compound fractures of the extremities with traumatic shock and chest or head injuries. The blood coagulation status of all the patients was evaluated by testing platelet count (PLC), platelet adhesiveness (PadT), serum antithrombinⅢ (AT-Ⅲ), and D-dimer (D-Di) level. Results In Groups Ia and Ib, only PadT was increased and AT-Ⅲ declined preoperatively, then they returned to normal 24h postoperatively. In Group Ⅱ, at different periods after trauma, there was significant evidence of Pg and AT-Ⅲ decline accompanied by high increase of PadT and D-Di level; at 24h postoperatively, the mean values were 49.3% (PadT), 2.7mg/L (D-Di), 1..1g/L (Pg), and 69.1% (AT-Ⅲ), respectively. All these changes got significant difference (P<0.05) when compared with the normal value and those of Groups Ia and Ib, and did not completely return to normal even 72h after operation. Conclusion An emergency microsurgery could be safely performed in patients with ordinary open injuries to their limbs without traumatic shock, however it should be done with caution in cases of severe injuries with traumatic shock, because hypercoagulation status would follow in several hours after injuries. D-Di measurement may be used as a screening test to predict and assess hypercoagulation status more early after trauma.

  15. Quantifying interspecific coagulation efficiency of phytoplankton

    OpenAIRE

    J. L. S. Hansen; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Non-sticky latex beads and sticky diatoms were used as models to describe mutual coagulation between sticky and non-sticky particles. in mixed suspensions of beads and Thalassiosira nordenskjoeldii, both types of particles coagulated into mixed aggregates at specific rates, from which the interspecific coagulation efficiency could be calculated. Stickiness between beads and T. nordenskjoeldii was 50% of that of T. nordenskjoeldii in monospecific suspensions, and this ratio remained constant t...

  16. POPULATION BASED COLORECTAL CANCER SCREENING: COMPARISON OF TWO FAECAL OCCULT BLOOD TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Begoña eZubero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of screening for colorectal cancer is to improve prognosis by the detection of cancer at its early stages. In order to inform the decision on the specific test to be used in the population-based programme in the Basque Autonomous Region (Spain, we compared two immunochemical faecal occult blood quantitative tests (I-FOBT. Methods: Residents of selected study areas, aged 50-69 years, were invited to participate in the screening. Two tests based on latex agglutination (OC-Sensor and FOB Gold were randomly assigned to different study areas. A colonoscopy was offered to patients with a positive test result. The cut-off point used to classify a result as positive, according to manufacturer’s recommendations, was 100 ng/ml for both tests. Results: The invited population included 37,999 individuals. Participation rates were 61.8% (n=11,162 for OC-Sensor and 59.1% (n=11,786 for FOB Gold, (p=0.008. Positive rate for OC-Sensor was 6.6% (n=737 and 8.5% (n=1,002 for FOB Gold, (pConclusions: OC-Sensor test appears to be superior for I-FOBT based CRC screening, given its acceptance, ease of use, associated small number of errors and its screening accuracy. FOB-Gold on the other hand, has higher rate of positive values, with more colonoscopies performed, it shows higher detection incidence rates, but involves more false positives.

  17. USING CAPILLARY WHOLE BLOOD GLUCOSE TEST IN SCREENING FOR GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qing-kai; LUO Lai-min; GU Jing-hong; LI Ping; HUANG Ya-juan; FENG Jie; ZHANG Rui

    2007-01-01

    Objective To discuss whether the capillary whole blood glucose (CBG) test can be used in glucose screening test (GST) for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared to the venous plasma glucose (VPG) method, and to determine the cutoff value of CBG. Methods This was a self-control test. The 50-g oral GST was conducted among 1 557 pregnant women between 24-28 weeks. Every woman was measured CBG and VPG at the same time and same arm. Three hundred and forty women underwent 100-g 3-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Receiver operation curve (ROC) was used to determine the potential cutoff level of CBG and VPG. Diagnose criteria of GDM was based on NDDG criteria. OGTT diagnosed GDM and VPG ≥ 7. 8 mmol/L were used as golden standard for ROC. Results There was good relationship between CBG and VPG ( P < 0.01 ). Correlation coefficient was 0. 86. The value of CBG was lower than VPG. The statistical and high-sensitivity cutoff values were 7. 4 mmol/L in CBG and 7. 8 mmol/L in VPG when GDM was used as golden standard. Cutoff value of CBG was 7. 0 mmol/L when VPG≥ 7. 8 mmol/L was used as golden standard. The pregnant outcomes of positive cases of three thresholds had no significant differences. But it was better in case of the pregnant woman when the CBG value was more than 7. 4 mmol/L. Conclusion CBG can be used in GST, the threshold of CBG was suggested as 7. 4 mmol/L. CBG test was more convenience and effective than VPG test.

  18. [Thymoma with extensive coagulative necrosis and high serum level of CYFRA 21-1; report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himuro, Naoya; Minakata, Takao; Oshima, Yutaka; Tomita, Yuri; Kataoka, Daisuke; Kadokura, Mitsutaka

    2014-12-01

    A 73-year-old woman complained of right chest discomfort. Chest X-ray during the follow-up for rheumatoid arthritis showed a mediastinal tumor. Chest computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a 65-mm tumor in the right anterior mediastinum. A blood test showed high serum levels of CYFRA 21-1(29.8 ng/ml), white blood cells( WBC 10,800/µl), and C-reactive protein(CRP 16.1 mg/dl). Subsequently, inflammatory reactions improved, and the thymic tumor was resected. Histopathologically, the tumor was a type B2 thymoma with extensive coagulative necrosis. After resection, the serum CYFRA 21-1 level returned to the normal range. PMID:25434553

  19. Nanosized blood microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuana, Yuana

    2011-01-01

    Microparticles (MPs) have important physiological and pathological roles in blood coagulation, inflammation and tumor progression. In recent years MPs also have been recognized to participate in important biological processes, such as in signaling and in the horizontal transfer of their specific pro

  20. Coagulation in patients with severe sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Marcel; Poll, Tom van der

    2015-02-01

    In the majority of patients with severe sepsis, systemic activation of coagulation is present. Increasing evidence points to an extensive cross-talk between coagulation and inflammation that may play an important role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Inflammation not only leads to activation of coagulation, but coagulation also considerably affects inflammatory activity. Molecular pathways that contribute to inflammation-induced activation of coagulation have been precisely identified. Proinflammatory cytokines and other mediators are capable of activating the coagulation system and downregulating important physiological anticoagulant pathways. Activation of the coagulation system and ensuing thrombin generation is dependent on expression of tissue factor on activated mononuclear cells and endothelial cells, and is insufficiently counteracted by TFPI. Simultaneously, endothelial-bound anticoagulant mechanism, in particular the protein C system, is shutoff by proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, fibrin removal is severely inhibited, because of inactivation of the fibrinolytic system, caused by an upregulation of its main inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1). Increased fibrin formation and impaired removal lead to (micro)vascular thrombosis, which may result in tissue ischemia and subsequent organ damage. The cornerstone of the management of coagulation in sepsis is the specific and vigorous treatment of the underlying disorder. Strategies aimed at the inhibition of coagulation activation may theoretically be justified and have been found beneficial in experimental and initial clinical studies. Heparin may be an effective anticoagulant approach and alternative strategies comprise restoration of physiological anticoagulant pathways. PMID:25590524