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Sample records for blood coagulation tests

  1. Influence of Blood Lipids on Global Coagulation Test Results

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jung-Ah; Kim, Ji-Eun; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Background High levels of blood lipids have been associated with high levels of coagulation factors. We investigated whether blood lipids influence the results of global coagulation tests, including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thrombin generation assay (TGA). Methods PT, aPTT, and TGA, along with procoagulant and anticoagulant factors, were measured in 488 normal individuals. Vitamin K status was assessed with prothrombin-induced by vitamin K absen...

  2. Influence of Blood Collection Systems on Coagulation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Yavaş

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Coagulation tests are influenced by pre-analytic conditions such as blood collection systems. Change of glass collection tubes with plastic ones will cause alteration of the test results. The aim of this study was to compare three plastic blood collection tubes with a standard glass blood collection tube and each plastic collection tube with the other two for possible additional tube-to- tube differences. METHODS: A total of 284 blood samples were obtained from 42 patients receiving warfarin during their routine controls, besides 29 healthy volunteers. Subgroup analyses were done according to health status. RESULTS: Our study demonstrated that different blood collection tubes have a statistically significant influence on coagulation tests. The magnitude of the effect depends on the tube used. However most of the tests performed on samples obtained from any tube correlated significantly with results obtained from other tube samples. CONCLUSION: Although blood collection tubes with different brands or properties will have distinct effects on coagulation tests, the influence of these blood collection tubes may be relatively small to interfere with decision-making on dose prescription, therefore lack clinical importance. Correlations between the results showed that, one of these plastic blood collection tubes tested in our study, can be used interchangably for a wide variety of coagulation assays.

  3. C-reactive protein prolongs blood coagulation time in phospholipids-dependent coagulation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L D Kozmin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available C-refctive protein prolongs blood coagulation time in phospholipids-dependent coagulation tests. O.P. Bliznukov, L.D. Kostin, A.J. Martinov, T.A. Lisitsina, T.M. Reshetnyak, V.J. Lauga Objective. To study influence of different CRP forms on blood clotting time in standard phospholipid clotting tests. Material and methods. Purified native CRP. monomeric CRP (0-1.6 M, immune complexes of native CRP and rabbit polyclonal anti-CRP antibodies (1.6 M were added to blood plasma of healthy donors. Blood clotting time was registered using optical coagulometer. Phospholipid dependent prothrombin time (PT, activated partial tromboplastin time (APTT, kaolin clotting time (KCT with kaolin and ellagic acid, dilute Russel viper venom time (dRVVT were determined. Results. Native CRP was able to increase blood clotting time in all mentioned clotting tests, excluding prothrombin time. CRP influence on blood clotting time showed a concentration dependence. Polyclonal rabbit anti-CRP antibodies had no inhibitory effect on CRP prolonged blood clotting time. Monomeric CRP (0-1.6 M had no influence on blood clotting time in all phospholipid-dependent clotting tests.

  4. PHYSIOLOGY OF BLOOD COAGULATION

    OpenAIRE

    B. Ţuţuianu

    2007-01-01

    Untill the XIXth century we knew very little about coagulation and haemostasis, most of our knowledge being based on observations. The discovery of thrombin, platelets, fibrinogen and calcium led to one of the most important theories (Paul Moravitz, 1890), which gave a scientific explanation of the haemostasis, describing the main steps of coagulation. Further on, the discovery of coagulation factors, of vitamin K, of heparin and of coagulation tests offered the ground for a new theory, namel...

  5. Coagulation Factors Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Coagulation Factors Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... if a person has a sufficient amount of coagulation activity in order to control the blood clotting ...

  6. Targeting exosites on blood coagulation proteases

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Robson Q.

    2005-01-01

    The high specificity of blood coagulation proteases has been attributed not only to residues surrounding the active site but also to other surface domains that are involved in recognizing and interacting with macromolecular substrates and inhibitors. Specific blood coagulation inhibitors obtained from exogenous sources such as blood sucking salivary glands and snake venoms have been identified. Some of these inhibitors interact with exosites on coagulation enzymes. Two examples are discussed ...

  7. Coagulation testing in the perioperative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Thiruvenkatarajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Perioperative coagulation management is a complex task that has a significant impact on the perioperative journey of patients. Anaesthesia providers play a critical role in the decision-making on transfusion and/or haemostatic therapy in the surgical setting. Various tests are available in identifying coagulation abnormalities in the perioperative period. While the rapidly available bedside haemoglobin measurements can guide the transfusion of red blood cells, blood product administration is guided by many in vivo and in vitro tests. The introduction of newer anticoagulant medications and the implementation of the modified in vivo coagulation cascade have given a new dimension to the field of perioperative transfusion medicine. A proper understanding of the application and interpretation of the coagulation tests is vital for a good perioperative outcome.

  8. PHYSIOLOGY OF BLOOD COAGULATION (II)

    OpenAIRE

    B. Ţuţuianu

    2007-01-01

    Coagulation cascade was untill recently the only model used to explain the physiological and pathological reactions during clot formation. Dr. Maureane Hoffman and her team suggested a cell-based model for coagulation, which takes place (according to this model) in three phases: initiation, amplification and propagation. This theory does not deny the coagulation cascade. It only says that the leading role in the whole process is held by the cells and that the „intrinsic” and the „extinsic” pa...

  9. PHYSIOLOGY OF BLOOD COAGULATION (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ţuţuianu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation cascade was untill recently the only model used to explain the physiological and pathological reactions during clot formation. Dr. Maureane Hoffman and her team suggested a cell-based model for coagulation, which takes place (according to this model in three phases: initiation, amplification and propagation. This theory does not deny the coagulation cascade. It only says that the leading role in the whole process is held by the cells and that the „intrinsic” and the „extinsic” pathways operate in parallel on different cell surfaces. Using this model, a better understanding of the reactions in vivo during coagulation is achieved, together with answers related to clinical-based questions like „why haemophiliacs bleed?”.

  10. Thymoquinone Modulates Blood Coagulation in Vitro via Its Effects on Inflammatory and Coagulation Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Vandhana Muralidharan-Chari; Jaehan Kim; Ahlam Abuawad; Mubeena Naeem; Huadong Cui; Mousa, Shaker A

    2016-01-01

    Thymoquinone (THQ) is a major component of black seeds. Given that both THQ and black seeds exhibit anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities, we hypothesized that THQ will affect cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT), which is primarily triggered by tissue factor (TF) and inflammation. The effect of both black seed-extracted and purchased (“pure”) THQ on normal blood coagulation was tested with in vitro thromboelastography (TEG) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) coagulation as...

  11. Magnetic particle imaging of blood coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, Kenya, E-mail: murase@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Song, Ruixiao; Hiratsuka, Samu [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Division of Medical Technology and Science, Faculty of Health Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-06-23

    We investigated the feasibility of visualizing blood coagulation using a system for magnetic particle imaging (MPI). A magnetic field-free line is generated using two opposing neodymium magnets and transverse images are reconstructed from the third-harmonic signals received by a gradiometer coil, using the maximum likelihood-expectation maximization algorithm. Our MPI system was used to image the blood coagulation induced by adding CaCl{sub 2} to whole sheep blood mixed with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The “MPI value” was defined as the pixel value of the transverse image reconstructed from the third-harmonic signals. MPI values were significantly smaller for coagulated blood samples than those without coagulation. We confirmed the rationale of these results by calculating the third-harmonic signals for the measured viscosities of samples, with an assumption that the magnetization and particle size distribution of MNPs obey the Langevin equation and log-normal distribution, respectively. We concluded that MPI can be useful for visualizing blood coagulation.

  12. Magnetic particle imaging of blood coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the feasibility of visualizing blood coagulation using a system for magnetic particle imaging (MPI). A magnetic field-free line is generated using two opposing neodymium magnets and transverse images are reconstructed from the third-harmonic signals received by a gradiometer coil, using the maximum likelihood-expectation maximization algorithm. Our MPI system was used to image the blood coagulation induced by adding CaCl2 to whole sheep blood mixed with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The “MPI value” was defined as the pixel value of the transverse image reconstructed from the third-harmonic signals. MPI values were significantly smaller for coagulated blood samples than those without coagulation. We confirmed the rationale of these results by calculating the third-harmonic signals for the measured viscosities of samples, with an assumption that the magnetization and particle size distribution of MNPs obey the Langevin equation and log-normal distribution, respectively. We concluded that MPI can be useful for visualizing blood coagulation.

  13. Radiation effects on blood coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haemorrhage is an important and ominous sign in acute radiation disease. While it is overwhelmingly evident that thrombocytopenia is the major cause of the haemorrhagic diathesis, detailed observations of all of the changes in the coagulation mechanism, fibrinolytic elements and platelet function are lacking. The current knowledge is reviewed in this chapter. In general, changes should be considered in relation to the course of the disease, that is early or late, and whether the observations were made in man or animals

  14. Blood coagulation factor VIII: An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G M Bhopale; R K Nanda

    2003-12-01

    Factor VIII (FVIII) functions as a co-factor in the blood coagulation cascade for the proteolytic activation of factor X by factor IXa. Deficiency of FVIII causes hemophilia A, the most commonly inherited bleeding disorder. This review highlights current knowledge on selected aspects of FVIII in which both the scientist and the clinician should be interested.

  15. Mathematical Model of Extrinsic Blood Coagulation Cascade Dynamic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The blood coagulation system is very important to life. This paper presents a mathematical blood coagulation model for the extrinsic pathway. This model simulates clotting factor VIII, which plays an important role in the coagulation mechanism. The mathematical model is used to study the equilibrium stability, orbit structure, attractors and global stability behavior, with conclusions in accordance with the physiological phenomena. Moreover, the results provide information about blood related illnesses, which can be used for further study of the coagulation mechanism.

  16. Blood viscosity during coagulation at different shear rates

    OpenAIRE

    Ranucci, Marco; Laddomada, Tommaso; Ranucci, Matteo; Baryshnikova, Ekaterina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract During the coagulation process, blood changes from a liquid to a solid gel phase. These changes are reflected by changes in blood viscosity; however, blood viscosity at different shear rates (SR) has not been previously explored during the coagulation process. In this study, we investigated the viscosity changes of whole blood in 10 subjects with a normal coagulation profile, using a cone‐on‐plate viscosimeter. For each subject, three consecutive measurements were performed, at a SR ...

  17. Thymoquinone Modulates Blood Coagulation in Vitro via Its Effects on Inflammatory and Coagulation Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandhana Muralidharan-Chari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thymoquinone (THQ is a major component of black seeds. Given that both THQ and black seeds exhibit anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities, we hypothesized that THQ will affect cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT, which is primarily triggered by tissue factor (TF and inflammation. The effect of both black seed-extracted and purchased (“pure” THQ on normal blood coagulation was tested with in vitro thromboelastography (TEG and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT coagulation assays. The effect of pure THQ on CAT was tested with aPTT assay using pancreatic cancer cell lines that are either positive or negative for TF, and with TEG assay using lipopolysaccharide as an inflammatory trigger. Additionally, the direct effect of THQ on the inactivation of factors IIa and Xa was assessed. Since TNF-α facilitates crosstalk between inflammation and thrombosis by triggering the NF-κB pathway, we tested THQ’s ability to interfere with this communication with a luciferase assay. Both extracted and pure THQ had minimal effects on normal blood coagulation. Pure THQ reversed CAT initiated by both TF and inflammation to basal levels (p < 0.001. Mechanistically, while THQ had minimal to no effect on factor IIa and Xa inactivation, it strongly reduced the effects of TNF-α on NF-κB elements (p < 0.001. THQ has a minimal effect on basal coagulation and can reverse CAT in vitro, possibly by interfering with the crosstalk between inflammation and coagulation. This study suggests the utility of THQ as a preventative anticoagulant and/or as a supplement to existing chemotherapies and anticoagulant therapies.

  18. Systemic blood coagulation activation in acute coronary syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Undas, Anetta; Szułdrzyński, Konstanty; Brummel-Ziedins, Kathleen E.; Tracz, Wiesława; Zmudka, Krzysztof; Mann, Kenneth G.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated systemic alterations to the blood coagulation system that occur during a coronary thrombotic event. Peripheral blood coagulation in patients with acute coronary thrombosis was compared with that in people with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Blood coagulation and platelet activation at the microvascular injury site were assessed using immunochemistry in 28 non-anticoagulated patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) versus 28 stable CAD patients matched for age, sex, ...

  19. Nanoparticles and the blood coagulation system. Part II: safety concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Ilinskaya, Anna N; Dobrovolskaia, Marina A.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticle interactions with the blood coagulation system can be beneficial or adverse depending on the intended use of a nanomaterial. Nanoparticles can be engineered to be procoagulant or to carry coagulation-initiating factors to treat certain disorders. Likewise, they can be designed to be anticoagulant or to carry anticoagulant drugs to intervene in other pathological conditions in which coagulation is a concern. An overview of the coagulation system was given and a discussion of a des...

  20. Investigation of the possible link between exposure to air pollution and changes in blood coagulation parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazell, C.; Burr, M.; Collins, P.; Karani, G. [University of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom)

    1999-01-01

    The hypothesised relationship between variations in exposure to airborne pollution and changes in blood coagulation factors, as a causal factor in cardiovascular disease was investigated. The study was performed using two standard coagulation test results, compared to air pollution data, in the time period July 1996 to July 1997. Five air pollutants, PM{sub 10} NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, CO and O{sub 3} were correlated and compared with blood coagulation test results, to look for associations between exposure to air pollution and changes in blood coagulation factors. It was found that exposure to varying concentrations of air pollutants did not affect the blood coagulation times in the study group.

  1. Blood Clotting and Coagulation Factors: The Work of Yale Nemerson

    OpenAIRE

    Kresge, Nicole; Simoni, Robert D.; Hill, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    After developing a blood disorder, Yale Nemerson became interested in hematology. This led to his lifelong study of thrombogenic tissue factor and to his contributions to developing the modern theory of blood coagulation. The two Classic papers reprinted here detail some of Nemerson's studies on coagulation factors IX and VII.

  2. Blood Coagulation Changes at High Altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Chohan

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available The current concepts of blood coagulation changes in the pathogenesis of acute mountain sickness (AMS, high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO, high altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH and chronic mountain sickness(CMS which afflict the inductees and residents at high altitude have been reviewed. Hypercoagulable state which is more marked during the first few days of exposure is countered by enhanced fibrinolytic activity and accelerated cell mediated immunity. Magnesium levels are increased in normal residents at high altitudes and may be responsible for enhancing fibrinolytic activity and accelerating immune responses. Magnesium levels are significantly reduced in HAPO patients. Judicious use of furosemide in lower dosage is still the mainstay of treatment of HAPO and AMS.

  3. Targeting exosites on blood coagulation proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Q. Monteiro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The high specificity of blood coagulation proteases has been attributed not only to residues surrounding the active site but also to other surface domains that are involved in recognizing and interacting with macromolecular substrates and inhibitors. Specific blood coagulation inhibitors obtained from exogenous sources such as blood sucking salivary glands and snake venoms have been identified. Some of these inhibitors interact with exosites on coagulation enzymes. Two examples are discussed in this short revision. Bothrojaracin is a snake venom-derived protein that binds to thrombin exosites 1 and 2. Complex formation impairs several exosite-dependent activities of thrombin including fibrinogen cleavage and platelet activation. Bothrojaracin also interacts with proexosite 1 on prothrombin thus decreasing the zymogen activation by the prothrombinase complex (FXa/FVa. Ixolaris is a two Kunitz tick salivary gland inhibitor, that is homologous to tissue factor pathway inhibitor. Recently it was demonstrated that ixolaris binds to heparin-binding exosite of FXa, thus impairing the recognition of prothrombin by the enzyme. In addition, ixolaris interacts with FX possibly through the heparin-binding proexosite. Differently from FX, the ixolaris-FX complex is not recognized as substrate by the intrinsic tenase complex (FIXa/FVIIIa. We conclude that these inhibitors may serve as tools for the study of coagulation exosites as well as prototypes for new anticoagulant drugs.A alta especificidade das proteases da coagulação tem sido atribuída não somente aos resíduos que cercam o sítio ativo, mas também a outros domínios de superfície que estão envolvidos no reconhecimento e interação com substratos macromoleculares e inibidores. Inibidores específicos da coagulação sanguínea obtidos de fontes exógenas como glândulas salivares de animais hematófagos e venenos de serpentes têm sido identificados. Alguns desses inibidores interagem com os

  4. Real-time electrical impedimetric monitoring of blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations conducted in a microfluidic chip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Fong Lei

    Full Text Available Blood coagulation is an extremely complicated and dynamic physiological process. Monitoring of blood coagulation is essential to predict the risk of hemorrhage and thrombosis during cardiac surgical procedures. In this study, a high throughput microfluidic chip has been developed for the investigation of the blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations. Electrical impedance of the whole blood was continuously recorded by on-chip electrodes in contact with the blood sample during coagulation. Analysis of the impedance change of the blood was conducted to investigate the characteristics of blood coagulation process and the starting time of blood coagulation was defined. The study of blood coagulation time under temperature and hematocrit variations was shown a good agreement with results in the previous clinical reports. The electrical impedance measurement for the definition of blood coagulation process provides a fast and easy measurement technique. The microfluidic chip was shown to be a sensitive and promising device for monitoring blood coagulation process even in a variety of conditions. It is found valuable for the development of point-of-care coagulation testing devices that utilizes whole blood sample in microliter quantity.

  5. Blood coagulation and the risk of atherothrombosis: a complex relationship

    OpenAIRE

    van der Voort Danielle; Spronk Henri MH; ten Cate Hugo

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The principles of Virchov's triad appear to be operational in atherothrombosis or arterial thrombosis: local flow changes and particularly vacular wall damage are the main pathophysiological elements. Furthermore, alterations in arterial blood composition are also involved although the specific role and importance of blood coagulation is an ongoing matter of debate. In this review we provide support for the hypothesis that activated blood coagulation is an essential determinant of th...

  6. Numerical Simulation of the Coagulation Dynamics of Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Bodnár, T.; Sequeira, A.

    2008-01-01

    The process of platelet activation and blood coagulation is quite complex and not yet completely understood. Recently, a phenomenological meaningful model of blood coagulation and clot formation in flowing blood that extends existing models to integrate biochemical, physiological and rheological factors, has been developed. The aim of this paper is to present results from a computational study of a simplified version of this coupled fluid-biochemistry model. A generalized Newtonian model with...

  7. Silica Nanoparticles Effects on Blood Coagulation Proteins and Platelets

    OpenAIRE

    Volodymyr Gryshchuk; Natalya Galagan

    2016-01-01

    Interaction of nanoparticles with the blood coagulation is important prior to their using as the drug carriers or therapeutic agents. The aim of present work was studying of the primary effects of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) on haemostasis in vitro. We studied the effect of SiNPs on blood coagulation directly estimating the activation of prothrombin and factor X and to verify any possible effect of SiNPs on human platelets. It was shown that SiNPs shortened coagulation time in APTT and PT te...

  8. Effect of fibrinogen on blood coagulation detected by optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our previous work demonstrated that an optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique and the parameter 1/e light penetration depth (d1/e) were able to characterize the whole blood coagulation process in contrast to existing optical tests that are performed on plasma samples. To evaluate the feasibility of the technique for quantifying the effect of fibrinogen (Fbg) on blood coagulation, a dynamic study of d1/e of blood in various Fbg concentrations was performed in static state. Two groups of blood samples of hematocrit (HCT) in 35, 45, and 55% were reconstituted of red blood cells with: 1) treated plasma with its intrinsic Fbg removed and commercial Fbg added (0–8 g L−1); and 2) native plasma with commercial Fbg added (0–8 g L−1). The results revealed a typical behavior due to coagulation induced by calcium ions and the clotting time is Fbg concentration-dependent. The clotting time was decreased by the increasing amount of Fbg in both groups. Besides, the blood of lower HCT with various levels of Fbg took shorter time to coagulate than that of higher HCT. Consequently, the OCT method is a useful and promising tool for the detection of blood-coagulation processes induced with different Fbg levels. (paper)

  9. Effect of fibrinogen on blood coagulation detected by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangqun; Teng, Xiangshuai

    2015-05-01

    Our previous work demonstrated that an optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique and the parameter 1/e light penetration depth (d1/e) were able to characterize the whole blood coagulation process in contrast to existing optical tests that are performed on plasma samples. To evaluate the feasibility of the technique for quantifying the effect of fibrinogen (Fbg) on blood coagulation, a dynamic study of d1/e of blood in various Fbg concentrations was performed in static state. Two groups of blood samples of hematocrit (HCT) in 35, 45, and 55% were reconstituted of red blood cells with: 1) treated plasma with its intrinsic Fbg removed and commercial Fbg added (0-8 g L-1) and 2) native plasma with commercial Fbg added (0-8 g L-1). The results revealed a typical behavior due to coagulation induced by calcium ions and the clotting time is Fbg concentration-dependent. The clotting time was decreased by the increasing amount of Fbg in both groups. Besides, the blood of lower HCT with various levels of Fbg took shorter time to coagulate than that of higher HCT. Consequently, the OCT method is a useful and promising tool for the detection of blood-coagulation processes induced with different Fbg levels.

  10. Extracellular RNA constitutes a natural procoagulant cofactor in blood coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kannemeier, Christian; Shibamiya, Aya; Nakazawa, Fumie; Trusheim, Heidi; Ruppert, Clemens; Markart, Philipp; Song, Yutong; Tzima, Eleni; Kennerknecht, Elisabeth; Niepmann, Michael; von Bruehl, Marie-Luise; Sedding, Daniel; Massberg, Steffen; Günther, Andreas; Engelmann, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    Upon vascular injury, locally controlled haemostasis prevents life-threatening blood loss and ensures wound healing. Intracellular material derived from damaged cells at these sites will become exposed to blood components and could contribute to blood coagulation and pathological thrombus formation. So far, the functional and mechanistic consequences of this concept are not understood. Here, we present in vivo and in vitro evidence that different forms of eukaryotic and prokaryotic RNA serve ...

  11. Blood coagulation using High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuc V.; Oh, Junghwan; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2014-03-01

    High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) technology provides a feasible method of achieving thermal coagulation during surgical procedures. One of the potential clinical benefits of HIFU can induce immediate hemostasis without suturing. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of a HIFU system for blood coagulation on severe vascular injury. ngHIFU treatment was implemented immediately after bleeding in artery. The ultrasound probe was made of piezoelectric material, generating a central frequency of 2.0 MHz as well as an ellipsoidal focal spot of 2 mm in lateral dimension and 10 mm in axial dimension. Acoustic coagulation was employed on a perfused chicken artery model in vitro. A surgical incision (1 to 2 mm long) was made with a scapel on the arterial wall, and heparinized autologous blood was made to leak out from the incision with a syringe pump. A total of 5 femoral artery incisions was treated with the HIFU beam. The intensity of 4500 W/cm2 at the focus was applied for all treatments. Complete hemostasis was achieved in all treatments, along with the treatment times of 25 to 50 seconds. The estimated intraoperative blood loss was from 2 to 5 mL. The proposed HIFU system may provide an effective method for immediate blood coagulation for arteries and veins in clinical applications.

  12. Blood coagulation and its alterations in hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Rapaport, S I

    1993-01-01

    Clinical observations have added to the understanding of basic mechanisms of blood coagulation and its alterations in certain hemorrhagic and thrombotic states. Much clinical evidence exists for concluding that the exposure of blood to tissue factor (thromboplastin) on tissue cells represents the key event initiating fibrin clot formation after tissue injury. This then results in the formation of activated factor VII (VIIa)-tissue factor complexes, which must activate both factor X and factor...

  13. Intraoperative Changes in Blood Coagulation and Thrombelastographic Monitoring in Liver Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Yoo Goo; Martin, Douglas J.; Marquez, Jose; Lewis, Jessica H.; Bontempo, Franklin A.; Shaw, Byers W.; Starzl, Thomas E.; Winter, Peter M.

    1985-01-01

    The blood coagulation system of 66 consecutive patients undergoing consecutive liver transplantations was monitored by thrombelastograph and analytic coagulation profile. A poor preoperative coagulation state, decrease in levels of coagulation factors, progressive fibrinolysis, and whole blood clot lysis were observed during the preanhepatic and anhepatic stages of surgery. A further general decrease in coagulation factors and platelets, activation of fibrinolysis, and abrupt decrease in leve...

  14. Multifrequency acoustics as a probe of mesoscopic blood coagulation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Adarsh; Rajendran, Gokulnath; Ercole, Ari; Seshia, Ashwin

    2016-08-01

    Coagulation is a complex enzymatic polymerisation cascade. Disordered coagulation is common in medicine and may be life-threatening yet clinical assays are typically bulky and/or provide an incomplete picture of clot mechanical evolution. We present the adaptation of an in-plane acoustic wave device: quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation at multiple harmonics to determine the time-evolution of mesoscale mechanical properties of clot formation in vitro. This approach is sensitive to changes in surface and bulk clot structure in various models of induced coagulopathy. Furthermore, we are able to show that clot formation at surfaces has different kinetics and mechanical strength to that in the bulk, which may have implications for the design of bioprosthetic materials. The "Multifrequency acoustics" approach thus enables unique capability to portray biological processes concerning blood coagulation.

  15. Effect of nano-scale curvature on the intrinsic blood coagulation system

    OpenAIRE

    Kushida, Takashi; Saha, Krishnendu; Subramani, Chandramouleeswaran; Nandwana, Vikas; Vincent M. Rotello

    2014-01-01

    The intrinsic coagulation activity of silica nanoparticles strongly depends on their surface curvature. Nanoparticles with higher surface curvature do not denature blood coagulation factor XII on its surface, providing a coagulation ‘silent’ surface, while nanoparticles with lower surface curvature shows denaturation and concomitant coagulation.

  16. The effect of garlic on coagulation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Yeganeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose: There are many reports on anti-thrombotic properties of garlic. Also, regarding the simultaneous consumption of garlic and Warfarine or non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, some warning recommendations are published. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of garlic on coagulation tests, and in case of any demonstrative anticoagulation effect, the patients, particularly those with coagulation disorders, could be given appropriate advice on proper consumption of garlic.Materials and Methods: This was a clinical trial in which 50 volunteer students were selected based on information collected using appropriate questionnaires. The students were tested for coagulation assays including bleeding time (BT, clotting time (CT, prothrombin time (PT, partial thromboplastin time (PIT, clot retraction (CR, and platelets count (PC before and after consumption of garlic. Data were analyzed using SPPS and T-test. The average values of tests obtained in two stages of experiment were further compared statistically. Results: The results of our study on subjects (30 females and 20 males with an average age of 21.7 years showed that there was no significant change in values obtained for CT, PT, PC and CR (p>0.05 following consumption of garlic. However, a significant increase in PTT values was found following consumption of garlic (the p values for samples collected after 24 hours and 4 hours were 0.001 and 0.012 respectively. There was also a significant difference (p=0.027 in BT 24 hours after garlic consumption. Regarding the results of similar tests among two genders, no significant difference was found.Conclusion: Following consumption of garlic, there was a significant increase in PIT and BT, the effect being more obvious after 24 hours. The data of present study regarding the inhibitory effect of garlic on platelet activities is consistent with those reported by some other researches which is also

  17. Numerical simulations of a reduced model for blood coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Jevgenija; Fasano, Antonio; Sequeira, Adélia

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the three-dimensional numerical resolution of a complex mathematical model for the blood coagulation process is presented. The model was illustrated in Fasano et al. (Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 51:1-14, 2012), Pavlova et al. (Theor Biol 380:367-379, 2015). It incorporates the action of the biochemical and cellular components of blood as well as the effects of the flow. The model is characterized by a reduction in the biochemical network and considers the impact of the blood slip at the vessel wall. Numerical results showing the capacity of the model to predict different perturbations in the hemostatic system are discussed.

  18. New method for detection of blood coagulation using fiber-optic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediay, Sergey G.; Kuznetzov, Alexsey V.

    1991-07-01

    The detection of blood coagulation is very important in therapeutics and surgery. It is necessary to determine the overall time taken for blood clotting, production rate of thrombin, presence or absence of blood coagulation factors, etc. In this paper a new method for detection of blood coagulation is presented. This method is based on the fiber-optic sensor and allows for the study of different ways of blood clotting (such as blood coagulation and platelets aggregation) separately, thus enhancing the precision of determination. The method for determining the blood coagulation presented possesses high precision in monitoring the process of coagulation. An elaborate mathematical model of the process of blood coagulation has been developed to help the computer handle obtained data.

  19. Spatial localization of bacteria controls coagulation of human blood by ‘quorum acting’

    OpenAIRE

    Kastrup, Christian J.; Boedicker, James Q.; Pomerantsev, Andrei P.; Moayeri, Mahtab; Bian, Yao; Pompano, Rebecca R.; Kline, Timothy R.; Sylvestre, Patricia; Shen, Feng; Leppla, Stephen H.; Tang, Wei-Jen; Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    2008-01-01

    Blood coagulation often accompanies bacterial infections and sepsis and is generally accepted as a consequence of immune responses. Though many bacterial species can directly activate individual coagulation factors, they have not been shown to directly initiate the coagulation cascade that precedes clot formation. Here we demonstrated, using microfluidics and surface patterning, that the spatial localization of bacteria substantially affects coagulation of human and mouse blood and plasma. Ba...

  20. Extraction of mRNA from coagulated horse blood and analysis of inflammation-related cytokine responses to coagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovbjerg, Kirsten Katrine Lindegaard; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    Coagulated blood is a rich source of mRNA that allows the study of the regulation of expression of cytokine and other genes. However, while several methods are available for isolation of RNA from whole blood and tissues, protocols for purification of mRNA from clotted blood are not generally...

  1. Tissue Factor, Blood Coagulation, and Beyond: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur J. Chu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence shows a broad spectrum of biological functions of tissue factor (TF. TF classical role in initiating the extrinsic blood coagulation and its direct thrombotic action in close relation to cardiovascular risks have long been established. TF overexpression/hypercoagulability often observed in many clinical conditions certainly expands its role in proinflammation, diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, angiogenesis, tumor metastasis, wound repairs, embryonic development, cell adhesion/migration, innate immunity, infection, pregnancy loss, and many others. This paper broadly covers seminal observations to discuss TF pathogenic roles in relation to diverse disease development or manifestation. Biochemically, extracellular TF signaling interfaced through protease-activated receptors (PARs elicits cellular activation and inflammatory responses. TF diverse biological roles are associated with either coagulation-dependent or noncoagulation-mediated actions. Apparently, TF hypercoagulability refuels a coagulation-inflammation-thrombosis circuit in “autocrine” or “paracrine” fashions, which triggers a wide spectrum of pathophysiology. Accordingly, TF suppression, anticoagulation, PAR blockade, or general anti-inflammation offers an array of therapeutical benefits for easing diverse pathological conditions.

  2. In Vitro impairment of whole blood coagulation and platelet function by hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Görlinger Klaus

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch (HH has been recommended for first line treatment of hemorrhagic shock. Its effects on coagulation are unclear. We studied in vitro effects of HH dilution on whole blood coagulation and platelet function. Furthermore 7.2% hypertonic saline, 6% hydroxyethylstarch (as ingredients of HH, and 0.9% saline solution (as control were tested in comparable dilutions to estimate specific component effects of HH on coagulation. Methods The study was designed as experimental non-randomized comparative in vitro study. Following institutional review board approval and informed consent blood samples were taken from 10 healthy volunteers and diluted in vitro with either HH (HyperHaes®, Fresenius Kabi, Germany, hypertonic saline (HT, 7.2% NaCl, hydroxyethylstarch (HS, HAES6%, Fresenius Kabi, Germany or NaCl 0.9% (ISO in a proportion of 5%, 10%, 20% and 40%. Coagulation was studied in whole blood by rotation thrombelastometry (ROTEM after thromboplastin activation without (ExTEM and with inhibition of thrombocyte function by cytochalasin D (FibTEM, the latter was performed to determine fibrin polymerisation alone. Values are expressed as maximal clot firmness (MCF, [mm] and clotting time (CT, [s]. Platelet aggregation was determined by impedance aggregrometry (Multiplate after activation with thrombin receptor-activating peptide 6 (TRAP and quantified by the area under the aggregation curve (AUC [aggregation units (AU/min]. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to evaluate HyperHaes induced cell shape changes of thrombocytes. Statistics: 2-way ANOVA for repeated measurements, Bonferroni post hoc test, p Results Dilution impaired whole blood coagulation and thrombocyte aggregation in all dilutions in a dose dependent fashion. In contrast to dilution with ISO and HS, respectively, dilution with HH as well as HT almost abolished coagulation (MCFExTEM from 57.3 ± 4.9 mm (native to 1.7 ± 2.2 mm (HH 40

  3. Coagulation factors in whole blood collected from pregnant women and stored at 4°C

    OpenAIRE

    Minatoguchi, Miki; ITAKURA, ATSUO; Miki, Akinori; Kajihara, Takeshi; Sasaki, Shiho; Takase, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Kiyoko; Asada, Rumiko; IKEBUCHI, KENJI; Ishihara, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study aimed to measure the levels of coagulation factors in stored whole blood of pregnant women and to determine their usefulness in treating pregnant women who developed coagulopathy. A prospective study to measure coagulation factors in stored donated whole blood from pregnant and non-pregnant women was conducted. Fibrinogen, FV, FVII, FVIII, FXIII, and von Willebrand factor were measured in blood stored at 4°C for 0, 1, 3, and 5 weeks. All coagulation factors except f...

  4. Changes in Blood Parameters and Coagulation-Related Gene Expression in Pregnant Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Urasoko, Yoshinaka; He, Xi Jun; Ebata, Tomonori; KINOSHITA, YUICHI; Kobayashi, Junichi; Mochizuki, Masahiro; Ikeya, Masamichi

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined changes in maternal blood parameters, particularly those related to blood coagulation, as well as alterations in blood coagulation-related gene expression in the liver during gestation in rats. Fibrinogen concentration and platelet count increased as pregnancy progressed whereas prothrombin time and overall activity of vitamin-K–dependent coagulation factors decreased before delivery, suggesting a physiologic response to prevent prolonged bleeding at parturition. Co...

  5. Blood coagulation profiling in patients using optical thromboelastography (OTEG) (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Markandey M.; Tshikudi, Diane M.; Hajjarian, Zeinab; Van Cott, Elizabeth M.; Nadkarni, Seemantini K.

    2016-02-01

    Impaired blood coagulation is often associated with increased postoperative mortality and morbidity in cardiovascular patients. The capability for blood coagulation profiling rapidly at the bedside will enable the timely detection of coagulation defects and open the opportunity for tailoring therapy to correct specific coagulation deficits Optical Thromboelastography (OTEG), is an optical approach to quantify blood coagulation status within minutes using a few drops of whole blood. The goal of the current study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of OTEG for rapid coagulation profiling in patients. In OTEG, temporal laser speckle intensity fluctuations from a drop of clotting blood are measured using a CMOS camera. To quantify coagulation status, the speckle intensity autocorrelation function is measured, the mean square displacement of scattering particles is extracted, and viscoelastic modulus (G), during coagulation is measured via the generalized Stokes-Einstein relation. By quantifying time-resolved changes in G, the coagulation parameters, reaction time (R), clot progression time (K), clot progression rate (Angle), and maximum clot strength (MA) are derived. In this study, the above coagulation parameters were measured using OTEG in 269 patients and compared with standard mechanical Thromboelastography (TEG). Our results showed a strong correlation between OTEG and TEG measurements for all parameters: R-time (R=0.80, pcoagulation status to potentially improve clinical capability for identifying impaired coagulation in cardiovascular patients at the point of care.

  6. Drawing specimens for coagulation testing: is a second tube necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlasson, D L; More, L; Best, H A; Norris, W L; Doe, R H; Ray, H

    1999-01-01

    Three recent studies discussed the possibility that the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) recommendations that the coagulation specimen should be the second or third tube collected are unnecessary. However, only one reagent/instrument was used in each study. Our protocol differed from the previous studies because we performed the assays on three different reagent/instrument systems on the same samples. Our study used photo-optic, mechanical, and nephelometric systems of clot detection. After obtaining informed consent, we obtained two blue-stoppered tubes of blood from 95 subjects: 15 normal patients and 80 patients currently on coumadin therapy. No discard tube was drawn for coagulation testing. A prothrombin time with an international normalized ratio and an activated partial thromboplastin time, were performed on each tube. Laboratory One used a MLA 1600C (Hemoliance) with Thromboplastin DS (Pacific-Hemostasis, ISI of 1.11) and APTT-LS (Pacific-Hemostasis). Laboratory Two used an STA (Diagnostica-Stago) with Neoplastine CI+ (Diagnostica-Stago, ISI of 1.14) and PTT-LT (Diagnostica-Stago). Laboratory Three used an ACL 300 with Plastinex (Biodata, ISI of 1.67) and Actin FSL (Dade Behring). No clinical or statistically significant differences were seen between the first or second tubes on any of the three reagent/instrument combinations in the PT in seconds, international normalized ratio reporting, or APTT results. Our results indicate that the NCCLS guidelines for obtaining a second tube when performing coagulation testing should be considered for elimination when new revisions are published. PMID:10539100

  7. Treatment of Epilepsy with Bipolar Electro-coagulation: An Analysis of Cortical Blood Flow and Histological Change in Temporal Lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Qiang Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bipolar electro-coagulation has a reported efficacy in treating epilepsy involving functional cortex by pure electro-coagulation or combination with resection. However, the mechanisms of bipolar electro-coagulation are not completely known. We studied the acute cortical blood flow and histological changes after bipolar electro-coagulation in 24 patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. Methods: Twenty-four patients were consecutively enrolled, and divided into three groups according to the date of admission. The regional cortical blood flow (rCBF, electrocorticography, the depth of cortex damage, and acute histological changes (H and E staining, neuronal staining and neurofilament (NF staining were analyzed before and after the operation. The t-test analysis was used to compare the rCBF before and after the operation. Results: The rCBF after coagulation was significantly reduced (P < 0.05. The spikes were significantly reduced after electro-coagulation. For the temporal cortex, the depth of cortical damage with output power of 2-9 W after electro-coagulation was 0.34 ± 0.03, 0.48 ± 0.06, 0.69 ± 0.06, 0.84 ± 0.09, 0.98 ± 0.08, 1.10 ± 0.11, 1.11 ± 0.09, and 1.22 ± 0.11 mm, respectively. Coagulation with output power of 4-5 W completely damaged the neurons and NF protein in the molecular layer, external granular layer, and external pyramidal layer. Conclusions: The electro-coagulation not only destroyed the neurons and NF protein, but also reduced the rCBF. We concluded that the injuries caused by electro-coagulation would prevent horizontal synchronization and spread of epileptic discharges, and partially destroy the epileptic focus.

  8. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norepinephrine -- blood; Epinephrine -- blood; Adrenalin -- blood; Dopamine -- blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  9. Benign intracranial hypertension associated to blood coagulation derangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niglio Alferio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benign Intracranial Hypertension (BIH may be caused, at least in part, by intracranial sinus thrombosis. Thrombosis is normally due to derangements in blood coagulation cascade which may predispose to abnormal clotting activation or deficiency in natural inhibitors' control. The aim of the study is to examine the strength of the association between risk factors for thrombosis and BIH. Patients and methods The incidence of prothrombotic abnormalities among a randomly investigated cohort of 17 patients with BIH, was compared with 51 healthy subjects matched for sex, age, body mass index, height and social background. Results The number of subjects with protein C deficiency was significantly higher in patients than in controls (3 vs 1, p Increased plasma levels of prothrombin fragment 1+2, fibrinopeptide A (FPA, and PAI-1 were demonstrated in patients group (5.7 ± 1.15 nM vs 0.45 ± 0.35 nM; 8.7 ± 2.5 ng/mL vs 2.2 ± 1.25 ng/mL; 45.7 ± 12.5 ng/mL vs 8.5 ± 6.7 ng/mL, respectively; p Discussion In agreement with other authors our data suggest a state of hypercoagulability in BIH associated with gene polymorphisms. Our findings also showed that mutations in cardiovascular genes significantly discriminate subjects with a BIH history. The association between coagulation and gene derangements, usually regarded to as cryptogenic, may suggest a possible pathogenetic mechanism in BIH. So, a prothrombotic tendency may exist that would, at least in part, explain some cases of BIH. Although based on a small population, these findings raise the exciting possibility of using these haemostatic factors as markers for selecting high-risk subjects in BIH disease.

  10. Mesoscopic Modeling of Blood Clotting: Coagulation Cascade and Platelets Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Alireza; Li, Zhen; Karniadakis, George

    2015-11-01

    The process of clot formation and growth at a site on a blood vessel wall involve a number of multi-scale simultaneous processes including: multiple chemical reactions in the coagulation cascade, species transport and flow. To model these processes we have incorporated advection-diffusion-reaction (ADR) of multiple species into an extended version of Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method which is considered as a coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics method. At the continuum level this is equivalent to the Navier-Stokes equation plus one advection-diffusion equation for each specie. The chemistry of clot formation is now understood to be determined by mechanisms involving reactions among many species in dilute solution, where reaction rate constants and species diffusion coefficients in plasma are known. The role of blood particulates, i.e. red cells and platelets, in the clotting process is studied by including them separately and together in the simulations. An agonist-induced platelet activation mechanism is presented, while platelets adhesive dynamics based on a stochastic bond formation/dissociation process is included in the model.

  11. Blood Count Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  12. Modelling of the Blood Coagulation Cascade in an In Vitro Flow System.

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Nina Marianne; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Messoud A. Efendiev; Olsen, Ole Hvilsted; Ingwersen, Steen H.

    2010-01-01

    We derive a mathematical model of a part of the blood coagulation cascade set up in a perfusion experiment. Our purpose is to simulate the influence of blood flow and diffusion on the blood coagulation pathway. The resulting model consists of a system of partial differential equations taking into account the spatial distribution of the biochemical species. An important issue is inclusion of a dynamic boundary condition describing adhesion of activated platelets on a collagen coated top lid in...

  13. Effect of onion and garlic on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagda, K K; Ganeriwal, S K; Nagda, K C; Diwan, A M

    1983-01-01

    The effects of aqueous extracts of onion and garlic as well as of garlic oil were studied on the process of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in vitro. Only onion was found to exhibit anti-coagulant and fibrinolytic activity while garlic extract as well as garlic oil were inactive. PMID:6885127

  14. Effect of catheter flush fluids on blood coagulation and aggregation of platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect upon blood coagulation and aggregation of platelets of a polysaccharide catheter flush fluid (flush fluid E) was investigated and compared with isotonic saline and Isopaque Cerebral. The result indicates that flush fluid E does not activate the coagulation system. (Auth.)

  15. Blood coagulation and fibrinolysis after long-duration treadmill exercise controlled by individual anaerobic threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilberg, Thomas; Gläser, Doreen; Reckhart, Carsten; Prasa, Dagmar; Stürzebecher, Jörg; Gabriel, Holger H W

    2003-11-01

    For rehabilitation training it is recommended that the intensity of exercise should be clearly below the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT). We investigated blood coagulation, particularly endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) and fibrinolysis following a standardized treadmill (TR) ergometer test at 90% IAT for 60-120 min. Sixteen healthy male non-smokers underwent the TR test. Blood samples were taken after a 30-min rest, immediately after exercise, and 2 h after exercise completion. Extrinsic and intrinsic total (TTP(ex+in)) and endogenous (ETP(ex+in)) thrombin potential, prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), plasmin-alpha2-antiplasmin complex (PAP), D-dimer, tissue plasminogen activator antigen and activity (tPA-AG and tPA-ACT) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 antigen and activity (PAI-1-AG and PAI-1-ACT) were measured. Immediately after TR, F1+2, TAT and TTP(ex+in) were increased ( PIAT (90%) on a TR ergometer only implicates a small increase in thrombin generation markers and total (free and alpha(2)-macroglubulin-bound thrombin), but not in endogenous (free) thrombin potential alone. In contrast, fibrinolysis is distinctly increased after this type of exercise. Endurance exercise with an intensity below 90% IAT and a duration below 2 h generates a more favourable condition for fibrinolysis than for blood coagulation in healthy young subjects. Data are given as mean (SD). PMID:12883904

  16. Preanalytical conditions that affect coagulation testing, including hormonal status and therapy

    OpenAIRE

    BLOMBÄCK, M; Konkle, B A; Manco-Johnson, M. J.; Bremme, K.; HELLGREN, M; Kaaja, R.

    2007-01-01

    Preanalytical conditions, be they due to the individual's physiologic state or to exogenous factors, can affect coagulation factors, in either a transient or a persistent manner, and need to be considered in laboratory testing. These conditions include physical and mental stress, diurnal variation, hormone levels and posture at the time of blood drawing. While testing of these factors has not been exhaustive and some results are conflicting, guidelines for testing conditions can be given.

  17. Real-Time Electrical Impedimetric Monitoring of Blood Coagulation Process under Temperature and Hematocrit Variations Conducted in a Microfluidic Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Kin Fong; Chen, Kuan-Hao; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Tsang, Ngan-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Blood coagulation is an extremely complicated and dynamic physiological process. Monitoring of blood coagulation is essential to predict the risk of hemorrhage and thrombosis during cardiac surgical procedures. In this study, a high throughput microfluidic chip has been developed for the investigation of the blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations. Electrical impedance of the whole blood was continuously recorded by on-chip electrodes in contact with the blood sa...

  18. Anthrax - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The best test for diagnosing anthrax is a culture of affected tissue or blood. Alternative Names Anthrax serology test; Antibody test for anthrax; Serologic test for B anthracis Images Blood test Bacillus anthracis References Hall GS, Woods GL. Medical bacteriology. ...

  19. Monitoring time course of human whole blood coagulation using a microfluidic dielectric sensor with a 3D capacitive structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Debnath; Suster, Michael A; Stavrou, Evi; Gurkan, Umut A; Mohseni, Pedram

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports on the design, fabrication, and testing of a microfluidic sensor for dielectric spectroscopy (DS) of human whole blood during coagulation. The sensor employs a three-dimensional (3D), parallel-plate, capacitive sensing structure with a floating electrode integrated into a microfluidic channel. Using an impedance analyzer and after a 5-point calibration, the sensor is shown to measure the real part of complex relative dielectric permittivity of human whole blood in a frequency range of 10kHz to 100MHz. The temporal variation of dielectric permittivity at 1MHz for human whole blood from three different healthy donors shows a peak in permittivity at ~ 4 to 5 minutes, which also corresponds to the onset of CaCl2-initiated coagulation of the blood sample verified visually. PMID:26737635

  20. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000324.htm Home blood sugar testing To use the sharing features on this ... with their nutrition and activity plans. Check Your Blood Sugar Often Usual times to test your blood sugar ...

  1. Establishment of FMEA risk management procedures for blood coagulation tests in clinical laboratories%临床实验室按照 FM EA 模式构建凝血功能检测项目的风险管理程序

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛广华; 高玉洁; 崔百慧

    2016-01-01

    使用FMEA模型确定检验医学中心风险管理工作流程和关键环节。根据IS015189认可准则、CAP实验室认可检查条款等的相关标准,识别出实验室凝血功能检测工作流程中关键环节的风险。针对凝血功能检测的评价活动,采取积极的纠正措施,通过监测系统周期性地审核性能数据,可以对凝血功能检测的质量持续改进。(中华检验医学杂志,2016,39:13-17)%Definiting the workflow and key link of the risk management in medical laboratory by FMEA.Identifying risk factors of the workflow and key link of blood coagulation test by the criteria for laboratory accreditation , such as ISO15189 recognition criteria and CAP laboratory accreditation inspection . Through the evaluation of the blood coagulation test , effective corrective actions and examining performance data periodically , the quality of the blood coagulation test can be improved continuously.

  2. Effects of storage time and temperature on coagulation tests and factors in fresh plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Limin Feng; Ying Zhao; Hongcan Zhao; Zhexin Shao

    2014-01-01

    Coagulation tests and factors measurements have been widely applied in clinical practice. Pre-analytical conditions are very important in laboratory assessment.Here,we aim to determine the effects of storage time and temperature on activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen (Fbg), prothrombin time (PT), the international normalized ratio (INR), thrombin time (TT), factor VIII activity (FVIII:C), and factor IX activity (FIX:C) in fresh plasma. Seventy-two blood samples were teste...

  3. Ketones blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight ... there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  4. Localization of blood coagulation factors in the germinal centers of human Peyer's patches

    OpenAIRE

    Kudo, S.; Yamakawa, Mitsunori; Imai, Yutaka; Tsukamoto, M.

    1992-01-01

    The immunohistochemical distribution of 15 blood coagulation factors in the germinal centers (GCs) of human Peyer's patches (PPs) was studied. Although factor VIII, active alpha-thrombin, and fibrinogen were hardly evident in the GCs, the majority of coagulation factors, such as kallikrein, high-molecular-weight kininogen, factos XII, X, IX, VII, V, XIIIa and XIIIb, prothrombin, anti-thrombin 111 and inactive alpha-thrombin were found, showing a lace-like s...

  5. Blood flow controls coagulation onset via the positive feedback of factor VII activation by factor Xa

    OpenAIRE

    Panteleev Mikhail A; Lobanova Ekaterina S; Shibeko Alexey M; Ataullakhanov Fazoil I

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Blood coagulation is a complex network of biochemical reactions, which is peculiar in that it is time- and space-dependent, and has to function in the presence of rapid flow. Recent experimental reports suggest that flow plays a significant role in its regulation. The objective of this study was to use systems biology techniques to investigate this regulation and to identify mechanisms creating a flow-dependent switch in the coagulation onset. Results Using a detailed mech...

  6. Blood coagulation screening using a paper-based microfluidic lateral flow device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Han, D; Pauletti, G M; Steckl, A J

    2014-10-21

    A simple approach to the evaluation of blood coagulation using a microfluidic paper-based lateral flow assay (LFA) device for point-of-care (POC) and self-monitoring screening is reported. The device utilizes whole blood, without the need for prior separation of plasma from red blood cells (RBC). Experiments were performed using animal (rabbit) blood treated with trisodium citrate to prevent coagulation. CaCl2 solutions of varying concentrations are added to citrated blood, producing Ca(2+) ions to re-establish the coagulation cascade and mimic different blood coagulation abilities in vitro. Blood samples are dispensed into a paper-based LFA device consisting of sample pad, analytical membrane and wicking pad. The porous nature of the cellulose membrane separates the aqueous plasma component from the large blood cells. Since the viscosity of blood changes with its coagulation ability, the distance RBCs travel in the membrane in a given time can be related to the blood clotting time. The distance of the RBC front is found to decrease linearly with increasing CaCl2 concentration, with a travel rate decreasing from 3.25 mm min(-1) for no added CaCl2 to 2.2 mm min(-1) for 500 mM solution. Compared to conventional plasma clotting analyzers, the LFA device is much simpler and it provides a significantly larger linear range of measurement. Using the red colour of RBCs as a visible marker, this approach can be utilized to produce a simple and clear indicator of whether the blood condition is within the appropriate range for the patient's condition. PMID:25144164

  7. Blood Test: Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Glucose Print A A A Text Size What's in ... de sangre: glucosa What It Is A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose (the main ...

  8. BUN - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood urea nitrogen ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this ...

  9. Dynamic and quantitative assessment of blood coagulation using optical coherence elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangqun; Zhu, Jiang; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-04-01

    Reliable clot diagnostic systems are needed for directing treatment in a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases and coagulopathy. Here, we report on non-contact measurement of elastic modulus for dynamic and quantitative assessment of whole blood coagulation using acoustic radiation force orthogonal excitation optical coherence elastography (ARFOE-OCE). In this system, acoustic radiation force (ARF) is produced by a remote ultrasonic transducer, and a shear wave induced by ARF excitation is detected by the optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. During porcine whole blood coagulation, changes in the elastic property of the clots increase the shear modulus of the sample, altering the propagating velocity of the shear wave. Consequently, dynamic blood coagulation status can be measured quantitatively by relating the velocity of the shear wave with clinically relevant coagulation metrics, including reaction time, clot formation kinetics and maximum shear modulus. The results show that the ARFOE-OCE is sensitive to the clot formation kinetics and can differentiate the elastic properties of the recalcified porcine whole blood, blood added with kaolin as an activator, and blood spiked with fibrinogen.

  10. An optical approach for non-invasive blood clot testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Brill, Alexander; Fine, Ilya; Harmelin, Alon

    2007-02-01

    Physiological blood coagulation is an essential biological process. Current tests for plasma coagulation (clotting) need to be performed ex vivo and require fresh blood sampling for every test. A recently published work describes a new, noninvasive, in vivo approach to assess blood coagulation status during mechanical occlusion1. For this purpose, we have tested this approach and applied a controlled laser beam to blood micro-vessels of the mouse ear during mechanical occlusion. Standard setup for intravital transillumination videomicroscopy and laser based imaging techniques were used for monitoring the blood clotting process. Temporal mechanical occlusion of blood vessels in the observed area was applied to ensure blood flow cessation. Subsequently, laser irradiation was used to induce vascular micro-injury. Changes in the vessel wall, as well as in the pattern of blood flow, predispose the area to vascular thrombosis, according to the paradigm of Virchow's triad. In our experiments, two elements of Virchow's triad were used to induce the process of clotting in vivo, and to assess it optically. We identified several parameters that can serve as markers of the blood clotting process in vivo. These include changes in light absorption in the area of illumination, as well as changes in the pattern of the red blood cells' micro-movement in the vessels where blood flow is completely arrested. Thus, our results indicate that blood coagulation status can be characterized by non-invasive, in vivo methodologies.

  11. A high-fat meal does not activate blood coagulation factor VII in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A K; Larsen, L F; Bladbjerg, E-M; Hansen, A K; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P

    2001-01-01

    It is a matter of debate whether postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII) is associated with an increased risk of thrombosis. To clarify this question, an animal model in which consequences of dietary FVII activation can be studied in a more detailed way would be an important...

  12. EFFECT OF CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER ON BLOOD COAGULATION PARAMETERS IN RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Nadziejko and her colleagues at the New York University School of Medicine plan to evaluate the effects of exposing healthy rats to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) and changes in blood coagulation parameters. The investigators expect to measure platelet number, bl...

  13. Evaluation of periodontal tissues condition in children with blood coagulability pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrilenko, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Actuality of the problem is determined by the high prevalence of inflammatory diseases of periodontal tissues in children with blood pathology (100%). Primary prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases has the exceptional importance in the dentist’s work with children who have blood coagulability disorders. Prevention of dental diseases of the oral cavity in this category of patients has a number of features because there is the risk of bleeding during both home oral hyg...

  14. Vitamin A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003570.htm Vitamin A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The vitamin A test measures the level of vitamin A ...

  15. Using a Systems Pharmacology Model of the Blood Coagulation Network to Predict the Effects of Various Therapies on Biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    S. Nayak; Lee, D.; Patel-Hett, S; Pittman, DD; Martin, SW; Heatherington, AC; Vicini, P.; F. Hua

    2015-01-01

    A number of therapeutics have been developed or are under development aiming to modulate the coagulation network to treat various diseases. We used a systems model to better understand the effect of modulating various components on blood coagulation. A computational model of the coagulation network was built to match in-house in vitro thrombin generation and activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT) data with various concentrations of recombinant factor VIIa (FVIIa) or factor Xa added to n...

  16. CO2 blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test. DO ...

  17. Hydroxyethyl Starch Reduces Coagulation Competence and Increases Blood Loss During Major Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten C; Johansson, Pär I; Højskov, Michael;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether administration of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 affects coagulation competence and influences the perioperative blood loss. BACKGROUND: Artificial colloids substitute blood volume during surgery; with the administration of HES 130/0.4 (Voluven, Fresenius...... Kabi, Uppsala, Sweden) only a minor effect on coagulation competence is expected. METHODS: Eighty patients were scanned for enrollment in the study, and 40 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two patients withdrew their consent to participate in the study, and 5 patients were excluded. Thus, 16...... patients were randomized to receive lactated Ringer's solution and 17 to receive HES 130/0.4. RESULTS: Among the patients receiving HES 130/0.4, thrombelastography indicated reduced clot strength (P < 0.001) and blinded evaluation of the perioperative blood loss was 2.2 (range 0.5 to 5.0) versus 1.4 (range...

  18. [Status of blood coagulation and various background endocrine indices in patients with basal meningiomas during pre- and postoperative periods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgman, G P; Snigireva, R Ia; Vial'tseva, I N; Shvorneva, V Z; Snigirev, V S

    1980-01-01

    The condition of blood coagulation activity and the indices of the endocrine background were studied in patients with tumors of prevalently basal localization which caused a direct effect on the central regulating centers. Thirty patients with basal and medially located meningiomas were examined in the pre- and postoperative periods. Before the operation most patients had clinical signs of endocrine-metabolic disorders, often in the presence of an increased content of ACTH and cortisol in the blood. Blood coagulation was disturbed in the majority of patients, mainly due to increased activity of the blood coagulation system. In the postoperative period, blood coagulation activity in 24 of 30 patients was increased or showed a tendency to increase in the presence of elevated blood ACTH content while processes of fibrinolysis were inhibited, which substantiates the necessity for anticoagulant therapy when large doses of glucocorticoids are used. PMID:6254292

  19. Influence of low molecular heparin on blood coagulation function and lung function in AECOPD patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Deng

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the influence of low molecular heparin on the blood coagulation function and lung function in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) patients.Methods:A total of 100 cases AECOPD patients were divided into observation group and control group according to the present order and odd number by half. They were all given AECOPD conventional symptomatic treatment, on this basis, patients in the observation group were treated with low molecular heparin, 10 d after treatment, arterial blood gas index such as oxygen partial pressure (PaO2), oxygen saturation (SaO2), carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2), pulmonary function index such as forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, blood coagulation function index such as fibrinogen (Fib), D-dimer (D-D), activated partial blood coagulation time (APTT) live enzymes, plasma prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT) between two groups before and after treatment were compared.Results:Compared with before treatment, the levels of PaO2, SaO2, FEV1 and FVC, FEV1/FVC in control group after treatment were significantly elevated, PaCO2, D-D were significantly reduced, the difference were statistically significant (P<0.05); The levels of PaO2, SaO2, FEV1 and FVC, FEV1/FVC, PT, TT and APTT in observation group after treatment were significantly increased, and were significantly higher than the control group after treatment, PaCO2, D-D, Fib were significantly lower, and were lower than the control group after treatment, the differences were statistically significant (allP<0.05).Conclusions:AECOPD patients treated with low molecular heparin can help to improve the arterial blood gas, lung function and blood coagulation function.

  20. Air quality improvement during 2010 Asian games on blood coagulability in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zili; Wang, Jian; Guo, Meihua; Xiong, Mingmei; Zhou, Qipeng; Li, Defu; Shu, Jiaze; Lu, Wenju; Sun, Dejun

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to elevated levels of ambient air pollutants can lead to adverse cardiovascular effects. Perturbation of the coagulation balance is one of the potential mechanisms. However, evidence regarding the impact of improvement in air pollution on blood coagulability in COPD patients has never been reported. Coagulation processes are known to be of relevance for cardiovascular pathology; therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association of short-term air pollution exposure with blood marker (D-dimer) of coagulation. A 3-year (through the Asian game) cohort study based on the GIRD COPD Biobank Project was conducted in 36 COPD patients to estimate whether changes in measurements of D-dimer were associated with changes in pollutant concentration, comparing for 51 intervention days (November 1-December 21) in 2010 with the same calendar date of baseline years (2009 and 2011). Daily mean concentrations of air pollutants and meteorological variables were measured during the time. Daily PM10 decreased from 65.86 μg/m(3) during the baseline period to 62.63 μg/m(3) during the Asian Games period; daily NO2 decreased from 51.33 to 42.63 μg/m(3). SO2 and other weather variables did not differ substantially. We did not observe statistically significant improvements in D-dimer levels by 9.86 % from a pre-Asian game mean of 917 ng/ml to a during-Asian game mean of 1007 ng/ml, platelet number by 11.66 %, PH by -0.15 %, PCO2 by -6.54 %, and PO2 by -1.16 %. In the post-Asian game period, when pollutant concentrations increased, most outcomes approximated pre-Asian game levels, and similar effects were also demonstrated in D-dimer, platelet number, and arterial blood gas. For D-dimer and platelet number, we observed statistically significant increases associated with increases in NO2 at lag 1-3 and SO2 at lag 2-4. For PH, PCO2, and PO2, any significant effect was not demonstrated. This study gives no support to the hypothesis that reduction in air pollution

  1. TO INVESTIGATE THE ACTION OF GINGER-JUICE ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSCOE (ZINGIBERACEAE ON BLOOD COAGULATION PROCESS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S.Prasad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of ginger-juice (zingiber officinale roscoe action on blood coagulation process in rat. Methods: (A Albino Wister rats (n=6-12 were administered G.J at two doses (2ml & 4 ml/rat, p.o as single administration and chronic treatment over period of 30 days. Following this assessment was done for possible effects on the blood coagulation. Parameters used during assessment were on the bleeding time, clotting time. prothrombin time, thrombin time, partial thromboplastin with kaolin (PTTk and platelet count. Results: Chronicadministration of G.J (2ml & 4ml/rat, p.o caused an increase in the bleeding time. There is no effect of gingerjuice treatment (2ml & 4ml/rat, p.o for 30 days on the clotting time, prothrombin time, thrombin time, partial thromboplastin time with kaolin (PTTk, and Platelet counts. Conclusion: Ginger administration increasedbleeding time on chronic administration G.J in two different doses.

  2. Blood Test: Bilirubin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the blood. Babies with high levels may need phototherapy (treatment with a special light that makes bilirubin ... are afraid of needles. Explaining the test in terms your child can understand might help ease some ...

  3. Obstetric hemorrhage and coagulation: an update. Thromboelastography, thromboelastometry, and conventional coagulation tests in the diagnosis and prediction of postpartum hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Natascha M; Lancé, Marcus D; de Groot, Reneé; Beckers, Erik A M; Henskens, Yvonne M; Scheepers, Hubertina C J

    2012-07-01

    Globally, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. In the current treatment of severe PPH, first-line therapy includes transfusion of packed cells and fresh-frozen plasma in addition to uterotonic medical management and surgical interventions. In persistent PPH, tranexamic acid, fibrinogen, and coagulation factors are often administered. Secondary coagulopathy due to PPH or its treatment is often underestimated and therefore remains untreated, potentially causing progression to even more severe PPH. In most cases, medical and transfusion therapy is not based on the actual coagulation state because conventional laboratory test results are usually not available for 45 to 60 minutes. Thromboelastography and rotational thromboelastometry are point-of-care coagulation tests. A good correlation has been shown between thromboelastometric and conventional coagulation tests, and the use of these in massive bleeding in nonobstetric patients is widely practiced and it has been proven to be cost-effective. As with conventional laboratory tests, there is an influence of fluid dilution on coagulation test results, which is more pronounced with colloid fluids. Fibrinogen seems to play a major role in the course of PPH and can be an early predictor of the severity of PPH. The FIBTEM values (in thromboelastometry, reagent specific for the fibrin polymerization process) decline even more rapidly than fibrinogen levels and can be useful for early guidance of interventions. Data on thromboelastography and thromboelastometry in pregnant women are limited, particularly during the peripartum period and in women with PPH, so more research in this field is needed. PMID:22926249

  4. Thrombin Activity Propagates in Space During Blood Coagulation as an Excitation Wave

    OpenAIRE

    Dashkevich, N.M.; Ovanesov, M.V.; Balandina, A.N.; Karamzin, S.S.; Shestakov, P.I.; Soshitova, N.P.; Tokarev, A.A.; Panteleev, M.A.; Ataullakhanov, F.I.

    2012-01-01

    Injury-induced bleeding is stopped by a hemostatic plug formation that is controlled by a complex nonlinear and spatially heterogeneous biochemical network of proteolytic enzymes called blood coagulation. We studied spatial dynamics of thrombin, the central enzyme of this network, by developing a fluorogenic substrate-based method for time- and space-resolved imaging of thrombin enzymatic activity. Clotting stimulation by immobilized tissue factor induced localized thrombin activity impulse t...

  5. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-alpha inhibits prothrombinase during the initiation of blood coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Jeremy P.; Bunce, Matthew W.; Maroney, Susan A.; Tracy, Paula B.; Camire, Rodney M.; Mast, Alan E.

    2013-01-01

    The generation of thrombin by prothrombinase, a complex composed of activated (a) factors X (FXa) and V (FVa), is a final step in blood coagulation. We demonstrate that tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) blocks thrombin generation by prothrombinase at physiologically relevant rates and concentrations, but only during the initiation of clot formation. TFPI mediates this inhibitory activity through two high-affinity interactions, one with FXa and one with FVa. This is the first description ...

  6. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  7. Changes in Blood Parameters and the Expression of Coagulation-Related Genes in Lactating Sprague–Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Urasoko, Yoshinaka; He, Xi Jun; Masao, Takano; KINOSHITA, YUICHI; Edamoto, Hiroshi; Hatayama, Kazuhisa; Asano, Yuzo; Tamura, Kazutoshi; Mochizuki, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    This study measured blood parameters, particularly those related to coagulation, and alterations in the expression levels of blood-coagulation–related genes in lactating Sprague–Dawley rats. The day of delivery was designated as lactation day 0 (LD 0). On the day after delivery (LD 1), prothrombin time and overall activity of vitamin-K–dependent coagulation factors were decreased, whereas fibrinogen contents, platelet counts and antithrombin III concentrations were increased as compared with ...

  8. Origin of serpin-mediated regulation of coagulation and blood pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjie Wang

    Full Text Available Vertebrates evolved an endothelium-lined hemostatic system and a pump-driven pressurized circulation with a finely-balanced coagulation cascade and elaborate blood pressure control over the past 500 million years. Genome analyses have identified principal components of the ancestral coagulation system, however, how this complex trait was originally regulated is largely unknown. Likewise, little is known about the roots of blood pressure control in vertebrates. Here we studied three members of the serpin superfamily that interfere with procoagulant activity and blood pressure of lampreys, a group of basal vertebrates. Angiotensinogen from these jawless fish was found to fulfill a dual role by operating as a highly selective thrombin inhibitor that is activated by heparin-related glycosaminoglycans, and concurrently by serving as source of effector peptides that activate type 1 angiotensin receptors. Lampreys, uniquely among vertebrates, thus use angiotensinogen for interference with both coagulation and osmo- and pressure regulation. Heparin cofactor II from lampreys, in contrast to its paralogue angiotensinogen, is preferentially activated by dermatan sulfate, suggesting that these two serpins affect different facets of thrombin's multiple roles. Lampreys also express a lineage-specific serpin with anti-factor Xa activity, which demonstrates that another important procoagulant enzyme is under inhibitory control. Comparative genomics suggests that orthologues of these three serpins were key components of the ancestral hemostatic system. It appears that, early in vertebrate evolution, coagulation and osmo- and pressure regulation crosstalked through antiproteolytically active angiotensinogen, a feature that was lost during vertebrate radiation, though in gnathostomes interplay between these traits is effective.

  9. [Evaluation of the blood coagulation system after surgeries on abdominal aortic aneurysms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikul'nikov, P I; Liksunov, O V; Ratushniuk, A V; Lugovs'koĭ, E V; Kolesnikova, I M; Lytvynova, L M; Kostiuchenko, O P; Chernyshenko, T M; Hornyts'ka, O V; Platonova, T M

    2012-09-01

    Basing on data of analysis of the hemostasis system state in the patients, suffering abdominal aorta aneurysm, a tendency for raising of postoperative soluble fibrin and D-dimer content in the blood plasm and reduction of these indices on the third day was noted. The abovementioned markers content depends on the aneurysm size, the fibrin deposits presence, the terms from clinical signs beginning to the certain therapy administration and anticoagulants application. Information about correlation between content of D-dimer and soluble fibrin in the treatment dynamics is important for determination of activation degree in the patients blood coagulation system and the thrombotic complications prognosis. PMID:23285650

  10. Development of a method for measuring blood coagulation using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and an alternating magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Murase, Kenya

    2016-01-01

    We developed a method for measuring blood coagulation using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The 3rd and 5th harmonic signals from SPIONs mixed with blood induced by AMF were detected using a gradiometer coil. Blood coagulation was induced artificially by adding CaCl2 solution to whole blood of sheep at various temperatures and hematocrits. We calculated the coagulation rate (k) and normalized signal intensity at infinite time (Sinf) by fitting the time course of the normalized 3rd harmonic signal to S(t)=(1-Sinf)exp(-kt)+Sinf. The k values increased significantly with increasing temperature and decreased significantly with increasing hematocrit. The Sinf values decreased significantly with increasing temperature and tended to increase with increasing hematocrit. Blood anticoagulation was induced by adding heparin to the whole blood sampled from mice. There were significant differences in both the 3rd and 5th harmonic signals between groups with and ...

  11. Blood coagulation parameters and activity indices in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Arshinov

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess coagulation parameters and activity indices in pts with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Material and methods . 86 pts with SLE (83 female and 3 male were examined. 12 of them had antiphospholipid syndrome. Mean age was 35,9±1,5 years (from 18 to 58 years, mean disease duration was 9,8+1,4 years. Control group consisted of 60 healthy volunteers with mean age 37,1+4,1 years. SLE activity assessment was performed with SLAM, SLEDAI and ECLAM indices. Results. SLE pts showed 5-fold (p<0,01 increase of spontaneous platelets aggregation and more than 3-fold increase of factor von Willebrand antigen (FWA concentration. Platelet activation in pts was accompanied by decrease of platelet aggregation with collagen (on 27%, p<0,01. Characteristic sign of coagulation hemostasis activation was significant increase of soluble fibrin-monomer complexes (SFMC concentration on 81 % (p<0,01 so as increase D-dimers level in 53,3% of pts. Fibrinogen concentration was increased on 29%, spontaneous fibrinolysis parameters were decreased on 20%, antithrombin (AT 111 - on 21% in comparison with control. Direct correlation between activity indiccs and SFMC(ECLAM, r=0,5, fibrinogen concentration (SLAM, r=0,34, D- dimers level (ECLAM, r=0,5, spontaneous platelet aggregation (ECLAM, r=0,5 so as inverse correlation with AT III activity (SLEDAI, r-0,73 was revealed. Conclusion. Changes of hemostasis parameters in SLE may serve as predictors of thrombotic disorders development and indication to drug correction of blood coagulation disorders. Direct correlation between blood coagulation system activity and indices of SLE activity.

  12. A Comparison Study of the Effects Injectable Contraceptive Cyclofem on Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丹利; 卢凤英; 陈爱军; 沈康元; 蒋海瑛; 童琮

    1995-01-01

    Forty-six healthy women received Cyclofem (25mg medroxyprogesterone acetate with 5mg estradiol cypionate) and other forty-five women, as control, received oral contraceptive pill (Orttm-Novum 1/35, containing norethisterone enantate 1mg and estradiol valerate 35μg) for nine months. Blood samples were taken during the follicular and luteal phases of pre- treatment, and for Cyclofem group, immediately prior to the 3rd and 9th injections and 1 and 3 weeks after the 3rd and 9th injections; for Ortho-Novum group, blood samples were taken on the irst day of the 3rd and 9th pill cycles and 1 and 3 weeks later in both cycles. For both groups after at least 3 months nonhormonal method of contraception, blood sampling was repeated at follicular and luteal phases of a normal mentrual cycle. Coagulation and fibrinolysis parameter were detected including hemoglobin, platelet count, prothrombin time, APTT, fibrinogen, factor Ⅶ, factor Ⅹ, plasminogen, t-PAL AT Ⅲ(functional and immunological assays) and protein C. In the Cyclofem group, hemoglobin, platelet count, fibrinogen and factor Ⅹ were not changed. Factor Ⅶ significantly reduced. Prothrombin time and APTT showed minor changes. Plasminogen and protein C decreased while t-PAI aad AT Ⅲ increased. These changes showed a dynamic balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis. In Ortho-Novum 1/35 group, platelet count, factor Ⅹ and fibrinogen increased and prothrombin time and APTT accelerated. In fibrinolysis and anticoagutation system, plasminogen increased as well as protein C, but AT Ⅲ declined. Those changes showed a tendency of hyper-eoagutability state, fibrinolysis and anticoagulation were enhanced to a certain extent.The result of our study is that there are slight changes on coagulation and fibrinolysis in Cyclofem injectable contraceptive users.

  13. Effects of Replenishing Qi, Promoting Blood Circulation and Resolving Phlegm on Vascular Endothelial Function and Blood Coagulation System in Senile Patients with Hyperlipemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Huimin; Han Libei; Sheng Tong; He Qiong; Liang Jinpu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the curative effect of the method of replenishing qi, promoting blood circulation and resolving phlegm on senile hyperlipemia and its effects on vascular endothelial function and blood coagulation system. Method: 96 patients with senile hyperlipemia were randomly divided into a treatment group and a of blood lipid, vascular endothelial function, blood coagulation system and safety. Results: After treatment,the treatment group was obviously superior to the control group (P<0.05) in reducing plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as well as in the ratio of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) to 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α), D-dimer (D-D) and fibrinogen (FIB). Conclusion: Danshen Jueming Granules have the effect of regulating metabolism of blood lipid, and improving vascular endothelial function and blood coagulation system in senile patients with hyperlipemia.

  14. [State of the blood coagulation in glial tumors of the brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgman, G P; Kachkov, I A; Vial'tseva, I N; Shcherbakova, G G

    1979-01-01

    The data presented may be of definite value in the prevention of hemorrhage and thrombosis in patients with malignant glial tumors. A malignant glioma may lead to increased activity of the blood coagulation system (BCS). Preoperative staining of the tumor was not attended by marked changes in the BCS and blood viscocity, though a tendency towards an increase in BCS activity according to some of the indices may sometimes be noted. Chemotherapy with nitrosourea and methotrexate was attended by thrombocytopenia but there was practically no changes in the other BCS indices. The postoperative period is usually marked by increased BCS activity according to most of the indices. Increased blood viscocity is often encountered in patients with glial cerebral tumors in the preoperative and postoperative periods, which is evidently due to the intensive dehydration therapy to which they are subjected in marked increase of intracranial pressure. PMID:223352

  15. Positive selection during the evolution of the blood coagulation factors in the context of their disease-causing mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Rallapalli, P. M.; Orengo, C A; Studer, R. A.; Perkins, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Blood coagulation occurs through a cascade of enzymes and cofactors that produces a fibrin clot, while otherwise maintaining hemostasis. The 11 human coagulation factors (FG, FII–FXIII) have been identified across all vertebrates, suggesting that they emerged with the first vertebrates around 500 Ma. Human FVIII, FIX, and FXI are associated with thousands of disease-causing mutations. Here, we evaluated the strength of selective pressures on the 14 genes coding for the 11 factors during verte...

  16. The effect of administration of a single dose of T-2 toxin on blood coagulation in the rabbit.

    OpenAIRE

    Gentry, P A

    1982-01-01

    The single intravenous administration of T-2 toxin to rabbits at a dosage of 0.5 mg per kg body weight produced an alteration in several blood coagulation parameters. The activities of factors VII, VIII, IX, X and XI were decreased by approximately 40% six hours after T-2 toxin administration. Plasma fibrinogen concentration became elevated within 24 hours after T-2 toxin exposure. Circulating platelet numbers were unaffected by T-2 toxin administration. The similarity of coagulation paramete...

  17. Whole blood coagulation and platelet activation in the athlete: A comparison of marathon, triathlon and long distance cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanke AA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Serious thrombembolic events occur in otherwise healthy marathon athletes during competition. We tested the hypothesis that during heavy endurance sports coagulation and platelets are activated depending on the type of endurance sport with respect to its running fraction. Materials and Methods 68 healthy athletes participating in marathon (MAR, running 42 km, n = 24, triathlon (TRI, swimming 2.5 km + cycling 90 km + running 21 km, n = 22, and long distance cycling (CYC, 151 km, n = 22 were included in the study. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after completion of competition to perform rotational thrombelastometry. We assessed coagulation time (CT, maximum clot firmness (MCF after intrinsically activation and fibrin polymerization (FIBTEM. Furthermore, platelet aggregation was tested after activation with ADP and thrombin activating peptide 6 (TRAP by using multiple platelet function analyzer. Results Complete data sets were obtained in 58 athletes (MAR: n = 20, TRI: n = 19, CYC: n = 19. CT significantly decreased in all groups (MAR -9.9%, TRI -8.3%, CYC -7.4% without differences between groups. In parallel, MCF (MAR +7.4%, TRI +6.1%, CYC +8.3% and fibrin polymerization (MAR +14.7%, TRI +6.1%, CYC +8.3% were significantly increased in all groups. However, platelets were only activated during MAR and TRI as indicated by increased AUC during TRAP-activation (MAR +15.8% and increased AUC during ADP-activation in MAR (+50.3% and TRI (+57.5%. Discussion While coagulation is activated during physical activity irrespective of type we observed significant platelet activation only during marathon and to a lesser extent during triathlon. We speculate that prolonged running may increase platelet activity, possibly, due to mechanical alteration. Thus, particularly prolonged running may increase the risk of thrombembolic incidents in running athletes.

  18. Clot Retraction: A Miniaturized Hemoretractometer for Blood Clot Retraction Testing (Small 29/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zida; Li, Xiang; McCracken, Brendan; Shao, Yue; Ward, Kevin; Fu, Jianping

    2016-08-01

    Whole blood coagulation testing provides valuable diagnostic information on diseases such as bleeding disorders, heart attack, deep venous thrombosis, etc. On page 3926, J. Fu and co-workers develop a miniaturized hemoretractometer to measure clot contraction upon blood coagulation with good reproducibility and robustness. This device design shows great application potential in point-of-care testing. Photo credit: David Peyer from University of Michigan. PMID:27477258

  19. Cord blood testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to evaluate the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH levels) Blood sugar level Blood type and Rh Complete blood count ( ... means you have a blood infection (septicemia). High levels of blood sugar (glucose) in the cord blood may be found ...

  20. Perturbed blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in rabbits after irradiation to the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of X-ray irradiation to the liver were studied in rabbits with special reference to the free radicals induced by the irradiation at various doses of 5, 10, 20 and 40 Gy. Results were summarized as follows: (1) APTT and PT significantly prolonged immediately after irradiation and on day 1, and recovered thereafter to the control levels. (2) Levels of blood coagulation factors I, II and plasminogen, t-PA and plasma prekallikrein showed similar trends, namely, an initial rapid decrease immediately after irradiation, followed by a transient increase on day 3 and a subsequent recovery to the control level on days 7 and 10. These changes coincided with the prolongation of ATPP and PT. (3) The SOD activity and the plasma albumin level also decreased immediately after irradiation, recovered once from 3 to 7 days and decreased again on days 10. The decreased SOD activity noted immediately after irradiation indicates production of free radicals induced by the irradiation. This finding may suggest that the free radicals thus produced may have perturbed blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, at least in part, by blocking the secretion of relevant proteins from the hepatocytes. (author)

  1. Plasma concentrations of blood coagulation factor VII measured by immunochemical and amidolytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    Ever since the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII:C) was identified as a risk indicator of cardiac death, a large number of studies have measured FVII protein concentrations in plasma. FVII protein concentrations are either measured immunologically with an ELISA method (FVII......:Ag) or estimated with an amidolytic method (FVII:Am). We have investigated whether FVII:Am is a valuable alternative to FVII:Ag. FVII:Ag and FVII:Am were measured in 147 plasma samples from blood donors, patients on oral anticoagulant therapy, postmenopausal women on hormone replacement therapy, in...... after omitting the data from patients on oral anticoagulant therapy, with mean values of 113 U/ml for FVII:Ag and 110 U/ml for FVII:Am (p < 0.01). In a linear regression analysis, the intercept (alpha=-21.50) was different from zero (p < 0.0001) and the slope (beta=1.16) was different from 1.0 (p < 0...

  2. A comparative study of tissue factor and kaolin on blood coagulation assays using rotational thromboelastometry and thromboelastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Henry T; Grodecki, Richard; Rizoli, Sandro; Shek, Pang N

    2016-01-01

    Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and thromboelastography (TEG) have been increasingly used to diagnose acute coagulopathy and guide blood transfusion. The tests are routinely performed using different triggering activators such as tissue factor and kaolin, which activate different pathways yielding different results. To optimize the global blood coagulation assays using ROTEM and TEG, we conducted a comparative study on the activation methods employing tissue factor and kaolin at different concentrations as well as standard reagents as recommended by the manufacturer of each device. Key parameter values were obtained at various assay conditions to evaluate and compare coagulation and fibrinolysis profiles of citrated whole blood collected from healthy volunteers. It was found that tissue factor reduced ROTEM clotting time and TEG R, and increased ROTEM clot formation time and TEG K in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, tissue factor affected ROTEM alpha angle, and maximum clot firmness, especially in the absence of kaolin activation, whereas both ROTEM and TEG clot lysis (LI30, CL30, and LY30) remained unaffected. Moreover, kaolin reduced ROTEM clotting time and TEG R and K, but to a lesser extent than tissue factor, in-tem and ex-tem. Correlations in all corresponding parameters between ROTEM and TEG were observed, when the same activators were used in the assays compared with lesser correlations between standard kaolin TEG and ROTEM (INTEM/EXTEM). The two types of viscoelastic point-of-care devices provide different results, depending on the triggering reagent used to perform the assay. Optimal assay condition was obtained to reduce assay time and improve assay accuracy. PMID:26340454

  3. Duvernoy's gland secretion of Philodryas patagoniensis from the northeast of Argentina: its effects on blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peichoto, M E; Leiva, L C; Guaimás Moya, L E; Rey, L; Acosta, O

    2005-03-15

    Duvernoy's gland secretion of Philodryas patagoniensis exhibits high hemorrhagic activity, containing enzymes that are able to degrade the vascular wall. In this work we aim to determine if the secretion can also affect the hemostatic system by causing changes in blood coagulation. Procoagulant and coagulant activities were evaluated on plasma and fibrinogen, respectively. The delay in the thrombin clotting time of fibrinogen previously incubated with the secretion was also determined. Specific hydrolysis of fibrinogen and fibrin incubated with the secretion at different time intervals was shown by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel. To determine the structural characteristics of the enzymes degrading fibrinogen and fibrin, secretion were incubated in the presence of 45 mM Na(2)EDTA, 40 mM Benzamidine, and/or 2 mM PMSF before the incubation with fibrinogen or fibrin, respectively. The effect in vivo was investigated in adult male rats injected with different dose of secretion, aliquots of blood were withdrawn at different time intervals, and the fibrinogen concentration was determined. Duvernoy's gland secretion of P. patagoniensis did not clot plasma or fibrinogen. It exhibited a potent fibrinogenolytic activity degrading the Aalpha-chain faster than the Bbeta-chain, whereas gamma-chain was resistant. This latter corresponded with a strong delay in the thrombin clotting time of fibrinogen (4 mg/ml) pre-incubated with the secretion, being 9.53 microg the amount of protein from Duvernoy's gland secretion that increased the thrombin clotting time from 20 to 60 s. In vivo, the loss of rat plasma fibrinogen was proportional to the amount of secretion injected. The secretion also hydrolyzed fibrin degrading the alpha-monomer. Inhibition studies with Na(2)EDTA, Benzamidine, and/or PMSF showed that metalloproteinases and serinoproteinases are the main enzymes responsible for the hydrolyzing activity on fibrinogen and fibrin. All these results demonstrate that Duvernoy

  4. Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses induced by laser coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report application of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), i.e., a fast imaging technique utilising backscattered light to distinguish such moving objects as red blood cells from such stationary objects as surrounding tissue, to localise skin injury. This imaging technique provides detailed information about the acute perfusion response after a blood vessel is occluded. In this study, a mouse ear model is used and pulsed laser coagulation serves as the method of occlusion. We have found that the downstream blood vessels lacked blood flow due to occlusion at the target site immediately after injury. Relative flow changes in nearby collaterals and anastomotic vessels have been approximated based on differences in intensity in the nearby collaterals and anastomoses. We have also estimated the density of the affected downstream vessels. Laser speckle contrast imaging is shown to be used for highresolution and fast-speed imaging for the skin microvasculature. It also allows direct visualisation of the blood perfusion response to injury, which may provide novel insights to the field of cutaneous wound healing. (laser biophotonics)

  5. Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses induced by laser coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogami, M; Kulkarni, R; Wang, H; Reif, R; Wang, R K [University of Washington, Department of Bioengineering, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-08-31

    We report application of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), i.e., a fast imaging technique utilising backscattered light to distinguish such moving objects as red blood cells from such stationary objects as surrounding tissue, to localise skin injury. This imaging technique provides detailed information about the acute perfusion response after a blood vessel is occluded. In this study, a mouse ear model is used and pulsed laser coagulation serves as the method of occlusion. We have found that the downstream blood vessels lacked blood flow due to occlusion at the target site immediately after injury. Relative flow changes in nearby collaterals and anastomotic vessels have been approximated based on differences in intensity in the nearby collaterals and anastomoses. We have also estimated the density of the affected downstream vessels. Laser speckle contrast imaging is shown to be used for highresolution and fast-speed imaging for the skin microvasculature. It also allows direct visualisation of the blood perfusion response to injury, which may provide novel insights to the field of cutaneous wound healing. (laser biophotonics)

  6. Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses induced by laser coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogami, M.; Kulkarni, R.; Wang, H.; Reif, R.; Wang, R. K.

    2014-08-01

    We report application of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), i.e., a fast imaging technique utilising backscattered light to distinguish such moving objects as red blood cells from such stationary objects as surrounding tissue, to localise skin injury. This imaging technique provides detailed information about the acute perfusion response after a blood vessel is occluded. In this study, a mouse ear model is used and pulsed laser coagulation serves as the method of occlusion. We have found that the downstream blood vessels lacked blood flow due to occlusion at the target site immediately after injury. Relative flow changes in nearby collaterals and anastomotic vessels have been approximated based on differences in intensity in the nearby collaterals and anastomoses. We have also estimated the density of the affected downstream vessels. Laser speckle contrast imaging is shown to be used for highresolution and fast-speed imaging for the skin microvasculature. It also allows direct visualisation of the blood perfusion response to injury, which may provide novel insights to the field of cutaneous wound healing.

  7. Magnesium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight pain. Others feel a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  8. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Saunders; 2016:chap 73. Read More Acute kidney failure Acute pancreatitis Alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test ALP - blood test Burns Cardiac catheterization Enzyme Heart attack Hemolytic anemia Hepatic Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma Liver disease Mononucleosis Muscular ...

  9. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate and Its Receptors: A Mutual Link between Blood Coagulation and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailaja Mahajan-Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P is a versatile lipid signaling molecule and key regulator in vascular inflammation. S1P is secreted by platelets, monocytes, and vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. It binds specifically to a family of G-protein-coupled receptors, S1P receptors 1 to 5, resulting in downstream signaling and numerous cellular effects. S1P modulates cell proliferation and migration, and mediates proinflammatory responses and apoptosis. In the vascular barrier, S1P regulates permeability and endothelial reactions and recruitment of monocytes and may modulate atherosclerosis. Only recently has S1P emerged as a critical mediator which directly links the coagulation factor system to vascular inflammation. The multifunctional proteases thrombin and FXa regulate local S1P availability and interact with S1P signaling at multiple levels in various vascular cell types. Differential expression patterns and intracellular signaling pathways of each receptor enable S1P to exert its widespread functions. Although a vast amount of information is available about the functions of S1P and its receptors in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological conditions, S1P-mediated mechanisms in the vasculature remain to be elucidated. This review summarizes recent findings regarding the role of S1P and its receptors in vascular wall and blood cells, which link the coagulation system to inflammatory responses in the vasculature.

  10. Blood Coagulation Induced by Iranian Saw-Scaled Viper (Echis Carinatus Venom: Identification, Purification and Characterization of a Prothrombin Activator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Babaie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Echis carinatus is one of the venomous snakes in Iran. The venom of Iranian Echis carinatus is a rich source of protein with various factors affecting the plasma protein and blood coagulation factor. Some of these proteins exhibit types of enzymatic activities. However, other items are proteins with no enzymatic activity.   Materials and Methods: In order to study the mechanism and effect of the venom on human plasma proteins, the present study has evaluated the effect of crude venom and all fractions. A procoagulant factor (prothrombin activator was isolated from the venom of the Iranian snake Echis carinatus with a combination of gel filtration (Sephadex G-75, ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE- Sepharose and reverse phase HPLC. Furthermore, proteolytic activity of the crude venom and all fractions on blood coagulation factors such as prothrombin time (PT was studied. Results: In the present study, the PT test was reduced from 13.4 s to 8.6 s when human plasma was treated with crude venom (concentraion of venom was 1 mg/ml. The purified procoagulant factor revealed a single protein band in SDS polyacrylamide electrophoresis under reducing conditions and its molecular weight was estimated at about 65 kDa. A single-band protein showed fragment patterns similar to those generated by the group A prothrombin activators, which convert prothrombin into meizothrombin independent of the prothrombinase complex. Conclusion: This study showed that the fraction which separated from Iranian snake Echis carinatus venom can be a prothrombin activators. It can be concluded that this fraction is a procoagulant factor.

  11. Sodium citrate vacuum tubes validation: preventing preanalytical variability in routine coagulation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2013-04-01

    Sometimes in-vitro diagnostic devices (e.g. blood collection tubes) are not validated before use or when the producer's brand is changed. The aim of this study was to validate five brands of sodium citrate vacuum tubes. Blood specimens from 50 volunteers were collected in five different tube brands (I: Venosafe, II: VACUETTE, III: BD Vacutainer, IV: LABOR IMPORT and V: S-Monovette). Routine coagulation tests [activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), and fibrinogen (FIB)] were performed on ACL TOP instrument using HemosIL reagents. The significance of the differences between samples was assessed by paired Student's t-test, set at P < 0.005. Significant differences were observed for: PT when comparing I vs. II, I vs. III, I vs. V, II vs. III, II vs. IV, II vs. V, III vs. IV, III vs. V and IV vs. V; aPTT when comparing I vs. II, I vs. III, I vs. IV, II vs. IV, III vs. IV and IV vs. V. No differences were observed among brands for FIB determination. We suggest that every laboratory management should both standardize the procedures and frequently evaluate the quality of in-vitro diagnostic devices. PMID:23160241

  12. Blood Culture Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difficult to grow in culture, and additional blood cultures using special nutrient media may be done to try to grow and identify the pathogen . Viruses cannot be detected using blood culture bottles designed to grow bacteria. If the health ...

  13. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check your blood sugar level as often as instructed by your health care provider. Write down the results. This will tell you how ... everyone with diabetes needs to check their blood sugar every day. Some people need to check it ...

  14. Ferritin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum ferritin level ... The amount of ferritin in the blood (serum ferritin level) is directly related to the amount of iron stored in your body. Iron is important for red blood cell production. Your doctor ...

  15. Extensive small-angle X-ray scattering studies of blood coagulation factor VIIa reveal interdomain flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Charlotte Rode; Nolan, David; Persson, Egon; Svergun, Dmitri I; Bukrinsky, Jens Thostrup; Vestergaard, Bente

    2010-01-01

    Blood coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) is used in the treatment of replacement therapy resistant hemophilia patients, and FVIIa is normally activated upon complex formation with tissue factor (TF), potentially in context with structural rearrangements. The solution behavior of uncomplexed FVIIa is...

  16. Short-term Effects of Air Temperature on Blood Markers of Coagulation and Inflammation in Potentially Susceptible Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: Changes in air temperature are associated with an increase in cardiovascular events, but the role of pro-coagulant and pro-inflammatory blood markers is still poorly understood. We investigated the association between air temperature and fibrinogen, plasminogen act...

  17. Preparation, blood coagulation and cell compatibility evaluation of chitosan-graft-polylactide copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Liu, Pei; Liu, Peifeng; Gong, Tao; Li, Suming; Duan, Yourong; Zhang, Zhirong

    2014-02-01

    Biodegradable chitosan-graft-polylactide (PLA-CS) copolymers were prepared by the grafting of a poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) or poly(D-lactide) (PDLA) precursor to the backbone of chitosan using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC ⋅ HCl) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) as a coupling agent. The blood and cell compatibility of the graft copolymers were investigated in comparison to PLLA and PDLA homopolymers. The coagulation properties of PLA-CS were evaluated by hemolysis, plasma recalcification, dynamic blood clotting and protein absorption assays. PLA-CS copolymers present similar hemolysis ratio and plasma recalcification time as PLA, but slower dynamic blood clotting and lower protein absorption. The cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), agar diffusion and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) experiments. All the samples presented no effect on the viability to cells. Inflammatory cytokine analysis using sandwich ELISAs revealed that PLA-CS would not stimulate inflammatory activity. PMID:24448591

  18. Preparation, blood coagulation and cell compatibility evaluation of chitosan-graft-polylactide copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodegradable chitosan-graft-polylactide (PLA–CS) copolymers were prepared by the grafting of a poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) or poly(D-lactide) (PDLA) precursor to the backbone of chitosan using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC ⋅ HCl) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) as a coupling agent. The blood and cell compatibility of the graft copolymers were investigated in comparison to PLLA and PDLA homopolymers. The coagulation properties of PLA–CS were evaluated by hemolysis, plasma recalcification, dynamic blood clotting and protein absorption assays. PLA–CS copolymers present similar hemolysis ratio and plasma recalcification time as PLA, but slower dynamic blood clotting and lower protein absorption. The cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), agar diffusion and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) experiments. All the samples presented no effect on the viability to cells. Inflammatory cytokine analysis using sandwich ELISAs revealed that PLA–CS would not stimulate inflammatory activity. (paper)

  19. Comparison of coagulation factors and blood loss between O and non-O blood types following hydroxyethyl starch infusion

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Soo Joo; Ahn, Hyun Joo; Lee, Jae Ik

    2010-01-01

    Background Individuals with type O blood are more likely to have reduced factor VIII and von Willebrand factor levels compared to their non-O counterparts. Hydroxyethyl starch (HES), which is widely used for blood volume replacement, can induce coagulopathy. Therefore, we tested whether blood type O patients show more coagulopathy and blood loss than non-O patients after infusion of 6% HES. Methods Thirty-four non-O and 20 type O patients scheduled for posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF)...

  20. Effects of Aerobic Fitness and Adiposity on Coagulation Biomarkers in Men vs. Women with Elevated Blood Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Kathleen L.; Lianne Tomfohr; Kate Edwards; Cindy Knott; Suzi Hong; Laura Redwine; Karen Calfas; Rock, Cheryl L.; Roland von Känel; Mills, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACTA hypercoagulable state is a potential mechanism linking elevated blood pressure (BP), adiposity and a sedentary lifestyle to development of coronary heart disease (CHD). We examined relationships among aerobic fitness and adiposity in 76 sedentary subjects with elevated BP. Blood levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), D-dimer, von Willebrand factor (vWF) and thrombomodulin were assessed as biomarkers of coagulation. In individuals with elevated BP, percent body fat and ...

  1. Blood transfusion during cardiac surgery is associated with inflammation and coagulation in the lung: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Tuinman, Pieter R; Vlaar, Alexander P; Cornet, Alexander D.; Hofstra, Jorrit J.; Levi, Marcel; Meijers, Joost CM; Beishuizen, Albertus; Schultz, Marcus J; Groeneveld, AB Johan; Juffermans, Nicole P.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Blood transfusion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgery patients, but cause-and-effect relations remain unknown. We hypothesized that blood transfusion is associated with changes in pulmonary and systemic inflammation and coagulation occurring in patients who do not meet the clinical diagnosis of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). Methods We performed a case control study in a mixed medical-surgical intensive care unit of a university...

  2. The change and significance of platelet parameters and blood coagulation function index in patients with hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Xia Shi; Yi-Xin Yang; Qian Xu; Yanhua Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the change and significance of platelet parameters and blood coagulation function index in patients with hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy.Methods: Chose 89 patients with HDCP, they were set as HDCP group, chose another 60 cases health late pregnancy women and 42 cases non pregnant female, they were set as late pregnant group and non-pregnant control group, detected the platelet parameters: the average blood platelet count (PLT), platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW) and blood coagulation indexes, plasma prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), fibrinogen (FIB), D-dimer (D-D), activated partial blood coagulation time (APTT) live enzymes in three groups.Results: (1) Compared with the non-pregnant group and late pregnant group, PLT was significantly lower, while the MPV and PDW were significantly higher in HDCP group; PLT in late pregnant group was significantly lower than that in non-pregnant group, and there were no significantly difference of MPV and PDW in the two groups; (2) Compared with the non-pregnant group and late pregnant group, PT and APTT levels were significantly lower, while FIB and D-D were significantly higher in HDCP group; The level of PT and APTT in late pregnant group were significantly lower, and FIB and D-D levels were significantly higher than that in non-pregnant group, However, The level of TT were no statistical significance difference among the three groups.Conclusion: HDCP existence phenomenon of platelet activation and apparent high coagulation state, dynamic detection of HDCP patients platelet parameters and blood coagulation indexes to prevent related complications, improve obstetrics safety is of great significance.

  3. Coagulation Factor and Hemostatic Protein Content of Canine Plasma after Storage of Whole Blood at Ambient Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, J.E.; Hale, A. S.; Brooks, M. B.; Boag, A.K.; Barnett, W.; Dean, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Standard practice in canine blood banking is to produce fresh frozen plasma (FFP) by separating and freezing plasma produced from blood within 8 hours of collection. Within canine blood donation programs, this can limit the number of units collected. Hypothesis/Objectives The aim was to compare the coagulation factor and hemostatic protein content (CF&HPC) of plasma produced from blood stored at ambient temperature for 8, 12, and 24 hours. Another aim was to compare the CF&HPC betw...

  4. Effects on fibrinogen, fibrin, and blood coagulation of proteolytic extracts from fruits of Pseudananas macrodontes, Bromelia balansae, and B. hieronymi (Bromeliaceae) in comparison with bromelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errasti, María E; Prospitti, Anabela; Viana, Carolina A; Gonzalez, Mariana M; Ramos, Márcio V; Rotelli, Alejandra E; Caffini, Néstor O

    2016-06-01

    Extracts rich in cysteine proteases obtained from fruits of Pseudananas macrodontes (Pm), Bromelia balansae (Bb), and B. hieronymi (Bh) have previously shown an anti-inflammatory effect on animal models. Given the close relationship between hemostasis and inflammation, it is attractive to investigate therapeutic agents capable of modulating both systems. The aim of this work was to study the effect of Pm, Bb, and Bh on fibrin(ogen) and blood coagulation compared with stem bromelain (Bro). Action on fibrinogen was electrophoretically and spectrophotometrically evaluated, fibrinolytic activity was measured both electrophoretically and by the fibrin plate assay, and the effect on blood coagulation was studied by conventional coagulation tests (PT and APPT). All extracts showed the same proteolytic preference for fibrinogen subunits, that is Aα > Bβ, whereas γ was partially hydrolyzed by 100-fold concentration increase. Unlike Bro, cysteine proteases of Pm, Bb, and Bh increased absorbance at 540 nm of fibrinogen solution, suggesting thrombin-like activity, which was time-dependent and reached maximum values at lower concentration. All extracts showed the same proteolytic preference for fibrin subunits; however Pm, Bb, and Bh showed lower fibrinolytic activity than Bro at the assayed concentrations. Although Bb acted only as anticoagulant, Pm, Bh, and unexpectedly Bro showed dual action on blood coagulation: at low concentration showed procoagulant effect and at high concentration anticoagulant effect. Results reveal new plant species as potential sources of pharmacological agents for the treatment of a wide range of hemostatic disorders as well as to wound healing. PMID:26886361

  5. Blood Test: Lead (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood Test: Lead KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Lead Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Análisis de sangre: plomo What It Is A lead test is used to determine the amount of ...

  6. New lab-made coagulant based on Schinopsis balansae tannin extract: synthesis optimization and preliminary tests on refractory water pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, J.; Beltrán-Heredia, J.; Coco-Rivero, B.

    2014-09-01

    Quebracho colorado tannin extract was used as a coagulant raw material for water and wastewater treatment. The chemical synthesis follows a Mannich reaction mechanism and provides a fully working coagulant that can remove several pollutants from water. This paper addresses the optimization of such synthesis and confirms the feasibility of the coagulant by testing it in a preliminary screening for the elimination of dyes and detergents. The optimum combination of reagents was 6.81 g of diethanolamine (DEA) and 2.78 g of formaldehyde (F) per g of tannin extract. So obtained coagulant was succesfully tested on the removal of 9 dyes and 8 detergents.

  7. Estradiol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    E2 test ... temporarily stop taking certain medicines that may affect test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ... helps prevent sperm from dying too early. This test may be ordered to check: How well your ...

  8. Evaluation of coagulation tests before newborn circumcision: is it necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroğlu, Egemen; Sözmen, Banu Oflaz; Kayiran, Sinan Mahir; Balci, Selvinaz; Gürakan, Berkan

    2016-03-01

    Evaluation of coagulation parameters prior to newborn circumcision is routinely performed in many countries. However, the value of this screening in predicting the bleeding risk is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the preoperative prolonged prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and excessive bleeding after the circumcision in term, healthy newborns without family history of coagulopathy. The medical records of healthy, full term newborns born at VKV American Hospital, in Istanbul, Turkey, between 2009 and 2012 who were circumcised within the first week of life, were reviewed retrospectively. The data for family history of coagulopathy, clinical sign(s) of bleeding during and/or after delivery, preoperative PT, aPTT levels and the amount of bleeding after circumcision were gathered. The most recent medical records of the patients' were also reviewed for any possible, lately diagnosed bleeding disorder. A total of 450 newborns met the above criteria. None had a family history of bleeding disorder or clinical bleeding. A total of 158 (35%) newborns had an aPTT result greater than 54.5 s, 269 (59%) had PT result greater than 15.9 s and 72 (16%) had international normalized ratio result greater than 1.62. Neither of the patients with prolonged PT and/or aPTT had prolonged or excessive bleeding. The evaluation of PT and aPTT before elective newborn circumcision is not necessary in the absence of clinical bleeding or a family history of bleeding disorder. It is rather a habit in general practice and possibly a result of defensive medicine. PMID:26523913

  9. Blood Coagulation Induced by Iranian Saw-Scaled Viper (Echis Carinatus) Venom: Identification, Purification and Characterization of a Prothrombin Activator

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Babaie; Hossein Salmanizadeh; Hossein Zolfagharian

    2013-01-01

      Objective(s): Echis carinatus is one of the venomous snakes in Iran. The venom of Iranian Echis carinatus is a rich source of protein with various factors affecting the plasma protein and blood coagulation factor. Some of these proteins exhibit types of enzymatic activities. However, other items are proteins with no enzymatic activity.   Materials and Methods: In order to study the mechanism and effect of the venom on human plasma proteins, the present study has evaluated the effect of crud...

  10. Overview of the coagulation system

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Palta; Richa Saroa; Anshu Palta

    2014-01-01

    Coagulation is a dynamic process and the understanding of the blood coagulation system has evolved over the recent years in anaesthetic practice. Although the traditional classification of the coagulation system into extrinsic and intrinsic pathway is still valid, the newer insights into coagulation provide more authentic description of the same. Normal coagulation pathway represents a balance between the pro coagulant pathway that is responsible for clot formation and the mechanisms that inh...

  11. Experimental study and preliminary clinical application of microwave coagulation therapy for hepatic malignancies after interruption of hepatic blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the change on the extent of coagulated lesion under various interrupting methods of hepatic blood flow in vivo animal livers, and the clinical effect of combining transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) with percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy (PMCT) for primary and metastatic hepatic tumors. Methods: Using FORSEA MTC-3-500s microwave coagulator, we performed microwave tissue coagulation in vivo liver of 6 pigs at 60 W, 2 min and of 20 rabbits at 40 W, 2 min with or without the interruption of hepatic blood flow. 27 patients with primary hepatic carcinoma (30 nodules) and 8 patients with metastatic carcinoma (12 nodules) underwent the combination therapy of 1-4 sessions of TACE followed by within 3-10 days by 1-3 sessions of PMCT guided by ultrasonography and/or CT. The 42 lesions measured from 2.3 cm to 15.6 cm were taken place. Results: In vivo liver, the greatest dimension of the lesions coagulated by microwave with the interruption of hepatic arterial and portal flow were 22.5 ± 0.6 mm at 40 W , 2 min and 28.6 ± 1.2 mm at 60 W, 2 min, which were markedly larger than those without the interruption (13.3±0.3; and 15.6 ± 0.7 mm, P<0.001). In 35 cases of hepatic tumor, necrotic areas showed no enhancement. Complete necroses were observed for 29 nodules, with 24 smaller than 5 cm. On dynamic enhanced computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within 2 W after combination therapy, 31 lesions were significantly shrunk. No serious complication was observed. The follow-up was carried on from 3 to 23 months (mean 11 month), 31 survival patients showed improvement in livelihood. One died of cardiac infarction (within 3 months), 2 of digestive hemorrhage, and 1 of dysfunction of liver (within 3 and 6 months). Conclusion: The microwave tissue coagulation region can enlarge markedly after interruption of hepatic blood flow. Preliminary clinical application of combination therapy of TACE and PMCT provides safe and

  12. Blood coagulation parameters and platelet indices: changes in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies and predictive values for preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Han

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is an obstetric disorder with high morbidity and mortality rates but without clear pathogeny. The dysfunction of the blood coagulation-fibrinolysis system is a salient characteristic of PE that varies in severity, and necessitates different treatments. Therefore, it is necessary to find suitable predictors for the onset and severity of PE.We aimed to evaluate blood coagulation parameters and platelet indices as potential predictors for the onset and severity of PE.Blood samples from 3 groups of subjects, normal pregnant women (n = 79, mild preeclampsia (mPE (n = 53 and severe preeclampsia (sPE (n = 42, were collected during early and late pregnancy. The levels of coagulative parameters and platelet indices were measured and compared among the groups. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curves of these indices were generated, and the area under the curve (AUC was calculated. The predictive values of the selected potential parameters were examined in binary regression analysis.During late pregnancy in the normal pregnancy group, the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, prothrombin time (PT, thrombin time (TT and platelet count decreased, while the fibrinogen level and mean platelet volume (MPV increased compared to early pregnancy (p<0.05. However, the PE patients presented with increased APTT, TT, MPV and D-dimer (DD during the third trimester. In the analysis of subjects with and without PE, TT showed the largest AUC (0.743 and high predictive value. In PE patients with different severities, MPV showed the largest AUC (0.671 and ideal predictive efficiency.Normal pregnancy causes a maternal physiological hypercoagulable state in late pregnancy. PE may trigger complex disorders in the endogenous coagulative pathways and consume platelets and FIB, subsequently activating thrombopoiesis and fibrinolysis. Thrombin time and MPV may serve as early monitoring markers for the onset and severity of PE

  13. Aldosterone blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy High- or low-sodium diet Strenuous exercise Stress How the Test will Feel When the needle is inserted to ... pressure. Aldosterone increases the reabsorption of sodium and water and the release of potassium in the kidneys. ...

  14. Pyruvate kinase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... break down faster than normal, a condition called hemolytic anemia . This test helps diagnose pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKD) . ... Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 32. Gallagher PG. Hemolytic anemias: red cell membrane and metabolic defects In: Goldman ...

  15. Novel aspects of blood coagulation factor XIII. I. Structure, distribution, activation, and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muszbek, L.; Adany, R. [Univ. Medical School of Debrecen (Hungary); Mikkola, H. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-10-01

    Blood coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) is a protransglutaminase that becomes activated by the concerted action of thrombin and Ca{sup 2+} in the final stage of the clotting cascade. In addition to plasma, FXIII also occurs in platelets, monocytes, and monocyte-derived macrophages. While the plasma factor is a heterotetramer consisting of paired A and B subunits (A{sub 2}B{sub 2}), its cellular counterpart lacks the B subunits and is a homodimer of potentially active A subunits (A{sub 2}). The gene coding for the A and B subunits has been localized to chromosomes 6p24-25 and 1q31-32.1, respectively. The genomic as well as the primary protein structure of both subunits has been established. Plasma FXIII circulates in association with its substrate precursor, fibrinogen. Fibrin(ogen) has an important regulatory role in the activation of plasma FXIII, for instance the proteolytic removal of activation peptide by thrombin, the dissociation of subunits A and B, and the exposure of the originally buried active site on the free A subunits. The end result of this process is the formation of an active transglutaminase, which crosslinks peptide chains through {epsilon}({gamma}-glutamyl)lysyl isopeptide bonds. The protein substrates of activated FXIII include components of the clotting-fibrinolytic system, adhesive and contractile proteins. The main physiological function of plasma FXIII is to cross-link fibrin and protect it from the fibrinolytic enzyme plasmin. The latter effect is achieved mainly by covalently linking {alpha}{sub 2} antiplasmin, the most potent physiological inhibitor of plasmin, to fibrin. Plasma FXIII seems to be involved in wound healing and tissue repair, and it is essential to maintaining pregnancy. Cellular FXIII, if exposed to the surface of the cells, might support or perhaps take over the hemostatic functions of plasma FXIII; however, its intracellular role has remained mostly unexplored. 328 refs., 4 figs.

  16. The Changes of Blood Coagulation in Surgical Patients with Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangning FU

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Patients with malignant tumor are at high risk of thrombophilia, which contributes to thromboembolism. Surgical treatment is one of the critical risk factors. In this study, changes and clinical significances of blood coagulation of lung cancer patients pre- and post operation were investigated. Methods A prospective, controlled study were carried out in 74 lung disease patients, who were divided into lung cancer group and benign lung disease group. In each group, pre-and postoperative changes in prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, platelet count (PLT, D-dimer (D-D and fibrinogen (Fib and clinical performances were observed and compared in intra- and intergroups. Results The concentration of Fib both in lung cancer group and its subgroup (adenocarcinoma of lung increased, preoperative differences between benign lung disease group and subgroup (squamous cell carcinoma of lung was significant (P < 0.05. PT(postoperative 1st to7th day in lung cancer group prolonged, APTT (postoperative 3rd to7th day reduced, Fib (postoperative 3rd to7th day and D-D (postoperative 1st to 7th day increased, PLT reduced on the 1st, 3rd day but then increased on the 5th, 7th day after operation, the difference between pre- and post-operation was significant (P < 0.05. D-D and PT in lung cancer group on the 7th day was longer than in benign lung disease group (P < 0.05. One pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE case in lung cancer group occurred, while in benign lung disease group none venous thromboembolism (VTE appeared. Conclusion Patients with lung cancer are in high hypercoagulable state, and prone to VTE. It is necessary to take some interventions to avoid VTE.

  17. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles supporting activated protein C-mediated regulation of blood coagulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzica Livaja Koshiar

    Full Text Available Elevated levels of erythrocyte-derived microparticles are present in the circulation in medical conditions affecting the red blood cells. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles expose phosphatidylserine thus providing a suitable surface for procoagulant reactions leading to thrombin formation via the tenase and prothrombinase complexes. Patients with elevated levels of circulating erythrocyte-derived microparticles have increased thrombin generation in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether erythrocyte-derived microparticles are able to support the anticoagulant reactions of the protein C system. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles were isolated using ultracentrifugation after incubation of freshly prepared erythrocytes with the ionophore A23187 or from outdated erythrocyte concentrates, the different microparticles preparations yielding similar results. According to flow cytometry analysis, the microparticles exposed phoshatidylserine and bound lactadherin, annexin V, and protein S, which is a cofactor to activated protein C. The microparticles were able to assemble the tenase and prothrombinase complexes and to stimulate the formation of thrombin in plasma-based thrombin generation assay both in presence and absence of added tissue factor. The addition of activated protein C in the thrombin generation assay inhibited thrombin generation in a dose-dependent fashion. The anticoagulant effect of activated protein C in the thrombin generation assay was inhibited by a monoclonal antibody that prevents binding of protein S to microparticles and also attenuated by anti-TFPI antibodies. In the presence of erythrocyte-derived microparticles, activated protein C inhibited tenase and prothrombinase by degrading the cofactors FVIIIa and FVa, respectively. Protein S stimulated the Arg306-cleavage in FVa, whereas efficient inhibition of FVIIIa depended on the synergistic cofactor activity of protein S and FV. In summary, the erythrocyte

  18. Interaction of blood coagulation factor Va with phospholipid vesicles examined by using lipophilic photoreagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two different lipophilic photoreagents, [3H]adamantane diazirine and 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-[125I]iodophenyl)diazirine (TID), have been utilized to examine the interactions of blood coagulation factor Va with calcium, prothrombin, factor Xa, and, in particular, phospholipid vesicles. With each of these structurally dissimilar reagents, the extent of photolabeling of factor Va was greater when the protein was bound to a membrane surface than when it was free in solution. Specifically, the covalent photoreaction with Vl, the smaller subunit of factor Va, was 2-fold higher in the presence of phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylserine (PC/PS, 3:1) vesicles, to which factor Va binds, than in the presence of 100% PC vesicles, to which the protein does not bind. However, the magnitude of the PC/PS-dependent photolabeling was much less than has been observed previously with integral membrane proteins. It therefore appears that the binding of factor Va to the membrane surface exposes Vl to the lipid core of the bilayer, but that only a small portion of the Vl polypeptide is exposed to, or embedded in, the bilayer core. Addition of either prothrombin or active-site-blocked factor Xa to PC/PS-bound factor Va had little effect on the photolabeling of Vl with TID, but reduced substantially the covalent labeling of Vh, the larger subunit of factor Va. This indicates that prothrombin and factor Xa each cover nonpolar surfaces on Vh when the macromolecules associate on the PC/PS surface. It therefore seems likely that the formation of the prothrombinase complex involves a direct interaction between Vh and factor Xa and between Vh and prothrombin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Nitroblue tetrazolium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NBT is added. This means that the cells should be able to kill bacteria and protect the person from infections. Normal value ranges may vary slightly from one lab to another. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your test results.

  20. Fractal discrimination of random fractal aggregates and its application in biomarker analysis for blood coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Establishment of a potential bio-marker able to characterise bio-gels post their Gel-Point is presented. ► Spectral dimension is sensitive to fibrin internal network structure. ► Fractal simulation elucidates why spectral dimension displays this distinctive capacity. - Abstract: A recent rheological study has established that the fractal dimension, df, of an incipient clot, formed at the Gel Point (sol–gel transition) of coagulating blood is a significant new biomarker of haemostasis. In whole healthy blood, incipient clots show a clearly defined value of df = 1.7 within a narrow range, which represents a new ‘healthy index’ for normal clotting. The addition of unfractionated heparin significantly prolongs the onset of clot formation with a corresponding reduction of df as a function of heparin dose. However, as clots mature they exhibit (i) an expected increase in df and (ii) a significant increase to spread of these values, i.e. df’s in the range 2.0–2.5, limiting the use of df as a discriminant of clot microstructure. The present study, details how and why the spectral dimension, ds, can be used to accommodate this shortcoming and allow discrimination of mature forms of clot microstructure in indistinguishable in terms of their fractal dimension. To elucidate why ds permits discrimination a numerical experiment was conducted on computationally generated random fractal aggregates (RFAs) with a priori set value of df. Starting from RFAs with a df of 1.7, mature RFAs are evolved from these incipient templates by two differing growth processes achieving a final df of 2.1. Fractal and statistical analysis of the mature RFAs reveals, for the first time, that their differing internal structure is manifest in the magnitude of ds. The potential clinical significance of these findings is discussed in terms of the possibility of exploiting the incipient clot’s ability to template the internal arrangement of the mature clot to better predict

  1. Physiological levels of blood coagulation factors IX and X control coagulation kinetics in an in vitro model of circulating tissue factor

    OpenAIRE

    Tormoen, Garth W.; Khader, Ayesha; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2013-01-01

    Thrombosis significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind thrombosis in cancer may be circulating tissue factor (TF), as levels of circulating TF are associated with thrombosis. However, circulating TF antigen level alone has failed to predict thrombosis in patients with cancer. We hypothesize that coagulation factor levels regulate the kinetics of circulating TF-induced thrombosis. Coagulation kinetics were measured as a function of individual coagulation f...

  2. Tromboelastography: variability and relation to conventional coagulation test in non-bleeding intensive care unit patients

    OpenAIRE

    Halset, Jørgen Holli; Hanssen, Simon Wøhlert; Espinosa, Aurora; Klepstad, Pål

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intensive care unit (ICU) patients usually have abnormal biochemical and hematological laboratory test results as a consequence of organ dysfunction and underlying disease. Thromboelastography (TEG®) is a point-of-care laboratory analysis that gives an overview of several aspects of the coagulation process. In order to be able to perform a clinical interpretation of abnormal TEG® results the expected values from non-bleeding ICU patients should be known. The aim of thi...

  3. Effects of puerarin on blood coagulation%葛根素对凝血功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晨; 范华英

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Through the study on different doses of puerarin on blood coagulation time, platelet aggregation and the role of hemorheology to investigate the effect of puerarin on coagulation function and its mechanism of action. METHODS Three different doses of oral liquid of puerarin were given respectively in normal mice, the clotting time and bleeding time were measured; after dose conversion the three different doses of oral liquid of puerarin were given in normal rats for the study onthe index of platelet aggregation hemorheology. RESULTS Different doses of puerarin group could significantly prolong the coagulation time; significantly inhibited platelet aggregation and reduce the high, medium and low shear rate whole blood viscosity. CONCLUSION These results suggest that puerarin has potent anti-coagulant. The anti-coagulant effect is related to inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation and improve hemorheology.%目的:通过研究不同剂量葛根素对凝出血时间、血小板聚集以及血流变学的作用,探讨其对凝血功能方面的影响及作用机制.方法:分别将3种不同剂量的葛根素药液灌胃给予正常小鼠,测凝血时间和出血时间;剂量转换后再将3种不同剂量的葛根素药液灌胃给予正常大鼠测定血小板聚集率和血液流变学指标.结果:不同剂量葛根素组可显著延长出、凝血时间;明显抑制血小板聚集率;能显著降低高、中、低切变率下的全血黏度.结论:葛根素有较强的抗凝血作用,其抗凝作用与其抑制血小板聚集作用和改善血流变有关.

  4. Relation of thromboelastography parameters to conventional coagulation tests used to evaluate the hypercoagulable state of aged fracture patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Guan, Zhao; Xu, Qinzhu; Zhao, Lei; Song, Ying; Wang, Hui

    2016-06-01

    Fractures are common among aged people, and rapid assessment of the coagulation status is important. The thromboelastography (TEG) test can give a series of coagulation parameters and has been widely used in clinics. In this research, we looked at fracture patients over 60 and compared their TEG results with those of healthy controls. Since there is a paucity of studies comparing TEG assessments with conventional coagulation tests, we aim to clarify the relationship between TEG values and the values given by conventional coagulation tests.Forty fracture patients (27 femur and 13 humerus) over 60 years old were included in the study. The change in their coagulation status was evaluated by TEG before surgery within 4 hours after the fracture. Changes in TEG parameters were analyzed compared with controls. Conventional coagulation test results for the patients, including activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), international normalized ratio (INR), fibrinogen, and platelets, were also acquired, and correlation analysis was done with TEG parameters, measuring similar aspects of the coagulation cascade. In addition, the sensitivity and specificity of TEG parameters for detecting raised fibrinogen levels were also analyzed.The K (time to 20 mm clot amplitude) and R (reaction time) values of aged fracture patients were lower than controls. The values for angle, maximal amplitude (MA), and coagulation index (CI) were raised compared with controls, indicating a hypercoagulable state. Correlation analysis showed that there were significant positive correlations between fibrinogen and MA/angle, between platelets and MA, and between APTT and R as well. There was significant negative correlation between fibrinogen and K. In addition, K values have better sensitivity and specificity for detecting elevated fibrinogen concentration than angle and MA values.Aged fracture patients tend to be in a hypercoagulable state, and this could be effectively reflected by a TEG test

  5. Activation of factor VII bound to tissue factor: A key early step in the tissue factor pathway of blood coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whether the factor VII/tissue factor complex that forms in tissue factor-dependent blood coagulation must be activated to factor VIIa/tissue factor before it can activate its substrates, factor X and IX, has been a difficult question to answer because the substrates, once activated, back-activate factor VII. The earlier studies suggested that human factor VII/tissue factor cannot activate factor IX. Studies have now been extended to the activation of factor X. Reaction mixtures were made with purified factor VII, X, and tissue factor; in some experiments antithrombin III and heparin were added to prevent back-activation of factor VII. Factor X was activated at similar rates in reaction mixtures containing either VII or factor VIIa after an initial 30-sec lag with factor VII. In reaction mixtures with factor VII a linear activation of factor X was established several minutes before cleavage of 125I-labeled factor VII to the two-chain activated molecule was demonstrable on gel profiles. These data suggest that factor VII/tissue factor cannot activate measurable amounts of factor X over several minutes. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that a rapid preferential activation of factor VII bound to tissue factor by trace amounts of factor Xa is a key early step in tissue factor-dependent blood coagulation

  6. Deep Bleeder Acoustic Coagulation (DBAC)—part II: in vivo testing of a research prototype system

    OpenAIRE

    Sekins, K. Michael; Barnes, Stephen R.; Fan, Liexiang; Hopple, Jerry D.; Hsu, Stephen J.; Kook, John; Lee, Chi-Yin; Maleke, Caroline; Zeng, Xiaozheng; Moreau-Gobard, Romain; Ahiekpor-Dravi, Alexis; Funka-Lea, Gareth; Eaton, John; Wong, Keith; Keneman, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Background Deep Bleeder Acoustic Coagulation (DBAC) is an ultrasound image-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) method proposed to automatically detect and localize (D&L) and treat deep, bleeding, combat wounds in the limbs of soldiers. A prototype DBAC system consisting of an applicator and control unit was developed for testing on animals. To enhance control, and thus safety, of the ultimate human DBAC autonomous product system, a thermal coagulation strategy that minimized cavit...

  7. Physiological levels of blood coagulation factors IX and X control coagulation kinetics in an in vitro model of circulating tissue factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormoen, Garth W.; Khader, Ayesha; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2013-06-01

    Thrombosis significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind thrombosis in cancer may be circulating tissue factor (TF), as levels of circulating TF are associated with thrombosis. However, circulating TF antigen level alone has failed to predict thrombosis in patients with cancer. We hypothesize that coagulation factor levels regulate the kinetics of circulating TF-induced thrombosis. Coagulation kinetics were measured as a function of individual coagulation factor levels and TF particle concentration. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 4:6 with PBS. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 8:2 with factor VII-depleted plasma, 7:3 with factor IX- or factor X-depleted plasmas, or 2:8 with factor II-, V- or VIII-depleted plasmas. Addition of coagulation factors VII, X, IX, V and II to depleted plasmas shortened clotting and enzyme initiation times, and increased enzyme generation rates in a concentration-dependent manner. Only additions of factors IX and X from low-normal to high-normal levels shortened clotting times and increased enzyme generation rates. Our results demonstrate that coagulation kinetics for TF particles are controlled by factor IX and X levels within the normal physiological range. We hypothesize that individual patient factor IX and X levels may be prognostic for susceptibility to circulating TF-induced thrombosis.

  8. Physiological levels of blood coagulation factors IX and X control coagulation kinetics in an in vitro model of circulating tissue factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrombosis significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind thrombosis in cancer may be circulating tissue factor (TF), as levels of circulating TF are associated with thrombosis. However, circulating TF antigen level alone has failed to predict thrombosis in patients with cancer. We hypothesize that coagulation factor levels regulate the kinetics of circulating TF-induced thrombosis. Coagulation kinetics were measured as a function of individual coagulation factor levels and TF particle concentration. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 4:6 with PBS. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 8:2 with factor VII-depleted plasma, 7:3 with factor IX- or factor X-depleted plasmas, or 2:8 with factor II-, V- or VIII-depleted plasmas. Addition of coagulation factors VII, X, IX, V and II to depleted plasmas shortened clotting and enzyme initiation times, and increased enzyme generation rates in a concentration-dependent manner. Only additions of factors IX and X from low-normal to high-normal levels shortened clotting times and increased enzyme generation rates. Our results demonstrate that coagulation kinetics for TF particles are controlled by factor IX and X levels within the normal physiological range. We hypothesize that individual patient factor IX and X levels may be prognostic for susceptibility to circulating TF-induced thrombosis. (paper)

  9. Study on Blood Coagulant/Fibrinolytic Activity at Plasma andMonocytic Levels in Coronary Heart Disease Patients withBlood-Stasis Syndrome of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To explore and compare the changes of coagulant/fibrinolytic activity in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients with Blood Stasis Syndrome of TCM and evaluate the roles of these changes. Methods: Eighty patients of CHD were divided into two groups by Syndrome Differentiation of TCM, the Blood-Stasis (BS) group (30 cases) and the non-Blood-Stasis (NBS) group (50 cases, including 27 cases of Phlegm-Dampness Syndrome and 23 cases of Qi-Stagnation Syndrome); and 20 healthy persons were enrolled as normal control group. Tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and its inhibitor (PAI-1) in plasma and in human peripheral blood monocyte cell (PBMC), as well as the procoagulant activity (PCA) in PBMC were measured by chromogenic substrate method. Results: The plasma PAI-1 activity and PCA of PBMC in the BS group were significantly higher than those in the NBS group and the normal control group (P<0.01). PAI-1 activity of PBMC in the two groups of CHD patients was higher than those in the normal control group significantly (P<0.01), but no significant difference was found between the BS group and the NBS group (P>0.05). The difference of plasma t-PA activity between the two groups of CHD was insignificant. The PBMC t-PA activity in the BS group was lower than that in the NBS and normal control groups (P<0.01). Conclusion: In the CHD patients with BS, the PBMC PCA was increased and the fibrinolytic activity at both plasma and monocyte levels lowered significantly, these changes in coagulant/fibrinolytic activity may be the important pathologic factors in forming BS which suggests that CHD patients with BS were in the prothrombotic state.

  10. A comparative study of the effect of continuous combined conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate and tibolone on blood coagulability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, SO; Sidelmann, JJ; Nilas, Lisbeth; Jespersen, J

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hormone therapy (HT) after the menopause is associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Tibolone has pharmacodynamic properties different from other hormone preparations. We compared the effect of a combined HT and tibolone on the inhibition of haemostasis. METHODS......: Thirty-eight post-menopausal women were randomly assigned to 1.25 or 2.5 mg per day of tibolone or oral continuous combined conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE/MPA). Inhibitors of haemostasis were measured at baseline and after 12 months. RESULTS: Results from the two groups...... (P = 0.002), protein S (P < 0.001) and TFPI (P < 0.001). Both preparations reduced the concentration of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Tibolone induces fewer pharmacological alterations on blood coagulability than CEE/MPA and has a potentially favourable effect on APC...

  11. Home Use Tests: Fecal Occult Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Home Use Tests Fecal Occult Blood Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... test kit to measure the presence of hidden (occult) blood in your stool (feces). What is fecal ...

  12. Coagulation competence and fluid recruitment after moderate blood loss in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaar, Morten; Mørkeberg, Jakob; Pott, Frank C;

    2014-01-01

    blood cell count (4.80 ± 0.33 to 4.64 ± 0.37 × 10(12) cells l(-1), P < 0.05) indicating that 218 ± 173 ml fluid was recruited to the circulation. Withdrawing 450 ml blood reduced the time until initial fibrin formation (R: 6.5 ± 0.9 to 5.1 ± 1.0 min, P < 0.01), whereas the rate of clot formation...

  13. Effect of hyperbilirubunemia on coagulation system of blood in patients with obstructive jaundice

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkisian Z.O.; Tolstokorov A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective of the study: determination of the degree of influence of bilirubin in the blood during obstructive jaundice, on blood clotting. Methods. A retrospective study of case histories of patients with obstructive jaundice who have been treated at the Regional Hospital of Saratov in the period from 2000 to 2010. Results. The results confirm the assumption that the causes of bleeding in obstructive jaundice is hepatic failure. Conclusion. Absence of bile in the small intestine in obstructiv...

  14. Systems biology of coagulation initiation: kinetics of thrombin generation in resting and activated human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manash S Chatterjee

    Full Text Available Blood function defines bleeding and clotting risks and dictates approaches for clinical intervention. Independent of adding exogenous tissue factor (TF, human blood treated in vitro with corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI, to block Factor XIIa will generate thrombin after an initiation time (T(i of 1 to 2 hours (depending on donor, while activation of platelets with the GPVI-activator convulxin reduces T(i to ∼20 minutes. Since current kinetic models fail to generate thrombin in the absence of added TF, we implemented a Platelet-Plasma ODE model accounting for: the Hockin-Mann protease reaction network, thrombin-dependent display of platelet phosphatidylserine, VIIa function on activated platelets, XIIa and XIa generation and function, competitive thrombin substrates (fluorogenic detector and fibrinogen, and thrombin consumption during fibrin polymerization. The kinetic model consisting of 76 ordinary differential equations (76 species, 57 reactions, 105 kinetic parameters predicted the clotting of resting and convulxin-activated human blood as well as predicted T(i of human blood under 50 different initial conditions that titrated increasing levels of TF, Xa, Va, XIa, IXa, and VIIa. Experiments with combined anti-XI and anti-XII antibodies prevented thrombin production, demonstrating that a leak of XIIa past saturating amounts of CTI (and not "blood-borne TF" alone was responsible for in vitro initiation without added TF. Clotting was not blocked by antibodies used individually against TF, VII/VIIa, P-selectin, GPIb, protein disulfide isomerase, cathepsin G, nor blocked by the ribosome inhibitor puromycin, the Clk1 kinase inhibitor Tg003, or inhibited VIIa (VIIai. This is the first model to predict the observed behavior of CTI-treated human blood, either resting or stimulated with platelet activators. CTI-treated human blood will clot in vitro due to the combined activity of XIIa and XIa, a process enhanced by platelet activators and which proceeds

  15. Effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Ventilation on Platelet-activating Factor and Blood Coagulation Function in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea-hypopnea Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the effect of continuous positive airway pressure ventilation (CPAP) on platelet-activating factor (PAF) expression and blood coagulation function in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAS), the blood sample of 40 patients with OSAS were taken before treatment and on the day 30 after treatment respectively. PAF, thromboxane B2 (TXB2), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and fibrin(FIB) in patients and 37 health controls were detected. The results showed that PAF, TXB2, FIB in OSAS patients before treatment were significantly higher than those of after treatment and control group (P0.05). There were abnormal expression of PAF and hypercoagulability in OSAS patients. CPAP could effectively decrease the expression of PAF, TXB2 and could also correct dysfunction of blood coagulation. It had certain effect in lightening the clinical symptoms in OSAS patients. (authors)

  16. Limited promiscuity of HLA-DRB1 presented peptides derived of blood coagulation factor VIII.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D van Haren

    Full Text Available The formation of inhibitory antibodies directed against coagulation factor VIII (FVIII is a severe complication in the treatment of hemophilia A patients. The induction of anti-FVIII antibodies is a CD4(+ T cell-dependent process. Activation of FVIII-specific CD4(+ T cells is dependent on the presentation of FVIII-derived peptides on MHC class II by antigen-presenting cells. Previously, we have shown that FVIII-pulsed human monocyte-derived dendritic cells can present peptides from several FVIII domains. In this study we show that FVIII peptides are presented on immature as well as mature dendritic cells. In immature dendritic cells half of the FVIII-loaded MHC class II molecules are retained within the cell, whereas in LPS-matured dendritic cells the majority of MHC class II/peptide complexes is present on the plasma membrane. Time-course studies revealed that presentation of FVIII-derived peptides was optimal between 12 and 24 hours after maturation but persisted for at least 96 hours. We also show that macrophages are able to internalize FVIII as efficiently as dendritic cells, however FVIII was presented on MHC class II with a lower efficiency and with different epitopes compared to dendritic cells. In total, 48 FVIII core-peptides were identified using a DCs derived of 8 different donors. Five HLA-promiscuous FVIII peptide regions were found - these were presented by at least 4 out of 8 donors. The remaining 42 peptide core regions in FVIII were presented by DCs derived from a single (30 peptides or two to three donors (12 peptides. Overall, our findings show that a broad repertoire of FVIII peptides can be presented on HLA-DR.

  17. Contact activation of blood coagulation on a defined kaolin/collagen surface in a microfluidic assay

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Shu; Diamond, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Generation of active Factor XII (FXIIa) triggers blood clotting on artificial surfaces and may also enhance intravascular thrombosis. We developed a patterned kaolin (0 to 0.3 pg/μm2)/type 1 collagen fibril surface for controlled microfluidic clotting assays. Perfusion of whole blood (treated only with a low level of 4 μg/mL of the XIIa inhibitor, corn trypsin inhibitor) drove platelet deposition followed by fibrin formation. At venous wall shear rate (100 s−1), kaolin accelerated onset of fi...

  18. Plasma fractionation for blood products: isolation and purification of coagulating factors, albumin and immunoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 12 million liters of human plasma are fractionated world-wide annually. However, with the market for clotting factors and other haemoderivatives steadily increasing from year to year, the amount processed will also increase correspondingly to keep up with the demand. In Malaysia, part of the need for the blood products are obtained commercially but a major portion of the requirement involves sending the plasma collected by the National Blood Centre to Australia for processing. Following purification and isolation of the blood products, they are sent back to Malaysia for local consumption. As yet there are no plasma fractionation plants in the South East Asia region, it would be advantageous to establish a local fractionation plant as it would be able to cater for local demands of the haemoderivatives and thus reduces the cost of importing these products. Besides, this facility will be able to provide contract fractionation services to the surrounding region. Early work in MINT has started in trying to purify plasma obtained from rats. Purification of the plasma was performed by using Sephadex G-25 column. Short term objective of this project is to develop the technique of extraction, fractionation and purification of blood products such as albumin, globulin and clotting factors (Factor VIII and Factor IX). The long term emphasis will be to scale up the production facility to a pilot plant stage and eventually to a national fractionation and purification plant. (Author)

  19. Reduced Blood Coagulation on Roll-to-Roll, Shrink-Induced Superhydrophobic Plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokes, Jolie M; Liedert, Ralph; Kim, Monica Y; Siddiqui, Ali; Chu, Michael; Lee, Eugene K; Khine, Michelle

    2016-03-01

    The unique antiwetting properties of superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces prevent the adhesion of water and bodily fluids, including blood, urine, and saliva. While typical manufacturable approaches to create SH surfaces rely on chemical and structural modifications, such approaches are expensive, require postprocessing, and are often not biocompatible. By contrast, it is demonstrated that purely structural SH features are easily formed using high throughput roll-to-roll (R2R) manufacturing by shrinking a prestressed thermoplastic with a thin, stiff layer of silver and calcium. These features are subsequently embossed into any commercially available and Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved plastic. The R2R SH surfaces have contact angles >150° and contact angle hysteresis 4200× reduction of blood residue area compared to the nonstructured controls of the same material. In addition, blood clotting is reduced >5× using whole blood directly from the patient. Furthermore, these surfaces can be easily configured into 3D shapes, as demonstrated with SH tubes. With the simple scale-up production and the eliminated need for anticoagulants to prevent clotting, the proposed conformable SH surfaces can be impactful for a wide range of medical tools, including catheters and microfluidic channels. PMID:26784916

  20. A high fat meal activates blood coagulation factor VII in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Aage K; Bladbjerg, Else M; Hansen, Axel K;

    2002-01-01

    LEW/Mol rat. We gavaged 3 mL of a fat emulsion (n = 42) or 3 mL isotonic glucose (n = 42). Blood was sampled by heart puncture 2, 4 and 6 h (n = 14/group at each time) after the fat/glucose load. Furthermore, blood was sampled from 16 untreated rats to determine the baseline levels. Triglyceride....../L), and FVIIa was significantly raised at 4 h (54 U/L) and 6 h (58 U/L) compared with baseline (29 U/L). No postprandial changes in FVIIc, FVIIam and TAT were observed. Glucose administration did not affect any variable. We conclude that the LEW/Mol rat is a promising model for use in future studies of...

  1. Effects of radiation therapy on blood coagulation-fibrinolysis system in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this study were to clarify the effects of radiotherapy on haemostatic activity in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to investigate the differences in the clinical findings. The subjects were 61 patients with primary oral SCC (SCC group) who had undergone preoperative radiotherapy of 34.2±7.2 Gy (mean±SD). These patients were divided into early group (stage I and II) and advanced group (stage III and IV), and the region in the oral cavity. Before and after radiotherapy, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen, prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2) and plasmin-α2 plasmin inhibitor complex (PAP) were measured. In SCC group, after the radiotherapy, APTT extended and PAP increased. In the early stage group, PAP increased and in the advanced group, there was the extension of APTT. The regional division of the patients, there was the extension of APTT in oral floor and lower gingiva groups. F1+2 in lower gingiva group increased, and PAP rose in tongue and buccal mucosa groups. These results indicate that irradiation affects blood coagulation fibrinolysis system in patients with oral SCC, but the amount of the activation differs by the clinical findings. (author)

  2. Different Types of the Coagulation Disorders in Hamadan and A Comparison of the ABO & Rh Blood Group Distribution in the Patients and the Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pour-Jafari

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with hemophilia and thalassemia are two groups of hereditary disorders that, periodically, use blood and blood substances. The aims of the present study are determination of the frequencies of different types of coagulation disorders, and a comparison of the frequencies of ABO & Rh phenotypes among affected individuals with the control group (blood donors. The subject group were all affected persons were referred to hemophilia and thalassemia centers in Hamadan. Primary information was collected from their files, then were classified and analyzed. The control group were blood donors that were registered in Hamadan blood bank. Results showed that the different types of coagulation disorders in affected individuals referred to the Hemophilia and thalassemia centers during 1998 were Hemophilia A (61.96%, Hemophilia B (20.86%, Von Willbrand (5.52%, Platelet deficiency (4.91%, Factor XIII deficiency (3.68% and Factor VII deficiency (3.07%. In general, results showed that in population with Hemophilia A, frequencies of A and O blood types were statistically different with the blood donors. The lowest rate of negative Rh, was in the population with thalassemia. The sex ratio of the affected persons was also different with control group.

  3. Behavior of optical properties of coagulated blood sample at 633 nm wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Cruzado, Beatriz; Vázquez y Montiel, Sergio; Delgado Atencio, José Alberto

    2011-03-01

    Determination of tissue optical parameters is fundamental for application of light in either diagnostics or therapeutical procedures. However, in samples of biological tissue in vitro, the optical properties are modified by cellular death or cellular agglomeration that can not be avoided. This phenomena change the propagation of light within the biological sample. Optical properties of human blood tissue were investigated in vitro at 633 nm using an optical setup that includes a double integrating sphere system. We measure the diffuse transmittance and diffuse reflectance of the blood sample and compare these physical properties with those obtained by Monte Carlo Multi-Layered (MCML). The extraction of the optical parameters: absorption coefficient μa, scattering coefficient μs and anisotropic factor g from the measurements were carried out using a Genetic Algorithm, in which the search procedure is based in the evolution of a population due to selection of the best individual, evaluated by a function that compares the diffuse transmittance and diffuse reflectance of those individuals with the experimental ones. The algorithm converges rapidly to the best individual, extracting the optical parameters of the sample. We compare our results with those obtained by using other retrieve procedures. We found that the scattering coefficient and the anisotropic factor change dramatically due to the formation of clusters.

  4. Fecal Occult Blood Test and Fecal Immunochemical Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visit Global Sites Search Help? Fecal Occult Blood Test and Fecal Immunochemical Test Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Test Common Questions Ask Us Related Pages The Test How is it used? When is it ordered? ...

  5. Comparison of aPTT and CT Parameter of the ROTEM Test to Monitor Heparin Anti-Coagulation Effect in ICU Patients: an Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atabak Najafi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Heparin is frequently used in different clinical settings to reduce the coagulating ability of the blood. Because of probable adverse effects owing to heparin therapy and regarding variability of patients’ responses to heparin, which make it very unreliable, it seems prudent to monitor meticulously its effects on the human body. There are a lot of laboratory tests to watch its effects on the body for example; aPTT and ROTEM are the most widely used tests that are performed today. We aimed to compare the aPTT test results against changes of CT parameter of the ROTEM test due to heparin administration. This study was conducted on 45 critically ill patients who needed to receive heparin according to their clinical status. All patients received 550 to 1500 unit heparin per hour (on average 17.5 unit heparin per kilogram weight. While the patients were under infusion of heparin, two blood samples (5 ml were taken from a newly established cubital vein, just five hours after commencement of heparin therapy. One sample was used for aPTT and the other one for ROTEM. The correlation between aPTT and the changes of CT parameter of the ROTEM with heparin dosage and infusion was the primary outcome. The correlation between heparin therapy and the changes of other parameters like MCF, CFT, and a number of platelets were the secondary outcome of the study. The only significant correlation was between changes of CT and aPTT (P=0.000. The other variables were not correlated. Changes of CT parameter of ROTEM test can be used for monitoring of reduced coagulability during heparin infusion instead of aPTT test.

  6. ACL-TOP700血凝仪凝血4项正常参考区间的建立%Establishment of normal reference interval for four items of blood coagulation on ACL-TOP Automatic coagulation analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锐; 鲁燕飞; 周志兰; 姚振国; 陈国强

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish normal reference interval for four items of blood coagulation on ACL‐TOP Automatic coagu‐lation analyzer .Methods The fasting anti‐coagulation blood samples were collected from 1 268 inpatients and people conducted physical examination ,all subjects without liver disease ,history of blood disease and coagulation disfunction .The prothrombin time (PT) ,activated partical prothrombin time(APTT) ,thrombin time(TT) and serum levels of fibrinogen(FIB) were determined by u‐sing ACL‐TOP automatic coagulation analyzer which was producted by America IL company .And data of determination results were used to establish the normal reference intervals of indexes in this laboratory .Results The precision and accuracy of this analy‐zer was good .There were differences of normal reference intervals between which established in this laboratory and which provided by the manufacturer .Conclusion Each laboratory should establish its own normal reference interval ,not blindly refer to reference interval provided by regents manual .%目的:建立ACL‐TOP700全自动血凝分析仪本实验室凝血4项的正常参考区间。方法筛选1268住院患者及门诊体检者,均无肝病、血液病史及出凝血功能障碍,空腹采集其静脉抗凝血。采用美国IL公司生产的ACL‐TOP700全自动血凝分析仪进行凝血酶原时间(PT)、活化部分凝血酶原时间(APTT)、凝血酶时间(TT)、纤维蛋白原(FIB)测定,建立本实验室 PT、APTT、TT、FIB的正常参考区间。结果该仪器精密度、正确度均良好,各参考区间与厂家提供的参考区间有一定的差异。结论各个实验室应建立自己的参考区间,不可盲目引用厂家试剂说明书上提供的正常参考区间。

  7. Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Zika & Pregnancy: What to Know Signing Kids Up for Sports Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: ...

  8. Beta-carotene blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotene test ... anything for up to 8 hours before the test. You may also be asked not to eat ... vitamin A (carotene) for 48 hours before the test. Your provider may also tell you to temporarily ...

  9. Production and properties of monoclonal antibodies to human blood coagulation factor VII and factor VIIa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human factor VII is a trace vitamin K-dependent protein that circulates in blood as a single-chain precursor to a serine protease. Upon activation, two-chain factor VIIa activates factor x in the presence of tissue factor and calcium. Purified preparations of single-chain (SC) human factor VII and two-chain (TC) factor VIIa were utilized to immunize Balb/c mice. Spleen cells from these immunized mice were fused to a non-secreting NS-1 derivative of X63-Ag8 myeloma cells and grown in selective medium. Analysis of culture supernatants by EIA revealed several hybridomas that were secreting IgG specific for Sc-factor VII and TC-factor VIIa. In addition, several hybridomas secreted IgG that reacted equally well with factor VII and factor VIIa. One of the latter McAb (A-29) reacted with the heavy chain of factor VIIa and the intact factor VII molecule equally as judged by Western blotting. A-29 was produced in ascites fluid, purified and coupled to activated CH-Sepharose. Application of one liter of normal human plasma to 10 ml of this immunoadsorbent column, elution of factor VII and subsequent Western blot using 125I-rabbit anti-human factor VII indicated a single species of factor VII(M/sub r/ = 50 KDa) in normal plasma. These specific factor VII/VIIa McAbs may prove useful in the analysis of these factors, and in the separation of SC-factor VII from TC-factor VIIa

  10. Blood coagulation factor XII drives adaptive immunity during neuroinflammation via CD87-mediated modulation of dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Kerstin; Pankratz, Susann; Asaridou, Chloi-Magdalini; Herrmann, Alexander M; Bittner, Stefan; Merker, Monika; Ruck, Tobias; Glumm, Sarah; Langhauser, Friederike; Kraft, Peter; Krug, Thorsten F; Breuer, Johanna; Herold, Martin; Gross, Catharina C; Beckmann, Denise; Korb-Pap, Adelheid; Schuhmann, Michael K; Kuerten, Stefanie; Mitroulis, Ioannis; Ruppert, Clemens; Nolte, Marc W; Panousis, Con; Klotz, Luisa; Kehrel, Beate; Korn, Thomas; Langer, Harald F; Pap, Thomas; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Wiendl, Heinz; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Meuth, Sven G

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant immune responses represent the underlying cause of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent evidence implicated the crosstalk between coagulation and immunity in CNS autoimmunity. Here we identify coagulation factor XII (FXII), the initiator of the intrinsic coagulation cascade and the kallikrein-kinin system, as a specific immune cell modulator. High levels of FXII activity are present in the plasma of MS patients during relapse. Deficiency or pharmacologic blockade of FXII renders mice less susceptible to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (a model of MS) and is accompanied by reduced numbers of interleukin-17A-producing T cells. Immune activation by FXII is mediated by dendritic cells in a CD87-dependent manner and involves alterations in intracellular cyclic AMP formation. Our study demonstrates that a member of the plasmatic coagulation cascade is a key mediator of autoimmunity. FXII inhibition may provide a strategy to combat MS and other immune-related disorders. PMID:27188843

  11. Early activation of the coagulation system during lower body negative pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaar, M; Johansson, P I; Nielsen, L B;

    2009-01-01

    We considered that a moderate reduction of the central blood volume (CBV) may activate the coagulation system. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) is a non-invasive means of reducing CBV and, thereby, simulates haemorrhage. We tested the hypothesis that coagulation markers would increase following...

  12. Integrated laboratory coagulation tests in hypercoagulation diagnosis and thrombosis risk assessment. Part I. The pathophysiology of thrombosis and hypercoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Lipets

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombosis is a fatal hemostatic disorders occurring in various conditions ranging from pregnancy and surgery to cancer, sepsis and heart attack. Despite the availability of different anticoagulants and accumulated clinical experience, proving their effectiveness, thrombosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. This is largely due to the fact that conventional laboratory coagulation tests are not sufficiently sensitive to the hypercoagulable state, and they are difficult to use for assessing the risk of thrombosis. Specific molecular markers (D-dimers, fibrinopeptide, thrombin-antithrombin complex are more effective, but also have a large number of disadvantages. A possible solution is the use of integrated test, which simulate in vitro the majority of the physiological coagulation processes. In the first part of this paper the biochemical processes that cause the risk of thrombosis were discussed.

  13. Study on contrast test of PPC pre-oxidation and coagulation for algae removal and deodorization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The effect of treating algae-bearing water and induced odor by use of permanganate potassium composite (PPC) pre-oxidation was investigated, and was compared with the effect of treatments by pre-chlorination, permanganate potassium pre-oxidation and simple coagulation. The results showed that simple coagulation and pre-chlorination were less effective in removing algae and its odor, whereas PPC pre-oxidation was the most effective in algae removal and deodorization. Upon oxidation with PPC, the cells of Oscillatoria agardhic were inactivated and some intra-cellular and extra-cellular components were released into the water, which may help the coagulation by their bridging effect. The efficient removal of algae by PPC pre-oxidation is believed to be the joint contribution of several mechanisms.

  14. Factors affecting the lung perfused blood volume in patients with intrapulmonary clots after anti-coagulation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Dual-energy CT can provide morphological and functional lung images in the same examination. • The subsequent dual-energy CT demonstrates the increased whole lung perfused blood volume (V120) despite the residual intrapulmonary clots after treatment in one examination. • The increased whole lung perfusion (V120) and a decreased low perfusion volume (V5) result in the improvement in the low perfusion rate (%V5) in the patients with acute pulmonary embolism after treatment. - Abstract: Objectives: Factors affecting the improvement in the lung perfused blood volume (LPBV) were evaluated based on the presence of intrapulmonary clots (IPCs) after anti-coagulation therapy using 64-slice dual-energy CT. Materials and methods: 96 patients exhibiting venous thromboembolism underwent initial and repeated LPBV examinations between December 2008 and July 2014. Fifteen patients were excluded due to pulmonary comorbidities, and a total of 81 patients were included in this study. Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) was diagnosed in 46 of the patients (56.7%). LPBV images were three-dimensionally reconstructed with two threshold ranges: 1–120 HU (V120) and 1–5 HU (V5), and the relative value of V5 per V120 expressed as %V5. These values were subsequently compared with indicators of the severity of PE, such as the D-dimer level, heart rate and CT measurements. This study was approved by the local ethics committee. Results: In patients with IPCs, the D-dimer, V5 and %V5values were significantly larger (p ≤ 0.01) in the initial LPBV, although these differences disappeared in subsequent LPBV after treatment. The right ventricular (RV) diameter, RV/left ventricular (RV/LV) diameter ratio and %V5 values were also significantly reduced, whereas the V5 value did not significantly decrease (p = 0.07), but V120 value significantly increased (p < 0.001) after treatment. However, in patients with IPCs the change rate in %V5 [(subsequent-initial)/initial %V5] showed a

  15. Factors affecting the lung perfused blood volume in patients with intrapulmonary clots after anti-coagulation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Munemasa, E-mail: radokada@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Masuda, Yu [4th Grade of 6-year Medicine Doctor Program, Department of Medicine, Yamaguchi University Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Nakashima, Yoshiteru [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, Oosaki 77, Hofu, Yamaguchi 747-8511 (Japan); Nomura, Takafumi; Nakao, Sei [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Suga, Kazuyoshi [Department of Radiology, St Hills Hospital, Imamurakita 3-7-18, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-0155 (Japan); Kido, Shoji [Computer-aided Diagnosis and Biomedical Imaging Research Biomedical Engineering, Applied Medical Engineering Science Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai 2-16-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan); Matsunaga, Naofumi [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Dual-energy CT can provide morphological and functional lung images in the same examination. • The subsequent dual-energy CT demonstrates the increased whole lung perfused blood volume (V{sub 120}) despite the residual intrapulmonary clots after treatment in one examination. • The increased whole lung perfusion (V{sub 120}) and a decreased low perfusion volume (V{sub 5}) result in the improvement in the low perfusion rate (%V{sub 5}) in the patients with acute pulmonary embolism after treatment. - Abstract: Objectives: Factors affecting the improvement in the lung perfused blood volume (LPBV) were evaluated based on the presence of intrapulmonary clots (IPCs) after anti-coagulation therapy using 64-slice dual-energy CT. Materials and methods: 96 patients exhibiting venous thromboembolism underwent initial and repeated LPBV examinations between December 2008 and July 2014. Fifteen patients were excluded due to pulmonary comorbidities, and a total of 81 patients were included in this study. Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) was diagnosed in 46 of the patients (56.7%). LPBV images were three-dimensionally reconstructed with two threshold ranges: 1–120 HU (V{sub 120}) and 1–5 HU (V{sub 5}), and the relative value of V{sub 5} per V{sub 120} expressed as %V{sub 5}. These values were subsequently compared with indicators of the severity of PE, such as the D-dimer level, heart rate and CT measurements. This study was approved by the local ethics committee. Results: In patients with IPCs, the D-dimer, V{sub 5} and %V{sub 5}values were significantly larger (p ≤ 0.01) in the initial LPBV, although these differences disappeared in subsequent LPBV after treatment. The right ventricular (RV) diameter, RV/left ventricular (RV/LV) diameter ratio and %V{sub 5} values were also significantly reduced, whereas the V{sub 5} value did not significantly decrease (p = 0.07), but V{sub 120} value significantly increased (p < 0.001) after treatment. However, in

  16. Dynamics of change of lipid and monoamine metabolisms and the blood coagulation system during experimental atherosclerosis caused by restriction of movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvishiani, G. S.; Kobakhidze, N. G.

    1980-01-01

    Shifts in lipid, catecholamine, and blood coagulation systems following various periods (1, 2, 3, and 4 months) of experimentally induced atherosclerosis were studied. The same indices were studied in the tissues of the myocardium, liver, and brain stem-reticular formation after decapitation of the animals at the end of the experiment. Periodic motion restriction caused an increase in blood beta-lipoproteins in the rabbits at the beginning of the experiment. An increase in general cholesterol content and a decrease in the lecithincholesterol index were established at the end of the experiment. Myocardial beta-lipoprotein and brain stem reticular formation general cholesterol contents were elevated; catecholamine content was increased at the end of the experiment. In the initial months, free adrenaline basically increased, while in later months blood adrenaline decreased and blood noradrenaline increased.

  17. 临产孕妇凝血功能检测的临床意义%Clinical significance of detecting the function of blood coagulation for parturient women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉; 李耀军

    2011-01-01

    To study the function of coagulation, anti coagulation and fibrinolysis in later pregnant women, and to study the clinical value of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thrombopastin time ( APTT), thrombin time (TT), fibrinogen (Fib) in later pregnant women. Methods The difference of function of blood coagulation between 320 parturient women and 130 healthy women without pregnant were analyzed. Results The results of PT,APTT and TT in the later pregnant women were low er than those in healthy controls(P<0.05). The concentration of Fib in later pregnant women were significantly higher than that in healthy controls(P<0.05). Conclusion In the process of parturition,it is important to detect the function of blood coagulation for parturient woman,especially when parturient woman shows abnormal bleeding.%目的 了解孕妇分娩前的凝血功能,探讨临产孕妇检测凝血酶原时间(PT)、活化部分凝血酶时间(APTT)、凝血酶时间(TT)、纤维蛋白原(Fib)的临床意义.方法 对320例临产孕妇和130例健康非孕妇女的凝血四项指标检测结果进行比较分析.结果 临产孕妇与健康非孕妇女比较,PT、APTT、TT显著降低,Fib明显升高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 在产前及分娩过程中及时监测各项凝血指标对预测、预防和治疗产妇异常出血有重要意义.

  18. Flushable reagent stool blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drug store without a prescription. Brand names include EZ-Detect, HomeChek Reveal, and ColoCARE. You do not ... different tests use different ways to check for water quality. Check the package for instructions.

  19. Flushable reagent stool blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pads at the drug store without a prescription. Brand names include EZ-Detect, HomeChek Reveal, and ColoCARE. ... in the toilet. Watch for a change of color on the test area of the pad. Results ...

  20. 21 CFR 640.53 - Testing the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.53 Section 640.53 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Cryoprecipitate § 640.53 Testing the blood. (a) Blood... sample of blood collected at the time of collecting the source blood, and such sample container shall...

  1. Blood histamine release: A new allergy blood test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allergen-mediated histamine release from human leukocytes represents an important model for in vitro studies of allergic reactions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the measurement of histamine released in allergic patients (pts) by radioenzymatic assay following mixing of their blood with common allergens represents a reliable index for diagnosis of atopic allergy. Three categories of allergies were used: (1) housedust and mite; (2) cat and dog dander; (3) trees and grasses and ragweed mixture. The presence of allergy was established by intradermal skin testing in the study group of 82 pts. Significant atopy was defined as ≥ 3+ (overall range 0-4 +, negative to maximum) on skin testing. The test was carried out in tubes with 0.5 ml heparinized blood, 0.5 ml tris albumin buffer, and one of the allergens (60-100 PNU/ml). In 20 controls without allergy, there always was ≤ 4% histamine release (normal response). A significant allergen-mediated histamine release, ranging from 12 to 30% of the total blood histamine content, was observed in 96% of the pts with skin test sensitivity of ≥ 3+. There was good agreement between skin testing and histamine release in terms of the allergen causing the response. Thus, measurement of histamine release in blood in response to allergen challenge represents a clinically useful in vitro test for the diagnosis of atopic allergy. Because data can be obtained from a single sample and are highly quantitative, this new method should have application to the longitudinal study of allergic pts and to the assessment of interventions

  2. Effects of Blood Flow and/or Ventilation Restriction on Radiofrequency Coagulation Size in the Lung: An Experimental Study in Swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the restriction of blood flow and/or ventilation affects the radiofrequency (RF) ablation coagulation size in lung parenchyma. Thirty-one RF ablations were done in 16 normal lungs of 8 living swine with 2-cm LeVeen needles. Eight RF ablations were performed as a control (group G1), eight with balloon occlusion of the ipsilateral mainstem bronchus (G2), eight with occlusion of the ipsilateral pulmonary artery (G3), and seven with occlusion of both the ipsilateral bronchus and pulmonary artery (G4). Coagulation diameters and volumes of each ablation zone were compared on computed tomography (CT) and gross specimen examinations. Twenty-six coagulation zones were suitable for evaluation: eight in G1, five in G2, seven in G3, and six in G4 groups. In G1, the mean coagulation diameter was 21.5 ± 3.5 mm on CT and 19.5 ± 1.78 mm on gross specimen examination. In G2, the mean diameters were 26.5 ± 5.1 mm and 23.0 ± 2.7 mm on CT and gross specimen examination, respectively. In G3, the mean diameters were 29.4 ± 2.2 mm and 27.4 ± 2.9 mm on CT and gross specimen examination, respectively, and in G4, they were 32.6 ± 3.33 mm and 28.8 ± 2.6 mm, respectively. The mean coagulation volumes were 3.39 ± l.52 cm3 on CT and 3.01 ± 0.94 cm3 on gross examinations in G1, 6.56 ± 2.47 cm3 and 5.22 ± 0.85 cm3 in G2, 10.93 ± 2.17 cm3 and 9.97 ± 2.91 cm3 in G3, and 13.81 ± 3.03 cm3 and 11.06 ± 3.27 cm3 in G4, respectively. The mean coagulation diameters on gross examination and mean coagulation volumes on CT and gross examination with G3 and G4 were significantly larger than those in G1 (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, respectively) or in G2 (p < 0.05, p < 0.005, p < 0.005, respectively). Pulmonary collapse occurred in one lung in G2 and pulmonary artery thrombus in two lungs of G3 and two lungs of G4. The coagulation size of RF ablation of the lung parenchyma is increased by ventilation and particularly by pulmonary artery

  3. Gas exchange and the coagulation system of the blood during the effect on the body of high concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosh, L.; Agadzhanyan, N. A.; Davydov, G. A.; Rybakov, B. K.; Sergiyenko, A. S.

    1974-01-01

    Maximum permissible concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide in a controlled atmosphere were determined by evaluating their effects on human gas exchange, blood coagulation, and tolerances to acute hypoxia, acceleration, and physical loads. It was found that functional disturbances depend on the concentration of respiratory gases and the length of stay in an altered atmosphere. By changing the atmospheric composition and by bringing the gaseous environment into accordance with the work and rest regimen and energy expenditures, the general reactivity of the body changes favorably.

  4. The prospects of application of natural antioxidants in correction of blood coagulation in patients with breast cancer during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an accompanying therapy of the patients with BC Bipolan produced positive effect on coagulation homeostasis. By the end of the course of treatment the indices of homeostasis normalized in the experimental group of the patients; manifestations of DIC syndrome and thromboembolic complications were controlled

  5. Effects of different progestin regimens in hormone replacement therapy on blood coagulation factor VII and tissue factor pathway inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Skouby, S O.; Andersen, L F;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT) reduces cardiovascular risk, but an early increased risk was reported in women with coronary heart disease. In such women the arterial intima can express tissue factor, and changes in coagulation factor VII (factor VII) and tissue factor pat...

  6. Acknowledging the results of blood tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdottir á; Hertzum, Morten

    At the studied hospital, physicians from the Medical and Surgical Departments work some of their shifts in the Emergency Department (ED). Though icons showing the blood-test process were introduced on electronic whiteboards in the ED, these icons did not lead to increased attention to test acknow...

  7. Aggregation and sedimentation processes during a spring phytoplankton bloom: A field experiment to test coagulation theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Lundsgaard, Claus; Olesen, Michael; Hansen, Jørgen L. S.

    1994-01-01

    intervals and we estimated the turbulent shear rate from observations of wind velocity. By means of coagulation theory these observations were combined into a predictor of aggregation rate. We also quantified the sedimentation of phytoplankton, other suspended particles and of aggregates by means of moored......Spring diatom blooms in temperate waters are often terminated by aggregation of the cells into large floes and subsequent mass sedimentation of the phytoplankton to the sea floor. The rate of aggregate formation by physical coagulation depends on the concentration of suspended particles, on the...... turbulent shear that makes particles collide, and on their stickiness (= probability of adhesion upon collision), During a mixed diatom bloom in a shallow Danish fjord, for 3 weeks we monitored the concentration and stickiness of suspended particles and the species composition of the phytoplankton at 2-3 d...

  8. Aggregation and sedimentation processes during a spring phytoplankton bloom: A field experiment to test coagulation theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Lundsgaard, Claus; Olesen, Michael;

    1994-01-01

    Spring diatom blooms in temperate waters are often terminated by aggregation of the cells into large floes and subsequent mass sedimentation of the phytoplankton to the sea floor. The rate of aggregate formation by physical coagulation depends on the concentration of suspended particles, on the...... turbulent shear that makes particles collide, and on their stickiness (= probability of adhesion upon collision), During a mixed diatom bloom in a shallow Danish fjord, for 3 weeks we monitored the concentration and stickiness of suspended particles and the species composition of the phytoplankton at 2-3 d...... intervals and we estimated the turbulent shear rate from observations of wind velocity. By means of coagulation theory these observations were combined into a predictor of aggregation rate. We also quantified the sedimentation of phytoplankton, other suspended particles and of aggregates by means of moored...

  9. The interplay between platelets and coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Weeterings, C.

    2009-01-01

    Platelet activation and blood coagulation are two processes often studied separately, but which cannot be seen independently from each other. Platelets play a pivotal role in coagulation, not only by providing negatively charged phospholipids, but also in localizing the coagulation process from a diffuse plasma environment to an anionic surface, most likely via specific receptors on the platelets. On the other hand, the main product of coagulation, thrombin, is a potent platelet activator, th...

  10. Systemic coagulation parameters in mice after treatment with vascular targeting agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gottstein Claudia

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular targeting of malignant tumors has become a clinically validated new treatment approach with clear patient benefit. However clinical studies have also revealed that some types of vascular targeting agents (VTAs are prone to coagulation system side effects. It is therefore essential to predetermine coagulation parameters in preclinical studies. As of to date, this has rarely been done, predominantly due to technical issues. The goal of this study was to establish and apply a standardized process, whereby systemic coagulation activation can be routinely measured in mice. Results We have evaluated a number of sampling techniques and coagulation tests regarding their suitability for this purpose. We were able to adapt two assays measuring soluble fibrin, a marker for a prethrombotic status. Thus, soluble fibrin could be measured for the first time in mice. All assays were validated in a positive control model for systemic coagulation activation, i.e. lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia. Based on our results, we selected a panel of coagulation tests, which are both feasable and informative for preclinical testing of VTAs: soluble fibrin, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, free antithrombin III, white blood cell counts and platelet counts. The effect of tumor transplants on coagulation parameters was evaluated using this panel. We then applied this set of assays in treatment studies with a VTA developed in our laboratory to investigate a potential systemic coagulation activation. Conclusion We have established a standardized panel of assays that can be used to test murine blood samples for coagulation activation in preclinical studies. All tests are feasible to perform in any research laboratory without specialized equipment. In addition, this is the first report to measure soluble fibrin, an early marker of systemic coagulation activation, in mice. The panel was applied on tumor bearing mice and mice treated with a VTA

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of blood coagulation factor V-activating proteinase (RVV-V) from Russell’s viper venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of blood coagulation factor V-activating proteinase are reported. The best crystal diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution. Russell’s viper venom blood coagulation factor V activator (RVV-V) is a thrombin-like serine proteinase that specifically activates factor V by cleaving a single peptide bond between Arg1545 and Ser1546. Activated factor V combines with activated factor X produced by the enzyme RVV-X in the venom to form the prothombinase complex, which can induce disseminated intravascular coagulopathy in envenomated animals. In the current study, RVV-V was crystallized in order to attempt to understand its substrate specificity for factor V. Four distinct crystal forms of RVV-V were obtained using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffraction data sets were collected on SPring-8 beamlines. The best crystal of RVV-V generated data sets to 1.9 Å resolution

  12. 21 CFR 640.5 - Testing the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... be negative to a serological test for syphilis. (b) Determination of blood group. Each container of Whole Blood shall be classified as to ABO blood group. At least two blood group tests shall be made and... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.5 Section 640.5 Food...

  13. 21 CFR 864.6550 - Occult blood test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occult blood test. 864.6550 Section 864.6550 Food... DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6550 Occult blood test. (a) Identification. An occult blood test is a device used to detect occult blood in urine or feces. (Occult blood...

  14. 21 CFR 640.14 - Testing the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.14 Section 640.14 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.14 Testing the blood. Blood from which Red Blood Cells are prepared shall be tested as prescribed in § 610.40 of this chapter...

  15. FDA Recommends All Blood Donations Be Tested for Zika

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FDA Recommends All Blood Donations Be Tested for Zika Updated guidance provides further protection for U.S. blood ... entire blood supply be routinely screened for the Zika virus. In February, the FDA recommended testing of ...

  16. The link between high-fat meals and postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII possibly involves kallikrein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L F; Marckmann, P; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie;

    2000-01-01

    Contrary to low-fat meals, high-fat meals are known to cause postprandial factor VII (FVII) activation, but the mechanism is unknown. To study the postprandial FVII activation in detail, 18 young men consumed in randomized order high-fat or low-fat test meals. Fasting and non-fasting blood samples......-rich lipoproteins activate prokallikrein postprandially, which might form an important initial event in FVII activation after consumption of high-fat meals....... were collected. The high-fat test was associated with an increase in plasma triglyceride and kallikrein concentrations and postprandial FVII activation (p<0.001). Plasma kallikrein was strongly associated with triglycerides in fasting and non-fasting samples (r2=0.74-0.87, p<0.0001), suggesting that...

  17. 21 CFR 640.33 - Testing the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.33 Section 640.33 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.33 Testing the blood. (a) Blood...

  18. AIDS患者凝血功能检测的临床探索%Explore the AIDS Clinical Testing in Patients with Coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕青; 荣维江

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究探讨AIDS患者的治疗对其凝血功能的影响。方法选取我院收治的AIDS患者32例作为研究对象,将其作为观察组,同时选择自愿参与实验研究的健康受试者40例作为对照组,对两组受试者的凝血功能进行检测,对比较其血液中血小板、D-二聚体、血浆纤维蛋白原的水平以及血浆凝血酶原时间、活化部分凝血酶时间等相关指标,分析高效抗逆转录病毒联合治疗对AIDS患者凝血功能的影响情况。结果凝血各项相关检查指标的比较显示,观察组AIDS患者的D-二聚体、血浆纤维蛋白原的水平以及血浆凝血酶原时间、活化部分凝血酶时间等显著高于健康对照组的受试者,而血小板参数显著低于对照组受试者,各项凝血检查指标之间的比较均差异显著,且P<0.05,具有统计学意义。结论高效抗逆转录病毒联合治疗艾滋病会导致患者血液处于严重高凝状态,因而在临床要考虑联合抗凝血药物进行治疗。%Objective Study investigated the effects of AIDS patients treated its clotting function. Methods Select the AIDS patients in our hospital 32 cases as a research object, as in the observation group, while voluntarily participating in the experiment studied 40 cases of healthy subjects as the control group, two groups of subjects coagulation testing, comparative their blood platelets, D-dimer, ifbrinogen levels and prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and other related indicators, the analysis of highly active antiretroviral combination therapy for AIDS patients affect coagulation situation. Results Compare coagulation indicators show the relevant checks, signiifcantly higher than the healthy control group subjects AIDS patients in the observation group D-dimer, ifbrinogen levels and prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and platelet parameters were signiifcantly lower than control subjects

  19. Hemophilia as a defect of the tissue factor pathway of blood coagulation: Effect of factors VIII and IX on factor X activation in a continuous-flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of factors VIII and IX on the ability of the tissue factor-factor VIIa complex to activate factor X was studied in a continuous-flow tubular enzyme reactor. Tissue factor immobilized in a phospholipid bilayer on the inner surface of the tube was exposed to a perfusate containing factors VIIa, VIII, IX, and X flowing at a wall shear rate of 57, 300, or 1130 sec-1. The addition of factors VIII and IX at their respective plasma concentrations resulted in a further 2 endash-to 3 endash fold increase. The direct activation of factor X by tissue factor-factor VIIa could be virtually eliminated by the lipoprotein-associated coagulation inhibitor. These results suggest that the tissue factor pathway, mediated through factors VIII and IX, produces significant levels of factor Xa even in the presence of an inhibitor of the tissue factor-factor VIIa complex; moreover, the activation is dependent on local shear conditions. These findings are consistent both with a model of blood coagulation in which initiation of the system results from tissue factor and with the bleeding observed in hemophilia

  20. COAGULATION ACTIVITY IN LIVER DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sheikh Sajjadieh Mohammad Reza

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Patients with advanced hepatic failure may present with the entire spectrum of coagulation factor deficiencies. This study was designed to determine laboratory abnormalities in coagulation in chronic liver disease and the association of these abnormalities with the extent of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Coagulation markers were assayed in 60 participants: 20 patients with chronic hepatitis, 20 patients with cirrhosis, and 20 healthy individuals (control. Plasma levels of anti-thrombin III were determined by a chromogenic substrate method, and plasma concentrations of fibrinogen were analyzed by the Rutberg method. Commercially available assays were used for laboratory coagulation tests. The levels of coagualation activity markers in patients with chronic liver disease were significantly different in comparison to those in healthy participants. These results indicate the utility of measuring markers for coagulation activity in determining which cirrhosis patients are more susceptible to disseminated intravascular coagulation.

  1. Effect of conditions in obtaining blood samples for ECP testing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, J M; Rubira, N; Botey, J; Rodrigo, M J; Alonso, R; Eseverri, J L; Marín, A; Ras, R M

    1996-02-01

    Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP) is a basic protein found in eosinophil granules. This cell and its mediators are currently considered to be potential indicators of the severity of inflammation in the organism. ECP concentration can be reliably tested using several RIA or ELISA methods. It is well known that the conditions of sample obtention can affect the ECP values in blood. The aim of this study is to establish which parameters affect ECP testing during regular blood sample collection and how they affect it. Blood samples taken for the routine study of five children attended in our department were analysed: four were asthmatic and one child had atopic dermatitis. In the results we observed that ECP was not detected in the blood samples taken with EDTA tripotassium. In both the plasma samples taken with heparin as well as with serum, more ECP was released at a higher temperature. In the release of ECP obtained by coagulation, samples at 37 degrees showed values of between 4 and 20 higher than those obtained for an hour at 0 degrees. There is a considerable variability in the testing of ECP depending on the blood test extraction conditions, the range is bigger in the samples with eosinophils. These results imply the need to define a stricter protocol for obtaining samples than that suggested at present. PMID:8703307

  2. 常见影响凝血四项检测结果的因素%Common Factors affect the Test Results of Coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金卫华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the blood specimen col ection, transport, storage time on four items of blood coagulation determination were investigated. Methods: the prothrombin time for some this wil be found in the work of the common influencing factors (PT), fibrinogen (FIB), activated partial thromboplastin time (AFTT) and thrombin time (determination of TT). Results:the status of the instrument has a direct impact on the experimental results, the accuracy of operator's ability and the sense of responsibility for the result plays an important role. Conclusion:strict control of blood with anticoagulant ratio, avoid using glass tube, in pay at ention to every detail and at ention, to ensure the accuracy of test results, the reliability and authenticity.%目的:观察血液标本、采集、运送、放置时间对凝血四项测定结果的影响。方法本文将在工作中发现的一些常见影响因素进行凝血酶原时间(PT),纤维蛋白原(FIB),活化部分凝血活酶时间(AFTT)和凝血酶时间(TT)测定。结果仪器状态的好坏直接影响实验的结果,操作人员的能力及责任心对于结果的准确性起至关重要的作用。结论严格控制血液与抗凝剂比例,忌用玻璃管,检测中重视每一个细小环节并加以注意,才能保证检测结果的准确性、可靠性和真实性。

  3. SC response characteristics of two kinds of coagulant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨万东; 宋爽; 史惠祥

    2002-01-01

    Automatic coagulant dosage control with streaming current (SC) technique is in troduced inthis paper. Aluminum and ferric coagulants are widely used in surface water treatment. The SC response characteristics of P-AiCI3 aluminum coagulant and P-FeCI3 ferric coagulant were investigated in this work. Bench-scale water treatment results were obtained from jar tests including rapid mixing,flocculation and undisturbed sedimentation. Results showed that aluminum coagulant is more sensitive than ferric coagulant to SC response.

  4. SC response characteristics of two kinds of coagulant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨万东; 宋爽; 史惠祥

    2002-01-01

    Automatic coagulant dosage control with streaming current (SC) technique is introduced in this paper. Aluminum and ferric coagulants are widely used in surface water treatment. The SC response characteristics of P-AlCl3 aluminum coagulant and P-FeCl3 ferric coagulant were investigated in this work. Bench-scale water treatment results were obtained from jar tests including rapid mixing, flocculation and undisturbed sedimentation. Results showed that aluminum coagulant is more sensitive than ferric coagulant to SC response.

  5. 21 CFR 640.23 - Testing the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testing the blood. 640.23 Section 640.23 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Platelets § 640.23 Testing the blood. (a) Blood from... this chapter and § 640.5 (a), (b), and (c). (b) The tests shall be performed on a sample of...

  6. Chapter 3. Biological properties of ethynyl-piperidol polymers. 3.1. Activating effect of quaternized linear and graft-polymers of ethynyl-piperidol on blood coagulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is devoted to activating effect of quaternized linear and graft-polymers of ethynyl-piperidol on blood coagulation system. The indexes of blood clotting at intraperitoneal injection of polymers were considered. The anti heparin activity of methiodide of poly-isopropenyl trimethyl ethynyl piperidol was considered as well. The influence of molecular weight on styptic activity and toxicity of methiodide of poly-isopropenyl trimethyl ethynyl piperidol was studied. The styptic activity of grafted polymers of ethynyl piperidol was defined.

  7. Momordica charantia seed extract exhibits strong anticoagulant effect by specifically interfering in intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation and dissolves fibrin clot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjappa, Bhagyalakshmi; Gangaraju, Sowmyashree; Girish, Kesturu S; Kemparaju, Kempaiah; Gonchigar, Sathish J; Shankar, Rohit L; Shinde, Manohar; Sannaningaiah, Devaraja

    2015-03-01

    The current study explores the anticoagulant and fibrin clot-hydrolyzing properties of Momordica charantia seed extract (MCSE). MCSE hydrolyzed casein with the specific activity of 0.780 units/mg per min. Interestingly, it enhanced the clot formation process of citrated human plasma from control 146 to 432 s. In addition, the intravenous injection of MCSE significantly prolonged the bleeding time in a dose-dependent manner from control 150 to more than 800 s, and strengthened its anticoagulant activity. Interestingly, MCSE specifically prolonged the clotting time of only activated partial thromboplastin time, but not prothrombin time, and revealed the participation of MCSE in the intrinsic pathway of the blood coagulation cascade. Furthermore, MCSE completely hydrolyzed both Aα and Bβ chains of the human fibrinogen and partially hydrolyzed the γ chain. However, it hydrolyzed all the chains (α polymer, α chain, β chain and γ-γ dimmers) of partially cross-linked human fibrin clot. The proteolytic activity followed by the anticoagulant effect of the MCSE was completely abolished by the 1,10-phenanthroline and phenyl methyl sulphonyl fluoride, but iodoacetic acid, EDTA, and ethylene glycol-N,N,N',N'-tetra acetic acid did not. Curiously, MCSE did not hydrolyze any other plasma proteins except the plasma fibrinogen. Moreover, MCSE was devoid of RBC lysis, edema and hemorrhagic properties, suggesting its nontoxic nature. Taken together, MCSE may be a valuable candidate in the treatment of blood clot/thrombotic disorders. PMID:25192240

  8. 基于锥板磁珠法的全自动凝血分析仪应用评价%Based on the Cone Board Magnetic Beads Method of the Full-Automatic Blood Coagulation Analyzer Application Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海; 邸平; 乐家新; 李健

    2012-01-01

    rate of Fbg is 1.08% ;PT,INR,aPTT,Fbg,TT measurement results with the French STA-B coagulation analyzer on the closely related ,r are:0. 995,0. 995,0. 947,0. 962,0. 984; Compared with the French STA-R coagulation analyzer,D- dimer positive coincidence rate is 96.9%. The anti-interference ability without the influence of jaundice, chylus.hemolysis, opacity and other optical interference ; Linear range is wider. Conclusion Destiny Max full- automatic blood coagulation analyzer accuracy of performance, machine structure is rigorous,reasonable design,high testing speed,simple operation,and you can make fast and accurate clinical blood analysis report.

  9. Efeito da hemodiluição normovolêmica aguda na coagulação sanguínea: comparação entre os testes colhidos de um modelo in vivo e de um modelo in vitro Efecto de la hemodilución normovolémica aguda en la coagulación sanguínea: comparación entre los tests recolectados en un modelo in vivo y en un modelo in vitro Effects of acute normovolemic hemodilution on blood coagulation: comparison between tests of an in vivo and an in vitro model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Beloto de Souza

    2010-08-01

    compare hemostasis in two different degrees of hemodilution in both models. METHODS: Thirteen patients underwent acute normovolemic hemodilution with a reduction in hematocrit to 30% and 20%. Volemia was maintained with Ringer's lactate. Blood samples for evaluation of hemostasis were collected at moments M1 before hemodilution, M2 20 minutes after obtaining a hematocrit of 30%, and M3 20 minutes after obtaining a hematocrit of 20%. Before hemodilution, blood samples were collected to perform hemodilution in a test tube. The degree of hemodilution in the test tube (in vitro was the same as that produced in the patients (in vivo. Hemostasis was evaluated by the prothrombin time, partial activated thromboplastin time, and thrombin time, and by quantifying fibrinogen. RESULTS: The behavior of the tests that evaluated hemostasis was identical in both models. An increase in PT, aPTT, and TT, as well as a reduction in the concentration of fibrinogen was observed. The higher degree of hemodilution was associated with greater compromise of coagulation. CONCLUSIONS: The in vitro model can substitute the in vivo mode in the evaluation of hemostasis during acute normovolemic hemodilution.

  10. SYSMEX CS 5100全自动血凝分析仪的性能评价%Evaluation on the performance of Sysmex CS 5100 automatic blood coagulation analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 张军; 徐唯傑; 乐军; 陈晓燕; 陈晋

    2015-01-01

    目的:对Sysmex CS 5100(下简称CS 5100)全自动血凝仪进行性能评价。方法对CS 5100血凝仪的准确性、不精密度、Fg 线性(可报告范围)、参考范围、携带污染率进行评价,并与 Sysmex 公司生产的 CA 7000全自动血凝分析仪进行相关性试验,所测指标为 PT、PT(INR)、APTT、Fbg、TT、AT、D 二聚体(DD)和 FDP。结果准确性试验测定结果在质控说明书给定的范围内。批内最大变异系数(CV)与日间最大 CV 均符合符合相关行业文件要求。Fbg 线性验证试验结果显示 Fbg 线性范围为1.071~5.355,相关系数(r)值为0.9950,符合规定要求(r≥0.975)。参考范围验证试验结果显示各项检测指标 R 值均>0.9,实验室预设参考范围可适用于该仪器。CS 5100与 CA 7000的各项检测项目 r 值均>0.95,两仪器结果有很好的对比性。结论CS 5100有优异的准确性、精密度良好、Fbg 检测范围宽、抗生物干扰能力强,完全可满足临床实验室要求。%Objective To evaluate the performance of Sysmex CS 51 00 automatic blood coagulation analyzer. Methods PT,PT(INR),APTT,Fbg,TT,AT,D-dimer (DD)and FDP were measured by Sysmex CS 51 00 automatic blood coagulation analyzer.The accuracy,imprecision,Fg linearity (reportable range),reference range, carry-over rate were evaluated,and the correlation with Sysmex CA 7000 automatic blood coagulation analyzer was analyzed.Results The accuracy was in the range provided by quality control instructions.The maximum within-run and inter-day coefficients of variation met the requirements of Clia′88.Fbg linear validation test showed that the linearity of Fbg was from 1 .071 to 5.355,and the correlation coefficient (r)was 0.9950,which met the specified requirements (r≥0.975).The reference range verification tests showed that the R values of all the tests were >0.9,which proved that the laboratory preset reference range can be

  11. Deep bleeder acoustic coagulation (DBAC)—Part I: development and in vitro testing of a research prototype cuff system

    OpenAIRE

    Sekins, K Michael; Barnes, Stephen R.; Fan, Liexiang; Hopple, Jerry D.; Hsu, Stephen J.; Kook, John; Lee, Chi-Yin; Maleke, Caroline; Ramachandran, A R; Zeng, Xiaozheng (Jenny); Moreau-Gobard, Romain; Ahiekpor-Dravi, Alexis; Funka-Lea, Gareth; Mitchell, Stuart B.; Dunmire, Barbrina

    2015-01-01

    Background Bleeding from limb injuries is a leading cause of death on the battlefield, with deep wounds being least accessible. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been shown capable of coagulation of bleeding (cautery). This paper describes the development and refereed in vitro evaluation of an ultrasound (US) research prototype deep bleeder acoustic coagulation (DBAC) cuff system for evaluating the potential of DBAC in the battlefield. The device had to meet quantitative performanc...

  12. Test and Analysis of Coagulation Time of Four Kinds of Coagulation Factors in Captive Bred Tree Shrew and Rhesus Monkey%人工饲养树鼩和猕猴的部分凝血因子凝集时间的测定及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄璋琼; 代解杰; 孙晓梅; 李辛斌; 高家红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To test and analyze the coagulation time of four kinds of coagulation factors in healthy , captive bred tree shrew and rhesus monkey, and to establish the reference values range of coagulation factors values in the two animals. Methods Prothrombin time ( PT) , activated partial thromboplastin time ( APTT) , fibrinogen time ( FIB) , and thrombin time ( TT) of captive bred tree shrews and rhesus monkeys were tested by using the Sysmex CA-510 automated blood coagulation analyzer, then the data were analyzed in using the statistics analysis software SPSS vl7. 0. Results In Tree shrew and Rhesus monkey, TT was respectively 19. 27 s and 20. 81 s;PT was respectively 17.34 s and 9.82 s; FIB was respectively 30.51 s and 18.73s; APPT was respectively 27. 88 s and 33. 56 s. The differences in PT and FIB were highly significant(P <0. 01) between captive bred tree shrew and rhesus monkey;and the differences in TT and APTT were also statistical significant(P <0. 05) between the captive bred tree shrew and the rhesus monkey. Conclusion There were significant differences in coagulation time of the four kinds of coagulation factors between animals, but there had no differencees in the different gender of same species.%目的 目前有关人工饲养树鼩与猕猴部分凝血因子凝集时间的资料甚少,拟初步建立这两种动物部分凝血因子凝集时间的参考值范围.方法采用全自动血凝仪测定树鼩、猕猴的血浆凝血酶时间(TT)、纤维蛋白原(Fib)、活化部分凝血活酶时间(APTT)、凝血酶原时间(PT).结果树鼩的TT、PT、Fib和APTT值分别为19.27、17.34、30.51和27.88s.猕猴的TT、PT、Fib和APTT值分别为20.81、9.82、18.73和33.56 s.人工饲养树鼩与猕猴的PT值、Fib值存在显著性差异(P<0.01),APTT值、TT值存在差异(P<0.05).结论人工饲养树鼩和猕猴部分凝血因子的凝集时间存在一定差异,同一物种雌雄个体间部分凝血因子的凝集时间没有明显差异.

  13. Skeletal muscle-specific expression of human blood coagulation factor Ⅸ rescues factor Ⅸ deficiency mouse by AAV-mediated gene transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖立辉; 陈立; 卢大儒; 王琪; 高啸波; 邱信芳; Jerry; L.Hsueh; 薛京伦; 王健民; 周虹

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector to deliver and express human blood clotting factor DC (hFIX) gene in skeletal muscle of coagulation factor IX deficiency mouse strain (FactorIX-knockout) is e-valuated. The muscle creatine kinase enhancer (MCK) and βactin promoter ((3A) were used to drive the hFIX minigene (hFIXml), which was flanked by AAV inverted terminal repeats (ITRs). Following intramuscular injection of high liter (2.5 x 1011 vector genomes/mL) of AAV, increased hFIX expression (256 ng/mL of plasma) was achieved. The time course of hFIX expression demonstrated that the expression level gradually increased over a period of two weeks before anti-hFIX antibodies developed in mouse circulating plasma. Those results provided a promising evidence that rAAV-me-diated gene transfer and skeletal muscle-specific expression of hFIX is a feasible strategy for treating patients for hemophilia B.

  14. Effects of three novel metalloproteinases from the venom of the West African saw-scaled viper, Echis ocellatus on blood coagulation and platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, J-M; Kamiguti, A S; Theakston, R D G; Wilkinson, M C; Laing, G D

    2005-06-20

    Two metalloproteinases, a 24-kDa P-I EoVMP1 and a 56-kDa P-III EoVMP2, have recently been isolated from the venom of the West African saw-scaled viper Echis ocellatus. We now reveal a new 65-kDa haemorrhagic group P-III metalloproteinase which we have designated EoVMP3. The aim of this study was to determine whether these three snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) affect platelets and blood coagulation. EoVMP1 had no effect on the aggregation of washed human platelets, whereas EoVMP2 inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation. In contrast, EoVMP3 did not inhibit the aggregation of platelets by collagen but instead activated platelets in the absence of any additional co-factors. All three SVMPs were capable of activating prothrombin to varying degrees and can therefore be described as procoagulants. EoVMP1, EoVMP2 and EoVMP3 share sequence identity with other members of the reprolysin family, but differ greatly in their effects on some of the components that control haemostasis. PMID:15863354

  15. The effects of infrasound on the blood coagulation function of guinea pigs%次声对豚鼠凝血功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文敏; 亓鹏; 张建中; 易勇; 陈兴明; 张军; 韩瑞刚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the change of the blood coagulation function of guinea pigs exposed to 16 Hz/120 dB, 16 Hz/125 dB infrasound and to explore the mechanism of circulation system damage.Methods Seventy-two guinea pigs were divided into 3 groups: the control group, the group exposed to 16 Hz/120 dB infrasound for 1.5 h a day and the group exposed to 16 Hz/125 dB infrasound for 1.5 h a day. Each exposure group was divided into 4 sub-groups (8 guinea pigs a sub-group) which were exposed to infrasound for 1, 7, 14 and 21 d, respectively. The coagulation function and serum nitric oxide (NO) were measured for control group and all sub-groups after exposure to infrasound. Results The prothrombin time (PT),international normalized ratio (INR) and serum NO of group exposed to 16 Hz/125 dB infrasound were (31.16±3.05) s, 2.53±1.21 and (88.304±52.601)μmol/L, respectively, which were significantly higher than those [(21.36±0.10) s, 1.65±0.07 and (30.943±26.864) μ mol[L] of control group (P<0.05). PT and INR of sub-groups exposed to 16 Hz/125 dB infrasound for 14 and 21 d were significantly higher than those of control group. NO of sub-groups exposed to 16 Hz/125 dB infrasound for 1 week and 2 weeks were significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.05), but NO of sub-group exposed to 16 Hz/125 dB infrasound for 3 weeks decreased slightly. Conclusion The blood coagulation function of guinea pigs exposed to 16 Hz/125 dB infrasound decreased, PT and INR may be used as the indexes to assess of blood coagulation function change induced by the infrasound exposure.%目的 研究16 Hz、120 dB,16 Hz、125 dB次声暴露后豚鼠凝血功能的变化规律,探讨次声造成生物体循环系统损害的机制.方法 将豚鼠分为对照组及16 Hz、120 dB,16 Hz、125 dB 2个暴露组,每个暴露组均按暴露时间再分成1、7、14、21 d 4个时间亚组,每个亚组8只豚鼠.各个暴露亚组每日暴露1.5 h,分别连续暴露相应的天数后抽取血

  16. Coagulation in liver toxicity and disease: Role of hepatocyte tissue factor

    OpenAIRE

    Kopec, Anna K.; Luyendyk, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The liver is the primary source of a number of circulating coagulation factors, and acute liver injury and chronic liver disease are each associated with alterations in blood coagulation. Current views of the connection between liver injury and coagulation extend beyond the impact of liver disease on synthesis of coagulation factors to include a role for coagulation factor activity in the initiation and progression of liver disease. Mechanisms of coagulation initiation in liver disease are no...

  17. Spatial coagulation with bounded coagulation rate

    CERN Document Server

    Bailleul, Ismael

    2010-01-01

    We prove that the spatial coagulation equation with bounded coagulation rate is well-posed for all times in a given class of kernels if the convection term of the underlying particle dynamics has divergence bounded above by a negative constant. Multiple coagulations, fragmentation and scattering are also considered.

  18. Spatial coagulation with bounded coagulation rate

    OpenAIRE

    Bailleul, Ismael

    2010-01-01

    We prove that the spatial coagulation equation with bounded coagulation rate is well-posed for all times in a given class of kernels if the convection term of the underlying particle dynamics has divergence bounded below by a positive constant. Multiple coagulations, fragmentation and scattering are also considered.

  19. Characterization of the gene for the a subunit of human factor XIII (plasma transglutaminase), a blood coagulation factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factor XIII (plasma transglutaminase, fibrin stabilizing factor) is a glycoprotein that circulates in blood as a tetramer (a2b2) consisting of two a and two b subunits. The primary structures of the a and b subunits of human factor XIII have been reported by a combination of cDNA cloning and amino acid sequence analysis. To establish the gene structure of the a subunit for factor XIII, several human genomic libraries were screened by using the cDNA encoding the a subunit as a probe. Among ∼5 x 107 recombinant phage, 121 have been shown to contain an insert encoding a portion of the a subunit. Twenty-five unique clones were than characterized by restriction mapping, Southern blotting, and DNA sequencing. Overlapping clones encoding the a subunit of factor XIII span >160 kilobases. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the activation peptide released by thrombin, the active site cysteine region, the two putative calcium-binding regions, and the thrombin cleavage site leading to inactivation are encoded by separate exons. This suggest that the introns may separate the a subunit into functional and structural domains. A comparison of the amino acid sequence deduced from the genomic DNA sequence with those deduced from cDNA or determined by amino acid sequence analysis of the plasma and placental proteins revealed apparent amino acid polymorphisms in six positions of the polypeptide chain of the a subunit

  20. Effect of individual dietary fatty acids on postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII and fibrinolysis in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Miller, G.J.; Bysted, Anette;

    2003-01-01

    Background: Hypertriglyceridemia may represent a procoagulant state involving disturbances to the hemostatic system. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is increased in the presence of hypertriglyceridemia. Free fatty acids (FFAs) in plasma may promote factor VII (FVII) activation....... Objective: We tested the hypothesis that FVII activation would be less after consumption of saturated fatty acids than after other fatty acids. Design: The effects of 6 matching dietary test fats, rich in stearic (S), palmitic (P), palmitic + myristic (M), oleic (O), trans 18:1 (T), and linoleic (L) acid......, respectively, on the postprandial lipid and hemostatic profile (after 2, 4, 6, and 8 h) were investigated in 16 young men. High-fat meals (1 g fat/kg body wt; 43% from the test fatty acid) were served in the morning on 6 separate days. Results: All fats increased FVII activation. The S fat resulted in a lower...

  1. Evaluation of Verigene Blood Culture Test Systems for Rapid Identification of Positive Blood Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Jae-Seok Kim; Go-Eun Kang; Han-Sung Kim; Hyun Soo Kim; Wonkeun Song; Kyu Man Lee

    2016-01-01

    The performance of molecular tests using the Verigene Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Blood Culture nucleic acid tests (BC-GP and BC-GN, resp.; Naosphere, Northbrook, IL, USA) was evaluated for the identification of microorganisms detected from blood cultures. Ninety-nine blood cultures containing Gram-positive bacteria and 150 containing Gram-negative bacteria were analyzed using the BC-GP and BC-GN assays, respectively. Blood cultures were performed using the Bactec blood culture system (BD...

  2. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is estimated that 20-25% of cases of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) relate to an underlying neoplasia primarily hematologic. It is estimated that about 5% of patients with solid tumors have CID clinic, although the incidence of subclinical alterations is much higher. The CID is not limited to the activation of the coagulation cascade, which leads to bleeding micro thrombosis and consumption of coagulation factors. Solid tumors are frequently associated adenocarcinomas producers mucin (especially gastric), usually in the context of a disseminated disease. The mucin may act as a promoter of the cascade, but probably it is a multi-event. High levels of TNF to produced by the tumor mass and chemotherapy-induced cell lysis have Also linked. Although the bleeding is usually oriented diagnosis, the most frequent cause of death is thrombosis. There are no specific tests for diagnosis. Elevated levels of D-dimer and products oriented fibrinogen degradation diagnosis. No reduction fibrinogen and almost always, one thrombocytopenia consumption. Treatment is complex and there is no consensus on many points. To recover the lost factors for consumption, it is recommended to use fresh frozen plasma and / or washed red blood cells. the heparin anticoagulation low dose is indicated since the disease causal can not be controlled quickly, but should not be initiated if there thrombocytopenia 50.000.El under profuse bleeding can require the use of tranexamic acid or EACA. Acute DIC, the case of our patient, is rare and very serious

  3. Ranking reactive glutamines in the fibrinogen αC region that are targeted by blood coagulant factor XIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouapi, Kelly Njine; Bell, Jacob D; Smith, Kerrie A; Ariëns, Robert A S; Philippou, Helen; Maurer, Muriel C

    2016-05-01

    Factor XIIIa (FXIIIa) introduces covalent γ-glutamyl-ε-lysyl crosslinks into the blood clot network. These crosslinks involve both the γ and α chains of fibrin. The C-terminal portion of the fibrin α chain extends into the αC region (210-610). Crosslinks within this region help generate a stiffer clot, which is more resistant to fibrinolysis. Fibrinogen αC (233-425) contains a binding site for FXIIIa and three glutamines Q237, Q328, and Q366 that each participate in physiological crosslinking reactions. Although these glutamines were previously identified, their reactivities toward FXIIIa have not been ranked. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods were thus used to directly characterize these three glutamines and probe for sources of FXIIIa substrate specificity. Glycine ethyl ester (GEE) and ammonium chloride served as replacements for lysine. Mass spectrometry and 2D heteronuclear single quantum coherence NMR revealed that Q237 is rapidly crosslinked first by FXIIIa followed by Q366 and Q328. Both (15)NH4Cl and (15)N-GEE could be crosslinked to the three glutamines in αC (233-425) with a similar order of reactivity as observed with the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry assay. NMR studies using the single αC mutants Q237N, Q328N, and Q366N demonstrated that no glutamine is dependent on another to react first in the series. Moreover, the remaining two glutamines of each mutant were both still reactive. Further characterization of Q237, Q328, and Q366 is important because they are located in a fibrinogen region susceptible to physiological truncations and mutation. The current results suggest that these glutamines play distinct roles in fibrin crosslinking and clot architecture. PMID:26951791

  4. Direct Testing of Blood Cultures for Detection of Streptococcal Antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Wetkowski, Maryellen A.; Peterson, Ellena M.; de la Maza, Luis M.

    1982-01-01

    A direct, rapid, and simple method for the detection of streptococcal antigens of Lancefield groups A, B, C, D, and G from blood cultures was developed by using a coagglutination test. Fifty-five clinical specimens and 117 simulated blood cultures containing gram-positive cocci were tested. Out of 6,261 clinical blood cultures screened, 55 cultures from 53 patients were positive, with organisms resembling streptococci, by Gram stain. Of these cultures, 78% (43 of 55) were pure cultures of str...

  5. Performance Verification of Precil C2000-A Automatic Blood Coagulation Instrument%普利生C2000-A全自动血凝仪的性能验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟坚; 刘光明; 梁凤琼

    2014-01-01

    proj ects,within-run precision was less than 3% and between-run precision was less than 5%.The deviations of constant quality control products and calibration results from the target values were less than 8%,respectively.After dilution,theoreti-cal values and measured values of linear test specimens were measured for regression analysis. The a values ranged from 0.97 to 1.03 and the r values were greater than 0.975,which were in accordance with the requirements of the linear correlation.The carryover rate and deviation of in-terference test were less than 3%.The full automatic blood coagulation analyzer precil C2000-A showed a good channel consistency with no significant differences in measuring results among the four channels (P>0.05 ).Conclusion Domestic automatic blood coagulation analyzer precil C2000-A has a good analytical performance.The accuracy,precision,linear range,carryover and other indicators are in accordance with the requirements of the quality management.Especially,anti-interference capability against hemolysis,j aundice and lipid turbidity can fully meet the re-quirements of clinical detection.

  6. Automated nucleic acid amplification testing in blood banks: An additional layer of blood safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati Chigurupati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: A total of 30 million blood components are transfused each year in India. Blood safety thus becomes a top priority, especially with a population of around 1.23 billion and a high prevalence rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV in general population. Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT in blood donor screening has been implemented in many developed countries to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections (TTIs. NAT takes care of the dynamics of window period of viruses and offers the safest blood pack for donation. Aims: The aim of this study is to show the value of NAT in blood screening. Settings and Design: Dhanavantari Blood Bank, Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, India. Subjects and Methods: Over a period of 1 year from January 2012 to December 2012, a total number of 15,000 blood donor samples were subjected to tests for HIV, HBV, and HCV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method and 8000 ELISA nonreactive samples were subjected for NAT using multiplex polymerase chain reaction technology. Results: Of the 15,000 donors tested, 525 were seroreactive. In 8000 ELISA negative blood samples subjected to NAT, 4 donor samples were reactive for HBV. The NAT yield was 1 in 2000. Conclusions: NAT could detect HIV, HBV, and HCV cases in blood donor samples those were undetected by serological tests. NAT could interdict 2500 infectious donations among our approximate 5 million annual blood donations.

  7. Random blood glucose testing in dental practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barasch, Andrei; Safford, Monika M; Qvist, Vibeke;

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasing. Instances of patients' not having received a diagnosis have been reported widely, as have instances of poor control of DM or prediabetes among patient's who have the disease. These facts indicate that blood glucose screening is needed....

  8. Disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gando, Satoshi; Levi, Marcel; Toh, Cheng-Hock

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is an acquired syndrome characterized by widespread intravascular activation of coagulation that can be caused by infectious insults (such as sepsis) and non-infectious insults (such as trauma). The main pathophysiological mechanisms of DIC are inflammatory cytokine-initiated activation of tissue factor-dependent coagulation, insufficient control of anticoagulant pathways and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1-mediated suppression of fibrinolysis. Together, these changes give rise to endothelial dysfunction and microvascular thrombosis, which can cause organ dysfunction and seriously affect patient prognosis. Recent observations have pointed to an important role for extracellular DNA and DNA-binding proteins, such as histones, in the pathogenesis of DIC. The International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) established a DIC diagnostic scoring system consisting of global haemostatic test parameters. This scoring system has now been well validated in diverse clinical settings. The theoretical cornerstone of DIC management is the specific and vigorous treatment of the underlying conditions, and DIC should be simultaneously managed to improve patient outcomes. The ISTH guidance for the treatment of DIC recommends treatment strategies that are based on current evidence. In this Primer, we provide an updated overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of DIC and discuss the future directions of basic and clinical research in this field. PMID:27250996

  9. Changes in Coagulation Profile During Planned Laparoscopic Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Gudz, I. M.; Tkachuk-Grigorchuk, O. O.; Tkachuk, O. L.

    2015-01-01

    Pneumoperitoneum may be a risk factor for venous thromboembolism. However, nowadays there is no reasonable algorithm for the prevention of thrombotic complications of laparoscopic interventions.The objective of the research was to assess the impact of laparoscopic surgery on coagulation parameters considering the number of other risk factors. The parameters of blood coagulation and thromboelastography in patients during laparoscopic cholecystectomy were investigated.Results. Blood coagulation...

  10. Noninvasive blood flow tests in vascular disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmetz, O.K.; Cole, C W

    1993-01-01

    Noninvasive testing is now routine for assessing vascular conditions. Many noninvasive tests are available for obtaining physiologic and anatomic information that is both precise and reproducible. This paper discusses noninvasive testing with plethysmography, Doppler ultrasonography, and duplex scanning for carotid artery occlusive disease, deep venous thrombosis, and peripheral arterial occlusive disease.

  11. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for prostate cancer, such as ethnicity and family history Men at high risk may need to have more tests. These may include: Repeating your PSA test, most often sometime within 3 months A prostate biopsy A follow-up test called a free PSA ( ...

  12. Blood: Tests Used to Assess the Physiological and Immunological Properties of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J. G.; Tansey, E. A.; Johnson, C. D.; Roe, S. M.; Montgomery, L. E. A.

    2016-01-01

    The properties of blood and the relative ease of access to which it can be retrieved make it an ideal source to gauge different aspects of homeostasis within an individual, form an accurate diagnosis, and formulate an appropriate treatment regime. Tests used to determine blood parameters such as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, hemoglobin…

  13. Evaluation of Verigene Blood Culture Test Systems for Rapid Identification of Positive Blood Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seok Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of molecular tests using the Verigene Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Blood Culture nucleic acid tests (BC-GP and BC-GN, resp.; Naosphere, Northbrook, IL, USA was evaluated for the identification of microorganisms detected from blood cultures. Ninety-nine blood cultures containing Gram-positive bacteria and 150 containing Gram-negative bacteria were analyzed using the BC-GP and BC-GN assays, respectively. Blood cultures were performed using the Bactec blood culture system (BD Diagnostic Systems, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA and conventional identification and antibiotic-susceptibility tests were performed using a MicroScan system (Siemens, West Sacramento, CA, USA. When a single strain of bacteria was isolated from the blood culture, Verigene assays correctly identified 97.9% (94/96 of Gram-positive bacteria and 93.8% (137/146 of Gram-negative bacteria. Resistance genes mecA and vanA were correctly detected by the BC-GP assay, while the extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M and the carbapenemase OXA resistance gene were detected from 30 cases cultures by the BC-GN assay. The BC-GP and BC-GN assays showed high agreement with conventional identification and susceptibility tests. These tests are useful for rapid identification of microorganisms and the detection of clinically important resistance genes from positive Bactec blood cultures.

  14. INFECTIOUS-DISEASE TESTING FOR BLOOD-TRANSFUSIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DESFORGES, JF; ATHARI, F; COOPER, ES; JOHNSON, CS; LEMON, SM; LINDSAY, KL; MCCULLOUGH, J; MCINTOSH, K; ROSS, RK; WHITSETT, CF; WITTES, J; WRIGHT, TL

    1995-01-01

    Objective.-To provide physicians and other transfusion medicine professionals with a current consensus on infectious disease testing for blood transfusions. Participants.-A nonfederal, nonadvocate, 12-member consensus panel representing the fields of hematology, infectious disease, transfusion medic

  15. Anti-DNase B blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ASLO titer test , more than 90% of past streptococcal infections can be correctly identified. ... also likely do not have a recent strep infection. This means: Adults: ... children: less than 170 units/mL Preschool children: less ...

  16. Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galactosemia screen; GALT; Gal-1-PUT ... This is a screening test for galactosemia . In normal diets, most galactose comes from the breakdown ( metabolism ) of lactose, which is found in milk and dairy products. 1 out ...

  17. DNA methylation profiling for a confirmatory test for blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwan Young; Jung, Sang-Eun; Lee, Eun Hee; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-09-01

    The ability to predict the type of tissues or cells from molecular profiles of crime scene samples has important practical implications in forensics. A previously reported multiplex assay using DNA methylation markers could only discriminate between 4 types of body fluids: blood, saliva, semen, and the body fluid which originates from female reproductive organ. In the present study, we selected 15 menstrual blood-specific CpG marker candidates based on analysis of 12 genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of vaginal fluid and menstrual blood. The menstrual blood-specificity of the candidate markers was confirmed by comparison with HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array data obtained for 58 samples including 12 blood, 12 saliva, 12 semen, 3 vaginal fluid, and 19 skin epidermis samples. Among 15CpG marker candidates, 3 were located in the promoter region of the SLC26A10 gene, and 2 of them (cg09696411 and cg18069290) showed high menstrual blood specificity. DNA methylation at the 2CpG markers was further tested by targeted bisulfite sequencing of 461 additional samples including 49 blood, 52 saliva, 34 semen, 125 vaginal fluid, and 201 menstrual blood. Because the 2 markers showed menstrual blood-specific methylation patterns, we modified our previous multiplex methylation SNaPshot reaction to include these 2 markers. In addition, a blood marker cg01543184 with cross reactivity to semen was replaced with cg08792630, and a semen-specific unmethylation marker cg17621389 was removed. The resultant multiplex methylation SNaPshot allowed positive identification of blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood using the 9CpG markers which show a methylation signal only in the target body fluids. Because of the complexity in cell composition, menstrual bloods produced DNA methylation profiles that vary with menstrual cycle and sample collection methods, which are expected to provide more insight into forensic menstrual blood test. Moreover, because the developed

  18. 丹红注射液对严重脓毒症凝血功能及预后的影响%Effect of Danhong Injection on Severe Sepsis Blood Coagulation Function and Prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志云; 杜仲平; 王春雨; 王恩燕; 戴坤鹏; 王滨; 白桦

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨丹红注射液对严重脓毒症患者凝血功能及血乳酸的影响。方法:选择重症医学科收治的严重脓毒症患者100例,随机分为治疗组(n =52)和对照组(n =48),2组患者入院开始即给予充分的液体复苏、积极的抗感染治疗,必要时予血管活性药物、选择性的给予氢化可的松、呼吸机辅助通气等支持治疗,治疗组加用丹红注射液40 mL 静脉滴注,1次/d。2组患者在入院时及入院第7天时监测急性生理学及慢性健康状况评分(APACHE Ⅱ评分)、凝血指标及血乳酸水平,并监测患者28 d 死亡率。结果:2组患者入院第7天的凝血指标、血乳酸(Blood Lactic Acid,BLA)及 APACHE Ⅱ评分比较均有统计学意义(P <0.05);患者28天死亡率治疗组比对照组低,但差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。结论:丹红注射液可改善严重脓毒症患者凝血状态及低灌注缺氧代谢。%Objective:To observe the effect of Danhong injection on blood coagulation function and blood lactic acid in patients with severe sepsis.Methods:A hundred patients with severe sepsis from the Intesive Care Unite were randomly classified into treat-ment group(n =52)and control group(n =48).Patients in both groups were treated with fluid resuscitation,anti infection drugs at admission and given the vasoactive drug,hydrocortisone and mechanical ventilation support when necessary.The treatment group was treated with Danhong injection intravenous infusion of 40 mL once a day.APACHE Ⅱscore,blood coagulation indexes and blood lactic acid were measured at admission and the seventh day of hospitalization.The mortality was monitored at the 28th day of hospitalization.Results:The blood coagulation indexes,blood lactic acid and APACHE Ⅱscore of the treatment group and the control group were of significant difference at the seventh day(P 0.05).Conclusion:Danhong injection can improve the blood

  19. 21 CFR 862.1130 - Blood volume test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood volume test system. 862.1130 Section 862.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  20. Evaluation of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in the Craniocerebral Traumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Altinel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injury is one of the most important cause of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC. It occurs because of blood loss and hemodilution due to fluid resuscitation. The incidence of trauma associated DIC is mainly higher in the craniocerebral traumas. Even though craniocerebral trauma related DIC is well defined, the pathophysiology has been poorly characterized in the literature. Due to the fact that brain tissue is highly significant for procoagulant molecules, craniocerebral traumas are closely related to DIC. In the current study, 30 patients admitted to emergency room have been considered on the first and fifth day of admission to the hospital for the coagulation tests to evaluate DIC in both two groups. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 488-495

  1. The coagulation system and its function in early immune defense.

    OpenAIRE

    T. van der Poll; Herwald, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    Blood coagulation has a Janus-faced role in infectious diseases. When systemically activated, it can cause serious complications associated with high morbidity and mortality. However, coagulation is also part of the innate immune system and its local activation has been found to play an important role in the early host response to infection. Though the latter aspect has been less investigated, phylogenetic studies have shown that many factors involved in coagulation have ancestral origins whi...

  2. Fecal Occult Blood Test and Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed H. Wakid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stool specimens of 1238 workers in western region of Saudi Arabia were examined for infection with intestinal parasites and for fecal occult blood (FOB to investigate the possibility that enteroparasites correlate to occult intestinal bleeding. Direct smears and formal ether techniques were used for detection of diagnostic stages of intestinal parasites. A commercially available guaiac test was used to detect fecal occult blood. 47.01% of the workers were infected with intestinal parasites including eight helminthes species and eight protozoan species. The results provided no significant evidence (P-value=0.143 that intestinal parasitic infection is in association with positive guaiac FOB test.

  3. Forensic Identification of Human Blood: comparison of two one-step presumptive tests for blood screening of crime scene samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Flávia Belchior Andrade; Maria Emília Cambria Guimaro Siqueira; Luciano Chaves Arantes; Larissa Silva Queiroz; Rayane Luiza Viegas Silva; Eduardo Dias Ramalho

    2014-01-01

    Blood is the most common body fluid found at crime scenes. One-step presumptive tests have been designed as a rapid immunological test for the qualitative detection of human hemoglobin in stool samples (faecal occult blood) their usefulness for forensic purposes has been demonstrated before. In this study we compare Hexagon OBTI kit and FOB One-step Bioeasy kit sensitivity in the analysis of diluted blood samples. With Hexagon OBTI, positive test results are achieved in whole blood dilutions ...

  4. Coagulation Factor Binding Orientation and Dimerization May Influence Infectivity of Adenovirus-Coagulation Factor Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Irons, Eric E.; Flatt, Justin W.; Doronin, Konstantin; Fox, Tara L.; Acchione, Mauro; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Shayakhmetov, Dmitry M.

    2013-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ads) are promising vectors for therapeutic interventions in humans. When injected into the bloodstream, Ad vectors can bind several vitamin K-dependent blood coagulation factors, which contributes to virus sequestration in the liver by facilitating transduction of hepatocytes. Although both coagulation factors FVII and FX bind the hexon protein of human Ad serotype 5 (HAdv5) with a very high affinity, only FX appears to play a role in mediating Ad-hepatocyte transduction in vivo...

  5. A Study of the Relation between Systemic Blood Coagulation and Leukopenia in Local Irradiation%放疗局部照射中全身凝血功能与白细胞减少的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿冲; 张旭光; 郭峰; 叶涛; 刘亚洲; 沈文彬; 顾峰

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察放疗局部照射下全身凝血功能的变化,并探讨华法令干预缓解白细胞减少的效果.方法 新西兰白兔分为阴性对照组、单纯照射组、照射+抗凝组.照射前、照射后24 h检测凝血酶原时间、PT国际标准化比值、外周血白细胞计数.单纯照射组仅接受一次全胸部照射,总剂量20 Gy.照射+抗凝组照射前喂服抗凝血药华法令.照射后24 h处死动物,采取左胸第十肋骨骨髓代表照射靶区内骨髓,第三腰椎左侧横突骨髓代表靶区外骨髓,行骨髓像观察.结果 单纯照射组照射前后凝血功能无明显变化,白细胞明显减少.照射+抗凝组照射前后凝血功能均被阻断,白细胞明显减少.2组动物照射靶区内骨髓有核细胞明显减少,靶区外骨髓有核细胞计数正常.结论 造成白细胞减少的局部照射剂量不能够改变全身的凝血状态;完全阻断凝血所消耗的白细胞减少也不能阻断局部照射造成的白细胞减少.%Objective To observe systemic blood coagulation changes in local irradiation, and to study the influence of warfarin on leukocypenia. Methods New Zealand white rabbits were divided into negative control group, radiation group, irradiation + anticoagulant group. Before irradiation and 24 hours after irradiation, prothrombin time, PT international normalized ratio and WBC count were detected. The radiation group only accepted a full chest irradiation of 20 Gy. In the irradiation + anticoagulant group,rabbits was fed with the anti-clotting drug warfarin before irradiation. The animals were sacrificed in 24 hours after irradiation, bone marrow of the tenth rib of left chest represented irradiation target region bone marrow, and the third lumbar transverse process bone marrow represented target line bone marrow, and the bone marrow was examined. Results Coagulation function before and after the irradiation of the radiation group had no significant change, white blood cells was

  6. Changing the Price of Marriage: Evidence from Blood Test Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Kasey; Guldi, Melanie; Price, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    We use state repeals of blood test requirements (BTRs) for a marriage license that occurred between 1980 and 2008 to examine the impact of changes in the price of marriage on the marriage decision. Using a within-group estimator that holds constant state and year effects and exploits variation in the repeal dates of BTRs across states, we find…

  7. Experimental strategies directed at inflammation and coagulation in ARDS and TRALI

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, M.J.; Juffermans, N.P.; Tuinman, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, the effect of blood transfusion on pulmonary inflammation and coagulation was studied. We investigated the role of different mediators in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). Furthermore, we tested several therapeutic strategies in murine models of both ARDS and TRALI. The effect of aspirin on TRALI incidence was tested. Lastly, we performed a systematic review on nebulized anticoagulants in the setting of lung injury in ...

  8. 2型糖尿病患者凝血状态研究%The study of blood coagulation status in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆志静; 王立

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨2型糖尿病患者合并血管病变对凝血状态的影响.方法 纳入2型糖尿病住院患者311例,依据有无大血管并发症分为3组,即单纯糖尿病组130例,糖尿病合并高血压组151例,糖尿病合并冠心病组30例,同时选择我院同期健康体检者30例作为健康对照组.检测抗凝血酶-III(AT-III)、蛋白C(PC)、蛋白S(PS)、活化部分凝血活酶时间(APTT)、血浆凝血酶原时间(PT)、血浆纤维蛋白原(Fib)、血浆凝血酶时间(TT))水平评价凝血功能.结果 与健康对照组相比较,糖尿病组AT-III、PC、PS活性明显降低,凝血四项中APTT、PT降低、Fib升高,2组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).糖尿病合并冠心病组与单纯糖尿病组相比,PC、PS差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).糖尿病合并冠心病组Fib及PLT升高较单纯糖尿病组更为明显,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 糖尿病患者抗凝血功能紊乱,处于血栓前状态,合并心血管并发症患者尤为明显.AT-III、PC、PS及凝血四项的测定可能有利于糖尿病患者凝血状态的评估,有利于血管并发症的早期干预.%Objective To explore the changes and clinical significance in coagulation anti-coagulation and fibrinolysis system in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus ( DM ). Methods To measure thrombin time ( TT ), activated partial thrombo-plastin time ( APTT ), prothrombin time ( PT ), and fibrinogen ( Fib ), anti-thrombin Ⅲ ( AT-Ⅲ ), protein C ( PC ), protein S ( PS ) in 311 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from 2010 to 2011. These patients were categorized as single DM group, DM with hypertension group, DM with coronary heart disease group. At the same time, 30 health)' people were selected as contrast group. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis. Results The activity of AT-Ⅲ,PC,PS of type 2 diabetes melli-tus were progressively lower than those of control group. There was a significant difference between single DM

  9. Real time blood testing using quantitative phase imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hoa V; Bhaduri, Basanta; Tangella, Krishnarao; Best-Popescu, Catherine; Popescu, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a real-time blood testing system that can provide remote diagnosis with minimal human intervention in economically challenged areas. Our instrument combines novel advances in label-free optical imaging with parallel computing. Specifically, we use quantitative phase imaging for extracting red blood cell morphology with nanoscale sensitivity and NVIDIA's CUDA programming language to perform real time cellular-level analysis. While the blood smear is translated through focus, our system is able to segment and analyze all the cells in the one megapixel field of view, at a rate of 40 frames/s. The variety of diagnostic parameters measured from each cell (e.g., surface area, sphericity, and minimum cylindrical diameter) are currently not available with current state of the art clinical instruments. In addition, we show that our instrument correctly recovers the red blood cell volume distribution, as evidenced by the excellent agreement with the cell counter results obtained on normal patients and those with microcytic and macrocytic anemia. The final data outputted by our instrument represent arrays of numbers associated with these morphological parameters and not images. Thus, the memory necessary to store these data is of the order of kilobytes, which allows for their remote transmission via, for example, the cellular network. We envision that such a system will dramatically increase access for blood testing and furthermore, may pave the way to digital hematology. PMID:23405194

  10. Hair Sheep Blood, Citrated or Defibrinated, Fulfills All Requirements of Blood Agar for Diagnostic Microbiology Laboratory Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Ellen; Pinsky, Benjamin A.; Banaei, Niaz; Baron, Ellen Jo

    2009-01-01

    Background Blood agar is used for the identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of many bacterial pathogens. In the developing world, microbiologists use human blood agar because of the high cost and inhospitable conditions for raising wool sheep or horses to supply blood. Many pathogens either fail to grow entirely or exhibit morphologies and hemolytic patterns on human blood agar that confound colony recognition. Furthermore, human blood can be hazardous to handle due to HIV and ...

  11. Coagulation And Hemagglutination Properties Of The Crude Extract Derived From The Leaves Of Euphorbia Hirta L. Tridax Procumbens L. And Vernonia Cinerea L Less

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo C. Ongpoy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the potential of selected wild grasses from the Philippines as coagulant and typing sera. To do this Euphorbia hirta L. Tridax procumbens L. and Vernonia cinerea L Less aqueous infusions were each subjected to blood components from healthy individuals. The plasma part of the blood was used to test for coagulation where Plasma Clotting Time PCT and Factor VIII screening test were the procedures used to test the different leaf extracts. On the other hand the Packed Red Blood Cell part of the blood was used to test for hemagglutination where microscopic and macroscopic evaluations were the procedures used to test the different leaf extracts against the blood groups from the ABO system. About this study it was found out that all the wild grasses did not give a comparable coagulation to the commercially available positive control which is Calcium Chloride while Euphorbia hirta L. gave a positive hemagglutination to Type A and Type B cells Tridax procumbens L. gave a positive hemagglutination to Type A cell and Vernonia cinerea L Less gave a positive hemagglutination to Type B cells both in macroscopic and microscopic evaluations. The results show that all the wild grasses tested may not be used as a coagulant but all of them may have a potential as a typing sera.

  12. The Massive Bleeding after the Operation of Hip Joint Surgery with the Acquired Haemorrhagic Coagulation Factor XIII(13) Deficiency: Two Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Akio; Kaneko, Kazuo; Obayashi, Osamu; Mogami, Atsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Two women, aged 81 and 61, became haemorrhagic after surgery. Their previous surgeries were uneventful with no unexpected bleeding observed. Blood tests prior to the current surgeries indicated normal values including those related to coagulation. There were no problems with the current surgeries prior to leaving the operating room. At 3 hours after the surgery, the 81-year-old patient had an outflow of the drain at 1290 grams and her blood pressure decreased. She had disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The 61-year-old woman had repeated haemorrhages after her current surgery for a long time. Their abnormal haemorrhages were caused by a deficiency of coagulation factor XIII(13). The mechanism of haemorrhagic coagulation factor XIII(13) deficiency is not understood, and it is a rare disorder. The only diagnostic method to detect this disorder is to measure factor XIII(13) activity in the blood. In this paper, we used Arabic and Roman numerals at the same time to avoid confusion of coagulation factor XIII(13) with coagulation factor VIII(8) that causes hemophilia A. PMID:23533879

  13. The Massive Bleeding after the Operation of Hip Joint Surgery with the Acquired Haemorrhagic Coagulation Factor XIII(13 Deficiency: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Kanda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two women, aged 81 and 61, became haemorrhagic after surgery. Their previous surgeries were uneventful with no unexpected bleeding observed. Blood tests prior to the current surgeries indicated normal values including those related to coagulation. There were no problems with the current surgeries prior to leaving the operating room. At 3 hours after the surgery, the 81-year-old patient had an outflow of the drain at 1290 grams and her blood pressure decreased. She had disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC. The 61-year-old woman had repeated haemorrhages after her current surgery for a long time. Their abnormal haemorrhages were caused by a deficiency of coagulation factor XIII(13. The mechanism of haemorrhagic coagulation factor XIII(13 deficiency is not understood, and it is a rare disorder. The only diagnostic method to detect this disorder is to measure factor XIII(13 activity in the blood. In this paper, we used Arabic and Roman numerals at the same time to avoid confusion of coagulation factor XIII(13 with coagulation factor VIII(8 that causes hemophilia A.

  14. Blood: tests used to assess the physiological and immunological properties of blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J G; Tansey, E A; Johnson, C D; Roe, S M; Montgomery, L E A

    2016-06-01

    The properties of blood and the relative ease of access to which it can be retrieved make it an ideal source to gauge different aspects of homeostasis within an individual, form an accurate diagnosis, and formulate an appropriate treatment regime. Tests used to determine blood parameters such as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, bleeding and clotting times, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean cell volume, and determination of blood groups are routinely used clinically, and deviations outside the normal range can indicate a range of conditions such as anemia, pregnancy, dehydration, overhydration, infectious disease, cancer, thyroid disease, and autoimmune conditions, to mention a few. As these tests can be performed relatively inexpensively and do not require high levels of technical expertise, they are ideally suited for use in the teaching laboratory, enabling undergraduate students to link theory to practice. The practicals described here permit students to examine their own blood and that of their peers and compare these with clinically accepted normal ranges. At the end of the practicals, students are required to answer a number of questions about their findings and to link abnormal values to possible pathological conditions by answering a series of questions based on their findings. PMID:27068991

  15. Post-treatment of sanitary landfill leachate by coagulation-flocculation using chitosan as primary coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Inara Oliveira do Carmo; Guedes, Ana Rosa Pinto; Perelo, Louisa Wessels; Queiroz, Luciano Matos

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan was chosen as an alternative primary coagulant in a complementary coagulation-flocculation treatment of sanitary landfill leachate with the aim of removing recalcitrant organic matter. In order to optimize the process conditions, central composite design and response surface methodology were applied. To evaluate the performance of the process using chitosan, we also carried out tests with aluminium sulphate (Al(2) (SO(4))(3).14 H(2)O) as coagulant. In addition, acute toxicity tests were carried using the duckweed Lemna minor and the guppy fish Poecilia reticulata as test organisms. The analytic hierarchy process was employed for selecting the most appropriate coagulant. Mean values of true colour removal efficiency of 80% and turbidity removal efficiency of 91.4% were reached at chitosan dosages of 960 mg L(-1) at pH 8.5. The acute toxicity tests showed that organisms were sensitive to all samples, mainly after coagulation-flocculation using chitosan. CE(50) for L. minor was not determined because there was no inhibition of the average growth rate and biomass production; LC(50) for P. reticulata was 23% (v v(-1)). Multi-criteria analysis showed that alum was the most appropriate coagulant. Therefore, chitosan as primary coagulant was not considered to be a viable alternative in the post-treatment of landfill leachate. PMID:27387003

  16. Application of psyllium husk as coagulant and coagulant aid in semi-aerobic landfill leachate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamadani, Yasir A J; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Umar, Muhammad; Bashir, Mohammed J K; Adlan, Mohd Nordin

    2011-06-15

    Landfill leachate is a heavily polluted and a likely hazardous liquid that is produced as a result of water infiltration through solid wastes generated industrially and domestically. This study investigates the potential of using psyllium husk as coagulant and coagulant aid for the treatment of landfill leachate. Psyllium husk has been tested as primary coagulant and as coagulant aid with poly-aluminum chloride (PACl) and aluminum sulfate (alum). As primary coagulant, the optimum dosage and pH for PACl were 7.2 and 7.5 g/L, respectively, with removal efficiencies of 55, 80 and 95% for COD, color and TSS, respectively. For alum, the optimum conditions were 11 g/L alum dosage and pH 6.5 with removal efficiencies of 58, 79 and 78% for COD, color and TSS, respectively. The maximum removal efficiencies of COD, color and TSS were 64, 90 and 96%, respectively, when psyllium husk was used as coagulant aid with PACl. Based on the results, psyllium husk was found to be more effective as coagulant aid with PACl in the removal of COD, color and TSS as compared to alum. Zeta potential test was carried out for leachate, PACl, alum and psyllium husk before and after running the jar test to enhance the results of the jar test experiments. PMID:21507572

  17. In vitro inhibitory effect of papain on blood coagulation function and the related mechanism%木瓜蛋白酶对凝血功能的抑制作用及机制的体外研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟红; 吕远栋; 陶萍华; 吴国友; 俞蔚; 胡细连

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察木瓜蛋白酶体外对凝血功能的抑制作用,并探讨其可能机制.方法:将不同剂量木瓜蛋白酶分别与贫血小板血浆(PPP)和富血小板血浆(PRP)作用,分为生理盐水组、10 U/L组和20 U/L组,分别以血凝仪测定PPP和PRP的凝血酶原时间(PT)和活化部分凝血活酶时间(APTT),以血气分析仪和血凝仪分别测定PPP的Ca2+浓度和凝血因子Ⅴ、Ⅶ、Ⅷ、Ⅸ、Ⅸ和Ⅺ活性(FV:C、FⅦ:C、FⅧ:C、FⅨ:C、FⅩ:C和FⅪ:C);将新鲜全血与前述3种浓度木瓜蛋白酶作用,采用硅化管法测定全血凝血时间(CT).同时测定0、20、40、60和80 U/L木瓜蛋白酶PPP的PT和APTT值.结果:10 U/L和20 U/L木瓜蛋白酶组PPP和PRP的PT和APTT值、全血CT值分别显著高于生理盐水组和10 U/L木瓜酶组(P<0.01),FⅤ:C和FⅧ:C水平分别显著低于生理盐水组和10 U/L木瓜酶组(P<0.05);三组PPP与PRP之间PT和APTT值、各组间Ca2+浓度以及其余凝血因子活性差异均无显统计学意义(P>0.05).PPP的PT和APTT值均与木瓜蛋白酶剂量呈显著正相关(r=0.995和0.991,P<0.01).结论:木瓜蛋白酶可通过抑制凝血因子Ⅴ和Ⅷ活性,从而对凝血功能有剂量依赖性的抑制作用,具有抗凝的功效.%AIM: To observe the in vitro effect of papain on blood coagulation function, and to explore the possible mechanism.METH ODS: Human platelet poor plasma (PPP) and platelet rich plasma (PRP) were mixed with dif ferent dose of papain which were assigned into three groups (group 0 U/L, group 10 U/L and group 20 U/L).PPP and PRP were measured for prothrombin time(PT) and actvated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) with blood coagu lation analyzer, the PPP was also measured for Ca2+ and activity of coagulable factor V, VII, VIII, IX, X and XI(FV:C、FVII:C、FVIII:C、 FIX:C、FX:C and FXI:C) with blood-gas analy zer and blood coagulation analyzer, respectively.Fresh blood from volunteers was mixed with the three dose of papain

  18. Dust coagulation in ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokshi, Arati; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Hollenbach, David

    1989-01-01

    Coagulation is an important mechanism in the growth of interstellar and interplanetary dust particles. The microphysics of the coagulation process was theoretically analyzed as a function of the physical properties of the coagulating grains, i.e., their size, relative velocities, temperature, elastic properties, and the van der Waal interaction. Numerical calculations of collisions between linear chains provide the wave energy in individual particles and the spectrum of the mechanical vibrations set up in colliding particles. Sticking probabilities are then calculated using simple estimates for elastic deformation energies and for the attenuation of the wave energy due to absorption and scattering processes.

  19. Coagulation cascade in sepsis: getting from bench to bedside?

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Glen

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between blood coagulation factors and the promotion or inhibition of the anti-inflammatory response continues to be defined through basic research. The potential key role of blood coagulation factors in the response during sepsis provides an exciting potential mechanism(s) for modification through the application of new therapies. The complexity of the potential multiple actions of the proteins, such as protein C, should allow for development of new therapies to minimize the ...

  20. Urine Test Strips to Exclude Cerebral Spinal Fluid Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall, Robin A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Determining the presence or absence of red blood cells (RBC or their breakdown products in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is essential for the evaluation of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH in headache patients. Current methodology for finding blood in the CSF is either spectrophotometric detection of pigment, which is time consuming and labor intensive, or visual assesment of samples for color change (xanthochromia, which is inaccurate. Bayer Multistix® urine test strips are designed to test urine for RBC by detecting the presence of hemoglobin. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the perfomance of urine reagent test strips for ruling out the presence of RBC in CSF.Methods: We compared color changes on Multistix® urine test strips to the standard of spectrophotometric absorbtion at 415nm and initial RBC counts in 138 visually clear CSF samples.Results: We performed Pearson Chi-Square and likelihood ratios on the results and found a correlation between a negative result on the urine test strip and less than 5 RBC per high power field and a spectrophotometric absorbance of less than 0.02% at 415nm in a CSF sample.Conclusion: These results warrant further investigation in the form of a prospective clinical validation as it may alter the emergency department evaluation for SAH. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:63-66.

  1. Quiz: Does Your Blood Pressure Pass the Test? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Special Section: Healthy Blood Pressure Quiz: Does Your Blood Pressure Pass the Test? Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Blood pressure changes throughout the day. It is highest while ...

  2. Effects of the Bracts and Bars of Zea mays L.on Blood Coagulation%玉蜀黍轴及苞叶对凝血作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾海鹏; 周大鹏; 顾雪竹; 康文艺

    2013-01-01

    The effect of extracts of the bracts and bars of Zea mays L.on blood coagulation was investigated using Vitamin K1 as coagulant control and breviscapine as anti-coagulant control.Petroleum ether,ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts of Z.mays bracts and bars and the total methanol extract of bracts were assayed using plasma recalcification time method in vitro.n-Butanol extract of bars and ethyl acetate extract of bract significantly reduced the plasma recalcification time(P < 0.001).Petroleum ether extract of the bracts significantly prolonged the plasma recalcification time (P < 0.001).The results indicated that the n-butanol extract of bars and bract ethyl acetate extract had better procoagulant effect,and the petroleum ether extract of the bracts had good anticoagulant effect.%采用体外血浆复钙时间法,以维生素k1作为促凝血和灯盏花素作为抗凝血作用阳性对照,对玉蜀黍轴及苞叶石油醚、乙酸乙酯和正丁醇提取物及玉蜀黍苞叶甲醇总浸膏对体外血浆复钙时间的影响进行测定.结果显示玉蜀黍轴正丁醇及苞叶乙酸乙酯提取物,均可显著缩短体外血浆复钙时间(P<0.001);玉蜀黍苞叶石油醚提取物可显著延长体外血浆复钙时间(P<0.001).提示玉蜀黍轴正丁醇及苞叶乙酸乙酯提取物具有较好的促凝血活性,玉蜀黍苞叶石油醚提取物具有较好的抗凝作用.

  3. Coagulation properties of milk

    OpenAIRE

    Hallén, Elin

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of the different proteins in milk are important for the outcome of the coagulation processes which yield our dairy products, whereas total milk protein content is a poor indicator of coagulation properties of milk. In order to design the milk protein composition to meet dairy processing requirements, selection for genetic variants of milk proteins have been proposed. This work aimed to study genetic milk protein polymorphism and its association with the detailed milk protein co...

  4. Coagulation and Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Hoirisch-Clapauch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The neurovascular unit is a key player in brain development, homeostasis, and pathology. Mental stress affects coagulation, while severe mental illnesses, such as recurrent depression and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased thrombotic risk and cardiovascular morbidity. Evidence indicates that the hemostatic system is involved to some extent in the pathogenesis, morbidity, and prognosis of a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The current review focuses on emerging data linking coagulation and some psychiatric disorders.

  5. 不同年龄发绀型先心病患儿围体外循环期凝血功能的比较%Changes in blood coagulation during cardiopulmonary bypass in children of different ages with cyanotic congenital heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈煜; 黄延辉; 白洁

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes in blood coagulation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in children of different ages undergoing open heart surgery for cyanotic congenital heart disease.Methods Sixty children with cyanotic congenital heart disease undergoing open heart surgery under CPB were divided into 3 age groups: Group A(age≤12 mort, n=25), Group B (12mon<age≤24 mon, n= 17) and Group C (24 mon< age<4 yr, n=18). Venous blood samples were taken immediately after induction of anesthesia(T1) and at 10 min after protamine administration (T2)for determination of activated coagulation time (SonACT), clot rate and platelet function (PF) using Sonoclot coagulation and platelet function analyzer-type DP2951 (Sieuco Co., USA).Results There was significant difference in SonACT, clot rate and PF at T1 among the 3 groups: the SonACT was significantly shorter in Groups B and C than in Group A, the clot rate was significantly higher in Group B than in Group C, and the PF was significantly lower in Group C than in Group A. At T2 , the SonACT was significantly prolonged in all 3 groups, the clot rate was significantly decreased in Groups A and B, and the PF was significantly decreased in Group A.Conclusion There are significant differences in blood coagulation and PF among the 3 different age groups of children with cyanotic congenital heart disease after induction of anesthesia and CPB has different effects on their blood coagulation and PF.

  6. Coagulation function in patients with pancreatic carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hang-yan; XIU Dian-rong; LI Zhi-fei; WANG Gang

    2009-01-01

    Background The coagulation function in patients with pancreatic carcinoma is abnormal and the reason is not very clear. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the coagulation function in patients with pancreatic carcinoma.Methods From June 2004 to December 2007, 132 patients received diagnosis and treatment in our hospital. The coagulative parameters including the prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and fibrinogen levels were collected and studied retrospectively.Results The average fibrinogen levels in patients with pancreatic carcinoma, (476.21±142.05) mg/dl, were significantly higher than in patients with cholangiolithiasis, (403.28±126.41) mg/dl (P 0.05).Conclusions The level of fibrinogen in patients with pancreatic carcinoma was elevated. The elevated fibrinogen level may be associated with invasiveness and lymphatic metastasis. Using vitamin K in perioperation management did not reduce intraoperative blood loss.

  7. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes (red blood cells) and to detect antibodies to blood group antigens. (b) Classification. Class II (performance... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test...

  8. Effect of taurine on platelets and the plasma coagulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglis, Mitchell; Wilder, Donna; Reid, Thomas; Bakaltcheva, Irina

    2002-02-01

    It is not yet clear what exact mechanisms are at work in hibernating animals that prevent clot formation and maintain tissue perfusion under conditions of very slow blood flow and increased blood viscosity brought about by the low temperatures. It has been shown that the total amino acid pool increases more then two fold in hibernating animals with taurine accounting for about 50% of this increase [Storey et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1988; 85(21): 8350-4]. This work investigates the effect of taurine on platelets and the plasma coagulation system. Taurine was added at different concentrations in the range between 5 and 25 mM to donor plasma. Using STA/STA Compact coagulation analyzer the following tests were performed: prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and thrombin time (TT). At the highest concentration tested (25 mM) taurine prolonged TT by 9%. The prolongation was statistically significant but not clinically significant retaining TT within normal limits (16.7-20.7 s). PT and APTT remained unchanged by taurine. The effect of taurine on platelets was assessed by platelet aggregation by thrombin, extent of platelet shape change (ESC) induced by ADP, and thrombelastography. Taurine at 5 mM final concentration inhibited platelet aggregation by 10%. Increasing taurine concentration to 25 mM did not result in a further augmentation of the inhibitory effect. ESC was unaffected by taurine. Clot strength determined by thrombelastography also remained unchanged by taurine. PMID:11918831

  9. Blood Pressure Dynamics in Hypertensive Subjects During Tilt Table Test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurák, Pavel; Halámek, Josef; Plachý, M.; Fráňa, P.; Leinveber, P.; Souček, M.; Kára, T.

    Danvers: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 2007, s. 939-942. ISBN 978-1-4244-0787-3. ISSN 1557-170X. [Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society /29./. Lyon (FR), 23.08.2007-26.08.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/05/0402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : blood pressure * tilt table test * vessel compliance * hypertension Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  10. Variation of Sensitive Blood Coagulation Indexes in Infants with Hemorrhagic Disease of the Newborn Treated with Vitamin K%维生素 K治疗新生儿出血症凝血指标的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明静

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价维生素K治疗新生儿出血症( HDN)对凝血指标的影响。方法在维生素K治疗前后分别检测37例HDN患儿凝血酶原前体蛋白( PIVKA-Ⅱ)、凝血酶原时间( PT)、部分活化凝血活酶时间( APTT)、凝血酶原活动度( PTA)、凝血酶时间( TT)及纤维蛋白原( FIB)。结果维生素K治疗后凝血指标PIVKA-Ⅱ、PT明显降低(P<0.05),PTA、APTT明显升高(P<0.05),维生素K治疗后凝血指标PIVKA-Ⅱ、PTA、PT、APTT异常率较治疗前明显降低( P<0.05)。而TT、FIB异常率未出现明显变化( P>0.05)。结论 HDN患儿在使用维生素K治疗后,PIVKA-Ⅱ、PTA、PT、APTT变化明显,反应敏感,能较好地反映HDN的凝血水平,可作为HDN的诊断依据及转归指标。%Objective To evaluate the effect of Vitamin K on blood coagulation indexes in infants with hemorrhagic disease of the newborn(HDN).Methods Thirty-seven cases of HDN were meausred for protein induced by Vitamin K absence or antagonist-Ⅱ(PIVKA-Ⅱ),prothrombin time(PT),activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT),prothrombin time activity(PTA),thrombin time(TT),human fibrinogen(FIB) before and after treatment of Vitamin K.Results PIVKA-Ⅱ, PT decreased significantly after treatment of Vitamin K (P0.05).Conclusion PIVKA-Ⅱ, PT,APTT,and PTA have improved significantly after the treatment of Vitamin K in infants with HDN ,which can reflect the blood coagulation level .They can be applied to the diagnosis and prognosis of HDN .

  11. The impact of statins for the network between blood coagulation and inflammation in sepsis%他汀类调脂药物对脓毒症凝血-炎症网络的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎永琳; 周红

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome by infection , which can develop into severe sepsis or sepsis shock.The case fatality rate is still 30%~70%, although with the evolutive anti-inflective therapy and multi-organ support therapy.It was found that lipid metabolism was chaotic in sepsis in some recent studies. Stains are known for reducing blood lipid and improving the atherosclerosis, but they are also noted by improving inflammation, coagulation,endothelial function and so on in sepsis.This paper will introduce the impact of statins for the network between blood coagulation and inflammation in sepsis.%目的脓毒症是由于感染引起的全身系统性炎症反应,可发展为严重脓毒症和感染性休克。尽管抗感染治疗和器官功能支持技术取得了长足的进步,脓毒症的病死率仍高达30%~70%。近年来的研究表明,脓毒症发生时,脂质代谢同样发生紊乱。他汀类药物因为其能有效地降低血脂,改善动脉粥样硬化情况而被大家所认识。随着对该药物的进一步研究发现,他汀类药物降脂以外的作用越来越受到重视,如改善内皮功能、抑制血管炎症、改善凝血功能、减少血栓形成和改善总体血管功能等。本文就目前他汀类药物治疗脓毒症时抗炎、抗凝影响的研究做一简述。

  12. “ STUDY OF COAGULATION PROFILE IN CLINICALLY DIAGNOSED CASES OF ACUTE DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION USING ISTH CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chopade

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC is a pathological activation of coagulation (blood clotting mechanisms that happens in response to a variety of diseases. It involves the generation of intravascular fibrin (small blood c lots and the consumption of pro - coagulants and platelets. It results in the disruption of normal coagulation mechanism and abnormal bleeding occurs from the skin, the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract and surgical wounds. It was the prospecti ve study of 60 patients of acute DIC, in which coagulation profile were studied from December 2010 to October 2012 . 40 controls were studied. Control group include healthy voluntary blood donors. The coagulation profile was studied and DIC scoring was p erformed using the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis [ISTH] criteria. Among the coagulation profile, the sensitivity and specificity of the parameters to diagnose and to assess the severity of DIC, in the decreasing order of frequency wer e of platelet count, D - dimer, PT and APTT. Fibrinogen level was not depleted below the significant level (<1 gm/l in majority cases of DIC. According to the ISTH criteria, DIC scores among cases was ≥ 5.

  13. Advances on Mechanisms of Coagulation with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua LI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers have been increasingly finding coagulation disorders are commonly the first sign of malignancy. It has now been established that cancer development leads to an increased risk of thrombosis, and conversely, excessive activation of blood coagulation profoundly influences cancer progression. In patients with lung cancer, a sustained stimulation of blood coagulation takes place. Cancer cells trigger coagulation through expression of tissue factor, and affect coagulation through expression of thrombin, release of microparticles that augment coagulation and so on. Coagulation also facilitates tumour progression through release of platelet granule contents, inhibition of natural killer cells and recruitment of macrophages. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC accounts for about 80%-85% of all lung malignancies. In the present review, we summarized the newly updated data about the physiopathological mechanisms of various components of the clotting system in different stages of carcinogenesis in NSCLC.

  14. Coagulation abnormalities in patients with chronic liver disease in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the coagulation abnormalities and relationship between abnormal clotting tests and the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (GI) among chronic liver disease (CLD) patients admitted at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Methods: Adult CLD patients admitted at Liaquat University Hospital Jamshoro, during Nov 2004 - Oct 2005, were included in the study. The patients blood were tested for coagulation abnormalities including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), platelet count and plasma fibrinogen. Association was seen between the abnormal clotting tests and the gastrointestinal bleeding by calculating relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval. Results: PT was prolonged in 88% and aPTT was raised in 71% cases of CLD. Both PT and aPTT were prolonged in 67% CLD cases. Approximately 37% CLD cases had decreased platelet count and 15% cases had decreased serum fibrinogen level. Relative risk of GI bleeding with abnormal clotting tests in CLD cases were weakly positive for PT (RR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.49-2.10), negative for aPTT (RR=0.83; 95% CI, 0.47-1.45), strongly positive for decreased platelet counts (RR = 1.96; 95% CI, 1.08-3.56) and also for decreased fibrinogen level (RR = 1.47; 95% CI, 0.64-3.35). Conclusion: Coagulation abnormalities were profound in CLD. Decrease platelet counts and fibrinogen levels were related with GI bleeding but PT and aPTT were not significantly related with GI bleeding in patients with chronic liver disease. Nevertheless, these parameters (PT and aPTT) were still used as prognostic markers. (author)

  15. Coagulation-Inflammatory Network: Anti-inflammatory Effect of Natural Coagulation Inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺石林

    2001-01-01

    @@ Considerable evidence has accumulated to indicated that the serine protease in blood clotting process not only participate in the activation of coagulation factors,but also result in a series of cell responses particularly involved in inflammation process through appropriate receptors.

  16. 9 CFR 147.3 - The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 147.3 Section 147.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Blood Testing Procedures § 147.3 The stained-antigen, rapid, whole-blood test. 3 3 The...

  17. A quantitative comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation for boron removal from boron-containing solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)], E-mail: aerdemy@atauni.edu.tr; Boncukcuoglu, Recep [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Kocakerim, M. Muhtar [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2007-10-22

    This paper provides a quantitative comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation approaches based on boron removal. Electrocoagulation process delivers the coagulant in situ as the sacrificial anode corrodes, due to a fixed current density, while the simultaneous evolution of hydrogen at the cathode allows for pollutant removal by flotation. By comparison, conventional chemical coagulation typically adds a salt of the coagulant, with settling providing the primary pollutant removal path. Chemical coagulation was carried out via jar tests using aluminum chloride. Comparison was done with the same amount of coagulant between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation processes. Boron removal obtained was higher with electrocoagulation process. In addition, it was seen that chemical coagulation has any effect for boron removal from boron-containing solution. At optimum conditions (e.g. pH 8.0 and aluminum dose of 7.45 g/L), boron removal efficiencies for electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation were 94.0% and 24.0%, respectively.

  18. A quantitative comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation for boron removal from boron-containing solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a quantitative comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation approaches based on boron removal. Electrocoagulation process delivers the coagulant in situ as the sacrificial anode corrodes, due to a fixed current density, while the simultaneous evolution of hydrogen at the cathode allows for pollutant removal by flotation. By comparison, conventional chemical coagulation typically adds a salt of the coagulant, with settling providing the primary pollutant removal path. Chemical coagulation was carried out via jar tests using aluminum chloride. Comparison was done with the same amount of coagulant between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation processes. Boron removal obtained was higher with electrocoagulation process. In addition, it was seen that chemical coagulation has any effect for boron removal from boron-containing solution. At optimum conditions (e.g. pH 8.0 and aluminum dose of 7.45 g/L), boron removal efficiencies for electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation were 94.0% and 24.0%, respectively

  19. The Clinical Significance of the Combined Detection between Blood Coagulation Function and Cystatin C in Patients with Hepatitis B%乙型肝炎患者凝血功能与胱抑素C联合检测的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈素丽; 毕波; 陈程; 郭淑丽; 陈功

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨乙型肝炎患者凝血功能与血清胱抑素C联合检测的临床诊断价值.方法:收集260例乙型肝炎患者为实验组及健康者70例为对照组,采用全自动凝血分析仪进行活化部分凝血酶时间(APTT)、凝血酶原时间(PT)、纤维蛋白原(FIB)的测定,采用全自动生化分析仪进行血清胱抑素C、丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)、天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST)、血清γ谷氨酰转肽酶(GGT)的检测.结果:除急性肝炎组外,其他各组乙型肝炎患者的APTT、PT值均高于对照组(P<0.05).重型肝炎和肝炎肝硬化组FIB值均低于对照组(P<0.05);对于血清胱抑素C水平,除急性肝炎组外,其他各组值均明显高于健康对照组(P<0.05),且肝炎肝硬化组依次高于重型肝炎组和慢性肝炎组.各实验组ALT和AST水平均明显高于对照组(P<0.05),而对于GGT水平,重型肝炎组和肝炎肝硬化组明显高于对照组(P<0.05).结论:联合检测APTT、PT、FIB凝血功能指标与血清胱抑素C水平,对临床判断乙型肝炎患者病变程度及预后具有重要意义.%Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of the combined detection of blood coagulation function and serum cystatin C in patients with hepatitis B. Methods: Two hundred and sixty cases of patients with hepatitis B (test group) and seventy healthy individuals(control group) were enrolled in the study. We measured activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time(PT) and fibrinogen (FIB) by Automated coagulation analyzer,and detected the content of cystatin C, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) , aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and y-glutamyl transferase (GGT) by Automatic biochemical analyzer in the test and control groups.Results: Except the acute hepatitis group, APTT and PT value of the test group were all higher than the control (P<0.05).FIB of the severe hepatitis group and hepatitis cirrhosis group were both significantly lower than the control group (P

  20. IMPROVEMENT OF COAGULATION PROCESS FOR THE PRUT RIVER WATER TREATMENT USING ALUMINUM SULPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Postolachi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of presented research was to optimize the treatment process of the Prut River water. In order to realize the proposed goal, there were studied the following factors which can improve the process of coagulation: (i the influence of stirring speed during coagulation and (ii the influence of the concentration of the coagulant solution added in the process of coagulation. The optimal conditions of coagulation were established using the Jar-test method. Application of the recommended procedure contribute to the reduction of the coagulant dose, the contact time, the aluminum concentration in water and the expenses for water treatment.

  1. Alterations in coagulation following major liver resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, S V; Sugavanam, A; Krzanicki, D A; Patel, S; Broomhead, R H; Davidson, B R; Riddell, A; Gatt, A; Chowdary, P

    2016-06-01

    The international normalised ratio is frequently raised in patients who have undergone major liver resection, and is assumed to represent a potential bleeding risk. However, these patients have an increased risk of venous thromboembolic events, despite conventional coagulation tests indicating hypocoagulability. This prospective, observational study of patients undergoing major hepatic resection analysed the serial changes in coagulation in the early postoperative period. Thrombin generation parameters and viscoelastic tests of coagulation (thromboelastometry) remained within normal ranges throughout the study period. Levels of the procoagulant factors II, V, VII and X initially fell, but V and X returned to or exceeded normal range by postoperative day five. Levels of factor VIII and Von Willebrand factor were significantly elevated from postoperative day one (p < 0.01). Levels of the anticoagulants, protein C and antithrombin remained significantly depressed on postoperative day five (p = 0.01). Overall, the imbalance between pro- and anticoagulant factors suggested a prothrombotic environment in the early postoperative period. PMID:27030945

  2. Collection, processing and testing of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood and haematopoietic stem cells by European Blood Alliance members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Närhi, M; Natri, O; Desbois, I;

    2013-01-01

    A questionnaire study was carried out in collaboration with the European Blood Alliance (EBA) Tissues and Cells (T&C) working group. The aim was to assess the level of involvement and commonality of processes on the procurement, testing and storage of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood (UCB) and...

  3. Understanding selectivity of hard and soft metal cations within biological systems using the subvalence concept. I. Application to blood coagulation: direct cation-protein electronic effects vs. indirect interactions through water networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Courcy, B.; Pedersen, L. G.; Parisel, O.; Gresh, N.; Silvi, B.; Pilmé, J.; Piquemal, J.-P.

    2010-01-01

    Following a previous study by de Courcy et al. ((2009) Interdiscip. Sci. Comput. Life Sci. 1, 55-60), we demonstrate in this contribution, using quantum chemistry, that metal cations exhibit a specific topological signature in the electron localization of their density interacting with ligands according to its “soft” or “hard” character. Introducing the concept of metal cation subvalence, we show that a metal cation can split its outer-shell density (the so-called subvalent domains or basins) according to it capability to form a partly covalent bond involving charge transfer. Such behaviour is investigated by means of several quantum chemical interpretative methods encompasing the topological analysis of the Electron Localization Function (ELF) and Bader's Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) and two energy decomposition analyses (EDA), namely the Restricted Variational Space (RVS) and Constrained Space Orbital Variations (CSOV) approaches. Further rationalization is performed by computing ELF and QTAIM local properties such as electrostatic distributed moments and local chemical descriptors such as condensed Fukui Functions and dual descriptors. These reactivity indexes are computed within the ELF topological analysis in addition to QTAIM offering access to non atomic reactivity local index, for example on lone pairs. We apply this “subvalence” concept to study the cation selectivity in enzymes involved in blood coagulation (GLA domains of three coagulation factors). We show that the calcium ions are clearly able to form partially covalent charge transfer networks between the subdomain of the metal ion and the carboxylate oxygen lone pairs whereas magnesium does not have such ability. Our analysis also explains the different role of two groups (high affinity and low affinity cation binding sites) present in GLA domains. If the presence of Ca(II) is mandatory in the central “high affinity” region to conserve a proper folding and a charge

  4. Blood lactate diagnostics in exercise testing and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneke, Ralph; Leithäuser, Renate M; Ochentel, Oliver

    2011-03-01

    A link between lactate and muscular exercise was seen already more than 200 years ago. The blood lactate concentration (BLC) is sensitive to changes in exercise intensity and duration. Multiple BLC threshold concepts define different points on the BLC power curve during various tests with increasing power (INCP). The INCP test results are affected by the increase in power over time. The maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) is measured during a series of prolonged constant power (CP) tests. It detects the highest aerobic power without metabolic energy from continuing net lactate production, which is usually sustainable for 30 to 60 min. BLC threshold and MLSS power are highly correlated with the maximum aerobic power and athletic endurance performance. The idea that training at threshold intensity is particularly effective has no evidence. Three BLC-orientated intensity domains have been established: (1) training up to an intensity at which the BLC clearly exceeds resting BLC, light- and moderate-intensity training focusing on active regeneration or high-volume endurance training (Intensity MLSS). High-performance endurance athletes combining very high training volume with high aerobic power dedicate 70 to 90% of their training to intensity domain 1 (Intensity < Threshold) in order to keep glycogen homeostasis within sustainable limits. PMID:21487146

  5. Effect of hemocoagulase actutus for injection on blood coagulation function in rabbits%注射用尖吻蝮蛇凝血酶对兔凝血功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊华; 张鹏; 康强; 王秀英

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of hemocoagulase actutus for injection (Hem) on the blood coagulation system in rabbits. METHODS The rabbits were divided into four groups. Three groups were given 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 U·kg-1 of Hem separately by ear intravenous injection, and one group was given hemocoagulase atrox for injection (HAI) 1.0 Klobusitzky unit (KU)·kg-1 as positive control group. Before administration and 10 min, 30 min, 2 h and 12 h after administration, the coagulation time (CT) and platelet ( PLT) were determined with Lee-White tube method and globulimeter, respectively. The prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), fibrinogen( FIB) and activated partial thromboplatin (APTT) were measured by C2000-4 high performance blood coagulation analyzer. RESULTS No index at different times in normal control group had obvious change. CT was shorted 10 min-12 h after Hem0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 U·kg-1 and HAI 1.0 KU·kg-1were given (P<0.05). PLT was increased 10-30 min after Hem 1.0 U· kg-1 ( P < 0. 05) was adminstered. APTT was declined 10 min-2 h after Hem 1.0 U·kg-1 was given and 30 min-12 h after HAI 1.0 KU·kg-1 (P<0.05) was given. PT was shorted 10 min after Hem 0.25 U·kg-1,10 min -2 h after Hem 0.5 U·kg-1,10 -30 min after Hem 1.0 U·kg-1 and 10-30 min after HAI 1.0 KU·kg-1 (P<0.05). TT was decreased 10 min-12 h after Hem 1.0 U·kg-1 and 30 min after HAI 1. 0 KU ·kg-1 (P <0. 05). FIB was increased 30 min after Hem 0.25 U·kg-1,10-30 min after Hem0.5 U·kg-1, 10 min-2 h after Hem 1.0 U·kg-1 and 10-30 min after HAl 1.0 KU · kg-1 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Hem 1.0 U · kg-1 remarkably promotes blood coagulation 10 min after administration, and the decrease of TT lasts for 12 h.%目的 研究注射用尖吻蝮蛇凝血酶(Hem)对兔凝血功能的影响,为临床应用提供实验依据.方法 于日本大耳白兔耳静脉分别一次性iv给予Hem 0.25,0.5和1.0 U·kg-1和阳性对照药注射用血凝酶(HAI)1.0克氏单位(KU)·kg-1,于给药前(0 min

  6. Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment by Combined Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Edris Bazrafshan; Ferdos Kord Mostafapour; Mehdi Farzadkia; Kamal Aldin Ownagh; Amir Hossein Mahvi

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation an...

  7. Allosteric activation of coagulation factor VIIa visualized by hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, Kasper Dyrberg; Jørgensen, Thomas; Olsen, Ole H; Persson, Egon; Jensen, Ole; Stennicke, Henning R; Andersen, Mette

    2006-01-01

    Coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) is a serine protease that, after binding to tissue factor (TF), plays a pivotal role in the initiation of blood coagulation. We used hydrogen exchange monitored by mass spectrometry to visualize the details of FVIIa activation by comparing the exchange kinetics of ...... provide novel insights into the cofactor-induced activation of this important protease and reveal the potential for allosteric regulation in the trypsin family of proteases....

  8. A novel coagulation inhibitor from Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Shiwanthi L; Fischer, Katja; Gobert, Geoffrey N; McManus, Donald P

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the molecular mechanisms whereby the human blood fluke Schistosoma japonicum is able to survive in the host venous blood system. Protease inhibitors are likely released by the parasite enabling it to avoid attack by host proteolytic enzymes and coagulation factors. Interrogation of the S. japonicum genomic sequence identified a gene, SjKI-1, homologous to that encoding a single domain Kunitz protein (Sjp_0020270) which we expressed in recombinant form in Escherichia coli and purified. SjKI-1 is highly transcribed in adult worms and eggs but its expression was very low in cercariae and schistosomula. In situ immunolocalization with anti-SjKI-1 rabbit antibodies showed the protein was present in eggs trapped in the infected mouse intestinal wall. In functional assays, SjKI-1 inhibited trypsin in the picomolar range and chymotrypsin, neutrophil elastase, FXa and plasma kallikrein in the nanomolar range. Furthermore, SjKI-1, at a concentration of 7·5 µ m, prolonged 2-fold activated partial thromboplastin time of human blood coagulation. We also demonstrate that SjKI-1 has the ability to bind Ca(++). We present, therefore, characterization of the first Kunitz protein from S. japonicum which we show has an anti-coagulant properties. In addition, its inhibition of neutrophil elastase indicates SjKI-1 have an anti-inflammatory role. Having anti-thrombotic properties, SjKI-1 may point the way towards novel treatment for hemostatic disorders. PMID:26463744

  9. Forensic Identification of Human Blood: comparison of two one-step presumptive tests for blood screening of crime scene samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Belchior Andrade

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood is the most common body fluid found at crime scenes. One-step presumptive tests have been designed as a rapid immunological test for the qualitative detection of human hemoglobin in stool samples (faecal occult blood their usefulness for forensic purposes has been demonstrated before. In this study we compare Hexagon OBTI kit and FOB One-step Bioeasy kit sensitivity in the analysis of diluted blood samples. With Hexagon OBTI, positive test results are achieved in whole blood dilutions up to 1:1.000. Sensitivity decreased with aged samples, if samples were not stored under low temperatures regardless of which presumptive test is used. Whole blood tests must take into consideration that “hook” effect may interfere. Comparing both tests, OBTI Hexagon Kit is more sensible to detect diluted blood, showing a wider detection window in all conditions. This is interesting when analyzing forensic samples as forensic analysts usually do not know about the history of the analyzed sample before its collection.

  10. A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR PURIFICATION OF WATER USING NATURAL COAGULANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Pise

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of chemical coagulants is not suitable due to health and economic considerations. Studies are carried out in laboratory scale on deionized and river water containing synthetic turbidity of kaolinite. Experiments are carried out in three turbidity ranges: 150, 450, 1000 (NTU and the pH range 6-8. The efficiency of Moringa oleifera (MO seed extract and alum is examined with jar test, settling column and pilot test. The aim of this study is to find out the optimum combination of MO and alum using alum as a coagulant aid in household treatment of natural river surface water for domestic use. The various coagulant combinations with which the raw water from the river is treated include Moringa oleifera seed powder only, Alum coagulant only and blended Moringa oleifera seeds and alum in different combinations. When Moringa oleifera seed powder is used as the sole coagulant, a filter was needed to obtain an acceptable turbidity value but there was no need for pH adjustment or correction. Moringa oleifera seed powder can be used in treating household drinking water either as a sole coagulant or in combination with alum as a coagulant aid. The recommended ratio for the combined coagulant dose is 60% MO seed powder and 40% alum.

  11. Application of Combined Chemical Coagulation-Electro  Coagulation Process for Treatment  of the Zahedan Cattle Slaughterhouse Wastewater 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Bazrafshan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat, and lard. In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards.Materials and Methods: At present study, slaughterhouse wastewater after initial analysis was tested for survey of coagulation process using Poly aluminum chloride (PAC at various doses (25-100 mg/L. Then we measured the concentrations of wastewater pollutants (BOD5, COD, TKN, TSS and fecal Coliforms. Later, we transferred the effluent to the electrocoagulation unit and we evaluated the removal efficiency of pollutants in the range 10 to 40 volts of electric potential during 60 min.Results: It was found that the efficiency of chemical coagulation process using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC as coagulant increases with increasing doses (from 25 to 100 mg/L; we achieved maximum removal efficiency during the chemical coagulation for parameters of BOD5, COD, TSS, and TKN at 100 mg/L of PAC equivalent to 44.78%, 58.52%, 59.9%, and 39.58% respectively. Moreover, the results showed that with increasing the electric potential and reaction time, the yield increases linearly so that maximum removal efficiency at a dose of 100 mg/L PAC, an electrical potential of 40 volts and a reaction time of 60 minutes for the parameters BOD5, COD, TSS, and TKN was 99.18% 99.25%, 82.55%, and 93.97% respectively.Conclusion: The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation processes for pollutants removal from the slaughterhouse wastewaters

  12. Coagulation with limited aggregations

    CERN Document Server

    Bertoin, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Smoluchowski's coagulation equations can be used as elementary mathematical models for the formation of polymers. We review here some recent contributions on a variation of this model in which the number of aggregations for each atom is a priori limited. Macroscopic results in the deterministic setting can be explained at the microscopic level by considering a version of stochastic coalescence with limited aggregations, which can be related to the so-called random configuration model of random graph theory.

  13. Argon plasma coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenker, Matthias

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Argon Plasma Coagulation (APC is an application of gas discharges in argon in electrosurgery, which is increasingly used especially in endoscopy. The major application fields are haemostasis, tissue devitalization and tissue reduction.This review describes the physics and technology of electrosurgery and APC. Some characteristics of the argon discharge are shown and discussed, and thermal effects in biological tissue are described. Subsequently, examples of medical applications are given.

  14. Coagulation and Mental Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Hoirisch-Clapauch; Antonio Egidio Nardi; Jean-Christophe Gris; Benjamin Brenner

    2014-01-01

    The neurovascular unit is a key player in brain development, homeostasis, and pathology. Mental stress affects coagulation, while severe mental illnesses, such as recurrent depression and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased thrombotic risk and cardiovascular morbidity. Evidence indicates that the hemostatic system is involved to some extent in the pathogenesis, morbidity, and prognosis of a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The current review focuses on emerging data linking ...

  15. Strategies to Improve Repeat Fecal Occult Blood Testing Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Terry C.; Arnold, Connie L.; Bennett, Charles L.; Wolf, Michael S.; Reynolds, Cristalyn; Liu, Dachao; Rademaker, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Background A comparative effectiveness intervention by this team improved initial fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) rates from 3% to 53% among community clinic patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and costs associated with a literacy-informed intervention on repeat FOBT testing. Methods Between 2008 and 2011, a three-arm quasi-experiential comparative effectiveness evaluation was conducted in 8 community clinics in Louisiana. Clinics were randomly assigned to receive: enhanced care, a screening recommendation and FOBT kit annually; a brief educational intervention where patients additionally received a literacy appropriate pamphlet and simplified FOBT instructions; or nurse support where a nurse manager provided the education and followed up with phone support. In year 2 all materials were mailed. The study consisted of 461 patients, ages 50–85, with a negative initial FOBT. Results Repeat FOBT rates were 38% enhanced care, 33% education, and 59% with nurse support (p=0.017). After adjusting for age, race, gender, and literacy, patients receiving nurse support were 1.46 times more likely to complete repeat FOBT screening than those receiving education (95% CI 1.14–1.06, p=0.002) and 1.45 times more likely than those in enhanced care but this was not significant (95% CI 0.93–2.26 p=0.10). The incremental cost per additional person screened was $2,450 for nurse over enhanced care. Conclusion A mailed pamphlet and FOBT with simplified instructions did not improve annual screening. Impact Telephone outreach by a nurse manager was effective in improving rates of repeat FOBT yet this may be too costly for community clinics. PMID:24192009

  16. Comparative study of Treponemal and non-Treponemal test for screening of blood donated at a blood center

    OpenAIRE

    Naidu, Narinder Kaur; Bharucha, Z. S.; Sonawane, Vandana; Ahmed, Imran

    2012-01-01

    The non-Treponemal tests such as Rapid Plasma Reagin test (RPR) or the Venereal Disease Reference Laboratory test are the most commonly used test for screening of syphilis in the blood centers in India. Now, with the availability of Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Immunochromatographic assays in the market, we decided to evaluate these assays in comparison with Treponema pallidum Haemagglutination Assay (TPHA) which was considered as a gold standard for this study. A total of 8 ...

  17. Analysis of Unmatched Blood Cross Test with Micro-column Gel%微柱凝胶法交叉配血不合原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱奕; 张爱根; 李妙珊

    2013-01-01

    Objective Analysis the cause of unmatched test of blood cross with micro-column gel and find out how to avoid. Methods Match the blood cross test with micro-column gel. Results 31 positive cases were checked out, about 0.64%, of which there are 27 false positive cases, about 87.1%. Conclusion The blood cross test with micro-column gel has High sensitivity, but can cause false positive. Be attention to anti-coagulated and centrifuged fuly. cross-unmatched can also appear with Some malignancies and blood disorders. We should be attention of the factors that affect blood cross matching to ensure the safety of blood transfusions.%  目的分析微柱凝胶法交叉配血不合的原因和处理方法.方法用微柱凝胶法对本院输血患者进行交叉配血.结果4826例配血检出阳性31例占0.64%,其中假阳性27例占阳性例数87.1%,真阳性4例占阳性例数12.9%.结论微柱凝胶法配血灵敏度高,但易引起假阳性,交叉配血前要注意标本充分抗凝及离心.一些恶性肿瘤及血液性疾病也可能出现同型交叉配型不合,应根据不同病因去除影响交叉配血不合的因素,以确保输血安全.

  18. Coagulation Enhancement for Removal of Trihalomethane Precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trihalomethanes can be formed as a result of chemical reactions between the organic matter present in water and chlorine added for disinfection purposes. Trihalomethanes have serious health effects and are found in treated water effluent of Zai Water Treatment plant, and some components are more predominant than others. This study aims to minimize THM level by enhancing the coagulation process through the addition of treatment chemicals. The parameters used in the determination of the optimum chemical additions in the different steps of coagulation enhancement include turbidity removal, percent reduction of bromide, heavy metal residuals, percent reduction of total organic carbon, and the concentration of trihalomethanes formed. The treatment chemicals used in the study were potassium permanganate, cationic polymer, powdered activated carbon, and chlorine. The doses of these treatment chemical were 1.2 ppm, 0.5ppm, 1.4ppm, and 2.65ppm; respectively. The coagulants tested were alum, ferric chloride, and ferrous sulfate. The optimum doses of individual coagulants were 20 ppm for alum, 10ppm for ferrous sulfate, and 10 ppm ferric chloride. Ferrous sulfate was found to be the best single coagulant resulting in 51% reduction in total organic carbon and 34.24 ppb of trihalomethane concentration. The best combination of coagulants was 18 ppm of alum and 2 ppm of ferric chloride. Increasing dose of powder activated carbon has no impact on the turbidity, total organic carbon, or trihalomethanes. This could mean that the chemical addition has been optimized so that no further reductions in trihalomethanes and total organic carbon are possible. (authors) 18 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, May Devan; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Stewart, Tom

    2010-02-01

    The formation of silica scale is a problem for thermoelectric power generating facilities, and this study investigated the potential for removal of silica by means of chemical coagulation from source water before it is subjected to mineral concentration in cooling towers. In Phase I, a screening of many typical as well as novel coagulants was carried out using concentrated cooling tower water, with and without flocculation aids, at concentrations typical for water purification with limited results. In Phase II, it was decided that treatment of source or make up water was more appropriate, and that higher dosing with coagulants delivered promising results. In fact, the less exotic coagulants proved to be more efficacious for reasons not yet fully determined. Some analysis was made of the molecular nature of the precipitated floc, which may aid in process improvements. In Phase III, more detailed study of process conditions for aluminum chloride coagulation was undertaken. Lime-soda water softening and the precipitation of magnesium hydroxide were shown to be too limited in terms of effectiveness, speed, and energy consumption to be considered further for the present application. In Phase IV, sodium aluminate emerged as an effective coagulant for silica, and the most attractive of those tested to date because of its availability, ease of use, and low requirement for additional chemicals. Some process optimization was performed for coagulant concentration and operational pH. It is concluded that silica coagulation with simple aluminum-based agents is effective, simple, and compatible with other industrial processes.

  20. Research on Pyrogen Test by Replacing Domestic Rabbit with Whole Blood or Cell%用全血或细胞替代家兔进行热原检查的方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冠民; 黄清泉; 张云河; 贺争鸣

    2003-01-01

    The pyrogen test is an important index of quality-management relating to druggery injection and instillation and the current common methods are domestic-rabbit test and Bacterial Endotoxins Test. Since there are shortcomings and limitations of resources in these two methods , it's necessary to look for another new substitute. We have done the preliminary study of the feasibility of the pyrogen test with domestic rabbit's blood plasm, human's plasm and THP-1.The principle is as follows: after incubating the standard sample of bacterial endotoxins, glycogen anti-coagulation whole blood extracting from the healthy domestic rabbit, extralin anti-congealable whole blood from healthy volunteers,THP-1 cells together, measure the releasing amount of TNF and IL-6 from cell gene by the method of ELISA as a endogenesis index judging the pro-heat role of endotoxin.The results indicate: the blood-rabbit's whole blood, human's whole blood, or THP-lcelI, their releasing amount of TNF and IL-6 are closely connected with the amount of acting endotoxins within a certain range. Three methods have their own peculiarities and some feasibilities as a new substitute method for pyrogen test with domestic rabbit.

  1. Development of a new test for the global fibrinolytic capacity in whole blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, D.C.; Hoegee-de Nobel, E.; Jie, A.F.H.; Atsma, D.E.; Schalij, M.J.; Nieuwenhuizen, W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The development of global tests for the fibrinolytic capacity in blood is hampered by the low base-line fibrinolytic activity in blood, by the involvement of both plasmatic components and blood cells in the fibrinolytic system and by the loss of fibrinolytic activity as a result of the a

  2. Can latent heat safely warm blood? – in vitro testing of a portable prototype blood warmer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwen Mark P

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma/retrieval patients are often in shock and hypothermic. Treatment of such patients usually involves restoring their blood volume with transfusion of blood (stored at 2°C – 6°C and/or crystalloids or colloids (stored at ambient temperature. Rapid infusion of these cold fluids can worsen or even induce hypothermia in these patients. Warming of intravenous fluids at accident sites has traditionally been difficult due to a lack of suitable portable fluid warmers that are not dependent on mains electrical or battery power. If latent heat, the heat released when a liquid solidifies (an inherently temperature limiting process can warm intravenous fluids, portable devices without a reliance on electrical energy could be used to reduce the incidence of hypothermia in trauma patients. Methods Rapid infusion of red cells into patients was timed to sample typical clinical flow rates. An approved dry heat blood warmer was compared with a prototype blood warmer using a supercooled liquid latent heat storage material, to warm red cells whilst monitoring inlet and outlet temperatures. To determine the effect of warming on red cell integrity compared to the normal storage lesion of blood, extracellular concentrations of potassium, lactate dehydrogenase and haemoglobin were measured in blood which had been warmed after storage at 2°C – 6°C for 1 to 42 days. Results A prototype latent heat fluid warmer consistently warmed red cells from approximately 4°C to approximately 35°C at typical clinical flow rates. Warming of stored blood with latent heat did not affect red cell integrity more than the approved dry heat blood warmer. Conclusion Using latent heat as an energy source can satisfactorily warm cold blood or other intravenous fluids to near body temperature, without any adverse affects.

  3. 脉血康胶囊对不同疾病患者凝血功能的影响%Effects of Maixuekang capsule on blood coagulation with different diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琦晖; 李增高

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察脉血康胶囊对不同疾病患者凝血功能的影响.方法 选择2011年5月至2011年9月重庆第一人民医院心内科50例不同疾病患者,观察口服脉血康胶囊前后凝血功能的改变.结果 在观察的50例患者中,活化部分凝血活酶时间(APTT-sec)、活化部分凝血活酶比率(APTT-ratio)在用药后84 d[(35.64±3.07)、(1.11±0.10)]与用药前[(35.29±3.32)、(1.10±0.10)]比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);凝血酶原活性度(PT%)、凝血酶原标准化比值(PT-INR)、凝血酶原比率(PT-ratio)、凝血酶原时间PT-sec)、纤维蛋白原(Fib)、凝血酶时间(TT-sec)、凝血酶比率(TT-ratio)在用药后84 d分别为[(105.22±11.69)%、(0.98±0.07)、(1.00±0.05)、(13.08±0.69)、(3.37±0.74) g/L、(18.12±1.41)、(1.07±0.08)]均较治疗前[(114.64±9.10)%、(0.93±0.04)、(0.94±0.03)、(12.50±0.42)、(3.66±0.59) g/L、(16.84±0.71)、(0.99±0.04)]有明显改善(P<0.05).结论 脉血康胶囊对不同疾病患者有抗凝作用.%Objective To investigate the effects of Maixuekang capsule on blood coagulation.Methods 50 patients with different diseases from cardiologic department of Chongqing First People's Hospital from 2011 May to 2011 September were selected.The changes of their blood coagulation function were observed after taking Maixuekang capsule.Results Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT-sec) and activated partial thromboplastin ratio (APTT-ratio) in 84 ds [(35.64±3.07),(1.11±0.10)] after using the medicine showed no statistical difference compared with the value before taking the medicine [(35.29±3.32) before treatment),(1.10±0.10)] (P>0.05); while coagulation zymogen activity (PT%),prothrombin normalized ratio (PT-INR),prothrombin ratio (PT-ratio),prothrombin time(PT-sec),fibrinogen (Fib),thrombin time (TT-sec),and thrombin ratio (TT-ratio) in 84 ds after using the medicine [(105.22 ± 11.69)%,(0.98 ±0.07),(1.00±0.05),(13.08±0.69),(3.37±0.74)g

  4. Modified indirect hemagglutination test for detection of treponemal antibodies in finger-prick blood.

    OpenAIRE

    Backhouse, J L; Lee, M. H.; Nesteroff, S I; Hudson, B J; Hamilton, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    A modified indirect hemagglutination test for the detection of treponemal antibodies was developed for use with finger-prick blood. By using paired serum and absorbed finger-prick blood from 58 patients from an area previously endemic for yaws and 12 patients without yaws, the modified hemagglutination test was compared with a hemagglutination test for Treponema pallidum and the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test. The modified hemagglutination test showed 100% specificity and an ...

  5. Comparison of Moringa stenopetala seed extract as a clean coagulant with Alum and Moringa stenopetala-Alum hybrid coagulant to remove direct dye from Textile Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvand, Arash; Gholibegloo, Elham; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Golchinpoor, Najmeh; Khazaei, Mohammad; Kamani, Hossein; Hosseini, Sara Sadat; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the efficiency of Moringa stenopetala seed extract was compared with alum and M. stenopetala-alum hybrid coagulant to remove Direct Red 23 azo dye from textile wastewater. The effects of parameters such as pH, coagulant dose, type of salt used for the extraction of coagulant and initial dye concentration on dye removal efficiency were investigated. Moreover, the existing functional groups on the structure of M. stenopetala coagulant (MSC) were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the morphology of sludge produced by MSC, alum, and hybrid coagulant was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Ninhydrin test was also used to determine the quantity of primary amines in the MSC and Moringa oleifera coagulant (MOC). According to the results, with increasing the coagulant dose and decreasing the initial dye concentration, dye removal efficiency has increased. The maximum dye removal of 98.5, 98.2, and 98.3 % were obtained by using 240, 120, and 80 mg/L MSC, alum and hybrid coagulant at pH 7, respectively. The results also showed MSC was much more effective than MOC for dye removal. The volume of sludge produced by MSC was one fourth and half of those produced by alum and hybrid coagulant, respectively. Based on the results, hybrid coagulant was the most efficient coagulant for direct dye removal from colored wastewater. PMID:27164876

  6. Analysis on Coagulation Test Value in Diagnosis of Viral Hepatitis%凝血四项检测对病毒性肝炎诊断的价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭鹏; 闫晓琳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze coagulation test value in diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Methods 38 patients with viral hepatitis were chosen who are received in hospital from January 2014 to January 2015 into Group A, and separate 38 persons taking physical examination into Group B. And have these patients tested with coagulation test and then compare test results between two groups. Results Test results of PT, TT and APTT value from patients with chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, acute hepatitis and severe hepatitis are much higher than counterparts in control group (P<0.05), there is great differential between test results in two groups. Besides, acute hepatitis patients’ FIB test results are much higher than that in control group (P<0.05) and FIB value from patients of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and severe hepatitis are lower than counterparts in control group (P<0.05), there is great differential between test results in two groups. Conclusion Coagulation test is of great value in diagnosis of viral hepatitis, therefore, it is suggested to be paid attention.%目的:分析凝血四项检测对病毒性肝炎诊断的价值。方法搜集2014年1月~2015年1月我院病毒性肝炎38例作为甲组;将同期健康体检者38例作为乙组。对甲组和乙组进行凝血四项检测,比较检测结果。结果甲组慢性肝炎、肝硬化、急性肝炎、重症肝炎者PT、TT和APTT检测结果高于对照组(P<0.05),差异有统计学意义;甲组急性肝炎者FIB检测结果高于对照组(P<0.05),慢性肝炎、肝硬化、重症肝炎者FIB小于对照组(P<0.05),差异有统计学意义。结论凝血四项检测在病毒性肝炎临床诊断中应用价值较大,应予以重视。

  7. How Is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Treated? Treatment for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) depends ... and treat the underlying cause. Acute Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation People who have acute DIC may have severe ...

  8. Comparison of serum, salivary, and rapid whole blood diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori and their validation against endoscopy based tests.

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, T G; Poxon, V; Sanders, D S; Elliott, T S; Walt, R P

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A rapid, reliable, and accurate test for the diagnosis of infection with Helicobacter pylori is needed for screening dyspeptic patients before referral for endoscopy. AIM: To compare a new rapid whole blood test (Helisal rapid blood, Cortecs), two serum enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs; Helico-G, Shield and Helisal serum, Cortecs), and a salivary assay (Helisal saliva, Cortecs), with slide biopsy urease, 13C-urea breath test, and histology. METHODS: Three hundred and thr...

  9. 重组腺相关病毒2型/人凝血因子IX的质量研究%Quality control of recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2/human blood coagulation factor IX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凯; 王军志; 饶春明; 吴小兵

    2003-01-01

    目的研究并建立重组腺相关病毒2型/人凝血因子IX(recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2/human blood coagulation factor IX,rAAV-2/hFIX)的质量标准.方法采用PCR法确认病毒所携带的重组核酸结构和测定辅助病毒(helper virus)和野生型腺相关病毒(wtAAV)的残留片段.SDS-PAGE电泳测定病毒外壳蛋白分子量及纯度,TSK gel SP-NPR阳离子交换柱系统测定病毒颗粒纯度.以斑点杂交法测定病毒颗粒数.一期法于IX因子基因剔除小鼠体内测定rAAV-2/hFIX生物学活性,并通过ELISA法测定感染BHK-21细胞后hFIX的表达量.结果 PCR法确证病毒的重组核酸结构与构建预期相同;在1×107 VG的rAAV-2/hFIX颗粒中,残留辅助病毒的基因片段数少于1个拷贝;在1×108 VG的rAAV-2/hFIX颗粒中,野生型AAV-2基因片段数少于1个拷贝.病毒颗粒及外壳蛋白纯度均大于98%,病毒颗粒数大于1.0×1015 VG*L-1(virus genome*L-1).IX因子剔除小鼠肌肉注射病毒后21 d,小鼠血液中人凝血因子IX活性达到大于正常人因子IX活性的15%,IX因子的体外表达水平大于20.0 μg*L-1.其他各项检测指标均符合规定.结论建立了rAAV-2/hFIX的质量标准,用于控制产品质量.

  10. Air pollution source apportionment before, during, and after the 2008 Beijing Olympics and association of sources to aldehydes and biomarkers of blood coagulation, pulmonary and systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress in healthy young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemose, Brent A.

    Based on principal component analysis (PCA) of air pollution data collected during the Summer Olympic Games held in Beijing, China during 2008, the five source types of air pollution identified -- natural soil/road dust, vehicle and industrial combustion, vegetative burning, oil combustion, and secondary formation, were all distinctly lower during the Olympics. This was particularly true for vehicle and industrial combustion and oil combustion, and during the main games period between the opening and closing ceremonies. The reduction in secondary formation was reflective of a reduction in nitrogen oxides, but this also contributed to increased ozone concentrations during the Olympic period. Among three toxic aldehydes measured in Beijing during the same time period, only acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Accordingly, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion, and with several pollutants emitted mainly from primary sources. In contrast, formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the Olympic air pollution control period; accordingly both were significantly correlated with ozone and with the secondary formation source type. These findings indicate primary sources may dominate for acetaldehyde while secondary sources may dominate for formaldehyde and acrolein. Biomarkers for pulmonary inflammation (exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH, exhaled nitric oxide, and EBC nitrite) and hemostasis and blood coagulation (vWF and sCD62p) were most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion, oil combustion, and vegetative burning. The systemic inflammation biomarker 8-OHdG was most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion. In contrast, the associations between the biomarkers and the aldehydes were generally not significant or in the hypothesized direction, although

  11. Usefulness of human coagulation and fibrinolysis assays in domestic pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Anna-Marie Bloch; Olsen, Aage Kristian; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie

    2002-01-01

    Pigs are often used as animal models in research on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis. The usefulness of the assays applied within this field, and the knowledge of reference intervals are therefore essential and of utmost importance. In the study reported here, we investigated the applicability of...... commercial human coagulation and fibrinolysis assays for use with porcine plasma. In total, 22 functional and immunologic assays were applied to plasma obtained from domestic pigs, and the following blood coagulation and fibrinolysis variables were measured: prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin...... that 11 of 12 functional assays, but only 3 of 10 immunoassays, were applicable to porcine plasma, and we determined the normal range of these variables. We conclude that human functional assays are useful in porcine plasma, whereas only a few immunologic assays can be used. However, precautions must...

  12. Treatment of Leachate by Coagulation-Flocculation using different Coagulants and Polymer: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Mao Rui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leachate will be treated by using coagulation-flocculation. Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in a number of diverse disciplines, including biochemistry, cheese manufacturing, rubber manufacturing, and in water and waste water treatment. It is effective for removing high concentration organic pollutant and heavy metals in wastewater. However, coagulationflocculation examined the effectiveness of alum, ferric chloride and polyaluminum chloride (PAC1  as well as the use of synthetic polymers on the removal of suspended solid (SS, color, COD and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3N from leachate. The coagulant dosage has typically been determined through jar test, which requires a long experiment time in a field water treatment plant.

  13. The effects of chemical coagulants on the decolorization of dyes by electrocoagulation using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Erick B.; Hung, Yung-Tse; Mulamba, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed the efficiency of electrocoagulation (ECF) coupled with an addition of chemical coagulant to decolorize textile dye. Tests were conducted using Box Behnken methodology to vary six parameters: dye type, weight, coagulant type, dose, initial pH and current density. The combination of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation was able to decolorize dye up to 99.42 % in 30 min of treatment time which is remarkably shorter in comparison with using conventional chemical coagulation. High color removal was found to be contingent upon the dye type and current density, along with the interactions between the current density and the coagulant dose. The addition of chemical coagulants did enhanced treatment efficiency.

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus test-seeking blood donors in a large blood bank in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Goncalez, T; Sabino, E; Sales, N; Chen, YH; D. Chamone; Busch, M.; Murphy, E; Custer, B; McFarland, W

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors are excluded from donation to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection. Persons donating to be tested for HIV may therefore deny risk behaviors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A random sample of donors completed a survey on motivations, knowledge, and attitudes on the screening process. Donors were considered test seekers if they agreed with two statements "I think that blood donation is a good, fast, and anonym...

  15. Comparative study of Treponemal and non-Treponemal test for screening of blood donated at a blood center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinder Kaur Naidu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-Treponemal tests such as Rapid Plasma Reagin test (RPR or the Venereal Disease Reference Laboratory test are the most commonly used test for screening of syphilis in the blood centers in India. Now, with the availability of Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and Immunochromatographic assays in the market, we decided to evaluate these assays in comparison with Treponema pallidum Haemagglutination Assay (TPHA which was considered as a gold standard for this study. A total of 8 685 samples of voluntary blood donors were tested on Trepolisa 3.0 and then the initially reactive samples were retested in duplicate on the same assay as well as on Omega Pathozyme, RPR, RAPHA (Rapid Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay, and TPHA. Of the 158 initially reactive samples, 104 were repeatedly reactive on the same assay, 85 were reactive with RPR, 77 were reactive with RAPHA, 60 were reactive on Omega, and 53 were confirmed reactive on TPHA. 48 (56.4% of the results on RPR were biological false positive, while 21.9% of results were false negative on RPR. We evaluated that Omega Pathozyme was quite in agreement with TPHA as compared with Trepolisa 3.0, RAPHA, and RPR. We concluded that Omega Pathozyme (ELISA can be considered as a suitable test for screening of syphilis in a blood center.

  16. Honey Bee Venom (Apis mellifera Contains Anticoagulation Factors and Increases the Blood-clotting Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Zolfagharian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Bee venom (BV is a complex mixture of proteins and contains proteins such as phospholipase and melittin, which have an effect on blood clotting and blood clots. The mechanism of action of honey bee venom (HBV, Apis mellifera on human plasma proteins and its anti-thrombotic effect were studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-coagulation effect of BV and its effects on blood coagulation and purification. Methods: Crude venom obtained from Apis mellifera was selected. The anti-coagulation factor of the crude venom from this species was purified by using gel filtration chromatography (sephadex G-50, and the molecular weights of the anti-coagulants in this venom estimated by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Blood samples were obtained from 10 rabbits, and the prothrombin time (PT and the partial thromboplastin time (PTT tests were conducted. The approximate lethal dose (LD values of BV were determined. Results: Crude BV increased the blood clotting time. For BV concentrations from 1 to 4 mg/mL, clotting was not observed even at more than 300 seconds, standard deviations (SDs = ± 0.71; however, clotting was observed in the control group 13.8 s, SDs = ± 0.52. Thus, BV can be considered as containing anti-coagulation factors. Crude BV is composed 4 protein bands with molecular weights of 3, 15, 20 and 41 kilodalton (kDa, respectively. The LD50 of the crude BV was found to be 177.8 μg/mouse. Conclusion: BV contains anti-coagulation factors. The fraction extracted from the Iranian bees contains proteins that are similar to anti-coagulation proteins, such as phospholipase A2 (PLA2 and melittin, and that can increase the blood clotting times in vitro.

  17. Coagulation/Flocculation of Tannery Wastewater Using Immobilized Chemical Coagulants

    OpenAIRE

    Q. Imran; M. A. Hanif; M. S. Riaz; S. Noureen; T. M. Ansari; Bhatti, H.N.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical coagulants were immobilized into bead form using sodium alginate to treat tannery wastewater samples. The used chemical coagulants were ammonium aluminium sulphate (NH4Al(SO4)2), aluminium sulphate (Al2(SO4)2, calcium carbonate (CaCO3), sodium citrate (Na3C6HsO7). The effect of the chemical coagulant dose and tannery wastewater pH was studied on wastewater electrical conductance (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), sulphates, chlorides, phenolphthalein alkalinity, total alkalinity and...

  18. A new in vivo capillary assay of coagulation in invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Bajzek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Greater understanding of insect clotting requires better tests that can be performed in whole, living insects. We found we could collect hemolymph bleeding from wounded Drosophila larvae in microcapillary tubes. The capillary assay showed a difference in the amount of bleeding between feeding and wandering stage third instar larvae, and performed well with clotting mutations. This new in vivo coagulation assay will be helpful for studies of coagulation in Drosophila and other invertebrates.

  19. Coagulation in clarifier with micro-sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As water treatment play key role in power generation at thermal and nuclear power station. This article is devoted to determine effectiveness of water clarifier with use of micro-sand at Thermal power stations. Efficiency of coagulation with application of aluminum sulphate and flocculants is experimentally detected. Presented the result of the tests of clarifier with micro-sand and given conclusion on these results. (author)

  20. Heat stress attenuates the increase in arterial blood pressure during the cold pressor test

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Jian; Shibasaki, Manabu; Low, David A.; Keller, David M.; Davis, Scott L.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms by which heat stress impairs the control of blood pressure leading to compromised orthostatic tolerance are not thoroughly understood. A possible mechanism may be an attenuated blood pressure response to a given increase in sympathetic activity. This study tested the hypothesis that whole body heating attenuates the blood pressure response to a non-baroreflex-mediated sympathoexcitatory stimulus. Ten healthy subjects were instrumented for the measurement of integrated muscle sy...

  1. Treatment of sugar beet extraction juice stillage by natural coagulants extracted from common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović Jelena M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Distillery wastewaters have a great pollution potential, and pollution caused by them is one of the most critical environmental issues. This study is concerned with the coagulation efficiency of a new, environmental friendly, natural coagulant extracted from common bean seeds in the primary treatment of distillery wastewater in the bioethanol production from sugar beet juice. Active coagulation components were extracted from ground seeds of common bean with 0.5 mol/L NaCl. The obtained raw extract was used as a coagulant. The coagulation efficiency was measured by jar test at different pH values of wastewater, and a decrease in organic matter content was determined. The experiments confirmed that natural coagulant from common bean could be successfully used for the treatment of extraction juice distillery wastewater. The highest coagulation efficiencies were achieved at the pH 5.2 with a coagulant dose of 30 mL/L, and at the pH 8.5 with a coagulant dose of 5 mL/L, and they were 64.71% and 68.75% respectively. These encouraging results indicate that natural coagulant from common bean seeds is a potential alternative to conventional chemical coagulant/flocculant agents for treatment of wastewaters.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43005

  2. Effect of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) on the coagulation system of 8 Gy gamma-irradiated Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the effect of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) on the coagulation parameters of Wistar rats irradiated with a single dose of 8 Gy γ-ray from cobalt-60. Methods: Clotting tests and thrombelastogram (TEG) were used to examine the effect of rhG-CSF on the coagulation parameters. A blood cell counter was applied to count the blood cells. A platelet aggregometer was adopted to observe the platelet aggregation. Results: Compared with irradiated control group, white blood cells and red blood cells of peripheral blood as well as the platelet number were increased (P<0.05), platelet aggregation was strengthened, the velocity of thrombosis was improved, and the maximum amplitude (MA) of the TEG was raised in rhG-CSF treated group (P<0.05). Conclusion: rhG-CSF can significantly promote the recovery of hemopoiesis and reverse the abnormal changes of the coagulation system in rats irradiated by the cobalt-60 with a single dose of 8 Gy. (authors)

  3. How-to-Do-It: A Simulation of the Blood Type Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, John D., Sr.; Smailes, Deborah L.

    1989-01-01

    Explains an activity that allows students to visualize antigen-antibody type reactions and learn about antibodies and antigens without performing blood typing tests. Provides directions for students and a comparison chart of a blood typing simulation with procedure which is based on the reactions of certain ionic solutions when mixed. (RT)

  4. Current Pathological and Laboratory Considerations in the Diagnosis of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Cheng Hock; Alhamdi, Yasir; Abrams, Simon T

    2016-11-01

    Systemically sustained thrombin generation in vivo is the hallmark of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Typically, this is in response to a progressing disease state that is associated with significant cellular injury. The etiology could be infectious or noninfectious, with the main pathophysiological mechanisms involving cross-activation among coagulation, innate immunity, and inflammatory responses. This leads to consumption of both pro- and anticoagulant factors as well as endothelial dysfunction and disrupted homeostasis at the blood vessel wall interface. In addition to the release of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and soluble thrombomodulin (sTM) following cellular activation and damage, respectively, there is the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) such as extracellular histones and cell-free DNA. Extracellular histones are increasingly recognized as significantly pathogenic in critical illnesses through direct cell toxicity, the promotion of thrombin generation, and the induction of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. Clinically, high circulating levels of histones and histone-DNA complexes are associated with multiorgan failure, DIC, and adverse patient outcomes. Their measurements as well as that of other DAMPs and molecular markers of thrombin generation are not yet applicable in the routine diagnostic laboratory. To provide a practical diagnostic tool for acute DIC, a composite scoring system using rapidly available coagulation tests is recommended by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Its usefulness and limitations are discussed alongside the advances and unanswered questions in DIC pathogenesis. PMID:27578502

  5. Coagulant and anticoagulant activities of Bothrops lanceolatus (Fer de lance) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lôbo de Araújo, A; Kamiguti, A; Bon, C

    2001-01-01

    Bothrops lanceolatus venom contains caseinolytic, phospholipase, esterase and haemorrhagic activities. We have investigated the coagulant and anticoagulant actions of B. lanceolatus venom on human citrated plasma and on purified plasma components. Although B. lanceolatus venom up to 50 microg/ml was unable to clot citrated plasma, at concentrations > or = 5 microg/ml the venom dose-dependently clotted purified human fibrinogen, indicating the presence of a thrombin-like enzyme. Human plasma (final concentration > or = 12.5%) dose-dependently inhibited the venom-induced fibrinogen clotting. This finding suggested that endogenous plasma protease inhibitors can affect the venom's action on fibrinogen. To investigate this possibility, B. lanceolatus venom was incubated with different plasma protease inhibitors and the activity on fibrinogen tested. alpha(2)-Macroglobulin and alpha(1)-antitrypsin did not interfere with the coagulant activity of the venom whereas the antithrombin-III/heparin complex partially inhibited this activity. A non-toxic, acidic phospholipase A(2) purified from B. lanceolatus venom prolonged the activated partial thromboplastin time in human plasma from 39.7+/-0.5 s (control with saline) to 60.2+/-0.9 s with 50 microg of PLA(2) (p<0.001), suggesting an anticoagulant activity associated with this enzyme. This anticoagulant activity may account for some of the effects of the venom on blood coagulation. PMID:10978756

  6. Paper-based assay for red blood cell antigen typing by the indirect antiglobulin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, Natasha; McLiesh, Heather; Guan, Liyun; Shen, Wei; Garnier, Gil

    2016-07-01

    A rapid and simple paper-based elution assay for red blood cell antigen typing by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) was established. This allows to type blood using IgG antibodies for the important blood groups in which IgM antibodies do not exist. Red blood cells incubated with IgG anti-D were washed with saline and spotted onto the paper assay pre-treated with anti-IgG. The blood spot was eluted with an elution buffer solution in a chromatography tank. Positive samples were identified by the agglutinated and fixed red blood cells on the original spotting area, while red blood cells from negative samples completely eluted away from the spot of origin. Optimum concentrations for both anti-IgG and anti-D were identified to eliminate the washing step after the incubation phase. Based on the no-washing procedure, the critical variables were investigated to establish the optimal conditions for the paper-based assay. Two hundred ten donor blood samples were tested in optimal conditions for the paper test with anti-D and anti-Kell. Positive and negative samples were clearly distinguished. This assay opens up new applications of the IAT on paper including antibody detection and blood donor-recipient crossmatching and extends its uses into non-blood typing applications with IgG antibody-based diagnostics. Graphical abstract A rapid and simple paper-based assay for red blood cell antigen typing by the indirect antiglobulin test. PMID:27185543

  7. Defective CFTR expression and function are detectable in blood monocytes : development of a new blood test for cystic fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sorio, C.; Buffelli, M.; C. Angiari; Ettorre, M; Johansson, J; M. Vezzalini; Viviani, L; Ricciardi, M.; G. Verzè; Assael, B M; P. Melotti

    2011-01-01

    Background Evaluation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) functional activity to assess new therapies and define diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) is cumbersome. It is known that leukocytes express detectable levels of CFTR but the molecule has not been characterized in these cells. In this study we aim at setting up and validating a blood test to evaluate CFTR expression and function in leukocytes. Description Western blot, PCR, immunofluorescence and cell membrane ...

  8. 21 CFR 864.5400 - Coagulation instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coagulation instrument. 864.5400 Section 864.5400....5400 Coagulation instrument. (a) Identification. A coagulation instrument is an automated or semiautomated device used to determine the onset of clot formation for in vitro coagulation studies....

  9. Impact of a confirmatory RhD test on the correct serologic typing of blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cayres Schmidt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The RHD gene is highly polymorphic, which results in a large number of RhD variant phenotypes. Discrepancies in RhD typing are still a problem in blood banks and increase the risk of alloimmunization. In this study, the RhD typing strategy at a blood bank in Brazil was evaluated.METHODS: One-hundred and fifty-two samples typed as RhD negative and C or E positive by routine tests (automated system and indirect antiglobulin test using the tube technique were reevaluated for RhD status by three methods. The method with the best performance was implemented and evaluated for a period of one year (n = 4897 samples. Samples that were D positive exclusively in the confirmatory test were submitted to molecular analysis.RESULTS: The gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing with anti-D immunoglobulin G (clone ESD1 presented the best results. Seventy samples (1.43% previously typed as RhD negative showed reactivity in the gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing and were reclassified as D positive. D variants that may cause alloimmunization, such as weak D type 2 and partial DVI, were detected.CONCLUSION: The confirmatory RhD test using the gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing represents a breakthrough in transfusion safety in this blood center. Our results emphasize the importance of assessing the blood group typing strategy in blood banks.

  10. 两种血凝分析仪检测系统性能验证及结果比对%Comparison and evaluation of testing results for two different coagulation analyzers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯军林; 赵旭宏; 张曼

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价新投入使用的一台全自动血凝分析仪性能,并与临床上现用的凝血仪进行结果一致性的比较.方法根据审核标准对新投入使用的一台血凝分析仪进行精密度、线性、携带污染率、正确度评价;参照美国国家临床实验室标准化协会(NCCLS)的EP-5和EP-9文件,对新投入使用的血凝分析仪与临床正在使用并且性能稳定的血凝分析仪进行结果比对以及偏倚分析.结果 新投入使用的血凝分析仪的批内精密度(低值、中值、高值)在检测凝血酶原时间(PT)时分别为0.93%、1.32%、1.27%,活化部分凝血酶时间(APTT)为1.42%、0.84%、1.17%,纤维蛋白原(FIB)为1.82%、3.13%、3.19%,凝血酶时间(TT)为1.78%、1.76%、1.38%;FIB的实际检测值与理论值的线性回归方程为y=1.012x+0.0219(P>0.05),截距与0之间差异无统计学意义(t=0.2287,P>0.05),直线斜率与1之间差异无统计学意义(t=0.3221,P>0.05),FIB线性回归方程与y=x直线方程差异无统计学意义;携带污染率为-2.33%;两台仪器PT、FIB的检测结果在医学决定水平处偏倚95%CI小于美国临床实验室修正法规1988(CLIA'88)规定的可接受偏倚.结论 新投入使用的一台血凝分析仪性能符合仪器说明书的要求;两台血凝分析仪结果一致.%Objective To evaluate the performance of a newly installed fully automatic coagulation analyzer and compare the consistency of its testing results with the confirmed clinical automatic coagulation analyzer at our department MethodsPrecision,linearity,carryover and accuracy of the newly installed coagulation analyzer were evaluated according to the national required standards.Then the testing results were analyzed between the newly installed and confirmed coagulation analyzers according to the EP-5 and EP-9 documents of national committee for clinical laboratory standards(NCCLS).Results For the newly installed coagulation analyzer,the low,median and high values of

  11. Screening for Saponins Using the Blood Hemolysis Test. An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotheeswaran, Subramaniam

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experiment for undergraduate chemistry laboratories involving a chemical found in plants and some sea animals. Discusses collection and identification of material, a hemolysis test, preparation of blood-coated agar plates, and application of samples. (CW)

  12. Interference of iron as a coagulant on MIB removal by powdered activated carbon adsorption for low turbidity waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckler, Ferreira Filho Sidney; Margarida, Marchetto; Rosemeire, Alves Laganaro

    2013-08-01

    Powered activated carbon (PAC) is widely used in water treatment plants to minimize odors in drinking water. This study investigated the removal of 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) by PAC adsorption, combined with coagulation using iron as a coagulant. The adsorption and coagulation process were studied through different case scenarios of jar tests. The analysis evaluated the effect of PAC dosing in the liquid phase immediately before or after the coagulant addition. Ferric sulphate was used as the coagulant with dosages from 10 to 30 mg/L, and PAC dosages varied from 10 to 40 mg/L. The highest MIB removal efficiency (about 70%) was achieved without the coagulant addition and with the highest PAC dosage (40 mg/L). Lower MIB removal efficiencies were observed in the presence of coagulant, showing a clear interference of the iron precipitate or coagulant in the adsorption process. The degree of interference of the coagulation process in the MIB removal was proportional to the ratio of ferric hydroxide mass to the PAC mass. For both cases of PAC dosing, upstream and downstream of the coagulant injection point, the MIB removal efficiency was similar. However, MIB removal efficiency was 15% lower when compared with experiments without the coagulant application. This interference in the MIB adsorption occurs potentially because the coagulant coats the surface of the carbon and interferes with the MIB coming in contact with the carbon's surface and pores. This constraint requires an increase of the PAC dosage to provide the same efficiency observed without coagulation. PMID:24520695

  13. Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water by Adsorption and Coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Sugita, H.; Hara, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Removal of arsenic from drinking water has been an important issue worldwide, which has attracted greater attentions in recent years especially for supplying safe drinking water in developing countries. Although many kinds of treatment approaches that are available or applicable both in principle and practice, such as adsorption, coagulation, membrane filtration, ion exchange, biological process, electrocoagulation and so on, the first 2 approaches (i.e., adsorption and coagulation) are most promising due to the low-cost, high-efficiency, simplicity of treating systems, and thus can be practically used in developing countries. In this study, a literature survey on water quality in Bangladesh was performed to understand the ranges of arsenic concentration and pH of groundwater in Bangladesh. A series of tests were then organized and performed to investigate the effects of arsenic concentration, arsenic forms, pH, chemical compositions of the materials used for adsorption and coagulation, particle size distribution and treatment time on quality of treated water. The experimental results obtained in the study illustrated that both adsorption and coagulation can be used to effectively reduce the concentrations of either arsenic (V) or arsenic (III) from the contaminated water. Coagulation of arsenic with a magnesium-based material developed in this study can be very effective to remove arsenic, especially arsenic (V), from contaminated water with a concentration of 10 ppm to an undetectable level of 0.002 ppm by ICP analyses. Compared to arsenic (III), arsenic (V) is easier to be removed. The materials used for adsorption and coagulation in this study can remove arsenic (V) up to 9 mg/g and 6 mg/g, and arsenic (III) up to 4 mg/g and 3 mg/g, respectively, depending on test conditions and compositions of the materials being used. The control of pH during treatment can be a challenging technical issue for developing both adsorbent and coagulant. Keywords: Water Treatment

  14. Development of the selective coagulation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1992-07-01

    The selective hydrophobic coagulation (SHC) process is based on the recent finding that hydrophobic particles can be selectively coagulated without using traditional agglomerating agents or flocculants. The driving force for the coagulation is the attractive energy between hydrophobic surfaces, an interaction that has been overlooked in classical colloid chemistry. In most cases, selective separations can be achieved using simple pH control to disperse the mineral matter, followed by recovery of the coal coagula using techniques that take advantage of the size enlargement. In the present work, studies have been carried out to further investigate the fundamental mechanisms of the SHC process and the parameters that affect the process of separating coal from the ash-forming minerals and pyritic sulfur. Studies have included direct force measurements of the attractive interaction between model hydrophobic surfaces, in-situ measurements of the size distributions of coagula formed under a variety of operating conditions, and development of a population balance model to describe the coagulation process. An extended DLVO colloid stability model which includes a hydrophobic interaction energy term has also been developed to explain the findings obtained from the experimental studies. In addition to the fundamental studies, bench-scale process development test work has been performed to establish the best possible method of separating the coagula from dispersed mineral matter. Two types of separators, i.e., a sedimentation tank and a rotating drum screen, were examined in this study. The sedimentation tank proved to be the more efficient unit, achieving ash reductions as high as 60% in a single pass while recovering more than 90% of the combustible material. This device, which minimizes turbulence and coagula breakage, was used in subsequent test work to optimize design and operating parameters.

  15. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of our nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, is to provide rapid, low-cost, powerful multiplexed analyses in a diminutive form so that whole body health...

  16. Potential impact of the MR spectroscopic cancer blood test on reducing the need for lung biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung biopsies are generally performed to identify or rule out malignancy. A clinical presumption of lung malignancy without biopsy proof may result in unjustified surgery. The authors sought to test the value of the MR cancer blood test (CBT) recently described. They obtained prebiopsy blood samples (2 mL) from 65 patients undergoing lung biopsy for radiologically identified lesions. The CBT was performed blinded, and the result was then compared with the pathologic diagnosis obtained from biopsy. Results are presented

  17. Nucleic acid testing: Is it the only answer for safe Blood in India?

    OpenAIRE

    N K Naidu; Bharucha, Z. S.; Vandana Sonawane; Imran Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background: With the implementation of NAT in countries around the world, there is a growing pressure on the transfusion services in India to adopt NAT testing. India has about 2545 licensed Blood Centres. The Transfusion Services in India are fragmented, poorly regulated and the quality standards are poorly implemented. Blood Centres are still dependent on replacement/family donors and in most places laboratory testing for Transfusion transmitted infections is not quality assured, laboratory...

  18. Effects of xuebijing parenteral solution on blood coagulation function and blood gas analysis in severe sepsis patients%血必净注射液对严重脓毒症患者凝血功能及血气分析的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张连东; 裴新军

    2012-01-01

    increased, Fib increased, parameter of blood plalelels improved and the oxygenalion were improved in trealmenl group ( P 0. 05 ). Conclusion Xuebijing parenteral solulion could improve blood coagulation funclion and oxygenation in severe sepsis palients. So, it could be a new approach for clinical trealment of severe sepsis.

  19. Evaluation and Improved Use of Fecal Occult Blood Test in the Constipated Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilway, Denise M

    2016-01-01

    This quality improvement project examined the use of fecal occult blood test in the constipated child in a pediatric gastroenterology outpatient clinic. A retrospective chart review was completed on 100 children seen for an initial visit with the gastroenterology provider. The number of fecal occult blood tests performed and the child's coinciding symptoms were tallied and compared with the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition recommendations. An educational intervention was held with the pediatric gastroenterology providers consisting of a PowerPoint presentation summarizing aims of the quality improvement project and reviewing recommendations for use of fecal occult blood test in the constipated child. Pre- and post-intervention chart review data sets were compared. Results showed a 19.6% decrease in the use of fecal occult blood tests performed during the post-intervention timeframe. However, when used in conjunction with North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition recommendations, the appropriateness of fecal occult blood test use increased by 71.4% in the post-intervention patients. Reviewing the recommendations with gastroenterology providers assisted in optimizing the meaningful use of fecal occult blood test, improving quality and safety of care for children seen in the pediatric gastroenterology outpatient clinic. PMID:27070795

  20. Internet-Based Contingency Management to Improve Adherence with Blood Glucose Testing Recommendations for Teens with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiff, Bethany R.; Dallery, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    The current study used Internet-based contingency management (CM) to increase adherence with blood glucose testing to at least 4 times daily. Four teens diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes earned vouchers for submitting blood glucose testing videos over a Web site. Participants submitted a mean of 1.7 and 3.1 blood glucose tests per day during the 2…

  1. Estudo farmacognóstico e atividade in vitro sobre a coagulação sanguínea e agregação plaquetária das folhas de Passiflora nitida Kunth (Passifloraceae Pharmacognostic study and in vitro activity on blood coagulation and platelet aggregation of leaves of Passiflora nitida Kunth (Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José de Carvalho

    2010-03-01

    fruits of this species by the local population for gastrointestinal disorders. Considering the pharmacological potential of the genus, this work aimed to carry out study of phytochemical characterization of this species and study the effects of the aqueous (AE, ethanol (EE and hexane (HE extracts from its leaves on blood coagulation and platelet aggregation. Thin-layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance were carried out for the phytochemical characterization. The effect of the extracts on the coagulation was evaluated by prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT tests. The effect on the platelet aggregation was evaluated in platelet-rich plasma by spectrophotometric method, using adenosine diphosphate (ADP and adrenaline (ADR as inducers of aggregation. The AE, EE and HE extracts showed coagulant activity by the PT test, and the EE showed anticoagulant activity by the aPTT. When induced by ADP, the AE, EE and HE extracts showed 50% inhibitory concentration values (IC50, µg/mL of 450.5 ± 50.7, 511.2 ± 35.5 and 394.4 ± 8.9, respectively, and when induced by ADR showed values of 438.7 ± 5.2, 21.0 ± 1.9 and 546.9 ± 49.9, respectively. The EE showed inhibitory effect on the aggregation. The phytochemical characterization was suggestive of the presence of flavonoids and coumarins, which can be attributed in part to the biological effects studied.

  2. Observation on thrombelastogram of blood coagulable states before and after Alteplase intravenous thrombolysis in patients with acute ischemic stroke%急性缺血性脑卒中患者阿替普酶静脉溶栓前后血凝状态的血栓弹力图观测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王自然; 崔言森; 雷红艳; 郑梅; 杨代群; 孙全余

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the changes of blood coagulable states before and after Alteplase intravenous thromboly-sis in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods Forty cases of patients with acute ischemic stroke who used Al-teplase for intravenous thrombolysis were selected, the thrombelastogram before thrombolysis and 1, 3, 12 h after thrombolysis was detected. The detected parameters included R value (blood clotting response time), K value (blood co-agulation formation time), α angle (solidified angle), MA value (the most wide distance between the two sides of the curve or called maximum amplitude). Results Before thrombolysis, the R value of all patients were shortened compared with normal value, K value, α angle and MA value was normal; 1 h after thrombolysis, R, K values were increased compared with before thrombolysis; MA value and α angel was decreased, the differences were statistically significant (P0.05). Conclusion The thrombelastogram can observe the blood coagulable states before and after Alteplase intravenous thrombolysis in patients with acute ischemic stroke, which is of great importance for further clinical guiding pharmacy.%目的:研究急性缺血性脑卒中患者阿替普酶静脉溶栓前后血凝状态的变化。方法选取静脉应用阿替普酶溶栓的急性缺血性脑卒中患者40例,测定溶栓前及溶栓后1、3、12 h的血栓弹力图。测定参数包括R值(凝血反应时间)、K值(凝血形成时间)、Angle角(凝固角)、MA值(两侧曲线最宽距离或称最大振幅)。结果溶栓前所有患者R值较正常值缩短,K值、Angle角和MA值正常;溶栓后1 h,R、K值较溶栓前增加;MA值、Angel角减小,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),溶栓后3、12 h数值基本接近于溶栓前状态,差异无统计学意义(P跃0.05)。结论血栓弹力图可以观察急性缺血性脑卒中患者阿替普酶静脉溶栓前后血凝状态的变化,对下一步临床治疗指导用药具有重要意义。

  3. Coagulation competence for predicting perioperative hemorrhage in patients treated with lactated Ringer's vs. Dextran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten C; Højskov, Michael; Johansson, Per Ingemar;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perioperative hemorrhage may depend on coagulation competence and this study evaluated the influence of coagulation competence on blood loss during cystectomy due to bladder cancer. METHODS: Forty patients undergoing radical cystectomy were included in a randomized controlled trial to...... receive either lactated Ringer's solution or Dextran 70 (Macrodex ®) that affects coagulation competence. RESULTS: By thrombelastography evaluated coagulation competence, Dextran 70 reduced "maximal amplitude" (MA) by 25 % versus a 1 % reduction with the administration of lactated Ringer's solution (P <0.......001). Blinded evaluation of the blood loss was similar in the two groups of patients - 2339 ml with the use of Dextran 70 and 1822 ml in the lactated Ringer's group (P = 0.27). Yet, the blood loss was related to the reduction in MA (r = -0.427, P = 0.008) and by multiple regression analysis independently...

  4. Coagulation properties of anelectrochemically prepared polyaluminum chloride containing active chlorine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Chengzhi; LIU Huijuan; QU Jiuhui

    2006-01-01

    With high content of the Al13 species and the active chloride, an electrochemically prepared polyaluminum chloride (E-PACl) presents integrated efficiency of coagulation and oxidation. The coagulation properties of E-PACl were systemically investigated through jar tests in the various water quality conditions. The active chlorine in E-PACl can significantly influence the coagulation behavior due to the active chlorine preoxidation, which can change the surface charge characteristic of organic matter (OM) in water. The active chlorine preoxidation could improve the E-PACl coagulation efficiency if the water possessed the characteristics of relatively low OM content (2 mg/L) and high hardness (278 mg CaCO3/L). In the water with medium content of OM (5 mg/L), dosage would be a crucial factor to decide whether the active chlorine in E-PACl aided coagulation process or not. Comparing with alkaline condition, active chlorine would show a more significant influence on the coagulation process in acidic region.

  5. Coagulation-flocculation in leachate treatment using modified micro sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaldiri, Nur Hanani; Halim, Azhar Abdul

    2013-11-01

    Sanitary landfill leachate is considered as highly polluted wastewater, without any treatment, discharging into water system will cause underground water and surface water pollutions. This study was to investigate the treatability of the semi-aerobic landfill leachate via coagulation-flocculation using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC), cationic polymer, and modified micro sand. Leachate was collected from Pulau Burung Sanitary Landfill (PBSL) located in Penang, Malaysia. Coagulation-flocculation was performed by using jar test equipment and the effect of pH, dose of coagulant and dose of polymer toward removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), color and suspended solid (SS) were examined. Micro sand was also used in this study to compare settling time of coagulation-flocculation process. The optimum pH, dose of coagulant (PAC) and dose of polymer (cationic) achieved were 7.0, 1000 mg/L and 8 mg/L, respectively. The dose of micro sand used for the settling time process was 300 mg/L. Results showed that 52.66% removal of COD, 97.16% removal of SS and 96.44% removal of color were achieved under optimum condition. The settling times for the settling down of the sludge or particles that formed during coagulation-flocculation process were 1 min with modified sand, 20 min with raw micro sand and 45 min without micro sand.

  6. Enhancement of cryptosporidium oocyst removal by coagulation and sedimentation with poly-silicate iron (PSI)

    OpenAIRE

    Okuda, Tetsuji; Deevanhxay, Phengxay; Nishijima, Wataru; Hasegawa, Takako; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2006-01-01

    The improvement of Cryptosporidium oocysts removals is an urgent need in drinking water treatment and one of the possible solutions is to use high-performance coagulant such as poly-silicate iron coagulant (PSI) instead of conventional coagulants like poly aluminum chloride (PAC). The efficiency of synthetic Cryptosporidium oocysts (S-Crypto) removal using PSI was evaluated by both jar tests and pilot plant experiments. The residual concentration of S-Crypto could be reduced even though the c...

  7. Phase III study on surface construction and biocompatibility of polymer materials as cardiovascular devices:coagulant and anti-coagulant surface modification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Bao-lin; Wang Dong-an

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As the cardiovascular device, biomaterials applied under the blood-contact conditions should have anti-thrombotic, anti-biodegradable and anti-infective properties. OBJECTIVE: To develop novel polymer materials for implantation and intervention in cardiovascular tissue engineering and to explore the biocompatibility, blood compatibility and cytocompatibility of the surface-modified polymer biomaterials based on the coagulant and anti-coagulant coating modification. METHODS:We retrieved PubMed and WanFang databases for relevant articles publishing from 1983 to 2014. The key words were "biocompatibility, blood compatibility, biomedical materials, biomedical polymer materials" in English and Chinese, respectively. Those unrelated, outdated and repetitive papers were excluded. Literatures addressing the blood compatibility of biomedical polymer materials were summarized. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The blood-implant interaction and the anti-coagulant surface modification of biomaterials were analyzed. The biocompatibility, blood compatibility and cytocompatibility of the surface-modified polymer biomaterials were determined based on the coagulant and anti-coagulant coating modification. The coagulant and anti-coagulant surface modification of polymer biomaterials and the research on their biocompatibility and endothelial cel compatibility are crucial for developing novel polymer materials for implantation and intervention in cardiovascular tissue engineering. Through in-depth studies of the types and applications of polymer biomaterials, cardiovascular medical devices and implantable soft tissue substitutes, the differences between the surface and the body wil be reflected in the many layers of molecules extending from the surface to the body. Two major factors, surface energy and molecular mobility, determine the body/surface behaviors that include body/surface differences and phase separation. Considering the difference between the body/surface composition

  8. Ir-CPI, a coagulation contact phase inhibitor from the tick Ixodes ricinus, inhibits thrombus formation without impairing hemostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Decrem, Yves; Rath, Géraldine; Blasioli, Virginie; Cauchie, Philippe; Robert, Severine; Beaufays, Jerome; Frere, Jean-Marie; Feron, Olivier; Dogne, Jean-Michel; Dessy, Chantal; Vanhamme, Luc; Godfroid, Edmond

    2009-01-01

    Blood coagulation starts immediately after damage to the vascular endothelium. This system is essential for minimizing blood loss from an injured blood vessel but also contributes to vascular thrombosis. Although it has long been thought that the intrinsic coagulation pathway is not important for clotting in vivo, recent data obtained with genetically altered mice indicate that contact phase proteins seem to be essential for thrombus formation. We show that recombinant Ixodes ricinus contact ...

  9. 血液标本存放时间及存放方式对血糖检测结果的影响%Influence of storage time and storage way of blood sample on blood glucose testing result

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周正国

    2015-01-01

    Objective To research and observe the influence of storage time and storage way of blood sample on blood glucose testing result, for providing reference for clinical detection in clinical practice. Methods 20 cases were selected randomly, and the patients were collected blood samples with empty belly. 14mL blood was collected for each patient, and 2mL once. The blood samples were stored in vacuum tubes which were marked as control(1), indoor temperature(2), 37℃thermostatic waterbath(2) and 0℃fridge(2). And the influence of storage time and storage way of blood sample on blood glucose testing result was analyzed. Results The influence of storage time of blood on blood glucose test is very evident. After 6h, the blood glucose level was 60%of the initial value. After 18h, he blood glucose level was 27%of initial value.And the blood glucose level after 24 h is 22%of initial value. The longer blood glucose was stored, the faster the blood glucose level reduced. After blood samples were stored in indoor temperature and 37℃thermostatic waterbath for 2.5h and 5h, the blood glucose testing result had evident difference from the initial value, which had statistical significance. Blood samples are stored in sodium fluoride potassium oxalate tube and separation gel coagulant tube, and the influence of it on blood glucose detection had no evident difference, which had no statistical significance. Conclusion In order to ensure that the result of blood glucose detection is accurate, the blood samples should be stored in the environment with low temperature, and the blood samples should be detected timely, to reduce the error of detection results and ensure that the result is reliable and accurate.%目的:研究和探讨血液标本存放时间和存放方式对血糖检测结果的影响,为日后临床检验提供参考价值。方法随机抽取20例患者,空腹采集血液标本,每位患者共采集14mL,每次2mL,存放于真空

  10. Noninvasive cerebral blood oxygenation monitoring: clinical test of multiwavelength optoacoustic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Y. Y.; Prough, D. S.; Petrova, I.; Patrikeev, I. A.; Cicenaite, I.; Esenaliev, R. O.

    2007-02-01

    Continuous monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation is critically important for treatment of patients with life-threatening conditions like severe brain injury or during cardiac surgery. We designed and built a novel multiwavelength optoacoustic system for noninvasive, continuous, and accurate monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation. We use an Optical Parametric Oscillator as a light source. We successfully tested the system in vitro as well as in vivo in large animals (sheep) through thick tissues overlying blood vessels which drain venous blood out of the brain (e.g., superior sagittal sinus or jugular vein). Here we present the results of clinical tests of the system for continuous noninvasive cerebral blood oxygenation monitoring in the internal jugular vein of healthy volunteers. We applied our custom-built optoacoustic probe (which incorporated a wide-band acoustic transducer and an optical fiber) to the neck area overlying the internal jugular vein. We performed measurements with volunteers at 18 wavelengths in the near-infrared spectral range. Despite a thick layer of overlying connective tissue and low energy used in the experiments, we recorded signals with high signal-to-noise ratios for all volunteers. We found that the temporal (independent of signal amplitude) parameters of recorded profiles for different levels of blood oxygenation correlated well with the spectrum of effective attenuation coefficients of blood.

  11. An assessment of various blood collection and transfer methods used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baik Fred

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four blood collection and transfer devices commonly used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs were assessed for their consistency, accuracy and ease of use in the hands of laboratory technicians and village health workers. Methods Laboratory technicians and village health workers collected blood from a finger prick using each device in random order, and deposited the blood either on filter paper or into a suitable casette-type RDT. Consistency and accuracy of volume delivered was determined by comparing the measurements of the resulting blood spots/heights with the measurements of laboratory-prepared pipetted standard volumes. The effect of varying blood volumes on RDT sensitivity and ease of use was also observed. Results There was high variability in blood volume collected by the devices, with the straw and the loop, the most preferred devices, usually transferring volumes greater than intended, while the glass capillary tube and the plastic pipette transferring less volume than intended or none at all. Varying the blood volume delivered to RDTs indicated that this variation is critical to RDT sensitivity only when the transferred volume is very low. Conclusion None of the blood transfer devices assessed performed consistently well. Adequate training on their use is clearly necessary, with more development efforts for improved designs to be used by remote health workers, in mind.

  12. Blood Transport Method for Chromosome Analysis of Residents Living Near Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site

    OpenAIRE

    Rodzi, Mohd; Ihda, Shozo; Yokozeki, Masako; Takeichi, Nobuo; Tanaka, Kimio; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the storage conditions and transportation period for blood samples collected from residents living in areas near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS). Experiments were performed to simulate storage and shipping environments. Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated blood was stored in 15-ml tubes (condition A: current transport method) in the absence or in 50-ml flasks (condition B: previous transport method) in the presence of RPMI-1640 and 20% fetal bovine...

  13. Blood CEA levels for detecting recurrent colorectal cancer: A Diagnostic Test Accuracy Review.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, BD; Shinkins, B.; Pathiraja, I; Roberts, NW; James, T; Mallett, S.; Perera, R; Primrose, JN; Mant, D

    2015-01-01

    Background Testing for carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) in the blood is a recommended part of follow-up to detect recurrence of colorectal cancer following primary curative treatment. There is substantial clinical variation in the cut-off level applied to trigger further investigation. Objectives To determine the diagnostic performance of different blood CEA levels in identifying people with colorectal cancer recurrence in order to inform clinical practice. Search methods W...

  14. Cell free fetal DNA testing in maternal blood of Romanian pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Radoi, Viorica E; Camil L Bohiltea; Roxana E Bohiltea; Dragos N Albu

    2015-01-01

    Background: The discovery of circulating fetal DNA in maternal blood led to the discovery of new strategies to perform noninvasive testing for prenatal diagnosis. Objective: The purpose of the study was to detect fetal aneuploidy at chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y by analysis of fetal cell-free DNA from maternal blood, without endangering pregnancy. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study has been performed in Bucharest at Medlife Maternal and Fetal Medicine Department between ...

  15. The Survey of Normal Pregnant Women's Routine Blood Coagulation Reference Interval in Different Periods and Post Partum%正常孕妇不同孕期及产后常规凝血功能检测指标参考区间调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧英

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过对我院正常孕妇在不同孕期及产后凝血功能指标的分析,建立本实验室孕妇在不同孕期及产后常规凝血试验参考区间.方法:应用日本Symex-CA500全自动血凝分析仪对凝血四项:凝血酶原时间(PT),活化部分凝血酶原时间(APTT),纤维蛋白原(FIB)浓度,凝血酶时间(TT)进行检测.结果:孕早期及产后72h凝血四项结果与健康对照组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);孕中期、孕晚期PT、APTT较健康对照组下降,差异有统计学意义(P0.05).结论:孕妇随孕期延长血液逐渐呈现高凝状态,产后72h趋于正常,针对自己实验室的具体实验条件、仪器、试剂等相关因素,建立本实验室正常孕妇不同孕期及产后常规凝血试验参考区间,对凝血指标进行动态检测,对于分娩过程中或产后大出血及其他并发症的预防和治疗有重要意义.%Objective: To establish our lab s reference interval of routine blood coagulation in different periods and post partum by analysing their blood coagulation indices. Method: The prothrombin time( PT ), activated partial thrombopastin time( APTT ), fibrinogen( FIB ) and thrombin time( TT ) were detected by u-sing the hemagglutinin analyzer. Result: The results of early pregnancy and 72 hours after delivery have no significant difference ( P>0. 05 )compared with the healthy control group. The levels of PT and APTT in middle and late pregnant were lower than the health control group and showed statistically significant! P<0. 05-0.01 ). The FIB was obviously higher and showed significant difference^ P<0.01 )compared with the healthy control group . There was no significant difference in TT level between the two groups. Conclusion: The blood of pregnant women is in a hypercoagulable state before delivery and it returns to normal at 72 hours after delivery. Dynamic detection of four indices of blood coagulation in connection with our lab s condition, anglyzer, reagent, establishing our

  16. Effects of coagulation temperature on measurements of complement function in serum samples from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    OpenAIRE

    Baatrup, G; Sturfelt, G; Junker, A; Svehag, S E

    1992-01-01

    Blood samples from 15 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 15 healthy blood donors were allowed to coagulate for one hour at room temperature, followed by one hour at 4 or 37 degrees C. The complement activity of the serum samples was assessed by three different functional assays. Serum samples from patients with SLE obtained by coagulation at 37 degrees C had a lower complement activity than serum samples from blood coagulated at 4 degrees C when the capacity of the serum sam...

  17. Systems Biology of Coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Diamond, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate computer simulation of blood function can inform drug target selection, patient-specific dosing, clinical trial design, biomedical device design, as well as the scoring of patient-specific disease risk and severity. These large-scale simulations rely on hundreds of independently measured physical parameters and kinetic rate constants. However, the models can be validated against large scale, patient-specific laboratory measurements. By validation with high dimensional data, modelling...

  18. The coagulation of radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive aerosols can become charged by emitting charges during the decay process, and the resulting electrostatic forces will modify coagulation rates. For Brownian coagulation, calculations for nuclear containment aerosols show that rates averaged over charge distributions can be strongly reduced between particles of the same size, but that increases in average rates can occur for particles of different sizes. The increases arise from small, but significant, negative charging of non-radioactive and small-sized radioactive particles, and are sensitive to the asymmetry between the positive and negative ion mobilities. (Author)

  19. Comparison of Nonculture Blood-Based Tests for Diagnosing Invasive Aspergillosis in an Animal Model

    OpenAIRE

    White, P. Lewis; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Loeffler, Juergen; Najvar, Laura K.; Melchers, Willem; Herrera, Monica; Bretagne, Stephane; Wickes, Brian; Kirkpatrick, William R.; Barnes, Rosemary A.; Donnelly, J. Peter; Patterson, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    The European Aspergillus PCR Initiative (EAPCRI) has provided recommendations for the PCR testing of whole blood (WB) and serum/plasma. It is important to test these recommended protocols on nonsimulated “in vivo” specimens before full clinical evaluation. The testing of an animal model of invasive aspergillosis (IA) overcomes the low incidence of disease and provides experimental design and control that is not possible in the clinical setting. Inadequate performance of the recommended protoc...

  20. Bovine paratuberculosis III. An evaluation of a whole blood lymphocyte transformation test.

    OpenAIRE

    de Lisle, G W; Duncan, J R

    1981-01-01

    A whole blood lymphocyte transformation test was used to examine cattle with varying degrees of infection with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Minimally infected animals characteristically responded to johnin purified protein derivative in the lymphocyte transformation test but did not routinely react on serological and/or skin testing. Heavily infected animals showed considerable variation in their lymphocyte transformation responses to antigen and some of them were consistently unresponsive...

  1. Coagulation/Flocculation of Tannery Wastewater Using Immobilized Chemical Coagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Imran

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical coagulants were immobilized into bead form using sodium alginate to treat tannery wastewater samples. The used chemical coagulants were ammonium aluminium sulphate (NH4Al(SO42, aluminium sulphate (Al2(SO42, calcium carbonate (CaCO3, sodium citrate (Na3C6HsO7. The effect of the chemical coagulant dose and tannery wastewater pH was studied on wastewater electrical conductance (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, sulphates, chlorides, phenolphthalein alkalinity, total alkalinity and chemical oxygen demand (COD. The quantity of various pollutants present in waste water was reduced after treatment. The optimized dose and pH for maximum decrease in EC and TDS were 5g/L and 7, respectively. The maximum reduction in the amount of sulphates and chlorides present in tannery wastewater was observed at dosage of 0.5g/L and pH 7. A dosage of 5g/L and pH 7 was also found most favorable for maximum reduction in values of COD, phenolphtalein and total alkalinity. The chromium concentrations in tannery wastewater before and after treatment were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A reduction in chromium concentration was observed after treatment. The promising results of the present study demonstrate that immobilization of chemical coagulants can make them more effective for wastewater treatment.

  2. In vitro blood flow model with physiological wall shear stress for hemocompatibility testing-An example of coronary stent testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Gerwin Erik; Blok, Sjoerd Leendert Johannes; van Oeveren, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Hemocompatibility of blood contacting medical devices has to be evaluated before their intended application. To assess hemocompatibility, blood flow models are often used and can either consist of in vivo animal models or in vitro blood flow models. Given the disadvantages of animal models, in vitro blood flow models are an attractive alternative. The in vitro blood flow models available nowadays mostly focus on generating continuous flow instead of generating a pulsatile flow with certain wall shear stress, which has shown to be more relevant in maintaining hemostasis. To address this issue, the authors introduce a blood flow model that is able to generate a pulsatile flow and wall shear stress resembling the physiological situation, which the authors have coined the "Haemobile." The authors have validated the model by performing Doppler flow measurements to calculate velocity profiles and (wall) shear stress profiles. As an example, the authors evaluated the thrombogenicity of two drug eluting stents, one that was already on the market and one that was still under development. After identifying proper conditions resembling the wall shear stress in coronary arteries, the authors compared the stents with each other and often used reference materials. These experiments resulted in high contrast between hemocompatible and incompatible materials, showing the exceptional testing capabilities of the Haemobile. In conclusion, the authors have developed an in vitro blood flow model which is capable of mimicking physiological conditions of blood flow as close as possible. The model is convenient in use and is able to clearly discriminate between hemocompatible and incompatible materials, making it suitable for evaluating the hemocompatible properties of medical devices. PMID:27435456

  3. Evaluation of HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and VDRL test results in blood donors

    OpenAIRE

    Deveci, Özcan; Tekin, Alicem; Günbay, Seda Sibel; Kılıç, Dilek; KAYGUSUZ, Sedat; Ağalar, Canan; Özer, Türkan Toka

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The most frequently encountered complication in the transfusion of blood and blood products are transmitted infections from these products. Infections caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain the leading most important health problems in the transfusion of blood and blood products worldwide. Therefore, screening tests such as HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV, and RPR or VDRL for Treponema pallidum are mandatory tests to loo...

  4. Profile of blood donors with serologic tests reactive for the presence of syphilis in São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Almeida Neto, C; Murphy, EL; McFarland, W.; Junior, AM; Chen, S.; Chamone, DA; Sabino, EC

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Syphilis screening of blood donors is a common practice worldwide, but very little is known about the meaning of a positive serologic test for syphilis in blood donors and the risk profile of these donors. The aim of this study was to determine the demographic characteristics and risk behaviors of blood donors with recent and past syphilis and their implications for blood bank testing and deferral strategies. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Demographic characteristics, category of donat...

  5. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in Infectious Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Levi; M. Schultz; T. van der Poll

    2010-01-01

    Severe infection and inflammation almost invariably lead to hemostatic abnormalities, ranging from insignificant laboratory changes to severe disseminated intravascular coagulation. Systemic inflammation as a result of severe infection leads to activation of coagulation, due to tissue factor-mediate

  6. Evaluation of oxidative stress and whole blood viscosity for clinical laboratory testing of smoking toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel U. Nwose

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are no clearly established clinical biochemical markers for cigarette smoking despite the knowledge that cigarette smoking is a risk factor for various diseases, especially cardiovascular complications of respiratory pathologies. However, there are reports of significant increases in blood viscosity and oxidative stress among smokers. The main objective of the study was to ascertain the association of toxicity from cigarette smoking on whole blood viscosity in our data. Methods: This study analysed the archived clinical data of 20 cigarette smokers and 20 apparently healthy individuals. Results: The data show that on average, oxidative stress levels are relatively the same between groups, while whole blood viscosity is statistically significantly lower in non-smokers compared to smokers. Conclusions: This report suggests that oxidative stress induced whole blood hyper-viscosity could be a valid biomarker for laboratory testing of smoking toxicity among cigarette smokers. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2332-2336

  7. Calcium Chloride as a Co-Coagulant

    OpenAIRE

    Hägg, Kristofer

    2015-01-01

    As populations continue to grow, the demand for fresh drinking water is increasing. This puts a lot of pressure on drinking water producers to strive for more efficient solutions and techniques. Many producers worldwide use surface water as a raw water source, which they often treat through coagulation and flocculation techniques. This is done by adding coagulant (e.g. metal coagulants), creating instability in the suspension, causing flocculation. In this work, PIX-311 (a FeCl3 coagulant pro...

  8. Point of care testing in the management of coagulation dysfunction in cardiovascular surgery%即时检验在心血管手术出凝血管理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周珊

    2012-01-01

    即时检验是指现场采样即刻分析、快速得到检验结果的一类新方法,主要优势在于检测方法简单易行、耗时较短,能在手术室内操作完成.心血管手术患者术后失血量大,血小板功能异常是重要原因之一.本文综述了目前常用的几种血小板功能即时检验方法在心脏手术中的应用.%Point of care testing is a new developing technology, which can reduce the turn-around time of results and provide quick information for clinicians. Platelet dysfunction is one of the major reasons of postoperative bleeding after cardiovascular surgery. In this review , we focused on the use of point of care testing in the management of coagulation dysfunction in cardiovascular surgey.

  9. Using chloramine as a coagulant aid in enhancing coagulation of Yellow River water in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Considering that contaminated raw water mostly contains high Ammonia-N and a majority of water treatment plants use prechlorination process in China, efficiency of chloramines as a coagulant aid in enhancing coagulation was investigated by Jar stirring and pilot-scale tests, using Yellow River water containing high concentration of natural organic matters (NOM) and bromide in winter. The jar tests results showed that, compared with no preoxidation, preformed chloramine apparently decreased the turbidity of settled and filtered water with low dosage (2.0 mg/L), and the aid-coagulation efficiency was further enhanced with the increase of chlorine (Cl2) to Ammonia-N (N) ratio. Pilot-scale studies indicated that, in comparison to the case without preoxidation, the turbidity removal efficiency of flotation and filtration effluent water was significantly improved, the particle counts of filtered water were decreased 63.4%, the average rate of filter head loss was reduced 18.2%, and filter run time was prolonged 15.7%. Therefore, chloramine preoxidation may substantially enhance the particle separation efficiency.

  10. Comparative study on efficacy and influence on blood coagulation between low molecular weight heparin and unfractionated heparin in the treatment of elderly patients with severe pneumonia%低分子肝素与普通肝素佐治老年重症肺炎中疗效及对凝血功能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁玉荣

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical efficacy and influence on blood coagulation between low mo-lecular weight heparin (LMWH) and unfractionated heparin (UFH) in the adjuvant treatment of elderly patients with severe pneumonia (SP). Methods 105 elderly SP cases were randomly divided into the LMWH group and the UFH group. All patients were treated with comprehensive treatment, such as anti-infection, anti-inflammation, spasm re-lieving, oxygen therapy, anti-coagulation and preventing complications, etc. Anticoagulation of the LMWH group was adopted with LMWH subcutaneous injection, 5000IU per time, twice a day for 7 days. The UFH group was used FUH subcutaneous injection, 6250IU per time, twice a day for 7 days. Their oxygenation indexes, APACHE Ⅱscore, clinical efficacy, blood coagulation indexes and bleeding were compared between the two groups. Results Af-ter the treatment, the levels of PaO2 and SpO2 were significantly higher, and the levels of PaCO2 and APACHE Ⅱscore were significantly lower in the LMWH group than in the UFH group (P 0. 05). After the treatment, the level of TXB2 decreased significantly in both groups, and 6-keto-PGF1α increased significantly, but there was no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0. 05). The level of CD62p was significantly lower in the LMWH group than in the UFH group (P 0.05);两组治疗后 TXB2明显下降,6-keto-PGF1α明显上升,治疗后差异无统计学意义(P >0.05);LMWH 组治疗后 CD62p 水平明显低于 UFH组(P <0.05)。结论老年重症肺炎患者在常规治疗基础上联合使用低分子肝素较普通肝素在改善肺部氧合与降低 APACHE Ⅱ评分方面具有显著优势,在抗凝效果与出血发生率方面具有比较优势。

  11. Optimisation of chemical purification conditions for direct application of solid metal salt coagulants: Treatment of peatland-derived diffuse runoff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elisangela Heiderscheidt; Jaakko Saukkoriipi; Anna-Kaisa Ronkanen; Bjφrn Klφve

    2013-01-01

    The drainage of peatland areas for peat extraction,agriculture or bioenergy requires affordable,simple and reliable treatment methods that can purify waters rich in particulates and dissolved organic carbon.This work focused on the optimisation of chemical purification process for the direct dosage of solid metal salt coagulants.It investigated process requirements of solid coagulants and the influence of water quality,temperature and process parameters on their performance.This is the first attempt to provide information on specific process requirements of solid coagulants.Three solid inorganic coagulants were evaluated:aluminium sulphate,ferric sulphate and ferric aluminium sulphate.Pre-dissolved aluminium and ferric sulphate were also tested with the objective of identifying the effects of in-line coagulant dissolution on purification performance.It was determined that the pre-dissolution of the coagulants had a significant effect on coagulant performance and process requirements.Highest purification levels achieved by solid coagulants,even at 30% higher dosages,were generally lower (5%-30%) than those achieved by pre-dissolved coagulants.Furthermore,the mixing requirements of coagulants pre-dissolved prior to addition differed substantially from those of solid coagulants.The pH of the water samples being purified had a major influence on coagulant dosage and purification efficiency.Ferric sulphate (70 mg/L) was found to be the best performing solid coagulant achieving the following load removals:suspended solids (59%-88%),total organic carbon (56%-62%),total phosphorus (87%-90%),phosphate phosphorus (85%-92%) and total nitrogen (33%-44%).The results show that the use of solid coagulants is a viable option for the treatment of peatland-derived runoff water if solid coagulant-specific process requirements,such as mixing and settling time,are considered.

  12. Blood Culture (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... BMP) Blood Test: Complete Blood Count Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Getting a Blood Test (Video) Blood Test: ...

  13. Coagulation factor therapy for hemophilia: relation to hepatitis B and to liver function.

    OpenAIRE

    Card, R. T.; Dusevic, M.; Lukie, B E

    1982-01-01

    Therapy with concentrated coagulation factors has greatly improved the management of hemophilia, but the consequence of repeated infusion of these blood products are unknown. Hepatic dysfunction is frequent in patients with hemophilia, and the use of these products may be responsible. The relation between liver function and both the frequency and type of therapy with coagulation factors was studied in a group of patients with hemophilia. Of the 36 patients studied, 75% were found to have anti...

  14. Stress-Induced Alterations in Coagulation : Assessment of a New Hemoconcentration Correction Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony W. Austin; Wirtz, Petra H; Stephen M. Patterson; Stutz, Monika; von Känel, Roland

    2012-01-01

    For the examination of psychological stress effects on coagulation, the Dill and Costill correction (DCC) for hemoconcentration effects has been used to adjust for stress-induced plasma volume changes. Although the correction is appropriate for adjusting concentrations of various large blood constituents, it may be inappropriate for time-dependent or functional coagulation assays. Two new plasma reconstitution techniques for correcting hemoconcentration effects on stress-induced changes in co...

  15. Interplay between coagulation and vascular inflammation in sickle cell disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sparkenbaugh, Erica; Pawlinski, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is the most common inherited hematologic disorder that leads to the irreversible damage of multiple organs. Although sickling of red blood cells and vaso-occlusion are central to the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease the importance of hemolytic anemia and vasculopathy has been recently recognized. Hypercoagulation state is another prominent feature of sickle cell disease and is mediated by activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways. Growing eviden...

  16. The effects of ropivacaine hydrochloride on coagulation and fibrinolysis. An assessment using thromboelastography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Porter, J M

    2012-02-03

    Amide local anaesthetics impair coagulation by inhibition of platelet function and enhanced fibrinolysis. The potential therefore exists that the presence of amide local anaesthetics in the epidural space could contribute to the therapeutic failure of an epidural autologous blood patch. Ropivacaine is an aminoamide local anaesthetic increasingly used for epidural analgesia and anaesthesia, particularly in obstetric practice. This study was undertaken to investigate whether concentrations of ropivacaine in blood, which could occur clinically in the epidural space, alter coagulation or fibrinolysis. Thromboelastography was used to assess clotting and fibrinolysis of blood to which ropivacaine had been added. Although modest alterations in maximum amplitude, coagulation time and alpha angle were observed, the effect of ropivacaine on clotting and fibrinolysis was not clinically significant. We conclude that it is unlikely that the presence of ropivacaine in the epidural space would reduce the efficacy of an early or prophylactic epidural blood patch.

  17. Explorative investigation of biomarkers of brain damage and coagulation system activation in clinical stroke differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Undén, Johan; Strandberg, Karin; Malm, Jan;

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A simple and accurate method of differentiating ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is potentially useful to facilitate acute therapeutic management. Blood measurements of biomarkers of brain damage and activation of the coagulation system may potentially serve as novel...... diagnostic tools for stroke subtypes. METHODS: Ninety-seven stroke patients were prospectively investigated in a multicenter design with blood levels of brain biomarkers S100B, neuron specific enolase (NSE), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) as well as a coagulation biomarker, activated protein C...... exploratory study indicated that blood levels of biomarkers GFAP and APC-PCI, prior to neuroimaging, may rule out ICH in a mixed stroke population....

  18. 9 CFR 71.21 - Tissue and blood testing at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tissue and blood testing at slaughter. 71.21 Section 71.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL...

  19. Quantitative measurement of blood circulation in tests of rats using nuclear medical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments show that is it is possible to quantitatively assess the blood circulation and, within limits, the germinative function of tests by measuring the impulses of an incorporated radionuclide (99-Tc-pertechnetate) using an uptake measuring instrument. This is a rapid and unbloody method to be adopted in human medicine. 'Acute tests' or pre-damaged tests can thus be exactly diagnosed. In the former case the circulation modification and in the latter the evaluation of the germinative function ability is of main interest. The most important measuring criterion is the 15-minute-uptake U; it represents the blood circulation in the tests measured. The germinative function ability is evaluated on the basis of the accumulation activity Nsub(max). (orig./MG)

  20. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  1. Impact of Epidemic Rates of Diabetes on the Chinese Blood Glucose Testing Market

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jamie; Zhang, Xian-En

    2011-01-01

    China has become the country with the largest diabetes mellitus population in the world since the 1990s. About 100 million diabetes cases have been diagnosed since 2008. Handheld blood glucose meters and test strips are urgently needed for daily patient measurement. The glucose monitor with a screen-printed carbon-based glucose electrode has been in commercial production since 1994. Since then, approximately 20 companies have been involved in manufacturing and marketing meters and test strips...

  2. Hepatitis B core antibody testing in Indian blood donors: A double-edged sword!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Makroo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Until lately, anti-HBc antibodies were considered an effective marker for occult Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and have served their role in improving blood safety. But, with the development of advanced tests for HBV DNA detection, the role of anti-HBc in this regard stands uncertain. Materials and Methods: Anti-HBc and HBsAg ELISA and ID-NAT tests were run in parallel on donor blood samples between April 1, 2006 and December 31, 2010 at the Department of Transfusion Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, New Delhi. A positive ID-NAT was followed by Discriminatory NAT assay. Results: A total of 94 247 samples were tested with a total core positivity rate of 10.22%. We identified nearly 9.17% of donors who were reactive for anti-HBc and negative for HBsAg and HBV DNA. These are the donors who are potentially non-infectious and may be returned to the donor pool. Conclusion: Although anti HBc testing has a definite role in improving blood safety, centers that have incorporated NAT testing may not derive any additional benefit by performing anti-HBc testing, especially in resource-limited countries like ours.

  3. EFFECT OF PRANAYAMA ON BLOOD PRESSURE AND HEART RATE IN HYPERREACTOR TO COLD PRESSOR TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan Bihari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Stress is a dangerous and significant problem of World, which affects physical, mental, behavioral, and emotional health. Yoga has been reported to control stress, to be beneficial in treating stress related disorders, improving autonomic functions, lower blood pressure, increase strength and flexibility of muscles, improve the sense of well-being, slow ageing process, control breathing, reducing signs of oxidative stress and improving spiritual growth. AIMS: The aim of present study was to investigate whether regular practice of Yoga for three months can reduce the cardiovascular hyper-reactivity induced by cold pressor test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group comprised 62 healthy male subjects of 17-27 years age group. Initially there were 30 hyper reactors to cold pressor test. The hyper-reactivity of 23 volunteers converted to hypo-reactivity after the yoga therapy of three months (76.66%. Other parameters like basal blood pressure, rise in blood pressure, pulse rate and rate of respiration were also statistically significantly reduced (by using student ‘t’ test. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: 2 tail student‘t’ test was done by using the standard formulas. RESULTS: Regular practice of yoga significantly reduces the cardiovascular hyper-reactivity in basal blood pressure, rise in blood pressure after one minute of cold stress, heart rate, and rate of respiration, after three month of yoga practice. CONCLUSION: Regular practice of yoga for three months reduced the cardiovascular hyper-reactivity to cold pressor test in subjects, who were hyper reactive to cold stress, possibly by inducing parasympathetic predominance and cortico-hypothalamomedullary inhibition.

  4. Compensated activation of coagulation in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm: effects of heparin treatment prior to elective surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenska, Maria Magdalena; Szmidt, Jacek; Bojakowski, Krzystof; Grzela, Tomasz; Palester-Chlebowczyk, Magorzata

    2004-11-01

    Elective surgery of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sometimes leads to excessive bleeding and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), even in patients with normal preoperative coagulation parameters. Coagulation screen, performed routinely before surgery is of limited value in the assessment of compensated activation of the haemostatic system. In this study, we used a number of additional tests (D-dimer, prothrombin fragment 1+2, antithrombin, and activation of fibrinolysis in the platelet poor plasma) for the diagnosis of compensated activation of the haemostatic system in AAA-patients. D-dimer and marker of thrombin generation (prothrombin fragment 1+2) positively correlated with each other (r = 0.768, P D-dimer and prothrombin fragment 1+2 decreased significantly) and resulted in the increase of platelet number and fibrinogen concentration, indicating their previous consumption. Despite differences in aneurysm diameters between the groups of 15 LMWH treated patients (mean 70.9 +/- 16 mm) and the reference group of 20 untreated AAA patients (mean 52.3 +/- 8.0 mm), intraoperative parameters (operation time, blood loss and transfusion demands) were similar. PMID:15543326

  5. Use of Plasma for Acquired Coagulation Factor Deficiencies in Critical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Akshay; McKechnie, Stuart; Stanworth, Simon

    2016-03-01

    Coagulopathy in critically ill patients is common and often multifactorial. Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is commonly used to correct this either prophylactically or therapeutically. FFP usage is mainly guided by laboratory tests of coagulation, which have been shown to have poor predictive values for bleeding. Viscoelastic tests are an attractive option to guide hemostatic therapy, but require rigorous evaluation. The past few years have seen a gradual reduction in national use of FFP potentially due to an increased awareness of risks such as transfusion-related acute lung injury, patient blood management strategies to reduce transfusion in general, and increased awareness of the lack of high-quality evidence available to support FFP use. Within critical care, FFP is administered before invasive procedures/surgery, to treat major traumatic and nontraumatic hemorrhage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and for urgent warfarin reversal if first-line agents, such as prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) are not available. Alternative agents such as fibrinogen concentrate and PCC need further evaluation through large-scale clinical trials. PMID:26716502

  6. Multiplex method for initial complex testing of antibodies to blood transmitted diseases agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltavchenko, Alexander G; Nechitaylo, Oleg V; Filatov, Pavel V; Ersh, Anna V; Gureyev, Vadim N

    2016-10-01

    Initial screening of donors and population at high risk of infection with blood transmitted diseases involves a number of analyses using monospesific diagnostic systems, and therefore is expensive labor- and time-consuming process. The goal of this work is to construct a multiplex test enabling to carry out rapid initial complex testing at a low price. The paper describes a kit making it possible to detect simultaneously antibodies to six agents of the most significant blood transmitted diseases: HIV virus, hepatitis B and C viruses, cytomegalovirus, T. pallidum and T. gondii in blood products. The kit comprises multiplex dot-immunoassay based on plane protein arrays (immune chips) using colloidal gold conjugates and silver development. It provides an opportunity to carry out complex analysis within 70min at room temperature, and there is no need of well-qualified personnel. We compared laboratory findings of the kit with monospecific kits for ELISA produced by two Russian commercial companies. Dot-assay results correlate well with data obtained using commercial kits for ELISA. Furthermore, multiplex analysis is quicker and cheaper in comparison with ELISA and can be carried out in non-laboratory conditions. The kit for multiplex dot-immunoassay of antibodies to blood transmitted agents can significantly simplify initial complex testing. PMID:27497868

  7. Removal of dyes from textile wastewater by chemical coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Janezcko, Marta; GAYDARDZHIEV, Stoyan

    2006-01-01

    Dye removal mechanisms from textile effluents has been studied by means of surface charge measurempents and image analysis of floc sludge (size, shape, sedimentation properties). Reactive Black 5 and Acid Black 1 commercial dyes have been tested as simulated effluent water solutions treated with synthetic primary coagulants.

  8. Forensic Luminol Blood Test for Preventing Cross-contamination in Dentistry: An Evaluation of a Dental School Clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Carlos Bortoluzzi; Peterson Cadore; Andrea Gallon; Soraia Almeida Watanabe Imanishi

    2014-01-01

    Background: More than 200 different diseases may be transmitted from exposure to blood in the dental setting. The aim of this study is to identify possible faults in the cross-contamination chain control in a dental school clinic searching for traces of blood in the clinical contact surfaces (CCS) through forensic luminol blood test. Methods: Traces of invisible blood where randomly searched in CCS of one dental school clinic. Results: Forty eight surfaces areas in the CCS were tes...

  9. ASSESSMENT OF COAGULATION PARAMETERS IN CIRRHOSIS OF LIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikkalingaiah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis is a pathologically defined entity that is associated with a spectrum of characteristic clinical manifestations associated with major hemostatic abnormalities. Cirrhosis encompasses both pro-coagulant as well as anti-coagulant tendencies. These fragile coagulation cascade may result in life threatening bleeding manifestations. AIMS: To determine the relationship between coagulation abnormalities and the stage of Cirrhosis of liver. To assess the ability of prolonged prothrombin time in predicting the presence of encephalopathy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This was a 2 year observational study performed in KIMS Hospital, Bangalore involving 50 patients of cirrhosis of liver without prior history of any bleeding manifestations. The patients underwent detail history and clinical examination with routine biochemical and coagulation parameter evaluation with Ultrasound of abdomen. Child Pugh’s grade was calculate for all patients and the results were tabulated. STASTISTICAL ANALYSIS: SPSS version 17 was used for data processing purpose. One way ANOVA test was used for assessing relationship of PT and APTT with Child Pugh’s Grade. Pearsons chi square test was applied for relationship of encephalopathy and coagulation parameters. RESULTS: In our study the prothrombin time was prolonged in 27 patients (54% and APTT was prolonged in 39 patients (78%. The mean prothrombin time in our study was 24.328±8.54, and mean APTT was 46.366±7.54, which was significant. The mean PT prolongation in Grade C Child Pugh’s grade among 34 patients is 12.82±9.07 as compared to Grade A which had a mean of 1.15±0.78. On performing one way ANOVA for PT: F (2, 49=5.68, p>0.01. The mean prolongation of APTT in Grade C cirrhosis among 34 patients is 18.42±7.32 as compared to Grade A cirrhosis which had a mean of 18.20±16.69. On performing one way ANOVA for APT: F(2,49=4.41. On performing Pearson Chi square test was performed, for PT and

  10. Cell free fetal DNA testing in maternal blood of Romanian pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica E Radoi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The discovery of circulating fetal DNA in maternal blood led to the discovery of new strategies to perform noninvasive testing for prenatal diagnosis. Objective: The purpose of the study was to detect fetal aneuploidy at chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y by analysis of fetal cell-free DNA from maternal blood, without endangering pregnancy. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study has been performed in Bucharest at Medlife Maternal and Fetal Medicine Department between 2013-2014. In total 201 women were offered noninvasive prenatal test. Maternal plasma samples were collected from women at greater than 9 weeks of gestation after informed consent and genetics counseling. Results: From 201 patients; 28 (13.93% had screening test with high risk for trisomy 21, 116 (57.71% had advanced maternal age, 1 (0.49% had second trimester ultrasound markers and the remaining 56 patients (27.86% performed the test on request. Of those patients, 189 (94.02% had a “low risk” result (99% risk all for trisomy 21 (T21. T21 was confirmed by amniocentesis in 1 patient and the other 4 patients declined confirmation. The 7 remaining patients (3.48% had a low fetal fraction of DNA. Conclusion: It is probably that prenatal diagnosis using fetal DNA in maternal blood would play an increasingly role in the future practice of prenatal testing because of high accuracy.

  11. Disposable glucose test strip for whole blood with integrated sensing/diffusion-limiting layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zhencheng [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Fang Cheng, E-mail: fangpingchuan@163.co [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wang Hongyan; He Jishan [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Info-Physics and Geomatics Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2009-12-30

    A disposable glucose test strip with an integrated sensing/diffusion-limiting layer was developed. A formulation containing filler, glucose oxidase and electronic mediator was screen-printed over two carbon electrodes to form an integrated sensing/diffusion-limiting layer. On rehydration, the integrated layer does not break up, but swells to form a gelled and three-dimensional meshy reaction zone on the surface of the underlying conductive elements in which reactants and mediator move freely, but interfering species such as red blood cells containing oxygenated hemoglobin are excluded. On the same time, the integrated layer maintains a rate of permeation of the analyte through it with a variation of less than 10% at temperatures ranging from 15 deg. C to 42 deg. C. This biosensor is substantially insensitive to interferents and essentially independent to relevant temperature, which provides a more reliable reading of actual blood glucose value in human whole blood.

  12. Evaluation of coagulation factors in fresh frozen plasma treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antić Ana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Pathogen inactivation in blood products using riboflavin and ultraviolet (UV light represents a proactive approach to blood safety, not only for known infectious agents but also for new ones or not yet recognized as threats to the blood supply. This method inactivates a virus, bacteria, fungus, or protozoan pathogen from the blood product without damaging its function or shelf-life. The aim of the study was to study the influence of photoinactivation using riboflavin on the concentration of coagulation factors and coagulation inhibitors in plasma that was treated before freezing. Methods. The examination included 30 units of plasma, separated from whole blood donated by voluntary blood donors around 6 h from the moment of collection. They were treated by riboflavin (35 mL and UV rays (6.24 J/mL, 265-370 nm on Mirasol aparature (Caridian BCT Biotechnologies, USA in approximate duration of 6 min. The samples for examining were taken before (K - control units and after illumination (I - illuminated units. Results. Comparing the middle values of coagulation factors in the control and illuminated units we noticed their statistically significant decrease in illuminated units (p < 0.001, but the activity of coagulation ones was still in the reference range. The most sensitive coagulation factors to photoinactivation were FVIII, FIX and FXI (21.99%, 20.54% and 17.26% loss, respectively. Anticoagulant factors were better preseved than coagulation factors. Conclusion. Plasma separated from whole blood donation within 6 h, treated with riboflavin and UV light within 6 h from separation and frozen at temperature below -30ºC within 24 h, shows good retention of pro- and anticoagulation activity.

  13. Comparative Evaluation of Four Presumptive Tests for Blood to Detect Epithelial Injury on Fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Smokorowski, Karen; Haxton, Tim; Cooke, Steven J.

    2014-06-01

    Current methods of fish epithelial injury detection are limited to gross macroscopic examination that has a subjective bias as well as an inability to reliably quantify the degree of injury. Fluorescein, a presumptive test for blood, has been shown to have the capability to detect and quantify fish epithelial injury. However, there are several other presumptive tests for blood (Bluestar*, phenolphthalein, and HemastixH) that may have benefits over the use of fluorescein, particularly for field research on wild fish. This study investigated the capabilities of these four tests to detect and quantify a variety of injuries commonly encountered by fish (abrasion, cuts, fin frays, and punctures) using the freshwater bluegill Lepomis macrochirus as a model. Fluorescein was consistently found to be the most reliable (i.e., detected the highest proportion of true positive results and rarely detected false positive reactions) of the four presumptive tests for blood compared. Further testing was conducted to examine the reliability of fluorescein. By 24 h after an injury was inflicted, the injury was no longer detectable by fluorescein, and when fluorescein was applied to an injured fish, the fluorescein was no longer detectable 3 h after application. In a comparison of two common anaesthetics used in fisheries research, there was no significant difference in the proportion of injury detected when 3- aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester methanesulfate (tricaine) was used compared with a clove oil and ethanol (1:9) solution. In summary, fluorescein was the most reliable presumptive test for blood examined in this study for the detection and quantification of recent (hours) fish epithelial injury.

  14. Regional blood flow in rats after a single low-protein, high-carbohydrate test meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Z; Wickler, S J; Stern, J S; Horwitz, B A

    1984-07-01

    It was previously observed that a single low-protein, high-carbohydrate test meal results in increased in vitro thermic activity of brown adipose tissue. In the present study, we have examined whether such a meal increases the in vivo thermic activity, estimated from measurement of the rate of blood flow. With radioactively labeled microspheres, blood flows into brown fat and several other tissues were determined in meal-deprived (n = 11) and meal-fed (n = 11) rats. The microspheres were injected into the heart of anesthetized animals about 2-2.5 h after the test meal, one injection in the resting state and one during maximal norepinephrine stimulation. In the resting state, blood flow per gram tissue more than doubled in the brown fat (P less than 0.05) and was increased more than 50% in the heart (P less than 0.01) of the fed group. Blood flows into liver and retroperitoneal white fat were reduced by 40 (P less than 0.01) and 30%, respectively, in the fed group. During norepinephrine infusion, significant meal-associated increases in blood flow were evident only in brown fat (P less than 0.05) and the soleus muscle (P less than 0.05), whereas a significant decrease was observed in the liver (P less than 0.05). No statistically significant meal-associated changes in norepinephrine-stimulated blood flow were found in the other tissues examined (i.e., heart, gastrocnemius, and diaphragm muscles, kidneys, white fat, spleen, and adrenals). Our in vivo data thus support the view that brown fat plays a role in the thermic effect of a meal. PMID:6742226

  15. It’s More Than a Blood Test: Patients’ Perspectives on Noninvasive Prenatal Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Ruth M.; Mary Beth Mercer; Agatisa, Patricia K.; Marissa B. Smith; Elliot Philipson

    2014-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) offers pregnant women a new risk assessment tool for fetal aneuploidy that is superior to conventional screening tests. We conducted focus groups with women who were currently pregnant or had recently delivered in the past year to characterize their perspectives about NIPT and to explore factors they would consider during decision making about its use. Women identified accuracy, early timing, testing ease, and determination of fetal sex as advantages of NI...

  16. Evaluation of a PCR Test for Detection of Treponema pallidum in Swabs and Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, P. A.; Gressier, L.; Dion, P. L.; Farhi, D.; Benhaddou, N.; Gerhardt, P.; Morini, J. P.; Deleuze, J.; Pantoja, C.; Bianchi, A.; Lassau, F.; Avril, M. F.; Janier, M.

    2012-01-01

    Syphilis diagnosis is based on clinical observation, serological analysis, and dark-field microscopy (DFM) detection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the etiological agent of syphilis, in skin ulcers. We performed a nested PCR (nPCR) assay specifically amplifying the tpp47 gene of T. pallidum from swab and blood specimens. We studied a cohort of 294 patients with suspected syphilis and 35 healthy volunteers. Eighty-seven of the 294 patients had primary syphilis, 103 had secondary syphilis, 40 had latent syphilis, and 64 were found not to have syphilis. The T. pallidum nPCR results for swab specimens were highly concordant with syphilis diagnosis, with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 95%. Reasonable agreement was observed between the results obtained with the nPCR and DFM methods (kappa = 0.53). No agreement was found between the nPCR detection of T. pallidum in blood and the diagnosis of syphilis, with sensitivities of 29, 18, 14.7, and 24% and specificities of 96, 92, 93, and 97% for peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), plasma, serum, and whole-blood fractions, respectively. HIV status did not affect the frequency of T. pallidum detection in any of the specimens tested. Swab specimens from mucosal or skin lesions seemed to be more useful than blood for the efficient detection of the T. pallidum genome and, thus, for the diagnosis of syphilis. PMID:22219306

  17. Automatic system for blood donors control with seropositive results in epidemiological tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Menéndez Barrios

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevention of infectious diseases transmission through blood transfusion is one of the biggest challenges in the transfusion field of medicine. Objective: to design a computerized system for blood donors control with seropositive results in epidemiological tests. Methods: A system designed by the Provincial Blood Bank using Microsoft Access as a data base system and DELFHI 7 as associated language. It runs under Windows 2000 or any other superior system with 64 RAM and do not need special requirements of software or hardware. It includes the following data: Full name, age, sex, race, Id number, home address, number of the clinical record in the blood bank, date when the trial took place in each patient, kind of disease diagnosed, technical data of the trial such as: fluorescence, sectional level of the 1st trial as well as the repetition, name of the technician who performed it. Results: It permits to consult general data of donors as well as the disease diagnosed. It also permits to elaborate reports of these patients from any PC of the blood bank acceding with the security password of the program. Conclusions: It constitutes a beneficial tool which permits to improve the notification system established in the program of the web about sexually transmitted diseases from the Minister of Public Health in Cuba.

  18. Gene Therapy for Coagulation Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swystun, Laura L; Lillicrap, David

    2016-04-29

    Molecular genetic details of the human coagulation system were among the first successes of the genetic revolution in the 1980s. This information led to new molecular diagnostic strategies for inherited disorders of hemostasis and the development of recombinant clotting factors for the treatment of the common inherited bleeding disorders. A longer term goal of this knowledge has been the establishment of gene transfer to provide continuing access to missing or defective hemostatic proteins. Because of the relative infrequency of inherited coagulation factor disorders and the availability of safe and effective alternative means of management, the application of gene therapy for these conditions has been slow to realize clinical application. Nevertheless, the tools for effective and safe gene transfer are now much improved, and we have started to see examples of clinical gene therapy successes. Leading the way has been the use of adeno-associated virus-based strategies for factor IX gene transfer in hemophilia B. Several small phase 1/2 clinical studies using this approach have shown prolonged expression of therapeutically beneficial levels of factor IX. Nevertheless, before the application of gene therapy for coagulation disorders becomes widespread, several obstacles need to be overcome. Immunologic responses to the vector and transgenic protein need to be mitigated, and production strategies for clinical grade vectors require enhancements. There is little doubt that with the development of more efficient and facile strategies for genome editing and the application of other nucleic acid-based approaches to influence the coagulation system, the future of genetic therapies for hemostasis is bright. PMID:27126652

  19. Role of heparin and non heparin binding serpins in coagulation and angiogenesis: A complex interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakuni, Teena; Ali, Mohammad Farhan; Ahmad, Irshad; Bano, Shadabi; Ansari, Shoyab; Jairajpuri, Mohamad Aman

    2016-08-15

    Pro-coagulant, anti-coagulant and fibrinolytic pathways are responsible for maintaining hemostatic balance under physiological conditions. Any deviation from these pathways would result in hypercoagulability leading to life threatening diseases like myocardial infarction, stroke, portal vein thrombosis, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Angiogenesis is the process of sprouting of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones and plays a critical role in vascular repair, diabetic retinopathy, chronic inflammation and cancer progression. Serpins; a superfamily of protease inhibitors, play a key role in regulating both angiogenesis and coagulation. They are characterized by the presence of highly conserved secondary structure comprising of 3 β-sheets and 7-9 α-helices. Inhibitory role of serpins is modulated by binding to cofactors, specially heparin and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) present on cell surfaces and extracellular matrix. Heparin and HSPGs are the mainstay of anti-coagulant therapy and also have therapeutic potential as anti-angiogenic inhibitors. Many of the heparin binding serpins that regulate coagulation cascade are also potent inhibitors of angiogenesis. Understanding the molecular mechanism of the switch between their specific anti-coagulant and anti-angiogenic role during inflammation, stress and regular hemostasis is important. In this review, we have tried to integrate the role of different serpins, their interaction with cofactors and their interplay in regulating coagulation and angiogenesis. PMID:27372899

  20. Testing of models of flow-induced hemolysis in blood flow through hypodermic needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangsheng; Kent, Timothy L; Sharp, M Keith

    2013-03-01

    Hemolysis caused by flow in hypodermic needles interferes with a number of tests on blood samples drawn by venipuncture, including assays for metabolites, electrolytes, and enzymes, causes discomfort during dialysis sessions, and limits transfusion flow rates. To evaluate design modifications to address this problem, as well as hemolysis issues in other cardiovascular devices, computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based prediction of hemolysis has potential for reducing the time and expense for testing of prototypes. In this project, three CFD-integrated blood damage models were applied to flow-induced hemolysis in 16-G needles and compared with experimental results, which demonstrated that a modified needle with chamfered entrance increased hemolysis, while a rounded entrance decreased hemolysis, compared with a standard needle with sharp entrance. After CFD simulation of the steady-state velocity field, the time histories of scalar stress along a grid of streamlines were calculated. A strain-based cell membrane failure model and two empirical power-law blood damage models were used to predict hemolysis on each streamline. Total hemolysis was calculated by weighting the predicted hemolysis along each streamline by the flow rate along each streamline. The results showed that only the strain-based blood damage model correctly predicted increased hemolysis in the beveled needle and decreased hemolysis in the rounded needle, while the power-law models predicted the opposite trends. PMID:23419169

  1. Occult blood test and colonoscopy in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive-prospective study was conducted on 212 outpatients from the Gastroenterology Service at CIMEQ's Hospital from January 2006- May 2007. These patients received an immune-chemical test of hidden blood in fecal stools and an endoscopic colon study, with the objective of determining the value of the hidden blood and colonoscopy for the detection of colorrectal cancer. Age average was 60, 6 ± 14,0 years, with predominance of the female sex. The main clinical condition for this study was to observe the change of intestinal habits in a 28, 3 % of patients, The test performed on hidden blood was positive in 76 patients (36,0%) and 34 (16,0%) had positive colorrectal cancer diagnosis, of which a 50% was localized at the proximal colon; 91,12% of the neoplasias were of the adenocarcinoma-type, where moderately differentiated ones predominated. A sensitiveness of a 76, 47 % and of a 71,91 % specificity were obtained when evaluating the efficacy of hidden blood in the diagnosis of neoplasias

  2. Influence of Chyle Blood with Different Pretreatment Methods to Coagulation Indexes Results Detected by Optical Method%乳糜血不同前处理方法对光学法凝血指标检测结果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何亚萍; 乔国昱; 张国栋; 刘树平; 轩维清

    2013-01-01

    Objective Comparison of high speed centrifugation and dilution method in celiac blood coagulation detection in which one was more able to meet the clinical demand. Methods Collected 30 normal (no hemolysis,no chyle,without jaun dice,TG0. 05). In severe chyle blood group,dilution method in the detection of PT was significantly higher than that of high speed centrifugation,the difference was statistically significant (tPT =4. 013, P0.05).在重度乳糜血组,稀释法中PT的检测结果明显高于高速离心法,差异有统计学意义(tPT=4.013,P<0.05),FIB的含量明显高于高速离心法,差异有统计学意义(tFIB=3.689,P<0.05).结论 高速离心法优于稀释法,抗干扰能力强,更适合于临床对溶栓治疗监测、疗效观察及出血性疾病诊断的需要.

  3. Physical Activity and Blood Pressure Responsiveness to the Cold Pressor Test in Normotensive Young Adult African-American Males

    OpenAIRE

    BOND, VERNON; Adams, R. George; Vaccaro, Paul; Blakely, Raymond; FRANKS, B. DON; Williams, Deborah; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Millis, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine whether there is an association between blood pressure reactivity to the cold pressor test in African Americans who engaged in different levels of physical activity. We examined the systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac index, total peripheral resistance, and forearm blood flow during a two-minute cold pressor test in 15 aerobic, physically active and 15 physically inactive, normotensive young adult African...

  4. Application of Moringa Oleifera Seed Powder For Iron (III Coagulation on Local Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadillah Utami Prasetyaningtyas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know the effect of the use of powder moringa seed to coagulant mass and coagulation process, and its effectiveness to increase the quality of pure water. This research uses factorial research design and statistic test MANOVA. To analyse water quality, the researcher uses Fe parameter.  A graphic of coagulant mass and time for each parameter is used to analyse the data. Based on the research result, the uses of moringa seed as coagulant in each 300 mL mineral water gives a possitives result to the river water sample using 100 mg coagulant mass and sedimentations time for 60 minutes, well water sample using 500 mg coagulant mass and sedimentations time for 60 minutes, tap water sample using 300 mg  coagulant mass and sedimentations time for 90 minutes. The effective coagulant that increase the water quality on well water is 98,32% of moringa seed powder, on river water is 96,64%  and for tap water is 25,62%.

  5. Results of the analysis of the blood lymphocyte proliferation test data from the National Jewish Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    From, E.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Mathematical Sciences Section; Newman, L.S.; Mroz, M.M. [National Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory Medicine, Denver, CO (United States)

    1997-03-01

    A new approach to the analysis of the blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) was presented to the Committee to Accredit Beryllium Sensitization Testing-Beryllium Industry Scientific Advisory Committee in April, 1994. Two new outlier resistant methods were proposed for the analysis of the blood LPT and compared with the approach then in use by most labs. The National Jewish Center (NJC) agreed to provide data from a study that was underway at that time. Three groups of LPT data are considered: (1) a sample of 168 beryllium exposed (BE) workers and 20 nonexposed (NE) persons; (2) 25 unacceptable LPTs, and (3) 32 abnormal LPTs for individuals known to have chronic beryllium disease (CBD). The LAV method described in ORNL-6818 was applied to each LPT. Graphical and numerical summaries similar to those presented for the ORISE data are given. Three methods were used to identify abnormal LPTs. All three methods correctly identified the 32 known CBD cases as abnormal.

  6. It's More Than a Blood Test: Patients' Perspectives on Noninvasive Prenatal Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Ruth M; Mercer, Mary Beth; Agatisa, Patricia K; Smith, Marissa B; Philipson, Elliot

    2014-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) offers pregnant women a new risk assessment tool for fetal aneuploidy that is superior to conventional screening tests. We conducted focus groups with women who were currently pregnant or had recently delivered in the past year to characterize their perspectives about NIPT and to explore factors they would consider during decision making about its use. Women identified accuracy, early timing, testing ease, and determination of fetal sex as advantages of NIPT over other screens, and the noninvasive method of NIPT as an advantage over diagnostic tests. False positive and false negative results, anxiety, cost and insurance coverage were seen as disadvantages of NIPT. Women who do not want fetal aneuploidy information most likely will not undergo NIPT, despite its advantages over other screening tests. However, given its advantages, the decision to have NIPT is straightforward for women who want genetic information about the fetus. Women emphasized the need to make autonomous, private, and informed choices about NIPT, as they would with any prenatal genetic testing option. These perspectives may guide clinicians to conduct effective and clinically relevant counseling with pregnant women who consider utilizing this new genetic technology. PMID:26237393

  7. It’s More Than a Blood Test: Patients’ Perspectives on Noninvasive Prenatal Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M. Farrell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT offers pregnant women a new risk assessment tool for fetal aneuploidy that is superior to conventional screening tests. We conducted focus groups with women who were currently pregnant or had recently delivered in the past year to characterize their perspectives about NIPT and to explore factors they would consider during decision making about its use. Women identified accuracy, early timing, testing ease, and determination of fetal sex as advantages of NIPT over other screens, and the noninvasive method of NIPT as an advantage over diagnostic tests. False positive and false negative results, anxiety, cost and insurance coverage were seen as disadvantages of NIPT. Women who do not want fetal aneuploidy information most likely will not undergo NIPT, despite its advantages over other screening tests. However, given its advantages, the decision to have NIPT is straightforward for women who want genetic information about the fetus. Women emphasized the need to make autonomous, private, and informed choices about NIPT, as they would with any prenatal genetic testing option. These perspectives may guide clinicians to conduct effective and clinically relevant counseling with pregnant women who consider utilizing this new genetic technology.

  8. Effectiveness of screening for colorectal cancer with a faecal occult-blood test, in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Pitkäniemi, J; Seppä, K; Hakama, M.; Malminiemi, O; Palva, T; Vuoristo, M-S; Järvinen, H; Paimela, H; Pikkarainen, P; Anttila, A; Elovainio, L; Hakulinen, T; Karjalainen, S.; Pylkkänen, L.; Rautalahti, M

    2015-01-01

    Background Screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) with guaiac-based faecal occult-blood test (FOBT) has been reported to reduce CRC mortality in randomised trials in the 1990s, but not in routine screening, so far. In Finland, a large randomised study on biennial FOB screening for CRC was gradually nested as part of the routine health services from 2004. We evaluate the effectiveness of screening as a public health policy in the largest population so far reported. Methods We randomly allocated...

  9. Examining coagulation-complement crosstalk: complement activation and thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Jonathan H

    2016-05-01

    The coagulation and complement systems are ancestrally related enzymatic cascades of the blood. Although their primary purposes have diverged over the past few hundred million years, they remain inextricably connected. Both complement and coagulation systems limit infection by pathogens through innate immune mechanisms. Recently, it has been shown that hyperactive complement (in particular, elevated C5a/C5b-9) is involved in the pathogenesis (including thrombosis) of diseases such as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome, antiphospholipid syndrome and bacteremia. Although these diseases together account for many thrombosis cases, there are many more where complement activation is not considered a causative factor leading to thrombosis. To better understand what role complement may play in the pathogenesis of thrombosis a better understanding of the mechanisms that cause over-active complement in thrombotic disease is required. PMID:27207425

  10. A Preliminary Study of Banana Stem Juice as a Plant-Based Coagulant for Treatment of Spent Coolant Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Habsah Alwi; Juferi Idris; Mohibah Musa; Ku Halim Ku Hamid

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of banana stem juice as a natural coagulant for treatment of spent coolant wastewater was investigated . Three main parameters were studied, namely, chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SSs), and turbidity of effluent. Coagulation experiments using jar test were performed with a flocculation system where the effects of spent coolant wastewater pH as well as banana stem juice dosage on coagulation effectiveness were examined. The highest recorded COD, SS, and turbi...

  11. Combined removal of phosphorus and organic micro pollutants by adsorption onto powdered activated carbon and coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Godo Pla, Lluís

    2012-01-01

    Jar test experiments were collected to study the removal of phosphorus and of the dissolved chemical oxygen demand (CODf) at different coagulant dosages. Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) Waßmannsdorf, Münchehofe and Ruhleben, and influent water from the surface water treatment plant (SWTP) Tegel were tested for this study. The CODf removal depends on the coagulant dose. CODf was removed from 10%, applying a coagu-lant dose of 4 mg Fe/l, to 23% applying a 12 mg Fe/l dose. Rem...

  12. Iodine based radiopacity of experimental blood clots for testing of mechanical thrombectomy devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barium sulfate powder used for radiopacity of experimental blood clots (EBCs) for testing mechanical thrombectomy devices (MTD) has negative effects on EBCs mechanical properties. In vitro and in vivo exploration was performed to determine if the iodine based contrast medium will have less negative effects on the EBCs than barium. Fresh blood from 2 swine was used to create fibrinogen enhanced and thrombin initiated EBC in tubes. Iodine radiopacity was achieved by mixing the blood with 65% Iohexol or by soaking the EBCs for 2 or 24 hours in Iohexol. The EBCs opacified with barium served as controls. In vitro study: The EBCs were subjected to four tests, manual elongation, catheter injection, radiopacity and contrast wash out tests. In vivo study: The common carotid arteries of 2 swine were embolized by either barium EBC or EBC soaked for 24 hours in Iohexol. The duration of radiopacity of the different EBCs was compared. The EBCs opacified with Iohexol initially had higher radiopacity than the barium opacified EBCs. However, their opacity rapidly decreased with saline soaking and, particularly, after they were embolized in live animals. The mechanical properties of Iohexol opacified EBCs were inferior to barium opacified EBCs. The Iohexol mixed EBCs were less firm and elastic and half of them fragmented during catheter injection. The Iohexol soaked EBCs exhibited decreased tensile strength and elasticity compared to the barium EBCs. Compared to barium, iodine based contrast medium does not offer any advantage for opacifying EBCs

  13. New method for rapid Susceptibility Testing on blood culture with HB&L system: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Rondinelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood culture, although represents the gold standard in detecting the ethiological agent of sepsis, is rather rarely required in relation to the real diagnostic importance. The result of this test depends in fact on many factors (sample volume, time of collection, accuracy, antibiotic therapy, contamination, number of drawings, drawing site, interpretation difficulties, etc. that are often considered by many clinicians so limited as to doubt about their actual value. The disadvantages are therefore represented by the lack of standardization but also by the low sensitivity and above all by the technical times too long for the clinical needs. Blood culture begins with the drawing of samples from the “septic” patient followed incubation of the bottles in automatic thermostated systems. In case of positive result (36 hours, the culture is Gram stained and streaked on solid media in order to obtain isolated colonies for the identification and the susceptibility testing (48 hours from positive result. The long time required for pathogen identification and susceptibility testing involves empirical broad spectrum antibiotic therapy that can promote the increase of bacterial resistance but also patient management costs. A clinically useful report should be available on short notice in order to guide the clinician to choose the most appropriate antibiotic. The microbiologist has therefore the hard work of reviewing the organization and the management of the procedures.We have therefore started to consider the possibility of treating the blood as an biological liquid in order to quickly determine the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics.

  14. A study of common interferences with the forensic luminol test for blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quickenden, T I; Creamer, J I

    2001-01-01

    A wide range of domestic and industrial substances that might be mistaken for haemoglobin in the forensic luminol test for blood were examined. The substances studied were in the categories of vegetable or fruit pulps and juices; domestic and commercial oils; cleaning agents; an insecticide; and various glues, paints and varnishes. A significant number of substances in each category gave luminescence intensities that were comparable with the intensities of undiluted haemoglobin, when sprayed with the standard forensic solution containing aqueous alkaline luminol and sodium perborate. In these cases the substance could be easily mistaken for blood when the luminol test is used, but in the remaining cases the luminescence intensity was so weak that it is unlikely that a false-positive test would be obtained. In a few cases the brightly emitting substance could be distinguished from blood by a small but detectable shift of the peak emission wavelength. The results indicated that particular care should be taken to avoid interferences when a crime scene is contaminated with parsnip, turnip or horseradish, and when surfaces coated with enamel paint are involved. To a lesser extent, some care should be taken when surfaces covered with terracotta or ceramic tiles, polyurethane varnishes or jute and sisal matting are involved. PMID:11512147

  15. The gangue preparation coagulant (PFASS) experiment research and application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jing-hua; LIU Zhi-bin; LUO Ke-Jie

    2007-01-01

    In order to design a new technological process system to take the polymeric ferric aluminum silicate sulfate(PFASS) and to apply it in wastewater processing, the chemical composition analysis was carried on to the Fuxin gangue, adopted the orthogonal experiment method to obtain optimum response condition of with the acid pickling taking the aluminum in the gangue and with alkali extracting taking the silicon in the gangue,The experiments indicate that the sample chemistry content which tests elect completely conform to the preparation inorganic polymer water treatment coagulant request standard.Used the polymeric ferric aluminum silicate sulfate results in which with the system take as the coagulant of treatment wastewater, used the mercerizing degree, the wastewater pH value, the coagulation time, the coagulant throws increment factors and so on to test and verify its influence on the waste water processing. The result indicates that by using this craft production PFASS in waste water processing, after the processed waste water achieves the emission standard, the processing effect is good.

  16. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in cattle with abomasal displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmak, K; Turgut, K

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate haemostatic function in cattle with abomasal displacement (AD) and to reflect the occurrence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Ten adult cattle with left displacement of abomasum (LDA) (group I), 10 adult cattle with right displacement of abomasum with volvulus (RDA) (group II) and 10 clinically healthy adult cattle (control group) were used as material. Numbers of platelets (PLT) and coagulation tests (activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), serum fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDPs), fibrinogen) were measured before the surgical treatment of cattle with LDA and RDA. APTT was prolonged only in group II compared with the control and group I (pcattle in group I and three cattle in group II had at least three abnormal coagulation profiles, which reflect the occurrence of DIC. These cattle died after surgical treatment. The two cattle with LDA had abnormal APTT, FDPs and PLT values; three cattle with RDA had abnormal APTT, PT, TT, FDPs and PLT values. APTT (5 cases), FDPs (5 cases) and thrombocytopenia (5 cases) were the three most common abnormal tests on coagulation profile in the cattle with LDA and RDA. The results of the study indicate that cattle with AD had a spectrum of haemostatic dysfunction and that DIC was a significant risk factor for mortality. PMID:15727292

  17. Treatment of melanoidin wastewater by anaerobic digestion and coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimi, Milton M; Zhang, Yongjun; Götz, Gesine; Geißen, Sven-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Melanoidins are dark-coloured recalcitrant pollutants found in many industrial wastewaters including coffee-manufacturing effluent, molasses distillery wastewater (MDWW) and other wastewater with molasses as the raw material. The wastewaters are mostly treated with anaerobic digestion after some dilution to minimize the inhibition effect. However, the dark colour and recalcitrant dissolved organic carbon (DOC) mainly caused by melanoidin are not effectively removed. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of colour and remnant DOC by different coagulants from anaerobically digested MDWW. From the six coagulants tested, ferric chloride had the highest melanoidin (48%), colour (92.7%) and DOC (63.3%) removal at pH 5 and a dosage of 1.6 g/l. Both polymer and inorganic salt coagulants tested had optimal colour, melanoidin and DOC removal at acidic pH. The molecular size distribution of synthetic melanoidins by liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection indicated a preferential removal of high-molecular-weight melanoidins over low weight melanoidins by the coagulation. Further studies should focus on how to improve biodegradability of the treated effluent for it to be reused as dilution water for anaerobic digestion. PMID:25799161

  18. The clinical research of the Quyu prescriptions in treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer with high coagulation state Qi-deficiency blood stasis%祛瘀汤治疗晚期非小细胞肺癌高凝状态气虚血瘀证的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡传杏子

    2016-01-01

    Objective :To investigate the improvement effect of the Quyu prescriptions in treatment of advanced non‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with high coagulation state Qi‐deficiency blood stasis .Methods :Selected 80 cases of advanced NSCLC patients divided into observation group and control group (n= 40) ,according to random number table method .The two groups were given conventional anti‐tumor and symptomatic treatment ,the observation group was giv‐en Quyu prescriptions ,with 2 weeks for a period of treatment .Observed the blood platelet indexes ,coagulation indexes and TCM symptom integral and KPS score before and after treatment .Results :The FBI ,plasma DD ,FDP level of the control group after treatment was higher than that of the before treatment ,the observation group was significantly lower than that of the before treatment ,the difference had statistical significance .The TCM symptom integral of the control group after treatment had no statistically significant difference compared with the before treatment .The total TCM symp‐tom integral of the observation group after treatment was obviously improved ,mainly reflected in the body tired weakness and tongue dark and ecchymosis ,had statistically significant difference .The the total effective rate of the observation group was 92 .5% .The KPS score of the two groups before and after treatment has no statistically significant difference . Conclusion :The Quyu prescriptions can obviously improving the high blood coagulation state of the patients with NSCLC , and can obviously relieve symptoms of TCM ,worthy of clinical popularization and application .%目的:探讨祛瘀汤对非小细胞肺癌(NSCLC )高凝状态气虚血瘀证的改善作用。方法:NSCLC 合并血液高凝状态患者80例,按照随机数字表法分为观察组和对照组各40例,两组均给予常规抗肿瘤及对症处理,观察组给予祛瘀汤口服,以两周为1个疗程。观察治疗前后血

  19. Evaluation of a direct blood culture disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doern, G V; Scott, D R; Rashad, A L; Kim, K S

    1981-11-01

    A total of 556 unique blood culture isolates of nonfastidious aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria were examined by direct and standardized disk susceptibility test methods (4,234 antibiotic-organism comparisons). When discrepancies which could be accounted for by the variability inherent in disk diffusion susceptibility tests were excluded, the direct method demonstrated 96.8% overall agreement with the standardized method. A total of 1.6% minor, 1.5% major, and 0.1% very major discrepancies were noted. PMID:7325634

  20. Impact of epidemic rates of diabetes on the Chinese blood glucose testing market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jamie; Zhang, Xian-En

    2011-09-01

    China has become the country with the largest diabetes mellitus population in the world since the 1990s. About 100 million diabetes cases have been diagnosed since 2008. Handheld blood glucose meters and test strips are urgently needed for daily patient measurement. The glucose monitor with a screen-printed carbon-based glucose electrode has been in commercial production since 1994. Since then, approximately 20 companies have been involved in manufacturing and marketing meters and test strips in China. The current market and production volume and updates on technology issues are discussed in this article. PMID:22027332

  1. Evaluation of geotextile filtration applying coagulant and flocculant amendments for aquaculture biosolids dewatering and phosphorus removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastes contained in the microscreen backwash discharged from intensive recirculating aquaculture systems were removed and dewatered in simple geotextile bag filters. Three chemical coagulation aids, (aluminum sulfate (alum), ferric chloride, and calcium hydroxide (hydrated lime)), were tested in com...

  2. Value of standardised exercise tests and blood biochemistry in the selection and training of breeding stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M; Wensing, T; Barneveld, A; Breukink, H J

    1991-10-19

    Stallions selected by the Royal Dutch Warmblood Society were submitted to a standardised lungeing test at the beginning and at the end of a 100-day test of performance and ability. The heart rate, haematology and biochemistry values obtained in the first lungeing test showed no significant differences between the 15 stallions which were rejected by the Royal Dutch Warmblood Society during the first month of the 100-day test, the 15 stallions rejected during the last month and the 11 stallions which were approved for registration in the studbook. The 26 stallions submitted to the second lungeing test had significantly lower heart rates and blood lactate concentrations than in the first test. The standardised lungeing test had no value in predicting the rejection or approval of the stallions, and the fitness of a stallion at the beginning of the 100-day test did not influence its chance of being approved as a breeding stallion. The differences between the results of the first and the second tests suggest that the fitness of the stallions improved during the 100-day test. PMID:1759338

  3. INTERNET-BASED CONTINGENCY MANAGEMENT TO IMPROVE ADHERENCE WITH BLOOD GLUCOSE TESTING RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TEENS WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES

    OpenAIRE

    Raiff, Bethany R.; Dallery, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    The current study used Internet-based contingency management (CM) to increase adherence with blood glucose testing to at least 4 times daily. Four teens diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes earned vouchers for submitting blood glucose testing videos over a Web site. Participants submitted a mean of 1.7 and 3.1 blood glucose tests per day during the 2 baseline conditions, respectively, compared to 5.7 tests per day during the intervention. Participants and their guardians rated the program favorably...

  4. Interference of iron as a coagulant on MIB removal by powdered activated carbon adsorption for low turbidity waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ferreira Filho SIDNEY SECKLER; Marchetto MARGARIDA; Alves Laganaro ROSEMEIRE

    2013-01-01

    Powered activated carbon (PAC) is widely used in water treatment plants to minimize odors in drinking water.This study investigated the removal of 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) by PAC adsorption,combined with coagulation using iron as a coagulant.The adsorption and coagulation process were studied through different case scenarios of jar tests.The analysis evaluated the effect of PAC dosing in the liquid phase immediately before or after the coagulant addition.Ferric sulphate was used as the coagulant with dosages from 10 to 30 mg/L,and PAC dosages varied from 10 to 40 mg/L.The highest MIB removal efficiency (about 70%) was achieved without the coagulant addition and with the highest PAC dosage (40 mg/L).Lower MIB removal efficiencies were observed in the presence of coagulant,showing a clear interference of the iron precipitate or coagulant in the adsorption process.The degree of interference of the coagulation process in the MIB removal was proportional to the ratio of ferric hydroxide mass to the PAC mass.For both cases of PAC dosing,upstream and downstream of the coagulant injection point,the MIB removal efficiency was similar.However,MIB removal efficiency was 15% lower when compared with experiments without the coagulant application.This interference in the MIB adsorption occurs potentially because the coagulant coats the surface of the carbon and interferes with the MIB coming in contact with the carbon's surface and pores.This constraint requires an increase of the PAC dosage to provide the same efficiency observed without coagulation.

  5. Blood Samples of Peripheral Venous Catheter or The Usual Way: Do Infusion Fluid Alters the Biochemical Test Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeganzadeh, Mahboobeh; Yazdankhahfard, Mohammadreza; Farzaneh, Mohammadreza; Mirzaei, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most blood tests require venous blood samples. Puncturing the vein also causes pain, infection, or damage to the blood, and lymph flow, or long-term healing. This study aimed to determine and compare the biochemical laboratory value of the blood samples that were provided through: peripheral vein infusion (PVI) receiving continuous intravenous fluid; and the usual method of blood sampling. Methods: This is an interventional, quasi-experimental, and controlled study. The selected study sample included 60 patients, who were hospitalized during 2014, in the Internal Medicine, part of Martyrs of Persian Gulf, teaching hospital at Bushehr. Three blood samples were taken from each patient that were provided through PVI line (5 ml blood collected at beginning of IVC and then another 5 cc), and another case was prepared by common blood sampling (control). All the samples were analyzed in terms of sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine using SPSS Ver.19 software, by paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the amount of sodium and potassium in the first blood samples taken from the intravenous infusion line and vein puncture. However, no significant differences were found among the biochemical amount in the second blood samples taken from the intravenous infusion line and vein puncture. Conclusions: We can use blood samples taken from peripheral intravenous infusion lines after 5cc discarding from the first part of the sample for measuring the value of sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine.

  6. Coagulation of interstellar dust in turbulent gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considered are various physical processes resulting in coagulation of specks of dust ( mainly of metal particles) in compressing photo-planetary clouds in turbulent gas. It is shown that charge presence in coagulating solid particles (T4) does not serve an obstacle to their coagulation. Average values of T4 temperature agree with meteorite data. Average size of T4 at distances of approximately 1 a.e. constitutes approximately 1 sm. Particles of considerably higher destruction energy than silicon specks of dust took part in the initial period of T4 formation in turbulent gas. Silicon particles may be involved in the coagulation process with the decrease of intensity of turbulent movements

  7. Keeping and Centrifuge Time Affect the Results of Blood Coagulation Assay at Room Temperature%常温下凝血标本的放置和离心时间对结果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茅蔚; 俞赞临; 薛济鸿; 毛尤静

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察凝血标本不同的放置和离心时间对凝血酶原时间(PT)、纤维蛋白原(FIB)、活化部分凝血活酶时间(APTT)、凝血酶时间(TT)测定结果的影响,并提出合理化建议,提高检验质量.方法 采用STA Compact全自动血凝仪测定凝血四项结果的精密度.对40名患者的新鲜抗凝血分离血浆即刻检测,然后将标本放置2,4,6,8 h重复测定,并与即刻测定结果进行比较.将30名患者凝血标本用相同的离心力分别离心5 min和10 min进行四项检测结果的比较.结果 STA Compact全自动血凝仪检测凝血四项指标的重复性好,变异系数(CV)均≤4.0%.标本在常温下放置2 h,PT,APTT与即刻检测结果比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);放置4 h,PT缩短(P0. 05). For 4 hours,PT decreased (P0. 05). Same centrifuge speed and different centrifuge time had no roles in affecting anti-coagulating determination results,no significant differences (P>0. 05). Conclusion Keeping time exerts effects on the results of PT and APTT assays. It's better to keep the samples no more than two hours at room temperature. If the amount of samples is big, sacrificing the centrifuge time is acceptable.

  8. Sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis of blood as a diagnostic test in mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Vestergaard, Hanne; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Møller, Michael Boe; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd

    2014-01-01

    The recent progress in sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis suggests that mutation analysis of peripheral blood (PB) represents a promising diagnostic test in mastocytosis. However, there is a need for systematic assessment of the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the approach in order to...... establish its value in clinical use. We therefore evaluated sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis of PB as a diagnostic test in an entire case-series of adults with mastocytosis. We demonstrate for the first time that by using a sufficiently sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis, it is possible to detect...... the mutation in PB in nearly all adult mastocytosis patients. The mutation was detected in PB in 78 of 83 systemic mastocytosis (94%) and 3 of 4 cutaneous mastocytosis patients (75%). The test was 100% specific as determined by analysis of clinically relevant control patients who all tested negative...

  9. Blood Component Therapy in Trauma Guided with the Utilization of the Perfusionist and Thromboelastography

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Mark; Thomas, Scott G.; Howard, Janet C.; Evans, Edward; Guyer, Kirk; Medvecz, Andrew; Swearingen, Andrew; Navari, Rudolph M; Ploplis, Victoria; Castellino, Francis J.

    2011-01-01

    25–35% of all seriously injured multiple trauma patients are coagulopathic upon arrival to the emergency department, and therefore early diagnosis and intervention on this subset of patients is important. In addition to standard plasma based tests of coagulation, the thromboelastogram (TEG®) has resurfaced as an ideal test in the trauma population to help guide the clinician in the administration of blood components in a goal directed fashion. We describe how thromboelastographic analysis is ...

  10. Disposable amperometric glycated hemoglobin sensor for the finger prick blood test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Min; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2013-07-01

    The analysis of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) content in blood samples is crucial for the diagnosis of diabetes, and it still demands to practically use plenty of a blood sample and a complicated procedure. Hence, we report the development of a disposable amperometric HbA1C sensor for the finger prick blood test through a simple treatment of a drop of blood. To fabricate the sensor probe, the conducting polymer, poly(terthiophene benzoic acid) (pTTBA), was electrochemically grown onto the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) coated-screen printing electrode, followed by the covalent attachment of aminophenyl boronic acid (APBA) to pTTBA as a host to capture HbA1C in the sample. The catalytic reduction response of hydrogen peroxide by HbA1C itself captured on the sensor probe was monitored as an analytical signal. The experimental parameters for the HbA1C analysis were optimized in terms of concentration of H2O2, pH, temperature, applying potential, and interferences. Under the optimized conditions, the linear dynamic range of HbA1C by amperometry was determined to be from 0.1 to 1.5% and the detection limit was to be 0.052 ± 0.02%. The reliability of the proposed HbA1C sensor was evaluated through the comparison of the results among the conventional method, the impedance method, and the proposed amperometry using a drop of a human peripheral blood sample. PMID:23772545

  11. The results of nucleic acid testing in remunerated and non-remunerated blood donors in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalibatas, Vytenis; Kalibatienė, Lina

    2014-01-01

    Background In Lithuania, governmentally covered remuneration for whole blood donations prevails. Donors may choose to accept or reject the remuneration. The purpose of this study was to compare the rate of nucleic acid testing (NAT) discriminatory-positive markers for human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in seronegative, first-time and repeat, remunerated and non-remunerated donations at the National Blood Centre in Lithuania during the period from 2005 to 2010. Materials and methods All seronegative whole blood and blood component donations were individually analysed by NAT for HIV-1, HBV and HCV. Only discriminatory-positive NAT were classified. The prevalence of discriminatory-positive NAT per 100,000 donations in the donor groups and the odds ratios comparing the remunerated and non-remunerated donations were determined. Results Significant differences were observed for HBV NAT results: 47.42 and 26.29 per 100,000 remunerated first-time and repeat donations, respectively, compared to 10.6 and 3.58 per 100,000 non-remunerated first-time and repeat, seronegative donations, respectively. The differences were also significant for HCV NAT results: 47.42 and 51.99 for remunerated first-time and repeat donations, respectively, compared to 2.12 and 0 per 100,000 non-remunerated first-time and repeat, seronegative donations, respectively. No seronegative, discriminatory-positive NAT HIV case was found. The odds of discriminatory HBV and HCV NAT positive results were statistically significantly higher for both first-time and repeat remunerated donations compared to first-time and repeat non-remunerated donations. Discussion First-time and repeat remunerated seronegative donations were associated with a statistically significantly higher prevalence and odds for discriminatory-positive HBV and HCV NAT results compared to first-time and repeat non-remunerated donations at the National Blood Centre in Lithuania. PMID

  12. Nanofiltration based water reclamation from tannery effluent following coagulation pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, J; Mondal, D; Chakraborty, S; Sikder, J; Curcio, S; Arafat, H A

    2015-11-01

    Coagulation-nanofiltration based integrated treatment scheme was employed in the present study to maximize the removal of toxic Cr(VI) species from tannery effluents. The coagulation pretreatment step using aluminium sulphate hexadecahydrate (alum) was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). A nanofiltration unit was integrated with this coagulation pre-treatment unit and the resulting flux decline and permeate quality were investigated. Herein, the coagulation was conducted under response surface-optimized operating conditions. The hybrid process demonstrated high chromium(VI) removal efficiency over 98%. Besides, fouling of two of the tested nanofiltration membranes (NF1 and NF3) was relatively mitigated after feed pretreatment. Nanofiltration permeation fluxes as high as 80-100L/m(2)h were thereby obtained. The resulting permeate stream quality post nanofiltration (NF3) was found to be suitable for effective reuse in tanneries, keeping the Cr(VI) concentration (0.13mg/L), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) (65mg/L), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) (142mg/L), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) (108mg/L), Total Solids (TS) (86mg/L) and conductivity levels (14mho/cm) in perspective. The process water reclaiming ability of nanofiltration was thereby substantiated and the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid system was thus affirmed. PMID:26188702

  13. Determination of lead in whole blood: Comparison of the LeadCare blood lead testing system with zeeman longitudinal electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study compares the efficiency of blood lead level analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and the portable LeadCare Blood lead testing system (LCS). Recoveries of two added lead concentrations of 22 and 42 μg/dL ranged from 102.4 to 105.5% for LCS and from 96.3 to 97.2% for GFAAS. Measurement of a certified sample (Certified Danish Whole Blood) at a blood lead concentration of 26.2 μg/dL gave within- and between-run coefficients of variation which were both approximately 8% by LCS and 2% by GFAAS. Comparison of the tested method (LCS) versus GFAAS from analysis of 76 samples of blood lead collected from workers in different industrial sectors showed imperfect overall correlation (r = 0.95). The LCS is quite suitable for screening purposes, but requires the use of non-frozen blood collected less than 24 h before. Conservative threshold values should be applied when using the LCS for initial screening in the field. (orig.)

  14. The measurement of peripheral blood volume reactions to tilt test by the electrical impedance technique after exercise in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the distribution of peripheral blood volumes in different regions of the body in response to the tilt-test in endurance trained athletes after aerobic exercise. Distribution of peripheral blood volumes (ml/beat) simultaneously in six regions of the body (two legs, two hands, abdomen, neck and ECG) was assessed in response to the tilt-test using the impedance method (the impedance change rate (dZ/dT). Before and after exercise session cardiac stroke (CSV) and blood volumes in legs, arms and neck were higher in athletes both in lying and standing positions. Before exercise the increase of heart rate and the decrease of a neck blood volume in response to tilting was lower (p <0.05) but the decrease of leg blood volumes was higher (p<0.001) in athletes. The reactions in arms and abdomen blood volumes were similar. Also, the neck blood volumes as percentage of CSV (%/CSV) did not change in the control but increased in athletes (p <0.05) in response to the tilt test. After (10 min recovery) the aerobic bicycle exercise (mean HR = 156±8 beat/min, duration 30 min) blood volumes in neck and arms in response to the tilting were reduced equally, but abdomen (p<0.05) and leg blood volumes (p <0.001) were lowered more significantly in athletes. The neck blood flow (%/CSV) did not change in athletes but decreased in control (p<0.01), which was offset by higher tachycardia in response to tilt-test in controls after exercise. The data demonstrate greater orthostatic tolerance in athletes both before and after exercise during fatigue which is due to effective distribution of blood flows aimed at maintaining cerebral blood flow.

  15. Comparison of Nonculture Blood-Based Tests for Diagnosing Invasive Aspergillosis in an Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P Lewis; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Loeffler, Juergen; Najvar, Laura K; Melchers, Willem; Herrera, Monica; Bretagne, Stephane; Wickes, Brian; Kirkpatrick, William R; Barnes, Rosemary A; Donnelly, J Peter; Patterson, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    The EuropeanAspergillusPCR Initiative (EAPCRI) has provided recommendations for the PCR testing of whole blood (WB) and serum/plasma. It is important to test these recommended protocols on nonsimulated "in vivo" specimens before full clinical evaluation. The testing of an animal model of invasive aspergillosis (IA) overcomes the low incidence of disease and provides experimental design and control that is not possible in the clinical setting. Inadequate performance of the recommended protocols at this stage would require reassessment of methods before clinical trials are performed and utility assessed. The manuscript describes the performance of EAPCRI protocols in an animal model of invasive aspergillosis. Blood samples taken from a guinea pig model of IA were used for WB and serum PCR. Galactomannan and β-d-glucan detection were evaluated, with particular focus on the timing of positivity and on the interpretation of combination testing. The overall sensitivities for WB PCR, serum PCR, galactomannan, and β-d-glucan were 73%, 65%, 68%, and 46%, respectively. The corresponding specificities were 92%, 79%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. PCR provided the earliest indicator of IA, and increasing galactomannan and β-d-glucan values were indicators of disease progression. The combination of WB PCR with galactomannan and β-d-glucan proved optimal (area under the curve [AUC], 0.95), and IA was confidently diagnosed or excluded. The EAPRCI-recommended PCR protocols provide performance comparable to commercial antigen tests, and clinical trials are warranted. By combining multiple tests, IA can be excluded or confirmed, highlighting the need for a combined diagnostic strategy. However, this approach must be balanced against the practicality and cost of using multiple tests. PMID:26791366

  16. Analysis of the Factors Associated with Abnormal Coagulation and Prognosis
in Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua LI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis is frequently encountered among cancer patients. Such tumors are associated with high risk of invasion, metastases, and negative final outcomes. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC accounts for approximately 80% to 85% of all lung malignancies. This study aims to investigate the prognostic value of blood coagulation tests for NSCLC and provide a reference to patients on the prevention and treatment of thrombophilia. Methods Data were collected from 604 cases of hospitalized patients with histologically confirmed NSCLC from January 2009 to December 2012 at the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University. Data included the related indexes of coagulation function in patients before treatment [(i.e., prothrombin time (PT, prothrombin time activity (PTA, international normalized ratio (INR, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, fibrinogen (Fib, D-dimer, and platelet count], as well as sex, age, pathological type, TNM stage, and lymph node status. Fifty control subjects without cancer were included in the analysis. Statistical analysis was conducted by using SPSS 13.0 software. Results The plasma level of all coagulation tests including D-dimer, Fib, PT, APTT, INR, and platelet counts revealed statistically significant differences between the patient and control group (P<0.001 for all variables; P=0.001,5 and P=0.004,5 for Fib and platelet counts, respectively. The squamous subtype exhibited high plasma Fib levels (P<0.001 compared with adenocarcinoma cell lung cancer patients. Fib and PLT levels increased (P<0.001 and P=0.014, respectively, and aPTT decreased (P<0.001 in patients at stages III and IV compared with those in patients at stages I and II. aPTT decreased significantly (P<0.001, and Fib and D-dimer levels increased (P<0.001 and P=0.048, respectively in N1-3 patients with NSCLC compared with those of N0 patients. Prolonged PT and INR, high plasma Fib levels, and

  17. New strategies for blood donor screening for hepatitis B virus: nucleic acid testing versus immunoassay methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Mary C; Busch, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    Serologic testing for hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) has historically been the foundation of blood screening, while HBV nucleic acid testing (NAT) was recently developed to detect HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-negative blood units donated during early acute infection. Comparison data on seroconversion panels using HBsAg assays of varying sensitivities and pooled- or single-sample NAT, along with viral load estimates corresponding to HBsAg assay detection limits, have provided information on the theoretical benefits of NAT relative to HBsAg. Model-derived estimates have generally been predictive of the yields of DNA-positive, HBsAg-negative window period blood units detected in a number of studies from Europe, Japan, and the US. Studies indicate that the added benefit of pooled-sample NAT is relatively small in areas of low endemicity, with greater yields in areas highly endemic for HBV. Single-sample NAT would offer more significant early window period closure and could prevent a moderate number of residual HBV transmissions not detected by HBsAg assays; however, no fully automated single-sample HBV NAT systems are currently available.Even single-sample HBV NAT may not substitute for anti-HBc screening, as indicated by studies of donors with isolated anti-HBc who have extremely low DNA levels undetectable by standard single-sample NAT and who have been associated with transfusion-transmitted HBV. Moreover, HBsAg testing may still be needed even in the setting of combined anti-HBc and NAT screening. HBsAg-positive units from donors in the chronic stage of infection may contain very low or intermittently detectable DNA levels that single-sample NAT would miss. Although such donors are usually anti-HBc reactive and would be interdicted by anti-HBc screening, some lack anti-HBc. Extensive parallel testing will be needed to determine whether single-sample NAT in combination with anti-HBc might be sufficient to

  18. Contribution of in vitro thrombin generation in the study of coagulation abnormalities in sickle cell disease

    OpenAIRE

    Noubouossie, Fondjie-Denis

    2013-01-01

    La drépanocytose est associée à un état d’hypercoagulabilité qui se manifeste sur le plan clinique par un risque augmenté de thromboses artérielles et veineuses. L’exploration de la coagulation chez les patients drépanocytaires montrait surtout une activation de la coagulation et des altérations des acteurs pro- et anticoagulants du système hémostatique. Les tests de coagulation globale de routine tels que l’aPTT et le PT sont peu sensibles aux états d’hypercoagulabilité. La fonction hémostat...

  19. Evaluation of the effect of presence of blood in the stomach on endoscopic diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mittal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Presence of blood in the stomach has been thought to affect the performance of diagnostic tests used in detecting Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori in the stomach. This study evaluated the effect of blood on the efficacy of rapid urease test (RUT and microscopic appearance of the biopsy after staining with Giemsa stain. Materials and Methods: Patients with bleeding oesophageal varices who met the inclusion criteria were tested for H. pylori by RUT and microscopic examination of the biopsy. A repeat endoscopy, RUT and histology were done one month following initial presentation. The performance of the diagnostic tests was evaluated with and without the presence of intraluminal blood. A combined result of the two tests, RUT and histology, carried out in presence or absence of blood for the diagnosis of H. pylori, when considered together was considered as the gold standard. Results: Thirty six patients included in the study were in the ages ranging between 15-60 years (mean age = 44.14 years ±2.1. The combination of tests at both visits showed 20/36 (55.6% patients were positive for H. pylori. The decrease in H. pylori positivity in the presence of blood was significant for RUT (8.3% vs. 38.9%; P=0.005 and combined test (19.4% vs. 47.2%; P=0.02 but the decrease in positivity for histology (11.1% vs 30.6% was not significant (P=0.08. In the presence of blood, the sensitivity of RUT, histology and combined tests were 15%, 20% and 35%, respectively. In the absence of blood, the sensitivity of RUT, histology and combination of tests was 70%, 55% and 85%, respectively. Conclusion: Blood in the stomach significantly decreased the sensitivity of RUT, histology and the combination of both. Negative results of these tests in acute upper gastro intestinal (GI bleeding should therefore be interpreted carefully.

  20. Blood lactate minimum of rats during swimming test using three incremental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Souza Sena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of this study was to determine the lactate minimum intensity (LMI by swimming LACmintest using three incremental stages (LACmintest3 and to evaluate its sensitivity to changes in aerobic fitness (AF. Twenty Wistar rats performed: LACmintest3 (1: induction of hyperlactacidemia and incremental phase (4%, 5% and 6.5% of bw; Constant loads tests on (2 and above (3 the LMI. Half of the animals were subjected to training with the individual LMI and the tests were performed again. The mean exercise load in LACmintest3 was 5.04 ± 0.13% bw at 5.08 ± 0.55 mmol L-1 blood lactate minimum (BLM. There was a stabilize and disproportionate increase of blood lactate in tests 2 and 3, respectively. After the training period, the mean BLM was lower in the trained animals. The LACmintest3 seems to be a good indicator of LMI and responsive to changes in AF in rats subjected to swim training.

  1. Effects of Paliperidone Palmitate on Coagulation: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Enver Demirel; Motor, Sedat; Pınar, Neslihan; Kokacya, Hanifi; Kisa, Mustafa; Oktar, Suleyman

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a new antipsychotic drug paliperidone palmitate on hemogram and coagulation parameters in rats. Materials and Methods. Experiments were performed on 22 female albino Wistar rats (8–12 weeks old). Control group was given drinking water as vehicle (0.3 mL). PAL-1 rats were given 1 mg/kg paliperidone palmitate (in 0.3 mL drinking water) by oral gavage once a day for ten days and PAL-3 rats received 3 mg/kg paliperidone palmitate (in 0.3 mL drinking water) by oral gavage for ten days. Blood samples were drawn from the heart 24 hours after the last drug dose, and hemogram and coagulation parameters were measured with automated analyzers. Results. Hemogram did not change in the paliperidone treated groups compared to the controls. Factor VIII levels decreased in the PAL-1 and PAL-3 groups; and this decrease was significantly greater in the PAL-3. Factor IX levels decreased in PAL-3 rats, but its levels also increased in PAL-1 rats compared to the control. Discussion. Paliperidone has led to changes in the serum levels of coagulation factors VIII and IX in rats. As a result, paliperidone may be causing thromboembolism or bleeding in a dose-independent manner. PMID:24764772

  2. Effects of Paliperidone Palmitate on Coagulation: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Demirel Yılmaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a new antipsychotic drug paliperidone palmitate on hemogram and coagulation parameters in rats. Materials and Methods. Experiments were performed on 22 female albino Wistar rats (8–12 weeks old. Control group was given drinking water as vehicle (0.3 mL. PAL-1 rats were given 1 mg/kg paliperidone palmitate (in 0.3 mL drinking water by oral gavage once a day for ten days and PAL-3 rats received 3 mg/kg paliperidone palmitate (in 0.3 mL drinking water by oral gavage for ten days. Blood samples were drawn from the heart 24 hours after the last drug dose, and hemogram and coagulation parameters were measured with automated analyzers. Results. Hemogram did not change in the paliperidone treated groups compared to the controls. Factor VIII levels decreased in the PAL-1 and PAL-3 groups; and this decrease was significantly greater in the PAL-3. Factor IX levels decreased in PAL-3 rats, but its levels also increased in PAL-1 rats compared to the control. Discussion. Paliperidone has led to changes in the serum levels of coagulation factors VIII and IX in rats. As a result, paliperidone may be causing thromboembolism or bleeding in a dose-independent manner.

  3. Improving Detection of Prediabetes in Children and Adults: Using Combinations of Blood Glucose Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ike Solomon Okosun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine combinations of blood glucose tests: oral glucose tolerance (OGT, fasting plasma glucose (FBG and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C that are associated with highest diagnostic rates of prediabetes in non-diabetic American children and adults.Methods: The 2007-2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys data were used for this study. Overall and specific prevalence of prediabetes (defined using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were determined across age, race/ethnicity, sex and BMI categories.Results: FPG+HbA1C test was associated with significantly higher diagnostic rates of prediabetes across age, race/ethnicity and BMI. Estimates of overall prevalence of prediabetes using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were 20.3%, 24.2%, 33% and 34.3%, respectively. Compared to OGT+FPG, the use of HbA1C+FPG test in screening was associated with 44.8%, 135%, 38.6% and 35.9% increased prevalence of prediabetes in non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Mexican-American and other racial/ethnic men, respectively. The corresponding values in women were 67.8%, 140%, 37.2% and 42.6%, respectively. Combined use of all blood glucose tests did not improve the overall and gender-specific prediabetes prevalence beyond what was observed using HbA1C+FPG test.Conclusions: HbA1C criteria were associated with higher diagnosis rates of prediabetes than FPG and OGT tests in non-diabetic American children and adults. Using a combination of HbA1C and FPG test in screening for prediabetes reduces intrinsic systematic bias in using just HbA1C testing and offers the benefits of each test. A well-defined HbA1C that takes into consideration race/ethnicity, gender, age and body mass index may improve detection of prediabetes in population and clinical settings.

  4. Determinants of participation in colorectal cancer screening with faecal occult blood testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Brasso, Klaus; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and women. Participation rates in faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) screening activities are, however, relatively low. In terms of lowering the colorectal cancer mortality, high participation rates are essential, and therefor...... screening. This stresses the need for monitoring of individual screening programmes and developing information strategies targeted to the local participation pattern....... it is important to understand the barriers to FOBT screening. METHODS: We undertook a systematic search through PUBMED, Medline, EMBASE and PsycINFO in order to identify studies that provide information on socio-demographic determinants of participation in FOBT screening. RESULTS: FOBT participation...

  5. Defibrination of Blood Plasma for Use in Serological Tests for Syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Arnold R.; Kikkert, Susan E.; Fears, Martha B.; Pope, Victoria

    2002-01-01

    Syphilitic plasma can be salvaged from discarded blood donations and converted to serum by defibrination. Sixty-nine units of plasma were treated with a stock solution of 100 U of thrombin per ml in 1 M calcium chloride and then with a 10% (wt/vol) solution of kaolin. Fibrinogen concentrations detected in initial plasma samples ranged from 94 to 4,970 mg/liter (mean, 2,532 mg/liter) for samples that were reactive by the rapid plasma reagin circle card test (RPR) and from 314 to 2,742 mg/liter...

  6. Textile wastewater purification through natural coagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Heredia, J.; Sánchez-Martín, J.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, M. T.

    2011-09-01

    A new coagulant obtained through polymerization of Acacia mearnsii de Wild tannin extract has been characterized in the removal of two dangerous dye pollutants: Alizarin Violet 3R and Palatine Fast Black WAN. This coagulant is lab-synthesized according to the etherification of tannins with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride and formaldehyde and its performance in dye removal in terms of efficiency was high. Reasonably low coagulant dosages (ca. 50 mg L-1) reaches high capacity levels (around 0.8 for Alizarin Violet 3R and 1.6 for Palatine Fast Black WAN mg dye mg-1 of coagulant) and pH and temperature are not extremely affecting variables. The systems coagulant dyes were successfully modeled by applying the Langmuir hypothesis. q max and b parameters were obtained with an adjusted correlation factor ( r 2) above 0.8.

  7. Establishment and performance assessment of preparation technology of internal quality control products for blood transfusion compatibility testing

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yang; MA, CHUNYA; Feng, Qian; Chen, Xin; GUAN, XIAOZHEN; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Chen, Linfeng; Lin, Zilin; Pan, Jichun; Zhang, Ting; Luo, Qun; Wang, Deqing

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish and to optimize the preparation technology of whole blood internal quality control (IQC) products for blood transfusion compatibility testing. Several B-type RhD-negative blood samples collected from healthy donors were mixed. Two groups of whole blood IQC products, namely, the preservative solution group (PS group) and the saline group, were prepared. The agglutination intensity of IQC sample red cells and anti-B antibody, IgM anti-A antibody and revers...

  8. Significance of tests for HBeAg and anti-HBe in HBsAg positive blood donors.

    OpenAIRE

    Dow, B C; Macvarish, I; Barr, A.; Crawford, R J; Mitchell, R.

    1980-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay method for HBeAg and anti-HBe allowed 98.4% of HBsAg positive blood donors to be classified. HBeAg was more prevalent in blood donors under 30 years of age and anti-HBe was more prevalent in those over 30 years. The mean HBsAg concentration was four times greater in donors with HBeAg than in those with anti-HBe. No significant associations were found with sex, blood groups, or HBsAg subtypes. It is likely that this test system will be extremely useful to blood tra...

  9. Nanosized blood microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuana, Yuana

    2011-01-01

    Microparticles (MPs) have important physiological and pathological roles in blood coagulation, inflammation and tumor progression. In recent years MPs also have been recognized to participate in important biological processes, such as in signaling and in the horizontal transfer of their specific pro

  10. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Zhi Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information about the potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Methods: Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Results: Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and valerian and four other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q10, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins. Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. Conclusions: To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet

  11. [Interpretation and use of routine pulmonary function tests: Spirometry, static lung volumes, lung diffusion, arterial blood gas, methacholine challenge test and 6-minute walk test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokov, P; Delclaux, C

    2016-02-01

    Resting pulmonary function tests (PFT) include the assessment of ventilatory capacity: spirometry (forced expiratory flows and mobilisable volumes) and static volume assessment, notably using body plethysmography. Spirometry allows the potential definition of obstructive defect, while static volume assessment allows the potential definition of restrictive defect (decrease in total lung capacity) and thoracic hyperinflation (increase in static volumes). It must be kept in mind that this evaluation is incomplete and that an assessment of ventilatory demand is often warranted, especially when facing dyspnoea: evaluation of arterial blood gas (searching for respiratory insufficiency) and measurement of the transfer coefficient of the lung, allowing with the measurement of alveolar volume to calculate the diffusing capacity of the lung for CO (DLCO: assessment of alveolar-capillary wall and capillary blood volume). All these pulmonary function tests have been the subject of an Americano-European Task force (standardisation of lung function testing) published in 2005, and translated in French in 2007. Interpretative strategies for lung function tests have been recommended, which define abnormal lung function tests using the 5th and 95th percentiles of predicted values (lower and upper limits of normal values). Thus, these recommendations need to be implemented in all pulmonary function test units. A methacholine challenge test will only be performed in the presence of an intermediate pre-test probability for asthma (diagnostic uncertainty), which is an infrequent setting. The most convenient exertional test is the 6-minute walk test that allows the assessment of walking performance, the search for arterial desaturation and the quantification of dyspnoea complaint. PMID:26657268

  12. Stability, sterility, coagulation, and immunologic studies of salmon coagulation proteins with potential use for mammalian wound healing and cell engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidmäe, Ivo; McCormick, Margaret E; Herod, Julia L; Pastore, Jennifer J; Salum, Tiit; Sawyer, Evelyn S; Janmey, Paul A; Uibo, Raivo

    2006-12-01

    Fibrin sealants made by polymerization of fibrinogen activated by the protease thrombin have many applications in hemostasis and wound healing. In treatments of acute injury or surgical wounds, concentrated fibrin preparations mimic the initial matrix that normally prevents bleeding and acts as a scaffold for cells that initiate tissue repair. However risks of infectious disease, immunogenic reaction, and the high cost of purified human or other mammalian blood proteins limit widespread use of these materials. Purified coagulation proteins from Atlantic salmon represent a potentially safer, equally effective, and less costly alternative in part because of the low ambient temperature of these farmed animals and the absence of endogenous agents known to be infectious in mammalian hosts. This study reports rheologic measurements of lyophilized salmon fibrinogen and thrombin that demonstrate stability to prolonged storage and gamma irradiation sufficient to reduce viral loads by over five orders of magnitude. Coagulation and immunologic studies in rats and rabbits treated intraperitoneally with salmon fibrin show no deleterious effects on coagulation profiles and no cross reactivity with host fibrinogen or thrombin. The results support the potential of salmon fibrin as an alternative to mammalian proteins in clinical applications. PMID:16919721

  13. Coagulation factors IX through XIII and the risk of future venous thrombosis: the Longitudinal Investigation of Thromboembolism Etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Cushman, Mary; O'Meara, Ellen S.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Heckbert, Susan R

    2009-01-01

    Higher levels of procoagulant factors and factor XII deficiency may be risk factors for first venous thromboembolism (VTE). We studied associations of coagulation factors IX through XIII with risk of future VTE in 2 general population samples. Using a nested case-control study combining the 21 860 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study and the Cardiovascular Health Study, we determined antigenic levels of these coagulation factors in primarily pre-event blood samples fr...

  14. Measurement of regional cerebral blood flow with H215O positron emission tomography during Matas test - report of three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors carried out a Matas test with a regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) study using H215O positron emission tomography (PET) for three cases of large internal carotid artery aneurysms. There is a likely correlation between the cerebral blood flow (CBF) reduction rate obtained by PET, and the mean stump pressure available from a conventional balloon occlusion test. The advantages of this noninvasive and quantitative method are presented in comparison with other methods. (author)

  15. Effect of two-stage coagulant addition on coagulation-ultrafiltration process for treatment of humic-rich water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Chen, Zhong-lin; Yu, Wen-zheng; Shen, Ji-min; Gregory, John

    2011-08-01

    A novel two-stage coagulant addition strategy applied in a coagulation-ultrafiltration (UF) process for treatment of humic-rich water at neutral pH was investigated in this study. When aluminum sulfate (alum) doses were set at a ratio of 3:1 added during rapid mix stage and half way through flocculation stage, the integrated process of two-stage alum addition achieved almost the same organic matter removal as that of conventional one-stage alum addition at the same overall dose. Whereas membrane fouling could be effectively mitigated by the two-stage addition exhibited by trans-membrane pressure (TMP) developments. The TMP developments were found to be primarily attributed to external fouling on membrane surface, which was closely associated with floc characteristics. The results of jar tests indicated that the average size of flocs formed in two-stage addition mode roughly reached one half larger than that in one-stage addition mode, which implied a beneficial effect on membrane fouling reduction. Moreover, the flocs with more irregular structure and lower effective density resulted from the two-stage alum addition, which caused higher porosity of cake layer formed by such flocs on membrane surface. Microscopic observations of membrane surface demonstrated that internal fouling in membrane pores could be also remarkably limited by two-stage alum addition. It is likely that the freshly formed hydroxide precipitates were distinct in surface characteristics from the aged precipitates due to formation of more active groups or adsorption of more labile aluminum species. Consequently, the flocs could further connect and aggregate to contribute to preferable properties for filtration performance of the coagulation-UF process. As a simple and efficient approach, two-stage coagulant addition strategy could have great practical significance in coagulation-membrane processes. PMID:21704354

  16. Evaluation of the Verigene® Blood Culture Nucleic Acid test for rapid identification of gram positive pathogens from positive blood cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnese Cellini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The rapid identification of the etiology and the evaluation of the antimicrobial susceptibility of the bacteria causing bacteremia is of outmost relevance to set up an adequate treatment of sepsis. In this study we evaluated the microarray based method, Verigene Gram-positive blood cultures (BC-GP nucleic acid test (Nanosphere Inc., Northbrook, IL, USA for the identification of Gram positive pathogens from positive blood cultures. The panel BC-GP is capable to identify 13 germs and 3 genes associated with antimicrobial resistance. Materials and Methods. In this study a total of 100 positive, non replicated and monomicrobic blood cultures have been evaluated. For testing on the Verigene platform using the BC-GP assay, 350 L of blood culture media from a positive the blood culture bottle.Results. A total of 100 positive blood cultures were tested by the Verigene BC-GP assay: out of these a total of 100 Gram-positive cocci were identified. The most frequent bacteria identified included staphylococci, streptococci and enterococci. Among staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 25% (15/60, with 38% of S. epidermidis 37% (23/60 and 37% (22/60 other CoNS. All the S. aureus isolates were correctly identified by BC-GP whereas in 2/45 cases (4% BC-GP misidentified CoNS. In the case of enterococci 7/10 were E. faecalis and 3 E. faecium, all of these were correctly identified.Conclusions. The overall agreement with the results obtained by standard procedure is quite elevated (88% and as a consequence the BC-GP panel could be used as a rapid diagnostic tool to give a faster response in the case of bacteremia associated with sepsis.

  17. Antithrombin, an Important Inhibitor in Blood Clots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Cong, Qing-Wei; Liu, Yue; Wan, Chun-Ling; Yu, Tao; He, Guang; He, Lin; Cai, Lei; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Blood coagulation is healthy and lifesaving because it can stop bleeding. It can, however, be a troublemaker as well, causing serious medical problems including heart attack and stroke. Body has complex blood coagulation cascade to modulate the blood clots. In the environment of plasma, the blood coagulation cascade is regulated by antithrombin, which is deemed one of the most important serine protease inhibitors. It inhibits thrombin; it can inhibit factors IXa and Xa as well. Interestingly, its inhibitory ability will be significantly increased with the existence of heparin. In this minireview paper, we are to summarize the structural features of antithrombin, as well as its heparin binding modes and anti-coagulation mechanisms, in hopes that the discussion and analysis presented in this paper can stimulate new strategies to find more effective approaches or compounds to modulate the antithrombin. PMID:26411319

  18. Immunochemical faecal occult blood tests have superior stability and analytical performance characteristics over guaiac-based tests in a controlled in vitro study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Chun Seng

    2011-06-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to determine the measurement accuracy of a widely used guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) compared with an immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) during in vitro studies, including their analytical stability over time at ambient temperature and at 4°C; and (2) to compare analytical imprecision and other characteristics between two commercially available iFOBT methods.

  19. Test-Retest Repeatability of Myocardial Blood Flow Measurements using Rubidium-82 Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efseaff, Matthew

    Rubidium-82 positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been proposed for routine myocardial blood flow (MBF) quantification. Few studies have investigated the test-retest repeatability of this method. Same-day repeatability of rest MBF imaging was optimized with a highly automated analysis program using image-derived input functions and a dual spillover correction (SOC). The effects of heterogeneous tracer infusion profiles and subject hemodynamics on test-retest repeatability were investigated at rest and during hyperemic stress. Factors affecting rest MBF repeatability included gender, suspected coronary artery disease, and dual SOC (p stress, and 0.95 for stress / rest myocardial flow reserve (MFR). Subjects with heterogeneous tracer infusion profiles and hemodynamic conditions had significantly less repeatable MBF measurements at rest, stress, and stress/rest flow reserve (p < 0.05).

  20. Effects of coagulation temperature on measurements of complement function in serum samples from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, G; Sturfelt, G; Junker, A; Svehag, S E

    1992-01-01

    Blood samples from 15 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 15 healthy blood donors were allowed to coagulate for one hour at room temperature, followed by one hour at 4 or 37 degrees C. The complement activity of the serum samples was assessed by three different functional assays......, determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography, was also similar. This study shows that the results of functional complement assays, applied to serum samples from patients with SLE cannot be compared unless the conditions for blood coagulation and serum handling are defined and are the same...

  1. Red Blood Cell Antibodies in Hematology/Oncology Patients: Interpretation of Immunohematologic Tests and Clinical Significance of Detected Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Jeanne E; Tormey, Christopher A

    2016-06-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a cornerstone of the management of patients with hematology/oncology disorders. However, a potentially deleterious consequence of transfusion is the development of alloantibodies against blood group antigens present on RBCs. Such alloantibodies can be an obstacle in providing compatible units for transfusion. Providers in this arena must fully understand the testing performed by blood banks, as well as the consequences of detected antibodies. This article reviews immunohematologic tests, describes how autoimmune hemolytic anemia is classified by autoantibodies; outlines RBC alloimmunization rates, and presents strategies to prevent/mitigate the impact of RBC alloimmunization. PMID:27113001

  2. The use of hirudin as universal anticoagulant in haematology, clinical chemistry and blood grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menssen, H D; Melber, K; Brandt, N; Thiel, E

    2001-12-01

    Undesirable interactions between anticoagulants and diagnostic test kit procedures so far have prevented the development of a single uniform blood sampling tube. Contrary to K2-EDTA, heparin and other anticoagulants, hirudin only minimally alters blood cells and dissolved blood constituents, thus qualifying as a universal anticoagulant for diagnostic purposes. Automated complete blood counts, automated analyses of clinical chemistry analytes and immunohaematology were performed from hirudinised and routinely processed blood obtained from healthy volunteers (n=35) and hospitalised patients (n=45). Hirudin (400 ATU/ml blood) sufficiently anticoagulated blood for diagnostic purposes. The measurements of automated complete blood counts obtained from K2-EDTA-anticoagulated and hirudinised blood correlated significantly as did the measurements of 24 clinical chemistry analytes from hirudinised plasma and serum. Regression analysis revealed that the results of complete blood counts and clinical chemistry tests were predictable from the respective measurements from hirudinised blood (p=0.001). Immunohaematological tests and cross-matching from hirudinised and native blood of the same donors gave identical results. Single clotting factors, but not global coagulation analytes, could be measured from hirudinised blood. Therefore, a universal hirudin-containing blood sampling tube could be designed for automated analysis of haematological, serological and clinical chemistry analytes. PMID:11798089

  3. Preliminary clinical evaluation of a noninvasive device for the measurement of coagulability in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerman Y

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Yaffa Lerman1, Moshe M Werber2, Ilya Fine2, Polina Kemelman11Department of Geriatrics, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; 2Elfi-Tech Ltd, Rehovot, IsraelAbstract: The feasibility of the noninvasive assessment of blood ‘coagulability’ (the tendency to coagulate has been tested by using a novel device, the Thrombo-Monitor. It monitors, by using the principles of near infra-red (NIR dynamic light scattering, the tendency of blood to create clots. The Thrombo-Monitor observes the very initial changes of blood viscosity, which occurs due to the temporarily induced stasis of capillary blood of the finger. One hundred and fifteen patients aged >65 years (matched by age and sex participated in the study. Patients were initially divided into four groups based on the patient’s medical therapy. The study groups were: warfarin, enoxaparin, aspirin and/or clopidogrel, and a control group. The medications were given according to the patient’s comorbidities (eg, atrial fibrillation [AF], status post pulmonary embolism [S/p PE], status post cerebrovascular accident [S/p CVA]. The Thrombo-Monitor Index (TMI is a noninvasive index, derived on the basis of laboratory test results of international normalized ratio (INR and prothrombin time (PT values. For the group of patients who were treated only with warfarin, TMI was adjusted by using the jackknife statistical approach to create maximum correlation and linearity with INR and PT values that ranged from 1.1 to 5.0. For all warfarin patients (N = 35 the TMI was found to have a good correlation with INR and PT values (R2 = 0.64, P < 0.00001; mean TMI = 1.86 (SD = 0.91; mean INR and PT = 2.3 (SD = 0.91. The calibration curve thus generated was used to calculate the TMI for all other groups: aspirin group, mean TMI = 1.3 (SD = 0.14, N = 23, corresponding approximately to INR and PT values of 1.036; enoxaparin group (N = 24, mean TMI = 1.34 (SD

  4. Removal of arsenic from contaminated water using coagulation enhanced microfiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of an innovative arsenic removal process were presented. The process is based on a combination of coagulation and microfiltration processes. Coagulation-Enhanced Microfiltration (CEMF) may eventually become a full-scale commercial technology. This study focused on the process with respect to groundwater treatment because of the importance of arsenic contamination in drinking water. Most experiments were bench-scale using tap water spiked with arsenic. Ferric chloride, which is commonly used in arsenic removal processes was also added. In addition, some tests were conducted on actual arsenic-contaminated water from the effluent treatment plant of a former mining site in Ontario. Results indicate a high arsenic removal efficiency in both spiked and actual water solutions. The microfiltration significantly reduced the level of arsenic in the treatment. This paper described the characteristics of membrane separation. It also presented information regarding chemically enhanced membrane filtration and coagulation-enhanced microfiltration. Bench-scale tests were conducted with both tubular membranes and with immersed capillary membranes. The effect of iron to arsenic ratios on the effectiveness of the system was also tested. It was recommended that future research should include a field study of the process on a pilot-scale to optimize process parameters and to accurately determine the cost of the process. 16 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs

  5. Comparison the effects of one session aerobic exercise and resistance training on some of the coagulation markers of healthy young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Habibian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical training is a useful method to reduce disease of cardiovascular, but the effect of exercise on the coagulation system is under investigation. The aim of this study was to determine the response of one bout exhaustive aerobic exercise and resistance training on some of coagulation markers in healthy young women.Materials and Method: This quasi-experimental research was performed in 2009. Twenty trained volunteer female students of physical education Sari Azad university were selected objectively and availability. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups of aerobic (n=10 and resistance training (n=10. Aerobic group performed an exhaustive workout program on treadmill intensity 65 to75% Vo2max on treadmill. The resistance group completed three sets of 5-7 repetitions of six exercises at an intensity corresponding to 80% of 1RM. Following 12 to 14 hours of nightly fasting, venous blood samples (5 cc were collected pre, immediately after exercise and after 60 min of recovery and analyzed for PT, aPTT and fibrinogen. Participants were matched according to anthropometric measurements, age and Vo2max. Hypothesizes were tested by using independent t, repeated measures and post-hoc test (p 0.05. Results: Both the aerobic and resistance training groups, PT time (p<0.001 and aPTT time significantly decreased (p=0.006, p<0.001 respectively times between the two groups and the effect of resistant training on fibrinogen level immediately after exercise. Also aPTT time higher increased after recovery in comparison with baseline levels in aerobic (p=0.006 and resistance training groups (p<0.001. There were no significant differences in PT and aPTT was higher than aerobic training (p=0.0035.Conclusion: The results show that both of acute aerobic and or anaerobic exercise lead to small and transit coagulation system and increase in coagulation times

  6. Sequence-specific 1H NMR assignments, secondary structure, and location of the calcium binding site in the first epidermal growth factor like domain of blood coagulation factor IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factor IX is a blood clotting protein that contains three regions, including a γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain, two tandemly connected epidermal growth factor like (EGF-like) domains, and a serine protease region. The protein exhibits a high-affinity calcium binding site in the first EGF0like domain, in addition to calcium binding in the Gla domain. The first EGF-like domain, factor IX (45-87), has been synthesized. Sequence-specific resonance assignment of the peptide has been made by using 2D NMR techniques, and its secondary structure has been determined. The protein is found to have two antiparallel β-sheets, and preliminary distance geometry calculations indicate that the protein has two domains, separated by Trp28, with the overall structure being similar to that of EGF. An NMR investigation of the calcium-bound first EGF-like domain indicates the presence and location of a calcium binding site involving residues on both strands of one of the β-sheets as well as the N-terminal region of the peptide. These results suggest that calcium binding in the first EGF-like domain could induce long-range (possibly interdomain) conformational changes in factor IX, rather than causing structural alterations in the EGF-like domain itself

  7. Prehospital point of care testing of blood gases and electrolytes — an evaluation of IRMA

    OpenAIRE

    Prause, Gerhard; Ratzenhofer-Komenda, Beatrice; Offner, Anton; Lauda, Peter; Voit, Henrika; Pojer, Horst

    1997-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated the feasibility of blood gas analysis and electrolyte measurements during emergency transport prior to hospital admission. Results: A portable, battery-powered blood analyzer was used on patients in life threatening conditions to determine pH, pCO2, pO2, sodium, potassium and ionized calcium. Arterial blood was used for blood gas analysis and electrolyte measurements. Venous blood was used for electrolyte measurement alone. During the observation period of 4 m...

  8. Coagulation and fragmentation with discrete mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Pamela N.; Lamb, Wilson; Stewart, Iain W.

    2007-05-01

    A nonlinear integro-differential equation that models a coagulation and multiple fragmentation process in which discrete fragmentation mass loss can occur is examined using the theory of strongly continuous semigroups of operators. Under the assumptions that the coagulation kernel is bounded and the fragmentation rate function a satisfies a linear growth condition, global existence and uniqueness of solutions that lose mass in accordance with the model are established. In the case when no coagulation is present and the fragmentation process is governed by power-law kernels, an explicit formula is given for the substochastic semigroup associated with the resulting mass-loss fragmentation equation.

  9. Quantifying interspecific coagulation efficiency of phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J.L.S.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Non-sticky latex beads and sticky diatoms were used as models to describe mutual coagulation between sticky and non-sticky particles. in mixed suspensions of beads and Thalassiosira nordenskjoeldii, both types of particles coagulated into mixed aggregates at specific rates, from which the....... nordenskjoeldii. Mutual coagulation between Skeletonema costatum and the non-sticky cel:ls of Ditylum brightwellii also proceeded with hall the efficiency of S. costatum alone. The latex beads were suitable to be used as 'standard particles' to quantify the ability of phytoplankton to prime aggregation of...

  10. Blood Loss From Diagnostic Laboratory Tests in Critically III Patient and Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Kelebek Girgin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Anemia is very common problem in critically ill patients, and it has many deleterious effects of morbidity and mortality, decreased in oxygen carrying capacity. Phlebotomy is an important factor contributing to anemia and the need for transfusion. We aimed to evaluate the volumes of blood drawn for laboratory tests from critically ill patients, and effect on anemia and transfusion practices. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 60 critically ill patients. Data were recorded daily including volume of the withdrawn blood, hemoglobin (Hb, indication for transfusion, and number of units transfused. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II ve Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA scores, the length of stay (LOS in the intensive care unit (ICU. Results: Thirty six of the patients (60% that transfused had significantly higher admitting APACHE II and SOFA scores (p<0.01, p<0.001. The average total volume drawn per patient was 13.05 mL for the 24-hour period except the first day in admission the ICU. The mean volume drawn the first day was detected as 27.90 mL. Total volumes drawn were significantly higher in patients that transfused at the end of second and third week (p<0.001, p<0.001. The mean pretransfusion Hb level was 8.17 g/dL, and 44.5% of all transfusions were performed within the first week. The mean ICU LOS was longer in transfused patients (p<0.001 and mortality in the transfused patients also was significantly higher (p<0.05. Conclusion: Blood drawn and transfusion need increased with prolonged ICU stay. Additionally, patients’ health condition affects the requirement of transfusion. (Journal of the Turkish Society of Intensive Care 2010; 8: 61-5

  11. Determinants of myocardial blood flow response to cold pressor testing and pharmacologic vasodilation in healthy humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Response of myocardial blood flow (MBF) to sympathetic stimulation with cold is modulated by endothelium-related factors and is typically altered in the presence of coronary risk factors. Determinants of flow response to cold pressor testing (CPT) in normal volunteers at low risk for CAD remain less well defined, especially relative to baseline conditions such as hemodynamics and MBF, plasma substrate and lipid levels, and total pharmacologically stimulated vasodilator capacity. In 50 normal volunteers (42±13 years; 31 women) without coronary risk factors, insulin resistance, or family history of diabetes/premature CAD, MBF was measured with 13N-ammonia and PET at baseline, during CPT, and during pharmacologic hyperemia. Sympathetic stimulation with CPT raised heart rate and blood pressure and thus MBF (ΔMBF=0.23±0.09 ml/min/g). MBF response, defined in absolute flow units as the difference between CPT and baseline, was independent of age, gender, heart rate, and blood pressure and rate-pressure product (RPP) at baseline as well as plasma substrate and lipid levels with the exception of an association with HDL cholesterol (ρ=0.40, p=0.005) but depended on the change in RPP from rest (ρ=0.33, p=0.019). Finally, changes in coronary vascular resistance in response to CPT were associated with changes in pharmacologic vasodilation (ρ=0.56, p<0.0001). MBF response to sympathetic stimulation with cold (NO-mediated endothelium-dependent vasomotion), reflecting the functional state of the coronary endothelium, was independent of gender, age, and resting heart conditions. It was modulated by HDL cholesterol levels, even in healthy volunteers, and also related to pharmacologically stimulated vasodilator capacity at the coronary vascular resistance level. (orig.)

  12. Effect of oxygen flow rate during oxygen-drived heparin inhalation on the arterial blood gas and coagulation function in mechanically ventilated AECOPD patients%不同氧流量驱动肝素雾化吸入对 AECOPD 机械通气患者血气及凝血功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛艳霞; 李亚军; 杨向东; 李建华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of different amount oxygen-drived inhalation of heparin on arterial blood gas and coagulation function in mechanically ventilated patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( AECOPD) .Methods Fifty-one patients with AECOPD mechanical ventilation were randomly divided into A, B, C three groups.Group A (17 cases) were given the oxygen flow rate of 5 L/min atomizing inhalation, group B (19 cases) were given the oxygen flow rate of 7 L/min, group C (15 cases) were given the oxygen flow rate of 9 L/min.Arterial blood gas and coagulation function were detected before and after atomizing inhalation (30 min, 1, 3, 7 days) in all patients.Results Compared with group A and C, Patients in group B had obviously improved arterial blood gas and were statistically significant (P0.05).Compared with before atomization, Patients in group B had significantly improved arterial blood gas at each time point after inhalation ( P0.05).Seven days after inhalation, prothrombin time ( PT) , activated partial thromboplastin time ( APTT) and fibrinogen ( FIB) were not significantly different from the level before inhalation in all three groups (P>0.05).Conclusion The best oxygen flow rate is 7 L/min for heparin inhalation in mechanically ventilated patients with AECOPD.It significantly improves the arterial partial pressure of oxygen, reducing carbon dioxide partial pressure, but has less influence on the coagulation function.%目的:探讨不同氧流量驱动肝素雾化吸入对慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期( AECOPD)机械通气患者血气及凝血功能的影响。方法将51例AECOPD机械通气患者随机分为A、B、C三组,其中A组(17例)给予5 L/min氧流量雾化吸入;B组(19例)给予7 L/min;C组(15例)给予9 L/min。监测雾化前、雾化后30 min、1 d、3 d、7 d各个时间点血气及雾化前及雾化后第7天的凝血功能参数的变化情况。结果与A

  13. The influence of ginkgo dipyridolum injection on blood-rheological and coagulation function in pationts with AECOPD%银杏达莫注射液对慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性发作期患者血液流变学及凝血功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童皖宁; 赵志宇; 卓安山; 曹玉书

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influence of ginkgo dipyridolum injection on blood-rheological and coagulation function in pationts with AECOPD.Methods 78 cases of patients with AECOPD were divided into group A (38 cases)and group B (40 cases)by mean of digital random table method.The routine treatment including oxygen inhalation,spasmolytics and anti-infection was given to patients in both groups while ginkgo dipyridolum injection (30 ml/d)was additionally added to patients in group B for two weeks.The blood-rheological and coagulation function were evaluated.Results As for blood-rheological after the treatment,whole blood high shearing viscosity(5.25 ± 1.24)mPa · S,low shearing viscosity (11.12 ±2.43) mPa · S,plasma viscosity (2.06± 0.14 ) mPa · S and hematocrit (45.52 ± 2.78) % in the group A indicated significant differences compared to those in group B [ (4.83 ± 1.42)mPa· S,(8.78± 3.02) mPa · S,(1.73 ±0.21) mPa · S,(39.05 ± 3.41) %],(P<0.05); as for coagulation function after the treatment,PT (13.14± 1.31 ) S,APTT (30.85±5.24)S,FIB (4.99±1.04)S,D-D (1.42±0.23)mg/L in the group A indicated significant differences compared to those in group B [ (14.78 ± 3.13) S,(36.67 ± 8.12)S,(3.81 ± 0.42) S,(0.84 ±0.39) mg/L],(P<0.05).Conclusion For the patients with AECOPD,the ginkgo dipyridolum injection can decrease hood-viscosity,and obviously improve hypercoagulabale state.%目的 观察银杏达莫注射液对慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期(chronic obstructive Pulmonary disease with acute exacerbation,AECOPD)患者血液流变学及凝血功能的影响.方法 78例AECOPD患者采用数字随机表法,被分成A、B两组,进行临床分析.A组38例,给予常规吸氧、解痉平喘、抗感染等对症治疗;B组40例,常规治疗基础上给予银杏达莫注射液(30ml,加入0.9%氯化钠250 ml中静滴,1次/d)治疗.观察患者血液流变学、凝血功能等改善情况.结果 在血液流变学方面,A

  14. Effect of Chitosan as a Coagulant Aid Combined With Poly Aluminum Chloride Removing of Turbidity From Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolmotaleb Seid Mohammadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan, a biodegradable polymer, is used as an eco-friendly coagulant in a wide variety of applications in water and wastewater treatment. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of chitosan as a coagulant aid combined with poly aluminum chloride (PAC to enhance coagulating efficiency for bentonite suspensions. A conventional jar test apparatus was used for the tests. The effect of various operational parameters, such as initial pH of the solution (5-9.5, dosage of chitosan (0.5-3.5 mg/L, dosage of PAC (5-35 mg/L and initial turbidity (50-200 NTU were investigated. The maximum turbidity removal rates were obtained as pH 8.5 for PAC and pH 7.5 for combined PAC and chitosan (CPC. The coagulating efficiency of bentonite using PAC and CPA was found to decrease with an increase in the pH value of the solutions. The maximum turbidity removal rate was achieved in coagulating by PAC (30 mg/L alone, and PAC (20 mg/L combined with chitosan (2.5 mg/L as coagulant aid with the removal rate of 87% and 96%, respectively. The optimum dosage of chitosan required to obtain the highest removal rate was 2.5 mg/L. Hence, using chitosan as a coagulant aid can not only reduce the required amount of coagulant (35% but can also enhance the removal turbidity efficiency.

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Aluminum Sulfate and Ferric Sulfate-Induced Coagulations as Pretreatment of Microfiltration for Treatment of Surface Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yali; Dong, Bingzhi; Gao, Naiyun; Deng, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Two coagulants, aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride, were tested to reduce natural organic matter (NOM) as a pretreatment prior to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration (MF) membranes for potable water treatment. The results showed that the two coagulants exhibited different treatment performance in NOM removal. Molecular weight (MW) distributions of NOM in the tested surface raw water were concentrated at 3–5 kDa and approximately 0.2 kDa. Regardless of the coagulant species and dosages, the removal of 0.2 kDa NOM molecules was limited. In contrast, NOM at 3–5 kDa were readily removed with increasing coagulant dosages. In particular, aluminum sulfate favorably removed NOM near 5 kDa, whereas ferric chloride tended to reduce 3 kDa organic substances. Although aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride could improve the flux of the ensuing MF treatment, the optimal coagulant dosages to achieve effective pretreatment were different: 2–30 mg/L for aluminum sulfate and >15 mg/L for ferric chloride. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the membrane-filtered coagulated raw water showed that coagulation efficiency dramatically affected membrane flux and that good coagulation properties can reduce membrane fouling. PMID:26075726

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Aluminum Sulfate and Ferric Sulfate-Induced Coagulations as Pretreatment of Microfiltration for Treatment of Surface Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Song

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two coagulants, aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride, were tested to reduce natural organic matter (NOM as a pretreatment prior to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF microfiltration (MF membranes for potable water treatment. The results showed that the two coagulants exhibited different treatment performance in NOM removal. Molecular weight (MW distributions of NOM in the tested surface raw water were concentrated at 3–5 kDa and approximately 0.2 kDa. Regardless of the coagulant species and dosages, the removal of 0.2 kDa NOM molecules was limited. In contrast, NOM at 3–5 kDa were readily removed with increasing coagulant dosages. In particular, aluminum sulfate favorably removed NOM near 5 kDa, whereas ferric chloride tended to reduce 3 kDa organic substances. Although aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride could improve the flux of the ensuing MF treatment, the optimal coagulant dosages to achieve effective pretreatment were different: 2–30 mg/L for aluminum sulfate and >15 mg/L for ferric chloride. The scanning electron microscope (SEM image of the membrane-filtered coagulated raw water showed that coagulation efficiency dramatically affected membrane flux and that good coagulation properties can reduce membrane fouling.

  17. Diagnostic Metabolomic Blood Tests for Endoluminal Gastrointestinal Cancer--A Systematic Review and Assessment of Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonowicz, Stefan; Kumar, Sacheen; Wiggins, Tom; Markar, Sheraz R; Hanna, George B

    2016-01-01

    Advances in analytics have resulted in metabolomic blood tests being developed for the detection of cancer. This systematic review aims to assess the diagnostic accuracy of blood-based metabolomic biomarkers for endoluminal gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. Using endoscopic diagnosis as a reference standard, methodologic and reporting quality was assessed using validated tools, in addition to pathway-based informatics to biologically contextualize discriminant features. Twenty-nine studies (15 colorectal, 9 esophageal, 3 gastric, and 2 mixed) with data from 10,835 participants were included. All reported significant differences in hematologic metabolites. In pooled analysis, 246 metabolites were found to be significantly different after multiplicity correction. Incremental metabolic flux with disease progression was frequently reported. Two promising candidates have been validated in independent populations (both colorectal biomarkers), and one has been approved for clinical use. Networks analysis suggested modulation of elements of up to half of Edinburgh Human Metabolic Network subdivisions, and that the poor clinical applicability of commonly modulated metabolites could be due to extensive molecular interconnectivity. Methodologic and reporting quality was assessed as moderate-to-poor. Serum metabolomics holds promise for GI cancer diagnostics; however, future efforts must adhere to consensus standardization initiatives, utilize high-resolution discovery analytics, and compare candidate biomarkers with peer nonendoscopic alternatives. PMID:26598534

  18. Rheological behavior of raw natural rubber coagulated by microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifen Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tests of the strain sweep, frequency sweep and stress relaxation for raw natural rubber coagulated by microorganisms (NR-m and raw natural rubber coagulated by acid (NR-a were carried out with the use of a rubber process analyzer (RPA. The results showed that the storage torque, complex viscosity of NR-m were higher than those of NR-a while the loss factor was lower. The effect of temperature on viscosity of raw NR was studied following the Arrhenious-Frenkel-Eyring model. The viscous flow behavior of NR-m was poorer than those of NR-a. Furthermore, stress relaxation measurements of raw NR showed a longer period of relaxation for NR-m.

  19. Coagulation/flocculation/flotation/nanofiltration processes using Moringa Oleifera as coagulant of Eutrophized river

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho, Franciele P.; Bongiovani, Milene C.; Silva, Mariana O.; Coldebella, Priscila F.; Amorim, M. T. Pessoa de; Bergamasco, Rosângela

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the efficiency of Moringa oleifera (MO) seeds as natural coagulant in coagulation/flocculation/dissolved air flotation (C/F/DAF), followed by nanofiltration (NF) for Microcystis protocystis and microcystin-LR removal. The methodology adopted in this work was performed in two steps: 1) coagulation/flocculation/dissolved air flotation (C/F/DAF) process using the MO extracted in saline solution of potassium chloride (KCl-1M) and sodium chloride (NaCl-1M) in op...

  20. Preliminary Study of Coagulation Monitoring by Antenna for Treatment during Microwave Coagulation Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Kazuyuki; Ito, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    Microwave coagulation therapy (MCT) has been employed mainly for treatment of small size tumors. In the treatment, thin microwave antenna is inserted into the tumor and microwave energy heats up the tumor up to at least 60°C for generation of enough coagulated volume including the target tumor. During the microwave radiation, reflection coefficient of treatment antenna changes significantly. In this paper, possibility of coagulation monitoring was found observing the reflection coefficient ch...

  1. EVALUATION OF INDUSTRIAL DYEING WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH COAGULANTS AND POLYELECTROLYTE AS A COAGULANT AID

    OpenAIRE

    G. R. Nabi Bidhendi;A. Torabian;H. Ehsani;N. Razmkhah

    2007-01-01

    Textile industry is the major source of water consumption and wastewater pollution. There are various treatment techniques to remove textile wastewater pollution. Coagulation-flocculation is a widely used process to remove pollution due to suspended particles. In this research, different coagulants like Alum, Lime, FeCl3, FeSO4 and MgCl2 were applied to select the suitable ones with optimum removal efficiency. Settling characteristics of flocs formed in the coagulation process were studied in...

  2. Primary care clinicians' attitudes towards point-of-care blood testing: a systematic review of qualitative studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, CH; Howick, J; Roberts, NW; Price, CP; Heneghan, C; Plüddemann, A; Thompson, M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Point-of-care blood tests are becoming increasingly available and could replace current venipuncture and laboratory testing for many commonly used tests. However, at present very few have been implemented in most primary care settings. Understanding the attitudes of primary care clinicians towards these tests may help to identify the barriers and facilitators to their wider adoption. We aimed to systematically review qualitative studies of primary care clinicians' attitudes to poi...

  3. TSH measurements from blood spots on filter paper: a confirmatory screening test for neonatal hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, J H; Parlow, A; Letarte, J; Guyda, H; Laberge, C

    1976-10-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay for the measurement of TSH in the eluate of blood spotted on filter paper has been developed. The method is consistently sensitive to 0.1 to 0.25 muU of TSH and enables the detection of values equivalent to 6 to 15 muU/ml of serum. The measurement of TSH in the filter paper spot in all infants with low filter paper spot T4 has permitted rapid confirmation of 10 cases of neonatal hypothyroidism. However, cases of hypothalamic hypothyroidism with low or normal filter paper spot TSH concentrations would have been missed using only this method. Since these patients represent approximately 10% of our neonatal hypothyroid population, we do not recommend this method as a primary screening procedure, but rather as a confirmatory test which will accelerate the diagnosis and therefore the onset of therapy. PMID:956996

  4. Development of the selective coagulation process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1992-07-01

    The selective hydrophobic coagulation (SHC) process is based on the recent finding that hydrophobic particles can be selectively coagulated without using traditional agglomerating agents or flocculants. The driving force for the coagulation is the attractive energy between hydrophobic surfaces, an interaction that has been overlooked in classical colloid chemistry. In most cases, selective separations can be achieved using simple pH control to disperse the mineral matter, followed by recovery of the coal coagula using techniques that take advantage of the size enlargement. In the present work, studies have been carried out to further investigate the fundamental mechanisms of the SHC process and the parameters that affect the process of separating coal from the ash-forming minerals and pyritic sulfur. Studies have included direct force measurements of the attractive interaction between model hydrophobic surfaces, in-situ measurements of the size distributions of coagula formed under a variety of operating conditions, and development of a population balance model to describe the coagulation process. An extended DLVO colloid stability model which includes a hydrophobic interaction energy term has also been developed to explain the findings obtained from the experimental studies. In addition to the fundamental studies, bench-scale process development test work has been performed to establish the best possible method of separating the coagula from dispersed mineral matter. Two types of separators, i.e., a sedimentation tank and a rotating drum screen, were examined in this study. The sedimentation tank proved to be the more efficient unit, achieving ash reductions as high as 60% in a single pass while recovering more than 90% of the combustible material. This device, which minimizes turbulence and coagula breakage, was used in subsequent test work to optimize design and operating parameters.

  5. Effects of Al-coagulant sludge characteristics on the efficiency of coagulants recovery by acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Jui; Wang, Wen-May; Wei, Ming-Jun; Chen, Jiann-Long; He, Ju-Liang; Chiang, Kung-Yuh; Wu, Chih-Chao

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Al-coagulant sludge characteristics on the efficiency ofcoagulant recovery by acidification with H2SO4. Two sludge characteristics were studied: types of coagulant and textures of the suspended solid in raw water. The coagulant types are aluminium sulphate and polyaluminium chloride (PACl); the textures of the suspended solid are sand-based and clay-based. Efficiency of aluminium recovery at a pH of 2 was compared for different sludges obtained from water treatment plants in Taiwan. The results showed that efficiency of aluminium recovery from sludge containing clayey particles was higher than that from sludge containing sandy particles. As for the effect of coagulant types, the aluminium recovery efficiency for sludge using PACl ranged between 77% and 100%, whereas it ranged between 65% and 72% for sludge using aluminium sulphate as the coagulant. This means using PACl as the coagulant could result in higher recovery efficiency of coagulant and be beneficial for water treatment plants where renewable materials and waste reduction as the factors for making decisions regarding plant operations. However, other metals, such as manganese, could be released with aluminium during the acidification process and limit the use of the recovered coagulants. It is suggested that the recovered coagulants be used in wastewater treatment processes. PMID:23437650

  6. Effects of nucleotides and nucleosides on coagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bune, Laurids; Thaning, Pia; Johansson, Pär I;

    2010-01-01

    Nucleotides, including ADP, ATP and uridine triphosphate (UTP), are discharged profusely in the circulation during many pathological conditions including sepsis. Sepsis can cause hypotension and systemic activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems in humans, which may cause disseminate...

  7. ARSENIC REMOVAL BY SOFTENING AND COAGULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water regulations for arsenic (As) and disinfection by-product precursor materials (measured as TOC) are becoming increasingly stringent. Among the modifications to conventional treatment that can improve removal of As and TOC, precipitative softening and coagulation are...

  8. Comparative assessment of water treatment using polymeric and inorganic coagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Innocent K. M.; Chidya, Russel C. G.; Saka, John D. K.; Biswick, Timothy T.

    2016-06-01

    Portable water plays a vital role in improving human life, particularly in controlling the spread of diseases. However, problems associated with lack of potable water are still common especially in developing countries including Malawi. Until now little information exists on the effectiveness of available commercial coagulants used by national water boards in Malawi. Therefore, this study was undertaken in Southern Region Water Board (SRWB) to investigate the efficiency of polymeric coagulants (sufdfloc 3850 and algaefloc 19s) in turbidity reduction comparative with inorganic coagulant (aluminium sulphate) at Zomba, Liwonde, Mangochi, Chikwawa and Mulanje Treatment plants. The jar test method was used to determine the effectiveness of the water coagulants. The results revealed that sudfloc 3850 was most effective in reducing turbidity at Mangochi (99.4 ± 0.06%) and Liwonde (97.2 ± 0.04%) using 0.4 mg L-1 flocculant dose. The Zomba, Mulanje and Chikwawa plants gave 19.56 ± 0.03%, 29.23 ± 0.02% and 9.43 ± 0.02% total reductions respectively. Algaefloc 19s afforded the highest turbidity reduction at Liwonde and Mangochi plants (98.66 ± 0.06 and 97.48 ± 0.05% at a dose of 0.4 and 0.6 mg L-1 respectively), while Chikwawa provided the lowest (9.52 ± 0.01%). At the Zomba and Mulanje plants 20.5 ± 0.03% and 28.4 ± 0.04% reductions were obtained respectively. The inorganic flocculant, alum provided a 99.0 ± 0.05% and 98.6 ± 0.04% reduction at a dose of 4.0 mg L-1 and 6.0 mg L-1 at Zomba and Liwonde plants respectively. The lowest reductions in turbidity were achieved at Chikwawa (7.50 ± 0.01%), Mangochi (12.97 ± 0.02%) and Mulanje (25.00 ± 0.02). The best and optimum pH ranges for polymeric and inorganic coagulants were 7.20-7.80 and 7.35 to 7.57 respectively. The results further revealed that sudfloc 3850 and algaefloc 19s achieved faster formation of heavy flocs than alum. At 0.4 mg L-1 flocculant dosage sudfloc 3850 and algaefloc 19s required ten times

  9. Degradation profile and preliminary clinical testing of a resorbable device for ligation of blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminlashgari, Nina; Höglund, Odd V; Borg, Niklas; Hakkarainen, Minna

    2013-06-01

    A resorbable device for ligation of blood vessels was developed and tested in vitro to reveal the degradation profile of the device and to predict the clinical performance in terms of adequate mechanical support during a healing period of 1week. In addition, preliminary clinical testing was performed that showed complete hemostasis and good tissue grip of renal arteries in five pigs. The device was made by injection molding of poly(glycolide-co-trimethylene carbonate) triblock copolymer, and it consisted of a case with a locking mechanism connected to a partly perforated flexible band. A hydrolytic degradation study was carried out for 7, 30 and 60days in water and buffer medium, following the changes in mass, water absorption, pH and mechanical properties. A new rapid matrix-free laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) method was developed for direct screening of degradation products released into the degradation medium. The combination of LDI-MS and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analyses enabled the comparison of the degradation product patterns in water and buffer medium. The identified degradation products were rich in trimethylene carbonate units, indicating preferential hydrolysis of amorphous regions where trimethylene units are located. The crystallinity of the material was doubled after 60days of hydrolysis, additionally confirming the preferential hydrolysis of trimethylene carbonate units and the enrichment of glycolide units in the remaining solid matrix. The mechanical performance of the perforated band was followed for the first week of hydrolysis and the results suggest that sufficient strength is retained during the healing time of the blood vessels. PMID:23438863

  10. A new model of centrifugal blood pump for cardiopulmonary bypass: design improvement, performance, and hemolysis tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Juliana; Fonseca, Jeison; Bock, Eduardo; da Silva, Cibele; da Silva, Bruno Utiyama; Dos Santos, Alex Eugênio; Dinkhuysen, Jarbas; Andrade, Aron; Biscegli, José F

    2011-05-01

    A new model of blood pump for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) application has been developed and evaluated in our laboratories. Inside the pump housing is a spiral impeller that is conically shaped and has threads on its surface. Worm gears provide an axial motion of the blood column. Rotational motion of the conical shape generates a centrifugal pumping effect and improves pumping performance. One annular magnet with six poles is inside the impeller, providing magnetic coupling to a brushless direct current motor. In order to study the pumping performance, a mock loop system was assembled. Mock loop was composed of Tygon tubes (Saint-Gobain Corporation, Courbevoie, France), oxygenator, digital flowmeter, pressure monitor, electronic driver, and adjustable clamp for flow control. Experiments were performed on six prototypes with small differences in their design. Each prototype was tested and flow and pressure data were obtained for rotational speed of 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, and 3000 rpm. Hemolysis was studied using pumps with different internal gap sizes (1.35, 1.45, 1.55, and 1.7 mm). Hemolysis tests simulated CPB application with flow rate of 5 L/min against total pressure head of 350 mm Hg. The results from six prototypes were satisfactory, compared to the results from the literature. However, prototype #6 showed the best results. Best hemolysis results were observed with a gap of 1.45 mm, and showed a normalized index of hemolysis of 0.013 g/100 L. When combined, axial and centrifugal pumping principles produce better hydrodynamic performance without increasing hemolysis. PMID:21595709

  11. The susceptibility of plasma coagulation factor XI to nitration and peroxynitrite action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponczek, Michał Błażej

    2016-10-01

    Coagulation factor XI is present in blood plasma as the zymogen, like other serine proteases of hemostatic system, but as the only coagulation factor forms 140-160kDa homodimers. Its activation is induced by thrombin, and a positive feedback increases the generation of the extra thrombin. Experimental and clinical observations confirm protective roles of factor XI deficiencies in certain types of thromboembolic disorders. Thromboembolism still causes serious problems for modern civilization. Diseases associated with the blood coagulation system are often associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. Peroxynitrite is produced from nitric oxide and superoxide in inflammatory diseases. The aim of the current study is to evaluate effects of nitrative stress triggered by peroxynitrite on coagulation factor XI in human plasma employing biochemical and bioinformatic methods. The amidolytic assay shows increase in factor XI activity triggered by peroxynitrite. Peroxynitrite interferes factor XI by nitration and fragmentation, which is demonstrated by immunoprecipitation followed by western blotting. Nitrated factor XI is even present in control blood plasma. The results suggest possible modifications of factor XI on the molecular level. Computer simulations show tyrosine residues as targets of peroxynitrite action. The modifications induced by peroxynitrite in factor XI might be important in thrombotic disorders. PMID:27268383

  12. Impact of Albumin on Coagulation Competence and Hemorrhage During Major Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten C; Højskov, Michael; Johansson, Pär I;

    2016-01-01

    trial evaluates whether administration of 5% human albumin (HA) or lactated Ringer solution (LR) affects coagulation competence and in turn blood loss during cystectomy due to bladder cancer.Forty patients undergoing radical cystectomy were included to receive either 5% HA (n = 20) or LR (n = 20......) evaluated coagulation competence, albumin affected clot growth (TEG-angle 69 ± 5 vs 74° ± 3°, P < 0.01) and strength (TEG-MA: 59 ± 6 vs 67 ± 6 mm, P < 0.001) more than LR. Furthermore, by multivariate linear regression analyses reduced TEG-MA was independently associated with the blood loss (P = 0......For patients exposed to a massive blood loss during surgery, maintained coagulation competence is important. It is less obvious whether coagulation competence influences bleeding during elective surgery where patients are exposed to infusion of a crystalloid or a colloid.This randomized controlled...

  13. Blood test ordering for unexplained complaints in general practice: the VAMPIRE randomised clinical trial protocol. [ISRCTN55755886

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindels Patrick JE

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners (GPs frequently order blood tests when they see patients presenting with unexplained complaints. Due to the low prevalence of serious pathology in general practice, the risk of false-positive test results is relatively high. This may result in unnecessary further testing, leading to unfavourable effects such as patient anxiety, high costs, somatisation and morbidity. A policy of watchful waiting is expected to lower both the number of patients to be tested and the risk of false-positive test results, without missing serious pathology. However, many general practitioners experience barriers when trying to postpone blood testing by watchful waiting. The objectives of this study are (1 to determine the accuracy of blood tests in patients presenting with unexplained complaints in terms of detecting pathology, (2 to determine the accuracy of a watchful waiting strategy and (3 to determine the effects of a quality improvement strategy to promote the postponement of blood test ordering by GPs for patients with unexplained complaints. Design General practices are randomised over three groups. Group 1 is instructed to order blood tests immediately, group 2 to apply a watchful waiting policy and group 3 also to postpone testing, but supported by our quality improvement strategy. The trial consists of two sub-studies: a diagnostic study at patient level (group 1 versus groups 2 and 3 and a quality improvement study at GP level (group 2 versus group 3. The diagnostic strategy to be used involves of both customary and innovative tests. The quality improvement strategy consists of two small-group meetings and a practice outreach visit. Patient follow-up ends at 12 months after the initial consultation. Primary outcome measures are the accuracy and added value of blood tests for detecting pathology, the effect of a 4-week postponement of test ordering on the blood test characteristics and the quantity of tests ordered

  14. Toward a better understanding of coagulation for dissolved organic nitrogen using polymeric zinc-iron-phosphate coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guocheng; Wang, Qian; Yin, Jun; Li, Zhongwu; Zhang, Peng; Ren, Bozhi; Fan, Gongduan; Wan, Peng

    2016-09-01

    The increase of agricultural related activities and the lack of effective waste control has led to an increase of organic nitrogen in water. The development of coagulants to effectively remove dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is a high priority in the water treatment industry. We developed a polymeric zinc-iron-phosphate (ZnFeP) coagulant and investigated its coagulation effect on DON removal. Optimum coagulant for coagulation for DON and TDN removals was characterized by the dense convex-concave packing structure differing from other zinc-based coagulant, polycrystalline structure and high content colloidal species, which could account up to 87% of the total colloidal species. Coagulation experiments showed the DON removal rate to vary greatly depending on principal components and their interaction with metals, phosphate and hydroxyl. DON removal efficiency increased with the increase of colloidal species. The coagulation was also dependent on coagulant dosage and water quality parameters: Coagulation efficiency increased with coagulant dosage in the investigated range of 1-16 mg/l, and a pH of 6 was found to be superior for the coagulation. DON removal efficiency was also higher than and linearly correlated with total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) removal, which implies that an effective coagulation for TDN is also effective for DON. The findings in this study indicate that coagulation of DON is largely influenced by coagulant composition and species. We also found the removal of DON by our newly developed polymeric ZnFeP coagulant to be effective. PMID:27192355

  15. Removal of silver nanoparticles by coagulation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This study investigated the removal of AgNP suspensions by four regular coagulants. • The optimal removal efficiencies for the four coagulants were achieved at pH 7.5. • The removal efficiency of AgNPs was affected by the natural water characteristics. • TEM and XRD showed that AgNPs or silver-containing NPs were adsorbed onto the flocs. -- Abstract: Commercial use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) will lead to a potential route for human exposure via potable water. Coagulation followed by sedimentation, as a conventional technique in the drinking water treatment facilities, may become an important barrier to prevent human from AgNP exposures. This study investigated the removal of AgNP suspensions by four regular coagulants. In the aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride coagulation systems, the water parameters slightly affected the AgNP removal. However, in the poly aluminum chloride and polyferric sulfate coagulation systems, the optimal removal efficiencies were achieved at pH 7.5, while higher or lower of pH could reduce the AgNP removal. Besides, the increasing natural organic matter (NOM) would reduce the AgNP removal, while Ca2+ and suspended solids concentrations would also affect the AgNP removal. In addition, results from the transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed AgNPs or silver-containing nanoparticles were adsorbed onto the flocs. Finally, natural water samples were used to validate AgNP removal by coagulation. This study suggests that in the case of release of AgNPs into the source water, the traditional water treatment process, coagulation/sedimentation, can remove AgNPs and minimize the silver ion concentration under the well-optimized conditions

  16. Comparison of Al,Fe,Zr Performance on Coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Prasobhan, Pratheesh

    2014-01-01

    This work addresses an investigation on and comparison of the coagulation performances of aluminium, iron and zirconium coagulants on real wastewater collected in Norway. This work was carried out from January 2014 to May 2014. Coagulation is an essential part of drinking water treatment as well as wastewater treatment. Aluminium and iron coagulants have been in use for many years as part of wastewater treatment. In recent years however, research has been focused on other new coagulants such...

  17. THE IMPORTANCE OF COAGULATION BATH IN ACRYLIC FIBER PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    İsmail TİYEK; BOZDOĞAN, Faruk

    2005-01-01

    In the production of acrylic fibers using wet-spinning method, fiber formation takes places in the coagulation bath. Therefore, physical properties of the fibers, produced by the wet-spinning method, is affected by coagulation bath conditions. For this reason, coagulation bath parameters have to be checked very well. In this paper, both the physical events such as diffusion and phase transition, occured in the coagulation bath, and some coagulation bath parameters that affect these physical e...

  18. Hemoperitoneum in dengue fever with normal coagulation profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh Kumar Talakad Chandrashekar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year-old male living in Bengaluru sought emergency services due to high-grade fever, headache, myalgia, abdominal pain and distension. Platelet count (except the first-96,000/mm 3 and coagulation profile was in normal limits. The dengue serology was positive for IgM and Ig G (immunoglobulin M and G antibodies. Ultrasound abdomen showed gross ascites, mild bilateral pleural effusion and hepatosplenomegaly. The patient continued to have abdominal pain and progressive distention Ascitic tap was hemorrhagic. Later laparoscopy showed 1.5 liters peritoneal fluid with blood clots and mild diffuse congestion of the peritoneum. Liver, spleen and blood vessels were normal. Then what would be the possible mechanism to explain hemoperitoneum, is it the increased vascular permeability caused by the virus? India being endemic for dengue illness, it is an interesting and rare case presentation.

  19. Study on the relationship between the changes of blood coagulation index before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and the chemotherapeutic efficacy in patients with breast cancer%新辅助化疗前后乳腺癌患者凝血相关指标变化与化疗疗效的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锋

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the changes of blood coagulation index before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and the chemotherapeutic efficacy in patients with breast cancer.Methods Ninety patients with breast cancer were selected,and detected the changes of blood coagulation index before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (TAC regimen),and the relationship between blood coagulation index and the chemotherapeutic efficacy were analyzed.Results The levels of fibrinogen (Fib),platelet count (PLT) after chemotherapy were significantly higher than those before chemotherapy [(3.42 ±0.50) g/L vs.(2.44 ±0.46) g/L,(267.83 ±61.34) × 109/L vs.(174.18 ±48.65) × 109/L] (P < 0.01),D-dimer (D-D) was significantly lower than that before chemotherapy [(176.32 ± 101.41) mg/L vs.(214.55 ± 106.34) mg/L] (P < 0.01).The remaining indicators before and after chemotherapy had no significant differences (P > 0.05).The level of D-D in 68 cases was reduced after chemotherapy,the effective chemotherapy in 53 cases (77.9%,53/68),ineffective in 15 cases (22.1%,15/68);the level of D-D in 22 cases was increased after chemotherapy,the effective chemotherapy in 9 cases (40.9%,9/22),ineffective in 13 cases (59.1%,13/22),the difference was statistically significant (P=0.000).The level of PLT in 10 cases was reduced after chemotherapy,the effective chemotherapy in 3 cases(3/10),ineffective in 7 cases (7/10);the level of PLT in 80 cases was increased after chemotherapy,the effective chemotherapy in 59 cases (73.8%,59/80),ineffective in 21 cases (26.3%,21/80),the difference was statistically significant (P=0.044).Conclusions The Fib and PLT increase while the D-D decreases after chemotherapy,so it is necessary to monitor Fib,PLT,D-D level during chemotherapy.The D-D and PLT are effective indexes in evaluating curative effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer.%目的 探讨新辅助化疗前后乳腺癌患者凝血相关指标变

  20. Coagulation algorithms with size binning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statton, David M.; Gans, Jason; Williams, Eric

    1994-01-01

    The Smoluchowski equation describes the time evolution of an aerosol particle size distribution due to aggregation or coagulation. Any algorithm for computerized solution of this equation requires a scheme for describing the continuum of aerosol particle sizes as a discrete set. One standard form of the Smoluchowski equation accomplishes this by restricting the particle sizes to integer multiples of a basic unit particle size (the monomer size). This can be inefficient when particle concentrations over a large range of particle sizes must be calculated. Two algorithms employing a geometric size binning convention are examined: the first assumes that the aerosol particle concentration as a function of size can be considered constant within each size bin; the second approximates the concentration as a linear function of particle size within each size bin. The output of each algorithm is compared to an analytical solution in a special case of the Smoluchowski equation for which an exact solution is known . The range of parameters more appropriate for each algorithm is examined.