Sample records for blood circulatory system

  1. Adapting MRI systems to propel and guide microdevices in the human blood circulatory system. (United States)

    Martel, S; Mathieu, J B; Felfoul, O; Macicior, H; Beaudoin, G; Soulez, G; Yahia, L H


    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems are widely used to gather noninvasively images of the interior of the human body. This paper suggests that an MRI system can be seen beyond being just a tool for imaging purpose but one that can propel and guide special microdevices in the human body to perform specific medical tasks. More specifically, an MRI system can potentially be used to image the region of interest, propel a microdevice through the generation of magnetic gradients, determine the location of the device, compute the corrective actions through feedback control algorithms and adjust the generation of the magnetic gradients accordingly to navigate such a microdevice in a preplanned path. This paper presents an introductory description of the proposed techniques, the main issues to consider, and some preliminary data indicating the validity of this approach.

  2. Numerical modeling of the fetal blood flow in the placental circulatory system (United States)

    Shannon, Alexander; Gallucci, Sergio; Mirbod, Parisa


    The placenta is a unique organ of exchange between the growing fetus and the mother. It incorporates almost all functions of the adult body, acting as the fetal lung, digestive and immune systems, to mention a few. The exchange of oxygen and nutrients takes place at the surface of the villous tree. Using an idealized geometry of the fetal villous trees in the mouse placenta, in this study we performed 3D computational analysis of the unsteady fetal blood flow, gas, and nutrient transport over the chorionic plate. The fetal blood was treated as an incompressible Newtonian fluid, and the oxygen and nutrient were treated as a passive scalar dissolved in blood plasma. The flow was laminar, and a commercial CFD code (COMSOL Multiphysics) has been used for the simulation. COMSOL has been selected because it is multi-physics FEM software that allows for the seamless coupling of different physics represented by partial differential equations. The results clearly illustrate that the specific branching pattern and the in-plane curvature of the fetal villous trees affect the delivery of blood, gas and nutrient transport to the whole placenta.

  3. Assessment of a continuous blood gas monitoring system in animals during circulatory stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzulli Attilio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study was aimed to determine the measurement accuracy of The CDI™ blood parameter monitoring system 500 (Terumo Cardiovascular Systems Corporation, Ann Arbor MI in the real-time continuous measurement of arterial blood gases under different cardiocirculatory stress conditions Methods Inotropic stimulation (Dobutamine 2.5 and 5 μg/kg/min, vasoconstriction (Arginine-vasopressin 4, 8 and 16 IU/h, hemorrhage (-10%, -20%, -35%, and -50% of the theoretical volemia, and volume resuscitation were induced in ten swine (57.4 ± 10.7 Kg.Intermittent blood gas assessments were carried out using a routine gas analyzer at any experimental phase and compared with values obtained at the same time settings during continuous monitoring with CDI™ 500 system. The Bland-Altman analysis was employed. Results Bias and precision for pO2 were - 0.06 kPa and 0.22 kPa, respectively (r2 = 0.96; pCO2 - 0.02 kPa and 0.15 kPa, respectively; pH -0.001 and 0.01 units, respectively ( r2 = 0.96. The analysis showed very good agreement for SO2 (bias 0.04,precision 0.33, r2 = 0.95, Base excess (bias 0.04,precision 0.28, r2 = 0.98, HCO3 (bias 0.05,precision 0.62, r2 = 0.92,hemoglobin (bias 0.02,precision 0.23, r2 = 0.96 and K+ (bias 0.02, precision 0.27, r2 = 0.93. The sensor was reliable throughout the experiment during hemodynamic variations. Conclusions Continuous blood gas analysis with the CDI™ 500 system was reliable and it might represent a new useful tool to accurately and timely monitor gas exchange in critically ill patients. Nonetheless, our findings need to be confirmed by larger studies to prove its reliability in the clinical setting.

  4. Biological evaluation of mechanical circulatory support systems in calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakhorst, G; VanDerMeer, J; Kik, C; Mihaylov, D; Havlik, P; Trinkl, J; Monties, [No Value


    Data from animal experiments with mechanical circulatory support systems (MCSS) performed in Groningen and Marseille over the past years were used to obtain normal values of hematological, coagulation, rheological and blood chemistry parameters in calves. These parameters were divided between two gr

  5. Towards a Fast Dynamic Model of the Human Circulatory System (United States)

    Kaplan, Carolyn; Green, Melissa; Boris, Jay; Oran, Elaine


    We describe a model for systems-level transport in the human circulatory system that is based on a set of equations for a one-dimensional unsteady elastic pipe flow circuit. The system is collapsed from three spatial dimensions and time to one spatial dimension and time by assuming axisymmetric vessel geometry and a parabolic velocity profile across the cylindrical vessels. To drive the fluid, the contractions of a beating heart are modeled as periodic area changes of the elastic vessels. Two different models are compared, both including and neglecting fluid acceleration. Time-resolved distributions of pressure, velocity and area compare reasonably well with reference data. Increasing the rigidity of the vasculature is found to increase peak arterial pressures on the order of ten percent, and including a distributed vascular contraction to model distributed skeletal muscle contractions monotonically increases time-averaged blood flow in the veins, consistent with human physiological response. The circulatory system model presented here simulates the circulatory system on the order of one hundred times faster than real-time; that is, we can compute thousands of heartbeats per minute of CPU time.

  6. A note on circulatory systems: Old and new results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kliem, Wolfhard; Pommer, Christian


    repeat this result in order to emphasize that the criterion is sufficient but not necessary for stability. Afterwards we concentrate on circulatory systems with purely imaginary eigenvalues and investigate the influence of indefinite damping. Finally the possibility of stabilizing circulatory systems...

  7. Computational Hemodynamic Simulation of Human Circulatory System under Altered Gravity (United States)

    Kim. Chang Sung; Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan


    A computational hemodynamics approach is presented to simulate the blood flow through the human circulatory system under altered gravity conditions. Numerical techniques relevant to hemodynamics issues are introduced to non-Newtonian modeling for flow characteristics governed by red blood cells, distensible wall motion due to the heart pulse, and capillary bed modeling for outflow boundary conditions. Gravitational body force terms are added to the Navier-Stokes equations to study the effects of gravity on internal flows. Six-type gravity benchmark problems are originally presented to provide the fundamental understanding of gravitational effects on the human circulatory system. For code validation, computed results are compared with steady and unsteady experimental data for non-Newtonian flows in a carotid bifurcation model and a curved circular tube, respectively. This computational approach is then applied to the blood circulation in the human brain as a target problem. A three-dimensional, idealized Circle of Willis configuration is developed with minor arteries truncated based on anatomical data. Demonstrated is not only the mechanism of the collateral circulation but also the effects of gravity on the distensible wall motion and resultant flow patterns.

  8. [The diseases of circulatory system in employees of railway transport]. (United States)

    Molodtsov, R N; Shemetova, G N


    The article presents the epidemiologic and medical social aspects of diseases of circulatory system in employees of railway transport in 2000-2010 exemplified by Privolzhskiy railroad. The established tendencies in prevalence of pathology of cardio-vascular system in railroad workers makes the issues of practical implementation of priority of prevention in the organization of medical care to this group of patients to come to foreground. The main directions for complex prevention of diseases of circulatory system in employees of railway transport are presented.

  9. Artificial blood circulatory and special Ultrasound Doppler probes for detecting and sizing gaseous embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stark Philipp


    Full Text Available This paper presents a special designed artificial blood circulatory (ABC for studying gaseous embolism based on detection of gaseous emboli and their sizing using ultrasound (US spectral Doppler. Blood mimicking fluid (BMF was used in the circulatory to get valid results without using human blood. The additional necessary degassing circulatory shows a promising effect of decontaminating the BMF from air bubbles. This offers the base for detecting and sizing microemboli using special algorithms and finally leads to reliable calculations of dangerous embolism and its air volume. Standard US probes at an integrated tissue model and a new 8-MHz central catheter ultrasound (CCUS probe inside a superior vena cava model (SVCM are used and deliver the Doppler spectrogram as input for automatic emboli detection and further signal analysis. First results using the newly developed 8-MHz CCUS probe inside the SVCM and its Doppler spectrogram characteristics show promising results but need more detailed studies.

  10. Normal behaviour of circulatory parameters during exercise. Reference values for heart rate and systemic blood pressure. The ECCIS Project data. Epidemiologia e Clinica della Cardiopatia Ischemica Silente. (United States)

    Menghini, F; Dally, L; Fazzini, P F; Menotti, A; Prati, P L; Rovelli, F; Antoniucci, D; Seccareccia, F


    The study of simultaneous variations in heart rate (HR) and systemic blood pressure is of great interest in ergometric practice complementing the analysis of the ST segment by ECG. This paper examines data proceeding from 500 consecutive, normal, exercise stress tests with the aim of offering reference values on the step-by-step behaviour of HR, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) during exercise in a normal population. The sample comes from a large epidemiological study (ECCIS Project) conducted on 4842 healthy, working men, aged 40-59, which proposes to identify, by a 3 stage procedure, subjects with totally asymptomatic coronary artery disease (type I silent ischemia). A further aim of our paper is to examine the influence of some physiological variables (age, height, weight, body mass index, resting HR, SBP and DBP) on the response to effort of HR, SBP and DBP; reciprocal HR/SBP adjustment during exercise; maximal attained workload and recovery time. Due to a preliminary observation that the rate of step-by-step increase in HR and SBP is inversely related to total duration, the population was split into 4 groups according to exercise tolerance (defined by maximal attained workload) to elaborate reference values. Furthermore our data demonstrate that: 1) SBP increases more rapidly with respect to HR for older and heavier subjects; 2) Exercise tolerance is inversely related to age, baseline HR and SBP, and directly related to weight and height; 3) return to baseline conditions, during recovery, is quicker for subjects with better exercise tolerance and lower baseline HR, SBP and weight.

  11. [Design of a testing system for antithrombotic pressure circulatory equipment]. (United States)

    Zhou, Xun; Cui, Haipo; Shang, Kun; Li, Zhelong; Cheng, Enqing


    A new type of testing system used for antithrombotic pressure circulatory equipment has been developed, which realized a new method for the calibration of pressure sensor. Multi-path control and acquisition functions are achieved by this method based on human-computer interaction testing system. The precision of pressure sensor is ob tained by polynomial fitting for each test point using linear interpolation method. The result showed that the precision test of pressure sensor could be realized easily and efficiently, using the developed testing system, and the parameters of pressure sensor could be calibrated effectively, so that it could be accurately used in the antithrombotic pressure circulatory equipment. The developed testing system has a prosperous future in the aspects of promotion and application.

  12. [Caffeine and adaptive changes in the circulatory system during pregnancy]. (United States)

    Cendrowska-Pinkosz, Monika; Dworzański, Wojciech; Krauze, Magdalena; Burdan, Franciszek


    Adaptive physiological changes that occur in pregnant women can fluctuate with the intake of substances with proven, adverse biological effect on the body. Due to the fact that caffeine is one of the most chronically used xenobiotics, the impact of consuming caffeine on adaptive processes in the circulatory system of a pregnant women required a research. Many researchers emphasise its negative effect on the circulatory system of the mother and her offspring. However, in spite of years of observation, there is no clear answer to what extent dose or in what period of time the caffeine modulates the adaptive processes during pregnancy. Because of the potential risk the supply of caffeine during pregnancy should be subjected to considerable restrictions.

  13. Towards a Fast Dynamic Model of the Human Circulatory System (United States)


    4.5m for the pulmonary vascular tree. According to Guyton & Hall (2000), about 5 L is considered normal for an adult human, and the area distribution...decreases further, and even falls below the equilibrium pressure. Guyton & Hall (2000) reports that normal mean pressures are 100 mmHg in the arteries, 20...the order of 100 times faster than realtime. Five liters is considered a normal volume for an adult human circulatory system ( Guyton & Hall, 2000

  14. Modeling the heart and the circulatory system

    CERN Document Server


    The book comprises contributions by some of the most respected scientists in the field of mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of the human cardiocirculatory system. The contributions cover a wide range of topics, from the preprocessing of clinical data to the development of mathematical equations, their numerical solution, and both in-vivo and in-vitro validation. They discuss the flow in the systemic arterial tree and the complex electro-fluid-mechanical coupling in the human heart. Many examples of patient-specific simulations are presented. This book is addressed to all scientists interested in the mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of the human cardiocirculatory system.

  15. A Simulink model for the human circulatory system. (United States)

    Wabel, P; Leonhardt, S


    This paper presents the mathematical simulation of the human circulatory system. The model is based on the former work of Coleman and co-workers and has been redesigned for simulation with the Matlab toolbox "Simulink". It includes the heart and the peripheral circulation, the respiratory system, the kidneys and the major neural and hormonal control mechanisms, which are necessary for maintaining homeostasis. The model contains more than 30 blocks with over 200 physiological variables, which can be accessed and plotted during the simulation.

  16. An extended computational model of the circulatory system for designing ventricular assist devices. (United States)

    Hsu, Po-Lin; Cheng, Sean J; Saumarez, Richard C; Dawes, William N; McMahon, Richard A


    An extended computational model of the circulatory system has been developed to predict blood flow in the presence of ventricular assist devices (VADs). A novel VAD, placed in the descending aorta, intended to offload the left ventricle (LV) and augment renal perfusion is being studied. For this application, a better understanding of the global hemodynamic response of the VAD, in essence an electrically driven pump, and the cardiovascular system is necessary. To meet this need, a model has been established as a nonlinear, lumped-parameter electrical analog, and simulated results under different states [healthy, congestive heart failure (CHF), and postinsertion of VAD] are presented. The systemic circulation is separated into five compartments and the descending aorta is composed of three components to accurately yield the system response of each section before and after the insertion of the VAD. Delays in valve closing time and blood inertia in the aorta were introduced to deliver a more realistic model. Pump governing equations and optimization are based on fundamental theories of turbomachines and can serve as a practical initial design point for rotary blood pumps. The model's results closely mimic established parameters for the circulatory system and confirm the feasibility of the intra-aortic VAD concept. This computational model can be linked with models of the pump motor to provide a valuable tool for innovative VAD design.

  17. Noninvasive optoacoustic system for rapid diagnostics and management of circulatory shock (United States)

    Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Kinsky, Michael; Prough, Donald S.


    Circulatory shock is lethal, if not promptly diagnosed and effectively treated. Typically, circulatory shock resuscitation is guided by blood pressure, heart rate, and mental status, which have poor predictive value. In patients, in whom early goaldirected therapy was applied using central venous oxygenation measurement, a substantial reduction of mortality was reported (from 46.5% to 30%). However, central venous catheterization is invasive, time-consuming and often results in complications. We proposed to use the optoacoustic technique for noninvasive, rapid assessment of central venous oxygenation. In our previous works we demonstrated that the optoacoustic technique can provide measurement of blood oxygenation in veins and arteries due to high contrast and high resolution. In this work we developed a novel optoacoustic system for noninvasive, automatic, real-time, and continuous measurement of central venous oxygenation. We performed pilot clinical tests of the system in human subjects with different oxygenation in the internal jugular vein and subclavian vein. A novel optoacoustic interface incorporating highly-sensitive optoacoustic probes and standard ultrasound imaging probes were developed and built for the study. Ultrasound imaging systems Vivid i and hand-held Vscan (GE Healthcare) as well as Site-Rite 5 (C.R. Bard) were used in the study. We developed a special algorithm for oxygenation monitoring with minimal influence of overlying tissue. The data demonstrate that the system provides precise measurement of venous oxygenation continuously and in real time. Both current value of the venous oxygenation and trend (in absolute values and for specified time intervals) are displayed in the system. The data indicate that: 1) the optoacoustic system developed by our group is capable of noninvasive measurement of blood oxygenation in specific veins; 2) clinical ultrasound imaging systems can facilitate optoacoustic probing of specific blood vessels; 3) the

  18. A novel rat model of cardiopulmonary bypass for deep hypothermic circulatory arrest without blood priming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Weihua; Zhang Yanbo; Liu Donghai; Zhu Yaobin; Qiao Chenhui; Wang Jiaxiang; Xu Yulin


    Background Large animal cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) models are expensive,and prevent assessment of neurocognitive function,and difficulties with long-term recovery.The purpose of this study was to establish a novel rat model of cardiopulmonary bypass for deep hypothermic circulatory arrest without blood priming.Methods Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 450-560 g were randomized to CPB with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) and control groups,with 10 rats each.The experimental protocols,including blood and crystalloid fluid administration,anesthesia,orotracheal intubation,ventilation,cannulation,and heparinization were identical in both groups.After inducing cardiac arrest,the circuit was turned off and rats were left in a DHCA state for 15 minutes.Rats were rewarmed to 34℃ to 35℃ over a period of 36 to 42 minutes using CPB-assisted rewarming,a heating blanket,and a heating lamp along with administration of 0.1 mEq of sodium bicarbonate and 0.14 mEq of calcium chloride.The remaining priming volume was reinfused and animals were weaned from CPB.Results All CPB with DHCA processes were successfully achieved.Blood gas analysis and hemodynamic parameters were in the normal range.The vital signs of all rats were stable.Conclusions Our CPB circuit has several novel features,including a small priming volume,active cooling/rewarming processes,vacuum-assisted venous drainage,peripheral cannulation without thoracotomy or stemotomy,and an accurate means of monitoring peripheral tissue oxygenation.

  19. Adhesion Molecules: Master Controllers of the Circulatory System. (United States)

    Schmidt, Eric P; Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Lee, Warren L; Downey, Gregory P


    This manuscript will review our current understanding of cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) relevant to the circulatory system, their physiological role in control of vascular homeostasis, innate and adaptive immune responses, and their importance in pathophysiological (disease) processes such as acute lung injury, atherosclerosis, and pulmonary hypertension. This is a complex and rapidly changing area of research that is incompletely understood. By design, we will begin with a brief overview of the structure and classification of the major groups of adhesion molecules and their physiological functions including cellular adhesion and signaling. The role of specific CAMs in the process of platelet aggregation and hemostasis and leukocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration will be reviewed as examples of the complex and cooperative interplay between CAMs during physiological and pathophysiological processes. The role of the endothelial glycocalyx and the glycobiology of this complex system related to inflammatory states such as sepsis will be reviewed. We will then focus on the role of adhesion molecules in the pathogenesis of specific disease processes involving the lungs and cardiovascular system. The potential of targeting adhesion molecules in the treatment of immune and inflammatory diseases will be highlighted in the relevant sections throughout the manuscript.

  20. Numerical Models of Human Circulatory System under Altered Gravity: Brain Circulation (United States)

    Kim, Chang Sung; Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan; David, Tim


    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach is presented to model the blood flow through the human circulatory system under altered gravity conditions. Models required for CFD simulation relevant to major hemodynamic issues are introduced such as non-Newtonian flow models governed by red blood cells, a model for arterial wall motion due to fluid-wall interactions, a vascular bed model for outflow boundary conditions, and a model for auto-regulation mechanism. The three-dimensional unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with these models are solved iteratively using the pseudocompressibility method and dual time stepping. Moving wall boundary conditions from the first-order fluid-wall interaction model are used to study the influence of arterial wall distensibility on flow patterns and wall shear stresses during the heart pulse. A vascular bed modeling utilizing the analogy with electric circuits is coupled with an auto-regulation algorithm for multiple outflow boundaries. For the treatment of complex geometry, a chimera overset grid technique is adopted to obtain connectivity between arterial branches. For code validation, computed results are compared with experimental data for steady and unsteady non-Newtonian flows. Good agreement is obtained for both cases. In sin-type Gravity Benchmark Problems, gravity source terms are added to the Navier-Stokes equations to study the effect of gravitational variation on the human circulatory system. This computational approach is then applied to localized blood flows through a realistic carotid bifurcation and two Circle of Willis models, one using an idealized geometry and the other model using an anatomical data set. A three- dimensional anatomical Circle of Willis configuration is reconstructed from human-specific magnetic resonance images using an image segmentation method. The blood flow through these Circle of Willis models is simulated to provide means for studying gravitational effects on the brain

  1. Endoglin regulates mural cell adhesion in the circulatory system. (United States)

    Rossi, Elisa; Smadja, David M; Boscolo, Elisa; Langa, Carmen; Arevalo, Miguel A; Pericacho, Miguel; Gamella-Pozuelo, Luis; Kauskot, Alexandre; Botella, Luisa M; Gaussem, Pascale; Bischoff, Joyce; Lopez-Novoa, José M; Bernabeu, Carmelo


    The circulatory system is walled off by different cell types, including vascular mural cells and podocytes. The interaction and interplay between endothelial cells (ECs) and mural cells, such as vascular smooth muscle cells or pericytes, play a pivotal role in vascular biology. Endoglin is an RGD-containing counter-receptor for β1 integrins and is highly expressed by ECs during angiogenesis. We find that the adhesion between vascular ECs and mural cells is enhanced by integrin activators and inhibited upon suppression of membrane endoglin or β1-integrin, as well as by addition of soluble endoglin (SolEng), anti-integrin α5β1 antibody or an RGD peptide. Analysis of different endoglin mutants, allowed the mapping of the endoglin RGD motif as involved in the adhesion process. In Eng (+/-) mice, a model for hereditary hemorrhagic telangectasia type 1, endoglin haploinsufficiency induces a pericyte-dependent increase in vascular permeability. Also, transgenic mice overexpressing SolEng, an animal model for preeclampsia, show podocyturia, suggesting that SolEng is responsible for podocytes detachment from glomerular capillaries. These results suggest a critical role for endoglin in integrin-mediated adhesion of mural cells and provide a better understanding on the mechanisms of vessel maturation in normal physiology as well as in pathologies such as preeclampsia or hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

  2. Assessment of left heart and pulmonary circulation flow dynamics by a new pulsed mock circulatory system (United States)

    Tanné, David; Bertrand, Eric; Kadem, Lyes; Pibarot, Philippe; Rieu, Régis


    We developed a new mock circulatory system that is able to accurately simulate the human blood circulation from the pulmonary valve to the peripheral systemic capillaries. Two independent hydraulic activations are used to activate an anatomical-shaped left atrial and a left ventricular silicon molds. Using a lumped model, we deduced the optimal voltage signals to control the pumps. We used harmonic analysis to validate the experimental pulmonary and systemic circulation models. Because realistic volumes are generated for the cavities and the resulting pressures were also coherent, the left atrium and left ventricle pressure-volume loops were concordant with those obtained in vivo. Finally we explored left atrium flow pattern using 2C-3D+T PIV measurements. This gave a first overview of the complex 3D flow dynamics inside realistic left atrium geometry.

  3. Mortality from Circulatory System Diseases and Malformations in Children in the State of Rio de Janeiro (United States)

    Salim, Thais Rocha; Soares, Gabriel Porto; Klein, Carlos Henrique; de Oliveira, Glaucia Maria Moraes


    Background The epidemiological profile of mortality in a population is important for the institution of measures to improve health care and reduce mortality Objective To estimate mortality rates and the proportional mortality from cardiovascular diseases and malformations of the circulatory system in children and adolescents. Methods This is a descriptive study of mortality from cardiovascular diseases, malformations of the circulatory system, from all causes, ill-defined causes and external causes in children and adolescents in the state of Rio de Janeiro from 1996 to 2012. Populations were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - IBGE) and deaths obtained from the Department of Informatics of the Unified Health System (DATASUS)/Ministry of Health. Results There were 115,728 deaths from all causes, 69,757 in males. The annual mortality from cardiovascular diseases was 2.7/100,000 in men and 2.6/100,000 in women. The annual mortality from malformations of the circulatory system was 7.5/100,000 in men and 6.6/100,000 in women. Among the specific causes of circulatory diseases, cardiomyopathies had the highest rates of annual proportional mortality, and from malformations of the circulatory system, it occurred due to unspecified malformations of the circulatory system, at all ages and in both genders. Conclusion Mortality from malformations of the circulatory system was most striking in the first years of life, while cardiovascular diseases were more relevant in adolescents. Low access to prenatal diagnosis or at birth probably prevented the proper treatment of malformations of the circulatory system. PMID:27192384

  4. Tissue Functioning and Remodeling in the Circulatory and Ventilatory Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Thiriet, Marc


    The volumes in this authoritative series present a multidisciplinary approach to modeling and simulation of flows in the cardiovascular and ventilatory systems, especially multiscale modeling and coupled simulations. Volume 5 is devoted to cells, tissues, and organs of the cardiovascular and ventilatory systems with an emphasis on mechanotransduction-based regulation of flow. The blood vessel wall is a living tissue that quickly reacts to loads applied on it by the flowing blood. In any segment of a blood vessel, the endothelial and smooth muscle cells can sense unusual time variations in small-magnitude wall shear stress and large-amplitude wall stretch generated by abnormal hemodynamic stresses. These cells respond with a short-time scale (from seconds to hours) to adapt the vessel caliber. Since such adaptive cell activities can be described using mathematical models, a key objective of this volume is to identify the mesoscopic agents and nanoscopic mediators required to derive adequate mathematical models...

  5. Peristaltic flow in non-uniform vessels of the micro-circulatory system

    CERN Document Server

    Maiti, S


    Of concern in the paper is generalized a theoretical study concerning the peristaltic flow of blood in the micro-circulatory system. The vessel is considered to be of non-uniform cross-section and blood to be a non-Newtonian fluid. The progressive wave front of the peristaltic flow is supposed sinusoidal/straight section dominated (SSD) (expansion/contraction type); Reynolds number is considered to be small with reference to the flow of physiological fluids. The non-Newtonian behaviour of blood is illustrated by considering the Herschel-Bulkley fluid model. The objective of the study has been to examine the effect of the effects of amplitude ratio, mean pressure gradient, yield stress and the power law index on the velocity distribution, wall shear stress, streamline pattern and trapping. Considerable quantitative differences between the results obtained for transport in two dimensional channel and an axisymmetric circular tube are noticed. The study shows that peristaltic pumping, flow velocity and wall shea...

  6. Diseases of the circulatory system among adult people diagnosed with infantile autism as children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben


    frequently among people in the comparison group (p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: It is argued that diseases of the circulatory system may be underdiagnosed in people with IA because of the difficulties they face with respect to identifying and communicating symptoms of ill health. Bearing in mind......BACKGROUND: Research dealing with adult people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) noticeably lags behind studies of children and young individuals with ASD. AIMS: The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence and types of diseases of the circulatory system in a clinical sample of 118......, and mean age at follow-up was 49.6 years. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: Of the 118 people with IA, 11 (9.3%) were registered with at least one disease of the circulatory system against 54 (16.1%) in the comparison group (p=0.09; OR=0.54; 95% CI 0.3-1.2). Ischemic heart diseases occurred significantly more...

  7. Control of Cell Fate in the Circulatory and Ventilatory Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Thiriet, Marc


    The volumes in this authoritative series present a multidisciplinary approach to modeling and simulation of flows in the cardiovascular and ventilatory systems, especially multiscale modeling and coupled simulations. The cardiovascular and respiratory systems are tightly coupled, as their primary function is to supply oxygen to and remove carbon dioxide from the body's cells. Because physiological conduits have deformable and reactive walls, macroscopic flow behavior and prediction must be coupled to nano- and microscopic events in a corrector scheme of regulated mechanisms. Therefore, investigation of flows of blood and air in physiological conduits requires an understanding of the biology, chemistry, and physics of these systems together with the mathematical tools to describe their functioning. Volumes 1 and 2 are devoted to cell organization and fate, as well as activities that are autoregulated and/or controlled by the cell environment. Volume 1 examined cellular features that allow adaptation to env...

  8. Intracellular Signaling Mediators in the Circulatory and Ventilatory Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Thiriet, Marc


    The volumes in this authoritative series present a multidisciplinary approach to modeling and simulation of flows in the cardiovascular and ventilatory systems, especially multiscale modeling and coupled simulations. The cardiovascular and respiratory systems are tightly coupled, as their primary function is to supply oxygen to and remove carbon dioxide from the body's cells. Because physiological conduits have deformable and reactive walls, macroscopic flow behavior and prediction must be coupled to phenomenological models of nano- and microscopic events in a corrector scheme of regulated mechanisms when the vessel lumen caliber varies markedly. Therefore, investigation of flows of blood and air in physiological conduits requires an understanding of the biology, chemistry, and physics of these systems together with the mathematical tools to describe their functioning. Volume 4 is devoted to major sets of intracellular mediators that transmit signals upon stimulation of cell-surface receptors.  Activation of...

  9. Optical Dynamic Analysis of Thrombus Inside a Centrifugal Blood Pump During Extracorporeal Mechanical Circulatory Support in a Porcine Model. (United States)

    Fujiwara, Tatsuki; Sakota, Daisuke; Ohuchi, Katsuhiro; Endo, Shu; Tahara, Tomoki; Murashige, Tomotaka; Kosaka, Ryo; Oi, Keiji; Mizuno, Tomohiro; Maruyama, Osamu; Arai, Hirokuni


    Complications due to pump thrombus remain the weak point of mechanical circulatory support (MCS), such as the use of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, leading to poor outcomes. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an effective imaging method using a hyperspectral (HS) camera, which comprises a spectrophotometer and a charge-coupled device camera to discriminate thrombus from whole blood. Animal experiments were conducted to analyze dynamic imaging of thrombus inside a prototype of a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump using an HSI system. Six pigs were divided into a venous circulation group (n = 3) and an arterial circulation group (n = 3). Inflow and outflow cannulae were inserted into the jugular veins in the venous circulation group. The latter simulated an LVAD application. To create thrombogenic conditions, pump flow was maintained at 1 L/min without anticoagulation. An image of the bottom surface of the pump was captured by the HS camera every 4 nm over the wavelength range of 608-752 nm. Real-time dynamic images of the inside of the pump were displayed on the monitor. Appearance of an area displaying thrombus was detected within 24 h after the start of the circulation in every experiment. This imaging system also succeeded in determining the origins of pump thrombus: from inside the pump in two cases, and from outside in four cases. Two main possible sources of pump thrombus originating outside the pump were identified on autopsy: wedge thrombus around the inflow cannula; and string-like thrombus at the junction between the pump inlet and circuit tube. The results of this study from close observation of the changing appearance of pump thrombus may contribute to improvements in the safety of extracorporeal MCS.

  10. Developing seventh grade students' systems thinking skills in the context of the human circulatory system. (United States)

    Raved, Lena; Yarden, Anat


    Developing systems thinking skills in school can provide useful tools to deal with a vast amount of medical and health information that may help learners in decision making in their future lives as citizen. Thus, there is a need to develop effective tools that will allow learners to analyze biological systems and organize their knowledge. Here, we examine junior high school students' systems thinking skills in the context of the human circulatory system. A model was formulated for developing teaching and learning materials and for characterizing students' systems thinking skills. Specifically, we asked whether seventh grade students, who studied about the human circulatory system, acquired systems thinking skills, and what are the characteristics of those skills? Concept maps were used to characterize students' systems thinking components and examine possible changes in the students' knowledge structure. These maps were composed by the students before and following the learning process. The study findings indicate a significant improvement in the students' ability to recognize the system components and the processes that occur within the system, as well as the relationships between different levels of organization of the system, following the learning process. Thus, following learning students were able to organize the systems' components and its processes within a framework of relationships, namely the students' systems thinking skills were improved in the course of learning using the teaching and learning materials.

  11. The effects of aprotinin on blood product transfusion associated with thoracic aortic surgery requiring deep hypothermic circulatory arrest.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Seigne, P W


    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of aprotinin on blood product use and postoperative complications in patients undergoing thoracic aortic surgery requiring deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: A university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Nineteen patients who underwent elective or urgent thoracic aortic surgery. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The total number of units of packed red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, and platelets was significantly less in the group that received aprotinin (p = 0.01, 0.04, and 0.01). The intraoperative transfusion of packed red blood cells and platelets, collection and retransfusion of cell saver, and postoperative transfusion of fresh frozen plasma were also significantly less in the aprotinin group (p = 0.01, 0.02, 0.01, and 0.05). No patient in either group sustained renal dysfunction or a myocardial infarction. Two patients who had not received aprotinin suffered from chronic postoperative seizures, and one patient who had received aprotinin sustained a perioperative stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose aprotinin administration significantly decreases blood product transfusion requirements in the setting of thoracic aortic surgery requiring deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, and it does not appear to be associated with renal or myocardial dysfunction.

  12. Systemic activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 4 channel causes endothelial failure and circulatory collapse: Part 2. (United States)

    Willette, Robert N; Bao, Weike; Nerurkar, Sandhya; Yue, Tian-Li; Doe, Chris P; Stankus, Gerald; Turner, Gregory H; Ju, Haisong; Thomas, Heath; Fishman, Cindy E; Sulpizio, Anthony; Behm, David J; Hoffman, Sandra; Lin, Zuojun; Lozinskaya, Irina; Casillas, Linda N; Lin, Min; Trout, Robert E Lee; Votta, Bartholomew J; Thorneloe, Kevin; Lashinger, Erin S R; Figueroa, David J; Marquis, Robert; Xu, Xiaoping


    The transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid subtype 4 (V4) is a nonselective cation channel that exhibits polymodal activation and is expressed in the endothelium, where it contributes to intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and regulation of cell volume. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the systemic cardiovascular effects of GSK1016790A, a novel TRPV4 activator, and to examine its mechanism of action. In three species (mouse, rat, and dog), the i.v. administration of GSK1016790A induced a dose-dependent reduction in blood pressure, followed by profound circulatory collapse. In contrast, GSK1016790A had no acute cardiovascular effects in the TRPV4-/- null mouse. Hemodynamic analyses in the dog and rat demonstrate a profound reduction in cardiac output. However, GSK1016790A had no effect on rate or contractility in the isolated, buffer-perfused rat heart, and it produced potent endothelial-dependent relaxation of rodent-isolated vascular ring segments that were abolished by nitric-oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition (N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester; L-NAME), ruthenium red, and endothelial NOS (eNOS) gene deletion. However, the in vivo circulatory collapse was not altered by NOS inhibition (L-NAME) or eNOS gene deletion but was associated with (concentration and time appropriate) profound vascular leakage and tissue hemorrhage in the lung, intestine, and kidney. TRPV4 immunoreactivity was localized in the endothelium and epithelium in the affected organs. GSK1016790A potently induced rapid electrophysiological and morphological changes (retraction/condensation) in cultured endothelial cells. In summary, inappropriate activation of TRPV4 produces acute circulatory collapse associated with endothelial activation/injury and failure of the pulmonary microvascular permeability barrier. It will be important to determine the role of TRPV4 in disorders associated with edema and microvascular congestion.

  13. The human heart and the circulatory system as an interesting interdisciplinary topic in lessons of physics and biology (United States)

    Volná, M.; Látal, F.; Kubínek, R.; Richterek, L.


    Many topics which are closely related can be found in the national curriculum of the Czech Republic for physics and biology. One of them is the heart and the circulatory system in the human body. This topic was examined cross curriculum, a teaching module was created and the topic was chosen for our research. The task was to determine if the students of bachelor study are aware of connections between physics and biology within this topic and whether we can help them effectively to describe the corresponding physics phenomena in the human body connected, for example, with a heart attack or with the measurement of blood pressure. In this paper, the heart and the circulatory system are presented as suitable topics for an interdisciplinary teaching module which includes both theoretical and experimental parts. The module was evaluated by a group of first-year undergraduate students of physics at the Faculty of Science, Palacký University. The acquired knowledge was compared with another control group through a test. The highest efficiency of the module was evaluated on the basis of questions that covered the calculation problems.

  14. The artificial ventricle: A conceptual design for a novel mechanical circulatory support system. (United States)

    Sherif, Hisham M F


    We describe a novel design for a new mechanical circulatory support pump which can be utilized for single or biventricular support in a completely internal configuration. The device has a long projected service life, a totally implantable, readily available and off-the-shelf energy source. The proposed device is a pulsatile, positive-displacement blood pump composed of a conically-shaped compliance chamber, constructed of a biocompatible material and attached to two bioprosthetic valves (an inlet valve and an outlet valve), surrounded by radially-arranged contractile elements, made of an electro-active polymer and connected to a common stimulating electrode connected to an implantable permanent pacemaker. The entire assembly is housed in a hermetically sealed biologically inert shell. The energy output from the pacemaker will cause the deformation of the contractile elements and thus compression of the compliance chamber, effecting ejection of the blood through the outlet valve. Based on a design emulating the natural anatomic configuration, the device shall be able to provide clinically significant mechanical assistance and/or replacement of the native heart function and thus a means of supporting the failing ventricle(s) or replacing the failing heart for an extended period of time. The proposed design offers a new pulsatile, positive displacement mechanical circulatory support or replacement for one or both ventricles, is completely implantable, is composed of readily available materials, has minimal energy requirements and an extended service life on internal power supply.

  15. Burden of Circulatory System Diseases and Ignored Barriers ofKnowledge Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed-Basir Ghafouri


    Full Text Available Circulatory system disease raise third highest disability-adjusted life years among Iranians and ischemic cardiac diseases are main causes for such burden. Despite available evidences on risk factors of the disease, no effective intervention was implemented to control and prevent the disease. This paper non-systematically reviews available literature on the problem, solutions, and barriers of implementation of knowledge translation in Iran. It seems that there are ignored factors such as cultural and motivational issues in knowledge translation interventions but there are hopes for implementation of started projects and preparation of students as next generation of knowledge transferors.

  16. Efficiency of Reflex Therapy in Complex Treatment of Circulatory Disturbances in Vertebrobasilar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goydenko V. S.


    Full Text Available The article deals with a complex examination and treatment of 198 patients (142 women and 56 men with circulatory disturbances in vertebrobasilar. Mean age of patients was 53.8±7.1 years. Reflex therapy including reflex therapy and biodynamic backbone correction was shown to increase the efficiency of complex therapy, allows to effect different chains of the developed pathological system, the fact confirmed by the dynamics of neurologic syndromes and dynamics of cerebrovascular reactivity at transcranial Doppler sonography.

  17. Diseases of the circulatory system: health status and perspectives for changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Klimenko


    Full Text Available During last 20 years rates of incidence and prevalence of diseases of the circulatory system in Ukraine have been growing from year to year and became problems of current interest. According to the program of WHO, realization of diseases prevention is provided by using of scientific justification and monitoring of health indexes, including diseases of the circulatory system. Goal of our research was to analyze health status of population of Zaporozhye region concerning cardiovascular diseases. Data since 1995 to 2012 y. were taken in the Center of medical statistics of Zaporozhye region. Comparative analysis of obtained data was conducted in dynamics and with definition of specific weight of able to work population in structure of indexes and gender differences. In article we showed, that on the background of depopulation of Ukraine during last 20 years, prevalence of diseases of the circulatory system increased by 2 times, and level of mortality from them increased for 45%. Specific weight of mortality from diseases of the circulatory system among adult population (state for 01.2013 y. in Ukraine was 65,7%, in Zaporozhye region – 63,6%, among able to work population – 30,5%, in Zaporozhye region – 33,4%, but mortality among able to work men in Zaporozhye region was in 5,5 times higher than in women. Specific weight of the diseases of the circulatory system in structure of general morbidity in total population in Ukraine was 31,5%, among able to work population – 24,1%; among total population of Zaporozhye region – 36,6% (in town – 35,0%; in country region – 39,8%, among able to work population of Zaporozhye region – 24,6% (in town – 22,8%; in country region – 27,6%. Structure of general morbidity of the cardiovascular diseases during last 10 years in Ukraine and in Zaporozhye region is stable. Leading place belongs to arterial hypertension: 56,1%- in Ukraine, 57,7 % - in Zaporozhye region. Comparing to Ukraine, before 2005 y

  18. Long-term Mechanical Circulatory Support System reliability recommendation by the National Clinical Trial Initiative subcommittee. (United States)

    Lee, James


    The Long-Term Mechanical Circulatory Support (MCS) System Reliability Recommendation was published in the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs (ASAIO) Journal and the Annals of Thoracic Surgery in 1998. At that time, it was stated that the document would be periodically reviewed to assess its timeliness and appropriateness within 5 years. Given the wealth of clinical experience in MCS systems, a new recommendation has been drafted by consensus of a group of representatives from the medical community, academia, industry, and government. The new recommendation describes a reliability test methodology and provides detailed reliability recommendations. In addition, the new recommendation provides additional information and clinical data in appendices that are intended to assist the reliability test engineer in the development of a reliability test that is expected to give improved predictions of clinical reliability compared with past test methods. The appendices are available for download at the ASAIO journal web site at

  19. [Forming a community at risk for circulatory system diseases among workers engaged into underground mining]. (United States)

    Shliapnikov, D M; Shur, P Z; Kostarev, V G; Alexeyev, V B; Vlasova, E M; Uhabov, V M


    Forming a community at risk for circulatory system diseases will increase efficiency of medical and prophylactic measures on managing risk of arterial hypertension. Epidemiologic analysis helped to reveal reliable connection between arterial hypertension predictors and work conditions of mining machine operators and supported actualization of high occupational risk suggested in a priori evaluation. Mathematic modelling helped to forecast increase in the disease probability: with noise level of 94 dB after 10 years of work, 17.9% of workers are expected to have arterial hypertension preventing from further occupational activity. Forecasting results of arterial hypertension probability help to form risk groups for medical and preventive technologies managing occupational risk, and predictors enable to specify necessity of individual medical preventive measures.

  20. A fast building and effective hydraulic pediatric mock circulatory system for the evaluation of a left ventricular assist device. (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Ruan, Xiaodong; Zou, Jun; Qian, Wenwei; Fu, Xin


    A mock circulatory system (MCS) has been proven a useful tool in the development of a ventricular assist device. Nowadays a MCS aimed at the evaluation of pediatric blood pumps, which require many different considerations compared with that of adults, has become an urgent need. This article presents the details on how the dynamic process of the left ventricle, which is described in terms of the pressure-volume loop (P-V loop), and the properties of the circulation such as compliance and resistance are simulated by hydraulic elements. A simple control method is introduced to reproduce the physiological afterload and preload sensitivities of the mock ventricle for the first time. Hemodynamic performance of the system is obtained by medical sensors to validate the similarity of the device to the native cardiovascular system. The actual sensitivities of the mock ventricle are obtained intuitively from the changes of the P-V loops. The aortic input impedance of the MCS is also obtained and compared with the data from previous medical reports. At last a pediatric left ventricular assist device (LVAD) prototype is introduced for testing to further verify the effectiveness of the MCS. The experimental results indicate that this pediatric MCS is capable of reproducing basic hemodynamic characteristics of a child in both normal and pathological conditions and it is sufficient for testing a pediatric LVAD. Besides, most components constituting the main hydraulic part of this MCS are inexpensive off-the-shelf products, making the MCS easy and fast to build.

  1. Transfusion associated circulatory overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Agnihotri


    Full Text Available Transfusion associated circulatory overload (TACO is an established, but grossly under diagnosed and underreported complication of blood transfusion. We present the case of a 46-year-old diabetic and hypertensive patient admitted to our hospital for recurrent episodes of urinary retention. Over initial 3 days of the admission, the patient received multiple units of packed red blood cells (RBC and fresh frozen plasma, uneventfully. However, the patient developed signs and symptoms suggestive of TACO with only small amount of the 4 th unit of RBC. The patient had to be shifted to the Intensive Care Unit for further management of this complication. Etiology of TACO is more complex than a mere circulatory overload and is still not completely understood. TACO leads to a prolonged hospital stay and morbidity in the patients developing this complication. TACO thus needs to be suspected in patients at risk for this complication.

  2. [The influence of the length of work on the adaptation of the circulatory system of male teachers of different specialities]. (United States)

    Kirilina, V M; Goranskiĭ, A I


    The problem of human adaptation to the social and biological conditions of the existence is placed at the center of attention of many natural and social sciences studying vital activity of a person in all forms it displays. The basis of the existence of the human population is considered to be a social and labor activity of people. Recently, the importance of researches has increased, which enables to evaluate the functional state of a person under the circumstances of adaptation to a particular occupation. These researches are the theoretical foundation to develop methods for improving the efficiency of people in many kinds of professions, and especially it is important for elderly people. The results of social and hygienic researches among the middle-aged and elderly people involved in different trades vary and are stipulated generally by the conditions of the working environment, difficulties and intensity of work processes. The study of the features of the circulatory system of a person in the process of working activities is a significant issue in physiology. It is found that the greatest changes in the functional parameters of the blood circulation are observed in young and elderly people. In the same way, it is shown that it depends on the type of adaptation, age characteristics, work experience which result in slowing down the rate of the processes of the nervous system, the regulation of blood circulation becomes inert, the level of physical health reduces, and age displacements accelerate. These changes are considered as a result of increased spending of physiological reserves of the organism in various environmental conditions.

  3. Nursing diagnoses and outcomes related to the circulatory-system terms (ICNP® represented in an ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina Cubas


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop titles of Nursing Diagnoses and Outcomes (ND/NO through the relationship between the terms of the Focus axis, limited to the Circulatory System Process, and the terms of other ICNP® axes and to integrate these terms into an ontology. Titles were developed linking 17 terms of the focus axis, which were evaluated by expert nurses in five Brazilian cities. Titles whose use concordance was above 0.80 were included in the ontology. In total, 89 titles for ND/NO were supported in the literature, and 19 were not supported; 37 were assessed as eligible for use in healthcare practice and were included in the ontology. The construction of ND/NO titles based on the ICNP® and using a formal representation of knowledge is a task that requires deepening concepts used for nursing and adequate classification revisions. The elaborated titles will facilitate the composition of diagnostics that are more consistent with practice.

  4. A LabVIEW model incorporating an open-loop arterial impedance and a closed-loop circulatory system. (United States)

    Cole, R T; Lucas, C L; Cascio, W E; Johnson, T A


    While numerous computer models exist for the circulatory system, many are limited in scope, contain unwanted features or incorporate complex components specific to unique experimental situations. Our purpose was to develop a basic, yet multifaceted, computer model of the left heart and systemic circulation in LabVIEW having universal appeal without sacrificing crucial physiologic features. The program we developed employs Windkessel-type impedance models in several open-loop configurations and a closed-loop model coupling a lumped impedance and ventricular pressure source. The open-loop impedance models demonstrate afterload effects on arbitrary aortic pressure/flow inputs. The closed-loop model catalogs the major circulatory waveforms with changes in afterload, preload, and left heart properties. Our model provides an avenue for expanding the use of the ventricular equations through closed-loop coupling that includes a basic coronary circuit. Tested values used for the afterload components and the effects of afterload parameter changes on various waveforms are consistent with published data. We conclude that this model offers the ability to alter several circulatory factors and digitally catalog the most salient features of the pressure/flow waveforms employing a user-friendly platform. These features make the model a useful instructional tool for students as well as a simple experimental tool for cardiovascular research.

  5. System analysis of changes in cardiovascular circulatory dynamics in experimental diphtheria in rabbit. (United States)

    Zotov, A K; Frolov, V A; Zotova, T J


    Trivariate correlation analysis of hemodynamic indices of the cardiovascular system in rabbits with diphtheria showed that adaptation of this system to direct action of diphtherin can be visualized by analysis of trivariate correlation tightness for indices of intraventricular pressure in the left and right ventricles and indices of systemic blood pressure. Using empirical production functions for systemic blood pressure indices we found that the contribution of intraventricular pressure in the left and right ventricles on blood pressure values is changed in diphtheria compared to the control. Basing on entropy analysis we established that the regimen of control over values of working intraventricular pressure in both left and right ventricles in diphtheria is changed from quasidetermined to stochastic.


    Timofeieva, A V; Klimova, T M; Mikhailova, A E; Zakharova, R N; Vinokurova, S P; Timofeiev, L F


    The article considers results of single-step study in random sampling of female students of the M.K. Ammosov north-east federal university (n=456). The study was carried out to investigate somatotype and functional state of circulatory system. The standard technique was applied to measure height, body mass, chest circumference, level of arterial pressure and rate of heart beats. The type of somatotype was established using Pignet index. The tone of vegetative system was determined using Kérdö index. The adaptation potential of circulatory system was determined using functional changes index. The results of study established that in 61% of examined female students the type of constitution corresponds to normosthenic one. The percentage of persons with asthenic and hypersthenic type of constitution amounted to 27% and 12% correspondingly. The signs of increasing oftone ofsympathetic nervous system are observed in 89% of girls. The functional condition of circulatory system is evaluated as "tension of adaptation mechanisms" that is apparently related to period of adaptation to new conditions. The prolonged preservation of such states results in exhaustion offunctional resources of organism and can promote development of diseases. In conditions of impacting of unfavorable ecological factors the deconditionning disorders can significantly contribute to health disturbances and decreasing of life quality. To preserve youth's health during period of education the comprehensive strategy is to be implemented such components as dynamic monitoring of health, organization of adequate diet, explanation of necessity of observance of sleep and rest pattern, development of conditions for active aerobic physical exertion and activities on correction of risk factors of development of diseases are to be included.

  7. Blood groups systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranadhir Mitra


    Full Text Available International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system.

  8. 77 FR 16038 - Circulatory System Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... by HeartWare, Inc. The HVAS is an implantable electrically powered centrifugal-flow rotary blood pump... require the creation of an abdominal pump pocket. The HVAS is indicated for use as a bridge to cardiac... Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (S-ICD) System sponsored by Cameron Health, Inc. The...

  9. In vivo 3D visualization of peripheral circulatory system using linear optoacoustic array (United States)

    Ermilov, Sergey A.; Brecht, Hans-Peter; Fronheiser, Matthew P.; Nadvoretsky, Vyacheslav; Su, Richard; Conjusteau, Andre; Oraevsky, Alexander A.


    In this work we modified light illumination of the laser optoacoustic (OA) imaging system to improve the 3D visualization of human forearm vasculature. The computer modeling demonstrated that the new illumination design that features laser beams converging on the surface of the skin in the imaging plane of the probe provides superior OA images in comparison to the images generated by the illumination with parallel laser beams. We also developed the procedure for vein/artery differentiation based on OA imaging with 690 nm and 1080 nm laser wavelengths. The procedure includes statistical analysis of the intensities of OA images of the neighboring blood vessels. Analysis of the OA images generated by computer simulation of a human forearm illuminated at 690 nm and 1080 nm resulted in successful differentiation of veins and arteries. In vivo scanning of a human forearm provided high contrast 3D OA image of a forearm skin and a superficial blood vessel. The blood vessel image contrast was further enhanced after it was automatically traced using the developed software. The software also allowed evaluation of the effective blood vessel diameter at each step of the scan. We propose that the developed 3D OA imaging system can be used during preoperative mapping of forearm vessels that is essential for hemodialysis treatment.

  10. Mortality due to diseases of the circulatory system among the elderly population in Brazilian Amazon: temporal and spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Vila Real Nunes


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Circulatory Diseases (CD are the major cause of death among the elderly population in Brazilian Amazon. OBJECTIVE: to analyze standardized mortality rates of diseases of the circulatory system (DCS, according to the main causes of death among the elderly, in microregions of the Brazilian Amazon, in the period of 1998 - 2007. METHODS: ecological study of mortality rates distribution standardized by CD and corrected by deaths from poorly defined causes among the elderly (> 65 years of age who lived in Brazilian Amazon in the period of 1998 - 2007. The analysis were carried out by the linear regression, trend, and spatial distribution of Kernel. RESULTS: We verified an increasing trend in mortality by CD (β1 = 28.34 p = 0.01, due to the increasing trend in the States of Maranhão and Tocantins. The central region of Mato Grosso, Northern Tocantins, Eastern Pará and Southwestern Maranhão present hot spots with the highest mortality rates. Males present higher rates when compared to females all over the region; rates of mortality due to acute myocardial infarction and hypertensive disease present the same spatial standard of the CD group and the rates of cerebrovascular diseases present a different spatial distribution standard. Increment in mortality rates according to age was observed: the greater the age, the higher is mortality by CD. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Amazon presents an increasing trend with high rates of mortality by the circulatory diseases, and the geographic areas with the highest rates are around the Brazilian Amazon, in the states of Tocantins, Maranhão and Mato Grosso.

  11. NASA Models of Space Radiation Induced Cancer, Circulatory Disease, and Central Nervous System Effects (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Chappell, Lori J.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.


    The risks of late effects from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are potentially a limitation to long-term space travel. The late effects of highest concern have significant lethality including cancer, effects to the central nervous system (CNS), and circulatory diseases (CD). For cancer and CD the use of age and gender specific models with uncertainty assessments based on human epidemiology data for low LET radiation combined with relative biological effectiveness factors (RBEs) and dose- and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factors (DDREF) to extrapolate these results to space radiation exposures is considered the current "state-of-the-art". The revised NASA Space Risk Model (NSRM-2014) is based on recent radio-epidemiology data for cancer and CD, however a key feature of the NSRM-2014 is the formulation of particle fluence and track structure based radiation quality factors for solid cancer and leukemia risk estimates, which are distinct from the ICRP quality factors, and shown to lead to smaller uncertainties in risk estimates. Many persons exposed to radiation on earth as well as astronauts are life-time never-smokers, which is estimated to significantly modify radiation cancer and CD risk estimates. A key feature of the NASA radiation protection model is the classification of radiation workers by smoking history in setting dose limits. Possible qualitative differences between GCR and low LET radiation increase uncertainties and are not included in previous risk estimates. Two important qualitative differences are emerging from research studies. The first is the increased lethality of tumors observed in animal models compared to low LET radiation or background tumors. The second are Non- Targeted Effects (NTE), which include bystander effects and genomic instability, which has been observed in cell and animal models of cancer risks. NTE's could lead to significant changes in RBE and DDREF estimates for GCR particles, and the potential


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Adaskin


    Full Text Available The article describes the technology of remote patient monitoring and the parameters of circulatory assist device AVK-N as well as the advantages of said technology to improve the efficiency of personalized medicine in diagnosis and treatment of patients with AVK-N in the postoperative period. Authors show the capabilities of remote monitoring technology to determine the location of the patient by satellite navigation in the case of emergency call for medical and technical services, and present the structure and modes of the displayed information for mobile devices and Web-server. Doctor-patient interaction based on remote monitoring technology via mobile/ satellite/wired Internet is also shown. 

  13. Long-term allergen exposure induces adipose tissue inflammation and circulatory system injury. (United States)

    Jung, Chien-Cheng; Su, Huey-Jen


    The purpose of this study was to study whether allergen exposure can induce inflammation and lower the anti-inflammation levels in serum and in adipose tissues, and further develop cardiovascular injury. Our data showed that heart rate was significantly higher in the OVA-challenged mice compared to control mice. Moreover, there were higher expressions of pro-inflammation genes in the OVA-challenged mice in adipose tissues, and the expressions of anti-inflammation genes were lower. The levels of inflammation mediators were associated in serum and adipose tissues. The level of circulatory injury lactate dehydrogenase was significantly associated with the levels of E-selectin, resistin and adiponectin in the serum. The hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry stains indicated the OVA-challenged mice had higher levels of inflammation. In summary, the current study demonstrated allergen exposure can cause cardiovascular injury, and inflammatory mediators in adipose tissues play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular injury.

  14. Signaling at the cell surface in the circulatory and ventilatory systems

    CERN Document Server

    Thiriet, Marc


    The volumes in this authoritative series present a multidisciplinary approach to modeling and simulation of flows in the cardiovascular and ventilatory systems, especially multiscale modeling and coupled simulations. The cardiovascular and respiratory systems are tightly coupled, as their primary function is to supply oxygen to and remove carbon dioxide from the body's cells. Because physiological conduits have deformable and reactive walls, macroscopic flow behavior and prediction must be coupled to nano- and microscopic events in a corrector scheme of regulated mechanisms when the vessel lumen caliber varies markedly. Therefore, investigation of flows of blood and air in physiological conduits requires an understanding of the biology, chemistry, and physics of these systems together with the mathematical tools to describe their functioning. Volume 3 is devoted to the set of mediators of the cell surface, especially ion and molecular carriers and catalytic receptors that, once liganded and activated, initiat...

  15. Reduced defense of central blood volume during acute lower body negative pressure-induced hypovolemic circulatory stress in aging women. (United States)

    Lindenberger, Marcus; Länne, Toste


    Elderly humans are more vulnerable to trauma and hemorrhage than young and elderly men and respond with decreased defense of central blood volume during acute experimental hypovolemia induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP). However, these defense mechanisms have not been evaluated in elderly women. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of compensatory responses to defend central blood volume during experimental hypovolemia in elderly and young women. Cardiovascular responses in 34 women, 12 elderly (66 ± 1 years) and 22 young women (23 ± 0.4 years), were studied during experimental hypovolemia induced by LBNP of 11 to 44 mmHg. Air plethysmography was used to assess the capacitance response (redistribution of peripheral venous blood to the central circulation) as well as net capillary fluid transfer from tissue to blood in the arm. Lower body negative pressure seemed to create comparable hypovolemia measured as total calf volume increase in elderly and young women. Heart rate increased less in elderly women (LBNP of 44 mmHg: 20 ± 2 vs. 37 ± 4%; P < 0.01) but with similar (%) increase in forearm vascular resistance. Mobilization of capacitance blood from the peripheral circulation was both slower and decreased by ∼60% in elderly women (P < 0.001), and net capillary fluid absorption from surrounding tissues was reduced by ∼40% (P < 0.01, LBNP of 44 mmHg). Elderly women responded with less increase in heart rate but with equal forearm vascular resistance (%) response during LBNP. Furthermore, the compensatory capacitance response was both slower and substantially decreased, and net capillary fluid absorption considerably reduced, collectively indicating less efficiency to defend central blood volume in elderly than in young women.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mürşet ÇAKMAK


    Full Text Available This study is aimed to investigate effects of teaching “Our Circulatory System”, which is one of the subjects in Science Technology Education curriculum, with concept maps on learning level of students comparing with the traditional methods. The study was carried out in a primary school in Diyarbakır, in 2011, and it is an experimental study with a pre-post test control group. The test group included 80 (N=80 6th year students. Control group was taught using the traditional methods while test-group was trained with the concept maps. Data was collected using achievement test, which has 32 items and of which reliability co-efficient was 0,79. Research period lasted 5 weeks. The data collected was evaluated using SPSS-17. T-test analytical techniques were used to analyse. The significance level was considered as 0.05. As a result, teaching with the concept maps was found to affect students’ academic success at significant level. Some suggestions were made in the light of outcomes.

  17. [Ischemic Changes in the Electrocardiogram and Circulatory Collapse Accompanied by Severe Anemia Owing to the Delay of Red Blood Cell Concentrate Transfusion in Two Patients with Intraoperative Massive Bleeding]. (United States)

    Horiuchi, Toshinori; Noguchi, Teruo; Kurita, Naoko; Yamaguchi, Ayako; Takeda, Masafumi; Sha, Keiichi; Nagahata, Toshihiro


    We present two patients developing intraoperative massive bleeding and showed ischemic changes in the electrocardiogram and circulatory collapse accompanied by severe anemia owing to the delay of red blood cell concentrate transfusion. One patient underwent hepatectomy and the other pancreaticoduodenectomy. Their lowest hemoglobin concentration was around 2 g x dl(-1), and they showed ischemic changes in the electrocardiogram and severe decreases in blood pressure. The former received compatible red blood cell concentrate and the latter received uncrossmatched same blood group red blood cell concentrate immediately, and their electrocardiogram and blood pressure quickly improved. To avoid life-threatening anemia, emergency red blood cell concentrate transfusion including compatible different blood group transfusion should be applied for intraoperative massive bleeding.

  18. 77 FR 66847 - Circulatory System Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... aorta, thus increasing blood flow to the coronary arteries and increasing myocardial oxygen supply... bypass blood pumps (52 FR 17737, May 11, 1987). In 1993, FDA published a proposed rule requiring filing a... external pressure to the lower extremities during diastole to increase coronary perfusion pressure,...

  19. Influence of blood viscosity on circulatory parameters determined by first-pass radionuclide angiocardiography in cor pulmonale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambo, K. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Pecs (Hungary); Toth, K. [Dept. of Medicine, Div. of Cardiology Univ. Medical School, Pecs (Hungary)


    First-pass radionuclide angiocardiography (FPRNA) with {sup 99m}Tc-albumin was performed in 19 patients with cor pulmonale. Pulmonary circulation time (PCT), mean transit time (MTT), pulmonary stagnation index (PSI) were calculated from the time-activity curves for the estimation of cardiopulmonary circulation. Whole blood viscosity (WBV), plasma viscosity (PV) and hematocrit (HTC) were also measured on the same day. Significant prolongation of all parameters was observed (WBW: 5,04{+-}1.19 mPAS; PV: 1,36{+-}0,17 mPAS; HTC: 47,6{+-}2,37%; PCT: 7,10{+-}2,15 s; MTT: 9,33{+-}4,11 s; PSI: 1,30{+-}0,37) in patients with cor pulmonale. Significant positive correlations were found between PCT and WBV (r=0,552; 0,001

  20. Biomedical technology transfer: Bioinstrumentation for cardiology, neurology, and the circulatory system (United States)


    Developments in applying aerospace medical technology to the design and production of medical equipment and instrumentation are reported. Projects described include intercranial pressure transducers, leg negative pressure devices, a synthetic speech prosthesis for victims of cerebral palsy, and a Doppler blood flow instrument. Commercialization activities for disseminating and utilizing NASA technology, and new biomedical problem areas are discussed.

  1. Life expectancy and death by diseases of the circulatory system in patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Hällgren, Jonas;


    Excess mortality from diseases and medical conditions (natural death) in persons with psychiatric disorders has been extensively reported. Even in the Nordic countries with well-developed welfare systems, register based studies find evidence of an excess mortality. In recent years, cardiac...... mortality and death by diseases of the circulatory system has seen a decline in all the Nordic countries, but a recent paper indicates that women and men in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden, who had been hospitalised for a psychotic disorder, had a two to three-fold increased risk of dying from a cardiovascular...... disease. The aim of this study was to compare the mortality by diseases of the circulatory system among patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia in the three Nordic countries Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. Furthermore, the aim was to examine and compare life expectancy among these patients. Cause...

  2. A new method of providing pulsatile flow in a centrifugal pump: assessment of pulsatility using a mock circulatory system. (United States)

    Herreros, Jesús; Berjano, Enrique J; Sales-Nebot, Laura; Más, Pedro; Calvo, Irene; Mastrobuoni, Stefano; Mercé, Salvador


    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential advantages of pulsatile flow as compared with continuous flow. However, to date, physiologic pumps have been technically complex and their application has therefore remained in the experimental field. We have developed a new type of centrifugal pump, which can provide pulsatile as well as continuous flow. The inner wall of a centrifugal pump is pulsed by means of a flexible membrane, which can be accurately controlled by means of either a hydraulic or pneumatic driver. The aim of this study was to assess the hydraulic behavior of the new pump in terms of surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE). We conducted experiments using a mock circulatory system including a membrane oxygenator. No differences were found in the pressure-flow characteristics between the new pump and a conventional centrifugal pump, suggesting that the inclusion of the flexible membrane does not alter hydraulic performance. The value of SHE rose when systolic volume was increased. However, SHE dropped when the percentage of ejection time was reduced and also when the continuous flow (programmed by the centrifugal console) increased. Mean flow matched well with the continuous flow set by the centrifugal console, that is, the pulsatile component of the flow was exclusively controlled by the pulsatile console, and was therefore independent of the continuous flow programmed by the centrifugal console. The pulsatility of the new pump was approximately 25% of that created with a truly pulsatile pump.

  3. Progression of Mortality due to Diseases of the Circulatory System and Human Development Index in Rio de Janeiro Municipalities (United States)

    Soares, Gabriel Porto; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Silva, Nelson Albuquerque de Souza e; de Oliveira, Glaucia Maria Moraes


    Background Diseases of the circulatory system (DCS) are the major cause of death in Brazil and worldwide. Objective To correlate the compensated and adjusted mortality rates due to DCS in the Rio de Janeiro State municipalities between 1979 and 2010 with the Human Development Index (HDI) from 1970 onwards. Methods Population and death data were obtained in DATASUS/MS database. Mortality rates due to ischemic heart diseases (IHD), cerebrovascular diseases (CBVD) and DCS adjusted by using the direct method and compensated for ill-defined causes. The HDI data were obtained at the Brazilian Institute of Applied Research in Economics. The mortality rates and HDI values were correlated by estimating Pearson linear coefficients. The correlation coefficients between the mortality rates of census years 1991, 2000 and 2010 and HDI data of census years 1970, 1980 and 1991 were calculated with discrepancy of two demographic censuses. The linear regression coefficients were estimated with disease as the dependent variable and HDI as the independent variable. Results In recent decades, there was a reduction in mortality due to DCS in all Rio de Janeiro State municipalities, mainly because of the decline in mortality due to CBVD, which was preceded by an elevation in HDI. There was a strong correlation between the socioeconomic indicator and mortality rates. Conclusion The HDI progression showed a strong correlation with the decline in mortality due to DCS, signaling to the relevance of improvements in life conditions. PMID:27849263

  4. Stagnation point flow and heat transfer on a thin porous sheet: Applications to flow dynamics of the circulatory system (United States)

    Misra, J. C.; Sinha, A.; Mallick, B.


    The paper is concerned with the modeling and analysis of stagnation point flow and heat transfer on a thin porous sheet under the action of an induced magnetic field. The fluid is considered to be incompressible viscous and electrically conducting. The study is motivated towards exploring some interesting phenomena in the micro-circulatory system. Heat transfer is considered to be governed by the heat equation. In order to take care of the induced magnetism that affects the flow process, the flow equations are coupled with magnetic field variables. The analysis has been performed under the purview of the boundary layer theory, together with the use of similarity transformation. The transformed equations are solved by developing an appropriate numerical method. Numerical results have been computed for a typical situation of the fluid in motion. The results are displayed graphically/in tabular form, which depict the distribution of velocity and temperature under the action of the induced magnetic field and permeability of the porous sheet. The study shows that the flow of the fluid reduces, as the strength of the induced magnetic field increases. However, the reduction in velocity is accompanied by an enhancement of the temperature field.

  5. Bonghan circulatory system as an extension of acupuncture meridians%作为经络延伸的"Bonghan"循环系统(一)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwang-Sup Soh; 贾召锋; 张维波


    The Bonghan system is a newly-discovered circulatory system, which corresponds to classical acupuncture meridians and was discovered in the early 1960s by Bonghan Kim. Despite its potential importance in biology and medicine, it has been ignored or forgotten for a long time. Only recently have most of its significant parts, such as the Bonghan system (BHS) inside blood or lymph vessels, on the surfaces of internal organs, and in brain ventricles, been confirmed. For this, novel methods using modern technology were necessary because Bonghan Kim did not describe his methods. For example, Among other methods, the discovery of a BHS-specific dye, trypan blue, was one of the most important original contributions that made BHS observation possible. With this technique, the BHS in adipose tissue became traceable, and the BHS was discovered on the fascia surrounding tumor tissues, a finding which may have great significance in relation to serious health problems in modem society, namely, obesity and cancer.%BonIghan系统(BHS)是一个新发现的循环系统,与传统经络相吻合.BH系统在血管、淋巴管、器官表而与内部、脑室中的存在得到证实.为进一步证实该理论,本文融入现代技术的新方法,发现BH系统特异性染料锥虫蓝,可清楚观察到BH系统.采用此技术,可追踪脂肪组织中的BH系统,发现肿瘤筋膜上的BH系统,这对肥胖、癌症等问题的解决密切相关.

  6. Reproduction of consistent pulse-waveform changes using a computational model of the cerebral circulatory system. (United States)

    Connolly, Mark; He, Xing; Gonzalez, Nestor; Vespa, Paul; DiStefano, Joe; Hu, Xiao


    Due to the inaccessibility of the cranial vault, it is difficult to study cerebral blood flow dynamics directly. A mathematical model can be useful to study these dynamics. The model presented here is a novel combination of a one-dimensional fluid flow model representing the major vessels of the circle of Willis (CoW), with six individually parameterized auto-regulatory models of the distal vascular beds. This model has the unique ability to simulate high temporal resolution flow and velocity waveforms, amenable to pulse-waveform analysis, as well as sophisticated phenomena such as auto-regulation. Previous work with human patients has shown that vasodilation induced by CO2 inhalation causes 12 consistent pulse-waveform changes as measured by the morphological clustering and analysis of intracranial pressure algorithm. To validate this model, we simulated vasodilation and successfully reproduced 9 out of the 12 pulse-waveform changes. A subsequent sensitivity analysis found that these 12 pulse-waveform changes were most affected by the parameters associated with the shape of the smooth muscle tension response and vessel elasticity, providing insight into the physiological mechanisms responsible for observed changes in the pulse-waveform shape.

  7. Effect of Kampo formulations (traditional Chinese medicine) on circulatory parameters. (United States)

    Xu, F H; Uebaba, K


    The pharmacological action of 6 main Kampo formulations (1.Mao -to: [Japanese pictograph see text] MA HUANG TANG; 2. Shimbu -to: [Japanese pictograph see text]: ZHEN WU TANG; 3. Ninjin -to: [Japanese pictograph see text] : REN SHEN TANG; 4.Shigyaku-san: [Japanese pictograph see text] : SI NI SAN; 5.Keishi-to: Japanese pictograph see text] : GUI ZHI TANG; 6. Shimotsu - to: [Japanese pictograph see text] : SI WU TANG) on circulatory and autonomic nervous system were studied. 7 healthy adult males( age, 22.3 +/- 1.8 years old ) had 6 basic Kampo formulations, followed by noninvasive measurement of systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean blood pressure (MBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO ), cardiacindex (CI), total peripheral resistance (TPR) by means of systolic area method of brachialsphygmography, every 30 minutes for 2 hours. As results, Mao - to induced an increase of BP,HR,SV,CO and CI, but a decrease of TPR. Keishi - to induced an increase of SBP and SV, and Shimotsu-to induced an increase of DBP and MBP, HR was slowed during former period after oral administration of Shigyaku - san, and later period after oral administration of Shimbu-to and Shimotsu-to. Regarding autonomic activity, Mao-to(former period of experiment ), Shimbu - to and Shimotsu-to induced supression of sympathetic activity, on the other hand, Mao-to (later period of experiment ) and Shiyaku - san showed a tendency of parasympathomimetic action. Mao -to induced the strongest activation of circulatory system of 6 main farmulations, and showed change of autonomic nervous activity, however, the change of circulatory and automonic nervous activity were not coincident each other. It was speculated that comprehensive mechanism of Mao-to were not only dependent of ephedrin, main active constituent of Mao, but also dependent on Keishi's vasodilatory action in it. Ninjin -to showed no actions on circulatory or autonomic system. This is indicated

  8. Changes in EEG, systemic circulation and blood gas parameters following two or six aliquots of porcine surfactant. (United States)

    Lundstrøm, K E; Greisen, G


    Surfactant instillation often causes transient EEG suppression, the cause remaining unknown. To compare the timing of the EEG changes with the timing of the changes in blood gases and systemic circulation we compared two administration modes: 20 preterm infants were randomly assigned to receive the initial dose of surfactant divided into two or six aliquots. Heart rate, blood pressure and transcutaneous blood gases were measured continuously, while left ventricular output was estimated intermittently. No difference in blood gas response was found between the groups, whereas the circulatory changes occurred more gradually with six aliquots. EEG suppression was similar in the two groups and not related to the circulatory or the respiratory changes. Left ventricular output increased in all patients following surfactant instillation. We conclude that the EEG suppression is not directly related to alterations in blood gases or systemic circulation.

  9. On the destabilizing effect of damping on discrete and continuous circulatory systems (United States)

    Luongo, Angelo; D`Annibale, Francesco


    The 'Ziegler paradox', concerning the destabilizing effect of damping on elastic systems loaded by nonconservative positional forces, is addressed. The paper aims to look at the phenomenon in a new perspective, according to which no surprising discontinuities in the critical load exist between undamped and damped systems. To show that the actual critical load is found as an (infinitesimal) perturbation of one of the infinitely many sub-critically loaded undamped systems. A series expansion of the damped eigenvalues around the distinct purely imaginary undamped eigenvalues is performed, with the load kept as a fixed, although unknown, parameter. The first sensitivity of the eigenvalues, which is found to be real, is zeroed, so that an implicit expression for the critical load multiplier is found, which only depends on the 'shape' of damping, being independent of its magnitude. An interpretation is given of the destabilization paradox, by referring to the concept of 'modal damping', according to which the sign of the projection of the damping force on the eigenvector of the dual basis, and not on the eigenvector itself, is the true responsible for stability. The whole procedure is explained in detail for discrete systems, and successively extended to continuous systems. Two sample structures are studied for illustrative purposes: the classical reverse double-pendulum under a follower force and a linear visco-elastic beam under a follower force and a dead load.

  10. Blood vessels, circulation and blood pressure. (United States)

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, describes the vessels of the body's blood and lymphatic circulatory systems. Blood pressure and its regulatory systems are examined. The causes and management of hypertension are also explored. It is important that nurses and other healthcare professionals understand the various mechanisms involved in the regulation of blood pressure to prevent high blood pressure or ameliorate its damaging consequences.

  11. Circulatory abnormalities in cirrhosis with focus on neurohumoral aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl


    -angiotensin-aldosterone system, and elevated circulating vasopressin, endothelin-1 may also be implicated in the hemodynamic counter-regulation in cirrhosis. Recent research has focused on the assertion that the hemodynamic and neurohumoral abnormalities in cirrhosis are part of a general circulatory dysfunction influencing...... resistance are decreased. A peripheral arterial vasodilatation may be of pathogenic importance to the low systemic vascular resistance as it directly correlates to the degree of central hypovolemia. It may therefore be an important element in the development of the low arterial blood pressure...

  12. Circulatory abnormalities in cirrhosis with focus on neurohumoral aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens Henrik


    Patients with cirrhosis exhibit characteristic hemodynamic changes with a hyperkinetic circulation and an abnormal distribution of the blood volume and neurohumoral regulation. Their plasma and noncentral blood volumes are increased, and the central and arterial blood volume and systemic vascular...... and hyperkinetic circulation in cirrhosis. Various vasodilators such as atrial natriurectic peptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, adrenomedullin, and nitric oxide are among potential candidates in the arterial vasodilatation in cirrhosis. Besides enhanced sympathetic nervous activity, activation of the renin......-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and elevated circulating vasopressin, endothelin-1 may also be implicated in the hemodynamic counter-regulation in cirrhosis. Recent research has focused on the assertion that the hemodynamic and neurohumoral abnormalities in cirrhosis are part of a general circulatory dysfunction influencing...

  13. Association of sulfur dioxide exposure with circulatory system deaths in a medium-sized city in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.T. Amancio


    Full Text Available There is a demonstrable association between exposure to air pollutants and deaths due to cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of exposure to sulfur dioxide on mortality due to circulatory diseases in individuals 50 years of age or older residing in São José dos Campos, SP. This was a time-series ecological study for the years 2003 to 2007 using information on deaths due to circulatory disease obtained from Datasus reports. Data on daily levels of pollutants, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide (SO2, ozone, temperature, and humidity were obtained from the São Paulo State Environmental Agency. Moving average models for 2 to 7 days were calculated by Poisson regression using the R software. Exposure to SO2 was analyzed using a unipollutant, bipollutant or multipollutant model adjusted for mean temperature and humidity. The relative risks with 95%CI were obtained and the percent decrease in risk was calculated. There were 1928 deaths with a daily mean (± SD of 1.05 ± 1.03 (range: 0-6. Exposure to SO2 was significantly associated with mortality due to circulatory disease: RR = 1.04 (95%CI = 1.01 to 1.06 in the 7-day moving average, after adjusting for ozone. There was an 8.5% decrease in risk in the multipollutant model, proportional to a decrease of SO2 concentrations. The results of this study suggest that residents of medium-sized Brazilian cities with characteristics similar to those of São José dos Campos probably have health problems due to exposure to air pollutants.

  14. [Kallikrein-kinin system of blood in patients in the post-infarction period, and its reaction to physical exertion]. (United States)

    Azimova, F I; Nekrasova, A A; Chernova, N A; Nikolaeva, L F


    Blood kallikrein-kinin function was assessed in myocardial infarction survivors. Increased blood kinin-forming activity was demonstrated, accompanied with a simultaneous rise in the system's inhibitor level and excessive response to exercise, with slower regaining of the baseline after exercise was discontinued. It is concluded that functional testing of blood kallikrein-kinin status by means of rationed exercise yields more informative data on this system in various groups of postinfarction patients and that the extent of the system's activation depends on systemic circulatory function.

  15. Subject-specific estimation of central aortic blood pressure via system identification: preliminary in-human experimental study. (United States)

    Fazeli, Nima; Kim, Chang-Sei; Rashedi, Mohammad; Chappell, Alyssa; Wang, Shaohua; MacArthur, Roderick; McMurtry, M Sean; Finegan, Barry; Hahn, Jin-Oh


    This paper demonstrates preliminary in-human validity of a novel subject-specific approach to estimation of central aortic blood pressure (CABP) from peripheral circulatory waveforms. In this "Individualized Transfer Function" (ITF) approach, CABP is estimated in two steps. First, the circulatory dynamics of the cardiovascular system are determined via model-based system identification, in which an arterial tree model is characterized based on the circulatory waveform signals measured at the body's extremity locations. Second, CABP waveform is estimated by de-convolving peripheral circulatory waveforms from the arterial tree model. The validity of the ITF approach was demonstrated using experimental data collected from 13 cardiac surgery patients. Compared with the invasive peripheral blood pressure (BP) measurements, the ITF approach yielded significant reduction in errors associated with the estimation of CABP, including 1.9-2.6 mmHg (34-42 %) reduction in BP waveform errors (p < 0.05) as well as 5.8-9.1 mmHg (67-76 %) and 6.0-9.7 mmHg (78-85 %) reductions in systolic and pulse pressure (SP and PP) errors (p < 0.05). It also showed modest but significant improvement over the generalized transfer function approach, including 0.1 mmHg (2.6 %) reduction in BP waveform errors as well as 0.7 (20 %) and 5.0 mmHg (75 %) reductions in SP and PP errors (p < 0.05).

  16. Endovascular blood flow measurement system (United States)

    Khe, A. K.; Cherevko, A. A.; Chupakhin, A. P.; Krivoshapkin, A. L.; Orlov, K. Yu


    In this paper an endovascular measurement system used for intraoperative cerebral blood flow monitoring is described. The system is based on a Volcano ComboMap Pressure and Flow System extended with analogue-to-digital converter and PC laptop. A series of measurements performed in patients with cerebrovascular pathologies allows us to introduce “velocity-pressure” and “flow rate-energy flow rate” diagrams as important characteristics of the blood flow. The measurement system presented here can be used as an additional instrument in neurosurgery for assessment and monitoring of the operation procedure. Clinical data obtained with the system are used for construction of mathematical models and patient-specific simulations. The monitoring of the blood flow parameters during endovascular interventions was approved by the Ethics Committee at the Meshalkin Novosibirsk Research Institute of Circulation Pathology and included in certain surgical protocols for pre-, intra- and postoperative examinations.

  17. MedTech Mag-Lev, single-use, extracorporeal magnetically levitated centrifugal blood pump for mid-term circulatory support. (United States)

    Nagaoka, Eiki; Fujiwara, Tatsuki; Kitao, Takashi; Sakota, Daisuke; Shinshi, Tadahiko; Arai, Hirokuni; Takatani, Setsuo


    Short- to mid-term extracorporeal ventricular assist devices (VADs) are recommended for critical cardiogenic shock patients. We have designed a preclinical, single-use MedTech Mag-Lev VAD for one-month extracorporeal use. The impeller-rotor of the pump was suspended by a two degree-of-freedom active magnetic bearing in a 300 μm fluid gap, where the computational fluid dynamics analysis predicted a secondary flow of about 400-500 ml/min at a pump speed of 1800-2200 rpm. Three eddy current sensors were employed to implement noise- and drift-free magnetic levitation. The pump components were injection molded using polycarbonate for smooth surfaces as well as improved reproducibility, followed by coating with a biocompatible 2-methacryloyl-oxyethyl phosphorylcholine polymer. Chronic animal experiments were performed in nine calves. Three of the nine calves were excluded from analysis for problems with the circuit. Five of the six (83.3%) completed the 60 day duration of the study, while one prematurely died of massive bleeding due to inflow port detachment. The pump did not stop due to magnetic-levitation malfunction. Neither pump thrombosis nor major organ infarction was observed at autopsy. In comparison to machined surfaces, the injection-molded pump surfaces were thrombus-free after 60 day implantation. This study demonstrates the feasibility of MedTech Mag-Lev VAD for 60 day circulatory support.

  18. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation in a patient with circulatory collapse, using the lucas® chest compression system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Blom; Andersen, Claus; Nissen, Henrik


    We describe a case of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) using the LUCAS® Chest Compression System in an elderly high risk patient with severe aortic stenosis and heart failure. In this case, the patient developed severe aortic regurgitation following predilatation of the native aortic...... or cardiac damage. This case report shows, that it is possible to perform the TAVI procedure under ongoing A-CPR and that A-CPR, judged by invasive blood pressures, was capable of maintaining a satisfactory perfusion pressure even with a damaged aortic valve. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....... valve and automated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (A-CPR) was initiated. The procedure was performed under ongoing A-CPR for a total of 28 min. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit and to a step down unit the following day. At follow-up 30 days later, she showed no signs of neurologic...

  19. FY2000 report of the research results of medical/engineering cooperative research project, basic research on systems for minimally invasive diagnostic/treatment of circulatory system diseases, including prognostic diagnosis; 2000 nendo igaku kogaku renkeigata kenkyu jigyo, junkankikei shikkan ni taisuru yogo shindan wo fukumu teishinshu shindan chiryo system ni kansuru kiso kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The basic researches on minimally invasive diagnostic/treatment systems are conducted for circulatory system diseases, and the FY 2000 results are reported. The program for developing the heart surgery supporting manipulator includes development of the manipulator of 7 degree of freedom and fail-safe mechanisms to be incorporated in the patient-side system, and research and development of the heart motion compensation type robot system. The program for developing the diagnosis/treatment system aided by intravascular optical analysis includes development of intravascular endoscopy by the aid of LED emitting blue color of high brightness, and automatic analyzer for the in vivo vascular endothelial cell functions. The program for the minimally invasive diagnostic system includes development of superimposing system for integrating the images by the NOGA system and cine-coronary angiography. The other R and D items include artificial vascular systems to be put in the blood vessels, adhesives for a living body, suture instruments for fine blood vessels, heart surgery supporting system, based on the infrared spectroscopy, endoscopic system for the cranical bones, arterialization method, and gene-aided treatment. (NEDO)

  20. The first organ-based free ontology for arthropods (Ontology of Arthropod Circulatory Systems - OArCS) and its integration into a novel formalization scheme for morphological descriptions. (United States)

    Wirkner, Christian S; Göpel, Torben; Runge, Jens; Keiler, Jonas; Klussmann-Fricke, Bastian-Jesper; Huckstorf, Katarina; Scholz, Stephan; Mikó, Istvan; Yoder, Matt; Richter, Stefan


    Morphology, the oldest discipline in the biosciences, is currently experiencing a renaissance in the field of comparative phenomics. However, morphological/phenotypic research still suffers on various levels from a lack of standards. This shortcoming, first highlighted as the "linguistic problem of morphology", concerns the usage of terminology but also the need for formalization of morphological descriptions themselves, something of paramount importance not only to the field of morphology but also when it comes to the use of phenotypic data in systematics and evolutionary biology. We therefore argue, that for morphological descriptions, the basis of all systematic and evolutionary interpretations, ontologies need to be utilized which are based exclusively on structural qualities/properties and which in no case include statements about homology and/or function. Statements about homology and function constitute interpretations on a different or higher level. Based on these 'anatomy ontologies', further ontological dimensions (e.g. referring to functional properties or homology) may be exerted for a broad use in evolutionary phenomics. To this end we present the first organ-based ontology for the most species-rich animal group, the Arthropoda. Our Ontology of Arthropod Circulatory Systems (OArCS) contains a comprehensive collection of 383 terms (i.e. sups) tied to 296 concepts (i.e. definitions) collected from the literature on phenotypic aspects of circulatory organ features in arthropods. All of the concepts used in OArCS are based exclusively on structural features, and in the context of the ontology are independent of homology and functional assumptions. We cannot rule out that in some cases, terms are used which in traditional usage and previous accounts might have implied homology and/or function, e.g. heart, sternal artery. Concepts are composed of descriptive elements that are used to classify observed instances into the organizational framework of the

  1. Indirectly Measuring Aortic Flow in a Mock Circulatory System%模拟循环系统中的主动脉流间接测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄欢; 杨明; 邬顺捷


    In mock circulatory systems, the aortic flow is of violent pulsation. Measuring this signal direct-ly with flow meter will limit its applications to mimic different physiological objects, considering the effects of diameter and wall thickness of the tube, the measurement range of flow meters, etc. In order to solve these problems, an indirect method using pressure signal to estimate the pulsatile flow was proposed. The mock circulatory system is first modeled with different Windkessel models. Then the aortic pressure and arterial pressure are considered as the input and observation variable, respectively, to estimate model pa- rameters and aortic flow based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF). The accuracy of flow estimation is e-valuated by the root mean square error index. The experimental results show that the four-element Wind-kessel model can describe the dynamic performance of the mock circulation system and thus estimate the aortic flow. This paper provides a novel method to measure the aortic flow in testing and evaluating cardio- vascular devices.%模拟循环系统主动脉内的流量波动很大,采用流量计直接测量受管道直径、管壁厚度、流量计量程等因素制约,不利于对不同研究对象进行模拟.文中提出一种利用压力信号间接测量主动脉流的方法.首先利用不同的Windkessel模型对模拟体循环系统进行建模,然后分别以主动脉压和动脉压作为输入变量和观测变量,利用扩展卡尔曼滤波器对模型参数和主动脉流进行联合估计.流量的估计精度采用均方根误差指标进行评估.结果表明,四元Windkessel模型可以很好地描述系统的动态性能并估计流量,为心血管装置的定量分析和测试提供了新的方法.

  2. Mechanical circulatory support in cardiogenic shock – what every interventional cardiologist should know (United States)

    Pres, Damian; Przybylski, Roman; Pacholewicz, Jerzy; Poloński, Lech; Zembala, Marian; Gąsior, Mariusz


    Cardiogenic shock (CS) remains the main cause of death in patients with myocardial infarction. Conservative treatment alone does not sufficiently improve prognosis. Mortality in CS can only be significantly reduced with revascularization, both surgical and percutaneous. However some patients present with haemodynamic instability despite optimal medical treatment and complete revascularization, resulting in very high mortality rates. These patients require the implementation of mechanical circulatory support in order to increase systemic blood flow, protect against organ hypoperfusion and protect the myocardium through a decrease in oxygen consumption. In contemporary interventional cardiology it seems that every operator should be aware of all available mechanical circulatory support methods for their patients. This article aims to present the current state of knowledge and technical possibilities in this area. PMID:25489306

  3. State of the Art of Mechanical Circulatory Support


    Mallidi, Hari R.; Anand, Jatin; Cohn, William E.


    Mechanical circulatory support of the failing heart has become an important means of treating end-stage heart disease. This rapidly growing therapeutic field has produced impressive clinical outcomes and has great potential to help thousands of otherwise terminal patients worldwide. In this review, we examine the state of the art of mechanical circulatory support: current practice, totally implantable systems of the future, evolving biventricular support mechanisms, the potential for myocardi...

  4. White blood cell counting system (United States)


    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  5. The Indian blood group system. (United States)

    Xu, Q


    The Indian blood group system (ISBT: IN/023) consists of two antithetical antigens: In(a) (IN1), which is present in approximately 10 percent of some Arab populations and in 3 percent of Bombay Indians, and its allelic antigen In(b) (IN2), an antigen of high incidence in all populations. In 2007, two new high-incidence antigens were identified as belonging to the IN blood group system, namely IN3 (INFI) and IN4 (INJA). The antigens in this system are located on CD44, a single-pass membrane glycoprotein that is encoded by the CD44 gene on chromosome 11 at position p13. The biologic function of CD44 is as a leukocyte homing receptor and cellular adhesion molecule. The In(a) and In(b) polymorphism represents a 252G>C substitution of CD44, encoding R46P, and lack of IN3 and IN4 results from homozygosity for mutations encoding H85Q and T163R in the CD44 gene. The high-frequency antigen AnWj (901009) has not been assigned to the Indian system, but either is located on an isoform of CD44 or is closely associated with it.

  6. Vertebrobasilar circulatory disorders (United States)

    ... recommend: Taking blood-thinning drugs, such as aspirin, warfarin (Coumadin), or clopidogrel (Plavix) to lower the risk of stroke Changing your diet and medication to lower cholesterol and better control ...

  7. Circulatory death determination in uncontrolled organ donors: a panel viewpoint. (United States)

    Bernat, James L; Bleck, Thomas P; Blosser, Sandralee A; Bratton, Susan L; Capron, Alexander M; Cornell, Danielle; DeVita, Michael A; Fulda, Gerard J; Glazier, Alexandra K; Gries, Cynthia J; Mathur, Mudit; Nakagawa, Thomas A; Shemie, Sam D


    One barrier for implementing programs of uncontrolled organ donation after the circulatory determination of death is the lack of consensus on the precise moment of death. Our panel was convened to study this question after we performed a similar analysis on the moment of death in controlled organ donation after the circulatory determination of death. We concluded that death could be determined by showing the permanent or irreversible cessation of circulation and respiration. Circulatory irreversibility may be presumed when optimal cardiopulmonary resuscitation efforts have failed to restore circulation and at least a 7-minute period has elapsed thereafter during which autoresuscitation to restored circulation could occur. We advise against the use of postmortem organ support technologies that reestablish circulation of warm oxygenated blood because of their risk of retroactively invalidating the required conditions on which death was declared.

  8. Sympathetic reflex control of skeletal muscle blood flow in patients with congestive heart failure: evidence for beta-adrenergic circulatory control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassis, E.; Jacobsen, T.N.; Mogensen, F.; Amtorp, O.


    Mechanisms controlling forearm muscle vascular resistance (FMVR) during postural changes were investigated in seven patients with severe congestive heart failure (CHF) and in seven control subjects with unimpaired left ventricular function. Relative brachioradial muscle blood flow was determined by the local /sup 133/Xe-washout technique. Unloading of baroreceptors with use of 45 degree upright tilt was comparably obtained in the patients with CHF and control subjects. Control subjects had substantially increased FMVR and heart rate to maintain arterial pressure whereas patients with CHF had decreased FMVR by 51 +/- 11% and had no increase in heart rate despite a fall in arterial pressure during upright tilt. The autoregulatory and local vasoconstrictor reflex responsiveness during postural changes in forearm vascular pressures were intact in both groups. In the patients with CHF, the left axillary nerve plexus was blocked by local anesthesia. No alterations in forearm vascular pressures were observed. This blockade preserved the local regulation of FMVR but reversed the vasodilator response to upright tilt as FMVR increased by 30 +/- 7% (p less than .02). Blockade of central neural impulses to this limb combined with brachial arterial infusions of phentolamine completely abolished the humoral vasoconstriction in the tilted position. Infusions of propranolol to the contralateral brachial artery that did not affect baseline values of heart rate, arterial pressure, or the local reflex regulation of FMVR reversed the abnormal vasodilator response to upright tilt as FMVR increased by 42 +/- 12% (p less than .02). Despite augmented baseline values, forearm venous but not arterial plasma levels of epinephrine increased in the tilted position, as did arteri rather than venous plasma concentrations of norepinephrine in these patients.

  9. Optoacoustic measurement of central venous oxygenation for assessment of circulatory shock: clinical study in cardiac surgery patients (United States)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Prough, Donald S.; Kinsky, Michael; Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Andrey; Henkel, S. Nan; Seeton, Roger; Salter, Michael G.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.


    Circulatory shock is a dangerous medical condition, in which blood flow cannot provide the necessary amount of oxygen to organs and tissues. Currently, its diagnosis and therapy decisions are based on hemodynamic parameters (heart rate, blood pressure, blood gases) and mental status of a patient, which all have low specificity. Measurement of mixed or central venous blood oxygenation via catheters is more reliable, but highly invasive and associated with complications. Our previous studies in healthy volunteers demonstrated that optoacoustic systems provide non-invasive measurement of blood oxygenation in specific vessels, including central veins. Here we report our first results of a clinical study in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients. We used a medical-grade OPO-based optoacoustic system developed in our laboratory to measure in real time blood oxygenation in the internal jugular vein (IJV) of these patients. A clinical ultrasound imaging system (GE Vivid e) was used for IJV localization. Catheters were placed in the IJV as part of routine care and blood samples taken via the catheters were processed with a CO-oximeter. The optoacoustic oxygenation data were compared to the CO-oximeter readings. Good correlation between the noninvasive and invasive measurements was obtained. The results of these studies suggest that the optoacoustic system can provide accurate, noninvasive measurements of central venous oxygenation that can be used for patients with circulatory shock.

  10. Pediatric Circulatory System of Guardianship After Open-heart Surgery%小儿心内直视手术后循环系统的监护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To study the analysis of pediatric open-heart surgery treatment of posterior circulation system monitoring measures. Methods Selected 64 cases in January 2014 to December 2014 in our hospital during open-heart surgery treatment,after surgery to give close monitoring to the circulatory system. Results In 64 cases,63 cases recovered and discharged,only 1 cases was death because of the low cardiac. Conclusion Pediatric heart surgery treatment,strict monitoring circulation system is the key to ensure the operation curative effect,help children better in disease and rehabilitation.%目的:研究分析小儿心内直视手术治疗后循环系统的监护措施。方法选择2014年1月~2014年12月期间在我院进行心内直视手术治疗的64例患儿,在术后对循环系统给予严密监护。结果本组64例患儿中,63例患儿痊愈出院,仅1例患儿因为低心排而死亡。结论小儿心脏手术治疗后,严格监护循环系统是确保手术疗效的关键,有助于患儿疾病的好转及康复。

  11. The influence of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation index on hospital admissions through diseases of the circulatory system in Lisbon, Portugal (United States)

    Almendra, Ricardo; Santana, Paula; Vasconcelos, João; Silva, Giovani; Gonçalves, Fábio; Ambrizzi, Tércio


    The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), meteorological variables, air pollutants, and hospital admissions due to diseases of circulatory systems in Lisbon (Portugal) during winter months (2003-2012). This paper is one of the few studies analyzing the impact of NAO on health through its influence on thermal stress and air pollution and is the first to be conducted in Lisbon. This study uses meteorological data (synthetized into a thermal comfort index), air pollutant metrics, and the NAO index (all clustered in 10-day cycles to overcome daily variability of the NAO index). The relationship between morbidity, thermal comfort index, NAO index, and air pollutants was explored through several linear models adjusted to seasonality through a periodic function. The possible indirect effect between the NAO index and hospital admissions was tested, assuming that NAO (independent variable) is affecting hospital admissions (outcome variable) through thermal discomfort and/or pollution levels (tested as individual mediators). This test was conducted through causal mediation analysis and adjusted for seasonal variation. The results from this study suggest a possible indirect relationship between NAO index and hospital admissions. Although NAO is not significantly associated with hospital admissions, it is significantly associated with CO, PM2.5, NO, and SO2 levels, which in turn increase the probability of hospitalization. The discomfort index (built with temperature and relative humidity) is significantly associated with hospital admissions, but its variability is not explained by the NAO index. This study highlights the impacts of the atmospheric circulation patterns on health. Furthermore, understanding the influence of the atmospheric circulation patterns can support the improvement of the existing contingency plans.

  12. The influence of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation index on hospital admissions through diseases of the circulatory system in Lisbon, Portugal (United States)

    Almendra, Ricardo; Santana, Paula; Vasconcelos, João; Silva, Giovani; Gonçalves, Fábio; Ambrizzi, Tércio


    The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), meteorological variables, air pollutants, and hospital admissions due to diseases of circulatory systems in Lisbon (Portugal) during winter months (2003-2012). This paper is one of the few studies analyzing the impact of NAO on health through its influence on thermal stress and air pollution and is the first to be conducted in Lisbon. This study uses meteorological data (synthetized into a thermal comfort index), air pollutant metrics, and the NAO index (all clustered in 10-day cycles to overcome daily variability of the NAO index). The relationship between morbidity, thermal comfort index, NAO index, and air pollutants was explored through several linear models adjusted to seasonality through a periodic function. The possible indirect effect between the NAO index and hospital admissions was tested, assuming that NAO (independent variable) is affecting hospital admissions (outcome variable) through thermal discomfort and/or pollution levels (tested as individual mediators). This test was conducted through causal mediation analysis and adjusted for seasonal variation. The results from this study suggest a possible indirect relationship between NAO index and hospital admissions. Although NAO is not significantly associated with hospital admissions, it is significantly associated with CO, PM2.5, NO, and SO2 levels, which in turn increase the probability of hospitalization. The discomfort index (built with temperature and relative humidity) is significantly associated with hospital admissions, but its variability is not explained by the NAO index. This study highlights the impacts of the atmospheric circulation patterns on health. Furthermore, understanding the influence of the atmospheric circulation patterns can support the improvement of the existing contingency plans.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Microscopy of Flows and Compressions of the Circulatory, Respiratory, and Digestive Systems in Pupae of the Tobacco Hornworm, Manduca sexta



    Circulatory, respiratory, and digestive motions in Manduca sexta pupae were observed using proton-density weighted and fast-imaging with steady-state free procession magnetic resonance microscopy. Proton-density weighted images clearly differentiated pupal air sacs from the hemolymph and organs because, as expected, the air sacs appeared dark in these images. Steady-state free procession imaging allowed real-time monitoring of respiration and circulation, creating movies of hemolymph circulat...

  14. Structures with Reconfigurable Circulatory Systems (United States)


    precedent for the general concept and aims, it was naturally disappointing not to be the first to report this chemistry. In parallel with the...polymerization in reverse. Thiol compounds, such as glutathione, cysteine and homocysteine are a natural reservoir of reductive capacities of the cells...Cysteine, an amino acid, is a critical substrate in biosynthesis of proteins, glutathione, taurine sulfate and the exceptionally metabolically active

  15. Optimization of vaporization flue circulatory system for converter in Anyang Iron and Steel Group Co., Ltd%安钢转炉汽化烟道循环系统优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗大春; 周友军; 李军强; 马正锋


    The vaporization flue circulatory systems were reformed to solve the leakage problems of the fixed chimney cap and the tail flue of the 150 t converter in Anyang Iron & Steel Group Co. , Ltd. An extra pump was added into the old high - pressure pump system to enhance the circulatory cooling water flow, and the natural circulation system of the tail flue was changed for the forced high-pressure circulation system and combined with the forced circulation system of the fixed chimney cap. This optimization measure extended the service life of the fixed chimney cap for more than six months, and decreased the water leakage of tail flue by almost 80%.%针对安钢150 t转炉汽化烟道循环系统固定烟罩、尾部烟道频繁漏水问题,安钢对转炉汽化烟道循环系统进行改造.将原系统设计的l用1备高压泵改为2用1备增加循环冷却水量,并将尾部烟道高压自然循环改为强制循环并入固定烟罩强制循环系统,延长固定烟罩使用寿命6个月以上,减少尾部烟道漏水80%以上.

  16. 堆浸浸出工艺循环系统改造实效性研究%Study on actual effect of circulatory system rebuilding of accumulation-dipping technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王公洲; 高灶其


    堆浸是黄金矿山处理低品位氧化矿石的最佳手段之一,喷淋液体的循环系统是该手段的重要组成部分,它需要场地和落差,找到场地和落差两者都具备的条件非常困难。本文采用实例对液体通过吸附塔流程工艺的改造进行了探讨,即:改落差循环工艺为机械循环工艺。这一工艺的改造,解决了深山区对地理环境的制约因素,简化了管理的程序,增大了系统的安全性,给矿山企业带来了很大的经济效益和社会效益。%Accumulation‐dipping is one of the best ways to deal with oxidative ore in low grade in gold mining area ,circulatory system of spray liquid is a important part of the technology ,it needs space and fall . It is easy to find fall ,hard to find sapce and harder to find ground which possess two features in mountainous district .We executed a series of tasks to solve this problem ,this paper discussed the technology transformation that liquid flow through the adsorption tower ,changing from fall circulatory technology to mechanism circulatory technology .Rebuilding of the technology solved confining elements of geographical conditions in remote mountains ,simplified management procedure ,strengthened safety of system ,brought much economical benefit and social benefit to mining corporation .

  17. Blood as integral system of an organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Майя Розметовна Верголяс


    Full Text Available Relevance of use of hematological blood parameters for monitoring as markers of various physiological and pathological processes is substantiated. It is shown that the blood is an important system of the body, has all the reactive characteristics of tissues, its sensitivity to pathological stimuli is very high. The reaction of the organism to the irritation of toxic or infectious nature manifests itself in the change of quantitative composition of peripheral blood cells

  18. Mechanical circulatory treatment of advanced heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løgstrup, Brian B; Vase, Henrik; Gjedsted, Jakob;


    Heart failure is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. When patients cease to respond adequately to optimal medical therapy mechanical circulatory support has been promising. The advent of mechanical circulatory support devices has allowed significant improvements...... in patient survival and quality of life for those with advanced or end-stage heart failure. We provide a general overview of current mechanical circulatory support devices encompassing options for both short- and long-term ventricular support....

  19. Embedded programmable blood pressure monitoring system (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Mahmud-Ul; Islam, Md. Kafiul; Shawon, Mehedi Azad; Nowrin, Tasnuva Faruk


    A more efficient newer algorithm of detecting systolic and diastolic pressure of human body along with a complete package of an effective user-friendly embedded programmable blood pressure monitoring system has been proposed in this paper to reduce the overall workload of medical personals as well as to monitor patient's condition more conveniently and accurately. Available devices for measuring blood pressure have some problems and limitations in case of both analog and digital devices. The sphygmomanometer, being analog device, is still being used widely because of its reliability and accuracy over digital ones. But it requires a skilled person to measure the blood pressure and obviously not being automated as well as time consuming. Our proposed system being a microcontroller based embedded system has the advantages of the available digital blood pressure machines along with a much improved form and has higher accuracy at the same time. This system can also be interfaced with computer through serial port/USB to publish the measured blood pressure data on the LAN or internet. The device can be programmed to determine the patient's blood pressure after each certain interval of time in a graphical form. To sense the pressure of human body, a pressure to voltage transducer is used along with a cuff in our system. During the blood pressure measurement cycle, the output voltage of the transducer is taken by the built-in ADC of microcontroller after an amplifier stage. The recorded data are then processed and analyzed using the effective software routine to determine the blood pressure of the person under test. Our proposed system is thus expected to certainly enhance the existing blood pressure monitoring system by providing accuracy, time efficiency, user-friendliness and at last but not the least the 'better way of monitoring patient's blood pressure under critical care' all together at the same time.

  20. Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Optimizing Assignment of Blood in Blood Banking System


    Olusanya, Micheal O.; Arasomwan, Martins A.; Aderemi O. Adewumi


    This paper reports the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO) for the assignment of blood to meet patients’ blood transfusion requests for blood transfusion. While the drive for blood donation lingers, there is need for effective and efficient management of available blood in blood banking systems. Moreover, inherent danger of transfusing wrong blood types to patients, unnecessary importation of blood units from external sources, and wastage of blood products due to nonusage necessi...

  1. User's instructions for the Guyton circulatory dynamics model using the Univac 1110 batch and demand processing (with graphic capabilities) (United States)

    Archer, G. T.


    The model presents a systems analysis of a human circulatory regulation based almost entirely on experimental data and cumulative present knowledge of the many facets of the circulatory system. The model itself consists of eighteen different major systems that enter into circulatory control. These systems are grouped into sixteen distinct subprograms that are melded together to form the total model. The model develops circulatory and fluid regulation in a simultaneous manner. Thus, the effects of hormonal and autonomic control, electrolyte regulation, and excretory dynamics are all important and are all included in the model.

  2. Blood monitoring systems and methods thereof (United States)

    Mir, Jose (Inventor); Zander, Dennis (Inventor)


    A blood monitoring system is capable of monitoring the blood of a subject in vivo. The blood monitoring system comprises: 1) an array of movable microneedle micromachined within associated wells; 2) array of motion actuators able to move each needle in and out of their associated wells; 3) array of microvalves associated with each microneedle able to control the flow of air around the microneedle; 4) an array of chemical sensors inserted into patient by movable microneedles; 5) an array of inductors able to measure chemical concentration in the vicinity of inserted chemical sensors; 6) conducting vias that provide timed actuating signal signals from a control system to each motion actuator; 7) conducting vias that transmit signal produced by array of chemical sensors to the control system for processing, although the blood monitoring system can comprise other numbers and types of elements in other configurations.

  3. 21 CFR 864.9145 - Processing system for frozen blood. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processing system for frozen blood. 864.9145... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9145 Processing system for frozen blood. (a) Identification. A processing system for frozen blood is a device used to glycerolize red blood cells prior to freezing to...

  4. A cholinergic contribution to the circulatory responses evoked at the onset of handgrip exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vianna, Lauro C; Fadel, Paul J; Secher, Niels H


    A cholinergic (muscarinic) contribution to the initial circulatory response to exercise in humans remains controversial. Herein, we posit that this may be due to exercise mode with a cholinergic contribution being important during isometric handgrip exercise, where the hyperemic response...... of the muscle is relatively small compared with the onset of leg cycling, where a marked increase in muscle blood flow rapidly occurs as a consequence of multiple redundant mechanisms. We recorded blood pressure (BP; brachial artery), stroke volume (pulse contour analysis), cardiac output, and systemic vascular...... resistance (SVR) in young healthy males, while performing either 20 s of isometric handgrip contraction at 40% maximum voluntary contraction (protocol 1; n = 9) or 20 s of low-intensity leg cycling exercise (protocol 2; n = 8, 42 ± 8 W). Exercise trials were conducted under control (no drug) conditions...

  5. Cell and Tissue Organization in the Circulatory and Ventilatory Systems Volume 1 Signaling in Cell Organization, Fate, and Activity, Part A Cell Structure and Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Thiriet, Marc


    The volumes in this authoritative series present a multidisciplinary approach to modeling and simulation of flows in the cardiovascular and ventilatory systems, especially multiscale modeling and coupled simulations. The cardiovascular and respiratory systems are tightly coupled, as their primary function is to supply oxygen to and remove carbon dioxide from the body's cells. Because physiological conduits have deformable and reactive walls, macroscopic flow behavior and prediction must be coupled to nano- and microscopic events in a corrector scheme of regulated mechanisms. Therefore, investigation of flows of blood and air in physiological conduits requires an understanding of the biology, chemistry, and physics of these systems together with the mathematical tools to describe their functioning.  The present volume is devoted to cellular events that allow adaptation to environmental conditions, particularly mechanotransduction. It begins with cell organization and a survey of cell types in the vasculatur...

  6. One System for Blood Program Information Management


    Gero, Michael G.; Klickstein, Judith S.; Hurst, Timm M.


    A system which integrates the diverse functions of a Blood Program within one structure is being assembled at the American National Red Cross Blood Services, Northeast Region. When finished, it will provide technical support for collection scheduling, donor recruitment, recordkeeping, laboratory processing, inventory management, HLA typing and matching, distribution, and administration within the Program. By linking these applications, a reporting structure useful to top management will be pr...

  7. IBCIS:Intelligent blood cell identification system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adnan Khashman


    The analysis of blood cells in microscope images can provide useful information concerning the health of patients.There are three major blood cell types,namely,erythrocytes (red),leukocytes (white),and platelets.Manual classification is time consuming and susceptible to error due to the different morphological features of the cells.This paper presents an intelligent system that simulates a human visual inspection and classification of the three blood cell types.The proposed system comprises two phases:The image preprocessing phase where blood cell features are extracted via global pattern averaging,and the neural network arbitration phase where training is the first and then classification is carried out.Experimental results suggest that the proposed method performs well in identifying blood cell types regardless of their irregular shapes,sizes and orientation,thus providing a fast,simple and efficient rotational and scale invariant blood cell identification system which can be used in automating laboratory reporting.

  8. Local regulator adrenomedullin contributes to the circulatory disturbance in cirrhotic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shinya Sakurai; Hideyuki Kojima; Masahito Uemura; Hiroyasu Satoh; Hiroshi Fukui


    AIM: To investigate whether adrenomedullin, a potent vasodilator peptide, plays a role in the circulatory disturbance in cirrhosis.METHODS: Cirrhosis was induced in rats by weekly gavage of carbon tetrachloride. Hemodynamic studies were performed in vivo using radioactive microspheres andin vitro using isolated aortic rings.The adrenomedullin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay.RESULTS: Acute administration of adrenomedullin to the control rats reduced the systemic arterial pressure along with an increase of serum levels of the stable metabolite of nitric oxide (NOx), in a dose-dependent manner. Chronic infusion of adrenomedullin reduced the vascular resistance and increased the blood flow in the systemic and splanchnic circulation. Intravenous administration of anti-adrenomedullin antibody did not affect any hemodynamic parameters in the cirrhotic rats, whereas this antibody ameliorated the blunted contractile response to phenylephrine, a-adrenergic receptor agonist, in the aortic rings of the cirrhotic rats.The adrenomedullin concentrations in the aorta were higher in the cirrhotic rats than in the controls, and correlated with the mean arterial pressure in the cirrhotic rats. Moreover, adrenomedullin blunted the contractile response to phenylephrine in both of the control aorta and cirrhotic aorta, but not in the presence of NG-nitroL-arginine methyl ester, an NO synthase inhibitor.CONCLUSION: Adrenomedullin overproduced in the vascular wall may contribute to the circulatory disturbance in cirrhosis as a local regulator of the vascular tonus rather than a circulating hormone.

  9. Feasibility of a TinyPump system for pediatric CPB, ECMO, and circulatory assistance: hydrodynamic performances of the modified pump housing for implantable TinyPump. (United States)

    Yokoyama, Naoyuki; Suzuki, Masaaki; Hoshi, Hideo; Ohuchi, Katsuhiro; Fujimoto, Tetsuo; Takatani, Setsuo


    The TinyPump is a miniature centrifugal blood pump with an extremely small priming volume of 5 ml, allowing blood transfusion free cardiopulmonary bypass as well as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in pediatric patients. In this study, a new pump housing with the angled inlet port (25 degrees toward impeller center with respect to the flow axis) was designed to optimize the pump displaced volume and to extend the application of the TinyPump to implantable support The fluid dynamic performance analysis revealed that the head pressure losses increased from 3 to 17 mm Hg in comparison with straight port design as the pump rotational speed increased from 2,000 to 4,000 rpm. This was probably caused by perturbed flow patterns at the site of the inlet bent port area and streamline hitting the off-center of the impeller. No significant effect on pumping efficiency was observed because of modification in inlet port design. Modification in the inflow and outflow port designs together with the drive mechanism reduces the height of the pump system, including the motor, to 27 mm yielding the displaced volume of 68 ml in comparison with 40 mm of the paracorporeal system with the displaced volume of 105 ml. Further analysis in terms of hemolytic as well as antithrombogenic performance will be carried out to finalize the housing design for the implantable version of the TinyPump.

  10. Study of a centrifugal blood pump in a mock loop system. (United States)

    Uebelhart, Beatriz; da Silva, Bruno Utiyama; Fonseca, Jeison; Bock, Eduardo; Leme, Juliana; da Silva, Cibele; Leão, Tarcísio; Andrade, Aron


    An implantable centrifugal blood pump (ICBP) is being developed to be used as a ventricular assist device (VAD) in patients with severe cardiovascular diseases. The ICBP system is composed of a centrifugal pump, a motor, a controller, and a power supply. The electricity source provides power to the controller and to a motor that moves the pump's rotor through magnetic coupling. The centrifugal pump is composed of four parts: external conical house, external base, impeller, and impeller base. The rotor is supported by a pivot bearing system, and its impeller base is responsible for sheltering four permanent magnets. A hybrid cardiovascular simulator (HCS) was used to evaluate the ICBP's performance. A heart failure (HF) (when the heart increases beat frequency to compensate for decrease in blood flow) was simulated in the HCS. The main objective of this work is to analyze changes in physiological parameters such as cardiac output, blood pressure, and heart rate in three situations: healthy heart, HF, and HF with left circulatory assistance by ICBP. The results showed that parameters such as aortic pressure and cardiac output affected by the HF situation returned to normal values when the ICBP was connected to the HCS. In conclusion, the test results showed satisfactory performance for the ICBP as a VAD.

  11. The CIHR Circulatory and Respiratory Health Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm King


    Full Text Available The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR was officially established on June 7, 2000. Among the 13 institutes that were created, the Institute for Circulatory and Respiratory Health (C&R or CnR, which brings together researchers in the fields of heart, stroke, lung and blood research, has become the principal outlet for respiratory research in this country. Although this large, combined institute was not the first choice of our society or of the respiratory research community at large, we must respect this choice within the context of the new direction for Canadian health research and help to make it work. Over this past summer, the process of recruiting the scientific directors and advisory board members for each CIHR institute has proceeded at a rapid pace. As we go to press, the decisions on the appointment of the 13 inaugural scientific directors are being made. In addition, over the next few weeks, the institute advisory boards will be appointed. The CIHR Governing Council has the ultimate responsibility for these appointments. The Council represents a very broad cross-section of the health research community in Canada; all of us on the Council sincerely wish to see the very best team of directors and board members selected to fulfill these roles.

  12. [Oral contraception and circulatory risks]. (United States)

    Wingrave, S J


    The longterm prospective study of health effects of oral contraceptives (OCs) conducted by the Royal College of General Practitioners compared 23,000 OC users with 23,000 controls matched for age and marital status. As of 1981, 55 deaths attributable to circulatory problems had occurred in ever-users of OCs, ciompared to 10 in controls, giving a relative risk of 4.2 for OC users. No relation was found between duration of use and mortality risk among users, although mortality risks were greater at all durations of use than for nonusers. Parity was related to mortality risk among users but not among controls. The most significant factors affecting the relation between pill use and circulatory risk were age and smoking. Among users who smoked, the risk ratios were 3.4 for those aged 25-34, 4.2 for those aged 35-44, 7.4 for those aged 45 and over, and 5.1 for the entire group. Among nonsmoking pill users, the ratios were 1.6 for those aged 25-34, 3.3 for those aged 35-44, 4.6 for those 45 and over, and 3.2 for the total sample. Among smokers, the rates of excess deaths were 1 in 10,000 for users aged 15-34, 1 in 2000 for those aged 35-44, and 1 in550 for those aged 45 and over. Among nonsmokers, the rates were 1 in 50,000 users for those aged 25-34, 1 in 6700 for those aged 35-44, and 1 in 2500 for those aged 45 and over. The majority of deaths were attributed to ischemic cardiac problems and to sub-arachnoid hemorrhages, and risks appeared to be elevated in former as well as current users. The total incidence of circulatory effects in former users appears to be elevated only for cerebrovascular disorders, but the suggestion of residual effects requires further study before conclusions can be drawn. Smokers who developed cardiovascular or cerebrovascular problems were at 2-3 times greater risk of dying than were other women. The percentages of fatal cases of ischemic heart and cerebrovascular diseases were 22.8% among ever-users who smoked, 10.9% among controls who

  13. A suction detection system for rotary blood pumps based on the Lagrangian support vector machine algorithm. (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Simaan, Marwan A


    The Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD) is a rotary mechanical pump that is implanted in patients with congestive heart failure to help the left ventricle in pumping blood in the circulatory system. However, using such a device may result in a very dangerous event, called ventricular suction that can cause ventricular collapse due to overpumping of blood from the left ventricle when the rotational speed of the pump is high. Therefore, a reliable technique for detecting ventricular suction is crucial. This paper presents a new suction detection system that can precisely classify pump flow patterns, based on a Lagrangian Support Vector Machine (LSVM) model that combines six suction indices extracted from the pump flow signal to make a decision about whether the pump is in suction, approaching suction, or not in suction. The proposed method has been tested using in vivo experimental data based on two different pumps. The simulation results show that the system can produce superior performance in terms of classification accuracy, stability, learning speed, and good robustness compared to three other existing suction detection methods and the original SVM-based algorithm. The ability of the proposed algorithm to detect suction provides a reliable platform for the development of a feedback control system to control the speed of the pump while at the same time ensuring that suction is avoided.

  14. Automated microscopy system for peripheral blood cells (United States)

    Boev, Sergei F.; Sazonov, Vladimir V.; Kozinets, Gennady I.; Pogorelov, Valery M.; Gusev, Alexander A.; Korobova, Farida V.; Vinogradov, Alexander G.; Verdenskaya, Natalya V.; Ivanova, Irina A.


    The report describes the instrument ASPBS (Automated Screening of Peripheral Blood Cells) designed for an automated analysis of dry blood smears. The instrument is based on computer microscopy and uses dry blood smears prepared according to the standard Romanovskii-Giemza procedure. In comparison with the well-known flow cytometry systems, our instrument provides more detailed information and offers an opporunity of visualizing final results. The basic performances of the instrument are given. Software of this instrument is based on digital image processing and image recognition procedures. It is pointed out that the instrument can be used as a fairly universal tool in scientific research, public demonstrations, in medical treatment, and in medical education. The principle used as the basis of the instrument appeared adequate for creating an instrument version serviceable even during space flights where standard manual procedures and flow cytometry systems fail. The benefit of the use of the instrument in clinical laboratories is described.

  15. Effect of permissive hypercapnia on respiratory circulatory system%允许性高碳酸血症对呼吸循环系统的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨田军; 刘宝


    允许性高碳酸血症是肺保护性通气策略的被动结果.早期认为动脉血二氧化碳分压升高及由之引起的酸中毒会导致心血管恶性事件发生率增高.而近期的研究结果显示高碳酸血症本身对脏器有保护作用,从而引入了治疗性高碳酸血症的概念.高碳酸血症可显著影响呼吸循环功能.该文从高碳酸血症对血管张力、肺泡通透性的影响等几个方面作一综述.%Permissive hypercapnia is a passive result of lung protective ventilation strategy. Earlier studies thought that increased arterial carbon dioxide pressure and acidosis caused by it could lead to increased incidence of cardiovascular vicious events. But recent studies have shown that hypercapnia has a protective effect on organs,thereby the concept of therapeutic hypercapnia is introduced. Hypercapnia can significantly affect respiratory circulatory functions. This article reviews the effects of hypercapnia on vascular tone,alveolar permeability.

  16. Outline of the International Organization for Standardization Standard for Circulatory Support Devices (ISO 14708-5). (United States)

    Imachi, Kou; Mussivand, Tofy


    The rapid progress of artificial heart and circulatory support devices enables us to apply them to severe heart failure patients. Many types of circulatory support devices have been developed in the United States, Europe, and Japan. This situation urged the establishment of an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Standard for the circulatory support devices. A new work, "Cardiac Ventricular Assist Devices," was proposed to the ISO/TC150/SC6 (TC150: Technical Committee of Implants for Surgery, SC6: Sub-committee of Active Implants) in 2000, and the work was finalized for publication at a 2009 meeting of the ISO/TC150 in Kyoto. In this article, the authors would like to introduce the ISO system and the outline of the ISO Standard for Circulatory Support Devices.

  17. Hemocompatibility of Axial Versus Centrifugal Pump Technology in Mechanical Circulatory Support Devices. (United States)

    Schibilsky, David; Lenglinger, Matthias; Avci-Adali, Meltem; Haller, Christoph; Walker, Tobias; Wendel, Hans Peter; Schlensak, Christian


    The hemocompatible properties of rotary blood pumps commonly used in mechanical circulatory support (MCS) are widely unknown regarding specific biocompatibility profiles of different pump technologies. Therefore, we analyzed the hemocompatibility indicating markers of an axial flow and a magnetically levitated centrifugal device within an in vitro mock loop. The HeartMate II (HM II; n = 3) device and a CentriMag (CM; n = 3) adult pump were investigated in a human whole blood mock loop for 360 min using the MCS devices as a driving component. Blood samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for markers of coagulation, complement system, and inflammatory response. There was a time-dependent activation of the coagulation (thrombin-antithrombin complexes [TAT]), complement (SC5b-9), and inflammation system (polymorphonuclear [PMN] elastase) in both groups. The mean value of TAT (CM: 4.0 μg/L vs. 29.4 μg/L, P centrifugal CM device showed significantly lower activation of coagulation and inflammation than that of the HM II axial flow pump. Both HM II and CM have demonstrated an acceptable hemocompatibility profile in patients. However, there is a great opportunity to gain a clinical benefit by developing techniques to lower the blood surface interaction within both pump technologies and a magnetically levitated centrifugal pump design might be superior.

  18. Clinical Investigation of Hyperthermia Perfusion Extracorporeal Circulatory System in Treatment of Malignant Pleural Effusion%恒温体外循环热灌注治疗恶性胸腔积液的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解国清; 廖国清; 李雷; 马太林; 毛利伟


    目的:观察恒温体外循环热灌注化疗治疗恶性胸腔积液的临床疗效.方法:于2008 年1月~2011 年4月选择经病理证实的肺癌或恶性间皮瘤同时伴发恶性胸腔积液的患者86 例,随机分为治疗组(n=44) 和对照组(n=42).治疗组用Astronaut 体外循环热疗机热灌注化疗,对照组仅行普通腔内热灌注化疗.两组化疗药物为顺铂,首次剂量90mg,以后每次60mg,1 次/周,共6周.治疗前后测定胸水量,并观察生活质量改善情况及治疗副反应.结果:治疗6周后,治疗组胸腔积液CR18 例,PR20 例,总有效率86.4%,对照组CR11 例,PR17 例,总有效率66.7%,差异有统计学上显著意义(P<0.05).治疗组生活质量改善亦优于对照组(P<0.05).两组患者均出现了轻微的消化道反应,可耐受.结论:体外循环热灌注顺铂治疗恶性胸腔积液,疗效显著.%Objective: To investigate clinical efficacy of hyperthermia perfusion extracorporeal circulatory system in treatment of malignant pleural effusion. Methods: Eighty-six malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer patients with malignant pleural effusion diagnosed by pathological evidences were divided into treatment group(n=44) and control group(n=42) randomly in Jan. 2008 to April 2011. The treatment group was dealt with hyperthermia perfusion extracorporeal circulatory system with DDP injection, while the control group received hyperthermia perfusion and DDP intracavity injection only. The same dose of DDP were injected in two groups, firstly 90mg, and the 60mg each time, once a week, and six times in total. The volume of effusion were measured at the baseline and after treatment. Life quality and side-effects were observed in two groups too. Results: There were 18 complete response (CR) and 20 partial response(PR) in treatment group, the total effective rate was 86.4% , while 11 CR and 17 PR in control group(66.7%). Life quality improved significantly in treatment group compared with control group, while two

  19. [Circulatory failure in chronic glomerulo- and pyelonephritis]. (United States)

    Kulakov, G P; Melikian, A M; Seĭsembekov, T Z


    The frequency and degree of circulatory insufficiency depending on the stage of the disease are analyzed in 404 patients with chronic glomerulonephritis and 145 patients with chronic pyelonephritis aged 15 to 74 years. When the renal function is still preserved different degrees of circulatory insufficiency are diagnosed in 29.4% of patients. Circulatory insufficiency complicates more often chronic glomerulonephritis than pyelonephritis and is more common in the aged. Latent cardiac insufficiency is more common. In the period of chronic renal insufficiency cardiac decompensation is seen in 78.1% of cases, its frequency is practically the same in glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis. The mechanisms of development of cardiac insufficiency and the principles of treatment depending on the functional state of the kidneys are discussed.

  20. Structural design of a newly developed pediatric circulatory assist device for Fontan circulation by using shape memory alloy fiber. (United States)

    Shiraishi, Y; Sugai, T K; Tanaka, A; Yoshizawa, M; Yambe, T; Yamada, A; Omran, M H; Shiga, T; Kitano, T; Kamiya, K; Mochizuki, S; Miura, H; Homma, D; Yamagishi, M


    Total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) is commonly applied for the surgical treatment of congenital heart disease such as single ventricle in pediatric patients. Patients with no ventricle in pulmonary circulation are treated along with Fontan algorithm, in which the systemic venous return is diverted directly to the pulmonary artery without passing through subpulmonary ventricle. In order to promote the pulmonary circulation after Fontan procedure, we developed a newly designed pulmonary circulatory assist device by using shape memory alloy fibers. We developed a pulmonary circulatory assist device as a non-blood contacting mechanical support system in pediatric patients with TCPC. The device has been designed to be installed like a cuff around the ePTFE TCPC conduit, which can contract from outside. We employed a covalent type functional anisotropic shape memory alloy fiber (Biometal, Toki Corporation, Tokyo Japan) as a servo actuator of the pulmonary circulatory assist device. The diameter of this fiber was 100 microns, and its contractile frequency was 2-3 Hz. Heat generation with electric current contracts these fibers and the conduit. The maximum contraction ratio of this fiber is about 7% in length. In order to extend its contractile ratio, we fabricated and installed mechanical structural units to control the length of fibers. In this study, we examined basic contractile functions of the device in the mock system. As a result, the internal pressure of the conduit increased to 63 mmHg by the mechanical contraction under the condition of 400 msec-current supply in the mock examination with the overflow tank of 10 mmHg loading.

  1. The Diagnosis and Hemodynamic Monitoring of Circulatory Shock: Current and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendy Adham


    Full Text Available Circulatory shock is a complex clinical syndrome encompassing a group of conditions that can arise from different etiologies and presented by several different hemodynamic patterns. If not corrected, cell dysfunction, irreversible multiple organ insufficiency, and death may occur. The four basic types of shock, hypovolemic, cardiogenic, obstructive and distributive, have features similar to that of hemodynamic shock. It is therefore essential, when monitoring hemodynamic shock, to making accurate clinical assessments which will guide and dictate appropriate management therapy. The European Society of Intensive Care has recently made recommendations for monitoring hemodynamic shock. The present paper discusses the issues raised in the new statements, including individualization of blood pressure targets, prediction of fluid responsiveness, and the use of echocardiography as the first means during the initial evaluation of circulatory shock. Also, the place of more invasive hemodynamic monitoring techniques and future trends in hemodynamic and metabolic monitoring in circulatory shock, will be debated.

  2. Impact of obesity and bariatric surgery on metabolism and coronary circulatory function. (United States)

    Valenta, Ines; Dilsizian, Vasken; Quercioli, Alessandra; Jüngling, Freimut D; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Wahl, Richard; Schindler, Thomas H


    Increases in intra-abdominal visceral adipose tissue have been widely appreciated as a risk factor for metabolic disorders such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, whereas this is not the case for peripheral or subcutaneous obesity. While the underlying mechanisms that contribute to these differences in adipose tissue activity remain uncertain, increases in visceral fat commonly induce metabolic dysregulation, in part because of increased venous effluent of fatty acids and/or adipokines/cytokines to the liver. Increased body weight, paralleled by an increase in plasma markers of the insulin-resistance syndrome and chronic inflammation, is independently associated with coronary circulatory dysfunction. Recent data suggest that plasma proteins originating from the adipose tissue, such as endocannabinoids (EC), leptin, and adiponectin (termed adipocytes) play a central role in the regulation and control of coronary circulatory function in obesity. Positron emission tomography (PET) in concert with tracer kinetic modeling is a well established technique for quantifying regional myocardial blood flow at rest and in response to various forms of vasomotor stress. Myocardial flow reserve assessed by PET provides a noninvasive surrogate of coronary circulatory function. PET also enables the monitoring and characterization of coronary circulatory function in response to gastric bypass-induced weight loss in initially morbidly obese individuals, to medication and/or behavioral interventions related to weight, diet, and physical activity. Whether the observed improvement in coronary circulatory dysfunction via weight loss may translate to diminution in cardiovascular events awaits clinical confirmation.

  3. Mechanical circulatory devices in acute heart failure. (United States)

    Teuteberg, Jeffrey J; Chou, Josephine C


    Cardiogenic shock remains a leading cause of mortality despite advances in the treatment of myocardial infarction and advanced heart failure. Medical therapy can be inadequate, and patients may need mechanical circulatory support (MCS). The proper application of MCS requires knowledge of the underlying cause of acute heart failure, familiarity with the circulatory support devices, and the potential benefits and limitations of device therapy. This article describes the most commonly used temporary ventricular assist devices and their use in the various causes of cardiogenic shock.

  4. [An integrated system of blood pressure measurement with bluetooth communication]. (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Sun, Hongyang; Xu, Zuyang; Chai, Xinyu


    The development of the integrated blood pressure system with bluetooth communication function is introduced. Experimental results show that the system can complete blood pressure measurement and data transmission wireless effectively, which can be used in m-Health in future.

  5. The physiology of dinosaurs: circulatory and respiratory function in the largest animals ever to walk the earth. (United States)

    Pierson, David J


    The cardiopulmonary physiology of dinosaurs-and especially of the long-necked sauropods, which grew much larger than any land animals before or since-should be inherently fascinating to anyone involved in respiratory care. What would the blood pressure be in an animal 12 m (40 ft) tall? How could airway resistance and dead space be overcome while breathing through a trachea 9 m (30 ft) long? The last decade has seen a dramatic increase in evidence bearing on these questions. Insight has come not only from new fossil discoveries but also from comparative studies of living species, clarification of evolutionary relationships, new evaluation techniques, computer modeling, and discoveries about the earth's ancient atmosphere. Pumping a vertical column of blood 8 m (26 ft) above the heart would probably require an arterial blood pressure > 600 mm Hg, and the implications of this for cardiac size and function have led to the proposal of several alternative cardiopulmonary designs. Diverse lines of evidence suggest that the giant sauropods were probably warm-blooded and metabolically active when young, but slowed their metabolism as they approached adult size, which diminished the load on the circulatory system. Circulatory considerations leave little doubt that the dinosaurs had 4-chambered hearts. Birds evolved from dinosaurs, and the avian-type air-sac respiratory system, which is more efficient than its mammalian counterpart, may hold the answer to the breathing problems posed by the sauropods' very long necks. Geochemical and other data indicate that, at the time the dinosaurs first appeared, the atmospheric oxygen concentration was only about half of what it is today, and development of the avian-type respiratory system may have been key in the dinosaurs' evolutionary success, enabling them to out-compete the mammals and dominate the land for 150 million years.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Itkin


    Full Text Available The article brings up for the discussion main problems standing in the way of development of the mechanical circulatory support (MCS technology. We give a short historical overview of the development of this technology in our country. Classifi cation of MCS systems for medical indications is given; methods and techniques for short-term and long-term therapy with MCS systems are considered. Main directions of the development of MCS methods are discussed. Using the example of personal experience the methods of design and research of MCS systems are investigated.

  7. [The peripheral perfusion pressure: a new non-invasive parameter for the circulatory monitoring of patients (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Huch, A; Lübbers, D W; Huch, R


    Heating of a skin area to a temperature of 42 degrees to 44 degrees C produces a certain physiological condition which induces maximal vasodilatation. Detailed experiments have shown that local peripheral vascular resistance of such an area remains constant for several hours. The flow in this area is proportional to the actual perfusion pressure. Relative flow was measured by means of a new type of electrode fixed to the skin like and ECG electrode, and compared with simultaneous intra-arterial blood pressure measruements. The changes in arterial blood pressure were also recorded by the skin electrode. This new parameter is defined as "peripheral perfusion pressure". It is appropiate for non-invasive continuous monitoring of the circulatory system of patients.

  8. Ultrasound systems for blood velocity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    Medical ultrasound scanners can be used both for displayinggray-scale images of the anatomy and for visualizing theblood flow dynamically in the body.The systems can interrogate the flow at a single position in the bodyand there find the velocity distribution over time. They can also show adynamic...... color image of velocity at up to 20 to 60 frames a second. Both measurements are performedby repeatedly pulsing in the same direction and then usethe correlation from pulse to pulse to determine the velocity.The paper gives a simple model for the interactionbetween the ultrasound and the moving blood...

  9. Chronic blood pressure control. (United States)

    Brands, Michael W


    Chronic blood pressure is maintained within very narrow limits around an average value. However, the multitude of physiologic processes that participate in blood pressure control present a bewildering array of possibilities to explain how such tight control of arterial pressure is achieved. Guyton and Coleman and colleagues addressed this challenge by creating a mathematical model that integrated the short- and long-term control systems for overall regulation of the circulation. The hub is the renal-body fluid feedback control system, which links cardiac function and vascular resistance and capacitance with fluid volume homeostasis as the foundation for chronic blood pressure control. The cornerstone of that system is renal sodium excretory capability, which is defined by the direct effect of blood pressure on urinary sodium excretion, that is, "pressure natriuresis." Steady-state blood pressure is the pressure at which pressure natriuresis balances sodium intake over time; therefore, renal sodium excretory capability is the set point for chronic blood pressure. However, this often is misinterpreted as dismissing, or minimizing, the importance of nonrenal mechanisms in chronic blood pressure control. This article explains the renal basis for the blood pressure set point by focusing on the absolute dependence of our survival on the maintenance of sodium balance. Two principal threats to sodium balance are discussed: (1) a change in sodium intake or renal excretory capability and (2) a change in blood pressure. In both instances, circulatory homeostasis is maintained because the sodium balance blood pressure set point is reached.

  10. Particle swarm optimization algorithm for optimizing assignment of blood in blood banking system. (United States)

    Olusanya, Micheal O; Arasomwan, Martins A; Adewumi, Aderemi O


    This paper reports the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO) for the assignment of blood to meet patients' blood transfusion requests for blood transfusion. While the drive for blood donation lingers, there is need for effective and efficient management of available blood in blood banking systems. Moreover, inherent danger of transfusing wrong blood types to patients, unnecessary importation of blood units from external sources, and wastage of blood products due to nonusage necessitate the development of mathematical models and techniques for effective handling of blood distribution among available blood types in order to minimize wastages and importation from external sources. This gives rise to the blood assignment problem (BAP) introduced recently in literature. We propose a queue and multiple knapsack models with PSO-based solution to address this challenge. Simulation is based on sets of randomly generated data that mimic real-world population distribution of blood types. Results obtained show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm for BAP with no blood units wasted and very low importation, where necessary, from outside the blood bank. The result therefore can serve as a benchmark and basis for decision support tools for real-life deployment.

  11. Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Optimizing Assignment of Blood in Blood Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheal O. Olusanya


    Full Text Available This paper reports the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO for the assignment of blood to meet patients’ blood transfusion requests for blood transfusion. While the drive for blood donation lingers, there is need for effective and efficient management of available blood in blood banking systems. Moreover, inherent danger of transfusing wrong blood types to patients, unnecessary importation of blood units from external sources, and wastage of blood products due to nonusage necessitate the development of mathematical models and techniques for effective handling of blood distribution among available blood types in order to minimize wastages and importation from external sources. This gives rise to the blood assignment problem (BAP introduced recently in literature. We propose a queue and multiple knapsack models with PSO-based solution to address this challenge. Simulation is based on sets of randomly generated data that mimic real-world population distribution of blood types. Results obtained show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm for BAP with no blood units wasted and very low importation, where necessary, from outside the blood bank. The result therefore can serve as a benchmark and basis for decision support tools for real-life deployment.

  12. On the Instability of Equilibrium of Nonholonomic Systems With Dissipation and Circulatory Forces%非完整系统有耗散和循环力时的平衡不稳定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M·韦仕科尉克; V·科尉克; A·奥布拉德尉克


    The equilibrium instability problem of the scleronomic nonholonomic systems acted upon by dissipative, conservative, circulatory forces was discussed. The applied methodology was based on the existence of solutions of differential equations of motion which asymptotically tend to the equilibrium state of the system, as t →- ∞. It was assumed that the kinetic energy,the Rayleigh dissipation function, the positional forces in the neighborhood of the equilibrium position are infinitely differentiable functions. The results obtained, which partially generalize results from [ V V Kozlov. On the asymptotic motions of systems with dissipation. Prikl Math Mekh, 1994, 58 (4): 31-36. (in Russian); D R Merkin. Introduction to the Theory of the Stability of Motion. 1987, Moscow: Nauka. (in Russian); W Thomson, P Tait. Treatise on Natural Philosophy. Part Ⅰ. Cambridge University Press, 1879], are illustrated by an example.%讨论定常非完整系统在耗散、保守、循环力作用下的不稳定平衡问题.应用方法是基于运动微分方程解的存在性,当t→-∞时,系统渐近地趋于平衡状态.假定在平衡位置附近,动能、Reyleigh耗散函数、位置力都是无限可微函数.结果将通过一个实例说明.部分结果参见Kozlov V V.On the asymptotic motions of systems with dissipation.Prikl Math Mekh,1994,58(4):31-36.(in Russian):Merkin D R.Introduction to the Theory of the Stability of Motion.Moscow:Nauka,1987.(in Russian);Thomson W,Tait P.Treatise on Natural Philosophy,Part Ⅰ[M].Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,1879.

  13. Dynamical Systems, Cytokine Storms, and Blood Filtration (United States)

    Foster, Glenn; Hubler, Alfred


    Various infections and non-infectious diseases can trigger immune cells and the proteins (cytokines) the cells use to communicate with each other to be caught in a positive feedback loop; this ``cytokine storm'' is frequently fatal. By examining the network of cytokine-immune cell interactions we will illustrate why anti-mediator drugs have been generally ineffective in stopping this feedback. A more effective approach may be to try and reduce interactions by dampening many signals at once by filtering the cytokines out of the blood directly (think dialysis). We will argue that feedback on an out of control nonlinear dynamical system is easier to understand than its normal healthy state and apply filtration to a toy model of immune response.

  14. Intelligent micro blood typing system using a fuzzy algorithm (United States)

    Kang, Taeyun; Lee, Seung-Jae; Kim, Yonggoo; Lee, Gyoo-Whung; Cho, Dong-Woo


    ABO typing is the first analysis performed on blood when it is tested for transfusion purposes. The automated machines used in hospitals for this purpose are typically very large and the process is complicated. In this paper, we present a new micro blood typing system that is an improved version of our previous system (Kang et al 2004 Trans. ASME, J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 126 766, Lee et al 2005 Sensors Mater. 17 113). This system, fabricated using microstereolithography, has a passive valve for controlling the flow of blood and antibodies. The intelligent micro blood typing system has two parts: a single-line micro blood typing device and a fuzzy expert system for grading the strength of agglutination. The passive valve in the single-line micro blood typing device makes the blood stop at the entrance of a micro mixer and lets it flow again after the blood encounters antibodies. Blood and antibodies are mixed in the micro mixer and agglutination occurs in the chamber. The fuzzy expert system then determines the degree of agglutination from images of the agglutinated blood. Blood typing experiments using this device were successful, and the fuzzy expert system produces a grading decision comparable to that produced by an expert conducting a manual analysis.

  15. Pathophysiological roles of peroxynitrite in circulatory shock. (United States)

    Szabó, Csaba; Módis, Katalin


    Peroxynitrite is a reactive oxidant produced from nitric oxide and superoxide, which reacts with proteins, lipids, and DNA, and promotes cytotoxic and proinflammatory responses. Here, we overview the role of peroxynitrite in various forms of circulatory shock. Immunohistochemical and biochemical evidences demonstrate the production of peroxynitrite in various experimental models of endotoxic and hemorrhagic shock both in rodents and in large animals. In addition, biological markers of peroxynitrite have been identified in human tissues after circulatory shock. Peroxynitrite can initiate toxic oxidative reactions in vitro and in vivo. Initiation of lipid peroxidation, direct inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes, inactivation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, inhibition of membrane Na+/K+ ATPase activity, inactivation of membrane sodium channels, and other oxidative protein modifications contribute to the cytotoxic effect of peroxynitrite. In addition, peroxynitrite is a potent trigger of DNA strand breakage, with subsequent activation of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, which promotes cellular energetic collapse and cellular necrosis. Additional actions of peroxynitrite that contribute to the pathogenesis of shock include inactivation of catecholamines and catecholamine receptors (leading to vascular failure) and endothelial and epithelial injury (leading to endothelial and epithelial hyperpermeability and barrier dysfunction), as well as myocyte injury (contributing to loss of cardiac contractile function). Neutralization of peroxynitrite with potent peroxynitrite decomposition catalysts provides cytoprotective and beneficial effects in rodent and large-animal models of circulatory shock.

  16. A model of the circulating blood for use in radiation dose calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, T.E.; Poston, J.W. Sr.


    Over the last few years there has been a significant increase in the use of radionuclides in leukocyte, platelet, and erythrocyte imaging procedures. Radiopharmaceutical used in these procedures are confined primarily to the blood, have short half-lives, and irradiate the body as they move through the circulatory system. There is a need for a model, to describe the circulatory system in an adult human, which can be used to provide radiation absorbed dose estimates for these procedures. A simplified model has been designed assuming a static circulatory system and including major organs of the body. The model has been incorporated into the MIRD phantom and calculations have been completed for a number of exposure situations and radionuclides of clinical importance. The model will be discussed in detail and results of calculations using this model will be presented.

  17. A model of the circulating blood for use in radiation dose calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, T.E.; Poston, J.W. Sr.


    Over the last few years there has been a significant increase in the use of radionuclides in leukocyte, platelet, and erythrocyte imaging procedures. Radiopharmaceutical used in these procedures are confined primarily to the blood, have short half-lives, and irradiate the body as they move through the circulatory system. There is a need for a model, to describe the circulatory system in an adult human, which can be used to provide radiation absorbed dose estimates for these procedures. A simplified model has been designed assuming a static circulatory system and including major organs of the body. The model has been incorporated into the MIRD phantom and calculations have been completed for a number of exposure situations and radionuclides of clinical importance. The model will be discussed in detail and results of calculations using this model will be presented.

  18. Flow Control of Closed Circulatory System for Solar Collector%太阳集热器闭式循环系统流量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper describes the basic requirements for flow control of the thermal performance testing system of solar collector,then gives a control measure of the small flow in a closed loop control system, solves the bubble problem when the flow medium temperature rises significantly, proposes a way to measure the flow accurately. Practice shows that this flow control system has fast response, small overshoot, and high steady-state accuracy.%首先介绍太阳集热器热性能测试系统对流量控制的基本要求,然后给出一种闭式循环系统中小流量的控制方法,解决闭式循环系统中流动介质温度大幅度升高时产生汽泡的问题,提出一种精确测量流量的办法.实践表明,这种流量控制系统具有响应速度快、超调量小、稳态精度高的特点.

  19. Hepatic Mitochondrial Redox Potential in Patients with Liver Metastatic Cancers and Circulatory Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Jarecki


    Full Text Available Arterial ketone body ratio (AKBR, which reflects hepatic intramitochodrial redox potential, was measured in 20 patients with Carcinoma hepatis metastaticum and good circulatory condition (group A, and 16 patients with Carcinoma hepatis metastaticum and chronic cardiogenic circulatory insufficiency (group B. Total ketone body concentration (TKB and arterial oxygen tension (PaO2 was simultaneously determined. We have stated that AKBR values in both groups of patients were decreased below the normal level. AKBR values in group B were significantly lower than in group A. At the same time TKB values in both groups were statistically equal and significantly increased above the normal level. The levels of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2 in group A were physiologically high, whereas in group B were significantly decreased. Furthermore arterial oxygen tension of patients in group B correlated with AKBR values significantly. In group A we found statistically significant negative correlation between TKB and AKBR values. Our study indicate that the main mechanism which may explain the decrease of intrahepatic mitochondrial redox potential in patients with liver metastatic cancers and good circulatory condition, is the enhanced beta-oxidation of fatty acids, when the efficiency of NAD+ to NADH reduction in beta-oxidation pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle is higher than re-oxidation of NADH to NAD+ in the oxidative phosphorylation. In patients with coexisting chronic cardiogenic circulatory insufficiency deprivation of blood oxygen supply initiate the irreversible dysfunction of oxidative phosphorylation.

  20. 'In parallel' interconnectivity of the dorsal longitudinal anastomotic vessels requires both VEGF signaling and circulatory flow. (United States)

    Zygmunt, Tomasz; Trzaska, Sean; Edelstein, Laura; Walls, Johnathon; Rajamani, Saathyaki; Gale, Nicholas; Daroles, Laura; Ramírez, Craig; Ulrich, Florian; Torres-Vázquez, Jesús


    Blood vessels deliver oxygen, nutrients, hormones and immunity factors throughout the body. To perform these vital functions, vascular cords branch, lumenize and interconnect. Yet, little is known about the cellular, molecular and physiological mechanisms that control how circulatory networks form and interconnect. Specifically, how circulatory networks merge by interconnecting 'in parallel' along their boundaries remains unexplored. To examine this process we studied the formation and functional maturation of the plexus that forms between the dorsal longitudinal anastomotic vessels (DLAVs) in the zebrafish. We find that the migration and proliferation of endothelial cells within the DLAVs and their segmental (Se) vessel precursors drives DLAV plexus formation. Remarkably, the presence of Se vessels containing only endothelial cells of the arterial lineage is sufficient for DLAV plexus morphogenesis, suggesting that endothelial cells from the venous lineage make a dispensable or null contribution to this process. The discovery of a circuit that integrates the inputs of circulatory flow and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling to modulate aortic arch angiogenesis, together with the expression of components of this circuit in the trunk vasculature, prompted us to investigate the role of these inputs and their relationship during DLAV plexus formation. We find that circulatory flow and VEGF signaling make additive contributions to DLAV plexus morphogenesis, rather than acting as essential inputs with equivalent contributions as they do during aortic arch angiogenesis. Our observations underscore the existence of context-dependent differences in the integration of physiological stimuli and signaling cascades during vascular development.

  1. A cholinergic contribution to the circulatory responses evoked at the onset of handgrip exercise in humans. (United States)

    Vianna, Lauro C; Fadel, Paul J; Secher, Niels H; Fisher, James P


    A cholinergic (muscarinic) contribution to the initial circulatory response to exercise in humans remains controversial. Herein, we posit that this may be due to exercise mode with a cholinergic contribution being important during isometric handgrip exercise, where the hyperemic response of the muscle is relatively small compared with the onset of leg cycling, where a marked increase in muscle blood flow rapidly occurs as a consequence of multiple redundant mechanisms. We recorded blood pressure (BP; brachial artery), stroke volume (pulse contour analysis), cardiac output, and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) in young healthy males, while performing either 20 s of isometric handgrip contraction at 40% maximum voluntary contraction (protocol 1; n = 9) or 20 s of low-intensity leg cycling exercise (protocol 2; n = 8, 42 ± 8 W). Exercise trials were conducted under control (no drug) conditions and following cholinergic blockade (glycopyrrolate). Under control conditions, isometric handgrip elicited an initial increase in BP (+5 ± 2 mmHg at 3 s and +3 ± 1 mmHg at 10 s, P mechanism is important for the BP and SVR responses at the onset of isometric handgrip exercise in humans.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Itkin


    Full Text Available In a review of the comparative analysis of methods and tools for long-term mechanical circulatory support with continuous flow and pulsatile flow implantable pumps. Particular attention is paid to the choice of the optimal modes of the operation of pumps based on the physical principles of the interaction between a the steady flow of blood to the pulsatile mechanics of the heart chambers. 

  3. Immediate and Ongoing Detection of Prions in the Blood of Hamsters and Deer following Oral, Nasal, or Blood Inoculations. (United States)

    Elder, Alan M; Henderson, Davin M; Nalls, Amy V; Hoover, Edward A; Kincaid, Anthony E; Bartz, Jason C; Mathiason, Candace K


    Infectious prions traverse epithelial barriers to gain access to the circulatory system, yet the temporal parameters of transepithelial transport and persistence in the blood over time remain unknown. We used whole-blood real-time quaking-induced conversion (wbRT-QuIC) to analyze whole blood collected from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-inoculated deer and hamsters throughout the incubation period for the presence of common prion protein-conversion competent amyloid (PrPCCCA). We observed PrPC-CCA in the blood of TSE-inoculated hosts throughout the disease course from minutes postexposure to terminal disease.

  4. [Research on Zhejiang blood information network and management system]. (United States)

    Yan, Li-Xing; Xu, Yan; Meng, Zhong-Hua; Kong, Chang-Hong; Wang, Jian-Min; Jin, Zhen-Liang; Wu, Shi-Ding; Chen, Chang-Shui; Luo, Ling-Fei


    This research was aimed to develop the first level blood information centralized database and real time communication network at a province area in China. Multiple technology like local area network database separate operation, real time data concentration and distribution mechanism, allopatric backup, and optical fiber virtual private network (VPN) were used. As a result, the blood information centralized database and management system were successfully constructed, which covers all the Zhejiang province, and the real time exchange of blood data was realised. In conclusion, its implementation promote volunteer blood donation and ensure the blood safety in Zhejiang, especially strengthen the quick response to public health emergency. This project lays the first stone of centralized test and allotment among blood banks in Zhejiang, and can serve as a reference of contemporary blood bank information systems in China.

  5. Changes in the human blood coagulating system during prolonged hypokinesia (United States)

    Filatova, L. M.; Anashkin, O. D.


    Changes in the coagulating system of the blood were studied in six subjects during prolonged hypokinesia. Thrombogenic properties of the blood rose in all cases on the 8th day. These changes are explained by stress reaction due to unusual conditions for a healthy person. Changes in the blood coagulating system in the group subjected to physical exercise and without it ran a practically parallel course. Apparently physical exercise is insufficient to prevent such changes that appear in the coagulating system of the blood during prolonged hypokinesia.

  6. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 functional promoter polymorphism G1575A is associated with elevated circulatory MMP-2 levels and increased risk of cardiovascular disease in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. (United States)

    Bahrehmand, F; Vaisi-Raygani, A; Kiani, A; Rahimi, Z; Tavilani, H; Navabi, S J; Shakiba, E; Hassanzadeh, N; Pourmotabbed, T


    Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is a zinc dependent endonuclease that degrades type IV collagen, the major structural component of basement membranes. MMP-2 functional promoter polymorphism G1575A affects circulating level of MMP-2 and may be considered an important genetic determinant of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. In this study, association between MMP-2 1575A allele with serum MMP-2, neopterin and lipid-lipoprotein levels and with SLE and developing CVD was investigated. The present case-control study consisted of 109 SLE patients with and without CVD (mean age, 35.6 years) and 101 gender- and age-matched, unrelated, healthy controls (mean age, 37.1 years) from the population in the west of Iran. MMP-2 1575G/A polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction (restriction fragment length polymorphism) PCR-RFLP, serum MMP-2, neopterin and lipid levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and enzyme assay, respectively. The presence of MMP-2 G1575A allele was found to be associated with SLE and developed CVD (OR = 1.78, p = 0.029 and OR = 3.43, p = 0.025, respectively). The SLE patients with MMP-2 A (G/A + A/A) allele had higher MMP-2 activity (301 ± 166 vs. 194 ± 35.5, p = 0.002), neopterin (29.4 ± 39.4 vs. 7.3 ± 4.6, p = 0.005), LDL-C (120 ± 25.7 vs. 87 ± 39.3, p = 0.045) and lower HDL-C (39.6 ± 11 vs. 45.9 ± 11.8, p = 0.031) levels than the control subjects. There was a significantly positive correlation between MMP-2 level with neopterin, total cholesterol and TG levels and negative correlation with HDL-C level in SLE patients with CVD. MMP-2 G1575A allele may be a risk factor for SLE. The carriers of this allele have high levels of MMP-2, neopterin, total cholesterol and TG and lower levels of HDL, thus, they are more likely to develop heart disease.

  7. Nocturnal variations in peripheral blood flow, systemic blood pressure, and heart rate in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Christensen, H;


    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate, together with systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate under ambulatory conditions, was measured in the lower legs of 15 normal human subjects for 12-20 h. The 133Xe-washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage unit...

  8. Na+/H+ exchange inhibition delays the onset of hypovolemic circulatory shock in pigs. (United States)

    Wu, Dongmei; Arias, Jaqueline; Bassuk, Jorge; Doods, Henri; Seidler, Randolph; Adams, Jose A; Abraham, William M


    Severe blood loss is a major cause of death occurring within hours of traumatic injury. Na+/H+ exchange (NHE-1) activity is an important determinant of the extent of ischemic myocardial injury. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that NHE-1 inhibition delays the onset of hypovolemic circulatory shock, thereby preventing early death due to severe hemorrhage in pigs. Severe hypovolemia was studied in 16 (25.2 kg) anesthetized male pigs in steps of 10-, 20-, 30-, 40-, and 50-mL kg(-1) blood loss, each in 30-min intervals. Shed blood resuscitation was started 30 min after 50 mL kg(-1) blood loss. The experiment was terminated after 3 h of resuscitation. Eight pigs were used as seline control. Eight pigs received 3 mg kg(-1) benzamide, N-(aminoiminomethyl)-4-[4-(2-furanylcarbonyl)-1-piperazinyl]-3-(methylsulfonyl), methanesulfonate (NHE-1 inhibitor) 15 min before hemorrhage. Seven control pigs died at 40- to 50-mL kg(-1) blood loss. One control pig survived initial resuscitation but died soon after. In contrast, all animals treated with NHE-1 inhibitor survived the entire protocol. In control animals, cardiac output and MAP gradually decreased at each step of blood loss with marked increase in heart rate. Cardiovascular decompensation occurred at 40 mL kg(-1) blood loss. Na+/H+ exchange inhibition increased oxygen delivery, attenuated cardiovascular decompensation, delayed the onset of irreversible hypovolemic circulatory shock, and enabled resuscitation to survival. Echocardiography analysis showed that myocardial hypercontracture gradually developed with each step of blood loss in control animals, but this hypercontracture was attenuated in the animals receiving the NHE-1 inhibitor. We conclude that NHE-1 inhibition attenuates ischemic myocardial hypercontracture, cardiovascular decompensation, delays the onset of hypovolemic circulatory shock, and prevents early death in severe hemorrhage.

  9. 分数因子与分数阶完整力学系统的运动方程和循环积分%Fractional Motion Equations and Circulatory Integrals of Holonomic Dynamical Systems with Fractional Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅景礼; 郭玛丽


    Firstly,a fractional gene and a fractional increment are put forward and the definitions and properties of fractional derivative and integral with fractional gene are given.Secondly,the exchanging relationship between the isochronous variation and fractional derivative with the fractional gene is proved.Thirdly,the fractional Hamilton principles and fractional differential equations with fractional gene for holonomic dynamical systems are presented.Further,the fractional circulatory integrals of the systems are obtained and the fractional Routh's equations with fractional gene are derived.Finally,two examples are given.This research indicates that the fractional differential equations can become the conventional differential equations with fractional gene,and the general methods for solving the conventional differential equations are also applicable for solving the fractional differential equations.%引入分数因子和分数增量,给出了分数阶微积分的定义和性质;基于分数阶导数的定义,证明了含有分数因子的等时变分与分数阶算子的交换关系;提出了分数阶完整保守和非保守系统的Hamilton原理;建立了分数阶完整保守系统和非保守系统的运动微分方程;得到了分数阶完整保守系统的循环积分;并利用分数阶循环积分导出分数阶罗兹方程.最后给出了两个例子.研究表明利用分数因子给出的分数阶微分方程是一个含有分数因子的通常的微分方程,那么分数阶系统运动微分方程的求解都可以采用通常微分方程的求解方法.

  10. Circulatory Shock. Volume 27, Number 4, 1989 (United States)


    23 pg/ml by 180 min and plasma TNFct increased 852 ± 187 by 90 min, then rapidly returned to baseline. Following 45 min of eccentric exercise , which...sham operation (SO). Four weeks following AC, cardiac hypertrophy was evidenced by significantly elevated (pɘ.001) heart weight-to-body weight ratios...ratio of BE/BLPH during circulatory stress (i.e., hypertrophy ). The ratio of BE/BLPH in the heart varies independently of that in the plasma in AC

  11. Mathematical Model of Extrinsic Blood Coagulation Cascade Dynamic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The blood coagulation system is very important to life. This paper presents a mathematical blood coagulation model for the extrinsic pathway. This model simulates clotting factor VIII, which plays an important role in the coagulation mechanism. The mathematical model is used to study the equilibrium stability, orbit structure, attractors and global stability behavior, with conclusions in accordance with the physiological phenomena. Moreover, the results provide information about blood related illnesses, which can be used for further study of the coagulation mechanism.

  12. Evaluation of Verigene Blood Culture Test Systems for Rapid Identification of Positive Blood Cultures. (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Seok; Kang, Go-Eun; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Hyun Soo; Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Kyu Man


    The performance of molecular tests using the Verigene Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Blood Culture nucleic acid tests (BC-GP and BC-GN, resp.; Naosphere, Northbrook, IL, USA) was evaluated for the identification of microorganisms detected from blood cultures. Ninety-nine blood cultures containing Gram-positive bacteria and 150 containing Gram-negative bacteria were analyzed using the BC-GP and BC-GN assays, respectively. Blood cultures were performed using the Bactec blood culture system (BD Diagnostic Systems, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) and conventional identification and antibiotic-susceptibility tests were performed using a MicroScan system (Siemens, West Sacramento, CA, USA). When a single strain of bacteria was isolated from the blood culture, Verigene assays correctly identified 97.9% (94/96) of Gram-positive bacteria and 93.8% (137/146) of Gram-negative bacteria. Resistance genes mecA and vanA were correctly detected by the BC-GP assay, while the extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M and the carbapenemase OXA resistance gene were detected from 30 cases cultures by the BC-GN assay. The BC-GP and BC-GN assays showed high agreement with conventional identification and susceptibility tests. These tests are useful for rapid identification of microorganisms and the detection of clinically important resistance genes from positive Bactec blood cultures.

  13. Mechanical Circulatory Support Devices for Pediatric Patients With Congenital Heart Disease. (United States)

    Chopski, Steven G; Moskowitz, William B; Stevens, Randy M; Throckmorton, Amy L


    The use of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices is a viable therapeutic treatment option for patients with congestive heart failure. Ventricular assist devices, cavopulmonary assist devices, and total artificial heart pumps continue to gain acceptance as viable treatment strategies for both adults and pediatric patients as bridge-to-transplant, bridge-to-recovery, and longer-term circulatory support alternatives. We present a review of the current and future MCS devices for patients having congenital heart disease (CHD) with biventricular or univentricular circulations. Several devices that are specifically designed for patients with complex CHD are in the development pipeline undergoing rigorous animal testing as readiness experiments in preparation for future clinical trials. These advances in the development of new blood pumps for patients with CHD will address a significant unmet clinical need, as well as generally improve innovation of the current state of the art in MCS technology.

  14. SBR-Blood: systems biology repository for hematopoietic cells. (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Jens; Heuston, Elisabeth F; Mishra, Tejaswini; Keller, Cheryl A; Hardison, Ross C; Bodine, David M


    Extensive research into hematopoiesis (the development of blood cells) over several decades has generated large sets of expression and epigenetic profiles in multiple human and mouse blood cell types. However, there is no single location to analyze how gene regulatory processes lead to different mature blood cells. We have developed a new database framework called hematopoietic Systems Biology Repository (SBR-Blood), available online at, which allows user-initiated analyses for cell type correlations or gene-specific behavior during differentiation using publicly available datasets for array- and sequencing-based platforms from mouse hematopoietic cells. SBR-Blood organizes information by both cell identity and by hematopoietic lineage. The validity and usability of SBR-Blood has been established through the reproduction of workflows relevant to expression data, DNA methylation, histone modifications and transcription factor occupancy profiles.

  15. A comparative study of the protein C system in mother's blood, cord blood and amniotic fluid.


    Ewa Zekanowska; Waldemar Uszyński; Mieczysław Uszyński; Jarosław Kuczyński; Marek Szymański


    Activated protein C (APC) is an important anticoagulant which plays a role in pathophysiology of pregnancy, e.g. in maintenance of the uteroplacental circulation and development of the fetus as well as in pathogenesis of preeclampsia. The study objective was to compare the levels of the respective components of the protein C system (protein C, PC; protein S, PS; thrombomodulin, TM) as well as thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor - TAFI in mother's blood, cord blood and amniotic fluid. ...

  16. Fluid-filled blood pressure measurement systems. (United States)

    Li, J K; van Brummelen, A G; Noordergraaf, A


    The performance of catheter-manometer systems for the measurement of pulsatile pressure has been evaluated by both experimental techniques and theoretical considerations. The former approach has shown, on occasion, multiple maxima in the amplitude response. The latter has been approached in a variety of ways, ranging from extreme lumping to application of transmission line theory while employing different configurations in the system's representation. Multiple maxima have also been seen, The present paper identifies the sources of the differences found and compares the relative merits of various theoretical approaches. It introduces the compliance of the system as a figure of merit and provides a simple first-order approximation formula for evaluation of the quality of a system. Damping and impedance matching to improve the system's frequency response were studied. It was found that they were not needed in a very stiff or a very compliant system, nor should one worry about the representation of such a system.

  17. Performance of Gram staining on blood cultures flagged negative by an automated blood culture system. (United States)

    Peretz, A; Isakovich, N; Pastukh, N; Koifman, A; Glyatman, T; Brodsky, D


    Blood is one of the most important specimens sent to a microbiology laboratory for culture. Most blood cultures are incubated for 5-7 days, except in cases where there is a suspicion of infection caused by microorganisms that proliferate slowly, or infections expressed by a small number of bacteria in the bloodstream. Therefore, at the end of incubation, misidentification of positive cultures and false-negative results are a real possibility. The aim of this work was to perform a confirmation by Gram staining of the lack of any microorganisms in blood cultures that were identified as negative by the BACTEC™ FX system at the end of incubation. All bottles defined as negative by the BACTEC FX system were Gram-stained using an automatic device and inoculated on solid growth media. In our work, 15 cultures that were defined as negative by the BACTEC FX system at the end of the incubation were found to contain microorganisms when Gram-stained. The main characteristic of most bacteria and fungi growing in the culture bottles that were defined as negative was slow growth. This finding raises a problematic issue concerning the need to perform Gram staining of all blood cultures, which could overload the routine laboratory work, especially laboratories serving large medical centers and receiving a large number of blood cultures.

  18. Plasma volume expansion by albumin in cirrhosis. Relation to blood volume distribution, arterial compliance and severity of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Kim; Bendtsen, Flemming; Becker, Povl Ulrik;


    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a standard albumin load on blood volume distribution, arterial compliance, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in patients with different degrees of cirrhosis. METHODS: 31 patients with cirrhosis (Child classes A/B/C=...... effective arterial blood volume of such patients, which may be important in the prevention of circulatory dysfunction....

  19. Influence of Blood Collection Systems on Coagulation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Yavaş


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Coagulation tests are influenced by pre-analytic conditions such as blood collection systems. Change of glass collection tubes with plastic ones will cause alteration of the test results. The aim of this study was to compare three plastic blood collection tubes with a standard glass blood collection tube and each plastic collection tube with the other two for possible additional tube-to- tube differences. METHODS: A total of 284 blood samples were obtained from 42 patients receiving warfarin during their routine controls, besides 29 healthy volunteers. Subgroup analyses were done according to health status. RESULTS: Our study demonstrated that different blood collection tubes have a statistically significant influence on coagulation tests. The magnitude of the effect depends on the tube used. However most of the tests performed on samples obtained from any tube correlated significantly with results obtained from other tube samples. CONCLUSION: Although blood collection tubes with different brands or properties will have distinct effects on coagulation tests, the influence of these blood collection tubes may be relatively small to interfere with decision-making on dose prescription, therefore lack clinical importance. Correlations between the results showed that, one of these plastic blood collection tubes tested in our study, can be used interchangably for a wide variety of coagulation assays.

  20. The impact of arterial oxygen tension on venous oxygen saturation in circulatory failure. (United States)

    Ho, Kwok Ming; Harding, Richard; Chamberlain, Jenny


    Central and mixed venous oxygen saturations have been used to guide resuscitation in circulatory failure, but the impact of arterial oxygen tension on venous oxygen saturation has not been thoroughly evaluated. This observational study investigated the impact of arterial oxygen tension on venous oxygen saturation in circulatory failure. Twenty critically ill patients with circulatory failure requiring mechanical ventilation and a pulmonary artery catheter in an intensive care unit in a tertiary hospital in Western Australia were recruited. Samples of arterial blood, central venous blood, and mixed venous blood were simultaneously and slowly drawn from the arterial, central venous, and pulmonary artery catheter, respectively, at baseline and after the patient was ventilated with 100% inspired oxygen for 5 min. The blood samples were redrawn after a significant change in cardiac index (>or =10%) from the baseline, occurring within 24 h of study enrollment while the patient was ventilated with the same baseline inspired oxygen concentration, was detected. An increase in inspired oxygen concentration significantly increased the arterial oxygen tension from 12.5 to 38.4 kPa (93.8-288 mmHg) (mean difference, 25.9 kPa; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.5-31.9 kPa; P arterial oxygen tension on venous oxygen saturation was more significant than the effect associated with changes in cardiac index (mean difference, 2.8%; 95% CI, -0.2% to 5.8%; P = 0.063). In conclusion, arterial oxygen tension has a significant effect on venous oxygen saturation, and this effect is more significant and consistent than the effect associated with changes in cardiac index.

  1. Effects of carboxymethyl chitosan on the blood system of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Dawei [College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China); Han, Baoqin, E-mail: [College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China); Dong, Wen; Yang, Zhao; Lv, You; Liu, Wanshun [College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China)


    Highlights: {yields} We report, for the first time, the safety of carboxymethyl chitosan in blood system. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on coagulation function of rats. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on anticoagulation performance of rats. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on fibrinolytic function of rats. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on hemorheology of rats. -- Abstract: Carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan), a derivative of chitosan, was extensively studied in the biomedical materials field for its beneficial biological properties of hemostasis and stimulation of healing. However, studies examining the safety of CM-chitosan in the blood system are lacking. In this study CM-chitosan was implanted into the abdominal cavity of rats to determine blood indexes at different times and to evaluate the effects of CM-chitosan on the blood system of rats. Coagulation function was reflected by thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplatin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB) and platelet factor 4 (PF4) indexes; anti-coagulation performance was assessed by the index of antithrombinIII (ATIII); fibrinolytic function was reflected by plasminogen (PLG) and fibrin degradation product (FDP) indexes; and blood viscosity (BV) and plasma viscosity (PV) indexes reflected hemorheology. Results showed that CM-chitosan has no significant effects on the blood system of rats, and provides experimental basis for CM-chitosan to be applied in the field of biomedical materials.

  2. Cardiovascular effects of NA+/H+ exchanger inhibition with BIIB513 following hypovolemic circulatory shock. (United States)

    Wu, Dongmei; Bassuk, Jorge; Arias, Jaqueline; Doods, Henri; Adams, Jose A


    Na(+)/H(+) exchange (NHE) is involved in the myocardial injury that occurs during ischemia and reperfusion. The goal of the present study was to investigate the role of NHE in hypovolemic circulatory shock by using a potent NHE-1 selective inhibitor BIIB513. Acute rapid hemorrhage was induced in 14 pigs by bleeding (30 mL/kg over 30 min). Seven pigs were used as saline control. Seven other pigs received 3 mg/kg BIIB513 at 30 min after hemorrhage. Each experiment consisted of 2 h of hypovolemia followed by 2 h of fluid resuscitation. One control animal died before the experiment was completed. Six other control animals survived the entire experiment. In contrast, all the BIIB513 treated animals survived the entire protocol. Acute rapid blood loss resulted in impaired myocardial performance as well as severe hemodynamic and metabolic alterations. NHE blockade attenuated the hypovolemic hypotension and improved myocardial performance. NHE blockade also attenuated the metabolic acidosis, improved tissue oxygen delivery, and improved cardiac function from resuscitation. The circulating levels of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and cardiac troponin-I were significantly lower in the BIIB513 treatment group. These results suggest that NHE activation plays an important pathophysiological role in hypovolemic circulatory shock, and NHE-1 blockade is a powerful intervention to improve cardiovascular outcomes of resuscitation from prolonged hypovolemic circulatory shock.

  3. Followup Audit: Enterprise Blood Management System Not Ready for Full Deployment (United States)


    Blood Donor Management System (donor system) and the Blood Management Blood Bank /Transfusion Service (transfusion system). The Component Acquisition...transfusion system Business Case Analysis, EBMS will enhance the DoD blood program capabilities for blood banking and transfusion services through...state that it is used to organize the management of blood bank and transfusion services. The transfusion system will interface with outside systems

  4. Estimation of blood velocities using ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    Ultrasound systems are especially useful in estimating blood velocities in the human body because they are noninvasive and can display an estimate in real time. This book offers a comprehensive treatment of this relatively new, important technology. The book begins with an introduction to ultraso......Ultrasound systems are especially useful in estimating blood velocities in the human body because they are noninvasive and can display an estimate in real time. This book offers a comprehensive treatment of this relatively new, important technology. The book begins with an introduction...... to ultrasound, flow physics, and the circulatory system. Next, the interaction of ultrasound with blood is discussed. The special contribution of the book lies in the remaining chapters, which offer a lucid, thorough description of continuous and pulsed wave systems, the latest systems for doing color flow...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Chernyavskiy


    Full Text Available The need of circulatory support systems in the treatment of chronic heart failure is increasing constantly, as 20% of the patients on the waiting list die every year. Despite the great need for mechanical heart support systems, the use of available systems is limited by its expensiveness. In addition, there is no one system that is 100% responsible to all medical and technical requirements and that would be completely safe for patient. Therefore, further research in the field of circulatory support systems considering health and technical requirements is relevant. One of the new directions in the study are disc pumps of viscous friction for liquid transporting, based on the Tesla pump principle. The operation principle of such pumps is based on the phenomenon of the boundary layer which is formed on the disk rotating in a fluid. There are experimental studies of models with different variants of the rotor suspension, various forms and numbers of the disks, forms of the pump housing. However, none of the above samples was brought to clinical trials. Furthermore, despite the potential of that model there have been no pumps of similar type used so far in circulatory support systems. Published data provide a basis for further development and testing of the pump model and allow hoping for leveling a number of significant shortcomings of modern left ventricular bypass systems

  6. Blood (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  7. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1130 - Blood volume test system. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood volume test system. 862.1130 Section 862.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  9. Highly sensitive optical sensor system for blood leakage detection (United States)

    Ueda, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Jie, Chen; Sanae, Mizuno; Touma, Yasunori

    A highly sensitive method for the detection of blood leakage has been developed, and a practical sensor system for blood concentration measurement has been constructed. The present method is based on the attenuation of laser light by blood cells. The effects of the fluctuations of the incident laser light power are eliminated by normalizing the attenuated light intensity by the incident light intensity. A part of the incident laser light is reflected by a beam splitter mounted at the entrance of the test cell, of which the power is measured to provide base data for normalization. The optical path is extended to enhance sensitivity by using a pair of side mirrors. This multi-reflection method is very effective to increase sensitivity; the maximum sensitivity obtained for blood concentration is about 4 X 10 -6 by volume, which is significantly higher than that of the conventional sensors.

  10. The ABO blood group system revisited: a review and update. (United States)

    Storry, J R; Olsson, M L


    The antigens of the ABO system were the first to be recognized as blood groups and actually the first human genetic markers known. Their presence and the realization of naturally occurring antibodies to those antigens lacking from the cells made sense of the erratic failure of blood transfusion hitherto and opened up the possibility of a safe treatment practice in life-threatening blood loss. Although initially apparently simple, the ABO system has come to grow in complexity over the years. The mass of knowledge relating to carbohydrate chemistry, enzymology, molecular genetics, and structural and evolutionary biology is now enormous thanks to more than a century of research using ABO as a principal model. This has provided us with data to form a solid platform of evidence-based transfusion and transplantation medicine used every day in laboratories and clinics around the globe. This review aims to summarize key findings and recent progress made toward further understanding of this surprisingly polymorphic system.

  11. Radiation and risk of circulatory diseases in the German uranium miners cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer, M.; Kreisheimer, M.; Kandel, M.; Tschense, A.; Grosche, B. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany)


    cohort members (n=50,707) were ever exposed to radiation. Among the exposed, the mean cumulative exposure to radon was 280 W.L.M. (maximum 3,224 W.L.M.), to long-lived radionuclides 4 kBq h/m{sup 3} (maximum 132 kBq h/m3) and to external gamma radiation 47 mSv (maximum 909 mSv). No increase in risk of circulatory diseases with increasing cumulative exposure to radon (E.R.R. per 100 W.L.M. = 0,00067; 95% confidence limit (CI): -0,0044 to 0,0058), to external gamma radiation (E.R.R. per Sv -0,18, 95% CI: -0,55 to 0,19) and to long-lived radionuclides (E.R.R per kBq h/m{sup 3} -0.0018, 95% CI: - 0.005 to 0.0015) was observed. This was also true for the sub -group of heart diseases and strokes. In addition, no association was found when exposures were categorized and a parameter free model was applied. Conclusion: These results do not support an association between circulatory diseases and exposures to radiation as they typically had occurred among uranium miners. A limitation in interpretation of these data concerns that potential confounder such as smoking, overweight, alcohol, blood pressure and others could not be considered. Literature: Mc Gale, P. and Darby, S.C. Low doses of ionizing Radiation and circulatory diseases: A systematic review of the published epidemiological evidence. Radiat Res 2005; 163: 247-257. (authors)

  12. Microfluidic filtration system to isolate extracellular vesicles from blood. (United States)

    Davies, Ryan T; Kim, Junho; Jang, Su Chul; Choi, Eun-Jeong; Gho, Yong Song; Park, Jaesung


    Extracellular vesicles are released by various cell types, particularly tumor cells, and may be potential targets for blood-based cancer diagnosis. However, studies performed on blood-borne vesicles to date have been limited by lack of effective, standardized purification strategies. Using in situ prepared nanoporous membranes, we present a simple strategy employing a microfluidic filtration system to isolate vesicles from whole blood samples. This method can be applied to purify nano-sized particles from blood allowing isolation of intact extracellular vesicles, avoiding the need for laborious and potentially damaging centrifugation steps or overly specific antibody-based affinity purification. Porous polymer monoliths were integrated as membranes into poly(methyl methacrylate) microfluidic chips by benchtop UV photopolymerization through a mask, allowing precise positioning of membrane elements while preserving simplicity of device preparation. Pore size could be manipulated by changing the ratio of porogenic solvent to prepolymer solution, and was tuned to a size proper for extraction of vesicles. Using the membrane as a size exclusion filter, we separated vesicles from cells and large debris by injecting whole blood under pressure through the microfluidic device. To enhance isolation purity, DC electrophoresis was employed as an alternative driving force to propel particles across the filter and increase the separation efficiency of vesicles from proteins. From the whole blood of melanoma-grown mice, we isolated extracellular vesicles and performed RT-PCR to verify their contents of RNA. Melan A mRNA derived from melanoma tumor cells were found enriched in filtered samples, confirming the recovery of vesicles via their cargo. This filtration system can be incorporated into other on-chip processes enabling integrated sample preparation for the downstream analysis of blood-based extracellular vesicles.

  13. How the python heart separates pulmonary and systemic blood pressures and blood flows. (United States)

    Jensen, Bjarke; Nielsen, Jan M; Axelsson, Michael; Pedersen, Michael; Löfman, Carl; Wang, Tobias


    The multiple convergent evolution of high systemic blood pressure among terrestrial vertebrates has always been accompanied by lowered pulmonary pressure. In mammals, birds and crocodilians, this cardiac separation of pressures relies on the complete division of the right and left ventricles by a complete ventricular septum. However, the anatomy of the ventricle of most reptiles does not allow for complete anatomical division, but the hearts of pythons and varanid lizards can produce high systemic blood pressure while keeping the pulmonary blood pressure low. It is also known that these two groups of reptiles are characterised by low magnitudes of cardiac shunts. Little, however, is known about the mechanisms that allow for this pressure separation. Here we provide a description of cardiac structures and intracardiac events that have been revealed by ultrasonic measurements and angioscopy. Echocardiography revealed that the atrioventricular valves descend deep into the ventricle during ventricular filling and thereby greatly reduce the communication between the systemic (cavum arteriosum) and pulmonary (cavum pulmonale) ventricular chambers during diastole. Angioscopy and echocardiography showed how the two incomplete septa, the muscular ridge and the bulbuslamelle - ventricular structures common to all squamates - contract against each other in systole and provide functional division of the anatomically subdivided ventricle. Washout shunts are inevitable in the subdivided snake ventricle, but we show that the site of shunting, the cavum venosum, is very small throughout the cardiac cycle. It is concluded that the python ventricle is incapable of the pronounced and variable shunts of other snakes, because of its architecture and valvular mechanics.

  14. [Possibility of using DST-30 thermoelastoplast in blood transfusion systems]. (United States)

    Il'iakov, E V; El'tsefon, B S; Polezhaev, V V; Zotkina, I V; Krivonosov, A I


    Investigating possible application of the DCT-30 thermoelastoplastic shows advantages of some physico-technical properties of this product based on natural caoutchouc and latex by comparison with base-rubber onene. It justifies recommending the former for making injection tubes in the blood transfusion systems.

  15. Description, validation, and modification of the Guyton model for space-flight applications. Part A. Guyton model of circulatory, fluid and electrolyte control. Part B. Modification of the Guyton model for circulatory, fluid and electrolyte control (United States)

    Leonard, J. I.


    The mathematical model that has been a cornerstone for the systems analysis of space-flight physiological studies is the Guyton model describing circulatory, fluid and electrolyte regulation. The model and the modifications that are made to permit simulation and analysis of the stress of weightlessness are described.

  16. Increased Plasma Levels of Heparin-Binding Protein on Admission to Intensive Care Are Associated with Respiratory and Circulatory Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Tydén

    Full Text Available Heparin-binding protein (HBP is released by granulocytes and has been shown to increase vascular permeability in experimental investigations. Increased vascular permeability in the lungs can lead to fluid accumulation in alveoli and respiratory failure. A generalized increase in vascular permeability leads to loss of circulating blood volume and circulatory failure. We hypothesized that plasma concentrations of HBP on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU would be associated with decreased oxygenation or circulatory failure.This is a prospective, observational study in a mixed 8-bed ICU. We investigated concentrations of HBP in plasma at admission to the ICU from 278 patients. Simplified acute physiology score (SAPS 3 was recorded on admission. Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA scores were recorded daily for three days.Median SAPS 3 was 58.8 (48-70 and 30-day mortality 64/278 (23%. There was an association between high plasma concentrations of HBP on admission with decreased oxygenation (p<0.001 as well as with circulatory failure (p<0.001, after 48-72 hours in the ICU. There was an association between concentrations of HBP on admission and 30-day mortality (p = 0.002. ROC curves showed areas under the curve of 0,62 for decreased oxygenation, 0,65 for circulatory failure and 0,64 for mortality.A high concentration of HBP in plasma on admission to the ICU is associated with respiratory and circulatory failure later during the ICU care period. It is also associated with increased 30-day mortality. Despite being an interesting biomarker for the composite ICU population it's predictive value at the individual patient level is low.

  17. Trends in death from circulatory diseases in Brazil between 1979 and 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansur Antonio de Padua


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the trends in mortality due to circulatory diseases in men and women aged > or = 30 years in Brazil from 1979 to 1996. METHODS: We analyzed population count data obtained from the IBGE Foundation and mortality data obtained from the System of Information on Mortality of the DATASUS of the Ministry of Health. RESULTS: Circulatory diseases, ischemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease were the major causes of death in men and women in Brazil. The standardized age coefficient for circulatory disease in men aged > or = 30 years ranged from 620 to 506 deaths/100,000 inhabitants and in women from 483 to 383 deaths/100,000 inhabitants for the years 1979 and 1996, respectively. In men, the mean coefficient for the period was 586.25 deaths with a significant trend towards a decrease (P<0.001 and a decline of 8.25 deaths/year. In women, the mean coefficient for the period was 439.58 deaths, a significant trend towards a decrease (P<0.001 and a rate of decline of 7.53 deaths/year. The same significant trend towards a decrease in death (P<0.001 was observed for ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Risk of death from these causes was always higher for men of any age group (P<0.001. Cerebrovascular disease was the primary cause of death in women. CONCLUSION: Although circulatory diseases have been the major cause of mortality in men and women in the Brazilian population, with a greater participation by cerebrovascular diseases, a trend towards a decrease in the risk of death from these causes is being observed.

  18. Drosophila as a model to study the role of blood cells in inflammation, innate immunity and cancer



    Drosophila has a blood system with three types of haemocytes which function throughout different developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Haemocytes play essential roles in tissue modelling during embryogenesis and morphogenesis, and also in innate immunity. The open circulatory system of Drosophila makes haemocytes ideal signal mediators to cells and tissues in response to events such as infection, wounding and tumour formation. In this context, Drosophila is now used for screening an...

  19. Drosophila as a model to study the role of blood cells in inflammation, innate immunity and cancer



    Drosophila has a primitive yet effective blood system with three types of haemocytes which function throughout different developmental stages and environmental stimuli. Haemocytes play essential roles in tissue modeling during embryogenesis and morphogenesis, and also in innate immunity. The open circulatory system of Drosophila makes haemocytes ideal signal mediators to cells and tissues in response to events such as infection and wounding. The application of recently developed and sophistic...

  20. Blood-Pressure Measuring System Gives Accurate Graphic Output (United States)


    The problem: To develop an instrument that will provide an external (indirect) measurement of arterial blood pressure in the form of an easily interpreted graphic trace that can be correlated with standard clinical blood-pressure measurements. From sphygmograms produced by conventional sphygmographs, it is very difficult to differentiate the systolic and diastolic blood-pressure pulses and to correlate these indices with the standard clinical values. It is nearly impossible to determine these indices when the subject is under physical or emotional stress. The solution: An electronic blood-pressure system, basically similar to conventional ausculatory sphygmomanometers, employing a standard occluding cuff, a gas-pressure source, and a gas-pressure regulator and valve. An electrical output transducer senses cuff pressure, and a microphone positioned on the brachial artery under the occluding cuff monitors the Korotkoff sounds from this artery. The output signals present the conventional systolic and diastolic indices in a clear, graphical display. The complete system also includes an electronic timer and cycle-control circuit.

  1. Classification of High Blood Pressure Persons Vs Normal Blood Pressure Persons Using Voice Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The human voice is remarkable, complex and delicate. All parts of the body play some role in voice production and may be responsible for voice dysfunction. The larynx contains muscles that are surrounded by blood vessels connected to circulatory system. The pressure of blood in these vessels should be related with dynamic variation of vocal cord parameters. These parameters are directly related with acoustic properties of speech. Acoustic voice analysis can be used to characterize the pathological voices. This paper presents the classification of high blood pressure and normal with the aid of voice signal recorded from the patients. Various features have been extracted from the voice signal of healthy persons and persons suffering from high blood pressure. Simulation results show differences in the parameter values of healthy and pathological persons. Then an optimum feature vector is prepared and kmean classification algorithm was implemented for data classification. The 79% classification efficiency was obtained.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Itkin


    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of the problems of mechanical circulatory support with left ventricular bypass in total cardiac failure. Dysfunction of right ventricular defines the high mortality on left ventricular device. One of the effective methods for solving this problem is the use of right ventricular assisted devices. There are considered of the basic physiological mechanisms of interaction between the right and left ventricles of the heart, affecting on the function of the right heart. Shows the need to assess right ventricular function before deciding on mechanical circulatory support. Provides examples of the estimation the predictors of the right ventricular failure. The basic methods and devices of biventricular circulatory support were con- sidered. 

  3. 78 FR 18353 - Guidance for Industry: Blood Establishment Computer System Validation in the User's Facility... (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Blood Establishment Computer System... ``Guidance for Industry: Blood Establishment Computer System Validation in the User's Facility'' dated April... establishment computer system validation program, consistent with recognized principles of software...

  4. The effect of Panax notoginseng on blood coagulation system


    橋本, 洋幸; 荒, 敏昭; 藤波, 義明; 服部, 敏己; 王, 宝禮; 宮沢, 裕夫


    Panax notoginseng is used as a hemostatic drug to treat the dental extraction socket. However, the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Therefore, the effects of Panax notoginseng on the blood coagulation system were examined in this study. Extraction of Panax notoginseng with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or PBS + bovine serum albumin (BSA) prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), but had no effect on prothrombin time (PT). APTT by treatment with PBS+BSA-extraction was shorte...

  5. The LAN blood group system:a review. (United States)

    Peyrard, Thierry


    LAN (Langereis) was officially recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion in 2012 as being the 33rd human blood group system. It consists of one single high-prevalence antigen,Lan (LANl). The ABCB6 protein is the carrier of the Lan blood group antigen. The ABCB6 gene (chromosome 2q36, 19 exons)encodes the ABCB6 polypeptide (ATP-binding cassette protein,subfamily B, member 6), known as a porphyrin transporter.The exceptional Lan- people do not express ABCB6 (Lan null phenotype), owing to several different molecular mechanisms affecting ABCB6: frameshift leading to a premature stop codon(deletion, insertion, or nonsense mutation of nucleotides);missense mutation; or intronic mutation responsible for RNA splicing defect. Despite the Lan antigen's being reported to play a key role in erythropoiesis and detoxification of cells, Lan people do not appear to demonstrate susceptibility to any disease or seemingly physiologic disorder. Anti-Lan has been described as having variable clinical significance, either for hemolytic transfusion reactions (none to severe) or hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (none to mild). Despite challenging conditions caused by the scarcity of Lan- donors worldwide, Lan- blood should ideally be given to patients with anti-Lan, especially those with a high-titer antibody.

  6. The European Registry for Patients with Mechanical Circulatory Support (EUROMACS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de By, Theo M M H; Mohacsi, Paul; Gummert, Jan


    other founding international members. It aims to promote scientific research to improve care of end-stage heart failure patients with ventricular assist device or a total artificial heart as long-term mechanical circulatory support. Likewise, the organization aims to provide and maintain a registry...

  7. Circulatory responses to nasotracheal intubation: comparison of GlideScope(R) videolaryngoscope and Macintosh direct laryngoscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Fu-shan; LI Xuan-ying; LIU Qian-jin; LIU He-ping; YANG Quan-yong; XU Ya-chao; LIAO Xu; LIU Yi


    Background The GlideScope videolaryngoscope (GSVL) has been shown to have no special advantage over theMacintosh direct laryngoscope (MDL) in attenuating the circulatory responses to orotracheal intubation, but no study has compared the circulatory responses to nasotracheal intubation (NTI) using the two devices. This prospective randomized clinical study was designed to determine whether there was a clinically relevant difference between the circulatory responses to NTI with the GSVL and the MDL.Methods Seventy-six adult patients were randomly allocated equally to the GSVL group and the MDL group. After induction of anesthesia, NTI was performed. Non-invasive blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded before induction (baseline values) and immediately before intubation (post-induction values), at intubation and every minute for a further five minutes. During the observation, times required to reach the maximum values of systolic BP (SBP) and HR, times required for recovery of SBP and HR to postinduction values and incidence of SBP and HR percent changes>30% of baseline values were also noted. The product of HR and systolic BP, I.e. Rate pressure product (RPP), and the areas under SBP and HR vs. Time curves (AUCSBP and AUCHR) were calculated.Results The NTI with the GSVL resulted in significant increases in BP, HR and RPP compared to postinduction values, but these circulatory changes did not exceed baseline values. BPs at all measuring points, AUCSBP, maximum values of BP and incidence of SBP percent increase>30% of baseline value during the observation did not differ significantly between groups. However, HR and RPP at intubation and their maximum values, AUCHR and incidence of HR percent increase > 30% of baseline value were significantly higher in the MDL group than in the GSVL group. -times required for recovery of SBP and HR to postinduction values were significantly longer in the MDL group than in the GSVL group.Conclusions The pressor response to

  8. Relationship of spontaneous retinal vein pulsation with ocular circulatory cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijin Kim

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the timing of spontaneous venous pulsation (SVP relative to the ocular circulatory cycle by using the movie tool of confocal scanning laser ophthalmoloscope. METHODS: A video recording of the fundus was obtained using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (Spectralis HRA, Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany at 8 frames/s in 47 eyes (15 glaucoma patients and 32 glaucoma suspects with visible pulsation of both the central retinal artery (CRA and vein (CRV. The timing of the maximum and minimum diameters of the CRA (CRA(max and CRAmin, respectively and CRV (CRV(max and CRV(min, respectively was identified during four pulse cycles. The interval between CRV(min and CRA(min, and between CRV(max and CRA(max was expressed as the number of frames and as a percentage of the ocular circulatory cycle. RESULTS: The ocular circulatory cycle (from one CRA(max to the next lasted 7.7 ± 1.0 frames (958.8 ± 127.2 ms, mean ± SD, with a mean pulse rate of 62.6 beats/min. The diameter of the CRA was increased for 2.4 ± 0.5 frames (301.9 ± 58.8 ms and decreased for 5.3 ± 0.9 frames (656.9 ± 113.5 ms. CRV(max occurred 1.0 ± 0.2 frames after CRA(max (equivalent to 13.0% of the ocular circulatory cycle, while CRV(min occurred 1.1 ± 0.4 frames after CRA(min (equivalent to 14.6% of the ocular circulatory cycle. CONCLUSIONS: During SVP, the diameter of the CRV began to decrease at early diastole, and the reduction persisted until early systole. This finding supports that CRV collapse occurs during ocular diastole.

  9. One-year period prevalence of blood transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J T; Kimper-Karl, M L; Sprogøe, U;


    Transfusion practice is reported to differ considerably between countries. Comparisons often rely on transfusion rates, incidence - or prevalence rates. In this paper, the one-year period prevalence rate (1-YPPR) of transfusion of red cells (RBC) is presented. Transfusion data, demographic data...... was 9.2/1000 citizens. Most of the transfused patients had a main diagnosis of neoplasm (22% of recipients), diseases of the circulatory system (15%), the digestive system (15%), injuries (13%) and diseases of the blood (8%). Age standardization reversed the relation between sex specific 1-YPPRs...

  10. Clinical experience with L-lysine escinate for acute and chronic cerebral circulatory disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Pizova


    Full Text Available Cerebrovascular diseases (CVD are major causes of disability and death in Russia. Stroke is the third significant cause of higher death rates after cardiovascular disease and cancer. The prevalence of circulatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis and hypertension, is on the rise. Therapy for CVD must be aimed at the underlying disease in which vascular catastrophe (atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart disease, etc. develops, at the regression of neurological and psychopathological syndromes, and at the improvement of cerebral blood flow and metabolic processes. Neuroprotective agents, whose efficacy has been established in uncontrolled and small placebo-controlled trials, are widely used in our country. The prescription of these medications is substantiated by the important role of the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying cerebral ischemia. This paper gives data on the clinical use of L-lysine escinate for ischemic stroke (IS, hypertensive crisis, and chronic cerebral circulatory disorders and discusses the mechanism of this drug's action and the pathogenetic mechanisms of cerebrovascular lesions. A number of investigations have shown it expedient to incorporate L-lysine escinate in the combined neuroprotective therapy of patients with IS, cerebral hypertensive crisis, and hypertensive encephalopathy, which is associated with its antiedematous effect, particularly in preventing vasogenic brain edema, in enhancing the tone of cerebral veins, and in improving venous outflow. It is stated that there is a need for an individualized approach to treating CVD, by taking into consideration the existing risk factors and somatic and neurological diseases. 

  11. Donation after cardio-circulatory death liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hieu Le Dinh; Arnaud de Roover; Abdour Kaba; Séverine Lauwick; Jean Joris; Jean Delwaide; Pierre Honoré


    The renewed interest in donation after cardio-circulatory death (DCD) started in the 1990s following the limited success of the transplant community to expand the donation after brain-death (DBD) organ supply and following the request of potential DCD families.Since then,DCD organ procurement and transplantation activities have rapidly expanded,particularly for nonvital organs,like kidneys.In liver transplantation (LT),DCD donors are a valuable organ source that helps to decrease the mortality rate on the waiting lists and to increase the availability of organs for transplantation despite a higher risk of early graft dysfunction,more frequent vascular and ischemia-type biliary lesions,higher rates of re-listing and re-transplantation and lower graft survival,which are obviously due to the inevitable warm ischemia occurring during the declaration of death and organ retrieval process.Experimental strategies intervening in both donors and recipients at different phases of the transplantation process have focused on the attenuation of ischemia-reperfusion injury and already gained encouraging results,and some of them have found their way from pre-clinical success into clinical reality.The future of DCD-LT is promising.Concerted efforts should concentrate on the identification of suitable donors (probably Maastricht category Ⅲ DCD donors),better donor and recipient matching (high risk donors to low risk recipients),use of advanced organ preservation techniques (oxygenated hypothermic machine perfusion,normothermic machine perfusion,venous systemic oxygen persufflation),and pharmacological modulation (probably a multi-factorial biologic modulation strategy) so that DCD liver allografts could be safely utilized and attain equivalent results as DBD-LT.

  12. Oscillometric continuous blood pressure sensing for wearable health monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    Gelao, Gennaro; Passaro, Vittorio M N; Perri, Anna Gina


    In this paper we present an acquisition chain for the measurement of blood arterial pressure based on the oscillometric method. This method does not suffer from any limitation as the well-known auscultatory method and it is suited for wearable health monitoring systems. The device uses a pressure sensor whose signal is filtered, digitalized and analyzed by a microcontroller. Local analysis allows the evaluation of the systolic and diastolic pressure values which can be used for local alarms, data collection and remote monitoring.

  13. Development of inexpensive blood imaging systems: where are we now? (United States)

    Chu, Kaiqin; Smith, Zachary J; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian


    Clinical applications in the developing world, such as malaria and anemia diagnosis, demand a change in the medical paradigm of expensive care given in central locations by highly trained professionals. There has been a recent explosion in optical technologies entering the consumer market through the widespread adoption of smartphones and LEDs. This technology commoditization has enabled the development of small, portable optical imaging systems at an unprecedentedly low cost. Here, we review the state-of-the-field of the application of these systems for low-cost blood imaging with an emphasis on cellular imaging systems. In addition to some promising results addressing specific clinical issues, an overview of the technology landscape is provided. We also discuss several key issues that need to be addressed before these technologies can be commercialized.

  14. Mock Circulatory Loop Compliance Chamber Employing a Novel Real-Time Control Process. (United States)

    Taylor, Charles E; Miller, Gerald E


    The use of compliance chambers in mock circulatory loop construction is the predominant means of simulating arterial compliance. Utilizing mock circulatory loops as bench test methods for cardiac assist technologies necessitates that they must be capable of reproducing the circulatory conditions that would exist physiologically. Of particular interest is the ability to determine instantaneous compliance of the system, and the ability to change the compliance in real-time. This capability enables continuous battery testing of conditions without stopping the flow to change the compliance chamber settings, and the simulation of dynamic changes in arterial compliance. The method tested involves the use of a compliance chamber utilizing a circular natural latex rubber membrane separating the fluid and air portions of the device. Change in system compliance is affected by the airspace pressure, which creates more reaction force at the membrane to the fluid pressure. A pressure sensor in the fluid portion of the chamber and a displacement sensor monitoring membrane center deflection allow for real-time inputs to the control algorithm. A predefined numerical model correlates the displacement sensor data to the volume displacement of the membrane. The control algorithm involves a tuned π loop maintaining the volume distention of the membrane via regulation of the air space pressure. The proportional integral (PI) controller tuning was achieved by creating a computational model of the compliance chamber using Simulink™ Simscape(®) toolboxes. These toolboxes were used to construct a model of the hydraulic, mechanical, and pneumatic elements in the physical design. Parameter Estimation™ tools and Design Optimization™ methods were employed to determine unknown physical parameters in the system, and tune the process controller used to maintain the compliance setting. It was found that the resulting control architecture was capable of maintaining compliance along a

  15. [Mechanical circulatory assist using a miniaturized Archimedes screw]. (United States)

    von Segesser, L K; Bisang, B; Leskosek, B; Turina, M


    An axial flow blood pump (Archimedes screw) for intraarterial left ventricular assist was evaluated in comparison to standard roller pump left heart bypass (LHBP) in 13 bovine experiments (bodyweight 74 +/- 15 kg). Full systemic heparinization (ACT greater than 500 s) was used for LHBP in comparison to limited systemic heparinization (ACT greater than 180 s) for axial. A standard battery of blood samples was taken before and at regular intervals throughout perfusion: (table; see text) Transarterial access and relatively limited blood trauma appear to be the main advantages of the evaluated axial flow blood pump. However, the impossibility to assess the pump flow may be a major problem for the management of the failing left ventricle.

  16. A model of blood flow in the mesenteric arterial system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Leo K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are some early clinical indicators of cardiac ischemia, most notably a change in a person's electrocardiogram. Less well understood, but potentially just as dangerous, is ischemia that develops in the gastrointestinal system. Such ischemia is difficult to diagnose without angiography (an invasive and time-consuming procedure mainly due to the highly unspecific nature of the disease. Understanding how perfusion is affected during ischemic conditions can be a useful clinical tool which can help clinicians during the diagnosis process. As a first step towards this final goal, a computational model of the gastrointestinal system has been developed and used to simulate realistic blood flow during normal conditions. Methods An anatomically and biophysically based model of the major mesenteric arteries has been developed to be used to simulate normal blood flows. The computational mesh used for the simulations has been generated using data from the Visible Human project. The 3D Navier-Stokes equations that govern flow within this mesh have been simplified to an efficient 1D scheme. This scheme, together with a constitutive pressure-radius relationship, has been solved numerically for pressure, vessel radius and velocity for the entire mesenteric arterial network. Results The computational model developed shows close agreement with physiologically realistic geometries other researchers have recorded in vivo. Using this model as a framework, results were analyzed for the four distinct phases of the cardiac cycle – diastole, isovolumic contraction, ejection and isovolumic relaxation. Profiles showing the temporally varying pressure and velocity for a periodic input varying between 10.2 kPa (77 mmHg and 14.6 kPa (110 mmHg at the abdominal aorta are presented. An analytical solution has been developed to model blood flow in tapering vessels and when compared with the numerical solution, showed excellent agreement. Conclusion An


    The objective of the investigation is the application of, and where necessary, extension of optimal control theory to the synthesis of controllers for such cardio-circulatory assist devices. In particular, the concept of set of attainability is extended to include linear, periodic, bounded control systems and the maximum principle applied to obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for various problems. In addition to several numerical examples, the results of a large-scale hybrid simulation for a cardiovascular model and particular assist device are presented.

  18. Energy transmission and power sources for mechanical circulatory support devices to achieve total implantability. (United States)

    Wang, Jake X; Smith, Joshua R; Bonde, Pramod


    Left ventricular assist device therapy has radically improved congestive heart failure survival with smaller rotary pumps. The driveline used to power today's left ventricular assist devices, however, continues to be a source of infection, traumatic damage, and rehospitalization. Previous attempts to wirelessly power left ventricular assist devices using transcutaneous energy transfer systems have been limited by restrictions on separation distance and alignment between the transmit and receive coils. Resonant electrical energy transfer allows power delivery at larger distances without compromising safety and efficiency. This review covers the efforts to wirelessly power mechanical circulatory assist devices and the progress made in enhancing their energy sources.

  19. Effects of non Newtonian spiral blood flow through arterial stenosis (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Mahmudul; Maruf, Mahbub Alam; Ali, Mohammad


    The spiral component of blood flow has both beneficial and detrimental effects in human circulatory system. A numerical investigation is carried out to analyze the effect of spiral blood flow through an axisymmetric three dimensional artery having 75% stenosis at the center. Blood is assumed as a Non-Newtonian fluid. Standard k-ω model is used for the simulation with the Reynolds number of 1000. A parabolic velocity profile with spiral flow is used as inlet boundary condition. The peak values of all velocity components are found just after stenosis. But total pressure gradually decreases at downstream. Spiral flow of blood has significant effects on tangential component of velocity. However, the effect is mild for radial and axial velocity components. The peak value of wall shear stress is at the stenosis zone and decreases rapidly in downstream. The effect of spiral flow is significant for turbulent kinetic energy. Detailed investigation and relevant pathological issues are delineated throughout the paper.

  20. An Analysis of and Recommendations for the Peruvian Blood Collection and Transfusion System (United States)

    George, Paul E; Vidal, Julio; Garcia, Patricia J


    Background Peru experienced a crisis in its blood collection and supply system in the mid-2000s, as contaminated blood led to several transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI), occurring in the backdrop of extremely low voluntary donation rates and a national blood supply shortage. Thus, the Peruvian Ministry of Health (MINSA) implemented a national investigation on the safety and quality of the Peruvian blood collection/transfusion network. Methods Every Peruvian blood bank was evaluated by MINSA from 2007–2008. These evaluations consisted of an update of the national registry of blood banks and visits to each blood bank from MINSA oversight teams. Information was collected on the condition of the blood bank personnel, equipment, supplies, and practices. Further, previously-collected blood at each blood bank was randomly selected and screened for TTI-causing pathogens. Results Uncovered in this investigation was a fragmented, under-equipped, and poorly-staffed blood collection and transfusion network, consisting of 241 independent blood banks and resulting in suboptimal allocation of resources. Further, blood with evidence of TTI-causing pathogens (including Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and syphilis) and set for transfusion was discovered at three separate blood banks as part of the random screening process. Conclusion Using the successful reorganizations of national blood supply systems in other Latin American countries as examples, Peru would be well-served to form large, high-volume, regional blood collection and transfusion centers, responsible for blood collection and screening for the entire country. The small, separate blood banks would then be transformed into a network of blood transfusion centers, not responsible for blood collection. This reorganization would allow Peru to better utilize its resources, standardize the blood collection and transfusion process, and increase voluntary donation, resulting in a safer, more abundant national blood product.

  1. Current Status of Mechanical Circulatory Support: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Spiliopoulos


    Full Text Available Heart failure is a major public health problem and its management requires a significant amount of health care resources. Even with administration of the best available medical treatment, the mortality associated with the disease remains high. As therapeutical strategies for heart failure have been refined, the number of patients suffering from the disease has expanded dramatically. Although heart transplantation still represents the gold standard therapeutical approach, the implantation of mechanical circulatory support devices (MCSDs evolved to a well-established management for this disease. The limited applicability of heart transplantation caused by a shortage of donor organs and the concurrent expand of the patient population with end-stage heart failure led to a considerable utilization of MCSDs. This paper outlines the current status of mechanical circulatory support.

  2. [Circulatory effects of xanthinol nicotinate in advanced pregnancy (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Schwarz, R; Retzke, U; Lauckner, W


    Xanthinolnicotinate is a vasostimulant substance which is recommended to improve blood flow in the treatment of placental insufficiency. Quantitative sphygmometry with non-invasive graphic recording of arterial blood pressure was used in an attempt to study the effects of intravenous infusion of 300 mg of xanthinolnicotinate (Jupal) on the cardiovascular systems of ten women in advanced pregnancy with suspicion of intra-uterine foetal retardation. Their circulation remained basically unaffected, except for transient initial rise in pulse rate and cardiac output as well as decline of total peripheral resistance. However, additional blood supply to the skin and resulting shift in blood volumes may well provide a possibility of uteroplacental hypoperfusion, at least in cases in which perfusion had been restricted before. Administration of xanthinolnicotinate during pregnancy, therefore, cannot be recommended against the background of present knowledge.

  3. Antibiotics can ameliorate circulatory complications of liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bjørn Stæhr; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B


    Livercirrhosis can be complicated by a hyperdynamic circulatory syndrome. This is due to translocation of bacteria and bacterial product (bacterial DNA and endotoxins), which stimulate the splanchnic nitric oxide synthase and leads to splanchnic vasodilatation and haemodynamic derangement....... This review focuses on how broad spectrum antibiotics can ameliorate the haemodynamic consequences of bacterial translocation. It is possible that the use of broad spectrum antibiotics in the future may be used to prevent other complications of liver cirrhosis than spontaneous bacterial peritonitis...

  4. Postnatal circulatory adaptation in healthy term and preterm neonates.


    N J Evans; Archer, L N


    Thirty seven healthy infants (18 born at full term and 19 preterm) were studied serially with cross sectional and Doppler echocardiography to compare their postnatal circulatory adaptation. Pulmonary artery pressure was assessed by its inverse relationship with the ratio of pulmonary artery time to peak velocity and right ventricular ejection time measured from Doppler waveform. Patency of the ductus arteriosus and interatrial shunting were assessed by imaging and Doppler ultrasound. The rati...

  5. Phenotypic Profile of Rh and Kell Blood Group Systems among Blood Donors in Cote d'Ivoire, West Africa (United States)

    Siransy Bogui, L.; Dembele, B.; Sekongo, Y.; Abisse, S.; Konaté, S.; Sombo, M.


    Few countries in sub-Saharan Africa make systematic searches for antigens C, c, E, and e of the Rh and Kell system antigens in the donor and recipient, thereby exposing transfused patients. Purpose and Objectives. In this paper, we propose to determine the red cell Rh and Kell blood groups among blood donors from traditional techniques to improve medical care of transfused patients. This study will allow us to assess the frequency of blood group antigens in these systems. Study Design and Methods. We carried out a study on the red cell typing in the blood donor population of the National Blood Transfusion Center in Abidjan. This study was performed on 651 blood donors. Results. For the Rh system, the antigen frequencies of D, c, e, C, and E are, respectively, 92.93%, 99.85%, 99.85%, 21.97%, and 13.82%. K antigen is found in 0.77% of donors. Discussion and Conclusion. Although the frequencies of the most immunogenic antigens are lower than in the white race, lack of preventive measures makes the immunological risk high in Africa. Furthermore, Africa is full of specificities that are important to note for a better care of our patients. PMID:25328758

  6. In-vitro laser anemometry blood flow systems (United States)

    Liepsch, Dieter W.; Poll, Axel; Pflugbeil, Gottlieb


    Lasers are used in a wide variety of medical applications. While laser catheters have been developed for highly accurate velocity measurements these are invasive; noninvasive techniques are more desirable but not as precise. The laser is, however, a great tool for in vitro measurements. Several groups internationally are using the laser in the study of local velocity distribution in microscopic areas of specially constructed models. Laser Doppler anemometry is widely used to measure the local, time-dependent velocities, while phase Doppler anemometry has been developed to measure particle size, distribution and velocity. Most recently, laser analyzer techniques have been developed for analyzing the particle size of two phase flow systems. It has become increasingly important for physicians to visualize blood flow. In addition to the techniques mentioned above, several laser sheet techniques have been developed for precise measurements. This paper presents a short review of laser techniques and shows some applications especially for the laser-Doppler anemometer.

  7. Nanoscale drug delivery systems and the blood-brain barrier. (United States)

    Alyautdin, Renad; Khalin, Igor; Nafeeza, Mohd Ismail; Haron, Muhammad Huzaimi; Kuznetsov, Dmitry


    The protective properties of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are conferred by the intricate architecture of its endothelium coupled with multiple specific transport systems expressed on the surface of endothelial cells (ECs) in the brain's vasculature. When the stringent control of the BBB is disrupted, such as following EC damage, substances that are safe for peripheral tissues but toxic to neurons have easier access to the central nervous system (CNS). As a consequence, CNS disorders, including degenerative diseases, can occur independently of an individual's age. Although the BBB is crucial in regulating the biochemical environment that is essential for maintaining neuronal integrity, it limits drug delivery to the CNS. This makes it difficult to deliver beneficial drugs across the BBB while preventing the passage of potential neurotoxins. Available options include transport of drugs across the ECs through traversing occludins and claudins in the tight junctions or by attaching drugs to one of the existing transport systems. Either way, access must specifically allow only the passage of a particular drug. In general, the BBB allows small molecules to enter the CNS; however, most drugs with the potential to treat neurological disorders other than infections have large structures. Several mechanisms, such as modifications of the built-in pumping-out system of drugs and utilization of nanocarriers and liposomes, are among the drug-delivery systems that have been tested; however, each has its limitations and constraints. This review comprehensively discusses the functional morphology of the BBB and the challenges that must be overcome by drug-delivery systems and elaborates on the potential targets, mechanisms, and formulations to improve drug delivery to the CNS.

  8. Code development of the national hemovigilance system and expansion strategies for hospital blood banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jeongeun


    Full Text Available Objectives : The aims of this study were to develop reportable event codes that are applicable to the national hemovigilance systems for hospital blood banks, and to present expansion strategies for the blood banks. Materials and Methods : The data were obtained from a literature review and expert consultation, followed by adding to and revising the established hemovigilance code system and guidelines to develop reportable event codes for hospital blood banks. The Medical Error Reporting System-Transfusion Medicine developed in the US and other codes of reportable events were added to the Korean version of the Biologic Products Deviation Report (BPDR developed by the Korean Red Cross Blood Safety Administration, then using these codes, mapping work was conducted. We deduced outcomes suitable for practice, referred to the results of the advisory councils, and conducted a survey with experts and blood banks practitioners. Results : We developed reportable event codes that were applicable to hospital blood banks and could cover blood safety - from blood product safety to blood transfusion safety - and also presented expansion strategies for hospital blood banks. Conclusion : It was necessary to add 10 major categories to the blood transfusion safety stage and 97 reportable event codes to the blood safety stage. Contextualized solutions were presented on 9 categories of expansion strategies of hemovigilance system for the hospital blood banks.

  9. Aplicación del modelo de sthepen toulmin a la evolución conceptual del sistema circulatorio: perspectivas didácticas Application of the Stephen Toulmin's model to the circulatory system's conceptual evolution: didactical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Uribe


    Full Text Available En este artículo, se presenta una breve sistematización acerca de la evolución del concepto de sangre que considera el período histórico que transcurre entre las concepciones de los egipcios hasta el siglo XVII, cuando Harvey consolida un ''modelo científico'' de Circulación Sanguínea en el organismo humano. A continuación, aplicamos el modelo de Toulmin para analizar la evolución de los conceptos de movilidad sanguínea, septum y frecuencia cardiaca desde una perspectiva realista pragmática. Finalmente planteamos algunas ideas orientadoras que podrían servir de guía para la enseñanza de este concepto considerando los aspectos históricos que analizamos a través del consolidado de las ideas expuestas.In this article is presented a brief systematization about the evolution of the concept of blood circulation that considers the historical period between the conceptions of the Egyptians until century XVII, when Harvey consolidates a ''scientific model of Sanguineous Circulation'' in the human organism. Next, we applied the model of Toulmin to analyze blood flow, valves and cardiac frequency evolution concepts from pragmatic to a realistic perspective. Finally we raised some ideas that could serve as a guide for the education of this concept considering the historical aspects that we had analyzed.

  10. Autonomic Circulatory Control during Pregnancy in Humans



    Pregnancy is associated with dramatic alterations in maternal hemodynamics, which begin early (i.e., following conception, 4 to 5 weeks of gestation) and are accompanied by changing levels of various pressor hormones and vasoactive metabolites. It has been proposed that these changes occur through autonomic control mechanisms, but the actual role of the autonomic nervous system in pregnancy is poorly understood. New research has shed more light on the links between pregnancy and cardiovascula...

  11. Microcontroller-based system for collecting anaerobic blood samples from a running greyhound. (United States)

    Schmalzried, R T; Toll, P W; Devore, J J; Fedde, M R


    Many physiological variables change rapidly in the blood during sprint exercise. To characterize the dynamics and extent of these changes, blood samples must be obtained during exercise. We describe herein a portable, microcontroller-based system used to automatically obtain repeated, anaerobic, arterial blood samples from greyhounds before, during, and following a race on a track. In addition, the system also records the blood temperature in the pulmonary artery each time a blood sample is taken. The system has been tested for more than 2 years and has proven to be reliable and effective.

  12. The ‘abdominal circulatory pump’: an auxiliary heart during exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eUva


    Full Text Available Apart from its role as a flow generator for ventilation the diaphragm has a circulatory role. The cyclical abdominal pressure variations from its contractions cause swings in venous return from the splanchnic venous circulation. During exercise the action of the abdominal muscles may enhance this circulatory function of the diaphragm. Eleven healthy subjects (25±7yr, 70±11kg, 1.78±0.1m, 3F performed plantar flexion exercise at ∼4 METs. Changes in body volume (ΔVb and trunk volume (ΔVtr were measured simultaneously by double body plethysmography. Volume of blood shifts between trunk and extremities (Vbs was determined non-invasively as ΔVtr-ΔVb. Three types of breathing were studied: spontaneous (SE, rib cage (RCE, voluntary emphasized inspiratory rib cage breathing and abdominal (ABE, voluntary active abdominal expiration breathing.. During SE and RCE blood was displaced from the extremities into the trunk (on average 0.16± 0.33L and 0.48±0.55L, p<0.05 SE vs RCE, while during ABE it was displaced from the trunk to the extremities (0.22±0.20L p<0.001, p<0.05 RCE and SE vs ABE respectively. At baseline, Vbs swings (maximum to minimum amplitude were bimodal and averaged 0.13±0.08L. During exercise, Vbs swings consistently increased (0.42±0.34L, 0.40±0.26L, 0.46±0.21L, for SE, RCE and ABE respectively, all p<0.01 vs. baseline. It follows that during leg exercise significant bi-directional blood shifting occurs between the trunk and the extremities. The dynamics and partitioning of these blood shifts strongly depend on the relative predominance of the action of the diaphragm, the rib cage and the abdominal muscles. Depending on the partitioning between respiratory muscles for the act of breathing, the distribution of blood between trunk and extremities can vary by up to 1 L. We conclude that during exercise the abdominal muscles and the diaphragm might play a role of an ‘auxiliary heart’.

  13. SIBAS: a blood bank information system and its 5-year implementation at Macau. (United States)

    Li, Bing Nan; Chao, Sam; Chui Dong, Ming


    Automation systems and information technology can greatly help medical facilities to improve their working efficiency and optimize the whole workflow. This article surveys electronic information management in blood donation and transfusion service, and explores the rationale and archetype of blood bank information systems, then exemplifies a successful in-running system-Sistema Integrado de Bancos de Sangue (SIBAS), which is developed by the Institute of Systems and Computer Engineering of Macau (INESC-Macau) in cooperation with the Macau Blood Transfusion Center (CTS-Macau). Its implementation and the related lessons are briefly introduced too. In essence, this article is oriented to serve as a reference of contemporary blood bank information systems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar


    Full Text Available Up till now about 400red cells antigen have been identified. The majority are inherited by Mendelian fashion. The ABO and Rh blood group system was first to be identified and is most important for blood transfusion purposes. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the frequency of ABO and Rhesus (Rh blood groups in a tertiary care teaching hospital in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective data based study was conducted at blood bank , Chirayu Medical College and Hospital, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India over a period of four years. RESULTS: Study includes a record of 3188 (28.54% voluntary and 7982 (71.46% replacement donors attending blood bank from February 2011 to January 2015. Out of 11170, 10723(95.998% were male and 447(4.002% female donors. The most common blood group was found to be B in 4013 (35.927% donors followed by O in 3462 (30.994% donors , an in 2516 (22.524% donors and AB in 1179 (10.555% donors. Out of these, 10659(95.425% donors were Rh - positive while 511 ( 4.575 % were Rh - negative.

  15. The use of VEPs for CNS monitoring during continuous cardiopulmonary bypass and circulatory arrest. (United States)

    Keenan, N K; Taylor, M J; Coles, J G; Prieur, B J; Burrows, F A


    Cerebral function was monitored with the use of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in 16 infants (mean age 9.9 +/- 4.3 months) during surgery for congenital cardiac anomalies. While hypothermia was employed in all patients, half (8) remained on continuous cardiopulmonary bypass (CCB) while the rest were cooled to lower temperatures before the induction of circulatory stasis and venous exsanguination (CA), i.e., profound hypothermic circulatory arrest (PHCA). VEPs were recorded before, during and after surgical intervention. Latency changes occurred in both the N100 and P145 components of the VEP as a function of systemic temperature during cooling in both groups. Differences in the VEPs were found between the two groups post-operatively, with the most interesting result being a greater increase in P145 latency in the CA group after rewarming. To the extent that VEPs reflect neurological status, our findings suggested that CCB was associated with less perturbation in acute neurological status than PHCA, and shorter arrest times and lower temperatures during CA were associated with the most favourable post-operative VEPs. Hence, intraoperative monitoring of VEPs appeared to be useful as an objective measure of the short-term effects of various cardiopulmonary procedures on neurophysiological function.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Jakusevich


    Full Text Available Aim. To study effects of Ginkgo biloba based drug (Memoplant, Dr Willar Schwabe, Germany on haemorheological and clinical status in elderly patients with circulatory encephalopathy and controlled arterial hypertension.Material and methods. 80 patients (>60 y.o. were involved in the study. Patients were randomized (3:1 on Memoplant (240 mg/daily treatment group and control group. Duration of observation was 16 weeks. The changes of neurological complaints, neuropsychological and life quality test results were estimated during the study. The rheological indicators (blood, plasma and erythrocyte suspension viscosity; aggregative activity and plasticity of erythrocytes also were studied.Results. Reduction (by 50-90% of neurological complaints (headache, giddiness, tinnitus, unsteadiness walking were founded in patients receiving Memoplant. Cognitive abilities according to mental status scale, frontal tests battery, 5 words test, watch drawing test and quality of a life according to QOLI-NS scale improved in patients treated with Memoplant. Decrease of blood viscosity (by 19,3%, р<0,01 , erythrocytes rigidity index (by 15,6%, р<0,05 and erythrocyte aggregation (degree of aggregation by 45,6%; average aggregate size by 25,9%, р<0,05 > <0,05 was observed. Tissue oxygen supply was increased by 23,3% (р<0,05 in comparison with initial state. Changes of haemorheological indicators were not founded in control group.Conclusion. Memoplant increases brain oxygenation due to improvement of microcirculatory blood flow.

  17. Contribution of prostanoids to gastric circulatory and metabolic actions of solcoseryl. (United States)

    Pawlik, W W; Gustaw, P; Sendur, R; Czarnobilski, K; Konturek, S J


    Solcoseryl, a deproteinized extract of calf blood has been used in the treatment of peptic ulcer, but the mechanisms responsible for its therapeutic properties remain elusive. The present study was designed to determine the effects of solcoseryl on gastric total (GBF) and mucosal (MBF) blood flow, gastric oxygen consumption (GVO2) and mucosal formation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) in anesthetized dogs. Soloseryl given iv or ia into the oxyntic gland area of canine stomach caused a dose-dependent increase in the GBF, MBF and GVO2, PGE2 and LTC4 contents in the ethanol-treated gastric mucosa showed a 5-12 fold increase over the values in the intact mucosa. The generation of LTC4, but not PGE2, was significantly diminished by solcoseryl. Pre-treatment with indomethacin completely prevented the effects of solcoseryl on mucosal PGE2, but not LTC4 levels, and significantly reduced its circulatory and metabolic actions on the stomach. The results of these studies indicate that solcoseryl causes dilatation of gastric arterioles and precapillary sphincters thereby improving mucosal blood flow and oxygen supply. The results also suggest that endogenous prostaglandins serve as mediators of the vascular and possibly metabolic effects of the drug on the stomach. The observed reduction by solcoseryl in gastric biosynthesis of LTC4 during mucosal injury may be an important factor in the gastroprotective and anti-ulcer effects of solcoseryl.

  18. [Development of an automatic pneumatic tourniquet system that determines pressures in synchrony with systolic blood pressure]. (United States)

    Liu, Hongyun; Li, Kaiyuan; Zhang, Zhengbo; Guo, Junyan; Wang, Weidong


    The correlation coefficients between arterial occlusion pressure and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, limb circumference, body mass etc were obtained through healthy volunteer experiments, in which tourniquet were applied on upper/lower extremities. The prediction equations were derived from the data of experiments by multiple regression analysis. Based on the microprocessor C8051F340, a new pneumatic tourniquet system that can determine tourniquet pressure in synchrony with systolic blood pressure was developed and verified the function and stability of designed system. Results showed that the pneumatic tourniquet which automatically adjusts occlusion pressure in accordance with systolic blood pressure could stop the flow of blood to get a bloodless field.

  19. Mean circulatory filling pressure during splanchnic nerve stimulation and whole-body hypoxia in the anaesthetized cat. (United States)

    Bower, E A; O'Donnell, C P


    1. Mean circulatory filling pressure (MCFP) was measured in cats under chloralose anaesthesia by obstruction of blood flow in the pulmonary artery. Pressures in the aorta, hepatic portal vein and right atrium were recorded, and MCFP was estimated from the value at which all three pressures became equal when blood was pumped from aorta to vena cava during circulatory arrest. Simultaneous equality was not attained at MCFP values below 5 mmHg. 2. In cats ventilated by positive pressure after administration of gallamine, MCFP was 9.7 +/- 0.3 mmHg (n = 14). The values of MCFP measured in six cats before and after administration of gallamine did not differ significantly. Change of blood volume altered MCFP linearly over the range 5-21 mmHg. Noradrenaline (7.5 micrograms kg-1 min-1) increased MCFP from 9.3 +/- 0.9 to 16.5 +/- 0.6 mmHg (n = 4), and phentolamine (2 mg kg-1) reduced it to 5.6 +/- 0.3 mmHg (n = 5). 3. Changes in MCFP were evoked at different circulating blood volumes by stimulation of the splanchnic sympathetic nerves and by whole-body hypoxia. Ablation of all splanchnic nerves reduced MCFP from 9.4 +/- 0.5 to 7.1 +/- 0.3 mmHg (n = 5) and stimulation of their distal ends at 10 Hz increased it by 4.1 +/- 0.4 mmHg (n = 4); similar increments were obtained at different blood volumes and initial values of MCFP. 4. Hypoxia increased MCFP by 0.23 mmHg per 1 mmHg fall in arterial oxygen tension below Pa,O2 56 mmHg (r = -0.86; n = 24). Similar increments were obtained at different blood volumes and initial values of MCFP. Ablation of all splanchnic nerves reduced the increments by 60%, and administration of phentolamine abolished them.

  20. Effect of volume expansion on systemic hemodynamics and central and arterial blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming; Henriksen, Jens Henrik


    and in controls. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with cirrhosis (12 patients with Child-Turcotte class A, 14 with class B, and 13 with class C) and 6 controls were studied. During hepatic vein catheterization, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, central and arterial blood volume, noncentral blood volume...... in patients with either class B or class C. Conversely, the noncentral blood volume increased in patients with class B and C. In both patients and controls, the cardiac output increased and the systemic vascular resistance decreased, whereas the mean arterial blood pressure did not change significantly......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Systemic vasodilatation in cirrhosis may lead to hemodynamic alterations with reduced effective blood volume and decreased arterial blood pressure. This study investigates the response of acute volume expansion on hemodynamics and regional blood volumes in patients with cirrhosis...

  1. Effects of 12 days exposure to simulated microgravity on central circulatory hemodynamics in the rhesus monkey (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Koenig, S. C.; Krotov, V. P.; Fanton, J. W.; Korolkov, V. I.; Trambovetsky, E. V.; Ewert, D. L.; Truzhennikov, A.; Latham, R. D.


    Central circulatory hemodynamic responses were measured before and during the initial 9 days of a 12-day 10 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) in 4 flight-sized juvenile rhesus monkeys who were surgically instrumented with a variety of intrathoracic catheters and blood flow sensors to assess the effects of simulated microgravity on central circulatory hemodynamics. Each subject underwent measurements of aortic and left ventricular pressures, and aortic flow before and during HDT as well as during a passive head-up postural test before and after HDT. Heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure were measured, and dP/dt and left ventricular elastance was calculated from hemodynamic measurements. The postural test consisted of 5 min of supine baseline control followed by 5 minutes of 90 degrees upright tilt (HUT). Heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure showed no consistent alterations during HDT. Left ventricular elastance was reduced in all animals throughout HDT, indicating that cardiac compliance was increased. HDT did not consistently alter left ventricular +dP/dt, indicating no change in cardiac contractility. Heart rate during the post-HDT HUT postural test was elevated compared to pre-HDT while post-HDT cardiac output was decreased by 52% as a result of a 54% reduction in stroke volume throughout HUT. Results from this study using an instrumented rhesus monkey suggest that exposure to microgravity may increase ventricular compliance without alternating cardiac contractility. Our project supported the notion that an invasively-instrumented animal model should be viable for use in spaceflight cardiovascular experiments to assess potential changes in myocardial function and cardiac compliance.

  2. Mobile Personal Health System for Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Mena


    Full Text Available The ARVmobile v1.0 is a multiplatform mobile personal health monitor (PHM application for ambulatory blood pressure (ABP monitoring that has the potential to aid in the acquisition and analysis of detailed profile of ABP and heart rate (HR, improve the early detection and intervention of hypertension, and detect potential abnormal BP and HR levels for timely medical feedback. The PHM system consisted of ABP sensor to detect BP and HR signals and smartphone as receiver to collect the transmitted digital data and process them to provide immediate personalized information to the user. Android and Blackberry platforms were developed to detect and alert of potential abnormal values, offer friendly graphical user interface for elderly people, and provide feedback to professional healthcare providers via e-mail. ABP data were obtained from twenty-one healthy individuals (>51 years to test the utility of the PHM application. The ARVmobile v1.0 was able to reliably receive and process the ABP readings from the volunteers. The preliminary results demonstrate that the ARVmobile 1.0 application could be used to perform a detailed profile of ABP and HR in an ordinary daily life environment, bedsides of estimating potential diagnostic thresholds of abnormal BP variability measured as average real variability.

  3. Performance evaluation of continuous blood sampling system for PET study. Comparison of three detector-systems

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, K; Sakamoto, S; Senda, M; Yamamoto, S; Tarutani, K; Minato, K


    To measure cerebral blood flow with sup 1 sup 5 O PET, it is necessary to measure the time course of arterial blood radioactivity. We examined the performance of three different types of continuous blood sampling system. Three kinds of continuous blood sampling system were used: a plastic scintillator-based beta detector (conventional beta detector (BETA)), a bismuth germinate (BGO)-based coincidence gamma detector (Pico-count flow-through detector (COINC)) and a Phoswich detector (PD) composed by a combination of plastic scintillator and BGO scintillator. Performance of these systems was evaluated for absolute sensitivity, count rate characteristic, sensitivity to background gamnra photons, and reproducibility for nylon tube geometry. The absolute sensitivity of the PD was 0.21 cps/Bq for sup 6 sup 8 Ga positrons at the center of the detector. This was approximately three times higher than BETA, two times higher than COINC. The value measured with BETA was stable, even when background radioactivity was incre...

  4. Hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion prevents arteriolonecrosis of the peribiliary plexus in pig livers donated after circulatory death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Op den Dries

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Livers derived from donation after circulatory death (DCD are increasingly accepted for transplantation. However, DCD livers suffer additional donor warm ischemia, leading to biliary injury and more biliary complications after transplantation. It is unknown whether oxygenated machine perfusion results in better preservation of biliary epithelium and the peribiliary vasculature. We compared oxygenated hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP with static cold storage (SCS in a porcine DCD model. METHODS: After 30 min of cardiac arrest, livers were perfused in situ with HTK solution (4°C and preserved for 4 h by either SCS (n = 9 or oxygenated HMP (10°C; n = 9, using pressure-controlled arterial and portal venous perfusion. To simulate transplantation, livers were reperfused ex vivo at 37°C with oxygenated autologous blood. Bile duct injury and function were determined by biochemical and molecular markers, and a systematic histological scoring system. RESULTS: After reperfusion, arterial flow was higher in the HMP group, compared to SCS (251±28 vs 166±28 mL/min, respectively, after 1 hour of reperfusion; p = 0.003. Release of hepatocellular enzymes was significantly higher in the SCS group. Markers of biliary epithelial injury (biliary LDH, gamma-GT and function (biliary pH and bicarbonate, and biliary transporter expression were similar in the two groups. However, histology of bile ducts revealed significantly less arteriolonecrosis of the peribiliary vascular plexus in HMP preserved livers (>50% arteriolonecrosis was observed in 7 bile ducts of the SCS preserved livers versus only 1 bile duct of the HMP preserved livers; p = 0.024. CONCLUSIONS: Oxygenated HMP prevents arteriolonecrosis of the peribiliary vascular plexus of the bile ducts of DCD pig livers and results in higher arterial flow after reperfusion. Together this may contribute to better perfusion of the bile ducts, providing a potential advantage in the post

  5. A Way to Improve Analytic Speed of Emergency Blood Sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Zihui; LI Jun; LIU Zisheng


    The circulatory way of eccentric hatch of seperating emergency blood sample quickly and entirely, that is the blood sample is centrifugatened first; second, hatched at 37 ℃; then adopt the circulatory way of centrifugation which can seperate quickly emergency blood sample, and collect nonfibrin serum. The serum was placed paired, and was tested automatically by Corning 644 Electrolyte Analysor and Shimadzu CL- 7000 Biochemistry Analysor after placed naturely with sample 2 hours. There has not difference between two analytic result after T test of statistics. This way shortens the seperation time of serum of emergency blood sample, improves emergency analytic speed, and has a good value on sample seperation of common automatic analysis.

  6. Modelling of the Blood Coagulation Cascade in an In Vitro Flow System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Marianne; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Efendiev, Messoud A.;


    We derive a mathematical model of a part of the blood coagulation cascade set up in a perfusion experiment. Our purpose is to simulate the influence of blood flow and diffusion on the blood coagulation pathway. The resulting model consists of a system of partial differential equations taking into...... and flow equations, which guarantee non negative concentrations at all times. The criteria is applied to the model of the blood coagulation cascade.......We derive a mathematical model of a part of the blood coagulation cascade set up in a perfusion experiment. Our purpose is to simulate the influence of blood flow and diffusion on the blood coagulation pathway. The resulting model consists of a system of partial differential equations taking...

  7. Duffy blood group system and the malaria adaptation process in humans


    Gledson Barbosa de Carvalho; Glauber Barbosa de Carvalho


    Malaria is an acute infectious disease caused by the protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. The antigens of the Duffy Blood Group System, in addition to incompatibilities in transfusions and hemolytic disease of the newborn, are of great interest in medicine due to their association with the invasion of red blood cells by the parasite Plasmodium vivax. For invasions to occur an interaction between the parasites and antigens of the Duffy Blood Group System is necessary. In Caucasians six antigens a...

  8. Hypoxia-inducible factor and vascular endothelial growth factor in the neuroretina and retinal blood vessels after retinal ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Gisela; Gesslein, Bodil; Gustafsson, Lotta


    Retinal ischemia arises from circulatory failure. As the retinal blood vessels are key organs in circulatory failure, our aim was to study the retinal vasculature separately from the neuroretina to elucidate the role of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1α and 1β and vascular endothelial growth factor...

  9. Cerebral venous circulatory disturbance as an informative prognostic marker for neonatal hemorrhagic stroke (United States)

    Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana; Pavlov, Alexey; Navolokin, Nikita; Lychagov, Vladislav; Abdurashitov, Arkady; Zinchenko, Ekaterina; Gekaluk, Artemiy; Zhu, Dan; Shi, Rui; Luo, Qingming; Tuchin, Valery


    Neonatal hemorrhagic stroke (NHS) is a major problem of future generation's health due to the high rate of death and cognitive disability of newborns after NHS. The incidence of NHS in neonates cannot be predicted by standard diagnostic methods. Therefore, the identification of prognostic markers of NHS is crucial. There is evidence that stress-related alterations of cerebral blood flow (CBF) may contribute to NHS. Here, we assessed the stroke-associated CBF abnormalities for high prognosis of NHS using a new model of NHS induced by sound stress in the pre- and post-stroke state. With this aim, we used interdisciplinary methods such as a histological assay of brain tissues, laser speckle contrast imaging and Doppler coherent tomography to monitor cerebral circulation. Our results suggest that the venous stasis with such symptoms as progressive relaxation of cerebral veins, decrease the velocity of blood flow in them are prognostic markers for a risk of NHS and are an informative platform for a future study of corrections of cerebral venous circulatory disturbance related to NHS.

  10. ABO blood group system and gastric cancer: a case-control study and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Liu, Lei; Ji, Jun; Zhang, Jianian; Yan, Min; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Bingya; Zhu, Zhenggang; Yu, Yingyan


    This study focuses on the association between the ABO blood group system and the risk of gastric cancer or Helicobacter pylori infection. The data for the ABO blood group was collected from 1045 cases of gastric cancer, whereby the patient underwent a gastrectomy in Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai. The information on the ABO blood group from 53,026 healthy blood donors was enrolled as control. We searched the Pubmed database on the relationship between ABO blood groups and gastric cancer risk for meta-analysis. In our case-control study, the risk of gastric cancer in blood group A was significantly higher than that in non-A groups (O, B and AB) (odd ratio, OR1.34; 95% confidential interval, CI 1.25-1.44). Compared with non-O groups (A, B and AB), individuals with blood group O demonstrated a reduced risk of gastric cancer (OR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.72-0.88). The proportion of H. pylori infection in blood group A individuals was significantly higher than that in non-A blood groups (OR = 1.42; 95% CI 1.05-1.93). We further combined our data with the published data of others, and crossreferenced the risk of gastric cancer with the blood type, finding consistent evidence that gastric cancer risk in the blood A group was higher than that in the non-A groups (OR = 1.11; 95% CI 1.07-1.15), and that blood type O individuals were consistently shown gastric cancer risk reduction (OR = 0.91; 95% CI 0.89-0.94). Our study concluded that there was a slightly increased risk of gastric cancer in blood group A individuals, and people with blood type A are more prone to be infected by H. pylori than other ABO blood type individuals, whereas, a slightly decreased risk of gastric cancer was identified in blood type O individuals.

  11. Vasoactive substances in the circulatory dysfunction of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming; Henriksen, Jens Henrik


    Patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension exhibit characteristic haemodynamic changes with a hyperkinetic systemic circulation, abnormal distribution of the blood volume, and neurohumoral dysregulation. Moreover, the circulating levels of several vasoactive substances may be elevated....... Splanchnic vasodilatation is of pathogenic significance for the low systemic vascular resistance and abnormal volume distribution, which are important elements in the development of the concomitant cardiac dysfunction, recently termed cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. The systolic and diastolic functions...... are impaired with direct relation to the degree of liver dysfunction. Significant pathophysiological mechanisms seem to include a reduced beta-adrenergic receptor signal transduction, defective cardiac excitation-contraction coupling, and conductance abnormalities. Various vasodilators. such as nitric oxide...

  12. Spectral analysis of heart rate and blood pressure variability in primary Sjogren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Barendregt (Pieternella); J.H.M. Tulen (Joke); A.H. van den Meiracker (Anton); H.M. Markusse


    textabstractBACKGROUND: Autonomic dysfunction has been described in primary Sjogren's syndrome (SS). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the circulatory autonomic regulation in patients with primary SS by power spectral analysis of heart rate and blood pressure variability. METHODS: Forty th

  13. A comparison of central venous-arterial and mixed venous-arterial carbon dioxide tension gradient in circulatory failure. (United States)

    Ho, K M; Harding, R; Chamberlain, J


    The arterial and mixed venous carbon dioxide tension gradient has been shown to increase when there is a decrease in cardiac output. Monitoring central venous gases is an attractive alternative to monitoring mixed venous gases in circulatory failure because central venous catheterisation is a less invasive procedure than pulmonary artery catheterisation. This study aims to evaluate the agreement between central venous-arterial carbon dioxide (CVA-CO2) and mixed venous-arterial carbon dioxide (SVA-CO2) tension gradients and assess whether CVA-CO2 tension gradient can be used to predict cardiac output in circulatory failure. Samples of arterial, central venous and mixed venous blood were obtained from 16 patients with circulatory failure at different inspired oxygen concentrations and cardiac indexes within 24 hours of study enrolment. CVA-CO2 and SVA-CO2 tension gradient were not interchangeable numerically (bias = 0.14 mmHg, 95% limits of agreement: -3.0 to 3.2 mmHg). CVA-CO2 (Spearman correlation coefficient r = -0.385) and SVA-CO, (r = -0.578) tension gradient were significantly correlated with the cardiac index but the cardiac index only accounted for 21% and 32% of the variability of CVA-CO, and SVA-CO2 tension gradient, respectively. The ability of CVA-CO2 tension gradient (area under the ROC curve = 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.49-0.99; P = 0.08) to predict a low cardiac output state (cardiac index tension gradient appeared to be limited to their negative predictive value to exclude a low cardiac output state when CVA-CO, or SVA-CO, tension gradient was normal (< or =5 mmHg).

  14. [ABO system blood group ratios in patients with neuroinfections]. (United States)

    Rudometov, Iu P; Umanskiĭ, K G; Ashmarina, E E; Andreeva, L S


    The distribution of the ABO blood groups in 2009 patients including 1441 ones suffering from etiologically diverse neuroinfections was studied. Certain correlations between the nosological forms and groups of the diseases on the one hand, and the blood factors on the other are demonstrated. The data obtained point to a certain role of hereditary predisposition in the genesis of the neuroinfections. This predisposition predetermines the risk of the illnesses and the gravity of their course, the fact, which is of a practical importance for the clinician.

  15. Sizable variations in circulatory disease mortality by region and country of birth in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafnsson, Snorri B; Bhopal, Raj S; Agyemang, Charles;


    . RESULTS: South Asians in Denmark, England and Wales and France experienced excess circulatory disease mortality (MRRs 1.37-1.91). Similar results were seen for Eastern Europeans in these countries as well as in Sweden (MRRs 1.05-1.51), for those of Middle Eastern origin in Denmark (MRR = 1.49) and France......BACKGROUND: Circulatory disease mortality inequalities by country of birth (COB) have been demonstrated for some EU countries but pan-European analyses are lacking. We examine inequalities in circulatory mortality by geographical region/COB for six EU countries. METHODS: We obtained national death...... sizes. The pattern for IHD mortality was similar to that for circulatory disease mortality. Two- to three-fold excess cerebrovascular disease mortality was found for several foreign-born groups compared with the local-born populations in some countries. CONCLUSIONS: Circulatory disease mortality varies...

  16. Anatomical Mercury: Changing Understandings of Quicksilver, Blood, and the Lymphatic System, 1650-1800. (United States)

    Hendriksen, Marieke M A


    The use of mercury as an injection mass in anatomical experiments and preparations was common throughout Europe in the long eighteenth century, and refined mercury-injected preparations as well as plates of anatomical mercury remain today. The use and meaning of mercury in related disciplines such as medicine and chemistry in the same period have been studied, but our knowledge of anatomical mercury is sparse and tends to focus on technicalities. This article argues that mercury had a distinct meaning in anatomy, which was initially influenced by alchemical and classical understandings of mercury. Moreover, it demonstrates that the choice of mercury as an anatomical injection mass was deliberate and informed by an intricate cultural understanding of its materiality, and that its use in anatomical preparations and its perception as an anatomical material evolved with the understanding of the circulatory and lymphatic systems. By using the material culture of anatomical mercury as a starting point, I seek to provide a new, object-driven interpretation of complex and strongly interrelated historiographical categories such as mechanism, vitalism, chemistry, anatomy, and physiology, which are difficult to understand through a historiography that focuses exclusively on ideas.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    This review deals with active targeting of particulate drug carriers through (1) physico-chemical (e.g., complex formation between a homing device and a surface exposed molecule at the target site) and (2) physical means, Target sites discussed are restricted to those in the blood circulation. Targe

  18. [Blood system peculiarities in the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) under chronic environmental pollution]. (United States)

    Tarakhtiĭ, É A; Mukhacheva, S V


    The parameters of peripheral blood and hemopoietic organs in mature and immature bank voles inhabiting a chemically polluted area were studied. Variability of the blood system parameters depending on the level of toxic load and the animals' reproductive status was determined. Alteration of the cell composition of erythrocytes and leucocytes, the structure of erythrocytes, and the hemoglobin fractions and leucocyte functions describe the adaptive response to the factors of a changed environment more than the concentration of leucocytes, erythrocytes, and blood hemoglobin.

  19. Imaging of blood cells based on snapshot Hyper-Spectral Imaging systems (United States)

    Robison, Christopher J.; Kolanko, Christopher; Bourlai, Thirimachos; Dawson, Jeremy M.


    Snapshot Hyper-Spectral imaging systems are capable of capturing several spectral bands simultaneously, offering coregistered images of a target. With appropriate optics, these systems are potentially able to image blood cells in vivo as they flow through a vessel, eliminating the need for a blood draw and sample staining. Our group has evaluated the capability of a commercial Snapshot Hyper-Spectral imaging system, the Arrow system from Rebellion Photonics, in differentiating between white and red blood cells on unstained blood smear slides. We evaluated the imaging capabilities of this hyperspectral camera; attached to a microscope at varying objective powers and illumination intensity. Hyperspectral data consisting of 25, 443x313 hyperspectral bands with ~3nm spacing were captured over the range of 419 to 494nm. Open-source hyper-spectral data cube analysis tools, used primarily in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications, indicate that white blood cells features are most prominent in the 428-442nm band for blood samples viewed under 20x and 50x magnification over a varying range of illumination intensities. These images could potentially be used in subsequent automated white blood cell segmentation and counting algorithms for performing in vivo white blood cell counting.

  20. Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest: real-life suspended animation. (United States)

    Chau, Katherine H; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Elefteriades, John A


    Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) is a cerebral protection technique that was developed in the 1950s and popularized in the 1970s. It has become one of the three most common cerebral protection techniques currently used in aortic arch surgeries, with the other two being antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) and retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP). At our institution, DHCA has been the cerebral protection technique of choice for over a quarter century. Our clinical experience with DHCA has been very positive, and our clinical studies have shown DHCA to have outcomes equal to (and sometimes better than) those of ACP and RCP, and DHCA to be very effective at preserving neurocognitive function. Other institutions, however, prefer ACP or RCP to DHCA. Each technique has its own set of pros and cons, and the question regarding which technique is the superior method for cerebral protection is hotly debated.

  1. A decision support system for quantitative measurement of operational efficiency in a blood collection facility. (United States)

    Kros, John F; Yim Pang, Robyn


    A decision support system (DSS) is presented that allows users to input, analyze, and output data derived from blood banking operations. The DSS developed is a hybrid system that is both data and model driven. The system provides information, models, and data manipulation tools to assist users in the quantitative measurement of the operational efficiency in a blood collection facility. A relational database was developed to address the four major variables, which impact the cost per unit of blood being collected. Using visual basic, a user interface and mathematical model were developed establishing the relationships to analyze cost per unit of collected blood. Using inputs from users and historical financial data, the DSS calculates the cost per unit as each of the major variables is altered. Real life situations by the mobile operations team at a blood collection facility were used to test the DSS.

  2. Blood flow in the cerebral venous system: modeling and simulation. (United States)

    Miraucourt, Olivia; Salmon, Stéphanie; Szopos, Marcela; Thiriet, Marc


    The development of a software platform incorporating all aspects, from medical imaging data, through three-dimensional reconstruction and suitable meshing, up to simulation of blood flow in patient-specific geometries, is a crucial challenge in biomedical engineering. In the present study, a fully three-dimensional blood flow simulation is carried out through a complete rigid macrovascular circuit, namely the intracranial venous network, instead of a reduced order simulation and partial vascular network. The biomechanical modeling step is carefully analyzed and leads to the description of the flow governed by the dimensionless Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible viscous fluid. The equations are then numerically solved with a free finite element software using five meshes of a realistic geometry obtained from medical images to prove the feasibility of the pipeline. Some features of the intracranial venous circuit in the supine position such as asymmetric behavior in merging regions are discussed.

  3. Effect of volume expansion on systemic hemodynamics and central and arterial blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl


    and in controls. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with cirrhosis (12 patients with Child-Turcotte class A, 14 with class B, and 13 with class C) and 6 controls were studied. During hepatic vein catheterization, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, central and arterial blood volume, noncentral blood volume...

  4. The Prevalence of Transfusion Transmitted Infections in ABO Blood Groups and Rh Type System (United States)

    Nigam, Jitendra Singh; Singh, Savitri; Kaur, Viplesh; Giri, Sumit; Kaushal, Ravi Prakash


    Screening of blood and blood products is important to reduce the risk of transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs). The transfusion of unscreened or inadequately screened blood and blood products are the major source of TTIs. The aim of this paper is to find out the prevalence of TTIs in ABO blood groups and Rh type system. A total of 4128 blood donors were screened from January 2010 to April 2014. Serological tests were performed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti hepatitis C virus (Anti-HCV), anti HIV-1 and 2, venereal disease research Laboratory test (VDRL) and malaria parasite (MP) antigen. In seroreactive donors, HBsAg, Anti-HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV were positive in 40 cases, 26 cases, 19 cases, 6 cases and 2 cases, respectively. Highest percentage of HBsAg, Anti HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV was observed in blood group A negative (2/50), O negative (1/66), B negative (1/91), AB positive (2/377) blood group respectively. In the present study, the total number of Rhnegative donors is lower when compared to Rh-positive blood donors, but Rh-negative blood donors show higher percentages of seroreactivity for TTIs. Larger scale studies at molecular level are required to improve the knowledge of this aspect. PMID:25568761

  5. The prevalence of transfusion transmitted infections in ABO blood groups and Rh type system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Singh Nigam


    Full Text Available Screening of blood and blood products is important to reduce the risk of transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs. The transfusion of unscreened or inadequately screened blood and blood products are the major source of TTIs. The aim of this paper is to find out the prevalence of TTIs in ABO blood groups and Rh type system. A total of 4128 blood donors were screened from January 2010 to April 2014. Serological tests were performed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, anti hepatitis C virus (Anti-HCV, anti HIV-1 and 2, venereal disease research laboratory test (VDRL and malaria parasite (MP antigen. In seroreactive donors, HBsAg, Anti-HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV were positive in 40 cases, 26 cases, 19 cases, 6 cases and 2 cases, respectively. Highest percentage of HBsAg, Anti HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV was observed in blood group A negative (2/50, O negative (1/66, B negative (1/91, AB positive (2/377 blood group respectively. In the present study, the total number of Rh-negative donors is lower when compared to Rh-positive blood donors, but Rh-negative blood donors show higher percentages of seroreactivity for TTIs. Larger scale studies at molecular level are required to improve the knowledge of this aspect.

  6. System Accuracy Evaluation of the GlucoRx Nexus Voice TD-4280 Blood Glucose Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khan


    Full Text Available Use of blood glucose (BG meters in the self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG significantly lowers the risk of diabetic complications. With several BG meters now commercially available, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO ensures that each BG meter conforms to a set degree of accuracy. Although adherence to ISO guidelines is a prerequisite for commercialization in Europe, several BG meters claim to meet the ISO guidelines yet fail to do so on internal validation. We conducted a study to determine whether the accuracy of the GlucoRx Nexus TD-4280 meter, utilized by our department for its cost-effectiveness, complied with ISO guidelines. 105 patients requiring laboratory blood glucose analysis were randomly selected and reference measurements were determined by the UniCel DxC 800 clinical system. Overall the BG meter failed to adhere to the ≥95% accuracy criterion required by both the 15197:2003 (overall accuracy 92.4% and 15197:2013 protocol (overall accuracy 86.7%. Inaccurate meters have an inherent risk of over- and/or underestimating the true BG concentration, thereby risking patients to incorrect therapeutic interventions. Our study demonstrates the importance of internally validating the accuracy of BG meters to ensure that its accuracy is accepted by standardized guidelines.

  7. A multiple disk centrifugal pump as a blood flow device. (United States)

    Miller, G E; Etter, B D; Dorsi, J M


    A multiple disk, shear force, valveless centrifugal pump was studied to determine its suitability as a blood flow device. A pulsatile version of the Tesla viscous flow turbine was designed by modifying the original steady flow pump concept to produce physiological pressures and flows with the aid of controlling circuitry. Pressures and flows from this pump were compared to a Harvard Apparatus pulsatile piston pump. Both pumps were connected to an artificial circulatory system. Frequency and systolic duration were varied over a range of physiological conditions for both pumps. The results indicated that the Tesla pump, operating in a pulsatile mode, is capable of producing physiologic pressures and flows similar to the Harvard pump and other pulsatile blood pumps.

  8. Effects of Replenishing Qi, Promoting Blood Circulation and Resolving Phlegm on Vascular Endothelial Function and Blood Coagulation System in Senile Patients with Hyperlipemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Huimin; Han Libei; Sheng Tong; He Qiong; Liang Jinpu


    Objective: To observe the curative effect of the method of replenishing qi, promoting blood circulation and resolving phlegm on senile hyperlipemia and its effects on vascular endothelial function and blood coagulation system. Method: 96 patients with senile hyperlipemia were randomly divided into a treatment group and a of blood lipid, vascular endothelial function, blood coagulation system and safety. Results: After treatment,the treatment group was obviously superior to the control group (P<0.05) in reducing plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as well as in the ratio of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) to 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α), D-dimer (D-D) and fibrinogen (FIB). Conclusion: Danshen Jueming Granules have the effect of regulating metabolism of blood lipid, and improving vascular endothelial function and blood coagulation system in senile patients with hyperlipemia.

  9. Phenotypic and allelic profile of ABO and Rhésus D blood group system among blood donor in Antananarivo. (United States)

    Randriamanantany, Z A; Rajaonatahina, D H; Razafimanantsoa, F E; Rasamindrakotroka, M T; Andriamahenina, R; Rasoarilalamanarivo, F B; Hanitriniala, S P; Herisoa, F R; Rasamindrakotroka, A; Rakoto Alson, O A


    This study assessed the phenotypic and allelic profiles of ABO and Rhesus D blood group system among first time blood donors at the National Centre of Blood Supply of Antananarivo. We collected through this retrospective study all data registered during 7 years of practice (from 2003 to 2009). Age and sex were analysed with the result of ABO and RhD screening. They were tested both with Beth Vincent and Simonin tests which were performed in a plate, by using commercial monoclonal antibody (Diaclone(®) et Eryclone(®)), and home-made red cells tests. The Rh D was performed with the same commercial kits. The frequencies of alleles were calculated by using Bernstein method. Data about 45,857 donors were obtained. A male predominance (80.46%) was found and most of our donors were aged ABO antigen was, respectively, 22.61, 29.66, 6.13 and 41.60% for A, B, AB and O antigen. Allelic frequencies of A, B and O were 0.1559, 0.1987 and 0.6454. These results confirmed the fact that Madagascan population had admixed ethnic origin.

  10. Antithrombogenic properties of a monopivot magnetic suspension centrifugal pump for circulatory assist. (United States)

    Yamane, Takashi; Maruyama, Osamu; Nishida, Masahiro; Kosaka, Ryo; Chida, Takahiro; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Kuwana, Katsuyuki; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Sankai, Yoshiyuki; Matsuzaki, Mio; Shigeta, Osamu; Enomoto, Yoshiharu; Tsutsui, Tatsuo


    The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) monopivot magnetic suspension centrifugal pump (MC105) was developed for open-heart surgery and several weeks of circulatory assist. The monopivot centrifugal pump has a closed impeller of 50 mm in diameter, supported by a single pivot bearing, and is driven through a magnetic coupling to widen the fluid gap. Design parameters such as pivot length and tongue radius were determined through flow visualization experiments, and the effectiveness was verified in preliminary animal experiments. The maximum overall pump efficiency reached 18%, and the normalized index of hemolysis tested with bovine blood was as low as 0.0013 g/100 L. Animal experiments with MC105 were conducted in sheep for 3, 15, 29, and 35 days in a configuration of left ventricle bypass. No thrombus was formed around the pivot bearing except when the pump speed was reduced by 20% of normal operational speed, which reduced the pump flow by 40% to avoid inlet suction. Subsequently, the antithrombogenic design was verified in animal experiments for 5 weeks at a minimum rotational speed of greater than 1500 rpm and a minimum pump flow greater than 1.0 L/min; no thrombus formation was observed under these conditions.

  11. Initial circulatory response to active standing in Parkinson's disease without typical orthostatic hypotension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Delgado


    Full Text Available While the circulatory response to orthostatic stress has been already evaluated in Parkinson's disease patients without typical orthostatic hypotension (PD-TOH, there is an initial response to the upright position which is uniquely associated with active standing (AS. We sought to assess this response and to compare it to that seen in young healthy controls (YHC. Method In 10 PD-TOH patients (8 males, 60±7 years, Hoehn and Yahr ≤3 the changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP and heart rate that occur in the first 30 seconds (sec of standing were examined. Both parameters were non-invasively and continuously monitored using the volume-clamp method by Peñáz and the Physiocal criteria by Wesseling. The choice of sample points was prompted by the results of previous studies. These sample points were compared to those of 10 YHC (8 males, 32±8 years. Results The main finding of the present investigation was an increased time between the AS onset and SBP overshoot in PD-TOH group (24±4 vs. 19±3 sec; p<0.05. Conclusion This delay might reflect a prolonged latency in the baroreflex-mediated vascular resistance response, but more studies are needed to confirm this preliminary hypothesis.

  12. Blood Pressure Mobile Monitoring for Pregnant Woman Based Android System (United States)

    Supriyanti, Retno; Erfayanto, Uji; Ramadani, Yogi; Murdyantoro, Eko; Widodo, Haris B.


    Currently, at least 18,000 women die every year in Indonesia due to pregnancy or childbirth. It means that every half hour a woman dies due to pregnancy or childbirth. As a result, every year 36,000 children became orphans. The high maternal mortality rate was put Indonesia on top in ASEAN. The main causes of maternal mortality are high-risk pregnancy. Mothers who have diseases like high blood pressure, pre-eclampsia, diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and already over 40 years old and infectious diseases such as rubella, hepatitis and HIV can be factors that lead to high-risk pregnancy. This paper will discuss the development of a blood pressure monitoring device that is suitable for pregnant women. It is based on convenience for pregnant women to get the equipment that is flexible with her presence. Results indicate that the equipment is in use daily support for pregnant women therefore, one of the causes of maternal mortality can be detected earlier.

  13. Repeated action of a constant magnetic field on the blood coagulation system in artificially produced anemia (United States)

    Zabrodina, L. V.


    Changes are discussed in the coagulatory system of the blood in rabbits under the influence of a constant magnetic field of an intensity of 2500 oersteds against the background of artificially induced anemia. Reversibility of the changes produced and the presence of the adaptational effect are noted. Taking all this into consideration, the changes involving the coagulatory system of the blood which arise under the influence of a constant magnetic field may be considered to have a nerve-reflex nature.

  14. Chaotic advection in blood flow. (United States)

    Schelin, A B; Károlyi, Gy; de Moura, A P S; Booth, N A; Grebogi, C


    In this paper we argue that the effects of irregular chaotic motion of particles transported by blood can play a major role in the development of serious circulatory diseases. Vessel wall irregularities modify the flow field, changing in a nontrivial way the transport and activation of biochemically active particles. We argue that blood particle transport is often chaotic in realistic physiological conditions. We also argue that this chaotic behavior of the flow has crucial consequences for the dynamics of important processes in the blood, such as the activation of platelets which are involved in the thrombus formation.

  15. The central mechanism underlying hypertension: a review of the roles of sodium ions, epithelial sodium channels, the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, oxidative stress and endogenous digitalis in the brain



    The central nervous system has a key role in regulating the circulatory system by modulating the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, pituitary hormone release, and the baroreceptor reflex. Digoxin- and ouabain-like immunoreactive materials were found >20 years ago in the hypothalamic nuclei. These factors appeared to localize to the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei and the nerve fibers at the circumventricular organs and supposed to affect electrolyte balance and blood press...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Konysheva


    Full Text Available We analyzed the dynamics of the interaction of rotary pump, connected to the scheme «the left ventricle – aor- ta», and left ventricle in norms and heart failure, using data obtained on the mock circulatory system. Adverse pumping states such as suction and regurgitation can be detected. These limits depend on the degree of cardiac failure, which confirms the need to control the speed of rotation of the impeller in the range of the cardiac failure from pathology to normal. It has been shown that the pulsating pressure at the inlet of the pump modulates the flow of the pump, making it a pulsating, what positively affects on the dynamics of cardiac output. 

  17. System Design and Development of a Robotic Device for Automated Venipuncture and Diagnostic Blood Cell Analysis. (United States)

    Balter, Max L; Chen, Alvin I; Fromholtz, Alex; Gorshkov, Alex; Maguire, Tim J; Yarmush, Martin L


    Diagnostic blood testing is the most prevalent medical procedure performed in the world and forms the cornerstone of modern health care delivery. Yet blood tests are still predominantly carried out in centralized labs using large-volume samples acquired by manual venipuncture, and no end-to-end solution from blood draw to sample analysis exists today. Our group is developing a platform device that merges robotic phlebotomy with automated diagnostics to rapidly deliver patient information at the site of the blood draw. The system couples an image-guided venipuncture robot, designed to address the challenges of routine venous access, with a centrifuge-based blood analyzer to obtain quantitative measurements of hematology. In this paper, we first present the system design and architecture of the integrated device. We then perform a series of in vitro experiments to evaluate the cannulation accuracy of the system on blood vessel phantoms. Next, we assess the effects of vessel diameter, needle gauge, flow rate, and viscosity on the rate of sample collection. Finally, we demonstrate proof-of-concept of a white cell assay on the blood analyzer using in vitro human samples spiked with fluorescently labeled microbeads.

  18. Noninvasive cerebral blood oxygenation monitoring: clinical test of multiwavelength optoacoustic system (United States)

    Petrov, Y. Y.; Prough, D. S.; Petrova, I.; Patrikeev, I. A.; Cicenaite, I.; Esenaliev, R. O.


    Continuous monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation is critically important for treatment of patients with life-threatening conditions like severe brain injury or during cardiac surgery. We designed and built a novel multiwavelength optoacoustic system for noninvasive, continuous, and accurate monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation. We use an Optical Parametric Oscillator as a light source. We successfully tested the system in vitro as well as in vivo in large animals (sheep) through thick tissues overlying blood vessels which drain venous blood out of the brain (e.g., superior sagittal sinus or jugular vein). Here we present the results of clinical tests of the system for continuous noninvasive cerebral blood oxygenation monitoring in the internal jugular vein of healthy volunteers. We applied our custom-built optoacoustic probe (which incorporated a wide-band acoustic transducer and an optical fiber) to the neck area overlying the internal jugular vein. We performed measurements with volunteers at 18 wavelengths in the near-infrared spectral range. Despite a thick layer of overlying connective tissue and low energy used in the experiments, we recorded signals with high signal-to-noise ratios for all volunteers. We found that the temporal (independent of signal amplitude) parameters of recorded profiles for different levels of blood oxygenation correlated well with the spectrum of effective attenuation coefficients of blood.

  19. Influence of acetyl-L-carnitine infusion on haemodynamic parameters and survival of circulatory-shock patients. (United States)

    Gasparetto, A; Corbucci, G G; De Blasi, R A; Antonelli, M; Bagiella, E; D'Iddio, S; Trevisani, C


    The clinical use of acetyl carnitine in circulatory shock has its theoretical basis in the ability of this molecule to restore enzyme activity inhibited by hypoxia, acting as an acetyl donor. Moreover the action of carnitine on an injured myocardium encouraged us to examine the clinical effect of this drug during heart failure. A double-blind clinical study was performed in ten Italian intensive care units on 115 patients with septic, cardiac of traumatic shock, by using acetyl-L-carnitine infusion for 12 hours, with a previous single bolus intravenously. The results showed a good response to the drug in terms of blood oxygenation during the course of sepsis and heart failure. The heart rate as well as right atrial pressure decreased significantly in patients with cardiogenic shock. In septic patients systolic and mean arterial pressures increased also. The present data suggests the use of acetyl-L-carnitine as an adjuvant to the commonly used therapy in hypoxic conditions.

  20. [Biosensors as a tool to use in the experiments on blood and selected blood proteins]. (United States)

    Pawlaczyk, Izabela; Ziewiecki, Rafał; Czerchawski, Leszek; Krotkiewski, Hubert; Gancarz, Roman


    Over last few years, biosensors have become increasingly used as a research tool. Using innovative techniques of detection and estimation of the strength of intermolecular bonds, is particularly important in biochemical processes, including the study of mechanisms of interactions between plasma proteins in the circulatory system. With the numerous enhancements biosensors have become extremely sensitive devices, allowing for analysis of diverse biological material. Moreover, the use of immobilization techniques enables to use sample repeatedly, which significantly reduces costs and the ability to monitor tests in real-time shorten the time of experiment. The presented work discusses examples of the usage of biosensors in the research on the mechanisms of the interactions of blood plasma proteins. The experiments on cancer biomarkers present in the blood circulation system, protein C deficiency causing non-controlled hemorrhagic accidents, and on the level of fibrinogen, as well as 20S proteasome concentration in plasma, are just some examples of biosensors usage in the analyses of blood. They are also applicable in the research work performed the project WROVASC--Integrated Cardiovascular Center, concerning the mechanisms of anticoagulant activity in blood plasma of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide macromolecules of plant origin.

  1. Donor preoperative oxygen delivery and post-extubation hypoxia impact donation after circulatory death hypoxic cholangiopathy (United States)

    Chirichella, Thomas J; Dunham, C Michael; Zimmerman, Michael A; Phelan, Elise M; Mandell, M Susan; Conzen, Kendra D; Kelley, Stephen E; Nydam, Trevor L; Bak, Thomas E; Kam, Igal; Wachs, Michael E


    AIM: To evaluate donation after circulatory death (DCD) orthotopic liver transplant outcomes [hypoxic cholangiopathy (HC) and patient/graft survival] and donor risk-conditions. METHODS: From 2003-2013, 45 DCD donor transplants were performed. Predonation physiologic data from UNOS DonorNet included preoperative systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, pH, SpO2, PaO2, FiO2, and hemoglobin. Mean arterial blood pressure was computed from the systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Donor preoperative arterial O2 content was computed as [hemoglobin (gm/dL) × 1.37 (mL O2/gm) × SpO2%) + (0.003 × PaO2)]. The amount of preoperative donor red blood cell transfusions given and vasopressor use during the intensive care unit stay were documented. Donors who were transfused ≥ 1 unit of red-cells or received ≥ 2 vasopressors in the preoperative period were categorized as the red-cell/multi-pressor group. Following withdrawal of life support, donor ischemia time was computed as the number-of-minutes from onset of diastolic blood pressure 2.0 (69.6% vs 25.0%, P = 0.006), and increased preoperative mean arterial pressure (92.7 ± 16.2 mmHg vs 83.8 ± 18.5 mmHg, P = 0.10). HC was independently associated with age, multi-pressor/red-cell transfusion status, arterial oxygen content, hypoxia score, and mean arterial pressure (r2 = 0.6197). The transplantation rate was greater for the later period with more liberal donor selection [era 2 (7.1/year)], compared to our early experience [era 1 (2.5/year)]. HC occurred in 63.0% during era 2 and in 29.4% during era 1 (P = 0.03). Era 2 donors had longer times for extubation-to-asystole (14.4 ± 4.7 m vs 9.3 ± 4.5 m, P = 0.001), ischemia (13.9 ± 5.9 m vs 9.7 ± 5.6 m, P = 0.03), and hypoxemia (16.0 ± 5.1 m vs 11.1 ± 6.7 m, P = 0.013) and a higher hypoxia score > 2.0 rate (73.1% vs 28.6%, P = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Easily measured donor indices, including a hypoxia score, provide an objective measure of DCD liver transplantation


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Spirina


    Full Text Available Aim of our clinical study was evaluation own initial experience of high-urgency ortotopic heart transplantation (OHT in recipients, who were bridged on peripheral Vena-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (VA ECMO. Materials and methods. In this study was included 17 patients (14/3 M/F, age 16–66 (40.1 ± 4.2 yrs who underwent OHT while on peripheral ECMO support. In all cases we used peripheral surgical can- nulation technique via femoral vessels – arterial cannula 15–19 Fr, venous cannula – 21–25 Fr, arterial cannula or vascular catheter 8–10 Fr for anterograde leg’s perfusion. Results. Duration Vena-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation before OHT was 81 ± 17 h. VA ECMO support was blood flow 4.8 ± 0.6 l/min or 2.63 ± 0/04 l/min/m2, gas flow 4.8 ± 0.6 l/min, FiO2 0.86 ± 0.07. Vena-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation support was continued in “protective mode” (blood flow 1.9 ± 0.2 l/min 4.3 ± 0.5 days after OHT. Thirteen pa- tients (76.4% were weaned from VA ECMO successfully and survived to be discharged. ICU and hospital LOS after orthotopic heart transplantation was respectively 6.7 ± 0.8 and 32.3 ± 4.6 days in group of survived patients. The reasons of a lethal outcome (n = 4, 23.5% were sepsis and multiorgan failure (n = 3, sudden cardiac arrest (n = 1. Conclusion. Vena-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation is a favorable short-term method of circulatory support in patients who needed in high-urgency heart transplantation. 

  3. Postnatal circulatory adaptation in healthy term and preterm neonates. (United States)

    Evans, N J; Archer, L N


    Thirty seven healthy infants (18 born at full term and 19 preterm) were studied serially with cross sectional and Doppler echocardiography to compare their postnatal circulatory adaptation. Pulmonary artery pressure was assessed by its inverse relationship with the ratio of pulmonary artery time to peak velocity and right ventricular ejection time measured from Doppler waveform. Patency of the ductus arteriosus and interatrial shunting were assessed by imaging and Doppler ultrasound. The ratio rose after birth in all infants; it rose more slowly in the preterm infants. After 6 hours of age the mean was significantly less in the preterm group, the greatest difference being between 25 and 36 hours. By 73 to 96 hours the difference was no longer significant. There was a trend towards later ductal closure in the preterm infants but this was not significant. Atrial shunting level varied, but some left to right shunting was seen in all infants satisfactorily studied. Pulmonary artery pressure seems to fall more slowly after preterm birth even in the absence of respiratory problems, but ductal shunting persisting for more than three days is unusual in healthy preterm infants.

  4. [Meta-analysis of blood system adverse events of Tripterygium wilfordii]. (United States)

    Li, Zhi-xia; Ma, Dong-mei; Yang, Xing-hua; Sun, Feng; Yu, Kai; Zhan, Si-yan


    A systematic review was undertaken, including studies that evaluated the incidence of the blood system adverse events of Tripterygium wilfordii (TWP). Medline, Embase and the Cochrane library were searched for relevant studies, including RCT, cohort studies and case series, of patients treated with TWP published in English and Chinese from inception up until May 25th, 2013 with the keywords including "Tripterygium wilfordii", "toxicity", "reproductive", "side effect", "adverse", "safety" and "tolerability". Relevant information was extracted and the incidence of the blood system adverse events was pooled with MetaAnalyst software. Besides, subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed based on age, mode of medicine, observation time and disease system. According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 49 articles were included in the meta-analysis, they were split into 54 researches incorporated in the analysis. There is a large degree of heterogeneity among the studies, so data was analyzed using random-effects model and the summary estimates of incidence of the blood system adverse events was 6.1%. The weighted combined incidence of three major blood system adverse events were white-blood cells decreasing 5.6% (95% CI, 4.3% - 7.3%), hemoglobin decreasing 1.7% (95% CI, 0.5% - 5.0%) and platelet decreasing 1.8% (95% CI, 1.0% - 3.1%), respectively . Sensitivity analyses based on 45 studies with high quality showed the combined value was close to the summary estimate of total 54 studies. The current evidence indicates that the incidence of the blood system adverse events induced by TWP was high; attentions should be paid on to the prevention and treatment of the blood system adverse events.

  5. Blood compounds irradiation process: assessment of absorbed dose using Fricke and Thermoluminescent dosimetric systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Gabriela de Amorim; Squair, Peterson Lima; Pinto, Fausto Carvalho; Belo, Luiz Claudio Meira; Grossi, Pablo Andrade [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail:, e-mail:, e-mail:, e-mail:, e-mail:


    The assessment of gamma absorbed doses in irradiation facilities allows the quality assurance and control of the irradiation process. The liability of dose measurements is assign to the metrological procedures adopted including the uncertainty evaluation. Fricke and TLD 800 dosimetric systems were used to measure absorbed dose in the blood compounds using the methodology presented in this paper. The measured absorbed doses were used for evaluating the effectiveness of the irradiation procedure and the gamma dose absorption inside the irradiation room of a gamma irradiation facility. The radiation eliminates the functional and proliferative capacities of donor T-lymphocytes, preventing Transfusion associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD), a possible complication of blood transfusions. The results show the applicability of such dosimetric systems in quality assurance programs, assessment of absorbed doses in blood compounds and dose uniformity assign to the blood compounds irradiation process by dose measurements in a range between 25 Gy and 100 Gy. (author)

  6. Use of a pneumatic tube system for delivery of blood bank products and specimens. (United States)

    Tanley, P C; Wallas, C H; Abram, M C; Richardson, L D


    This study evaluated the effect of pneumatic tube transport on blood bank specimens and products. No important differences were found between aliquots transported in the tube system and those stored in the laboratory as controls. ABO, Rh, antibody detection or identification, direct antiglobulin testing, and elution were studied. Further, no differences in plasma hemoglobin and potassium concentration were found between units of whole blood and packed cells handled in either manner. Platelet counts in platelet concentrates were not decreased and coagulation factor levels in units of fresh-frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate did not decrease after pneumatic transport. The system tested is currently providing expeditious transport of specimens and blood between blood banks and patient care areas.

  7. Peristaltic Pumping of Blood in micro-vessels of Non-uniform Cross-section

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, J C


    The paper is devoted to a study of the peristaltic motion of blood in the micro-circulatory system. The vessel is considered of non-uniform cross-section. The progressive peristaltic waves are taken to be of sinusoidal nature. The Reynolds number is considered to be small. Blood is considered to be a Herschel-Bulkley fluid. Of particular concern here is to investigate the effects of amplitude ratio, mean pressure gradient, yield stress and the power law index on the velocity distribution, streamline pattern and wall shear stress. Basing upon the study, extensive numerical calculations has been made. The study reveals that peristaltic pumping as well as velocity and wall shear stress are appreciably affected due to the non-uniform geometry of blood vessels. They are also highly sensitive to the magnitude of the amplitude of the amplitude ratio and the value of the fluid index.

  8. On the dynamic suction pumping of blood cells in tubular hearts

    CERN Document Server

    Battista, Nicholas A; Miller, Laura A


    Around the third week after gestation in embryonic development, the human heart consists only of a valvless tube, unlike a fully developed adult heart, which is multi-chambered. At this stage in development, the heart valves have not formed and so net flow of blood through the heart must be driven by a different mechanism. It is hypothesized that there are two possible mechanisms that drive blood flow at this stage - Liebau pumping (dynamic suction pumping or valveless pumping) and peristaltic pumping. We implement the immersed boundary method with adaptive mesh refinement (IBAMR) to numerically study the effect of hematocrit on the circulation around a valveless. Both peristalsis and dynamic suction pumping are considered. In the case of dynamic suction pumping, the heart and circulatory system is simplified as a flexible tube attached to a relatively rigid racetrack. For some Womersley number (Wo) regimes, there is significant net flow around the racetrack. We find that the addition of flexible blood cells ...

  9. The Rheology of Blood Flow in a Branched Arterial System. (United States)

    Shibeshi, Shewaferaw S; Collins, William E


    Blood flow rheology is a complex phenomenon. Presently there is no universally agreed upon model to represent the viscous property of blood. However, under the general classification of non-Newtonian models that simulate blood behavior to different degrees of accuracy, there are many variants. The power law, Casson and Carreau models are popular non-Newtonian models and affect hemodynamics quantities under many conditions. In this study, the finite volume method is used to investigate hemodynamics predictions of each of the models. To implement the finite volume method, the computational fluid dynamics software Fluent 6.1 is used. In this numerical study the different hemorheological models are found to predict different results of hemodynamics variables which are known to impact the genesis of atherosclerosis and formation of thrombosis. The axial velocity magnitude percentage difference of up to 2 % and radial velocity difference up to 90 % is found at different sections of the T-junction geometry. The size of flow recirculation zones and their associated separation and reattachment point's locations differ for each model. The wall shear stress also experiences up to 12 % shift in the main tube. A velocity magnitude distribution of the grid cells shows that the Newtonian model is close dynamically to the Casson model while the power law model resembles the Carreau model. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Die Rheologie von Blutströmungen ist ein komplexes Phänomen. Gegenwärtig existiert kein allgemein akzeptiertes Modell, um die viskosen Eigenschaften von Blut wiederzugeben. Jedoch gibt es mehrere Varianten unter der allgemeinen Klassifikation von nicht-Newtonschen Modellen, die das Verhalten von Blut mit unterschiedlicher Genauigkeit simulieren. Die Potenzgesetz-, Casson und Carreau-Modelle sind beliebte nicht-New-tonsche Modelle und beeinflussen die hämodynamischen Eigenschaften in vielen Situationen. In dieser Studie wurde die finite Volumenmethode angewandt, um die h


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier


    Full Text Available The paper describes the first clinical experience in RF of successful application of domestic circulatory support device based on implantable axial pump for two stage heart transplantation. This case demonstrate the effec- tiveness and safety of our device (АВК-Н for a longtime (270 days left ventricular bypass and the ability to perform a successful transplantation of donor,s heart after application of this system



    S. V. Gautier; G. P. Itkin; S. Yu. Shemakin; R. Sh. Saitgareev; V. N. Poptsov; V. M. Zakharevich; G. A. Akopov; A. Ya. Kormer; T. A. Khalilulin; O. P. Shevchenko; А. М. Nevzorov; I. А. Filatov; S. V. Selishev


    The paper describes the first clinical experience in RF of successful application of domestic circulatory support device based on implantable axial pump for two stage heart transplantation. This case demonstrate the effec- tiveness and safety of our device (АВК-Н) for a longtime (270 days) left ventricular bypass and the ability to perform a successful transplantation of donor,s heart after application of this system

  12. A Digital Method for the Detection of Blood Flow Direction in Ultrasonic Doppler Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Acevedo–Contla.


    Full Text Available Doppler ultrasound systems are widely used to study blood flow and diagnosis of vascular diseases. An important characteristic of these systems is the ability to detect the direction of the blood flow. Most Doppler ultrasound systems apply a quadrature demodulation technique on the ultrasonic transducer output signal. Therefore additional treatment is necessary to separate forward and reverse flow signals. This work presents a digital method to convert signals in quadrature into directional signals using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT approach. Validation of the method has been achieved using simulated Doppler ultrasound signals.

  13. Automatic system for blood donors control with seropositive results in epidemiological tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Menéndez Barrios


    Full Text Available Background: Prevention of infectious diseases transmission through blood transfusion is one of the biggest challenges in the transfusion field of medicine. Objective: to design a computerized system for blood donors control with seropositive results in epidemiological tests. Methods: A system designed by the Provincial Blood Bank using Microsoft Access as a data base system and DELFHI 7 as associated language. It runs under Windows 2000 or any other superior system with 64 RAM and do not need special requirements of software or hardware. It includes the following data: Full name, age, sex, race, Id number, home address, number of the clinical record in the blood bank, date when the trial took place in each patient, kind of disease diagnosed, technical data of the trial such as: fluorescence, sectional level of the 1st trial as well as the repetition, name of the technician who performed it. Results: It permits to consult general data of donors as well as the disease diagnosed. It also permits to elaborate reports of these patients from any PC of the blood bank acceding with the security password of the program. Conclusions: It constitutes a beneficial tool which permits to improve the notification system established in the program of the web about sexually transmitted diseases from the Minister of Public Health in Cuba.

  14. Organ donation after circulatory death in a university teaching hospital. (United States)

    Sidiropoulos, S; Treasure, E; Silvester, W; Opdam, H; Warrillow, S J; Jones, D


    Although organ transplantation is well established for end-stage organ failure, many patients die on waiting lists due to insufficient donor numbers. Recently, there has been renewed interest in donation after circulatory death (DCD). In a retrospective observational study we reviewed the screening of patients considered for DCD between March 2007 and December 2012 in our hospital. Overall, 148 patients were screened, 17 of whom were transferred from other hospitals. Ninety-three patients were excluded (53 immediately and 40 after review by donation staff). The 55 DCD patients were younger than those excluded (P=0.007) and they died from hypoxic brain injury (43.6%), intraparenchymal haemorrhage (21.8%) and subarachnoid haemorrhage (14.5%). Antemortem heparin administration and bronchoscopy occurred in 50/53 (94.3%) and 22/55 (40%) of cases, respectively. Forty-eight patients died within 90 minutes and proceeded to donation surgery. Associations with not dying in 90 minutes included spontaneous ventilation mode (P=0.022), absence of noradrenaline infusion (P=0.051) and higher PaO2:FiO2 ratio (P=0.052). The number of brain dead donors did not decrease over the study period. The time interval between admission and death was longer for DCD than for the 45 brain dead donors (5 [3-11] versus 2 [2-3] days; P<0.001), and 95 additional patients received organ transplants due to DCD. Introducing a DCD program can increase potential organ donors without reducing brain dead donors. Antemortem investigations appear to be acceptable to relatives when included in the consent process.

  15. The development of a recruiting-drawing-inventory model for a community blood bank system. (United States)

    Smackey, B M


    A community blood bank system is a multiorganizational program that is designed to supply the blood needs of a community. Participating in such a program are hospitals, a central blood bank, industrial donor groups, the American Red Cross, advisory committees, and the community at large. The underlying determinant of the community's success or failure with its blood program is the degree of cooperation among the various organizations. Intertwined with organizational considerations are the management problems associated with the operation of a responsive and efficient inventory control system. This paper reports on the development of a system for a community blood bank that is in its third year of operation. The system that has been developed can be operated manually by a part-time clerk. Details of the model include an integration of the donor scheduling function and the inventory control function. Simulated testing of the model has been conducted and full-scale implementation is awaiting the expansion of the known donor base.

  16. [Evaluation of the blood coagulation system after surgeries on abdominal aortic aneurysms]. (United States)

    Nikul'nikov, P I; Liksunov, O V; Ratushniuk, A V; Lugovs'koĭ, E V; Kolesnikova, I M; Lytvynova, L M; Kostiuchenko, O P; Chernyshenko, T M; Hornyts'ka, O V; Platonova, T M


    Basing on data of analysis of the hemostasis system state in the patients, suffering abdominal aorta aneurysm, a tendency for raising of postoperative soluble fibrin and D-dimer content in the blood plasm and reduction of these indices on the third day was noted. The abovementioned markers content depends on the aneurysm size, the fibrin deposits presence, the terms from clinical signs beginning to the certain therapy administration and anticoagulants application. Information about correlation between content of D-dimer and soluble fibrin in the treatment dynamics is important for determination of activation degree in the patients blood coagulation system and the thrombotic complications prognosis.

  17. Profile of Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and Diego blood group systems among blood donors in the Southwest region of the Paraná state, Southern Brazil. (United States)

    Zacarias, Joana Maira Valentini; Langer, Ieda Bernadete Volkweis; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila; Sell, Ana Maria


    The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of alleles and genotypes of the blood group systems Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and Diego in 251 regular blood donors registered in the hemotherapy unit of the Southwestern region of Paraná, Southern Brazil. The frequencies were obtained by direct counting on a spreadsheet program and statistical analyses were conducted in order to compare them with other Brazilian populations using chi-squared with Yates correction on OpenEpi software. The frequencies of RHD* negative, RHCE*c/c and RHCE*e/e were higher than expected for the Caucasian population. A difference was also observed for FY alleles, FY*01/FY*01 genotype and FY*02N.01 -67T/C (GATA Box mutation). Two homozygous individuals were defined as a low frequency phenotype K + k- (KEL*01.01/KEL*01.01) and, for Diego blood group system the rare DI*01 allele was found in ten blood donors, of which one was DI*01/DI* 01 (0.4%). The allele and genotype frequencies of Kidd blood group system were similar to expected to Caucasians. The results showed the direction in which to choose donors, the importance of extended genotyping in adequate blood screening and the existence of rare genotypes in Brazilian regular blood donors.

  18. Drug Delivery Systems, CNS Protection, and the Blood Brain Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay


    Full Text Available Present review highlights various drug delivery systems used for delivery of pharmaceutical agents mainly antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, neuropeptides, and other therapeutic substances through the endothelial capillaries (BBB for CNS therapeutics. In addition, the use of ultrasound in delivery of therapeutic agents/biomolecules such as proline rich peptides, prodrugs, radiopharmaceuticals, proteins, immunoglobulins, and chimeric peptides to the target sites in deep tissue locations inside tumor sites of brain has been explained. In addition, therapeutic applications of various types of nanoparticles such as chitosan based nanomers, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, niosomes, beta cyclodextrin carriers, cholesterol mediated cationic solid lipid nanoparticles, colloidal drug carriers, liposomes, and micelles have been discussed with their recent advancements. Emphasis has been given on the need of physiological and therapeutic optimization of existing drug delivery methods and their carriers to deliver therapeutic amount of drug into the brain for treatment of various neurological diseases and disorders. Further, strong recommendations are being made to develop nanosized drug carriers/vehicles and noninvasive therapeutic alternatives of conventional methods for better therapeutics of CNS related diseases. Hence, there is an urgent need to design nontoxic biocompatible drugs and develop noninvasive delivery methods to check posttreatment clinical fatalities in neuropatients which occur due to existing highly toxic invasive drugs and treatment methods.

  19. Prevention of hypovolemic circulatory collapse by IL-6 activated Stat3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Alten

    Full Text Available Half of trauma deaths are attributable to hypovolemic circulatory collapse (HCC. We established a model of HCC in rats involving minor trauma plus severe hemorrhagic shock (HS. HCC in this model was accompanied by a 50% reduction in peak acceleration of aortic blood flow and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. HCC and apoptosis increased with increasing duration of hypotension. Apoptosis required resuscitation, which provided an opportunity to intervene therapeutically. Administration of IL-6 completely reversed HCC, prevented cardiac dysfunction and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, reduced mortality 5-fold and activated intracardiac signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT 3. Pre-treatment of rats with a selective inhibitor of Stat3, T40214, reduced the IL-6-mediated increase in cardiac Stat3 activity, blocked successful resuscitation by IL-6 and reversed IL-6-mediated protection from cardiac apoptosis. The hearts of mice deficient in the naturally occurring dominant negative isoform of Stat3, Stat3beta, were completely resistant to HS-induced apoptosis. Microarray analysis of hearts focusing on apoptosis related genes revealed that expression of 29% of apoptosis related genes was altered in HS vs. sham rats. IL-6 treatment normalized the expression of these genes, while T40214 pretreatment prevented IL-6-mediated normalization. Thus, cardiac dysfunction, cardiomyocyte apoptosis and induction of apoptosis pathway genes are important components of HCC; IL-6 administration prevented HCC by blocking cardiomyocyte apoptosis and induction of apoptosis pathway genes via Stat3 and warrants further study as a resuscitation adjuvant for prevention of HCC and death in trauma patients.

  20. Impact of different treatment of whole-body cryotherapy on circulatory parameters. (United States)

    Bonomi, Felice Giulio; De Nardi, Massimo; Fappani, Aldo; Zani, Viviana; Banfi, Giuseppe


    Cryotherapy is commonly used as a procedure to relieve pain symptoms, particularly in inflammatory diseases, injuries and overuse symptoms. A peculiar form of cold therapy or stimulation was proposed 30 years ago for the treatment of rheumatic diseases. The therapy consists in the exposure to very cold air in special cryochambers. The air is maintained at temperatures between -110 and -160°C. The treatment was named whole-body cryotherapy (WBC). It consists in a brief exposure to extreme cold in a temperature-controlled chamber. It is applied to relieve pain and inflammatory symptoms caused by numerous disorders, particularly those associated with rheumatic conditions, and it is recommended for the treatment of arthritis, fibromyalgia and ankylosing spondylitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different treatment of WBC on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) parameters in adult subjects characterized from non-pathological values of BP. Eighty subjects (36 females, 44 males, age range 19-80 years) submitted to 4-17 WBC applications for a total of 816 treatments were recruited. Immediately before and after each WBC application systolic and diastolic BP and HR were measured and recorded. We did not find significant differences in BP and HR (p > 0.05). WBC seems to be safe with respect to unwanted BP and HR alterations for adult patients. An individual monitoring of subjects is recommended over the treatment, but pathological changes of circulatory parameters can be considered rare and occasional.

  1. Performance Evaluation and Labeling Comprehension of a New Blood Glucose Monitoring System with Integrated Information Management (United States)

    List, Susan M; Starks, Nykole; Baum, John; Greene, Carmine; Pardo, Scott; Parkes, Joan L; Schachner, Holly C; Cuddihy, Robert


    Background This study evaluated performance and product labeling of CONTOUR® USB, a new blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) with integrated diabetes management software and a universal serial bus (USB) port, in the hands of untrained lay users and health care professionals (HCPs). Method Subjects and HCPs tested subject's finger stick capillary blood in parallel using CONTOUR USB meters; deep finger stick blood was tested on a Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) glucose analyzer for reference. Duplicate results by both subjects and HCPs were obtained to assess system precision. System accuracy was assessed according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2003 guidelines [within ±15 mg/dl of mean YSI results (samples <75 mg/dl) and ±20% (samples ≥75 mg/dl)]. Clinical accuracy was determined by Parkes error grid analysis. Subject labeling comprehension was assessed by HCP ratings of subject proficiency. Key system features and ease-of-use were evaluated by subject questionnaires. Results All subjects who completed the study (N = 74) successfully performed blood glucose measurements, connected the meter to a laptop computer, and used key features of the system. The system was accurate; 98.6% (146/148) of subject results and 96.6% (143/148) of HCP results exceeded ISO 15197:2003 criteria. All subject and HCP results were clinically accurate (97.3%; zone A) or associated with benign errors (2.7%; zone B). The majority of subjects rated features of the BGMS as “very good” or “excellent.” Conclusions CONTOUR USB exceeded ISO 15197:2003 system performance criteria in the hands of untrained lay users. Subjects understood the product labeling, found the system easy to use, and successfully performed blood glucose testing. PMID:22027308

  2. Development of a miniature intraventricular axial flow blood pump. (United States)

    Yamazaki, K; Umezu, M; Koyanagi, H; Outa, E; Ogino, S; Otake, Y; Shiozaki, H; Fujimoto, T; Tagusari, O; Kitamura, M


    A new intraventricular axial flow blood pump has been designed and developed as a totally implantable left ventricular assist device (LVAD). This pump consists of an impeller combined with a guide-vane, a tube housing, and a DC motor. The pump is introduced into the LV cavity through the LV apex, and the outlet cannula is passed antegrade across the aortic valve. Blood is withdrawn from the LV through the inlet ports at the pump base, and discharged to the ascending aorta. Our newly developed axial flow pump system has the following advantages: 1) it is a simple and compact system, 2) minimal blood stasis both in the device and the LV cavity, 3) minimal blood contacting surface of the pump, 4) easy accessibility with a less invasive surgical procedure, and 5) low cost. A pump flow > 5 L/min was obtained against 100 mmHg differential pressure in the mock circulatory system. The pump could produce a passive pulsatile flow effect with a beating heart more efficiently than other non-pulsatile pumps because of minimal pressure drop and inertia along the bypass tract. Anatomic fit studies using dissected hearts of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) cadavers showed that this pump could smoothly pass through the aortic valve without any interference with mitral valve function. Recently, a dynamic pressure groove bearing and a miniature lip seal have been developed. The dynamic pressure groove bearing has a simple structure and acts as a pressure resistant sealing mechanism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. A systems-based approach to managing blood pressure in children following kidney transplantation. (United States)

    Hooper, David K; Mitsnefes, Mark


    Hypertension is one of the most common and well-known complications following kidney transplantation in children. Yet, despite numerous available therapies many pediatric kidney transplant recipients continue to have poorly controlled blood pressure, suggesting that traditional approaches to blood pressure management in this population might be inadequate. Over the last two decades, the Chronic Care Model has been developed to improve chronic illness outcomes through delivery system design and clinical information systems that support patient self-management and provider decision-making. In this educational review we discuss key elements of managing blood pressure following pediatric kidney transplantation and suggest ways that they may be reliably implemented into clinical practice using principles from the Chronic Care Model.

  4. Expression of manganese superoxide dismutase in rat blood, heart and brain during induced systemic hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septelia I. Wanandi


    Full Text Available Background: Hypoxia results in an increased generation of ROS. Until now, little is known about the role of MnSOD - a major endogenous antioxidant enzyme - on the cell adaptation response against hypoxia. The aim of this study was to  determine the MnSOD mRNA expression and levels of specific activity in blood, heart and brain of rats during induced systemic hypoxia.Methods: Twenty-five male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to systemic hypoxia in an hypoxic chamber (at 8-10% O2 for 0, 1, 7, 14 and 21 days, respectively. The mRNA relative expression of MnSOD was analyzed using Real Time RT-PCR. MnSOD specific activity was determined using xanthine oxidase inhibition assay.Results: The MnSOD mRNA relative expression in rat blood and heart was decreased during early induced systemic hypoxia (day 1 and increased as hypoxia continued, whereas the mRNA expression in brain was increased since day 1 and reached its maximum level at day 7. The result of MnSOD specific activity during early systemic hypoxia was similar to the mRNA expression. Under very late hypoxic condition (day 21, MnSOD specific activity in blood, heart and brain was significantly decreased. We demonstrate a positive correlation between MnSOD mRNA expression and specific activity in these 3 tissues during day 0-14 of induced systemic hypoxia. Furthermore, mRNA expression and specific activity levels in heart strongly correlate with those in blood.Conclusion: The MnSOD expression at early and late phases of induced systemic hypoxia is distinctly regulated. The MnSOD expression in brain differs from that in blood and heart revealing that brain tissue can  possibly survive better from induced systemic hypoxia than heart and blood. The determination of MnSOD expression in blood can be used to describe its expression in heart under systemic hypoxic condition. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:27-33Keywords: MnSOD, mRNA expression, ROS, specific activity, systemic hypoxia

  5. The effects of transport by pneumatic tube system on blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation and coagulation tests


    Koçak, Fatma Emel; Yöntem, Mustafa; Yücel, Özlem; Çilo, Mustafa; Genç, Özlem; Meral, Ayfer


    Introduction: Today, the pneumatic tube transport system (PTS) is used frequently because of its advantages related to timing and speed. However, the impact of various types of PTS on blood com-ponents is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of PTS on the quality of rou-tine blood cell counts, erythrocyte sedimentation, and certain blood coagulation tests. Materials and methods: Paired blood samples were obtained from each of 45 human volunteers and evaluated by bloo...

  6. An intelligent system for continuous blood pressure monitoring on remote multi-patients in real time

    CERN Document Server

    Marani, Roberto


    In this paper we present an electronic system to perform a non-invasive measurement of the blood pressure based on the oscillometric method, which does not suffer from the limitations of the well-known auscultatory one. Moreover the proposed system is able to evaluate both the systolic and diastolic blood pressure values and makes use of a microcontroller and a Sallen-Key active filter. With reference to other similar devices, a great improvement of our measurement system is achieved since it performs the transmission of the systolic and diastolic pressure values to a remote computer. This aspect is very important when the simultaneous monitoring of multi-patients is required. The proposed system, prototyped and tested at the Electron Devices Laboratory (Electrical and Information Engineering Department) of Polytechnic University of Bari, Italy, is characterized by originality, by plainness of use and by a very high level of automation (so called intelligent system).

  7. Clinical comparison of radionuclide cisternography and computed tomography in CSF circulatory disturbance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, M.; Futatsuki, M. (Tazuke Kofukai Medical Research Inst., Osaka (Japan). Kitano Hospital); Tanaka, H.


    Forty-three patients with abnormal cisternograms were classified into (1) NPH, (2) Postmeningitic hydrocephalus, (3) Posttraumatic hydrocephalus, (4) Postoperative hydrocephalus (tumor) (5) Postoperative hydrocephalus (vascular disease), (6) Meningitis, (7) Tumor, (8) Vascular disease, (9) Degenerative disease and (10) Miscellaneous. Cisternography was done by a scinticamera with /sup 111/In-DTPA and all groups were scanned by IInd generation CT scanner. The result of the cisternography was not always compatible with the CT findings. We found a case of anatomically normal but functionally abnormal cisterns and ventricular system. In all classified disorder groups, the cisternography detected functioning cisterns in CSF dynamics but the CT visualized anatomically open cisterns. By the combined use of these two examinations, a local cisternal block was detected. Ten in 20 cases with operated (V-P shunt) hydrocephalus clinically improved. But the result of these techniques, failed to assess the effectiveness of the V-P shunt. V-P shunt was effective in 8 out of 14 cases with persistent ventricular reflux and delayed clearance, and in 9 out of 17 cases with total ventricular dilatation. We concluded that the combined use of the RI cisternography and the computed tomography was better than single examination to detect CSF circulatory disturbance but we were not satisfied with the joint use in the evaluation of the effect of V-P shunt. No adverse reaction was experienced in the 43 patients with /sup 111/In-DTPA.

  8. Feasibility of the optical imaging of thrombus formation in a rotary blood pump by near-infrared light. (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Murashige, Tomotaka; Kosaka, Ryo; Nishida, Masahiro; Maruyama, Osamu


    Blood coagulation is one of the primary concerns when using mechanical circulatory support devices such as blood pumps. Noninvasive detection and imaging of thrombus formation is useful not only for the development of more hemocompatible devices but also for the management of blood coagulation to avoid risk of infarction. The objective of this study is to investigate the use of near-infrared light for imaging of thrombus formation in a rotary blood pump. The optical properties of a thrombus at wavelengths ranging from 600 to 750 nm were analyzed using a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system. A specially designed hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump with a visible bottom area was used. In vitro antithrombogenic testing was conducted five times with the pump using bovine whole blood in which the activated blood clotting time was adjusted to 200 s prior to the experiment. Two halogen lights were used for the light sources. The forward scattering through the pump and backward scattering on the pump bottom area were imaged using the HSI system. HSI showed an increase in forward scattering at wavelengths ranging from 670 to 750 nm in the location of thrombus formation. The time at which the thrombus began to form in the impeller rotating at 2780 rpm could be detected. The spectral difference between the whole blood and the thrombus was utilized to image thrombus formation. The results indicate the feasibility of dynamically detecting and imaging thrombus formation in a rotary blood pump.

  9. Non-association between anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and ABO blood group system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACF Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii infects humans through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, which elicits humoral immune response with specific antibodies. The expression of the ABO blood group glycoconjugates also occurs in this same system and may influence the human susceptibility of infection by T. gondii. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between ABO blood group phenotypes and the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies. Data - including age, results of serology tests for T. gondii infection and ABO blood group phenotypes - were assembled from the medical records of 1,006 pregnant women attended in the Base Hospital of the Medical School of São José do Rio Preto, Brazil, between 2001 and 2004. The chi-square test was used to compare the results with the level of significance set at 5%. Of the studied cases, 64.1% (645/1006 and 35.9% (391/1006 presented respectively positive and negative serology tests for anti-T. gondii antibodies. The mean age of those who tested positive was higher than those with negative serology tests (p = 0.0004. The frequencies of ABO blood group phenotypes were similar in those with and without anti-T. gondii antibodies (p = 0.35. In conclusion, the ABO blood group system is not associated with the presence or absence of anti-T. gondii antibodies.

  10. The immune system mediates blood-brain barrier damage; Possible implications for pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric illnesses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderWerf, YD; DeJongste, MJL; terHorst, GJ


    The immune system mediates blood-brain barrier damage; possible implications for pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric illnesses. In this investigation the effects of immune activation on the brain are characterized In order to study this, we used a model for chronic immune activation, the myocardial

  11. An Analysis of Pulsed Wave Ultrasound Systems for Blood Velocity Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J. A.


    Pulsed wave ultrasound systems can be used for determining blood's velocity non-invasively in the body. A region of interest is selected, and the received signal is range gated to measure data from the region. One complex sample value is acquired for each pulse emission after complex demodulation...

  12. Blood feeding of Ornithodoros turicata larvae using an artificial membrane system (United States)

    An artificial membrane system was adapted to feed Ornithodoros turicata larvae from a laboratory colony using defibrinated swine blood. Aspects related to larval feeding and molting to the 1st nymphal instar were evaluated. Fifty-five percent of all larvae exposed to the artificial membrane in two e...

  13. Tendência da mortalidade por doenças do aparelho circulatório no Brasil: 1950 a 2000 Tendencia de la mortalidad por enfermedades del aparato circulatorio en Brasil: 1950 a 2000 Mortality trends due to circulatory system diseases in Brazil: 1950 to 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda Ângela Pessoa Cesse


    . Realizamos análisis de tendencia linear de las razones de mortalidad estandarizadas para EAC en las capitales brasileñas que presentaron series completas de mortalidad, considerando los años censales del período de estudio (1950 a 2000. RESULTADOS: Si bien las EAC representan proporcionalmente la primera causa de óbito en la población brasileña, y mostraron un crecimiento proporcional en el período de análisis de este estudio, el riesgo de óbito, representado por las razones de mortalidad estandarizadas, está en disminución, particularmente a partir de la década del ´80. Se destacan las ciudades de Fortaleza, Salvador, Belo Horizonte, Río de Janeiro y São Paulo, que presentan razones de mortalidad estandarizadas elevadas, aunque en disminución (p BACKGROUND: The circulatory system diseases (CAD, one of the most important current health problems, have started to show a declining trend in mortality in several countries, although they are still proportionally the number one regarding the statistics of morbimortality. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the mortality trend due to CAD in Brazilian capital cities, during the period of 1950 to 2000. METHODS: Temporal series study, of Standardized Mortality Ratios by CAD. We used secondary data on death from the statistical annual reports from IBGE (the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and from the Mortality Information System. We carried out a linear trend analysis of the Standardized Mortality Ratios due to CAD in the Brazilian capital cities that presented complete mortality series, considering the census years during the study period (1950 to 2000. RESULTS: Although proportionally the CAD represent the main cause of death in the Brazilian population, as well as presenting a proportional increase during the period of analysis of this study, the risk of death, represented by the Standardized Mortality Ratios, have been decreasing, particularly from the eighties onward. It is noteworthy the fact that Fortaleza

  14. Modeling of human colonic blood flow for a novel artificial anal sphincter system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng ZAN; Guo-zheng YAN; Hua LIU


    A novel artificial anal sphincter system has been developed to simulate the normal physiology of the human anorectum. With the goal of engineering a safe and reliable device, the model of human colonic blood flow has been built and the relationship between the colonic blood flow rate and the operating occlusion pressure of the anorectum is achieved. The tissue ischemia is analyzed based on constitutive relations for human anorectum. The results suggest that at the planned operating occlusion pressure of less than 4 kPa the artificial anal sphincter should not risk the vaseularity of the human colon.

  15. The Diabetes Assistant: A Smartphone-Based System for Real-Time Control of Blood Glucose


    Patrick Keith-Hynes; Benton Mize; Antoine Robert; Jérôme Place


    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease in which the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas are destroyed and insulin must be injected daily to enable the body to metabolize glucose. Standard therapy for T1DM involves self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) several times daily with a blood glucose meter and injecting insulin via a syringe, pen or insulin pump. An “Artificial Pancreas” (AP) is a closed-loop control system that uses a continuous glucose monitor (CGM), a...

  16. Role of histaminergic system in blood-brain barrier dysfunction associated with neurological disorders. (United States)

    Bañuelos-Cabrera, Ivette; Valle-Dorado, María Guadalupe; Aldana, Blanca Irene; Orozco-Suárez, Sandra Adela; Rocha, Luisa


    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption has been associated with several acute and chronic brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and epilepsy. This represents a critical situation because damaged integrity of the BBB is related to the influx of immune mediators, plasma proteins and other outside elements from blood to the central nervous system (CNS) that may trigger a cascade of events that leads to neuroinflammation. In this review, evidence that mast cells and the release of factors such as histamine play an important role in the neuroinflammatory process associated with brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and epilepsy is presented.

  17. Poor performance of BACTEC NR 730 blood culture system in early detection of Neisseria meningitidis.



    During an 8-month period at Children's Hospital, Oakland, Calif., a 9% rate for positive blood culture for children with Neisseria meningitidis meningitis was identified. The blood culture system used in each case was the BACTEC NR 730. This rate seemed significantly lower than previous rates (33 to 55%) (P.R. Dodge and M.N. Swartz, N. Engl. J. Med. 272:1003-1010, 1965; A.L. Hoyne and R.H. Brown, Ann. Intern. Med. 28:248-259, 1948; S. Levin and M.B. Painter, Ann. Intern. Med. 64:1049-1057, 19...

  18. Performance of two updated blood glucose monitoring systems: an evaluation following ISO 15197:2013. (United States)

    Pleus, Stefan; Baumstark, Annette; Rittmeyer, Delia; Jendrike, Nina; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido


    Objective For patients with diabetes, regular self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is essential to ensure adequate glycemic control. Therefore, accurate and reliable blood glucose measurements with SMBG systems are necessary. The international standard ISO 15197 describes requirements for SMBG systems, such as limits within which 95% of glucose results have to fall to reach acceptable system accuracy. The 2013 version of this standard sets higher demands, especially regarding system accuracy, than the currently still valid edition. ISO 15197 can be applied by manufacturers to receive a CE mark for their system. Research design and methods This study was an accuracy evaluation following ISO 15197:2013 section 6.3 of two recently updated SMBG systems (Contour * and Contour TS; Bayer Consumer Care AG, Basel, Switzerland) with an improved algorithm to investigate whether the systems fulfill the requirements of the new standard. For this purpose, capillary blood samples of approximately 100 participants were measured with three test strip lots of both systems and deviations from glucose values obtained with a hexokinase-based comparison method (Cobas Integra † 400 plus; Roche Instrument Center, Rotkreuz, Switzerland) were determined. Percentages of values within the acceptance criteria of ISO 15197:2013 were calculated. This study was registered at (NCT02358408). Main outcome Both updated systems fulfilled the system accuracy requirements of ISO 15197:2013 as 98.5% to 100% of the results were within the stipulated limits. Furthermore, all results were within the clinically non-critical zones A and B of the consensus error grid for type 1 diabetes. Conclusions The technical improvement of the systems ensured compliance with ISO 15197 in the hands of healthcare professionals even in its more stringent 2013 version. Alternative presentation of system accuracy results in radar plots provides additional information with certain advantages. In addition

  19. Blood Types (United States)

    ... maternity. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  20. Application of Blood Appointment System in Hospital%血液预约系统在医院的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飞; 李刚荣; 蒋天伦


    目的:通过血液预约,缓解血液供需关系.方法:应用现代信息技术手段,通过血液信息管理系统与医院信息管理系统的无缝连接及互联网优势,制订血液采集计划,招募献血者,控制血液库存.结果:规范了临床用血,缩短了血液在血库的流动周期,降低了血液管理成本.结论:血液预约是缓解血液供需关系的有效途径.%Objective: according to blood appointment, to relieve the supply and demand of blood.Method: apply the modern information technology, through seamless connection of the blood information system and hospital information system, the advantage of internet, to develop the program of blood connection, and recruit blood donors to control blood inventory.Result: standard the clinic blood, shorten the flow cycle of blood in blood bank, reduce the blood management costs.Conclusion: blood appointment is effective way to relieve the supply and demand of blood.

  1. Immunophenotyping of Lymphocyte T and B in the Peripheral Blood of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The immunophenotyping expression levels of lymphocyte in the peripheral blood from 21 patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were analyzed by using the immunofluorescence labeling-flow cytometry technique to investigate the immunophenotyping expression of lymphocytes T and B in the peripheral blood of active SLE patients and its clinical value. It was showed that, compared with normal controls, the expression of CD+3, CD+4 and the ratio of CD+4/CD+8 in the peripheral blood of these patients were decreased (P<0.01), while the expression of CD+8, CD+20 was significantly increased (P<0.01). It was suggested that both T and B cells in patients with active SLE involved in immunoregulation, were activated. The abnormal expression of lymphocyte immunophenotyping could influence the immune reaction in SLE patients, which might be one of the important pathogenesis factors in SLE.

  2. Circulatory osmotic desalination driven by a mild temperature gradient based on lower critical solution temperature (LCST) phase transition materials. (United States)

    Mok, Yeongbong; Nakayama, Daichi; Noh, Minwoo; Jang, Sangmok; Kim, Taeho; Lee, Yan


    Abrupt changes in effective concentration and osmotic pressure of lower critical solution temperature (LCST) mixtures facilitate the design of a continuous desalination method driven by a mild temperature gradient. We propose a prototype desalination system by circulating LCST mixtures between low and high temperature (low T and high T) units. Water molecules could be drawn from a high-salt solution to the LCST mixture through a semipermeable membrane at a temperature lower than the phase transition temperature, at which the effective osmotic pressure of the LCST mixture is higher than the high-salt solution. After transfer of water to the high T unit where the LCST mixture is phase-separated, the water-rich phase could release the drawn water into a well-diluted solution through the second membrane due to the significant decrease in effective concentration. The solute-rich phase could be recovered in the low T unit via a circulation process. The molar mass, phase transition temperature, and aqueous solubility of the LCST solute could be tuneable for the circulatory osmotic desalination system in which drawing, transfer, release of water, and the separation and recovery of the solutes could proceed simultaneously. Development of a practical desalination system that draws water molecules directly from seawater and produces low-salt water with high purity by mild temperature gradients, possibly induced by sunlight or waste heat, could be attainable by a careful design of the molecular structure and combination of the circulatory desalination systems based on low- and high-molar-mass LCST draw solutes.

  3. Fast Blood Vector Velocity Imaging using ultrasound: In-vivo examples of complex blood flow in the vascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik;


    speckle tracking between segments in consecutive speckle images. The flow patterns of six bifurcations and two veins were investigated in-vivo. It was shown: 1) that a stable vortex in the carotid bulb was present opposed to other examined bifurcations, 2) that retrograde flow was present......Conventional ultrasound methods for acquiring color flow images of the blood motion are restricted by a relatively low frame rate and angle dependent velocity estimates. The Plane Wave Excitation (PWE) method has been proposed to solve these limitations. The frame rate can be increased, and the 2-D...... vector velocity of the blood motion can be estimated. The transmitted pulse is not focused, and a full speckle image of the blood can be acquired for each emission. A 13 bit Barker code is transmitted simultaneously from each transducer element. The 2-D vector velocity of the blood is found using 2-D...

  4. Avaliação econômica dos custos da poluição em Cubatão - SP com base nos gastos com saúde relacionados às doenças dos aparelhos respiratório e circulatório Economic cost of air pollution in Cubatão - SP based on health expenses related to diseases of the respiratory and circulatory systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Tayra


    Full Text Available O objetivo básico do trabalho foi avaliar os custos econômicos relacionados às doenças dos aparelhos respiratório e circulatório no município de Cubatão (SP. Para tanto, foram utilizados dados de internação e dias de trabalho perdidos com a internação (na faixa dos 14 aos 70 anos de idade, na base de dados do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. Resultados: A partir dos dados levantados, calculou-se o valor total de R$ 22,1 milhões gastos no período de 2000 a 2009 devido às doenças dos aparelhos circulatório e respiratório. Parte desses gastos pode estar diretamente relacionada à emissão de poluentes atmosféricos no município. Para se estimar os custos da poluição foram levantados dados de outros dois municípios da Região da Baixada Santista (Guarujá e Peruíbe, com menor atividade industrial em comparação a Cubatão. Verificou-se que, em ambos, as médias de gastos per capita em relação às duas doenças são menores do que em Cubatão, mas que essa diferença vem diminuindo sensivelmente nos últimos anos.The aim of this research was to evaluate economic costs of respiratory and circulatory diseases in the municipality of Cubatão, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Data on hospital admissions and on missed working days due to hospitalization (for age group 14 to 70 years old from the database of Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS - Brazilian National Health System were used. Results: Based on these data, it was calculated that R$ 22.1 million were spent in the period 2000 to 2009 due to diseases of the respiratory and circulatory systems. Part of these expenses can be directly related to the emission of atmospheric pollutants in the city. In order to estimate the costs related to air pollution, data on Cubatão were compared to data from two other municipalities that are also located at the coast side (Guarujá and Peruíbe, but which have little industrial activity in comparison to Cubatão. It was verified that, in both

  5. Blood Transfusion (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Transfusions KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Transfusions A A ... and help put your child at ease. About Blood Transfusions Blood is like the body's transportation system. ...

  6. Phenotype frequencies of blood group systems (Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, MNS, P, Lewis, and Lutheran in blood donors of south Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj A Kahar


    Full Text Available Background: This is the first study on phenotype frequencies of various blood group systems in blood donors of south Gujarat, India using conventional tube technique. Material and Methods: A total of 115 "O" blood group donors from three different blood banks of south Gujarat were typed for D, C, c, E, e, K, Jk a , Le a , Le b , P 1 , M, and N antigens using monoclonal antisera and k, Kp a , Kp b , Fy a ,Fy b , Jk b , S,s, Lu a , and Lu b antigens were typed using polyclonal antisera employing Indirect Antiglobulin Test. Antigens and phenotype frequencies were expressed as percentages. Results: From the 115 blood donor samples used for extended antigen typing in the Rh system, e antigen was found in 100% donors, followed by D [84.35%], C [81.74%], c [56.32%], and E [21.74%] with DCe/DCe (R 1 R 1 , 40.87% as the most common phenotype. k was found to be positive in 100% of donors and no K+k- phenotype was found in Kell system. For Kidd and Duffy blood group system, Jk(a+b+ and Fy(a-b- were the most common phenotypes with frequency of 52.17% and 48.69%, respectively. In the MNS system, 39.13% donors were typed as M+N+, 37.39% as M+N-, and 23.48% as M-N+. S+s+ was found in 24.35% of donors, S+s- in 8.69%, and S-s+ as the commonest amongst donors with 66.96%. No Lu(a+b+ or Lu(a+b- phenotypes were detected in 115 donors typed for Lutheran antigens. A rare Lu(a-b- phenotype was found in 2.61% donors. Conclusion: Data base for antigen frequency of various blood group systems in local donors help provide antigen negative compatible blood units to patients with multiple antibodies in order to formulate in-house red cells for antibody detection and identification and for preparing donor registry for rare blood groups.

  7. Rapid, label-free, electrical whole blood bioassay based on nanobiosensor systems. (United States)

    Chang, Hsiao-Kang; Ishikawa, Fumiaki N; Zhang, Rui; Datar, Ram; Cote, Richard J; Thompson, Mark E; Zhou, Chongwu


    Biomarker detection based on nanowire biosensors has attracted a significant amount of research effort in recent years. However, only very limited research work has been directed toward biomarker detection directly from physiological fluids mainly because of challenges caused by the complexity of media. This limitation significantly reduces the practical impact generated by the aforementioned nanobiosensors. In this study, we demonstrate an In(2)O(3) nanowire-based biosensing system that is capable of performing rapid, label-free, electrical detection of cancer biomarkers directly from human whole blood collected by a finger prick. Passivating the nanowire surface successfully blocked the signal induced by nonspecific binding when performing active measurement in whole blood. Passivated devices showed markedly smaller signals induced by nonspecific binding of proteins and other biomaterials in serum and higher sensitivity to target biomarkers than bare devices. The detection limit of passivated sensors for biomarkers in whole blood was similar to the detection limit for the same analyte in purified buffer solutions at the same ionic strength, suggesting minimal decrease in device performance in the complex media. We then demonstrated detection of multiple cancer biomarkers with high reliability at clinically meaningful concentrations from whole blood collected by a finger prick using this sensing system.

  8. Blood compatibility of a ferulic acid (FA)-eluting PHBHHx system for biodegradable magnesium stent application. (United States)

    Zhang, Erlin; Shen, Feng


    Magnesium stent has shown potential application as a new biodegradable stent. However, the fast degradation of magnesium stent limited its clinic application. Recently, a biodegradable and drug-eluting coating system was designed to prevent magnesium from fast degradation by adding ferulic acid (FA) in poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) by a physical method. In vitro study has demonstrated that the FA-eluting system exhibited strong promotion to the endothelialization, which might be a choice for the stent application. In this paper, the hemolysis rate, the plasma recalcification time (PRT), the plasma prothrombin time (PT) and the kinetic clotting time of the FA-eluting films were investigated and the platelet adhesion was observed in order to assess the blood compatibility of the FA-eluting PHBHHx films in comparison with PHBHHx film. The results have shown that the addition of FA had no influence on the hemolysis, but prolonged PRT, PT and the clotting time and reduced the platelet adhesion and activation, displaying that the FA-eluting PHBHHx exhibited better blood compatibility than PHBHHx. In addition, the effect of alkali treatment on the blood compatibility of FA-eluting PHBHHx was also studied. It was indicated that alkali treatment had no effect on the hemolysis and the coagulation time, but enhanced slightly the platelet adhesion. All these demonstrated that FA-eluting PHBHHx film had good blood compatibility and might be a candidate surface coating for the biodegradable magnesium stent.

  9. Effect of magnetic bracelets on the coagulation and anticoagulation systems of the blood of patients with hypertension (United States)

    Bublis, V. V.; Zabrodina, L. V.; Platonova, A. T.; Meyerova, Y. A.


    The data which have been obtained on the influence of magnetic bracelets on the coagulation and anticoagulation systems of the blood indicate that the wearing of magnetic bracelets results in a decrease in the coagulation activity of the blood and an increase in the activity of the anticoagulation system. These changes must be viewed as favorable for patients with cardiovascular pathology.

  10. [Effects of solcoseryl on the cerebral blood flow, intracranial pressure, systemic blood pressure and EEG in acute intracranial hypertensive cats (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Kubota, S; Asakura, T; Kitamura, K


    The experiment was performed on 86 cases under intraperitoneal pentobarbital anesthesia. One balloon was placed in the extradural space of right frontal region, and the other balloon was placed in the left extradural space and the intracranial pressure was measured. A needle was stereotaxically inserted into the subcortical area in order to measure the cerebral blood flow. Systemic blood pressure was recorded by inserting a catheter into the femoral artery, and electrocorticogram was also recorded. An expanding intracranial lesion was made by inflating the extradural balloon with physiological saline. The animals were arbitrarily divided into two groups.: 1) light or moderate groups which intracranial pressure before the injection of drug was below 400 mmH2O. 2) severe groups above 400 mmH2O. After the maintenance of the pressure, Solcoseryl was infused intravenously. The investigation was focused to observe whether Solcoseryl reveales any potent effect on cerebral blood flow, intracranial pressure, systemic blood pressure and on electroencephalogram in acute intracranial hypertension. Results 1) Intravenous injection of Solcoseryl had the effect of lowering intracranial pressure in the light or moderate and severe groups. Particularly, dose of 80 mg/kg showed the marked effect, though with a rebound phenomenon in the light or moderate groups. Furthermore, the effect was more marked and lasting by drip infusion of Solcoseryl and also by intravenous injection of Solcoseryl after pretreatment with hydrocortisone, and at this time no rebound phenomenon was recognized. 2) Solcoseryl had the effect of increasing the cerebral blood flow accompained with the lowering of intracranial pressure. 3) Systemic blood pressure was transiently lowered by the injection of Solcoseryl 20 mg/kg or 80 mg/kg and recovered immediately. 4) Solcoseryl had no effect on electroencephalogram in the severe groups. Conclusion On the basis of these results, it is rational to conclude that

  11. Doenças cardiovasculares antes e após o programa saúde da família, Londrina, Paraná Enfermedades cardiovasculares antes y después del programa salud de la familia, Londrina, Paraná Diseases of the circulatory system before and after the family health program, Londrina, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brígida Gimenez Carvalho


    y la internación hospitalaria por EAC, antes y después de la implantación de Salud de la Familia en Londrina-PR. MÉTODO: Estudio de agregación, comparando los coeficientes de mortalidad y de internación hospitalaria del SUS, por EAC, enfermedad cerebrovascular (ECbV y enfermedad isquémica del corazón (EIC, de residentes en Londrina, en dos cuadrienios: 1997 a 2000 y 2002 a 2005. Los datos se obtuvieron mediante el Sistema de Informaciones sobre Mortalidad y el Sistema de Informaciones Hospitalarias del SUS. Se calcularon las razones de las tasas en los dos períodos y los respectivos intervalos de 95% de confianza. RESULTADOS: Las EAC se mantuvieron como la primera causa de muerte en el municipio en los dos cuadrienios. Las ECbV y las EIC fueron responsables de más del 63% de las muertes por EAC. En la comparación de los dos cuadrienios, se observó reducción de las tasas de mortalidad por ECbV, significativa sólo en mayores de 59 años, en ambos sexos, y aumento de la internación en un 10%. No existió alteración significativa en la mortalidad por EIC y hubo un aumento del 40% en la tasa de internación. CONCLUSIÓN: La reducción significativa sólo en la mortalidad por ECbV en ancianos sugiere la necesidad de ampliar la cobertura asistencial a los diferentes grupos poblacionales y desarrollar acciones de carácter preventivo y de promoción de la salud.BACKGROUND: The reduction in morbidity and mortality rates from diseases of the circulatory system (DCS is one of the greatest challenges in primary care, and the implementation of the Family Health Program provides access to the multisectoral and integrated measures required for dealing with these diseases. OBJECTIVE: To analyze DCS mortality and hospitalization rates before and after the implementation of the Family Health Program, in Londrina, Paraná. METHODS: This was an ecological study, comparing DCS, cerebrovascular disease (CbVD and ischemic heart disease (IHD mortality rates and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Mego


    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTC play a crucial role in disseminating tumors and in the metastatic cascade. CTCs are found only in small numbers, and the limited amount of isolated CTCs makes it impossible to characterize them closely. This paper presents a proposal for a new system for isolating CTCs from the peripheral blood in vivo. The system enables CTCs to be isolated from the whole blood volume for further research and applications. The proposed system consists of magnetic nanoparticles covered by monoclonal antibodies against a common epithelial antigen, large supermagnets, which are used to control the position of the nanoparticles within the human body, and a special wire made of a magnetic core wrapped in a non-magnetic shell. The system could be used not only for isolating CTCs, but also for in vivo isolation of other rare cells from the peripheral blood, including hematopoietic and/or mesenchymal stem cells, with applications in regenerative medicine and/or in stem cell transplantation.

  13. Blacks' Death Rate Due to Circulatory Diseases Is Positively Related to Whites' Explicit Racial Bias: A Nationwide Investigation Using Project Implicit



    Perceptions of racial bias have been linked to poorer circulatory health among Blacks compared with Whites. However, little is known about whether Whites' actual racial bias contributes to this racial disparity in health. We compiled racial-bias data from 1,391,632 Whites and examined whether racial bias in a given county predicted Black-White disparities in circulatory-disease risk (access to health care, diagnosis of a circulatory disease; Study 1) and circulatory-disease-related death rate...

  14. Strengthening of the Blood Safety System in the National Blood Transfusion Service - Implementation of the European Union IPA Project - at the Institute for Transfusion Medicine of the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada M. Grubovic


    Full Text Available The Safety of the Blood Supply in any country is of utmost importance to safeguard patients from serious adverse events of blood transfusion. Implementation of a Quality System in the Blood Transfusion Service, with support of Government and Ministry of Health is a key element to guarantee safe blood. The IPA TAIB 2009 project - Strengthening of the Blood Safety System executed in 2013/14 provided the means to start implementing a Quality System in the Institute for Transfusion Medicine of the Republic of Macedonia. This project aimed to ultimately bring the Blood Transfusion Service to European Union standards, allowing the exchange of blood components and all other types of collaboration with other European Union countries in future. The project put the basis for unification of blood transfusion standards and operating procedures in the whole country as well as set up essential education of blood transfusion personnel.

  15. Linkage disequilibrium between the ELA and the A blood group systems in Standardbred horses. (United States)

    Bailey, E


    The linkage group formed by the ELA and A blood group system in horses was studied in American Standardbred horses. The distance between the ELA locus and the A blood group locus was measured as 1.61 centimorgans, observing only the haplotypes contributed by the sires. Strong linkage disequilibrium was found in pacing Standardbred horses for ELA-W1 with Aa, ELA-W5 with Ab and ELA-W10 with Ab. Linkage disequilibrium was apparent at both the population and family level. Among trotting Standardbred horses, linkage disequilibrium was found for ELA-W1 with Aa and for ELA-W10 with Ab. It was not possible to investigate linkage relationships in Thoroughbred horses because of the high frequency of Aa and low frequency of other A system markers.

  16. Circulatory effects of electrical stimulation of the carotid sinus nerves in man: A physiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, C.


    The aims of this investigation were 1) to study the time course of the reflex circulatory changes evoked by carotid sinus nerves (CSN) stimulation in unsedated man (chapters IV - VII), and 2) to establish the optimal frequency of CSN stimulation for the relief of angina pectoris (chapters VIII and I

  17. Nanoparticles and blood-brain barrier: the key to central nervous system diseases. (United States)

    Domínguez, Alazne; Suárez-Merino, Blanca; Goñi-de-Cerio, Felipe


    Major central nervous system disorders represent a significant and worldwide public health problem. In fact, the therapeutic success of many pharmaceuticals developed to treat central nervous system diseases is still moderate, since the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the access of systemically administered compounds to the brain. Therefore, they require the application of a large total dose of a drug, and cause numerous toxic effects. The development of nanotechnological systems are useful tools to deliver therapeutics and/or diagnostic probes to the brain due to nanocarriers having the potential to improve the therapeutic effect of drugs and to reduce their side effects. This review provides a brief overview of the variety of carriers employed for central nervous system drug and diagnostic probes delivery. Further, this paper focuses on the novel nanocarriers developed to enhance brain delivery across the blood-brain barrier. Special attention is paid to liposomes, micelles, polymeric and lipid-based nanoparticles, dendrimers and carbon nanotubes. The recent developments in nanocarrier implementation through size/charge optimization and surface modifications (PEGylation, targeting delivery, and coating with surfactants) have been discussed. And a detailed description of the nanoscaled pharmaceutical delivery devices employed for the treatment of central nervous system disorders have also been defined. The aim of the review is to evaluate the nanotechnology-based drug delivery strategies to treat different central nervous system disorders.

  18. Nanowired Drug Delivery Across the Blood-Brain Barrier in Central Nervous System Injury and Repair. (United States)

    Sharma, Aruna; Menon, Preeti; Muresanu, Dafin F; Ozkizilcik, Asya; Tian, Z Ryan; Lafuente, José V; Sharma, Hari S


    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a physiological regulator of transport of essential items from blood to brain for the maintenance of homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS) within narrow limits. The BBB is also responsible for export of harmful or metabolic products from brain to blood to keep the CNS fluid microenvironment healthy. However, noxious insults to the brain caused by trauma, ischemia or environmental/chemical toxins alter the BBB function to small as well as large molecules e.g., proteins. When proteins enter the CNS fluid microenvironment, development of brain edema occurs due to altered osmotic balance between blood and brain. On the other hand, almost all neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic insults to the CNS and subsequent BBB dysfunction lead to edema formation and cell injury. To treat these brain disorders suitable drug therapy reaching their brain targets is needed. However, due to edema formation or only a focal disruption of the BBB e.g., around brain tumors, many drugs are unable to reach their CNS targets in sufficient quantity. This results in poor therapeutic outcome. Thus, new technology such as nanodelivery is needed for drugs to reach their CNS targets and be effective. In this review, use of nanowires as a possible novel tool to enhance drug delivery into the CNS in various disease models is discussed based on our investigations. These data show that nanowired delivery of drugs may have superior neuroprotective ability to treat several CNS diseases effectively indicating their role in future therapeutic strategies.

  19. A Novel System for Measuring Optical Properties in Arterial Blood of Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Castañeda-Miranda


    Full Text Available The necessity of man–machine communication has been increasing day by day because of the great number of approaches that help to make human life agile or comfortable. Health is one of the aspects that has generated more interest in recent years. The optical technologies are new technical tools that are being implemented for medical diagnosis and for describing various processes occurring within human blood. These techniques have the virtue of being nondestructive; in addition they have the advantage of remote direction by using an in situ technique, with sensitivity capable of studying the properties of the blood through electromagnetic excitation. A device to obtain the electromagnetic spectrum in the blood has being designed and is presented in this work. This device uses a quartz lamp, emitting electromagnetic radiation between 200 nm and 2200 nm. A model for measuring the light attenuation through the blood is used. By applying a control in the frequency domain, a circuit device is designed. This device uses a database in time domain for its subsequent analysis by Fast Fourier Transformation in order to obtain absorption spectra. The acquisition time is of the order of microseconds, and the system is controlled automatically through accessible software from a personal computer.

  20. Analysis of Dose Response for Circulatory Disease After Radiotherapy for Benign Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, Mark P., E-mail: [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Executive Plaza South, Rockville, Maryland (United States); Kleinerman, Ruth A. [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Executive Plaza South, Rockville, Maryland (United States); Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mabuchi, Kiyohiko [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Executive Plaza South, Rockville, Maryland (United States)


    Purpose: To assess the shape of the dose-response for various circulatory disease endpoints, and modifiers by age and time since exposure. Methods and Materials: This was an analysis of the US peptic ulcer data testing for heterogeneity of radiogenic risk by circulatory disease endpoint (ischemic heart, cerebrovascular, other circulatory disease). Results: There were significant excess risks for all circulatory disease, with an excess relative risk Gy{sup -1} of 0.082 (95% CI 0.031-0.140), and ischemic heart disease, with an excess relative risk Gy{sup -1} of 0.102 (95% CI 0.039-0.174) (both p = 0.01), and indications of excess risk for stroke. There were no statistically significant (p > 0.2) differences between risks by endpoint, and few indications of curvature in the dose-response. There were significant (p < 0.001) modifications of relative risk by time since exposure, the magnitude of which did not vary between endpoints (p > 0.2). Risk modifications were similar if analysis was restricted to patients receiving radiation, although the relative risks were slightly larger and the risk of stroke failed to be significant. The slopes of the dose-response were generally consistent with those observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in occupationally and medically exposed groups. Conclusions: There were excess risks for a variety of circulatory diseases in this dataset, with significant modification of risk by time since exposure. The consistency of the dose-response slopes with those observed in radiotherapeutically treated groups at much higher dose, as well as in lower dose-exposed cohorts such as the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and nuclear workers, implies that there may be little sparing effect of fractionation of dose or low-dose-rate exposure.

  1. Activity of the positive and negative reinforcement motivation systems and baseline arterial blood pressure in humans. (United States)

    Aftanas, L I; Sidorova, P V; Pavlov, S V; Makhnev, V P; Korenek, V V; Reva, N V; Amstislavskaya, T G


    The aim of the present work was to identify possible associations between individual balances in the activity of the positive and negative reinforcement motivation systems using a method based on emotional modulation of the startle reaction (EMSR) by motivationally significant emotionally positive and negative contextual visual stimuli and measures of cardiovascular system activity. Studies were performed using healthy males (mean age 30.29 +/- 9.8 years) with normal and first-episode excessive increases in arterial blood pressure (systolic blood pressure to greater than 140 mmHg, diastolic to greater than 90 mmHg). Cluster analysis of EMSR data identified groups of individuals with different activity profiles for the positive and negative reinforcement systems. Groups of subjects with changes in the balance of activity towards a lower level of positive reinforcement system activity (smaller startle reflexes to positive contextual stimuli) or a higher level of negative reinforcement system activity (larger startle reactions to threatening contextual stimuli) showed significantly greater baseline SBP and DBP. The possible mechanisms of the modulatory influences of the balance of system activities on autonomic vascular regulatory processes are discussed.

  2. Effects of Particulate Matter and Its Chemical Constituents on Elderly Hospital Admissions Due to Circulatory and Respiratory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Morais Ferreira


    Full Text Available Various fractions of particulate matter have been associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The purpose of our study is to analyze the associations between concentrations of PM2.5, PM2.5–10, PM10 and their chemical constituents (soluble ions with hospital admissions due to circulatory and respiratory diseases among the elderly in a medium-sized city in Brazil. A time series study was conducted using Poisson regression with generalized additive models adjusted for confounders. Statistically significant associations were identified between PM10 and PM2.5–10 and respiratory diseases. Risks of hospitalization increased by 23.5% (95% CI: 13.5; 34.3 and 12.8% (95% CI: 6.0; 20.0 per 10 μg/m3 of PM2.5-10 and PM10, respectively. PM2.5 exhibited a significant association with circulatory system diseases, with the risk of hospitalization increasing by 19.6% (95% CI: 6.4; 34.6 per 10 μg/m3. Regarding the chemical species; SO42−, NO3−, NH4+ and K+ exhibited specific patterns of risk, relative to the investigated outcomes. Overall, SO42− in PM2.5–10 and K+ in PM2.5 were associated with increased risk of hospital admissions due to both types of diseases. The results agree with evidence indicating that the risks for different health outcomes vary in relation to the fractions and chemical composition of PM10. Thus, PM10 speciation studies may contribute to the establishment of more selective pollution control policies.

  3. Development of magnetic bearing system for a new third-generation blood pump. (United States)

    Lee, Jung Joo; Ahn, Chi Bum; Choi, Jaesoon; Park, Jun Woo; Song, Seung-Joon; Sun, Kyung


    A magnetic bearing system is a crucial component in a third-generation blood pump, particularly when we consider aspects such as system durability and blood compatibility. Many factors such as efficiency, occupying volume, hemodynamic stability in the flow path, mechanical stability, and stiffness need to be considered for the use of a magnetic bearing system in a third-generation blood pump, and a number of studies have been conducted to develop novel magnetic bearing design for better handling of these factors. In this study, we developed and evaluated a new magnetic bearing system having a motor for a new third-generation blood pump. This magnetic bearing system consists of a magnetic levitation compartment and a brushless direct current (BLDC) motor compartment. The active-control degree of freedom is one; this control is used for controlling the levitation in the axial direction. The levitation in the radial direction has a passive magnetic levitation structure. In order to improve the system efficiency, we separated the magnetic circuit for axial levitation by using a magnetic circuit for motor drive. Each magnetic circuit in the bearing system was designed to have a minimum gap by placing mechanical parts, such as the impeller blades, outside the circuit. A custom-designed noncontact gap sensor was used for minimizing the system volume. We fabricated an experimental prototype of the proposed magnetic bearing system and evaluated its performance by a control system using the Matlab xPC Target system. The noncontact gap sensor was an eddy current gap sensor with an outer diameter of 2.38 mm, thickness of 0.88 mm, and resolution of 5 µm. The BLDC motor compartment was designed to have an outer diameter of 20 mm, length of 28.75 mm, and power of 4.5 W. It exhibited a torque of 8.6 mNm at 5000 rpm. The entire bearing system, including the motor and the sensor, had an outer diameter of 22 mm and a length of 97 mm. The prototype exhibited sufficient levitation

  4. Alterations in circulatory and renal angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in fetal programmed hypertension. (United States)

    Shaltout, Hossam A; Figueroa, Jorge P; Rose, James C; Diz, Debra I; Chappell, Mark C


    Antenatal betamethasone treatment is a widely accepted therapy to accelerate lung development and improve survival in preterm infants. However, there are reports that infants who receive antenatal glucocorticoids exhibit higher systolic blood pressure in their early adolescent years. We have developed an experimental model of programming whereby the offspring of pregnant sheep administered clinically relevant doses of betamethasone exhibit elevated blood pressure. We tested the hypothesis as to whether alterations in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2, and neprilysin in serum, urine, and proximal tubules are associated with this increase in mean arterial pressure. Male sheep were administered betamethasone (2 doses of 0.17 mg/kg, 24 hours apart) or vehicle at the 80th day of gestation and delivered at term. Sheep were instrumented at adulthood (1.8 years) for direct conscious recording of mean arterial pressure. Serum and urine were collected and proximal tubules isolated from the renal cortex. Betamethasone-treated animals had elevated mean arterial pressure (97+/-3 versus 83+/-2 mm Hg; P<0.05) and a 25% increase in serum ACE activity (48.4+/-7.0 versus 36.0+/-2.7 fmol/mL per minute) but a 40% reduction in serum ACE2 activity (18.8+/-1.2 versus 31.4+/-4.4 fmol/mL per minute). In isolated proximal tubules, ACE2 activity and expression were 50% lower in the treated sheep with no significant change in ACE or neprilysin activities. We conclude that antenatal steroid treatment results in the chronic alteration of ACE and ACE2 in the circulatory and tubular compartments, which may contribute to the higher blood pressure in this model of fetal programming-induced hypertension.

  5. Designing and Constructing Blood Flow Monitoring System to Predict Pressure Ulcers on Heel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbari H.


    Full Text Available Background: A pressure ulcer is a complication related to the need for the care and treatment of primarily disabled and elderly people. With the decrease of the blood flow caused by the pressure loaded, ulcers are formed and the tissue will be wasted with the passage of time. Objective: The aim of this study was to construct blood flow monitoring system on the heel tissue which was under external pressure in order to evaluate the tissue treatment in the ulcer. Methods: To measure the blood flow changes, three infrared optical transmitters were used at the distances of 5, 10, and 15 mm to the receiver. Blood flow changes in heels were assessed in pressures 0, 30, and 60 mmHg. The time features were extracted for analysis from the recorded signal by MATLAB software. Changes of the time features under different pressures were evaluated at the three distances by ANOVA in SPSS software. The level of significance was considered at 0.05. Results: In this study, 15 subjects, including both male and female, with the mean age of 54±7 participated. The results showed that the signal amplitude, power and absolute signal decreased significantly when pressure on the tissue increased in different layers (p<0.05. Heart rate only decreased significantly in pressures more than 30 mmHg (p=0.02. In pressures more than 30 mmHg, in addition to a decrease in the time features, the pattern of blood flow signal changed and it wasn’t the same as noload signal. Conclusion: By detecting the time features, we can reach an early diagnosis to prognosticate the degeneration of the tissue under pressure and it can be recommended as a method to predict bedsores in the heel.

  6. Dynamics of digestive proteolytic system during blood feeding of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sojka Daniel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ticks are vectors of a wide variety of pathogens causing severe diseases in humans and domestic animals. Intestinal digestion of the host blood is an essential process of tick physiology and also a limiting factor for pathogen transmission since the tick gut represents the primary site for pathogen infection and proliferation. Using the model tick Ixodes ricinus, the European Lyme disease vector, we have previously demonstrated by genetic and biochemical analyses that host blood is degraded in the tick gut by a network of acidic peptidases of the aspartic and cysteine classes. Results This study reveals the digestive machinery of the I. ricinus during the course of blood-feeding on the host. The dynamic profiling of concentrations, activities and mRNA expressions of the major digestive enzymes demonstrates that the de novo synthesis of peptidases triggers the dramatic increase of the hemoglobinolytic activity along the feeding period. Overall hemoglobinolysis, as well as the activity of digestive peptidases are negligible at the early stage of feeding, but increase dramatically towards the end of the slow feeding period, reaching maxima in fully fed ticks. This finding contradicts the established opinion that blood digestion is reduced at the end of engorgement. Furthermore, we show that the digestive proteolysis is localized intracellularly throughout the whole duration of feeding. Conclusions Results suggest that the egressing proteolytic system in the early stage of feeding and digestion is a potential target for efficient impairment, most likely by blocking its components via antibodies present in the host blood. Therefore, digestive enzymes are promising candidates for development of novel 'anti-tick' vaccines capable of tick control and even transmission of tick-borne pathogens.

  7. Blood hibernation: a novel strategy to inhibit systemic inflammation and coagulation induced by cardiopulmonary bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jing; WU Xiao-dong; LIN Ke; Raphael C. Lui; AN Qi; TAO Kai-yu; DU Lei; LIU Jin


    Background Inflammation and coagulation are two intimately cross-linked defense mechanisms of most, if not all organisms to injuries. During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), these two process-is are activated and interact with each other through several common pathways, which may result in subsequent organ dysfunction. In the present study, we hypothesized that the addition of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), and aprotinin to the systemic circulation, hereby referred to as blood hibernation, would attenuate the inflammation and coagulation induced by CPB. Methods Thirty adult mongrel dogs were equally divided into five groups, anesthetized and placed on hypothermic CPB (32 C). Each group received respectively the following treatments: (1) inhalation of 40 ppm nitric oxide; (2) intravenous infusion of 20 ng·kg-1·min-1 of PGE1; (3) 80 000 kallikrein inhibitor units (KIU)/kg of aprotinin; (4) the combination of all three agents (blood hibernation group); and (5) no treatment (control group) during CPB. Activation of leukocyte, platelet, endothelial cell, and formation of thrombin were assessed after CPB.Results As compared with the other four groups, leukocyte counts were higher, while plasma elastase, interleukin-8, CD11b mRNA expression, myeloperoxidase activities and lung tissue leukocyte counts were lower in the blood hibernation group (P<0.05 versus other four groups after CPB). Plasma prothrombin fragment (PTF)1+2, and platelet activation factors were lower, while platelet counts were higher in the blood hibernation group (P<0.05 versus other four groups at 6 and 12 hours after CPB). Electron microscopy showed endothelial pseudopods protrusion, with cell adherence in all four groups except the blood hibernation group where endothelial cells remained intact.Conclusion Blood hibernation, effected by the addition of nitric oxide, PGE1 and aprotinin to the circulating blood during extra-corporeal circulation, was observed to attenuate the inflammation and

  8. A Mathematical Model of Renal Blood Distribution Coupling TGF, MR and Tubular System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ci-xiu; YANG Lin; WANG Ke-qiang; XU Shi-xiong; DAI Pei-dong


    Objective:To investigate the relationship between renal blood distribution and the physiological activities of the kidney. Methods:A mathematical model is developed based on Hagan-Poiseuille law and mass transport, coupling mechanics of myogenic response (MR), tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) and the tubular system in the renal medulla. The model parameters, including the permeability coefficients, the vascular lumen radius and the solute concentration at the inlet of the tubes, are derived from the experimental results. Simulations of the blood and water flow in the loop of Henel, the collecting duct and vas rectum, are carried out by the model of the tubular system in the renal medulla, based on conservations of water and solutes for transmural transport. Then the tubular model is coupled with MR and TGF mechanics. Results:The results predict the dynamics of renal autoregulation on its blood pressure and flow,and the distributions are 88.5% in the cortex, 10.3% in the medulla, and 1.2% at papilla,respectively. The fluid flow and solute concentrations along the tubules and vasa recta are obtained. Conclusion:The present model could assess renal functions qualitatively and quantitatively and provide a methodological approach for clinical research.

  9. A Management Information System for Bare Base Civil Engineering Commanders (United States)


    16" RA 1 1 Yes 31 ANTIFREEZE MIX 300AL DR IA 3 3 Yes 51 BLOCK ICE MACHINE IA 1 1 Yea 66 CABLE ELECTRIC RUBBER CL 1 1 Ye- 124 UNTO-INSICTICIDE DIAZINON ... liver cells caused by a virus entering the body through the digestive system or the circulatory system (e.g., blood transfusions or contaminated...swollen, tender liver . DO --treat with bed rest and a high protein diet. -- sat only carefully washed and well-prepared food. --emphasize personal

  10. Improved tunable filter-based multispectral imaging system for detection of blood stains on construction material substrates (United States)

    Janchaysang, Suwatwong; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Buranasiri, Prathan


    We present the improved tunable filter based multispectral imaging system for detecting blood stains on construction materials. Based upon the reflectance and Kubelka Munk absorbance spectra stocked from our previous work, we modify the blood discrimination criteria to make the system more efficient by replacing the old criteria which make use of polynomial fitting with new criteria associated with a few wavelengths images. The newly established criteria are tested to be able to detect blood against other stains almost as efficient as the old criteria, while the number of spectral images required for detecting blood stains are reduced significantly from 64 to 9 spectral images. The reduction of required spectral images will reduce the time needed for image capturing and blood detection criteria application with little sacrificing of the specificity and sensitivity of the system.

  11. Circulatory filling pressures during transient microgravity induced by parabolic flight (United States)

    Latham, Ricky D.; Fanton, John W.; White, C. D.; Vernalis, Mariana N.; Crisman, R. P.; Koenig, S. C.


    Theoretical concepts hold that blood in the gravity dependent portion of the body would relocate to more cephalad compartments under microgravity. The result is an increase in blood volume in the thoraic and cardiac chambers. However, experimental data has been somewhat contradictory and nonconclusive. Early studies of peripheral venous pressure and estimates of central venous pressure (CVP) from these data did not show an increase in CVP under microgravity. However, CVP recorded in human volunteers during a parabolic flight revealed an increase in CVP during the microgravity state. On the STS 40 shuttle mission, a payload specialist wore a fluid line that recorded CVP during the first few hours of orbital insertion. These data revealed decreased CVP. When this CVP catheter was tested during parabolic flight in four subjects, two had increased CVP recordings and two had decreased CVP measurements. In 1991, our laboratory performed parabolic flight studies in several chronic-instrumented baboons. It was again noted that centrally recorded right atrial pressure varied with exposure to microgravity, some animals having an increase, and others a decrease.

  12. Circulatory bubble dynamics: from physical to biological aspects. (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Virginie; Tang, Meng-Xing; Balestra, Costantino; Eckersley, Robert J; Karapantsios, Thodoris D


    Bubbles can form in the body during or after decompression from pressure exposures such as those undergone by scuba divers, astronauts, caisson and tunnel workers. Bubble growth and detachment physics then becomes significant in predicting and controlling the probability of these bubbles causing mechanical problems by blocking vessels, displacing tissues, or inducing an inflammatory cascade if they persist for too long in the body before being dissolved. By contrast to decompression induced bubbles whose site of initial formation and exact composition are debated, there are other instances of bubbles in the bloodstream which are well-defined. Gas emboli unwillingly introduced during surgical procedures and ultrasound microbubbles injected for use as contrast or drug delivery agents are therefore also discussed. After presenting the different ways that bubbles can end up in the human bloodstream, the general mathematical formalism related to the physics of bubble growth and detachment from decompression is reviewed. Bubble behavior in the bloodstream is then discussed, including bubble dissolution in blood, bubble rheology and biological interactions for the different cases of bubble and blood composition considered.

  13. Coupled Flow-Structure-Biochemistry Simulations of Dynamic Systems of Blood Cells Using an Adaptive Surface Tracking Method


    Hoskins, M.H.; Kunz, R.F.; Bistline, J.E.; Dong, C.


    A method for the computation of low Reynolds number dynamic blood cell systems is presented. The specific system of interest here is interaction between cancer cells and white blood cells in an experimental flow system. Fluid dynamics, structural mechanics, six-degree-of freedom motion control and surface biochemistry analysis components are coupled in the context of adaptive octree-based grid generation. Analytical and numerical verification of the quasi-steady assumption for the fluid mecha...

  14. Clinical trial design and rationale of the Multicenter Study of MagLev Technology in Patients Undergoing Mechanical Circulatory Support Therapy With HeartMate 3 (MOMENTUM 3) investigational device exemption clinical study protocol. (United States)

    Heatley, Gerald; Sood, Poornima; Goldstein, Daniel; Uriel, Nir; Cleveland, Joseph; Middlebrook, Don; Mehra, Mandeep R


    The HeartMate 3 left ventricular assist system (LVAS; St. Jude Medical, Inc., formerly Thoratec Corporation, Pleasanton, CA) was recently introduced into clinical trials for durable circulatory support in patients with medically refractory advanced-stage heart failure. This centrifugal, fully magnetically levitated, continuous-flow pump is engineered with the intent to enhance hemocompatibility and reduce shear stress on blood elements, while also possessing intrinsic pulsatility. Although bridge-to-transplant (BTT) and destination therapy (DT) are established dichotomous indications for durable left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support, clinical practice has challenged the appropriateness of these designations. The introduction of novel LVAD technology allows for the development of clinical trial designs to keep pace with current practices. The prospective, randomized Multicenter Study of MagLev Technology in Patients Undergoing Mechanical Circulatory Support Therapy With HeartMate 3 (MOMENTUM 3) clinical trial aims to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the HeartMate 3 LVAS by demonstrating non-inferiority to the HeartMate II LVAS (also St. Jude Medical, Inc.). The innovative trial design includes patients enrolled under a single inclusion and exclusion criteria , regardless of the intended use of the device, with outcomes ascertained in the short term (ST, at 6 months) and long term (LT, at 2 years). This adaptive trial design includes a pre-specified safety phase (n = 30) analysis. The ST cohort includes the first 294 patients and the LT cohort includes the first 366 patients for evaluation of the composite primary end-point of survival to transplant, recovery or LVAD support free of debilitating stroke (modified Rankin score >3), or re-operation to replace the pump. As part of the adaptive design, an analysis by an independent statistician will determine whether sample size adjustment is required at pre-specified times during the study. A further 662

  15. Infiltration Pattern of Blood Monocytes into the Central Nervous System during Experimental Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik Menasria

    Full Text Available The kinetics and distribution of infiltrating blood monocytes into the central nervous system and their involvement in the cerebral immune response together with resident macrophages, namely microglia, were evaluated in experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 encephalitis (HSE. To distinguish microglia from blood monocyte-derived macrophages, chimeras were generated by conditioning C57BL/6 recipient mice with chemotherapy regimen followed by transplantation of bone morrow-derived cells that expressed the green fluorescent protein. Mice were infected intranasally with a sub-lethal dose of HSV-1 (1.2 x 10(6 plaque forming units. Brains were harvested prior to and on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 post-infection for flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis. The amounts of neutrophils (P < 0.05 and "Ly6C hi" inflammatory monocytes (P < 0.001 significantly increased in the CNS compared to non-infected controls on day 6 post-infection, which corresponded to more severe clinical signs of HSE. Levels decreased on day 8 for both leukocytes subpopulations (P < 0.05 for inflammatory monocytes compared to non-infected controls to reach baseline levels on day 10 following infection. The percentage of "Ly6C low" patrolling monocytes significantly increased (P < 0.01 at a later time point (day 8, which correlated with the resolution phase of HSE. Histological analysis demonstrated that blood leukocytes colonized mostly the olfactory bulb and the brainstem, which corresponded to regions where HSV-1 particles were detected. Furthermore, infiltrating cells from the monocytic lineage could differentiate into activated local tissue macrophages that express the microglia marker, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1. The lack of albumin detection in the brain parenchyma of infected mice showed that the infiltration of blood leukocytes was not necessarily related to a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier but could be the result of a functional recruitment. Thus

  16. Infiltration Pattern of Blood Monocytes into the Central Nervous System during Experimental Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis (United States)

    Menasria, Rafik; Canivet, Coraline; Piret, Jocelyne; Boivin, Guy


    The kinetics and distribution of infiltrating blood monocytes into the central nervous system and their involvement in the cerebral immune response together with resident macrophages, namely microglia, were evaluated in experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE). To distinguish microglia from blood monocyte-derived macrophages, chimeras were generated by conditioning C57BL/6 recipient mice with chemotherapy regimen followed by transplantation of bone morrow-derived cells that expressed the green fluorescent protein. Mice were infected intranasally with a sub-lethal dose of HSV-1 (1.2x106 plaque forming units). Brains were harvested prior to and on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 post-infection for flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis. The amounts of neutrophils (P<0.05) and «Ly6Chi» inflammatory monocytes (P<0.001) significantly increased in the CNS compared to non-infected controls on day 6 post-infection, which corresponded to more severe clinical signs of HSE. Levels decreased on day 8 for both leukocytes subpopulations (P<0.05 for inflammatory monocytes compared to non-infected controls) to reach baseline levels on day 10 following infection. The percentage of «Ly6Clow» patrolling monocytes significantly increased (P<0.01) at a later time point (day 8), which correlated with the resolution phase of HSE. Histological analysis demonstrated that blood leukocytes colonized mostly the olfactory bulb and the brainstem, which corresponded to regions where HSV-1 particles were detected. Furthermore, infiltrating cells from the monocytic lineage could differentiate into activated local tissue macrophages that express the microglia marker, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1. The lack of albumin detection in the brain parenchyma of infected mice showed that the infiltration of blood leukocytes was not necessarily related to a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier but could be the result of a functional recruitment. Thus, our findings suggest

  17. Poultry blood from slaughterhouses: development of a biopreservation system to improve microbiological quality prior to transforming blood into by-products. (United States)

    Zbrun, M V; Frizzo, L S; Soto, L P; Rosmini, M R; Sequeira, G J; Astesana, D M; Blajman, J E; Rossler, E; Berisvil, A; Romero Scharpen, A; Signorini, M L


    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of indigenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with specific additives as a Biopreservation System (BS) for poultry blood during its storage in slaughterhouses. The BS consisted of two LAB (Enterococcus faecalis DSPV 008SA or Lactobacillus salivarius DSPV 032SA) with 4 additives (lactose 2 g/l, yeast extract 0.4 g/l, ammonium citrate 0.4 g/l and NaCl 1 g/l). After 24 h storage at 30ºC, lower counts of enterobacteria, coliforms, Pseudomonas spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were evident in blood treated with the BS than in untreated blood. The ability of LAB to prevent haemolysis was evident. A decrease in pH was associated with control of spoilage microorganisms but it needed to be regulated to prevent coagulation of proteins. On the basis of these results it is recommended to supplement blood with a BS to avoid undesirable changes during blood storage before processing.

  18. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and sickle cell trait among blood donors in Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alabdulaali Mohammed


    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Blood donation from glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient and sickle cell trait (SCT donors might alter the quality of the donated blood during processing, storage or in the recipient′s circulatory system. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and SCT among blood donors coming to King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH in Riyadh. It was also reviewed the benefits and risks of transfusing blood from these blood donors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1150 blood samples obtained from blood donors that presented to KKUH blood bank during the period April 2006 to May 2006. All samples were tested for Hb-S by solubility test, alkaline gel electrophoresis; and for G6PD deficiency, by fluorescent spot test. Results: Out of the 1150 donors, 23 (2% were diagnosed for SCT, 9 (0.78% for G6PD deficiency and 4 (0.35% for both conditions. Our prevalence of SCT and G6PD deficiency is higher than that of the general population of Riyadh. Conclusion: We recommend to screen all units for G6PD deficiency and sickle cell trait and to defer donations from donors with either of these conditions, unless if needed for special blood group compatibility, platelet apheresis or if these are likely to affect the blood bank inventory. If such blood is to be used, special precautions need to be undertaken to avoid complications in high-risk recipients.

  19. Evaluation of a novel artificial pancreas: closed loop glycemic control system with continuous blood glucose monitoring. (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Yuuki; Kinoshita, Yoshihiko; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Munekage, Masaya; Munekage, Eri; Takezaki, Yuka; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Yamashita, Koichi; Yamazaki, Rie; Okabayashi, Takehiro; Tarumi, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Mishina, Suguru; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro


    A closed-loop glycemic control system using an artificial pancreas has been applied with many clinical benefits in Japan since 1987. To update this system incorporating user-friendly features, we developed a novel artificial pancreas (STG-55). The purpose of this study was to evaluate STG-55 for device usability, performance of blood glucose measurement, glycemic control characteristics in vivo in animal experiments, and evaluate its clinical feasibility. There are several features for usability improvement based on the design concepts, such as compactness, display monitor, batteries, guidance function, and reduction of the preparation time. All animal study data were compared with a clinically available artificial pancreas system in Japan (control device: STG-22). We examined correlations of both blood glucose levels between two groups (STG-55 vs. control) using Clarke's error grid analysis, and also compared mean glucose infusion rate (GIR) during glucose clamp. The results showed strong correlation in blood glucose concentrations (Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient: 0.97; n = 1636). Clarke's error grid analysis showed that 98.4% of the data fell in Zones A and B, which represent clinically accurate or benign errors, respectively. The difference in mean GIRs was less than 0.2 mg/kg/min, which was considered not significant. Clinical feasibility study demonstrated sufficient glycemic control maintaining target glucose range between 80 and 110 (mg/dL), and between 140 and 160 without any hypoglycemia. In conclusion, STG-55 was a clinically acceptable artificial pancreas with improved interface and usability. A closed-loop glycemic control system with STG-55 would be a useful tool for surgical and critical patients in intensive care units, as well as diabetic patients.

  20. 清末徽州户口循环册研究%Research on Household Circulatory Volume of Huizhou in Late Qing Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘猛; 陈琪


    The household circulatory volume is a kind of text in the Bao -Jia system of Qing dynasty.Circulatory vol-umes、Bao -Jia volumes and Bao -Jia doorplates are important components of residence registration management system in Qing dynasty.They were managed dynamically and modified flexibly,registering for particular groups.Through the existing cir-culatory volumes,we witness the people of Huizhou engaged in widespread and its frequent social mobility.The register of busi-nessmen’households are far more than other careers in late Qing dynasty.In this group,considerable part was occupied by persons under 20 years old.%户口循环册是清代保甲制度中的一种册籍。它与保甲册、保甲门牌等均为清代户籍管理的重要组成部分。户口循环册随时修改,动态管理,有单独的特殊人群登记。透过现存的户口循环册,可以看出清末徽州人从事行业广布,社会流动频繁。以商为业的户口数量远远大于其他行业的单独数量,从商人员依然众多,20岁以下经商者颇有人在。

  1. New method for rapid Susceptibility Testing on blood culture with HB&L system: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Rondinelli


    Full Text Available Blood culture, although represents the gold standard in detecting the ethiological agent of sepsis, is rather rarely required in relation to the real diagnostic importance. The result of this test depends in fact on many factors (sample volume, time of collection, accuracy, antibiotic therapy, contamination, number of drawings, drawing site, interpretation difficulties, etc. that are often considered by many clinicians so limited as to doubt about their actual value. The disadvantages are therefore represented by the lack of standardization but also by the low sensitivity and above all by the technical times too long for the clinical needs. Blood culture begins with the drawing of samples from the “septic” patient followed incubation of the bottles in automatic thermostated systems. In case of positive result (36 hours, the culture is Gram stained and streaked on solid media in order to obtain isolated colonies for the identification and the susceptibility testing (48 hours from positive result. The long time required for pathogen identification and susceptibility testing involves empirical broad spectrum antibiotic therapy that can promote the increase of bacterial resistance but also patient management costs. A clinically useful report should be available on short notice in order to guide the clinician to choose the most appropriate antibiotic. The microbiologist has therefore the hard work of reviewing the organization and the management of the procedures.We have therefore started to consider the possibility of treating the blood as an biological liquid in order to quickly determine the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics.

  2. Modelling, verification, and calibration of a photoacoustics based continuous non-invasive blood glucose monitoring system. (United States)

    Pai, Praful P; Sanki, Pradyut K; Sarangi, Satyabrata; Banerjee, Swapna


    This paper examines the use of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) at an excitation wavelength of 905 nm for making continuous non-invasive blood glucose measurements. The theoretical background of the measurement technique is verified through simulation. An apparatus is fabricated for performing photoacoustic measurements in vitro on glucose solutions and in vivo on human subjects. The amplitude of the photoacoustic signals measured from glucose solutions is observed to increase with the solution concentration, while photoacoustic amplitude obtained from in vivo measurements follows the blood glucose concentration of the subjects, indicating a direct proportionality between the two quantities. A linear calibration method is applied separately on measurements obtained from each individual in order to estimate the blood glucose concentration. The estimated glucose values are compared to reference glucose concentrations measured using a standard glucose meter. A plot of 196 measurement pairs taken over 30 normal subjects on a Clarke error grid gives a point distribution of 82.65% and 17.35% over zones A and B of the grid with a mean absolute relative deviation (MARD) of 11.78% and a mean absolute difference (MAD) of 15.27 mg/dl (0.85 mmol/l). The results obtained are better than or comparable to those obtained using photoacoustic spectroscopy based methods or other non-invasive measurement techniques available. The accuracy levels obtained are also comparable to commercially available continuous glucose monitoring systems.

  3. Hollow-Fiber Cartridges: Model Systems for Virus Removal from Blood (United States)

    Jacobitz, Frank; Menon, Jeevan


    Aethlon Medical is developing a hollow-fiber hemodialysis device designed to remove viruses and toxins from blood. Possible target viruses include HIV and pox-viruses. The filter could reduce virus and viral toxin concentration in the patient's blood, delaying illness so the patient's immune system can fight off the virus. In order to optimize the design of such a filter, the fluid mechanics of the device is both modeled analytically and investigated experimentally. The flow configuration of the proposed device is that of Starling flow. Polysulfone hollow-fiber dialysis cartridges were used. The cartridges are charged with water as a model fluid for blood and fluorescent latex beads are used in the experiments as a model for viruses. In the experiments, properties of the flow through the cartridge are determined through pressure and volume flow rate measurements of water. The removal of latex beads, which are captured in the porous walls of the fibers, was measured spectrophotometrically. Experimentally derived coefficients derived from these experiments are used in the analytical model of the flow and removal predictions from the model are compared to those obtained from the experiments.

  4. Does Pneumatic Tube System Transport Contribute to Hemolysis in ED Blood Samples?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredric M. Hustey


    Full Text Available Introduction: Our goal was to determine if the hemolysis among blood samples obtained in an emergency department and then sent to the laboratory in a pneumatic tube system was different from those in samples that were hand-carried. Methods: The hemolysis index is measured on all samples submitted for potassium analysis. We queried our hospital laboratory database system (SunQuest® for potassium results for specimens obtained between January 2014 and July 2014. From facility maintenance records, we identified periods of system downtime, during which specimens were hand-carried to the laboratory. Results: During the study period, 15,851 blood specimens were transported via our pneumatic tube system and 92 samples were hand delivered. The proportions of hemolyzed specimens in the two groups were not significantly different (13.6% vs. 13.1% [p=0.90]. Results were consistent when the criterion was limited to gross (3.3% vs 3.3% [p=0.99] or mild (10.3% vs 9.8% [p=0.88] hemolysis. The hemolysis rate showed minimal variation during the study period (12.6%–14.6%. Conclusion: We found no statistical difference in the percentages of hemolyzed specimens transported by a pneumatic tube system or hand delivered to the laboratory. Certain features of pneumatic tube systems might contribute to hemolysis (e.g., speed, distance, packing material. Since each system is unique in design, we encourage medical facilities to consider whether their method of transport might contribute to hemolysis in samples obtained in the emergency department.

  5. Arterial dysfunction but maintained systemic blood pressure in cavin-1-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Swärd

    Full Text Available Caveolae are omega-shaped plasma membrane micro-domains that are abundant in cells of the vascular system. Formation of caveolae depends on caveolin-1 and cavin-1 and lack of either protein leads to loss of caveolae. Mice with caveolin-1 deficiency have dysfunctional blood vessels, but whether absence of cavin-1 similarly leads to vascular dysfunction is not known. Here we addressed this hypothesis using small mesenteric arteries from cavin-1-deficient mice. Cavin-1-reporter staining was intense in mesenteric arteries, brain arterioles and elsewhere in the vascular system, with positive staining of both endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Arterial expression of cavin-1, -2 and -3 was reduced in knockout (KO arteries as was expression of caveolin-1, -2 and -3. Caveolae were absent in the endothelial and smooth muscle layers of small mesenteric arteries as determined by electron microscopy. Arginase, a negative regulator of nitric oxide production, was elevated in cavin-1 deficient arteries as was contraction in response to the α1-adrenergic agonist cirazoline. Detailed assessment of vascular dimensions revealed increased media thickness and reduced distensibility, arguing that enhanced contraction was due to increased muscle mass. Contrasting with increased α1-adrenergic contraction, myogenic tone was essentially absent and this appeared to be due in part to increased nitric oxide production. Vasomotion was less frequent in the knock-out vessels. In keeping with the opposing influences on arterial resistance of increased agonist-induced contractility and reduced myogenic tone, arterial blood pressure was unchanged in vivo. We conclude that deficiency of cavin-1 affects the function of small arteries, but that opposing influences on arterial resistance balance each other such that systemic blood pressure in unstressed mice is well maintained.

  6. Mobile phone based laser speckle contrast imager for assessment of skin blood flow (United States)

    Jakovels, Dainis; Saknite, Inga; Krievina, Gita; Zaharans, Janis; Spigulis, Janis


    Assessment of skin blood flow is of interest for evaluation of skin viability as well as for reflection of the overall condition of the circulatory system. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) and laser speckle contrast imaging (LASCI) are optical techniques used for assessment of skin perfusion. However, these systems are still too expensive and bulky to be widely available. Implementation of such techniques as connection kits for mobile phones have a potential for primary diagnostics. In this work we demonstrate simple and low cost LASCI connection kit for mobile phone and its comparison to laser Doppler perfusion imager. Post-occlusive hyperemia and local thermal hyperemia tests are used to compare both techniques and to demonstrate the potential of LASCI device.

  7. Phasic reflux of pulmonary blood flow in atelectasis: influence of systemic PO2. (United States)

    Newell, J C; Levitzky, M G; Krasney, J A; Dutton, R E


    In 16 dogs ventilated with 100% O2, control blood flow to the left lung was 35 +/- 2% of aortic flow. When left lung atelectasis was induced, left pulmonary artery flow fell to 19 +/- 2% of aortic flow. A large retrograde component of flow developed in this pulmonary artery, suggesting that blood flows into the pulmonary arteries of both lungs during systole, but flows back out of the collapsed lung and into the uncollapsed lung during diastole. Systemic PaO2 remained above 78 mmHg. Subsequently, when the ventilation of the right lung was changed from oxygen to room air, systemic PaO2 fell to 64 +/- 3 mmHg and atelectatic left lung flow rose from 19 +/- 2% to 28 +/- 2% f aortic flow. This was associated with a reduction in reflux from the atelectatic lung. These results suggest that the attenuation of flow to an atelectatic lung is more pronounced if systemic normoxemia is maintained by adequate oxygenation of the normal lung.

  8. [The development of the system of blood flow block by using magnetic compression abdominal large vascular]. (United States)

    Yan, Xiaopeng; Lv, Yi; Ma, Feng; Ma, Jia; Wang, Haohua; Wang, Shanpei; Li, Dichen; Liu, Yaxiong; Jia, Shenli; Shi, Zongqian; Luo, Ruixue


    A new system of blood flow block for control of bleeding in abdominal operation is composed of an abdominal magnetic blocking unit, an abdominal external electromagnet unit and other non-magnetic operation instrument. The abdominal external electromagnetic unit is placed in advance in the operation bed. The abdominal magnetic blocking unit can be placed directly on the ventral of the large vessels when need to blocking the abdominal large vessels during the operation. According to the non-contact suction characteristics of magnetic materials, the two magnetic units will attract each other and compression the vessels. Using this system for vascular occlusion does not need clear exposure and without separating vessel. There is the advantage of rapid, accurate and reliable for the system.

  9. ABO blood group system and the coronary artery disease: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Yang, Sheng-Hua; Xu, Hao; Li, Jian-Jun


    ABO blood group system, a well-known genetic risk factor, has clinically been demonstrated to be linked with thrombotic vascular diseases. However, the relationship between ABO blood group and coronary artery disease (CAD) is still controversial. We here performed an updated meta-analysis of the related studies and tried to elucidate the potential role of ABO blood group as a risk factor for CAD. All detectable case-control and cohort studies comparing the risk of CAD in different ABO blood groups were collected for this analysis through searching PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Ultimately, 17 studies covering 225,810 participants were included. The combined results showed that the risk of CAD was significantly higher in blood group A (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.26, p = 0.01) and lower in blood group O (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.78 to 0.94, p = 0.0008). Even when studies merely about myocardial infarction (MI) were removed, the risk of CAD was still significantly higher in blood group A (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.10, p = 0.03) and lower in blood group O (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.85 to 0.93, p < 0.00001). This updated systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that both blood group A and non-O were the risk factors of CAD.

  10. Alpha-Amylase Activity in Blood Increases after Pharmacological, But Not Psychological, Activation of the Adrenergic System (United States)

    Nater, Urs M.; La Marca, Roberto; Erni, Katja; Ehlert, Ulrike


    Background & Aim Alpha-amylase in both blood and saliva has been used as a diagnostic parameter. While studies examining alpha-amylase activity in saliva have shown that it is sensitive to physiological and psychological challenge of the adrenergic system, no challenge studies have attempted to elucidate the role of the adrenergic system in alpha-amylase activity in blood. We set out to examine the impact of psychological and pharmacological challenge on alpha-amylase in blood in two separate studies. Methods In study 1, healthy subjects were examined in a placebo-controlled, double-blind paradigm using yohimbine, an alpha2-adrenergic antagonist. In study 2, subjects were examined in a standardized rest-controlled psychosocial stress protocol. Alpha-amylase activity in blood was repeatedly measured in both studies. Results Results of study 1 showed that alpha-amylase in blood is subject to stronger increases after injection of yohimbine compared to placebo. In study 2, results showed that there was no significant effect of psychological stress compared to rest. Conclusions Alpha-amylase in blood increases after pharmacological activation of the adrenergic pathways suggesting that sympathetic receptors are responsible for these changes. Psychological stress, however, does not seem to have an impact on alpha-amylase in blood. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms underlying activity changes in alpha-amylase in blood in healthy individuals. PMID:26110636



    M.O. Sunmonu; Odewole, M M; Obajemihi, O I; Ayodeji, A T


    A re-circulatory vegetable moisturizer for preventing wilting in vegetables was developed and its performance evaluation carried out. Freshly harvested Amaranthus vegetables were used for the experiments. The temperature and relative humidity were monitored daily. The vitamin A of this produce was determined at intervals of two days for 9 days. The effects of the storage parameters (temperature and relative humidity) on the nutritional value of the produce were determined using statistical an...

  12. Bridge to recovery in two cases of dilated cardiomyopathy after long-term mechanical circulatory support


    Pacholewicz, Jerzy; Zakliczyński, Michał; Kowalik, Violetta; Nadziakiewicz, Paweł; Kowalski, Oskar; Kalarus, Zbigniew; Zembala, Marian


    Ventricular assist devices (VADs) have become an established therapeutic option for patients with end-stage heart failure. Achieving the potential for recovery of native heart function using VADs is an established form of treatment in a selected group of patients with HF. We report two cases of VAD patients with different types of pump used for mechanical circulatory support, a continuous flow pump (Heart-Ware®) and a pulsatile pump (POLVAD MEV®), which allow regeneration of the native heart....

  13. Use of Short-term Circulatory Support as a Bridge in Pediatric Heart Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Canêo


    Full Text Available Background: Heart transplantation is considered the gold standard therapy for the advanced heart failure, but donor shortage, especially in pediatric patients, is the main limitation for this procedure, so most sick patients die while waiting for the procedure. Objective: To evaluate the use of short-term circulatory support as a bridge to transplantation in end-stage cardiomyopathy. Methods: Retrospective clinical study. Between January 2011 and December 2013, 40 patients with cardiomyopathy were admitted in our Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, with a mean age of 4.5 years. Twenty patients evolved during hospitalization with clinical deterioration and were classified as Intermacs 1 and 2. One patient died within 24 hours and 19 could be stabilized and were listed. They were divided into 2 groups: A, clinical support alone and B, implantation of short-term circulatory support as bridge to transplantation additionally to clinical therapy. Results: We used short-term mechanical circulatory support as a bridge to transplantation in 9. In group A (n=10, eight died waiting and 2 patients (20% were transplanted, but none was discharged. In group B (n=9, 6 patients (66.7% were transplanted and three were discharged.The mean support time was 21,8 days (6 to 984h. The mean transplant waiting list time was 33,8 days. Renal failure and sepsis were the main complication and causeof death in group A while neurologic complications were more prevalent en group B. Conclusion: Mechanical circulatory support increases survival on the pediatric heart transplantation waiting list in patients classified as Intermacs 1 and 2.

  14. Chemotherapy with laparoscope-assisted continuous circulatory hyperthermic intraperitoneal perfusion for malignant ascites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    AIM:To investigate the procedure, feasibility and effects of laparoscopeassisted continuous circulatory hyperthermic intraperitoneal perfusion chemotherapy (CHIPC) in treatment of malignant ascites induced by peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastric cancers. METHODS: From August 2006 to March 2008, the laparoscopic approach was used to perform CHIPC on 16 patients with malignant ascites induced by gastric cancer or postoperative intraperitoneal seeding. Each patient underwent CHIPC three times after laparosco...

  15. Occlusive ascending aorta and arch atheroma treated with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and thromboendarterectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O' Sullivan, Katie E


    We describe an uncommon presentation of severely advanced aortic atherosclerosis in a 48-year old man with a history of hypertension and heavy smoking. Initial presentation with upper limb ischaemia led to the diagnosis of an aortic arch atheroma occluding 90% of the aortic lumen, managed with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and aortic thromboendarterectomy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of atherosclerotic plaque resulting in aortic occlusion and requiring emergent operative intervention.

  16. Effects of cryotherapy methods on circulatory, metabolic, inflammatory and neural properties: a systematic review


    Freire,Bruno; Geremia,Jeam; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Vaz, Marco Aurélio


    Abstract Introduction: The cooling therapy (cryotherapy) is commonly used in clinical environmental for the injuries treatment according to its beneficial effects on pain, local inflammation and the recovery time of patients. However, there is no consensus in the literature about the effects of cryotherapy in the physiological reactions of affected tissues after an injury. Objective: To realize a systematic review to analyze the cryotherapy effects on circulatory, metabolic, inflammatory an...

  17. Estimated central blood volume in cirrhosis: relationship to sympathetic nervous activity, beta-adrenergic blockade and atrial natriuretic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Bendtsen, Flemming; Gerbes, A L


    The estimated central blood volume (i.e., blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs and central arterial tree) was determined by multiplying cardiac output by circulatory mean transit time in 19 patients with cirrhosis and compared with sympathetic nervous activity and circulating level of atrial...

  18. Effect of S-1 combined with cisplatin intraperitoneal circulatory hyperthermia perfusion treatment on malignant molecule expression in gastric cancer patients with ascites as well as side effect assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo Jian


    Objective:To study the effect of S-1 combined with cisplatin intraperitoneal circulatory hyperthermia perfusion on malignant molecule expression in gastric cancer patients with ascites as well as the related side effect.Methods: Gastric cancer patients with ascites who were treated in our hospital from February 2012 to July 2015 were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into perfusion chemotherapy group and routine chemotherapy group, and then overall chemotherapy conditions, ascites FGF molecule content, peripheral blood immune function indexes and the degree of side effect were compared between two groups. Results:Average treatment cycles of perfusion chemotherapy group were more than those of routine chemotherapy group, and ascites drainage volume within two cycles of chemotherapy was significantly less than that of routine chemotherapy group; after two cycles of chemotherapy, bFGF, FGF-2, FGF19 and FGFR4 content in ascites of perfusion chemotherapy group were significantly lower than those of routine chemotherapy group, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD56+ and CD3-CD56+ cell content in peripheral blood were higher than those of routine chemotherapy group, and CD3+CD8+ cell content was lower than that of routine chemotherapy group; during chemotherapy, the number of cases with decreased numeration of leukocyte, abnormal liver function, abnormal kidney function and diarrhea of perfusion chemotherapy group were significantly lower than those of routine chemotherapy group.Conclusions: S-1 combined with cisplatin intraperitoneal circulatory hyperthermia perfusion chemotherapy can more effectively improve treatment compliance, suppress ascites, kill gastric cancer cells and improve immune function. It has fewer side effect and is the ideal way to treat gastric cancer with ascites.

  19. Von Willebrand factor in patients on mechanical circulatory support – a double-edged sword between bleeding and thrombosis


    Hudzik, Bartosz; Kaczmarski, Jacek; Pacholewicz, Jerzy; Zakliczynski, Michal; Gasior, Mariusz; Zembala, Marian


    Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) is an umbrella term describing the various technologies used in both short- and long-term management of patients with either end-stage chronic heart failure (HF) or acute HF. Most often, MCS has emerged as a bridge to transplantation, but more recently it is also used as a destination therapy. Mechanical circulatory support includes left ventricular assist device (LVAD) or bi-ventricular assist device (Bi-VAD). Currently, 2- to 3-year survival in carefully...

  20. Scandinavian SSAI clinical practice guideline on choice of first‐line vasopressor for patients with acute circulatory failure


    Møller, M H; Claudius, C.; Junttila, E.; Haney, M.; Oscarsson‐Tibblin, A.; Haavind, A.; Perner, A


    Background Adult critically ill patients often suffer from acute circulatory failure, necessitating use of vasopressor therapy. The aim of the Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (SSAI) task force for Acute Circulatory Failure was to present clinically relevant, evidence‐based treatment recommendations on this topic. Methods This guideline was developed according to standards for trustworthy guidelines, including a systematic review of the literature and use of...

  1. Evaluation of low level laser therapy irradiation parameters on rat muscle inflammation through systemic blood cytokines (United States)

    Mantineo, Matias; Pinheiro, João. P.; Morgado, António M.


    Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used for inflammation treatment. Here, we evaluate the effect of different doses, using continuous (830 and 980 nm) and pulsed illumination (830 nm), in the treatment of inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats, through cytokines concentration in systemic blood and histological analysis of muscle tissue. Animals were randomly divided into five groups per wavelength (5 animals per group: 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mW) plus a control group. LLLT was applied during five days, with constant exposure time and irradiated area (3 minutes; 0.5026 cm2). Blood was collected on days 0, 3 and 6. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-6 cytokines were quantified by ELISA. Rats were killed on day 6. Muscle inflammatory cells were counted using optical microscopy. Treatment effects occurred for all applied doses (largest effect at 40 mW: 7.2 J, 14 J/cm2 per irradiation), with reduction of proinflammatory TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 cytokines and lower number of inflammatory cells. Results were better for 830 nm. Identical methodology was used with pulsed illumination. Average power (40 mW) and duty cycle were kept constant (80%) at five frequencies (5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 Hz). Treatment effects were observed at higher frequencies, with no significant differences between them. However, the treatment effect was lower than for continuous illumination. LLLT effect on inflammation treatment can be monitored by measuring systemic blood cytokines. A larger treatment effect was observed with continuous illumination, where results seem to be compatible with a biphasic dose response.

  2. Non-invasive blood glucose detection system based on conservation of energy method. (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Jian-Ming; Liang, Yong-Bo; Chen, Hong-Bo; Yin, Shi-Min; Chen, Zhen-Cheng


    The most common method used for minimizing the occurrence of diabetes complications is frequent glucose testing to adjust the insulin dose. However, using blood glucose (BG) meters presents a risk of infection. It is of great importance to develop non-invasive BG detection techniques. To realize high-accuracy, low-cost and continuous glucose monitoring, we have developed a non-invasive BG detection system using a mixed signal processor 430 (MSP430) microcontroller. This method is based on the combination of the conservation-of-energy method with a sensor integration module, which collects physiological parameters, such as the blood oxygen saturation (SPO2), blood flow velocity and heart rate. New methods to detect the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and BV are proposed, which combine the human body heat balance and characteristic signals of photoplethysmography as well dual elastic chambers theory. Four hundred clinical trials on real-time non-invasive BG monitoring under suitable experiment conditions were performed on different individuals, including diabetic patients, senior citizens and healthy adults. A multisensory information fusion model was applied to process these samples. The algorithm (we defined it as DCBPN algorithm) applied in the model combines a decision tree and back propagation neural network, which classifies the physiological and environmental parameters into three categories, and then establishes a corresponding prediction model for the three categories. The DCBPN algorithm provides an accuracy of 88.53% in predicting the BG of new samples. Thus, this system demonstrates a great potential to reliably detect BG values in a non-invasive setting.

  3. Extracorporeal gas exchange with the DeltaStream rotary blood pump in experimental lung injury. (United States)

    Dembinski, Rolf; Kopp, Rüdger; Henzler, Dietrich; Hochhausen, Nadine; Oslender, Nicole; Max, Martin; Rossaint, Rolf; Kuhlen, Ralf


    In most severe cases of the acute respiratory distress syndrome, veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be used to facilitate gas exchange. However, the clinical use is limited due to the size and the concomitant risk of severe adverse events of conventionally-used centrifugal blood pumps with high extracorporeal blood volumes. The DeltaStream blood pump is a small-sized rotary blood pump that may reduce extracorporeal blood volume, foreign surfaces, contact activation of the coagulation system, and blood trauma. The aim of the present study was to test the safety and efficacy of the DeltaStream pump for ECMO in animals with normal lung function and experimental acute lung injury (ALI). Therefore, veno-venous ECMO was performed for 6 hours in mechanically ventilated pigs with normal lung function (n=6) and with ALI induced by repeated lung lavage (n=6) with a blood flow of 30% of the cardiac output. Gas flow with a FiO2 of 1.0 was set to equal blood flow. With a mean activated clotting time of 121 +/- 22 s, no circulatory impairment or thrombus formation was revealed during ECMO. Furthermore, free plasma Hb did not increase. In controls, hemodynamics and gas exchange remained unchanged. In animals with ALI, hemodynamics remained stable and gas transfer across the extracorporeal oxygenators was optimal, but only in 2 animals was a marked increase in PaO2 observed. CO2 removal was efficacious in all animals. We concluded that the DeltaStream blood pump may be used for veno-venous ECMO without major blood damage or hemodynamic impairment.

  4. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus


    study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...... need to move beyond the bifurcation of the social and medical aspects of blood supply as two separate issues and approach social dynamics as key medical safety questions....

  5. Evaluation of OneTouch Verio, a new blood glucose self-monitoring system for patients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Littman, Karin; Petersen, Eva R.B.; Pussinen, Christel


    Introduction. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is important in diabetes management. Reliable and user-friendly instruments are essential. OneTouch Verio® is a new blood glucose concentration-measuring system designed to be used by patients with diabetes and healthcare professionals...... (ADA) quality goals. Blood samples were collected and measured on the OneTouch Verio® by laboratory personnel and patients with diabetes (n = 91, randomized into groups receiving personal training or mail instructions for the OneTouch Verio® system). Results were compared to a validated routine method......, imprecision and bias were calculated. User-friendliness was evaluated with a questionnaire. Results. Quality specifications for blood glucose concentration monitoring systems according to ISO 15197 were fulfilled. The mean coefficients of variation (CV%) of repeatability was 3.4% when tested by laboratory...

  6. Aging in blood vessels. Medicinal agents FOR systemic arterial hypertension in the elderly. (United States)

    Rubio-Ruiz, María Esther; Pérez-Torres, Israel; Soto, María Elena; Pastelín, Gustavo; Guarner-Lans, Verónica


    Aging impairs blood vessel function and leads to cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms underlying the age-related endothelial, smooth muscle and extracellular matrix vascular dysfunction are discussed. Vascular dysfunction is caused by: (1) Oxidative stress enhancement. (2) Reduction of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, by diminished NO synthesis and/or augmented NO scavenging. (3) Production of vasoconstrictor/vasodilator factor imbalances. (4) Low-grade pro-inflammatory environment. (5) Impaired angiogenesis. (6) Endothelial cell senescence. The aging process in vascular smooth muscle is characterized by: (1) Altered replicating potential. (2) Change in cellular phenotype. (3) Changes in responsiveness to contracting and relaxing mediators. (4) Changes in intracellular signaling functions. Systemic arterial hypertension is an age-dependent disorder, and almost half of the elderly human population is hypertensive. The influence of hypertension on the aging cardiovascular system has been studied in models of hypertensive rats. Treatment for hypertension is recommended in the elderly. Lifestyle modifications, natural compounds and hormone therapies are useful for initial stages and as supporting treatment with medication but evidence from clinical trials in this population is needed. Since all antihypertensive agents can lower blood pressure in the elderly, therapy should be based on its potential side effects and drug interactions.

  7. Blood sugar test - blood (United States)

    ... blood glucose level ( hypoglycemia ) may be due to: Hypopituitarism (a pituitary gland disorder) Underactive thyroid gland or ... tonic-clonic seizure Glucagon blood test Glucagonoma Hyperthyroidism Hypopituitarism Hypothyroidism Insulinoma Low blood sugar Multiple endocrine neoplasia ( ...

  8. Functional state of rat cardiomyocytes and blood antioxidant system under psycho-emotional stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zurab Kuchukashvili; Ketevan Menabde; Matrona Chachua; George Burjanadze; Manana Chipashvili; Nana Koshoridze


    We studied the functionality of the antioxidant system in laboratory rat cardiomyocytes and blood under psychoemotional stress.It was found that 40-day isolation and violation of diurnal cycle among the animals were accompanied by the intensification of lipid peroxidation process and marked with a reduced activity of antioxidant system enzymes, such as catalase and superoxide dismutase activity.The results suggested that psycho-emotional stress was accompanied by oxidative stress, causing a reduction in the intensity of energy metabolism in cardiomyocytes, which was further strengthened by the fact that the activity of the enzymes involved in ATP synthesis in mitochondria was reduced.Based on the results, we proposed that psychological stress is one of the factors contributing to the development of various cardiac diseases.

  9. Clinical and biochemical outcomes for additive mesenteric and lower body perfusion during hypothermic circulatory arrest for complex total aortic arch replacement surgery. (United States)

    Fernandes, P; Cleland, A; Adams, C; Chu, M W A


    Surgical repair of transverse aortic arch aneurysms frequently employ hypothermia and antegrade cerebral perfusion as protective strategies during circulatory arrest. However, prolonged mesenteric and lower limb ischemia can lead to significant lactic acidosis and end organ dysfunction, which remains a significant cause of post-operative morbidity and mortality. We report our experience with additive warm mesenteric and lower body perfusion (1-3 L/min, 30°C) in addition to continuous cerebral and myocardial perfusion in 5 patients who underwent total aortic arch replacement with trifurcated head vessel re-implantation and distal elephant trunk reconstruction. Concomitant surgical procedures included re-operations (2), aortic root operations (2), coronary artery bypass (2) and descending thoracic aortic replacement (1). Serum lactate levels demonstrated a rapid decline from a peak 9.9 ± 2.6 post circulatory arrest to 3.4 ± 2.0 in the intensive care unit (ICU). The lowest serum bicarbonate levels were 19.3 ± 3.5 mmol/L, intra-operatively, which normalized to 28.4 ± 2.4 mmol/L on return to the ICU. The lowest pH levels were 7.25 ± 0.10, corrected to 7.43 ± 0.04 on return to the ICU. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times were 361 ± 104 and 253 ± 85 minutes, respectively. Mean cerebral and lower body circulatory arrest times were 0 (0) and 50 ± 35 minutes, respectively. The mean time required for systemic rewarming was 95 ± 66 minutes. There were no in-hospital mortalities and no patient experienced any neurological, mesenteric, renal or lower limb ischemic complications. Two patients required mechanical ventilation >24 hours, and one patient returned for reoperation for bleeding. Median intensive care unit and total hospital lengths of stay were 5 and 16 days, respectively. Our results suggest early serum lactate clearance, normalization of acidosis, and metabolic recovery when utilizing a simultaneous cerebral perfusion and warm body

  10. Portable point-of-care blood analysis system for global health (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Dou, James J.; Aitchison, James Stewart; Chen, Lu; Nayyar, Rakesh


    In this paper we present a portable blood analysis system based on a disposable cartridge and hand-held reader. The platform can perform all the sample preparation, detection and waste collection required to complete a clinical test. In order to demonstrate the utility of this approach a CD4 T cell enumeration was carried out. A handheld, point-of-care CD4 T cell system was developed based on this system. In particular we will describe a pneumatic, active pumping method to control the on-chip fluidic actuation. Reagents for the CD4 T cell counting assay were dried on a reagent plug to eliminate the need for cold chain storage when used in the field. A micromixer based on the active fluidic actuation was designed to complete sample staining with fluorescent dyes that was dried on the reagent plugs. A novel image detection and analysis algorithm was developed to detect and track the flight of target particles and cells during each analysis. The handheld, point-of-care CD4 testing system was benchmarked against clinical cytometer. The experimental results demonstrated experimental results were closely matched with the flow cytometry. The same platform can be further expanded into a bead-array detection system where other types of biomolecules such as proteins can be detected using the same detection system.

  11. Design of a breath analysis system for diabetes screening and blood glucose level prediction. (United States)

    Yan, Ke; Zhang, David; Wu, Darong; Wei, Hua; Lu, Guangming


    It has been reported that concentrations of several biomarkers in diabetics' breath show significant difference from those in healthy people's breath. Concentrations of some biomarkers are also correlated with the blood glucose levels (BGLs) of diabetics. Therefore, it is possible to screen for diabetes and predict BGLs by analyzing one's breath. In this paper, we describe the design of a novel breath analysis system for this purpose. The system uses carefully selected chemical sensors to detect biomarkers in breath. Common interferential factors, including humidity and the ratio of alveolar air in breath, are compensated or handled in the algorithm. Considering the intersubject variance of the components in breath, we build subject-specific prediction models to improve the accuracy of BGL prediction. A total of 295 breath samples from healthy subjects and 279 samples from diabetic subjects were collected to evaluate the performance of the system. The sensitivity and specificity of diabetes screening are 91.51% and 90.77%, respectively. The mean relative absolute error for BGL prediction is 21.7%. Experiments show that the system is effective and that the strategies adopted in the system can improve its accuracy. The system potentially provides a noninvasive and convenient method for diabetes screening and BGL monitoring as an adjunct to the standard criteria.

  12. Vasoactive substances in the circulatory dysfunction of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl


    and calcitonin gene-related peptide, are among candidates in the vasodilatation and the increased arterial compliance recently described in advanced cirrhosis. Reflex-induced enhanced sympatho-adrenal activity, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and elevated circulating vasopressin...... function and sodium-water retention as the outcome. These aspects are relevant to therapy....

  13. Effect of particle collisions and aggregation on red blood cell passage through a bifurcation. (United States)

    Chesnutt, J K W; Marshall, J S


    Blood flow through bifurcating vessels in the microvasculature leads to uneven distribution of red blood cells (RBC) in the downstream channels when the channels have different sizes or the flow rates through the channels are different. This phenomenon, known as plasma skimming, is responsible for the large variation in hematocrit throughout the circulatory system. Furthermore, the strong streamline curvature present within bifurcations leads to frequent collisions between the blood elements (red and white blood cells and platelets) and the vessel walls, as well as a rearrangement of the distribution of the blood elements in the channels downstream of the bifurcation. Computational models of bifurcation flows typically neglect collision and adhesion of RBCs with each other. In this paper, we use a new type of discrete-element model to investigate the effect of particle-particle collisions and RBC aggregation on modeling of plasma skimming in bifurcations. Cases are examined with and without RBC adhesion and for different hematocrit values, including validation against previous computational results. Results show significant plasma skimming in the low-flow daughter branch and an increase in fractional particle flux with increased hematocrit, as in experimental studies. Accounting for particle-particle collisions leads to a considerable increase in collision rate of particles with the vessel wall. Particles are found to approximately follow fluid velocity streamlines, and consequently particle-particle collisions and aggregation do not significantly affect plasma skimming.

  14. Calcification in Chronically-Implanted Blood Pumps: Experimental Results and Review of the Literature


    Turner, Stephen A.; Bossart, Mattie I.; Milam, John D.; Fuqua, John M.; Igo, Stephen R.; McGee, Michael G.; Frazier, O. Howard


    Blood compatibility is a major objective in the development of long-term, implantable circulatory assist (left ventricular assist devices) and replacement (total artificial heart) devices. An important problem in experimental studies in animals has been the propensity for calcification to occur at the blood/material interface. Presented is a summary of our experience (27 studies) with blood pump calcification and a review of the current literature regarding this complication.

  15. Favourable results of a new intraoperative and postoperative filtered autologous blood re-transfusion system in total hip arthroplasty : A randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horstmann, Wieger G.; Swierstra, Martzen J.; Ohanis, David; Rolink, Rob; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Verheyen, Cees C. P. M.


    A new intraoperative filtered salvaged blood re-transfusion system has been developed for primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) that filters and re-transfuses the blood that is lost during THA. This system is intended to increase postoperative haemoglobin (Hb) levels, reduce perioperative net blood l

  16. Excessive zinc intake increases systemic blood pressure and reduces renal blood flow via kidney angiotensin II in rats. (United States)

    Kasai, Miyoko; Miyazaki, Takashi; Takenaka, Tsuneo; Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiromichi


    This study investigated the effects of excess zinc intake on the mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal blood flow (RBF), inulin clearance (IC), serum zinc level, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity, and kidney angiotensin II (AT II) levels in rats. Experiments were performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats maintained for 4 weeks on a diet containing either 5 mg/100 g (control group), 50 mg/100 g (Zn50 group), or 200 mg/100 g (Zn200 group) zinc carbonate. Serum zinc levels significantly increased to 126.5 % in the Zn50 group and 198.1 % in the Zn200 group compared with controls. MAP significantly increased to 107.8 % in the Zn50 group and 114.5 % in the Zn200 group again compared with controls. Although the difference in serum ACE activity was independent of the serum zinc levels, the kidney AT II levels increased significantly to 137.2 % in the Zn50 group and 174.4 % in the Zn200 group compared with the controls. RBF was decreased significantly to 74.4 % in the Zn50 group and 69.7 % in the Zn200 group compared with the controls. IC values were significantly decreased to 69.6 % in the Zn50 group and 52.7 % in the Zn200 group as compared with control levels. Combined together, these results show that excessive Zn intake reduced IC and RBF and increased MAP and kidney AT II levels, suggesting that excessive Zn intake reduces renal function.

  17. Direct effect of cadmium on blood pressure and adrenergic system in the cat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revis, N.W.; Bingham, G.


    The dose-response effect of cadmium on systolic and diastolic pressure were measured in the cat after injecting a bolus of cadmium intravenously. In animals treated with 100, 125, or 150 ug cadmium/kg BW systolic and diastolic pressure were both significantly increased. These increases were gradual as the dose Cd was increased from 75 to 125 ug. In an attempt to determine the mechanism associated with cadmium-induced hypertension in the cat the effect of this element on the adrenergic system was studied. The effect of ..cap alpha.. and BETA agonists on cadmium-induced increase in blood pressure were determined by the injection of either propranolol or phentolamine at 20 mg/kg BW. The hypertensive effect of 125 ug Cd was abolished by phentolamine but not by propranolol suggesting, that Cd may induce the release of norepinephrine from storage sites. In support of this suggestion we observed in cats treated with 125 ug Cd a significant increase in plasma norepinephrine which was not affected by propranolol or phentolamine injections. However reserpine pretreatment abolished both the increase in plasma norepinephrine and the cadmium-induced hypertensive effect. The data suggest that the associated mechanism of cadmium-induced hypertension may be related to the effect of this element of the release of norepinephrine. Increases in the extracellular levels of this neurotransmitter in turn provokes a rise in blood pressure through its interaction with the receptors of vascular smooth muscle cells. 38 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  18. Decreasing vitamin premix on chicken carcass composition and blood chemistry in floor and battery cage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Shivazad


    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted the to compare the effect of a decreasing amount of vitamin premix in diets inbroilers from 29 to 42 days of age on carcass composition and blood chemistry in floor (Experiment 1 and battery cage (Experiment 2 systems. At 35 and 42 days of ages, one bird of each replicate was slaughtered and carcass composition was measured. Blood concentrations of alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Ca were used to diagnose vitamin D3 deficiency and enzymes aspartate amino transferase (AST to identify vitamin E deficiency. Floor raised birds showed that vitamin premix reduction/withdrawal at 29 days of age did not impair body weight (BW, carcass composition, ALP and Ca during the final rearing period. However, diet without vitamin premix (T1 had a higher AST at 42 days of age than the other diets. Birds reared in cages were slightly more sensitive to vitamin premix reduction/withdrawal, probably due to the impracticality of performing coprophagy. Diet without vitamin premix (T1 had a lower BW, carcass breast and thigh yield at 42 days of age; also serum ALP, AST and Ca were impaired. In conclusion, the withdrawal of vitamins is not a reasonable option but it is possible to reduce vitamin premix in finisher broilers’ diets without negative effects on performance and on some metabolic traits during the finisher period with both methods of rearing.

  19. Effects of diving and oxygen on autonomic nervous system and cerebral blood flow. (United States)

    Winklewski, Pawel J; Kot, Jacek; Frydrychowski, Andrzej F; Nuckowska, Magdalena K; Tkachenko, Yurii


    Recreational scuba diving is a popular leisure activity with the number of divers reaching several millions worldwide. Scuba diving represents a huge challenge for integrative physiology. In mammalian evolution, physiological reflexes developed to deal with lack of oxygen, rather than with an excess, which makes adaptations to scuba diving more difficult to describe and understand than those associated with breath-hold diving. The underwater environment significantly limits the use of equipment to register the organism's functions, so, in most instances, scientific theories are built on experiments that model real diving to some extent, like hyperbaric exposures, dive reflexes or water immersion. The aim of this review is to summarise the current knowledge related to the influence exerted by physiological conditions specific to diving on the autonomic nervous system and cerebral blood flow. The main factors regulating cerebral blood flow during scuba diving are discussed as follows: 1) increased oxygen partial pressure; 2) immersion-related trigemino-cardiac reflexes and 3) exposure to cold, exercise and stress. Also discussed are the potential mechanisms associated with immersion pulmonary oedema.

  20. Multicenter Systems Analysis of Human Blood Reveals Immature Neutrophils in Males and During Pregnancy (United States)

    Blazkova, Jana; Gupta, Sarthak; Liu, Yudong; Gaudilliere, Brice; Ganio, Edward A.; Bolen, Christopher R.; Saar-Dover, Ron; Fragiadakis, Gabriela K.; Angst, Martin S.; Hasni, Sarfaraz; Aghaeepour, Nima; Stevenson, David; Baldwin, Nicole; Anguiano, Esperanza; Chaussabel, Damien; Altman, Matthew C.; Kaplan, Mariana J.; Davis, Mark M.


    Despite clear differences in immune system responses and in the prevalence of autoimmune diseases between males and females, there is little understanding of the processes involved. In this study, we identified a gene signature of immature-like neutrophils, characterized by the overexpression of genes encoding for several granule-containing proteins, which was found at higher levels (up to 3-fold) in young (20–30 y old) but not older (60 to >89 y old) males compared with females. Functional and phenotypic characterization of peripheral blood neutrophils revealed more mature and responsive neutrophils in young females, which also exhibited an elevated capacity in neutrophil extracellular trap formation at baseline and upon microbial or sterile autoimmune stimuli. The expression levels of the immature-like neutrophil signature increased linearly with pregnancy, an immune state of increased susceptibility to certain infections. Using mass cytometry, we also find increased frequencies of immature forms of neutrophils in the blood of women during late pregnancy. Thus, our findings show novel sex differences in innate immunity and identify a common neutrophil signature in males and in pregnant women. PMID:28179497

  1. Normal and system lupus erythematosus red blood cell interactions studied by double trap optical tweezers: direct measurements of aggregation forces (United States)

    Khokhlova, Maria D.; Lyubin, Eugeny V.; Zhdanov, Alexander G.; Rykova, Sophia Yu.; Sokolova, Irina A.; Fedyanin, Andrey A.


    Direct measurements of aggregation forces in piconewton range between two red blood cells in pair rouleau are performed under physiological conditions using double trap optical tweezers. Aggregation and disaggregation properties of healthy and pathologic (system lupus erythematosis) blood samples are analyzed. Strong difference in aggregation speed and behavior is revealed using the offered method which is proposed to be a promising tool for SLE monitoring at single cell level.

  2. Application of mobile blood purification system in the treatment of acute renal failure dog model in the field environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-min ZHANG


    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the stability, safety and efficacy of mobile blood purification system in the treatment of acute renal failure dog model in the field environment. Methods The acute renal failure model was established in 4 dogs by bilateral nephrectomy, which was thereafter treated with the mobile blood purification system. The evaluation of functional index of the mobile blood purification system was performed after a short-time (2 hours and conventional (4 hours dialysis treatment. Results The mobile blood purification system ran stably in the field environment at a blood flow of 150-180ml/min, a dialysate velocity of 2000ml/h, a replacement fluid velocity of 2000ml/h, and ultrafiltration rate of 100-200ml/h. All the functions of alarming system worked well, including static upper limit alarm of ultrafiltration pressure (>100 mmHg, upper limit alarm of ambulatory arterial pressure (>400mmHg, upper limit alarm of ambulatory venous pressure (>400mmHg, bubble alarm of vascular access, bubble alarm during the infusion of solutions, pressure alarm at the substitution pump segment and blood leaking alarm. The vital signs of the 4 dogs with acute renal failure kept stable during the treatment. After the treatment, a remarkable decrease was seen in the levels of serum urea nitrogen, creatinine and serum potassium (P0.05. Conclusions The mobile blood purification system runs normally even in a field environment. It is a flexible and portable device with a great performance in safety and stability in the treatment of acute renal failure. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.12.15

  3. Association of gene polymorphisms in RANKL/RANK/OPG system with hypertension and blood pressure in Chinese women. (United States)

    Duan, P; Wang, Z-M; Liu, J; Wang, L-N; Yang, Z; Tu, P


    Recent studies have revealed that the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand/RANK/osteoprotegerin (RANKL/RANK/OPG) system has an important role in vascular calcification, which is contributory to various cardiovascular diseases and intimately linked to the regulation of blood pressure. Therefore, we performed a case-control study to investigate the associations of 21 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TNFSF11, TNFRSF11A and TNFRSF11B genes in the RANKL/RANK/OPG system with hypertension and blood pressure in post-menopausal Chinese women. In this study, 503 hypertensive patients and 509 normal controls were recruited. Genotyping was performed using the high-throughput Sequenom genotyping platform. The results showed that two SNPs (rs6567270 and rs4603673) in the TNFRSF11A were associated with hypertension (P=0.010 and P=0.013, respectively) and systolic blood pressure (P=0.024 and P=0.023, respectively). One SNP (rs9646629) in the TNFRSF11A showed significant association with diastolic blood pressure (P=0.031). The results of this study suggest that TNFRSF11A but not TNFSF11 and TNFRSF11B genetic variation is associated with hypertension and blood pressure in Chinese women. The findings provide additional support for the genetic role of RANKL/RANK/OPG system in hypertension and blood pressure regulation.

  4. Improved Blood Pressure Control Using an Interactive Mobile Phone Support System. (United States)

    Bengtsson, Ulrika; Kjellgren, Karin; Hallberg, Inger; Lindwall, Magnus; Taft, Charles


    This explorative, longitudinal study evaluated the effect of the daily use of a mobile phone-based self-management support system for hypertension in reducing blood pressure (BP) among 50 primary care patients with hypertension over 8 weeks. The self-management system comprises modules for (1) self-reports of BP, pulse, lifestyle, symptoms, and well-being; (2) delivery of reminders and encouragements; and (3) graphical feedback of self-reports. Daily use of the support system significantly reduced BP (systolic BP -7 mm Hg, diastolic BP -4.9 mm Hg) between baseline and week 8, with daily improvements leveling off as the study progressed. Three homogenous subsets of patients were identified who, despite different initial BP levels, showed similar decreases in BP during the study, indicating that patients benefited irrespective of baseline BP. In showing significant reductions in BP, our results suggest that the self-management support system may be a useful tool in clinical practice to help patients self-manage their hypertension.

  5. Dynamic expression of leukocyte innate immune genes in whole blood from horses with lipopolysaccharide-induced acute systemic inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Anne Mette L.; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Heegaard, Peter M. H.;


    inflammation was induced in 6 adult horses by the intravenous injection of 1 mu g lipopolysaccharide (LPS) per kg btw. Sixteen blood samples were collected for each horse at predetermined intervals and analyzed by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR. Post-induction expression levels for each gene......) and sepsis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the expression of 31 selected blood leukocyte immune genes in an equine model of acute systemic inflammation to identify significantly regulated genes and to describe their expression dynamics during a 24-h experimental period. Systemic...... expressions in blood leukocytes during equine acute LPS-induced systemic inflammation thoroughly characterized a highly regulated and dynamic innate immune response. These results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of equine systemic inflammation....

  6. In vivo measurement of hemodynamic information in stenosed rat blood vessels using X-ray PIV (United States)

    Park, Hanwook; Park, Jun Hong; Lee, Sang Joon


    Measurements of the hemodynamic information of blood flows, especially wall shear stress (WSS), in animal models with circulatory vascular diseases (CVDs) are important to understand the pathological mechanism of CVDs. In this study, X-ray particle image velocimetry (PIV) with high spatial resolution was applied to obtain velocity field information in stenosed blood vessels with high WSS. 3D clips fabricated with a 3D printer were applied to the abdominal aorta of a rat cadaver to induce artificial stenosis in the real blood vessel of an animal model. The velocity and WSS information of blood flows in the stenosed vessel were obtained and compared at various stenosis severities. In vivo measurement was also conducted by fastening a stenotic clip on a live rat model through surgical intervention to reduce the flow rate to match the limited temporal resolution of the present X-ray PIV system. Further improvement of the temporal resolution of the system might be able to provide in vivo measurements of hemodynamic information from animal disease models under physiological conditions. The present results would be helpful for understanding the relation between hemodynamic characteristics and the pathological mechanism in animal CVD models.

  7. An upgraded camera-based imaging system for mapping venous blood oxygenation in human skin tissue (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Xiao; Qiu, Lina; Leotta, Daniel F.


    A camera-based imaging system was previously developed for mapping venous blood oxygenation in human skin. However, several limitations were realized in later applications, which could lead to either significant bias in the estimated oxygen saturation value or poor spatial resolution in the map of the oxygen saturation. To overcome these issues, an upgraded system was developed using improved modeling and image processing algorithms. In the modeling, Monte Carlo (MC) simulation was used to verify the effectiveness of the ratio-to-ratio method for semi-infinite and two-layer skin models, and then the relationship between the venous oxygen saturation and the ratio-to-ratio was determined. The improved image processing algorithms included surface curvature correction and motion compensation. The curvature correction is necessary when the imaged skin surface is uneven. The motion compensation is critical for the imaging system because surface motion is inevitable when the venous volume alteration is induced by cuff inflation. In addition to the modeling and image processing algorithms in the upgraded system, a ring light guide was used to achieve perpendicular and uniform incidence of light. Cross-polarization detection was also adopted to suppress surface specular reflection. The upgraded system was applied to mapping of venous oxygen saturation in the palm, opisthenar and forearm of human subjects. The spatial resolution of the oxygenation map achieved is much better than that of the original system. In addition, the mean values of the venous oxygen saturation for the three locations were verified with a commercial near-infrared spectroscopy system and were consistent with previously published data.

  8. Efficacy of drainage blood reinfusion in early postoperative period after total hip arthroplasty in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N B Shelokova


    Full Text Available To study effect of drainage blood reinfusion in early postoperative period (EPP after total hip arthroplasty (THA in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Material and methods. Primary THA was performed in 51 RA pts with hip damage (49 female, 2 male aged from 26 to 68 years. 42 THA were performed with “Endosystems and Implants” (ESI endoprosthesis, and 21 — with “Mathys” endoprosthesis. The pts were divided into two groups. Standard infusion-transfusion therapy with donor blood components was performed in group 1 pts (n=26 to compensate blood loss in EPP. In group 2 pts (n=25 drainage blood reinfusion was done with active aspiration system Handy Vac TM ATS (Unomedical. Group 1 pts had more prominent circulatory and neurologic disturbances in EPP: hypodynamic variant of circulation with elevation of peripheral vascular resistance till 5-7 day of postoperative period, prominent hypersympathicotonia and a large number of posttransfusion reactions. Evaluation of hemodynamic and vegetative disturbances showed advantage of blood loss compensation and vegetative disturbances normalization with drainage blood reinfusion in EPP after THA in comparison with standard pts management.

  9. Collaborative Processing of Wearable and Ambient Sensor System for Blood Pressure Monitoring (United States)

    Nakamura, Masayuki; Nakamura, Jiro; Lopez, Guillaume; Shuzo, Masaki; Yamada, Ichiro


    This paper describes wireless wearable and ambient sensors that cooperate to monitor a person’s vital signs such as heart rate and blood pressure during daily activities. Each wearable sensor is attached on different parts of the body. The wearable sensors require a high sampling rate and time synchronization to provide a precise analysis of the received signals. The trigger signal for synchronization is provided by the ambient sensors, which detect the user’s presence. The Bluetooth and IEEE 802.15.4 wireless technologies are used for real-time sensing and time synchronization. Thus, this wearable health-monitoring sensor response is closely related to the context in which it is being used. Experimental results indicate that the system simultaneously provides information about the user’s location and vital signs, and the synchronized wearable sensors successfully measures vital signs with a 1 ms resolution. PMID:22163984

  10. Collaborative Processing of Wearable and Ambient Sensor System for Blood Pressure Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Yamada


    Full Text Available This paper describes wireless wearable and ambient sensors that cooperate to monitor a person’s vital signs such as heart rate and blood pressure during daily activities. Each wearable sensor is attached on different parts of the body. The wearable sensors require a high sampling rate and time synchronization to provide a precise analysis of the received signals. The trigger signal for synchronization is provided by the ambient sensors, which detect the user’s presence. The Bluetooth and IEEE 802.15.4 wireless technologies are used for real-time sensing and time synchronization. Thus, this wearable health-monitoring sensor response is closely related to the context in which it is being used. Experimental results indicate that the system simultaneously provides information about the user’s location and vital signs, and the synchronized wearable sensors successfully measures vital signs with a 1 ms resolution.

  11. Fast renal trapping of porcine Luteinizing Hormone (pLH shown by 123I-scintigraphic imaging in rats explains its short circulatory half-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locatelli Alain


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugar moieties of gonadotropins play no primary role in receptor binding but they strongly affect their circulatory half-life and consequently their in vivo biopotencies. In order to relate more precisely hepatic trapping of these glycoproteic hormones with their circulatory half-life, we undertook a comparative study of the distribution and elimination of porcine LH (pLH and equine CG (eCG which exhibit respectively a short and a long half-life. This was done first by following half-lives of pLH in piglets with hepatic portal circulation shunted or not. It was expected that such a shunt would enhance the short half-life of pLH. Subsequently, scintigraphic imaging of both 123I-pLH and 123I-eCG was performed in intact rats to compare their routes and rates of distribution and elimination. Methods Native pLH or eCG was injected to normal piglets and pLH was tested in liver-shunted anæsthetized piglet. Blood samples were recovered sequentially over one hour time and the hormone concentrations were determined by a specific ELISA method. Scintigraphic imaging of 123I-pLH and 123I-eCG was performed in rats using a OPTI-CGR gamma camera. Results In liver-shunted piglets, the half-life of pLH was found to be as short as in intact piglets (5 min. In the rat, the half-life of pLH was also found to be very short (3–6 min and 123I-pLH was found to accumulate in high quantity in less than 10 min post injection at the level of kidneys but not in the liver. 123I-eCG didn't accumulate in any organ in the rats during the first hour, plasma concentrations of this gonadotropin being still elevated (80% at this time. Conclusion In both the porcine and rat species, the liver is not responsible for the rapid elimination of pLH from the circulation compared to eCG. Our scintigraphic experiments suggest that the very short circulatory half-life of LH is due to rapid renal trapping.

  12. Effect of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system gene polymorphisms on blood pressure response to antihypertensive treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiao; SHENG Hai-hui; LIN Gang; LI Jian; LU Xin-zheng; CHENG Yun-lin; HUANG Jun; XIAO Hua-sheng; ZHAN Yi-yang


    Background The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is important for the development of essential hypertension, and many antihypertensive drugs target it. This study was undertaken to determine whether polymorphisms in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are related to the blood pressure (BP) response to diuretic treatment in a Chinese Han ethnic population.Methods Fifty-four patients with essential hypertension received hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg, once daily) as monotherapy for four weeks. Seven polymorphisms in RAAS genes were genotyped by gene chip technology. The relationship between these polymorphisms and the change in blood pressure was observed after the 4-week treatment.Results The patients with angiotensinogen (AGT) -6G allele showed a greater reduction in diastolic BP (P= 0.025) and mean BP (P=0.039) than those carrying AA genotype. Patients carrying aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) CC genotype exhibited a greater BP reduction than those carrying CT and TT genotypes (systolic BP: P= 0.030; diastolic BP: P= 0.026; mean BP: P=0.003). In addition, patients with a combination of CYP11B2 CC genotype and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) D allele might have a more pronounced reduction of systolic BP than those with any other genotypic combinations of the two genes (P= 0.007).Conclusions AGT-6G allele, CYP11B2 -344CC genotype and its combination with ACE D allele are associated with BP response to hydrochlorothiazide treatment. Larger studies are warranted to validate this finding.

  13. Blood coagulation parameters and activity indices in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Arshinov


    Full Text Available Objective. To assess coagulation parameters and activity indices in pts with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Material and methods . 86 pts with SLE (83 female and 3 male were examined. 12 of them had antiphospholipid syndrome. Mean age was 35,9±1,5 years (from 18 to 58 years, mean disease duration was 9,8+1,4 years. Control group consisted of 60 healthy volunteers with mean age 37,1+4,1 years. SLE activity assessment was performed with SLAM, SLEDAI and ECLAM indices. Results. SLE pts showed 5-fold (p<0,01 increase of spontaneous platelets aggregation and more than 3-fold increase of factor von Willebrand antigen (FWA concentration. Platelet activation in pts was accompanied by decrease of platelet aggregation with collagen (on 27%, p<0,01. Characteristic sign of coagulation hemostasis activation was significant increase of soluble fibrin-monomer complexes (SFMC concentration on 81 % (p<0,01 so as increase D-dimers level in 53,3% of pts. Fibrinogen concentration was increased on 29%, spontaneous fibrinolysis parameters were decreased on 20%, antithrombin (AT 111 - on 21% in comparison with control. Direct correlation between activity indiccs and SFMC(ECLAM, r=0,5, fibrinogen concentration (SLAM, r=0,34, D- dimers level (ECLAM, r=0,5, spontaneous platelet aggregation (ECLAM, r=0,5 so as inverse correlation with AT III activity (SLEDAI, r-0,73 was revealed. Conclusion. Changes of hemostasis parameters in SLE may serve as predictors of thrombotic disorders development and indication to drug correction of blood coagulation disorders. Direct correlation between blood coagulation system activity and indices of SLE activity.

  14. Closed system generation of dendritic cells from a single blood volume for clinical application in immunotherapy. (United States)

    Elias, M; van Zanten, J; Hospers, G A P; Setroikromo, A; de Jong, M A; de Leij, L F M H; Mulder, N H


    Dendritic cells (DC) used for clinical trials should be processed on a large scale conforming to current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) guidelines. The aim of this study was to develop a protocol for clinical grade generation of immature DC in a closed-system. Aphereses were performed with the Cobe Spectra continuous flow cell separator and material was derived from one volume of blood processed. Optimisation of a 3-phase collection autoPBSC technique significantly improved the quality of the initial mononuclear cell (MNC) product. Monocytes were then enriched from MNC by immunomagnetic depletion of CD19+ B cells and CD2+ T cells and partial depletion of NK cells using the Isolex 300I Magnetic cell selector. The quality of the initial mononuclear cell product was found to determine the outcome of monocyte enrichment. Enriched monocytes were cultured in Opticyte gas-permeable containers using CellGro serum-free medium supplemented with GM-CSF and IL-4 to generate immature DC. A seeding concentration of 1 x 10(6) was found optimal in terms of DC phenotype expression, monocyte percentage in culture, and cell viability. The differentiation pattern favours day 7 for harvest of immature DC. DC recovery, viability, as well as phenotype expression after cryopreservation of immature DC was considered in this study. DC were induced to maturation and evaluated in FACS analysis for phenotype expression and proliferation assays. Mature DC were able to generate an allogeneic T-cell response as well as an anti-CMV response as detected by proliferation assays. These data indicate that the described large-scale GMP-compatible system results in the generation of stable DC derived from one volume of blood processed, which are qualitatively and quantitatively sufficient for clinical application in immunotherapeutic protocols.

  15. Role of blood cholesterol transport system disturbances in atherosclerosis development in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Popkova


    Full Text Available Objective. To study role of inflammation and disturbances of blood cholesterol transport system in atherosclerotic damage development in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Material and methods. 84 RA pts with mean age 48 years and mean disease duration 87 months were included. Control group consisted of 15 humans of comparable age and sex without rheumatic diseases. Carotid sonographic scanning was performed to reveal vascular atherosclerotic damage. Cholesterol (CL, triglycerides (TG and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC serum levels were evaluated with colorimetric and photometric methods, CRP, apoAl and LP(a levels were assessed by immunonephelometric method. Results. Dyslipidemia (DLP frequency analysis showed differences only for LP(a. Increase of LP(a and TG concentrations in RA was more frequent than in control. CL and HDLC levels did not differ. Intima-media complex (IMC thickness in RA and control was the same. Atherosclerotic plaques (AP in RA were more frequent. RA pts showed negative correlation between IMC thickness and HDLC, as well as between HDLC values, apoAl and CRP. LP(a level correlated with DAS4. There was no association between concentrations of CL, TG, HDLC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC, apo В and Al, LP(a and extra-articular RA features and glucocorticoid administration. In pts with high LP(a level AP were more frequent, activity of RA, apo B, LDLC levels were higher than in pts with normal level of this LP. LP(a values in pts with AP were higher than in pts without AP (p<0,05. Conclusion. Chronic inflammation in RA plays an important role in disturbances in blood cholesterol transport system. LP(a level increase is a risk factor of atherosclerotic vascular damage.

  16. Capillary and venous Babesia canis rossi parasitaemias and their association with outcome of infection and circulatory compromise. (United States)

    Böhm, Marlies; Leisewitz, Andrew L; Thompson, Peter N; Schoeman, Johannes P


    This observational study of 100 dogs naturally infected with Babesia canis rossi determined whether severity of parasitaemia was associated with outcome of infection and documented the relative distribution of parasitised red blood cells (pRBC) in capillary and venous circulation. The association between increased parasitaemias and outcome with a clinically compromised circulation was also investigated. Outcome was defined as either hospitalisation with death, or hospitalisation with eventual recovery or treatment as an outpatient. Dogs were enrolled if large babesias were found on stained thin capillary blood smears made from an ear prick. Thin venous smears were prepared from jugular or cephalic blood. Parasitaemias were manually counted and expressed as the percent pRBC. Ten dogs died, 50 recovered after hospitalisation and 40 were treated as outpatients. Venous sampling site did not affect venous parasitaemia (P=0.6). Both capillary and venous parasitaemias of dogs that died were significantly higher than those of dogs that recovered after hospitalisation (P=0.002) and dogs that were treated as outpatients (P<0.0001). When assessing the whole group, capillary parasitaemia (median 0.61%, range <0.05-71.6%, interquartile range (IQR) 0.22-3.75%) was significantly higher than venous parasitaemia (median 0.14%, range 0-30.6%, IQR 0.046-0.52%) with P<0.0001. The 21 dogs with a clinically compromised circulation were more likely to die (P<0.0001) and had significantly higher capillary (median 5.98%, range 0.09-71.6%, IQR 2.44-19.41%) and venous (median 2.81%, range <0.05-30.6%, IQR 0.17-9.03%) parasitaemias than the 79 dogs with a clinically normal circulation (capillary median parasitaemia 0.38%, range <0.05-12.87%, IQR 0.16-1.42%; venous median parasitaemia 0.096%, range 0-6.13%, IQR <0.05-0.33%; P<0.0001). This study shows that high parasitaemia is significantly associated with death in B c rossi infected dogs. The previous clinical suspicion that capillary

  17. Possible involvement of cationic-drug sensitive transport systems in the blood-to-brain influx and brain-to-blood efflux of amantadine across the blood-brain barrier. (United States)

    Suzuki, Toyofumi; Fukami, Toshiro; Tomono, Kazuo


    The purpose of this study was to characterize the brain-to-blood efflux transport of amantadine across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The apparent in vivo efflux rate constant for [(3) H]amantadine from the rat brain (keff ) was found to be 1.53 × 10(-2) min(-1) after intracerebral microinjection using the brain efflux index method. The efflux of [(3) H]amantadine was inhibited by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+) ), a cationic neurotoxin, suggesting that amantadine transport from the brain to the blood across the BBB potentially involves the rat plasma membrane monoamine transporter (rPMAT). On the other hand, other selected substrates for organic cation transporters (OCTs) and organic anion transporters (OATs), as well as inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), did not affect the efflux transport of [(3) H]amantadine. In addition, in vitro studies using an immortalized rat brain endothelial cell line (GPNT) showed that the uptake and retention of [(3) H]amantadine by the cells was not changed by the addition of cyclosporin, which is an inhibitor of P-gp. However, cyclosporin affected the uptake and retention of rhodamine123. Finally, the initial brain uptake of [(3) H]amantadine was determined using an in situ mouse brain perfusion technique. Notably, the brain uptake clearance for [(3) H]amantadine was significantly decreased with the co-perfusion of quinidine or verapamil, which are cationic P-gp inhibitors, while MPP(+) did not have a significant effect. It is thus concluded that while P-gp is not involved, it is possible that rPMAT and the cationic drug-sensitive transport system participate in the brain-to-blood efflux and the blood-to-brain influx of amantadine across the BBB, respectively.

  18. Fetal rat metabonome alteration by prenatal caffeine ingestion probably due to the increased circulatory glucocorticoid level and altered peripheral glucose and lipid metabolic pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yansong [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Xu, Dan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Feng, Jianghua, E-mail: [Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Department of Electronic Science, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Kou, Hao; Liang, Gai [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Yu, Hong; He, Xiaohua; Zhang, Baifang; Chen, Liaobin [Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Wang, Hui, E-mail: [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China)


    The aims of this study were to clarify the metabonome alteration in fetal rats after prenatal caffeine ingestion and to explore the underlying mechanism pertaining to the increased fetal circulatory glucocorticoid (GC). Pregnant Wistar rats were daily intragastrically administered with different doses of caffeine (0, 20, 60 and 180 mg/kg) from gestational days (GD) 11 to 20. Metabonome of fetal plasma and amniotic fluid on GD20 were analyzed by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics. Gene and protein expressions involved in the GC metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolic pathways in fetal liver and gastrocnemius were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Fetal plasma metabonome were significantly altered by caffeine, which presents as the elevated α- and β‐glucose, reduced multiple lipid contents, varied apolipoprotein contents and increased levels of a number of amino acids. The metabonome of amniotic fluids showed a similar change as that in fetal plasma. Furthermore, the expressions of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD-2) were decreased, while the level of blood GC and the expressions of 11β-HSD-1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) were increased in fetal liver and gastrocnemius. Meanwhile, the expressions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-1 receptor and insulin receptor were decreased, while the expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, leptin receptors and AMP-activated protein kinase α2 were increased after caffeine treatment. Prenatal caffeine ingestion characteristically change the fetal metabonome, which is probably attributed to the alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic pathways induced by increased circulatory GC, activated GC metabolism and enhanced GR expression in peripheral metabolic tissues. -- Highlights: ► Prenatal caffeine ingestion altered the metabonome of IUGR fetal rats. ► Caffeine altered the glucose and lipid metabolic pathways of IUGR fetal rats. ► Prenatal caffeine

  19. [Coronary artery blood flow velocity non-invasively measured using a vessel-tracking pulsed Doppler system]. (United States)

    Tateishi, O; Aizawa, O; Okamura, T; Yoshida, T; Furuhata, H; Seo, Y; Iinuma, K; Shiki, E


    A newly-developed noninvasive method was used to measure left coronary blood flow during phantom experiments. Two techniques were used in which: (1) the sample position can always be set in a fluctuating vessel using a wall echo-tracking method with a phase-locked-loop, and (2) the Doppler reference signal was generated separately synchronous with the wall echo signal. These techniques were combined, using a commercially available pulsed Doppler apparatus (SSH-40B: Toshiba). Basic experiments were performed using a blood vessel phantom to verify the validity of these systems. Blood flow velocity in the fluctuating tube could be measured clearly using a vessel-tracking method. The blood flow velocity of the left anterior descending artery was measured in three normal subjects and in seven patients from the third intercostal space along the left sternal border. The velocity pattern was characterized by a crescendo-decrescendo shape in diastole. The peak velocity which appeared in diastole ranged from 19 to 69 cm/sec, with no difference by disease entity. However, in all cases, the blood flow velocity signals were marred by extraneous signals, making it impossible to measure blood flow velocity during systole. Further improvement of the system is mandatory in order to use this flowmeter clinically.

  20. The Blood Quality Monitoring Network System's Role in the Safety of Blood Transfusion%血液质量监测网络体系在输血安全中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡秀兰; 田志彬; 李忠杰; 玄红霞; 陈书芳


    目的探寻建立血站血液质量监测网络体系,确保血液质量与安全。方法对献血者献血前的血液标本进行初筛,对采血场所、关键原辅材料、关键设备进行质量控制,同时加强采后血液的质量监测以及各供血库的监测。结果比较质量监测网络体系建立前后血液质量情况,发现血液质量监测网络体系建立后血液质量有明显提高。结论建立完整有效、安全的血液质量监测网络体系,对血液的采集、检验、保存、运送和使用等多个环节进行血液质量监测,监控血液"从血管到血管"的全过程,确保献血者、用血者身体健康和生命安全。%Objective To explore the establishment of a blood bank blood quality monitoring network system to ensure the quality and safety of blood. Methods for screening blood donors before blood samples, blood col ection establishments, the key raw materials, key equipment for quality control quality, while strengthening the postharvest quality monitoring of blood as wel as monitoring for blood banks. Results the comparative quality monitoring network system to establish the quality of blood before and after situation, significantly improved blood quality monitoring network system to establish the quality of blood. Conclusions to establish a complete and ef ective, safe blood quality monitoring network system for blood col ection, testing, preservation, transportation and use of other aspects of the blood quality monitoring, monitoring of blood"from the blood vessels to the blood vessels,"the whole process to ensure donors with blood by the health and safety of life.

  1. Lactate versus pH levels in fetal scalp blood during labor - using the Lactate Scout System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, Christina; Perslev, Anette; Nickelsen, Carsten


    (ABL), (2) the correlation between lactate and pH measured in scalp blood and (3) the correlation between fetal scalp lactate and umbilical cord SBE. The sensitivity/specificity and positive/negative predictive values of lactate in predicting low pH were analyzed and expressed as Receiver Operating......OBJECTIVE: To assess if lactate measured with the Scout Lactate System is a reliable alternative to pH in intrapartum monitoring of the fetus. METHODS: A prospective study analyzing (1) the correlation between scalp lactate measured by the Scout Lactate System and the Automatic Blood Laboratory...... Curves (ROC). RESULTS: Lactate measured by the Scout Lactate System and the ABL correlated well (r(2 )= 0.85). Both lactate and pH were measured in 1009 scalp blood samples. The sensitivity and specificity of lactate ≥4.8 mmol/l in predicting a pH

  2. Mesoscale simulations of two model systems in biophysics: from red blood cells to DNAs (United States)

    Peng, Zhangli; Chen, Yeng-Long; Lu, Huijie; Pan, Zehao; Chang, Hsueh-Chia


    Computational modeling has become increasingly important in biophysics, but the great challenge in numerical simulations due to the multiscale feature of biological systems limits the capability of modeling in making discoveries in biology. Innovative multiscale modeling approaches are desired to bridge different scales from nucleic acids and proteins to cells and tissues. Although all-atom molecular dynamics has been successfully applied in many microscale biological processes such as protein folding, it is still prohibitively expensive for studying macroscale problems such as biophysics of cells and tissues. On the other hand, continuum-based modeling has become a mature procedure for analysis and design in many engineering fields, but new insights for biological systems in the microscale are limited when molecular details are missing in continuum-based modeling. In this context, mesoscale modeling approaches such as Langevin dynamics, lattice Boltzmann method, and dissipative particle dynamics have become popular by simultaneously incorporating molecular interactions and long-range hydrodynamic interactions, providing insights to properties on longer time and length scales than molecular dynamics. In this review, we summarized several mesoscale simulation approaches for studying two model systems in biophysics: red blood cells (RBCs) and deoxyribonucleic acids (DNAs). The RBC is a model system for cell mechanics and biological membranes, while the DNA represents a model system for biopolymers. We introduced the motivations of studying these problems and presented the key features of different mesoscale methods. Furthermore, we described the latest progresses in these methods and highlighted the major findings for modeling RBCs and DNAs. Finally, we also discussed the challenges and potential issues of different approaches.

  3. Neurological and circulatory outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in progress: influence of pre-arrest and arrest factors. (United States)

    Jørgensen, E O


    Possible correlations between the circulatory and neurological responses to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and the influence of pre-arrest factors (demographic data, medical history and aetiology of circulatory arrest) and arrest factors (location of arrest, ECG configurations, and duration of resuscitation) on the course of circulatory and neurological recovery were investigated in 111 victims of circulatory arrest. At the start of resuscitation 57 patients (Group I) had some brain function and 54 (Group II) had no brain function. Sixty nine patients (62%) had circulation restored but 54 (78%) were left with heart failure. Forty one patients (39%) survived the first day, 26 (63%) with heart failure; only 34 (31%) were alive after 48 h, 17 (50%) with heart failure. Half of the patients surviving 24 or 48 h had awakened. Consciousness returned in 32 patients (29%) during the first 48 h, more frequently in Group I than in Group II. Patients in Group I had a higher incidence of in-hospital arrest and had their circulation restored more often than those in Group II. Survival and post-resuscitation heart failure was alike in the groups. The pre-arrest factors explored did not modify the circulatory or neurological outcome whereas initial ventricular fibrillation was significantly related to recovery of consciousness. The revivability of spontaneous circulation and of neurological functions was found thus mainly to be determined by global ischaemia sustained prior to and during CPR.

  4. Effects of fluid restriction on measures of circulatory efficacy in adults with septic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortrup, P. B.; Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn


    , highest dose of noradrenaline, and the urinary output were recorded in five time frames in the first 24 h after randomisation. We used multiple linear mixed effects models to compare the two groups. RESULTS: We included all 151 randomised patients; the cumulated fluid resuscitation volume in the first 24......BACKGROUND: The haemodynamic consequences of fluid resuscitation in septic shock have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we assessed circulatory effects in the first 24 h of restriction of resuscitation fluid as compared to standard care in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with septic shock...

  5. The abundance and organization of polypeptides associated with antigens of the Rh blood group system. (United States)

    Gardner, B; Anstee, D J; Mawby, W J; Tanner, M J; von dem Borne, A E


    Twelve murine monoclonal antibodies, which react with human red cells of common Rh phenotype but give weak or negative reactions with Rh null erythrocytes, were used in quantitative binding assays and competitive binding assays to investigate the abundance and organization of polypeptides involved in the expression of antigens of the Rh blood group system. Antibodies of the R6A-type (R6A, BRIC-69, BRIC-207) and the 2D10-type (MB-2D10, LA18.18, LA23.40) recognize related structures and 100,000-200,000 molecules of each antibody bind maximally to erythrocytes of common Rh phenotype. Antibodies of the BRIC-125 type (BRICs 32, 122, 125, 126, 168, 211) recognize structures that are unrelated to those recognized by R6A-type and 2D10-type antibodies and between 10,000 and 50,000 antibody molecules bind maximally to erythrocytes of the common Rh phenotype. The binding of antibodies of the R6A-type and the 2D10-type, but not of antibodies of the BRIC-125-type could be partially inhibited by human anti-D antibodies (polyclonal and monoclonal) and a murine anti-e-like antibody. These results are consistent with evidence (Moore & Green 1987; Avent et al., 1988b) that the Rh blood group antigens are associated with a complex that comprises two groups of related polypeptides of M(r) 30,000 and M(r) 35,000-100,000, respectively, and suggest that there are 1-2 x 10(5) copies of this complex per erythrocyte. The polypeptide recognized by antibodies of the BRIC-125 type is likely to be associated with this complex.

  6. Noninvasive pulsatile flow estimation for an implantable rotary blood pump. (United States)

    Karantonis, Dean M; Cloherty, Shaun L; Mason, David G; Ayre, Peter J; Lovell, Nigel H


    A noninvasive approach to the task of pulsatile flow estimation in an implantable rotary blood pump (iRBP) has been proposed. Employing six fluid solutions representing a range of viscosities equivalent to 20-50% blood hematocrit (HCT), pulsatile flow data was acquired from an in vitro mock circulatory loop. The entire operating range of the pump was examined, including flows from -2 to 12 L/min. Taking the pump feedback signals of speed and power, together with the HCT level, as input parameters, several flow estimate models were developed via system identification methods. Three autoregressive with exogenous input (ARX) model structures were evaluated: structures I and II used the input parameters directly; structure II incorporated additional terms for HCT; and the third structure employed as input a non-pulsatile flow estimate equation. Optimal model orders were determined, and the associated models yielded minimum mean flow errors of 5.49% and 0.258 L/min for structure II, and 5.77% and 0.270 L/min for structure III, when validated on unseen data. The models developed in this study present a practical method of accurately estimating iRBP flow in a pulsatile environment.

  7. Multi-channel medical imaging system (United States)

    Frangioni, John V.


    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and fluorescent images. The system may employ dyes in a small-molecule form that remain in a subject's blood stream for several minutes, allowing real-time imaging of the subject's circulatory system superimposed upon a conventional, visible light image of the subject. The system may provide an excitation light source to excite the fluorescent substance and a visible light source for general illumination within the same optical guide used to capture images. The system may be configured for use in open surgical procedures by providing an operating area that is closed to ambient light. The systems described herein provide two or more diagnostic imaging channels for capture of multiple, concurrent diagnostic images and may be used where a visible light image may be usefully supplemented by two or more images that are independently marked for functional interest.

  8. Multi-channel medical imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frangioni, John V.


    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and fluorescent images. The system may employ dyes in a small-molecule form that remain in a subject's blood stream for several minutes, allowing real-time imaging of the subject's circulatory system superimposed upon a conventional, visible light image of the subject. The system may provide an excitation light source to excite the fluorescent substance and a visible light source for general illumination within the same optical guide used to capture images. The system may be configured for use in open surgical procedures by providing an operating area that is closed to ambient light. The systems described herein provide two or more diagnostic imaging channels for capture of multiple, concurrent diagnostic images and may be used where a visible light image may be usefully supplemented by two or more images that are independently marked for functional interest.

  9. Multi-channel medical imaging system (United States)

    Frangioni, John V


    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and fluorescent images. The system may employ dyes in a small-molecule form that remain in the subject's blood stream for several minutes, allowing real-time imaging of the subject's circulatory system superimposed upon a conventional, visible light image of the subject. The system may provide an excitation light source to excite the fluorescent substance and a visible light source for general illumination within the same optical guide used to capture images. The system may be configured for use in open surgical procedures by providing an operating area that is closed to ambient light. The systems described herein provide two or more diagnostic imaging channels for capture of multiple, concurrent diagnostic images and may be used where a visible light image may be usefully supplemented by two or more images that are independently marked for functional interest.

  10. An extract of a formula used in the traditional chinese medicine (Buzhong Yi Qi Wan) alters the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giani, Tania Santos; Paoli, Severo de; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias da Saude]. E-mail:; Presta, Giuseppe Antonio; Maiworm, Adalgisa Ieda; Santos Filho, Sebastiao David; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Lab. de Radiofarmacia Experimental; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Basica


    Buzhong Yi Qi Wan (Buzhong) is a medicinal herb widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat the digestive and circulatory systems. Red blood cell and plasma proteins labeled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) are used in nuclear medicine. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of an aqueous Buzhong extract on the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc. Heparinized blood (Wistar rats) was incubated in vitro with different Buzhong extract concentrations and {sup 99m}Tc-labeling was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were separated and soluble (SF-P, SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P, IF-BC) fractions were isolated. The radioactivity on blood constituents was determined and the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Buzhong extract at the highest concentrations used altered significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI in blood constituents. Substances present in the Buzhong extract could alter the cellular membrane and/or generation of free radicals that have oxidant properties modifying the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99}mTc. (author)

  11. Dynamic expression of leukocyte innate immune genes in whole blood from horses with lipopolysaccharide-induced acute systemic inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Anne Mette L.; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Heegaard, Peter M. H.;


    Background: In horses, insights into the innate immune processes in acute systemic inflammation are limited even though these processes may be highly important for future diagnostic and therapeutic advances in high-mortality disease conditions as the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS......) and sepsis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the expression of 31 selected blood leukocyte immune genes in an equine model of acute systemic inflammation to identify significantly regulated genes and to describe their expression dynamics during a 24-h experimental period. Systemic...... expressions in blood leukocytes during equine acute LPS-induced systemic inflammation thoroughly characterized a highly regulated and dynamic innate immune response. These results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of equine systemic inflammation....

  12. Evidence of the regulatory effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on skin blood flow and study of its effects on urinary metabolites in healthy humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelsma, E.; Lamers, R.-J.A.N.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Nesselrooij, J.H.J. van; Roza, L.


    Ginkgo biloba extract has been advocated for the improvement of blood circulation in circulatory disorders. This study investigated the effect of the Gingko biloba extract EGb 761 on skin blood flow in healthy volunteers and accompanying changes in urinary metabolites. Twenty-seven healthy middle-ag

  13. A cell-based systems biology assessment of human blood to monitor immune responses after influenza vaccination. (United States)

    Hoek, Kristen L; Samir, Parimal; Howard, Leigh M; Niu, Xinnan; Prasad, Nripesh; Galassie, Allison; Liu, Qi; Allos, Tara M; Floyd, Kyle A; Guo, Yan; Shyr, Yu; Levy, Shawn E; Joyce, Sebastian; Edwards, Kathryn M; Link, Andrew J


    Systems biology is an approach to comprehensively study complex interactions within a biological system. Most published systems vaccinology studies have utilized whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to monitor the immune response after vaccination. Because human blood is comprised of multiple hematopoietic cell types, the potential for masking responses of under-represented cell populations is increased when analyzing whole blood or PBMC. To investigate the contribution of individual cell types to the immune response after vaccination, we established a rapid and efficient method to purify human T and B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, myeloid dendritic cells (mDC), monocytes, and neutrophils from fresh venous blood. Purified cells were fractionated and processed in a single day. RNA-Seq and quantitative shotgun proteomics were performed to determine expression profiles for each cell type prior to and after inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination. Our results show that transcriptomic and proteomic profiles generated from purified immune cells differ significantly from PBMC. Differential expression analysis for each immune cell type also shows unique transcriptomic and proteomic expression profiles as well as changing biological networks at early time points after vaccination. This cell type-specific information provides a more comprehensive approach to monitor vaccine responses.

  14. BGMUT: NCBI dbRBC database of allelic variations of genes encoding antigens of blood group systems. (United States)

    Patnaik, Santosh Kumar; Helmberg, Wolfgang; Blumenfeld, Olga O


    Analogous to human leukocyte antigens, blood group antigens are surface markers on the erythrocyte cell membrane whose structures differ among individuals and which can be serologically identified. The Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database (BGMUT) is an online repository of allelic variations in genes that determine the antigens of various human blood group systems. The database is manually curated with allelic information collated from scientific literature and from direct submissions from research laboratories. Currently, the database documents sequence variations of a total of 1251 alleles of all 40 gene loci that together are known to affect antigens of 30 human blood group systems. When available, information on the geographic or ethnic prevalence of an allele is also provided. The BGMUT website also has general information on the human blood group systems and the genes responsible for them. BGMUT is a part of the dbRBC resource of the National Center for Biotechnology Information, USA, and is available online at The database should be of use to members of the transfusion medicine community, those interested in studies of genetic variation and related topics such as human migrations, and students as well as members of the general public.

  15. Evaluation of ten commercial blood culture systems to isolate a pyridoxal-dependent streptococcus.



    This study evaluated the ability of ten commercial blood cultures to support the growth of a nutritional variant Streptococcus mitior (pyridoxal-dependent). The abilities of two established and two new agar formulations are also reported. The dependable isolation of a fastidious streptococcus can best be obtained with fastidious anaerobe broth (FAB) (Lab M Ltd, Ford Lane, Salford) for blood cultures in conjunction with one of the new media. FAB agar with the addition of heated blood was found...

  16. Biomarkers of Traumatic Injury Are Transported from Brain to Blood via the Glymphatic System



    The nonspecific and variable presentation of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has motivated an intense search for blood-based biomarkers that can objectively predict the severity of injury. However, it is not known how cytosolic proteins released from traumatized brain tissue reach the peripheral blood. Here we show in a murine TBI model that CSF movement through the recently characterized glymphatic pathway transports biomarkers to blood via the cervical lymphatics. Clinically relevant manipulat...

  17. Radiation from wireless technology affects the blood, the heart, and the autonomic nervous system. (United States)

    Havas, Magda


    Exposure to electrosmog generated by electric, electronic, and wireless technology is accelerating to the point that a portion of the population is experiencing adverse reactions when they are exposed. The symptoms of electrohypersensitivity (EHS), best described as rapid aging syndrome, experienced by adults and children resemble symptoms experienced by radar operators in the 1940s to the 1960s and are well described in the literature. An increasingly common response includes clumping (rouleau formation) of the red blood cells, heart palpitations, pain or pressure in the chest accompanied by anxiety, and an upregulation of the sympathetic nervous system coincident with a downregulation of the parasympathetic nervous system typical of the "fight-or-flight" response. Provocation studies presented in this article demonstrate that the response to electrosmog is physiologic and not psychosomatic. Those who experience prolonged and severe EHS may develop psychologic problems as a consequence of their inability to work, their limited ability to travel in our highly technologic environment, and the social stigma that their symptoms are imagined rather than real.

  18. Accuracy of blood pressure measurements transmitted through a telemedicine system in underserved populations. (United States)

    Santamore, William P; Homko, Carol J; Kashem, Abul; McConnell, Timothy R; Menapace, Francis J; Bove, Alfred A


    In underserved populations, inadequate surveillance and treatment allows hypertension to persist until actual cardiovascular events occur. Thus, we developed an Internet-based telemedicine system to address the suboptimal control of hypertension and other modifiable risk factors. To minimize cost, the subjects used home monitors for blood pressure (BP) measurements and entered these values into the telemedicine system. We hypothesized that patients could accurately measure their BP and transmit these values via a telemedicine system. Inner city and rural subjects (N = 464; 42% African-American or Hispanic) with 10% or greater 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease and with treatable risk factors were randomized into two groups, control group (CG) and telemedicine group (TG). Each subject received a home sphygmomanometer with memory. The TG recorded and entered BP at least weekly. During office visits, the BP meters were downloaded and recorded BP compared to BP values transmitted via telemedicine. The telemedicine (T) BP values were similar to the meter recorded (R) values (T: systolic/diastolic BP 133.4 +/- 11.1/77.5 +/- 6.8 mm Hg, and R: systolic/diastolic BP 136.4 +/- 11.9.4/79.7 +/- 7.5 mm Hg). The percent error was telemedicine BP values were similar to the office (O) BP values for systolic and diastolic BP (T: systolic/diastolic BP 133.4 +/- 11.1/77.5 +/- 6.8 mm Hg, and O: systolic/diastolic BP 136.3 +/- 20.5/78.1 +/- 10.5 mm Hg). In underserved populations, this inexpensive approach of patients using a home monitor and entering these values into a telemedicine system provided accurate BP data.

  19. Continuous blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis. Relations to splanchnic and systemic haemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Christensen, E; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl


    post-sinusoidal resistance, a low plasma volume, a short central circulation time, and the presence of ascites. In contrast, a low intra-arterial blood pressure was determined by a low serum sodium, a low haemoglobin, and a high cardiac output. Diuretic treatment did not influence this model......BACKGROUND/AIMS: Low arterial blood pressure is recognised as a distinctive factor in the hyperdynamic circulation in cirrhosis. 24-hour monitoring of the blood pressure and heart rate has recently revealed a reduced circadian variation with relation to liver function. However, associations...... with cirrhosis than in matched controls (p low 24-h arterial blood pressure were a high...

  20. New algorithm and system for measuring size distribution of blood cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuiping Yao(姚翠萍); Zheng Li(李政); Zhenxi Zhang(张镇西)


    In optical scattering particle sizing, a numerical transform is sought so that a particle size distribution can be determined from angular measurements of near forward scattering, which has been adopted in the measurement of blood cells. In this paper a new method of counting and classification of blood cell, laser light scattering method from stationary suspensions, is presented. The genetic algorithm combined with nonnegative least squared algorithm is employed to inverse the size distribution of blood cells. Numerical tests show that these techniques can be successfully applied to measuring size distribution of blood cell with high stability.

  1. Preservation of Renal Blood Flow by the Antioxidant EUK-134 in LPS-Treated Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheldon Magder


    Full Text Available Sepsis is associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS, however, the precise role of ROS in the septic process remains unknown. We hypothesized that treatment with EUK-134 (manganese-3-methoxy N,N'-bis(salicyclideneethylene-diamine chloride, a compound with superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, attenuates the vascular manifestations of sepsis in vivo. Pigs were instrumented to measure cardiac output and blood flow in renal, superior mesenteric and femoral arteries, and portal vein. Animals were treated with saline (control, lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 µg·kg−1·h−1, EUK-134, or EUK-134 plus LPS. Results show that an LPS-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP as well as a trend towards lower blood pressure (BP were both attenuated by EUK-134. Renal blood flow decreased with LPS whereas superior mesenteric, portal and femoral flows did not change. Importantly, EUK-134 decreased the LPS-induced fall in renal blood flow and this was associated with a corresponding decrease in LPS-induced protein nitrotyrosinylation in the kidney. PO2, pH, base excess and systemic vascular resistance fell with LPS and were unaltered by EUK-134. EUK-134 also had no effect on LPS-associated increase in CO. Interestingly, EUK-134 alone resulted in higher CO, BP, PAP, mean circulatory filling pressure, and portal flow than controls. Taken together, these data support a protective role for EUK-134 in the renal circulation in sepsis.

  2. Preservation of renal blood flow by the antioxidant EUK-134 in LPS-treated pigs. (United States)

    Magder, Sheldon; Parthenis, Dimitrios G; Ghouleh, Imad Al


    Sepsis is associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), however, the precise role of ROS in the septic process remains unknown. We hypothesized that treatment with EUK-134 (manganese-3-methoxy N,N'-bis(salicyclidene)ethylene-diamine chloride), a compound with superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, attenuates the vascular manifestations of sepsis in vivo. Pigs were instrumented to measure cardiac output and blood flow in renal, superior mesenteric and femoral arteries, and portal vein. Animals were treated with saline (control), lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 µg·kg-1·h-1), EUK-134, or EUK-134 plus LPS. Results show that an LPS-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) as well as a trend towards lower blood pressure (BP) were both attenuated by EUK-134. Renal blood flow decreased with LPS whereas superior mesenteric, portal and femoral flows did not change. Importantly, EUK-134 decreased the LPS-induced fall in renal blood flow and this was associated with a corresponding decrease in LPS-induced protein nitrotyrosinylation in the kidney. PO2, pH, base excess and systemic vascular resistance fell with LPS and were unaltered by EUK-134. EUK-134 also had no effect on LPS-associated increase in CO. Interestingly, EUK-134 alone resulted in higher CO, BP, PAP, mean circulatory filling pressure, and portal flow than controls. Taken together, these data support a protective role for EUK-134 in the renal circulation in sepsis.

  3. Time-resolved X-ray PIV measurements of hemodynamic information of real pulsatile blood flows (United States)

    Park, Hanwook; Yeom, Eunseop; Lee, Sang Joon


    X-ray imaging technique has been used to visualize various bio-fluid flow phenomena as a nondestructive manner. To obtain hemodynamic information related with circulatory vascular diseases, a time-resolved X-ray PIV technique with high temporal resolution was developed. In this study, to embody actual pulsatile blood flows in a circular conduit without changes in hemorheological properties, a bypass loop is established by connecting a microtube between the jugular vein and femoral artery of a rat. Biocompatible CO2 microbubbles are used as tracer particles. After mixing with whole blood, CO2 microbubbles are injected into the bypass loop. Particle images of the pulsatile blood flows in the bypass loop are consecutively captured by the time-resolved X-ray PIV system. The velocity field information are obtained with varying flow rate and pulsataility. To verify the feasibility of the use of CO2 microbubbles under in vivo conditions, the effects of the surrounding-tissues are also investigated, because these effects are crucial for deteriorating the image contrast of CO2 microbubbles. Therefore, the velocity information of blood flows in the abdominal aorta are obtained to demonstrate the visibility and usefulness of CO2 microbubbles under ex vivo conditions. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2008-0061991).

  4. Retrospective evaluation of adverse transfusion reactions following blood product transfusion from a tertiary care hospital: A preliminary step towards hemovigilance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar


    Full Text Available Background: The goal of hemovigilance is to increase the safety and quality of blood transfusion. Identification of the adverse reactions will help in taking appropriate steps to reduce their incidence and make blood transfusion process as safe as possible. Aims : To determine the frequency and type of transfusion reactions (TRs occurring in patients, reported to the blood bank at our institute. Materials and Methods : A retrospective review of all TRs reported to the blood bank at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, between December 2007 and April 2012 was done. All the TRs were evaluated in the blood bank and classified using standard definitions. Results: During the study period a total of 380,658 bloods and blood components were issued by our blood bank. Out of the total 196 adverse reactions reported under the hemovigilance system, the most common type of reaction observed was allergic 55.1% (n = 108, followed by febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reaction (FNHTR 35.7% (n = 70. Other less frequently observed reactions were Anaphylactoid reactions 5.1% (n = 10, Acute non-immune HTRs 2.6% (n = 5, Circulatory overload 0.5% (n = 1, Transfusion related acute lung injury 0.5% (n = 1, Delayed HTRs 0.5% (n = 1. Not a single case of bacterial contamination was observed. Conclusion: The frequency of TRs in our patients was found to be 0.05% (196 out of 380,658. This can be an underestimation of the true incidence because of under reporting. It should be the responsibility of the blood transfusion consultant to create awareness amongst their clinical counterpart about safe transfusion practices so that proper hemovigilance system can be achieved to provide better patient care.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiko Sato


    Full Text Available Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS, oxidative stress and inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension and salt sensitivity of hypertension. The present study was designed to evaluate the role of RAS, oxidative stress and inflammation to the regulation of blood pressure in young subjects. 111 young students (19.2±0.8 years old who have taken health checkup were randomly selected for the study. Urinary excretions of angiotensinogen (AGT, oxidative stress (TBARS, and inflammatory markers (MCP-1 were analyzed. Urinary excretions of these parameters were estimated by 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion, age, height and body weight. Subjects were divided to two groups based on the blood pressure: below 140/90 mmHg (Normal and over 140/90 mmHg (High. Blood pressure was significantly increased with increased BMI. Urinary AGT, TBARS, and MCP-1 of high blood pressure group were significantly (p<0.05 increased compared to those of normal blood pressure. Urinary AGT has significant positive correlation with urinary TBARS, though it did not have a significant correlation with MCP-1. Estimated 24-h urinary Na excretion was significantly increased with increased urinary MCP-1, and TBARS. These results indicate that increase in blood pressure is accompanied with RAS, oxidative stress, and inflammation in young subjects, which is associated with salt intake.

  6. Anatomical relationship between traditional acupuncture point ST 36 and Omura's ST 36 (True ST 36) with their therapeutic effects: 1) inhibition of cancer cell division by markedly lowering cancer cell telomere while increasing normal cell telomere, 2) improving circulatory disturbances, with reduction of abnormal increase in high triglyceride, L-homocystein, CRP, or cardiac troponin I & T in blood by the stimulation of Omura's ST 36--Part 1. (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Chen, Yemeng; Lu, Dominic P; Shimotsura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu; Duvvi, Harsha


    Using Bi-Digital O-Ring Test Resonance Phenomena between 2 identical substances, Omura, Y. succeeded in making the image of the outline of internal organs without use of standard imaging devices since 1982. When he imaged the outline of the stomach on the abdominal wall, a number of the lines came out from upper and lower parts of stomach wall. When the lines were followed, they were very close to the well-known stomach meridians. Subsequently, he found a method of localizing meridians and their corresponding acupuncture points as well as shapes and diameters accurately. At the anatomical location of ST 36 described in traditional textbooks, Omura, Y. found there is no acupuncture point. However, in the close vicinity, there is an acupuncture point which he named as true ST 36 in the mid 1980s, but it is generally known as Omura's ST 36. When the effects of the acupuncture on these 2 locations were compared, Omura's ST 36 (true ST 36) produced very significant well-known acupuncture beneficial effects including improved circulation and blood chemistry, while in the traditional ST 36, the effects were small. In this article, the anatomical relationship between these two acupuncture points, with a short distance of 0.6 approximately 1.5 cm between the centers of these locations, was described. In early 2000, Omura, Y. found Press Needle Stimulation of Omura's ST 36, using "Press-Release" procedure repeated 200 times, 4 times a day to cancer patients reduced high cancer cell telomere of 600-1500ng and high Oncogen C-fos Ab2 and Integrin alpha5beta1 of 100-700ng BDORT units to close to lyg (= 10(-24) g) BDORT units. In addition there was a significant reduction of Asbestos and Hg from cancer cells, while markedly reduced normal cell telomere of lyg was increased to optimally high amounts of 500-530ng BDORTunits. Thus, cancer cells can no longer divide and cancer activity is inhibited. The authors have successfully applied this method for a variety of cancers as well as

  7. Evaluation of OneTouch Verio(®), a new blood glucose self-monitoring system for patients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Littmann, Karin; Petersen, Eva; Pussinen, Christel;


    Introduction. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is important in diabetes management. Reliable and user-friendly instruments are essential. OneTouch Verio(®) is a new blood glucose concentration-measuring system designed to be used by patients with diabetes and healthcare professionals...... routine method, imprecision and bias were calculated. User-friendliness was evaluated with a questionnaire. Results. Quality specifications for blood glucose concentration monitoring systems according to ISO 15197 were fulfilled. The mean coefficients of variation (CV%) of repeatability was 3.4% when....... The objective of the present study was to evaluate the analytical performance of the OneTouch Verio(®). Method. The OneTouch Verio(®) was evaluated by the Scandinavian evaluation of laboratory equipment for primary healthcare (SKUP) according to a protocol based on ISO 15197 and the American Diabetes...

  8. The effect of pneumatic tube system on complete blood count parameters and thrombocyte donation in healthy donors. (United States)

    Sari, Ismail; Arslan, Aliriza; Ozlu, Can; Hacioglu, Sibel; Dogu, Mehmet Hilmi; Isler, Kamil; Keskin, Ali


    This paper is the first report whether or not pneumatic tube system affects the selection of apheresis donors according to the results of complete blood count. According to the apheresis guidelines, hemoglobin level must be ≥12.5g/dL and platelet level ≥150/μL to be a donor. Paired blood samples of 26 healthy volunteers were transported by either hand delivered or a pneumatic tube system to the laboratory. No statistically significant differences were observed in order to mean values of routine complete blood cell count and white cell differential parameters that were send for selection of apheresis donor before the procedure. Therefore, all healthy volunteers decided as a donor according to the laboratory results independent from transport method.

  9. Scandinavian SSAI clinical practice guideline on choice of first-line vasopressor for patients with acute circulatory failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, M H; Claudius, C; Junttila, E


    BACKGROUND: Adult critically ill patients often suffer from acute circulatory failure, necessitating use of vasopressor therapy. The aim of the Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (SSAI) task force for Acute Circulatory Failure was to present clinically relevant......, evidence-based treatment recommendations on this topic. METHODS: This guideline was developed according to standards for trustworthy guidelines, including a systematic review of the literature and use of the GRADE methodology for assessment of the quality of evidence and for moving from evidence...... to recommendations. We assessed the following subpopulations of patients with acute circulatory failure: 1) shock in general, 2) septic shock, 3) cardiogenic shock, 4) hypovolemic shock and 5) other types of shock, including vasodilatory shock. We assessed patient-important outcome measures, including mortality...

  10. Microfiltration platform for continuous blood plasma protein extraction from whole blood during cardiac surgery. (United States)

    Aran, Kiana; Fok, Alex; Sasso, Lawrence A; Kamdar, Neal; Guan, Yulong; Sun, Qi; Ündar, Akif; Zahn, Jeffrey D


    This report describes the design, fabrication, and testing of a cross-flow filtration microdevice, for the continuous extraction of blood plasma from a circulating whole blood sample in a clinically relevant environment to assist in continuous monitoring of a patient's inflammatory response during cardiac surgeries involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) procedures (about 400,000 adult and 20,000 pediatric patients in the United States per year). The microfiltration system consists of a two-compartment mass exchanger with two aligned sets of PDMS microchannels, separated by a porous polycarbonate (PCTE) membrane. Using this microdevice, blood plasma has been continuously separated from blood cells in a real-time manner with no evidence of bio-fouling or cell lysis. The technology is designed to continuously extract plasma containing diagnostic plasma proteins such as complements and cytokines using a significantly smaller blood volume as compared to traditional blood collection techniques. The microfiltration device has been tested using a simulated CPB circulation loop primed with donor human blood, in a manner identical to a clinical surgical setup, to collect plasma fractions in order to study the effects of CPB system components and circulation on immune activation during extracorporeal circulatory support. The microdevice, with 200 nm membrane pore size, was connected to a simulated CPB circuit, and was able to continuously extract ~15% pure plasma volume (100% cell-free) with high sampling frequencies which could be analyzed directly following collection with no need to further centrifuge or modify the fraction. Less than 2.5 ml total plasma volume was collected over a 4 h sampling period (less than one Vacutainer blood collection tube volume). The results tracked cytokine concentrations collected from both the reservoir and filtrate samples which were comparable to those from direct blood draws, indicating very high protein recovery of the microdevice

  11. Poor performance of BACTEC NR 730 blood culture system in early detection of Neisseria meningitidis. (United States)

    Schnur, E R; Azimi, P H; Belchis, D A


    During an 8-month period at Children's Hospital, Oakland, Calif., a 9% rate for positive blood culture for children with Neisseria meningitidis meningitis was identified. The blood culture system used in each case was the BACTEC NR 730. This rate seemed significantly lower than previous rates (33 to 55%) (P.R. Dodge and M.N. Swartz, N. Engl. J. Med. 272:1003-1010, 1965; A.L. Hoyne and R.H. Brown, Ann. Intern. Med. 28:248-259, 1948; S. Levin and M.B. Painter, Ann. Intern. Med. 64:1049-1057, 1966). The low rate prompted our study. With 14 test strains, anaerobic and aerobic BACTEC bottles were evaluated for their ability to support and detect the growth of N. meningitidis. Sodium polyanetholesufonate (SPS) and inoculum size, two factors thought to affect the growth of N. meningitidis, were controlled for by use of bottles with and without SPS and by inoculum sizes simulating the magnitudes of bacteremia previously described for children infected with N. meningitidis (L.J. La Scolea, Jr., D. Dryja, T.D. Sullivan, L. Mosovich, N. Ellerstein, and E. Neter, J. Clin. Microbiol. 13:478-482, 1981). BACTEC failed to detect growth in aerobic bottles after 6 h of incubation, while 76 of 80 bottles (95%) showed growth when subcultured. At 24 h, BACTEC detected growth in only 29 of 80 bottles (36%); when subcultured, all 80 cultures grew confluently. At 48 h, BACTEC detected growth in the remaining 53 bottles. BACTEC failed to detect growth in anaerobic bottles at 6 h and at 1, 2, 4, and 5 days of incubation despite growth in subculture. Subcultures from bottles with tryptic soy broth with and without SPS showed growth in 63 to 76 bottles in 6 h and in all bottles after 24 h. The presence of SPS in BACTEC bottles had no effect on growth detection. On the basis of these studies and our clinical experience, we find the NR 730 system to be insensitive and unsuitable for detection of N.meningitidis in

  12. Nailfold capillaroscopy and blood flow laser-doppler analysis of the microvascular damage in systemic sclerosis: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pizzorni


    Full Text Available Objectives: Systemic sclerosis (SSc is characterized by altered microvascular structure and function. Nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC is the tool to evaluate capillary morphological structure and laser-Doppler Blood flowmetry (LDF can be used to estimate cutaneous blood flow of microvessels. The aim of this study was to investigate possible relationships between capillary morphology and blood flow in SSc. Methods: 27 SSc patients and 12 healthy subjects were enrolled. SSc microvascular involvement, as evaluated by NVC, was classified in three different patterns (“Early”, “Active”, “Late”. LDF analysis was performed at the II, III, IV, V hand fingers in both hands and both at cutaneous temperature and at 36°C. Statistical evaluation was carried out by non-parametric procedures. Results: Blood flow was found significantly lower in SSc patients when compared with healthy subjects (p<0.05. The heating of the probe to 36°C induced a significant increase in peripheral blood flow in all subjects compared to baseline (p <0.05, however, the amount of variation was significantly lower in patients with SSc, compared with healthy controls (p <0.05. The SSc patients with NVC “Late” pattern, showed lower values of peripheral blood flow than patients with NVC “Active” or “Early” patterns (p<0.05. Moreover, a negative correlation between the tissue perfusion score and the progression of the SSc microangiopathy was observed, as well as between the tissue perfusion and the duration of the Raynaud’s phenomenon (p <0.03. Conclusions: LDF can be employed to evaluate blood perfusion in the microvascular circulation in SSc patients. The blood flow changes observed with the LDF seem to correlate with the severity of microvascular damage in SSc as detected by NVC.

  13. Changes in respiratory and circulatory functions during sequential invasive-noninvasive mechanical ventilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商鸣宇; 王辰; 代华平; 杨媛华; 姜超美


    Objective To investigate the changes in respiratory and circulatory functions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients during sequential invasive-noninvasive mechanical ventilation therapy, and evaluate the effects of this new technique.Methods Twelve COPD patients with type Ⅱ respiratory failure due to severe pulmonary infection were ventilated through an endotracheal tube. When the pulmonary infection control window (PIC-Window) occurred, the patients were extubated and were ventilated with a facial mask using pressure support ventilation combined with positive end-expiratory pressure. The parameters of hemodynamics, oxygen dynamics, and esophageal pressure were measured at the PIC-Window during invasive mechanical ventilation, one hour after oxygen therapy via a naso-tube, and three hours after non-invasive mechanical ventilation. Results The variation in esophageal pressure was 20.0±6 cmH2O during naso-tube oxygen therapy, and this variation was higher than that during non-invasive mechanical ventilation (10±6 cmH2O, P0.05).Conclusions The respiratory and circulatory functions of COPD patients remained stable during sequential invasive-noninvasive mechanical ventilation therapy using PIC-Window as a switch point for early extubation. The COPD patients can tolerated the transition from invasive mechanical ventilation to noninvasive mechanical ventilation.

  14. Circulatory Support with Venoarterial ECMO Unsuccessful in Aiding Endogenous Diltiazem Clearance after Overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin N. Frazee


    Full Text Available Introduction. In cardiovascular collapse from diltiazem poisoning, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO may offer circulatory support sufficient to preserve endogenous hepatic drug clearance. Little is known about patient outcomes and diltiazem toxicokinetics in this setting. Case Report. A 36-year-old woman with a history of myocardial bridging syndrome presented with chest pain for which she self-medicated with 2.4 g of sustained release diltiazem over the course of 8 hours. Hemodynamics and mentation were satisfactory on presentation, but precipitously deteriorated after ICU transfer. She was given fluids, calcium, vasopressors, glucagon, high-dose insulin, and lipid emulsion. Due to circulatory collapse and multiorgan failure including ischemic hepatopathy, she underwent transvenous pacing and emergent initiation of venoarterial ECMO. The peak diltiazem level was 13150 ng/mL (normal 100–200 ng/mL and it remained elevated at 6340 ng/mL at hour 90. Unfortunately, the patient developed multiple complications which resulted in her death on ICU day 9. Conclusion. This case describes the unsuccessful use of ECMO for diltiazem intoxication. Although past reports suggest that support with ECMO may facilitate endogenous diltiazem clearance, it may be dependent on preserved hepatic function at the time of cannulation, a factor not present in this case.

  15. Circulatory shear flow alters the viability and proliferation of circulating colon cancer cells (United States)

    Fan, Rong; Emery, Travis; Zhang, Yongguo; Xia, Yuxuan; Sun, Jun; Wan, Jiandi


    During cancer metastasis, circulating tumor cells constantly experience hemodynamic shear stress in the circulation. Cellular responses to shear stress including cell viability and proliferation thus play critical roles in cancer metastasis. Here, we developed a microfluidic approach to establish a circulatory microenvironment and studied circulating human colon cancer HCT116 cells in response to a variety of magnitude of shear stress and circulating time. Our results showed that cell viability decreased with the increase of circulating time, but increased with the magnitude of wall shear stress. Proliferation of cells survived from circulation could be maintained when physiologically relevant wall shear stresses were applied. High wall shear stress (60.5 dyne/cm2), however, led to decreased cell proliferation at long circulating time (1 h). We further showed that the expression levels of β-catenin and c-myc, proliferation regulators, were significantly enhanced by increasing wall shear stress. The presented study provides a new insight to the roles of circulatory shear stress in cellular responses of circulating tumor cells in a physiologically relevant model, and thus will be of interest for the study of cancer cell mechanosensing and cancer metastasis.

  16. Can cerebral blood volume be measured reproducibly with an improved near infrared spectroscopy system?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, M.T.P. van de; Colier, W.N.J.M.; Sluijs, M.C. van der; Walraven, D.; Oeseburg, B.; Folgering, H.T.M.


    In some circumstances, cerebral blood volume (CBV) can be used as a measure for cerebral blood flow. A new near infrared spectroscope was used for determining the reproducibility of CBV measurements assessed by the O2-method. Twenty-seven healthy subjects were investigated. An intrasubject coefficie

  17. Effect of saliva and blood contamination on the bond strength of self-etching adhesive system- An in vitro study (United States)

    Koppolu, Madhusudhana; Gogala, Dorasani; Mathew, Vinod B; Thangala, Venugopal; Deepthi, Mandava; Sasidhar, Nalluru


    Aim: The aims of this study were to determine the effect of saliva and blood contamination on the shear bond strength of self-etching adhesive to enamel and dentin; and, to compare the difference in bond strength due to contamination beforeand after application of the self-etch adhesive. Materials and Methods: 40 human mandibular molars were wet ground on both buccal and lingual surfaces to prepare flat superficial enamel and dentin surfaces. They were randomly divided into two groups (n = 40) based on the substrate (enamel and dentin). Each group was further divided into five subgroups (n = 8) based on the type of contamination it was subjected to, and the step in the bonding sequence when the contamination occurred (before or after adhesive application). Fresh saliva and fresh human blood were applied either before or after the application of Xeno III® self-etching adhesive system (SES). Composite resin was applied as inverted, truncated cured cones that were subjected to shear bond strength test. Statistical Analysis: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test were used. Results: Statistically significant reduction in the bond strength was shown after both saliva and blood contamination before and after Xeno III® application (Pcontamination with blood as compared to saliva. Conclusions: When self-etching adhesive systems are used, saliva and blood contamination significantly decrease the bond strength of the adhesive to enamel and dentin of the tooth. PMID:22876017

  18. "PCR- Detection of Candida albicans in Blood Using a New Primer Pair to Diagnosis of Systemic Candidiasis"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Mirhendi


    Full Text Available The opportunistic pathogen C.albicans is able to cause disseminated infections in immunocompromised patients. Microbiological methods for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis have many problems including low sensitivity, requirement to invasive clinical sampling such as biopsies or multiple blood cultures and need to expertise laboratory stuff. Since PCR has proven to be a powerful tool in the early diagnosis of several infectious diseases, we applied this approach as a rapid and sensitive method in detection of C.albicans cells in blood samples, for establishment a clinically useful method in diagnosing systemic candidiasis. DNA were extracted from blood samples seeded by serially diluted C.albicans cells, by omitting WBC and RBC followed by enzymatic breaking of fungal cell wall and phenol – chlorophorm extraction and alcohol precipitation of DNA. A new primer pair was designed for PCR-amplification of a part of ribosomal RNA gene. The primer set was able to amplify all medically important Candida species. When PCR was performed for detection of purified DNA, the sensitivity of the method was about 1 picogram fungal DNA, whereas the sensitivity for detection of C.albicans blastospores inoculated in blood was as few as 10 cell per 0.1 ml of blood. This method could be sensitive and useful for early and rapid diagnosis of systemic Candida infections and to simultaneous detection and speciation of Candida species by PCR-RFLP method.

  19. Continuous blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis. Relations to splanchnic and systemic haemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Christensen, E; Henriksen, Jens Henrik


    with cirrhosis than in matched controls (p blood pressures and heart rate, pertinent variables were included in a multivariate regression model. This model revealed that independent determinants of a low 24-h arterial blood pressure were a high...... post-sinusoidal resistance, a low plasma volume, a short central circulation time, and the presence of ascites. In contrast, a low intra-arterial blood pressure was determined by a low serum sodium, a low haemoglobin, and a high cardiac output. Diuretic treatment did not influence this model......BACKGROUND/AIMS: Low arterial blood pressure is recognised as a distinctive factor in the hyperdynamic circulation in cirrhosis. 24-hour monitoring of the blood pressure and heart rate has recently revealed a reduced circadian variation with relation to liver function. However, associations...

  20. Improvement of a sensor unit for wrist blood pressure monitoring system (United States)

    Koo, Sangjun; Kwon, Jongwon; Park, Yongman; Ayuzenara, Odgerel; Kim, Hiesik


    A blood pressure sensor unit for ubiquitous healthcare monitoring was newly developed. The digital wrist band-type blood pressure devices for home are popular already in the market. It is useful for checking blood pressure level at home and control of hypertension. Especially, it is very essential home device to check the health condition of blood circulation disease. Nowadays many product types are available. But the measurement of blood pressure is not accurate enough compared with the mechanical type. It needs to be upgraded to assure the precise health data enough to use in the hospital. The structure, feature and output signal of capacitor type pressure sensors are analyzed. An improved design of capacitor sensor is suggested. It shows more precise health data after use on a wrist band type health unit. They can be applied for remote u-health medical service.

  1. Biomarkers of traumatic injury are transported from brain to blood via the glymphatic system. (United States)

    Plog, Benjamin A; Dashnaw, Matthew L; Hitomi, Emi; Peng, Weiguo; Liao, Yonghong; Lou, Nanhong; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken


    The nonspecific and variable presentation of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has motivated an intense search for blood-based biomarkers that can objectively predict the severity of injury. However, it is not known how cytosolic proteins released from traumatized brain tissue reach the peripheral blood. Here we show in a murine TBI model that CSF movement through the recently characterized glymphatic pathway transports biomarkers to blood via the cervical lymphatics. Clinically relevant manipulation of glymphatic activity, including sleep deprivation and cisternotomy, suppressed or eliminated TBI-induced increases in serum S100β, GFAP, and neuron specific enolase. We conclude that routine TBI patient management may limit the clinical utility of blood-based biomarkers because their brain-to-blood transport depends on glymphatic activity.

  2. Detection of early central circulatory transits in patients with cirrhosis by gamma variate fit of indicator dilution profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H; Møller, Søren; Fuglsang, Stefan;


    dilution curves, and the relations between flow, circulation times, and volumes were established according to kinetic principles. No significant very early central circulatory transits were identified. In contrast, early (i.e., 4 s to maximal) transits corresponding to a mean of 5.1% (vs. 0.8% in controls...... variate fit method (1.51 vs. 1.53 liter; not significant). In conclusion, no very early central circulatory transits were identified in cirrhotic patients. A significant part of the cardiac output undergoes an early transit, probably through pulmonary shunts or areas with low ventilation-perfusion ratios...

  3. Herb pair Danggui-Honghua: mechanisms underlying blood stasis syndrome by system pharmacology approach (United States)

    Yue, Shi-Jun; Xin, Lan-Ting; Fan, Ya-Chu; Li, Shu-Jiao; Tang, Yu-Ping; Duan, Jin-Ao; Guan, Hua-Shi; Wang, Chang-Yun


    Herb pair Danggui-Honghua has been frequently used for treatment of blood stasis syndrome (BSS) in China, one of the most common clinical pathological syndromes in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, its therapeutic mechanism has not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, a feasible system pharmacology model based on chemical, pharmacokinetic and pharmacological data was developed via network construction approach to clarify the mechanisms of this herb pair. Thirty-one active ingredients of Danggui-Honghua possessing favorable pharmacokinetic profiles and biological activities were selected, interacting with 42 BSS-related targets to provide potential synergistic therapeutic actions. Systematic analysis of the constructed networks revealed that these targets such as HMOX1, NOS2, NOS3, HIF1A and PTGS2 were mainly involved in TNF signaling pathway, HIF-1 signaling pathway, estrogen signaling pathway and neurotrophin signaling pathway. The contribution index of every active ingredient also indicated six compounds, including hydroxysafflor yellow A, safflor yellow A, safflor yellow B, Z-ligustilide, ferulic acid, and Z-butylidenephthalide, as the principal components of this herb pair. These results successfully explained the polypharmcological mechanisms underlying the efficiency of Danggui-Honghua for BSS treatment, and also probed into the potential novel therapeutic strategies for BSS in TCM.

  4. Plasma protein fractions in healthy blood donors quantitated by an automated multicapillary electrophoresis system. (United States)

    Larsson, Anders; Hansson, Lars-Olof


    During the last decade, capillary electrophoresis (CE) has emerged as an important alternative to traditional analysis of serum and plasma proteins by agarose or celluloseacetate electrophoresis. CE analysis of plasma proteins can now be fully automated and also includes bar-code identification of samples, preseparation steps, and direct post-separation quantitation of individual peaks, which permits short assay times and high throughput. For laboratory work, it is important to have reference values from healthy individuals. Therefore, plasma samples from 156 healthy blood donors (79 females and 77 males) have been analyzed with the Capillarys instrument and the new high resolution buffer, which yields higher resolution than the beta1-beta2+ buffer. Albumin concentrations in samples are measured using nephelometry in order to assign protein concentrations to each peak. The 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles for both the percentages of different peaks and the protein concentrations in the peaks are calculated according to the recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry on the statistical treatment of reference values. The Capillarys instrument is a reliable system for plasma protein analysis, combining advantages of full automation with high analytical performances and throughput.

  5. Microparticles in the blood of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): phenotypic characterization and clinical associations (United States)

    Mobarrez, Fariborz; Vikerfors, Anna; Gustafsson, Johanna T.; Gunnarsson, Iva; Zickert, Agneta; Larsson, Anders; Pisetsky, David S.; Wallén, Håkan; Svenungsson, Elisabet


    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease characterized by circulating autoantibodies and the formation of immune complexes. In these responses, the selecting self-antigens likely derive from the remains of dead and dying cells, as well as from disturbances in clearance. During cell death/activation, microparticles (MPs) can be released to the circulation. Previous MP studies in SLE have been limited in size and differ regarding numbers and phenotypes. Therefore, to characterize MPs more completely, we investigated 280 SLE patients and 280 individually matched controls. MPs were measured with flow cytometry and phenotyped according to phosphatidylserine expression (PS+/PS−), cellular origin and inflammatory markers. MPs, regardless of phenotype, are 2–10 times more abundant in SLE blood compared to controls. PS− MPs predominated in SLE, but not in controls (66% vs. 42%). Selectively in SLE, PS− MPs were more numerous in females and smokers. MP numbers decreased with declining renal function, but no clear association with disease activity was observed. The striking abundance of MPs, especially PS− MPs, suggests a generalized disturbance in SLE. MPs may be regarded as “liquid biopsies” to assess the production and clearance of dead, dying and activated cells, i.e. pivotal events for SLE pathogenesis. PMID:27777414

  6. System identification algorithm analysis of acupuncture effect on mean blood flux of contralateral hegu acupoint. (United States)

    Wang, Guangjun; Han, Jianguo; Litscher, Gerhard; Zhang, Weibo


    Background. Acupoints (belonging to 12 meridians) which have the same names are symmetrically distributed on the body. It has been proved that acupoints have certain biological specificities different from the normal parts of the body. However, there is little evidence that acupoints which have the same name and are located bilaterally and symmetrically have lateralized specificity. Thus, researching the lateralized specificity and the relationship between left-side and right-side acupuncture is of special importance. Methodology and Principal Findings. The mean blood flux (MBF) in both Hegu acupoints was measured by Moor full-field laser perfusion imager. With the method of system identification algorithm, the output distribution in different groups was acquired, based on different acupoint stimulation and standard signal input. It is demonstrated that after stimulation of the right Hegu acupoint by needle, the output value of MBF in contralateral Hegu acupoint was strongly amplified, while after acupuncturing the left Hegu acupoint, the output value of MBF in either side Hegu acupoint was amplified moderately. Conclusions and Significance. This paper indicates that the Hegu acupoint has lateralized specificity. After stimulating the ipsilateral Hegu acupoint, symmetry breaking will be produced in contrast to contralateral Hegu acupoint stimulation.

  7. Effects of peripheral blood stem cell apheresis on systemic cytokine levels in patients with multiple myeloma. (United States)

    Akkök, Ciğdem Akalin; Hervig, Tor; Stamnesfet, Siren; Nesthus, Ingerid; Melve, Guro K; Lassalle, Philippe; Bruserud, Oystein


    BACKGROUND AIMS. Pro-angiogenic cytokines can affect myeloma cell proliferation directly and indirectly through stimulation of cancer-associated angiogenesis. METHODS. We investigated how peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection affected plasma angioregulatory cytokine levels in 15 consecutive myeloma patients. RESULTS. Plasma levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were significantly increased prior to apheresis in patients compared with donors, and a further increase was detected immediately after PBSC apheresis. HGF levels decreased within 24 h, but were still higher than the levels in healthy donors, whose HGF levels were not altered by platelet apheresis. Pre-apheresis levels of other angioregulatory cytokines, angiopoietin-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), were also increased in patients, whereas angiopoietin-1, angiogenin and basic fibroblast growth factor levels did not differ from healthy controls. PBSC harvesting decreased angiopoietin-1 and VEGF levels, increased the microvascular endothelial cell marker endocan levels but did not affect the other mediators. CONCLUSIONS. Our results show that PBSC apheresis alters systemic angioregulatory profiles in myeloma patients. This cytokine modulation is not a general characteristic of all apheresis procedures and was not seen in healthy platelet donors.

  8. Genetic Variation in the Natriuretic Peptide System, Circulating Natriuretic Peptide Levels, and Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jørgen L; Nielsen, Søren J; Torp-Pedersen, Christian;


    BackgroundIn a large collaborative study (n > 50,000), common variants in the natriuretic peptide (NP) genes were found to be associated with circulating NP levels and also with blood pressure (BP) levels based on office BP measurements (OBPMs). It is unknown if determining an individual's BP by ...... evidence that the NP system plays an important role in BP regulation.American Journal of Hypertension 2012; doi:10.1038/ajh.2012.96.......-h ambulatory BP measurements (ABPMs) will influence the effect of NP gene variations on BP levels.MethodsWe used rs632793 at the NPPB (NP precursor B) locus to investigate the relationship between genetically determined serum N-terminal pro-brain NP (NT-proBNP) concentrations and BP levels......). Office BP decreased across the genotypes from A:A to G:G, but the differences did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.12).ConclusionsThis study suggests that 24-h ABPMs is a better method than OBPMs to detect significant differences in BP levels related to genetic variance and provides further...

  9. Numerical study of a simple transcranial focused ultrasound system applied to blood-brain barrier opening. (United States)

    Deffieux, Thomas; Konofagou, Elisa E


    In this paper, we investigate the focalization properties of single-element transducers at low frequencies (300 to 1000 kHz) through primate and human skulls. The study addresses the transcranial targeting involved in ultrasound- induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening with clinically relevant targets such as the hippocampus and the basal ganglia, which are typically affected by early Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, respectively. A finite-difference, timedomain simulation platform is used to solve the 3-D linear acoustic wave equation with CT-based acoustic maps of the skulls. The targeted brain structures were extracted from 3-D brain atlases registered with the skulls and used to virtually position and orient the transducers. The effect of frequency is first investigated and the targeting of the different structures is then tested. The frequency of 500 kHz provided the best tradeoff between phase aberrations and standing wave effects in the human case, whereas the frequency of 800 kHz was most suitable in the case of the primate skull. A fast periodic linear chirp method was developed and found capable of reducing the standing wave effects. Such a simple, affordable, and convenient system is concluded to be feasible for BBB opening in primates and humans and could thus allow for its broader impact and applications.

  10. Renal hyperfiltration and systemic blood pressure in patients with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary K Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM and renal hyperfiltration also exhibit systemic microvascular abnormalities, including endothelial dysfunction. The effect of renal hyperfiltration on systemic blood pressure (BP is less clear. We therefore measured BP, renal hemodynamic function and circulating renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS mediators in type 1 DM patients with hyperfiltration (n = 36, DM-H, GFR≥135 ml/min/1.73 m(2 or normofiltration (n = 40, DM-N, and 56 healthy controls (HC. Since renal hyperfiltration represents a state of intrarenal RAAS activation, we hypothesized that hyperfiltration would be associated with higher BP and elevated levels of circulating RAAS mediators. METHODS: BP, glomerular filtration rate (GFR - inulin, effective renal plasma flow (paraaminohippurate and circulating RAAS components were measured in DM-H, DM-N and HC during clamped euglycemia (4-6 mmol/L. Studies were repeated in DM-H and DM-N during clamped hyperglycemia (9-11 mmol/L. RESULTS: Baseline GFR was elevated in DM-H vs. DM-N and HC (167±6 vs. 115±2 and 115±2 ml/min/1.73 m(2, p<0.0001. Baseline systolic BP (SBP, 117±2 vs. 111±2 vs. 109±1, p = 0.004 and heart rate (76±1 vs. 67±1 vs. 61±1, p<0.0001 were higher in DM-H vs. DM-N and HC. Despite higher SBP in DM-H, plasma aldosterone was lower in DM-H vs. DM-N and HC (42±5 vs. 86±14 vs. 276±41 ng/dl, p = 0.01. GFR (p<0.0001 and SBP (p<0.0001 increased during hyperglycemia in DM-N but not in DM-H. CONCLUSIONS: DM-H was associated with higher heart rate and SBP values and an exaggerated suppression of systemic aldosterone. Future work should focus on the mechanisms that explain this paradox in diabetes of renal hyperfiltration coupled with systemic RAAS suppression.

  11. Effect of moisture, saliva, and blood contamination on the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with a conventional bonding system and self-etched bonding system (United States)

    Prasad, Mandava; Mohamed, Shamil; Nayak, Krishna; Shetty, Sharath Kumar; Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar


    Background: The success of bonding brackets to enamel with resin bonding systems is negatively affected by contamination with oral fluids such as blood and saliva. The new self-etch primer systems combine conditioning and priming agents into a single application, making the procedure more cost effective. Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of moisture, saliva and blood contamination on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with conventional bonding system and self-etch bonding system. Materials and Methods: Each system was examined under four enamel surface conditions (dry, water, saliva, and blood), and 80 human teeth were divided into two groups with four subgroups each of 10 according to enamel surface condition. Group 1 used conventional bonding system and Group 2 used self-etched bonding system. Subgroups 1a and 2a under dry enamel surface conditions; Subgroups 1b and 2b under moist enamel surface condition; Subgroups 3a and 3b under saliva enamel surface condition and Subgroup 4a and 4b under blood enamel surface condition. Brackets were bonded, and all the samples were then submitted to a shear bond test with a universal testing machine with a cross head speed of 1mm/sec. Results: The results showed that the contamination reduced the shear bond strength of all groups. In self-etch bonding system water and saliva had significantly higher bond strength when compared to other groups. Conclusion: It was concluded that the blood contamination showed lowest bond strength from both bonding systems. Self-etch bonding system resulted in higher bond strength than conventional bonding system under all conditions except the dry enamel surface. PMID:24678210

  12. Iron telluride nanorods-based system for the detection of total mercury in blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Prathik; Lin, Zong-Hong [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Liang, Chi-Te [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chang, Huan-Tsung, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)


    Graphical abstract: Elucidation of the detection of mercury using iron telluride nanorods (FeTe NRs), and dose-response curve for varying concentrations of Hg{sup 2+}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Iron telluride nanorods (FeTe NRs) are prepared from tellurium nanowires (Te NWs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury telluride nanorods (HgTe NRs) form by cation exchange reaction of FeTe NRs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe{sup 2+} ions released catalyze the oxidation of ABTS by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury is effectively determined in blood with an LOD of 1.31 nM at S/N ratio 3. - Abstract: We have developed a simple, colorimetric iron telluride (FeTe) nanorods (NRs) based system for the detection of mercury, mainly based on the cation exchange reaction between FeTe NRs and Hg{sup 2+}. FeTe NRs (length, 105 {+-} 21 nm) react with Hg{sup 2+} to form HgTe NRs (length, 112 {+-} 26 nm) and consequently release Fe{sup 2+} ions that catalyzes the oxidation between a peroxidase substrate 2,2 Prime -azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The concentration of Fe{sup 2+} and thereby Hg{sup 2+} can be determined by measuring the absorbance of the ABTS oxidized product at 418 nm. This approach allows the detection of Hg{sup 2+}, with a limit of detection of 1.31 nM at a signal-to-noise ratio 3 and a linear range 5-100 nM (R{sup 2} = 0.99). The low-cost, simple, sensitive, and reproducible assay has been validated for the detection of Hg{sup 2+} in a blood sample (SRM 955c), with the result being in good agreement with that provided by National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  13. Coupled flow-structure-biochemistry simulations of dynamic systems of blood cells using an adaptive surface tracking method (United States)

    Hoskins, M. H.; Kunz, R. F.; Bistline, J. E.; Dong, C.


    A method for the computation of low-Reynolds number dynamic blood cell systems is presented. The specific system of interest here is interaction between cancer cells and white blood cells in an experimental flow system. Fluid dynamics, structural mechanics, six-degree-of-freedom motion control, and surface biochemistry analysis components are coupled in the context of adaptive octree-based grid generation. Analytical and numerical verification of the quasi-steady assumption for the fluid mechanics is presented. The capabilities of the technique are demonstrated by presenting several three-dimensional cell system simulations, including the collision/interaction between a cancer cell and an endothelium adherent polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) cell in a shear flow.

  14. [Seasonal changes in the blood coagulating and anticoagulating system indices in men at the preclinical stage of ischemic heart disease]. (United States)

    Andreenko, G V; Panchenko, V M; Liutova, L V; Lisina, A N; Karabasova, M A


    Examination of 52 males (aged 23 to 40 years) in the preclinical stage of ischemic heart disease revealed seasonal differences in the values of the blood coagulation and anticoagulation systems: in the spring, there was an increase in blood coagulation activity displayed by growth of the concentration of fibrinogen and soluble fibrin and a reduction in the amount of the plasminogen activator. The authors suggest conducting preventive treatment of patients in the spring, the most unfavourable season in respect of the effect of the pathogenetic factors.

  15. Comparison of a new blood sampling device with the vacuum tube system for plasma and hematological analyses in healthy dogs. (United States)

    Reynolds, Brice S; Boudet, Karine G; Faucher, Mathieu R; Geffre, Anne; Germain, Claude; Lefebvre, Hervé P


    Pediatric devices based on a capillary system may provide an alternative to vacuum tubes for canine blood sampling. The potential advantages are absence of vein collapse, limited blood volume sampled, and improved safety. The aim of this study was to compare routine plasma and hematological variables in seven healthy dogs using both techniques. Five biochemical analytes were measured, and a complete hematological examination and plasma exogenous creatinine clearance test were performed. No clinically relevant difference between the two techniques was observed for any variable or functional test assessed.

  16. The Dopaminergic System in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes: From Physiology to Pharmacology and Potential Applications to Neuropsychiatric Disorders


    Buttarelli, Francesca R.; Fanciulli, Alessandra; Pellicano, Clelia; Pontieri, Francesco E.


    Besides its action on the nervous system, dopamine (DA) plays a role on neural-immune interactions. Here we review the current evidence on the dopaminergic system in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). PBL synthesize DA through the tyrosine-hydroxylase/DOPA-decarboxylase pathway, and express DA receptors and DA transporter (DAT) on their plasma membrane. Stimulation of DA receptors on PBL membrane contributes to modulate the development and initiation of immune responses under physiolog...

  17. Research Development of the Rare Blood Group System%稀有血型系统的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    随着对输血认识的提高,血型抗体分为规则抗体和不规则抗体两类.ABO血型以外的抗体称为不规则抗体,它是临床输血引起溶血性输血反应的重要因素之一.目前,对不规则抗体的检查已广泛应用于输血反应的诊断与预防,特别对有妊娠史和输血史的患者来说,是确保其输血安全与生命安全的重要措施.因此,为了提高对稀有血型系统的认识,建立一个完整的血型资料库,具有极其重要的现实临床意义.%With the improvement of blood transfusion knowledge, blood antibody is divided into rules antibodies and irregular antibody. Outside of the ABO blood group antibody, it is called irregular antibody. It is one of the important factors in the clinical hemolytic transfusion reactions. At the moment, the examination of irregular antibody has been widely used in the diagnosis and prevention of transfusion reactions, especially for the patient who is a pregnancy or has the history of blood transfusion. It is an important measure to ensure the safety of blood transfusion. Therefore ,we should improve the understanding of the rare blood group system,and establish a complete blood type database, it has important realistic clinical significance.

  18. Nimesulide (Nise influence on blood serum prostaglandin E2 concentration and cardiovascular system function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B F Nemtsov


    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of the current study was to investigate nimesulide effects on prostaglandin E 2 concentration in blood serum and some parameters of the cardiovascular system in pts with RA during a 6-month period. Materials and methods. 40 RA pts were studied, 20 of them took 200 mg of nimesulide per day (24 hours in combination with low doses of metatrexate (7.5-10.0 mg per week. The pts were studied for 6 months. The content of E2 prostaglandin in blood serum was evaluated and estimated by means of the immuneenzymic method in 20 pts who took 200 mg of nimesulide per day (24 hours in comparison with 20 pts who took 100 mg of sodium diclofenac per day. The cardiovascular system was evaluated and estimated by means of screening examinations and after the 6-month treatment period by means of 24-hour monitoring of arterial blood pressure, ECG-monitoring and echocardioscopy. Results. In case of the nimesulide treatment the above RA pts did not show reliable reduction of PGE- 2 in blood serum as compared with sodium dicofenac after a 5 day and the 6-month treatment. This showed the selective effect of nimesulide in relation to COX-2. As far as the parameters of the cardiovascular system are concerned, no negative dynamics were revealed at the background of nimesulide treatment . It was revealed that nimesulide is quite effective and has good tolerance.

  19. Complete genes may pass from food to human blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spisák, Sándor; Solymosi, Norbert; Ittzés, Péter


    Our bloodstream is considered to be an environment well separated from the outside world and the digestive tract. According to the standard paradigm large macromolecules consumed with food cannot pass directly to the circulatory system. During digestion proteins and DNA are thought to be degraded...

  20. On-Orbit, Immuno-Based, Label-Free White Blood Cell Counting System with Microelectromechanical Sensor Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS) (United States)

    Edmonds, Jessica


    Aurora Flight Sciences, in partnership with Draper Laboratory, has developed a miniaturized system to count white blood cells in microgravity environments. The system uses MEMS technology to simultaneously count total white blood cells, the five white blood cell differential subgroups, and various lymphocyte subtypes. The OILWBCS-MEMS detection technology works by immobilizing an array of white blood cell-specific antibodies on small, gold-coated membranes. When blood flows across the membranes, specific cells' surface protein antigens bind to their corresponding antibodies. This binding can be measured and correlated to cell counts. In Phase I, the partners demonstrated surface chemistry sensitivity and specificity for total white blood cells and two lymphocyte subtypes. In Phase II, a functional prototype demonstrated end-to-end operation. This rugged, miniaturized device requires minimal blood sample preparation and will be useful for both space flight and terrestrial applications.

  1. Fractals and fractal dimension of systems of blood vessels: An analogy between artery trees, river networks, and urban hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang


    An analogy between the fractal nature of networks of arteries and that of systems of rivers has been drawn in the previous works. However, the deep structure of the hierarchy of blood vessels has not yet been revealed. This paper is devoted to researching the fractals, allometric scaling, and hierarchy of blood vessels. By analogy with Horton-Strahler's laws of river composition, three exponential laws have been put forward. These exponential laws can be reconstructed and transformed into three linear scaling laws, which can be named composition laws of blood vessels network. From these linear scaling laws it follows a set of power laws, including the three-parameter Zipf's law on the rank-size distribution of blood vessel length and the allometric scaling law on the length-diameter relationship of blood vessels in different orders. The models are applied to the observed data on human beings and animals early given by other researchers, and an interesting finding is that human bodies more conform to natural r...

  2. Strict Blood Pressure Control Achieved Using an ICT-Based Home Blood Pressure Monitoring System in a Catastrophically Damaged Area After a Disaster. (United States)

    Nishizawa, Masafumi; Hoshide, Satoshi; Okawara, Yukie; Matsuo, Takefumi; Kario, Kazuomi


    At the time of the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami (March 2011), the authors developed a web-based information and communications technology (ICT)-based blood pressure (BP) monitoring system (the Disaster CArdiovascular Prevention [DCAP] Network) and introduced it in an area that was catastrophically damaged (Minamisanriku town) to help control the survivors' BP. Using this system, home BP (HBP) was monitored and the data were automatically transmitted to a central computer database and to the survivors' attending physicians. The study participants, 341 hypertensive patients, continued to use this system for 4 years after the disaster and all of the obtained HBP readings were analyzed. This DCAP HBP-guided approach helped achieve a decrease in the participants' HBPs (initial average: 151.3±20.0/86.9±10.2 mm Hg to 120.2±12.1/70.8±10.2 mm Hg) over the 4 years. In addition, the amplitude of seasonal BP variation was suppressed and the duration from the summer lowest HBP values to the winter peak HBP values was gradually prolonged. This ICT-based approach was useful to achieve strict HBP control and minimize the seasonal BP variation even in a catastrophically damaged area during a 4-year period after the disaster, suggesting that this approach could be a routine way to monitor BP in the community.

  3. Usefulness of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation using double roller pumps in a low body weight newborn: A novel strategy for mechanical circulatory support in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Nakanishi


    Full Text Available Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO with a centrifugal pump requires a certain flow rate; therefore, its application for low body weight infants is frequently accompanied by oxygenator membrane malfunction and/or inadequate perfusion. To prevent low-flow associated complications, we report a case in which a novel system of dual roller pumps was used. A baby girl with a body mass index 0.25 m 2 , who experienced difficulty weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass after a Norwood-like operation, required an ECMO. Concerns for the tube lifespan reduction due to roller pump friction led to the use of a double roller pump circulation. The termination of ECMO during tube exchange is not needed, because circulation is maintained by another roller pump. The novel strategy of ECMO with double roller pumps will allow low perfusion rate to provide adequate circulatory support for low body weight patients.

  4. Systems biology of coagulation initiation: kinetics of thrombin generation in resting and activated human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manash S Chatterjee

    Full Text Available Blood function defines bleeding and clotting risks and dictates approaches for clinical intervention. Independent of adding exogenous tissue factor (TF, human blood treated in vitro with corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI, to block Factor XIIa will generate thrombin after an initiation time (T(i of 1 to 2 hours (depending on donor, while activation of platelets with the GPVI-activator convulxin reduces T(i to ∼20 minutes. Since current kinetic models fail to generate thrombin in the absence of added TF, we implemented a Platelet-Plasma ODE model accounting for: the Hockin-Mann protease reaction network, thrombin-dependent display of platelet phosphatidylserine, VIIa function on activated platelets, XIIa and XIa generation and function, competitive thrombin substrates (fluorogenic detector and fibrinogen, and thrombin consumption during fibrin polymerization. The kinetic model consisting of 76 ordinary differential equations (76 species, 57 reactions, 105 kinetic parameters predicted the clotting of resting and convulxin-activated human blood as well as predicted T(i of human blood under 50 different initial conditions that titrated increasing levels of TF, Xa, Va, XIa, IXa, and VIIa. Experiments with combined anti-XI and anti-XII antibodies prevented thrombin production, demonstrating that a leak of XIIa past saturating amounts of CTI (and not "blood-borne TF" alone was responsible for in vitro initiation without added TF. Clotting was not blocked by antibodies used individually against TF, VII/VIIa, P-selectin, GPIb, protein disulfide isomerase, cathepsin G, nor blocked by the ribosome inhibitor puromycin, the Clk1 kinase inhibitor Tg003, or inhibited VIIa (VIIai. This is the first model to predict the observed behavior of CTI-treated human blood, either resting or stimulated with platelet activators. CTI-treated human blood will clot in vitro due to the combined activity of XIIa and XIa, a process enhanced by platelet activators and which proceeds

  5. Mortalidade por doenças do aparelho circulatório no município de Ribeirão Preto - SP, de 1980 a 2004 Mortalidad por enfermedades del aparato circulatorio en el municipio de Ribeirão Preto-SP, del 1980 a 2004 Mortality rates due to diseases of the circulatory system (DCS in Ribeirão Preto - SP, from 1980 to 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Alves de Moraes


    subsidies for health management hypotheses. OBJECTIVE: Identify mortality rate pattern for diseases of the circulatory system (DCS in Ribeirão Preto, SP (RP-SP, in the period between 1980 and 2004. METHODS: The number of deaths due to DCS were obtained from the Mortality Information System (SIM. Populational estimates for RP-SP - taking gender, age group, and calendar years into account - were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE. Specific mortality rates were calculated on yearly basis according to gender and age group in 10-year intervals starting at 30 years of age. The trend analysis was conducted through polynomial regression models for time series. Significance level was < 0.05. RESULTS: Specific mortality rates due to DCS increased with age both among males and females, being higher among males in the 40 to 49-year-old range. After that, figures were comparable, although at 80-year-old age groups data for females showed to be higher than that for males in some years of the series. Along the study period, significant reduction was observed for mortality rates among both males and females, and for all age ranges from those causes (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality rate pattern due to DCS in RP-SP was similar to that found in developed areas, which helped formulate hypotheses on the likely protection factors that may explain the observed decline.

  6. S35: a new parameter in blood gas analysis for monitoring the systemic oxygenation. (United States)

    Trouwborst, A; Tenbrinck, R; Van Woerkens, E C


    In the estimation of oxygen transport the term oxygen availability is used as the product of cardiac output and the arterial oxygen content (CaO2). Attempts can be made to modify the concept of oxygen availability by subtracting from the CaO2 the venous content at a critical PO2 as measured in mixed venous blood (Pv-O2), where oxygen diffusion into tissue becomes compromised and oxygen uptake (VO2) may decrease. The real arterial available oxygen content (CavlO2) can be calculated by estimating the saturation at the critical Pv-O2. For our concept S35 was chosen as such a dynamic baseline. Similar modification of oxygen extraction ratio (ERav) defined as VO2 divided by the real oxygen availability (O2av) should give, more than the classic ER, a realistic indices of oxygen availability in relation to oxygen consumption. It can be hypothesized that VO2 starts to decline when ERav is around 1.0. During isovolemic hemodilution VO2 started to drop when ERav reached 1.08 +/- 0.09. The S35 changed from 55.0 +/- 2.1% to 41.5 +/- 4.1%, correlated with changes in Pv-O2. A direct correlation was also found between the increase of the classic ER and the change in S35. We conclude that the S35, the CavlO2 and the ERav can be of value in monitoring the systemic oxygenation and that the concept also includes the effect of changes in oxyhemoglobin characteristics on oxygen delivery.

  7. Blood, pituitary, and brain renin-angiotensin systems and regulation of secretion of anterior pituitary gland. (United States)

    Ganong, W F


    In addition to increasing blood pressure, stimulating aldosterone and vasopressin secretion, and increasing water intake, angiotensin II affects the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones. Some of these effects are direct. There are angiotensin II receptors on lactotropes and corticotropes in rats, and there may be receptors on thyrotropes and other secretory cells. Circulating angiotensin II reaches these receptors, but angiotensin II is almost certainly generated locally by the pituitary renin-angiotensin system as well. There are also indirect effects produced by the effects of brain angiotensin II on the secretion of hypophyseotropic hormones. In the anterior pituitary of the rat, the gonadotropes contain renin, angiotensin II, and some angiotensin-converting enzyme. There is debate about whether these cells also contain small amounts of angiotensinogen, but most of the angiotensinogen is produced by a separate population of cells and appears to pass in a paracrine fashion to the gonadotropes. An analogous situation exists in the brain. Neurons contain angiotensin II and probably renin, but most angiotensin-converting enzyme is located elsewhere and angiotensinogen is primarily if not solely produced by astrocytes. Angiotensin II causes secretion of prolactin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) when added to pituitary cells in vitro. Paracrine regulation of prolactin secretion by angiotensin II from the gonadotropes may occur in vitro under certain circumstances, but the effects of peripheral angiotensin II on ACTH secretion appear to be mediated via the brain and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). In the brain, there is good evidence that locally generated angiotensin II causes release of norepinephrine that in turn stimulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone-secreting neurons, increasing circulating luteinizing hormone. In addition, there is evidence that angiotensin II acts in the arcuate nuclei to increase the secretion of dopamine into the portal

  8. The Gene Expression Patterns of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shouxin; JIANG Wei; HUANG Rui; WANG Xiaohui; LIU Wen; SHEN Shouyin


    This study examined the gene expression patterns of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) technology. Following the construction of serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) library of PBMCs collected from 3 cases of familial SLE patients, a large scale of tag sequencing was performed. The data extracted from sequencing files was analyzed with SAGE 2000 V 4.5 software.The top 30 expressed genes of SLE patients were uploaded to http://david.niaid.nih. gov/david/ease.htm and the functional classification of genes was obtained. The differences among those expressed gene were analyzed by Chi-square tests. The results showed that a total of 1286 unique SAGE tags were identified from 1814 individual SAGE tags. Among the 1286 unique tags, 86.8% had single copy, and only 0.2% tags had more than 20 copies. And 68.4% of the tags matched known expressed sequences, 41.1% of which matched more than one known expressed sequence. About 31.6% of the tags had no match and could represent potentially novel genes. Approximately one third of the top 30 genes were ribosomal protein, and the rest were genes related to metabolism or with unknown functions. Eight tags were found to express differentially in SAGE library of SLE patients. This study draws a profile of gene expression patterns of PBMCs in patients with SLE. Comparison of SAGE database from PBMCs between normal individuals and SLE patients will help us to better understand the pathogenesis of SLE.

  9. Morphology and physiology of the olfactory system of blood-feeding insects. (United States)

    Guidobaldi, F; May-Concha, I J; Guerenstein, P G


    Several blood-feeding (hematophagous) insects are vectors of a number of diseases including dengue, Chagas disease and leishmaniasis which persistently affect public health throughout Latin America. The vectors of those diseases include mosquitoes, triatomine bugs and sandflies. As vector control is an efficient way to prevent these illnesses it is important to understand the sensory biology of those harmful insects. We study the physiology of the olfactory system of those insects and apply that knowledge on the development of methods to manipulate their behavior. Here we review some of the latest information on insect olfaction with emphasis on hematophagous insects. The insect olfactory sensory neurons are housed inside hair-like organs called sensilla which are mainly distributed on the antenna and mouthparts. The identity of many of the odor compounds that those neurons detect are already known in hematophagous insects. They include several constituents of host (vertebrate) odor, sex, aggregation and alarm pheromones, and compounds related to egg-deposition behavior. Recent work has contributed significant knowledge on how odor information is processed in the insect first odor-processing center in the brain, the antennal lobe. The quality, quantity, and temporal features of the odor stimuli are encoded by the neural networks of the antennal lobe. Information regarding odor mixtures is also encoded. While natural mixtures evoke strong responses, synthetic mixtures that deviate from their natural counterparts in terms of key constituents or proportions of those constituents evoke weaker responses. The processing of olfactory information is largely unexplored in hematophagous insects. However, many aspects of their olfactory behavior are known. As in other insects, responses to relevant single odor compounds are weak while natural mixtures evoke strong responses. Future challenges include studying how information about odor mixtures is processed in their brain

  10. Endothelial and non-endothelial coronary blood flow reserve and left ventricular dysfunction in systemic hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloísio Marchi Rocha


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the impairment of endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent coronary blood flow reserve after administration of intracoronary acetylcholine and adenosine, and its association with hypertensive cardiac disease. INTRODUCTION: Coronary blood flow reserve reduction has been proposed as a mechanism for the progression of compensated left ventricular hypertrophy to ventricular dysfunction. METHODS: Eighteen hypertensive patients with normal epicardial coronary arteries on angiography were divided into two groups according to left ventricular fractional shortening (FS. Group 1 (FS >0.25: n=8, FS=0.29 ± 0.03; Group 2 (FS <0.25: n=10, FS= 0.17 ± 0.03. RESULTS: Baseline coronary blood flow was similar in both groups (Group 1: 80.15 ± 26.41 mL/min, Group 2: 100.09 ± 21.51 mL/min, p=NS. In response to adenosine, coronary blood flow increased to 265.1 ± 100.2 mL/min in Group 1 and to 300.8 ± 113.6 mL/min (p <0.05 in Group 2. Endothelium-independent coronary blood flow reserve was similar in both groups (Group 1: 3.31 ± 0.68 and Group 2: 2.97 ± 0.80, p=NS. In response to acetylcholine, coronary blood flow increased to 156.08 ± 36.79 mL/min in Group 1 and to 177.8 ± 83.6 mL/min in Group 2 (p <0.05. Endothelium-dependent coronary blood flow reserve was similar in the two groups (Group 1: 2.08 ± 0.74 and group Group 2: 1.76 ± 0.61, p=NS. Peak acetylcholine/peak adenosine coronary blood flow response (Group 1: 0.65 ± 0.27 and Group 2: 0.60 ± 0.17 and minimal coronary vascular resistance (Group 1: 0.48 ± 0.21 mmHg/mL/min and Group 2: 0.34 ± 0.12 mmHg/mL/min were similar in both groups (p= NS. Casual diastolic blood pressure and end-systolic left ventricular stress were independently associated with FS. CONCLUSIONS: In our hypertensive patients, endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent coronary blood flow reserve vasodilator administrations had similar effects in patients with either normal or decreased left

  11. Predictors of Death and Transplant in Patients With a Mechanical Circulatory Support Device : A Multi-institutional Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holman, William L.; Kormos, Robert L.; Naftel, David C.; Miller, Marissa A.; Pagani, Frank D.; Blume, Elizabeth; Cleeton, Timothy; Koenig, Steven C.; Edwards, Leah; Kirklin, James K.


    Background: INTERMACS is a registry of FDA-approved durable mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices used for the strategies of destination therapy (DT) and bridge to transplantation (BTT) or recovery. This study identifies predictors for death and transplantation based on initial results from I

  12. The organ preservation and enhancement of donation success ratio effect of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in circulatory unstable brain death donor. (United States)

    Fan, Xiaoli; Chen, Zhiquan; Nasralla, David; Zeng, Xianpeng; Yang, Jing; Ye, Shaojun; Zhang, Yi; Peng, Guizhu; Wang, Yanfeng; Ye, Qifa


    Between 2010 and 2013, we recorded 66 cases of failed organ donation after brain death (DBD) due to the excessive use of the vasoactive drugs resulting in impaired hepatic and/or renal function. To investigate the effect of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in donor management, ECMO was used to provide support for DBD donors with circulatory and/or respiratory failure from 2013 to 2015. A retrospective cohort study between circulatory non-stable DBD with vasoactive drugs (DBD-drug) and circulatory non-stable DBD with ECMO (DBD-ECMO) was designed to compare the transplant outcomes. A total of 19 brain death donors were supported by ECMO. The incidence rate of post-transplant liver primary non-function (PNF) was 10% (two of 20) in DBD-drug group and zero in DBD-ECMO group. Kidney function indicators, including creatinine clearance and urine production, were significantly better in DBD-ECMO group, as well as the kidney delayed graft function (DGF) rate was found to be decreased by the use of ECMO in our study. Donation success rate increased steadily from 47.8% in 2011 to 84.6% in 2014 after the ECMO intervention. The use of ECMO in assisting circulatory and respiratory function of DBD can reduce liver and kidney injury from vasoactive drugs, thereby improving organ quality and reducing the organ discard rates.

  13. Mechanical Circulatory Support Devices Improve Tissue Perfusion in Patients With End-Stage Heart Failure or Cardiogenic Shock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. den Uil; A.P. Maat; W.K. Lagrand; M. van der Ent; L.S.D. Jewbali; R.J. van Thiel; P.E. Spronk; M.L. Simoons


    Objectives: This study evaluated the effects of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) on sub-lingual microcirculation as a surrogate for splanchnic microvascular perfusion. Methods: Between May 2008 and April 2009, 10 consecutive patients received an MCS device or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

  14. Second-hand Smoke, Cotinine Levels, and Risk of Circulatory Mortality in a Large Cohort Study of Never-Smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallo, Valentina; Neasham, David; Airoldi, Luisa; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Boffetta, Paolo; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boeing, Heiner; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Arriola, Larraitz; Lund, Eiliv; Bueno-De-Mesquita, Bas; Peeters, Petra H.; Melander, Olle; Hallmans, Goran; Riboli, Elio; Saracci, Rodolfo; Vineis, Paolo


    Background: Exposure to second-hand smoke has been shown to be associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in several, but not all, epidemiologic studies. Our aim was to investigate the risk of circulatory death associated with exposure to second-hand smoke in never-smokers in a very large pr

  15. Senescent Changes in Cerebrospinal Fluid Circulatory Physiology and Their Role in the Pathogenesis of Normal-tension Glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wostyn, Peter; De Groot, Veva; Van Dam, Debby; Audenaert, Kurt; De Deyn, Peter Paul


    PURPOSE: To evaluate the evidence supporting a role for senescent changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulatory physiology in the pathogenesis of normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). DESIGN: Literature review and personal perspective of the authors. METHODS: Analysis of selected articles in the peer-re

  16. Visualization of tumor-related blood vessels in human breast by photoacoustic imaging system with a hemispherical detector array (United States)

    Toi, M.; Asao, Y.; Matsumoto, Y.; Sekiguchi, H.; Yoshikawa, A.; Takada, M.; Kataoka, M.; Endo, T.; Kawaguchi-Sakita, N.; Kawashima, M.; Fakhrejahani, E.; Kanao, S.; Yamaga, I.; Nakayama, Y.; Tokiwa, M.; Torii, M.; Yagi, T.; Sakurai, T.; Togashi, K.; Shiina, T.


    Noninvasive measurement of the distribution and oxygenation state of hemoglobin (Hb) inside the tissue is strongly required to analyze the tumor-associated vasculatures. We developed a photoacoustic imaging (PAI) system with a hemispherical-shaped detector array (HDA). Here, we show that PAI system with HDA revealed finer vasculature, more detailed blood-vessel branching structures, and more detailed morphological vessel characteristics compared with MRI by the use of breast shape deformation of MRI to PAI and their fused image. Morphologically abnormal peritumoral blood vessel features, including centripetal photoacoustic signals and disruption or narrowing of vessel signals, were observed and intratumoral signals were detected by PAI in breast cancer tissues as a result of the clinical study of 22 malignant cases. Interestingly, it was also possible to analyze anticancer treatment-driven changes in vascular morphological features and function, such as improvement of intratumoral blood perfusion and relevant changes in intravascular hemoglobin saturation of oxygen. This clinical study indicated that PAI appears to be a promising tool for noninvasive analysis of human blood vessels and may contribute to improve cancer diagnosis. PMID:28169313

  17. Quantitative blood flow measurements in the small animal cardiopulmonary system using digital subtraction angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Mingde; Marshall, Craig T.; Qi, Yi; Johnston, Samuel M.; Badea, Cristian T.; Piantadosi, Claude A.; Johnson, G. Allan [Department of Radiology, Center for In Vivo Microscopy and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3302, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3823, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiology, Center for In Vivo Microscopy, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3302, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiology, Center for In Vivo Microscopy and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3302, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiology, Center for In Vivo Microscopy, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3302, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3823, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiology, Center for In Vivo Microscopy and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3302, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)


    Purpose: The use of preclinical rodent models of disease continues to grow because these models help elucidate pathogenic mechanisms and provide robust test beds for drug development. Among the major anatomic and physiologic indicators of disease progression and genetic or drug modification of responses are measurements of blood vessel caliber and flow. Moreover, cardiopulmonary blood flow is a critical indicator of gas exchange. Current methods of measuring cardiopulmonary blood flow suffer from some or all of the following limitations--they produce relative values, are limited to global measurements, do not provide vasculature visualization, are not able to measure acute changes, are invasive, or require euthanasia. Methods: In this study, high-spatial and high-temporal resolution x-ray digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was used to obtain vasculature visualization, quantitative blood flow in absolute metrics (ml/min instead of arbitrary units or velocity), and relative blood volume dynamics from discrete regions of interest on a pixel-by-pixel basis (100x100 {mu}m{sup 2}). Results: A series of calibrations linked the DSA flow measurements to standard physiological measurement using thermodilution and Fick's method for cardiac output (CO), which in eight anesthetized Fischer-344 rats was found to be 37.0{+-}5.1 ml/min. Phantom experiments were conducted to calibrate the radiographic density to vessel thickness, allowing a link of DSA cardiac output measurements to cardiopulmonary blood flow measurements in discrete regions of interest. The scaling factor linking relative DSA cardiac output measurements to the Fick's absolute measurements was found to be 18.90xCO{sub DSA}=CO{sub Fick}. Conclusions: This calibrated DSA approach allows repeated simultaneous visualization of vasculature and measurement of blood flow dynamics on a regional level in the living rat.

  18. Biventricular Mechanical Circulatory Support Does Not Prevent Delayed Myocardial Ventricular Rupture following Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazhini Ravi


    Full Text Available Cardiogenic shock and myocardial rupture can complicate an acute myocardial infarction (AMI. A case is reported in which a 58-year-old male with an acute inferior myocardial infarction required placement of biventricular assist device for hemodynamic support eight days after the onset of his AMI; eleven days after his AMI, the patient developed abrupt onset of hemodynamic instability with massive bleeding from his chest tube due to delayed free wall myocardial rupture that was discovered when he was taking emergently to the operating room. Myocardial rupture in patients with a ventricular assist device should be considered in the differential diagnosis in the event of acute hemodynamic compromise. A high level of suspicion for such a complication should prompt aggressive and emergent actions including surgery. We present a case of delayed free wall myocardial rupture following an acute inferior wall myocardial infarction in a patient with biventricular mechanical circulatory support.

  19. [Evaluation of circulatory state using pulse oximeter: 2. PI (perfusion index) x PVI (pleth variability index)]. (United States)

    Kaneda, Toru; Suzuki, Toshiyasu


    Pulse oximeter expressed by SpO2 is used for monitoring respiratory state during operation and in ICU. Perfusion index (PI) and pleth variability index (PVI) as new indexes are calculated from pulse oximeter (Masimo SET Radical-7, Masimo Corp., USA, 1998) waveforms. And these indices were used as parameters to evaluate the circulatory state. For PI calculation, the pulsatile infrared signal is indexed against the nonpulsatile infrared signal and expressed as a percentage. It might thus be of future value in assessment of perioperative changes in peripheral perfusion. PVI is a measure of a dynamic change in PI that occurs during complete respiratory cycle. It might be thought that PVI, an index automatically derived from the pulse oximeter waveform analysis, had potentially clinical applications for noninvasive hypovolemia detection and fluid responsiveness monitoring.

  20. New classification of donation after circulatory death donors definitions and terminology. (United States)

    Thuong, Marie; Ruiz, Angel; Evrard, Patrick; Kuiper, Michael; Boffa, Catherine; Akhtar, Mohammed Z; Neuberger, James; Ploeg, Rutger


    In the face of a crisis in organ donation, the transplant community are increasingly utilizing donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors. Over the last 10 years, with the increasing usage of DCD donors, we have seen the introduction in a number of new terms and definitions. We report the results of the 6th International Conference in Organ Donation held in Paris in 2013 and report a consensus agreement of an established expert European Working Group on the definitions and terminology regarding DCD donation, including refinement of the Maastricht definitions. This document forms part of a special series where recommendations are presented for uncontrolled and controlled DCD donation and organ specific guidelines for kidney, pancreas, liver and lung transplantation. An expert panel formed a consensus on definitions and terms aiming to establish consistent usage of terms in DCD donation.

  1. Microsurgical clipping of a giant vertebrobasilar junction aneurysm under hypothermic circulatory arrest. (United States)

    Cıkla, Ulas; Uluç, Kutluay; Baskaya, Mustafa K


    Giant posterior circulation aneurysms pose a significant challenge to neurovascular surgeons. Among various treatment methods that have been applied individually or in combination, clipping under hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) is rarely used. We present a 62-year-old man who initially underwent coil occlusion of the right vertebral artery (VA) for a 2.5 cm giant vertebrobasilar junction (VBJ) aneurysm. His neurological condition had declined gradually and the aneurysm grew to 4 cm in size. The patient underwent clip reconstruction of giant VBJ aneurysm under HCA. His postoperative course was prolonged due to his preexisting neurological deficits. His preoperative Modified Rankin Score was 5, and improved postoperatively to 3 at three and six months, and to 2 at one year. The video can be found here:

  2. No evidence for an increase in circulatory disease mortality in astronauts following space radiation exposures (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Little, Mark P.


    Previous analysis has shown that astronauts have a significantly lower standardized mortality ratio for circulatory disease mortality compared to the U.S. population, which is consistent with the rigorous selection process and healthy lifestyles of astronauts, and modest space radiation exposures from past space missions. However, a recent report by Delp et al. estimated the proportional mortality ratio for ages of 55-64 y of Apollo lunar mission astronauts to claim a high risk of cardiovascular disease due to space radiation compared to the U.S. population or to non-flight astronauts. In this Commentary we discuss important deficiencies in the methods and assumptions on radiation exposures used by Delp et al. that we judge cast serious doubt on their conclusions.

  3. Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest for hemiarch replacement in a pediatric patient with moyamoya disease. (United States)

    Kuwajima, Ken; Yoshitani, Kenji; Kato, Shinya; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Kamei, Masataka; Ohnishi, Yoshihiko


    Moyamoya disease is a chronic cerebrovascular occlusive disease, occurring predominantly in young populations, that causes cerebral ischemia and hemorrhage. Patients with moyamoya disease are at high risk of neurological complications during cardiac surgery because of perioperative hemodynamic changes. However, there is no established evidence on temperature management during cardiopulmonary bypass. Previous reports described normothermia or mild to moderate hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with moyamoya disease; however, surgical conditions, such as not having enough space to clamp the aorta or a clean surgical field, sometimes force us to use deep hypothermic circuratory arrest. We report a successful case of a pediatric patient with moyamoya disease who underwent deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (18 °C) for hemiarch replacement without neurological complications. Deep hypothermia may be an alternative technique for achieving cerebral protection in the context of moyamoya disease.

  4. Factors influencing the outcome of paediatric cardiac surgical patients during extracorporeal circulatory support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peek Giles J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO is a common modality of circulatory assist device used in children. We assessed the outcome of children who had ECMO following repair of congenital cardiac defects (CCD and identified the risk factors associated with hospital mortality. Methods From April 1990 to December 2003, 53 patients required ECMO following surgical correction of CCD. Retrospectively collected data was analyzed with univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Median age and weight of the patients were 150 days and 5.4 kgs respectively. The indications for ECMO were low cardiac output in 16, failure to wean cardiopulmonary bypass in 13, cardiac arrest in 10 and cardio-respiratory failure in 14 patients. The mean duration of ECMO was 143 hours. Weaning off from ECMO was successful in 66% and of these 83% were survival to hospital-discharge. 37.7% of patients were alive for the mean follow-up period of 75 months. On univariate analysis, arrhythmias, ECMO duration >168 hours, bleeding complications, renal replacement therapy on ECMO, arrhythmias and cardiac arrest after ECMO were associated with hospital mortality. On multivariate analysis, abnormal neurology, bleeding complications and arrhythmias after ECMO were associated with hospital mortality. Extra and intra-thoracic cannulations were used in 79% and 21% of patients respectively and extra-thoracic cannulation had significantly less bleeding complications (p = 0.031. Conclusion ECMO provides an effective circulatory support following surgical repair of CCD in children. Extra-thoracic cannulation is associated with less bleeding complications. Abnormal neurology, bleeding complications on ECMO and arrhythmias after ECMO are poor prognostic indicators for hospital survival.

  5. Development of a telecare system based on ZigBee mesh network for monitoring blood pressure of patients with hemodialysis in health care centers. (United States)

    Du, Yi-Chun; Lee, You-Yun; Lu, Yun-Yuan; Lin, Chia-Hung; Wu, Ming-Jei; Chen, Chung-Lin; Chen, Tainsong


    In Taiwan, the number of the patients needing dialysis increases rapidly in recent years. Because there is risk in every hemodialysis session, monitoring physiological status, such as blood pressure measurement every 30 min to 1 h is needed during about 4 h hemodialysis process. Therefore, an assisted measurement on blood pressure is needful in dialysis care centers. Telecare system (TCS) is regarded as one of important technique in the medical care. In this study, we utilized ZigBee wireless technique to establish a mesh network for monitoring blood pressure automatically and data storage in medical record system for display and further analysis. Moreover, while the blood pressure exceeds the normal range, the system could send a warning signal to remind, or inform the relatives and clinicians in health care center through the personal handy-phone system (PHS) immediately. The proposed system provides an assisted device for monitoring patients' blood pressure during hemodialysis process and saving medical manpower.

  6. 采供血系统的冷链管理研究%Research on Cold Chain Management of Blood Collection and Supply Sys-tem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:探讨采供血系统冷链管理对血液质量和血液成分的影响。方法通过对采供血机构和用血机构的血液储存、运输等环节的管理经验,总结供血系统的冷链管理方法。结果供血系统经过规范化冷链管理,用血安全得到有效保证。结论通过对供血系统冷链管理环节的有效监控和员工责任心的培养,安全供血可得到有效保障。%Objective To study the effect of cold chain management of blood collection and supply system on blood quality and blood component. Methods The cold chain management method of blood supply system was summarized by the man-agement experience of blood storage and transfusion of blood collection and supply institutions and blood use institutions. Results The blood use security was effectively ensured after the normative cold chain management of cold chain manage-ment. Conclusion The safe blood supply is effectively ensured by the effective monitoring of cold chain management links of blood supply system and cultivating the responsibility of staff.

  7. A miniature intraventricular axial flow blood pump that is introduced through the left ventricular apex. (United States)

    Yamazaki, K; Umezu, M; Koyanagi, H; Kitamura, M; Eishi, K; Kawai, A; Tagusari, O; Niinami, H; Akimoto, T; Nojiri, C


    A new intraventricular axial flow blood pump has been designed and developed as an implantable left ventricular assist device (LVAD). The pump consists of a tube housing (10 cm in length and 14 mm in diameter), a three-vane impeller combined with a guide vane, and a DC motor. This pump is introduced into the LV cavity through the LV apex, and the outlet cannula is passed antegrade across the aortic valve. Blood is withdrawn from the LV through the inlet ports at the pump base, and discharged into the ascending aorta. A pump flow of > 8 L/min was obtained against 90 mmHg differential pressure in the mock circulatory system. In an acute dog model, this pump could produce a sufficient output of 200 ml/kg/min. In addition, the pump flow profile demonstrated a pulsatile pattern, although the rotation speed was fixed. This is mainly due to the changes in flow rate during a cardiac cycle--that is, during systole, the flow rate increases to the maximum, while the differential pressure between the LV and the aorta decreases to the minimum. Thus, this simple and compact axial flow blood pump can be a potential LVAD, with prompt accessibility and need for less invasive surgical procedures.

  8. A sample-to-result system for blood coagulation tests on a microfluidic disk analyzer. (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hui; Liu, Cheng-Yuan; Shih, Chih-Hsin; Lu, Chien-Hsing


    In this report, we describe in detail a microfluidic analyzer, which is able to conduct blood coagulation tests using whole blood samples. Sample preparation steps, such as whole blood aliquoting and metering, plasma separation, decanting, and mixing with reagents were performed in sequence through microfluidic functions integrated on a disk. Both prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were carried out on the same platform and the test results can be reported in 5 min. Fifty clinical samples were tested for both PT and aPTT utilizing the microfluidic disk analyzer and the instrument used in hospitals. The test results showed good correlation and agreement between the two instruments.

  9. High prevalence of Kingella kingae in joint fluid from children with septic arthritis revealed by the BACTEC blood culture system. (United States)

    Yagupsky, P; Dagan, R; Howard, C W; Einhorn, M; Kassis, I; Simu, A


    In an effort to improve detection of fastidious organisms, joint fluid aspirates of pediatric patients were inoculated into BACTEC 460 aerobic blood culture bottles, in addition to cultures on solid media. Culture records for the 1988 to 1991 period were reviewed to compare the performance of both methods for the recovery of pathogens. Overall, 216 children underwent a diagnostic joint tap, and 63 specimens grew significant organisms, including Kingella kingae in 14. While both methods were comparable for recovery of usual pathogens, with a single exception, K. kingae isolates were detected by the BACTEC system only. K. kingae appears to be a more common cause of septic arthritis in children than has been previously recognized. The BACTEC blood culture system enhances the recovery of K. kingae from joint fluid and improves bacteriologic diagnosis of pediatric septic arthritis.

  10. A mobile monitoring system of blood pressure for underserved in China by information and communication technology service. (United States)

    Jiang, Jiehui; Yan, Zhuangzhi; Kandachar, Prabhu; Freudenthal, Adinda


    High blood pressure (BP, hypertension) is a leading chronic condition in China and has become the main risk factor for many high-risk diseases, such as heart attacks. However, the platform for chronic disease measurement and management is still lacking, especially for underserved Chinese. To achieve the early diagnosis of hypertension, one BP monitoring system has been designed. The proposed design consists of three main parts: user domain, server domain, and channel domain. All three units and their materialization, validation tests on reliability, and usability are described in this paper, and the conclusion is that the current design concept is feasible and the system can be developed toward sufficient reliability and affordability with further optimization. This idea might also be extended into one platform for other physiological signals, such as blood sugar and ECG.

  11. Origins of systems biology in William Harvey's masterpiece on the movement of the heart and the blood in animals. (United States)

    Auffray, Charles; Noble, Denis


    In this article we continue our exploration of the historical roots of systems biology by considering the work of William Harvey. Central arguments in his work on the movement of the heart and the circulation of the blood can be shown to presage the concepts and methods of integrative systems biology. These include: (a) the analysis of the level of biological organization at which a function (e.g. cardiac rhythm) can be said to occur; (b) the use of quantitative mathematical modelling to generate testable hypotheses and deduce a fundamental physiological principle (the circulation of the blood) and (c) the iterative submission of his predictions to an experimental test. This article is the result of a tri-lingual study: as Harvey's masterpiece was published in Latin in 1628, we have checked the original edition and compared it with and between the English and French translations, some of which are given as notes to inform the reader of differences in interpretation.

  12. Haematophagous arthropod saliva and host defense system: a tale of tear and blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Bruno B.


    Full Text Available The saliva from blood-feeding arthropod vectors is enriched with molecules that display diverse functions that mediate a successful blood meal. They function not only as weapons against host's haemostatic, inflammatory and immune responses but also as important tools to pathogen establishment. Parasites, virus and bacteria taking advantage of vectors' armament have adapted to facilitate their entry in the host. Today, many salivary molecules have been identified and characterized as new targets to the development of future vaccines. Here we focus on current information on vector's saliva and the molecules responsible to modify host's hemostasis and immune response, also regarding their role in disease transmission.

  13. Influence of the renin-angiotensin system on human forearm blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadeager, C; Hesse, B; Henriksen, O;


    Although angiotensin II is a potent vasoconstrictor agent in all tissues, including the human forearm, equivocal effects on forearm blood flow (FBF) have been found after angiotensin blockade. In 13 healthy Na(+)-depleted subjects FBF was measured by the 133Xe washout technique; subcutaneous...... and muscle blood flows were determined separately. FBF was measured during supine rest, after the arm was lowered, and during lower body negative pressure (LBNP). The measurements were repeated during intra-arterial saralasin infusion in six subjects and after intravenous administration of enalapril in seven...

  14. 浅谈血库信息管理系统%Discussion on information management system of blood bank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    本文介绍了血库信息管理系统的组成,以及该系统在应用过程中发现的问题,并就这些问题提出了解决的方法.%This paper introduces the composition of blood banks management system and its p during application, also puts forward the solutions to these problems.

  15. Blood selenium concentration in various populations of healthy and sick people – review of literature fromthe years 2005–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Gać


    Full Text Available Due to its significant biological functions, as well as slight diversity between the dose essential for proper functioning of the organism and its toxic dosage, during the recent years selenium concentration constituted a subject of considerable interest as far as toxicology specialists and researchers from other branches are concerned. This thesis reviews 55 articles published between 2005 and 2010 and focuses on the analysis concerning blood selenium concentration in various populations. Methodology related with various manners of marking blood selenium level, scope of blood selenium concentrations in healthy people, as well as dependence between blood selenium concentration and the occurrence of various diseases, such as malignant tumours, diseases of circulatory system, diabetes and viral infections. According to the authors, what seems important is the elaboration and standardisation of the method used to mark selenium concentration and indication of preferred biological material for marking the above. What is more, further follow up of the study focusing on significance of selenium on people health is recommended, as this would resolve all doubts within this field.

  16. Role of PGI2 in the formation and maintenance of hyperdynamic circulatory state of portal hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yong Wu; Xue-Song Chen; Jiang-Feng Qiu; Hui Cao


    AIM: To investigate the role of prostacyclin (PGI2) and nitric oxide (NO) in the development and maintenance of hyperdynamic circulatory state of chronic portal hypertensive rats.METHODS: Ninety male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: intrahepatic portal hypertension (IHPH)group by injection of CCl4, prehepatic portal hypertension (PHPH) group by partial stenosis of the portal vein and sham-operation control (SO) group. One week after the models were made, animals in each group were subdivided into 4 groups: saline controlled group (n = 23), Nω-nitroL-arginine (L-NNA)group (n = 21) group, indomethacin (INDO)group (n = 22) and high-dose heparin group (n = 24). The for one week, then heparin (200 IU/Kg/min) was given to rats by intravenous injection for an hour. Splanchnic and systemic hemodynamics were measured using radioactive microsphere techniques. The serum nitrate/nitrite(NO2-/NO3-)levels as a marker of production of NO were assessed by a colorimetric method, and concentration of 6-keto-PGF1α,a stable hydrolytic product of PGI2, was determined by radioimmunoassay.RESULTS: The concentrations of plasma 6-keto-PGF1α(pg/mL) and serum NO2-/NO3- (μmol/L) in IHPH rats(1123.85±153.64, 73.34±4.31) and PHPH rats (891.88±83.11,75.21±6.89) were significantly higher than those in SO rats(725.53±105.54, 58.79±8.47) (P<0.05). Compared with SO rats, total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR) and spanchnic vascular resistance (SVR) decreased but cardiac index (CI) and portal venous inflow (PVI) increased obviously in IHPH and PHPH rats (P<0.05). L-NNA and indomethacin could decrease the concentrations of plasma 6-keto-PGF1α and serum NO2-/NO3-in IHPH and PHPH rats (P<0.05) .Meanwhile, CI, FPP and PVI lowered but MAP,TPR and SVR increased(P<0.05). After deduction of the action of NO, there was no significant correlation between plasma PGI2 level and hemodynamic parameters such as CI, TPR, PVI and SVR. However, after deduction of the action of

  17. High-sodium intake prevents pregnancy-induced decrease of blood pressure in the rat. (United States)

    Beauséjour, Annie; Auger, Karine; St-Louis, Jean; Brochu, Michéle


    Despite an increase of circulatory volume and of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activity, pregnancy is paradoxically accompanied by a decrease in blood pressure. We have reported that the decrease in blood pressure was maintained in pregnant rats despite overactivation of RAAS following reduction in sodium intake. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the opposite condition, e.g., decreased activation of RAAS during pregnancy in the rat. To do so, 0.9% or 1.8% NaCl in drinking water was given to nonpregnant and pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats for 7 days (last week of gestation). Increased sodium intakes (between 10- and 20-fold) produced reduction of plasma renin activity and aldosterone in both nonpregnant and pregnant rats. Systolic blood pressure was not affected in nonpregnant rats. However, in pregnant rats, 0.9% sodium supplement prevented the decreased blood pressure. Moreover, an increase of systolic blood pressure was obtained in pregnant rats receiving 1.8% NaCl. The 0.9% sodium supplement did not affect plasma and fetal parameters. However, 1.8% NaCl supplement has larger effects during gestation as shown by increased plasma sodium concentration, hematocrit level, negative water balance, proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction. With both sodium supplements, decreased AT1 mRNA levels in the kidney and in the placenta were observed. Our results showed that a high-sodium intake prevents the pregnancy-induced decrease of blood pressure in rats. Nonpregnant rats were able to maintain homeostasis but not the pregnant ones in response to sodium load. Furthermore, pregnant rats on a high-sodium intake (1.8% NaCl) showed some physiological responses that resemble manifestations observed in preeclampsia.

  18. Renal Urotensin II System Plays Roles in the Regulation of Blood Pressure in Dahl Salt-Resistant Rat (United States)

    Wu, Fei; Chen, Guanjong; Fan, Minhua; Tang, Chaoshu


    Introduction. Dahl salt-resistant (SR) animal models are similar to peritoneal dialysis patients with fluid volumes overload with normal blood pressure in hemodynamic profiles. We will verify the roles of UII in the regulation of blood pressure in these animal models. Methodology. The Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) and SR rats and UII receptor gene knocked out (KO) mice were placed on a high-salt diet. Renal tissues were performed for the expression of UII in Dahl groups. Results. After high-salt diet for 6 weeks, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) in SR group was significantly lower, accompanied with higher urinary UII levels, higher 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, and higher urinary creatinine clearance in the SR rats in comparison to SS group. The expressions of UII and UT were both upregulated in the kidney tissues of SR group in comparison to SS group (P < 0.05). After high-salt diet for 8 weeks, the SBP of the KO group is significantly higher than that of the wild type group. Conclusion. We first demonstrate that renal UII system can play important roles in the regulation of blood pressure in Dahl SR rats which can be highly correlated to its effect on renal tubular sodium absorption. PMID:28097020

  19. Analysis article on the performance analysis of the OneTouch UltraVue blood glucose monitoring system. (United States)

    Solnica, Bogdan


    In this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Chang and colleagues present the analytical performance evaluation of the OneTouch UltraVue blood glucose meter. This device is an advanced construction with a color display, used-strip ejector, no-button interface, and short assay time. Accuracy studies were performed using a YSI 2300 analyzer, considered the reference. Altogether, 349 pairs of results covering a wide range of blood glucose concentrations were analyzed. Patients with diabetes performed a significant part of the tests. Obtained results indicate good accuracy of OneTouch UltraVue blood glucose monitoring system, satisfying the International Organization for Standardization recommendations and thereby locating >95% of tests within zone A of the error grid. Results of the precision studies indicate good reproducibility of measurements. In conclusion, the evaluation of the OneTouch UltraVue meter revealed good analytical performance together with convenient handling useful for self-monitoring of blood glucose performed by elderly diabetes patients.

  20. Blood-brain barrier models and their relevance for a successful development of CNS drug delivery systems: a review. (United States)

    Bicker, Joana; Alves, Gilberto; Fortuna, Ana; Falcão, Amílcar


    During the research and development of new drugs directed at the central nervous system, there is a considerable attrition rate caused by their hampered access to the brain by the blood-brain barrier. Throughout the years, several in vitro models have been developed in an attempt to mimic critical functionalities of the blood-brain barrier and reliably predict the permeability of drug candidates. However, the current challenge lies in developing a model that retains fundamental blood-brain barrier characteristics and simultaneously remains compatible with the high throughput demands of pharmaceutical industries. This review firstly describes the roles of all elements of the neurovascular unit and their influence on drug brain penetration. In vitro models, including non-cell based and cell-based models, and in vivo models are herein presented, with a particular emphasis on their methodological aspects. Lastly, their contribution to the improvement of brain drug delivery strategies and drug transport across the blood-brain barrier is also discussed.