WorldWideScience

Sample records for blood chemical analysis

  1. Analysis of blood spots for polyfluoroalkyl chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been detected in humans, in the environment, and in ecosystems around the world. The potential for developmental and reproductive toxicities of some PFCs is of concern especially to children's health. In the United States, a sample of a baby's blood, called a 'dried blood spot' (DBS), is obtained from a heel stick within 48 h of a child's birth. DBS could be useful for assessing prenatal exposure to PFCs. We developed a method based on online solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry for measuring four PFCs in DBS, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorononanoate. The analytical limits of detection using one whole DBS (∼75 μL of blood) were -1. To validate the method, we analyzed 98 DBS collected in May 2007 in the United States. PFOS and PFOA were detected in all DBS at concentrations in the low ng mL-1 range. These data suggest that DBS may be a suitable matrix for assessing perinatal exposure to PFCs, but additional information related to sampling and specimen storage is needed to demonstrate the utility of these measures for assessing exposure.

  2. ANALYSIS OF MACRO AND MICROELEMENTS IN TEETH, SALIVA, AND BLOOD OF WORKERS IN FERGANA CHEMICAL PLANT OF FURAN COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunnatillo Gaffarov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to share the results of research conducted in the Fergana chemical plant of furan compounds (FCPFC in Uzbekistan.19 workers of the Furan compounds plant, in Fergana, Uzbekistan, were tested. By neutron activation analysis method, we have studied microelement composition of saliva, blood, dental hard tissue, and the level of Ca, Zn, Fe, and Ag in these subjects. We havedetected that the level of chemical elements in dental hard tissue, blood, and saliva of these workers was subject to negative changes as compared to the analysis results from those in the control group.The research results havepractical value for the prophylaxis, treatment, and health resumption of the people living in rugged ecological environment and workers who are engagedwith harmful substances in chemical industry.  Furthermore,this research also provides recommendations fortreatment of dental diseases related to common conditions of pathophysiological processes carried out bylivingorganisms.

  3. Bridging the gap between sample collection and laboratory analysis: using dried blood spots to identify human exposure to chemical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Blake, Thomas A.; Perez, Jonas W.; Crow, Brian S.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-05-01

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  4. Fast gas chromatography and negative-ion chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry for forensic analysis of cannabinoids in whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Aurélien; Widmer, Christèle; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Staub, Christian

    2007-11-01

    The present work describes a fast gas chromatography/negative-ion chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometric assay (Fast GC/NICI-MS/MS) for analysis of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) in whole blood. The cannabinoids were extracted from 500 microL of whole blood by a simple liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and then derivatized by using trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) and hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) as fluorinated agents. Mass spectrometric detection of the analytes was performed in the selected reaction-monitoring mode on a triple quadrupole instrument after negative-ion chemical ionization. The assay was found to be linear in the concentration range of 0.5-20 ng/mL for THC and THC-OH, and of 2.5-100 ng/mL for THC-COOH. Repeatability and intermediate precision were found less than 12% for all concentrations tested. Under standard chromatographic conditions, the run cycle time would have been 15 min. By using fast conditions of separation, the assay analysis time has been reduced to 5 min, without compromising the chromatographic resolution. Finally, a simple approach for estimating the uncertainty measurement is presented. PMID:17913432

  5. Chemical Security Analysis Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2006, by Presidential Directive, DHS established the Chemical Security Analysis Center (CSAC) to identify and assess chemical threats and vulnerabilities in the...

  6. Blood stain pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, O; Kunz, S N; Rothschild, M A; Mützel, E

    2011-09-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) refers to the collection, categorization and interpretation of the shape and distribution of bloodstains connected with a crime. These kinds of stains occur in a considerable proportion of homicide cases. They offer extensive information and are an important part of a functional, medically and scientifically based reconstruction of a crime. The following groups of patterns can essentially be distinguished: dripped and splashed blood, projected blood, impact patterns, cast-off stains, expirated and transferred bloodstains. A highly qualified analysis can help to estimate facts concerning the location, quality and intensity of an external force. A sequence of events may be recognized, and detailed questions connected with the reconstruction of the crime might be answered. In some cases, BPA helps to distinguish between accident, homicide and suicide or to identify bloodstains originating from a perpetrator. BPA is based on systematic training, a visit to the crime scene or alternatively good photographic documentation, and an understanding and knowledge of autopsy findings or statements made by the perpetrator and/or victim. A BPA working group has been established within the German Society of Legal Medicine aiming to put the knowledge and practical applications of this subdiscipline of forensic science on a wider basis. PMID:21069481

  7. Chemical exchange program analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waffelaert, Pascale

    2007-09-01

    As part of its EMS, Sandia performs an annual environmental aspects/impacts analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the environmental aspects associated with Sandia's activities, products, and services and the potential environmental impacts associated with those aspects. Division and environmental programs established objectives and targets based on the environmental aspects associated with their operations. In 2007 the most significant aspect identified was Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage). The objective for Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage) was to improve chemical handling, storage, and on-site movement of hazardous materials. One of the targets supporting this objective was to develop an effective chemical exchange program, making a business case for it in FY07, and fully implementing a comprehensive chemical exchange program in FY08. A Chemical Exchange Program (CEP) team was formed to implement this target. The team consists of representatives from the Chemical Information System (CIS), Pollution Prevention (P2), the HWMF, Procurement and the Environmental Management System (EMS). The CEP Team performed benchmarking and conducted a life-cycle analysis of the current management of chemicals at SNL/NM and compared it to Chemical Exchange alternatives. Those alternatives are as follows: (1) Revive the 'Virtual' Chemical Exchange Program; (2) Re-implement a 'Physical' Chemical Exchange Program using a Chemical Information System; and (3) Transition to a Chemical Management Services System. The analysis and benchmarking study shows that the present management of chemicals at SNL/NM is significantly disjointed and a life-cycle or 'Cradle-to-Grave' approach to chemical management is needed. This approach must consider the purchasing and maintenance costs as well as the cost of ultimate disposal of the chemicals and materials. A chemical exchange is needed as a mechanism to re-apply chemicals on site. This

  8. IMEKO TC1-TC7 Symposium in London: The assurance as a result of blood chemical analysis by ISO-GUM and QE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaki, Y.

    2010-07-01

    Degree (EFD) which thought the number of samples is important. Free degree is based on maximum likelihood method of an improved information criterion (AIC) for a Quality Control (QC). The assurance performance of ISO-GUM is come out by set up of the confidence interval [3] and is decided. The result of research of "Decided level/Minimum Detectable Concentration (DL/MDC)" was able to profit by the operation. QE has developed for the QC of industry. However, these have been processed by regression analysis by making frequency probability of a statistic value into normalized distribution. The occurrence probability of the statistics value of a fault element which is accompanied element by a natural phenomenon becomes an abnormal distribution in many cases. The abnormal distribution needs to obtain an assurance value by other method than statistical work of type B in ISO-GUM. It is tried fusion the improvement of worker by QE became important for reservation of the reliability of measurement accuracy and safety. This research was to make the result of Blood Chemical Analysis (BCA) in the field of clinical test.

  9. Chemical process hazards analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  10. Radiometric chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiometric method of analysis is noted for its sensitivity and its simplicity in both apparatus and procedure. A few inexpensive radioactive reagents permit the analysis of a wide variety of chemical elements and compounds. Any particular procedure is generally applicable over a very wide range of concentrations. It is potentially an analytical method of great industrial significance. Specific examples of analyses are cited to illustrate the potentialities of ordinary equipment. Apparatus specifically designed for radiometric chemistry may shorten the time required, and increase the precision and accuracy for routine analyses. A sensitive and convenient apparatus for the routine performance of radiometric chemical analysis is a special type of centrifuge which has been used in obtaining the data presented in this paper. The radioactivity of the solution is measured while the centrifuge is spinning. This device has been used as the basis for an automatic analyser for phosphate ion, programmed to follow a sequence of unknown sampling, reagent mixing, centrifugation, counting data presentation, and phosphate replenishment. This analyser can repeatedly measure phosphate-concentration in the range of 5 to 50 ppm with an accuracy of ±5%. (author)

  11. Chemical enhancement of fingermark in blood on thermal paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungwook; Seo, Jin Yi

    2015-12-01

    Chemical enhancement methods for fingermark in blood deposited on the surface of a thermal paper substrate were examined. The blood-sensitive reagents compared were LCV (leuco crystal violet), Amido black and Hungarian red. Fingermark in blood on the surface of thermal paper can be fixed with 2% 5-sulfosalicylic acid solution. LCV was found as an inadequate blood staining reagent because of bubbling, diffusion, and blurring on the surface of thermal paper. Hungarian red was also an inadequate blood staining reagent because excess Hungarian red on the surface of thermal paper was not washed away in the de-staining procedure. Amido black was the best staining reagent among three staining reagents compared. The maximum dilution ratio visible to the naked eye after Amido black staining was 1 in 80 for the thermally sensitive surface and 1 in 20 for the thermally non-sensitive surface. PMID:26540182

  12. Elemental analysis of some traditional herbal blood tonics and pharmaceutical blood tonics using INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron content and some essential trace elements in six traditional Ghanaian herbal blood tonics and four pharmaceutical blood tonics have been determined using Thermal and Epithermal Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (TINAA and EINAA). The samples were irradiated in one inner and one outer irradiation sites of the Ghana research reactor-1 (GHARR-1) operating at a thermal neutron flux of 5.0x1011. After irradiation, the samples were counted directly using an N-type high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The qualitative and quantitative determination was achieved using the gamma ray spectrum analysis software SPAN5.0. In all, 26 chemical elements were measured. In the liquid form, the pharmaceutical blood tonics have higher amount of Fe than the traditional herbal blood tonics. But the Fe content in traditional blood tonics compare favourably with the pharmaceutical tonics when freeze-dried. There were more essential elements in the herbal tonics than the pharmaceutical ones (author)

  13. Blood gas analysis for bedside diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Virendra; Khatana, Shruti; Gupta, Pranav

    2013-01-01

    Arterial blood gas is an important routine investigation to monitor the acid-base balance of patients, effectiveness of gas exchange, and the state of their voluntary respiratory control. Majority of the oral and maxillofacial surgeons find it difficult to interpret and clinically correlate the arterial blood gas report in their everyday practice. This has led to underutilization of this simple tool. The present article aims to simplify arterial blood gas analysis for a rapid and easy bedside...

  14. Chemical Analysis Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Uses state-of-the-art instrumentation for qualitative and quantitative analysis of organic and inorganic compounds, and biomolecules from gas, liquid, and...

  15. Microprocessors in automatic chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of microprocessors to programming and computing of solutions chemical analysis by a sequential technique is examined. Safety, performances reliability are compared to other methods. An example is given on uranium titration by spectrophotometry

  16. Chemical substructure analysis in toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary examination of chemical-substructure analysis (CSA) demonstrates the effective use of the Chemical Abstracts compound connectivity file in conjunction with the bibliographic file for relating chemical structures to biological activity. The importance of considering the role of metabolic intermediates under a variety of conditions is illustrated, suggesting structures that should be examined that may exhibit potential activity. This CSA technique, which utilizes existing large files accessible with online personal computers, is recommended for use as another tool in examining chemicals in drugs. 2 refs., 4 figs

  17. Chemical substructure analysis in toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauchamp, R.O. Jr. [Center for Information on Toxicology and Environment, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    A preliminary examination of chemical-substructure analysis (CSA) demonstrates the effective use of the Chemical Abstracts compound connectivity file in conjunction with the bibliographic file for relating chemical structures to biological activity. The importance of considering the role of metabolic intermediates under a variety of conditions is illustrated, suggesting structures that should be examined that may exhibit potential activity. This CSA technique, which utilizes existing large files accessible with online personal computers, is recommended for use as another tool in examining chemicals in drugs. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Partition of Environmental Chemicals between Maternal and Fetal Blood and Tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Needham, Larry L; Grandjean, Philippe; Heinzow, Birger;

    2011-01-01

    Passage of environmental chemicals across the placenta has important toxicological consequences, as well as for choosing samples for analysis and for interpreting the results. To obtain systematic data, we collected in 2000 maternal and cord blood, cord tissue, placenta, and milk in connection with...... compounds occurred in lower concentrations in cord serum than in maternal serum. Cadmium, lead, mercury, and selenium were all detected in fetal samples, but only mercury showed close correlations among concentrations in different matrices. Although the environmental chemicals examined pass through the...

  19. Multi-element analysis of blood plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two examples of multi-element analysis (MA) - semiconductor gamma spectrometry of natural and artificial radionuclides, and neutron activation analysis - of eight samples of lyophilized pooled plasma (a total of 124 subjects) from four localities of the regions Central Bohemia and Prague, show the scope for its use, e.g., in transfusion services. This consists in the use of ecological screening made up of five stages: preliminary rating of the intensity of ecological interactions in an individual or a group of blood donors; sample taking with the date and hour of sampling; determination of ecological interaction intensity tracers for an individual or for groups of blood donors using the appropriate MA method; comparisons of pre-rated and MA-established intensity of ecological interactions of an individual or a group of blood donors; standardization of MA results according to the date and hour of sampling. (author)

  20. Further Relationships Between Blood Chemical Values and College Student Performance and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Richard H.; And Others

    Blood serum uric acid and cholesterol levels in the blood were studied in relation to inner drive and external pressures of college students in the U.S.A. and in Sweden. Subjects for the study included 210 American and 78 Swedish male and female college students and 138 college football players. The blood chemicals were measured by Technicon…

  1. Chemical analysis by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This state art report consists of four parts, production of micro-particles, analysis of boron, alpha tracking method and development of neutron induced prompt gamma ray spectroscopy (NIPS) system. The various methods for the production of micro-paticles such as mechanical method, electrolysis method, chemical method, spray method were described in the first part. The second part contains sample treatment, separation and concentration, analytical method, and application of boron analysis. The third part contains characteristics of alpha track, track dectectors, pretreatment of sample, neutron irradiation, etching conditions for various detectors, observation of track on the detector, etc. The last part contains basic theory, neutron source, collimator, neutron shields, calibration of NIPS, and application of NIPS system

  2. PIXE analysis of chinese chicken-blood stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the chemical compositions of chicken-blood stone Ji Xue Shi measured by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). The experimental result show that for the red portion of chicken-blood stone, the concentration of Hg is as high as 20 wt%, and the concentration of S can be above 10 wt%. For the non-red portion the main chemical compositions are Al2O3 and SiO2. The obtained chemical compositions are close to those of kaolinite for Balin chicken-blood stone, and of pyrophyllite for Changhua chicken-blood stone, respectively. So far many Changhua chicken-blood stones and Balin chicken-blood stones were found in China, the PIXE method can be used to explore the provenance of available chicken-blood stones. (author)

  3. Blood chemical changes and renal histological alterations induced by gentamicin in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarifi, Saud; Al-Doaiss, Amin; Alkahtani, Saad; Al-Farraj, S.A.; Al-Eissa, Mohammed Saad; Al-Dahmash, B.; Al-Yahya, Hamad; Mubarak, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Gentamicin is an effective widely used antibiotic, but the risk of nephrotoxicity and oxidative damage limit its long-term use. Hence, the current study aims to elucidate such hazardous effects. To achieve the study aim male Wistar albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were exposed to gentamicin to investigate the resultant blood chemical changes and renal histological alterations. In comparison with control rats, gentamicin produced outstanding tubular, glomerular and interstitial alterations that included degeneration, necrosis, cytolysis and cortical tubular desquamation together with mesangial hypercellularity, endothelial cell proliferation and blood capillary congestion. Compared with control animals significant blood chemical changes (P < 0.05) including free radicals, ALT, AST, ALP, serum creatinine and serum urea were recorded in gentamicin-injected animals. The findings revealed that exposure to gentamicin can induce significant histological alterations in the kidney as well as remarkable blood chemical changes that might indicate marked renal failure. PMID:23961168

  4. Use of a blood glucose meter for radiochromic film analysis in blood irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of a diabetic blood glucose meter for radiochromic film dosimetry in blood irradiation using x-ray beams on a medical linear accelerator has been investigated. The glucose meter provides optical density analysis in the visible and infrared region using a reflectance measurement technique. By comparing the 'blood sugar' level output with standard calibration gafchromic films a calibration curve is produced for quantitative analysis. Results show that a reproducible dose to meter output curve can be fitted using a second order polynomial function and that blood irradiation doses in vitro were measured to within 7.9% mean error (as compared to ionization chamber results) using the blood glucose meter. This level of accuracy falls below that measured with a standard densitometer (4.3%); however, results show that the blood glucose meter, which would be available in any haematology department, produces an adequate measure of gafchromic film optical density for blood irradiation dosimetry. (author)

  5. Coulometry in quantitative chemical analysis and physico-chemical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electroanalytical methods such as potentiometry, amperometry, coulometry and voltammetry are well established and routinely employed in quantitative chemical analysis as well as in chemical research. Coulometry is one of the most important electroanalytical techniques, which involves change in oxidation state of electro active species by heterogeneous electron transfer. In primary coulometric method, uranium is determined at mercury pool electrode and plutonium at platinum gauze electrode

  6. ANALYSIS OF DISCARD OF WHOLE BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS IN GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL BLOOD BANK IN CENTRAL INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Vedita Bobde; Sanjay Parate; Dinkar Kumbhalkar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transfusion requests are always more than the supply due to advances in health care delivery . Injudicious use of whole blood and blood components strains the transfusion services. This mandates the proper analysis of real need of transfusion and the discard of this scarce resource. MATERIALS & METHODS: Total 31143 voluntary and...

  7. Automated red blood cell analysis compared with routine red blood cell morphology by smear review

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Poonam Radadiya; Dr.Nandita Mehta; Dr.Hansa Goswami; Dr.R.N.Gonsai

    2015-01-01

    The RBC histogram is an integral part of automated haematology analysis and is now routinely available on all automated cell counters. This histogram and other associated complete blood count (CBC) parameters have been found abnormal in various haematological conditions and may provide major clues in the diagnosis and management of significant red cell disorders. Performing manual blood smears is important to ensure the quality of blood count results an...

  8. Effects of radiotherapy on the chemical constituents of blood in patients undergoing renal dialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the chemical constituents of blood during radiotherapy in three patients who had undergone renal dialysis were examined. Serum blood urea nitrogen and potassium levels tended to rise during radiotherapy. In one patient, the serum potassium level exceeded 6.0 mEq/l, necessitating changes in treatment. Patients undergoing renal dialysis should be carefully monitored during radiotherapy, and management from the viewpoints of radiotherapy, renal dialysis, and diet control is necessary. (author)

  9. [Hemodynamic analysis of a centrifugal blood pump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Yang, Ming; Xu, Zihao; Zhuang, Xiaoqi; Li, Qilei; Xu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    This paper built the mathematical model of a centrifugal blood pump, which was designed by ourselves, combined it with that of the human cardiovascular system and simulated the coupling system using Matlab. Then we set up the experiment platform, linked the blood pump to mock human cardiovascular system in case of three-stage heart failure, and measured aortic pressure and flow under different speed. The comparison between experiment results and simulation results not only indicates the coupling model is correct and the blood pump works well, but also shows that with the increase of blood pump speed, the pulsation of aortic pressure and flow will be reduced, this situation will affect the structure and function of blood vessels. PMID:26027287

  10. Blood chemical parameters in the warthog Phacochoerus aethiopicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keffen, R H; Van Heerden, J; Dauth, J; Dreyer, M J

    1987-09-01

    Concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, inorganic phosphorus, total calcium, total magnesium, albumin, total protein, cholesterol, urea, creatinine, cortisol as well as the activities of alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were determined in serum specimens collected from 100 free-ranging warthogs Phacochoerus aethiopicus within five minutes after they were killed with a shotgun. Average concentrations for the following chemical constituents were found: sodium (145 mmol l-1), potassium (8.6 mmol l-1), chloride (102.5 mmol l-1), phosphorus (2.31 mmol l-1), calcium (2.93 mmol l-1), magnesium (1.23 mmol l-1), albumin (26.4 g l-1), serum proteins (62.2 g l-1), cholesterol (1.82 mmol l-1) and urea (8.74 mmol l-1). The cortisol concentrations ranged from 55-340 nmol l-1 (n = 30). Wide variations were recorded in the concentration of creatinine as well as in the activities of the various enzymes. PMID:3508207

  11. Exploring the applicability of equine blood to bloodstain pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Bethany A J; Banks, Craig E

    2016-07-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) is the forensic application of the interpretation of distinct patterns which blood exhibits during a bloodletting incident, providing key evidence with its ability to map the sequence of events. Here, we explore the use of equine blood and investigate its suitability within the field of BPA. Blood is a complex fluid, and finding a suitable safe substitute to human blood that encompasses all of its characteristics has been the focus of many investigations. Animal blood has been concluded as the closest and therefore the most suitable alternate. However, it seems that currently only porcine blood is most prominently utilised.In this study, equine blood was investigated, using two different anti-clotting methods, where blood impacts were explored over a typical range of varying impact velocities upon a selection of commonly encountered surfaces. Key BPA parameters, such as the diameters of the resulting bloodstains, number of spines and area of origin were measured, which were subsequently applied into previously derived BPA equations.We find that defibrinated equine blood is a suitable alternative and offers the same conclusive outcomes to human blood. This gives bloodstain pattern investigators and researchers an additional choice of blood which can be of benefit when certain bloods are difficult to attain or when the activity involves the usage of a large quantity of blood. Additionally we explore the effect on BPA of aged blood, which revealed a significant decrease in stain diameter of up to 12.78 % when blood has been left for 57 days. A shelf life of no more than 12 days is recommended when blood is refrigerated at 4℃. PMID:25013163

  12. Chemical analysis of water in hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the monograph is to give complete information on the chemical analysis of water hydrogeology not only for the students program of Geology study (Bachelor degree study), Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology (Master's degree study) and Engineering Geology (doctoral level study), but also for students from other colleges and universities schools in Slovakia, as well as in the Czech Republic, dealing with the chemical composition of water and its quality, from different perspectives. The benefit would be for professionals with hydrogeological, water and environmental practices, who can find there all the necessary information about proper water sampling, the units used in the chemical analysis of water, expressing the proper chemical composition of water in its various parameters through classification of chemical composition of the water up to the basic features of physical chemistry at thermodynamic calculations and hydrogeochemical modelling.

  13. Combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls and non-chemical risk factors on blood pressure in NHANES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High blood pressure is associated with exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical risk factors, but epidemiological analyses to date have not assessed the combined effects of both chemical and non-chemical stressors on human populations in the context of cumulative risk assessment. We developed a novel modeling approach to evaluate the combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and multiple non-chemical risk factors on four blood pressure measures using data for adults aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2008). We developed predictive models for chemical and other stressors. Structural equation models were applied to account for complex associations among predictors of stressors as well as blood pressure. Models showed that blood lead, serum PCBs, and established non-chemical stressors were significantly associated with blood pressure. Lead was the chemical stressor most predictive of diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure, while PCBs had a greater influence on systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, and blood cadmium was not a significant predictor of blood pressure. The simultaneously fit exposure models explained 34%, 43% and 52% of the variance for lead, cadmium and PCBs, respectively. The structural equation models were developed using predictors available from public data streams (e.g., U.S. Census), which would allow the models to be applied to any U.S. population exposed to these multiple stressors in order to identify high risk subpopulations, direct intervention strategies, and inform public policy. - Highlights: • We evaluated joint impact of chemical and non-chemical stressors on blood pressure. • We built predictive models for lead, cadmium and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). • Our approach allows joint evaluation of predictors from population-specific data. • Lead, PCBs and established non-chemical stressors were related to blood pressure.

  14. Combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls and non-chemical risk factors on blood pressure in NHANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Junenette L., E-mail: petersj@bu.edu; Patricia Fabian, M., E-mail: pfabian@bu.edu; Levy, Jonathan I., E-mail: jonlevy@bu.edu

    2014-07-15

    High blood pressure is associated with exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical risk factors, but epidemiological analyses to date have not assessed the combined effects of both chemical and non-chemical stressors on human populations in the context of cumulative risk assessment. We developed a novel modeling approach to evaluate the combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and multiple non-chemical risk factors on four blood pressure measures using data for adults aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2008). We developed predictive models for chemical and other stressors. Structural equation models were applied to account for complex associations among predictors of stressors as well as blood pressure. Models showed that blood lead, serum PCBs, and established non-chemical stressors were significantly associated with blood pressure. Lead was the chemical stressor most predictive of diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure, while PCBs had a greater influence on systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, and blood cadmium was not a significant predictor of blood pressure. The simultaneously fit exposure models explained 34%, 43% and 52% of the variance for lead, cadmium and PCBs, respectively. The structural equation models were developed using predictors available from public data streams (e.g., U.S. Census), which would allow the models to be applied to any U.S. population exposed to these multiple stressors in order to identify high risk subpopulations, direct intervention strategies, and inform public policy. - Highlights: • We evaluated joint impact of chemical and non-chemical stressors on blood pressure. • We built predictive models for lead, cadmium and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). • Our approach allows joint evaluation of predictors from population-specific data. • Lead, PCBs and established non-chemical stressors were related to blood pressure.

  15. [Studying the influence of some reactive oxygen species on physical and chemical parameters of blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martusevich, A K; Martusevich, A A; Solov'eva, A G; Peretyagin, S P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate the dynamics of blood physical and chemical parameters when blood specimens were processed by singlet oxygen in vitro. Our experiments were executed with whole blood specimens of healthy people (n=10). Each specimen was divided into five separate portions of 5 ml. The first portion was a control (without any exposures). The second one was processed by an oxygen-ozone mixture (at ozone concentration of 500 mcg/l, the third portion--by oxygen, and the fourth and fifth ones were processed by a gas mixture with singlet oxygen (50 and 100% of generator power). In blood samples after processing we studied the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase, erythrocyte and plasma levels of glucose and lactate, acid-base balance and the partial pressure of gases in blood. It was found out, that blood processing by singlet oxygen leads to optimization of energy, detoxication and antioxidant enzymes functioning with changes in plasma and erythrocyte level of glucose and lactate, normalization of blood gases level and acid-base balance. Our results show, that the effect of singlet oxygen on enzyme activity is more pronounced than exposure to an oxygen-ozone gas mixture. PMID:25702489

  16. 40 CFR 761.253 - Chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical analysis. 761.253 Section 761.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... analysis. (a) Extract PCBs from the standard wipe sample collection medium and clean-up the extracted...

  17. Oscillometric blood pressure measurements: A signal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbé, K.; Van Moer, W.; Lauwers, L.

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, the oscillometric waveform measured by automatic non-invasive blood pressure meters (NIBP) is analyzed by transforming the data from the time domain to the frequency domain. The signal's spectrum of the oscillometric waveform is in current literature badly understood or explored. The only known link between the oscillometric waveform and the blood pressure is the maximum of the oscillometry's envelope equalling the mean arterial pressure (MAP). This link is established under the assumption that the oscillometry is an AM-signal. Unfortunately, computing the MAP is difficult in practice due to the non-sinusoidal nature of the actual measured signals. In this paper, we construct the best AM-signal approximation of the oscillometry and explore its use to compute the MAP.

  18. Optical analysis of red blood cell suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szołna, Alicja A.; Grzegorzewski, Bronisław

    2008-12-01

    The optical properties of suspensions of red blood cells (RBCs) were studied. Fresh human venues blood was obtained from adult healthy donors. RBCs were suspended in isotonic salt solution, and in autologous plasma. Suspensions with haematocrit 0.25 - 3% were investigated. Novel technique was proposed to determine the scattering coefficient μs for the suspensions. The intensity of He-Ne laser light transmitted through a wedge-shape container filled with a suspension was recorded. To find the dependence of the intensity on the thickness of the sample the container was moved horizontally. The dependence of μs on the haematocrit was determined for RBCs suspended in the isotonic salt solution. RBCs suspended in plasma tend to form rouleaux. For the RBCs suspended in plasma, the scattering coefficient as a function of time was obtained. It is shown that this technique can be useful in the study of rouleaux formation.

  19. Modified mouse peripheral blood lymphocyte culture system for cytogenetic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed methodology is presented for culturing mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes isolated on density gradients and stimulated to divide using either phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, or lipopolysaccharide. The techniques described yield more than sufficient numbers of mitotic cells for analyzing sister chromatid exchange, chromosome, aberrations, and micronuclei following in vitro or in vivo exposure to chemicals or radiation

  20. Analysis of blood plasma at terahertz frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkasova, O. P.; Nazarov, M. M.; Angeluts, A. A.; Shkurinov, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in the 0.05-2.5 THz frequency range was employed to analyze blood plasma samples obtained from laboratory animals with experimental diabetes and from healthy controls. It was found that transmission and reflection coefficients of samples from rats with diabetes differed significantly from control values in both amplitude and phase. The cause of the detected differences is discussed with respect to variation in the terahertz response of water.

  1. Microfluidic Cytometer for Complete Blood Count Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will fabricate and test microfluidic designs for a micro-electromechanical system based complete blood count (CBC) analysis in separate modules and integrate...

  2. Chemical analysis of high purity graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sub-Committee on Chemical Analysis of Graphite was organized in April 1989, under the Committee on Chemical Analysis of Nuclear Fuels and Reactor Materials, JAERI. The Sub-Committee carried out collaborative analyses among eleven participating laboratories for the certification of the Certified Reference Materials (CRMs), JAERI-G5 and G6, after developing and evaluating analytical methods during the period of September 1989 to March 1992. The certified values were given for ash, boron and silicon in the CRM based on the collaborative analysis. The values for ten elements (Al, Ca, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mo, Ni, Sr, Ti, V) were not certified, but given for information. Preparation, homogeneity testing and chemical analyses for certification of reference materials were described in this paper. (author) 52 refs

  3. Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. Chemical analysis instruments employed in some embodiments include capillary and gel plane electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, flow cells for liquids and aerosols, and surface detection instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted along with photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e. fluorescence and/or phosphorescence spectroscopy) to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

  4. Environmental and occupational exposure to benzene by analysis of breath and blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perbellini, L; Faccini, G B; Pasini, F; Cazzoli, F; Pistoia, S; Rosellini, R; Valsecchi, M; Brugnone, F

    1988-05-01

    Benzene exposure of chemical workers was studied, during the entire workshift, by continuous monitoring of workplace benzene concentration, and 16 hours after the end of the workshift by the measurement of alveolar and blood benzene concentrations and excretion of urinary phenol. Exposure of hospital staff was studied by measuring benzene concentrations in the alveolar and blood samples collected during the hospital workshift. Instantaneous environmental air samples were also collected, at the moment of the biological sampling, for all the subjects tested. A group of 34 chemical workers showed an eight hour exposure to benzene, as a geometric mean, of 1.12 micrograms/l which corresponded, 16 hours after the end of the workshift, to a geometric mean benzene concentration of 70 ng/l in the alveolar air and 597 ng/l in the blood. Another group of 27 chemical workers (group A) turned out to be exposed to an indeterminable eight hour exposure to benzene that corresponded, the morning after, to a geometric mean benzene concentration of 28 ng/l in the alveolar air and 256 ng/l in the blood. The group of hospital staff (group B) had a benzene concentration of 14 ng/l in the alveolar air and 269 ng/l in the blood. Instantaneous environmental samples showed that in the infirmaries the geometric mean benzene concentration was 58 ng/l during the examination of the 34 chemical workers, 36 ng/l during the examination of the 27 chemical workers (group A), and 5 ng/l during the examination of the 19 subjects of the hospital staff (group B). Statistical analysis showed that the alveolar and blood benzene concentrations in the 34 workers exposed to 1.12 microgram/l of benzene differed significantly from those in groups A and B. It was found, moreover, that the alveolar and blood benzene concentrations were higher in the smokers in groups A and B but not in the smokers in the group of 34 chemical workers. The slope of the linear correlation between the alveolar and the instantaneous

  5. Determination of uranium in the red blood cells of the workers in the chemical processing of uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis was used in determining uranium in the venous blood erythrocytes of controls and of workers exposed to occupational hazards in a uranium chemical treatment plant. While 4.1 +- 2.6 ppb of uranium was found in dry matter of the erythrocytes in controls, 6.5 +- 2.1 ppb of uranium was ascertained in dry matter of the erythrocytes in occupationally exposed workers of a wet preparation plant, and 37.2 +- 20.2 ppb of uranium in the erythrocytes in workers of a dry cleaning plant. (author)

  6. Service activities of chemical analysis division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress of the Division during the year of 1988 was described on the service activities for various R and D projects carrying out in the Institute, for the fuel fabrication and conversion plant, and for the post-irradiation examination facility. Relevant analytical methodologies developed for the chemical analysis of an irradiated fuel, safeguards chemical analysis, and pool water monitoring were included such as chromatographic separation of lanthanides, polarographic determination of dissolved oxygen in water, and automation on potentiometric titration of uranium. Some of the laboratory manuals revised were also included in this progress report. (Author)

  7. Classification of High Blood Pressure Persons Vs Normal Blood Pressure Persons Using Voice Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The human voice is remarkable, complex and delicate. All parts of the body play some role in voice production and may be responsible for voice dysfunction. The larynx contains muscles that are surrounded by blood vessels connected to circulatory system. The pressure of blood in these vessels should be related with dynamic variation of vocal cord parameters. These parameters are directly related with acoustic properties of speech. Acoustic voice analysis can be used to characterize the pathological voices. This paper presents the classification of high blood pressure and normal with the aid of voice signal recorded from the patients. Various features have been extracted from the voice signal of healthy persons and persons suffering from high blood pressure. Simulation results show differences in the parameter values of healthy and pathological persons. Then an optimum feature vector is prepared and kmean classification algorithm was implemented for data classification. The 79% classification efficiency was obtained.

  8. Automated red blood cell analysis compared with routine red blood cell morphology by smear review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Poonam Radadiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The RBC histogram is an integral part of automated haematology analysis and is now routinely available on all automated cell counters. This histogram and other associated complete blood count (CBC parameters have been found abnormal in various haematological conditions and may provide major clues in the diagnosis and management of significant red cell disorders. Performing manual blood smears is important to ensure the quality of blood count results and to make presumptive diagnosis. In this article we have taken 100 samples for comparative study between RBC histograms obtained by automated haematology analyzer with peripheral blood smear. This article discusses some morphological features of dimorphism and the ensuing characteristic changes in their RBC histograms.

  9. Entropy generation reduction through chemical pinch analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pinch analysis (PA) concept emerged, late '80s, as one of the methods to address the energy management in the new era of sustainable development. It was derived from combined first and second law analysis, as a technique ensuring a better thermal integration, aiming the minimization of entropy production or, equivalently, exergy destruction by heat exchanger networks (HEN). Although its ascendance from the second law analysis is questionable, the PA reveals as a widespread tool, nowadays, helping in energy savings mostly through a more rational use of utilities. Unfortunately, as principal downside, one should be aware that the global minimum entropy production is seldom attained, since the PA does not tackle the whole plant letting aside the chemical reactors or separation trains. The chemical reactor network (CRN) is responsible for large amounts of entropy generation (exergy losses), mainly due to the combined composition and temperature change. The chemical pinch analysis (CPA) concept focuses on, simultaneously, the entropy generation reduction of both CRN and HEN, while keeping the state and working parameters of the plant in the range of industrial interest. The fundamental idea of CPA is to include the CRN (through the chemical reaction heat developed in reactors) into the HEN and to submit this extended system to the PA. This is accomplished by replacing the chemical reactor with a virtual heat exchanger system producing the same amount of entropy. For an endothermic non-adiabatic chemical reactor, the (stepwise infinitesimal) supply heat δq flows from a source (an external/internal heater) to the stream undergoing the chemical transformation through the reactor, which in turn releases the heat of reaction ΔHR to a virtual cold stream flowing through a virtual cooler. For an exothermic non-adiabatic chemical reactor, the replacement is likewise, but the heat flows oppositely. Thus, in the practice of designing or retrofitting a flowsheet, in order to

  10. Wavelet-analysis for Laser Images of Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELSKY, A.-P.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities of the local wavelet-analysis of polarization-inhomogeneous laser image of human blood plasma were considered. The set of statistics, correlation and fractal parameters of the distributions of wavelet-coefficients that are characterize different scales of the polarization maps of polycrystalline networks of amino acids of blood plasma were defined. The criteria for the differentiation of the transformation of birefringence optical-anisotropic structures of blood plasma at different scales of their geometric dimensions were determined.

  11. Persistence and immunogenicity of chemically attenuated blood stage Plasmodium falciparum in Aotus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Sai Lata; Stanisic, Danielle I; van Breda, Karin; Bellete, Bernadette; Harris, Ivor; McCallum, Fiona; Edstein, Michael D; Good, Michael F

    2016-08-01

    Malaria is a disease caused by a protozoan of the Plasmodium genus and results in 0.5-0.7million deaths per year. Increasing drug resistance of the parasite and insecticide resistance of mosquitoes necessitate alternative control measures. Numerous vaccine candidates have been identified but none have been able to induce robust, long-lived protection when evaluated in malaria endemic regions. Rodent studies have demonstrated that chemically attenuated blood stage parasites can persist at sub-patent levels and induce homologous and heterologous protection against malaria. Parasite-specific cellular responses were detected, with protection dependent on CD4+ T cells. To investigate this vaccine approach for Plasmodium falciparum, we characterised the persistence and immunogenicity of chemically attenuated P. falciparum FVO strain parasites (CAPs) in non-splenectomised Aotus nancymaae monkeys following administration of a single dose. Control monkeys received either normal red blood cells or wild-type parasites followed by drug treatment. Chemical attenuation was performed using tafuramycin A, which irreversibly binds to DNA. CAPs were detected in the peripheral blood for up to 2days following inoculation as determined by thick blood smears, and for up to 8days as determined by quantitative PCR. Parasite-specific IgG was not detected in monkeys that received CAPs; however, in vitro parasite-specific T cell proliferation was observed. Following challenge, the CAP monkeys developed an infection; however, one CAP monkey and the infection and drug-cure monkeys showed partial or complete resistance. These experiments lay the groundwork for further assessment of CAPs as a potential vaccine against malaria. PMID:27238088

  12. Chemical abundance analysis of 19 barium stars

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, G C; Spite, M; Chen, Y Q; Zhao, G; Zhang, B; Liu, G Q; Liu, Y J; Liu, N; Deng, L C; Spite, F; Hill, V; Zhang, C X

    2016-01-01

    We aim at deriving accurate atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of 19 barium (Ba) stars, including both strong and mild Ba stars, based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra obtained from the 2.16 m telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The chemical abundances of the sample stars were obtained from an LTE, plane-parallel and line-blanketed atmospheric model by inputting the atmospheric parameters (effective temperatures, surface gravities, metallicity and microturbulent velocity) and equivalent widths of stellar absorption lines. These samples of Ba stars are giants indicated by atmospheric parameters, metallicities and kinematic analysis about UVW velocity. Chemical abundances of 17 elements were obtained for these Ba stars. Their light elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn and Ni) are similar to the solar abundances. Our samples of Ba stars show obvious overabundances of neutron-capture (n-ca...

  13. Central blood circulation in children at chronic combined low dose radiation and chemical action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of central blood circulation and its hormonal regulation were studied in 1465 children living permanently under chronic low dose radiation and chemical action. Basic group consisted of 1093 children (579 boys and 514 girls) . 372 children (115 boys and 227 girls permanently living on 'clean' areas) were investigated in control group. Average age was 10,8 years old in basic group and 10,4 years old in the control group. Such parameters as arterial pressure, level of lead in blood and urine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dophamine content in urine, thyroxine, iodothyronine, prostaglandins and cyclic AMP content in the blood serum has been controlled. Hypotensive states were determined to prevail in children living permanently under chronic low dose radiation and chemical action. The main pathogenic mechanism of this defeat is consider to be a reduction of the sympathoadrenal system activity combined with a decreasing of the thyroid system activity and of cyclic AMP level as well as predominance of prostaglandin depressive activity

  14. Dried blood spot analysis ; facing new challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Remco A; Touw, Daan J; Alffenaar, Jan-willem C

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, DBS analysis has gained popularity for TDM because it’s a patient friendly sampling proce- dure [1-4]. Additional advantages are prolonged sample stability, lower risk of infections and transportation at ambient temperature [1-3,5]. These advantages may fa- cilitate implementat

  15. Does chocolate reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried Karin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dark chocolate and flavanol-rich cocoa products have attracted interest as an alternative treatment option for hypertension, a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous meta-analyses concluded that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Recently, several additional trials have been conducted with conflicting results. Our study summarises current evidence on the effect of flavanol-rich cocoa products on blood pressure in hypertensive and normotensive individuals. Methods We searched Medline, Cochrane and international trial registries between 1955 and 2009 for randomised controlled trials investigating the effect of cocoa as food or drink compared with placebo on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP for a minimum duration of 2 weeks. We conducted random effects meta-analysis of all studies fitting the inclusion criteria, as well as subgroup analysis by baseline blood pressure (hypertensive/normotensive. Meta-regression analysis explored the association between type of treatment, dosage, duration or baseline blood pressure and blood pressure outcome. Statistical significance was set at P Results Fifteen trial arms of 13 assessed studies met the inclusion criteria. Pooled meta-analysis of all trials revealed a significant blood pressure-reducing effect of cocoa-chocolate compared with control (mean BP change ± SE: SBP: -3.2 ± 1.9 mmHg, P = 0.001; DBP: -2.0 ± 1.3 mmHg, P = 0.003. However, subgroup meta-analysis was significant only for the hypertensive or prehypertensive subgroups (SBP: -5.0 ± 3.0 mmHg; P = 0.0009; DBP: -2.7 ± 2.2 mm Hg, P = 0.01, while BP was not significantly reduced in the normotensive subgroups (SBP: -1.6 ± 2.3 mmHg, P = 0.17; DBP: -1.3 ± 1.6 mmHg, P = 0.12. Nine trials used chocolate containing 50% to 70% cocoa compared with white chocolate or other cocoa-free controls, while six trials compared high- with low-flavanol cocoa products. Daily flavanol dosages ranged from 30

  16. Relationships between organohalogen contaminants and blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters in chicks of three raptor species from Northern Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Herzke, Dorte; Jaspers, Veerle L.B.; Covaci, Adrian; Halley, Duncan J.; Moum, Truls; Eulaers, Igor; Eens, Marcel; Ims, Rolf A.; Hanssen, Sveinn A.; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Johnsen, Trond; Schnug, Lisbeth; Riget, Frank Farsø; Jensen, Asger Lundorff

    2010-01-01

    Organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) may affect various physiological parameters in birds including blood chemistry. We therefore examined blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters and OHCs in golden eagle, white-tailed eagle and goshawk chicks from Northern Norway. Correlation analyses on pooled da...

  17. Analysis of Chemical Technology Division waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a summary of the sources, quantities, and characteristics of the wastes generated by the Chemical Technology Division (CTD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The major contributors of hazardous, mixed, and radioactive wastes in the CTD as of the writing of this document were the Chemical Development Section, the Isotopes Section, and the Process Development Section. The objectives of this report are to identify the sources and the summarize the quantities and characteristics of hazardous, mixed, gaseous, and solid and liquid radioactive wastes that are generated by the Chemical Technology Division (CTD) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This study was performed in support of the CTD waste-reduction program -- the goals of which are to reduce both the volume and hazard level of the waste generated by the division. Prior to the initiation of any specific waste-reduction projects, an understanding of the overall waste-generation system of CTD must be developed. Therefore, the general approach taken in this study is that of an overall CTD waste-systems analysis, which is a detailed presentation of the generation points and general characteristics of each waste stream in CTD. The goal of this analysis is to identify the primary waste generators in the division and determine the most beneficial areas to initiate waste-reduction projects. 4 refs., 4 figs., 13 tabs

  18. Chemical detection, identification, and analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical detection, identification, and analysis system (CDIAS) has three major goals. The first is to display safety information regarding chemical environment before personnel entry. The second is to archive personnel exposure to the environment. Third, the system assists users in identifying the stage of a chemical process in progress and suggests safety precautions associated with that process. In addition to these major goals, the system must be sufficiently compact to provide transportability, and it must be extremely simple to use in order to keep user interaction at a minimum. The system created to meet these goals includes several pieces of hardware and the integration of four software packages. The hardware consists of a low-oxygen, carbon monoxide, explosives, and hydrogen sulfide detector; an ion mobility spectrometer for airborne vapor detection; and a COMPAQ 386/20 portable computer. The software modules are a graphics kernel, an expert system shell, a data-base management system, and an interface management system. A supervisory module developed using the interface management system coordinates the interaction of the other software components. The system determines the safety of the environment using conventional data acquisition and analysis techniques. The low-oxygen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, explosives, and vapor detectors are monitored for hazardous levels, and warnings are issued accordingly

  19. Congenital Hypothyroidism Screening with Umbilical Cord Blood: Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, M R; Ramesh, Preetha; Nath, Divia

    2015-05-01

    Incidence of congenital hypothyroidism varies across countries and different geographic regions. A retrospective analysis of cord blood thyroid stimulating hormone values, and their subsequent follow-up, was done in a tertiary-care center in Kerala, India. Congenital hypothyroidism was found at the rate of 1 in 244, which is higher than reported incidence from other centers. PMID:26061935

  20. Performance Analysis of Retinal Image Blood Vessel Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Siva Sundhara Raja

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The retinal image diagnosis is an important methodology for diabetic retinopathy detection and analysis. in this paper, the morphological operations and svm classifier are used to detect and segment the blood vessels from the retinal image. the proposed system consists of three stages-first is preprocessing of retinal image to separate the green channel and second stage is retinal image enhancement and third stage is blood vessel segmentation using morphological operations and svm classifier. the performance of the proposed system is analyzed using publicly available dataset.

  1. VALIDATION GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

  2. Lipid spectrum of the newborn rats' blood at the radioactive and chemical effects in the prenatal period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive and chemical factors used in complex or separately during the prenatal period in the experiment induce ambiguous effects on the lipid metabolism in blood plasma and erythrocytes of newborn rats. The chemicals cause more significant changes in the blood plasma lipid metabolism than the radioactive irradiation does. Being used combined the radioactive and chemical factors do not increase each other's effect- their effects have opposite directions. The radiochemical exposure induce more significant shifts in the lipid spectrum in erythrocytic membranes than the separate factors

  3. Automatic analysis of microscopic images of red blood cell aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichini, Pablo A.; Larese, Mónica G.; Riquelme, Bibiana D.

    2015-06-01

    Red blood cell aggregation is one of the most important factors in blood viscosity at stasis or at very low rates of flow. The basic structure of aggregates is a linear array of cell commonly termed as rouleaux. Enhanced or abnormal aggregation is seen in clinical conditions, such as diabetes and hypertension, producing alterations in the microcirculation, some of which can be analyzed through the characterization of aggregated cells. Frequently, image processing and analysis for the characterization of RBC aggregation were done manually or semi-automatically using interactive tools. We propose a system that processes images of RBC aggregation and automatically obtains the characterization and quantification of the different types of RBC aggregates. Present technique could be interesting to perform the adaptation as a routine used in hemorheological and Clinical Biochemistry Laboratories because this automatic method is rapid, efficient and economical, and at the same time independent of the user performing the analysis (repeatability of the analysis).

  4. Chemical modifiers in electrothermal atomic absorption determination of Platinum and Palladium containing preparations in blood serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аntonina Alemasova

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The biological liquids matrixes influence on the characteristic masses and repeatability of Pt and Pd electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETAAS determination was studied. The chemical modifiers dimethylglyoxime and ascorbic acid for matrix interferences elimination and ETAAS results repeatability improvement were proposed while bioliquids ETAAS analysis, and their action mechanism was discussed.

  5. Cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells alter their gene expression when challenged with endocrine-disrupting chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have the potential to interfere with the hormonal system and may negatively influence human health. Microarray analysis was used in this study to investigate differential gene expression in human peripheral blood cells (PBMCs) after in vitro exposure to EDCs. PBMCs, isolated from blood samples of four male and four female healthy individuals, were exposed in vitro for 18 h to either a dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB126, 1 μM), a non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB153, 10 μM), a brominated flame retardant (BDE47, 10 μM), a perfluorinated alkyl acid (PFOA, 10 μM) or bisphenol (BPA, 10 μM). ANOVA analysis revealed a significant change in the expression of 862 genes as a result of EDC exposure. The gender of the donors did not affect gene expression. Hierarchical cluster analysis created three groups and clustered: (1) PCB126-exposed samples, (2) PCB153 and BDE47, (3) PFOA and BPA. The number of differentially expressed genes varied per compound and ranged from 60 to 192 when using fold change and multiplicity corrected p-value as filtering criteria. Exposure to PCB126 induced the AhR signaling pathway. BDE47 and PCB153 are known to disrupt thyroid metabolism and exposure influenced the expression of the nuclear receptors PPARγ and ESR2, respectively. BPA and PFOA did not induce significant changes in the expression of known nuclear receptors. Overall, each compound produced a unique gene expression signature affecting pathways and GO processes linked to metabolism and inflammation. Twenty-nine genes were significantly altered in expression under all experimental conditions. Six of these genes (HSD11B2, MMP11, ADIPOQ, CEL, DUSP9 and TUB) could be associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, microarray analysis identified that PBMCs altered their gene expression response in vitro when challenged with EDCs. Our screening approach has identified a number of gene candidates that warrant

  6. Systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoette, Trisha Marie

    2012-03-01

    Throughout history, as new chemical threats arose, strategies for the defense against chemical attacks have also evolved. As a part of an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, a systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios was performed to understand how the chemical threats and attack strategies change over time. For the analysis, the difficulty in executing chemical attack was evaluated within a framework of three major scenario elements. First, historical examples of chemical terrorism were examined to determine how the use of chemical threats, versus other weapons, contributed to the successful execution of the attack. Using the same framework, the future of chemical terrorism was assessed with respect to the impact of globalization and new technologies. Finally, the efficacy of the current defenses against contemporary chemical terrorism was considered briefly. The results of this analysis justify the need for continued diligence in chemical defense.

  7. Healthcare Chip for Checking Health Condition from Analysis of Trace Blood Collected by Painless Needle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Akio; Takai, Madoka; Ogawa, Hiroki; Takamura, Yuzuru; Fukasawa, Takayuki; Kikuchi, Jun; Ito, Yoshitaka; Ichiki, Takanori; Horiike, Yasuhiro

    2003-06-01

    A healthcare chip for checking the health condition at home has been studied based on the analysis of a trace amount of blood collected by a painless needle. A microcapillary as the main component for the blood flow was fabricated by molding its reverse pattern made of a quartz plate on a cheap and disposable poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) plate with an area of 2 cm× 2 cm. The painless needle was fabricated by polishing the tip of a stainless steel tube (SUS) with a 100 μm diameter at an angle of 10 degrees using chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) and subsequently finishing it by electropolishing. Coating the 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymer on the inner surface of the capillary effectively suppressed the adsorption of corpuscles. A quartz electroosmosis flow pump embedded in the PET plate introduced the blood into a U-shaped capillary through the needle and the blood was centrifugally separated into the corpuscles and plasma on the chip. The plasma was then conveyed to ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs) set on the capillary and the Na+ and K+ ion concentrations were measured with high selectivity. Finally, a series of chip operations from blood collection to measurements of the pH, Na+ and K+ ion concentrations was demonstrated.

  8. Principal Component Analysis on Chemical Abundances Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ting, Y S; Kobayashi, C; De Silva, G M; Bland-Hawthorn, J

    2011-01-01

    [Shortened] In preparation for the HERMES chemical tagging survey of about a million Galactic FGK stars, we estimate the number of independent dimensions of the space defined by the stellar chemical element abundances [X/Fe]. [...] We explore abundances in several environments, including solar neighbourhood thin/thick disk stars, halo metal-poor stars, globular clusters, open clusters, the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy. [...] We find that, especially at low metallicity, the production of r-process elements is likely to be associated with the production of alpha-elements. This may support the core-collapse supernovae as the r-process site. We also verify the over-abundances of light s-process elements at low metallicity, and find that the relative contribution decreases at higher metallicity, which suggests that this lighter elements primary process may be associated with massive stars. [...] Our analysis reveals two types of core-collapse supernovae: one produces mainly alpha-e...

  9. Chemical Analysis of Exhaled Human Breath Using High Resolution Mm-Wave Rotational Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tianle; Branco, Daniela; Thomas, Jessica; Medvedev, Ivan; Dolson, David; Nam, Hyun-Joo; O, Kenneth

    2014-06-01

    High resolution rotational spectroscopy enables chemical sensors that are both sensitive and highly specific, which is well suited for analysis of expired human breath. We have previously reported on detection of breath ethanol, methanol, acetone, and acetaldehyde using THz sensors. This paper will outline our present efforts in this area, with specific focus on our ongoing quest to correlate levels of blood glucose with concentrations of a few breath chemicals known to be affected by elevated blood sugar levels. Prospects, challenges and future plans will be outlined and discussed. Fosnight, A.M., B.L. Moran, and I.R. Medvedev, Chemical analysis of exhaled human breath using a terahertz spectroscopic approach. Applied Physics Letters, 2013. 103(13): p. 133703-5.

  10. Gene expression analysis in human breast cancer associated blood vessels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan T Jones

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is essential for solid tumour growth, whilst the molecular profiles of tumour blood vessels have been reported to be different between cancer types. Although presently available anti-angiogenic strategies are providing some promise for the treatment of some cancers it is perhaps not surprisingly that, none of the anti-angiogenic agents available work on all tumours. Thus, the discovery of novel anti-angiogenic targets, relevant to individual cancer types, is required. Using Affymetrix microarray analysis of laser-captured, CD31-positive blood vessels we have identified 63 genes that are upregulated significantly (5-72 fold in angiogenic blood vessels associated with human invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC of the breast as compared with blood vessels in normal human breast. We tested the angiogenic capacity of a subset of these genes. Genes were selected based on either their known cellular functions, their enriched expression in endothelial cells and/or their sensitivity to anti-VEGF treatment; all features implicating their involvement in angiogenesis. For example, RRM2, a ribonucleotide reductase involved in DNA synthesis, was upregulated 32-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels; ATF1, a nuclear activating transcription factor involved in cellular growth and survival was upregulated 23-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels and HEX-B, a hexosaminidase involved in the breakdown of GM2 gangliosides, was upregulated 8-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels. Furthermore, in silico analysis confirmed that AFT1 and HEX-B also were enriched in endothelial cells when compared with non-endothelial cells. None of these genes have been reported previously to be involved in neovascularisation. However, our data establish that siRNA depletion of Rrm2, Atf1 or Hex-B had significant anti-angiogenic effects in VEGF-stimulated ex vivo mouse aortic ring assays. Overall, our results provide proof-of-principle that our approach can identify a cohort of

  11. Possibilities of Moessbauer spectroscopy for chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Moessbauer spectroscopy technique belongs to few methods of defining the phase state or crystallographic sites of a substance. The Moessbauer spectra bear information on various hyperfine interactions, many of which are indirectly related to the chemical nature of the Moessbauer atom and its nearest environment. Determination of the parameters of hyperfine interactions that can be extracted from Moessbauer spectra and used for qualitative analysis is a routine task. In the present work, we studied the influence of various factors on experimental errors encountered in quantitatively defining the phase composition or site populations of the substance under study, such as the measurements geometry, Lamb-Moessbauer coefficients, absorber thickness, efficiency and dead time of the detection system and spectral line shape. The absolute f measurements were made using the 'black' absorber method. Moessbauer measurements were carried out with carefully controlled background intensities, since the accuracy of f evaluation directly depends on the measurement of the background. The influence of a non-uniformity of samples on the results of the quantitative analysis is discussed. The data analysis was divided into two parts: removal of instrumental artifacts by folding and baseline correction and deconvolution to extract the hyperfine parameters of individual local environments. In our approach, calibration graphs were drawn by measuring the spectra of a series of analogous samples having different known concentrations. For the same purpose, the internal standard method was also used. Experimental data are presented for phase analyses of different samples. (author)

  12. Advanced development in chemical analysis of Cordyceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Xie, J; Wang, L Y; Li, S P

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm summer grass) in Chinese, is a well-known and valued traditional Chinese medicine. In 2006, we wrote a review for discussing the markers and analytical methods in quality control of Cordyceps (J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 41 (2006) 1571-1584). Since then this review has been cited by others for more than 60 times, which suggested that scientists have great interest in this special herbal material. Actually, the number of publications related to Cordyceps after 2006 is about 2-fold of that in two decades before 2006 according to the data from Web of Science. Therefore, it is necessary to review and discuss the advanced development in chemical analysis of Cordyceps since then. PMID:23688494

  13. Detrended fluctuation analysis of a systolic blood pressure control loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galhardo, C E C; Penna, T J P; Argollo de Menezes, M [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litoranea, s/n, 24210-340, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Soares, P P S [Instituto Biomedico, Universidade Federal Fluminense, R. Prof. Hernani Melo n. 101, 24210-130, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: marcio@mail.if.uff.br

    2009-10-15

    We use detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study the dynamics of blood pressure oscillations and its feedback control in rats by analyzing systolic pressure time series before and after a surgical procedure that interrupts its control loop. We found, for each situation, a crossover between two scaling regions characterized by exponents that reflect the nature of the feedback control and its range of operation. In addition, we found evidence of adaptation in the dynamics of blood pressure regulation a few days after surgical disruption of its main feedback circuit. Based on the paradigm of antagonistic, bipartite (vagal and sympathetic) action of the central nerve system, we propose a simple model for pressure homeostasis as the balance between two nonlinear opposing forces, successfully reproducing the crossover observed in the DFA of actual pressure signals.

  14. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Systolic Blood Pressure Control Loop

    CERN Document Server

    Galhardo, C E C; de Menezes, M Argollo; Soares, P P S

    2009-01-01

    We use detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study the dynamics of blood pressure oscillations and its feedback control in rats by analyzing systolic pressure time series before and after a surgical procedure that interrupts its control loop. We found, for each situation, a crossover between two scaling regions characterized by exponents that reflect the nature of the feedback control and its range of operation. In addition, we found evidences of adaptation in the dynamics of blood pressure regulation a few days after surgical disruption of its main feedback circuit. Based on the paradigm of antagonistic, bipartite (vagal and sympathetic) action of the central nerve system, we propose a simple model for pressure homeostasis as the balance between two nonlinear opposing forces, successfully reproducing the crossover observed in the DFA of actual pressure signals.

  15. Chemical abundance analysis of 19 barium stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo-Chao; Liang, Yan-Chun; Spite, Monique; Chen, Yu-Qin; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Guo-Qing; Liu, Yu-Juan; Liu, Nian; Deng, Li-Cai; Spite, Francois; Hill, Vanessa; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2016-01-01

    We aim at deriving accurate atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of 19 barium (Ba) stars, including both strong and mild Ba stars, based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra obtained from the 2.16 m telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The chemical abundances of the sample stars were obtained from an LTE, plane-parallel and line-blanketed atmospheric model by inputting the atmospheric parameters (effective temperatures Teff, surface gravities log g, metallicity [Fe/H] and microturbulence velocity ξt) and equivalent widths of stellar absorption lines. These samples of Ba stars are giants as indicated by atmospheric parameters, metallicities and kinematic analysis about UVW velocity. Chemical abundances of 17 elements were obtained for these Ba stars. Their Na, Al, α- and iron-peak elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni) are similar to the solar abundances. Our samples of Ba stars show obvious overabundances of neutron-capture (n-capture) process elements relative to the Sun. Their median abundances of [Ba/Fe], [La/Fe] and [Eu/Fe] are 0.54, 0.65 and 0.40, respectively. The Y I and Zr I abundances are lower than Ba, La and Eu, but higher than the α- and iron-peak elements for the strong Ba stars and similar to the iron-peak elements for the mild stars. There exists a positive correlation between Ba intensity and [Ba/Fe]. For the n-capture elements (Y, Zr, Ba, La), there is an anti-correlation between their [X/Fe] and [Fe/H]. We identify nine of our sample stars as strong Ba stars with [Ba/Fe] >0.6 where seven of them have Ba intensity Ba=2-5, one has Ba=1.5 and another one has Ba=1.0. The remaining ten stars are classified as mild Ba stars with 0.17<[Ba/Fe] <0.54.

  16. Blood Pressure Changes and Chemical Constituents of Particulate Air Pollution: Results from the Healthy Volunteer Natural Relocation (HVNR) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Shaowei; Deng, Furong; Huang, Jing; Wang, Hongyi; Shima, Masayuki; Wang, Xin; Qin, Yu; Zheng, Chanjuan; Wei, Hongying; Hao, Yu; Lv, Haibo; Lu, Xiuling; Guo, Xinbiao

    2012-01-01

    Background: Elevated blood pressure (BP) has been associated with particulate matter (PM) air pollution, but associations with PM chemical constituents are still uncertain. Objectives: We investigated associations of BP with various chemical constituents of fine PM (PM2.5) during 460 repeated visits among a panel of 39 university students. Methods: Resting BP was measured using standardized methods before and after the university students relocated from a suburban campus to an urban campus wi...

  17. Combined treatment with antioxidants and immunosuppressants on cytokine release by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells - chemically injured keratocyte reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Kayoung; Chung, Tae Young; Hyon, Joon Young; Koh, Jae Woong; Wee, Won Ryang; Shin, Young Joo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of antioxidants and immunosuppresants on mixed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) - chemically injured keratocytes reaction (MLKR). Methods The PBMC stimulation assay was performed using chemically injured keratocytes treated with 0.05 N NaOH for 90 s (MLKR). MLKR were treated with various drugs including rapamycin, dexamethasone, mycophenoleic acid (MPA), alpha lipoic acid (ALA), and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9), transform...

  18. Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis Methods and Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F.; Reid, Ray D.

    2012-01-01

    This invention relates to non-contact spectroscopic methods and apparatus for performing chemical analysis and the ideal wavelengths and sources needed for this analysis. It employs deep ultraviolet (200- to 300-nm spectral range) electron-beam-pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor lightemitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers. Three achieved goals for this innovation are to reduce the size (under 20 L), reduce the weight [under 100 lb (.45 kg)], and reduce the power consumption (under 100 W). This method can be used in microscope or macroscope to provide measurement of Raman and/or native fluorescence emission spectra either by point-by-point measurement, or by global imaging of emissions within specific ultraviolet spectral bands. In other embodiments, the method can be used in analytical instruments such as capillary electrophoresis, capillary electro-chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, and related instruments for detection and identification of unknown analytes using a combination of native fluorescence and/or Raman spectroscopic methods. This design provides an electron-beampumped semiconductor radiation-producing method, or source, that can emit at a wavelength (or wavelengths) below 300 nm, e.g. in the deep ultraviolet between about 200 and 300 nm, and more preferably less than 260 nm. In some variations, the method is to produce incoherent radiation, while in other implementations it produces laser radiation. In some variations, this object is achieved by using an AlGaN emission medium, while in other implementations a diamond emission medium may be used. This instrument irradiates a sample with deep UV radiation, and then uses an improved filter for separating wavelengths to be detected. This provides a multi-stage analysis of the sample. To avoid the difficulties related to producing deep UV semiconductor sources, a pumping approach has been developed that uses

  19. Peripheral blood smear image analysis: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood smear image examination is a part of the routine work of every laboratory. The manual examination of these images is tedious, time-consuming and suffers from interobserver variation. This has motivated researchers to develop different algorithms and methods to automate peripheral blood smear image analysis. Image analysis itself consists of a sequence of steps consisting of image segmentation, features extraction and selection and pattern classification. The image segmentation step addresses the problem of extraction of the object or region of interest from the complicated peripheral blood smear image. Support vector machine (SVM and artificial neural networks (ANNs are two common approaches to image segmentation. Features extraction and selection aims to derive descriptive characteristics of the extracted object, which are similar within the same object class and different between different objects. This will facilitate the last step of the image analysis process: pattern classification. The goal of pattern classification is to assign a class to the selected features from a group of known classes. There are two types of classifier learning algorithms: supervised and unsupervised. Supervised learning algorithms predict the class of the object under test using training data of known classes. The training data have a predefined label for every class and the learning algorithm can utilize this data to predict the class of a test object. Unsupervised learning algorithms use unlabeled training data and divide them into groups using similarity measurements. Unsupervised learning algorithms predict the group to which a new test object belong to, based on the training data without giving an explicit class to that object. ANN, SVM, decision tree and K-nearest neighbor are possible approaches to classification algorithms. Increased discrimination may be obtained by combining several classifiers together.

  20. Portable real time analysis system for regional cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A very portable, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) analysis instrument system suitable for use in the operating theater during surgery is under development. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) solid state radiation detectors, an 8086 based data acquisition and communications module and a DEC Microvax computer are used so that the instrument is very compact, yet has the computational power to provide real time data analysis in the clinical environment. The instrument is currently being used at Bowman Gray School of Medicine to study rCBF during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery (CPB). Preliminary studies indicate that monitoring rCBF during this surgical procedure may provide insights into the mechanism that causes a significant fraction of these patients to suffer post operative neuropsychological deficit

  1. Portable real time analysis system for regional cerebral blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiernan, T.; Entine, G.; Stump, D.A.; Prough, D.S.

    1988-02-01

    A very portable, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) analysis instrument system suitable for use in the operating theater during surgery is under development. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) solid state radiation detectors, an 8086 based data acquisition and communications module and a DEC Microvax computer are used so that the instrument is very compact, yet has the computational power to provide real time data analysis in the clinical environment. The instrument is currently being used at Bowman Gray School of Medicine to study rCBF during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery (CPB). Preliminary studies indicate that monitoring rCBF during this surgical procedure may provide insights into the mechanism that causes a significant fraction of these patients to suffer post operative neuropsychological deficit.

  2. Whole blood donor deferral analysis at Genera l hospital blood bank – A retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinal Gajjar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: A blood transfusion is a life saving procedure in many instances and it requir es an adequate supply of safe blood. The most important is the selection of blood donors by donor selection criteria. A large number of blood donors are deferred from donating blood for several reasons either temporarily or permanently. A shortage of safe blood donor is frequent and it is important to understand the causes of deferral of potential donors. Aims: 1. Primary objective of this study was to record and document the current rate and reasons for donor deferred in our blood bank. 2. Apply relevant findings to modify recruitment strategy for blood donors. Materials and methods: Data for WBD presenting for blood donation in a blood bank V S General Hospital and outdoor camps over two and half years from January 2011 to June 2013 were analysed retrospectively. National Guidelines were used for selection & deferral of WBD. Results: 3836 (11.16% WBD were deferred out of 34373 registered donors during the study period. Donor deferrals were tabulated into temporary and permanent reasons. Temporary deferrals were 3113 (81.15% and permanent deferrals were 723 (18.85%. The most common reasons were low haemoglobin (48.33%, high blood pressure (11.94%, underweight donors (7.95% and history of medication use (6.13% among total deferral donors. Majority of donors (47.16% deferred were between 18 -30 years. Females were found to have higher deferral rate (25.48% than males (10.76%. Discussion and conclusion: A deferral study in blood donors may shed light on the health status of general population which may affect the present and future blood supply. It is important to provide donors with a clear message on their deferral status so that most of temporary deferral donors will return for donation in future.

  3. Action of Gaseous Nitric Oxide on Some Physical and Chemical Parameters of Human Blood Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew K. Martusevich; Anna G. Soloveva; Sergey P. Peretyagin; Vanin, Anatoly F.

    2014-01-01

    We studied the metabolic changes induced by gaseous nitric oxide in whole blood samples in vitro. Blood samples were collected from healthy donors (Nizhny Novgorod station of blood transfusion). We carried out the direct bubbling of blood samples (n = 14) with gaseous flow with NO in a special appliance. We modeled standard conditions using the apparatus “Plazon” (concentration NO 800 mcg/l). Middle power of gas flow was used. The blood sparging time was 2 min, and exposition time lasted 3 mi...

  4. Chemical Analysis of Gomutra Silasathu Parpam

    OpenAIRE

    Akila Balasubramaniyan; K Manickavasakam; R Shakila

    2014-01-01

    Gomutra Silasathu is one of the ingredients in many herbo-mineral formulations. It tonifies the activity of the seven body constituents (Saptha Thathus) namely plasma, blood, muscle, fat, bone, bone marrow and reproductory fluids of the body. In Siddha system of Medicine, it is used to treat Nabunjagam (Erectyle dysfunction], to improve spermatogenesis, impotence and sexual desire. Silasathu parpam is prescribed for sopana skalitham [Nocturnal emission], megam [Veneral disease], premegam [Go...

  5. Associations of methylmercury and inorganic mercury between human cord blood and maternal blood: A meta-analysis and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considering the different ability of placental transfer, an assessment of the cord:maternal blood ratio for both methylmercury (MeHg) and inorganic mercury (IHg) is needed especially for interpreting the low-level prenatal exposure. In this study, we conducted a Monte Carlo-based meta-analysis to comprehensively estimate that ratio for MeHg (RMeHg) and IHg (RIHg). The obtained values followed log-normal distributions, with a mean (standard deviation) of 1.89 (0.98) and 1.01 (0.55) for RMeHg and RIHg, respectively. We also estimated the percentage of MeHg in the blood by means of THg in cord and maternal blood using the RMeHg and RIHg, and obtained a value very close to the measured one (relative deviation, −0.4%). In conclusion, the fetus is exposed to approximately twice as much MeHg and to the same level of IHg as in maternal blood; the introduced model provides a rough but reasonable estimate of the percentage of MeHg in the blood. - Highlights: • The cord:maternal blood ratio for methylmerucry was obtained by meta-analyses. • The cord:maternal blood ratio for inorganic mercury was obtained by meta-analyses. • A new model to estimate the percentage of methylmercury in blood was introduced. - The cord:maternal blood ratio distributions and the approach to estimate MeHg percentage in the blood in this paper may provide a new perspective of interpreting prenatal mercury exposure

  6. Chemical enhancement of footwear impressions in blood on fabric - part 2: peroxidase reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Kevin J; Savage, Kathleen A; Bandey, Helen; Ciuksza, Tomasz; Nic Daéid, Niamh

    2011-09-01

    This study investigates the optimisation of peroxidase based enhancement techniques for footwear impressions made in blood on various fabric surfaces. Four different haem reagents: leuco crystal violet (LCV), leuco malachite green (LMG), fluorescein and luminol were used to enhance the blood contaminated impressions. The enhancement techniques in this study were used successfully to enhance the impressions in blood on light coloured surfaces, however, only fluorescent and/or chemiluminescent techniques allowed visualisation on dark coloured fabrics, denim and leather. Luminol was the only technique to enhance footwear impressions made in blood on all the fabrics investigated in this study. PMID:21889107

  7. Changes in blood testosterone concentrations after surgical and chemical sterilization of male free-roaming dogs in southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderstichel, R; Forzán, M J; Pérez, G E; Serpell, J A; Garde, E

    2015-04-01

    There is a growing interest in chemical sterilization as an alternative to surgical castration in large-scale sterilization campaigns to control canine populations. An important step toward understanding the short-term and long-term effects of chemical sterilants is to determine their impact on blood testosterone concentrations, particularly as these could influence dog behavior after treatment. A field trial was conducted with 118 free-roaming male dogs in the Chilean Patagonia, where 36 dogs were chemically sterilized using EsterilSol, 39 dogs were surgically castrated, and 43 dogs remained intact as controls. Blood testosterone levels were determined at four time periods: on enrollment 6 months before treatment (t-6m), at the time of treatment (t0, within one hour after surgical castration or chemical sterilization and during a concurrent 2-week period for the control group), four (t+4m), and six (t+6m) months after treatment. Intrinsic and temporal factors were evaluated; age was significantly associated with testosterone, where dogs 2- to 4-year-old had the highest testosterone concentrations (P = 0.036), whereas body weight and body condition scores were not associated with testosterone; testosterone concentration was not influenced by time of day, month, or season. After treatment (t+4m and t+6m), all of the surgically castrated dogs had testosterone concentrations below 1.0 ng/mL. On the basis of this cut point (<1 ng/mL), testosterone remained unchanged in 66% of the chemically sterilized dogs at both t+4m and t+6m; it remained low for 22% of dogs at both t+4m and t+6m; it was unchanged at t+4m but low at t+6m in 9% of dogs; and, it was low at t+4m but reverted back to unchanged at t+6m in one dog (3%). Incidentally, testosterone in chemically sterilized dogs increased dramatically within 1 hour of treatment (t0), more than doubling (131%) the concentration of control dogs at the time of treatment (t0), likely because of severe necrosis of

  8. Methods for analysis of citrinin in human blood and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Muñoz, Katherine; Degen, Gisela H

    2013-06-01

    Citrinin (CIT), produced by several Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Monascus species, has been detected as contaminant in feeds, grains, and other food commodities. CIT can co-occur with ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin also known for its nephrotoxicity, and this raises concern regarding possible combined effects. But, in contrast to OTA, data on CIT contamination in foods for human consumption are scarce, and CIT biomonitoring has not been conducted so far due a lack of suitable methods for human specimen. Thus, it was the aim of the present study to develop sensitive methods for the analysis of CIT in human blood and urine to investigate human exposure. To this end, we assessed different methods of sample preparation and instrumental analysis for these matrices. Clean-up of blood plasma by protein precipitation followed by LC-MS/MS-based analysis allowed robust detection of CIT (LOD 0.07 ng/mL, LOQ 0.15 ng/mL). For urine, sample clean-up by an immunoaffinity column (CitriTest(®)) proved to be clearly superior to SPE with RP(18) material for subsequent analysis by LC-MS/MS. For CIT and its metabolite dihydrocitrinone (HO-CIT), the LOD and LOQ determined by external calibration curves in matrix were 0.02 and 0.05 ng/mL for CIT, and those for HO-CIT were 0.05 and 0.1 ng/mL urine. The newly developed method was applied in a small pilot study: CIT was present in all plasma samples from 8 German adults, at concentrations ranging from 0.11 to 0.26 ng/mL. The molar (nM) concentrations of CIT are similar to those measured for OTA in these samples as a result of dietary mycotoxin intake. CIT was detected in 8/10 urines (from 4 adults and 6 infants) in a range of 0.16-0.79 ng/mL, and HO-CIT was present in 5/10 samples at similar concentrations. Thus, CIT is excreted in urine as parent compound and also as metabolite. These first results in humans point to the need for further studies on CIT exposure. PMID:23354378

  9. Non-invasive pulmonary blood flow analysis and blood pressure mapping derived from 4D flow MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delles, Michael; Rengier, Fabian; Azad, Yoo-Jin; Bodenstedt, Sebastian; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Ley, Sebastian; Unterhinninghofen, Roland; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    2015-03-01

    In diagnostics and therapy control of cardiovascular diseases, detailed knowledge about the patient-specific behavior of blood flow and pressure can be essential. The only method capable of measuring complete time-resolved three-dimensional vector fields of the blood flow velocities is velocity-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), often denoted as 4D flow MRI. Furthermore, relative pressure maps can be computed from this data source, as presented by different groups in recent years. Hence, analysis of blood flow and pressure using 4D flow MRI can be a valuable technique in management of cardiovascular diseases. In order to perform these tasks, all necessary steps in the corresponding process chain can be carried out in our in-house developed software framework MEDIFRAME. In this article, we apply MEDIFRAME for a study of hemodynamics in the pulmonary arteries of five healthy volunteers. The study included measuring vector fields of blood flow velocities by phase-contrast MRI and subsequently computing relative blood pressure maps. We visualized blood flow by streamline depictions and computed characteristic values for the left and the right pulmonary artery (LPA and RPA). In all volunteers, we observed a lower amount of blood flow in the LPA compared to the RPA. Furthermore, we visualized blood pressure maps using volume rendering and generated graphs of pressure differences between the LPA, the RPA and the main pulmonary artery. In most volunteers, blood pressure was increased near to the bifurcation and in the proximal LPA, leading to higher average pressure values in the LPA compared to the RPA.

  10. Hybrid chemical and nondestructive-analysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsue, S.T.; Marsh, S.F.; Marks, T.

    1982-01-01

    A hybrid chemical/NDA technique has been applied at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to the assay of plutonium in ion-exchange effluents. Typical effluent solutions contain low concentrations of plutonium and high concentrations of americium. A simple trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) separation can remove 99.9% of the americium. The organic phase that contains the separated plutonium can be accurately assayed by monitoring the uranium L x-ray intensities.

  11. Hybrid chemical and nondestructive analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid chemical/NDA technique has been applied at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to the assay of plutonium in ion-exchange effluents. Typical effluent solutions contain low concentrations of plutonium and high concentrations of americium. A simple trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) separation can remove 99.9% of the americium. The organic phase that contains the separated plutonium can be accurately assayed by monitoring the uranium L x-ray intensities

  12. EDXRF for non-destructive chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the non-destructive methods used for the identification and verification of metals is by the energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. EDXRF analysis provides several important advantages such as simultaneous determination of the elements present, enable to analyse a very wide concentration range, fast analysis with no sample preparation. The paper shows how this technique is developed and applied in the identification and verification of different grades of stainless steels and also precious metals analysis. (Author)

  13. Elevated blood pressure in offspring of rats exposed to diverse chemicals during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adverse intrauterine environments are associated with increased risk of later disease, including cardiovascular disease and hypertension. As a potential bioindicator of such an adverse environment, we measured blood pressure (BP), renal nephron endowment, renal glucocorticoid rec...

  14. Functional proteomic analysis of Ankaferd® Blood Stopper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Özel Demiralp

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ankaferd® Blood Stopper (ABS comprises a standardized mixture of the plants Thymus vulgaris, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Vitis vinifera, Alpinia officinarum, and Urtica dioica. The basic mechanism of action for ABS is the formation of an encapsulated protein network that provides focal points for vital erythrocyte aggregation. ABS–induced protein network formation with blood cells, particularly erythrocytes, covers the primary and secondary hemostatic system without disturbing individual coagulation factors. Materials and Methods: To understand the effect mechanisms of ABS on hemostasis, a proteomic analysis using 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometer was performed. Results: Proteins of plant origin in Ankaferd® were NADP-dependent-malic enzyme, ribulose bisphosphate-carboxylase-large chain, maturase K, ATP synthase subunit-beta, ATP synthase subunit-alpha, chalcone-flavanone isomerase-1, chalcone-flavanone isomerase-2, and actin-depolymerizing factor. Furthermore, functional proteomic studies revealed that proteins resembling human peptides have been detected within Ankaferd®, including ATP synthase, mucin-16 (CD164 sialomucin-like 2 protein, coiled-coil domain containing 141 hypothetical protein LOC283638 isoform 1, hypothetical protein LOC283638 isoform 2, dynactin 5, complex I intermediate-associated protein 30, mitochondrial, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone 1 alpha subcomplex, TP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial actin binding 1 isoform, LIM domain and actin binding 1 isoform a, LIM domain and actin binding 1 isoform b, spectrin alpha non erythrocytic 1, prolactin releasing hormone receptor, utrophin, tet oncogene family member 2 isoform b, protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12A, NIMA (never in mitosis gene a-related kinase, ATP-binding cassette protein C12, Homo sapiens malic enzyme 1, mitochondrial NADP(+-dependent malic enzyme 3, ME2 protein, nuclear factor 1 B-type, abhydrolase domain-containing protein 12B, E

  15. Chemical Diversity, Origin, and Analysis of Phycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Silas Anselm; Andersen, Aaron John Christian; Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Hansen, Per Juel; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2016-03-25

    Microalgae, particularly those from the lineage Dinoflagellata, are very well-known for their ability to produce phycotoxins that may accumulate in the marine food chain and eventually cause poisoning in humans. This includes toxins accumulating in shellfish, such as saxitoxin, okadaic acid, yessotoxins, azaspiracids, brevetoxins, and pinnatoxins. Other toxins, such as ciguatoxins and maitotoxins, accumulate in fish, where, as is the case for the latter compounds, they can be metabolized to even more toxic metabolites. On the other hand, much less is known about the chemical nature of compounds that are toxic to fish, the so-called ichthyotoxins. Despite numerous reports of algal blooms causing massive fish kills worldwide, only a few types of compounds, such as the karlotoxins, have been proven to be true ichthyotoxins. This review will highlight marine microalgae as the source of some of the most complex natural compounds known to mankind, with chemical structures that show no resemblance to what has been characterized from plants, fungi, or bacteria. In addition, it will summarize algal species known to be related to fish-killing blooms, but from which ichthyotoxins are yet to be characterized. PMID:26901085

  16. Chemical equilibrium analysis of dry hydrogen combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is based on a thermo-chemical equilibrium model for studying the effect of combustion of hydrogen during postulated accident scenarios in nuclear reactor containments. This model is based on the method of element potentials which seeks to minimize the free energy of the system. The condition on internal energy balance is imposed as a constraint during the minimization process. Another simplified model purely based on the internal energy balance has also been implemented to investigate the isolated impact of free energy and the conditions under which it becomes dominant. The two models have been used to extract final pressures for a wide range of initial conditions and mixture compositions that are typically found during accident scenarios. In the absence of hydrogen combustion experimental data, such models will become important for laying down a first estimate on the possible outcomes. (author)

  17. Concentration and chemical status of arsenic in the blood of pregnant hamsters during critical embryogenesis. 2. Acute exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration and chemical composition of arsenic has been determined in the blood of pregnant hamsters between 0.2 and 6 hr after an intraperitoneal injection of a teratogenic dose of radiolabeled sodium arsenate on the morning of the eighth day of gestation. Arsenic was present in plasma and red cells 0.20 hr postinjection. The plasma arsenic concentration reached a maximum of 220 μmole/kg blood near 0.5 hr postinjection. Plasma arsenic existed entirely as low-molecular-weight species. Both arsenite and dimethylarsinate (DMA) were present in plasma 0.20 hr postinjection, indicating that arsenate reduction and methylation of arsenic are rapidly initiated. However, the arsenite contribution remained small while the DMA contribution increased with time. Red cells arsenic included macromolecular arsenic (AsP) as well as three low-molecular-weight forms. The contribution of DMA remained small, but arsenite and AsP contributions increased with time. These findings identify the maternal blood concentration and chemical status of arsenic following the administration of a teratogenic dose of arsenate during the period of organogenesis. They could prove useful for predicting the likelihood of a teratogenic outcome in other mammalian species

  18. Chemical Analysis of the Herbal Medicine Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (Danshen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanqing Pang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae et Rhizoma, known as Danshen in China, is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines. Recently, there has been increasing scientific attention on Danshen for its remarkable bioactivities, such as promoting blood circulation, removing blood stasis, and clearing away heat. This review summarized the advances in chemical analysis of Danshen and its preparations since 2009. Representative established methods were reviewed, including spectroscopy, thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography (LC, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS, capillary electrophoresis, electrochemistry, and bioanalysis. Especially the analysis of polysaccharides in Danshen was discussed for the first time. Some proposals were also put forward to benefit quality control of Danshen.

  19. Chemical aspects of nuclear methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report includes papers which fall into three general areas: development of practical pre-analysis separation techniques, uranium/thorium separation from other elements for analytical and processing operations, and theory and mechanism of separation techniques. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 papers

  20. Arrays in biological and chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Bo Vöge

    2002-01-01

    Recently a dramatic change has happened for biological and biochemical analysis. Originally developed as an academic massive parallel screening tool, industry has caught the idea as well of performing all kinds of assays in the new format of microarrays. From food manufacturers over water supply...

  1. Chemical dosimetry using an iodide/iodate aqueous solution: application to the gamma irradiation of blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is presented for measuring and verifying the radiation dose in gamma irradiators used for treating blood prior to transfusion. This method employs the iodide/iodate dosimeter (0.6 M iodide, 0.1 M iodate, and 0.01 borate at pH 9.25) which forms triiodide upon exposure to ionizing radiation; for Cs-137 radiation the G value is 14.1. Samples were placed in a canister and irradiated in a conventional blood bank irradiator containing several Cs-137 sources. The following were exposed: (a) nine 1.5 ml plastic tubes containing dosimetry solution taped inside a 250 ml blood bag, which, in turn, was filled with either water or blood, (b) 50 ml plastic syringes containing varying amounts of dosimetry solution, (c) a whole blood bag containing 250 ml of the dosimetry solution. A water phantom was not used during exposure. The absorbance changes at 352 nm due to triiodide formation were used to determine a dose rate, which was on the order of 10 Gy/min (±5%) for all samples measured. This value is consistent with an average time-decayed dose rate for the irradiation volume as determined from the manufacturers calibration of the unit taking into account the heterogeneous nature of the radiation field inside the irradiator and the absence of a water phantom. Because of its sensitivity, ease of operation, and reproducibility, it is suggested that the iodide/iodate dosimetry system be considered for on-site periodic conformation/verification of the radiation dose as part of a quality assurance requirement for blood irradiators

  2. Uranium trace analysis in human blood using fission track technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission track technique makes the measurement of the content of uranium in human blood. By choosing solid state nuclear track detectors of the high sensitivity, uranium can be determined using U(n,f) reaction. Blood samples are directly taken from finger and irradiated in a nuclear reactor at a thermal neutron flux of 3.5 x 1016 n/cm2. In normal human blood, the uranium contents varied from 2.43 to 3.80 x 10-10 g/ml, the average of the values is (3.06 ± 0.10) x 10-10 g/ml. In U-exposed workers blood, it varied from 3.07 to 5.57 x 10-10 g/ml, the average value is (4.53 ± 0.12) x 10-10 g/ml. In leukemia patients blood, 3.90 to 12.07 x 10-10 g/ml, the mean U-content is (7.74 ± 0.15) x 10-10 g/ml, which is 2.5 times higher than the mean of normal human blood. These results show a possible relation between the leukemia and the uranium content in the blood. If there is such a relationship, the Nuclear Fission Track Technique will be an important diagnostic tool in medicine

  3. Isotopes in chemical analysis for water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface or underground water circulations and interactions are more and more often studied with the help of geochemistry and more particularly by using isotopic tracers. These isotopic tracer techniques allow, in particular, to define for each system under study, the natural or anthropic origin of the chemical elements, their behaviour, their transport in the different compartments, the circulation schemes of deep fluids and their interaction with the surrounding rocks. This article presents: 1 - the isotopes: definition, measurements and uses (stable and instable isotopes, measurement means, some examples: stable isotopes of the water molecule, boron isotopes, sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfates, strontium isotopes, nitrogen isotopes of nitrates); 2 - isotopes and water cycle: atmospheric tracing (rainfall signal at the drainage basin scale and at the country scale, aerosols characterization in urban areas), management of alluvial aquifers, underground waters and origin of nitrogenous contaminations, underground and surface waters in the context of aquifer floods: the case of the Somme basin, underground waters at the basin scale: heterogeneities, interactions and management processes (stable isotopes of the water molecule, S and O isotopes of dissolved sulfates, strontium isotopes); 3 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  4. Analysis of Arterial and Venous Blood Gases in Healthy Gyr Falcons ( Falco rusticolus ) Under Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Raj; Middleton, Rachael; BSc, Rinshiya Ahamed; Arjunan, Raji; Caliendo, Valentina

    2015-12-01

    Arterial and venous blood gas analysis is useful in the assessment of tissue oxygenation and ventilation and in diagnosis of metabolic and respiratory derangements. It can be performed with a relatively small volume of blood in avian patients under emergency situations. Arterial and venous blood gas analysis was performed in 30 healthy gyr falcons ( Falco rusticolus ) under anaesthesia to establish temperature-corrected reference intervals for arterial blood gas values and to compare them to temperature-corrected venous blood gas values with a portable point-of-care blood gas analyzer (i-STAT 1, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA). Statistically significant differences were observed between the temperature-corrected values of pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2), and partial pressure of oxygen (Po2) and the corresponding nontemperature-corrected values of these parameters in both arterial and venous blood. Values of temperature-corrected pH, temperature-corrected Pco2, bicarbonate concentrations, and base excess of extra cellular fluid did not differ significantly between arterial and venous blood, suggesting that, in anesthetized gyr falcons, venous blood gas analysis can be used in place of arterial blood gas analysis in clinical situations. Values for hematocrit, measured by the point-of-care analyzer, were significantly lower compared with those obtained by the microhematocrit method. PMID:26771318

  5. Analysis of blood and tissue in gallbladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautray, T.R. [Department of Dental Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, 2-188-1 Samduk-dong, Jung-gu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: tapash77@hotmail.com; Vijayan, V. [Dept. of Physics, Valliammai Engineering College, SRM Nagar, Chennai (India); Sudarshan, M. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, 3/LB-8 Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700 098, West Bengal (India); Panigrahi, S. [Dept. of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, Orissa (India)

    2009-09-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission, particle induced {gamma}-ray emission studies has been carried out to analyse normal and carcinoma tissues and blood samples of gallbladder of both sexes and seventeen trace elements namely Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br and Pb were estimated in the tissue and blood samples. In the present study, concentration of Zn in the carcinoma gallbladder tissue is less than that of the normal gallbladder tissue. Tobacco habit could be one of the important factors to decrease the elemental concentrations in blood and tissue samples.

  6. Microfluidic Cytometer for Complete Blood Count Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — RMD proposes to develop a MEMS based complete blood count (CBC) instrument that can be used aboard a spacecraft. We will produce a microfluidic scale combination...

  7. Reagents for Lithium Electrodes and Sensors for Blood Serum Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary D. Christian

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of lithium in blood serum requires high selectivity since the blood contains about 140 mM sodium compared to the 0.5-1.5 mM lithium level in manic depressive patients under treatment with lithium salts. This review traces the development of optical and potentiometric methods for the selective measurement of lithium in the presence of sodium. Selectivities of over 1,000:1 are achievable with properly designed ionophores.

  8. Controlling the accuracy of chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the IAEA reference materials are certified in intercomparisons by calculation of the overall mean of reported laboratory mean values. IAEA certification is provided at ''A level'' (satisfactory, or high degree of confidence), or at ''B level'' (acceptable, or reasonable degree of confidence) sampling , storage and preliminary processing, use of reliable analytical methods, internal and external control of accuracy and reliability result in excellent certified reference materials for inorganic, geologic, environmental, biological and other quantitative analysis by means of conventional and nuclear methods. 34 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  9. Transcriptome analysis of Neisseria meningitidis in human whole blood and mutagenesis studies identify virulence factors involved in blood survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Echenique-Rivera

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available During infection Neisseria meningitidis (Nm encounters multiple environments within the host, which makes rapid adaptation a crucial factor for meningococcal survival. Despite the importance of invasion into the bloodstream in the meningococcal disease process, little is known about how Nm adapts to permit survival and growth in blood. To address this, we performed a time-course transcriptome analysis using an ex vivo model of human whole blood infection. We observed that Nm alters the expression of ≈30% of ORFs of the genome and major dynamic changes were observed in the expression of transcriptional regulators, transport and binding proteins, energy metabolism, and surface-exposed virulence factors. In particular, we found that the gene encoding the regulator Fur, as well as all genes encoding iron uptake systems, were significantly up-regulated. Analysis of regulated genes encoding for surface-exposed proteins involved in Nm pathogenesis allowed us to better understand mechanisms used to circumvent host defenses. During blood infection, Nm activates genes encoding for the factor H binding proteins, fHbp and NspA, genes encoding for detoxifying enzymes such as SodC, Kat and AniA, as well as several less characterized surface-exposed proteins that might have a role in blood survival. Through mutagenesis studies of a subset of up-regulated genes we were able to identify new proteins important for survival in human blood and also to identify additional roles of previously known virulence factors in aiding survival in blood. Nm mutant strains lacking the genes encoding the hypothetical protein NMB1483 and the surface-exposed proteins NalP, Mip and NspA, the Fur regulator, the transferrin binding protein TbpB, and the L-lactate permease LctP were sensitive to killing by human blood. This increased knowledge of how Nm responds to adaptation in blood could also be helpful to develop diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to control the devastating

  10. PERFORMANCE MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF BLOOD FLOW IN ELASTIC ARTERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anil Kumar; C.L. Varshney; G.C. Sharma

    2005-01-01

    Two different non-Newtonian models for blood flow are considered, first a simple power law model displaying shear thinning viscosity, and second a generalized Maxwell model displaying both shear thinning viscosity and oscillating flow viscous-elasticity. These models are used along with a Newtonian model to study sinusoidal flow of blood in rigid and elastic straight arteries in the presence of magnetic field. The elasticity of blood does not appear to influence its flow behavior under physiological conditions in the large arteries,purely viscous shear thinning model should be quite realistic for simulating blood flow under these conditions. On using the power law model with high shear rate for sinusoidal flow simulation in elastic arteries, the mean and amplitude of the flow rate were found to be lower for a power law fluid compared to Newtonian fluid for the same pressure gradient. The governing equations have been solved by Crank-Niclson scheme. The results are interpreted in the context of blood in the elastic arteries keeping the magnetic effects in view. For physiological flow simulation in the aorta, an increase in mean wall shear stress, but a reduction in peak wall shear stress were observed for power law model compared to a Newtonian fluid model for matched flow rate wave form. Blood flow in the presence of transverse magnetic field in an elastic artery is investigated and the influence of factors such as morphology and surface irregularity is evaluated.

  11. Chemical form analysis method of particulate nickel compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical form of nickel is metallic nickel, nickel oxide and nickel ferrite in the PWR primary chemistry condition. The distribution of chemical form depends on Ni/Fe ratio and chemistry condition, especially dissolved hydrogen concentration. Nickel is parent element of Co-58 and the chemical form is important for Co-58 generation. A method of chemical form analysis of nickel has been developed. This method uses the difference in dissolution characteristics of nickel compounds. Metallic nickel and others are separated by nitric acid, and others are divided to nickel oxide and nickel ferrite by oxalic acid. Some cruds in the primary coolant of a PWR were analyzed by using this method. The method is not complex and available at chemical laboratory in a nuclear power plant. (author)

  12. Airborne chemistry: acoustic levitation in chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesson, Sabina; Nilsson, Staffan

    2004-04-01

    This review with 60 references describes a unique path to miniaturisation, that is, the use of acoustic levitation in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry applications. Levitation of small volumes of sample by means of a levitation technique can be used as a way to avoid solid walls around the sample, thus circumventing the main problem of miniaturisation, the unfavourable surface-to-volume ratio. Different techniques for sample levitation have been developed and improved. Of the levitation techniques described, acoustic or ultrasonic levitation fulfils all requirements for analytical chemistry applications. This technique has previously been used to study properties of molten materials and the equilibrium shape()and stability of liquid drops. Temperature and mass transfer in levitated drops have also been described, as have crystallisation and microgravity applications. The airborne analytical system described here is equipped with different and exchangeable remote detection systems. The levitated drops are normally in the 100 nL-2 microL volume range and additions to the levitated drop can be made in the pL-volume range. The use of levitated drops in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry offers several benefits. Several remote detection systems are compatible with acoustic levitation, including fluorescence imaging detection, right angle light scattering, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Applications include liquid/liquid extractions, solvent exchange, analyte enrichment, single-cell analysis, cell-cell communication studies, precipitation screening of proteins to establish nucleation conditions, and crystallisation of proteins and pharmaceuticals. PMID:14762640

  13. Chemical composition and biological value of spray dried porcine blood by-products and bone protein hydrolysate for young chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Orda, J; Skorupińska, J; Słupczyńska, M; Kuryszko, J

    2011-10-01

    The chemical composition of spray dried porcine blood by-products is characterised by wide variation in crude protein contents. In spray dried porcine blood plasma (SDBP) it varied between 670-780 g/kg, in spray dried blood cells (SDBC) between 830-930 g/kg, and in bone protein hydrolysate (BPH) in a range of 740-780 g/kg. Compared with fish meal, these feeds are poor in Met and Lys. Moreover, in BPH deep deficits of Met, Cys, Thr and other amino acids were found. The experiment comprised 7 dietary treatments: SDBP, SDBC, and BPH, each at an inclusion rate of 20 or 40 g/kg diet, plus a control. The addition of 20 or 40 g/kg of the analysed meals into feeds for very young chickens (1-28 d post hatch) significantly decreased the body weight (BW) of birds. Only the treatments with 40 g/kg of SDBP and SDBC showed no significant difference in BW as compared with the control. There were no significant differences between treatments and type of meal for feed intake, haematocrit and haemoglobin concentrations in blood. Addition of bone protein and blood cell meals to feed decreased the IgG concentration in blood and caused shortening of the femur and tibia bones. However, changes in the mineral composition of bones were not significantly affected by the type of meal used. The blood by-products, which are rich in microelements, improved retention of Ca and Cu only. In comparison to control chickens, significantly better accretion of these minerals was found in treatments containing 20 g/kg of SDBP or 40 g/kg of SDBC. Great variability in apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in chickens was determined. In this respect, some significant differences related to the type of meal fed were confirmed for Asp, Pro, Val, Tyr and His. In general, the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids was about 2-3 percentage units better in chickens fed on diets containing the animal by products than in control birds. PMID:22029787

  14. Appendix C. Collection of Samples for Chemical Agent Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, C; Thompson, C; Doerr, T; Scripsick, R

    2005-09-23

    This chapter describes procedures for the collection and analysis of samples of various matrices for the purpose of determining the presence of chemical agents in a civilian setting. This appendix is intended to provide the reader with sufficient information to make informed decisions about the sampling and analysis process and to suggest analytical strategies that might be implemented by the scientists performing sampling and analysis. This appendix is not intended to be used as a standard operating procedure to provide detailed instructions as to how trained scientists should handle samples. Chemical agents can be classified by their physical and chemical properties. Table 1 lists the chemical agents considered by this report. In selecting sampling and analysis methods, we have considered procedures proposed by the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and peer-reviewed scientific literature. EPA analytical methods are good resources describing issues of quality assurance with respect to chain-of-custody, sample handling, and quality control requirements.

  15. Analysis for blood manganese used to assess environmental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hams, G.A.; Fabri, J.K.

    1988-06-01

    In this graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometric method for measuring manganese in whole blood, we use a pyrolytic platform to minimize interference by sample matrix. For optimal sample ashing we denature the sample within the furnace with nitric acid and use oxygen as the purge gas at low temperatures. The mean manganese concentration found in blood from 15 unexposed city dwellers was 215 (2 SD 135) nmol/L. By comparison, the range of manganese concentrations in blood sampled from a group of Australian aborigines living near a surface manganese ore deposit on Groote Eylandt, Northern Territory, was much higher (median 405 nmol/L, range 175 to 990 nmol/L).

  16. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate in cats with chronic kidney disease undergoing chemical restraint during hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Kleine Figueiredo dos Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dialysis is one of the used methods for treatment of Acute Renal Injury (ARI and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD to replace the function of the kidneys when refers to blood depuration. Hemodialysis removes toxins accumulated in the body directly from the blood, being a useful alternative therapy for dogs and cats with CKD in advanced stages. Because of the difficulty on handling the patient feline, this procedure requires sedation. However, few studies have been conducted to assess the safety of anesthesia in dogs and cats with CKD undergoing dialysis. The present study aimed to evaluate two different protocols of chemical restraint in cats with CKD and the effect of these on systolic blood pressure (SBP and heart rate (HR, since the procedure of extracorporeal circulation leads the patient to a hypotensive frame. Twelve adult cats were used, with an average weight of 4 kg, CKD, underwent two anesthetic protocols: Group GP (n = 6 using propofol, and group GCM (n = 6 using ketamine-midazolam association for the implantation procedure of central venous catheter (CVC and hemodialysis. Cats in GP as well as the GCM group showed statistical difference in the change in SBP and HR only from baseline compared to the other time points evaluated. The two protocols maintained SBP and HR within physiological values.

  17. Terahertz Chemical Analysis of Exhaled Human Breath - Broad Essay of Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Daniela R.; Fosnight, Alyssa M.; Thomas, Jessica R.; Medvedev, Ivan R.

    2013-06-01

    Approximately 3000 chemicals are thought to be present in human breath. Of these chemicals, many are considered typical of exhaled air. Yet, others can allude to different disease pathologies. The detection of chemicals in breath could have many practical purposes in medicine and provide a noninvasive means of diagnostics. We have previously reported on detection of ethanol, methanol, and acetone in exhaled human breath using a novel sub-millimeter/THz spectroscopic approach. This paper reports on our most recent study. A tentative list has been made of approximately 20 chemicals previously found in breath using other methods. Though many of these chemicals are only expressed in samples from donors with certain pathologies, at the time of this submission we are able to detect and quantitatively measure acetaldehyde and dimethyl sulfide in the breath of several healthy donors. Additional tentatively identified chemicals have been seen using this approach. This presentation will explain our experimental procedures and present our most recent results in THz breath analysis. Prospects, challenges and future plans will be outlined and discussed.

  18. Dynamical Analysis in the Mathematical Modelling of Human Blood Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Saebyok; Kang, Byungmin

    2012-01-01

    We want to apply the geometrical method to a dynamical system of human blood glucose. Due to the educational importance of model building, we show a relatively general modelling process using observational facts. Next, two models of some concrete forms are analysed in the phase plane by means of linear stability, phase portrait and vector…

  19. Gradient Bundle Analysis: A Full Topological Approach to Chemical Bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Morgenstern, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The "chemical bond" is a central concept in molecular sciences, but there is no consensus as to what a bond actually is. Therefore, a variety of bonding models have been developed, each defining the structure of molecules in a different manner with the goal of explaining and predicting chemical properties. This thesis describes the initial development of gradient bundle analysis (GBA), a chemical bonding model that creates a high resolution picture of chemical interactions within the charge density framework. GBA is based on concepts from the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), but uses a more complete picture of the topology and geometry of the electron charge density to understand and predict bonding interactions. Gradient bundles are defined as volumes bounded by zero-flux surfaces (ZFSs) in the gradient of the charge density with well-defined energies. The structure of gradient bundles provides an avenue for detecting the locations of valence electrons, which correspond to reactive regions in a ...

  20. Surface chemical composition analysis of heat-treated bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan-dan; Yu, Yang-lun; Zhang, Ya-mei; Yu, Wen-ji; Gao, Jian-min

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of heat treatment on the chemical composition of bamboo slivers was studied. The chemical properties of the samples were examined by chemical analysis. Results showed a decrease in the contents of holocellulose and α-cellulose, as well as an increase in the contents of lignin and extractives. Changes in the chemical structure of bamboo components were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FTIR spectroscopy results indicated that hemicellulose contents decrease, whereas lignin contents increase after heat treatment. Ester formation linked to lignin decreased the hygroscopicity of the bamboo samples and consequently improved their dimensional stability and durability. XPS spectroscopy results showed that hemicelluloses and celluloses are relatively more sensitive to the heating process than lignin. As a consequence, hemicellulose and cellulose contents decreased, whereas lignin contents increased during heat treatment. The results obtained in this study provide useful information for the future utilization of heat-treated bamboo.

  1. Analysis of Ca and Mg in blood of golden hamster using NAA technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Rodrigo O.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Jose A.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: rodrigoaguiar@usp.br, e-mail: czamboni@ipen.br, e-mail: jageiros@yahoo.com.br

    2009-07-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine simultaneously Ca and Mg concentrations in whole blood of Golden Hamster. The reference values for Ca (0.17 - 0.29 gL{sup -1} ) and Mg (0.042 - 0.074 gL{sup -1} ) can be used to performed biochemistry investigation using whole blood. (author)

  2. Analysis of Ca and Mg in blood of golden hamster using NAA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine simultaneously Ca and Mg concentrations in whole blood of Golden Hamster. The reference values for Ca (0.17 - 0.29 gL-1 ) and Mg (0.042 - 0.074 gL-1 ) can be used to performed biochemistry investigation using whole blood. (author)

  3. Quantitative investigation of red blood cell three-dimensional geometric and chemical changes in the storage lesion using digital holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaferzadeh, Keyvan; Moon, Inkyu

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative phase information obtained by digital holographic microscopy (DHM) can provide new insight into the functions and morphology of single red blood cells (RBCs). Since the functionality of a RBC is related to its three-dimensional (3-D) shape, quantitative 3-D geometric changes induced by storage time can help hematologists realize its optimal functionality period. We quantitatively investigate RBC 3-D geometric changes in the storage lesion using DHM. Our experimental results show that the substantial geometric transformation of the biconcave-shaped RBCs to the spherocyte occurs due to RBC storage lesion. This transformation leads to progressive loss of cell surface area, surface-to-volume ratio, and functionality of RBCs. Furthermore, our quantitative analysis shows that there are significant correlations between chemical and morphological properties of RBCs. PMID:26502322

  4. Method for fractional solid-waste sampling and chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Rodushkin, I.; Spliid, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    Chemical characterization of solid waste is a demanding task due to the heterogeneity of the waste. This article describes how 45 material fractions hand-sorted from Danish household waste were subsampled and prepared for chemical analysis of 61 substances. All material fractions were subject to...... repeated particle-size reduction, mixing, and mass reduction until a sufficiently small but representative sample was obtained for digestion prior to chemical analysis. The waste-fraction samples were digested according to their properties for maximum recognition of all the studied substances. By combining...... four subsampling methods and five digestion methods, paying attention to the heterogeneity and the material characteristics of the waste fractions, it was possible to determine 61 substances with low detection limits, reasonable variance, and high accuracy. For most of the substances of environmental...

  5. Environmental Chemicals in Urine and Blood: Improving Methods for Creatinine and Lipid Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    O’Brien, Katie M.; Upson, Kristen; Cook, Nancy R.; Weinberg, Clarice R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Investigators measuring exposure biomarkers in urine typically adjust for creatinine to account for dilution-dependent sample variation in urine concentrations. Similarly, it is standard to adjust for serum lipids when measuring lipophilic chemicals in serum. However, there is controversy regarding the best approach, and existing methods may not effectively correct for measurement error. Objectives We compared adjustment methods, including novel approaches, using simulated case–con...

  6. Environmental Chemicals in Urine and Blood: Improving Methods for Creatinine and Lipid Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    O’Brien, Katie M.; Upson, Kristen; Cook, Nancy R.; Weinberg, Clarice R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Investigators measuring exposure biomarkers in urine typically adjust for creatinine to account for dilution-dependent sample variation in urine concentrations. Similarly, it is standard to adjust for serum lipids when measuring lipophilic chemicals in serum. However, there is controversy regarding the best approach, and existing methods may not effectively correct for measurement error. Objectives: We compared adjustment methods, including novel approaches, using simulated case–c...

  7. Institutional Knots: A Comparative Analysis of Cord Blood Policy in Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denburg, Avram

    2016-02-01

    Umbilical cord blood is a rich source of blood stem cells, which are of critical clinical importance in the treatment of a variety of malignant and genetic conditions requiring stem cell transplantation. Many countries have established national public cord blood banks; such banks often coexist with a panoply of private options for cord blood banking. Until recently, Canada was the only G8 country without a national cord blood bank. This differs markedly from the United States, which years ago established a national cord blood bank policy and inventory. This article investigates potential reasons for this discrepancy through a comparative analysis of the evolution of programs and policies on national cord blood banking in Canada and the United States. My analysis suggests that cross-national discrepancies in policy on public cord blood banking were determined primarily by institutional factors, principal among them formal governmental structure and the legacy of past policies. Institutional entrepreneurialism in the health sector played a constitutive role in the earlier evolution of national cord blood policy in the United States as compared to Canada. PMID:26567379

  8. The Impact of Flow Injection on Modern Chemical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    There is no doubt that Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) has had a profound impact on the ways and means that modern analytical chemical procedures are performed. This is amply reflected in the voluminous scientific literature, which by the middle of 2004 passed more than 14,500 FIA-publications in...

  9. Bark chemical analysis explains selective bark damage by rodents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heroldová, Marta; Jánová, Eva; Suchomel, J.; Purchart, L.; Homolka, Miloslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2009), s. 137-140. ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH72075 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bark damage * bark selection * bark chemical analysis * rowan * beech * spruce * mountain forest regeneration Subject RIV: GK - Forest ry

  10. Integrated polymer waveguides for absorbance detection in chemical analysis systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; El-Ali, Jamil; Wolff, Anders;

    2003-01-01

    A chemical analysis system for absorbance detection with integrated polymer waveguides is reported for the first time. The fabrication procedure relies on structuring of a single layer of the photoresist SU-8, so both the microfluidic channel network and the optical components, which include planar...

  11. Chemical speciation of arsenic species in human blood serum by liquid chromatography using a phosphatidylcholine-coated ODS column with detection by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical speciation of arsenic species in human blood serum was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP-MS) with direct sample injection, where an octadecylsilyl silica (ODS) column coated with phosphatidylcholine (PC) (hereafter known as 'PC-coated ODS column') was used as the separation column. In arsenic species analysis, a citrate buffer solution (pH 4.0) was used as the mobile phase, in which the following reagents were added: sodium 1-dodecanesulfonate (SDS), tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), which are ion-pair reagents to separate inorganic and organic arsenic species, and 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate (CHAPS), which is a protein-solubilizing agent to prevent adsorption of proteins on the column. As a result of optimization, five representative arsenic species spiked in human blood serum reference material could be separated from each other within 5 min on the PC-coated ODS column by elution with a 5 mM citrate buffer (pH 4.0) containing 5 mM SDS, 5 mM THAH, and 0.2 mM CHAPS. The detection limits obtained by ICP-MS were 3.1, 2.7, 4.5, 2.5, and 2.5 ng of As g-1 for arsenate (iAsV), arsenite (iAsIII), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsenic acid (DMA), and arsenobetaine (AB), respectively, when the injection volume was 20 μL. The present separation system was also applied to speciation analysis of arsenic species in human blood serum collected from a leukemia patient after therapeutic treatment with arsenic. (author)

  12. EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN FAT, SKIN, NAILS, HAIR, BLOOD AND URINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research program surveyed and evaluated the methods and procedures to identify and quantitate chemical constituents in human tissues and fluids including fat, skin, nails, hair, blood, and urine. These methods have been evaluated to determine their ease and rapidity, as well ...

  13. Numerical Analysis of the FDA Centrifugal Blood Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Marinova, V.; Kerroumi, I.; Lintermann, Andreas; Göbbert, Jens Henrik; Moulinec, C.; Rible, S.; Fournier, Y.; Behbahani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Ventricular Assist Devices (VADs) are commonly implanted to assist patients suffering fromheart diseases. They provide long- and short-term support for the human heart and help patientsto recover from heart attacks and from congestive heart failure. It is essential to design bloodsensitiveVADs to minimise the risk of hemolysis and thrombosis. The blood pump, however,must operate at a wide range of flow rates and pressure heads which makes a low-risk design achallenging task. In this study the...

  14. Spectral analysis of heart rate and blood pressure variability in primary Sjogren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Barendregt (Pieternella); J.H.M. Tulen (Joke); A.H. van den Meiracker (Anton); H.M. Markusse

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Autonomic dysfunction has been described in primary Sjogren's syndrome (SS). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the circulatory autonomic regulation in patients with primary SS by power spectral analysis of heart rate and blood pressure variability. METHODS: Forty th

  15. Analysis of blood transfusion predictors in patients undergoing elective oesophagectomy for cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welch Neil T

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oesophagectomy for cancers is a major operation with significant blood loss and usage. Concerns exist about the side effects of blood transfusion, cost and availability of donated blood. We are not aware of any previous study that has evaluated predictive factors for perioperative blood transfusion in patients undergoing elective oesophagectomy for cancer. This study aimed to audit the pattern of blood crossmatch and to evaluate factors predictive of transfusion requirements in oesophagectomy patients. Methods Data was collected from the database of all patients who underwent oesophagectomy for cancer over a 2-year period. Clinico-pathological data collected included patients demographics, clinical factors, tumour histopathological data, preoperative and discharge haemoglobin levels, total blood loss, number of units of blood crossmatched pre-, intra- and postoperatively, number of blood units transfused, crossmatched units reused for another patient and number of blood units wasted. Clinico-pathological variables were evaluated and logistic regression analysis was performed to determine which factors were predictive of blood transfusion. Results A total of 145 patients with a male to female ratio of 2.5:1 and median age of 68 (40–85 years were audited. The mean preoperative haemoglobin (Hb was 13.0 g/dl. 37% of males (Hb 70 years, Hb level Conclusion The cohort of patients audited was over-crossmatched. The identified independent predictors of blood transfusion should be considered in preoperative blood ordering for oesophagectomy patients. This study has directly led to a reduction in the maximum surgical blood-ordering schedule for oesophagectomy to 2 units and a reaudit is underway.

  16. Validation of the pulse decomposition analysis algorithm using central arterial blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Baruch, Martin C; Kalantari, Kambiz; Gerdt, David W; Adkins, Charles M

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a significant need for continuous noninvasive blood pressure (cNIBP) monitoring, especially for anesthetized surgery and ICU recovery. cNIBP systems could lower costs and expand the use of continuous blood pressure monitoring, lowering risk and improving outcomes. The test system examined here is the CareTaker® and a pulse contour analysis algorithm, Pulse Decomposition Analysis (PDA). PDA’s premise is that the peripheral arterial pressure pulse is a superposition of five ...

  17. Multifactorial analysis of human blood cell responses to clinical total body irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuhas, J. M.; Stokes, T. R.; Lushbaugh, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    Multiple regression analysis techniques are used to study the effects of therapeutic radiation exposure, number of fractions, and time on such quantal responses as tumor control and skin injury. The potential of these methods for the analysis of human blood cell responses is demonstrated and estimates are given of the effects of total amount of exposure and time of protraction in determining the minimum white blood cell concentration observed after exposure of patients from four disease groups.

  18. Chemical constituents from Dragon' s blood of Dracaena cambodiana%海南血竭的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惠琴; 梅文莉; 左文健; 王辉; 赵友兴; 戴好富; 王金辉

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究海南血竭(Dragon’s blood from Dracaena cambodiana Pierre ex Gagnep)的化学成分..方法:采用硅胶柱色谱、凝胶柱色谱和半制备HPLC等.方法:进行分离纯化,根据理化常数和波谱数据鉴定结构.结果从海南血竭中提取分离得到5个化合物,分别鉴定为cambodianin C(1)、cinnabarone(2)、7,4’-二羟基黄酮(3)、3,4-二羟基烯丙基苯(4)和紫檀芪(5).结论化合物1为新天然产物,化合物2~5为首次从海南血竭中分离得到.抗菌活性测试结果表明:4和5对于金黄色葡萄球菌(SA)和耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)有较弱的抑制作用.%Dragon's blood, known as a famous traditional medicine, has been used for the treatment of wounds,leucorrhea,fractures,diarrhea and piles as well as intestinal and stomach ulcers for a long time. Previous studies on the stem of Dracaena cambodiana had led to the isolation of a number of phenolic compounds and steroids. In an effort to search for new bioactive compounds from medicinal plants,the ethanol extract of Dragon's blood from D. cambodiana was found to show antibacterial activities. In this paper,silica gel,sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and semi-prep HPLC were used to isolate the chemical constituents, and their structures were elucidated by the physico-chemical properties and spectral analysis. Five compounds were isolated and identified as cambodianin C (1), cinnabarone (2), 7,4'-dihydroxy-flavone (3) ,3,4-dihydroxyallylbenzene(4) and pterostilbene(5). Compound 1 was a novel natural product,and compounds 2-5 were isolated from Dragon's blood of D. cambodiana for the first time. Compounds 4 and 5 showed antibacterial activities agaist Staphylococcu aureus(SA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus au-reus(MRSA).

  19. Trends in Indian Patent Filing in Chemical Sciences: An Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Dahibhate,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the trends in Indian patents filed in the area of chemical sciences during 1995 to2008. It highlights the importance of patent literature in scientific developments and global trends in patentfilings. A result of Indian patent filing analysis indicated that filing in India is increasing in the past few yearsand many public and private organisations are filing patents in India and in other countries for protecting theinventions. Among India patent filing activities, chemical and pharmaceutical sciences are the prominent areas.Individual inventors and assignees from private and public organisations are filing patents, but in India, Councilof Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR is leading patent filer.

  20. An Extended Algorithm of Flexibility Analysis in Chemical Engineering Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An extended algorithm of flexibility analysis with a local adjusting method for flexibility region of chemical processes, which is based on the active constraint strategy, is proposed, which fully exploits the flexibility region of the process system operation. The hyperrectangular flexibility region determined by the extended algorithm is larger than that calculated by the previous algorithms. The limitation of the proposed algorithm due to imperfect convexity and its corresponding verification measure are also discussed. Both numerical and actual chemical process examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new algorithm.

  1. Chemical Cytometry: Fluorescence-Based Single-Cell Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Daniella; Dickerson, Jane A.; Whitmore, Colin D.; Turner, Emily H.; Palcic, Monica M.; Hindsgaul, Ole; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2008-07-01

    Cytometry deals with the analysis of the composition of single cells. Flow and image cytometry employ antibody-based stains to characterize a handful of components in single cells. Chemical cytometry, in contrast, employs a suite of powerful analytical tools to characterize a large number of components. Tools have been developed to characterize nucleic acids, proteins, and metabolites in single cells. Whereas nucleic acid analysis employs powerful polymerase chain reaction-based amplification techniques, protein and metabolite analysis tends to employ capillary electrophoresis separation and ultrasensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection. It is now possible to detect yoctomole amounts of many analytes in single cells.

  2. Whole blood glucose analysis based on smartphone camera module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadhasan, Jasmine Pramila; Oh, Hyunhee; Choi, Cheol Soo; Kim, Sanghyo

    2015-11-01

    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors have received great attention for their high efficiency in biological applications. The present work describes a CMOS image sensor-based whole blood glucose monitoring system through a point-of-care (POC) approach. A simple poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) chip was developed to carry out the enzyme kinetic reaction at various concentrations (110–586 mg∕dL) of mouse blood glucose. In this technique, assay reagent is immobilized onto amine functionalized silica (AFSiO2) nanoparticles as an electrostatic attraction in order to achieve glucose oxidation on the chip. The assay reagent immobilized AFSiO2 nanoparticles develop a semi-transparent reaction platform, which is technically a suitable chip to analyze by a camera module. The oxidized glucose then produces a green color according to the glucose concentration and is analyzed by the camera module as a photon detection technique; the photon number decreases when the glucose concentration increases. The combination of these components, the CMOS image sensor and enzyme immobilized PET film chip, constitute a compact, accurate, inexpensive, precise, digital, highly sensitive, specific, and optical glucose-sensing approach for POC diagnosis. PMID:26524683

  3. Whole blood glucose analysis based on smartphone camera module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadhasan, Jasmine Pramila; Oh, Hyunhee; Choi, Cheol Soo; Kim, Sanghyo

    2015-11-01

    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors have received great attention for their high efficiency in biological applications. The present work describes a CMOS image sensor-based whole blood glucose monitoring system through a point-of-care (POC) approach. A simple poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) chip was developed to carry out the enzyme kinetic reaction at various concentrations (110-586 mg/dL) of mouse blood glucose. In this technique, assay reagent is immobilized onto amine functionalized silica (AFSiO2) nanoparticles as an electrostatic attraction in order to achieve glucose oxidation on the chip. The assay reagent immobilized AFSiO2 nanoparticles develop a semi-transparent reaction platform, which is technically a suitable chip to analyze by a camera module. The oxidized glucose then produces a green color according to the glucose concentration and is analyzed by the camera module as a photon detection technique; the photon number decreases when the glucose concentration increases. The combination of these components, the CMOS image sensor and enzyme immobilized PET film chip, constitute a compact, accurate, inexpensive, precise, digital, highly sensitive, specific, and optical glucose-sensing approach for POC diagnosis.

  4. Analysis of blood gas values in mice following pulmonary irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arterial pH and partial pressures of oxygen (P/sub a/O2) and carbon dioxide (P/sub a/CO2) of mice were investigated at times from 1 to 16 weeks after a single radiation dose of 1100 rad to the thorax. The mice breathed air during the irradiation and either air, 7% O2:93% N2, or 100% O2 during the blood gas determinations. P/sub a/O2 values of mice breathing 7% O2:93% N2 or 100% O2 were reduced 4 to 6 weeks after the irradiation. Also, all P/sub a/O2 values were reduced and all hemoglobin (Hb) levels were elevated 16 weeks after irradiation. The majority of the animals died between 16 and 26 weeks after irradiation, but decreased P/sub a/O2 and increased Hb levels also were observed 27 weeks after the treatment in a few of the surviving mice. These findings indicate that the arterial blood gases may change following pulmonary irradiation and may provide an endpoint for the study of radiation-induced pulmonary damage

  5. Brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated chemicals, two groups of persistent contaminants in Belgian human blood and milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roosens, Laurence [Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); D' Hollander, Wendy; Bervoets, Lieven [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Reynders, Hans; Van Campenhout, Karen [Environment and Health Unit, Department of Environment, Nature and Energy, Flemish Government - Koning Albert II-laan 20, Bus 8, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Cornelis, Christa; Van Den Heuvel, Rosette; Koppen, Gudrun [Unit Environmental Risk and Health, Flemish Institute of Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian, E-mail: adrian.covaci@ua.ac.b [Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2010-08-15

    We assessed the exposure of the Flemish population to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) by analysis of pooled cord blood, adolescent and adult serum, and human milk. Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in blood (range 1.6-6.5 ng/g lipid weight, lw) and milk (range 2.0-6.4 ng/g lw) agreed with European data. Hexabromocyclododecane ranged between <2.1-5.7 ng/g lw in milk. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) dominated in blood and ranged between 1 and 171 ng/mL and <0.9-9.5 ng/mL, respectively. Total PFC levels in milk ranged between <0.5-29 ng/mL. A significant increase in PBDE concentrations was detected from newborns (median 2.1) to the adolescents and adults (medians 3.8 and 4.6 ng/g lw, respectively). An identical trend was observed for PFOS, but not for PFOA. We estimated that newborn exposure to BFRs and PFCs occurs predominantly post-natally, whereas placental transfer has a minor impact on the body burden. - The exposure to BFRs and PFCs of general Flemish population has been assessed throughout several age groups.

  6. Brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated chemicals, two groups of persistent contaminants in Belgian human blood and milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assessed the exposure of the Flemish population to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) by analysis of pooled cord blood, adolescent and adult serum, and human milk. Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in blood (range 1.6-6.5 ng/g lipid weight, lw) and milk (range 2.0-6.4 ng/g lw) agreed with European data. Hexabromocyclododecane ranged between <2.1-5.7 ng/g lw in milk. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) dominated in blood and ranged between 1 and 171 ng/mL and <0.9-9.5 ng/mL, respectively. Total PFC levels in milk ranged between <0.5-29 ng/mL. A significant increase in PBDE concentrations was detected from newborns (median 2.1) to the adolescents and adults (medians 3.8 and 4.6 ng/g lw, respectively). An identical trend was observed for PFOS, but not for PFOA. We estimated that newborn exposure to BFRs and PFCs occurs predominantly post-natally, whereas placental transfer has a minor impact on the body burden. - The exposure to BFRs and PFCs of general Flemish population has been assessed throughout several age groups.

  7. Chemical analysis of thin films at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characterization of thin films produced by chemical and physical vapor deposition requires special analytical techniques. When the average compositions of the films are required, dissolution of the thin films and measurement of the concentrations of the solubilized species is the appropriate analytical approach. In this report techniques for the wet chemical analysis of thin films of Si:Al, P2O5:SiO2, B2O3:SiO2, TiB/sub x/ and TaB/sub x/ are described. The analyses are complicated by the small total quantities of these analytes present in the films, the refractory characters of these analytes, and the possibility of interferences from the substrates on which the films are deposited. Etching conditions are described which dissolve the thin films without introducing interferences from the substrates. A chemical amplification technique and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry are shown to provide the sensitivity required to measure the small total quantities (micrograms to milligrams) of analytes present. Also the chemical analysis data has been used to calibrate normal infrared absorption spectroscopy to give fast estimates of the phosphorus and/or boron dopant levels in thin SiO2 films

  8. All-Russia conference on chemical analysis of substances and materials. Abstracts of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collection contains abstracts of reports on chemical analysis of foods, drugs, environmental materials. Methods of chemical analysis used in such regions as chemical control in agriculture, criminology, art and archaeology, biotechnology, geology, chemistry and petrochemistry, metallurgy, metrology are presented. Theoretical, methodological and applied aspects of chemical analysis are considered

  9. Analysis of the chemical equilibrium of combustion at constant volume

    OpenAIRE

    Marius BREBENEL

    2014-01-01

    Determining the composition of a mixture of combustion gases at a given temperature is based on chemical equilibrium, when the equilibrium constants are calculated on the assumption of constant pressure and temperature. In this paper, an analysis of changes occurring when combustion takes place at constant volume is presented, deriving a specific formula of the equilibrium constant. The simple reaction of carbon combustion in pure oxygen in both cases (constant pressure and constant ...

  10. Development of microfluidic devices for chemical analysis and fluid handling

    OpenAIRE

    Egidi, Giovanni; De Rooij, Nicolas F

    2004-01-01

    Miniaturization of chemical analysis and synthesis systems improve throughput, performance and accessibility, and lead to significantly reduced costs. In this work are described several components that find place in the process of miniaturization. This work is developed in the frame of the project CREAM (Cartridges with molecularly imprinted Recognition Elements for Antibiotic residues Monitoring in Milk). Antibiotics are widely used to treat cows' diseases, and traces can be found in milk so...

  11. Device for high spatial resolution chemical analysis of a sample and method of high spatial resolution chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2015-10-06

    A system and method for analyzing a chemical composition of a specimen are described. The system can include at least one pin; a sampling device configured to contact a liquid with a specimen on the at least one pin to form a testing solution; and a stepper mechanism configured to move the at least one pin and the sampling device relative to one another. The system can also include an analytical instrument for determining a chemical composition of the specimen from the testing solution. In particular, the systems and methods described herein enable chemical analysis of specimens, such as tissue, to be evaluated in a manner that the spatial-resolution is limited by the size of the pins used to obtain tissue samples, not the size of the sampling device used to solubilize the samples coupled to the pins.

  12. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  13. Cluster analysis to evaluate stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters behavior on uranium mining waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ore Treating Unit (UTM, in portuguese) is a deactivated uranium mine. A cluster analysis was used to evaluate the behavior of stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters in their effluents. The utilization of the cluster analysis proved itself effective in the assessment, allowing the identification of groups of chemical elements, physical-chemical parameters and their joint analysis (elements and parameters). As a result we may assert, based on data analysis, that there is a strong link between calcium and magnesium and between aluminum and rare-earth oxides on UTM's effluents. Sulphate was also identified as strongly linked to total and dissolved solids, and those to electrical conductivity. There were other associations, but not so strongly linked. Further gathering, to seasonal evaluation, are required in order to confirm those analysis. Additional statistical analysis (factor analysis) must be used to try to identify the origin of the identified groups on this analysis. (author)

  14. Analysis of reasons for discarding blood and blood components in a blood bank of tertiary care hospital in central India: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many modern surgical procedures could not be carried out without the use of blood. There are no substitutes for human blood. Thus, proper utilization of blood is necessary with minimal wasting. Materials and Methods: A total of 10,582 donors donated blood during the study period of 19 months in blood bank of a tertiary care hospital, central India from 1 st of November 2009 to 31 st May 2011, which were screened. Results: A total of 346 whole blood bags were discarded. Out of these 346 blood bags, 257 (74.30% were discarded because of seropositivity for transfusion transmissible infectious diseases. A total of 542 blood components were discarded against 3702 blood components prepared during the study period. Among blood components discarded, most common units were platelets. The most common cause of discarding the blood components was expiry of date due to non-utilization (87.00%. Conclusion: A properly conducted donor interview, notification of permanently deferred donors will help in discarding less number of bags from collected units. Similarly, properly implemented blood transfusion policies will also help in discarding less number of blood bags due to expiry. These discarded bags, because they are unutilized are both financially as well as socially harmful to the blood bank.

  15. Analysis of the stochastic excitability in the flow chemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashkirtseva, Irina [Ural Federal University, Lenina, 51, Ekaterinburg, 620000 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    A dynamic model of the thermochemical process in the flow reactor is considered. We study an influence of the random disturbances on the stationary regime of this model. A phenomenon of noise-induced excitability is demonstrated. For the analysis of this phenomenon, a constructive technique based on the stochastic sensitivity functions and confidence domains is applied. It is shown how elaborated technique can be used for the probabilistic analysis of the generation of mixed-mode stochastic oscillations in the flow chemical reactor.

  16. Methods of remote surface chemical analysis for asteroid missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different remote sensing methods are discussed which can be applied to investigate the chemical composition of minor bodies of the Solar System. The secondary-ion method, remote laser mass-analysis and electron beam induced X-ray emission analysis are treated in detail. Relative advantages of these techniques are analyzed. The physical limitation of the methods: effects of solar magnetic field and solar wind on the secondary-ion and laser methods and the effect of electrostatic potential of the space apparatus on the ion and electron beam methods are described. First laboratory results of remote laser method are given. (D.Gy.)

  17. Electrochemical approaches for chemical and biological analysis on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Samuel P.

    2003-01-01

    Obtaining in situ chemical data from planetary bodies such as Mars or Europa can present significant challenges. The one analytical technique that has many of the requisite characteristics to meet such a challenge is electroanalysis. Described here are three electroanalytical devices designed for in situ geochemical and biological analysis on Mars. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) was built and flight qualified for the now cancelled NASA Mars 2001 Lander. Part of MECA consisted of four "cells" containing arrays of electrochemical based sensors for measuring the ionic species in soil samples. A next-generation MECA, the Robotic Chemical Analysis Laboratory (RCAL), uses a carousel-type system to allow for greater customization of analytical procedures. A second instrument, proposed as part of the 2007 CryoScout mission, consists of a flow-through inorganic chemical analyzer (MICA). CryoScout is a torpedo-like device designed for subsurface investigation of the stratigraphic climate record embedded in Mars' north polar cap. As the CryoScout melts its way through the ice cap, MICA will collect and analyze the meltwater for a variety of inorganics and chemical parameters. By analyzing the chemistry locked in the layers of dust, salt, and ice, geologists will be able to determine the recent history of climate, water, and atmosphere on Mars and link it to the past. Finally, electroanalysis shows its abilities in the detection of possible microorganism on Mars or elsewhere in the solar system. To identify an unknown microorganism, one that may not even use Earth-type biochemistry, requires a detection scheme which makes minimal assumptions and looks for the most general features. Recent work has demonstrated that the use of an array of electrochemical sensors which monitors the changes in a solution via electrical conductivity, pH, and ion selective electrodes, can be used to detect minute chemical perturbations caused by the growth of bacteria and

  18. Depleted uranium analysis in blood by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, T.I.; Xu, H.; Ejnik, J.W.; Mullick, F.G.; Squibb, K.; McDiarmid, M.A.; Centeno, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we report depleted uranium (DU) analysis in whole blood samples. Internal exposure to DU causes increased uranium levels as well as change in the uranium isotopic composition in blood specimen. For identification of DU exposure we used the 235U/238U ratio in blood samples, which ranges from 0.00725 for natural uranium to 0.002 for depleted uranium. Uranium quantification and isotopic composition analysis were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For method validation we used eight spiked blood samples with known uranium concentrations and isotopic composition. The detection limit for quantification was determined to be 4 ng L-1 uranium in whole blood. The data reproduced within 1-5% RSD and an accuracy of 1-4%. In order to achieve a 235U/238U ratio range of 0.00698-0.00752% with 99.7% confidence limit a minimum whole blood uranium concentration of 60 ng L??1 was required. An additional 10 samples from a cohort of veterans exposed to DU in Gulf War I were analyzed with no knowledge of their medical history. The measured 235U/ 238U ratios in the blood samples were used to identify the presence or absence of DU exposure within this patient group. ?? 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Bioimpedance spectroscopy as technique of hematological and biochemical analysis of blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malahov, M. V.; Smirnov, A. V.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Melnikov, A. A.; Vikulov, A. D.

    2010-04-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy may become a useful method for the express analysis and monitoring of blood parameters. The aim of this study was to identify biochemical and hematological parameters of blood that can be accurately predicted by means of bioimpedance technique. Hematological (red blood cell and white blood cell parameters) and biochemical (total proteins, albumins, fibrinogen, sodium, potassium, chloride ion concentrations in plasma) parameters were measured with a hematological analyzer and routine methods. Bioimpedance spectroscopy of the whole blood (1.5 ml) in frequency range 5-500 kHz (31 frequencies) was performed using BIA analyzer ABC-01 "Medass". Frequency relationships of resistance and reactance of the whole blood and the parameters of the Cole model were investigated. Close simple and multiple correlations of bioimpedance indices were observed only with erythrocyte parameters (Ht, Hb, RBC). Thus bioimpedance analysis of the whole blood can accurately predict red cell parameters but it is less effective for estimation of plasma biochemical and white cell parameters.

  20. Analysis of reasons for discarding blood and blood components in a blood bank of tertiary care hospital in central India: A prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Alok Kumar; Satish Sharma,; Narayan Shyamrao Ingole; Nitin Gangane

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many modern surgical procedures could not be carried out without the use of blood. There are no substitutes for human blood. Thus, proper utilization of blood is necessary with minimal wasting. Materials and Methods: A total of 10,582 donors donated blood during the study period of 19 months in blood bank of a tertiary care hospital, central India from 1 st of November 2009 to 31 st May 2011, which were screened. Results: A total of 346 whole blood bags were discarded. Out of thes...

  1. A numerical analysis on the curved bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve (MHV) : leaflet motion and blood flow in an elastic blood vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In blood flow passing through the Mechanical Heart Valve (MHV) and elastic blood vessel, hemolysis and platelet activation causing thrombus formation can be seen owing to the shear stress in the blood. Also, fracture and deformation of leaflets can be observed depending on the shape and material properties of the leaflets which is opened and closed in a cycle. Hence, comprehensive study is needed on the hemodynamics which is associated with the motion of leaflet and elastic blood vessel in terms of fluid-structure interaction. In this paper, a numerical analysis has been performed for a three-dimensional pulsatile blood flow associated with the elastic blood vessel and curved bileaflet for multiple cycles in light of fluid-structure interaction. From this analysis fluttering phenomenon and rebound of the leaflet have been observed and recirculation and regurgitation have been found in the flow fields of the blood. Also, the pressure distribution and the radial displacement of the elastic blood vessel have been obtained. The motion of the leaflet and flow fields of the blood have shown similar tendency compared with the previous experiments carried out in other studies. The present study can contribute to the design methodology for the curved bileaflet mechanical heart valve. Furthermore, the proposed fluid-structure interaction method will be effectively used in various fields where the interaction between fluid flow and structure are involved

  2. Diastolic blood pressure and area of residence: multilevel versus ecological analysis of social inequity

    OpenAIRE

    Merlo, Juan; Östergren, Per-Olof; Hagberg, Oskar; Lindström, Martin; Lindgren, Anna; Melander, Arne; Råstam, Lennart; Berglund, Göran

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES---To study geographical differences in diastolic blood pressure and the influence of the social environment (census percentage of people with low educational achievement) on individual diastolic blood pressure level, after controlling for individual age and educational achievement. To compare the results of multilevel and ecological analyses. DESIGN---Cross sectional analysis performed by multilevel linear regression modelling, with women at the first level and urban areas...

  3. Scale Space Methods for Analysis of Type 2 Diabetes Patients' Blood Glucose Values

    OpenAIRE

    Stein Olav Skrøvseth; Fred Godtliebsen

    2011-01-01

    We describe how scale space methods can be used for quantitative analysis of blood glucose concentrations from type 2 diabetes patients. Blood glucose values were recorded voluntarily by the patients over one full year as part of a self-management process, where the time and frequency of the recordings are decided by the patients. This makes a unique dataset in its extent, though with a large variation in reliability of the recordings. Scale space and frequency space techniques are suited to ...

  4. Principal-component-analysis-based estimation of blood flow velocities using optical coherence tomography intensity signals

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, Nishant; Vakoc, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    The intensity signal in optical coherence tomography contains information about the translational velocity of scatterers, and can be used to quantify blood flow. We apply principal component analysis to efficiently extract this information. We also study use of nonuniform temporal sampling of the intensity signal to increase the range of quantifiable flow velocities. We demonstrate this technique in simulation, phantom and in vivo blood flow measurements, and highlight its potential to enable...

  5. Tooth matrix analysis for biomonitoring of organic chemical exposure: Current status, challenges, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andra, Syam S; Austin, Christine; Arora, Manish

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence supports associations between prenatal exposure to environmental organic chemicals and childhood health impairments. Unlike the common choice of biological matrices such as urine and blood that can be limited by short half-lives for some chemicals, teeth provide a stable repository for chemicals with half-life in the order of decades. Given the potential of the tooth bio-matrix to study long-term exposures to environmental organic chemicals in human biomonitoring programs, it is important to be aware of possible pitfalls and potential opportunities to improve on the current analytical method for tooth organics analysis. We critically review previous results of studies of this topic. The major drawbacks and challenges in currently practiced concepts and analytical methods in utilizing tooth bio-matrix are (i) no consideration of external (from outer surface) or internal contamination (from micro-odontoblast processes), (ii) the misleading assumption that whole ground teeth represent prenatal exposures (latest formed dentine is lipid rich and therefore would absorb and accumulate more organic chemicals), (iii) reverse causality in exposure assessment due to whole ground teeth, and (iv) teeth are a precious bio-matrix and grinding them raises ethical concerns about appropriate use of a very limited resource in exposure biology and epidemiology studies. These can be overcome by addressing the important limitations and possible improvements with the analytical approach associated at each of the following steps: (i) tooth sample preparation to retain exposure timing, (ii) organics extraction and pre-concentration to detect ultra-trace levels of analytes, (iii) chromatography separation, (iv) mass spectrometric detection to detect multi-class organics simultaneously, and (v) method validation, especially to exclude chance findings. To highlight the proposed improvements we present findings from a pilot study that utilizes tooth matrix biomarkers

  6. Simultaneous blood flow and blood oxygenation measurements using a combination of diffuse speckle contrast analysis and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Myeongsu; Phillips, Zephaniah; Mai, Phuong Minh; Yeo, Chaebeom; Song, Cheol; Lee, Kijoon; Kim, Jae Gwan

    2016-02-01

    A combined diffuse speckle contrast analysis (DSCA)-near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system is proposed to simultaneously measure qualitative blood flow and blood oxygenation changes in human tissue. The system employs an optical switch to alternate two laser sources at two different wavelengths and a CCD camera to capture the speckle image. Therefore, an optical density can be measured from two wavelengths for NIRS measurements and a speckle contrast can be calculated for DSCA measurements. In order to validate the system, a flow phantom test and an arm occlusion protocol for arterial and venous occlusion were performed. Shorter exposure times (<1 ms) show a higher drop (between 50% and 66%) and recovery of 1/KS2 values after occlusion (approximately 150%), but longer exposure time (3 ms) shows more consistent hemodynamic changes. For four subjects, the 1/KS2 values dropped to an average of 82.1±4.0% during the occlusion period and the average recovery of 1/KS2 values after occlusion was 109.1±0.8%. There was also an approximately equivalent amplitude change in oxyhemoglobin (OHb) and deoxyhemoglobin (RHb) during arterial occlusion (max RHb=0.0085±0.0024 mM/DPF, min OHb=-0.0057±0.0044 mM/DPF). The sensitivity of the system makes it a suitable modality to observe qualitative hemodynamic trends during induced physiological changes.

  7. Analysis of Cyanide in Blood by Headspace-Isotope-Dilution-GC-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løbger, Lise Lotte; Petersen, Henning Willads; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2008-01-01

    An uncomplicated, rapid, automated procedure for the analysis of low cyanide concentrations in whole blood is reported. The analysis was performed by headspace gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in the (1H12C14N) and m/z 29 (1H13C15N). Carryover from cyanide adsorption onto the surface of t...

  8. Linkage analysis of systolic blood pressure: a score statistic and computer implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Yingwei; Wang Kai

    2003-01-01

    Abstract A genome-wide linkage analysis was conducted on systolic blood pressure using a score statistic. The randomly selected Replicate 34 of the simulated data was used. The score statistic was applied to the sibships derived from the general pedigrees. An add-on R program to GENEHUNTER was developed for this analysis and is freely available.

  9. Tip enhanced Raman scattering: plasmonic enhancements for nanoscale chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Zachary D.; Marr, James M.; Wang, Hao

    2014-04-01

    Tip enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) is an emerging technique that uses a metalized scanning probe microscope tip to spatially localize electric fields that enhances Raman scattering enabling chemical imaging on nanometer dimensions. Arising from the same principles as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), TERS offers unique advantages associated with controling the size, shape, and location of the enhancing nanostructure. In this article we discuss the correlations between current understanding of SERS and how this relates to TERS, as well as how TERS provides new understanding and insights. The relationship between plasmon resonances and Raman enhancements is emphasized as the key to obtaining optimal TERS results. Applications of TERS, including chemical analysis of carbon nanotubes, organic molecules, inorganic crystals, nucleic acids, proteins, cells and organisms, are used to illustrate the information that can be gained. Under ideal conditions TERS is capable of single molecule sensitivity and sub-nanometer spatial resolution. The ability to control plasmonic enhancements for chemical analysis suggests new experiments and opportunities to understand molecular composition and interactions on the nanoscale.

  10. Chemical Bond Analysis of Single Crystal Growth of Magnesium Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Starting from the crystallographic structure of magnesium oxide (MgO), both the chemical bond model of solids and Pauling's third rule (polyhedral sharing rule) were employed to quantitatively analyze the chemical bonding structure of constituent atoms and single crystal growth. Our analytical results show that MgO single crystals prefer to grow along the direction and the growth rate of the {100} plane is the slowest one. Therefore, the results show that the {100} plane of MgO crystals can be the ultimate morphology face, which is in a good agreement with our previous experimental results. The study indicate that the structure analysis is an effective tool to control the single-crystal growth.

  11. Microarray Technology for Major Chemical Contaminants Analysis in Food: Current Status and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxia Ding; Wen Zhang; Xiaofeng Hu; Qi Zhang; Peiwu Li; Zhaowei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Chemical contaminants in food have caused serious health issues in both humans and animals. Microarray technology is an advanced technique suitable for the analysis of chemical contaminates. In particular, immuno-microarray approach is one of the most promising methods for chemical contaminants analysis. The use of microarrays for the analysis of chemical contaminants is the subject of this review. Fabrication strategies and detection methods for chemical contaminants are discussed in detail....

  12. Multicomponent blood lipid analysis by means of near infrared spectroscopy, in geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazar, George; Eles, Viktoria; Kovacs, Zoltan; Romvari, Robert; Szabo, Andras

    2016-08-01

    This study provides accurate near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic models on some laboratory determined clinicochemical parameters (i.e. total lipid (5.57±1.95 g/l), triglyceride (2.59±1.36 mmol/l), total cholesterol (3.81±0.68 mmol/l), high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (2.45±0.58 mmol/l)) of blood serum samples of fattened geese. To increase the performance of multivariate chemometrics, samples significantly deviating from the regression models implying laboratory error were excluded from the final calibration datasets. Reference data of excluded samples having outlier spectra in principal component analysis were not marked as false. Samples deviating from the regression models but having non outlier spectra in PCA were identified as having false reference constituent values. Based on the NIR selection methods, 5% of the reference measurement data were rated as doubtful. The achieved models reached R(2) of 0.864, 0.966, 0.850, 0.793, and RMSE of 0.639 g/l, 0.232 mmol/l, 0.210 mmol/l, 0.241 mmol/l for total lipid, triglyceride, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol, respectively, during independent validation. Classical analytical techniques focus on single constituents and often require chemicals, time-consuming measurements, and experienced technicians. NIR technique provides a quick, cost effective, non-hazardous alternative method for analysis of several constituents based on one single spectrum of each sample, and it also offers the possibility for looking at the laboratory reference data critically. Evaluation of reference data to identify and exclude falsely analyzed samples can provide warning feedback to the reference laboratory, especially in the case of analyses where laboratory methods are not perfectly suited to the subjected material and there is an increased chance of laboratory error. PMID:27216674

  13. Quantification of myocardial blood flow using dynamic N-13 ammonia PET and factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluate the feasibility of extracting pure left ventricular blood pool and myocardial time activity curves (TACs) and of generating factor images from human dynamic N-13 ammonia PET using factor analysis. The myocardial blood flow (MBF) estimates obtained with factor analysis were compared with those obtained with the user drawn region-of-interest (ROI) method. Stress and rest N-13 ammonia cardiac PET imaging was acquired for 23 min in 5 patients with coronary artery disease using GE Advance tomography. Factor analysis generated physiological TACs and factor images using the normalized TACs from each dixel. Four steps were involved in this algorithm: (a) data preprocessing; (b) principal component analysis; (c) oblique rotation with positivity constraints; (d) factor image computation. Area under curves and MBF estimated using the two compartment N-13 ammonia model were used to validate the accuracy of the factor analysis generated physiological TACs. The MBF values obtained by factor analysis were linearly correlated with MBF obtained by the ROI method (slope = 0.84, r=0.91. Left ventricular blood pool TACs obtained by the two methods agreed well (Area under curve ratio: 1.02 (0∼1 min), 0.98 (0∼2 min), 0.86 (1∼2 min). The results of this study demonstrates that MBF can be measured accurately and noninvasively with dynamic N-13 ammonia PET imaging and factor analysis. This method is simple and accurate, and can measure MBF without blood sampling, ROI definition or spillover correction

  14. In vivo analysis of physiological 3D blood flow of cerebral veins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuchardt, Florian; Schroeder, Laure; Baeuerle, Jochen; Harloff, Andreas [University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology, Freiburg (Germany); Anastasopoulos, Constantin [University Medical Center, Department of Neuropaediatrics and Muscle Disorders, Freiburg (Germany); University Medical Centre, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); Markl, Michael [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine and McCormick School of Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States); Hennemuth, Anja; Drexl, Johann [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany); Valdueza, Jose M. [Neurological Center, Segeberger Kliniken, Bad Segeberg (Germany); Mader, Irina [University Medical Centre, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    To visualize and quantify physiological blood flow of intracranial veins in vivo using time-resolved, 3D phase-contrast MRI (4D flow MRI), and to test measurement accuracy. Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent repeated ECG-triggered 4D flow MRI (3 Tesla, 32-channel head coil). Intracranial venous blood flow was analysed using dedicated software allowing for blood flow visualization and quantification in analysis planes at the superior sagittal, straight, and transverse sinuses. MRI was evaluated for intra- and inter-observer agreement and scan-rescan reproducibility. Measurements of the transverse sinuses were compared with transcranial two-dimensional duplex ultrasound. Visualization of 3D blood flow within cerebral sinuses was feasible in 100 % and within at least one deep cerebral vein in 87 % of the volunteers. Blood flow velocity/volume increased along the superior sagittal sinus and was lower in the left compared to the right transverse sinus. Intra- and inter-observer reliability and reproducibility of blood flow velocity (mean difference 0.01/0.02/0.02 m/s) and volume (mean difference 0.0002/-0.0003/0.00003 l/s) were good to excellent. High/low velocities were more pronounced (8 % overestimation/9 % underestimation) in MRI compared to ultrasound. Four-dimensional flow MRI reliably visualizes and quantifies three-dimensional cerebral venous blood flow in vivo and is promising for studies in patients with sinus thrombosis and related diseases. (orig.)

  15. Blood Warming and Hemolysis: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; Nonkani, Wendyam G; Tsakeu Leponkouo, Élyonore

    2015-07-01

    The use of fluid warmers during blood transfusion is recommended to avoid inducing hypothermia and its harmful effects. Fluid warmers offered by manufacturers can reach temperatures of 43°C. However, the recommendations of national regulatory organizations do not clearly indicate the maximum heating temperature in relation to the risk of hemolysis. To fill this gap, we conducted a systematic review of the literature with meta-analysis. To match clinical practice, this review was limited to fluid warmers that used contact heating; thus, studies that used radiofrequency or microwave heating were excluded. Twenty-four observational studies were included, 17 of which were the subject of a meta-analysis. A preliminary descriptive analysis indicated that multiple factors can influence the level of hemolysis during blood heating with a liquid warmer, including blood age, anticoagulant type, duration of exposure to heat, stirring the blood during heating, and various elements of the circuit through which blood flows (eg, type of infusion pump with pressure and flow, type of microfilter, and type of tubing). Moreover, the duration between sampling and hemolysis assay was a source of heterogeneity among studies, as were the initial free hemoglobin levels in the various experiments. In general, the increase generated by each of these factors other than temperature appears to have been limited except for blood age, which is an important parameter of hemolysis, the length of exposure to heat, and, in some studies, the type of infusion pump used. Regarding the meta-analysis, at temperatures at or less than 43°C and even up to 45-46°C, it appears that blood heating is safe and causes hemolysis only in clinically negligible proportions. PMID:25840802

  16. Combined blood/tissue analysis for cancer biomarker discovery: application to renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann, Donald J; Wei, Bih-Rong; Prieto, DaRue A; Chan, King C; Ye, Xiaying; Valera, Vladimir A; Simpson, R Mark; Rudnick, Paul A; Xiao, Zhen; Issaq, Haleem J; Linehan, W Marston; Stein, Stephen E; Veenstra, Timothy D; Blonder, Josip

    2010-03-01

    A method that relies on subtractive tissue-directed shot-gun proteomics to identify tumor proteins in the blood of a patient newly diagnosed with cancer is described. To avoid analytical and statistical biases caused by physiologic variability of protein expression in the human population, this method was applied on clinical specimens obtained from a single patient diagnosed with nonmetastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The proteomes extracted from tumor, normal adjacent tissue and preoperative plasma were analyzed using 2D-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The lists of identified proteins were filtered to discover proteins that (i) were found in the tumor but not normal tissue, (ii) were identified in matching plasma, and (iii) whose spectral count was higher in tumor tissue than plasma. These filtering criteria resulted in identification of eight tumor proteins in the blood. Subsequent Western-blot analysis confirmed the presence of cadherin-5, cadherin-11, DEAD-box protein-23, and pyruvate kinase in the blood of the patient in the study as well as in the blood of four other patients diagnosed with RCC. These results demonstrate the utility of a combined blood/tissue analysis strategy that permits the detection of tumor proteins in the blood of a patient diagnosed with RCC. PMID:20121140

  17. DISTRIBUTION OF CLASSICAL ABO BLOOD GROUPS AMONG TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS : AN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Devi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: At present Diabetes Mellitus is a global phenomenon with the disease topping the list, comprising of about 32 million cases , India is in the forefront with 30% of the cases . The disease affects multiple organs and is a leading cause of much morbidity and mortality. Since it is a multi - factorial disease a major step would be to identify different associated factors, for an early diagnosis and prompt treatment. The ABO blood groups are often associated with several diseases, with one blood group more often seen with the patients of a particular disease. Our study will help to determine the frequency and distribution of blood groups in correlation with Diabetes Mellitus. MATERIAL & METHODS: This study was conducted in the Gandhi Medical College, Secunderabad, during a two year period. A random study involving every third diabetic patient was chosen and their blood group was determined. A total of 3 00 patients were selected with 150 male and 150 female patients. Another 300 volunteers who were not diabetics were chosen as controls and their blood groups were also determined. A pro - forma was given to both diabetics and controls which included the following variables : 1 . Demographic data 2. Blood grouping 3. Fasting and post prandial blood sugar. Following this, blood groups of both cohorts and controls were determined by antigen antibody agglutination method. Data analysis was do ne after data was entered into excel sheet and double checked for errors using SPSS Software RESULTS: Our a nalysis showed that O group was significantly more among diabetic patients when all patients were compared to control . ² there was a preponderance of blood group O among female diabetics and B among male diabetics. CONCLUSION: ABO blood groups have been determined in 300 diabetic patients and compared with the controls comprising of a series of 300 voluntary blood donors. When the results were analysed on the basis of sex, there was preponderance

  18. Comparison of descriptive sensory analysis and chemical analysis for oxidative changes in milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, R V; Kristensen, D; Nielsen, Jacob Holm;

    2006-01-01

    products. The milk samples were evaluated in parallel by descriptive sensory analysis by a trained panel, and the correlation between the chemical analysis and the descriptive sensory analysis was evaluated. The fatty acid composition of the 3 types of milk was found to influence the oxidative and......Oxidation in 3 types of bovine milk with different fatty acid profiles obtained through manipulation of feed was evaluated by analytical methods quantifying the content of potential antioxidants, the tendency of formation of free radicals, and the accumulation of primary and secondary oxidation...... lipolytic changes occurring in the milk during chill storage for 4 d. Sensory analysis and chemical analysis showed high correlation between the typical descriptors for oxidation such as cardboard, metallic taste, and boiled milk and specific chemical markers for oxidation such as hexanal. Notably, primary...

  19. Buffering blood pressure fluctuations by respiratory sinus arrhythmia may in fact enhance them: a theoretical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Buchner, Teodor; Gielerak, Grzegorz

    2010-01-01

    Using a three-compartment model of blood pressure dynamics, we analyze theoretically the short term cardiovascular variability: how the respiratory-related blood pressure fluctuations are buffered by appropriate heart rate changes: i.e. the respiratory sinus arrhythmia. The buffering is shown to be crucially dependent on the time delay between the stimulus (such as e.g. the inspiration onset) and the application of the control (the moment in time when the efferent response is delivered to the heart). This theoretical analysis shows that the buffering mechanism is effective only in the upright position of the body. It explains a paradoxical effect of enhancement of the blood pressure fluctuations by an ineffective control. Such a phenomenon was observed experimentally. Using the basis of the model, we discuss the blood pressure variability and heart rate variability under such clinical conditions as the states of expressed adrenergic drive and the tilt-test during the parasympathetic blockade or fixed rate atr...

  20. QUALITY ASSURANCE GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following quality assurance guidelines to provide laboratories engaged in forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism a framework to implement a quality assura...

  1. Analysis of the chemical equilibrium of combustion at constant volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius BREBENEL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining the composition of a mixture of combustion gases at a given temperature is based on chemical equilibrium, when the equilibrium constants are calculated on the assumption of constant pressure and temperature. In this paper, an analysis of changes occurring when combustion takes place at constant volume is presented, deriving a specific formula of the equilibrium constant. The simple reaction of carbon combustion in pure oxygen in both cases (constant pressure and constant volume is next considered as example of application, observing the changes occurring in the composition of the combustion gases depending on temperature.

  2. Probabilistic Approach to Risk Analysis of Chemical Spills at Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Magda Bogalecka; Krzysztof Kolowrocki

    2006-01-01

    Risk analysis of chemical spills at sea and their consequences for sea environment are discussed. Mutual interactions between the process of the sea accident initiating events, the process of the sea environment threats, and the process of the sea environment degradation are investigated. To describe these three particular processes, the separate semi-Markov models are built. Furthermore, these models are jointed into one general model of these processes interactions.Moreover, some comments on the method for statistical identification of the considered models are proposed.

  3. Chemical phase analysis of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Amardeep; Singh, Suman; Singla, M. L.; Goyal, Navdeep

    2015-08-01

    Noble-metal nanoparticles are of great interest because of its broad applications almost in every stream (i.e. biology, chemistry and engineering) due to their unique size/shape dependant properties. In this paper, chemical phase of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) has been investigated via fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). These nanaoparticles were synthesized by seed-growth method controlled by urea and dextrose results to highly stable 12-20 nm particle size revealed by zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  4. Chemical phase analysis of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble-metal nanoparticles are of great interest because of its broad applications almost in every stream (i.e. biology, chemistry and engineering) due to their unique size/shape dependant properties. In this paper, chemical phase of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) has been investigated via fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). These nanaoparticles were synthesized by seed-growth method controlled by urea and dextrose results to highly stable 12-20 nm particle size revealed by zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

  5. Physcio chemical analysis of browning inhibitors treated solanum turberosum powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White potatoes (Solanum turberosum) were procured from agriculture Research Institute Tarnab Farm Peshawar to use for the preparation of potato powder. The process involves sorting. Washing, peeling slicing, blanching, treating with poly phenol oxidase inhibitors, dehydration, grinding and packing. All these parameters used in process were standardized. Chemical analysis of fresh potato and potato powder were carried out. Microbiological examination, functional properties and storage life studies of the potato powder were also performed. The product prepared by drying in cabinet dryer at 55 C for 7 hours was off white colour potatoes chips which was grinded to make off white potato powder. The potato powder possessed taste and texture. (author)

  6. Crystal-Chemical Analysis of Soil at Rocknest, Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bish, D. L.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A. S.; Chipera, S. J.; Treiman, A. H.; Vaniman, D. T.; Gellert, R.; Achilles, C. N.; Rampe, E. B.; Bristow, T. F.; Crisp, J. A.; Sarrazin, P. C.; DesMarais, D. J.; Morookian, J. M.; Anderson, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity performed X-ray diffraction analysis on Martian soil [1] at Rocknest in Gale Crater. In particular, crystalline phases from scoop 5 were identified and analyzed with the Rietveld method [2]. Refined unit-cell parameters are reported in Table 1. Comparing these unit-cell parameters with those in the literature provides an estimate of the chemical composition of the crystalline phases. For instance, Fig. 1 shows the Mg-content of Fa-Fo olivine as a function of the b unit-cell parameter using literature data. Our refined b parameter is indicated by the black triangle.

  7. RNA/DNA co-analysis from blood stains--Results of a second collaborative EDNAP exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, C.; Hanson, E.; Anjos, M.J.;

    2012-01-01

    A second collaborative exercise on RNA/DNA co-analysis for body fluid identification and STR profiling was organized by the European DNA Profiling Group (EDNAP). Six human blood stains, two blood dilution series (5-0.001 [mu]l blood) and, optionally, bona fide or mock casework samples of human or...

  8. The effect of UV treatment of autogenic blood on some chemical indices in sheep with Corynebacterial infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the transfusion of both untreated and treated blood the amount of blood sugar rose reaching higher levels in the case UV-treated blood. There were changes in the total protein and the protein fractions induced by the Corynebacterial infection, however, the initial levels were more rapidly restored in the case of transfusing UV-trated blood. With autohemotransfusion the values of glutamate oxalacetate transaminase in all animals dropped. The change was more rapidly and more strongly expressed with the transfusion of UV-treated blood

  9. Microbiological and chemical analysis of land snails commercialised in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Cicero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study 160 samples of snails belonging to the species Helix aspersa maxima and Helix aspersa muller were examined for chemical and microbiological analysis. Samples came from Greece and Poland. Results showed mean concentration of cadmium (0.35±0.036 mg/kg and lead (0.05±0.013 mg/kg much higher than the limit of detection. Mercury levels in both species were not detected. Microbiological analysis revealed the absence of Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp. in both examined species. E. coli and K. oxytoca were observed in Helix aspersa maxima and Helix aspersa muller. Furthermore, one case of fungi positivity in samples of Helix aspersa muller was found. The reported investigations highlight the need to create and adopt a reference legislation to protect the health of consumers.

  10. Chemical analysis of Yemeni archaeological cheramics and the Egyptian enigma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archaeological reconnaissance in Yemen produced samples of mediaeval Islamic ceramics in a 100 km2 region. The ceramics dated from 700 A.d. to 1750 A.D. and initial research indicated that they were all locally made products. 12 types of ceramics were selected for sampling on the basis of stylistic decoration. Six laboratory samples of each type were subjected to neutron activation analysis for the short-lived isotope producing elements using the SLOWPOKE reactor at the University of Toronto. A comparison with Egyptian pottery was carried out. The statistical analysis conducted on the Yemeni and Egyptian pottery produced discrete differences in their elemental composition which the archaeologist and the chemical scientist might not otherwise recognise. It is concluded that artifacts must be analyzed with due respect given to the archeological context, the elemental chemistry, and sound statistical procedures. (author)

  11. Statistical sampling and chemical analysis of complex weapon components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the waste streams generated by nuclear weapon dismantlement programs will be component ''hardware'', including complex electronic assemblies such as: radars, arming/fusing/firing systems, power sources, and use-control and safety systems. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been the design and development laboratory for many of these components and will be responsible for their ultimate disposition. This disposition, whether it be reuse, material recycle, or disposal, will require some level of material characterization and analysis. Previous efforts at developing a process for segregation and characterization of hazardous materials in weapon components have been documented. This paper describes the results of recent activities undertaken in support of the Weapon Hardware Inventory Reduction Effort (WHIRE) at Sandia National Laboratories. These activities have been directed principally towards: The development of a statistically sound sampling plan for chemical analysis of weapon component materials; the development of a non-destructive analytical screening method for determining the Toxicity Characteristic of excess weapon hardware

  12. Chemical Analysis of Wastewater from Unconventional Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B. Thacker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trillions of liters of wastewater from oil and gas extraction are generated annually in the US. The contribution from unconventional drilling operations (UDO, such as hydraulic fracturing, to this volume will likely continue to increase in the foreseeable future. The chemical content of wastewater from UDO varies with region, operator, and elapsed time after production begins. Detailed chemical analyses may be used to determine its content, select appropriate treatment options, and identify its source in cases of environmental contamination. In this study, one wastewater sample each from direct effluent, a disposal well, and a waste pit, all in West Texas, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, high performance ion chromatography, total organic carbon/total nitrogen analysis, and pH and conductivity analysis. Several compounds known to compose hydraulic fracturing fluid were detected among two of the wastewater samples including 2-butoxyethanol, alkyl amines, and cocamide diethanolamines, toluene, and o-xylene. Due both to its quantity and quality, proper management of wastewater from UDO will be essential.

  13. Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x1011ncm-2s-1. The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000μg.g-1. Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

  14. Prolyl Oligopeptidase from the Blood Fluke Schistosoma mansoni: From Functional Analysis to Anti-schistosomal Inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Fajtová

    Full Text Available Blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma cause schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease that infects over 240 million people worldwide, and for which there is a need to identify new targets for chemotherapeutic interventions. Our research is focused on Schistosoma mansoni prolyl oligopeptidase (SmPOP from the serine peptidase family S9, which has not been investigated in detail in trematodes.We demonstrate that SmPOP is expressed in adult worms and schistosomula in an enzymatically active form. By immunofluorescence microscopy, SmPOP is localized in the tegument and parenchyma of both developmental stages. Recombinant SmPOP was produced in Escherichia coli and its active site specificity investigated using synthetic substrate and inhibitor libraries, and by homology modeling. SmPOP is a true oligopeptidase that hydrolyzes peptide (but not protein substrates with a strict specificity for Pro at P1. The inhibition profile is analogous to those for mammalian POPs. Both the recombinant enzyme and live worms cleave host vasoregulatory, proline-containing hormones such as angiotensin I and bradykinin. Finally, we designed nanomolar inhibitors of SmPOP that induce deleterious phenotypes in cultured schistosomes.We provide the first localization and functional analysis of SmPOP together with chemical tools for measuring its activity. We briefly discuss the notion that SmPOP, operating at the host-parasite interface to cleave host bioactive peptides, may contribute to the survival of the parasite. If substantiated, SmPOP could be a new target for the development of anti-schistosomal drugs.

  15. Analysis of zinc oxide nanoparticles binding proteins in rat blood and brain homogenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shim KH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kyu Hwan Shim,1 John Hulme,1 Eun Ho Maeng,2 Meyoung-Kon Kim,3 Seong Soo A An1 1Department of Bionano Technology, Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gachon University, Sungnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea; 2Department of Analysis, KTR, Kimpo, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea; 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, South Korea Abstract: Nanoparticles (NPs are currently used in chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and electronic products. Nevertheless, limited safety information is available for many NPs, especially in terms of their interactions with various binding proteins, leading to potential toxic effects. Zinc oxide (ZnO NPs are included in the formulation of new products, such as adhesives, batteries, ceramics, cosmetics, cement, glass, ointments, paints, pigments, and supplementary foods, resulting in increased human exposures to ZnO. Hence, we investigated the potential ZnO nanotoxic pathways by analyzing the adsorbed proteins, called protein corona, from blood and brain from four ZnO NPs, ZnOSM20(-, ZnOSM20(+, ZnOAE100(-, and ZnOAE100(+, in order to understand their potential mechanisms in vivo. Through this study, liquid chromatography–mass spectroscopy/mass spectroscopy technology was employed to identify all bound proteins. Totals of 52 and 58 plasma proteins were identified as being bound to ZnOSM20(- and ZnOSM20(+, respectively. For ZnOAE100(- and ZnOAE100(+, 58 and 44 proteins were bound, respectively. Similar numbers of proteins were adsorbed onto ZnO irrespective of size or surface charge of the nanoparticle. These proteins were further analyzed with ClueGO, a Cytoscape plugin, which provided gene ontology and the biological interaction processes of identified proteins. Interactions between diverse proteins and ZnO nanoparticles could result in an alteration of their functions, conformation, and clearance, eventually affecting many biological processes. Keywords: brain

  16. High-throughput peptide mass fingerprinting and protein macroarray analysis using chemical printing strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a 'chemical printer' that uses piezoelectric pulsing for rapid and accurate microdispensing of picolitre volumes of fluid for proteomic analysis of 'protein macroarrays'. Unlike positive transfer and pin transfer systems, our printer dispenses fluid in a non-contact process that ensures that the fluid source cannot be contaminated by substrate during a printing event. We demonstrate automated delivery of enzyme and matrix solutions for on-membrane protein digestion and subsequent peptide mass fingerprinting (pmf) analysis directly from the membrane surface using matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). This approach bypasses the more commonly used multi-step procedures, thereby permitting a more rapid procedure for protein identification. We also highlight the advantage of printing different chemistries onto an individual protein spot for multiple microscale analyses. This ability is particularly useful when detailed characterisation of rare and valuable sample is required. Using a combination of PNGase F and trypsin we have mapped sites of N-glycosylation using on-membrane digestion strategies. We also demonstrate the ability to print multiple serum samples in a micro-ELISA format and rapidly screen a protein macroarray of human blood plasma for pathogen-derived antigens. We anticipate that the 'chemical printer' will be a major component of proteomic platforms for high-throughput protein identification and characterisation with widespread applications in biomedical and diagnostic discovery

  17. Cinnamon intake lowers fasting blood glucose: an updated meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE – To determine if meta-analysis of recent clinical studies of cinnamon intake by people with Type II diabetes and/or prediabetes resulted in significant changes in fasting blood glucose. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -- Published clinical studies were identified using a literature search (P...

  18. Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis. In this respect there is a

  19. Integrated analysis of halogenated organic pollutants in sub-millilitre volumes of venous and umbilical cord blood sera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimalt, Joan O.; Carrizo, Daniel; Otero, Raquel; Vizcaino, Esther [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAeA-CSIC), Department of Environmental Chemistry, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Howsam, Mike [Universite de Lille 2, Centre Universitaire de Mesure et d' Analyse, Faculte de Pharmacie, Lille (France); Rodrigues de Marchi, Mary Rosa [Institute of Chemistry UNESP, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    A rapid, robust and economical method for the analysis of persistent halogenated organic compounds in small volumes of human serum and umbilical cord blood is described. The pollutants studied cover a broad range of molecules of contemporary epidemiological and legislative concern, including polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polychlorobenzenes (CBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs, polychlorostyrenes (PCSs) and polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Extraction and clean-up with n-hexane and concentrated sulphuric acid was followed with analysis by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture (GC-ECD) and GC coupled to negative ion chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (GC-NICI-MS). The advantages of this method rest in the broad range of analytes and its simplicity and robustness, while the use of concentrated sulphuric acid extraction/clean-up destroys viruses that may be present in the samples. Small volumes of reference serum between 50 and 1000{mu}L were extracted and the limits of detection/quantification and repeatability were determined. Recoveries of spiked compounds for the extraction of small volumes ({>=}300 {mu}L) of the spiked reference serum were between 90% and 120%. The coefficients of variation of repeatability ranged from 0.1-14%, depending on the compound. Samples of 4-year-old serum and umbilical cord blood (n=73 and 40, respectively) from a population inhabiting a village near a chloro-alkali plant were screened for the above-mentioned halogenated pollutants using this method and the results are briefly described. (orig.)

  20. Uranium complexes with macrosyclic polyethers. Synthesis and structural chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation reports about studies on the chemical coordination behaviour of uranium of oxidation stages IV and VI with regard to twelve different macrocyclic ligands. For the preparation of the complexes, for every system a different method has been developed. The elementary analysis of the various complexes including the uranium had been done by X-ray fluorescence analysis, and the structural characterization proceeded via vibrational, uv-vis and emission spectroscopy as well as 1H-NMR and 13C-spin-lattice relaxation time studies. Conformational analysis of the polyethers used allowed the structural changes in the complexes to be observed. The structural analysis of the hydrous uranium VI crown ether complexes yielded information of characteristic features of these types of complexes. The first coordination sphere of the uranyl ion with covalently bonded anion remains unchanged. As to the water content, there is a certain range. Depending upon the solvent used, the complexes have two or four H2O molecules per formula unit. (orig./EF)

  1. Physical and Chemical Analytical Analysis: A key component of Bioforensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velsko, S P

    2005-02-15

    The anthrax letters event of 2001 has raised our awareness of the potential importance of non-biological measurements on samples of biological agents used in a terrorism incident. Such measurements include a variety of mass spectral, spectroscopic, and other instrumental techniques that are part of the current armamentarium of the modern materials analysis or analytical chemistry laboratory. They can provide morphological, trace element, isotopic, and other molecular ''fingerprints'' of the agent that may be key pieces of evidence, supplementing that obtained from genetic analysis or other biological properties. The generation and interpretation of such data represents a new domain of forensic science, closely aligned with other areas of ''microbial forensics''. This paper describes some major elements of the R&D agenda that will define this sub-field in the immediate future and provide the foundations for a coherent national capability. Data from chemical and physical analysis of BW materials can be useful to an investigation of a bio-terror event in two ways. First, it can be used to compare evidence samples collected at different locations where such incidents have occurred (e.g. between the powders in the New York and Washington letters in the Amerithrax investigation) or between the attack samples and those seized during the investigation of sites where it is suspected the material was manufactured (if such samples exist). Matching of sample properties can help establish the relatedness of disparate incidents, and mis-matches might exclude certain scenarios, or signify a more complex etiology of the events under investigation. Chemical and morphological analysis for sample matching has a long history in forensics, and is likely to be acceptable in principle in court, assuming that match criteria are well defined and derived from known limits of precision of the measurement techniques in question. Thus, apart from certain

  2. Chemical composition of solar dried blood and the ruminal content and its effect on performance of Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotiprabha Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine the chemical composition of solar dried blood and rumen content (DBRC and further ascertain the concentration at which DBRC could be included in Japanese quail diets without any adverse effect on its performance. Materials and Methods: Feeding trial on the effect of DBRC on performance of Japanese quails was studied up to 5 weeks. 252 numbers of day old (Nandanam Type III breed Japanese quails were purchased from Poultry Research Station, Madhavaram and divided into 7 batches (control+ six treatments each consisting of 36 birds. The DBRC was included at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% in diets as control, treatment-1 (T1, treatment-2 (T2, treatment-3 (T3, treatment-4 (T4, treatment-5 (T5 and treatment-6 (T6 respectively in a completely randomized design to replace soybean meal in Japanese quail feed. The birds were provided with ad-labidum feed and drinking water ad-libitum during the entire experimental period. Results: The crude protein (CP, crude fiber (CF, ether extract (EE and ash contents of DBRC were 35.87%, 17.40%, 3.6% and 12.6%, respectively. The amount of essential amino acids and non-essential amino acid content were found to be 12.98 and 4.87 (g/100 g of feed respectively in DBRC feed. Result showed that all birds fed DBRC diets performed better than the control group. Mortality was unaffected by dietary treatments. There was a significant difference (p<0.01 observed in weight gain in treatment groups compared to the control. Conclusion: Up to 30% DBRC could be incorporated in the diets of Japanese quails without any adverse effects on its performance.

  3. Effect of Grape Polyphenols on Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Shao-Hua Li; Peng Zhao; Hong-Bo Tian; Liang-Hua Chen; Lian-Qun Cui

    2015-01-01

    Background The effect of grape polyphenols on blood pressure remains unclear, which we aimed to address via a meta-analysis study. Methods We conducted study trial searches in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases. Summary estimates of weighted mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were obtained by using fixed-effects models. Subgroup analyses were performed to identify the source of heterogeneity. The protocol details of our meta-analysis have been submitted to the inter...

  4. ANALYSIS OF THERMAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOMASS ENERGY PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Gluvakov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern life conditions, when emphasis is on environmental protection and sustainable development, fuels produced from biomass are increasingly gaining in importance, and it is necessary to consider the quality of end products obtained from biomass. Based on the existing European standards, collected literature and existing laboratory methods, this paper presents results of testing individual thermal - chemical properties of biomass energy pellets after extrusion and cooling the compressed material. Analysing samples based on standard methods, data were obtained on the basis of which individual thermal-chemical properties of pellets were estimated. Comparing the obtained results with the standards and literature sources, it can be said that moisture content, ash content and calorific values are the most important parameters for quality analysis which decide on applicability and use-value of biomass energy pellets, as biofuel. This paper also shows the impact of biofuels on the quality of environmental protection. The conclusion provides a clear statement of quality of biomass energy pellets.

  5. Instrumental neutron activation analysis. A valuable link in chemical metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic experimental approach to the demonstration of viability of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in chemical metrology is provided. The practical approach was derived from a complete survey of uncertainty components that affect the INAA measurement process. These uncertainty components were classified by their magnitude and origin and subsequently minimized by appropriate steps in the INAA process. The process was tested with the INAA determination of Cr in SRM 1152A stainless steel; the Cr value is certified at 17.76% with an estimated uncertainty of 0.04% (0.23% relative). The INAA results from this procedure are in agreement with these specifications. Similar procedures have been applied to INAA multi-element determinations in a high temperature alloy. Agreement with available consensus values was demonstrated in the alloy. The guidelines on the determination of uncertainty were fully met, providing through INAA a valuable independent non-destructive tool in chemical measurements of metrological value such as required in the CCQM key comparisons. (author)

  6. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  7. Chemical analysis of ancient relicts in the Milky Way disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tautvaišienė G.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We present detailed analysis of two groups of F- and G- type stars originally found to have similarities in their orbital parameters. The distinct kinematic properties suggest that they might originate from ancient accretion events in the Milky Way. From high resolution spectra taken with the spectrograph FIES at the Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma, we determined abundances of oxygen, alpha- and r-process elements. Our results indicate that the sample of investigated stars is chemically homogeneous and the abundances of oxygen, alpha and r-process elements are overabundant in comparison with Galactic disk dwarfs. This provides the additional evidence that those stellar groups had the common formation and possible origin from disrupted satellites.

  8. Microarray Technology for Major Chemical Contaminants Analysis in Food: Current Status and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Ding

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical contaminants in food have caused serious health issues in both humans and animals. Microarray technology is an advanced technique suitable for the analysis of chemical contaminates. In particular, immuno-microarray approach is one of the most promising methods for chemical contaminants analysis. The use of microarrays for the analysis of chemical contaminants is the subject of this review. Fabrication strategies and detection methods for chemical contaminants are discussed in detail. Application to the analysis of mycotoxins, biotoxins, pesticide residues, and pharmaceutical residues is also described. Finally, future challenges and opportunities are discussed.

  9. Using Biologic Markers in Blood to Assess Exposure to Multiple Environmental Chemicals for Inner-City Children 3–6 Years of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Sexton, Ken; Adgate, John L.; Fredrickson, Ann L; Ryan, Andrew D.; Needham, Larry L.; Ashley, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Biomarkers of exposure & early effects: field studiesBiomarker: 50 environmental chemicalsExposure/effect represented:detection of 11 VOCs, 2 heavy metals, 11organochlorine pesticides, 30 PCB congenersStudy design: cross-sectionalStudy size: 43 ethnically diverse childrenAnalytical technique: GC/MSTissue/biological material/sample size: bloodIntra-individual variation: for 6 VOCs (1,4 dichlorobenzene, ethylbenzene, m-l-p-xylene, o-xylene, styrene, tetrachloroethylene) and PCB 66, 105, 110, 18...

  10. Evaluation of factor analysis and other functional images in exercise gated blood-pool study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factor analysis, a new method of functional imaging, has been applied to cardiovascular nuclear medicine. Because of the difficulty of its interpretation, it has not been popular as a method for detecting abnormal wall motion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of factor analysis in exercise gated blood-pool study in patients with ischemic heart disease. In our factor analysis, left ventricular region of interest (LVROI) was extracted to exclude the surrounding radioactivities. The new method was compared with the conventional factor analysis using whole region (whole ROI method), and the other functional images, i.e. stroke volume, ejection fraction and phase images. At first we tried 3-factor analysis of the LVROI method, which resulted in many uninterpretable factors. Whereas in 2-factor analysis no uninterpretable factors were extracted. In comparison with cine-mode display, the LVROI method with 2-factor analysis showed the best sensitivity (85%) and specificity (100%). In exercise gated blood-pool study, it became easier to detect abnormal wall motion by comparing the factor image at exercise with resting image. In conclusion, the 2-factor analysis using the LVROI method greatly improved the limitation of conventional factor analysis, and will be useful in detecting wall motion abnormality in patients with ischemic heart disase. (author)

  11. Analysis Of Samples From Tank 6F Chemical Cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 6F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. In mechanical sludge removal, personnel add liquid (e.g., inhibited water or supernate salt solution) to the tank to form a slurry. They mix the liquid and sludge with pumps, and transfer the slurry to another tank for further processing. Mechanical sludge removal effectively removes the bulk of the sludge from a tank, but is not able to remove all of the sludge. In Tank 6F, SRR estimated a sludge heel of 5,984 gallons remained after mechanical sludge removal. To remove this sludge heel, SRR performed chemical cleaning. The chemical cleaning included two oxalic acid strikes, a spray wash, and a water wash. SRR conducted the first oxalic acid strike as follows. Personnel added 110,830 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F and mixed the contents of Tank 6F with two submersible mixer pumps (SMPs) for approximately four days. Following the mixing, they transferred 115,903 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. The SMPs were operating when the transfer started and were shut down approximately five hours after the transfer started. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 2,400 gallons of solids remained in the tank. SRR conducted the second oxalic acid strike as follows. Personnel added 28,881 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F. Following the acid addition, they visually inspected the tank and transferred 32,247 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 3,248 gallons of solids remained in the tank. Following the oxalic acid strikes, SRR performed Spray Washing with oxalic acid to remove waste collected on internal structures, cooling coils, tank top internals, and tank

  12. Concentration and chemical status of arsenic in the blood of pregnant hamsters during critical embryogenesis. 1. Subchronic exposure to arsenate utilizing constant rate administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration, availability, and chemical status of radiolabeled arsenic has been determined in the blood of pregnant hamsters at the beginning (morning of Day 8) and the end (morning of Day 9) of the critical period of embryogenesis. Hamster dams were exposed to teratogenic doses of arsenate by means of osmotic minipumps implanted on the morning of Day 6 of the gestation period. Whole blood arsenic concentrations were the same for 48 and 72 hr postimplant. The arsenic concentration of plasma equaled that of red cells. Plasma arsenic was not bound to macromolecules and had the same chemical status 48 and 72 hr postimplant. Arsenate was the dominant form (67% of the total). However, the presence of dimethylarsinic acid and arsenite indicates that the pentavalent species was metabolized. Red cell arsenic was bound to macromolecules in the cell sap. Seventy percent of red cell sap arsenic was dialyzable 48 hr postimplant, but only 56% 72 hr postimplant. Arsenate was the dominant dialyzable red cell species on Day 8 and arsenite was the major dialyzable form on Day 9. The authors findings demonstrate a relationship between the maternal blood concentration and chemical status of arsenic and the presence of malformations resulting from a constant rate exposure of pregnant hamsters to arsenate via the osmotic minipump

  13. Chemical hazards analysis of resilient flooring for healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Tom; Silas, Julie; Vallette, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses resilient flooring, evaluating the potential health effects of vinyl flooring and the leading alternatives-synthetic rubber, polyolefin, and linoleum-currently used in the healthcare marketplace. The study inventories chemicals incorporated as components of each of the four material types or involved in their life cycle as feedstocks, intermediary chemicals, or emissions. It then characterizes those chemicals using a chemical hazard-based framework that addresses persistence and bioaccumulation, human toxicity, and human exposures. PMID:21165873

  14. Chemical analysis and potential health risks of hookah charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Yehya; Dalibalta, Sarah; Abu-Farha, Nedal

    2016-11-01

    Hookah (waterpipe) smoking is a very common practice that has spread globally. There is growing evidence on the hazardous consequences of smoking hookah, with studies indicating that its harmful effects are comparable to cigarette smoking if not worse. Charcoal is commonly used as a heating source for hookah smoke. Although charcoal briquettes are thought to be one of the major contributors to toxicity, their composition and impact on the smoke generated remains largely unidentified. This study aims to analyze the elemental composition of five different raw synthetic and natural charcoals by using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) analysis, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Elemental analysis showed that the raw charcoals contain heavy metals such as zinc, iron, cadmium, vanadium, aluminum, lead, chromium, manganese and cobalt at concentrations similar, if not higher than, cigarettes. In addition, thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) was used to analyze the chemical composition of the smoke produced from burning the charcoal samples. The smoke emitted from charcoal was found to be the source of numerous compounds which could be hazardous to health. A total of seven carcinogens, 39 central nervous system depressants and 31 respiratory irritants were identified. PMID:27343945

  15. Chemical analysis of Argonne premium coal samples. Bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    Contents: The Chemical Analysis of Argonne Premium Coal Samples: An Introduction; Rehydration of Desiccated Argonne Premium Coal Samples; Determination of 62 Elements in 8 Argonne Premium Coal Ash Samples by Automated Semiquantitative Direct-Current Arc Atomic Emission Spectrography; Determination of 18 Elements in 5 Whole Argonne Premium Coal Samples by Quantitative Direct-Current Arc Atomic Emission Spectrography; Determination of Major and Trace Elements in Eight Argonne Premium Coal Samples (Ash and Whole Coal) by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry; Determination of 29 Elements in 8 Argonne Premium Coal Samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis; Determination of Selected Elements in Coal Ash from Eight Argonne Premium Coal Samples by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Atomic Emission Spectrometry; Determination of 25 Elements in Coal Ash from 8 Argonne Premium Coal Samples by Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry; Determination of 33 Elements in Coal Ash from 8 Argonne Premium Coal Samples by Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma-Mass Spectrometry; Determination of Mercury and Selenium in Eight Argonne Premium Coal Samples by Cold-Vapor and Hydride-Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry; Determinaton of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen in Eight Argonne Premium Coal Samples by Using a Gas Chromatographic Analyzer with a Thermal Conductivity Detector; and Compilation of Multitechnique Determinations of 51 Elements in 8 Argonne Premium Coal Samples.

  16. Infrared spectroscopic approach for diagnosis of cancer via analysis of blood samples and chemometric data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Recently, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy has been employed to detect cancer tissues from normal ones. In most of these researches the infrared spectral characteristics have been analyzed by statistical tools to study variations in metabolites. An important analytical advantage of FT-IR is that no sample content modification is required before analysis. FTIR data can be used as molecular signatures for physiological status once the spectral patterns are correlated with biological properties. Studying the tissue samples has drawbacks such as difficult sampling, low speed sample preparation and very sensitive keeping conditions. Also sample contamination would affect the diagnosis results while the sampling procedure from human may help the malignancy to be more developed. Thus, it seems necessary to look after a substitute for tissue samples which would be easier in providing and analysis, while its results are reliable. According to our literature survey, there was no report to indicate the analysis of whole blood by spectroscopy for cancer diagnosis. In this work, first, we used whole blood sample instead of tissue because sample preparation procedure is very simple in blood study. It was tried to classify the blood samples in normal and cancer cases by chemometric techniques i.e. LDA, PCA and Cluster analysis. Initial results showed that the normal and malignant blood samples could be identified with 85% of accuracy. In order to specify our studies, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and breast cancer were selected. Of course the metastasis of BCC is seldom reported but observations in protein content of skin would be a useful mark in order to design a new diagnosis method based on blood analysis. Soft Independent Modeling Class Analogy (SIMCA) classification method was applied for pattern recognition of blood samples in order to obtain if they are normal or cancerous. Results showed about 90% of accuracy

  17. Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozine, Igor; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Lauridsen Kurt [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark). Systems Analysis Department

    2001-07-01

    The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis

  18. Study on effect of supplementing iron-fortified food to children athletes by nuclear analysis and blood analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The iron content in hair and blood for 37 children athletes who were supplemented with 0, 8 and 16 mg Fe/d, respectively, in the form of ferrous gluconate-containing chocolate for 3 months was determined before and after the supplement by INAA, SRXRF and blood analysis. The experimental results indicated that after the supplement of the iron-fortified food, the ferritin level in blood of the male athletes attained to normal and the iron content in hair was increased with the increasing level of supplement, but not in direct proportion. Most of the female athletes had similar results. It is suggested that supplement of 8 mg Fe/d to a child athlete may be adequate

  19. Study on the effect of supplementation of ironfortified food to chinese juvenile athletes by nuclear analysis techniques and blood analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The iron contents in the hair and blood samples of 37 juvenile athletes who were supplemented with 0, 8 and 16 mg Fe/day, respectively, in the food of ferrous gluconatecontaining chocolate for 3 months were determined before and after the supplementation by INAA, SRXRF and blood analysis. The experimental results showed that after supplementation of the iron-fortified food, the normal ferritin level in the blood of the male athletes was attained and the iron content in the hair was increased with supplementation, but both are not in the positive proportion. Most of the female athletes had similar results. It is suggested that supplementation of 8 mg iron/day to juvenile athletes may be desirable. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  20. ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

    2014-06-05

    Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

  1. Avogadro: an advanced semantic chemical editor, visualization, and analysis platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanwell Marcus D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Avogadro project has developed an advanced molecule editor and visualizer designed for cross-platform use in computational chemistry, molecular modeling, bioinformatics, materials science, and related areas. It offers flexible, high quality rendering, and a powerful plugin architecture. Typical uses include building molecular structures, formatting input files, and analyzing output of a wide variety of computational chemistry packages. By using the CML file format as its native document type, Avogadro seeks to enhance the semantic accessibility of chemical data types. Results The work presented here details the Avogadro library, which is a framework providing a code library and application programming interface (API with three-dimensional visualization capabilities; and has direct applications to research and education in the fields of chemistry, physics, materials science, and biology. The Avogadro application provides a rich graphical interface using dynamically loaded plugins through the library itself. The application and library can each be extended by implementing a plugin module in C++ or Python to explore different visualization techniques, build/manipulate molecular structures, and interact with other programs. We describe some example extensions, one which uses a genetic algorithm to find stable crystal structures, and one which interfaces with the PackMol program to create packed, solvated structures for molecular dynamics simulations. The 1.0 release series of Avogadro is the main focus of the results discussed here. Conclusions Avogadro offers a semantic chemical builder and platform for visualization and analysis. For users, it offers an easy-to-use builder, integrated support for downloading from common databases such as PubChem and the Protein Data Bank, extracting chemical data from a wide variety of formats, including computational chemistry output, and native, semantic support for the CML file format

  2. Meta-Analysis of the Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors Affecting Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide, approximately 42 million children under the age of 5 years are considered overweight or obese. While much research has focused on individual behaviors impacting obesity, little research has emphasized the complex interactions of numerous chemical and non-chemical stres...

  3. Genotoxic and mutagenic effects of permethrin in mice: micronuclei analysis in peripheral blood erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Gislaine Cristina; de Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa; Araujo, Andrea Mendez; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Mathias, Maria Izabel Camargo

    2012-12-01

    Pyrethroids such as permethrin are synthetic compounds widely used in the agriculture of many countries to combat plagues and in domestic products, such as acaricides. Not so long ago these chemicals were characterized as non-toxic for non-target organisms; however, recent studies have showed that these compounds could present toxic potential for many organisms. In this sense, this study presents genotoxic and mutagenic potential of permethrin administered intraperitoneally in mice under artificial conditions by the use of micronucleus assay in the peripheral blood of these animals. The mice were divided into five groups: group I = negative control (distilled water), group II = positive control (cyclophosphamide), group III = 30% of permethrin LD(50) (96 mg/kg), group IV = 50% of permethrin LD(50) (160 mg/kg), and group V = 80% of permethrin LD(50) (256 mg/kg). The peripheral blood was collected 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment. Results showed that all the tested permethrin dosages presented genotoxic and mutagenic effects 24 h after treatment, which would contradict the classification of this chemical product as moderately toxic, i.e., unable to cause damages to the cell DNA. PMID:22965619

  4. ANALYSIS OF CHROMIUM BIOACCUMULATION IN BLOOD, URINE AND NAIL SAMPLES OF CHROMATE FACTORY WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. JOB GOPINATH

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial play a major role in country's economy. Air pollution is an occupational health problem in industries. Generaly, there are more man made pollution in the air of heavy industries and major cities around the industries, Exposure as inhalation represents one of the major routes by which the body can be exposed by accident or design to foreign materials. One having entered to the respiratory tract, inhaled materails may be readly absorbed or may react directly with the alveolar epithelium and entered in to the blood steam. These air pollution induce many changes in physiological and biochemical process. The present study was contucted on chromate industrial workers as these workers were repeatedly exposed to pollutants in chromium factors (Tamil Nadu Chromate and Chemical Ltd., Ranipet industrial Town, Tamil Nadu. The bioaccumulation of chromium was estimated from one hundred samples of blood and urine as well as twenty five samples of nails collected from TCC industrial workers and control subject. The workers and control subject were randomly selected. Estimation was carried out by Atomic Absorption spectrometry. From the results it was obeserved tha the accumulation of heavy metal chromium in the blood. urine and nail samples of chromate factory worker are above the normal ranges. Results are statistically significant.

  5. Spectral Analysis of Blood Pressure Variability as a Quantitative Indicator of Driving Fatigue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李增勇; 焦昆; 陈铭; 王成焘

    2004-01-01

    The quantitative detector of driver fatigue presents appropriate warnings and helps to prevent traffic accidents.The aim of this study was to quantifiably evaluate driver mental fatigue using the power spectral analysis of the blood pressure variability (BPV) and subjective evaluation. In this experiment twenty healthy male subjects were required to perform a driving simulator task for 3-hours. The physiological variables for evaluating driver mental fatigue were spectral values of blood pressure variability (BPV)including very low frequency (VLF), low frequency (LF),high frequency (HF). As a result, LF, HF and LF/HF showed high correlations with driver mental fatigue but not found in VLF. The findings represent a possible utility of BPV spectral analysis in quantitatively evaluating driver mental fatigue.

  6. Multiscale analysis of heart rate, blood pressure and respiration time series

    CERN Document Server

    Angelini, L; Marinazzo, D; Nitti, L; Pellicoro, M; Pinna, G D; Stramaglia, S; Tupputi, S A

    2005-01-01

    We present the multiscale entropy analysis of short term physiological time series of simultaneously acquired samples of heart rate, blood pressure and lung volume, from healthy subjects and from subjects with Chronic Heart Failure. Evaluating the complexity of signals at the multiple time scales inherent in physiologic dynamics, we find that healthy subjects show more complex time series at large time scales; on the other hand, at fast time scales, which are more influenced by respiration, the pathologic dynamics of blood pressure is the most random. These results robustly separate healthy and pathologic groups. We also propose a multiscale approach to evaluate interactions between time series, by performing a multivariate autoregressive modelling of the coarse grained time series: this analysis provides several new quantitative indicators which are statistically correlated with the pathology.

  7. Results of the analysis of the blood lymphocyte proliferation test data from the National Jewish Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    From, E.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Mathematical Sciences Section; Newman, L.S.; Mroz, M.M. [National Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory Medicine, Denver, CO (United States)

    1997-03-01

    A new approach to the analysis of the blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) was presented to the Committee to Accredit Beryllium Sensitization Testing-Beryllium Industry Scientific Advisory Committee in April, 1994. Two new outlier resistant methods were proposed for the analysis of the blood LPT and compared with the approach then in use by most labs. The National Jewish Center (NJC) agreed to provide data from a study that was underway at that time. Three groups of LPT data are considered: (1) a sample of 168 beryllium exposed (BE) workers and 20 nonexposed (NE) persons; (2) 25 unacceptable LPTs, and (3) 32 abnormal LPTs for individuals known to have chronic beryllium disease (CBD). The LAV method described in ORNL-6818 was applied to each LPT. Graphical and numerical summaries similar to those presented for the ORISE data are given. Three methods were used to identify abnormal LPTs. All three methods correctly identified the 32 known CBD cases as abnormal.

  8. Analysis of discard of whole blood and its components with suggested possible strategies to reduce it

    OpenAIRE

    Parikshit Patil; Arvind Bhake; Kishor Hiwale

    2016-01-01

    Background: Advances in medical technology demand more and more provision of safe blood for effective management of patients. To tackle with the demand and supply of blood and blood components, more stringent criteria should be applied for blood donations and for proper utilization of blood. The present study was designed to analyze the various reasons for the discard of whole blood and blood components. It also intended to suggest various possible strategies for optimum utilization of blood ...

  9. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate in cats with chronic kidney disease undergoing chemical restraint during hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Karine Kleine Figueiredo dos Santos; Daniel Paulino Junior; Julio César Cambraia Veado; Juliana de Abreu Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Dialysis is one of the used methods for treatment of Acute Renal Injury (ARI) and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) to replace the function of the kidneys when refers to blood depuration. Hemodialysis removes toxins accumulated in the body directly from the blood, being a useful alternative therapy for dogs and cats with CKD in advanced stages. Because of the difficulty on handling the patient feline, this procedure requires sedation. However, few studies have been conducted to assess the safety o...

  10. Recent trends on the stent research for blood arteries by bibliometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Sejung; Sung, Jung-Suk; Choi, Brad; Kim, Hackjoo; Sung, Yong Kiel

    2014-01-01

    The research trends on stent for blood arteries are reviewed by bibliometric analysis using 7,790 journal articles published from 1986 to 2013 of the Web of Science database. The bibliometric indicators are applied to analyze the journal article data, which are simple number of publications for selecting key players, citation indicators for measuring qualitative research performance, collaboration indicators for figuring out the degree of international collaboration and keyword mapping for id...

  11. Uptitrating amlodipine significantly reduces blood pressure in diabetic patients with hypertension: a retrospective, pooled analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffers BW; Bhambri R; Robbins J

    2014-01-01

    Barrett W Jeffers, Rahul Bhambri, Jeffery Robbins Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA Abstract: Diabetic patients with hypertension are approximately twice as likely to develop cardiovascular disease as non-diabetic patients with hypertension. Given that hypertension affects ~60% of patients with diabetes, effective blood pressure (BP) management is important in this high-risk population. This post-hoc analysis pooled data from six clinical studies to quantify additional BP efficacy achieved when...

  12. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Individuals with HIV: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kent, Shia T; Bromfield, Samantha G.; Burkholder, Greer A.; Falzon, Louise; Oparil, Suzanne; Overton, Edgar T.; Mugavero, Michael J.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Shimbo, Daichi; Muntner, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Abnormal diurnal blood pressure (BP) rhythms may contribute to the high cardiovascular disease risk in HIV-positive (HIV+) individuals. To synthesize the current literature on ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) in HIV+ individuals, a systematic literature review and meta-analysis were performed. Methods Medical databases were searched through November 11, 2015 for studies that reported ABPM results in HIV+ individuals. Data were extracted by 2 reviewers and pooled differences betwee...

  13. TCRgamma gene rearrangement analysis in skin samples and peripheral blood of mycosis fungoides patients:

    OpenAIRE

    Bašanović, Jelena; Cikota, Bojana; Kandolf Sekulović, Lidija; Magić, Zvonko; Medenica, Ljiljana; Pavlović, Miloš; Stojadinović, Olivera; Škiljević, Dušan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Diagnosing mycosis fungoides (MF) can be challenging in the early stage of the disease because histopathological features may simulate a varietyof benign inflammatory skin diseases. Assessment of T-cell clonality was found to be useful in diagnosis and follow-up of patients. Objective: In this study, PCR-based TCRgamma gene rearrangement analysis was performed in skin and peripheral blood samples of patients with MF treated at the two largest referral centers in Serbia, and the re...

  14. Laser speckle imaging of rat retinal blood flow with hybrid temporal and spatial analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Haiying; Yan, Yumei; Duong, Timothy Q.

    2009-02-01

    Noninvasive monitoring of blood flow in retinal circulation will reveal the progression and treatment of ocular disorders, such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. A non-invasive and direct BF measurement technique with high spatial-temporal resolution is needed for retinal imaging. Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is such a method. Currently, there are two analysis methods for LSI: spatial statistics LSI (SS-LSI) and temporal statistical LSI (TS-LSI). Comparing these two analysis methods, SS-LSI has higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) and TSLSI is less susceptible to artifacts from stationary speckle. We proposed a hybrid temporal and spatial analysis method (HTS-LSI) to measure the retinal blood flow. Gas challenge experiment was performed and images were analyzed by HTS-LSI. Results showed that HTS-LSI can not only remove the stationary speckle but also increase the SNR. Under 100% O2, retinal BF decreased by 20-30%. This was consistent with the results observed with laser Doppler technique. As retinal blood flow is a critical physiological parameter and its perturbation has been implicated in the early stages of many retinal diseases, HTS-LSI will be an efficient method in early detection of retina diseases.

  15. Effects of Vegetarian Diets on Blood Lipids: A Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Fenglei; Zheng, Jusheng; Yang, Bo; Jiang, Jiajing; Fu, Yuanqing; Li, Duo

    2015-01-01

    Background Vegetarian diets exclude all animal flesh and are being widely adopted by an increasing number of people; however, effects on blood lipid concentrations remain unclear. This meta‐analysis aimed to quantitatively assess the overall effects of vegetarian diets on blood lipids. Methods and Results We searched PubMed, Scopus, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, and the Cochrane Library through March 2015. Studies were included if they described the effectiveness of vegetarian diets on blood ...

  16. 3-Methylmethcathinone-Interpretation of Blood Concentrations Based on Analysis of 95 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Piotr; Gieroń, Joanna; Gil, Dominika; Lechowicz, Wojciech; Skulska, Agnieszka; Tokarczyk, Bogdan

    2016-05-01

    3-Methylmethcathinone (3-MMC) has been one of the most popular new psychoactive substances (NPS) in Poland in recent years. 3-MMC was found in blood in 95 cases sent to the Institute of Forensic Research (IFR) during the two and a half year period, from 2013 to half of 2015. 3-MMC was determined in 13 and 48 cases in 2013 and 2014 year-round casework, respectively, while only in the first half of 2015 year it was present in 34 cases. In most cases, 3-MMC was detected together with other novel psychoactive substances and conventional drugs. Blood analyses for 3-MMC were carried out using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The concentrations of 3-MMC in all 95 cases were in the range from traces (accidents: <1-29 ng/mL; drug possession: 2-408 ng/mL; intoxication: <1-1600 ng/mL and other: <1-61 ng/mL. The parameters of the developed method such as the LOD (0.02 ng/mL) and LOQ (1 ng/mL) demonstrate that the method is well suited for the analysis of blood samples for 3-MMC and covers the range of typical blood concentrations. PMID:26989222

  17. EDXRF quantitative analysis of chromophore chemical elements in corundum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonizzoni, L; Galli, A; Spinolo, G; Palanza, V

    2009-12-01

    Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminum oxide (Al(2)O(3)) and is one of the rock-forming minerals. When aluminum oxide is pure, the mineral is colorless, but the presence of trace amounts of other elements such as iron, titanium, and chromium in the crystal lattice gives the typical colors (including blue, red, violet, pink, green, yellow, orange, gray, white, colorless, and black) of gemstone varieties. The starting point for our work is the quantitative evaluation of the concentration of chromophore chemical elements with a precision as good as possible to match the data obtained by different techniques as such as optical absorption photoluminescence. The aim is to give an interpretation of the absorption bands present in the NIR and visible ranges which do not involve intervalence charge transfer transitions (Fe(2+) --> Fe(3+) and Fe(2+) --> Ti(4+)), commonly considered responsible of the important features of the blue sapphire absorption spectra. So, we developed a method to evaluate as accurately as possible the autoabsorption effects and the secondary excitation effects which frequently are sources of relevant errors in the quantitative EDXRF analysis. PMID:19821113

  18. Method of chemical analysis of silicate rocks (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid method of analysis for the physical and chemical determination of the major constituents of silicate rocks is described. Water losses at 100 deg. C and losses of volatile elements at 1000 deg. C are estimated after staying in oven for these temperatures, or by mean of a thermo-balance. The determination of silica is made by a double insolubilization with hydrochloric acid on attack solution with sodium carbonate; total iron and aluminium, both with calcium and magnesium, after ammoniacal precipitation of Fe and Al, are determined on the filtration product of silica by titrimetry-photometry of their complexes with EDTA. The alkalis Na and K by flame spectrophotometry, Mn by colorimetry of the permanganate, and Ti by mean of his complex with H2O2, are determined on fluosulfuric attack solution. Phosphorus is determined by his complex with 'molybdenum blue' on a fluoro-nitro-boric attack solution; iron is estimated by potentiometry, with the help of bichromate on hydrofluoric solution. (author)

  19. A spectroscopic analysis of the chemically peculiar star HD207561

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, S; Martinez, P; Sachkov, M; Joshi, Y C; Seetha, S; Chakradhari, N K; Mary, D L; Girish, V; Ashoka, B N

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a high-resolution spectroscopic analysis of the chemically peculiar star HD207561. During a survey programme to search for new roAp stars in the Northern hemisphere, Joshi et al. (2006) observed significant photometric variability on two consecutive nights in the year 2000. The amplitude spectra of the light curves obtained on these two nights showed oscillations with a frequency of 2.79 mHz [P~6-min]. However, subsequent follow-up observations could not confirm any rapid variability. In order to determine the spectroscopic nature of HD207561, high-resolution spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric observations were carried out. A reasonable fit of the calculated Hbeta line profile to the observed one yields the effective temperature (Teff) and surface gravity (log g) as 7300 K and 3.7 dex, respectively. The derived projected rotational velocity (vsin i) for HD207561 is 74 km/sec indicative of a relatively fast rotator. The position of HD207561 in the H-R diagram implies that this is s...

  20. Microplasmas for chemical analysis: analytical tools or research toys?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the activities of the research groups that have been involved in fabrication, development and characterization of microplasmas for chemical analysis over the last few years is presented. Microplasmas covered include: miniature inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs); capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs); microwave-induced plasmas (MIPs); a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD); microhollow cathode discharge (MCHD) or microstructure electrode (MSE) discharges, other microglow discharges (such as those formed between 'liquid' electrodes); microplasmas formed in micrometer-diameter capillary tubes for gas chromatography (GC) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) applications, and a stabilized capacitive plasma (SCP) for GC applications. Sample introduction into microplasmas, in particular, into a microplasma device (MPD), battery operation of a MPD and of a mini- in-torch vaporization (ITV) microsample introduction system for MPDs, and questions of microplasma portability for use on site (e.g., in the field) are also briefly addressed using examples of current research. To emphasize the significance of sample introduction into microplasmas, some previously unpublished results from the author's laboratory have also been included. And an overall assessment of the state-of-the-art of analytical microplasma research is provided

  1. Similarity Analysis of Cable Insulations by Chemical Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As result of this experiment, it was found that FT-IR test for material composition, TGA test for aging trend are applicable for similarity analysis of cable materials. OIT is recommended as option if TGA doesn't show good trend. Qualification of new insulation by EQ report of old insulation should be based on higher activation energy of new insulation than that of old one in the consideration of conservatism. In old nuclear power plant, it is easy to find black cable which has no marking of cable information such as manufacturer, material name and voltage. If a type test is required for qualification of these cables, how could I select representative cable? How could I determine the similarity of these cables? If manufacturer has qualified a cable for nuclear power plant more than a decade ago and composition of cable material is changed with similar one, is it acceptable to use the old EQ report for recently manufactured cable? It is well known to use FT-IR method to determine the similarity of cable materials. Infrared ray is easy tool to compare compositions of each material. But, it is not proper to compare aging trend of these materials. Study for similarity analysis of cable insulation by chemical test is described herein. To study a similarity evaluation method for polymer materials, FT-IR, TGA and OIT tests were performed for two cable insulation(old and new) which were supplied from same manufacturer. FT-IR shows good result to compare material compositions while TGA and OIT show good result to compare aging character of materials

  2. Similarity Analysis of Cable Insulations by Chemical Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Seog [Central Research Institute of Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    As result of this experiment, it was found that FT-IR test for material composition, TGA test for aging trend are applicable for similarity analysis of cable materials. OIT is recommended as option if TGA doesn't show good trend. Qualification of new insulation by EQ report of old insulation should be based on higher activation energy of new insulation than that of old one in the consideration of conservatism. In old nuclear power plant, it is easy to find black cable which has no marking of cable information such as manufacturer, material name and voltage. If a type test is required for qualification of these cables, how could I select representative cable? How could I determine the similarity of these cables? If manufacturer has qualified a cable for nuclear power plant more than a decade ago and composition of cable material is changed with similar one, is it acceptable to use the old EQ report for recently manufactured cable? It is well known to use FT-IR method to determine the similarity of cable materials. Infrared ray is easy tool to compare compositions of each material. But, it is not proper to compare aging trend of these materials. Study for similarity analysis of cable insulation by chemical test is described herein. To study a similarity evaluation method for polymer materials, FT-IR, TGA and OIT tests were performed for two cable insulation(old and new) which were supplied from same manufacturer. FT-IR shows good result to compare material compositions while TGA and OIT show good result to compare aging character of materials.

  3. Analysis of chemical bonding by means of reduced density matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Boto, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The modern Theory of Chemical Bonding may be well understood as the study of reduced density matrices (RDMs) in real space regions to get new insights of the chemical bond. Although, much work has been widely used to understand chemical bonding from one-electron density, include correlation effects requires the access to higher order densities. Based on the cumulant expansion of the RDMs, a set of bonding indices which may decomposed into one-electron component may be defined. Each comp...

  4. TECHNO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF MODERNIZATION FOR CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Задольський, Аркадій Михайлович

    2015-01-01

    Industry of Ukraine is currently in a very difficult situation. This fully relates to the chemical industry. The real way to overcome negative developments, in the chemical industry, is improving its material base and objects of fixed assets. First of all, need improvement, machinery and equipment (chemical equipment). This important problem can be solved by upgrading existing equipment. In order to choose the most efficient option for replacement of obsolete equipment, should apply the techn...

  5. Sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis of blood as a diagnostic test in mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Vestergaard, Hanne; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Møller, Michael Boe; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd

    2014-01-01

    The recent progress in sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis suggests that mutation analysis of peripheral blood (PB) represents a promising diagnostic test in mastocytosis. However, there is a need for systematic assessment of the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the approach in order to...... establish its value in clinical use. We therefore evaluated sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis of PB as a diagnostic test in an entire case-series of adults with mastocytosis. We demonstrate for the first time that by using a sufficiently sensitive KIT D816V mutation analysis, it is possible to detect...... the mutation in PB in nearly all adult mastocytosis patients. The mutation was detected in PB in 78 of 83 systemic mastocytosis (94%) and 3 of 4 cutaneous mastocytosis patients (75%). The test was 100% specific as determined by analysis of clinically relevant control patients who all tested negative...

  6. Analysis of human blood and hair for trace elements by means of tertiary X-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology for analysis of biological materials (blood, hair) for trace elements by x-ray fluorescence energy dispersive analysis using tertiary x-ray spectra has been proposed. Sample preparation and analytical instrumentation are described and analysis results are given. The method permits simultaneous determination of 13 elements in the blood and 15 elements in the hair with detection limit nx10-6%. 11 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  7. Arterial blood gas analysis and electrolyte determination in neonates with asphyxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-Mei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the value of arterial blood gas analysis and electrolyte determination in the diagnosis of neonatal asphyxia.Methods: A total of 100 neonates with asphyxia who were admitted in our department from March, 2013 to March, 2014 were included in the study and divided into the mild asphyxia group and the severe asphyxia group according to Apgar scoring. Moreover, 50 normal neonates were served as the control group and used for comparative analysis. AVL blood-gas analyzer was used to detect the levels of pH, PaO2, HCO3-, BE, PaCO2, K+, Na+, Cl-, and Ca2+.Results:The concentrations of pH, PaO2, HCO3-, and BE in the severe asphyxia group were significantly lower than those in the mild asphyxia group and the control group, while PaCO2 level was significantly higher than that in the mild asphyxia group and the control group. The comparison of the various indicators between the control group and the mild asphyxia group was not statistically significant. The comparison of serum K+, Na+,and Cl- levels among the control group, the mild asphyxia group, and the severe asphyxia group was not statistically significant. The serum Ca2+ level in the severe asphyxia group was significantly lower than that in the mild asphyxia group and the control group, while the comparison between the mild asphyxia group and the control group was also statistically significant.Conclusions:Blood gas analysis and electrolyte determination to the arterial blood in neonates can compensate for the insufficiency of Apgar scoring and provide an objective evidence for the diagnosis of neonatal asphyxia and the estimation of severity degree. Clinical combination with Apgar scoring is of great significance in enhancing the diagnosis of neonatal asphyxia and the accuracy of severity evaluation.

  8. Fourier analysis of a gated blood-pool study during atrial flutter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First-harmonic Fourier analysis of a gated blood-pool study is based on the assumption that the cardiac chambers contract once per cardiac cycle. In atrial arrhythmias this condition may not exist for the atria. We recently studied a patient with atrial flutter and 2:1 artioventricular conduction. There were predictable alterations in the first-harmonic Fourier phase and amplitude images. The observed changes from first-harmonic Fourier analysis were: (a) very low atrial amplitude values, and (b) absence of identifiable atrial regions on the phase image

  9. Trace element analysis of blood samples from mentally challenged children by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accelerator based ion beam analysis method of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been used for analysing up to 14 elements in the blood serum of patients, collected from rehabilitation centres for the mentally retarded and from Medical College Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. The experimental subjects of the different groups displayed significant variations in their levels of certain trace elements such as zinc, iron, copper, phosphorus, chlorine, and rubidium. The results are compared with those of healthy control subjects and are discussed in detail in this paper. Hence, PIXE as a method of trace element analysis can be used to determine trace element content in mentally challenged patients

  10. Silica Coated Paper Substrate for Paper-Spray Analysis of Therapeutic Drugs in Dried Blood Spots

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhiping; Xu, Wei; Manicke, Nicholas E.; Cooks, R. Graham; Ouyang, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Paper spray is a newly developed ambient ionization method that has been applied for direct qualitative and quantitative analysis of biological samples. The properties of the paper substrate and spray solution have a significant impact on the release of chemical compounds from complex sample matrices, the diffusion of the analytes through the substrate, and the formation of ions for mass spectrometry analysis. In this study, a commercially available silica-coated paper was explored in an atte...

  11. Unusual spontaneous cold auto-hemagglutination phenomenon in blood units stored under blood bank condition: A retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanmukh R Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cold agglutinins (CA are benign naturally occurring low titer autoantibodies present in most individuals. Those with moderate strength are found in infections, malignancies or autoimmune conditions with diagnostic importance. Aim: Present report deals with CA that brought spontaneous hemagglutination in blood units stored at 2-6°C. Study design: Over 32 months period between July 1993 and December 1995, blood units were inspected for spontaneous cold auto-hemagglutination (SpCA phenomenon. The plasma from these units was separated and investigated for serological specificity using in house red cell panel and standard serological methods. Results: Among 51,671 blood units, 112 units showed SpCA phenomenon. A rising trend seen in first half of study period significantly fell in remaining half. Specificities of the antibodies detected include anti-I (27, anti-i (53, anti-Pr (21 with remaining few being undetermined specificity. Absorption of serum using enzyme-treated red cells revealed a presence of anti-Pr among the cases, the two of which with new specificities that reacted preferentially with red cells from either new-born or adults and were tentatively named as anti-Pr Fetal and anti-Pr adult , respectively. While 9 cases showed optimum reaction at neutral pH of 7, 68 (62% cases reacted at pH 5.8 through 8.0, 28 (26% cases preferred an acidic pH 5.8 and 4 cases opted an alkaline pH 8. Of 28 cases with antibodies preferentially reacting in acidic medium, 17 (60% cases were anti-i and 7 (25% cases were anti-Pr. Conclusion: Unique SpCA phenomenon observed in blood units stored under blood bank conditions seems to be due to CA developed in response to vector-borne infectious agents. Majority of the cases displayed their specificities, otherwise are rare to be encountered.

  12. The numerical analysis of non-Newtonian blood flow in human patient-specific left ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doost, Siamak N; Zhong, Liang; Su, Boyang; Morsi, Yosry S

    2016-04-01

    Recently, various non-invasive tools such as the magnetic resonance image (MRI), ultrasound imaging (USI), computed tomography (CT), and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have been widely utilized to enhance our current understanding of the physiological parameters that affect the initiation and the progression of the cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) associated with heart failure (HF). In particular, the hemodynamics of left ventricle (LV) has attracted the attention of the researchers due to its significant role in the heart functionality. In this study, CFD owing its capability of predicting detailed flow field was adopted to model the blood flow in images-based patient-specific LV over cardiac cycle. In most published studies, the blood is modeled as Newtonian that is not entirely accurate as the blood viscosity varies with the shear rate in non-linear manner. In this paper, we studied the effect of Newtonian assumption on the degree of accuracy of intraventricular hemodynamics. In doing so, various non-Newtonian models and Newtonian model are used in the analysis of the intraventricular flow and the viscosity of the blood. Initially, we used the cardiac MRI images to reconstruct the time-resolved geometry of the patient-specific LV. After the unstructured mesh generation, the simulations were conducted in the CFD commercial solver FLUENT to analyze the intraventricular hemodynamic parameters. The findings indicate that the Newtonian assumption cannot adequately simulate the flow dynamic within the LV over the cardiac cycle, which can be attributed to the pulsatile and recirculation nature of the flow and the low blood shear rate. PMID:26849955

  13. Systematic review and meta-analysis of circulating S100B blood levels in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katina Aleksovska

    Full Text Available S100B is a calcium-binding protein secreted in central nervous system from astrocytes and other glia cells. High blood S100B levels have been linked to brain damage and psychiatric disorders. S100B levels have been reported to be higher in schizophrenics than healthy controls. To quantify the relationship between S100B blood levels and schizophrenia a systematic literature review of case-control studies published on this topic within July 3rd 2014 was carried out using three bibliographic databases: Medline, Scopus and Web of Science. Studies reporting mean and standard deviation of S100B blood levels both in cases and controls were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-Mean Ratio (mMR of S100B blood levels in cases compared to controls was used as a measure of effect along with its 95% Confidence Intervals (CI. 20 studies were included totaling for 994 cases and 785 controls. Schizophrenia patients showed 76% higher S100B blood levels than controls with mMR = 1.76 95% CI: 1.44-2.15. No difference could be found between drug-free patients with mMR = 1.84 95%CI: 1.24-2.74 and patients on antipsychotic medication with mMR = 1.75 95% CI: 1.41-2.16. Similarly, ethnicity and stage of disease didn't affect results. Although S100B could be regarded as a possible biomarker of schizophrenia, limitations should be accounted when interpreting results, especially because of the high heterogeneity that remained >70%, even after carrying out subgroups analyses. These results point out that approaches based on traditional categorical diagnoses may be too restrictive and new approaches based on the characterization of new complex phenotypes should be considered.

  14. Sanitary chemical and bacteriological analysis of drinking water in Kocani

    OpenAIRE

    Panova, Gordana; Panova, Blagica; Panov, Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Acute diseases occur as a result of contamination of drinking water with microorganisms (causes gastrointestinal disease) or contamination with nitrates causes methemoglobinemia in children), pesticides or other chemicals. The occurrence of water-borne infections due to inadequate sanitation, disposal of manure decomposition processing operating system or contamination during distribution. Harmful chemical pollution due to accidents or inadequate distribution system ...

  15. Development of a preparation and staining method for fetal erythroblasts in maternal blood : Simultaneous immunocytochemical staining and FISH analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwijk, JC; Mesker, WE; Ouwerkerk-van Velzen, MCM; Knepfle, CFHM; Wiesmeijer, KC; van den Burg, MJM; Beverstock, GC; Bernini, LF; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Kanhai, HHH; Tanke, HJ

    1998-01-01

    In order to detect fetal nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) in maternal blood, a protocol was developed which aimed at producing a reliable staining method for combined immunocytochemical and FISH analysis. The technique had to be suitable for eventual automated screening of slides. Chorionic villi w

  16. Nonradiological chemical pathway analysis and identification of chemicals of concern for environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest's Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is an ongoing effort tot design, review, and conducted monitoring on and off the Hanford site. Chemicals of concern that were selected are listed. Using modeled exposure pathways, the offsite cancer incidence and hazard quotient were calculated and a retrospective pathway analysis performed to estimate what onsite concentrations would be required in the soil for each chemical of concern and other detected chemicals that would be required to obtain an estimated offsite human-health risk of 1.0E-06 cancer incidence or 1.0 hazard quotient. This analysis indicates that current nonradiological chemical contamination occurring on the site does not pose a significant offsite human-health risk; the highest cancer incidence to the offsite maximally exposed individual was from arsenic (1.76E-10); the highest hazard quotient was chromium(VI) (1.48E-04). The most sensitive pathways of exposure were surfacewater and aquatic food consumption. Combined total offsite excess cancer incidence was 2.09E-10 and estimated hazard quotient was 2.40E-04. Of the 17 identified chemicals of concern, the SESP does not currently (routinely) monitor arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene, bis(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP), and chrysene. Only 3 of the chemicals of concern (arsenic, BEHP, chloroform) could actually occur in onsite soil at concern high enough to cause a 1.0E-06 excess cancer incidence or a 1.0 hazard index for a given offsite exposure pathway. During the retrospective analysis, 20 other chemicals were also evaluated; only vinyl chloride and thallium could reach targeted offsite risk values

  17. [Research of Outlier Samples Elimination Methods for Near-Infrared Spectral Analysis of Blood Glucose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yongzhong; Li, Lina; Lin, Tianliang

    2015-12-01

    For the near-infrared (NIR) spectral analysis of the concentration of blood glucose, the calibration accuracy can be affected because of the existing of outlier samples. In this research, a Monte-Carlo cross validation (MCCV) method is constructed for eliminating outlier samples. The human blood plasma experiment in vitro and the human body experiment in vivo were introduced to evaluate the MCCV method for its application effect in NIR spectral analysis of blood glucose. And the uninformative sample elimination method based on modified uninformative variable elimination (MUVE-USE) was employed in this study for the comparison with MCCV. The results indicated that, like the MUVE-USE method, the outlier samples elimination method based on MCCV could be used to eliminate the outlier samples which came from gross errors (such as bad sample) or system errors (such as baseline drift). In addition, the outlier samples from the random errors of uncertain causes which affect model accuracy can be eliminated simultaneously by MCCV. The elimination of multiple outlier samples is beneficial to the improvement of prediction accuracy of calibration model. PMID:27079108

  18. Hemocytome: deep sequencing analysis of mosquito blood cells in Indian malarial vector Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tina; De, Tanwee Das; Sharma, Punita; Lata, Suman; Saraswat, Priyanka; Pandey, Kailash C; Dixit, Rajnikant

    2016-07-10

    Hemocytes are tiny circulating blood cells of insects known to play multiple roles in physiological as well as cellular immune responses. However, the molecular nature of hemocytes in blood feeding insects, especially mosquitoes which transmit several deadly diseases such as malaria, dengue etc. is still limited. Therefore, to know the basic molecular composition of naïve mosquito hemocyte encoded proteins, we sequenced RNA-Seq library and analyzed a total of 13,105,858 Illumina sequencing reads in the mosquito Anopheles stephensi, an urban malarial vector in India. Denovo assembly approach yielded a buildup of 3025 contigs, for molecular and functional annotation. A total of 1829 contigs (48%) could be mapped to the mosquito transcript database, while out of remaining 1196 unmatched contigs, at least 1108 contigs i.e. 40% of total contigs, yielded a significant match to the available draft genome. ImmunoDB analysis predicted a total of 88 putative hemocyte transcripts belonging to 11 immune family proteins. A comprehensive molecular analysis of several unique transcripts including novel LRR, Holotricin, OBP, NiFU, that are involved in immunity, chemo sensing, cell-cell communication, nitrogen fixation/metabolism etc. provides initial evidence that mosquito hemocytes carry unique ability to meet and manage cell specific diverse functions of the mosquito blood. An unexpected observation of abundant transcripts encoding hypothetical proteins with unknown functions indicated that a much of the hemocyte biology remains to be understood. PMID:26915489

  19. Numerical analysis of bypass model geometrical parameters influence on pulsatile blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonášová A.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on the analysis of pulsatile blood flow in complete idealized 3D bypass models in dependence on three main geometrical parameters (stenosis degree, junction angle and diameter ratio. Assuming the blood to be an incompressible Newtonian fluid, the non-linear system of Navier-Stokes equations is integrated in time by a fully implicit second-order accurate fractional-step method. The space discretization is performed with the help of the cell-centred finite volume method formulated for unstructured tetrahedral grids. In order to model a realistic coronary blood flow, a time-dependent flow rate taken from corresponding literature is considered. For the analysis of obtained numerical results, special emphasis is placed on their comparison in the form of velocity isolines at several selected cross-sections during systolic and diastolic phases. The remainder of this paper is devoted to discussion of walls shear stress distribution and its oscillatory character described by the oscillatory shear index with regard to areas prone to development of intimal hyperplasia or to thrombus formation.

  20. Meta-analysis of peripheral blood apolipoprotein E levels in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peripheral blood Apolipoprotein E (ApoE levels have been proposed as biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD, but previous studies on levels of ApoE in blood remain inconsistent. This meta-analysis was designed to re-examine the potential role of peripheral ApoE in AD diagnosis and its potential value as a candidate biomarker. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, and BIOSIS previews for case-control studies measuring ApoE levels in serum or plasma from AD subjects and healthy controls. The pooled weighted mean difference (WMD and 95% confidence interval (CI were used to estimate the association between ApoE levels and AD risk. RESULTS: Eight studies with a total of 2250 controls and 1498 AD cases were identified and analyzed. The pooled WMD from a random-effect model of AD participants compared with the healthy controls was -5.59 mg/l (95% CI: [-8.12, -3.06]. The overall pattern in WMD was not varied by characteristics of study, including age, country, assay method, publication year, and sample type. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis supports a lowered level of blood ApoE in AD patients, and indicates its potential value as an important risk factor for AD. Further investigation employing standardized assay for ApoE measurement are still warranted to uncover the precise role of ApoE in the pathophysiology of AD.

  1. Blood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex, and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of individual data from 61 prospective studies with 55,000 vascular deaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NN, NN; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Age, sex, and blood pressure could modify the associations of total cholesterol (and its main two fractions, HDL and LDL cholesterol) with vascular mortality. This meta-analysis combined prospective studies of vascular mortality that recorded both blood pressure and total cholesterol at...... were 5000 vascular deaths (3000 IHD, 1000 stroke, 1000 other). Reported associations are with usual cholesterol levels (ie, corrected for the regression dilution bias). FINDINGS: 1 mmol/L lower total cholesterol was associated with about a half (hazard ratio 0.44 [95% CI 0.42-0.48]), a third (0.66 [0...... absolute effects of cholesterol and blood pressure were approximately additive. Of various simple indices involving HDL cholesterol, the ratio total/HDL cholesterol was the strongest predictor of IHD mortality (40% more informative than non-HDL cholesterol and more than twice as informative as total...

  2. X-ray fluorescence analysis of trace elements in blood serum from diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The wave dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) technique was used for analysis of trace elements in blood serum from 23 nondiabetic healthy individuals (control group) and 58 type II diabetic patients who attended the diabetic clinics. The elements Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Mo, Cd, Hg and Pb were identified and their concentrations were estimated. Physical basis of used analytical methods, experimental set-up and the procedure of sample preparation are described. The maximum increase in trace elements in the blood samples of the workers compared with the control group was observed for Pb but also for Rb, As and Br

  3. RNA/DNA co-analysis from human menstrual blood and vaginal secretion stains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, Claus; Hanson, E; Anjos, M J;

    2014-01-01

    The European DNA Profiling Group (EDNAP) organized a fourth and fifth collaborative exercise on RNA/DNA co-analysis for body fluid identification and STR profiling. The task was to identify dried menstrual blood and vaginal secretion stains using specific RNA biomarkers, and additionally test 3...... simultaneous extraction of RNA and DNA allowed for positive identification of the tissue/fluid source of origin by mRNA profiling as well as a simultaneous identification of the body fluid donor by STR profiling, also from old and compromised casework samples. The results of this and the previous collaborative...... laboratories, using RNA extraction or RNA/DNA co-extraction methods. Two novel menstrual blood mRNA multiplexes were used: MMP triplex (MMP7, MMP10, MMP11) and MB triplex (MSX1, LEFTY2, SFRP4) in conjunction with a housekeeping gene triplex (B2M, UBC, UCE). Two novel mRNA multiplexes and a HBD1 singleplex were...

  4. Environmental variation of arsenic levels in human blood determined by neutron activation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    1970-01-01

    Arsenic levels in blood plasma and red cells from patients with Blackfoot disease, a peripheral arteriosclerosis endemic to a small area in Taiwan, were studied in relation to healthy individuals from the same and other parts of Taiwan and compared with arsenic levels in a control group from Denm...... in Denmark, which geochemically belongs to a soil zone with less arsenic than Taiwan.......Arsenic levels in blood plasma and red cells from patients with Blackfoot disease, a peripheral arteriosclerosis endemic to a small area in Taiwan, were studied in relation to healthy individuals from the same and other parts of Taiwan and compared with arsenic levels in a control group from...... Denmark. Arsenic was determined by neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation and re-irradiation yield determination. The precision and accuracy of the results have been carefully evaluated in order to permit quantitative tests for the significance of the observed differences. The results...

  5. Central blood pressure assessment using 24-hour brachial pulse wave analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muiesan ML

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Maria Lorenza Muiesan, Massimo Salvetti, Fabio Bertacchini, Claudia Agabiti-Rosei, Giulia Maruelli, Efrem Colonetti, Anna Paini Clinica Medica, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy Abstract: This review describes the use of central blood pressure (BP measurements during ambulatory monitoring, using noninvasive devices. The principles of measuring central BP by applanation tonometry and by oscillometry are reported, and information on device validation studies is described. The pathophysiological basis for the differences between brachial and aortic pressure is discussed. The currently available methods for central aortic pressure measurement are relatively accurate, and their use has important clinical implications, such as improving diagnostic and prognostic stratification of hypertension and providing a more accurate assessment of the effect of treatment on BP. Keywords: aortic blood pressure measurements, ambulatory monitoring, pulse wave analysis

  6. Scale Space Methods for Analysis of Type 2 Diabetes Patients' Blood Glucose Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Olav Skrøvseth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe how scale space methods can be used for quantitative analysis of blood glucose concentrations from type 2 diabetes patients. Blood glucose values were recorded voluntarily by the patients over one full year as part of a self-management process, where the time and frequency of the recordings are decided by the patients. This makes a unique dataset in its extent, though with a large variation in reliability of the recordings. Scale space and frequency space techniques are suited to reveal important features of unevenly sampled data, and useful for identifying medically relevant features for use both by patients as part of their self-management process, and provide useful information for physicians.

  7. Scale space methods for analysis of type 2 diabetes patients' blood glucose values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrøvseth, Stein Olav; Godtliebsen, Fred

    2011-01-01

    We describe how scale space methods can be used for quantitative analysis of blood glucose concentrations from type 2 diabetes patients. Blood glucose values were recorded voluntarily by the patients over one full year as part of a self-management process, where the time and frequency of the recordings are decided by the patients. This makes a unique dataset in its extent, though with a large variation in reliability of the recordings. Scale space and frequency space techniques are suited to reveal important features of unevenly sampled data, and useful for identifying medically relevant features for use both by patients as part of their self-management process, and provide useful information for physicians. PMID:21436873

  8. Use of dried blood spots in doping control analysis of anabolic steroid esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretzel, Laura; Thomas, Andreas; Geyer, Hans; Gmeiner, Günter; Forsdahl, Guro; Pop, Valentin; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2014-08-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling, a technique for whole blood sampling on a piece of filter paper, has more than 50-years tradition, particularly in the diagnostic analysis of metabolic disorders in neonatal screening. Due to the minimal invasiveness, straightforwardness, robustness against manipulation and fastness DBS sampling recommends itself as an advantageous technique in doping control analysis. The present approach highlights the development of a screening assay for the analysis of eight anabolic steroid esters (nandrolone phenylpropionate, trenbolone enanthate, testosterone acetate, testosterone cypionate, testosterone isocaproate, testosterone phenylpropionate, testosterone decanoate and testosterone undecanoate) and nandrolone in DBS. The detection of the intact esters allows an unequivocal proof of the administration of conjugates of exogenous testosterone and its derivatives. Precise, specific and linear conditions were obtained by means of liquid chromatography high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry. Sensitivity in the low ppb range was accomplished by the preparation of the methyloxime derivatives of the target compounds. Labeled internal standards (d3-nandrolone, d3-nandrolone caproate and d3-nandrolone undecanoate) were applied to compensate for the broad range in chain length of the esters. The assay presented here outlines the application of DBS for the analysis of anabolic steroid esters in doping controls for the first time providing great potential to simplify the proof of exogenous administration of testosterone. PMID:24713476

  9. Meta-Analysis of the Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors Affecting Childhood Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Worldwide, approximately 42 million children under the age of 5 years are considered overweight or obese. While much research has focused on individual behaviors impacting obesity, little research has emphasized the complex interactions of numerous chemical and non-ch...

  10. SOIL QUALITY ASSESSMENT BASED ON CHEMICAL, ENZYMATIC AND BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia-Paulina BALAURE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the problem of soil pollution as the result of human activities. Soil pollutans may be either chemicals or biological in nature. microbial enzymatic activities are often proposed as indicators of environmental stress. The soil samples were submitted by chemical, microbiological and enzymatic analyses. Chemical analyses were been made for determinating the heavy metals. Heavy metals from the forest soil were represented by Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr. To evaluate the concentration in heavy metals from the filtrate, we used a acetylene-nitrous oxide flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Potential dehydrogenase activity, the only indicator of the possible sources of pollution, excluded the presence of either chemical or biological pollution. The number of bacteria involved in the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen in the analyzed soil indicated a high efficiency regarding the mineralization of the organic residues of plant and animal origin.

  11. Disclosure of hydraulic fracturing fluid chemical additives: analysis of regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, Alexis L; Makey, Colleen M; Benson, Eugene B; Burrows, Isaac J; Scammell, Madeleine K

    2013-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is used to extract natural gas from shale formations. The process involves injecting into the ground fracturing fluids that contain thousands of gallons of chemical additives. Companies are not mandated by federal regulations to disclose the identities or quantities of chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing operations on private or public lands. States have begun to regulate hydraulic fracturing fluids by mandating chemical disclosure. These laws have shortcomings including nondisclosure of proprietary or "trade secret" mixtures, insufficient penalties for reporting inaccurate or incomplete information, and timelines that allow for after-the-fact reporting. These limitations leave lawmakers, regulators, public safety officers, and the public uninformed and ill-prepared to anticipate and respond to possible environmental and human health hazards associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids. We explore hydraulic fracturing exemptions from federal regulations, as well as current and future efforts to mandate chemical disclosure at the federal and state level. PMID:23552653

  12. Chemical Analysis of Wastewater from Unconventional Drilling Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan B. Thacker; Doug D. Carlton; Zacariah L. Hildenbrand; Kadjo, Akinde F.; Schug, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    Trillions of liters of wastewater from oil and gas extraction are generated annually in the US. The contribution from unconventional drilling operations (UDO), such as hydraulic fracturing, to this volume will likely continue to increase in the foreseeable future. The chemical content of wastewater from UDO varies with region, operator, and elapsed time after production begins. Detailed chemical analyses may be used to determine its content, select appropriate treatment options, and identify ...

  13. Quasi-Chemical and Structural Analysis of Polarizable Anion Hydration

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, David M.; Beck, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Quasi-chemical theory is utilized to analyze the roles of solute polarization and size in determining the structure and thermodynamics of bulk anion hydration for the Hofmeister series Cl$^-$, Br$^-$, and I$^-$. Excellent agreement with experiment is obtained for whole salt hydration free energies using the polarizable AMOEBA force field. The quasi-chemical approach exactly partitions the solvation free energy into inner-shell, outer-shell packing, and outer-shell long-ranged contributions by...

  14. 40 CFR 761.292 - Chemical extraction and analysis of individual samples and composite samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....61(a)(6) § 761.292 Chemical extraction and analysis of individual samples and composite samples. Use... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical extraction and analysis of individual samples and composite samples. 761.292 Section 761.292 Protection of Environment...

  15. CERENA: ChEmical REaction Network Analyzer—A Toolbox for the Simulation and Analysis of Stochastic Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeroonian, Atefeh; Fröhlich, Fabian; Raue, Andreas; Theis, Fabian J.; Hasenauer, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression, signal transduction and many other cellular processes are subject to stochastic fluctuations. The analysis of these stochastic chemical kinetics is important for understanding cell-to-cell variability and its functional implications, but it is also challenging. A multitude of exact and approximate descriptions of stochastic chemical kinetics have been developed, however, tools to automatically generate the descriptions and compare their accuracy and computational efficiency are missing. In this manuscript we introduced CERENA, a toolbox for the analysis of stochastic chemical kinetics using Approximations of the Chemical Master Equation solution statistics. CERENA implements stochastic simulation algorithms and the finite state projection for microscopic descriptions of processes, the system size expansion and moment equations for meso- and macroscopic descriptions, as well as the novel conditional moment equations for a hybrid description. This unique collection of descriptions in a single toolbox facilitates the selection of appropriate modeling approaches. Unlike other software packages, the implementation of CERENA is completely general and allows, e.g., for time-dependent propensities and non-mass action kinetics. By providing SBML import, symbolic model generation and simulation using MEX-files, CERENA is user-friendly and computationally efficient. The availability of forward and adjoint sensitivity analyses allows for further studies such as parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis. The MATLAB code implementing CERENA is freely available from http://cerenadevelopers.github.io/CERENA/. PMID:26807911

  16. Effect of peptides derived from food proteins on blood pressure – a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Pripp, Are Hugo

    2008-01-01

    Background: Peptides derived from food proteins have in clinical trials shown an effect on blood pressure. Their biological mechanism is mainly due to inhibition of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) and thereby regulation of blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin system. A meta-analysis of these trials is needed to better quantify their effect, sources of variation and possible publication bias. Objective: To perform a meta-analysis of placebo-controlled clinical trials on peptides ...

  17. Alcohol-positive multiple trauma patients with and without blood transfusion: an outcome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuttmann Ralph

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood transfusion is a common therapy for multiple trauma patients, and is often performed soon after hospital admission. It is unclear whether the need for a blood transfusion in multiply injured patients presenting with a positive blood alcohol concentration (BAC is associated with increased morbidity/mortality, since their risk behavior differs significantly from patients with a negative BAC. In this study, we evaluated the role of blood transfusion in the treatment of BAC-positive multiple trauma patients. Patients In a three-year period, 164 patients at a single trauma center presented with a positive BAC, and 145 met the inclusion criteria for further evaluation and regression analysis. We compared patients who were transfused (n = 76 with those who were not transfused (n = 69. Results In both groups, the most common causes of trauma were traffic accidents and falls. Most patients were admitted to the hospital from the scene of the accident (77.2% and were male (89.0%. Transfused patients had a lower GCS (p ≤ .001 and her ISS (p ≤ .001, were more likely to have severe head injuries (p ≤ .001, tended to have higher BACs (p = .053, had lower hemoglobin levels and prothrombin times in the first 24 hours (p ≤ .001, had lower lactate levels, had higher rates of intubation (p ≤ .001 and ICU admission, and had longer ICU stays and artificial ventilation times (p ≤ .001. Mortality was significantly higher in transfused patients (n = 15 vs. n = 3, p ≤ .001. Non-survivors were more likely to have severe head injuries; be intubated and ventilated; be older; have higher ISS scores, lactate levels, and numbers of transfusions in the first 24 hours; and have lower GCS scores, hemoglobin measurements, and prothrombin levels. In a binary logistic regression model, only age (p = .009 and ISS (p = .004 independently predicted mortality. Conclusion In our single-center study, the BAC of multiple trauma patients and the

  18. Sensitivity analysis aimed at blood vessels detection using interstitial optical tomography during brain needle biopsy procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichette, Julien; Goyette, Andréanne; Picot, Fabien; Tremblay, Marie-Andrée; Soulez, Gilles; Wilson, Brian C; Leblond, Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    A brain needle biopsy procedure is performed for suspected brain lesions in order to sample tissue that is subsequently analysed using standard histopathology techniques. A common complication resulting from this procedure is brain hemorrhaging from blood vessels clipped off during tissue extraction. Interstitial optical tomography (iOT) has recently been introduced by our group as a mean to assess the presence of blood vessels in the vicinity of the needle. The clinical need to improve safety requires the detection of blood vessels within 2 mm from the outer surface of the needle, since this distance is representative of the volume of tissue that is aspirated durirng tissue extraction. Here, a sensitivity analysis is presented to establish the intrinsic detection limits of iOT based on simulations and experiments using brain tissue phantoms. It is demonstrated that absorbers can be detected with diameters >300 μm located up to >2 mm from the biopsy needle core for bulk optical properties consistent with brain tissue. PMID:26600990

  19. Multimodal Pressure-Flow Analysis: Application of Hilbert Huang Transform in Cerebral Blood Flow Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Novak

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of nonlinear interactions between two nonstationary signals presents a computational challenge in different research fields, especially for assessments of physiological systems. Traditional approaches that are based on theories of stationary signals cannot resolve nonstationarity-related issues and, thus, cannot reliably assess nonlinear interactions in physiological systems. In this review we discuss a new technique called multimodal pressure flow (MMPF method that utilizes Hilbert-Huang transformation to quantify interaction between nonstationary cerebral blood flow velocity (BFV and blood pressure (BP for the assessment of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA. CA is an important mechanism responsible for controlling cerebral blood flow in responses to fluctuations in systemic BP within a few heart-beats. The MMPF analysis decomposes BP and BFV signals into multiple empirical modes adaptively so that the fluctuations caused by a specific physiologic process can be represented in a corresponding empirical mode. Using this technique, we showed that dynamic CA can be characterized by specific phase delays between the decomposed BP and BFV oscillations, and that the phase shifts are significantly reduced in hypertensive, diabetics and stroke subjects with impaired CA. Additionally, the new technique can reliably assess CA using both induced BP/BFV oscillations during clinical tests and spontaneous BP/BFV fluctuations during resting conditions.

  20. A Rapid and Low-Cost Nonlithographic Method to Fabricate Biomedical Microdevices for Blood Flow Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmano Pinto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic devices are electrical/mechanical systems that offer the ability to work with minimal sample volumes, short reactions times, and have the possibility to perform massive parallel operations. An important application of microfluidics is blood rheology in microdevices, which has played a key role in recent developments of lab-on-chip devices for blood sampling and analysis. The most popular and traditional method to fabricate these types of devices is the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS soft lithography technique, which requires molds, usually produced by photolithography. Although the research results are extremely encouraging, the high costs and time involved in the production of molds by photolithography is currently slowing down the development cycle of these types of devices. Here we present a simple, rapid, and low-cost nonlithographic technique to create microfluidic systems for biomedical applications. The results demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to perform cell free layer (CFL measurements and the formation of microbubbles in continuous blood flow.

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Trace Chromium in Blood Samples. Combination of the Advanced Oxidation Process with Catalytic Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, Li; Armstrong, Kristie C.; Dansby-Sparks, Royce N.; Carrington, Nathan A.; Chambers, James Q.; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2006-01-01

    A new method for pretreating blood samples for trace Cr analysis is described. The Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP with H2O2 and 5.5-W irradiation for 60 min) is used to remove biological/organic species for subsequent analysis. Prior to the AOP pretreatment, acid (HNO3) is used at pH 3.0 to inhibit the enzyme catalase in the blood samples. Catalytic Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry (CAdSV) at a bismuth film electrode (BiFE) gives Cr concentration of 6.0 ± 0.3 ppb in the blood samples. This c...

  2. Blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters as biomarker endpoints for organohalogen contaminant exposure in Norwegian raptor nestlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Bustnes, Jan O.; Herzke, Dorte;

    2012-01-01

    Raptors are exposed to biomagnifying and toxic organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) such as organochlorines, brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated compounds. To investigate how OHC exposure may affect biochemical pathways we collected blood plasma from Norwegian northern goshawk (n=56......), golden eagle (n=12) and white-tailed eagle (n=36) nestlings during three consecutive breeding seasons. We found that blood plasma concentrations of calcium, sodium, creatinine, cholesterol, albumin, total protein, urea, inorganic phosphate, protein:creatinine, urea:creatinine and uric acid...... were also negatively correlated to PCBs and PFCs, respectively. The most significant relationships were found for the highly contaminated northern goshawks and white-tailed eagles. The statistical relationships between OHCs and BCCPs indicate that biochemical pathways could be influenced while it is...

  3. Trace element analysis of human blood serum by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt was made to determine if there is any correlation between trace element concentrations in human blood serum and some specific diseases. The serum samples of the patients suffering from cancer, Down syndrome, and Banti syndrome were analyzed by the neutron activation method and compared with the trace element concentrations observed among clinically healthy men. The cancer patients had concentrations in Rb, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Al and Se below normal. The Down syndrome patients were found to have similar deficiencies in Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Cu and Sb. (author)

  4. Arterial blood pressure measurement and pulse wave analysis--their role in enhancing cardiovascular assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, Alberto P; Butlin, Mark; Walsh, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The most common method of clinical measurement of arterial blood pressure is by means of the cuff sphygmomanometer. This instrument has provided fundamental quantitative information on arterial pressure in individual subjects and in populations and facilitated estimation of cardiovascular risk related to levels of blood pressure obtained from the brachial cuff. Although the measurement is taken in a peripheral limb, the values are generally assumed to reflect the pressure throughout the arterial tree in large conduit arteries. Since the arterial pressure pulse becomes modified as it travels away from the heart towards the periphery, this is generally true for mean and diastolic pressure, but not for systolic pressure, and so pulse pressure. The relationship between central and peripheral pulse pressure depends on propagation characteristics of arteries. Hence, while the sphygmomanometer gives values of two single points on the pressure wave (systolic and diastolic pressure), there is additional information that can be obtained from the time-varying pulse waveform that enables an improved quantification of the systolic load on the heart and other central organs. This topical review will assess techniques of pressure measurement that relate to the use of the cuff sphygmomanometer and to the non-invasive registration and analysis of the peripheral and central arterial pressure waveform. Improved assessment of cardiovascular function in relation to treatment and management of high blood pressure will result from future developments in the indirect measurement of arterial blood pressure that involve the conventional cuff sphygmomanometer with the addition of information derived from the peripheral arterial pulse. PMID:19940350

  5. Numerical Analysis of Blood Damage Potential of the HeartMate II and HeartWare HVAD Rotary Blood Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamsen, Bente; Blümel, Bastian; Schaller, Jens; Paschereit, Christian O; Affeld, Klaus; Goubergrits, Leonid; Kertzscher, Ulrich

    2015-08-01

    Implantable left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) became the therapy of choice in treating end-stage heart failure. Although survival improved substantially and is similar in currently clinically implanted LVADs HeartMate II (HM II) and HeartWare HVAD, complications related to blood trauma are frequently observed. The aim of this study was to compare these two pumps regarding their potential blood trauma employing computational fluid dynamics. High-resolution structured grids were generated for the pumps. Newtonian flow was calculated, solving Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with a sliding mesh approach and a k-ω shear stress transport turbulence model for the operating point of 4.5 L/min and 80 mm Hg. The pumps were compared in terms of volumes subjected to certain viscous shear stress thresholds, below which no trauma was assumed (von Willebrand factor cleavage: 9 Pa, platelet activation: 50 Pa, and hemolysis: 150 Pa), and associated residence times. Additionally, a hemolysis index was calculated based on a Eulerian transport approach. Twenty-two percent of larger volumes above 9 Pa were observed in the HVAD; above 50 Pa and 150 Pa the differences between the two pumps were marginal. Residence times were higher in the HVAD for all thresholds. The hemolysis index was almost equal for the HM II and HVAD. Besides the gap regions in both pumps, the inlet regions of the rotor and diffuser blades have a high hemolysis production in the HM II, whereas in the HVAD, the volute tongue is an additional site for hemolysis production. Thus, in this study, the comparison of the HM II and the HVAD using numerical methods indicated an overall similar tendency to blood trauma in both pumps. However, influences of turbulent shear stresses were not considered and effects of the pivot bearing in the HM II were not taken into account. Further in vitro investigations are required. PMID:26234447

  6. Evaluating Chemical Persistence in a Multimedia Environment: ACART Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, D.H.; McKone, T.E.; Kastenberg, W.E.

    1999-02-01

    For the thousands of chemicals continuously released into the environment, it is desirable to make prospective assessments of those likely to be persistent. Persistent chemicals are difficult to remove if adverse health or ecological effects are later discovered. A tiered approach using a classification scheme and a multimedia model for determining persistence is presented. Using specific criteria for persistence, a classification tree is developed to classify a chemical as ''persistent'' or ''non-persistent'' based on the chemical properties. In this approach, the classification is derived from the results of a standardized unit world multimedia model. Thus, the classifications are more robust for multimedia pollutants than classifications using a single medium half-life. The method can be readily implemented and provides insight without requiring extensive and often unavailable data. This method can be used to classify chemicals when only a few properties are known and be used to direct further data collection. Case studies are presented to demonstrate the advantages of the approach.

  7. Quantitative analysis of carisoprodol and meprobamate in whole blood using benzylcarbamate and deuterated meprobamate as internal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Delisa; Simons, Kelsie; Ota, Kenji; Kerrigan, Sarah

    2009-06-01

    Carisoprodol and meprobamate are frequently encountered drugs in impaired driving casework. Deuterated internal standards, although preferred, were not available until recently. Earlier published studies report the use of a variety of non-deuterated internal standards, many of which lack the chemical and physical similarities that are desired for quantitative analysis. Carisoprodol and meprobamate were determined in whole blood using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with benzylcarbamate and meprobamate-d(7) as internal standards. When benzylcarbamate was used as internal standard, the linear ranges for carisoprodol and meprobamate were 0-20 mg/L and 0-40 mg/L, respectively. The linear range increased to 100 mg/L when meprobamate-d(7) was used. Limits of detection for carisoprodol and meprobamate were 0.2 and 0.4 mg/L, respectively, regardless of the internal standard selection. The limit of quantitation for both drugs using either internal standard was 0.4 mg/L. Accuracies using benzylcarbamate and meprobamate-d(7) were 100-106% and 91-100%, respectively. Corresponding values for precision indicated intra-assay coefficients of variation of 2.6-4.3% for benzylcarbamate and 1.0-2.3% for meprobamate-d(7). No carryover was evident at 100 mg/L, the highest concentration tested, and no interferences were observed. Results indicated that either benzylcarbamate or meprobamate-d(7) is a suitable internal standard for quantitative determination of carisoprodol or meprobamate from whole blood. PMID:19671248

  8. International Research Project on the Effects of Chemical Ageing of Polymers on Performance Properties: Chemical and Thermal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    Work during the past six months has included significant research in several areas aimed at further clarification of the aging and chemical failure mechanism of thermoplastics (PVDF or Tefzel) pipes. Among the areas investigated were the crystallinity changes associated with both the Coflon and Tefzel after various simulated environmental exposures using X-ray diffraction analysis. We have found that significant changes in polymer crystallinity levels occur as a function of the exposures. These crystallinity changes may have important consequences on the fracture, fatigue, tensile, and chemical resistance of the materials. We have also noted small changes in the molecular weight distribution. Again these changes may result in variations in the mechanical and chemical properties in the material. We conducted numerous analytical studies with methods including X-ray Diffraction, Gel Permeation Chromatography, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Ultra- Violet Scanning Analysis, GC/Mass Spectrometry, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermomechanical Analysis. In the ultra-violet analysis we noted the presence of an absorption band indicative of triene formation. We investigated a number of aged samples of both Tefzel and Coflon that were forwarded from MERL. We also cast films at SWT and subjected these films to a refluxing methanol 1% ethylene diamine solution. An updated literature search was conducted using Dialog and DROLLS to identify any new papers that may have been published in the open literature since the start of this project. The updated literature search and abstracts are contained in the Appendix section of this report.

  9. ANALYSIS OF SOLUBLE CHEMICAL TRANSFER BY RUNOFF WATER IN FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Ju-xiu; YANG Jin-zhong

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the main factors influencing soluble chemical transfer and corresponding techniques for reducing fertilizer loss caused by runoff in irrigated fields, a physically based two-layer model was developed with incomplete mixing theory. Different forms of incomplete mixing parameters were introduced in the model, which was successfully verified with previous published experimental data. According to comparison, the chemicals loss of fertilizer is very sensitive to the runoff-related parameter while it is not sensitive to the infiltration-related parameter. The calculated results show that the chemicals in infiltration water play an important role in the early time of rainfall even with saturated soil, and it is mainly in the runoff flow in the late rainfall. Therefore, prevention of shallow subsurface drainage in the early rainfall is an effective way to reduce fertilizer loss, and the coverage on soil surface is another effective way.

  10. Advantage in Bright-blood and Black-blood Magnetic Resonance Imaging with High-resolution for Analysis of Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: About 50% of the cerebral ischemia events are induced by intracranial and extracranial atherosclerosis. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy for displaying atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries and analyzing their ingredients by using high-resolution new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques. Methods: Totally, 49 patients suspected of extracranial carotid artery stenosis were subjected to cranial MRI scan and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA examination on carotid arteries, and high-resolution bright-blood and black-blood MRI analysis was carried out within 1 week. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA examination was carried out for 16 patients within 1 month. Results: Totally, 103 plaques were detected in the 49 patients, which were characterized by localized or diffusive thickening of the vessel wall, with the intrusion of crescent-shaped abnormal signal into lumens. Fibrous cap was displayed as isointensity in T1-weighted image (T1WI and hyperintensities in proton density weighted image (PDWI and T2-weighted image (T2WI, lipid core was displayed as isointensity or slight hyperintensities in T1WI, isointensity, hyperintensities or hypointensity in PDWI, and hypointensity in T2WI. Calcification in plaques was detected in 11 patients. Eight patients were detected with irregular plaque surface or ulcerative plaques, which were characterized by irregular intravascular space surface in the black-blood sequences, black hypointensity band was not detected in three-dimensional time-of-flight, or the hypointensity band was not continuous, and intrusion of hyperintensities into plaques can be detected. Bright-blood and black-blood techniques were highly correlated with the diagnosis of contrast-enhanced MRA in angiostenosis degree, Rs = 0.97, P < 0.001. In comparison to DSA, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MRI diagnosis of stenosis for ≥50% were 88.9%, 100%, and 97.9%, respectively

  11. Analysis of forward and inverse problems in chemical dynamics and spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabitz, H. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The overall scope of this research concerns the development and application of forward and inverse analysis tools for problems in chemical dynamics and chemical kinetics. The chemical dynamics work is specifically associated with relating features in potential surfaces and resultant dynamical behavior. The analogous inverse research aims to provide stable algorithms for extracting potential surfaces from laboratory data. In the case of chemical kinetics, the focus is on the development of systematic means to reduce the complexity of chemical kinetic models. Recent progress in these directions is summarized below.

  12. The association of vanadium with the iron transport system in human blood as determined by gel filtration and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although vanadium has a suspected physiological role in man, the existing data available on its metabolism at molecular level are very limited and inadequate for modern toxicological and nutritional evaluations. To study its metabolic patterns in the human body it is necessary to determine the association with different biochemical components. The paper describes the identification of V-binding components in human blood by means of fractionation of human serum proteins and neutron activation analysis of the protein fractions of different molecular weight. Since information on the chemical form of V in blood is not well known, preliminary radiotracer experiments were performed by injecting 48V into rats and successively fractionating the 48V plasma proteins by gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography and poliacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that V in rat blood was mainly present in the serum as a V-transferrin biocomplex. It seemed reasonable to assume that a similar biocomplex could also be present in the blood of human subjects. To confirm on man the results obtained by 48V experiments on rats, human plasma proteins were isolated and separated by gel filtration on Sephadex resin and the V content in the elution fractions was determined by neutron activation followed by a rapid radiochemical separation of the induced 52V and gamma-ray spectrometry using a Ge(Li) detector. The results show that V in human plasma was effectively associated with transferrin protein, the iron transport system of the blood. A brief discussion of the results and of the determination of metal-binding components in the human body by combining biochemical techniques and neutron activation analysis is also given (author)

  13. Analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances in cord blood by turbulent flow chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast on-line analytical method based on turbulent flow chromatography (TFC) in combination with tandem mass spectrometry has been applied for the first time for the analysis of eighteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), in cord blood. A simple and rapid sample pre-treatment was optimised consisting on protein precipitation of 100 μL of sample with acetonitrile (1:1) followed by centrifugation during 10 min. The method was adapted to be sensitive enough and robust with minimum sample injection volume requirements (20 μL). The optimised methodology presented method limits of detection (MLOD) between 0.031 and 0.76 μg/L, detection capabilities (CCα) in the range between 0.005 and 0.99 μg/L and decision limits (CCβ) ranging from 0.006 to 1.16 μg/L. The recoveries in blank blood were calculated by spiking experiments with a mixture of 18 PFASs and established between 70 and 126% for most of compounds. Isotopic dilution was carried out for quantification of selected analytes. In-house validation of this new approach was carried out according to the requirements in the 2002/657/EC Decision. Finally the good applicability of this new approach was proved by the analysis of 60 cord blood samples from two different Mediterranean cities, Barcelona (Spain) and Heraklion (Greece). Ions perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were found at highest concentration and the more frequently compounds were PFHxS, PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). The newly developed method proved to be suitable for large-scale epidemiologic studies, and to the data on PFASs exposure during pregnancy. -- Highlights: ► An on-line method has been developed for the analysis of 18 perfluoroalkyl substances. ► The method is based on turbulent flow chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. ► The method was applied in 60 cord blood samples from 2 Mediterranean cities. ► Acidic compounds were more frequently found and the method was proved to be suitable for

  14. Analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances in cord blood by turbulent flow chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorca, Marta; Perez, Francisca [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Farre, Marinella, E-mail: mfuqam@cid.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Agramunt, Silvia [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona (Spain); IMIM (Hospital del Mar Research Institute), Barcelona (Spain); Kogevinas, Manolis [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona (Spain); IMIM (Hospital del Mar Research Institute), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); National School of Public Health, Athens (Greece); Barcelo, Damia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Girona (Spain); King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-09-01

    A fast on-line analytical method based on turbulent flow chromatography (TFC) in combination with tandem mass spectrometry has been applied for the first time for the analysis of eighteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), in cord blood. A simple and rapid sample pre-treatment was optimised consisting on protein precipitation of 100 {mu}L of sample with acetonitrile (1:1) followed by centrifugation during 10 min. The method was adapted to be sensitive enough and robust with minimum sample injection volume requirements (20 {mu}L). The optimised methodology presented method limits of detection (MLOD) between 0.031 and 0.76 {mu}g/L, detection capabilities (CC{alpha}) in the range between 0.005 and 0.99 {mu}g/L and decision limits (CC{beta}) ranging from 0.006 to 1.16 {mu}g/L. The recoveries in blank blood were calculated by spiking experiments with a mixture of 18 PFASs and established between 70 and 126% for most of compounds. Isotopic dilution was carried out for quantification of selected analytes. In-house validation of this new approach was carried out according to the requirements in the 2002/657/EC Decision. Finally the good applicability of this new approach was proved by the analysis of 60 cord blood samples from two different Mediterranean cities, Barcelona (Spain) and Heraklion (Greece). Ions perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were found at highest concentration and the more frequently compounds were PFHxS, PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). The newly developed method proved to be suitable for large-scale epidemiologic studies, and to the data on PFASs exposure during pregnancy. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An on-line method has been developed for the analysis of 18 perfluoroalkyl substances. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method is based on turbulent flow chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method was applied in 60 cord blood samples from 2 Mediterranean cities

  15. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis of the peripheral blood from Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeYoung Joseph

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS is a lethal disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Diagnosis is mainly based on clinical symptoms, and there is currently no therapy to stop the disease or slow its progression. Since access to spinal cord tissue is not possible at disease onset, we investigated changes in gene expression profiles in whole blood of ALS patients. Results Our transcriptional study showed dramatic changes in blood of ALS patients; 2,300 probes (9.4% showed significant differential expression in a discovery dataset consisting of 30 ALS patients and 30 healthy controls. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA was used to find disease-related networks (modules and disease related hub genes. Two large co-expression modules were found to be associated with ALS. Our findings were replicated in a second (30 patients and 30 controls and third dataset (63 patients and 63 controls, thereby demonstrating a highly significant and consistent association of two large co-expression modules with ALS disease status. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis of the ALS related module genes implicates enrichment of functional categories related to genetic disorders, neurodegeneration of the nervous system and inflammatory disease. The ALS related modules contain a number of candidate genes possibly involved in pathogenesis of ALS. Conclusion This first large-scale blood gene expression study in ALS observed distinct patterns between cases and controls which may provide opportunities for biomarker development as well as new insights into the molecular mechanisms of the disease.

  16. Powerful chemical technique. [CSIR uses new x-ray diffractometer for structural chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The CSIR's National Chemical Research Laboratory (NCRL) is now using one of the most powerful techniques available to determine the structure of molecules. It has recently acquired a Single Crystal X-ray Diffractometer. This powerful method provides the only means of determining the structure of certain compounds. NCRL scientists often carry out structure determinations to find out the relative or absolute stereochemistry of molecules. This is important when correlating physiological activity and structure, information which is necessary for synthesizing medicines with specific characteristics.

  17. Probabilistic thermo-chemical analysis of a pultruded composite rod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2012-01-01

    In the present study the deterministic thermo-chemical pultrusion simulation of a composite rod taken from the literature [7] is used as a validation case. The predicted centerline temperature and cure degree profiles of the rod match well with those in the literature [7]. Following the validation...

  18. Analysis of chemical coal cleaning processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Six chemical coal cleaning processes were examined. Conceptual designs and costs were prepared for these processes and coal preparation facilities, including physical cleaning and size reduction. Transportation of fine coal in agglomerated and unagglomerated forms was also discussed. Chemical cleaning processes were: Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Ledgemont, Ames Laboratory, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (two versions), and Guth Process (KVB). Three of the chemical cleaning processes are similar in concept: PETC, Ledgemont, and Ames. Each of these is based on the reaction of sulfur with pressurized oxygen, with the controlling factor being the partial pressure of oxygen in the reactor. All of the processes appear technically feasible. Economic feasibility is less certain. The recovery of process chemicals is vital to the JPL and Guth processes. All of the processes consume significant amounts of energy in the form of electric power and coal. Energy recovery and increased efficiency are potential areas for study in future more detailed designs. The Guth process (formally designed KVB) appears to be the simplest of the systems evaluated. All of the processes require future engineering to better determine methods for scaling laboratory designs/results to commercial-scale operations. A major area for future engineering is to resolve problems related to handling, feeding, and flow control of the fine and often hot coal.

  19. Portfolio Assessment on Chemical Reactor Analysis and Process Design Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alha, Katariina

    2004-01-01

    Assessment determines what students regard as important: if a teacher wants to change students' learning, he/she should change the methods of assessment. This article describes the use of portfolio assessment on five courses dealing with chemical reactor and process design during the years 1999-2001. Although the use of portfolio was a new…

  20. Metabolomic Analysis of Clinical Plasma from Cerebral Infarction Patients Presenting with Blood Stasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ho Cha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood stasis (BS is characterized as a disorder of blood circulation. In traditional Korean medicine (TKM, it is viewed as a cause factor of diseases such as multiple sclerosis and stroke. This study investigated differences in the plasma metabolites profiles of subjects displaying BS or non-BS patterns. Thirty-one patients with cerebral infarction diagnosed with BS and an equal number of sex- and age-matched non-BS patients were enrolled. Metabolic profiling was performed using UPLC-MS. The ratio of subjects with a rough pulse and purple coloration of the tongue was higher in patients presenting with BS pattern. Through metabolomics analysis, 82 metabolites that differed significantly between the BS and non-BS pattern were identified, and the two groups were significantly separated using an orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis model (P<0.001. Of these 82 metabolites, acetyl carnitine, leucine, kynurenine, phosphocholine, hexanoyl carnitine, and decanoyl carnitine were present in significantly higher levels in patients with a BS pattern than those with a non-BS pattern. Our results also demonstrated that seven plasma metabolites, including acyl-carnitines and kynurenine, were associated with a BS pattern, suggesting that variant plasma metabolic profiles may serve as a biomarker for diagnosis of BS in patients with cerebral infarction.

  1. Doppler sonography of diabetic feet: Quantitative analysis of blood flow volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Young Lan; Kim, Ho Chul; Choi, Chul Soon; Yoon, Dae Young; Han, Dae Hee; Moon, Jeung Hee; Bae, Sang Hoon [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    To analyze Doppler sonographic findings of diabetic feet by estimating the quantitative blood flow volume and by analyzing waveform on Doppler. Doppler sonography was performed in thirty four patients (10 diabetic patients with foot ulceration, 14 diabetic patients without ulceration and 10 normal patients as the normal control group) to measure the flow volume of the arteries of the lower extremities (posterior and anterior tibial arteries, and distal femoral artery. Analysis of doppler waveforms was also done to evaluate the nature of the changed blood flow volume of diabetic patients, and the waveforms were classified into triphasic, biphasic-1, biphasic-2 and monophasic patterns. Flow volume of arteries in diabetic patients with foot ulceration was increased witha statistical significance when compared to that of diabetes patients without foot ulceration of that of normal control group (P<0.05). Analysis of Doppler waveform revealed that the frequency of biphasic-2 pattern was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in normal control group(p<0.05). Doppler sonography in diabetic feet showed increased flow volume and biphasic Doppler waveform, and these findings suggest neuropathy rather than ischemic changes in diabetic feet.

  2. Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Phyllite Samples Based on Chemical (XRF) and Mineralogical Data by XRD

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    It is presented the results obtained of a multivariate statistical analysis concerning the chemical and phase composition, as a characterization purpose, carried out with 52 rock phyllite samples selected from the provinces of Almería and Granada (SE Spain). Chemical analysis was performed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Crystalline phase analysis was performed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and the mineralogical composition was then deduced. Quantification of weight loss (100° an...

  3. Mass spectrometry analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls: chemical ionization and selected ion chemical ionization using methane as a reagent gas

    OpenAIRE

    RAYMOND E. MARCH; MILA D. LAUSEVIC; TATJANA M. VASILJEVIC

    2000-01-01

    In the present paper a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer, coupled with a gas chromatograph, was used to compare the electron impact ionization (EI) and chemical ionization (Cl) technique, in terms of their selectivity in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) quantitative analysis. The experiments were carried out with a modified Varian SATURN III quadrupole ion-storage mass spectrometer equipped with Varian waveform generator, coupled with a gas chromatograph with DB-5 capillary column. The di...

  4. Factor analysis of multigated cardiac blood pool scintigram for the measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) was measured by factor analysis (FA) of multigated cardiac blood pool scintigram in 38 consecutive patients, and compared with that measured by the variable ROI method (EFVROI) with automated left ventricular contour detection. FA was automatically performed without operator intervention with a success rate of 100%. The correlation of EF with EFVROI was significant in the group of 22 patients with normal wall motion (r=0.65, p<0.001), and the entire group of patients (r=0.70, p<0.001), but not significant (p=0.19) in the group of 16 patients with abnormal wall motion. In conclusion, left ventricular ejection fraction can be estimated by factor analysis of MUGA in patients with normal wall motion. (author)

  5. Concentration measurement of lysosome enzymes in blood by fluorimetric analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strinadko, Marina M.; Strinadko, Elena M.

    2002-02-01

    The diagnostics of heritable disease series and sugar diabetes, myocardial infarction, collagenosis and kidney diseases widely uses the measurement of lysosomic enzymes in blood. In the present research work the definition procedure of concentration (beta) -glucuronidase with the help of fluorimetric analysis is offered, which allows using microamounts of biological fluids and samples with low enzyme activity which is especially important in paediatric practice. Due to the sharp sensibility of fluorimetric analysis and high speed of luminescent reactions the procedure gives an opportunity to obtain the result in the minimum terms as well as the use of small amounts of reaction mixture. The incubation in large dilution leads thereby to the elimination of influence of endogenic inhibitors and activators.

  6. ABO Blood Group System and Gastric Cancer: A Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yingyan Yu; Zhenggang Zhu; Jun Zhang; Min Yan; Bingya Liu; Jianian Zhang; Jun Ji; Zhiwei Wang; Lei Liu

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the association between the ABO blood group system and the risk of gastric cancer or Helicobacter pylori infection. The data for the ABO blood group was collected from 1045 cases of gastric cancer, whereby the patient underwent a gastrectomy in Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai. The information on the ABO blood group from 53,026 healthy blood donors was enrolled as control. We searched the Pubmed database on the relationship between ABO blood groups and gastric cancer risk for m...

  7. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF DENSE-GAS EXTRACTS FROM LIME FLOWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanenko DV

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to make qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenolic biologically active substances (BAS in the extracts produced from lime flowers with condensed gases, using method of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Materials and methods: materials for this study were the extracts obtained by consequent processing of the herbal drug and marcs thereof with various condensed gases: difluorochloromethane (Freon R22, difluoromethane (Freon R32, azeotropic mixture of difluoromethane with pentafluoroethane (Freon 410A and freon-ammonium mixture. Extracts obtained with the latter were subjected to further fractionation by liquidliquid separation into hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous-alcohol phases. Besides, the supercritical СО2 extract, obtained from the herbal drug under rather strong conditions (at temperature 60°С and pressure 400 bar, was studied in our previous research. Presence of phenolic BAS and their quantity in the researched samples were determined by method of HPLC with UVspectrometric detection. Results and discussion: It has been found that Freon R22 extracted trace amounts of rutin from lime flowers – its content was only 0.08% of the total extract weight. On the other hand, Freons R32 and R410А showed good selectivity to moderately polar BAS of lime flowers (derivatives of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids: in particular, the extract obtained with freon R32 contained about 1.3% of the total phenolic substances, and it was the only one of the investigated condensed gases used by us which took the basic flavonoid of lime flowers tiliroside – its content was 0.42% of extract weight. Also Freons R32 and R410А were able to withdraw another compound dominating among phenolic substances in the yielded extracts. Its quantity was rather noticeable – up to 0.87% of extract weight. This substance was not identified by existing database, but its UV-spectrum was similar to those of

  8. Effect of water structure on blood compatibility--thermal analysis of water in poly(meth)acrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaru; Mochizuki, Akira

    2004-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the main factor causing excellent blood compatibility of poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate)(PMEA) by the comparison between PMEA and seven PMEA analogous polymers. The polymers have a typical functional group as ester side chains such as methoxyethyl, hydroxyethyl, phenoxyethyl, and alkyl groups. The properties of the polymers relating to water were investigated in terms of contact angle, equilibrium water content (EWC), and thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry. The water in PMEA could be classified into three types: nonfreezing water, freezing bound water, and free water while the water in the analogous polymers was classified into just two types: free and nonfreezing waters, regardless of the chemical structure of the side chain. The surface property represented by the contact angle of water corresponded to the content of the bound water (nonfreezing water + freezing bound water). The platelet compatibility in vitro did not depend on the contents of these waters, or on the contact angle. On the basis of the results of this work and the previous work on the platelet compatibility of poly(MEA-co-HEMA) (Tanaka et al. Biomacromolecules 2002;3;36-41), the main factor causing the excellent compatibility of PMEA is discussed. PMID:14986323

  9. Analysis on hidden blood loss of total knee arthroplasty in treating knee osteoarthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hui-liang; LI Zheng; FENG Ming-li; CAO Guang-le

    2011-01-01

    Background Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is an important therapy for the treatment of various late-stage knee diseases. However, it has been observed that patients have lower hemoglobin (HB) counts postoperatively, which are significantly inconsistent with the measured blood loss. Although the concept of hidden blood loss has been presented in 2000, very little clinical attention has been paid since then. In this study, we investigated the characteristics and influential factor of hidden blood loss after TKA in treating knee osteoarthritis.Methods One hundred and eight patients, with 42 males and 66 females, were retrospectively analyzed. The perioperative blood loss and the hidden blood loss following TKA were calculated by Gross formula. Potential factors affecting perioperative and hidden blood loss included gender, surgical time, tourniquet time, hemostasis (during operation with deflating tourniquet), and reinfusion of salvaged blood.Results The average perioperative blood loss was found to be (1553±356) ml and the average hidden blood loss was (793±223) ml. The hidden blood loss of the male was significantly higher than that of the female, and was reduced by hemostasis during the operation with a deflating tourniquet. Hidden blood loss was not affected by postoperative blood salvage and reinfusion, surgical time, or tourniquet time.Conclusions When calculating the value of hidden blood loss by Gross formula, the lowest value of hematocrit should be chosen as the parameter so that hidden blood loss would not be underestimated. No significant differences could be found in hidden blood loss for males compared to females. Hidden blood loss can be reduced by hemostasis during operation with a deflating tourniquet. Although reinfusion of salvaged blood could not reduce the perioperative blood loss or hidden blood loss, it was still an effective method to reduce transfusion rate.

  10. Modeling and analysis of uranium isotope enrichment by chemical exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical study of uranium isotopes separation by chemical exchange, starting with an accurate mathematical model, is presented. The experimental data used in this study were obtained by reverse break-through operation and the numerical algorithm, developed for simulation in a previous study, was adapted to be suitable for this kind of processes. The model parameters were identified from experimental data and simulations were carried out for different experimental conditions. (author)

  11. Chemical non-equilibrium flow analysis of H2 fueled scramjet nozzle

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Huang; Peiyong Wang; Yang Dou; Fei Xing

    2015-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the chemical non-equilibrium phenomena in a scramjet nozzle has been performed using CHEMKIN software. Different operating conditions of the Hyshot scramjet nozzle were simulated and analyzed. Three chemical status, frozen flow, equilibrium flow, and non-equilibrium flow, were tested and compared to demonstrate the chemical reaction effect on nozzle flow field. The real non-equilibrium flow simulation result is between those of the two limiting cases: frozen flow and e...

  12. The Matthew Effect in Environmental Science Publication: A Bibliometric Analysis of Chemical Substances in Journal Articles

    OpenAIRE

    Grandjean Philippe; Eriksen Mette L; Ellegaard Ole; Wallin Johan A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background While environmental research addresses scientific questions of possible societal relevance, it is unclear to what degree research focuses on environmental chemicals in need of documentation for risk assessment purposes. Methods In a bibliometric analysis, we used SciFinder to extract Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) numbers for chemicals addressed by publications in the 78 major environmental science journals during 2000-2009. The Web of Science was used to conduct title se...

  13. Chemical Analysis of Emu Feather Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Chandra sekhar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A composite is usually made up of at least two materials out of which one is binding material called as matrix and other is a reinforcement material known as fiber. For the past ten years research is going on to explore possible composites with natural fiber like plant fibers and animal fibers. The important characteristics of composites are their strength, hardness light in weight. It is also necessary to study about the resistance of the composites for deferent chemicals. In the present work, composites prepared with epoxy (Araldite LY-556 as resin and „emu‟ bird feathers as fiber have been tested for chemical resistance. The composites were prepared by varying fiber loading (P of „emu‟ feathers ranging from 1 to 5 and length (L of feather fibers from 1 to 5 cm. The composites thus prepared were subjected to various chemicals (Acids, Alkalis, solvents etc.. Observations were plotted and studied. The results reveal that there will be weight gain for the composite samples after three days, when treated with Hydrochloric acid, Sodium carbonate, Acetic acid, Sodium hydroxide, Nitric acid and Ammonium hydroxide. Weight loss was observed for all the samples including pure epoxy when treated with Benzene, Carbon tetra chloride and Toluene.

  14. Tattoo inks: legislation, pigments, metals and chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Legal limits for chemical substances require that they are linked to clearly defined analytical methods. Present limits for certain chemicals in tattoo and permanent make-up inks do not mention analytical methods for the detection of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or forbidden colourants. There is, therefore, no established method for the determination of the quantities of these chemicals in tattoo and permanent make-up inks. Failing to provide an appropriate method may lead to unqualified and questionable results which often cause legal disputes that are ultimately resolved by a judge with regard to the method that should have been applied. Analytical methods are tuned to exactly what is to be found and what causes the health problems. They are extremely specific. Irrespective of which is the correct method for detecting metals in tattoo inks, the focus should be on the actual amounts of ink in the skin. CTL® has conducted experiments to determine these amounts and these experiments are crucial for toxicological evaluations and for setting legal limits. When setting legal limits, it is essential to also incorporate factors such as daily consumption, total uptake and frequency of use. A tattoo lasts for several decades; therefore, the limits that have been established for heavy metals used in drinking water or soap are not relevant. Drinking water is consumed on a daily basis and soap is used several times per week, while tattooing only occurs once. PMID:25833637

  15. Performance analysis of Isopropanol–Acetone–Hydrogen chemical heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The increase of temperature of endothermic reaction reduces performance of heat pump. ► The better the performance is, the larger the number of trays. ► COP focuses on the quantity of recovered heat. ► Exergy efficiency focuses on the quantity and quality of recovered heat. - Abstract: The performance of an Isopropanol–Acetone–Hydrogen (IAH) chemical heat pump system is investigated in terms of enthalpy efficiency (COP) and exergy efficiency, in which the exothermic and endothermic reactions take place in the gas phase. The increase of reflux ratio, temperature of endothermic reaction and temperature of exothermic reaction reduces the performance of the heat pump when the other operating parameters remain unchanged. However, the performance of the IAH chemical heat pump improves with the increase of the ratio of molar quantity of hydrogen to that of acetone in the entry of exothermic reactor and the number of heat transfer units of regenerator. Generally, a better performance of the chemical heat pump corresponds to a larger number of trays in the distillation column. The performance of the system can be improved significantly after multi-parameter optimization design. The coefficient of performance (COP) pays more attention to the heat released from the exothermic reactor, while the exergy efficiency takes into consideration of both heat released from the exothermic reactor and temperature of exothermic reaction.

  16. Miniaturised wireless smart tag for optical chemical analysis applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Matthew D; Kassal, Petar; Tkalčec, Biserka; Murković Steinberg, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    A novel miniaturised photometer has been developed as an ultra-portable and mobile analytical chemical instrument. The low-cost photometer presents a paradigm shift in mobile chemical sensor instrumentation because it is built around a contactless smart card format. The photometer tag is based on the radio-frequency identification (RFID) smart card system, which provides short-range wireless data and power transfer between the photometer and a proximal reader, and which allows the reader to also energise the photometer by near field electromagnetic induction. RFID is set to become a key enabling technology of the Internet-of-Things (IoT), hence devices such as the photometer described here will enable numerous mobile, wearable and vanguard chemical sensing applications in the emerging connected world. In the work presented here, we demonstrate the characterisation of a low-power RFID wireless sensor tag with an LED/photodiode-based photometric input. The performance of the wireless photometer has been tested through two different model analytical applications. The first is photometry in solution, where colour intensity as a function of dye concentration was measured. The second is an ion-selective optode system in which potassium ion concentrations were determined by using previously well characterised bulk optode membranes. The analytical performance of the wireless photometer smart tag is clearly demonstrated by these optical absorption-based analytical experiments, with excellent data agreement to a reference laboratory instrument. PMID:24274311

  17. Development of international standards for surface analysis by ISO technical committee 201 on surface chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) established Technical Committee 201 on Surface Chemical Analysis in 1991 to develop documentary standards for surface analysis. ISO/TC 201 met first in 1992 and has met annually since. This committee now has eight subcommittees (Terminology, General Procedures, Data Management and Treatment, Depth Profiling, AES, SIMS, XPS, and Glow Discharge Spectroscopy (GDS)) and one working group (Total X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy). Each subcommittee has one or more working groups to develop standards on particular topics. Australia has observer-member status on ISO/TC 201 and on all ISO/TC 201 subcommittees except GDS where it has participator-member status. I will outline the organization of ISO/TC 201 and summarize the standards that have been or are being developed. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  18. Los Alamos National Laboratory Center for direct chemical analysis of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Center for Direct Chemical Analysis at Los Alamos National Laboratory is undertaking a major effort to develop, improve, and implement direct analysis techniques for radionuclide, organic, and inorganic constituents. The Center consists of a multidisciplinary team of researchers who possess expertise in the quantitative and qualitative characterization of solid materials using a variety of analytical technologies. Materials include soils and sludges, building materials, foods, chemicals, and atmospheric gases. Direct chemical analysis techniques measure the analytes directly in the solid material with minimal sample pretreatment, whereas conventional techniques, such as atomic absorption and emission spectrochemistry, require that the solid materials be rendered in aqueous solution using concentrated acids prior to measurement. Direct chemical analysis completely bypasses the digestion process, thereby increasing the sample throughout and saving both time and money. Direct chemical analysis is unique in that it alone can conduct certain specialized but highly useful types of analysis, such as depth-profiling and the chemical structural characterization of surfaces. In addition, some direct analytical techniques eliminate the sampling step and permit rapid analysis of samples at the point of origin. Direct analysis in situ would further reduce costs and potential hazards related to sample collection and transport to the analytical laboratory

  19. Pulsatile microvascular blood flow imaging by short-time Fourier transform analysis of ultrafast laser holographic interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Puyo, L; Rancillac, A; Simonutti, M; Paques, M; Sahel, J A; Fink, M; Atlan, M

    2015-01-01

    We report on wide-field imaging of pulsatile microvascular blood flow in the exposed cerebral cortex of a mouse by holographic interferometry. We recorded interferograms of laser light backscattered by the tissue, beating against an off-axis reference beam with a 50 kHz framerate camera. Videos of local Doppler contrasts were rendered numerically by Fresnel transformation and short-time Fourier transform analysis. This approach enabled instantaneous imaging of pulsatile blood flow contrasts in superficial blood vessels over 256 x 256 pixels with a spatial resolution of 10 microns and a temporal resolution of 20 ms.

  20. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Index A-Z Blood Clots Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood that can be stationary (thrombosis) ... treated? What are blood clots? Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood. Normally, blood flows freely through ...

  1. Patterns of self-monitoring of blood glucose in insulin-treated diabetes: analysis of a Scottish population over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, D; Harris, F M; Evans, J M M

    2016-07-01

    Analysis of a diabetes clinical information system in Tayside, Scotland, shows that a significant proportion of insulin-treated patients with diabetes are not self-monitoring blood glucose according to current clinical guidance and recommendations, with some not self-monitoring their blood glucose at all. Although there has been an increase in the number of reagent strips dispensed over the past decade, this increase is mainly accounted for by increased testing frequency among people with diabetes already testing. PMID:26990502

  2. Size at birth, maternal nutritional status in pregnancy, and blood pressure at age 17: population based analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Laor, A.; Stevenson, D K; Shemer, J; Gale, R; Seidman, D S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of size at birth, maternal nutrition, and body mass index on blood pressure in late adolescence. DESIGN: Population based analysis of birth weight corrected for gestational age, mother's weight before pregnancy and weight gain in pregnancy, obtained from the Jerusalem perinatal study, and blood pressure and body mass index at age 17, available from military draft records. SETTING: Jerusalem, Israel. SUBJECTS: 10,883 subjects (6684 men and 4199 women) born in Je...

  3. [Comparative transcriptome analysis of human aorta atherosclerotic lesions and peripheral blood leukocytes from essential hypertension patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, A V; Goriunova, L E; Khaspekov, G L; Il'inskaia, O P; Sirotkin, V N; Andreeva, E R; Tararak, E M; Bulkina, O S; Buza, V V; Britareva, V V; Karpov, Iu A; Bibilashvili, R Sh

    2009-01-01

    One of the major cardiovascular risk factor which predisposes to and accelerates atherosclerosis is arterial hypertension (AH). To determine the molecular basis of the crosslink between AH and atherosclerosis for the development of new treatment strategies large-scale transcriptome analysis of the cells implicated in atherogenesis is needed. We used cDNA microarray technique for simultaneous analysis of gene expression in human abdominal aorta normal sites and atherosclerotic lesions of different histological types, as well as in peripheral blood leukocytes from patients with essential hypertension (EH) and donors. The microarray data were verified by quantitative RT-PCR (reverse transcription coupled with polymerase chain reaction) and immunohistochemical analysis. Differential expression of 40 genes has been found, among which twenty two genes demonstrated up-regulation and 18 genes demonstrated down-regulation in atherosclerotic aorta compared with normal vessel. New gene-candidates, implicated in atherogenesis, have been identified - FPRL2, CD37, CD53, RGS1, LCP1, SPI1, CTSA, EPAS1, FHL1, GEM, RHOB, SPARCL1, ITGA8, PLN, and COL14A1. These genes participate in cell migration and adhesion, phenotypic changes of smooth muscle cells, immune and inflammatory reactions, oxidative processes and extracellular matrix remodeling. We have found increased expression levels of CD53, SPI1, FPRL2, SPP1, CTSD, ACP5, LCP1, CTSA and LIPA genes in peripheral blood leukocytes from EH patients and in atherosclerotic lesions of human aorta. The majority of these genes significantly (p0.5) correlated with AH stage as well as with histological grading of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:19772500

  4. Genetic Analysis of ABO and Rh Blood Groups in Backward Caste Population of Uttar Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Vandana; Kumar, Pradeep

    2011-01-01

    A series of glycoproteins and glycolipids on red blood cell surface constitute blood group antigens. These are AB, A, B and O in ABO blood group system and Rh in rhesus blood group system. A total of 1065 unrelated Backward Caste (OBC) individuals from Uttar Pradesh were studied for the phenotype and allele frequency distribution of ABO and Rh (D) blood groups. Total 1065 samples analyzed, phenotype B blood type has the highest frequency 36.81% (n=392), followed by O (32.68%; n=348), A (23.66...

  5. Exploring the Potential for Using Inexpensive Natural Reagents Extracted from Plants to Teach Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Supaporn Kradtap

    2012-01-01

    A number of scientific articles report on the use of natural extracts from plants as chemical reagents, where the main objective is to present the scientific applications of those natural plant extracts. The author suggests that natural reagents extracted from plants can be used as alternative low cost tools in teaching chemical analysis,…

  6. Neutron activation analysis for chemical characterization of Brazilian oxo-biodegradable plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical characterization of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags was performed by neutron activation analysis. The presence of several chemical elements (As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Ta and Zn) with large variability of mass fractions amongst samples indicates that these plastics receive additives and may have been contaminated during manufacturing process thereby becoming potential environmental pollutants. (author)

  7. Identification of environmentally relevant chemicals in bibliographic databases: a comparative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Ole; Wallin, Johan Albert

    2013-01-01

    Valid and reliable information on the use and effects of chemicals is a key factor in the industry and not least within many regulatory agencies. Identification data from lists of substances sometimes leads to incomplete bibliographic analysis in the major chemical databases. The present study...

  8. Analysis of solids remaining following chemical cleaning in tank 6F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following chemical cleaning, a solid sample was collected and submitted to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. SRNL analyzed this sample by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the composition of the solids remaining in Tank 6F and to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process.

  9. Forecasting global developments in the basic chemical industry for environmental policy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeren, M.L.M.; Saygin, D.; Patel, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical sector is the largest industrial energy user, but detailed analysis of its energy use developments lags behind other energy-intensive sectors. A cost-driven forecasting model for basic chemicals production is developed, accounting for regional production costs, demand growth and stock t

  10. Diagnostic prediction of renal failure from blood serum analysis by FTIR spectrometry and chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanmohammadi, Mohammdreza; Ghasemi, Keyvan; Garmarudi, Amir Bagheri; Ramin, Mehdi

    2015-02-01

    A new diagnostic approach based on Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometry and classification algorithm has been introduced which provides a rapid, reliable, and easy way to perform blood test for the diagnosis of renal failure. Blood serum samples from 35 renal failure patients and 40 healthy persons were analyzed by ATR-FTIR spectrometry. The resulting data was processed by Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA) and QDA combined with simple filtered method. Spectroscopic studies were performed in 900-2000 cm-1 spectral region with 3.85 cm-1 data space. Results showed 93.33% and 100% of accuracy for QDA and filter-QDA models, respectively. In the first step, 30 samples were applied to construct the model. In order to modify the capability of QDA in prediction of test samples, filter-based feature selection methods were applied. It was found that the filtered spectra coupled with QDA could correctly predict the test samples in most of the cases.

  11. Microfluidic structures for flow cytometric analysis of hydrodynamically focussed blood cells fabricated by ultraprecision micromachining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummrow, A; Theisen, J; Frankowski, M; Tuchscheerer, A; Yildirim, H; Brattke, K; Schmidt, M; Neukammer, J

    2009-04-01

    We present three-dimensional microfluidic structures with integrated optical fibers, mirrors and electrodes for flow cytometric analysis of blood cells. Ultraprecision milling technique was used to fabricate different flow cells featuring single-stage and two-stage cascaded hydrodynamic focusing of particles by a sheath flow. Two dimensional focussing of the sample fluid was proven by fluorescence imaging in horizontal and vertical directions and found to agree satisfactorily with finite element calculations. Focussing of the sample stream down to 5 microm at a particle velocity of 3 m s(-1) is accessible while maintaining stable operation for sample flow rates of up to 20 microL min(-1). In addition to fluorescence imaging, the micro-flow cells were characterised by measurements of pulse shapes and pulse height distributions of monodisperse microspheres. We demonstrated practical use of the microstructures for cell differentiation employing light scatter to distinguish platelets and red blood cells. Furthermore, T-helper lymphocytes labelled by monoclonal antibodies were identified by measuring side scatter and fluorescence. PMID:19294310

  12. Modeling and analysis of ultrasound backscattering by spherical aggregates and rouleaux of red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, B G; Cloutier, G

    2000-01-01

    The present study concerns the modeling and analysis of ultrasound backscattering by red blood cell (RBC) aggregates, which under pathological conditions play a significant role in the rheology of blood within human vessels. A theoretical model based on the convolution between a tissue matrix and a point spread function, representing, respectively, the RBC aggregates and the characteristics of the ultrasound system, was used to examine the influence of the scatterer shape and size on the backscattered power. Both scatterers in the form of clumps of RBC aggregates and rouleaux were modeled. For all simulations, the hematocrit was kept constant at 10%, the ultrasound frequency was 10 MHz, the insonification angle was varied from 0 to 90 degrees , and the scatterer size (diameter for clumps and length for rouleaux) ranged from 4 mum to 120 mum. Under Rayleigh scattering by assuming a Poisson distribution of scatterers in space, the ultrasound backscattered power increased linearly with the particle volume. For non-Rayleigh scatterers, the intensity of the echoes diminished as the scatterer volume increased, with the exception of rouleaux at an angle of 90 degrees . As expected, the backscattered power was angularly dependent for anisotropic particles (rouleaux). The ultrasound backscattered power did not always increase with the size of the aggregates, especially when they were no longer Rayleigh scatterers. In the case of rouleaux, the anisotropy of the backscattered power is emphasized in the non-Rayleigh region. PMID:18238637

  13. Chemical analysis of acoustically levitated drops by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckermann, Rudolf; Puskar, Ljiljana; Zavabeti, Mahta; Sekine, Ryo; McNaughton, Don

    2009-07-01

    An experimental apparatus combining Raman spectroscopy with acoustic levitation, Raman acoustic levitation spectroscopy (RALS), is investigated in the field of physical and chemical analytics. Whereas acoustic levitation enables the contactless handling of microsized samples, Raman spectroscopy offers the advantage of a noninvasive method without complex sample preparation. After carrying out some systematic tests to probe the sensitivity of the technique to drop size, shape, and position, RALS has been successfully applied in monitoring sample dilution and preconcentration, evaporation, crystallization, an acid-base reaction, and analytes in a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy colloidal suspension. PMID:19418043

  14. Electron spectroscopies for simultaneous chemical and electrical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrons are used as spectroscopic probes to determine elemental composition and chemistry, and are also useful as probes of the electrical properties of devices and materials. In this paper, four examples with incident and emitted electrons were used to evaluate the electrical and chemical properties of samples. These examples were the electrical conductivity of an Ag-epoxy composite, the electric field in an avalanche photodiode near breakdown, the mechanism of conductivity of semi-insulating polycrystalline films, and the charge at an oxide/semiconductor interface for high-k applications. This kind of work is very much in the spirit of the work done by Prof. Sefik Suzer.

  15. Statistical analysis of DNT detection using chemically functionalized microcantilever arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosco, Filippo; Bache, M.; Hwu, E.-T.;

    2012-01-01

    The need for miniaturized and sensitive sensors for explosives detection is increasing in areas such as security and demining. Micrometer sized cantilevers are often used for label-free detection, and have previously been reported to be able to detect explosives. However, only a few measurements...... on the chemically treated surfaces results in significant bending of the cantilevers and in a decrease of their resonant frequencies. We present averaged measurements obtained from up to 72 cantilevers being simultaneously exposed to the same sample. Compared to integrated reference cantilevers with...

  16. Environmental Impact Assessment for Socio-Economic Analysis of Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calow, Peter; Biddinger, G; Hennes, C;

    This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH.......This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH....

  17. A study of quantitative chemical state analysis on cerium surface by using auger electron spectroscopy and factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reaction with oxygen during oxygen exposure to Cerium metal surface under ultra high vacuum condition and depth profiling on formed Cerium oxide layer were investigated in term of chemical state analysis by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and by factor analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) on Ce NON Auger spectra suggested that three physically meaningful components existed from the analyzed data in both cases. After the PCA, three spectra were extracted from the data and these showed significant peak shape changes in each spectrum which were corresponding to different chemical states. In addition, the profiles constructed by factor analysis showed the chemical state changes on the Cerium metal surface during oxidation or chemical depth distributions in the oxide layer. (author)

  18. Chemical risk evaluation, importance of the risk analysis framework uses: Latin America development restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power point presentation is about reach and results of the risk analysis in Venezuela, chemical dangers in food, human damage, injuries , technologies news in fodd development, toxicity, microbiological risk, technical recommendations

  19. Literature survey of chemical analysis by thermal neutron induced capture gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief discussion of the principles and techniques of chemical analysis by neutron capture gamma radiation is presented, and the widely scattered literature is collected into a single table arranged by element measured

  20. Chemical analysis and sampling techniques for geothermal fluids and gases at the Fenton Hill Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Grigsby, C.O.; Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.

    1987-06-01

    A general description of methods, techniques, and apparatus used for the sampling, chemical analysis, and data reporting of geothermal gases and fluids is given. Step-by-step descriptions of the procedures are included in the appendixes.

  1. Toxic hazard and chemical analysis of leachates from furfurylated wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgård, Annica; Treu, Andreas; van Zeeland, Albert N T; Gosselink, Richard J A; Westin, Mats

    2010-09-01

    The furfurylation process is an extensively investigated wood modification process. Furfuryl alcohol molecules penetrate into the wood cell wall and polymerize in situ. This results in a permanent swelling of the wood cell walls. It is unclear whether or not chemical bonds exist between the furfuryl alcohol polymer and the wood. In the present study, five different wood species were used, both hardwoods and softwoods. They were treated with three different furfurylation procedures and leached according to three different leaching methods. The present study shows that, in general, the leachates from furfurylated wood have low toxicity. It also shows that the choice of leaching method is decisive for the outcome of the toxicity results. Earlier studies have shown that leachates from wood treated with furfuryl alcohol prepolymers have higher toxicity to Vibrio fischeri than leachates from wood treated with furfuryl alcohol monomers. This is probably attributable to differences in leaching of chemical compounds. The present study shows that this difference in the toxicity most likely cannot be attributed to maleic acid, furan, furfural, furfuryl alcohol, or 2-furoic acid. However, the difference might be caused by the two substances 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 2,5-furandimethanol. The present study found no difference in the amount of leached furfuryl alcohol between leachates from furfurylated softwood and furfurylated hardwood species. Earlier studies have indicated differences in grafting of furfuryl alcohol to lignin. However, nothing was found in the present study that could support this. The leachates of furfurylated wood still need to be PMID:20821648

  2. THE INTERACTIVE DECISION COMMITTEE FOR CHEMICAL TOXICITY ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chaeryon; Zhu, Hao; Wright, Fred A; Zou, Fei; Kosorok, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the Interactive Decision Committee method for classification when high-dimensional feature variables are grouped into feature categories. The proposed method uses the interactive relationships among feature categories to build base classifiers which are combined using decision committees. A two-stage or a single-stage 5-fold cross-validation technique is utilized to decide the total number of base classifiers to be combined. The proposed procedure is useful for classifying biochemicals on the basis of toxicity activity, where the feature space consists of chemical descriptors and the responses are binary indicators of toxicity activity. Each descriptor belongs to at least one descriptor category. The support vector machine, the random forests, and the tree-based AdaBoost algorithms are utilized as classifier inducers. Forward selection is used to select the best combinations of the base classifiers given the number of base classifiers. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms a single large, unaggregated classifier in the presence of interactive feature category information. We applied the proposed method to two toxicity data sets associated with chemical compounds. For these data sets, the proposed method improved classification performance for the majority of outcomes compared to a single large, unaggregated classifier. PMID:24415822

  3. Modeling prosthetic heart valves for numerical analysis of blood flow in the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper extends our previous work on numerical analysis of blood flow in the heart. In that work the boundary forces were evaluated by solving a fixed-point problem, which we now reformulate as a problem in optimization. This optimization problem, which involves the energy function from which the boundary forces are derived, is solved by Murray's modification of Newton's method. The energy function turns out to be an extremely useful tool in modeling prosthetic heart valves. To enforce a constraint on the valve, we use an energy function which is zero when the constraint is satisfied and positive other wise. The energy function must be invariant under translation and rotation so that convervation of momentum and angular momentum will be satisfied. We use this technique to construct computer models of several prosthetic valves, and we study the flow patterns of these valves in our computer test chamber

  4. Microfluidic amperometric sensor for analysis of nitric oxide in whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Rebecca A; Privett, Benjamin J; Henley, W Hampton; Breed, Elise R; Liang, Zhe; Mittal, Rohit; Yoseph, Benyam P; McDunn, Jonathan E; Burd, Eileen M; Coopersmith, Craig M; Ramsey, J Michael; Schoenfisch, Mark H

    2013-06-18

    Standard photolithographic techniques and a nitric oxide (NO) selective xerogel polymer were utilized to fabricate an amperometric NO microfluidic sensor with low background noise and the ability to analyze NO levels in small sample volumes (~250 μL). The sensor exhibited excellent analytical performance in phosphate buffered saline, including a NO sensitivity of 1.4 pA nM(-1), a limit of detection (LOD) of 840 pM, and selectivity over nitrite, ascorbic acid, acetaminophen, uric acid, hydrogen sulfide, ammonium, ammonia, and both protonated and deprotonated peroxynitrite (selectivity coefficients of -5.3, -4.2, -4.0, -5.0, -6.0, -5.8, -3.8, -1.5, and -4.0, respectively). To demonstrate the utility of the microfluidic NO sensor for biomedical analysis, the device was used to monitor changes in blood NO levels during the onset of sepsis in a murine pneumonia model. PMID:23692300

  5. Chemical analysis of steel (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Report for 1964-Apr 80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-05-01

    Information is cited on chemical analysis of boron, nitrogen, hydrogen, sulfur, silicon, carbon, oxygen, aluminum, rare earths, and other trace elements in steel. In addition, research on the determination of major elements, including iron, is covered. New techniques and refinement of older techniques, including x-ray fluorescence, spectroscopy, chromatography, activation analysis, and wet chemical methods are also included. (This updated bibliography contains 240 abstracts, 14 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  6. Applications of a versatile technique for trace analysis: atmospheric pressure negative chemical ionization.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, B A; Davidson, W R; Lovett, A M

    1980-01-01

    The ability to use ambient air as a carrier and reagent gas in an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source allows instantaneous air analysis to be combined with hypersensitivity toward a wide variety of compounds. The TAGA (Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyser) is an instrument which is designed to use both positive and negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) for trace gas analysis; this paper describes several applications of negative APCI which demonstrates that the techni...

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF BANANA PSEUDO-STEM

    OpenAIRE

    Kun Li; Shiyu Fu; Huaiyu Zhan; Yao Zhan; Lucian A. Lucia

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of the chemical composition and anatomical structure of banana pseudo-stem was carried out using Light Microscopy (LM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). The chemical analysis indicated there is a high holocellulose content and low lignin content in banana pseudo-stem compared with some other non-wood fiber resources. These results demonstrate that the banana pseudo-stem has potential value for pulping. In addition, we report for th...

  8. Cost-effective and Rapid Blood Analysis on a Cell-phone

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Hongying; Sencan, Ikbal; Wong, Justin; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Tseng, Derek; Nagashima, Keita; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a compact and cost-effective imaging cytometry platform installed on a cell-phone for the measurement of the density of red and white blood cells as well as hemoglobin concentration in human blood samples. Fluorescent and bright-field images of blood samples are captured using separate optical attachments to the cell-phone and are rapidly processed through a custom-developed smart application running on the phone for counting of blood cells and determining hemoglobin density. W...

  9. Disentangling the developmental and neurobehavioural effects of perinatal exposure to a chemical mixture found in blood of Arctic populations: differential toxicity of mixture components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, W.; Nakai, J.; Yagminas, A.; Chu, I.; Moir, D. [Health Canada (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    The current study was designed to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of perinatal exposure to a chemical mixture that is based on relative concentrations of persistent organic pollutants found in the blood of Canadian Arctic populations and contains 14 PCB congeners, 12 organochlorine pesticides and methyl mercury. This study compared the effects of the complete mixture with the effects of three major components of the mixture (the PCB component, the organochlorine pesticide component, and the methyl mercury component). By examining a range of neurobehavioural functions over development we also determine if specific neurobehavioural disturbances produced by the mixture can be attributed to components of the mixture and if neurobehavioural effects produced by components of the mixture are altered by concurrent exposure to other components in the mixture. Ninety-two nulliparious female Sprague-Dawley rats served as subjects.

  10. Structural analysis of the RH-like blood group gene products in nonhuman primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvignol, I. [Centre Regional de Transfusion Sanguine, Toulouse (France); Calvas, P.; Blancher, A. [Universitaire d`Immunogenetique moleculaire, Toulouse (France); Socha, W.W. [University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Colin, Y.; Le Van Kim, C.; Bailly, P.; Cartron, J.P. [Institut National de la Transfusion Sanguine, Paris (France); Ruffie, J.; Blancher, A. [College de France, Paris (France)

    1995-03-01

    Rh-related transcripts present in bone marrow samples from several species of nonhuman primates (chimpanzee, gorilla, gibbon, crab-eating macaque) have been amplified by RT-polymerase chain reaction using primers deduced from the sequence of human RH genes. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the nonhuman transcripts revealed a high degree of similarity to human blood group Rh sequences, suggesting a great conservation of the RH genes throughout evolution. Full-length transcripts, potentially encoding 417 amino acid long proteins homologous to Rh polypeptides, were characterized, as well as mRNA isoforms which harbored nucleotide deletions or insertions and potentially encode truncated proteins. Proteins of 30-40,000 M{sub r}, immunologically related to human Rh proteins, were detected by western blot analysis with antipeptide antibodies, indicating that Rh-like transcripts are translated into membrane proteins. Comparison of human and nonhuman protein sequences was pivotal in clarifying the molecular basis of the blood group C/c polymorphism, showing that only the Pro103Ser substitution was correlated with C/c polymorphism. In addition, it was shown that a proline residue at position 102 was critical in the expression of C and c epitopes, most likely by providing an appropriate conformation of Rh polypeptides. From these data a phylogenetic reconstruction of the RH locus evolution has been calculated from which an unrooted phylogenetic tree could be proposed, indicating that African ape Rh-like genes would be closer to the human RhD gene than to the human RhCE gene. 55 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Linearity analysis and comparison study on the epoc® point-of-care blood analysis system in cardiopulmonary bypass patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianing; Gorman, Monique; O’Reilly, Bill; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The epoc® blood analysis system (Epocal Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) is a newly developed in vitro diagnostic hand-held analyzer for testing whole blood samples at point-of-care, which provides blood gas, electrolytes, ionized calcium, glucose, lactate, and hematocrit/calculated hemoglobin rapidly. The analytical performance of the epoc® system was evaluated in a tertiary hospital, see related research article “Analytical evaluation of the epoc® point-of-care blood analysis system in cardiopulmonary bypass patients” [1]. Data presented are the linearity analysis for 9 parameters and the comparison study in 40 cardiopulmonary bypass patients on 3 epoc® meters, Instrumentation Laboratory GEM4000, Abbott iSTAT, Nova CCX, and Roche Accu-Chek Inform II and Performa glucose meters. PMID:26937460

  12. Linearity analysis and comparison study on the epoc(®) point-of-care blood analysis system in cardiopulmonary bypass patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianing; Gorman, Monique; O'Reilly, Bill; Chen, Yu

    2016-03-01

    The epoc(®) blood analysis system (Epocal Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) is a newly developed in vitro diagnostic hand-held analyzer for testing whole blood samples at point-of-care, which provides blood gas, electrolytes, ionized calcium, glucose, lactate, and hematocrit/calculated hemoglobin rapidly. The analytical performance of the epoc(®) system was evaluated in a tertiary hospital, see related research article "Analytical evaluation of the epoc(®) point-of-care blood analysis system in cardiopulmonary bypass patients" [1]. Data presented are the linearity analysis for 9 parameters and the comparison study in 40 cardiopulmonary bypass patients on 3 epoc(®) meters, Instrumentation Laboratory GEM4000, Abbott iSTAT, Nova CCX, and Roche Accu-Chek Inform II and Performa glucose meters. PMID:26937460

  13. Linearity analysis and comparison study on the epoc® point-of-care blood analysis system in cardiopulmonary bypass patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The epoc® blood analysis system (Epocal Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada is a newly developed in vitro diagnostic hand-held analyzer for testing whole blood samples at point-of-care, which provides blood gas, electrolytes, ionized calcium, glucose, lactate, and hematocrit/calculated hemoglobin rapidly. The analytical performance of the epoc® system was evaluated in a tertiary hospital, see related research article “Analytical evaluation of the epoc® point-of-care blood analysis system in cardiopulmonary bypass patients” [1]. Data presented are the linearity analysis for 9 parameters and the comparison study in 40 cardiopulmonary bypass patients on 3 epoc® meters, Instrumentation Laboratory GEM4000, Abbott iSTAT, Nova CCX, and Roche Accu-Chek Inform II and Performa glucose meters.

  14. Single-cell evaluation of red blood cell bio-mechanical and nano-structural alterations upon chemically induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Ameya; Chu, Trang T T; Dao, Ming; Chandramohanadas, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Erythroid cells, specifically red blood cells (RBCs), are constantly exposed to highly reactive radicals during cellular gaseous exchange. Such exposure often exceeds the cells' innate anti-oxidant defense systems, leading to progressive damage and eventual senescence. One of the contributing factors to this process are alterations to hemoglobin conformation and globin binding to red cell cytoskeleton. However, in addition to the aforementioned changes, it is possible that oxidative damage induces critical changes to the erythrocyte cytoskeleton and corresponding bio-mechanical and nano-structural properties of the red cell membrane. To quantitatively characterize how oxidative damage accounts for such changes, we employed single-cell manipulation techniques such as micropipette aspiration and atomic force microscopy (AFM) on RBCs. These investigations demonstrated visible morphological changes upon chemically induced oxidative damage (using hydrogen peroxide, diamide, primaquine bisphosphate and cumene hydroperoxide). Our results provide previously unavailable observations on remarkable changes in red cell cytoskeletal architecture and membrane stiffness due to oxidative damage. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that a pathogen that infects human blood cells, Plasmodium falciparum was unable to penetrate through the oxidant-exposed RBCs that have damaged cytoskeleton and stiffer membranes. This indicates the importance of bio-physical factors pertinent to aged RBCs and it's relevance to malaria infectivity. PMID:25950144

  15. Fingertip Blood Capillary Whole Blood Glucose and Venous Plasma Glucose test Results Contrast Analysis%指尖毛细血管全血糖与静脉血浆血糖检测结果对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢美荣

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the blood glucose and blood glucose in the blood glucose and blood glucose of the finger tip blood glucose and to explore the accuracy of blood glucose detection in the blood glucose of finger tip capillary. Meth-ods From January 2014 to October 2015, 200 cases of blood glucose detection in the center of the disease control depart-ment of our CDC were studied. According to their blood glucose levels, the patients were divided into low blood sugar group, normal group, abnormal glucose tolerance group and diabetic group. Blood glucose was detected by using the automatic bio-chemical analyzer to measure blood glucose of blood and blood glucose in the blood and blood of the finger tip, which were collected from 200 cases of the patients. Results There were no significant differences in blood glucose levels between the blood glucose test results of the blood glucose test of the blood glucose and the blood glucose in the blood glucose of the patients with low blood glucose, glucose tolerance and glucose tolerance test in the patients with low blood glucose and glu-cose tolerance. Conclusion The method of blood glucose detection in blood glucose of finger tip has a high accuracy, and it is close to that of venous blood glucose detection. It can effectively reflect the blood glucose level of the subjects, and can be used as an effective method for the monitoring and management of the community and family.%目的:对比分析指尖毛细血管全血血糖与静脉血浆血糖的检测结果,以探讨指尖毛细血管全血糖检测血糖的准确性。方法于2014年1月-2015年10月,选取在该疾控中心体检科进行血糖检测的200例受检者进行研究,按照其血糖情况进行分组,分为低血糖组、血糖正常组、糖耐量异常组、糖尿病组。分别于空腹状态时和餐后2 h,采集这200例受检者的指尖毛细血管全血和外周静脉血液,使用全自动生化分析仪进行血糖测定,对比指尖毛细血

  16. FINITE ELEMENT METHOD AND ANALYSIS FOR CHEMICAL-FLOODING SIMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Yirang

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the enhanced oil recovery numerical simulation of the chemical-flooding (such as surfactants, alcohol, polymers) composed of three-dimensional multicomponent, multiphase and incompressible mixed fluids. The mathematical model can be described as a coupled system of nonlinear partial differential equations with initialboundary value problems. From the actual conditions such as the effect of cross interference and the three-dimensional characteristic of large-scale science-engineering computation, this article puts forward a kind of characteristic finite element fractional step schemes and obtain the optimal order error estimates in L2 norm. Thus we have thoroughly solved the well-known theoretical problem proposed by a famous scientist, R. E. Ewing.

  17. Nanoscale chemical analysis and imaging of solid oxide cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Bowen, Jacob R.; Kuhn, Luise Theil;

    2008-01-01

    The performance of solid oxide cells (SOCs) is highly dependent on triple phase boundaries (TPBs). Therefore, detailed TPB characterization is crucial for their further development. We demonstrate that it is possible to prepare a similar to 50 nm thick transmission electron microscopy (TEM) lamella...... of the interface between the dense ceramic electrolyte and the porous metallic/ceramic hydrogen electrode of an SOC using focused ion beam milling. We show combined TEM/scanning TEM/energy-dispersive spectroscopy investigations of the nanostructure at the TPBs in a high-performance SOC. The chemical...... composition of nanoscale impurity phases at the TPBs has been obtained with a few nanometers lateral resolution. (c) 2008 The Electrochemical Society....

  18. Chemical weapons detection by fast neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron diagnostic experimental apparatus has been tested for nondestructive verification of sealed munitions. Designed to potentially satisfy a significant number of van-mobile requirements, this equipment is based on an easy to use industrial sealed tube neutron generator that interrogates the munitions of interest with 14 MeV neutrons. Gamma ray spectra are detected with a high purity germanium detector, especially shielded from neutrons and gamma ray background. A mobile shell holder has been used. Possible configurations allow the detection, in continuous or in pulsed modes, of gamma rays from neutron inelastic scattering, from thermal neutron capture, and from fast or thermal neutron activation. Tests on full scale sealed munitions with chemical simulants show that those with chlorine (old generation materials) are detectable in a few minutes, and those including phosphorus (new generation materials) in nearly the same time. (orig.)

  19. Portable point-of-care blood analysis system for global health (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, James J.; Aitchison, James Stewart; Chen, Lu; Nayyar, Rakesh

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present a portable blood analysis system based on a disposable cartridge and hand-held reader. The platform can perform all the sample preparation, detection and waste collection required to complete a clinical test. In order to demonstrate the utility of this approach a CD4 T cell enumeration was carried out. A handheld, point-of-care CD4 T cell system was developed based on this system. In particular we will describe a pneumatic, active pumping method to control the on-chip fluidic actuation. Reagents for the CD4 T cell counting assay were dried on a reagent plug to eliminate the need for cold chain storage when used in the field. A micromixer based on the active fluidic actuation was designed to complete sample staining with fluorescent dyes that was dried on the reagent plugs. A novel image detection and analysis algorithm was developed to detect and track the flight of target particles and cells during each analysis. The handheld, point-of-care CD4 testing system was benchmarked against clinical cytometer. The experimental results demonstrated experimental results were closely matched with the flow cytometry. The same platform can be further expanded into a bead-array detection system where other types of biomolecules such as proteins can be detected using the same detection system.

  20. Investigating complex patterns of blocked intestinal artery blood pressure signals by empirical mode decomposition and linguistic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this investigation, surgical operations of blocked intestinal artery have been conducted on pigs to simulate the condition of acute mesenteric arterial occlusion. The empirical mode decomposition method and the algorithm of linguistic analysis were applied to verify the blood pressure signals in simulated situation. We assumed that there was some information hidden in the high-frequency part of the blood pressure signal when an intestinal artery is blocked. The empirical mode decomposition method (EMD) has been applied to decompose the intrinsic mode functions (IMF) from a complex time series. But, the end effects and phenomenon of intermittence damage the consistence of each IMF. Thus, we proposed the complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition method (CEEMD) to solve the problems of end effects and the phenomenon of intermittence. The main wave of blood pressure signals can be reconstructed by the main components, identified by Monte Carlo verification, and removed from the original signal to derive a riding wave. Furthermore, the concept of linguistic analysis was applied to design the blocking index to verify the pattern of riding wave of blood pressure using the measurements of dissimilarity. Blocking index works well to identify the situation in which the sampled time series of blood pressure signal was recorded. Here, these two totally different algorithms are successfully integrated and the existence of the existence of information hidden in high-frequency part of blood pressure signal has been proven

  1. Heavy metals analysis in blood by the X-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analytical procedure for determination of heavy metals in blood is described. Blood was taken from active smelter workers, samples were stored in special flasks at 2 grades C. After freeze drying, dried samples was analyzed using X-ray fluorescence, sources excited: Pu-238 and Cd-109 was used. Br in Pb interferences were corrected. The agreement of the results with values in similar workers is satisfactory Median Pb level was 42.6 micro grams/100 ml (total blood), Cu was less 2.5 micro grams/g (dry blood) and Zn was 11 micro grams/g (dry blood). (author)

  2. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Pulsatile Blood Flow Behavior in Modelled Stenosed Vessels with Different Severities

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Mehrabi; Saeed Setayeshi

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the behavior of blood flow in the stenosed vessels. Blood is modelled as an incompressible non-Newtonian fluid which is based on the power law viscosity model. A numerical technique based on the finite difference method is developed to simulate the blood flow taking into account the transient periodic behaviour of the blood flow in cardiac cycles. Also, pulsatile blood flow in the stenosed vessel is based on the Womersley model, and fluid flow in the lumen region is gove...

  3. Biomarker Analysis of Stored Blood Products: Emphasis on Pre-Analytical Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Lion

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Millions of blood products are transfused every year; many lives are thus directly concerned by transfusion. The three main labile blood products used in transfusion are erythrocyte concentrates, platelet concentrates and fresh frozen plasma. Each of these products has to be stored according to its particular components. However, during storage, modifications or degradation of those components may occur, and are known as storage lesions. Thus, biomarker discovery of in vivo blood aging as well as in vitro labile blood products storage lesions is of high interest for the transfusion medicine community. Pre-analytical issues are of major importance in analyzing the various blood products during storage conditions as well as according to various protocols that are currently used in blood banks for their preparations. This paper will review key elements that have to be taken into account in the context of proteomic-based biomarker discovery applied to blood banking.

  4. Biomarker analysis of stored blood products: emphasis on pre-analytical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delobel, Julien; Rubin, Olivier; Prudent, Michel; Crettaz, David; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Lion, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Millions of blood products are transfused every year; many lives are thus directly concerned by transfusion. The three main labile blood products used in transfusion are erythrocyte concentrates, platelet concentrates and fresh frozen plasma. Each of these products has to be stored according to its particular components. However, during storage, modifications or degradation of those components may occur, and are known as storage lesions. Thus, biomarker discovery of in vivo blood aging as well as in vitro labile blood products storage lesions is of high interest for the transfusion medicine community. Pre-analytical issues are of major importance in analyzing the various blood products during storage conditions as well as according to various protocols that are currently used in blood banks for their preparations. This paper will review key elements that have to be taken into account in the context of proteomic-based biomarker discovery applied to blood banking. PMID:21151459

  5. Blood meal analysis of tabanid fly after it biting the rare Sumatran rhinoceros

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeffrine Japning Rovie-Ryan; Zainal Zahari Zainuddin; Wahap Marni; Abdul Hamid Ahmad; Laurentius N Ambu; Junaidi Payne

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate a noninvasive large mammalian genetic sampling method using blood meal obtained from a tabanid fly. Methods: Blood meal was recovered from the abdomen of an engorged tabanid fly (Haematopota sp.) which was captured immediately after biting a Sumatran rhino in captivity. The blood was applied on to a Whatman FTA®blood card. Subsequent laboratory work was conducted to extract, amplify and sequence the DNA from the sample. Validation was done by sampling the hair follicles and blood samples from the rhinoceros and subjecting it to the same laboratory process. Results: BLAST search and constructed phylogenetic trees confirmed the blood meal samples were indeed from the rhino. Conclusions: This method could be used in the field application to noninvasively collect genetic samples. Collection of tabanids and other haematophagous arthropods (e.g. mosquitoes and ticks) and other blood-sucking parasites (e.g. leeches and worms) could also provide information on vector-borne diseases.

  6. Synthesis and analysis in studies of chemical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnamperuma, C.; Hobish, M. K.; Kobayashi, K.; Hua, L. L.; Senaratne, N.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of the various processes that may have given rise to life on the Earth have demonstrated the appropriateness of an approach that makes use of analysis and synthesis. Analysis of extraterrestrial samples in the form of meteorites has demonstrated the presence of several precursors of biomolecules, most notably a full suite of nucleic acid bases and nucleotides of biological significance. These species were determined after exhaustive extraction of the sample and subsequent analysis using HPLC, GC, MS, and GC-MS. Procedural blanks indicate that these molecules are likely not the result of contamination during the extraction and analysis process. Similar species were found as products of spark discharge experiments in atmospheres thought to mimic primitive Earth conditions. These results indicate that the basic chemistry underlying these syntheses is common, and that life may not be unique to the Earth. Studies underway in the laboratory make use of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a probe to assess associations between selected amino acids and any of several nucleotides comprising their genetic code and genetic anticode sequences. These studies demonstrate a clear selectivity by the anticode sequences, thus confirming the hydrophobicity studies performed by Lacey et al. These studies further support the contention that life is likely a natural result of the physics and chemistry of the universe.

  7. Chemical analysis of endolymph and the growing otolith: fractionation of metals in freshwater fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melancon, Sonia; Fryer, Brian J; Markham, James L

    2009-06-01

    The fractionation of metals from water to otolith is an area of research that has received relatively limited attention, especially in freshwater systems. The objectives of the present research were to study the metal partitioning between otolith and endolymph of two freshwater species: Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and burbot (Lota lota). We also included the chemical analyses of water and blood from fish of the same species collected in the same area but during different years. These results provide insight regarding the partition of metals between water and fish. This is one of the first studies to provide a range of trace metal concentrations for endolymph and the growing otolith (both aragonite and vaterite) and to directly measure otolith-endolymph partition coefficients for freshwater fish. The trace elements (Mg, Sr, and Ba) most often used as otolith elemental tracers were the ones with the lowest uptake from water to blood. We found that endolymph and whole blood had similar metal concentrations, with Mg and Fe being the only elements enriched in whole blood. Results showed few significant differences in trace metal content between wild lake trout and burbot endolymph (except for K, Mg, and Ba), but significant differences existed between their aragonitic otoliths. These results suggest two different crystallization processes in these species or the presence of different proteins (and/or organic matrices) that would selectively influence elemental incorporation in the otoliths. PMID:19154085

  8. Chemical analysis applied to the radiation sterilization of solid ketoprofen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, S.; Maquille, A.; Tilquin, B.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the feasibility of radiation sterilization of ketoprofen from a chemical point of view. Although irradiated ketoprofen has already been studied in the literature [Katusin-Razem et al., Radiat. Phys. Chem. 73 111-116 (2005)], new results, on the basis of electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements and the use of hyphenated techniques (GC-MS and LC-MS), are obtained. The ESR spectra of irradiated ketoprofen consists of four unresolved resonance peaks and the mean G-value of ketoprofen is found to be 4 +/- 0.9 nmoles/J, which is very small. HPLC-UV analyses indicate that no significant loss of ketoprofen is detected after irradiation. LC-MS-MS analyses show that the structures of the non-volatile final products are similar to ketoprofen. Benzaldehyde is detected in the irradiated samples after dynamic-extraction GC-MS. The analyses show that ketoprofen is radioresistant and therefore might be radiosterilized.

  9. Sampling and chemical analysis of urban street runoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to characterize the environmentally relevant physical and chemical properties of urban street runoff, an automatic sampling device was developed. Precipitation samples were collected together with runoff samples. Organic and inorganic compounds were analysed in the runoff. Dissolved and particle bound substances were analysed separately. The concentrations in runoff are generally considerably higher than in precipitation. Concentrations of lead, fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene, in particular are higher in runoffs at sites with high traffic densities than at sites with low traffic densities. Preceding dry period normally has no effect on the measured concentrations. The typical chemograph of a dissolved substance shows a maximum at the beginning of the event dropping quickly to a minimum, which often coincides with the maximum in runoff rate. A slight rise is observed with decreasing runoff rates at the end of the event. Applying a mathematical model, chemographs may be described by three terms: - Relatively large amounts of easily soluble material at the beginning of the event decrease with increasing runoff. Conservative behaviour is assumed. - A part which varies inversely to the runoff rate. This term assumes zero-order kinetics; the amount dissolved from surfaces is constant with time. - A small constant term. Concentrations of particle bound substances correlate with amounts of total suspended solids. Frequently a negative correlation between the specific concentration of substances and the concentration of total suspended solids is observed. (orig.)

  10. Hydrocarbon analysis using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

    KAUST Repository

    Jjunju, Fred P M

    2013-07-01

    Characterization of the various petroleum constituents (hydronaphthalenes, thiophenes, alkyl substituted benzenes, pyridines, fluorenes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) was achieved under ambient conditions without sample preparation by desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI). Conditions were chosen for the DAPCI experiments to control whether ionization was by proton or electron transfer. The protonated molecule [M+H]+ and the hydride abstracted [MH]+ form were observed when using an inert gas, typically nitrogen, to direct a lightly ionized plasma generated by corona discharge onto the sample surface in air. The abundant water cluster ions generated in this experiment react with condensed-phase functionalized hydrocarbon model compounds and their mixtures at or near the sample surface. On the other hand, when naphthalene was doped into the DAPCI gas stream, its radical cation served as a charge exchange reagent, yielding molecular radical cations (M+) of the hydrocarbons. This mode of sample ionization provided mass spectra with better signal/noise ratios and without unwanted side-products. It also extended the applicability of DAPCI to petroleum constituents which could not be analyzed through proton transfer (e.g., higher molecular PAHs such as chrysene). The thermochemistry governing the individual ionization processes is discussed and a desorption/ionization mechanism is inferred. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  11. DNA damage focus analysis in blood samples of minipigs reveals acute partial body irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lamkowski

    Full Text Available Radiation accidents frequently involve acute high dose partial body irradiation leading to victims with radiation sickness and cutaneous radiation syndrome that implements radiation-induced cell death. Cells that are not lethally hit seek to repair ionizing radiation (IR induced damage, albeit at the expense of an increased risk of mutation and tumor formation due to misrepair of IR-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs. The response to DNA damage includes phosphorylation of histone H2AX in the vicinity of DSBs, creating foci in the nucleus whose enumeration can serve as a radiation biodosimeter. Here, we investigated γH2AX and DNA repair foci in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Göttingen minipigs that experienced acute partial body irradiation (PBI with 49 Gy (± 6% Co-60 γ-rays of the upper lumbar region. Blood samples taken 4, 24 and 168 hours post PBI were subjected to γ-H2AX, 53BP1 and MRE11 focus enumeration. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of 49 Gy partial body irradiated minipigs were found to display 1-8 DNA damage foci/cell. These PBL values significantly deceed the high foci numbers observed in keratinocyte nuclei of the directly γ-irradiated minipig skin regions, indicating a limited resident time of PBL in the exposed tissue volume. Nonetheless, PBL samples obtained 4 h post IR in average contained 2.2% of cells displaying a pan-γH2AX signal, suggesting that these received a higher IR dose. Moreover, dispersion analysis indicated partial body irradiation for all 13 minipigs at 4 h post IR. While dose reconstruction using γH2AX DNA repair foci in lymphocytes after in vivo PBI represents a challenge, the DNA damage focus assay may serve as a rapid, first line indicator of radiation exposure. The occurrence of PBLs with pan-γH2AX staining and of cells with relatively high foci numbers that skew a Poisson distribution may be taken as indicator of acute high dose partial body irradiation, particularly when samples are available

  12. Virus and Bacterial Cell Chemical Analysis by NanoSIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P; Holt, J

    2008-07-28

    In past work for the Department of Homeland Security, the LLNL NanoSIMS team has succeeded in extracting quantitative elemental composition at sub-micron resolution from bacterial spores using nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). The purpose of this task is to test our NanoSIMS capabilities on viruses and bacterial cells. This initial work has proven successful. We imaged Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) and Bacillus anthracis Sterne cells using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and then analyzed those samples by NanoSIMS. We were able resolve individual viral particles ({approx}18 nm by 300 nm) in the SEM and extract correlated elemental composition in the NanoSIMS. The phosphorous/carbon ratio observed in TMV is comparable to that seen in bacterial spores (0.033), as was the chlorine/carbon ratio (0.11). TMV elemental composition is consistent from spot to spot, and TMV is readily distinguished from debris by NanoSIMS analysis. Bacterial cells were readily identified in the SEM and relocated in the NanoSIMS for elemental analysis. The Ba Sterne cells were observed to have a measurably lower phosphorous/carbon ratio (0.005), as compared to the spores produced in the same run (0.02). The chlorine/carbon ratio was approximately 2.5X larger in the cells (0.2) versus the spores (0.08), while the fluorine/carbon ratio was approximately 10X lower in the cells (0.008) than the spores (0.08). Silicon/carbon ratios for both cells and spores encompassed a comparable range. The initial data in this study suggest that high resolution analysis is useful because it allows the target agent to be analyzed separate from particulates and other debris. High resolution analysis would also be useful for trace sample analysis. The next step in this work is to determine the potential utility of elemental signatures in these kinds of samples. We recommend bulk analyses of media and agent samples to determine the range of media compositions in use, and to determine how

  13. Temporal Progression of Pneumonic Plague in Blood of Nonhuman Primate: A Transcriptomic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Hammamieh

    Full Text Available Early identification of impending illness during widespread exposure to a pathogenic agent offers a potential means to initiate treatment during a timeframe when it would be most likely to be effective and has the potential to identify novel therapeutic strategies. The latter could be critical, especially as antibiotic resistance is becoming widespread. In order to examine pre-symptomatic illness, African green monkeys were challenged intranasally with aerosolized Yersinia pestis strain CO92 and blood samples were collected in short intervals from 45 m till 42 h post-exposure. Presenting one of the first genomic investigations of a NHP model challenged by pneumonic plague, whole genome analysis was annotated in silico and validated by qPCR assay. Transcriptomic profiles of blood showed early perturbation with the number of differentially expressed genes increasing until 24 h. By then, Y. pestis had paralyzed the host defense, as suggested by the functional analyses. Early activation of the apoptotic networks possibly facilitated the pathogen to overwhelm the defense mechanisms, despite the activation of the pro-inflammatory mechanism, toll-like receptors and microtubules at the port-of-entry. The overexpressed transcripts encoding an early pro-inflammatory response particularly manifested in active lymphocytes and ubiquitin networks were a potential deviation from the rodent models, which needs further verification. In summary, the present study recognized a pattern of Y. pestis pathogenesis potentially more applicable to the human system. Independent validation using the complementary omics approach with comprehensive evaluation of the organs, such as lungs which showed early bacterial infection, is essential.

  14. Influence of rimonabant treatment on peripheral blood mononuclear cells; flow cytometry analysis and gene expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Almestrand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 antagonist rimonabant has been used as treatment for obesity. In addition, anti-proliferative effects on mitogen-activated leukocytes have been demonstrated in vitro. We have previously shown that rimonabant (SR141716A induces cell death in ex vivo isolated malignant lymphomas with high expression of CB1 receptors. Since CB1 targeting may be part of a future lymphoma therapy, it was of interest to investigate possible effects on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC in patients treated with rimonabant. We therefore evaluated leukocyte subsets by 6 color flow cytometry in eight patients before and at treatment with rimonabant for 4 weeks. Whole-transcript gene expression profiling in PBMC before and at 4 weeks of rimonabant treatment was done using Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST Arrays. Our data show no significant changes of monocytes, B cells, total T cells or T cell subsets in PBMC during treatment with rimonabant. There was a small but significant increase in CD3–, CD16+ and/or CD56+ cells after rimonabant therapy. Gene expression analysis detected significant changes in expression of genes associated with innate immunity, cell death and metabolism. The present study shows that normal monocytes and leukocyte subsets in blood remain rather constant during rimonabant treatment. This is in contrast to the induction of cell death previously observed in CB1 expressing lymphoma cells in response to treatment with rimonabant in vitro. These differential effects observed on normal and malignant lymphoid cells warrant investigation of CB1 targeting as a potential lymphoma treatment.

  15. Analysis of blood serum of lung cancer patients using particle induced X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace elemental imbalance in human beings is postulated to exert action, directly or indirectly, on the carcinogenic process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of trace elements in blood serum samples of lung cancer patients and analyze their alteration with respect to healthy controls. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), a well established method for elemental analysis, was used to identify and quantify trace elements in the blood serum samples of the studied groups. The PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.5 MeV collimated proton beam from the 3 MV Tandem Pelletron Accelerator at Ion Beam Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, India. The serum of the cancerous group displayed increased concentrations of Ti, Ni, and Cu but lowered concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, and Se. Statistically significant differences were found for serum Cr (p < 0.01), Fe (p < 0.0005), Ni (p < 0.05), Cu (p < 0.00005), and Zn (p < 0.0005) between the two studied groups. The copper to zinc ratio for the lung cancer group was 2.24 ± 0.39, which was almost three times the value for normal subjects (0.77 ± 0.14). The observed alterations are discussed with respect to the possible mechanisms by which these elements might influence the carcinogenic process. Significant reduction in mortality from lung cancer can be achieved by advances in early diagnosis and implementation of multidisciplinary treatment programmes leading to improvement of survivorship and better quality of life. It is expected that similar studies from all corners of the world would ultimately lead to the development of novel therapeutic agents to treat lung cancer. (author)

  16. Advances in Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Julian; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2016-06-12

    Infrared spectroscopy in the 3-20 μm spectral window has evolved from a routine laboratory technique into a state-of-the-art spectroscopy and sensing tool by benefitting from recent progress in increasingly sophisticated spectra acquisition techniques and advanced materials for generating, guiding, and detecting mid-infrared (MIR) radiation. Today, MIR spectroscopy provides molecular information with trace to ultratrace sensitivity, fast data acquisition rates, and high spectral resolution catering to demanding applications in bioanalytics, for example, and to improved routine analysis. In addition to advances in miniaturized device technology without sacrificing analytical performance, selected innovative applications for MIR spectroscopy ranging from process analysis to biotechnology and medical diagnostics are highlighted in this review. PMID:27070183

  17. Advances in Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Julian; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2016-06-01

    Infrared spectroscopy in the 3–20 μm spectral window has evolved from a routine laboratory technique into a state-of-the-art spectroscopy and sensing tool by benefitting from recent progress in increasingly sophisticated spectra acquisition techniques and advanced materials for generating, guiding, and detecting mid-infrared (MIR) radiation. Today, MIR spectroscopy provides molecular information with trace to ultratrace sensitivity, fast data acquisition rates, and high spectral resolution catering to demanding applications in bioanalytics, for example, and to improved routine analysis. In addition to advances in miniaturized device technology without sacrificing analytical performance, selected innovative applications for MIR spectroscopy ranging from process analysis to biotechnology and medical diagnostics are highlighted in this review.

  18. Archaeological and chemical analysis of Tell el Yahudiyeh ware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typological and geographic analyses indicate that Tell el Yahudiyeh ware (found in Cyprus, Egypt, Nubia, and the Levant during the Middle Bronze period, c. 1750-1550 B.C.) were probably manufactured in two areas, the Nile Valley and the Levant. Activation analysis was carried out and correlated with the archaeological analyses. Results confirm the two ''families'' of the ware, one Egyptian and one Levantine. Speculations are offered on the social interaction of the period. 11 figures, 2 tables

  19. Theoretical analysis of metallic nanoparticles on blood flow through stenosed artery with permeable walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present analysis deals with the study of physical characteristics of blood flow in the presence of stenosis and nanoparticles through a curved channel with permeable walls. Taking mild stenosis case, the governing equations for anticipated model are solved using the corresponding boundary conditions and close-form solutions have been obtained for temperature, velocity and slip velocity by using Cauchy Euler's method. The expressions for the resistance impedance and pressure gradient in the stenotic region have also been obtained and the existence of various pertinent flow parameters, mainly Darcy number, slip parameter and nanoparticles volume fraction, has been discussed through graphs. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles analysis is discussed for diverging converging and non-tapered arteries. • Resistance impedance decreases with an increase in the nanoparticles volume fraction. • Combination of curvature and stenosis shows stenosis dominant the curvature of artery. • Pressure possesses an inverse variation to the resistance with respect to tapering. • Trapping shows that the symmetry destroys due to increase in curvature of curved artery

  20. Segmentation, Reconstruction, and Analysis of Blood Thrombus Formation in 3D 2-Photon Microscopy Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhiliang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the problem of segmenting, reconstructing, and analyzing the structure growth of thrombi (clots in blood vessels in vivo based on 2-photon microscopic image data. First, we develop an algorithm for segmenting clots in 3D microscopic images based on density-based clustering and methods for dealing with imaging artifacts. Next, we apply the union-of-balls (or alpha-shape algorithm to reconstruct the boundary of clots in 3D. Finally, we perform experimental studies and analysis on the reconstructed clots and obtain quantitative data of thrombus growth and structures. We conduct experiments on laser-induced injuries in vessels of two types of mice (the wild type and the type with low levels of coagulation factor VII and analyze and compare the developing clot structures based on their reconstructed clots from image data. The results we obtain are of biomedical significance. Our quantitative analysis of the clot composition leads to better understanding of the thrombus development, and is valuable to the modeling and verification of computational simulation of thrombogenesis.

  1. Theoretical analysis of metallic nanoparticles on blood flow through stenosed artery with permeable walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadeem, S.; Ijaz, S., E-mail: shaguftaijaz11@yahoo.com

    2015-03-06

    The present analysis deals with the study of physical characteristics of blood flow in the presence of stenosis and nanoparticles through a curved channel with permeable walls. Taking mild stenosis case, the governing equations for anticipated model are solved using the corresponding boundary conditions and close-form solutions have been obtained for temperature, velocity and slip velocity by using Cauchy Euler's method. The expressions for the resistance impedance and pressure gradient in the stenotic region have also been obtained and the existence of various pertinent flow parameters, mainly Darcy number, slip parameter and nanoparticles volume fraction, has been discussed through graphs. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles analysis is discussed for diverging converging and non-tapered arteries. • Resistance impedance decreases with an increase in the nanoparticles volume fraction. • Combination of curvature and stenosis shows stenosis dominant the curvature of artery. • Pressure possesses an inverse variation to the resistance with respect to tapering. • Trapping shows that the symmetry destroys due to increase in curvature of curved artery.

  2. Controlling organic chemical hazards in food manufacturing: a hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, K; Beck, A J

    2002-08-01

    Hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment and control of hazards. Effective HACCP requires the consideration of all hazards, i.e., chemical, microbiological and physical. However, to-date most 'in-place' HACCP procedures have tended to focus on the control of microbiological and physical food hazards. In general, the chemical component of HACCP procedures is either ignored or limited to applied chemicals, e.g., food additives and pesticides. In this paper we discuss the application of HACCP to a broader range of chemical hazards, using organic chemical contaminants as examples, and the problems that are likely to arise in the food manufacturing sector. Chemical HACCP procedures are likely to result in many of the advantages previously identified for microbiological HACCP procedures: more effective, efficient and economical than conventional end-point-testing methods. However, the high costs of analytical monitoring of chemical contaminants and a limited understanding of formulation and process optimisation as means of controlling chemical contamination of foods are likely to prevent chemical HACCP becoming as effective as microbiological HACCP. PMID:12224422

  3. Wet chemical analysis for the semiconductor industry—a total view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazs, Marjorie K.

    1998-11-01

    The analysis of liquids to obtain information about semiconductor materials is known in the industry as "wet chemistry" and has been used since the beginning of the production of IC's. However, the analytical procedures never gained any significant attention until the mid 70's when the absolute measurement of phosphorus in PSG films by wet chemical analysis was incorporated by several industrial labs as the standard method of analysis. Today, over 120 different procedures are used to gain specific information about incoming and processed materials used in the industry. These procedures cover ultra pure water, chemicals, thin films, and wafer cleanliness. Furthermore, they are used to evaluate the cleanliness of reactors, cleanrooms, and components of all kinds that are used in cleanrooms, wet benches and reactors. This paper will cover a total look at the applications of wet chemical processes and the usefulness of the data obtained from these analytical techniques. The paper will cover not only those tests that one would expect to be done by wet processes such as the analysis of metals in chemicals, but will also cover many unusual applications of wet chemical analysis such as their usefulness in evaluating products from a variety of reactors. Included in this part of the presentation will be a unique application to determine ion implantation contaminants and recent advances for analyzing 300mm wafers without breaking them and the analysis of contamination metals in copper thin films. Actual data will be provided for each of the analytical techniques presented.

  4. Analysis of some chemical nutrients in four Brazilian tropical seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gerardo Carneiro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds have various chemical components with beneficial effects for human use; however, their nutritional values in Brazilian species are not well known. This study aimed to evaluate the content of water, ash, protein, carbohydrate, and lipid in four seaweeds (Hypnea musciformis, Solieria filiformis, Caulerpa cupressoides and C. mexicana. Algal constituents were determined by difference, gravimetric or colorimetric method, being the values expressed as g 100 g-1 dehydrated weight (d.w.. Results revealed that the water (10.7 ± 0.18-15.06 ± 1.14 g 100 g-1 d.w., ash (7.79 ± 0.87-15.12 ± 0.51 g 100 g-1 d.w, protein (17.12 ± 0.99-20.79 ± 0.58 g 100 g-1 d.w., lipid (0.33 ± 0.01-3.77 ± 0.13 g 100 g-1 d.w. and carbohydrate (38.07 ± 0.32-54.24 ± 0.157 g 100 g-1 d.w. contents varied between the species (p < 0.05. H. musciformis and S. filiformis (Rhodophyta had highest ash contents (14.14 ± 1.23-15.12 ± 0.51 g 100 g-1 d.w., whereas lipids were higher for Caulerpa species (Chlorophyta (1.52 ± 0.17-3.77 ± 0.13 g 100 g-1 d.w. (p < 0.05. Protein and carbohydrate were the most sources in all the species. Therefore, the studied seaweeds could be a potential source of food ingredients for diets.

  5. Different Models Used to Interpret Chemical Changes: Analysis of a Curriculum and Its Impact on French Students' Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermen, Isabelle; Meheut, Martine

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of the new French curriculum on chemical changes describing the underlying models and highlighting their relations to the empirical level. The authors of the curriculum introduced a distinction between the chemical change of a chemical system and the chemical reactions that account for it. We specify the different roles of…

  6. A methodology for chemical hazards analysis at nuclear fuels reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Laboratory employs a formal methodology for chemical hazards analysis primarily for use in the risk assessment of its nuclear fuels reprocessing plants. The methodology combines interactive matrices for reactions of available materials, fault tree analysis, human factors, and extensive data banks on the operating history of the plants. Examples illustrate the methodology and a related data bank

  7. Inorganic chemical analysis of environmental materials—A lecture series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crock, J.G.; Lamothe, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    At the request of the faculty of the Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, the authors prepared and presented a lecture series to the students of a graduate level advanced instrumental analysis class. The slides and text presented in this report are a compilation and condensation of this series of lectures. The purpose of this report is to present the slides and notes and to emphasize the thought processes that should be used by a scientist submitting samples for analyses in order to procure analytical data to answer a research question. First and foremost, the analytical data generated can be no better than the samples submitted. The questions to be answered must first be well defined and the appropriate samples collected from the population that will answer the question. The proper methods of analysis, including proper sample preparation and digestion techniques, must then be applied. Care must be taken to achieve the required limits of detection of the critical analytes to yield detectable analyte concentration (above "action" levels) for the majority of the study's samples and to address what portion of those analytes answer the research question-total or partial concentrations. To guarantee a robust analytical result that answers the research question(s), a well-defined quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) plan must be employed. This QA/QC plan must include the collection and analysis of field and laboratory blanks, sample duplicates, and matrix-matched standard reference materials (SRMs). The proper SRMs may include in-house materials and/or a selection of widely available commercial materials. A discussion of the preparation and applicability of in-house reference materials is also presented. Only when all these analytical issues are sufficiently addressed can the research questions be answered with known certainty.

  8. Analysis of inorganic elements in blood of albino rabbit using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metairon, Sabrina; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.M.A., E-mail: metairon@live.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this work Br, Cl, K and Na concentrations in albino rabbit blood were determinate using NAA. They are the first indicative interval for reference values in whole blood and they could be used for checking the clinical status of this specie when it will be used was animal model. The results when compared with human whole blood estimation suggest compatibility for Br, Cl and K considering 95% of confidence interval but, for Na the levels are altered, suggesting physiologic differences. (author)

  9. The Matthew effect in environmental science publication: A bibliometric analysis of chemical substances in journal articles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Eriksen, Mette Lindholm; Ellegaard, Ole;

    2011-01-01

    publication rates. The persistence in the scientific literature of the top-20 chemicals was only weakly related to their publication in journals with a high impact factor, but some substances achieved high citation rates. Conclusions The persistence of some environmental chemicals in the scientific literature......Background While environmental research addresses scientific questions of possible societal relevance, it is unclear to what degree research focuses on environmental chemicals in need of documentation for risk assessment purposes. Methods In a bibliometric analysis, we used SciFinder to extract...... Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) numbers for chemicals addressed by publications in the 78 major environmental science journals during 2000-2009. The Web of Science was used to conduct title searches to determine longterm trends for prominent substances and substances considered in need of research...

  10. Analysis of discard of whole blood and its components with suggested possible strategies to reduce it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikshit Patil

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: Platelets were the most commonly discarded blood component due to short shelf life and non utilization in time as demand cannot be predicted. In our study the main reason for discarding whole blood and Packed Red Cells was sero-positivity for various Transfusion Transmitted Infections while non utilization after issue, breakage/leakage were the main reasons for Fresh Frozen Plasma discard. The self audit of blood transfusion service provides insight into current blood transfusion practices prevalent in the hospital. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(2.000: 477-481

  11. Analysis of adverse events and predisposing factors in voluntary and replacement whole blood donors: A study from north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Agnihotri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of awareness and community motivation, compounded with fragmented blood transfusion services in our country, Often leads to shortage of blood. Donor recruitment and retention are essential for ensuring adequate blood supply. However, adverse events (AEs in donors have a negative impact on donor return. Aims and Objectives: The present study was aimed to assess the frequency of AEs in whole blood donors and analyze the predisposing factors for AEs. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on allogeneic whole blood donors over a period of 14 months, i.e., from January 2002 to February 2003. A total of 37,896 donors were monitored for any AEs: 22587 (59.6% were voluntary donors (VD and 15,309 (40.4% were replacement donors (RD. Results: Overall reaction rate was 2.5% with vasovagal reactions constituting 63.5% and hematomas 35.0% of all reactions. Vasovagal reactions showed a significant association with young age, lower weight, first time donation status, female gender, and nature of blood donation camps. Amongst male donors, RDs had more reactions (P=0.03 than VDs. Majority of donors (85% with vasovagal reactions admitted to some fear or anxiety prior to donation. Hematoma formation occurred significantly more when less trained staff performed phlebotomy. Conclusion: Donor safety is an essential prerequisite to increase voluntary blood donation. AE analysis helps in identifying the blood donors at risk of donor reactions and adopting appropriate donor motivational strategies, pre-donation counseling, and care during and after donation.

  12. Genome-wide meta-analysis of systolic blood pressure in children with sickle cell disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallav Bhatnagar

    Full Text Available In pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD patients, it has been reported that higher systolic blood pressure (SBP is associated with increased risk of a silent cerebral infarction (SCI. SCI is a major cause of neurologic morbidity in children with SCD, and blood pressure is a potential modulator of clinical manifestations of SCD; however, the risk factors underlying these complications are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to identify genetic variants that influence SBP in an African American population in the setting of SCD, and explore the use of SBP as an endo-phenotype for SCI. We conducted a genome-wide meta-analysis for SBP using two SCD cohorts, as well as a candidate screen based on published SBP loci. A total of 1,617 patients were analyzed, and while no SNP reached genome-wide significance (P-value<5.0 x 10(-8, a number of suggestive candidate loci were identified. The most significant SNP, rs7952106 (P-value=8.57 x 10(-7, was in the DRD2 locus on chromosome 11. In a gene-based association analysis, MIR4301 (micro-RNA4301, which resides in an intron of DRD2, was the most significant gene (P-value=5.2 x 10(-5. Examining 27 of the previously reported SBP associated SNPs, 4 SNPs were nominally significant. A genetic risk score was constructed to assess the aggregated genetic effect of the published SBP variants, demonstrating a significant association (P=0.05. In addition, we also assessed whether these variants are associated with SCI, validating the use of SBP as an endo-phenotype for SCI. Three SNPs were nominally associated, and only rs2357790 (5' CACNB2 was significant for both SBP and SCI. None of these SNPs retained significance after Bonferroni correction. Taken together, our results suggest the importance of DRD2 genetic variation in the modulation of SBP, and extend the aggregated importance of previously reported SNPs in the modulation of SBP in an African American cohort, more specifically in children with SCD.

  13. Meta-analysis of timolol on diurnal and nighttime intraocular pressure and blood pressure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Princeton Wen-Yuan

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the nighttime intraocular pressure (IOP) and blood pressure (BP) response to timolol treatment in patients with ocular hypertension or primary open-angle glaucoma. METHODS: This was a meta-analysis of previously published studies that must have been randomized, prospective, crossover or parallel, single or double-masked trials. The treatment period must have been >\\/=2 weeks with >\\/=19 patients per treatment arm for a crossover, and >\\/=50 patients for a parallel designed trial. Studies must have included both baseline and treated 24-hour curves. RESULTS: For the IOP analysis, we included 8 articles with 340 patients. A reduction from baseline was observed for timolol at each time point and for the 24-hour curve (p<\\/=0.009). When 2 studies, in which timolol was used adjunctively, were removed, a similar difference was observed as above at each time point and for the 24-hour curve (p<\\/=0.003). In 2 studies, there were small reductions from baseline for the mean diastolic and systolic BPs at most time points and for the 24-hour curve (3.9 and 4.2 mmHg, respectively) with timolol treatment. The ocular perfusion pressure did not show any difference between baseline and timolol treatment at any time point or for the 24-hour curve (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that topical timolol therapy provides an ocular hypotensive effect over the 24-hour curve, including the nighttime hours, and while small reductions in the systolic and diastolic pressures occur, the ocular perfusion pressure is not altered over 24 hours.

  14. Instrumental neutron activation analysis, a valuable link in chemical metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is sufficiently versatile to establish a direct link to the amount of substance determined. The inherent quality parameters of INAA, such as being virtually free of blank, having fully accountable effects of matrix and physical form, and operating over a huge range of amounts, allows the comparison of a mole (or its fraction) of a pure element with the amount of substance in the sample analyzed with the same direct relationship as a beam balance provides. Indeed, varieties of this approach are in common use in INAA in the comparator methods of quantitation. To eliminate possible perturbations of the traceability chain as they may occur in common INAA practice, experimental measurements have been set up that only involve the fraction of a mole of the element(s) of interest in form of the pure element, compound or certified standard and the unknown sample. This principle has been used in INAA measurements for certification value assignment of high temperature alloy SRMs. To further demonstrate the performance parameters of INAA, we selected the determination of chromium in SRM 1152a Stainless Steel by direct non-destructive comparison with the pure metal in form of crystalline chromium. The measurements were validated with weighed aliquots of SRM 3112a dried on filter paper pellets. The experimental results do not show deviations beyond the uncertainties of the SRMs (≤ 0.2 % relative), and the assessment of the uncertainty budget indicates that expanded uncertainties of ≤ 0.3 % are achievable. The measurements demonstrate that INAA can meet the CCQM definition of a primary ratio method of analysis

  15. Theoretical considerations of Flow Injection Analysis in the Absence of Chemical Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2000-01-01

    The fundamental mechanism of flow injection analysis (FIA) is assumed to be simple dissusion and the response of the detector is included in a model description that provide information about the shape of the FIA peak in terms of, basically, five parameters. Two of the five parameters are associa...... any deviation from the features of the present model and the results of a tentative chemical reaction with one of the test compounds, is related to chemical kinetics....

  16. Physico Chemical Analysis of Sapota (Manilkara zapota) Coated by Edible Aloe Vera Gel

    OpenAIRE

    N.Padmaja; S. John Don Bosco; J. Sudhakara Rao

    2015-01-01

    The physical and chemical characteristics of the fruit have immense significance as they ultimately affect the quality of processed productsprepared from them. Over ripening of Sapota (Manilkara zapota) fruits at the post-harvest stage usually results in dramatic decline in quality.In the present study, physico chemical analysis (which includes Weight loss, Colour, Texture, TSS, pH, TA and Ascorbic acid content) ofedible Aloe vera gel coated Sapota fruits packed in LDPE and stored at 15 ± 2? ...

  17. Permeability and chemical analysis of aromatic polyamide based membranes exposed to sodium hypochlorite

    OpenAIRE

    Ettori, Axel; Gaudichet-Maurin, Emmanuelle; Schrotter, Jean-Christophe; Aimar, Pierre; Causserand, Christel

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a cross-linked aromatic polyamide based reverse osmosis membrane was exposed to variable sodium hypochlorite ageing conditions (free chlorine concentration, solution pH) and the resulting evolutions of membrane surface chemical and structural properties were monitored. Elemental and surface chemical analysis performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), showed that chlorine is essentially incorporated on the polyamide...

  18. Embedded Fragments from U.S. Military Personnel—Chemical Analysis and Potential Health Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Centeno, José A.; Duane A. Rogers; Gijsbert B. van der Voet; Elisa Fornero; Lingsu Zhang; Mullick, Florabel G.; Chapman, Gail D.; Olabisi, Ayodele O.; Wagner, Dean J.; Alexander Stojadinovic; Potter, Benjamin K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The majority of modern war wounds are characterized by high-energy blast injuries containing a wide range of retained foreign materials of a metallic or composite nature. Health effects of retained fragments range from local or systemic toxicities to foreign body reactions or malignancies, and dependent on the chemical composition and corrosiveness of the fragments in vivo. Information obtained by chemical analysis of excised fragments can be used to guide clinical decisions rega...

  19. Statistic analysis of grouping in evaluation of the behavior of stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters in effluent from uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ore Treatment Unit (UTM) is a uranium mine off. The statistical analysis of clustering was used to evaluate the behavior of stable chemical elements and physico-chemical variables in their effluents. The use of cluster analysis proved effective in the evaluation, allowing to identify groups of chemical elements in physico-chemical variables and group analyzes (element and variables ). As a result, we can say, based on the analysis of the data, a strong link between Ca and Mg and between Al and TR2O3 (rare earth oxides) in the UTM effluents. The SO4 was also identified as strongly linked to total solids and dissolved and these linked to electrical conductivity. Other associations existed, but were not as strongly linked. Additional collections for seasonal evaluation are required so that assessments can be confirmed. Additional statistics analysis (ordination techniques) should be used to help identify the origins of the groups identified in this analysis. (author)

  20. Analysis of abused drugs by selected ion monitoring: quantitative comparison of electron impact and chemical ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison was made of the relative sensitivities of electron impact and chemical ionization when used for selected ion monitoring analysis of commonly abused drugs. For most of the drugs examined chemical ionization using ammonia as the reactant gas gave the largest single m/e ion current response per unit weight of sample. However, if maximum sensitivity is desired it is important to evaluate electron impact and chemical ionization with respect to both maximum response and degree of interference from background and endogenous materials

  1. Trends of Blood and Plasma Donations in Kazakhstan: 12-Years Retrospective Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurbek Igissinov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Each country faces a continuing challenge to collect enough blood to meet the national needs. According to WHO, there should be at least 20 blood donations per 1,000 population for developing countries, in Kazakhstan this indicator was only 16.8 in 2011. Thus, we conducted an epidemiological assessment and drew a map of the regional distribution of blood and plasma donations in Kazakhstan during the years 2000-2011.The retrospective study was conducted from 2000 to 2011. Data on blood and its components donations were acquired from the Ministry of Health (annual statistical reporting form N° 39.During 2000-2011, number of blood donors decreased to 17.4% and blood donations to 6.3%. The proportion of non-remunerated blood donations and donors decreased from 97.6% to 77.9% and 97.9% to 87.7%, respectively. The paid donations had the opposite trend. Number of plasma donors increased in 2.1 times, plasma donations in 2.4 times, nevertheless the proportion of non-remunerated plasma donations decreased from 60.1% to 29.8%. The average number of blood donations per 1,000 population decreased from 19.8 (2000 to 16.8 (2011, plasma donations increased from 1.4 to 3.1. Regionally, annual average rates of blood and plasma donations per 1,000 population over 12 years varied greatly.This is the first study conducted in Kazakhstan to provide detailed information, including the regional characteristics of blood and plasma donations over an extended period of time, which can be used in blood transfusion services work.

  2. Environmental Chemical Analysis (by B. B. Kebbekus and S. Mitra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Reviewed By Nathan W.

    1999-11-01

    This text helps to fill a void in the market, as there are relatively few undergraduate instrumental analysis texts designed specifically for the expanding population of environmental science students. R. N. Reeve's introductory, open-learning Environmental Analysis (Wiley, 1994) is one of the few, and it is aimed at a lower level and is less appropriate for traditional classroom study. Kebbekus and Mitra's book appears to be an update of I. Marr and M. Cresser's excellent 1983 text by the same name (and also published under the Chapman and Hall imprint). It assumes no background in instrumental methods of analysis but it does depend upon a good general chemistry background in kinetic and equilibrium calculations and the standard laboratory techniques found in a classical introduction to analytical chemistry. The slant taken by the authors is aimed more toward engineers, not only in the choice of topics, but also in how they are presented. For example, the statistical significance tests presented follow an engineering format rather than the standard used in analytical chemistry. This approach does not detract from the book's clarity. The writing style is concise and the book is generally well written. The earlier text, which has become somewhat of a classic, took the unusual step of teaching the instruments in the context of their environmental application. It was divided into sections on the "atmosphere", the "hydrosphere", the "lithosphere", and the "biosphere". This text takes a similar approach in the second half, with chapters on methods for air, water, and solid samples. Users who intend to use the book as a text instead of a reference will appreciate the addition of chapters in the first half of the book on spectroscopic, chromatographic, and mass spectrometric methods. The six chapters in these two parts of the book along with four chapters scattered throughout on environmental measurements, sampling, sample preparation, and quality assurance make a nice

  3. A numerical model of blood oxygenation during veno-venous ECMO: analysis of the interplay between blood oxygenation and its delivery parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messai, Elmi; Bouguerra, Abdesselam; Harmelin, Guy; Di Lascio, Gabriella; Bonizzoli, Manuela; Bonacchi, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) is an important tool in the management of most severe forms of acute respiratory failure. The determinants and management of oxygen delivery in patients treated with VV-ECMO is a complex topic. The physiological principles of oxygenation on VV-ECMO are reviewed in many textbooks. However a numerical model is an additional instrument to be used in understanding and exploring this intricate subject matter. We present a numerical model of blood oxygenation during VV-ECMO. Using this model we examined the role and impact of each determinant on blood oxygenation. The numerical analysis of variation and interplay between each oxygenation determinants during VV-ECMO is presented in graphical form. These results corroborate all the findings of previous studies. The proposed numerical model facilitates understanding of oxygenation physiology during VV-ECMO; it can be used for a medical simulation system and for teaching the principles of oxygenation during VV-ECMO. PMID:26091774

  4. Uptitrating amlodipine significantly reduces blood pressure in diabetic patients with hypertension: a retrospective, pooled analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffers BW

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Barrett W Jeffers, Rahul Bhambri, Jeffery Robbins Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA Abstract: Diabetic patients with hypertension are approximately twice as likely to develop cardiovascular disease as non-diabetic patients with hypertension. Given that hypertension affects ~60% of patients with diabetes, effective blood pressure (BP management is important in this high-risk population. This post-hoc analysis pooled data from six clinical studies to quantify additional BP efficacy achieved when titrating hypertensive diabetic patients from amlodipine 5 mg to 10 mg. Approximately half of the diabetic patients were male (44/98; 44.9% with a mean (standard deviation [SD] age of 60.6 (9.6 years and a baseline mean (standard error [SE] systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP of 150.8 (1.30/87.5 (0.94 mmHg while on amlodipine 5 mg (159.1 [1.40]/92.6 [0.94] mmHg prior to treatment. In comparison, 350/610 (57.4% non-diabetic patients were male with a mean (SD age of 58.7 (11.1 years and baseline mean (SE SBP/DBP of 150.3 (0.62/90.9 (0.41 mmHg while on amlodipine 5 mg (160.0 [0.67]/96.2 [0.45] mmHg prior to treatment. Increasing amlodipine from 5 mg to 10 mg lowered sitting SBP by -12.5 mmHg (95% confidence interval (CI: -15.5, -9.5; P<0.0001 and DBP by -6.0 mmHg (-7.4, -4.6; P<0.0001 in diabetic patients; and SBP by -12.4 mmHg (-13.5, -11.3; P<0.0001 and DBP by -7.3 mmHg (-8.0, -6.7; P<0.0001 in non-diabetic patients. In total, 12.0% (95% CI: 6.4, 20.0 of diabetic patients achieved their BP goal versus 46.4% (42.4, 50.4 of non-diabetic patients after titration to amlodipine 10 mg. Overall, 22.0% of diabetic patients experienced 31 adverse events (AEs and 28.9% of non-diabetic patients experienced 282 AEs. Serious AEs were reported by one (1.0% diabetic and five (0.8% non-diabetic patients. In this analysis, increasing amlodipine from 5 mg to 10 mg produced a clinically significant reduction in the BP of diabetic hypertensive patients

  5. The dilemma in prioritizing chemicals for environmental analysis: known versus unknown hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Sobek; Sofia, Bejgarn; Christina, Rudén; Magnus, Breitholtz

    2016-08-10

    A major challenge for society is to manage the risks posed by the many chemicals continuously emitted to the environment. All chemicals in production and use cannot be monitored and science-based strategies for prioritization are essential. In this study we review available data to investigate which substances are included in environmental monitoring programs and published research studies reporting analyses of chemicals in Baltic Sea fish between 2000 and 2012. Our aim is to contribute to the discussion of priority settings in environmental chemical monitoring and research, which is closely linked to chemical management. In total, 105 different substances or substance groups were analyzed in Baltic Sea fish. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the most studied substances or substance groups. The majority, 87%, of all analyses comprised 20% of the substances or substance groups, whereas 46 substance groups (44%) were analyzed only once. Almost three quarters of all analyses regarded a POP-substance (persistent organic pollutant). These results demonstrate that the majority of analyses on environmental contaminants in Baltic Sea fish concern a small number of already regulated chemicals. Legacy pollutants such as POPs pose a high risk to the Baltic Sea due to their hazardous properties. Yet, there may be a risk that prioritizations for chemical analyses are biased based on the knowns of the past. Such biases may lead to society failing in identifying risks posed by yet unknown hazardous chemicals. Alternative and complementary ways to identify priority chemicals are needed. More transparent communication between risk assessments performed as part of the risk assessment process within REACH and monitoring programs, and information on chemicals contained in consumer articles, would offer ways to identify chemicals for environmental analysis. PMID:27222376

  6. Chemical analysis of Asymptotic Giant Branch stars in M62

    CERN Document Server

    Lapenna, E; Ferraro, F R; Origlia, L; Lanzoni, B; Massari, D; Dalessandro, E

    2015-01-01

    We have collected UVES-FLAMES high-resolution spectra for a sample of 6 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and 13 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Galactic globular cluster M62 (NGC6266). Here we present the detailed abundance analysis of iron, titanium, and light-elements (O, Na, Al and Mg). For the majority (5 out 6) of the AGB targets we find that the abundances, of both iron and titanium, determined from neutral lines are significantly underestimated with respect to those obtained from ionized features, the latter being, instead, in agreement with those measured for the RGB targets. This is similar to recent findings in other clusters and may suggest the presence of Non-Local Thermodynamical Equilibrium (NLTE) effects. In the O-Na, Al-Mg and Na-Al planes, the RGB stars show the typical correlations observed for globular cluster stars. Instead, all the AGB targets are clumped in the regions where first generation stars are expected to lie, similarly to what recently found for the AGB population of NGC6752. W...

  7. Chemical and Nutrient Analysis of Gingerbread Plum (Neocarya macrophylla Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tidjani Amza

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The proximate composition of gingerbread plum (Neocarya macrophylla seeds, mineral, fatty acid and amino acid compositions were evaluated. The proximate analysis revealed the following composition: moisture 10.57 and 10%, ash 4.43 and 6.43%, fat 47.28 and 2.14%, crude protein 20.37 and 61.71%, carbohydrates 8.64 and 12.10% and crude fiber 8.70 and 7.37% for Gingerbread Plum Seed Flour (GPSF and Defatted Gingerbread Plum Seed Flour (DGPSF respectively. Oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids were the major unsaturated fatty acids with 47.15, 19.10 and 17.64% respectively. Saturated fatty acids accounted for 14.72% of total fatty acids. The main saturated fatty acids were palmitic and stearic, with minute amounts of arachidic. Magnesium, potassium and calcium were the predominant elements present in the seeds. Copper, iron and manganese were also detected in appreciable amounts. Essential amino acids were above the recommended amount by Food Agricultural Organization/W orld Health Organization (FAO/WHO for humans. The results of the present investigation showed that gingerbread plum seeds are a rich source of many important nutrients that appear to have a very positive effect on human health.

  8. Reference values comparisons between DMD and C57B whole blood mice using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In health area animal models are used to perform clinical investigations, for example, to test new medicines for medical diagnostic and treatment investigations before to be applied in human being. Currently, the conventional bio chemistries analyses are performed using serum, but when small size animal model is involved the biological material can be scarce restricting its collection. In the last years the NAA has been successfully applied at LEER at IPEN for investigation of several elements in blood of small sized animals, resulting in an efficiency procedure for clinical practice. The advantage in using whole blood is relate to the fact that this nuclear procedure needs small quantity of biological material (10 to 100 ?L of whole blood ) when compared with the conventional analyses (0.5 to 1.0 ml of serum). But, to use whole blood to perform these biochemistry investigations it is essential to establish the reference value in blood for the species or animal models. In this study we intend to evaluate a normal range of Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na concentrations in whole blood using NAA in samples of DMDmdx and C57B/6J mice model used for muscular dystrophy investigations. Thirty whole blood samples were analyzed in the IEA R1- nuclear reactor at IPEN (Sao Paulo, Brazil). These data contribute for applications in veterinary medicine related to biochemistry analyses using whole blood. (author)

  9. Cross-matched blood for major head and neck surgery: an analysis of requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, A M; Telfer, M R; Stassen, L F

    1998-04-01

    We retrospectively analysed our blood ordering practice; the number of units of cross-matched blood requested was compared with the number transfused, in 70 patients undergoing a total of 82 ablative operations for malignant disease. Patients undergoing neck dissection alone, or excision of tumour with free revascularized flap reconstruction without neck dissection, are unlikely to require blood transfusion. Operations that include excision of tumour with primary closure and neck dissection, excision of tumour with pedicled flap reconstruction and excision of tumour with any form of flap reconstruction and neck dissection in continuity, will probably require transfusion. If atypical antibodies are present in the patient's serum on screening, cross-matched blood should always be available preoperatively. Provided that atypical antibodies are not present and that blood is available within 40 minutes from the blood bank, our results show that it is safe to adopt a policy of blood grouping and saving serum, for patients undergoing neck dissection alone, but cross-matching two or more units of blood for patients who are to have more extensive operations. PMID:9643594

  10. Numerical analysis of the internal flow field in screw centrifugal blood pump based on CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, W.; Han, B. X.; Y Wang, H.; Shen, Z. J.

    2013-12-01

    As to the impeller blood pump, the high speed of the impeller, the local high shear force of the flow field and the flow dead region are the main reasons for blood damage. The screw centrifugal pump can effectively alleviate the problems of the high speed and the high shear stress for the impeller. The softness and non-destructiveness during the transfer process can effectively reduce the extent of the damage. By using CFD software, the characteristics of internal flow are analyzed in the screw centrifugal pump by exploring the distribution rules of the velocity, pressure and shear deformation rate of the blood when it flows through the impeller and the destructive effects of spiral blades on blood. The results show that: the design of magnetic levitation solves the sealing problems; the design of regurgitation holes solves the problem of the flow dead zone; the magnetic levitated microcirculation screw centrifugal pump can effectively avoid the vortex, turbulence and high shear forces generated while the blood is flowing through the pump. Since the distribution rules in the velocity field, pressure field and shear deformation rate of the blood in the blood pump are comparatively uniform and the gradient change is comparatively small, the blood damage is effectively reduced.

  11. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Pulsatile Blood Flow Behavior in Modelled Stenosed Vessels with Different Severities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mehrabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the behavior of blood flow in the stenosed vessels. Blood is modelled as an incompressible non-Newtonian fluid which is based on the power law viscosity model. A numerical technique based on the finite difference method is developed to simulate the blood flow taking into account the transient periodic behaviour of the blood flow in cardiac cycles. Also, pulsatile blood flow in the stenosed vessel is based on the Womersley model, and fluid flow in the lumen region is governed by the continuity equation and the Navier-Stokes equations. In this study, the stenosis shape is cosine by using Tu and Devil model. Comparing the results obtained from three stenosed vessels with 30%, 50%, and 75% area severity, we find that higher percent-area severity of stenosis leads to higher extrapressure jumps and higher blood speeds around the stenosis site. Also, we observe that the size of the stenosis in stenosed vessels does influence the blood flow. A little change on the cross-sectional value makes vast change on the blood flow rate. This simulation helps the people working in the field of physiological fluid dynamics as well as the medical practitioners.

  12. Reference values comparisons between DMD and C57B whole blood mice using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metairon, Sabrina; Zamboni, Cibele Bugno; Suzuki, Miriam F. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sant' Anna, Oswaldo A. [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, Maria Denise F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: In health area animal models are used to perform clinical investigations, for example, to test new medicines for medical diagnostic and treatment investigations before to be applied in human being. Currently, the conventional bio chemistries analyses are performed using serum, but when small size animal model is involved the biological material can be scarce restricting its collection. In the last years the NAA has been successfully applied at LEER at IPEN for investigation of several elements in blood of small sized animals, resulting in an efficiency procedure for clinical practice. The advantage in using whole blood is relate to the fact that this nuclear procedure needs small quantity of biological material (10 to 100 ?L of whole blood ) when compared with the conventional analyses (0.5 to 1.0 ml of serum). But, to use whole blood to perform these biochemistry investigations it is essential to establish the reference value in blood for the species or animal models. In this study we intend to evaluate a normal range of Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na concentrations in whole blood using NAA in samples of DMDmdx and C57B/6J mice model used for muscular dystrophy investigations. Thirty whole blood samples were analyzed in the IEA R1- nuclear reactor at IPEN (Sao Paulo, Brazil). These data contribute for applications in veterinary medicine related to biochemistry analyses using whole blood. (author)

  13. Optical analysis of middle-molecular mass molecules of blood of individuals suffering from myocardial ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Korobov

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The normalized absorbtion and excitation luminescence spectra of middle mass molecules (MMM obtained from the blood of individuals suffering from myocardial ischemia, show significant changes in the microenvironment of tryptophan fragments in the composition of peptide components in comparison to the spectra of MMM obtained from the blood of healthy individuals.

  14. Technical note: Validation of a chemical pregnancy test in dairy cows that uses whole blood, shortened incubation times, and visual readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L M; Moore, S G; Poock, S E; Silvia, W J; Lucy, M C

    2016-09-01

    Chemical pregnancy testing is an alternative to traditional methods of pregnancy diagnosis (either manual palpation or ultrasound) in postpartum dairy cows and heifers. The objective was to validate a chemical pregnancy test that confers the advantages of using whole blood, rapid incubation times, and visual readout. Blood and milk samples were collected from Holstein dairy cows [n=320; 162±62 (mean ± SD) d in milk] on a confinement farm in northeast Missouri at 28 d after artificial insemination (AI). The samples were assayed for pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) by using a rapid visual test as well as traditional plasma- and milk-based tests. Transrectal ultrasonography diagnosis for pregnancy at 35 to 38 d after AI was the reference (gold) standard for all PAG tests. One hundred fifty-nine cows were diagnosed as pregnant by the reference standard (pregnancies per AI=49.7%). The tests were ELISA and either optical density (OD; measured with a microtiter plate reader; plasma, milk, and rapid visual tests) or visual readout (rapid visual test) were used to diagnose pregnancy. When OD was used, the percentage of pregnant cows classified correctly (sensitivity) for the plasma, milk, and rapid visual tests were 97±1, 96±2, and 95±1% (±SE), respectively. The sensitivity of the rapid visual test when assessed visually was 98±1%. The specificity (proportion of nonpregnant cows classified correctly) for the plasma, milk, and rapid visual was 94±2%, 94±2%, and 93±2% when an OD was used. When read visually, the specificity of the rapid visual test was lesser (85±3%) because some cows with faint visual signals yielded false positive diagnosis. The overall accuracy (proportion of pregnant and nonpregnant cows diagnosed correctly) was similar for all tests (plasma, milk, rapid visual OD, and rapid visual; 96±1, 95±1, 94±1, and 92±2%, respectively). In a second experiment, lactating Holstein cows (n=291) from 4 commercial confinement dairy farms in western

  15. Isotope dilution analysis for the determination of zinc in blood samples of diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope dilution analysis (IDA) based on solvent extraction has been developed for the determination of zinc in the blood of diabetic patients and healthy adults as controls. The method using 65Zn as a tracer is based on the formation of a red colored complex with dithizone in chloroform which is measured by counting of the 1115 keV γ-rays by gamma-ray spectrometry. Various extraction parameters such as pH, nature of solvent and amount of reagent were optimized. Zinc concentration in diabetic patients (n = 10) was found in a much wider range (1.5-157 μg/ml) compared to those in healthy adults (3.1-95.9 μg/ml for n = 5). t-Test of data shows 80-90% confidence limits. A comparison of mean values, 28.5 ± 48.5 μg/ml for diabetics and 33.1 ± 34.5 μg/ml for controls shows 13.9% lower zinc concentration in diabetics. No correlation was found with eating (vegetarian/nonvegetarian)/drinking or smoking habits, but in general, females showed somewhat lower concentration compared to those in males though population size in each case was very small. (author)

  16. Optical Transcutaneous pCO2 Sensor using Soft Lithography Method for Arterial Blood Gas Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byoung-Ho; Kim, Do-Eok; Leem, Myoung-Kun; Kwon, Dae-Hyuk; Lee, Kwang-Man; Kang, Shin-Won

    2008-10-01

    In this study, we carried out development of non-invasive optical transcutaneous partial pressure of carbon dioxide, pCO2, monitoring system. The purpose of this system is to detect CO2 from outer skin, not from the arterial blood-gathering method. There are advantages about a reduction of analysis time and real-time monitoring that this system might be available. The measurement system is composed of the IR lamp, the pyroelectric sensor including a 4.26 μm optical filter, the optical gas reaction chamber and the signal processing circuit. The optical reaction length of chamber was reduced by 1 mm using the soft-lithography method which CO2 is exhausted in human body as we considered. The fabricated pCO2 monitoring system showed linear result of 6.50×10-6 absorbance/ppm sensitivity for CO2 concentration from 0 ˜5,000 ppm by MFC and about 2 seconds of fast response time. The proposed system can be used in the optical biosensor field for the medical diagnosis such as pCO2 monitoring system and environment monitoring systems.

  17. Pre-donation deferral of blood donors in South Indian set-up: An analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundar P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is well known that quite a large number of apparently healthy donors are not able to donate blood successfully because of varied reasons. Aim: We want to analyze the rate and various reasons for deferrals. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of records of the donors, for 3 years, from January 2005 to December 2007 was done, in order to find out the rate and causes of deferral in four categories of age groups, both in male and female, in our Transfusion Medicine Centre, Bangalore, India. Result: There were 16,706 donors, of which 976 donors were deferred (5.84% for various reasons. Of the 16,706 donors registered for donation, females constituted only 11.27%. And deferral rate was about five times more for female (19.85% compared to male (4.06%. The three most common reasons for deferral in female were low hemoglobin levels, low body weight, and hypotension. The deferral rate was higher in the age group of 18-25 years and most common cause was low hemoglobin level. In male, the three most common reasons for deferral were hypertension, under weight, and low hemoglobin levels. The deferral rate varied from 4 to 15% as reported in the literature. The most common cause of deferral in our study and in several studies available in the literature is the same.

  18. Regional cerebral blood flow analysis of vascular dementia by the 133Xe inhalation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighty-one cases of ischemic cerebrovascular disease were investigated using the 133Xe inhalation method. Fifty-six were male and 25 were female. ages ranged from 25 to 84, with a mean age of 65.4 years. Thirty-two had cerebrovascular dementia and 49 had non dementia infarction. Two criteria were used for a diagnosis of cerebrovascular dementia: 1) the presense of cerebrovascular disease and 2) a score of less than 21.5 Hasegawa's dementia scale. By computed tomographic findings all cases were classified into three groups: lesion on a right hemisphere, a left hemisphere and bilateral hemispheres. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was calculated by 2-compartmental analysis and initial slope index method. The results are as follows: 1) Cases of cerebrovascular dementia tended to have a lower mean rCBF value. (p < 0.001). 2)rCBF patterns showed lower values in the central area for cases of laterality as determined by CT scan. 3) Both interhemispheric mean rCBF and mean rCBF classified from main lesion were no significant different between dementia group and non dementia group. 4) A comparison of mean rCBF with Hasegawa's dementia scale revealed a statistically significant correlation. (p < 0.001). (author)

  19. Regional cerebral blood flow analysis of vascular dementia by the single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the relationship between the regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular dementia, eleven patients with vascular dementia and eight patients with non-demented infarction were studied and regional CBF were measured quantitatively with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) by using N-isopropyl-p-(I-123) iodoamphetamine. All cases were basal infarction and vascular dementia were diagnosed by less than 21.5 of the Hasegawa's dementia score and more than 7 of Hachinsk's ischemic score. The results of the present study were as follows: (1) Cerebrovascular dementia showed lower mean CBF value compared with non-demented group. (2) Regional CBF of bilateral frontal areas and affected basal ganglia were significantly reduced than occipital area in the dementia group. (3) A comparison of regional CBF and the Hasegawa's dementia score revealed a statistically significant correlation at the bilateral frontal areas in the dementia group. It is possible that measuring the regional CBF quantitatively by IMP-SPECT is useful for clinical analysis of vascular dementia. (author)

  20. Chemical Analysis of Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars in M62

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenna, E.; Mucciarelli, A.; Ferraro, F. R.; Origlia, L.; Lanzoni, B.; Massari, D.; Dalessandro, E.

    2015-11-01

    We have collected UVES-FLAMES high-resolution spectra for a sample of 6 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and 13 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Galactic globular cluster (GC) M62 (NGC 6266). Here we present the detailed abundance analysis of iron, titanium, and light elements (O, Na, Mg, and Al). For the majority (five out of six) of the AGB targets, we find that the abundances of both iron and titanium determined from neutral lines are significantly underestimated with respect to those obtained from ionized features, the latter being, instead, in agreement with those measured for the RGB targets. This is similar to recent findings in other clusters and may suggest the presence of nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects. In the O-Na, Al-Mg, and Na-Al planes, the RGB stars show the typical correlations observed for GC stars. Instead, all the AGB targets are clumped in the regions where first-generation stars are expected to lie, similar to what was recently found for the AGB population of NGC 6752. While the sodium and aluminum abundances could be underestimated as a consequence of the NLTE bias affecting iron and titanium, the oxygen line used does not suffer from the same effects, and the lack of O-poor AGB stars therefore is a solid result. We can thus conclude that none of the investigated AGB stars belongs to the second stellar generation of M62. We also find an RGB star with extremely high sodium abundance ([Na/Fe] = +1.08 dex). Based on observations collected at the ESO-VLT (Cerro Paranal, Chile) under program 193.D-0232. Also based on observations (GO10120 and GO11609) with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  1. Finite element analysis of magnetohydrodynamic effects on blood flow in an aneurysmal geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, Anastasios; Xenos, Michalis; Tzirtzilakis, Efstratios; Matsagkas, Miltiadis

    2014-10-01

    Blood flow in an aneurysmal geometry, subjected to a static and uniform magnetic field, was studied. Blood was considered as a Newtonian, incompressible, and electrically conducting fluid. The nonlinear system of partial differential equations, describing the blood flow under the presence of a magnetic field, was discretized by the Galerkin weighted residual method. The transformation in generalized curvilinear coordinates facilitates the solution of the governing equations within arbitrary geometries. Pressure and velocity fields along with wall shear stress distributions were obtained for varying magnetic field intensities and directions. The visualization of the blood streamlines in the dilatation region highlights the effect of a magnetic field on the recirculation zones. The application of static magnetic fields can yield spatio-temporal description of blood flow patterns. The current study discusses implications of the hemodynamic properties estimated by respective screening techniques since the static magnetic field might cause alterations that possibly cannot be detected and thus eliminated.

  2. A Meta-Analysis of Blood Glucose Effects on Human Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Kurzban, Robert

    2016-01-01

    identified 42 studies relating to 4 dimensions of decision making: willingness to pay, willingness to work, time discounting, and decision style. We did not find a uniform influence of blood glucose on decision making. Instead, we found that low levels of blood glucose increase the willingness to pay and...... willingness to work when a situation is food related, but decrease willingness to pay and work in all other situations. Low levels of blood glucose increase the future discount rate for food; that is, decision makers become more impatient, and to a lesser extent increase the future discount rate for money....... Low levels of blood glucose also increase the tendency to make more intuitive rather than deliberate decisions. However, this effect was only observed in situations unrelated to food. We conclude that blood glucose has domain-specific effects, influencing decision making differently depending on the...

  3. Effect of preoperative autologous blood donation on patients undergoing bimaxillary orthognathic surgery: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, A Y; Seo, K S; Lee, G E; Kim, H J

    2016-04-01

    The efficacy of preoperative autologous blood donation (PABD) was evaluated according to preoperative haemoglobin (Hb) values. The records of 295 patients who underwent bimaxillary orthognathic surgery between July 2007 and August 2008 were reviewed. The records for autologous blood donation, intraoperative transfusion, and related laboratory studies were also evaluated. The transfusion trigger used during this period was Hb blood transfusion was significantly lower in the PABD group than in the no PABD group (15.9% vs. 29.2%, P=0.007). This difference was greater in patients with a preoperative Hb blood transfusion in patients undergoing bimaxillary orthognathic surgery, particularly in patients with a preoperative Hb blood transfusion in these patients. PMID:26678802

  4. Growth and Remodeling in Blood Vessels Studied In Vivo With Fractal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.

    2003-01-01

    Every cell in the human body must reside in close proximity to a blood vessel (within approximately 200 mm) because blood vessels provide the oxygen, metabolite, and fluid exchanges required for cellular existence. The growth and remodeling of blood vessels are required to support the normal physiology of embryonic development, reproductive biology, wound healing and adaptive remodeling to exercise, as well as abnormal tissue change in diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Cardiovascular and hemodynamic (blood flow dynamics) alterations experienced by astronauts during long-term spaceflight, including orthostatic intolerance, fluid shifts in the body, and reduced numbers of red (erythrocyte) and white (immune) blood cells, are identified as risk factors of very high priority in the NASA task force report on risk reduction for human spaceflight, the "Critical Path Roadmap."

  5. Multivariate data analysis for depth resolved chemical classification and quantification of sulfur in SNMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, M.; Goschnick, J.

    2005-09-01

    The quantification of elements in quadrupole based SNMS is hampered by superpositions of atomic and cluster signals. Moreover, the conventional SNMS data evaluation employs only atomic signals to determine elemental concentrations, which not allows any chemical specifications of the determined elements. Improvements in the elemental quantification and additional chemical information can be obtained from kinetic energy analysis and the inclusion of molecular signals into mass spectra evaluation. With the help of multivariate data analysis techniques, the combined information is used for the first time for a quantitative and chemically distinctive determination of sulfur. The kinetic energy analysis, used to solve the interference of sulfur with O 2 at masses 32-34 D, turned out to be highly important for the new type of evaluation.

  6. Surface characterization and chemical analysis of bamboo substrates pretreated by alkali hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xueping; Jiang, Yan; Rong, Xianjian; Wei, Wei; Wang, Shuangfei; Nie, Shuangxi

    2016-09-01

    The surface characterization and chemical analysis of bamboo substrates by alkali hydrogen peroxide pretreatment (AHPP) were investigated in this study. The results tended to manifest that AHPP prior to enzymatic and chemical treatment was potential for improving accessibility and reactivity of bamboo substrates. The inorganic components, organic solvent extractives and acid-soluble lignin were effectively removed by AHPP. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that the surface of bamboo chips had less lignin but more carbohydrate after pre-treatment. Fiber surfaces became etched and collapsed, and more pores and debris on the substrate surface were observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Brenauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) results showed that both of pore volume and surface area were increased after AHPP. Although XRD analysis showed that AHPP led to relatively higher crystallinity, pre-extraction could overall enhance the accessibility of enzymes and chemicals into the bamboo structure. PMID:27311789

  7. Feasibility of finding malignant diseases with the Ar + 501.7 nm laser line using a new blood-analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H.; Hayashi, H.; Totsuka, T.; Sugiyama, M.; Tsuchiya, S.; Takeuchi, K.; Mochida, N.

    1983-12-01

    Utilizing a new blood-analysis method which uses the interaction between an Ar + laser beam and a blood sample, it can be shown that there is a significant difference in the reflectance variation δ R between the malignant and benign blood, at 501.7 nm of the Ar + laser, under a dc magnetic field, for both human and mouse blood. For the malignant mouse-blood with leukaemia, δ R tends to be positive with the magnetic field, while for the benign blood it is negative. This is also true for the human blood. This fact is confirmed by the inverted variation of the higher order Fourier pattern obtained by the Fourier pattern analyser from the transmitted beam through the diluted sample, for the malignant and benign mouse-blood under the magnetic field.

  8. Pretreatment and integrated analysis of spectral data reveal seaweed similarities based on chemical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Feifei; Ito, Kengo; Sakata, Kenji; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Extracting useful information from high dimensionality and large data sets is a major challenge for data-driven approaches. The present study was aimed at developing novel integrated analytical strategies for comprehensively characterizing seaweed similarities based on chemical diversity. The chemical compositions of 107 seaweed and 2 seagrass samples were analyzed using multiple techniques, including Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and solid- and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), CHNS/O total elemental analysis, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IR-MS). The spectral data were preprocessed using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) and NMF combined with multivariate curve resolution-alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS) methods in order to separate individual component information from the overlapping and/or broad spectral peaks. Integrated analysis of the preprocessed chemical data demonstrated distinct discrimination of differential seaweed species. Further network analysis revealed a close correlation between the heavy metal elements and characteristic components of brown algae, such as cellulose, alginic acid, and sulfated mucopolysaccharides, providing a componential basis for its metal-sorbing potential. These results suggest that this integrated analytical strategy is useful for extracting and identifying the chemical characteristics of diverse seaweeds based on large chemical data sets, particularly complicated overlapping spectral data. PMID:25647718

  9. Cerebral blood flow SPET in transient global amnesia with automated ROI analysis by 3DSRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Ryo [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Nishi-Kobe Medical Center, Kohjidai 5-7-1, 651-2273, Nishi-ku, Kobe-City, Hyogo (Japan); Matsuda, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, National Center Hospital for Mental, Nervous and Muscular Disorders, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshioka, Katsunori [Daiichi Radioisotope Laboratories, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yonekura, Yoshiharu [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan)

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the areas involved in episodes of transient global amnesia (TGA) by calculation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) using 3DSRT, fully automated ROI analysis software which we recently developed. Technetium-99m l,l-ethyl cysteinate dimer single-photon emission tomography ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPET) was performed during and after TGA attacks on eight patients (four men and four women; mean study interval, 34 days). The SPET images were anatomically standardized using SPM99 followed by quantification of 318 constant ROIs, grouped into 12 segments (callosomarginal, precentral, central, parietal, angular, temporal, posterior cerebral, pericallosal, lenticular nucleus, thalamus, hippocampus and cerebellum), in each hemisphere to calculate segmental CBF (sCBF) as the area-weighted mean value for each of the respective 12 segments based on the regional CBF in each ROI. Correlation of the intra- and post-episodic sCBF of each of the 12 segments of the eight patients was estimated by scatter-plot graphical analysis and Pearson's correlation test with Fisher's Z-transformation. For the control, {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPET was performed on eight subjects (three men and five women) and repeated within 1 month; the correlation between the first and second sCBF values of each of the 12 segments was evaluated in the same way as for patients with TGA. Excellent reproducibility between the two sCBF values was found in all 12 segments of the control subjects. However, a significant correlation between intra- and post-episodic sCBF was not shown in the thalamus or angular segments of TGA patients. The present study was preliminary, but at least suggested that thalamus and angular regions are closely involved in the symptoms of TGA. (orig.)

  10. Cerebral blood flow SPET in transient global amnesia with automated ROI analysis by 3DSRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the areas involved in episodes of transient global amnesia (TGA) by calculation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) using 3DSRT, fully automated ROI analysis software which we recently developed. Technetium-99m l,l-ethyl cysteinate dimer single-photon emission tomography (99mTc-ECD SPET) was performed during and after TGA attacks on eight patients (four men and four women; mean study interval, 34 days). The SPET images were anatomically standardized using SPM99 followed by quantification of 318 constant ROIs, grouped into 12 segments (callosomarginal, precentral, central, parietal, angular, temporal, posterior cerebral, pericallosal, lenticular nucleus, thalamus, hippocampus and cerebellum), in each hemisphere to calculate segmental CBF (sCBF) as the area-weighted mean value for each of the respective 12 segments based on the regional CBF in each ROI. Correlation of the intra- and post-episodic sCBF of each of the 12 segments of the eight patients was estimated by scatter-plot graphical analysis and Pearson's correlation test with Fisher's Z-transformation. For the control, 99mTc-ECD SPET was performed on eight subjects (three men and five women) and repeated within 1 month; the correlation between the first and second sCBF values of each of the 12 segments was evaluated in the same way as for patients with TGA. Excellent reproducibility between the two sCBF values was found in all 12 segments of the control subjects. However, a significant correlation between intra- and post-episodic sCBF was not shown in the thalamus or angular segments of TGA patients. The present study was preliminary, but at least suggested that thalamus and angular regions are closely involved in the symptoms of TGA. (orig.)

  11. Size distribution measurements and chemical analysis of aerosol components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakkanen, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    The principal aims of this work were to improve the existing methods for size distribution measurements and to draw conclusions about atmospheric and in-stack aerosol chemistry and physics by utilizing size distributions of various aerosol components measured. A sample dissolution with dilute nitric acid in an ultrasonic bath and subsequent graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric analysis was found to result in low blank values and good recoveries for several elements in atmospheric fine particle size fractions below 2 {mu}m of equivalent aerodynamic particle diameter (EAD). Furthermore, it turned out that a substantial amount of analyses associated with insoluble material could be recovered since suspensions were formed. The size distribution measurements of in-stack combustion aerosols indicated two modal size distributions for most components measured. The existence of the fine particle mode suggests that a substantial fraction of such elements with two modal size distributions may vaporize and nucleate during the combustion process. In southern Norway, size distributions of atmospheric aerosol components usually exhibited one or two fine particle modes and one or two coarse particle modes. Atmospheric relative humidity values higher than 80% resulted in significant increase of the mass median diameters of the droplet mode. Important local and/or regional sources of As, Br, I, K, Mn, Pb, Sb, Si and Zn were found to exist in southern Norway. The existence of these sources was reflected in the corresponding size distributions determined, and was utilized in the development of a source identification method based on size distribution data. On the Finnish south coast, atmospheric coarse particle nitrate was found to be formed mostly through an atmospheric reaction of nitric acid with existing coarse particle sea salt but reactions and/or adsorption of nitric acid with soil derived particles also occurred. Chloride was depleted when acidic species reacted

  12. Fractal discrimination of random fractal aggregates and its application in biomarker analysis for blood coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Establishment of a potential bio-marker able to characterise bio-gels post their Gel-Point is presented. ► Spectral dimension is sensitive to fibrin internal network structure. ► Fractal simulation elucidates why spectral dimension displays this distinctive capacity. - Abstract: A recent rheological study has established that the fractal dimension, df, of an incipient clot, formed at the Gel Point (sol–gel transition) of coagulating blood is a significant new biomarker of haemostasis. In whole healthy blood, incipient clots show a clearly defined value of df = 1.7 within a narrow range, which represents a new ‘healthy index’ for normal clotting. The addition of unfractionated heparin significantly prolongs the onset of clot formation with a corresponding reduction of df as a function of heparin dose. However, as clots mature they exhibit (i) an expected increase in df and (ii) a significant increase to spread of these values, i.e. df’s in the range 2.0–2.5, limiting the use of df as a discriminant of clot microstructure. The present study, details how and why the spectral dimension, ds, can be used to accommodate this shortcoming and allow discrimination of mature forms of clot microstructure in indistinguishable in terms of their fractal dimension. To elucidate why ds permits discrimination a numerical experiment was conducted on computationally generated random fractal aggregates (RFAs) with a priori set value of df. Starting from RFAs with a df of 1.7, mature RFAs are evolved from these incipient templates by two differing growth processes achieving a final df of 2.1. Fractal and statistical analysis of the mature RFAs reveals, for the first time, that their differing internal structure is manifest in the magnitude of ds. The potential clinical significance of these findings is discussed in terms of the possibility of exploiting the incipient clot’s ability to template the internal arrangement of the mature clot to better predict

  13. A multicentre molecular analysis of hepatitis B and blood-borne virus coinfections in Viet Nam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Dunford

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B (HBV infection is endemic in Viet Nam, with up to 8.4 million individuals estimated to be chronically infected. We describe results of a large, multicentre seroepidemiological and molecular study of the prevalence of HBV infection and blood-borne viral coinfections in Viet Nam. Individuals with varying risk factors for infection (n = 8654 were recruited from five centres; Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Khanh Hoa and Can Tho. A mean prevalence rate of 10.7% was observed and levels of HBsAg were significantly higher in injecting drug users (IDUs (17.4%, n = 174/1000 and dialysis patients (14.3%, n = 82/575 than in lower-risk groups (9.4%; p<0.001. Coinfection with HIV was seen in 28% of HBV-infected IDUs (n = 49/174 and 15.2% of commercial sex workers (CSWs; n = 15/99. HCV infection was present in 89.8% of the HBV-HIV coinfected IDUs (n = 44/49 and 40% of HBV-HIV coinfected CSWs (n = 16/40. Anti-HDV was detected in 10.7% (n = 34/318 of HBsAg positive individuals. Phylogenetic analysis of HBV S gene (n = 187 showed a predominance of genotype B4 (82.6%; genotypes C1 (14.6%, B2 (2.7% and C5 (0.5% were also identified. The precore mutation G1896A was identified in 35% of all specimens, and was more frequently observed in genotype B (41% than genotype C (3%; p<0.0001. In the immunodominant 'a' region of the surface gene, point mutations were identified in 31% (n = 58/187 of sequences, and 2.2% (n = 4/187 and 5.3% (n = 10/187 specimens contained the major vaccine escape mutations G145A/R and P120L/Q/S/T, respectively. 368 HBsAg positive individuals were genotyped for the IL28B SNP rs12979860 and no significant association between the IL28B SNP and clearance of HBsAg, HBV viral load or HBeAg was observed. This study confirms the high prevalence of HBV infection in Viet Nam and also highlights the significant levels of blood-borne virus coinfections, which have important implications for hepatitis-related morbidity and development of effective

  14. Changes in cerebral blood flow during olfactory stimulation in patients with multiple chemical sensitivity: a multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Azuma

    Full Text Available Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS is characterized by somatic distress upon exposure to odors. Patients with MCS process odors differently from controls. This odor-processing may be associated with activation in the prefrontal area connecting to the anterior cingulate cortex, which has been suggested as an area of odorant-related activation in MCS patients. In this study, activation was defined as a significant increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF because of odorant stimulation. Using the well-designed card-type olfactory test kit, changes in rCBF in the prefrontal cortex (PFC were investigated after olfactory stimulation with several different odorants. Near-infrared spectroscopic (NIRS imaging was performed in 12 MCS patients and 11 controls. The olfactory stimulation test was continuously repeated 10 times. The study also included subjective assessment of physical and psychological status and the perception of irritating and hedonic odors. Significant changes in rCBF were observed in the PFC of MCS patients on both the right and left sides, as distinct from the center of the PFC, compared with controls. MCS patients adequately distinguished the non-odorant in 10 odor repetitions during the early stage of the olfactory stimulation test, but not in the late stage. In comparison to controls, autonomic perception and negative affectivity were poorer in MCS patients. These results suggest that prefrontal information processing associated with odor-processing neuronal circuits and memory and cognition processes from past experience of chemical exposure play significant roles in the pathology of this disorder.

  15. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE NON-NEWTONIAN BLOOD FLOW IN THE NON-PLANAR ARTERY WITH BIFURCATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; LU Xi-yun; ZHUANG Li-xian; WANG Wen

    2004-01-01

    A numerical analysis of non-Newtonian fluid flow in non-planar artery with bifurcation was performed by using a finite element method to solve the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the non-Newtonian constitutive models, including Carreau,Cross and Bingham models. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of the non-Newtonian properties of blood as well as curvature and out-of-plane geometry in the non-planar daughter vessels on the velocity distribution and wall shear stress. The results of this study support the view that the non-planarity of blood vessels and the non-Newtonian properties of blood are of important in hemodynamics and play a significant role in vascular biology and pathophysiology.

  16. Isometric exercise training for blood pressure management: a systematic review and meta-analysis to optimize benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inder, Jodie D; Carlson, Deborah J; Dieberg, Gudrun; McFarlane, James R; Hess, Nicole Cl; Smart, Neil A

    2016-02-01

    The objective of our study was to examine the effects of isometric resistance training (IRT) on resting blood pressure in adults. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials lasting ⩾2 weeks, investigating the effects of isometric exercise on blood pressure in healthy adults (aged ⩾18 years), published in a peer-reviewed journal between 1 January 1966 to 31 January 2015. We included 11 randomized trials, totaling 302 participants. The following reductions were observed after isometric exercise training; systolic blood pressure (SBP) mean difference (MD) -5.20 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI) -6.08 to -4.33, Ppressure (DBP) MD -3.91 mm Hg (95% CI -5.68 to -2.14, Ppressure (MAP) MD -3.33 mm Hg (95% CI -4.01 to -2.66, P8 weeks. PMID:26467494

  17. The SFM/ToF-SIMS combination for advanced chemically-resolved analysis at the nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of Time-of-flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and Scanning Force Microscopy (SFM) allows the 3D-compositional analysis of samples or devices. Typically, the topographical data obtained by SFM is used to determine the initial sample topography and the absolute depth of the ToF-SIMS analysis. Here ToF-SIMS and SFM data sets obtained on 2 prototypical samples are explored to go beyond conventional 3D-compositional analysis. SFM topographical and material contrast maps are combined with ToF-SIMS retrospective analysis to detect features that would have escaped a conventional ToF-SIMS data analysis. In addition, SFM data is used to extrapolate the chemical information beyond the spatial resolution of ToF-SIMS, allowing the mapping of the chemical composition at the nanoscale

  18. 3D thermo-chemical-mechanical analysis of the pultrusion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Tutum, Cem C.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, a 3D Eulerian thermo-chemical analysis is sequentially coupled with a 3D Lagrangian quasi static mechanical analysis of the pultrusion process. The temperature and degree of cure profiles at the steady state are first calculated in the thermo-chemical analysis. In the...... mechanical analysis, the developments of the process induced stresses and distortions during the process are predicted using the already obtained temperature and degree of cure profiles together with the glass transition temperature. The predictions of the transverse transient stresses and distortions are...... found to be similar as compared to the available data in the literature. Using the proposed 3D mechanical analysis, different mechanical behaviour is obtained for the longitudinal stress development as distinct from the stress development in the transverse directions. Even though the matrix material is...

  19. Participation in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Kih Soo; Choi, Kwang Soon; Han, Sun Ho; Suh, Moo Yul; Park, Kyung Kyun; Choi, Ke Chun; Kim, Won Ho

    2000-08-01

    KAERI analytical laboratory participated in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater organized by IAEA Hydrology Laboratory(RAS/8/084). 13 items such as pH, electroconductivity, HCO{sub 3}, Cl, SO{sub 4}, NO{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, B, Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg were analyzed. The result of this program showed that KAERI laboratory was ranked within 10% range from top level. An analytical expert in KAERI attended the 'Consultants' Meeting' at IAEA headquater and prepared the guideline for chemical analysis of groundwater.

  20. Study on the chemical species of platinum group elements in geological samples by molecular activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical species of platinum group elements in some upper mantle-derived xenoliths from Eastern China are studied by molecular activation analysis, in which the chemical stepwise dissolution, nickel fire assay preconcentration and neutron activation analysis are jointly applied. The weighted sums of platinum group elements in 6 phases are in agreement with their total contents. The distribution patterns of platinum group elements in sulphides show that sulphide segregation is one of the important mechanisms for the fractionation of platinum group elements in upper mantle-derived material during partial melting

  1. Scanning angle Raman spectroscopy: Investigation of Raman scatter enhancement techniques for chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Matthew W. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis outlines advancements in Raman scatter enhancement techniques by applying evanescent fields, standing-waves (waveguides) and surface enhancements to increase the generated mean square electric field, which is directly related to the intensity of Raman scattering. These techniques are accomplished by employing scanning angle Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. A 1064 nm multichannel Raman spectrometer is discussed for chemical analysis of lignin. Extending dispersive multichannel Raman spectroscopy to 1064 nm reduces the fluorescence interference that can mask the weaker Raman scattering. Overall, these techniques help address the major obstacles in Raman spectroscopy for chemical analysis, which include the inherently weak Raman cross section and susceptibility to fluorescence interference.

  2. Participation in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAERI analytical laboratory participated in the 1999 IAEA interlaboratory comparison on chemical analysis of groundwater organized by IAEA Hydrology Laboratory(RAS/8/084). 13 items such as pH, electroconductivity, HCO3, Cl, SO4, NO3, SiO2, B, Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg were analyzed. The result of this program showed that KAERI laboratory was ranked within 10% range from top level. An analytical expert in KAERI attended the 'Consultants' Meeting' at IAEA headquater and prepared the guideline for chemical analysis of groundwater

  3. Genetic Analysis of ABO and Rh Blood Groups in Backward Caste Population of Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana RAI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of glycoproteins and glycolipids on red blood cell surface constitute blood group antigens. These are AB, A, B and O in ABO blood group system and Rh in rhesus blood group system. A total of 1065 unrelated Backward Caste (OBC individuals from Uttar Pradesh were studied for the phenotype and allele frequency distribution of ABO and Rh (D blood groups. Total 1065 samples analyzed, phenotype B blood type has the highest frequency 36.81% (n=392, followed by O (32.68%; n=348, A (23.66%; n=252 and AB (6.85%; n=73. The overall phenotypic frequencies of ABO blood groups were B>O>A>AB. The allelic frequencies of O, A, and B alleles were 0.5819, 0.1674 and 0.2506 respectively. Out of total 1065 samples, 1018 (95.59% samples were Rh-positive and 47 (4.41% were Rh-negative. Phenotypic frequency of Rh-negative in Koari, Yadav, Kurmi and Maurya samples were 0.99%, 4%, 1.4% and 7.6% respectively.

  4. Effect of Fruit Juice on Cholesterol and Blood Pressure in Adults: A Meta-Analysis of 19 Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Xing, Anhui; Chen, Ka; Wang, Bin; Zhou, Rui; Chen, Shihui; Xu, Hongxia; Mi, Mantian

    2013-01-01

    Background The effect of fruit juice on serum cholesterol and blood pressure in humans has generated inconsistent results. We aimed to quantitatively evaluate the effect of fruit juice on serum cholesterol and blood pressure in adults. Methods We performed a strategic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (updated to October, 2012) for randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of fruit juice on serum cholesterol and blood pressure. Study quality was assessed by using the Jadad scale. Weighted mean differences were calculated for net changes in cholesterol and blood pressure by using fixed-effects model. Prespecified subgroup and sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore the potential heterogeneity. Results Nineteen trials comprising a total of 618 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. Fruit juice consumption borderlinely reduced the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by 2.07 mm Hg (95% CI: −3.75, −0.39 mm Hg; p = 0.02), but did not show significant effects on total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations or systolic blood pressure (SBP) values. A significant reduction of TC concentration was observed in low-median intake of total polyphenols group. Subgroup analyses for HDL-C and LDL-C concentrations did not show statistically significant results. No significant heterogeneity was detected for all the measures. Conclusion This meta-analysis suggested that fruit juice had a borderline significant effect on reducing DBP, but had no effect on TC, HDL-C, LDL-C concentrations or SBP. PMID:23637831

  5. Effect of fruit juice on cholesterol and blood pressure in adults: a meta-analysis of 19 randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of fruit juice on serum cholesterol and blood pressure in humans has generated inconsistent results. We aimed to quantitatively evaluate the effect of fruit juice on serum cholesterol and blood pressure in adults. METHODS: We performed a strategic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (updated to October, 2012 for randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of fruit juice on serum cholesterol and blood pressure. Study quality was assessed by using the Jadad scale. Weighted mean differences were calculated for net changes in cholesterol and blood pressure by using fixed-effects model. Prespecified subgroup and sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore the potential heterogeneity. RESULTS: Nineteen trials comprising a total of 618 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. Fruit juice consumption borderlinely reduced the diastolic blood pressure (DBP by 2.07 mm Hg (95% CI: -3.75, -0.39 mm Hg; p = 0.02, but did not show significant effects on total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C concentrations or systolic blood pressure (SBP values. A significant reduction of TC concentration was observed in low-median intake of total polyphenols group. Subgroup analyses for HDL-C and LDL-C concentrations did not show statistically significant results. No significant heterogeneity was detected for all the measures. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggested that fruit juice had a borderline significant effect on reducing DBP, but had no effect on TC, HDL-C, LDL-C concentrations or SBP.

  6. Dietary Interventions and Blood Pressure in Latin America - Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzaro, Caroline Cantalejo; Klostermann, Flávia Caroline; Erbano, Bruna Olandoski [Faculdade Evangélica do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Schio, Nicolle Amboni; Guarita-Souza, Luiz César; Olandoski, Marcia; Faria-Neto, José Rocha, E-mail: jrochafaria@cardiol.br; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino [Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná (PUC-PR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    High blood pressure is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Low blood pressure control rates in Latin American populations emphasize the need for gathering evidence on effective therapies. To evaluate the effects of dietary interventions on blood pressure in Latin American populations. Systematic review. Electronic databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS and VHL) were searched and manual search for studies published up to April 2013 was performed. Parallel studies about dietary interventions in Latin American adult populations assessing arterial blood pressure (mm Hg) before and after intervention were included. Of the 405 studies identified, 10 randomized controlled trials were included and divided into 3 subgroups according to the proposed dietary intervention. There was a non-significant reduction in systolic blood pressure in the subgroups of mineral replacement (-4.82; 95% CI: -11.36 to 1.73) and complex pattern diets (-3.17; 95% CI: -7.62 to 1.28). Regarding diastolic blood pressure, except for the hyperproteic diet subgroup, all subgroups showed a significant reduction in blood pressure: -4.66 mmHg (95% CI: -9.21 to -0.12) and -4.55 mmHg (95% CI: -7.04 to -2.06) for mineral replacement and complex pattern diets, respectively. Available evidence on the effects of dietary changes on blood pressure in Latin American populations indicates a homogeneous effect of those interventions, although not significant for systolic blood pressure. Samples were small and the quality of the studies was generally low. Larger studies are required to build robust evidence.

  7. Dietary Interventions and Blood Pressure in Latin America - Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High blood pressure is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Low blood pressure control rates in Latin American populations emphasize the need for gathering evidence on effective therapies. To evaluate the effects of dietary interventions on blood pressure in Latin American populations. Systematic review. Electronic databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS and VHL) were searched and manual search for studies published up to April 2013 was performed. Parallel studies about dietary interventions in Latin American adult populations assessing arterial blood pressure (mm Hg) before and after intervention were included. Of the 405 studies identified, 10 randomized controlled trials were included and divided into 3 subgroups according to the proposed dietary intervention. There was a non-significant reduction in systolic blood pressure in the subgroups of mineral replacement (-4.82; 95% CI: -11.36 to 1.73) and complex pattern diets (-3.17; 95% CI: -7.62 to 1.28). Regarding diastolic blood pressure, except for the hyperproteic diet subgroup, all subgroups showed a significant reduction in blood pressure: -4.66 mmHg (95% CI: -9.21 to -0.12) and -4.55 mmHg (95% CI: -7.04 to -2.06) for mineral replacement and complex pattern diets, respectively. Available evidence on the effects of dietary changes on blood pressure in Latin American populations indicates a homogeneous effect of those interventions, although not significant for systolic blood pressure. Samples were small and the quality of the studies was generally low. Larger studies are required to build robust evidence

  8. Inferring common cognitive mechanisms from brain blood-flow lateralization data: a new methodology for fTCD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Georg F; Spray, Amy; Fairlie, Jo E; Uomini, Natalie T

    2014-01-01

    Current neuroimaging techniques with high spatial resolution constrain participant motion so that many natural tasks cannot be carried out. The aim of this paper is to show how a time-locked correlation-analysis of cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) lateralization data, obtained with functional TransCranial Doppler (fTCD) ultrasound, can be used to infer cerebral activation patterns across tasks. In a first experiment we demonstrate that the proposed analysis method results in data that are comparable with the standard Lateralization Index (LI) for within-task comparisons of CBFV patterns, recorded during cued word generation (CWG) at two difficulty levels. In the main experiment we demonstrate that the proposed analysis method shows correlated blood-flow patterns for two different cognitive tasks that are known to draw on common brain areas, CWG, and Music Synthesis. We show that CBFV patterns for Music and CWG are correlated only for participants with prior musical training. CBFV patterns for tasks that draw on distinct brain areas, the Tower of London and CWG, are not correlated. The proposed methodology extends conventional fTCD analysis by including temporal information in the analysis of cerebral blood-flow patterns to provide a robust, non-invasive method to infer whether common brain areas are used in different cognitive tasks. It complements conventional high resolution imaging techniques. PMID:24982641

  9. The Amounts of As, Au, Br, Cu, Fe, Mo, Se and Zn in Normal and Uraemic Human whole Blood. A. Comparison by Means of Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative determination of the elements As, Au, Br, Cu, Fe, Mo, Se and Zn have been performed in normal and uraemic human whole blood by means of H2SO4 - H-O- digestion, distillation and ion exchange, combined with gamma-spectrometric analysis. The uraemic blood was found to contain about 10 times as much As and twice as much Mo as did the normal blood. As regards Fe, the uraemic blood contained slightly less than the normal blood. For the other elements there were no detectable difference

  10. An analysis of multimodal occupational exposure leading to blood borne infections among health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Lakshmi Priya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs. Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2% were interns and the clinical practice that led to the occupational exposure was withdrawal of blood (45.7%. Good infection control practices and emphasis on appropriate disposal are needed to increase the occupational safety for HCWs.

  11. Synchronized renal blood flow dynamics mapped with wavelet analysis of laser speckle flowmetry data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, Alexey R; Marsh, Donald J; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    Full-field laser speckle microscopy provides real-time imaging of superficial blood flow rate. Here we apply continuous wavelet transform to time series of speckle-estimated blood flow from each pixel of the images to map synchronous patterns in instantaneous frequency and phase on the surface...... of rat kidneys. The regulatory mechanism in the renal microcirculation generates oscillations in arterial blood flow at several characteristic frequencies. Our approach to laser speckle image processing allows detection of frequency and phase entrainments, visualization of their patterns, and estimation...

  12. The blood perfusion and NADH/FAD content combined analysis in patients with diabetes foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dremin, Victor V.; Sidorov, Victor V.; Krupatkin, Alexander I.; Galstyan, Gagik R.; Novikova, Irina N.; Zherebtsova, Angelina I.; Zherebtsov, Evgeny A.; Dunaev, Andrey V.; Abdulvapova, Zera N.; Litvinova, Karina S.; Rafailov, Ilya E.; Sokolovski, Sergei G.; Rafailov, Edik U.

    2016-03-01

    Skin blood microcirculation and the metabolism activity of tissue were examined on the patients with type 2 diabetes. Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) with 1064 nm laser light source and fluorescence spectroscopy (FS) with excitation light of 365 nm and 450 nm have been used to monitor the blood perfusion and the content of coenzymes NADH and FAD. Concluding, the proposed combined LDF and tissue FS approach allows to identify the significant violations in the blood microcirculation and metabolic activity for type 2 diabetes patients.

  13. An analysis of decision making in cord blood donation through a participatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvaterra, Elena; Casati, Sara; Bottardi, Simonetta; Brizzolara, Antonella; Calistri, Daniela; Cofano, Rosanna; Folliero, Emanuela; Lalatta, Faustina; Maffioletti, Cristina; Negri, Mariangela; Rebulla, Paolo

    2010-06-01

    We analysed knowledge, comprehension, opinions, attitudes and choices related to cord blood donation in seven heterogeneous focus groups including pregnant women, future parents, cord blood donors, midwives and obstetricians/gynaecologists. Comparative evaluations focused on attitudes before versus after delivery and preferences of public versus private banking. The study outlined large support to altruistic cord blood donation and need for better health professionals education in this field. Collected information was presented in a public conference and used to develop an informative brochure which was tested for readability and clearliness in four workshops and finally distributed to 26 regional delivery suites. PMID:20381426

  14. Rapid Detection of Biological and Chemical Threat Agents Using Physical Chemistry, Active Detection, and Computational Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Myung; Dong, Li; Fu, Rong; Liotta, Lance; Narayanan, Aarthi; Petricoin, Emanuel; Ross, Mark; Russo, Paul; Zhou, Weidong; Luchini, Alessandra; Manes, Nathan; Chertow, Jessica; Han, Suhua; Kidd, Jessica; Senina, Svetlana; Groves, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Basic technologies have been successfully developed within this project: rapid collection of aerosols and a rapid ultra-sensitive immunoassay technique. Water-soluble, humidity-resistant polyacrylamide nano-filters were shown to (1) capture aerosol particles as small as 20 nm, (2) work in humid air and (3) completely liberate their captured particles in an aqueous solution compatible with the immunoassay technique. The immunoassay technology developed within this project combines electrophoretic capture with magnetic bead detection. It allows detection of as few as 150-600 analyte molecules or viruses in only three minutes, something no other known method can duplicate. The technology can be used in a variety of applications where speed of analysis and/or extremely low detection limits are of great importance: in rapid analysis of donor blood for hepatitis, HIV and other blood-borne infections in emergency blood transfusions, in trace analysis of pollutants, or in search of biomarkers in biological fluids. Combined in a single device, the water-soluble filter and ultra-sensitive immunoassay technique may solve the problem of early warning type detection of aerosolized pathogens. These two technologies are protected with five patent applications and are ready for commercialization.

  15. Effect of Probiotics on Blood Lipid Concentrations: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Ae; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-10-01

    Previous clinical studies have reported mixed results regarding the effect of probiotics on lipid metabolism. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to quantify the direction and magnitude of the potential effect of probiotics on blood lipid concentrations.Eligible studies were randomized, placebo-controlled trials whose interventions were probiotic products containing live bacteria. The studies reported net changes in lipid profiles (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides) and their associated standard deviations (or the data to calculate them). The probiotic products did not contain prebiotics or other active ingredients, and the full article was accessible in English.The pooled mean net change in lipid profiles and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. Q statistics and I were calculated to examine heterogeneity. Potential sources of heterogeneity were investigated via subgroup and sensitivity analyses, and publication biases were estimated.A total of 30 randomized controlled trials with 1624 participants (828 in intervention groups and 796 in placebo groups) were included in this analysis. Subjects treated with probiotics demonstrated reduced total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol compared to control subjects by 7.8 mg/dL (95% CI: -10.4, -5.2) and 7.3 mg/dL (95% CI: -10.1, -4.4), respectively. There was no significant effect of probiotics on HDL cholesterol or triglycerides. The effect of probiotics on total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol depended on a variety of factors. The significant effects were greater for higher baseline total cholesterol levels, longer treatment durations, and certain probiotic strains. In addition, these associations seem stronger in studies supported by probiotics companies.The studies included in this meta-analysis showed significant heterogeneity as indicated by the Q statistics and I. In addition, industry sponsorship may affect study findings

  16. Application of physico-chemical procedures in the analysis of urinary calculi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    All physico-chemical techniques used in the analysis of urinary calculi have inherent advantages and limitations. Although x-ray powder diffraction can identify constituents unambiguously, certain minor components can be missed. Infrared spectroscopy is more sensitive but band assignment at low concentrations is difficult. Scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersive x-ray analysis permits the simultaneous investigation of morphology and chemical microstructure. With the electron microprobe, minor constituents can be detected but tedious sample preparation procedures are required. Transmission electron microscopy is extremely useful in determining constituent inter-relationships and ultrastructure but ultramicrotomy is very difficult. Thermal gravimetric analysis gives quantitative information easily but does not satisfactorily distinguish between struvite and brushite. In an attempt to assess the accuracy of chemical analyses, 62 calculi were investigated applying several chemical tests. Those for MgS , PO4(T ), NHU and uric acid proved highly reliable while that for CaS often yielded an incorrect result. The test for oxalate was totally unsatisfactory. Investigators of stone composition and structure should include x-ray diffraction (or infrared spectroscopy) and scanning electron microscopy as their methods of first choice. In addition, chemical or thermogravimetric analyses should be utilized in an auxiliary capacity.

  17. Genetics Blood Card Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP guiding collection of blood for genetics analysis. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect DNA sample using a whole blood blot card

  18. Forecasting global developments in the basic chemical industry for environmental policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical sector is the largest industrial energy user, but detailed analysis of its energy use developments lags behind other energy-intensive sectors. A cost-driven forecasting model for basic chemicals production is developed, accounting for regional production costs, demand growth and stock turnover. The model determines the global production capacity placement, implementation of energy-efficient Best Practice Technology (BPT) and global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for the period 2010–2030. Subsequently, the effects of energy and climate policies on these parameters are quantified. About 60% of new basic chemical production capacity is projected to be placed in non-OECD regions by 2030 due to low energy prices. While global production increases by 80% between 2010 and 2030, the OECD's production capacity share decreases from 40% to 20% and global emissions increase by 50%. Energy pricing and climate policies are found to reduce 2030 CO2 emissions by 5–15% relative to the baseline developments by increasing BPT implementation. Maximum BPT implementation results in a 25% reduction. Further emission reductions require measures beyond energy-efficient technologies. The model is useful to estimate general trends related to basic chemicals production, but improved data from the chemical sector is required to expand the analysis to additional technologies and chemicals. - Highlights: • We develop a global cost-driven forecasting model for the basic chemical sector. • We study regional production, energy-efficient technology, emissions and policies. • Between 2010 and 2030, 60% of new chemicals capacity is built in non-OECD regions. • Global CO2 emissions rise by 50%, but climate policies may limit this to 30–40%. • Measures beyond energy efficiency are needed to prevent increasing CO2 emissions

  19. Bivariate analysis of blood pressure traits in Danish and Chinese twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuxia; Kruse, Torben A; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    , 447 dizygotic or DZ pairs) and Chinese sample includes a total of 325 pairs of twins (183 MZ twin pairs and 142 DZ twin pairs). Our parameter estimates revealed moderate to high additive genetic and unique environmental influences on both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and on their correlation...... looking for heritable genetic variants that affect systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure. Meanwhile, the estimated high contribution to blood pressure by unique environment suggests that promoting healthy lifestyle could provide an efficient way for the control of hypertension especially in the Chinese......Studying the multiplex genetic basis of blood pressure regulation can help with elucidating the etiology of hypertension and related diseases as well as with the development of more efficient prevention and treatment strategies. This study aims at investigating the genetic and environmental...

  20. Spectrum and Outcome Analysis of Marked Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia with Blood Group Incompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hao Weng

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood group mismatch between a mother and newborn carries a substantialrisk for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and kernicterus. In the current study, weinvestigate the spectrum and outcome of marked neonatal hyperbilirubinemiawith blood group incompatibility.Methods: We retrospectively assessed a cohort of 413 neonates with peak total serumbilirubin (TSB values ≥ 20 mg/dL between 1995 and 2007. Those with agestational age 7%, a hemoglobin value < 13 g/dL and apeak TSB at age < 3 days old than the controls (p < 0.01. Furthermore, kernicterus was more common in neonates with blood group incompatibility(9.8% than in the controls (0.0% (p < 0.01.Conclusions: This survey depicts the clinical profiles of babies with marked neonatalhyperbilirubinemia with blood group incompatibility. Neonates with bloodgroup incompatibility often develop early-onset, hemolysis-mediated hyperbilirubinemia. Our findings show they are at great risk of kernicterus.

  1. Prolyl Oligopeptidase from the Blood Fluke Schistosoma mansoni: From Functional Analysis to Anti-schistosomal Inhibitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fajtová, P.; Štefanić, S.; Hradilek, M.; Dvořák, Jan; Vondrášek, J.; Jílková, A.; Ulrychová, L.; McKerrow, J.H.; Caffrey, C.R.; Mareš, M.; Horn, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 6 (2015), e0003827. ISSN 1935-2735 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Schistosoma mansoni * schistosomiasis * prolyl oligopeptidase * blood fluke Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.446, year: 2014

  2. Determination of reference values of elements in whole blood of the wistar rats using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B., E-mail: laura@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Some investigations, especially biochemistry analysis, can be performed using whole blood if the normality limits are established. The present study deals with the determination of reference values for elements of clinical interest, in whole blood of Wistar rats using the Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Usually these small-sized animals are used as guinea-pig on experiments that involves testing new medicines and medical diagnostic studies. In this investigation, the reference values for blood were determined for: Br (0.0011 - 0.0095 gL{sup -1}), Ca (0.0 - 0.66 gL{sup -1}), Cl (2.35 - 4.91 gL{sup -1}), K (1.00 - 3.12 gL{sup -1}), Mg (0.044 - 0.108 gL{sup -1}), Na (1.13 - 3.09 gL{sup -1}) and S (0.53 - 1.81 gL{sup -1}). These data will allow researchers to optimize their studies, both in terms of cost and time by selecting species that fits to the experimental model as a clinical reference as well as performing biochemical analyses in whole blood using small quantities (few {mu}L) compared to the conventional analyses performed in serum (few mL). (author)

  3. 3-D volume reconstruction of skin lesions for melanin and blood volume estimation and lesion severity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Brian; Dhawan, Atam P

    2012-11-01

    Subsurface information about skin lesions, such as the blood volume beneath the lesion, is important for the analysis of lesion severity towards early detection of skin cancer such as malignant melanoma. Depth information can be obtained from diffuse reflectance based multispectral transillumination images of the skin. An inverse volume reconstruction method is presented which uses a genetic algorithm optimization procedure with a novel population initialization routine and nudge operator based on the multispectral images to reconstruct the melanin and blood layer volume components. Forward model evaluation for fitness calculation is performed using a parallel processing voxel-based Monte Carlo simulation of light in skin. Reconstruction results for simulated lesions show excellent volume accuracy. Preliminary validation is also done using a set of 14 clinical lesions, categorized into lesion severity by an expert dermatologist. Using two features, the average blood layer thickness and the ratio of blood volume to total lesion volume, the lesions can be classified into mild and moderate/severe classes with 100% accuracy. The method therefore has excellent potential for detection and analysis of pre-malignant lesions. PMID:22829392

  4. Clinical significance of blood gas and electrolyte analysis, CK, CK-MB and HBDH changes in neonatal asphyxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Hua Xu; Xin Lin; Mi-Jia Huang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical significance of blood gas and electrolyte analysis, CK, CK-MB and HBDH changes in neonatal asphyxia.Methods:A total of 100 newborns with asphyxia who visited in our hospital were collected, and divided into severe group (n=20) and mild group (n=80) according to the asphyxia degree, and 50 healthy newborns regarded as control group. The 3 groups received blood gas analysis (pH, BE and PaCO2), electrolyte (K+, Na+ and Ca2+) and 3 kinds of enzymes (CK, CK-MB and HBDH) were tested and compared.Results: Compared with control group, pH and BE of blood gas indexes decreased significantly and PaCO2 increased significantly in severe group (P0.05). Compared with mild group, pH and BE of blood gas indexes decreased significantly and PaCO2 increased significantly in severe group (P0.05). Compared with mild group, the level of Ca2+ decreased significantly in severe group (P<0.05); Compared with control group, the levels of CK, CK-MB and HBDH increased significantly in severe and mild group (P<0.05). Compared with mild group, the levels of CK, CK-MB and HBDH increased significantly in severe group (P<0.05).Conclusions:The detection of blood gas and electrolyte analysis, CK, CK-MB and HBDH can provide an objective evidence for the diagnosis of neonatal asphyxia and estimation of severity degree which was helpful in clinical treatment.

  5. Blood interference in fluorescence spectrum : Experiment, analysis and comparison with intraoperativemeasurements on brain tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Lowndes, Shannely

    2010-01-01

    The optical touch pointer (OTP), a fluorescence spectroscopy based system, assists brain surgeons during guided brain tumor resection in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). After recording and analyzing the autofluorescence spectrum of the tissue, it is possible to distinguish malignant from healthy brain tissue. A challenge during the intraoperative measurements is the interference of blood. If it gets in contact with the laser pointer, the blood blocks the light transmission to and...

  6. Arterial blood gas analysis or oxygen saturation in the assessment of acute asthma?

    OpenAIRE

    Carruthers, D M; Harrison, B. D.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--A study was undertaken to determine if arterial blood gas estimation is always necessary in the assessment of patients presenting to hospital with acute severe asthma, or whether oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry is a reliable screening test for predicting those in respiratory failure. METHODS--A prospective study was conducted in a specialist respiratory medical unit. Arterial blood gas tensions and pulse oximetry were measured in 89 consecutive patients admitted wi...

  7. Blood Transport Method for Chromosome Analysis of Residents Living Near Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site

    OpenAIRE

    Rodzi, Mohd; Ihda, Shozo; Yokozeki, Masako; Takeichi, Nobuo; Tanaka, Kimio; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the storage conditions and transportation period for blood samples collected from residents living in areas near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS). Experiments were performed to simulate storage and shipping environments. Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated blood was stored in 15-ml tubes (condition A: current transport method) in the absence or in 50-ml flasks (condition B: previous transport method) in the presence of RPMI-1640 and 20% fetal bovine...

  8. Analysis of quality assurance programmes for HIV screening in blood transfusion centres in Delhi.

    OpenAIRE

    Dhingra-Kumar, N.; Sharma, A.K.; N Madan

    1997-01-01

    The safety of blood transfusion has attained tremendous importance because of the problems posed by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other transfusion-transmissible diseases. While performing screening tests for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies in donated blood is indispensable, it is also essential to introduce an effective quality assurance programme covering inspection of specimens, review of record-keeping, maintenance of equipment, and verification of results. W...

  9. Multivariate models for human genetic analysis: aggregation, coaggregation, and tracking of systolic blood pressure and weight.

    OpenAIRE

    Hanis, C. L.; Sing, C. F.; Clarke, W. R.; Schrott, H G

    1983-01-01

    A multivariate path model parameterizing the sources of familial aggregation and coaggregation of systolic blood pressure and weight, as well as their tracking across time, is applied to longitudinal data collected in Muscatine, Iowa. Genetic, common household, and individual environmental effects, pleiotropy, and a direct regression effect of blood pressure on weight are parameterized. The sample consisted of 998 individuals distributed in 261 families of whom 601 were measured on four succe...

  10. Asymptotic analysis of blood flow in stented arteries: time dependency and direct simulations***

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichon Gostaf Kirill

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to extend in two distinct directions results recently obtained in [10]. In a first step we focus on the possible extension of our results to the time dependent case. Whereas in the second part some preliminary numerical simulations aim to give orders of magnitudes in terms of numerical costs of direct 3D simulations. We consider, in the first part, the time dependent rough problem for a simplified heat equation in a straight channel that mimics the axial velocity under an oscillating pressure gradient. We derive first order approximations with respect to ϵ, the size of the roughness. In order to understand the problem and set up correct boundary layer approximations, we perform a time periodic fourier analysis and check that no frequency can interact with the roughness. We show rigorously on this toy problem that the boundary layers remain stationary in time (independent on the frequency number. Finally we perform numerical tests validating our theoretical approach. In the second part, we determine actual limits, when running three-dimensional blood flow simulations of the non-homogenized stented arteries. We solve the stationary Stokes equations for an artery containing a saccular aneurysm. Consecutive levels of uniform mesh refinement, serve to relate spatial resolution, problem scale, and required computation time. Test computations are presented for femoral side aneurysm, where a simplified ten-wire stent model was placed across the aneurysm throat. We advocate the proposed stent homogenization model, by concluding that an actual computation power is not sufficient to run accurate, direct simulations of a pulsatile flow in stented vessels.

  11. Analysis of Extracellular Vesicles Using Magnetic Nanoparticles in Blood of Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagida, M S; Arakelyan, A; Lebedeva, A M; Grivel, J-Ch; Shpektor, A V; Vasilieva, E Yu; Margolis, L B

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released from various cell types and play an important role in intercellular interactions. In our study, we investigated abundance of individual EVs in patients with acute forms of ischemic heart disease. Previously, we developed an approach for individual analysis of EVs conjugated with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), which was applied in the current study for analyzing phenotypic composition of EVs (by staining for markers CD31, CD41a, and CD63). EVs were isolated using fluorescently labeled MNPs containing anti-CD31, CD41a, or CD63 antibodies and analyzed by combining fluorescently labeled anti-CD41a and CD63, CD31 and CD63, or CD41a and CD31 antibodies, respectively. EVs were analyzed in 30 individuals: 17 healthy volunteers and 13 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Six and seven ACS patients were with acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina, respectively. It was found that patients with ACS and healthy volunteers contained a dominant subset of EVs expressing surface CD41a antigen, suggesting that they originated from platelets. In addition, the total number of EVs isolated using either of the surface markers examined in our study was higher in patients with ACS compared to healthy volunteers. The subgroup of patients with acute myocardial infarction was found to contain significantly higher number of blood EVs compared to the control group. Moreover, increased number of EVs in patients with ACS is mainly due to the increased number of EVs in the subset of EVs bearing CD41a. By analyzing individual EVs, we found that plasma of patients with ACS, particularly upon developing of myocardial infarction, contained dominant platelet-derived EVs fraction, which may reflect activation of platelets in such patients. PMID:27293095

  12. Prediction of blood back spatter from a gunshot in bloodstain pattern analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiskey, P. M.; Yarin, A. L.; Kim, S.; Attinger, D.

    2016-08-01

    A theoretical model for predicting and interpreting blood-spatter patterns resulting from a gunshot wound is proposed. The physical process generating a backward spatter of blood is linked to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of blood accelerated toward the surrounding air, allowing the determination of the initial distribution of drop sizes and velocities. Then the motion of many drops in air is considered with governing equations accounting for gravity and air drag. Based on these equations, a numerical solution is obtained. It predicts the atomization process, the trajectories of the back-spatter drops of blood from the wound to the ground, the impact angle, and the impact Weber number on the ground, as well as the distribution and location of bloodstains and their shape and sizes. A parametric study is undertaken to predict patterns of backward blood spatter under realistic conditions corresponding to the experiments conducted in the present work. The results of the model are compared to the experimental data on back spatter generated by a gunshot impacting a blood-impregnated sponge.

  13. ANALYSIS OF CONFORMATION TRAITS OF THE SLOVENIAN COLD-BLOODED HORSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Simčič

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Slovenian Cold-Blooded horse is an autochthonous horse breed in Slovenia, traditionally reared in the North-Eastern and Northern parts of Slovenia. Today the breed is widespread all over the country. Breeding program for the Slovenian Cold-Blooded horse was accepted 2005 when the Association of Slovenian Cold-Blooded Horse Breeders was established, too. The aim of the study was to analyse conformation and gaits traits of the Slovenian Cold-Blooded horse. Likewise, we tried to evaluate fixed effect, affecting the included traits. Data were collected during the classifications of Slovenian Cold-Blooded horse performed from 1996 to 2011. In this study, 1920 horses were included, 52 of which were stallions and 1868 mares. The scoring system included 8 measured and 10 scored traits. Data were analysed by GLM procedure of statistical package SAS/STAT considering sex, age at scoring and birth year as fixed effects. Stallions of Slovenian Cold-Blooded horses were on the average 152.4±0.56 cm high at withers (stick, while mares were 151.22±0.11 cm. Body length (stallions 163.95±1.48 cm; mares 164.28±0.17 cm was on the average larger than the height at wither thus indicating the rectangular body frame.

  14. SWOT analysis for safer carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in tankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ozcan; Er, Ismail Deha

    2008-06-15

    The application of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis to formulation of strategy concerned with the safe carriage of bulk liquid chemicals in maritime tankers was examined in this study. A qualitative investigation using SWOT analysis has been implemented successfully for ships that are designed to carry liquid chemicals in bulk. The originality of this study lies in the use of SWOT analysis as a management tool to formulate strategic action plans for ship management companies, ship masters and officers for the carriage of dangerous goods in bulk. With this transportation-based SWOT analysis, efforts were made to explore the ways and means of converting possible threats into opportunities, and changing weaknesses into strengths; and strategic plans of action were developed for safer tanker operation. PMID:18093731

  15. Recent Development in Optical Chemical Sensors Coupling with Flow Injection Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuensanta Sánchez Rojas

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Optical techniques for chemical analysis are well established and sensors based on thesetechniques are now attracting considerable attention because of their importance in applications suchas environmental monitoring, biomedical sensing, and industrial process control. On the other hand,flow injection analysis (FIA is advisable for the rapid analysis of microliter volume samples and canbe interfaced directly to the chemical process. The FIA has become a widespread automatic analyticalmethod for more reasons; mainly due to the simplicity and low cost of the setups, their versatility, andease of assembling. In this paper, an overview of flow injection determinations by using opticalchemical sensors is provided, and instrumentation, sensor design, and applications are discussed. Thiswork summarizes the most relevant manuscripts from 1980 to date referred to analysis using opticalchemical sensors in FIA.

  16. Gene expression profiling of whole blood: Comparison of target preparation methods for accurate and reproducible microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Dongseok

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peripheral blood is an accessible and informative source of transcriptomal information for many human disease and pharmacogenomic studies. While there can be significant advantages to analyzing RNA isolated from whole blood, particularly in clinical studies, the preparation of samples for microarray analysis is complicated by the need to minimize artifacts associated with highly abundant globin RNA transcripts. The impact of globin RNA transcripts on expression profiling data can potentially be reduced by using RNA preparation and labeling methods that remove or block globin RNA during the microarray assay. We compared four different methods for preparing microarray hybridization targets from human whole blood collected in PAXGene tubes. Three of the methods utilized the Affymetrix one-cycle cDNA synthesis/in vitro transcription protocol but varied treatment of input RNA as follows: i. no treatment; ii. treatment with GLOBINclear; or iii. treatment with globin PNA oligos. In the fourth method cDNA targets were prepared with the Ovation amplification and labeling system. Results We find that microarray targets generated with labeling methods that reduce globin mRNA levels or minimize the impact of globin transcripts during hybridization detect more transcripts in the microarray assay compared with the standard Affymetrix method. Comparison of microarray results with quantitative PCR analysis of a panel of genes from the NF-kappa B pathway shows good correlation of transcript measurements produced with all four target preparation methods, although method-specific differences in overall correlation were observed. The impact of freezing blood collected in PAXGene tubes on data reproducibility was also examined. Expression profiles show little or no difference when RNA is extracted from either fresh or frozen blood samples. Conclusion RNA preparation and labeling methods designed to reduce the impact of globin mRNA transcripts can

  17. LANL organic analysis detection capabilities for chemical and biological warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansell, G.B.; Cournoyer, M.E.; Hollis, K.W.; Monagle, M.

    1996-12-31

    Organic analysis is the analytical arm for several Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) research programs and nuclear materials processes, including characterization and certification of nuclear and nonnuclear materials used in weapons, radioactive waste treatment and waste certification programs. Organic Analysis has an extensive repertoire of analytical technique within the group including headspace gas, PCBs/pesticides, volatile organics and semivolatile organic analysis. In addition organic analysis has mobile labs with analytic capabilities that include volatile organics, total petroleum hydrocarbon, PCBs, pesticides, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and high explosive screening. A natural extension of these capabilities can be applied to the detection of chemical and biological agents,

  18. Error analysis of tumor blood flow measurement using dynamic contrast-enhanced data and model-independent deconvolution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed error analysis of tumor blood flow (TBF) measurement using dynamic contrast-enhanced data and model-independent deconvolution analysis, based on computer simulations. For analysis, we generated a time-dependent concentration of the contrast agent in the volume of interest (VOI) from the arterial input function (AIF) consisting of gamma-variate functions using an adiabatic approximation to the tissue homogeneity model under various plasma flow (Fp), mean capillary transit time (Tc), permeability-surface area product (PS) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values. Deconvolution analyses based on truncated singular value decomposition with a fixed threshold value (TSVD-F), with an adaptive threshold value (TSVD-A) and with the threshold value determined by generalized cross validation (TSVD-G) were used to estimate Fp values from the simulated concentration-time curves in the VOI and AIF. First, we investigated the relationship between the optimal threshold value and SNR in TSVD-F, and then derived the equation describing the relationship between the threshold value and SNR for TSVD-A. Second, we investigated the dependences of the estimated Fp values on Tc, PS, the total duration for data acquisition and the shape of AIF. Although TSVD-F with a threshold value of 0.025, TSVD-A with the threshold value determined by the equation derived in this study and TSVD-G could estimate the Fp values in a similar manner, the standard deviation of the estimates was the smallest and largest for TSVD-A and TSVD-G, respectively. PS did not largely affect the estimates, while Tc did in all methods. Increasing the total duration significantly improved the variations in the estimates in all methods. TSVD-G was most sensitive to the shape of AIF, especially when the total duration was short. In conclusion, this study will be useful for understanding the reliability and limitation of model-independent deconvolution analysis when applied to TBF measurement using an extravascular

  19. Supramolecular chemical shift reagents inducing conformational transitions: NMR analysis of carbohydrate homooligomer mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beeren, Sophie; Meier, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the concept of supramolecular chemical shift reagents as a tool to improve signal resolution for the NMR analysis of homooligomers. Non-covalent interactions with the shift reagent can constrain otherwise flexible analytes inducing a conformational transition that results in signal...

  20. Fertilizer/Chemical Sales and Service Worker. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a current comprehensive and verified employer competency program list for fertilizer/chemical sales and service workers. Each unit (with or without subunits) contains competencies and competency builders that identify the occupational,…

  1. Quantitative analysis of chemical elements in single cells using nuclear microprobe and nano-probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the role of trace elements at cellular level requires the use of state-of-the-art analytical tools that could achieve enough sensitivity and spatial resolution. We developed a new methodology for the accurate quantification of chemical element distribution in single cells based on a combination of ion beam analysis techniques STIM, PIXE and RBS. The quantification procedure relies on the development of a STIM data analysis software (Paparamborde). Validity of this methodology and limits are discussed here. The method allows the quantification of trace elements (μg/g) with a 19.8 % uncertainty in cellular compartments with mass below 0.1 ng. The main limit of the method lies in the poor number of samples that can be analyzed, due to long irradiation times required and limited access to ion beam analysis facilities. This is the reason why we developed a database for cellular chemical composition capitalization (BDC4). BDC4 has been designed in order to use cellular chemical composition as a tracer for biological activities and is expected to provide in the future reference chemical compositions for any cellular type or compartment. Application of the STIM-PIXE-RBS methodology to the study of nuclear toxicology of cobalt compounds is presented here showing that STIM analysis is absolutely needed when organic mass loss appears during PIXE-RBS irradiation. (author)

  2. On the graph and systems analysis of reversible chemical reaction networks with mass action kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Shodhan; Jayawardhana, Bayu; Schaft, Arjan van der

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the recent progresses on the interplay between the graph theory and systems theory, we revisit the analysis of reversible chemical reaction networks described by mass action kinetics by reformulating it using the graph knowledge of the underlying networks. Based on this formulation, we

  3. Chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo biloba leaves, extracts, and phytopharmaceuticals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van T.A.; Montoro, P.

    2009-01-01

    The chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo leaves, extracts, phytopharmaceuticals and some herbal supplements is comprehensively reviewed. The review is an update of a similar, earlier review in this journal [T.A. van Beek, J. Chromatogr. A 967 (2002) 21¿55]. Since 2001 over 3000 papers on

  4. A methodology for chemical hazards analysis at nuclear fuels reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Laboratory employs a formal methodology for chemical hazards analysis primarily for use in the risk assessment of its nuclear fuels reprocessing plants. The methodology combines interactive matrices for reactions of available materials, fault tree analysis, human factors, and extensive data banks on the operating history of the plants. Examples illustrate the methodology and a related data bank. 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  5. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF FRESH AND FERMENTED FRUIT JUICES PROBIOTICATED WITH LACTOBACILLUS CASEI

    OpenAIRE

    Bathal Vijaya Kumar; Mannepula Sreedharamurthy; Obulam Vijaya Sarathi Reddy

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the suitability of different fruit juices for probiotication by using Lactobacillus casei. Phyto-chemical analysis of different fruit juices (mango, sapota, grape and cantaloupe) were carried out using the standard methods. Carbohydrates, flavoniods, tannins, glycosides were present and alkaloids and saponins were absent in all the above fruit juices. Further analysis by TLC and DPPH methods indicated good antioxidant activity in all the fruit juice...

  6. Prediction of chemical, physical and sensory data from process parameters for frozen cod using multivariate analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Iben Ellegaard; Jensen, H.S.; Bøknæs, Niels;

    1998-01-01

    varied systematically at two levels. The data obtained were evaluated using the multivariate methods, principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression. The PCA models were used to identify which process parameters were actually most important for the quality of the frozen cod...... by ones and zeroes only. These results illustrate the application of multivariate analysis as an effective strategy for improving the quality of frozen fish products. (C) 1998 Society of Chemical Industry...

  7. On the graph and systems analysis of reversible chemical reaction networks with mass action kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Shodhan; Jayawardhana, Bayu; der Schaft, Arjan van

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the recent progresses on the interplay between the graph theory and systems theory, we revisit the analysis of reversible chemical reaction networks described by mass action kinetics by reformulating it using the graph knowledge of the underlying networks. Based on this formulation, we can characterize the space of equilibrium points and provide simple dynamical analysis on the state space modulo the space of equilibrium points.

  8. Chemical analysis of bleach and hydroxide-based solutions after decontamination of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, F B; Gravett, M R; Self, A J; Wang, M; Chua, Hoe-Chee; Hoe-Chee, C; Lee, H S Nancy; Sim, N Lee Hoi; Jones, J T A; Timperley, C M; Riches, J R

    2014-08-01

    Detailed chemical analysis of solutions used to decontaminate chemical warfare agents can be used to support verification and forensic attribution. Decontamination solutions are amongst the most difficult matrices for chemical analysis because of their corrosive and potentially emulsion-based nature. Consequently, there are relatively few publications that report their detailed chemical analysis. This paper describes the application of modern analytical techniques to the analysis of decontamination solutions following decontamination of the chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX). We confirm the formation of N,N-diisopropylformamide and N,N-diisopropylamine following decontamination of VX with hypochlorite-based solution, whereas they were not detected in extracts of hydroxide-based decontamination solutions by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We report the electron ionisation and chemical ionisation mass spectroscopic details, retention indices, and NMR spectra of N,N-diisopropylformamide and N,N-diisopropylamine, as well as analytical methods suitable for their analysis and identification in solvent extracts and decontamination residues. PMID:24633585

  9. Analysis of multiple anticoagulant rodenticides in animal blood and liver tissue using principles of QuEChERS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vudathala, Daljit; Cummings, Margaret; Murphy, Lisa

    2010-06-01

    A quick and easy method for the analysis of anticoagulant rodenticides in blood or tissue using principles of dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE), commonly known as QuEChERS (short for quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe), was developed. Briefly, a combination of magnesium sulfate, PSA, florisil, and basic alumina was used to cleanup blood samples. Further, to cleanup liver tissue samples, C(18) sorbent was included along with the previously mentioned. The samples were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a reversed-phase C(18) column (150 x 4.6 mm, 5-microm particle size) and a UV and fluorescence detector. The mobile phase consisted of 0.03 M tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBA) adjusted to pH 7/methanol (1:1, v/v) as solvent A and methanol as solvent B in a gradient run. The method detection limit was as low as 10 ng/mL for brodifacoum and difenacoum in blood and 10 ng/g in liver; 50 ng/mL for bromadiolone, difethialone, and chlorphacinone in blood and similarly 50 ng/g in liver; and 100 ng/mL for coumafuryl, pindone, warfarin, and diphacinone in blood and 100 ng/g in liver samples. A number of clinical samples of both blood and liver were analyzed; the comparison of this modified QuEChERS and traditional solid-phase extraction data was found to be in close agreement. This method resulted in drastic reduction in processing time and solvent cost both in terms of consumption and disposal, thus making it an attractive alternative to the traditional solid-phase extraction. PMID:20529461

  10. ANALYSIS ON THE RELATIONSHIP OF HIGH BLOOD FAT, HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AND HYPERURICEMIA%高脂血症、高血压与高尿酸血症的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红艳; 邢玉娥

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To investigate the correlation between high blood fat, high blood pressure and hyperuricemia, and thus to improve the treatment and the control rates of high blood fat and high blood pressure.[Methods]Physical examination was conducted for the college staff in research universities.Statistical analysis was conducted.[Results]High blood fat, high blood pressure and hyperuricemia were closely correlated, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01).[Conclusion]Hypercemia symptoms should be treated accompanied with lipid regulating and antihypertensive treatments, when the high blood fat and high blood pressure patients have hyperuricemia symptoms.%[目的]了解高脂血症、高血压与高尿酸血症的相关性.[方法]对某高校教职工进行健康体检,并对结果进行统计分析.[结果]高脂血症、高血压与高尿酸血症密切相关,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).[结论]当高脂血症、高血压患者伴高尿酸血症时,在调脂、降压的同时也要对高尿酸血症给予治疗.

  11. Application of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) to organic chemical contaminants in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, K; Beck, A J

    2002-03-01

    Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment, and control of hazards that was developed as an effective alternative to conventional end-point analysis to control food safety. It has been described as the most effective means of controlling foodborne diseases, and its application to the control of microbiological hazards has been accepted internationally. By contrast, relatively little has been reported relating to the potential use of HACCP, or HACCP-like procedures, to control chemical contaminants of food. This article presents an overview of the implementation of HACCP and discusses its application to the control of organic chemical contaminants in the food chain. Although this is likely to result in many of the advantages previously identified for microbiological HACCP, that is, more effective, efficient, and economical hazard management, a number of areas are identified that require further research and development. These include: (1) a need to refine the methods of chemical contaminant identification and risk assessment employed, (2) develop more cost-effective monitoring and control methods for routine chemical contaminant surveillance of food, and (3) improve the effectiveness of process optimization for the control of chemical contaminants in food. PMID:11934130

  12. Stratification of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Findings by Cluster Analysis in Patients with Arterial Hypertension, Obesity and Albuminuria

    OpenAIRE

    Samoyavcheva S.V.; Shkarin Vl.V.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study the characteristics of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) indices in the combination of arterial hypertension (AH) with obesity and albuminuria using cluster analysis. Material and Methods. The study involved 70 AH patients randomly chosen, aged from 23 to 71 years (mean age — 47.9 years). ABPM was performed before antihypertensive therapy administration. We estimated body mass index and albuminuria level. ABPM indices were stratified int...

  13. Image Analysis Approach for Development of a Decision Support System for Detection of Malaria Parasites in Thin Blood Smear Images

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad, Keerthana; Winter, Jan; Bhat, Udayakrishna M.; Raviraja V Acharya; Prabhu, Gopalakrishna K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes development of a decision support system for diagnosis of malaria using color image analysis. A hematologist has to study around 100 to 300 microscopic views of Giemsa-stained thin blood smear images to detect malaria parasites, evaluate the extent of infection and to identify the species of the parasite. The proposed algorithm picks up the suspicious regions and detects the parasites in images of all the views. The subimages representing all these parasites are put toget...

  14. The Effect of Black Tea on Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Arno Greyling; Rouyanne T Ras; Peter L Zock; Mario Lorenz; Hopman, Maria T.; Thijssen, Dick H. J.; Richard Draijer

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological evidence has linked consumption of black tea, produced from Camellia sinensis, with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, intervention studies on the effects of tea consumption on blood pressure (BP) have reported inconsistent results. Our objective was to conduct a systematic literature review with meta-analysis of controlled human intervention studies examining the effect of tea consumption on BP. METHODS: We systematically searched Medline, Biosis, ...

  15. Signals Analysis and Clinical Validation of Blood and Oxygen Data in Human Brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Kai-yang; LIU Li-jun; WANG Xiang; QIN Zhao; XIE Ze-ping

    2005-01-01

    With a self-made near-infrared analytical instrument to blood and oxygen parameters in human brain, 80 cases in which 20 are healthy persons and 30are anaesthetised cases and others are patients with heart function lack is taken to examine, and the data of blood and oxygen in brain tissue were collected and analyzed by the method of power spectrum and correlation function. The results indicate that: (1) The average brain oxygen saturation of healthy persons and anaesthetised cases is about 80%, in accord with normal parameter of physiology. Contrastively, the average brain oxygen saturation of patients with heart function lack is 72. 8%, which is obviously less than that of healthy persons and anaesthetised cases. The probability of medical statistics is less than 0. 01. (2) The shapes of wave of brain blood and oxygen for the healthy person and the anaesthetised case reveal small periodical fluctuations with stable shape and base line, and the trend of increase or decrease of blood and oxygen parameters in brain tissue is synchronous and a phase reversal, but for the patient with heart function lack in a brain oxygen lack state, the shapes of wave are irregular. This is a hint that near infrared light passing through tissue can reflect the intuitionistic change of brain blood and oxygen parameters. (3) The power spectra of brain blood and oxygen for the healthy person and the anaesthetised case has a clear main peak, narrow bandwidth and perfect superposition each other, but the power spectra for the patient with heart function lack in a brain oxygen lack state is on the contrary. (4) The average cross correlation coefficient of brain blood and oxygen for healthy persons and anaesthetised cases is -0. 9825±0. 1027 close to -1. But the average cross correlation coefficient for patients with heart function lack in a brain oxygen lack state is merely -0. 8923± 0. 1035 which is obviously greater than -1 and the probability of medical statistics is less than 0. 01

  16. A prospective analysis of blood donation history and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kazusa; Birmann, Brenda M; Zhang, Xuehong; Giovannucci, Edward; Bertrand, Kimberly A

    2016-06-01

    Blood donation may influence subsequent NHL development via temporary immune system alterations. To test the hypothesis that frequent blood donation is associated with an increased risk of NHL and its most common histologic subtypes, this study followed 36 576 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS), who provided information on frequency of blood donation in the past 30 years in 1992. This study confirmed 544 incident cases of NHL through 2010. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazards ratios (HR) and 95% CI for the risk of all NHL and major NHL histologic subtypes associated with number of blood donations. In this prospective study, there was no significant evidence of an association between blood donation frequency and incidence of NHL (age-adjusted HR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.94-1.68, comparing > 20 donations vs 0 donations over 30 years, p for trend = 0.18) or of any major NHL subtypes. PMID:26373836

  17. Development and validation of a magneto-hydrodynamic solver for blood flow analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kainz, W; Guag, J; Krauthamer, V; Myklebust, J; Bassen, H; Chang, I [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, FDA, Silver Spring, MD (United States); Benkler, S; Chavannes, N [Schmid and Partner Engineering AG, Zurich (Switzerland); Szczerba, D; Neufeld, E; Kuster, N [Foundation for Research on Information Technology in Society (IT' IS), Zurich (Switzerland); Kim, J H; Sarntinoranont, M, E-mail: wolfgang.kainz@fda.hhs.go [Soft Tissue Mechanics and Drug Delivery Laboratory, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, FL (United States)

    2010-12-07

    The objective of this study was to develop a numerical solver to calculate the magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) signal produced by a moving conductive liquid, i.e. blood flow in the great vessels of the heart, in a static magnetic field. We believe that this MHD signal is able to non-invasively characterize cardiac blood flow in order to supplement the present non-invasive techniques for the assessment of heart failure conditions. The MHD signal can be recorded on the electrocardiogram (ECG) while the subject is exposed to a strong static magnetic field. The MHD signal can only be measured indirectly as a combination of the heart's electrical signal and the MHD signal. The MHD signal itself is caused by induced electrical currents in the blood due to the moving of the blood in the magnetic field. To characterize and eventually optimize MHD measurements, we developed a MHD solver based on a finite element code. This code was validated against literature, experimental and analytical data. The validation of the MHD solver shows good agreement with all three reference values. Future studies will include the calculation of the MHD signals for anatomical models. We will vary the orientation of the static magnetic field to determine an optimized location for the measurement of the MHD blood flow signal.

  18. Development and validation of a magneto-hydrodynamic solver for blood flow analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainz, W.; Guag, J.; Benkler, S.; Szczerba, D.; Neufeld, E.; Krauthamer, V.; Myklebust, J.; Bassen, H.; Chang, I.; Chavannes, N.; Kim, J. H.; Sarntinoranont, M.; Kuster, N.

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a numerical solver to calculate the magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) signal produced by a moving conductive liquid, i.e. blood flow in the great vessels of the heart, in a static magnetic field. We believe that this MHD signal is able to non-invasively characterize cardiac blood flow in order to supplement the present non-invasive techniques for the assessment of heart failure conditions. The MHD signal can be recorded on the electrocardiogram (ECG) while the subject is exposed to a strong static magnetic field. The MHD signal can only be measured indirectly as a combination of the heart's electrical signal and the MHD signal. The MHD signal itself is caused by induced electrical currents in the blood due to the moving of the blood in the magnetic field. To characterize and eventually optimize MHD measurements, we developed a MHD solver based on a finite element code. This code was validated against literature, experimental and analytical data. The validation of the MHD solver shows good agreement with all three reference values. Future studies will include the calculation of the MHD signals for anatomical models. We will vary the orientation of the static magnetic field to determine an optimized location for the measurement of the MHD blood flow signal.

  19. Whole blood donor deferral analysis at a center in Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnihotri Naveen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Deferrals lead to loss of precious whole blood donors (WBD and blood units available for transfusion purposes. Knowledge of rate and causes of donor deferral can guide the recruitment strategy for WBD. Aim: To find the incidence and causes of deferral in Indian WBD and apply relevant findings to modify recruitment strategy for blood donors. Materials and Methods: Data for WBD presenting for donation in a blood center and outdoor camps over one and half year were analyzed retrospectively. National guidelines were used for selection and deferral of WBD. Result: 736 (11.6% WBD were deferred out of 6357 presenting for donation during the study period. Most (69.8% of the donors were deferred on physical examination and hemoglobin (Hb testing. Most common reasons for deferral were low Hb (55.8%, abnormal blood pressure (11.1%, medication (6.9% and underweight donors (2.9%. Significantly more volunteers were deferred than relative donors (13.97% vs 5.80%; P<0.000. Females were found to have higher deferral rate than males (53.5% vs 6.9%; P=0.000 and higher odds ratio for deferral (15.4. Donors older than 40 years of age had significantly higher chance of being deferred (P<0.05. Discussion and Conclusion: It is important to determine the rate and causes of WBD deferral to guide the recruitment and retention efforts at local, regional, and national level.

  20. Development and validation of a magneto-hydrodynamic solver for blood flow analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to develop a numerical solver to calculate the magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) signal produced by a moving conductive liquid, i.e. blood flow in the great vessels of the heart, in a static magnetic field. We believe that this MHD signal is able to non-invasively characterize cardiac blood flow in order to supplement the present non-invasive techniques for the assessment of heart failure conditions. The MHD signal can be recorded on the electrocardiogram (ECG) while the subject is exposed to a strong static magnetic field. The MHD signal can only be measured indirectly as a combination of the heart's electrical signal and the MHD signal. The MHD signal itself is caused by induced electrical currents in the blood due to the moving of the blood in the magnetic field. To characterize and eventually optimize MHD measurements, we developed a MHD solver based on a finite element code. This code was validated against literature, experimental and analytical data. The validation of the MHD solver shows good agreement with all three reference values. Future studies will include the calculation of the MHD signals for anatomical models. We will vary the orientation of the static magnetic field to determine an optimized location for the measurement of the MHD blood flow signal.