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Sample records for blood cells increased

  1. Net haemoglobin increase from reinfusion of refrigerated vs. frozen red blood cells after autologous blood transfusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashenden, M; Mørkeberg, Jakob Sehested

    2011-01-01

    freezing. Nevertheless, frozen storage allowed haemoglobin to fully recover before reinfusion, while the haemoglobin was 10% lower in the refrigerated group compared with baseline. After reinfusion, the haemoglobin levels were 11·5% higher than the baseline values in the group reinfused with frozen blood......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES  Two main blood storage procedures can be used for storing red blood cells: refrigeration and freezing. Nevertheless, the efficiency of these procedures measured as the increase in haemoglobin after reinfusion compared with baseline has never been examined. The main...... objective was to examine which storage procedure yielded the largest increase in circulating haemoglobin after reinfusion compared to baseline. MATERIALS AND METHODS  Equal volumes of blood from 15 men were withdrawn and stored either frozen or refrigerated as packed red blood cells. Serial measures...

  2. Storage-induced increase in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in red blood cell components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kücükakin, Bülent; Kocak, Volkan; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    Transfusion of blood components may increase the risk of complications in relation to surgery. During storage, red blood cells (RBCs) undergo structural and functional changes that may reduce function and viability after transfusion. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of buffy-coat ...

  3. Sumatriptan increases the proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected individuals and healthy blood donors in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, P; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    2000-01-01

    HIV infection is characterized by the loss of CD4+ T cells as well as the loss of T-cell function, leading to severe immunodeficiency. The proliferative capacity of T cells measured in vitro as responses to antigens and mitogens is severely reduced during HIV infection. An increased level...... responsible for regulation of the intracellular levels of cAMP. In a preliminary study sumatriptan increased the proliferative responses of PBMC to a polyclonal activator in vitro in 9 of 10 HIV-seropositive individuals (p=0.007), and in 7 of 9 healthy blood donors (p=0.05). This was probably due...... of the intracellular second messenger adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) has been shown to cause impaired proliferative capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HIV-infected individuals in vitro. Sumatriptan, a 5HT1d receptor agonist, inhibits the activity of adenylyl cyclases, the enzymes...

  4. Increased B cell and cytotoxic NK cell proportions and increased T cell responsiveness in blood of natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosis patients.

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    Johan Mellergård

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changes in the blood lymphocyte composition probably both mediate and reflect the effects of natalizumab treatment in multiple sclerosis, with implications for treatment benefits and risks. METHODS: A broad panel of markers for lymphocyte populations, including states of activation and co-stimulation, as well as functional T cell responses to recall antigens and mitogens, were assessed by flow cytometry in 40 patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis before and after one-year natalizumab treatment. RESULTS: Absolute numbers of all major lymphocyte populations increased after treatment, most markedly for NK and B cells. The fraction of both memory and presumed regulatory B cell subsets increased, as did CD3(-CD56(dim cytotoxic NK cells, whereas CD3(-CD56(bright regulatory NK cells decreased. The increase in cell numbers was further associated with a restored T cell responsiveness to recall antigens and mitogens in functional assays. CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirms that natalizumab treatment increases the number of lymphocytes in blood, likely mirroring the expression of VLA-4 being highest on NK and B cells. This finding supports reduction of lymphocyte extravasation as a main mode of action, although the differential effects on subpopulation composition suggests that cell-signalling may also be affected. The systemic increase in T cell responsiveness reflects the increase in numbers, and while augmenting anti-infectious responses systemically, localized responses may become correspondingly decreased.

  5. Men with Sickle Cell Anemia and Priapism Exhibit Increased Hemolytic Rate, Decreased Red Blood Cell Deformability and Increased Red Blood Cell Aggregate Strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizzy-Clara Cita

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between priapism in men with sickle cell anemia (SCA and hemorheological and hemolytical parameters.Fifty-eight men with SCA (median age: 38 years were included; 28 who had experienced priapism at least once during their life (priapism group and 30 who never experienced this complication (control group. Twenty-two patients were treated with hydroxycarbamide, 11 in each group. All patients were at steady state at the time of inclusion. Hematological and biochemical parameters were obtained through routine procedures. The Laser-assisted Optical Rotational Cell Analyzer was used to measure red blood cell (RBC deformability at 30 Pa (ektacytometry and RBC aggregation properties (laser backscatter versus time. Blood viscosity was measured at a shear rate of 225 s-1 using a cone/plate viscometer. A principal component analysis was performed on 4 hemolytic markers (i.e., lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT, total bilirubin (BIL levels and reticulocyte (RET percentage to calculate a hemolytic index.Compared to the control group, patients with priapism exhibited higher ASAT (p = 0.01, LDH (p = 0.03, RET (p = 0.03 levels and hemolytic indices (p = 0.02. Higher RBC aggregates strength (p = 0.01 and lower RBC deformability (p = 0.005 were observed in patients with priapism compared to controls. After removing the hydroxycarbamide-treated patients, RBC deformability (p = 0.01 and RBC aggregate strength (p = 0.03 were still different between the two groups, and patients with priapism exhibited significantly higher hemolytic indices (p = 0.01 than controls.Our results confirm that priapism in SCA is associated with higher hemolytic rates and show for the first time that this complication is also associated with higher RBC aggregate strength and lower RBC deformability.

  6. Increased procoagulant activity of red blood cells in the presence of cisplatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Cheng-fang; YU Hong-juan; HOU Jin-xiao; ZHOU Jin

    2008-01-01

    Background Cisplatin based chemotherapy is a well recognized risk factor for coagulation disordrs and thrombosis.The pathophysiological mechanisms by which cisplatin promote thrombosis are not well understood.Methods Red blood cells (RBCs) were separated from peripheral blood of patients with breast cancer (n=10) and healthy adults (n=6) and treated with cisplatin. Coagulation time of RBCs was assessed by one step recalcification time and the productions of thrombin, intrinsic and extrinsic factor Xa were measured in the presence or absence of various concentrations of lactadherin. Exposed phosphatidylserine was stained with lactadherin and observed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry.Results Neither fresh RBCs nor RBCs treated without cisplatin had potent procoagulant activity. Cisplatin treatment increased procoagulant activity of RBCs in a cell number- and concentration-dependent manner. Exposed phosphatidylserine was stained with lactadherin and after cisplatin treatment, strong fluorescence was revealed by confocal microscopy. Lactadherin bound RBCs from patients with breast cancer increased from (1.9±0.5)% on control RBCs to (68.0±3.5)% on RBCs treated with 10 pmol/L cisplatin for 24 hours.Conclusions Cisplatin treatment increases procoagulant activity of RBCs, which have a strong association with exposure of phosphatidylserine. The increased procoagulant activity may contribute to the pathogenesis of thrombophilia during cisplatin based chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.

  7. Patients with sepsis exhibit increased mitochondrial respiratory capacity in peripheral blood immune cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjövall, Fredrik; Morota, Saori; Persson, Johan Mikael;

    2013-01-01

    to 7). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), cytochrome c (Cyt c), and citrate synthase (CS) were measured as indicators of cellular mitochondrial content. RESULTS: In intact PBICs with endogenous substrates, a gradual increase in cellular respiration reached 173% of controls after 1 week (P = 0......INTRODUCTION: In sepsis, mitochondria have been associated with both initial dysfunction and subsequent upregulation (biogenesis). However, the evolvement of mitochondrial function in sepsis over time is largely unknown, and we therefore investigated mitochondrial respiration in peripheral blood.......001). In permeabilized cells, respiration using substrates of complex I, II, and IV were significantly increased days 1 to 2, reaching 137%, 130%, and 173% of controls, respectively. In parallel, higher levels of CS activity, mtDNA, and Cyt c content in PBICs (211%, 243%, and 331% of controls for the respective...

  8. Decreased memory B cells and increased CD8 memory T cells in blood of breastfed children: the generation R study.

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    Michelle A E Jansen

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding provides a protective effect against infectious diseases in infancy. Still, immunological evidence for enhanced adaptive immunity in breastfed children remains inconclusive.To determine whether breastfeeding affects B- and T-cell memory in the first years of life.We performed immunophenotypic analysis on blood samples within a population-based prospective cohort study. Participants included children at 6 months (n=258, 14 months (n=166, 25 months (n=112 and 6 years of age (n=332 with both data on breastfeeding and blood lymphocytes. Total B- and T-cell numbers and their memory subsets were determined with 6-color flow cytometry. Mothers completed questionnaires on breastfeeding when their children were aged 2, 6, and 12 months. Multiple linear regression models with adjustments for potential confounders were performed.Per month continuation of breastfeeding, a 3% (95% CI -6, -1 decrease in CD27+IgM+, a 2% (95 CI % -5, -1 decrease in CD27+IgA+ and a 2% (95% CI -4, -1 decrease in CD27-IgG+ memory B cell numbers were observed at 6 months of age. CD8 T-cell numbers at 6 months of age were 20% (95% CI 3, 37 higher in breastfed than in non-breastfed infants. This was mainly found for central memory CD8 T cells and associated with exposure to breast milk, rather than duration. The same trend was observed at 14 months, but associations disappeared at older ages.Longer breastfeeding is associated with increased CD8 T-cell memory, but not B-cell memory numbers in the first 6 months of life. This transient skewing towards T cell memory might contribute to the protective effect against infectious diseases in infancy.

  9. Increased radioresistance of offspring in rats after maternal stimulation with benzene blood cell extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzene extracts from human blood cells were inoculated intraperitoneally into female rats on days 13, 17 and 21 of pregnancy. Their offspring at 13 to 15 weeks of age were irradiated with gamma rays for 49 h, with a total dose of 15.6 Gy. The number of survivors 30 days after irradiation was significantly greater in offspring from mothers treated with extracts as compared with controls. (author). 1 tab., 8 refs

  10. Increased levels of (class switched) memory B cells in peripheral blood of current smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Corry-Anke; Hylkema, Machteld N.; Geerlings, Marie; van Geffen, Wouter; Postma, Dirkje S.; Timens, Wim; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that a specific immune response contributes to the pathogenesis of COPD. B-cell follicles are present in lung tissue and increased anti-elastin titers have been found in plasma of COPD patients. Additionally, regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been implicated in its pathoge

  11. S phase entry of neural progenitor cells correlates with increased blood flow in the young subventricular zone.

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    Benjamin Lacar

    Full Text Available The postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ contains proliferating neural progenitor cells in close proximity to blood vessels. Insults and drug treatments acutely stimulate cell proliferation in the SVZ, which was assessed by labeling cells entering S phase. Although G1-to-S progression is metabolically demanding on a minute-to-hour time scale, it remains unknown whether increased SVZ cell proliferation is accompanied by a local hemodynamic response. This neurovascular coupling provides energy substrates to active neuronal assemblies. Transcardial dye perfusion revealed the presence of capillaries throughout the SVZ that constrict upon applications of the thromboxane A(2 receptor agonist U-46119 in acute brain slice preparations. We then monitored in vivo blood flow using laser Doppler flowmetry via a microprobe located either in the SVZ or a mature network. U-46119 injections into the lateral ventricle decreased blood flow in the SVZ and the striatum, which are near the ventricle. A 1-hour ventricular injection of epidermal and basic fibroblast growth factor (EGF and bFGF significantly increased the percentage of Sox2 transcription factor-positive cells in S phase 1.5 hours post-injection. This increase was accompanied by a sustained rise in blood flow in the SVZ but not in the striatum. Direct growth factor injections into the cortex did not alter local blood flow, ruling out direct effects on capillaries. These findings suggest that an acute increase in the number of G1-to-S cycling SVZ cells is accompanied by neurometabolic-vascular coupling, which may provide energy and nutrient for cell cycle progression.

  12. Telomerase activity is increased and telomere length shortened in T cells from blood of patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Kehuai; Higashi, H; Hansen, E R;

    2000-01-01

    We studied telomerase activity and telomere length in PBMC and purified CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from blood obtained from a total of 32 patients with atopic dermatitis, 16 patients with psoriasis, and 30 normal controls. The telomerase activity was significantly increased in PBMC from the patients...... compared with PBMC from normal donors. This increase was most pronounced in the subpopulation of CD4(+) T cells, which were significantly above the activity of the CD8(+) T cells in atopic dermatitis, psoriasis patients, and control persons. The telomere length was significantly reduced in all T cell...... subsets from both atopic dermatitis and psoriasis patients compared with normal individuals. Furthermore, the telomere length was found to be significantly shorter in CD4(+) memory T cells compared with the CD4(+) naive T cells, and both of the cell subsets from diseases were shown to be of significantly...

  13. Telomerase activity is increased and telomere length shortened in T cells from blood of patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Kehuai; Higashi, N; Hansen, E R;

    2000-01-01

    We studied telomerase activity and telomere length in PBMC and purified CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from blood obtained from a total of 32 patients with atopic dermatitis, 16 patients with psoriasis, and 30 normal controls. The telomerase activity was significantly increased in PBMC from the patients......(+) T cell subsets from normal donors. In conclusion, the increased telomerase activity and shortened telomere length indicates that T lymphocytes in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis are chronically stimulated and have an increased cellular turnover in vivo....

  14. Diminished Lipid Raft SNAP23 Increases Blood Pressure by Inhibiting the Membrane Fluidity of Vascular Smooth-Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Mi So; Won, Kyung-Jong; Kim, Do-Yoon; Hwang, Dae Il; Yoon, Seok Won; Jung, Seung Hyo; Lee, Kang Pa; Jung, Dongju; Choi, Wahn Soo; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwan Myung

    2015-01-01

    Synaptosomal-associated protein 23 (SNAP23) is involved in microvesicle trafficking and exocytosis in various cell types, but its functional role in blood pressure (BP) regulation has not yet been defined. Here, we found that lipid raft SNAP23 expression was much lower in vascular smooth-muscle cells (VSMCs) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) than in those from normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. This led us to investigate the hypothesis that this lower expression may be linked to the spontaneous hypertension found in SHR. The expression level of lipid raft SNAP23 and the fluidity in the plasma membrane of VSMCs were lower in SHR than in WKY rats. Cholesterol content in the VSMC membrane was higher, but the secreted cholesterols found in VSMC-conditioned medium and in the blood serum were lower in SHR than in WKY rats. SNAP23 knockdown in WKY rat VSMCs reduced the membrane fluidity and increased the membrane cholesterol level. Systemic overexpression of SNAP23 in SHR resulted in an increase of cholesterol content in their serum, a decrease in cholesterol in their aorta and the reduction of their BP. Our findings suggest that the low expression of the lipid raft SNAP23 in VSMCs might be a potential cause for the characteristic hypertension of SHR.

  15. Storage-induced increase in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in red blood cell components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucukakin, B.; Kocak, Volkan; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    buffy-coat reduced red cells in SAG-M additive solution, by assessing biomarkers of oxidative and inflammatory stress during a storage period of 35 days. Study design and methods. Ten units of RBCs were stored for 35 days. Samples were collected from the units at storage days 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35...

  16. Combined intermittent hypoxia and surface muscle electrostimulation as a method to increase peripheral blood progenitor cell concentration

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    Azqueta Carmen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our goal was to determine whether short-term intermittent hypoxia exposure, at a level well tolerated by healthy humans and previously shown by our group to increase EPO and erythropoiesis, could mobilize hematopoietic stem cells (HSC and increase their presence in peripheral circulation. Methods Four healthy male subjects were subjected to three different protocols: one with only a hypoxic stimulus (OH, another with a hypoxic stimulus plus muscle electrostimulation (HME and the third with only muscle electrostimulation (OME. Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia exposure consisted of only three sessions of three hours at barometric pressure 540 hPa (equivalent to an altitude of 5000 m for three consecutive days, whereas muscular electrostimulation was performed in two separate periods of 25 min in each session. Blood samples were obtained from an antecubital vein on three consecutive days immediately before the experiment and 24 h, 48 h, 4 days and 7 days after the last day of hypoxic exposure. Results There was a clear increase in the number of circulating CD34+ cells after combined hypobaric hypoxia and muscular electrostimulation. This response was not observed after the isolated application of the same stimuli. Conclusion Our results open a new application field for hypobaric systems as a way to increase efficiency in peripheral HSC collection.

  17. Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Ugandan Men Is Associated with Increased Abundance and Function of HIV Target Cells in Blood, but Not the Foreskin: A Cross-sectional Study.

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    Jessica L Prodger

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni infection has been associated with an increased HIV prevalence in humans and SHIV incidence in primate models. We hypothesized that immune activation from this gastrointestinal mucosa infection would increase highly HIV-susceptible CD4 T cell subsets in the blood and the foreskin through common mucosal homing.Foreskin tissue and blood were obtained from 34 HIV- and malaria-uninfected Ugandan men who volunteered for elective circumcision, 12 of whom were definitively positive for S. mansoni eggs in stool and 12 definitively negative for both S. mansoni eggs and worm antigen. Tissue and blood T cell subsets were characterized by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC. Th17 and Th1 cells from both the blood and foreskin expressed higher levels of CCR5 and were more activated than other CD4 T cell subsets. S. mansoni-infected men had a higher frequency of systemic Th1 cells (22.9 vs. 16.5% of blood CD4 T cells, p<0.05, Th17 cells (2.3 vs. 1.5%, p<0.05, and Th22 cells (0.5 vs. 0.3%, p<0.01 than uninfected men. Additionally, Th17 cells in the blood of S. mansoni-infected men demonstrated enhanced function (28.1 vs. 16.3% producing multiple cytokines, p = 0.046. However, these immune alterations were not observed in foreskin tissue.S. mansoni infection was associated with an increased frequency of highly HIV-susceptible Th1, Th17 and Th22 cell subsets in the blood, but these T cell immune differences did not extend to the foreskin. S. mansoni induced changes in T cell immunology mediated through the common mucosal immune system are not likely to increase HIV susceptibility in the foreskin.

  18. Marked increase in rat red blood cell membrane protein glycosylation by one-month treatment with a cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Laia; Baron, Cristian; Fernández-López, José-Antonio; Remesar, Xavier; Alemany, Marià

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Glucose, an aldose, spontaneously reacts with protein amino acids yielding glycosylated proteins. The compounds may reorganize to produce advanced glycosylation products, which regulatory importance is increasingly being recognized. Protein glycosylation is produced without the direct intervention of enzymes and results in the loss of function. Glycosylated plasma albumin, and glycosylated haemoglobin are currently used as index of mean plasma glucose levels, since higher glucose availability results in higher glycosylation rates. In this study we intended to detect the early changes in blood protein glycosylation elicited by an obesogenic diet. Experimental Design. Since albumin is in constant direct contact with plasma glucose, as are the red blood cell (RBC) membranes, we analyzed their degree or glycosylation in female and male rats, either fed a standard diet or subjected to a hyper-energetic self-selected cafeteria diet for 30 days. This model produces a small increase in basal glycaemia and a significant increase in body fat, leaving the animals in the initial stages of development of metabolic syndrome. We also measured the degree of glycosylation of hemoglobin, and the concentration of glucose in contact with this protein, that within the RBC. Glycosylation was measured by colorimetric estimation of the hydroxymethylfurfural liberated from glycosyl residues by incubation with oxalate. Results. Plasma glucose was higher in cafeteria diet and in male rats, both independent effects. However, there were no significant differences induced by sex or diet in either hemoglobin or plasma proteins. Purified RBC membranes showed a marked effect of diet: higher glycosylation in cafeteria rats, which was more marked in females (not in controls). In any case, the number of glycosyl residues per molecule were higher in hemoglobin than in plasma proteins (after correction for molecular weight). The detected levels of glucose in RBC were lower

  19. Increased osteoclast formation and activity by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in chronic liver disease patients with osteopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J. Olivier; A.M. Schoenmaker; R.E. Mebius; V. Everts; C.J. Mulder; K.M.J. van Nieuwkerk; T.J. de Vries; S.W. van der Merwe

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common complication of chronic liver disease, and the underlying mechanisms are not understood. We aimed to determine if osteoclasts develop from osteoclast precursors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of chronic liver disease patients with osteopenia compared with cont

  20. GLP-2 receptor localizes to enteric neurons and endocrine cells expressing vasoactive peptides and mediates increased blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Xinfu; Karpen, Heidi E; Stephens, John;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a nutrient-responsive hormone that exerts diverse actions in the gastrointestinal tract, including enhancing epithelial cell survival and proliferation, mucosal blood flow, and nutrient uptake and suppressing gastric motility and secretion. Th...

  1. Intercellular transfer of P-glycoprotein in human blood-brain barrier endothelial cells is increased by histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Andreas; Noack, Sandra; Buettner, Manuela; Naim, Hassan Y; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) controls the entry of compounds into the brain, thereby regulating brain homeostasis. Efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp) significantly contribute to BBB function. Multiple signaling pathways modulate the expression and activity of Pgp in response to xenobiotics and disease. A non-genetic way of intercellular transfer of Pgp occurs in cancer cells, but whether this also occurs in non-cancer cells such as endothelial cells that form the BBB is not known. A human brain endothelial cell line (hCMEC/D3) was used to study whether cell-to-cell Pgp transfer occurs during co-culturing with Pgp-EGFP expressing hCMEC/D3 cells. The Pgp-EGFP fusion protein was transferred from donor to recipient cells by cell-to-cell contact and Pgp-EGFP enriched vesicles, which were exocytosed by donor cells and endocytosed by adherent recipient cells. Flow cytometry experiments with the Pgp substrate eFLUXX-ID Gold demonstrated that the transferred Pgp is functional in the recipient cells. Exposure of the donor cells with inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs) resulted in an enhanced intercellular Pgp transfer. Non-genetic transfer of a resistance phenotype and its regulation by HDACs is a novel mechanism of altering BBB functionality. This mechanism may have important implications for understanding drug-induced alterations in Pgp expression and activity. PMID:27375084

  2. Increased expression of the 20S proteasome in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of type 2 diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the dynamic expression of the 20S proteasome in peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMCs)of type 2 diabetic patients without vascular complications.Methods PBMCs were prepared from 30 type 2 diabetic patients and 30 nondiabetic controls.The general indexes including weight,height and blood pressure were recorded.Fasting plasma glucose,fasting plasma insulin and glycosylated hemoglobin were measured.The protein level of the 20S proteasome was measured by Western blotting.The mRNA exp...

  3. Age-related macular degeneration is associated with increased proportion of CD56(+) T cells in peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Carsten; Singh, Amardeep; Krüger Falk, Mads;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the association between age-related changes in the T-cell compartment and prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). DESIGN: Case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 117 AMD cases and 106 controls were included prospectively. METHODS: Fresh-drawn peripheral blood...... samples were processed for flow cytometric analysis of T-cell populations. Plasma samples were analyzed for anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunoglobulin (Ig)G and complement factor H (CFH) Y402H genotype. The diagnosis of AMD was made according to the Clinical Age-Related Maculopathy Staging System. MAIN...

  4. Activation of a P2Y4-like purinoceptor triggers an increase in cytosolic [Ca2+] in the red blood cells of the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Squamata, Teiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sartorello R.; Garcia C.R.S.

    2005-01-01

    An increasing number of pathophysiological roles for purinoceptors are emerging, some of which have therapeutic potential. Erythrocytes are an important source of purines, which can be released under physiological and physiopathological conditions, acting on purinergic receptors associated with the same cell or with neighboring cells. Few studies have been conducted on lizards, and have been limited to ATP agonist itself. We have previously shown that the red blood cells (RBCs) of the lizard ...

  5. Self-reactive CD4+ T cells and B cells in the blood in health and autoimmune disease: increased frequency of thyroglobulin-reactive cells in Graves' disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus H; Moeller, Ane Christine; Hegedüs, Laszlo;

    2006-01-01

    with autoimmune thyroiditis. In Hashimoto's thyroiditis, B cells bound increased amounts of thyroglobulin in a complement- and autoantibody-dependent manner, and the thyroglobulin-elicited proliferation of CD4(+) T cells and B cells was complement dependent. Increased proportions of Tg-responsive CD4......(+) T cells and B cells were found in patients with Graves' disease. Notably, both patient groups and healthy controls exhibited higher proliferative responses to thyroglobulin than to a foreign recall antigen, tetanus toxoid. Our results suggest that self-tolerance can be broken by exposure of...... circulating lymphocytes to high local concentrations of self-antigen, and that complement plays a role in the maintenance of autoimmune processes, at least in Hashimoto's thyroiditis....

  6. Increased production of megakaryocytes near purity from cord blood CD34+ cells using a short two-phase culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Lucie; Robert, Amélie; Proulx, Chantal; Pineault, Nicolas

    2008-03-20

    Expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) ex vivo remains an important focus in fundamental and clinical research. The aim of this study was to determine whether the implementation of such expansion phase in a two-phase culture strategy prior to the induction of megakaryocyte (Mk) differentiation would increase the yield of Mks produced in cultures. Toward this end, we first characterized the functional properties of five cytokine cocktails to be tested in the expansion phase on the growth and differentiation kinetics of CD34+-enriched cells, and on their capacity to expand clonogenic progenitors in cultures. Three of these cocktails were chosen based on their reported ability to induce HPC expansion ex vivo, while the other two represented new cytokine combinations. These analyses revealed that none of the cocktails tested could prevent the differentiation of CD34+ cells and the rapid expansion of lineage-positive cells. Hence, we sought to determine the optimum length of time for the expansion phase that would lead to the best final Mk yields. Despite greater expansion of CD34+ cells and overall cell growth with a longer expansion phase, the optimal length for the expansion phase that provided greater Mk yield at near maximal purity was found to be 5 days. Under such settings, two functionally divergent cocktails were found to significantly increase the final yield of Mks. Surprisingly, these cocktails were either deprived of thrombopoietin or of stem cell factor, two cytokines known to favor megakaryopoiesis and HPC expansion, respectively. Based on these results, a short resource-efficient two-phase culture protocol for the production of Mks near purity (>95%) from human CD34+ CB cells has been established.

  7. CELL RESPIRATION STUDIES : II. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF BLOOD FROM NORMAL INDIVIDUALS AND PATIENTS WITH INCREASED LEUCOCYTE COUNTS (SEPSIS; CHRONIC MYELOGENOUS LEUCEMIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daland, G A; Isaacs, R

    1927-06-30

    1. The oxygen consumption of blood of normal individuals, when the hemoglobin is saturated with oxygen, is practically zero within the limits of experimental error of the microspirometer used. 2. The oxygen consumed in a microspirometer by the blood of patients with chronic myelogenous leucemia with a high white blood cell count, and of one with leucocytosis from sepsis, was proportional to the number of adult polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the blood. 3. No correlation could be made between the rate of oxygen absorption and the total number of white blood cells in the blood, or the total number of immature cells, or the number of red blood cells, or the amount of oxyhemoglobin. 4. The blood of patients with chronic myelogenous leucemia continued to use oxygen in the microspirometer longer than that of normal individuals, and the hemoglobin, in the leucemic bloods, became desaturated even though exposed to air. 5. In blood in which the bulk. of the cells were immature and the mature cells few, the oxygen consumption was lower than in blood in which the mature cells predominated. The rate of oxygen consumption of the immature cells was relatively low as compared to the mature. 6. The slower rate of oxygen absorption by the immature leucocytes in chronic myelogenous leucemia as compared to the mature cells, places them, in accord with Warburg's reports, in the class of the malignant tissues in this respect rather than in the group of young or embryonic cells.

  8. Endurance Exercise Mobilizes Developmentally Early Stem Cells into Peripheral Blood and Increases Their Number in Bone Marrow: Implications for Tissue Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marycz, Krzysztof; Mierzejewska, Katarzyna; Śmieszek, Agnieszka; Suszynska, Ewa; Malicka, Iwona; Kucia, Magda; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z

    2016-01-01

    Endurance exercise has been reported to increase the number of circulating hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) in peripheral blood (PB) as well as in bone marrow (BM). We therefore became interested in whether endurance exercise has the same effect on very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs), which have been described as a population of developmentally early stem cells residing in BM. Mice were run daily for 1 hour on a treadmill for periods of 5 days or 5 weeks. Human volunteers had trained in long-distance running for one year, six times per week. FACS-based analyses and RT-PCR of murine and human VSELs and HSPCs from collected bone marrow and peripheral blood were performed. We observed that endurance exercise increased the number of VSELs circulating in PB and residing in BM. In parallel, we observed an increase in the number of HSPCs. These observations were subsequently confirmed in young athletes, who showed an increase in circulating VSELs and HSPCs after intensive running exercise. We provide for the first time evidence that endurance exercise may have beneficial effects on the expansion of developmentally early stem cells. We hypothesize that these circulating stem cells are involved in repairing minor exercise-related tissue and organ injuries.

  9. Increased percentage of CD8 CD28– suppressor lymphocytes in peripheral blood and skin infiltrates correlates with advanced disease in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Urbaniak-Kujda

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: T cells with the CD8 CD28– phenotype are CD8 lymphocytes with regulatory function. Their increased numbers were observed in infections, autoimmune and neoplastic diseases, and in elderly healthy individuals. CD8 CD28– lymphocyte levels in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL has not yet been described. The aim of the study was to determine their levels in these patients’ peripheral blood and cutaneous infiltrates and their relation to the clinical stage of disease.Material/Methods: Forty-one untreated patients, 26 males and 15 females, with CTCL were enrolled in the study. CD8 CD28– lymphocyte levels were determined by flow cytometry in peripheral blood and by immunochemistry in skin infiltrates.Results: The percentage of CD8 CD28– lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of the patients was significantly higher than in the controls. Patients with advanced disease displayed a higher percentage of CD8 CD28– lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and skin than did the individuals with early stages of the disease. Moreover, positive correlations between CD8 CD28– lymphocyte level in peripheral blood and age, clinical stage, and the levels in the skin infiltrates was revealed. Additionally, the percentage of CD8 CD28– T cells in the skin infiltrates correlated positively with age and clinical stage of the disease.Conclusions: These data suggest that CD8 CD28– lymphocytes play an important role in the development of immunotolerance in the progression of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

  10. Oxygen-glucose deprivation increases the enzymatic activity and the microvesicle-mediated release of ectonucleotidases in the cells composing the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceruti, Stefania; Colombo, Laura; Magni, Giulia; Viganò, Francesca; Boccazzi, Marta; Deli, Mária A; Sperlágh, Beáta; Abbracchio, Maria P; Kittel, Agnes

    2011-08-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB), the dynamic interface between the nervous tissue and the blood, is composed by endothelial cells, pericytes and astrocytes. Extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides and their receptors (the purinergic system) constitute a widely diffused signaling system involved in many pathophysiological processes. However, the role of this system in controlling BBB functions is still largely unknown. By using cultures of these three cell types grown separately and a BBB in vitro model consisting of triple co-cultures, we studied for the first time the expression and distribution of the ecto-enzymes nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases, the enzymes which hydrolyze extracellular nucleotides) under control and ischemic (oxygen-glucose deprivation in vitro; OGD) conditions. NTPDase1 was detected in all three cell types, whereas NTPDase2 was expressed by astrocytes and pericytes and, to a lesser extent, by endothelial cells. Endothelial cells were extremely susceptible to cell death when OGD was applied to mimic in vitro the cytotoxicity induced by ischemia, whereas astrocytes and pericytes were more resistant. A semi-quantitative assay highlighted markedly increased e-ATPase activity following exposure to OGD in all three cell types, either when grown separately or when co-cultured together to resemble the composition of the BBB. Moreover, electron microscopy analysis showed that both endothelial cells and astrocytes shed microvesicles containing NTPDases from their membrane, which may suggest a novel mechanism to increase the breakdown of ATP released to toxic levels by damaged BBB cells. We hypothesize that this phenomenon could have a protective and/or modulatory effect for brain parenchymal cells. This in vitro model is therefore useful to study the role of extracellular nucleotides in modulating BBB responses to ischemic events, and to develop new effective purinergic-based approaches for brain ischemia.

  11. Morbidly obese human subjects have increased peripheral blood CD4 + T cells with skewing toward a Treg- and Th2-dominated phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. van der Weerd (Kim); W.A. Dik (Willem); B. Schrijver (Benjamin); D.H. Schweitzer (Dave ); A.W. Langerak (Ton); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); R.M. Kiewiet-Kemper (Rosalie); M.O. van Aken (Maarten); A. van Huisstede (Astrid); J.J.M. van Dongen (Jacques); A.J. van der Lelij (Aart Jan); F.J.T. Staal (Frank); P.M. van Hagen (Martin)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObesity is associated with local T-cell abnormalities in adipose tissue. Systemic obesity-related abnormalities in the peripheral blood T-cell compartment are not well defined. In this study, we investigated the peripheral blood T-cell compartment of morbidly obese and lean subjects. We

  12. Increased frequencies of Th22 cells as well as Th17 cells in the peripheral blood of patients with ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: T-helper (Th 22 is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. The roles of Th22 cells in the pathophysiological of ankylosing spondylitis (AS and rheumatoid arthritis (RA remain unsettled. So we examined the frequencies of Th22 cells, Th17 cells and Th1 cells in peripheral blood (PB from patients with AS and patients with RA compared with both healthy controls as well as patients with osteoarthritis. DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 32 AS patients, 20 RA patients, 10 OA patients and 20 healthy controls. The expression of IL-22, IL-17 and IFN-γ were examined in AS, RA, OA patients and healthy controls by flow cytometry. Plasma IL-22 and IL-17 levels were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Th22 cells, Th17 cells and interleukin-22 were significantly elevated in AS and RA patients compared with OA patients and healthy controls. Moreover, Th22 cells showed positive correlation with Th17 cells as well as interleukin-22 in AS and RA patients. However, positive correlation between IL-22 and Th17 cells was only found in AS patients not in RA patients. In addition, the percentages of both Th22 cells and Th17 cells correlated positively with disease activity only in RA patients not in AS patients. CONCLUSIONS: The frequencies of both Th22 cells and Th17 cells were elevated in PB from patients with AS and patients with RA. These findings suggest that Th22 cells and Th17 cells may be implicated in the pathogenesis of AS and RA, and Th22 cells and Th17 cells may be reasonable cellular targets for therapeutic intervention.

  13. Upregulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 Combined with Increased Adiponectin Lowers Blood Pressure in Diabetic Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats through a Reduction in Endothelial Cell Dysfunction, Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cao

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effect of increased levels of HO-1 on hypertension exacerbated by diabetes. Diabetic spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR and WKY (control animals were treated with streptozotocin (STZ to induce diabetes and stannous chloride (SnCl2 to upregulate HO-1. Treatment with SnCl2 not only attenuated the increase of blood pressure (p<0.01, but also increased HO-1 protein content, HO activity and plasma adiponectin levels, decreased the levels of superoxide and 3-nitrotyrosine (NT, respectively. Reduction in oxidative stress resulted in the increased expression of Bcl-2 and AKT with a concomitant reduction in circulating endothelial cells (CEC in the peripheral blood (p<0.005 and an improvement of femoral reactivity (response to acetylcholine. Thus induction of HO-1 accompanied with increased plasma adiponectin levels in diabetic hypertensive rats alters the phenotype through a reduction in oxidative stress, thereby permitting endothelial cells to maintain an anti-apoptotic environment and the restoration of endothelial responses thus preventing hypertension.

  14. Topical menthol increases cutaneous blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, Daniel H; Alexander, Lacy M

    2016-09-01

    Menthol, the active ingredient in several topically applied analgesics, activates transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) receptors on sensory nerves and on the vasculature inducing a cooling sensation on the skin. Ilex paraguariensis is also a common ingredient in topical analgesics that has potential vasoactive properties and may alter the mechanisms of action of menthol. We sought to characterize the microvascular effects of topical menthol and ilex application and to determine the mechanism(s) through which these compounds may independently and combined alter cutaneous blood flow. We hypothesized that menthol would induce vasoconstriction and that ilex would not alter skin blood flow (SkBF). Three separate protocols were conducted to examine menthol and ilex-mediated changes in SkBF. In protocol 1, placebo, 4% menthol, 0.7% ilex, and combination menthol+ilex gels were applied separately to the skin and red cell flux was continuously measured utilizing laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI). In protocol 2, seven concentrations of menthol gel (0.04%, 0.4%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 7%, 8%) were applied to the skin to model the dose-response curve. In protocol 3, placebo, menthol, ilex, and menthol+ilex gels were applied to skin under local thermal control (34°C) both with and without sensory nerve blockage (topical lidocaine 4%). Post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) and local heating (42°C) protocols were conducted to determine the relative contribution of endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs)/sensory nerves and nitric oxide (NO), respectively. Red cell flux was normalized to mean arterial pressure expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC: flux·mmHg(-1)) in all protocols. Topical menthol application increased SkBF compared to placebo (3.41±0.33 vs 1.1±0.19CVC: peffect, p<0.05) with an ED50 of 1.0%. Similarly, SkBF was increased after menthol application during PORH (3.62±0.29 vs. 2.50±0.21flux·mmHg(-1); p<0.001), but not local heating

  15. Increased Numbers of NK Cells, NKT-Like Cells, and NK Inhibitory Receptors in Peripheral Blood of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Tang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available T cells and B cells participate in the pathogenesis of COPD. Currently, NK cells and NKT cells have gained increasing attention. In the present study, 19 COPD patients and 12 healthy nonsmokers (HNS were recruited, and their pulmonary function was assessed. The frequencies of CD3+ T, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, B, NK, and NKT-like cells were determined using flow cytometry. The frequencies of spontaneous and inducible IFN-γ+ or CD107a+ NK and NKT-like cells as well as activating or inhibitory receptors were also detected. The potential association of lymphocyte subsets with disease severity was further analyzed. Significantly decreased numbers of CD3+ and CD4+ T cells, and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio, but increased numbers of CD3−CD56+ NK and CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells were observed in COPD patients compared to HNS. The frequencies of inducible IFN-γ-secreting NK and NKT-like cells were less in COPD patients. The frequencies of CD158a and CD158b on NK cells and CD158b on NKT-like cells were greater. The frequency of CD158b+ NK cells was negatively correlated with FEV1% prediction and FEV1/FVC. Our data indicate that COPD patients have immune dysfunction, and higher frequencies of inhibitory NK cells and NKT-like cells may participate in the pathogenesis of COPD.

  16. Transgenic over-expression of slit2 enhances disruption of blood-brain barrier and increases cell death after traumatic brain injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Li, Hang; He, Xiao-Fei; Li, Ge; Zhang, Qun; Liang, Feng-Ying; Jia, Huan-Huan; Li, Jiang-Chao; Huang, Ren; Pei, Zhong; Wang, Li-Jing; Zhang, Yu

    2016-09-19

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of mortality and disability among male adolescents and young adults; and mild traumatic brain injury is the most common type of traumatic brain injury. The disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role in brain trauma. Previously, we have found that slit2, a member of slit protein family, increases permeability of BBB. In the present study, we examined the role of slit2 in the pathogenesis of mild TBI in a mouse model of micro TBI. Rhodamine BandPI (PropidiumIodide) staining were used to detect the permeability of BBB and cell death, respectively. The leakage of Rhodamine B and cell death were significantly increased in Slit2-Tg mice than in C57 control mice after micro TBI. The present results suggest that over expression of slit2 plays a detrimental role in the pathophysiology of mild TBI.

  17. Intercellular transfer of P-glycoprotein in human blood-brain barrier endothelial cells is increased by histone deacetylase inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Noack; Sandra Noack; Manuela Buettner; Naim, Hassan Y.; Wolfgang Löscher

    2016-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) controls the entry of compounds into the brain, thereby regulating brain homeostasis. Efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp) significantly contribute to BBB function. Multiple signaling pathways modulate the expression and activity of Pgp in response to xenobiotics and disease. A non-genetic way of intercellular transfer of Pgp occurs in cancer cells, but whether this also occurs in non-cancer cells such as endothelial cells that form the BBB is not kno...

  18. Regulatory T Cells in HIV-Infected Immunological Nonresponders Are Increased in Blood but Depleted in Lymphoid Tissue and Predict Immunological Reconstitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, Julie C; Hartling, Hans J; Ronit, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV-infected immunological nonresponders fail to immune reconstitute despite optimal treatment. We hypothesized that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in immunological reconstitution. Tregs and Treg subpopulations were measured in blood and Foxp3 cells in lymphoid tissue...... (CD4 T-cell count 200-500 cells/μL), 30 responders (CD4 T-cell count >500 cells/μL), and 34 healthy controls. Tregs, Treg subpopulations, and intracellular staining for interleukin 10 in peripheral blood were measured using flow cytometry. Foxp3 cells in lymphoid tissue were evaluated using...... immunolabeling. The CD4 T-cell count was determined at inclusion and after 1 year of follow-up. RESULTS: INR displayed high percentage of Tregs and activated Tregs in peripheral blood accompanied by a high percentage of Tregs expressing interleukin 10, whereas numbers of Foxp3 cells in lymphoid tissue were low...

  19. Increased Responsiveness to Toll-Like Receptor 4 Stimulation in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Patients with Recent Onset Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Kowalski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cell signaling via Toll-like receptors (TLRs leads to synovial inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. We aimed to assess effects of TLR2 and TLR4 stimulation on proinflammatory cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from patients with recent-onset RA, osteoarthrosis (OA, and healthy control (HC. Methods. PBMCs were stimulated with LPS, biglycan and cytokine mix. Cytokines were analyzed in supernatants with ELISA. Expression of toll-like receptors mRNA in leukocytes was analyzed using real-time qPCR. Results. PBMCs from RA patients spontaneously produced less IL-6 and TNFα than cells from OA and HC subjects. LPS increased cytokines' production in all groups. In RA patients increase was dramatic (30 to 48-fold and 17 to 31-fold, for respective cytokines compared to moderate (2 to 8-fold in other groups. LPS induced 15-HETE generation in PBMCs from RA (mean 251% and OA patients (mean 43%, although only in OA group, the increase was significant. TLR2 and TLR4 gene expressions decreased in response to cytokine mix, while LPS enhanced TLR2 expression in HC and depressed TLR4 expression in OA patients. Conclusion. PBMCs from recent-onset RA patients are overresponsive to stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide. TLR expression is differentially regulated in healthy and arthritic subjects.

  20. Marked increase in rat red blood cell membrane protein glycosylation by one-month treatment with a cafeteria diet.

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva, Laia; Baron, Cristian; Fernández-López, José-Antonio; Remesar, Xavier; Alemany, Marià

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Glucose, an aldose, spontaneously reacts with protein amino acids yielding glycosylated proteins. The compounds may reorganize to produce advanced glycosylation products, which regulatory importance is increasingly being recognized. Protein glycosylation is produced without the direct intervention of enzymes and results in the loss of function. Glycosylated plasma albumin, and glycosylated haemoglobin are currently used as index of mean plasma glucose levels, since ...

  1. A blood-oxygenation-dependent increase in blood viscosity due to a static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toru; Nagayama, Yuki; Tamura, Mamoru

    2004-07-21

    As the magnetic field of widely used MR scanners is one of the strongest magnetic fields to which people are exposed, the biological influence of the static magnetic field of MR scanners is of great concern. One magnetic interaction in biological subjects is the magnetic torque on the magnetic moment induced by biomagnetic substances. The red blood cell is a major biomagnetic substance, and the blood flow may be influenced by the magnetic field. However, the underlying mechanisms have been poorly understood. To examine the mechanisms of the magnetic influence on blood viscosity, we measured the time for blood to fall through a glass capillary inside and outside a 1.5 T MR scanner. Our in vitro results showed that the blood viscosity significantly increased in a 1.5 T MR scanner, and also clarified the mechanism of the interaction between red blood cells and the external magnetic field. Notably, the blood viscosity increased depending on blood oxygenation and the shear rate of the blood flow. Thus, our findings suggest that even a 1.5 T magnetic field may modulate blood flow.

  2. Increased oxidative stress and decreased activities of Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase in the red blood cells of the hibernating black bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, V.P.S.; Tsiouris, J.A.; Chauhan, A.; Sheikh, A.M.; Brown, W. Ted; Vaughan, M.

    2002-01-01

    During hibernation, animals undergo metabolic changes that result in reduced utilization of glucose and oxygen. Fat is known to be the preferential source of energy for hibernating animals. Malonyldialdehyde (MDA) is an end product of fatty acid oxidation, and is generally used as an index of lipid peroxidation. We report here that peroxidation of lipids is increased in the plasma and in the membranes of red blood cells in black bears during hibernation. The plasma MDA content was about four fold higher during hibernation as compared to that during the active, non-hibernating state (P oxidative stress, and have reduced activities of membrane-bound enzymes such as Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase. These changes can be considered part of the adaptive for survival process of metabolic depression. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Engineering a Dual-Layer Chitosan-Lactide Hydrogel To Create Endothelial Cell Aggregate-Induced Microvascular Networks In Vitro and Increase Blood Perfusion In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungwoo; Kawai, Toshiyuki; Wang, Derek; Yang, Yunzhi

    2016-08-01

    Here, we report the use of chemically cross-linked and photo-cross-linked hydrogels to engineer human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) aggregate-induced microvascular networks to increase blood perfusion in vivo. First, we studied the effect of chemically cross-linked and photo-cross-linked chitosan-lactide hydrogels on stiffness, degradation rates, and HUVEC behaviors. The photo-cross-linked hydrogel was relatively stiff (E = ∼15 kPa) and possessed more compact networks, denser surface texture, and lower enzymatic degradation rates than the relatively soft, chemically cross-linked hydrogel (E = ∼2 kPa). While both hydrogels exhibited nontoxicity, the soft chemically cross-linked hydrogels expedited the formation of cell aggregates compared to the photo-cross-linked hydrogels. Cells on the less stiff, chemically cross-linked hydrogels expressed more matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity than the stiffer, photo-cross-linked hydrogel. This difference in MMP activity resulted in a more dramatic decrease in mechanical stiffness after 3 days of incubation for the chemically cross-linked hydrogel, as compared to the photo-cross-linked one. After determining the physical and biological properties of each hydrogel, we accordingly engineered a dual-layer hydrogel construct consisting of the relatively soft, chemically cross-linked hydrogel layer for HUVEC encapsulation, and the relatively stiff, acellular, photo-cross-linked hydrogel for retention of cell-laden microvasculature above. This dual-layer hydrogel construct enabled a lasting HUVEC aggregate-induced microvascular network due to the combination of stable substrate, enriched cell adhesion molecules, and extracellular matrix proteins. We tested the dual-layer hydrogel construct in a mouse model of hind-limb ischemia, where the HUVEC aggregate-induced microvascular networks significantly enhanced blood perfusion rate to ischemic legs and decreased tissue necrosis compared with both no treatment and

  4. Cadmium uptake by rat red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rat red blood cells were employed to study the uptake of cadmium (109Cd). Suspensions of red blood cells were exposed to Cd concentrations (both bound and free) observed following in vivo Cd administration. Cd uptake was biphasic with an initial rapid phase (0C was one-fourth of that at 370C. The metabolic inhibitors: sodium fluoride (1mM), potassium cyanide (1mM) and carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (2μM) and the Na+-K+-ATPase inhibitor, ouabain (1mM) did not reduce Cd (50μM) uptake into red blood cells. This suggests that the uptake of Cd into red blood cells was not an active process. Incubation of Cd (10μM) with an equimolar concentration of Zn did not alter uptake of Cd into red blood cells, but at 5 and 10 times higher concentrations of Zn, Cd uptake was enhanced 5-fold. Mercury at one-tenth and equimolar concentrations of Cd increased Cd uptake by red blood cells 2-fold. N-Ethylmaleimide (0.5-5mM), which irreversibly inactivates membrane sulfhydryl groups, decreased Cd uptake. The data indicate that Cd uptake into rat red blood cells occurs by passive transport and that alterations of sulfhydryls of red blood cell membrane may modulate the process. (author)

  5. Activation of a P2Y4-like purinoceptor triggers an increase in cytosolic [Ca2+] in the red blood cells of the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Squamata, Teiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartorello R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of pathophysiological roles for purinoceptors are emerging, some of which have therapeutic potential. Erythrocytes are an important source of purines, which can be released under physiological and physiopathological conditions, acting on purinergic receptors associated with the same cell or with neighboring cells. Few studies have been conducted on lizards, and have been limited to ATP agonist itself. We have previously shown that the red blood cells (RBCs of the lizard Ameiva ameiva store Ca2+ in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and that the purinergic agonist ATP triggers a rapid and transient increase of [Ca2+]c by mobilization of the cation from internal stores. We also reported the ability of the second messenger IP3 to discharge the ER calcium pool of the ER. Here we characterize the purinoceptor present in the cytoplasmic membrane of the RBCs of the lizard Ameiva ameiva by the selective use of ATP analogues and pyrimidine nucleotides. The nucleotides UTP, UDP, GTP, and ATPgammaS triggered a dose-dependent response, while interestingly 2MeSATP, 2ClATP, alpha, ß-ATP, and ADP failed to do so in a 1- to 200-µm con- centration. The EC50 obtained for the compounds tested was 41.77 µM for UTP, 48.11 µM for GTP, 53.11 µM for UDP, and 30.78 µM for ATPgammaS. The present data indicate that the receptor within the RBCs of Ameiva ameiva is a P2Y4-like receptor due to its pharmacological similarity to the mammalian P2Y4 receptor.

  6. Activation of a P2Y4-like purinoceptor triggers an increase in cytosolic [Ca2+] in the red blood cells of the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Squamata, Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorello, R; Garcia, C R S

    2005-01-01

    An increasing number of pathophysiological roles for purinoceptors are emerging, some of which have therapeutic potential. Erythrocytes are an important source of purines, which can be released under physiological and physiopathological conditions, acting on purinergic receptors associated with the same cell or with neighboring cells. Few studies have been conducted on lizards, and have been limited to ATP agonist itself. We have previously shown that the red blood cells (RBCs) of the lizard Ameiva ameiva store Ca2+ in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and that the purinergic agonist ATP triggers a rapid and transient increase of [Ca2+]c by mobilization of the cation from internal stores. We also reported the ability of the second messenger IP3 to discharge the ER calcium pool of the ER. Here we characterize the purinoceptor present in the cytoplasmic membrane of the RBCs of the lizard Ameiva ameiva by the selective use of ATP analogues and pyrimidine nucleotides. The nucleotides UTP, UDP, GTP, and ATPgammaS triggered a dose-dependent response, while interestingly 2MeSATP, 2ClATP, alpha, ss-ATP, and ADP failed to do so in a 1- to 200-microm con- centration. The EC50 obtained for the compounds tested was 41.77 microM for UTP, 48.11 microM for GTP, 53.11 microM for UDP, and 30.78 microM for ATPgammaS. The present data indicate that the receptor within the RBCs of Ameiva ameiva is a P2Y4-like receptor due to its pharmacological similarity to the mammalian P2Y4 receptor. PMID:15665982

  7. Tryptamine and dimethyltryptamine inhibit indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase and increase the tumor-reactive effect of peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourino, Melissa Cavalheiro; de Oliveira, Edson Mendes; Bellé, Luziane Potrich; Knebel, Franciele Hinterholz; Albuquerque, Renata Chaves; Dörr, Felipe Augusto; Okada, Sabrina Sayori; Migliorini, Silene; Soares, Irene Silva; Campa, Ana

    2013-07-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-induced tryptophan-degrading enzyme, producing kynurenine (KYN) that participates in the mechanism of tumor immune tolerance. Thus, IDO inhibition has been considered a strategy for anticancer therapy. The aim of this study was to identify whether the metabolites originated from the competitive routes of tryptophan metabolism, such as the serotonergic or N, N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) pathways, have inhibitory effects on recombinant human IDO (rhIDO) activity. Serotonin and melatonin had no effect; on the other hand, tryptamine (TRY) and DMT modulated the activity of rhIDO as classical non-competitive inhibitors, with Ki values of 156 and 506 μM, respectively. This inhibitory effect was also observed on constitutively expressed or IFN-γ-induced IDO in the A172 human glioma cell line. TRY and DMT increased the cytotoxic activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in co-culture assays. We conclude that the IDO inhibition by TRY and DMT contributed to a more effective tumor-reactive response by the PBMCs. PMID:23754498

  8. Increased apoptosis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with perennial allergic asthma/rhinitis: relation to serum markers of apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Grzegorczyk

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of our study was to examine spontaneous and stimulated apoptosis of peripheral blood MNC from allergic patients, sensitized to Der p I antigen as compared to cells from non-atopic subjects. Furthermore we aimed to investigate which populations of mononuclear cells (lymphocytes, monocytes undergo the apoptosis and to determine relations between apoptosis and serum levels of sFas/APO-1, ICE/caspase-1 or TNF-α.

  9. Increased nuclear tri-iodothyronine binding and thyroid hormone-stimulated glucose consumption in mononuclear blood cells from patients with liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear tri-iodothyronine (T3) maximal binding capacity (MBC) and thyroxine- and T3-stimulated cellular oxygen consumption and glucose consumption were examined in mononuclear blood cells from six patients with liver cirrhosis (LC), in six patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH), and in six healthy...

  10. White Blood Cell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... where they are needed, and then kill and digest the harmful organism or substance (see White blood ... Patel Hello Everyone! Hello to all of you readers! I know you will be seeing my biography, ...

  11. Increased miR-155 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of primary immune thrombocytopenia patients was correlated with serum cytokine profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Bao-Hua; Ye, Xin; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Yi; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Gu, Ming-Li; Qin, Qin; Chen, Jie; Deng, An-Mei

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the possible pathogenic role of a microRNA (miR-155) in primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). We used quantitative real-time PCR to determine the relative expression of miR-155 and SOCS1 (suppressor of cytokine signaling) mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 28 ITP patients and 28 healthy controls. Cytokine plasma levels were determined by ELISA. Possible associations between miR-155 levels and serum cytokine concentrations were assessed using Spearman or Pearson correlation analysis. Seven naive ITP patients were followed and the effects of medical treatment on miR-155 levels were assessed. Compared to healthy controls, ITP patients had increased miR-155 and decreased SOCS1 mRNA levels. ITP patients also had increased plasma IL-17A and decreased IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β1 levels. miR-155 levels were negatively correlated with platelet counts, SOCS1 mRNA levels, and the plasma levels of IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β1, but positively correlated with plasma IL-17A levels. Medical treatment for ITP decreased miR-155 levels. Thus, our results suggest that miR-155 might be involved in the pathogenesis of ITP by regulating cytokine profiles, which may be mediated by miR-155 targeting SOCS1. PMID:25413124

  12. Increased Proportion of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Population in Cord Blood of Neonates Born to Mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadarits, Orsolya; Zóka, András; Barna, Gábor; Al-Aissa, Zahra; Rosta, Klára; Rigó, János; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Somogyi, Anikó; Firneisz, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) population in the cord blood of neonates born to mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a hypothesis generating pilot study, due to that, neonatal polycythemia may be the consequence of GDM pregnancy. Forty-five pregnant women with GDM (last trimester mean HbA1C = 33.9 mmol/mol) and 42 (nondiabetic) control pregnant women were enrolled after their routine 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) between the 24th and 28th gestational week (with expected differences in their mean routine clinical characteristics: plasma glucose at OGTT: 0' = 5.07 vs. 4.62 mM, 120' = 8.9 vs. 5.76 mM, age = 35.07 vs. 31.66 years, prepregnancy body mass index = 27.9 vs. 23.9 kg/m(2), GDM vs. control, respectively) on a voluntary basis after signing the informed consent. EDTA-treated cord blood samples were analyzed by flow cytometry and the software Kaluza1.2 using CD45 and CD34-specific fluorescent antibodies to identify the HSPC population (CD34(+) cells within the CD45(dim) blast gate). The proportion of CD34(+)CD45(dim) HSPCs among the nucleated cells was significantly (P treatment types (P cells in the cord blood may possibly be related to altered fetal stem cell mobilization in GDM pregnancy, yet these results should be interpreted only as preliminary due to the small sample sizes.

  13. Predicting Increased Blood Pressure Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golino, Hudson Fernandes; Amaral, Liliany Souza de Brito; Duarte, Stenio Fernando Pimentel; Soares, Telma de Jesus; dos Reis, Luciana Araujo

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip circumference (HC), and waist hip ratio (WHR) using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women) from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42), misclassification (.19), and the higher pseudo R2 (.43). This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25), misclassification (.16), and the higher pseudo R2 (.46). This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power. PMID:24669313

  14. Increased P-35, EBI3 Transcripts and Other Treg Markers in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Breast Cancer Patients with Different clinical Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hamidinia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Currently, cancer as a major problem around the world threatens human health and has a high incidence in developing countries. Many reports have indicated that patients suffering from cancer demonstrate decreased antitumor immune responses as well as a high prevalence of T regulatory population. It has been reported that Foxp3+Tregs exert suppression by cell contact-dependent mechanisms which are mediated by soluble factors such as immunosuppressive cytokines like IL-10, TGF-​B and IL-35. Consequently there is a great need to identify prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers of regulatory T cells for vaccine and drug development. Methods: In this study IL-10, TGF-B, IL-35 and Foxp3 mRNA gene expression has been measured in peripheral blood of 40 breast cancer patients and 40 normal age-matched women using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR method with Master Mix reaction containing SYBER Green. GAPDH gene was used as housekeeping gene. Results: Our data demonstrated a significant up-regulation of IL-10, TGF-​B, P35, EBI3 and Foxp3 gene expression in patients’ peripheral blood compared to normal healthy controls (p<0.05. Conclusion: The data suggests that the immune system is suppressed in breast cancer patients, which may be due to elevated Treg cells population. These results may be useful for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. However it may require more investigations

  15. Increased levels of soluble CD226 in sera accompanied by decreased membrane CD226 expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhuwei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a cellular membrane triggering receptor, CD226 is involved in the NK cell- or CTL-mediated lysis of tumor cells of different origin, including freshly isolated tumor cells and tumor cell lines. Here, we evaluated soluble CD226 (sCD226 levels in sera, and membrane CD226 (mCD226 expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from cancer patients as well as normal subjects, and demonstrated the possible function and origin of the altered sCD226, which may provide useful information for understanding the mechanisms of tumor escape and for immunodiagnosis and immunotherapy. Results Soluble CD226 levels in serum samples from cancer patients were significantly higher than those in healthy individuals (P P Conclusion These findings suggest that sCD226 might be shed from cell membranes by certain proteases, and, further, sCD226 may be used as a predictor for monitoring cancer, and more important, a possible immunotherapy target, which may be useful in clinical application.

  16. High dose ionizing irradiation induces an early and transient increase in peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cells; L`exposition aigue aux radiations ionisantes induit un recrutement transitoire des progeniteurs hematopoietiques au niveau du sang peripherique: implications therapeutiques potentielles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drouet, M.; Mathieu, J.; Grenier, N.; Vetillard, J.; Chauvelot, F.; Thierry, D.; Mestries, J.C.; Herodin, F. [Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees, La Tronche, 38 - Grenoble (France)]|[Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees - Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1997-12-31

    Nonhuman primates exposed to ionizing radiation exhibit an early and transient increase in peripheral blood committed hematopoietic progenitor cells. The management of bone marrow aplasia secondary to accidental irradiation could be based in part on the re-infusion of those circulating autologous progenitors following a period of ex vivo expansion with cytokines. (authors)

  17. Increased voltage photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, B.; Bickler, D. B.; Gallagher, B. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell, such as a solar cell, is provided which has a higher output voltage than prior cells. The improved cell includes a substrate of doped silicon, a first layer of silicon disposed on the substrate and having opposite doping, and a second layer of silicon carbide disposed on the first layer. The silicon carbide preferably has the same type of doping as the first layer.

  18. White blood cell deformation and firm adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmary, Alex; Eggleton, Charles

    2011-11-01

    For a white blood cell (WBC) to arrive at infection sites, it forms chemical attachments with activated endothelial cells. First, it bonds with P-selectin, which holds it to the wall, but weakly; this allows the WBC to roll under the shear flow of the blood around it. Later, the WBCs bond with the stronger intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1); it is these ICAM bonds that allow the WBCs to fully resist the flow and stop rolling, allowing them to crawl through the endothelial wall. We model this numerically. Our model uses the immersed boundary method to represent the interaction of the shear flow with the deformable cell membrane. Receptors are on the tips of microvilli-little fingers sticking off of the cell membrane. The microvilli also deform. The receptors stochastically form and break bonds with molecules on the wall. Using this method, the history of each microvillus and its bonds can be found, as well as the distribution of the adhesion traction forces and how all of these vary with the deformability of the white blood cell. At higher shear rates, the white blood cell membrane deforms more, increasing its contact area with the surface; this effect is larger for softer membranes. We investigate how the deformability of the WBC affects the ease with which it forms firm adhesion.

  19. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

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    Full Text Available ... Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 351 351 Loading... ... considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  20. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 351 351 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  1. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 352 352 Loading... ... considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  2. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on Jul 19, 2011 Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true ... Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation ( ...

  3. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on Jul 19, 2011 Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this ... Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and peripheral blood stem cell ...

  4. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 361 361 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  5. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 350 350 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  6. Increased percentage of L-selectin+ and ICAM-1+ peripheral blood CD4+/CD8+ T cells in active Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Bakunowicz-Lazarczyk

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the percentage of CD4+/CD8+ peripheral T cells expressing CD62L+ and CD54+ in patients with Graves' disease and to assess if these estimations could be helpful as markers of active ophthalmopathy. The study was carried out in 25 patients with Graves' disease (GD divided into 3 groups: 1/ 8 patients with active Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO (CAS 3-6, GO complaints pound 1 year, 2/ 9 patients with hyperthyroid GD without symptoms of ophthalmopathy (GDtox and 3/ 8 patients with euthyroid GD with no GO symptoms (GDeu. The control group consisted of 15 healthy volunteers age and sex matched to groups 1-3. The expression of lymphocyte adhesion molecules was evaluated by using three-color flow cytometry. In GO group the percentage of CD8+CD54+, CD8+CD62L+, CD4+CD54+ and CD4+CD62L+ T cells was significantly higher as compared to controls (p<0.001, p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001 respectively. The percentage of CD8+CD54+ T lymphocytes was also elevated in GO group in comparison to hyperthyroid GD patients (p< 0.05. CD4+CD62L+ and CD8+CD54+ percentages were also increased in GDtox and GDeu as compared to controls. We found a positive correlation between the TSHRab concentration and the percentage of CD8+CD62L+ T cells in all studied groups (r= 0.39, p<0.05 and between the TSHRab level and CAS (r= 0.77, p<0.05. The increased percentage of CD8+CD54+ and CD8+CD62L+ T cells in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy may be used as a marker of immune inflammation activity.

  7. Increased blood carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations in inflammatory pulmonary diseases

    OpenAIRE

    H. Yasuda; Yamaya, M; Yanai, M; Ohrui, T; Sasaki, H

    2002-01-01

    Background: Exhaled carbon monoxide has been reported to increase in inflammatory pulmonary diseases and to be correlated with blood carboxyhaemoglobin (Hb-CO) concentration. A study was undertaken to determine whether arterial blood Hb-CO increases in patients with inflammatory pulmonary diseases.

  8. Sodium-potassium pump activity in white blood cells from children with an increased risk of developing hypertension--The Odense Schoolchild Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H S; Nielsen, J R; Pedersen, K E;

    1993-01-01

    . A significant increase in 86rubidium uptake was present in boys as compared to girls. After adjustment for differences in sexual maturation the observed significant difference disappeared. Important correlates of pump activity were height, plasma glucose, and physical fitness. In the training study 10 boys from...... the hypertensive subgroup and 10 boys from the normotensive subgroup were also evaluated after eight months of physical training. A significant fall in 86rubidium uptake was observed. No control group was examined and probably the changes reflect some effects of sexual maturation on cation handling of cells....... These results indicate a significant effect of sexual maturation in capacity of sodium-potassium pump in children....

  9. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  10. Quality improvement methodologies increase autologous blood product administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Ashley B; Preston, Thomas J; Fitch, Jill A; Harrison, Sheilah K; Hersey, Diane K; Nicol, Kathleen K; Naguib, Aymen N; McConnell, Patrick I; Galantowicz, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Whole blood from the heart-lung (bypass) machine may be processed through a cell salvaging device (i.e., cell saver [CS]) and subsequently administered to the patient during cardiac surgery. It was determined at our institution that CS volume was being discarded. A multidisciplinary team consisting of anesthesiologists, perfusionists, intensive care physicians, quality improvement (QI) professionals, and bedside nurses met to determine the challenges surrounding autologous blood delivery in its entirety. A review of cardiac surgery patients' charts (n = 21) was conducted for analysis of CS waste. After identification of practices that were leading to CS waste, interventions were designed and implemented. Fishbone diagram, key driver diagram, Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles, and data collection forms were used throughout this QI process to track and guide progress regarding CS waste. Of patients under 6 kg (n = 5), 80% had wasted CS blood before interventions, whereas those patients larger than 36 kg (n = 8) had 25% wasted CS before interventions. Seventy-five percent of patients under 6 kg who had wasted CS blood received packed red blood cell transfusions in the cardiothoracic intensive care unit within 24 hours of their operation. After data collection and didactic education sessions (PDSA Cycle I), CS blood volume waste was reduced to 5% in all patients. Identification and analysis of the root cause followed by implementation of education, training, and management of change (PDSA Cycle II) resulted in successful use of 100% of all CS blood volume.

  11. Quality improvement methodologies increase autologous blood product administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Ashley B; Preston, Thomas J; Fitch, Jill A; Harrison, Sheilah K; Hersey, Diane K; Nicol, Kathleen K; Naguib, Aymen N; McConnell, Patrick I; Galantowicz, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Whole blood from the heart-lung (bypass) machine may be processed through a cell salvaging device (i.e., cell saver [CS]) and subsequently administered to the patient during cardiac surgery. It was determined at our institution that CS volume was being discarded. A multidisciplinary team consisting of anesthesiologists, perfusionists, intensive care physicians, quality improvement (QI) professionals, and bedside nurses met to determine the challenges surrounding autologous blood delivery in its entirety. A review of cardiac surgery patients' charts (n = 21) was conducted for analysis of CS waste. After identification of practices that were leading to CS waste, interventions were designed and implemented. Fishbone diagram, key driver diagram, Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles, and data collection forms were used throughout this QI process to track and guide progress regarding CS waste. Of patients under 6 kg (n = 5), 80% had wasted CS blood before interventions, whereas those patients larger than 36 kg (n = 8) had 25% wasted CS before interventions. Seventy-five percent of patients under 6 kg who had wasted CS blood received packed red blood cell transfusions in the cardiothoracic intensive care unit within 24 hours of their operation. After data collection and didactic education sessions (PDSA Cycle I), CS blood volume waste was reduced to 5% in all patients. Identification and analysis of the root cause followed by implementation of education, training, and management of change (PDSA Cycle II) resulted in successful use of 100% of all CS blood volume. PMID:24783313

  12. Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells If you’re ... and sluggish, you might have a condition called anemia. Anemia is a common blood disorder that many ...

  13. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cell donation experience at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation ( ... About Cord Blood Banking - Duration: 49:19. Children's Health 27,845 views 49:19 Scott: Donating Blood ...

  14. INCREASING AND PROLONGING BLOOD PENICILLIN CONCENTRATIONS FOLLOWING INTRAMUSCULAR ADMINISTRATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, J; Favour, C B

    1945-06-29

    (1) Restriction of fluid intake to 1,500 cc and the salt intake to 3 gm a day doubles the penicillin blood level following interrupted intramuscular [See Figure in the PDF file] injections of penicillin. (2) The administration of benzoic acid to a patient on an unrestricted diet Ilay double the penicillin blood level during similar treatment. (3) The combination of these two procedures results in a four- to eight-fold increase in penicillin blood level with a prolonged effective blood concentration.

  15. Increased epigenetic age and granulocyte counts in the blood of Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Steve; Ritz, Beate R

    2015-12-01

    It has been a long standing hypothesis that blood tissue of PD Parkinson's disease (PD) patients may exhibit signs of accelerated aging. Here we use DNA methylation based biomarkers of aging ("epigenetic clock") to assess the aging rate of blood in two ethnically distinct case-control data sets. Using n=508 Caucasian and n=84 Hispanic blood samples, we assess a) the intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration of blood (IEAA), which is independent of blood cell counts, and b) the extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration rate of blood (EEAA) which is associated with age dependent changes in blood cell counts. Blood of PD subjects exhibits increased age acceleration according to both IEAA (p=0.019) and EEAA (p=6.1 x 10(-3)). We find striking differences in imputed blood cell counts between PD cases and controls. Compared to control subjects, PD subjects contains more granulocytes (p=1.0 x 10(-9) in Caucasians, p=0.00066 in Hispanics) but fewer T helper cells (p=1.4 x 10(-6) in Caucasians, p=0.0024 in Hispanics) and fewer B cells (p=1.6 x 10(-5) in Caucasians, p=4.5 x 10(-5) in Hispanics). Overall, this study shows that the epigenetic age of the immune system is significantly increased in PD patients and that granulocytes play a significant role. PMID:26655927

  16. Increased Mortality in Adult Trauma Patients Transfused with Blood Components Compared with Whole Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Allison R.; Frazier, Susan K

    2014-01-01

    Hemorrhage is a preventable cause of death among trauma patients, and management often includes transfusion, either whole blood or a combination of blood components (packed red blood cells, platelets, fresh frozen plasma). We used the 2009 National Trauma Data Bank to evaluate the relationship between transfusion type and mortality in adult major trauma patients (n = 1745). Logistic regression analysis identified three independent predictors of mortality: Injury Severity Score, emergency tran...

  17. When Blood Cells Bend: Understanding Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe When Blood Cells Bend Understanding Sickle Cell Disease For people who don’t suspect they ... Cells Bend Wise Choices Links Living with Sickle Cell Disease See a sickle cell disease expert regularly. ...

  18. Red blood cell-incompatible allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, S D; Donato, M L; Bhattacharyya, P

    2011-09-01

    Transplantation of hematopoietic progenitor cells from red cell-incompatible donors occurs in 30-50% of patients. Immediate and delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions are expected complications of red cell-disparate transplantation and both ABO and other red cell systems such as Kidd and rhesus can be involved. The immunohematological consequences of red cell-incompatible transplantation include delayed red blood cell recovery, pure red cell aplasia and delayed hemolysis from viable lymphocytes carried in the graft ('passenger lymphocytes'). The risks of these reactions, which may be abrupt in onset and fatal, are ameliorated by graft processing and proper blood component support. Red blood cell antigens are expressed on endothelial and epithelial tissues in the body and could serve to increase the risk of GvHD. Mouse models indicate that blood cell antigens may function as minor histocompatibility antigens affecting engraftment. Similar observations have been found in early studies of human transplantation for transfused recipients, although current conditioning and immunosuppressive regimens appear to overcome this affect. No deleterious effects from the use of red cell-incompatible hematopoietic grafts on transplant outcomes, such as granulocyte and platelet engraftments, the incidences of acute or chronic GvHD, relapse risk or OS, have been consistently demonstrated. Most studies, however, include limited number of patients, varying diagnoses and differing treatment regimens, complicating the detection of an effect of ABO-incompatible transplantation. Classification of patients by ABO phenotype ignoring the allelic differences of these antigens also may obscure the effect of red cell-incompatible transplantation on transplant outcomes. PMID:21897398

  19. Increased bone marrow blood flow in polycythemia vera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lathinen, R.; Lathinen, T.; Hyoedynmaa, S.

    1983-01-01

    Bone marrow blood flow was measured in polycythemia vera, in compensatory and in relative polycythemia with a /sup 133/Xe washout method. In the treated polycythemia vera bone marrow blood flow was significantly increased compared with the age-matched controls. The fraction of blood flow entering the bone and flowing through the hematopoietic marrow was markedly increased in both the untreated and the treated polycythemia vera. Although the number of observations in compensatory and relative polycythemia was small, the results suggest that bone marrow blood flow is not markedly increased in these diseases. The results also suggest that in older patients the simple /sup 133/Xe method may support the diagnosis of polycythemia vera.

  20. Age-dependent increase in green autofluorescence of blood erythrocytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjay Khandelwal; Rajiv K Saxena

    2007-12-01

    Green auto-fluorescence (GAF) of different age groups of mouse blood erythrocytes was determined by using a double in vivo biotinylation (DIB) technique that enables delineation of circulating erythrocytes of different age groups. A significant increase in GAF was seen for erythrocytes of old age group (age in circulation > 40 days) as compared to young erythrocytes (age < 15 days). Erythrocytes are removed from blood circulation by macrophages in the reticulo-endothelial system and depletion of macrophages results in an increased proportion of aged erythrocytes in the blood. When mice were depleted of macrophages for 7 days by administration of clodronate loaded liposomes, the overall GAF of erythrocytes increased significantly and this increase could be ascribed to an increase in GAF of the oldest population of erythrocytes. Using the DIB technique, the GAF of a cohort of blood erythrocyte generated during a 5 day window was tracked in vivo. GAF of the defined cohort of erythrocytes remained low till 40 days of age in circulation and then increased steeply till the end of the life span of erythrocytes. Taken together our results provide evidence for an age dependent increase in the GAF of blood erythrocytes that is accentuated by depletion of macrophages. Kinetics of changes in GAF of circulating erythrocytes with age has also been defined.

  1. Age-dependent increase in green autofluorescence of blood erythrocytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjay Khandelwal; Rajiv K Saxena

    2007-09-01

    Green auto-fluorescence (GAF) of different age groups of mouse blood erythrocytes was determined by using a double in vivo biotinylation (DIB) technique that enables delineation of circulating erythrocytes of different age groups. A significant increase in GAF was seen for erythrocytes of old age group (age in circulation > 40 days) as compared to young erythrocytes (age < 15 days). Erythrocytes are removed from blood circulation by macrophages in the reticulo-endothelial system and depletion of macrophages results in an increased proportion of aged erythrocytes in the blood. When mice were depleted of macrophages for 7 days by administration of clodronate loaded liposomes, the overall GAF of erythrocytes increased significantly and this increase could be ascribed to an increase in GAF of the oldest population of erythrocytes. Using the DIB technique, the GAF of a cohort of blood erythrocyte generated during a 5 day window was tracked in vivo. GAF of the defined cohort of erythrocytes remained low till 40 days of age in circulation and then increased steeply till the end of the life span of erythrocytes. Taken together our results provide evidence for an age dependent increase in the GAF of blood erythrocytes that is accentuated by depletion of macrophages. Kinetics of changes in GAF of circulating erythrocytes with age has also been defined.

  2. Immune Cells in Blood Recognize Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI scientists have developed a novel strategy for identifying immune cells circulating in the blood that recognize specific proteins on tumor cells, a finding they believe may have potential implications for immune-based therapies.

  3. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) are most commonly used in the treatment of cancers like leukemia and lymphoma to restore stem cells ...

  4. Radiolabeled blood cells: radiation dosimetry and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past few years blood cells labeled with In-111 have become increasingly useful in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research. Indium-111 by the virtue of its physical characteristics and ability to bind to cell cytoplasmic components, provides an excellent cell tracer and thereby, allows investigators to monitor in vivo cell distribution by external imaging and help determine a course of regimen in treating life threatening diseases. Due to natural phenomena such as margination, blood pool, and reticuloendothelial cell activity, in the normal state, depending upon the cell type and the quality of cell preparations, 30%-50% of the administered radioactivity is immediately distributed in the liver, spleen and bone marrow. Over a period of time the radioactivity in these organs slightly increases and decays with a physical half-life of In-111. The resulting radiation dose to these organs ranges between 1-25 rads/mCi In-111 administered. The authors have developed a new In-111 labeling technique which preserves platelet ultrastructure and shown that human lymphocytes labeled with In-111 in mixed leukocytes preparations a) are only 0.003% of the total -body lymphocytes population and b) are killed. The consequence if any may be considered insignificant, particularly because 5.6% metaphases from normal men and 6.5% metaphases from normal women in the US have at least one chromosome aberration. Calculations have shown that the risk of fatal hematological malignancy, over a 30 year period, in recipients of 100 million lymphocytes labeled with 100 μCi In-111 is 1/million patients studied. This risk is less than 0.025% of the 1981 spontaneous cancer patient rate in the country. 32 references, 10 tables

  5. Supernatant of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Induces Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Possessing Mesenchymal Features

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Gang; Xu, Jun-jun; Deng, Zhi-Hong; Feng, Jie; Jin, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that some cells from peripheral blood fibroblast-like mononuclear cells have the capacity to differentiate into mesenchymal lineages. However, the insufficiency of these cells in the circulation challenges the cell isolation and subsequently limits the clinical application of these cells. In the present study, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbMNCs) were isolated from wound animals and treated with the supernatant of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (bmM...

  6. Red blood cells in sports: Effects of exercise and training on oxygen supply by red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heimo eMairbäurl

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During exercise the cardiovascular system has to warrant substrate supply to working muscle. The main function of red blood cells in exercise is the transport of O2 from the lungs to the tissues and the delivery of metabolically produced CO2 to the lungs for expiration. Hemoglobin also contributes to the blood’s buffering capacity, and ATP and NO release from red blood cells contributes to vasodilation and improved blood flow to working muscle. These functions require adequate amounts of red blood cells in circulation. Trained athletes, particularly in endurance sports, have a decreased hematocrit, which is sometimes called sports anemia. This is not anemia in a clinical sense because athletes have in fact an increased total mass of red blood cells and hemoglobin in circulation relative to sedentary individuals. The slight decrease in hematocrit by training is brought about by an increased plasma volume. The mechanisms that increase total red blood cell mass by training are not understood fully. Despite stimulated erythropoiesis, exercise can decrease the red blood cell mass by intravascular hemolysis mainly of senescent red blood cells, which is caused by mechanical rupture when red blood cells pass through capillaries in contracting muscles, and by compression of red cells e.g. in foot soles during running or in hand palms in weightlifters. Together, these adjustments cause a decrease in the average age of the population of circulating red blood cells in trained athletes. These younger red cells are characterized by improved oxygen release and deformability, both of which also improve tissue oxygen supply during exercise.

  7. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) ... Medicine Clinics 225,676 views 6:18 Alicia's bone marrow donation - Duration: 8:33. ... Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant - Duration: 15:50. Dartmouth-Hitchcock 2,764 views ...

  8. Red blood cell in simple shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Wei; Hew, Yayu; Chen, Yeng-Long

    2013-03-01

    The dynamics of red blood cells (RBC) in blood flow is critical for oxygen transport, and it also influences inflammation (white blood cells), thrombosis (platelets), and circulatory tumor migration. The physical properties of a RBC can be captured by modeling RBC as lipid membrane linked to a cytoskeletal spectrin network that encapsulates cytoplasm rich in hemoglobin, with bi-concave equilibrium shape. Depending on the shear force, RBC elasticity, membrane viscosity, and cytoplasm viscosity, RBC can undergo tumbling, tank-treading, or oscillatory motion. We investigate the dynamic state diagram of RBC in shear and pressure-driven flow using a combined immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method with a multi-scale RBC model that accurately captures the experimentally established RBC force-deformation relation. It is found that the tumbling (TU) to tank-treading (TT) transition occurs as shear rate increases for cytoplasm/outer fluid viscosity ratio smaller than 0.67. The TU frequency is found to be half of the TT frequency, in agreement with experiment observations. Larger viscosity ratios lead to the disappearance of stable TT phase and unstable complex dynamics, including the oscillation of the symmetry axis of the bi-concave shape perpendicular to the flow direction. The dependence on RBC bending rigidity, shear modulus, the order of membrane spectrin network and fluid field in the unstable region will also be discussed.

  9. Role of CD18-dependent and CD18-independent mechanisms in the increased leukocyte adhesiveness and in the variations of circulating white blood cell populations induced by anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnaert, P; Pradier, O; Bournonville, B; Habrant, C; Goldman, M; Van Geertruyden, N

    1996-01-01

    Anti-CD3 antibodies induce a quick and profound depletion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that is not well understood. We studied the effect of OKT3, a mouse monoclonal antibody against the human CD3 complex, on the in vitro adhesion of human PBMCs to monolayers of fresh and fixed human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). OKT3 induced an increased adhesiveness of PBMCs. This phenomenon was blocked with anti-CD18 antibodies, indicating the participation of beta 2 integrins. As this increased adhesiveness could explain the lymphopenia by adhesion of PBMCs to endothelial cells and their sequestration in some peripheral vascular beds, we studied the effect of anti-CD18 antibodies in vivo on mice injected with 145/2C11, a hamster monoclonal antibody against murine CD3. Mice treated with 145/2C11 presented with a transient granulocytopenia and a sustained reduction in PBMCs. A monoclonal anti-CD18 antibody prevented the granulocytopenia but had no effect on the drop in PBMCs. Consequently, the in vivo depletion of PBMCs after administration of an anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody involves CD18-independent mechanisms, while the transient drop in polymorphonuclear cells appears to be CD18-dependent. PMID:8819275

  10. Pegylated G-CSF Inhibits Blood Cell Depletion, Increases Platelets, Blocks Splenomegaly, and Improves Survival after Whole-Body Ionizing Irradiation but Not after Irradiation Combined with Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliann G. Kiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to ionizing radiation alone (radiation injury, RI or combined with traumatic tissue injury (radiation combined injury, CI is a crucial life-threatening factor in nuclear and radiological accidents. As demonstrated in animal models, CI results in greater mortality than RI. In our laboratory, we found that B6D2F1/J female mice exposed to 60Co-γ-photon radiation followed by 15% total-body-surface-area skin burns experienced an increment of 18% higher mortality over a 30-day observation period compared to irradiation alone; that was accompanied by severe cytopenia, thrombopenia, erythropenia, and anemia. At the 30th day after injury, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets still remained very low in surviving RI and CI mice. In contrast, their RBC, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were similar to basal levels. Comparing CI and RI mice, only RI induced splenomegaly. Both RI and CI resulted in bone marrow cell depletion. It was observed that only the RI mice treated with pegylated G-CSF after RI resulted in 100% survival over the 30-day period, and pegylated G-CSF mitigated RI-induced body-weight loss and depletion of WBC and platelets. Peg-G-CSF treatment sustained RBC balance, hemoglobin levels, and hematocrits and inhibited splenomegaly after RI. The results suggest that pegylated G-CSF effectively sustained animal survival by mitigating radiation-induced cytopenia, thrombopenia, erythropenia, and anemia.

  11. 21 CFR 864.9245 - Automated blood cell separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9245 Automated blood cell separator. (a) Identification. An automated... automatically withdraw whole blood from a donor, separate the whole blood into blood components, collect one or more of the blood components, and return to the donor the remainder of the whole blood and...

  12. Mediators of increased blood flow in porcine skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Moore

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinates and benzalkonium chloride (B.Cl cause inflammatory changes in human skin, thought to be dependent upon prostaglandin formation. This study has examined the effects of hexyl-nicotinate (HN and B.Cl on blood flow in porcine skin. The role of prostaglandins and interleukin (IL-1 in the blood flow response has been investigated. Blood flow was increased by both HN and B.Cl, the response to B.Cl being more protracted. Cyclooxygenase inhibitor pretreatment reduced these responses. IL-1-like biological activity was identified in normal porcine epidermis and the amounts recovered from inflamed skin were similar. Thus prostaglandin formation in HN or B.Cl-induced inflammation, if IL-1 dependent, is not associated with the loss of significant amounts of the cytokine from the epidermis.

  13. IBCIS:Intelligent blood cell identification system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adnan Khashman

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of blood cells in microscope images can provide useful information concerning the health of patients.There are three major blood cell types,namely,erythrocytes (red),leukocytes (white),and platelets.Manual classification is time consuming and susceptible to error due to the different morphological features of the cells.This paper presents an intelligent system that simulates a human visual inspection and classification of the three blood cell types.The proposed system comprises two phases:The image preprocessing phase where blood cell features are extracted via global pattern averaging,and the neural network arbitration phase where training is the first and then classification is carried out.Experimental results suggest that the proposed method performs well in identifying blood cell types regardless of their irregular shapes,sizes and orientation,thus providing a fast,simple and efficient rotational and scale invariant blood cell identification system which can be used in automating laboratory reporting.

  14. Blood-Forming Stem Cell Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Blood-Forming Stem Cell Transplants On This Page What are bone marrow ... are evaluating BMT and PBSCT in clinical trials (research studies) for the treatment ... are the donor’s stem cells matched to the patient’s stem cells in allogeneic ...

  15. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe ... later? Sign in to add this video to a playlist. Sign in Share More Report Need to ...

  16. Human umbilical cord blood cells and diabetes mellitus: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddi, Alluru S; Kothari, Neil; Kuppasani, Kishore; Ende, Norman

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell therapy for patients with diabetes is an area of great interest to both scientists and clinicians. Human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBCs) are being increasingly used as a source of stem cells for cell-based therapy for diabetes because these cells can differentiate into pancreatic islet β-cells. Administration of HUCBCs has been shown to lower blood glucose levels in diabetic animal models. The use of autologous HUCBC transfusion in type 1 diabetic children has not shown any benefit. However, "Stem Cell Educator" therapy has shown promise in long term lowering of blood glucose levels in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. In this review, we will briefly discuss recent advances in HUCBC therapy in the treatment of diabetes and some of its complications.

  17. Mechanical damage of red blood cells by rotary blood pumps: selective destruction of aged red blood cells and subhemolytic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Ryuki; Sobajima, Hideo; Yokoyama, Naoyuki; Waguri, Satoshi; Ohuchi, Katsuhiro; Takatani, Setsuo

    2008-10-01

    In this study, mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) were measured to quantify RBC damage by rotary blood pumps. Six-hour hemolysis tests were conducted with a Bio-pump BPX-80, a Sarns 15200 roller pump, and a prototype mag-lev centrifugal pump (MedTech Heart) using fresh porcine blood circulated at 5 L/min against a 100 mm Hg head pressure. The temperature of the test and noncirculated control blood was maintained at 37 degrees C. The normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) of each pump was determined by measuring the plasma-free hemoglobin level. The MCV was measured with a Coulter counter, and MCHC was derived from total hemoglobin and hematocrit. MCH was derived from MCV and MCHC. A multivariance statistical analysis (ANOVA) revealed statistically significant differences (n = 15, P < 0.05) in MCV, MCHC, and MCH between the blood sheared by the rotary blood pumps and the nonsheared control blood. Normalized to the control blood, the Bio-pump BPX-80 showed an MCV of 1.04 +/- 0.03, an MCHC of 0.95 +/- 0.04, and an MCH of 0.98 +/- 0.02; the mag-lev MedTech Heart had an MCV of 1.02 +/- 0.02, an MCHC of 0.97 +/- 0.02, and an MCH of 0.99 +/- 0.01; and the roller pump exhibited an MCV of 1.03 +/- 0.03, an MCHC of 0.96 +/- 0.03, and an MCH of 0.99 +/- 0.01. Per 0.01 increase in NIH, the BPX-80 showed a normalized MCV change of +10.1% and a normalized MCHC change of -14.0%; the MedTech Heart demonstrated a +6.9% MCV and -9.5% MCHC change; and the roller pump had a +0.5% MCV and -0.6% MCHC change. Due to shear in the pump circuits, the RBC increased while the MCHC decreased. The likely mechanism is that older RBCs with smaller size and higher hemoglobin concentration were destroyed fast by the shear, leaving younger RBCs with larger size and lower hemoglobin concentration. Subhemolytic trauma caused the intracellular hemoglobin to decrease due to gradual hemoglobin leakage through the micropores formed in the thinned

  18. Clitoral blood flow increases following vaginal pressure stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoisier, P; Aloui, R; Schmidt, M H; Watrelot, A

    1995-02-01

    The vascular responses of clitoral arteries to vaginal pressure stimulation in 10 volunteer women were evaluated by Doppler ultrasonography. Pressure stimulations (20-160 mm Hg) along the lower third of the vagina increased blood velocity and flow into clitoral arteries in 9 of the 10 women. The latency and duration of the Doppler responses ranged from 0.1 to 1.6 sec and from 3.2 to 9.5 sec, respectively, and the response was associated with a blood flow increase of 4 to 11 times the baseline prestimulation level. This response parallels that recorded in the cavernous arteries in men when a similar range of pressure stimulations are applied to the glans penis. Similar responses evoked in the male and female suggest a sexual synergy that may occur during intercourse in that such physiological responses and reflexes may be reciprocally reinforced.

  19. Leucoreduction of blood components: an effective way to increase blood safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Maria; Vaglio, Stefania; Pupella, Simonetta; Marano, Giuseppe; Facco, Giuseppina; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M; Grazzini, Giuliano

    2016-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, it has been demonstrated that removal of white blood cells from blood components is effective in preventing some adverse reactions such as febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions, immunisation against human leucocyte antigens and human platelet antigens, and transmission of cytomegalovirus. In this review we discuss indications for leucoreduction and classify them into three categories: evidence-based indications for which the clinical efficacy is proven, indications based on the analysis of observational clinical studies with very consistent results and indications for which the clinical efficacy is partial or unproven. PMID:26710353

  20. Single-cell measurement of red blood cell oxygen affinity

    CERN Document Server

    Caprio, Di; Higgins, John M; Schonbrun, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is transported throughout the body by hemoglobin in red blood cells. While the oxygen affinity of blood is well understood and is routinely assessed in patients by pulse oximetry, variability at the single-cell level has not been previously measured. In contrast, single-cell measurements of red blood cell volume and hemoglobin concentration are taken millions of times per day by clinical hematology analyzers and are important factors in determining the health of the hematologic system. To better understand the variability and determinants of oxygen affinity on a cellular level, we have developed a system that quantifies the oxygen saturation, cell volume and hemoglobin concentration for individual red blood cells in high-throughput. We find that the variability in single-cell saturation peaks at an oxygen partial pressure of 2.5%, which corresponds to the maximum slope of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve. In addition, single-cell oxygen affinity is positively correlated with hemoglobin concentr...

  1. Blood cell morphology : controversies and alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, Wim van der

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we describe controversial morphologic features in both microscopic and automated differentiation of blood cells. In addition, we have investigated alternative methods to overcome these shortcomings. Furthermore we describe the variance of microscopic counting of band cells and variant

  2. Haemopoietic progenitor cells in human peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the investigation reported is to purify haemopoietic progenitor cells from human peripheral blood using density gradient centrifugation in order to isolate a progenitor cell fraction without immunocompetent cells. The purification technique of peripheral blood flow colony forming unit culture (CFU-c) by means of density gradient centrifugation and a combined depletion of various rosettes is described. The results of several 'in vitro' characteristics of purified CFU-c suspensions and of the plasma clot diffusion chamber culture technique are presented. Irradiation studies revealed that for both human bone marrow and peripheral blood the CFU-c were less radioresistant than clusters. Elimination of monocytes (and granulocytes) from the test suspensions induced an alteration in radiosensitivity pararmeters. The results obtained with the different techniques are described by analysing peripheral progenitor cell activity in myeloproliferative disorders. (Auth.)

  3. Does a perception of increased blood safety mean increased blood transfusion? An assessment of the risk compensation theory in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Kumanan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk compensation theory is a widely used concept in transport economics to analyze driver risk behaviour. This article explores the feasibility of applying the theory in blood transfusion to raise important questions regarding the increased blood safety measures and their possible effects on blood usage (e.g., the appropriateness in transfusion. Further, it presents the findings of a pilot survey of physicians in Canada. Discussion While studies have attempted to define transfusion appropriateness, this article argues that if the risk compensation theory holds true for transfusion practice, physicians may actually be transfusing more. This may increase the possibility of contracting other unknown risks, such as the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD, as well as increasing the risk of non-infectious transfusion risks, such as transfusion reactions. Summary A much larger study involving psychosocial assessment of physician decision making process to fully assess physician behaviour within the context of risk compensation theory and transfusion practice in Canada is needed to further explore this area.

  4. Automated red blood cell analysis compared with routine red blood cell morphology by smear review

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Poonam Radadiya; Dr.Nandita Mehta; Dr.Hansa Goswami; Dr.R.N.Gonsai

    2015-01-01

    The RBC histogram is an integral part of automated haematology analysis and is now routinely available on all automated cell counters. This histogram and other associated complete blood count (CBC) parameters have been found abnormal in various haematological conditions and may provide major clues in the diagnosis and management of significant red cell disorders. Performing manual blood smears is important to ensure the quality of blood count results an...

  5. Passive gravitational sedimentation of peripheral blood increases the sensitivity of microscopic detection of malaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Davis; Trenden Flanigan; Eric Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine if passive gravitational sedimentation of blood samples, followed by buffy coat thin smear preparation could increase the sensitivity of malaria diagnosis when compared to conventional thin smear preparation without the additional cost of centrifuges or molecular diagnostics. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 205 patients. Each patient sample was analyzed using all three methods of sample preparation. Results: Buffy coat analysis of centrifuged blood samples greatly increased the sensitivity of malaria diagnosis when compared to standard thin smear techniques. Sensitivity between mechanically centrifuged samples and gravitationally sedimented samples showed equal improvement in sensitivity when compared to standard thin smear preparation. Conclusions: Passive gravitational sedimentation of red blood cells followed by buffy coat analysis dramatically improves the sensitivity of malaria diagnosis without the additional costs associated with centrifugation.

  6. Whole Blood Cell Staining Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Clarence F.; Clift, Vaughan L.; McDonald, Kelly E.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for staining particular cell markers is disclosed. The apparatus includes a flexible tube that is reversibly pinched into compartments with one or more clamps. Each compartment of the tube contains a separate reagent and is in selective fluid communication with adjoining compartments.

  7. Decreased expression of microRNA-21 is associated with increased cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of obese type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloom, Hossein; Alizadeh, Samira; Esfahani, Ensieh Nasli; Razi, Farideh; Meshkani, Reza

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of miR-21 in inflammatory responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of type 2 diabetic (T2D) and healthy subjects. 20 healthy and 20 T2D subjects were enrolled in the study. miR-21 expression in PBMCs of the subjects was measured using real-time PCR. IL-6 and TNF-α levels in culture supernatants were quantified using ELISA. miR-21 expression was not significantly different between the diabetic and nondiabetic groups. A downregulation of miR-21 expression was observed in PBMCs of obese subjects in both diabetic and nondiabetic groups. In addition, miR-21 expression was negatively correlated with weight, waist circumference, body mass index, and triglyceride in both the diabetic and nondiabetic groups. Our results also demonstrated that the PBMCs of obese subjects significantly secreted a higher level of IL-6 and TNF-α in comparison with the PBMCs of nonobese subjects. Furthermore, a significant inverse correlation between miR-21 expression and TNF-α and IL-6 production from the PBMCs was observed. These data suggest that miR-21 expression is decreased in PBMCs of obese subjects and reduced expression appears to be associated with increased secreted cytokine level in media of PBMCs of obese subjects. PMID:27370645

  8. Red Blood Cell Docosapentaenoic Acid (DPA n-3 is Inversely Associated with Triglycerides and C-reactive Protein (CRP in Healthy Adults and Dose-Dependently Increases Following n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann C. Skulas-Ray

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the long-chain omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in lipid metabolism and inflammation has been extensively studied; however, little is known about the relationship between docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 n-3 and inflammation and triglycerides (TG. We evaluated whether n-3 DPA content of red blood cells (RBC was associated with markers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP and fasting TG prior to n-3 supplementation in two studies (Study 1: n = 115, aged 20–44 years, body mass index (BMI 20–30 kg/m2, TG = 34–176 mg/dL; Study 2: n = 28, aged 22–65 years, BMI 24–37 kg/m2, TG = 141–339 mg/dL. We also characterized the dose-response effects of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on RBC n-3 DPA after five months of supplementation with fish oil (Study 1: 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1800 mg/day EPA + DHA and eight weeks of prescription n-3 ethyl esters (Study 2: 0, 850, and 3400 mg/day EPA + DHA. In Study 1, RBC n-3 DPA was inversely correlated with CRP (R2 = 36%, p < 0.001 and with fasting TG (r = −0.30, p = 0.001. The latter finding was replicated in Study 2 (r = −0.33, p = 0.04. In both studies, n-3 supplementation significantly increased RBC n-3 DPA dose-dependently. Relative increases were greater for Study 1, with increases of 29%–61% vs. 14%–26% for Study 2. The associations between RBC n-3 DPA, CRP, and fasting TG may have important implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis and chronic inflammatory diseases and warrant further study.

  9. The homeostasis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob M A Mauritz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The asexual reproduction cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for severe malaria, occurs within red blood cells. A merozoite invades a red cell in the circulation, develops and multiplies, and after about 48 hours ruptures the host cell, releasing 15-32 merozoites ready to invade new red blood cells. During this cycle, the parasite increases the host cell permeability so much that when similar permeabilization was simulated on uninfected red cells, lysis occurred before approximately 48 h. So how could infected cells, with a growing parasite inside, prevent lysis before the parasite has completed its developmental cycle? A mathematical model of the homeostasis of infected red cells suggested that it is the wasteful consumption of host cell hemoglobin that prevents early lysis by the progressive reduction in the colloid-osmotic pressure within the host (the colloid-osmotic hypothesis. However, two critical model predictions, that infected cells would swell to near prelytic sphericity and that the hemoglobin concentration would become progressively reduced, remained controversial. In this paper, we are able for the first time to correlate model predictions with recent experimental data in the literature and explore the fine details of the homeostasis of infected red blood cells during five model-defined periods of parasite development. The conclusions suggest that infected red cells do reach proximity to lytic rupture regardless of their actual volume, thus requiring a progressive reduction in their hemoglobin concentration to prevent premature lysis.

  10. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood stem cell (PBSC) donor, explains the donation process - Duration: 3:28. Be The Match 23,393 ... Copyright Creators Advertise Developers +YouTube Terms Privacy Policy & Safety Send feedback Try something new! Loading... Working... Sign ...

  11. Colour measurement and white blood cell recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Gelsema, E S

    1972-01-01

    As a part of a collaboration with NEMCH aimed at the automation of the differential white blood cell count, studies have been made of the different possibilities for using colour to help in the recognition process. Results are presented comparing data obtained with a microspectrophotometer and with a simulated three-colour scanner.

  12. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show ... Monks 3,700 views 4:41 Stem Cell Basics - How Blood is Made. - Duration: 10:58. Vernon ...

  13. Association of blood transfusion with increased mortality in myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatterjee, Saurav; Wetterslev, Jørn; Sharma, Abhishek;

    2013-01-01

    The benefit of blood transfusion in patients with myocardial infarction is controversial, and a possibility of harm exists.......The benefit of blood transfusion in patients with myocardial infarction is controversial, and a possibility of harm exists....

  14. Systems biology of stored blood cells: Can it help to extend the expiration date?

    OpenAIRE

    Paglia, Giuseppe; Bernhard Ø Palsson; Sigurjonsson, Olafur E.

    2012-01-01

    With increasingly stringent regulations regarding deferral and elimination of blood donors it will become increasingly important to extend the expiration date of blood components beyond the current allowed storage periods. One reason for the storage time limit for blood components is that platelets and red blood cells develop a condition called storage lesions during their storage in plastic blood containers. Systems biology provides comprehensive bio-chemical descriptions of organisms throug...

  15. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated.

  16. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated

  17. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  18. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  19. Red blood cell replacement, or nanobiotherapeutics with enhanced red blood cell functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Thomas Ming Swi

    2015-06-01

    Why is this important? Under normal circumstances, donor blood is the best replacement for blood. However, there are exceptions: During natural epidemics (e.g., HIV, Ebola, etc.) or man-made epidemics (terrorism, war, etc.), there is a risk of donor blood being contaminated, and donors being disqualified because they have contracted disease. Unlike red blood cells (RBCs), blood substitutes can be sterilized to remove infective agents. Heart attack and stroke are usually caused by obstruction of arterial blood vessels. Unlike RBCs, which are particulate, blood substitutes are in the form of a solution that can perfuse through obstructed vessels with greater ease to reach the heart and brain, as has been demonstrated in animal studies. Severe blood loss from injuries sustained during accidents, disasters, or war may require urgent blood transfusion that cannot wait for transportation to the hospital for blood group testing. Unlike RBCs, blood substitutes do not have specific blood groups, and can be administered on the spot. RBCs have to be stored under refrigeration for up to 42 days, and are thus difficult to transport and store in times of disaster and at the battlefront. Blood substitutes can be stored at room temperature for more than 1 year, compared to the RBC shelf life of 1 day, at room temperature. In cases of very severe hemorrhagic shock, there is usually a safety window of 60 min for blood replacement, beyond which there could be problems related to irreversible shock. Animal studies show that a particular type of blood substitute, with enhanced RBC enzymes, may be able to prolong the duration of the safety window. PMID:26096663

  20. Filtration parameters influencing circulating tumor cell enrichment from whole blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A W Coumans

    Full Text Available Filtration can achieve circulating tumor cell (CTC enrichment from blood. Key parameters such as flow-rate, applied pressure, and fixation, vary largely between assays and their influence is not well understood. Here, we used a filtration system, to monitor these parameters and determine their relationships. Whole blood, or its components, with and without spiked tumor cells were filtered through track-etched filters. We characterize cells passing through filter pores by their apparent viscosity; the viscosity of a fluid that would pass with the same flow. We measured a ratio of 5·10(4∶10(2∶1 for the apparent viscosities of 15 µm diameter MDA-231 cells, 10 µm white cells and 90 fl red cells passing through a 5 µm pore. Fixation increases the pressure needed to pass cells through 8 µm pores 25-fold and halves the recovery of spiked tumor cells. Filtration should be performed on unfixed samples at a pressure of ∼10 mbar for a 1 cm(2 track-etched filter with 5 µm pores. At this pressure MDA-231 cells move through the filter in 1 hour. If fixation is needed for sample preservation, a gentle fixative should be selected. The difference in apparent viscosity between CTC and blood cells is key in optimizing recovery of CTC.

  1. Erythropoietic Potential of CD34+ Hematopoietic Stem Cells from Human Cord Blood and G-CSF-Mobilized Peripheral Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglian Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cell (RBC supply for transfusion has been severely constrained by the limited availability of donor blood and the emergence of infection and contamination issues. Alternatively, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs from human organs have been increasingly considered as safe and effective blood source. Several methods have been studied to obtain mature RBCs from CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells via in vitro culture. Among them, human cord blood (CB and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized adult peripheral blood (mPB are common adult stem cells used for allogeneic transplantation. Our present study focuses on comparing CB- and mPB-derived stem cells in differentiation from CD34+ cells into mature RBCs. By using CD34+ cells from cord blood and G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood, we showed in vitro RBC generation of artificial red blood cells. Our results demonstrate that CB- and mPB-derived CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells have similar characteristics when cultured under the same conditions, but differ considerably with respect to expression levels of various genes and hemoglobin development. This study is the first to compare the characteristics of CB- and mPB-derived erythrocytes. The results support the idea that CB and mPB, despite some similarities, possess different erythropoietic potentials in in vitro culture systems.

  2. Frequent ventricular premature beats increase blood pressure variability in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao-yu MIAO; Li-ping XU; Jian-guo LIU; He-hui XIE; Wen-jun YUAN; Ding-feng SU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The present study was designed to test a hypothesis that nonfatal ventricular arrhythmia such as ventricular premature beats (VPB) is a contributing factor in the elevation of blood pressure variability (BPV). METHODS:Blood pressure (BP) and electrocardiogram were continuously recorded. The relation between VPB and BPV was observed under conscious state in chronic myocardial infarction (MI) rats one month after ligation of the left.coronary artery, and further verified under anesthetized state in rat model of ventricular arrhythmia produced by acute intravenous infusion of aconitine. RESULTS: MI rats exhibited a big difference in the count and pattern of VPB, and were divided into no VPB, occasional VPB, and frequent VPB groups. Among the three groups, there were no differences in BP, heart period (HP), and MI size. However, BPV was markedly higher in frequent not occasional VPB rats, and HP variability (HPV) was larger in both frequent and occasional VPB rats, when compared with no VPB rats. In the whole population of MI rats, BPV was positively correlated with VPB and HPV, not with BP, HP and MI size. Infusion of aconitine had no effect on BP, HP, BPV, and HPV during the period without VPB.Frequent VPB after several minutes of aconitine infusion induced significant increase in BPV and HPV with no change in BP and HP. BPV was also positively correlated with VPB and HPV, not with BP and HP. Hemodynamics in aconitine-evoked ventricular tachycardia was characterized as lower BP, higher BPV, and higher HPV.CONCLUSION: High BPV can be caused by frequent not occasional VPB in rats.

  3. Automated microscopy system for peripheral blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boev, Sergei F.; Sazonov, Vladimir V.; Kozinets, Gennady I.; Pogorelov, Valery M.; Gusev, Alexander A.; Korobova, Farida V.; Vinogradov, Alexander G.; Verdenskaya, Natalya V.; Ivanova, Irina A.

    2000-11-01

    The report describes the instrument ASPBS (Automated Screening of Peripheral Blood Cells) designed for an automated analysis of dry blood smears. The instrument is based on computer microscopy and uses dry blood smears prepared according to the standard Romanovskii-Giemza procedure. In comparison with the well-known flow cytometry systems, our instrument provides more detailed information and offers an opporunity of visualizing final results. The basic performances of the instrument are given. Software of this instrument is based on digital image processing and image recognition procedures. It is pointed out that the instrument can be used as a fairly universal tool in scientific research, public demonstrations, in medical treatment, and in medical education. The principle used as the basis of the instrument appeared adequate for creating an instrument version serviceable even during space flights where standard manual procedures and flow cytometry systems fail. The benefit of the use of the instrument in clinical laboratories is described.

  4. Blood cells and endothelial barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Stephen F; Granger, D Neil

    2015-01-01

    The barrier properties of endothelial cells are critical for the maintenance of water and protein balance between the intravascular and extravascular compartments. An impairment of endothelial barrier function has been implicated in the genesis and/or progression of a variety of pathological conditions, including pulmonary edema, ischemic stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, angioedema, sepsis and cancer. The altered barrier function in these conditions is often linked to the release of soluble mediators from resident cells (e.g., mast cells, macrophages) and/or recruited blood cells. The interaction of the mediators with receptors expressed on the surface of endothelial cells diminishes barrier function either by altering the expression of adhesive proteins in the inter-endothelial junctions, by altering the organization of the cytoskeleton, or both. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), proteolytic enzymes (e.g., matrix metalloproteinase, elastase), oncostatin M, and VEGF are part of a long list of mediators that have been implicated in endothelial barrier failure. In this review, we address the role of blood borne cells, including, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and platelets, in the regulation of endothelial barrier function in health and disease. Attention is also devoted to new targets for therapeutic intervention in disease states with morbidity and mortality related to endothelial barrier dysfunction. PMID:25838983

  5. Responder individuality in red blood cell alloimmunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körmöczi, Günther F; Mayr, Wolfgang R

    2014-11-01

    Many different factors influence the propensity of transfusion recipients and pregnant women to form red blood cell alloantibodies (RBCA). RBCA may cause hemolytic transfusion reactions, hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn and may be a complication in transplantation medicine. Antigenic differences between responder and foreign erythrocytes may lead to such an immune answer, in part with suspected specific HLA class II associations. Biochemical and conformational characteristics of red blood cell (RBC) antigens, their dose (number of transfusions and pregnancies, absolute number of antigens per RBC) and the mode of exposure impact on RBCA rates. In addition, individual circumstances determine the risk to form RBCA. Responder individuality in terms of age, sex, severity of underlying disease, disease- or therapy-induced immunosuppression and inflammation are discussed with respect to influencing RBC alloimmunization. For particular high-risk patients, extended phenotype matching of transfusion and recipient efficiently decreases RBCA induction and associated clinical risks. PMID:25670932

  6. Cigarette smoking impairs nitric oxide-mediated cerebral blood flow increase: Implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Noboru; Okamura, Tomio

    2016-08-01

    Cerebral blood flow is mainly regulated by nitrergic (parasympathetic, postganglionic) nerves and nitric oxide (NO) liberated from endothelial cells in response to shear stress and stretch of vasculature, whereas sympathetic vasoconstrictor control is quite weak. On the other hand, peripheral vascular resistance and blood flow are mainly controlled by adrenergic vasoconstrictor nerves; endothelium-derived NO and nitrergic nerves play some roles as vasodilator factors. Cigarette smoking impairs NO synthesis in cerebral vascular endothelial cells and nitrergic nerves leading to interference with cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in the brain. Smoking-induced cerebral hypoperfusion is induced by impairment of synthesis and actions of NO via endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)/neuronal NOS (nNOS) inhibition and by increased production of oxygen radicals, resulting in decreased actions of NO on vascular smooth muscle. Nicotine acutely and chronically impairs the action of endothelial NO and also inhibits nitrergic nerve function in chronic use. Impaired cerebral blood supply promotes the synthesis of amyloid β that accelerates blood flow decrease. This vicious cycle is thought to be one of the important factors involving in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Quitting smoking is undoubtedly one of the important ways to prevent and delay the genesis or slow the progress of impaired cognitive function and AD. PMID:27530818

  7. Effects of Natural Eggshell Membrane (NEM) on Cytokine Production in Cultures of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells: Increased Suppression of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Levels After In Vitro Digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Kathleen F.; Ruff, Kevin J.; Jensen, Gitte S.

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays an important role in inflammatory processes. This study examined the effects of natural eggshell membrane (NEM®) (ESM Technologies, LLC, Carthage, MO, USA) on interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and TNF-α cytokine production by 4-day peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures exposed to serial dilutions of either an aqueous extract of natural eggshell membrane (NEM-AQ) or NEM subjected to in vitro digestion (NEM-IVD). The e...

  8. Magnetic nanoparticle effects on the red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creanga, D E; Nadejde, C; Curecheriu, L [' Al. I. Cuza' University, Faculty of Physics, 11A Blvd. Carol I, Iasi (Romania)], E-mail: dorinacreanga@yahoo.com; Culea, M [' Babes Bolyai' University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Oancea, S [University of Veterinary Medicine ' I. Ionescu de la Brad' , Iasi (Romania); Racuciu, M [' Lucian Blaga' University, Sibiu (Romania)

    2009-05-01

    In vitro tests on magnetite colloidal nanoparticles effects upon animal red blood cells were carried out. Magnetite cores were stabilized with citric acid in the form of biocompatible magnetic fluid administrated in different dilutions in the whole blood samples. The hemolysis extent was found increased up to 2.75 in horse blood and respectively up to 2.81 in the dog blood. The electronic transitions assigned to the heme group were found shifted with about 500 cm{sup -1} or, respectively, affected by supplementary vibronic structures. The Raman vibrations assigned to oxyhemoglobin were much diminished in intensity probably due to the bonding of OH group from citrate shell to the heme iron ion.

  9. The magnitude of blood lactate increases from high speed workouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, J F; Kucera, S; Jackson, T; Hari, P; Olson, N; McLagan, J; Taylor, S T; Shepherd, C

    2011-05-01

    To examine blood lactate concentrations from high-speed exercise resistive exercise, subjects performed workouts on an inertial kinetic exercise (Oconomowoc, WI) device. Workouts entailed two 60-s sets of elbow flexor (curling) repetitions. Pre- and post-exercise blood lactate concentrations were measured, via a fingertip blood drop, with an analyzer. From workouts the average acceleration, maximum force and total torque were derived. Blood lactate concentrations were analyzed with a 2 (gender)×2 (time) ANOVA, with repeated measures for time. Average acceleration, maximum force and total torque were analyzed with one-way (gender) ANOVAs. With an α=0.05, blood lactate concentrations had a time (prewomen) effects. Current blood lactate concentrations were commensurate with other studies that used a modest level of resistance and engaged a small muscle mass. Given the current workout protocol and muscle mass engaged, as well as parallels to other results, our study appears to offer a valid portrayal of subsequent changes in blood lactate concentrations from high-speed resistive exercise. PMID:21380973

  10. Cell-cell interaction in blood flow in patients with coronary heart disease (in vitro study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2007-02-01

    Blood cell-cell and cell-vessel wall interactions are one of the key patterns in blood and vascular pathophysiology. We have chosen the method of reconstruction of pulsative blood flow in vitro in the experimental set. Blood flow structure was studied by PC integrated video camera with following slide by slide analysis. Studied flow was of constant volumetric blood flow velocity (1 ml/h). Diameter of tube in use was comparable with coronary arteries diameter. Glucose solution and unfractured heparin were used as the nonspecial irritants of studied flow. Erythrocytes space structure in flow differs in all groups of patients in our study (men with stable angina pectoris (SAP), myocardial infarction (MI) and practically healthy men (PHM). Intensity of erythrocytes aggregate formation was maximal in patients with SAP, but time of their "construction/deconstruction" at glucose injection was minimal. Phenomena of primary clotting formation in patients with SAP of high function class was reconstructed under experimental conditions. Heparin injection (10 000 ED) increased linear blood flow velocity both in patients with SAP, MI and PHP but modulated the cell profile in the flow. Received data correspond with results of animal model studies and noninvasive blood flow studies in human. Results of our study reveal differences in blood flow structure in patients with coronary heart disease and PHP under irritating conditions as the possible framework of metabolic model of coronary blood flow destabilization.

  11. Erythropoietin reduces storage lesions and decreases apoptosis indices in blood bank red blood cells

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Andrés Penuela; Fernando Palomino; Lina Andrea Gómez

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Recent evidence shows a selective destruction of the youngest circulating red blood cells (neocytolysis) trigged by a drop in erythropoietin levels. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin beta on the red blood cell storage lesion and apoptosis indices under blood bank conditions. Methods: Each one of ten red blood cell units preserved in additive solution 5 was divided in two volumes of 100 mL and assigned to one...

  12. Microparticle Shedding from Neural Progenitor Cells and Vascular Compartment Cells Is Increased in Ischemic Stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Chiva-Blanch

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke has shown to induce platelet and endothelial microparticle shedding, but whether stroke induces microparticle shedding from additional blood and vascular compartment cells is unclear. Neural precursor cells have been shown to replace dying neurons at sites of brain injury; however, if neural precursor cell activation is associated to microparticle shedding, and whether this activation is maintained at long term and associates to stroke type and severity remains unknown. We analyzed neural precursor cells and blood and vascular compartment cells microparticle shedding after an acute ischemic stroke.Forty-four patients were included in the study within the first 48h after the onset of stroke. The cerebral lesion size was evaluated at 3-7 days of the stroke. Circulating microparticles from neural precursor cells and blood and vascular compartment cells (platelets, endothelial cells, erythrocytes, leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes and smooth muscle cells were analyzed by flow cytometry at the onset of stroke and at 7 and 90 days. Forty-four age-matched high cardiovascular risk subjects without documented vascular disease were used as controls.Compared to high cardiovascular risk controls, patients showed higher number of neural precursor cell- and all blood and vascular compartment cell-derived microparticles at the onset of stroke, and after 7 and 90 days. At 90 days, neural precursor cell-derived microparticles decreased and smooth muscle cell-derived microparticles increased compared to levels at the onset of stroke, but only in those patients with the highest stroke-induced cerebral lesions.Stroke increases blood and vascular compartment cell and neural precursor cell microparticle shedding, an effect that is chronically maintained up to 90 days after the ischemic event. These results show that stroke induces a generalized blood and vascular cell activation and the initiation of neuronal cell repair process after stroke. Larger

  13. RBCs and Parasites Segmentation from Thin Smear Blood Cell Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal V. Panchbhai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Manually examine the blood smear for the detection of malaria parasite consumes lot of time for trend pathologists. As the computational power increases, the role of automatic visual inspection becomes more important. An automated system is therefore needed to complete as much work as possible for the identification of malaria parasites. The given scheme based on used of RGB color space, G layer processing, and segmentation of Red Blood Cells (RBC as well as cell parasites by auto-thresholding with offset value and use of morphological processing. The work compare with the manual results obtained from the pathology lab, based on total RBC count and cells parasite count. The designed system successfully detects malaria parasites and RBC cells in thin smear image.

  14. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864... kinase or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. A red blood cell enzyme assay is used to determine the enzyme...

  15. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall...

  16. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Heerkens, Tammy; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl;

    2007-01-01

    Background: There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non-i...

  17. Intensive blood pressure lowering increases cerebral blood flow in older subjects with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryambake, Dinesh; He, Jiabao; Firbank, Michael J; O'Brien, John T; Blamire, Andrew M; Ford, Gary A

    2013-06-01

    Hypertension is associated with reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF). Intensive (blood pressure (BP) lowering in older people might give greater reduction in cardiovascular risk, but there are concerns that this might produce hypoperfusion which may precipitate falls and possibly stroke. We determined the effect of intensive compared with usual BP lowering on CBF in hypertensive older subjects. Individuals aged >70 years with a history of systolic hypertension on 1 or no BP lowering drugs were recruited from primary care (n=37; age, 75±4 years; systolic BP, >150 mm Hg) and randomized to receive intensive (target BP, treatment. Baseline BP (ambulatory or in clinic) and baseline gray matter CBF were not significantly different between the groups. After treatment, BP was reduced significantly in both groups but fell more in the intensive group (26/17 versus 15/5 mm Hg; Phypertension increases CBF, compared with BP lowering to usual target. These findings suggest hypertension in older people shifts the autoregulatory CBF curve rightward and downward and is reversible with BP lowering.

  18. Relaxin mediates uterine artery compliance during pregnancy and increases uterine blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodstrcil, Lenka A; Tare, Marianne; Novak, Jacqueline; Dragomir, Nicoleta; Ramirez, Rolando J; Wlodek, Mary E; Conrad, Kirk P; Parry, Laura J

    2012-10-01

    Normal pregnancy involves dramatic remodeling of the uterine vasculature, with abnormal vascular adaptations contributing to pregnancy diseases such as preeclampsia. The peptide hormone relaxin is important for the renal and systemic hemodynamic adaptations to pregnancy, and has been shown to increase arterial compliance and outward hypertrophic remodeling. Therefore, we investigated the possibility that relaxin acts on its receptor, RXFP1, to mediate uterine artery compliance in late pregnancy and increase uterine blood flow velocity in rats. RXFP1 was predominantly localized to the tunica media vascular smooth muscle cells in the uterine artery, although receptors were also detected in endothelial cells. Highest expression of Rxfp1 in the uterine artery occurred in estrus and early pregnancy. Isolated uterine arteries from late pregnant rats treated with a monoclonal antibody against circulating relaxin (MCA1) had significantly increased vessel wall stiffness compared with controls, with no reduction in wall thickness. Chronic infusion of relaxin (4 μg/h, osmotic minipump) for 5 d in nonpregnant rats significantly increased uterine artery blood flow velocity. Overall, these data demonstrate a functional role for relaxin in mediating uterine artery compliance in pregnant rats, which may be necessary to maintain adequate uterine blood flow to the uterus and placenta. PMID:22744867

  19. Phosphatidylserine exposure on stored red blood cells as a parameter for donor-dependent variation in product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinkla, S.; Peppelman, M.; Raadt, J. van der; Atsma, F.; Novotny, V.M.J.; Kraaij, M.G.J. van; Joosten, I.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure of phosphatidylserine on the outside of red blood cells contributes to recognition and removal of old and damaged cells. The fraction of phosphatidylserine-exposing red blood cells varies between donors, and increases in red blood cell concentrates during storage. The susceptibi

  20. Mechanosensing Dynamics of Red blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiandi

    2015-11-01

    Mechanical stress-induced deformation of human red blood cells (RBCs) plays important physiopathological roles in oxygen delivery, blood rheology, transfusion, and malaria. Recent studies demonstrate that, in response to mechanical deformation, RBCs release adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP), suggesting the existence of mechanotransductive pathways in RBCs. Most importantly, the released ATP from RBCs regulates vascular tone and impaired release of ATP from RBCs has been linked to diseases such as type II diabetes and cystic fibrosis. To date, however, the mechanisms of mechanotransductive release of ATP from RBCs remain unclear. Given that RBCs experience shear stresses continuously during the circulation cycle and the released ATP plays a central role in vascular physiopathology, understanding the mechanotransductive release of ATP from RBCs will provide not only fundamental insights to the role of RBCs in vascular homeostasis but also novel therapeutic strategies for red cell dysfunction and vascular disease. This talk describes the main research in my group on integrating microfluidic-based approaches to study the mechanosensing dynamics of RBCs. Specifically, I will introduce a micro?uidic approach that can probe the dynamics of shear-induced ATP release from RBCs with millisecond resolution and provide quantitative understandings of the mechanosensitive ATP release processes in RBCs. Furthermore, I will also describe our recent findings about the roles of the Piezo1 channel, a newly discovered mechanosensitive cation channel in the mechanotransductive ATP release in RBCs. Last, possible functions of RBCs in the regulation of cerebral blood flow will be discussed.

  1. Automated red blood cell analysis compared with routine red blood cell morphology by smear review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Poonam Radadiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The RBC histogram is an integral part of automated haematology analysis and is now routinely available on all automated cell counters. This histogram and other associated complete blood count (CBC parameters have been found abnormal in various haematological conditions and may provide major clues in the diagnosis and management of significant red cell disorders. Performing manual blood smears is important to ensure the quality of blood count results and to make presumptive diagnosis. In this article we have taken 100 samples for comparative study between RBC histograms obtained by automated haematology analyzer with peripheral blood smear. This article discusses some morphological features of dimorphism and the ensuing characteristic changes in their RBC histograms.

  2. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme mutation (Trp1197Stop causes a dramatic increase in blood ACE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B Nesterovitch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE metabolizes many peptides and plays a key role in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. Elevated ACE levels may be associated with an increased risk for different cardiovascular or respiratory diseases, including asthma. Previously, a molecular mechanism underlying a 5-fold familial increase of blood ACE was discovered: Pro1199Leu substitution enhanced the cleavage-secretion process. Carriers of this mutation were Caucasians from Europe (mostly Dutch or had European roots. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have found a family of African-American descent whose affected members' blood ACE level was increased 13-fold over normal. In affected family members, codon TGG coding for Trp1197 was substituted in one allele by TGA (stop codon. As a result, half of ACE expressed in these individuals had a length of 1196 amino acids and lacked a transmembrane anchor. This ACE mutant is not trafficked to the cell membrane and is directly secreted out of cells; this mechanism apparently accounts for the high serum ACE level seen in affected individuals. A haplotype of the mutant ACE allele was determined based on 12 polymorphisms, which may help to identify other carriers of this mutation. Some but not all carriers of this mutation demonstrated airflow obstruction, and some but not all have hypertension. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have identified a novel Trp1197Stop mutation that results in dramatic elevation of serum ACE. Since blood ACE elevation is often taken as a marker of disease activity (sarcoidosis and Gaucher diseases, it is important for clinicians and medical scientists to be aware of alternative genetic causes of elevated blood ACE that are not apparently linked to disease.

  3. Intracellular trehalose improves the survival of human red blood cells by freeze-drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Hui; LIU Baolin; HUA Zezhao; LI Chuan; WU Zhengzheng

    2007-01-01

    Freeze-drying of human red blood cells has a potential important application for blood transfusion.The aim of this study was to investigate the effects ofintracellular trehalose on the survival of red blood cells after freeze-drying and rehydration.Fresh red blood cells were incubated in trehalose solutions of various concentrations at 37℃ for 7 h following freeze-drying.Polyvinylpyrrolidone,Trehalose,sodium citrate,and human serum albumin were used as extracellular protective agents for the freeze-drying of red blood cells.The results indicated that the intracellular trehalose concentration was increased with increasing concentration of extracellular trehalose solution,and the maximum concen tration of intracellular trehalose reached 35 mmol/L.The viability of freeze-dried red blood cells increased with the increment of intracellular trehalose concentration.

  4. Flow of Red Blood Cells in Stenosed Microvessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidkhah, Koohyar; Balogh, Peter; Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2016-06-01

    A computational study is presented on the flow of deformable red blood cells in stenosed microvessels. It is observed that the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect is significantly enhanced due to the presence of a stenosis. The apparent viscosity of blood is observed to increase by several folds when compared to non-stenosed vessels. An asymmetric distribution of the red blood cells, caused by geometric focusing in stenosed vessels, is observed to play a major role in the enhancement. The asymmetry in cell distribution also results in an asymmetry in average velocity and wall shear stress along the length of the stenosis. The discrete motion of the cells causes large time-dependent fluctuations in flow properties. The root-mean-square of flow rate fluctuations could be an order of magnitude higher than that in non-stenosed vessels. Several folds increase in Eulerian velocity fluctuation is also observed in the vicinity of the stenosis. Surprisingly, a transient flow reversal is observed upstream a stenosis but not downstream. The asymmetry and fluctuations in flow quantities and the flow reversal would not occur in absence of the cells. It is concluded that the flow physics and its physiological consequences are significantly different in micro- versus macrovascular stenosis.

  5. A statistical model for red blood cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korell, Julia; Coulter, Carolyn V; Duffull, Stephen B

    2011-01-01

    A statistical model for the survival time of red blood cells (RBCs) with a continuous distribution of cell lifespans is presented. The underlying distribution of RBC lifespans is derived from a probability density function with a bathtub-shaped hazard curve, and accounts for death of RBCs due to senescence (age-dependent increasing hazard rate) and random destruction (constant hazard), as well as for death due to initial or delayed failures and neocytolysis (equivalent to early red cell mortality). The model yields survival times similar to those of previously published studies of RBC survival and is easily amenable to inclusion of drug effects and haemolytic disorders. PMID:20950630

  6. Human Blood-Vessel-Derived Stem Cells for Tissue Repair and Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Wen Chen; Mirko Corselli; Bruno Péault; Johnny Huard

    2012-01-01

    Multipotent stem/progenitor cells with similar developmental potentials have been independently identified from diverse human tissue/organ cultures. The increasing recognition of the vascular/perivascular origin of mesenchymal precursors suggested blood vessels being a systemic source of adult stem/progenitor cells. Our group and other laboratories recently isolated multiple stem/progenitor cell subsets from blood vessels of adult human tissues. Each of the three structural layers of blood ve...

  7. Increased cerebral blood flow in preeclampsia with magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, GG; Hatab, MR; Twickler, DM

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare third trimester and nonpregnant cerebral blood flow of women with preeclampsia to normotensive control subjects with the use of magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Study design: Nine normotensive pregnant women and 12 untreated women with preecl

  8. Ekstrak Air Tapak Dara Menurunkan Kadar Gula dan Meningkatkan Jumlah Sel Beta Pankreas Kelinci Hiperglikemia (THE WATER EXTRACT OF TAPAK DARA DECREASES BLOOD GLUCOSE CONCENTRATION AND INCREASES INSULIN PRODUCTION BY PANCREATIC BETA-CELLS ON HYPERGLYCEMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikayati Widyastuti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of tapak dara (Catharanthus roseus onblood glucose level and insulin profile in hyperglicemic rabbits. Fifeteen local male rabbits were used forthis study. The rabbits were randomly divided into five groups. Group 1 (K-, a control negative group;group 2 (K+, a control positive hipergliccemia; group 3 (KT1 and group 4 (KT2, were groups hiperglicemiaand treated with water extract of tapak dara doses 1 and 2 g/kg bw, respectively; and group 5 (KO, a grouphiperglicemia that treated with glibenclamide 2 mg/kg bw. The result showed water extract of tapak daradose 1 g/kgbw could not decrease the blood glucose level in hyperglycemic rabbits, while dose 2 g/kg bwcould decline blood glucose level in rabbits. This decline had no significantly difference compared withglibenclamide treatment (P> 0.05. Immunohistchemistry result indicated that water extract of tapakdara could stimulate beta cells pancreas to produce insulin.

  9. Angiopoietin-4 increases permeability of blood vessels and promotes lymphatic dilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Cristina T; Pereira, Ethel R; Cui, Cheryl H; Nelson, Gregory M; Masuck, David J; Baish, James W; Padera, Timothy P

    2015-09-01

    The angiopoietin (Ang) ligands are potential therapeutic targets for lymphatic related diseases, which include lymphedema and cancer. Ang-1 and Ang-2 functions are established, but those of Ang-4 are poorly understood. We used intravital fluorescence microscopy to characterize Ang-4 actions on T241 murine fibrosarcoma-associated vessels in mice. The diameters of lymphatic vessels draining Ang-4- or VEGF-C (positive control)-expressing tumors increased to 123 and 135 μm, respectively, and parental, mock-transduced (negative controls) and tumors expressing Ang-1 or Ang-2 remained at baseline (∼60 μm). Ang-4 decreased human dermal lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) monolayer permeability by 27% while increasing human dermal blood endothelial cell (BEC) monolayer permeability by 200%. In vivo, Ang-4 stimulated a 4.5-fold increase in tumor-associated blood vessel permeability compared with control when measured using intravital quantitative multiphoton microscopy. Ang-4 activated receptor signaling in both LECs and BECs, evidenced by tyrosine kinase with Ig and endothelial growth factor homology domains-2 (TIE2) receptor, protein kinase B, and Erk1,2 phosphorylation detectable by immunoblotting. These data suggest that Ang-4 actions are mediated through cell-type-specific networks and that lymphatic vessel dilation occurs secondarily to increased vascular leakage. Ang-4 also promoted survival of LECs. Thus, blocking Ang-4 may prune the draining lymphatic vasculature and decrease interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) by reducing vascular permeability. PMID:25977256

  10. Blood spots as an alternative to whole blood collection and the effect of a small monetary incentive to increase participation in genetic association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ringer Danny

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collection of buccal cells from saliva for DNA extraction offers a less invasive and convenient alternative to venipuncture blood collection that may increase participation in genetic epidemiologic studies. However, dried blood spot collection, which is also a convenient method, offers a means of collecting peripheral blood samples from which analytes in addition to DNA can be obtained. Methods To determine if offering blood spot collection would increase participation in genetic epidemiologic studies, we conducted a study of collecting dried blood spot cards by mail from a sample of female cancer cases (n = 134 and controls (n = 256 who were previously selected for a breast cancer genetics study and declined to provide a venipuncture blood sample. Participants were also randomized to receive either a $2.00 bill or no incentive with the blood spot collection kits. Results The average time between the venipuncture sample refusal and recruitment for the blood spot collection was 4.4 years. Thirty-seven percent of cases and 28% of controls provided a dried blood spot card. While the incentive was not associated with participation among controls (29% for $2.00 incentive vs. 26% for no incentive, p = 0.6, it was significantly associated with participation among the breast cancer cases (48% vs. 27%, respectively, p = 0.01. There did not appear to be any bias in response since no differences between cases and controls and incentive groups were observed when examining several demographic, work history and radiation exposure variables. Conclusion This study demonstrates that collection of dried blood spot cards in addition to venipuncture blood samples may be a feasible method to increase participation in genetic case-control studies.

  11. Biological effects of the electrostatic field: red blood cell-related alterations of oxidative processes in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunyan, Hayk A.; Sahakyan, Gohar V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine activities of pro-/antioxidant enzymes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and oxidative modification of proteins and lipids in red blood cells (RBCs) and blood plasma of rats exposed to electrostatic field (200 kV/m) during the short (1 h) and the long periods (6 day, 6 h daily). Short-term exposure was characterized by the increase of oxidatively damaged proteins in blood of rats. This was strongly expressed in RBC membranes. After long-term action, RBC content in peripheral blood was higher than in control ( P < 0.01) and the attenuation of prooxidant processes was shown.

  12. Alterations in cell surface area and deformability of individual human red blood cells in stored blood

    CERN Document Server

    Park, HyunJoo; Lee, SangYun; Kim, Kyoohyun; Sohn, Yong-Hak; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    The functionality and viability of stored human red blood cells (RBCs) is an important clinical issue in transfusion. To systematically investigate changes in stored whole blood, the hematological properties of individual RBCs were quantified in blood samples stored for various periods with and without a preservation solution called CPDA-1. With 3-D quantitative phase imaging techniques, the optical measurements of the 3-D refractive index (RI) distributions and membrane fluctuations were done at the individual cell level. From the optical measurements, the morphological (volume, surface area and sphericity), biochemical (hemoglobin content and concentration), and mechanical parameters (dynamic membrane fluctuation) were simultaneously quantified to investigate the functionalities and their progressive alterations in stored RBCs. Our results show that the stored RBCs without CPDA-1 had a dramatic morphological transformation from discocytes to spherocytes within 2 weeks which was accompanied with significant ...

  13. Effects of blood products on inflammatory response in endothelial cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Urner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transfusing blood products may induce inflammatory reactions within the vascular compartment potentially leading to a systemic inflammatory response. Experiments were designed to assess the inflammatory potential of different blood products in an endothelial cell-based in vitro model and to compare baseline levels of potentially activating substances in transfusion products. METHODS: The inflammatory response from pre-activated (endotoxin-stimulated and non-activated endothelial cells as well as neutrophil endothelial transmigration in response to packed red blood cells (PRBC, platelet concentrates (PC and fresh frozen plasma (FFP was determined. Baseline inflammatory mediator and lipid concentrations in blood products were evaluated. RESULTS: Following incubation with all blood products, an increased inflammatory mediator release from endothelial cells was observed. Platelet concentrates, and to a lesser extent also FFP, caused the most pronounced response, which was accentuated in already pre-stimulated endothelial cells. Inflammatory response of endothelial cells as well as blood product-induced migration of neutrophils through the endothelium was in good agreement with the lipid content of the according blood product. CONCLUSION: Within the group of different blood transfusion products both PC and FFP have a high inflammatory potential with regard to activation of endothelial cells. Inflammation upon blood product exposure is strongly accentuated when endothelial cells are pre-injured. High lipid contents in the respective blood products goes along with an accentuated inflammatory reaction from endothelial cells.

  14. Relationship between white blood cells and hypertension in Chinese adults: the Cardiometabolic Risk in Chinese (CRC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Ting; Gong, Ying; Zhu, Ruihua; Liu, Xuekui; Zhu, Yan; Wang, Yu; Qiu, Qinqin; Qi, Lu; Liang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Increased blood pressure was associated with increased white blood cell count (adjusted p hypertension across white blood cell count quintiles were 1.00, 0.99 (0.89-1.09), 1.11 (1.01-1.22), 1.09 (0.99-1.20), and 1.19 (1.08-1.31) (p for trend blood cell count had an additive effect on systolic blood pressure (p for interaction = 0.047). Therefore, white blood cell count could independently predict hypertension in Chinese adults.

  15. Generation of suppressive blood cells for control of allograft rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleist, Christian; Sandra-Petrescu, Flavius; Jiga, Lucian; Dittmar, Laura; Mohr, Elisabeth; Greil, Johann; Mier, Walter; Becker, Luis E; Lang, Peter; Opelz, Gerhard; Terness, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Our previous studies in rats showed that incubation of monocytic dendritic cells (DCs) with the chemotherapeutic drug mitomycin C (MMC) renders the cells immunosuppressive. Donor-derived MMC-DCs injected into the recipient prior to transplantation prolonged heart allograft survival. Although the generation of DCs is labour-intensive and time-consuming, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) can be easily harvested. In the present study, we analyse under which conditions DCs can be replaced by PBMCs and examine their mode of action. When injected into rats, MMC-incubated donor PBMCs (MICs) strongly prolonged heart allograft survival. Removal of monocytes from PBMCs completely abrogated their suppressive effect, indicating that monocytes are the active cell population. Suppression of rejection was donor-specific. The injected MICs migrated into peripheral lymphoid organs and led to an increased number of regulatory T-cells (Tregs) expressing cluster of differentiation (CD) markers CD4 and CD25 and forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3). Tolerance could be transferred to syngeneic recipients with blood or spleen cells. Depletion of Tregs from tolerogenic cells abrogated their suppressive effect, arguing for mediation of immunosuppression by CD4⁺CD25⁺FoxP3⁺ Tregs. Donor-derived MICs also prolonged kidney allograft survival in pigs. MICs generated from donor monocytes were applied for the first time in humans in a patient suffering from therapy-resistant rejection of a haploidentical stem cell transplant. We describe, in the present paper, a simple method for in vitro generation of suppressor blood cells for potential use in clinical organ transplantation. Although the case report does not allow us to draw any conclusion about their therapeutic effectiveness, it shows that MICs can be easily generated and applied in humans.

  16. Model animal experiments on UV-c irradiation of blood and isolated cell populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cellular and molecular basis of the therapeutically used effect of reinjected ultraviolet (UVC) irradiated blood is unknown. First approaches to that problem were made in this study by aid of model experiments. Neither the spontaneous degranulation nor the antigen-induced histamine release from rat connective tissue mast cells (in vivo) was influenced by the injection (i.v.) of UV-irradiated blood or blood lymphocytes. By comparison of the effect of UV light on blood lymphocytes (number of dead cells, strength of chemoluminescence) after irradiation of the isolated cells and the unfractionated blood, respectively, it was shown that the strong light absorption within the blood sample prevents damage or functional alterations of the blood lymphocytes. The compound 48/80 - induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells can be completely inhibited by UV irradiation (0.6 mJ/cm2) without increasing the spontaneous histamine release. (author)

  17. BAY 50-4798, a novel, high-affinity receptor-specific recombinant interleukin-2 analog, induces dose-dependent increases in CD25 expression and proliferation among unstimulated, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lynn; Chapman, Sherita; Ramchandani, Meena S; Lane, H Clifford; Davey, Richard T; Sereti, Irini

    2004-12-01

    Interleukin-2 administration induces CD4 T cell expansion in HIV-infected patients, however, toxicity can limit dosing. BAY 50-4798 is a recombinant IL-2 analog with >1000-fold specificity for the high-affinity IL-2 receptor. The effects of this compound on unstimulated human PBMC were evaluated. PBMC from HIV(-) and HIV(+) donors were cultured in vitro with incremental doses of BAY 50-4798 or aldesleukin. CD25 expression and proliferation were evaluated with flow cytometry. Cytokine levels were measured by ELISA in culture supernatants. BAY 50-4798 induced dose-dependent increases in CD25 expression and proliferation of T cells, NK, and B cells and showed selectivity for CD4 T cells expressing CD25. Induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines was also dose-dependent and was observed at the concentrations of BAY 50-4798 with the highest biologic activity. These data suggest that BAY 50-4798 can induce proliferation of unstimulated T cells but loss of T cell selectivity and induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines occur at concentrations exerting the highest biologic activity. PMID:15507389

  18. Increasing the specificity of the forensic luminol test for blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quickenden, T I; Cooper, P D

    2001-01-01

    It is shown that the presumptive luminol chemiluminescence test for the presence of traces of blood can be made more determinative by measuring the peak emission wavelength of the luminol chemiluminescence. When sprayed onto a surface containing traces of human haemoglobin, a 1 g/L solution of aqueous luminol containing 7 g/L sodium perborate gives an emission peak at 455 +/- 2 nm, whereas the same mixture gives an emission peak at 430 +/- 3 nm when sprayed onto a surface containing traces of sodium hypochlorite (household bleach). This spectral difference can readily be determined using spectroscopic equipment that either scans the spectrum before significant luminescence decay occurs or corrects the spectrum for the effects of any decay. It was found that bovine haemoglobin and human haemoglobin showed no significant spectral differences.

  19. Acoustic trauma increases cochlear and hair cell uptake of gentamicin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhe Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure to intense sound or high doses of aminoglycoside antibiotics can increase hearing thresholds, induce cochlear dysfunction, disrupt hair cell morphology and promote hair cell death, leading to permanent hearing loss. When the two insults are combined, synergistic ototoxicity occurs, exacerbating cochlear vulnerability to sound exposure. The underlying mechanism of this synergism remains unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that sound exposure enhances the intra-cochlear trafficking of aminoglycosides, such as gentamicin, leading to increased hair cell uptake of aminoglycosides and subsequent ototoxicity. METHODS: Juvenile C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to moderate or intense sound levels, while fluorescently-conjugated or native gentamicin was administered concurrently or following sound exposure. Drug uptake was then examined in cochlear tissues by confocal microscopy. RESULTS: Prolonged sound exposure that induced temporary threshold shifts increased gentamicin uptake by cochlear hair cells, and increased gentamicin permeation across the strial blood-labyrinth barrier. Enhanced intra-cochlear trafficking and hair cell uptake of gentamicin also occurred when prolonged sound, and subsequent aminoglycoside exposure were temporally separated, confirming previous observations. Acute, concurrent sound exposure did not increase cochlear uptake of aminoglycosides. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged, moderate sound exposures enhanced intra-cochlear aminoglycoside trafficking into the stria vascularis and hair cells. Changes in strial and/or hair cell physiology and integrity due to acoustic overstimulation could increase hair cell uptake of gentamicin, and may represent one mechanism of synergistic ototoxicity.

  20. Red blood cell transfusion in septic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosland, Ragnhild G; Hagen, Marte U; Haase, Nicolai;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treating anaemia with red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is frequent, but controversial, in patients with septic shock. Therefore we assessed characteristics and outcome associated with RBC transfusion in this group of high risk patients. METHODS: We did a prospective cohort study at 7...... general intensive care units (ICUs) including all adult patients with septic shock in a 5-month period. RESULTS: Ninety-five of the 213 included patients (45%) received median 3 (interquartile range 2-5) RBC units during shock. The median pre-transfusion haemoglobin level was 8.1 (7.4-8.9) g....../dl and independent of shock day and bleeding. Patients with cardiovascular disease were transfused at higher haemoglobin levels. Transfused patients had higher Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II (56 (45-69) vs. 48 (37-61), p = 0.0005), more bleeding episodes, lower haemoglobin levels days 1 to 5, higher...

  1. Red Blood Cells Estimation Using Hough Transform Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrul Humaimi Mahmood

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The number of red blood cells contributes more to clinical diagnosis with respect to blood diseases. Theaim of this research is to produce a computer vision system that can detect and estimate the number of redblood cells in the blood sample image. Morphological is a very powerful tool in image processing, and it isbeen used to segment and extract the red blood cells from the background and other cells. The algorithmused features such as shape of red blood cells for counting process, and Hough transform is introduced inthis process. The result presented here is based on images with normal blood cells. The tested data consistsof 10 samples and produced the accurate estimation rate closest to 96% from manual counting.

  2. SBR-Blood: systems biology repository for hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Jens; Heuston, Elisabeth F; Mishra, Tejaswini; Keller, Cheryl A; Hardison, Ross C; Bodine, David M

    2016-01-01

    Extensive research into hematopoiesis (the development of blood cells) over several decades has generated large sets of expression and epigenetic profiles in multiple human and mouse blood cell types. However, there is no single location to analyze how gene regulatory processes lead to different mature blood cells. We have developed a new database framework called hematopoietic Systems Biology Repository (SBR-Blood), available online at http://sbrblood.nhgri.nih.gov, which allows user-initiated analyses for cell type correlations or gene-specific behavior during differentiation using publicly available datasets for array- and sequencing-based platforms from mouse hematopoietic cells. SBR-Blood organizes information by both cell identity and by hematopoietic lineage. The validity and usability of SBR-Blood has been established through the reproduction of workflows relevant to expression data, DNA methylation, histone modifications and transcription factor occupancy profiles. PMID:26590403

  3. Reduction of prion infectivity in packed red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The link between a new variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and the consumption of prion contaminated cattle meat as well as recent findings showing that vCJD can be transmitted by blood transfusion have raised public health concerns. Currently, a reliable test to identify prions in blood samples is not available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility to remove scrapie prion protein (PrPSc) and infectivity from red blood cell (RBC) suspensions by a simple washing procedure using a cell separation and washing device. The extent of prion removal was assessed by Western blot, PMCA and infectivity bioassays. Our results revealed a substantial removal of infectious prions (≥3 logs of infectivity) by all techniques used. These data suggest that a significant amount of infectivity present in RBC preparations can be removed by a simple washing procedure. This technology may lead to increased safety of blood products and reduce the risk of further propagation of prion diseases.

  4. Anatomical relationship between traditional acupuncture point ST 36 and Omura's ST 36 (True ST 36) with their therapeutic effects: 1) inhibition of cancer cell division by markedly lowering cancer cell telomere while increasing normal cell telomere, 2) improving circulatory disturbances, with reduction of abnormal increase in high triglyceride, L-homocystein, CRP, or cardiac troponin I & T in blood by the stimulation of Omura's ST 36--Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Chen, Yemeng; Lu, Dominic P; Shimotsura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu; Duvvi, Harsha

    2007-01-01

    Using Bi-Digital O-Ring Test Resonance Phenomena between 2 identical substances, Omura, Y. succeeded in making the image of the outline of internal organs without use of standard imaging devices since 1982. When he imaged the outline of the stomach on the abdominal wall, a number of the lines came out from upper and lower parts of stomach wall. When the lines were followed, they were very close to the well-known stomach meridians. Subsequently, he found a method of localizing meridians and their corresponding acupuncture points as well as shapes and diameters accurately. At the anatomical location of ST 36 described in traditional textbooks, Omura, Y. found there is no acupuncture point. However, in the close vicinity, there is an acupuncture point which he named as true ST 36 in the mid 1980s, but it is generally known as Omura's ST 36. When the effects of the acupuncture on these 2 locations were compared, Omura's ST 36 (true ST 36) produced very significant well-known acupuncture beneficial effects including improved circulation and blood chemistry, while in the traditional ST 36, the effects were small. In this article, the anatomical relationship between these two acupuncture points, with a short distance of 0.6 approximately 1.5 cm between the centers of these locations, was described. In early 2000, Omura, Y. found Press Needle Stimulation of Omura's ST 36, using "Press-Release" procedure repeated 200 times, 4 times a day to cancer patients reduced high cancer cell telomere of 600-1500ng and high Oncogen C-fos Ab2 and Integrin alpha5beta1 of 100-700ng BDORT units to close to lyg (= 10(-24) g) BDORT units. In addition there was a significant reduction of Asbestos and Hg from cancer cells, while markedly reduced normal cell telomere of lyg was increased to optimally high amounts of 500-530ng BDORTunits. Thus, cancer cells can no longer divide and cancer activity is inhibited. The authors have successfully applied this method for a variety of cancers as well as

  5. Peripheral blood cell variations in cirrhotic portal hypertension patients with hypersplenism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Fu Lu; Xin-Qiu Li; Xiao-Yu Han; Xiao-Guang Gong; Shun-Wu Chang

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore peripheral blood cell variations in hepatic cirrhosis portal hypertension patients with hypersplenism. Methods: Clinical data of 322 hypersplenism patients with decreased peripheral blood cells, admitted with cirrhotic portal hypertension, was retrospectively studied over the last 17 years. Results:In 64% (206/322) of patients, more than 2 kinds of blood cell were decreased, including 89 cases of pancytopenia (43.2%), 52 cases of WBC+PLT decrease (25.2%), 29 cases of RBC + PLT decrease (14.1%), and 36 cases of WBC + RBC decrease (17.5%);in 36% (116/322) of patients, single type blood cell decrease occurred, including 31 cases of PLT decrease (26.7%), 29 cases of WBC decrease (25%) and 56 cases of RBC decrease (48.3%). Of 227 routine bone marrow examinations, bone marrow hyperplasia was observed in 118 cases (52.0%), the remainder showed no hyperplasia. For the distinct scope and extent of peripheralblood cell decreases, preoperative blood component transfusions were carried out, then treated by surgery, after whole group splenectomy, the peripheral blood cell count was significantly higher (P<0.05). Conclusions: Of portal hypertensive patients with splenomegaly and hypersplenism, 64%have simultaneous decrease in various blood cells, 36%have decrease in single type blood cells, 52%of patients have bone marrow hyperplasia. A splenectomy can significantly increase the reduction of peripheral blood cells.

  6. Increased epigenetic age and granulocyte counts in the blood of Parkinson's disease patients

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, Steve; Ritz, Beate R.

    2015-01-01

    It has been a long standing hypothesis that blood tissue of PD Parkinson's disease (PD) patients may exhibit signs of accelerated aging. Here we use DNA methylation based biomarkers of aging (“epigenetic clock”) to assess the aging rate of blood in two ethnically distinct case-control data sets. Using n=508 Caucasian and n=84 Hispanic blood samples, we assess a) the intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration of blood (IEAA), which is independent of blood cell counts, and b) the extrinsic epigeneti...

  7. Nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation increases blood flow during the early stages of stress fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Ryan E; Shoghi, Kooresh I; Silva, Matthew J

    2014-02-15

    Despite the strong connection between angiogenesis and osteogenesis in skeletal repair conditions such as fracture and distraction osteogenesis, little is known about the vascular requirements for bone formation after repetitive mechanical loading. Here, established protocols of damaging (stress fracture) and nondamaging (physiological) forelimb loading in the adult rat were used to stimulate either woven or lamellar bone formation, respectively. Positron emission tomography was used to evaluate blood flow and fluoride kinetics at the site of bone formation. In the group that received damaging mechanical loading leading to woven bone formation (WBF), (15)O water (blood) flow rate was significantly increased on day 0 and remained elevated 14 days after loading, whereas (18)F fluoride uptake peaked 7 days after loading. In the group that received nondamaging mechanical loading leading to lamellar bone formation (LBF), (15)O water and (18)F fluoride flow rates in loaded limbs were not significantly different from nonloaded limbs at any time point. The early increase in blood flow rate after WBF loading was associated with local vasodilation. In addition, Nos2 expression in mast cells was increased in WBF-, but not LBF-, loaded limbs. The nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester was used to suppress NO generation, resulting in significant decreases in early blood flow rate and bone formation after WBF loading. These results demonstrate that NO-mediated vasodilation is a key feature of the normal response to stress fracture and precedes woven bone formation. Therefore, patients with impaired vascular function may heal stress fractures more slowly than expected. PMID:24356518

  8. The treatment of neurodegenerative disorders using umbilical cord blood and menstrual blood-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanberg, Paul R; Eve, David J; Willing, Alison E; Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Tan, Jun; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Allickson, Julie G; Cruz, L Eduardo; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2011-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation is a potentially important means of treatment for a number of disorders. Two different stem cell populations of interest are mononuclear umbilical cord blood cells and menstrual blood-derived stem cells. These cells are relatively easy to obtain, appear to be pluripotent, and are immunologically immature. These cells, particularly umbilical cord blood cells, have been studied as either single or multiple injections in a number of animal models of neurodegenerative disorders with some degree of success, including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Sanfilippo syndrome type B. Evidence of anti-inflammatory effects and secretion of specific cytokines and growth factors that promote cell survival, rather than cell replacement, have been detected in both transplanted cells.

  9. Blood transfusion is associated with increased resource utilisation, morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Bharathi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the impact of blood transfusion on resource utilisation, morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery at a major university hospital. The resources we examined are time to extubation, intensive care unit length of stay (ICULOS and postoperative length of stay (PLOS. We further examined the impact of number of units of packed red blood cells (PRBCs transfused during PLOS. This is a retrospective observational study and includes 1746 consecutive male and female patients undergoing primary CABG (on- and off-pump at our institution. Of these, 1067 patients received blood transfusions, while 677 did not. The data regarding the demography, blood transfusion, resource utilisation, morbidity and mortality were collected from the records of patients undergoing CABG over a period of three years. The mean time to extubation following surgery was 8.0 h for the transfused group and 4.3 h for the nontransfused group ( P ≤ 0.001. The mean ICULOS for the transfused group was 1.6 d and 1.2 d for the nontransfused group ( P < 0.001. The PLOS was 7.2 d for the transfused group and 4.3 d for no-transfused cohorts ( P ≤ 0.001. In all patients and in patients with no preoperative morbidity, partial correlation coefficients were used to examine the effects of transfusion on mortality, time to extubation, ICULOS and PLOS. Linear regression model was used to assess the effect of number of PRBC units transfused on PLOS. We noted that PLOS increased with the number of PRBCs units transfused. Transfusion is significantly correlated with the increased time to extubation, ICULOS, PLOS and mortality. The transfused patients had significantly more postoperative complications than their nontransfused counterparts ( P ≤ 0.001. The 30-day hospital mortality was 3.1% for the transfused group with no deaths in the nontransfused group ( P ≤ 0.001. We conclude that the CABG

  10. Deep coverage mouse red blood cell proteome: a first comparison with the human red blood cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasini, Erica M; Kirkegaard, Morten; Salerno, Doris;

    2008-01-01

    Mice have close genetic/physiological relationships to humans, breed rapidly, and can be genetically modified, making them the most used mammal in biomedical research. Because the red blood cell (RBC) is the sole gas transporter in vertebrates, diseases of the RBC are frequently severe; much...... proteome have been confirmed here. This comparison sheds light on several open issues in RBC biology and provides a departure point for more comprehensive understanding of RBC function....

  11. CD21(-/low) B cells in human blood are memory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorarinsdottir, K; Camponeschi, A; Cavallini, N; Grimsholm, O; Jacobsson, L; Gjertsson, I; Mårtensson, I-L

    2016-08-01

    The complement receptor 2 (CR2, CD21) is part of a complex (CD21/CD19/CD81) acting as a co-receptor to the B cell receptor (BCR). Simultaneous triggering of the BCR and CD21 lowers the threshold for B cell activation. Although CD21 is important, B cells that express low amounts or lack surface CD21 (CD21(-/low) ) are increased in conditions with chronic inflammation, e.g. autoimmune diseases. However, little is known about the CD21(-/low) B cell subset in peripheral blood from healthy donors. Here, we show that CD21(-/low) cells represent approximately 5% of B cells in peripheral blood from adults but are barely detectable in cord blood, after excluding transitional B cells. The CD21(-/low) subset can be divided into CD38(-) 24(+) and CD38(-) 24(low) cells, where most of the CD38(-) 24(+) are CD27(+) immunoglobulin (Ig)M(+) IgD(+) and the CD38(-) 24(low) are switched CD27(-) . Expression levels of additional markers, e.g. CD95 and CD62L, are similar to those on classical memory B cells. In contrast to naive cells, the majority of CD21(-/low) cells lack expression of the ABCB1 transporter. Stimulation with a combination of BCR, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-7/8 and interleukin (IL)-2 induces proliferation and differentiation of the CD21(-/low) B cells comparable to CD21(+) CD27(+) memory B cells. The response excluding BCR agonist is not on par with that of classical memory B cells, although clearly above that of naive B cells. This is ascribed to a weaker response by the CD38(-) 24(low) subset, implying that some memory B cells require not only TLR but also BCR triggering. We conclude that the CD21(-/low) cells in healthy donors are memory B cells. PMID:27010233

  12. Ventricular Assist Devices and Increased Blood Product Utilization for Cardiac Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Matthew L.; LaPar, Damien J.; Benrashid, Ehsan; Scalzo, David C.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Kron, Irving L.; Bergin, James D.; Blank, Randal S.; Kern, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim of Study The purpose of this study was to examine whether blood product utilization, one-year cell-mediated rejection rates, and mid-term survival significantly differ for ventricular assist device (VAD patients compared to non-VAD (NVAD) patients following cardiac transplantation. Methods From July 2004 to August 2011, 79 patients underwent cardiac transplantation at a single institution. Following exclusion of patients bridged to transplantation with VADs other than the HeartMate II® LVAD (n = 10), patients were stratified by VAD presence at transplantation: VAD patients (n = 35, age: 54.0 [48.0–59.0] years) vs. NVAD patients (n = 34, age: 52.5 [42.8–59.3] years). The primary outcomes of interest were blood product transfusion requirements, one-year cell-mediated rejection rates, and mid-term survival post-transplantation. Results Preoperative patient characteristics were similar for VAD and NVAD patients. NVAD patients presented with higher median preoperative creatinine levels compared to VAD patients (1.3 [1.1–1.6] vs. 1.1 [0.9–1.4], p = 0.004). VAD patients accrued higher intraoperative transfusion of all blood products (all p ≤ 0.001) compared to NVAD patients. The incidence of clinically significant cell-mediated rejection within the first posttransplant year was higher in VAD compared to NVAD patients (66.7% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.02). During a median follow-up period of 3.2 (2.0, 6.3) years, VAD patients demonstrated an increased postoperative mortality that did not reach statistical significance (20.0% vs. 8.8%, p = 0.20). Conclusions During the initial era as a bridge to transplantation, the HeartMate II® LVAD significantly increased blood product utilization and one-year cell-mediated rejection rates for cardiac transplantation. Further study is warranted to optimize anticoagulation strategies and to define causal relationships between these factors for the current era of cardiac transplantation. PMID:25529999

  13. Peripheral blood cell signatures of Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Ibitokou

    Full Text Available Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in placental intervillous spaces causes inflammation and pathology. Knowledge of the profiles of immune cells associated with the physiopathology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM is scarce. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective study, both in Benin and Tanzania, including ∼1000 pregnant women in each site with systematic follow-up at scheduled antenatal visits until delivery. We used ex vivo flow cytometry to identify peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC profiles that are associated with PAM and anaemia, determining the phenotypic composition and activation status of PBMC in selected sub-groups with and without PAM both at inclusion and at delivery in a total of 302 women. Both at inclusion and at delivery PAM was associated with significantly increased frequencies both of B cells overall and of activated B cells. Infection-related profiles were otherwise quite distinct at the two different time-points. At inclusion, PAM was associated with anaemia, with an increased frequency of immature monocytes and with a decreased frequency of regulatory T cells (Treg. At delivery, infected women presented with significantly fewer plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DC, more myeloid DC expressing low levels of HLA-DR, and more effector T cells (Teff compared to uninfected women. Independent associations with an increased risk of anaemia were found for altered antigen-presenting cell frequencies at inclusion, but for an increased frequency of Teff at delivery. Our findings emphasize the prominent role played by B cells during PAM whenever it arises during pregnancy, whilst also revealing signature changes in other circulating cell types that, we conclude, primarily reflect the relative duration of the infections. Thus, the acute, recently-acquired infections present at delivery were marked by changes in DC and Teff frequencies, contrasting with infections at inclusion, considered chronic in

  14. Segmentation and Analysis of Cancer Cells in Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Nelikanti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Blood cancer is an umbrella term for cancers that affect the blood, bone marrow and lymphatic system. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL is one of the kinds of blood cancer which can be affected at any age in the humans. The analysis of peripheral blood samples is an important test in the procedures for the diagnosis of leukemia. In this paper the blood sample images are used and implementing a clustering algorithm for detection of the cancer cells. This paper also implements morphological operations and feature extraction techniques using MATLAB for the analysis of cancer cells in the images.

  15. Increase of cerebral blood flow at high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A

    1992-01-01

    CBF increases with acute hypoxia despite the opposing vasoconstrictor effects of the drop in pCO2 caused by hyperventilation. Maintaining normocapnia by adding CO2 the hypoxic CBF responsiveness about doubles. As we have shown recently by this test, the hypoxic CBF response is not blunted but rat...... vasodilatation cannot explain the usual (mild) form of AMS. But it may well be involved in the pathogenesis of the rare but severe cerebral form of AMS, as prolonged increased capillary pressure in vasodilated areas could lead to vasogenic cerebral edema....

  16. Increased PADI4 expression in blood and tissues of patients with malignant tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PAD4/PADI4) post-translationally converts peptidylarginine to citrulline. Recent studies suggest that PADI4 represses expression of p53-regulated genes via citrullination of histones at gene promoters. Methods Expression of PADI4 was investigated in various tumors and non-tumor tissues (n = 1673) as well as in A549, SKOV3 and U937 tumor cell lines by immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, and western blot. Levels of PADI4 and citrullinated antithrombin (cAT) were investigated in the blood of patients with various tumors by ELISA (n = 1121). Results Immunohistochemistry detected significant PADI4 expression in various malignancies including breast carcinomas, lung adenocarcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, esophageal squamous cancer cells, colorectal adenocarcinomas, renal cancer cells, ovarian adenocarcinomas, endometrial carcinomas, uterine adenocarcinomas, bladder carcinomas, chondromas, as well as other metastatic carcinomas. However, PADI4 expression was not observed in benign leiomyomas of stomach, uterine myomas, endometrial hyperplasias, cervical polyps, teratomas, hydatidiform moles, trophoblastic cell hyperplasias, hyroid adenomas, hemangiomas, lymph hyperplasias, schwannomas, neurofibromas, lipomas, and cavernous hemangiomas of the liver. Additionally, PADI4 expression was not detected in non-tumor tissues including cholecystitis, cervicitis and synovitis of osteoarthritis, except in certain acutely inflamed tissues such as in gastritis and appendicitis. Quantitative PCR and western blot analysis showed higher PADI4 expression in gastric adenocarcinomas, lung adenocarcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, esophageal squamous cell cancers and breast cancers (n = 5 for each disease) than in the surrounding healthy tissues. Furthermore, western blot analysis detected PADI4 expression in cultured tumor cell lines. ELISA detected increased PADI4 and cAT levels in the blood of patients with various malignant tumors

  17. Increased PADI4 expression in blood and tissues of patients with malignant tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PAD4/PADI4 post-translationally converts peptidylarginine to citrulline. Recent studies suggest that PADI4 represses expression of p53-regulated genes via citrullination of histones at gene promoters. Methods Expression of PADI4 was investigated in various tumors and non-tumor tissues (n = 1673 as well as in A549, SKOV3 and U937 tumor cell lines by immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, and western blot. Levels of PADI4 and citrullinated antithrombin (cAT were investigated in the blood of patients with various tumors by ELISA (n = 1121. Results Immunohistochemistry detected significant PADI4 expression in various malignancies including breast carcinomas, lung adenocarcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, esophageal squamous cancer cells, colorectal adenocarcinomas, renal cancer cells, ovarian adenocarcinomas, endometrial carcinomas, uterine adenocarcinomas, bladder carcinomas, chondromas, as well as other metastatic carcinomas. However, PADI4 expression was not observed in benign leiomyomas of stomach, uterine myomas, endometrial hyperplasias, cervical polyps, teratomas, hydatidiform moles, trophoblastic cell hyperplasias, hyroid adenomas, hemangiomas, lymph hyperplasias, schwannomas, neurofibromas, lipomas, and cavernous hemangiomas of the liver. Additionally, PADI4 expression was not detected in non-tumor tissues including cholecystitis, cervicitis and synovitis of osteoarthritis, except in certain acutely inflamed tissues such as in gastritis and appendicitis. Quantitative PCR and western blot analysis showed higher PADI4 expression in gastric adenocarcinomas, lung adenocarcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, esophageal squamous cell cancers and breast cancers (n = 5 for each disease than in the surrounding healthy tissues. Furthermore, western blot analysis detected PADI4 expression in cultured tumor cell lines. ELISA detected increased PADI4 and cAT levels in the blood of patients with

  18. Leucocyte filtration of salvaged blood during cardiac surgery : effect on red blood cell function in concentrated blood compared with diluted blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Y. John; de Vries, Adrianus J.; Hagenaars, J. Ans M.; van Oeveren, Willem

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Leucocyte filtration of salvaged blood has been suggested to prevent patients from receiving activated leucocytes during autotransfusion in cardiac surgery. This study examines whether leucocyte filtration of salvaged blood affects the red blood cell (RBC) function and whether there is a

  19. Recent Stem Cell Advances: Cord Blood and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell for Cardiac Regeneration- a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhekar, Sheetal Kashinath; Shende, Vikas Suresh; Chincholkar, Anjali Baburao

    2016-05-30

    Stem cells are primitive self renewing undifferentiated cell that can be differentiated into various types of specialized cells like nerve cell, skin cells, muscle cells, intestinal tissue, and blood cells. Stem cells live in bone marrow where they divide to make new blood cells and produces peripheral stem cells in circulation. Under proper environment and in presence of signaling molecules stem cells begin to develop into specialized tissues and organs. These unique characteristics make them very promising entities for regeneration of damaged tissue. Day by day increase in incidence of heart diseases including left ventricular dysfunction, ischemic heart disease (IHD), congestive heart failure (CHF) are the major cause of morbidity and mortality. However infracted tissue cannot regenerate into healthy tissue. Heart transplantation is only the treatment for such patient. Due to limitation of availability of donor for organ transplantation, a focus is made for alternative and effective therapy to treat such condition. In this review we have discussed the new advances in stem cells such as use of cord stem cells and iPSC technology in cardiac repair. Future approach of CB cells was found to be used in tissue repair which is specifically observed for improvement of left ventricular function and myocardial infarction. Here we have also focused on how iPSC technology is used for regeneration of cardiomyocytes and intiating neovascularization in myocardial infarction and also for study of pathophysiology of various degenerative diseases and genetic disease in research field. PMID:27426082

  20. Recent Stem Cell Advances: Cord Blood and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell for Cardiac Regeneration- a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhekar, Sheetal Kashinath; Shende, Vikas Suresh; Chincholkar, Anjali Baburao

    2016-05-30

    Stem cells are primitive self renewing undifferentiated cell that can be differentiated into various types of specialized cells like nerve cell, skin cells, muscle cells, intestinal tissue, and blood cells. Stem cells live in bone marrow where they divide to make new blood cells and produces peripheral stem cells in circulation. Under proper environment and in presence of signaling molecules stem cells begin to develop into specialized tissues and organs. These unique characteristics make them very promising entities for regeneration of damaged tissue. Day by day increase in incidence of heart diseases including left ventricular dysfunction, ischemic heart disease (IHD), congestive heart failure (CHF) are the major cause of morbidity and mortality. However infracted tissue cannot regenerate into healthy tissue. Heart transplantation is only the treatment for such patient. Due to limitation of availability of donor for organ transplantation, a focus is made for alternative and effective therapy to treat such condition. In this review we have discussed the new advances in stem cells such as use of cord stem cells and iPSC technology in cardiac repair. Future approach of CB cells was found to be used in tissue repair which is specifically observed for improvement of left ventricular function and myocardial infarction. Here we have also focused on how iPSC technology is used for regeneration of cardiomyocytes and intiating neovascularization in myocardial infarction and also for study of pathophysiology of various degenerative diseases and genetic disease in research field.

  1. Stem Cell Transplant (Peripheral Blood, Bone Marrow, and Cord Blood Transplants)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are studied in cloning and other types of research. These stem cells are blood-forming stem cells. Stem cells mostly ... Preventing and managing GVHD are major priorities for research. Chronic ... 90 to 600 days after the stem cell transplant. A rash on the palms of the ...

  2. A photonic crystal hydrogel suspension array for the capture of blood cells from whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Cai, Yunlang; Shang, Luoran; Wang, Huan; Cheng, Yao; Rong, Fei; Gu, Zhongze; Zhao, Yuanjin

    2016-02-01

    Diagnosing hematological disorders based on the separation and detection of cells in the patient's blood is a significant challenge. We have developed a novel barcode particle-based suspension array that can simultaneously capture and detect multiple types of blood cells. The barcode particles are polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel inverse opal microcarriers with characteristic reflection peak codes that remain stable during cell capture on their surfaces. The hydrophilic PAAm hydrogel scaffolds of the barcode particles can entrap various plasma proteins to capture different cells in the blood, with little damage to captured cells.Diagnosing hematological disorders based on the separation and detection of cells in the patient's blood is a significant challenge. We have developed a novel barcode particle-based suspension array that can simultaneously capture and detect multiple types of blood cells. The barcode particles are polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel inverse opal microcarriers with characteristic reflection peak codes that remain stable during cell capture on their surfaces. The hydrophilic PAAm hydrogel scaffolds of the barcode particles can entrap various plasma proteins to capture different cells in the blood, with little damage to captured cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06368j

  3. CD163 positive subsets of blood dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maniecki, Maciej Bogdan; Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren Kragh;

    2006-01-01

    expression in dendritic cells (DCs) was investigated using multicolor flow cytometry in peripheral blood from 31 healthy donors and 15 HIV-1 patients in addition to umbilical cord blood from 5 newborn infants. Total RNA was isolated from MACS purified DCs and CD163 mRNA was determined with real-time reverse...... transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The effect of glucocorticoid and phorbol ester stimulation on monocyte and dendritic cell CD163 and CD91 expression was investigated in cell culture of mononuclear cells using multicolor flow cytometry. We identified two CD163+ subsets in human blood with dendritic cell...

  4. Bioactive compounds from crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cells induced apoptotic cell death in hela cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patathananone, Supawadee; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Daduang, Jureerut; Chung, Jing Gung; Temsiripong, Yosapong; Daduang, Sakda

    2016-08-01

    Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cell extracts (WBCex) were examined for anticancer activity in HeLa cell lines using the MTT assay. The percentage viability of HeLa cells significantly deceased after treatment with WBCex in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The IC50 dose was suggested to be approximately 225 μg/mL protein. Apoptotic cell death occurred in a time-dependent manner based on investigation by flow cytometry using annexin V-FITC and PI staining. DAPI nucleic acid staining indicated increased chromatin condensation. Caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities also increased, suggesting the induction of the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm ) of HeLa cells was lost as a result of increasing levels of Bax and reduced levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bcl-Xs, and XIAP. The decreased ΔΨm led to the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspase-9 and -3. Apoptosis-inducing factor translocated into the nuclei, and endonuclease G (Endo G) was released from the mitochondria. These results suggest that anticancer agents in WBCex can induce apoptosis in HeLa cells via both caspase-dependent and -independent pathways. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 986-997, 2016. PMID:25691005

  5. Harvesting, processing and inventory management of peripheral blood stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijovic Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available By 2003, 97% autologous transplants and 65% of allogeneic transplants in Europe used mobilised peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC. Soon after their introduction in the early 1990′s, PBSC were associated with faster haemopoietic recovery, fewer transfusions and antibiotic usage, and a shorter hospital stay. Furthermore, ease and convenience of PBSC collection made them more appealing than BM harvests. Improved survival has hitherto been demonstrated in patients with high risk AML and CML. However, the advantages of PBSC come at a price of a higher incidence of extensive chronic GVHD. In order to be present in the blood, stem cells undergo the process of "mobilisation" from their bone marrow habitat. Mobilisation, and its reciprocal process - homing - are regulated by a complex network of molecules on the surface of stem cells and stromal cells, and enzymes and cytokines released from granulocytes and osteoclasts. Knowledge of these mechanisms is beginning to be exploited for clinical purposes. In current practice, stem cell are mobilised by use of chemotherapy in conjunction with haemopoietic growth factors (HGF, or with HGF alone. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor has emerged as the single most important mobilising agent, due to its efficacy and a relative paucity of serious side effects. Over a decade of use in healthy donors has resulted in vast experience of optimal dosing and administration, and safety matters. PBSC harvesting can be performed on a variety of cell separators. Apheresis procedures are nowadays routine, but it is important to be well versed in the possible complications in order to avoid harm to the patient or donor. To ensure efficient collection, harvesting must begin when sufficient stem cells have been mobilised. A rapid, reliable, standardized blood test is essential to decide when to begin harvesting; currently, blood CD34+ cell counting by flow cytometry fulfils these criteria. Blood CD34+ cell counts strongly

  6. Blood concentrations of everolimus are markedly increased by ketoconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, J M; Beyer, D; Bizot, M N; Jiang, Q; Shenouda, M; Schmouder, R L

    2005-05-01

    The authors sought to quantify the influence of the CYP3A and P-glycoprotein inhibitor ketoconazole on the pharmacokinetics of everolimus in healthy subjects. This was a 2-period, single-sequence, crossover study in 12 healthy subjects. In period 1, subjects received the reference treatment of a single 2-mg dose of everolimus. In period 2, they received the test treatment of ketoconazole 200 mg twice daily for a total of 8 days and a single dose of everolimus coadministered on the fourth day of ketoconazole therapy. The test/reference ratio and 90% confidence interval were derived for everolimus maximum concentration and area under the curve. During ketoconazole coadministration, everolimus maximum concentration increased 3.9-fold (90% confidence interval, 3.4-4.6) from 15 +/- 4 ng/mL to 59 +/- 13 ng/mL. Everolimus area under the curve increased 15.0-fold (90% confidence interval, 13.6-16.6) from 90 +/- 23 ng*h/mL to 1324 +/- 232 ng*h/mL. Everolimus half-life was prolonged by 1.9-fold from 30 +/- 4 hours to 56 +/- 5 hours. Everolimus did not appear to alter ketoconazole predose concentrations. Given the magnitude of this drug interaction, use of ketoconazole should be avoided if possible in everolimus-treated patients. PMID:15831774

  7. Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Peripheral Blood of Cardiac Catheterization Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheir Korraa1, Tawfik M.S.1, Mohamed Maher 2 and Amr Zaher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the rejuvenation capacity among cardiac catheterization technicians occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. Subjects and methods: The individual annual collective dose information was measured by thermoluminscent personal dosimeters (TLD for those technicians and found to be ranging between 2.16 and 8.44 mSv/y. Venous blood samples were obtained from 30 cardiac catheterization technicians exposed to X-ray during fluoroscopy procedures at the National Heart Institute in Embaba. The control group involved 25 persons not exposed to ionizing radiation and not working in hospitals in addition to 20 persons not exposed to ionizing radiation and working in hospitals. Blood samples were assayed for total and differential blood counts, micronucleus formation (FMN plasma stromal derived growth factor-1α (SDF-1 α and cell phenotype of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, whose surface markers were identified as the CD34, CD133 and kinase domain receptors (KDR. Results: SDF-1α (2650± 270 vs. 2170 ± 430 pg/ml and FMN (19.9 ± 5.5 vs. 2.8 ± 1.4/1000 cells were significantly higher among cardiac catheterization staff compared to those of the controls respectively. Similarly, EPCs: CD34 (53 ± 3.9 vs. 48 ± 8.5/105 mononuclear cells, CD133 (62.4 ± 4.8 vs. 54.2 ± 10.6 /105 mononuclear cells KDR (52.7 ± 10.6 vs.43.5± 8.2 /105 mononuclear cells were also significantly higher among cardiac catheterization staff compared to the values of controls respectively. Smoking seemed to have a positive effect on the FMN and SDF-1 but had a negative effect on EPCs. It was found that among cardiac catheterization staff, the numbers of circulating progenitor cells had increased and accordingly there was an increased capacity for tissue repair. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present work shows that occupational exposure to radiation, well within permissible levels, leaves a genetic mark on the

  8. Hormones that Stimulate the Growth of Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golde, David W.; Gasson, Judith C.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the nature and action of hematopoietic proteins which regulate the production of specific sets of blood cells. Discusses the production of these hematopoietins by recombinant-DNA methods in an effort to enable physicians to treat patients by eliciting production of specific types of blood cells. (CW)

  9. Multifactorial aspects of antibody-mediated blood cell destruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kapur

    2014-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focuses on diseases of antibody-mediated blood cell destruction via FcγRs on phagocytes, in particular regarding platelets in fetal or neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) and red blood cells (RBC) in hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN). Di

  10. Supernatant of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Induces Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Possessing Mesenchymal Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Hu, Jun-jun Xu, Zhi-hong Deng, Jie Feng, Yan Jin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that some cells from peripheral blood fibroblast-like mononuclear cells have the capacity to differentiate into mesenchymal lineages. However, the insufficiency of these cells in the circulation challenges the cell isolation and subsequently limits the clinical application of these cells. In the present study, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbMNCs were isolated from wound animals and treated with the supernatant of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (bmMSCs. Results showed these pbMNCs were fibroblast-like, had stromal morphology, were negative for CD34 and CD45, but positive for Vimentin and Collagen I, and had the multipotency to differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts. We named these induced peripheral blood-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ipbMSCs. Skin grafts in combination with ipbMSCs and collagen I were applied for wound healing, and results revealed ipbMSC exhibited similar potency and effectiveness in the promotion of wound healing to the bmMSCs. Hereafter, we speculate that the mixture of growth factors and chemokines secreted by bmMSCs may play an important roles in the induction of the proliferation and mesenchymal differentiation of mononuclear cells. Our results are clinically relevant because it provide a new method for the acquisition of MSCs which can be used as a candidate for the wound repair.

  11. Age of transfused blood is not associated with increased postoperative adverse outcome after cardiac surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKenny, M

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that storage age of transfused red blood cells (RBCs) is associated with adverse outcome after cardiac surgery, and examined association between volume of RBC transfusions and outcome after cardiac surgery.

  12. Transplantation? Peripheral Stem Cell/Bone Marrow/Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itır Sirinoglu Demiriz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of peripheral stem cell (PSC and cord blood (CB as an alternative to bone marrow (BM recently has caused important changes on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT practice. According to the CIBMTR data, there has been a significant decrease in the use of bone marrow and increase in the use of PSC and CB as the stem cell source for HSCT performed during 1997–2006 period for patients under the age of 20. On the other hand, the stem cell source in 70% of the HSCT procedures performed for patients over the age of 20 was PSC and the second most preferred stem cell source was bone marrow. CB usage is very limited for the adult population. Primary disease, stage, age, time and urgency of transplantation, HLA match between the patient and the donor, stem cell quantity, and the experience of the transplantation center are some of the associated factors for the selection of the appropriate stem cell source. Unfortunately, there is no prospective randomized study aimed to facilitate the selection of the correct source between CB, PSC, and BM. In this paper, we would like to emphasize the data on stem cell selection in light of the current knowledge for patient populations according to their age and primary disease.

  13. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomsen Preben D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is low and the future isolation percentage of MSCs from cryopreserved equine cord blood is therefore expectedly low. The hypothesis of this study was that equine MSCs could be isolated from fresh whole equine cord blood. Results Cord blood was collected from 7 foals immediately after foaling. The mononuclear cell fraction was isolated by Ficoll density centrifugation and cultured in a DMEM low glucose based media at 38.5°C in humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO2. In 4 out of 7 samples colonies with MSC morphology were observed. Cellular morphology varied between monolayers of elongated spindle-shaped cells to layered cell clusters of cuboidal cells with shorter cytoplasmic extensions. Positive Alizarin Red and von Kossa staining as well as significant calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity confirmed osteogenesis. Histology and positive Safranin O staining of matrix glycosaminoglycans illustrated chondrogenesis. Oil Red O staining of lipid droplets confirmed adipogenesis. Conclusion We here report, for the first time, the isolation of mesenchymal-like stem cells from fresh equine cord blood and their differentiation into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. This novel isolation of equine cord blood MSCs and their preliminary in vitro differentiation positions the horse as the ideal pre-clinical animal model for proof-of-principle studies of cord blood derived MSCs.

  14. Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Gabriel; Park, Yongkeun; Best, Catherine; Dasari, Ramachandra; Feld, Michael; Kuriabova, Tatiana; Henle, Mark; Levine, Alex

    2010-03-01

    The human red blood cell (RBC) membrane, a fluid lipid bilayer tethered to an elastic 2D spectrin network, provides the principal control of the cell's morphology and mechanics. These properties, in turn, influence the ability of RBCs to transport oxygen in circulation. Current mechanical measurements of RBCs rely on external loads. Here we apply a Noncontact optical interferometric technique to quantify the thermal fluctuations of RBC membranes with 3 nm accuracy over a broad range of spatial and temporal frequencies. Combining this technique with a new mathematical model describing RBC membrane undulations, we measure the mechanical changes of RBCs as they undergo a transition from the normal discoid shape to the abnormal echinocyte and spherical shapes. These measurements indicate that, coincident with this morphological transition, there is a significant increase in the membrane's shear and bending moduli. This mechanical transition can alter cell circulation and impede oxygen delivery.

  15. A Simulation of Blood Cells in Branching Capillaries

    CERN Document Server

    Isfahani, Amir H G; Freund, Jonathan B

    2008-01-01

    The multi-cellular hydrodynamic interactions play a critical role in the phenomenology of blood flow in the microcirculation. A fast algorithm has been developed to simulate large numbers of cells modeled as elastic thin membranes. For red blood cells, which are the dominant component in blood, the membrane has strong resistance to surface dilatation but is flexible in bending. Our numerical method solves the boundary integral equations built upon Green's functions for Stokes flow in periodic domains. This fluid dynamics video is an example of the capabilities of this model in handling complex geometries with a multitude of different cells. The capillary branch geometries have been modeled based upon observed capillary networks. The diameter of the branches varies between 10-20 mum. A constant mean pressure gradient drives the flow. For the purpose of this fluid dynamics video, the red blood cells are initiated as biconcave discs and white blood cells and platelets are initiated as spheres and ellipsoids resp...

  16. Establishment of outgrowth endothelial cells from peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ramirez, Javier; Hofman, Menno; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Hebbel, Robert P; Voorberg, Jan

    2012-09-01

    Blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) are important tools when investigating diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for vascular disease. In this protocol, mononuclear cells are isolated from peripheral blood and plated on type I collagen at ∼135,000 cells per cm(2) in endothelial cell differentiation medium. On average, 0.34 colonies of endothelial cells per milliliter of blood can be obtained. Colonies of endothelial cells become visible after 14-28 d. Upon confluence, these rapidly expanding colonies can be passaged and have been shown to propagate up to 10(18)-fold. Isolated BOECs are phenotypically similar to vascular endothelial cells, as revealed by their cobblestone morphology, the presence of endothelial cell-specific Weibel-Palade bodies and the expression of endothelial cell markers such as VE-cadherin. The protocol presented here also provides a particularly useful tool for the ex vivo assessment of endothelial cell function from patients with different vascular abnormalities. PMID:22918388

  17. BLOOD TELOMERASE ACTIVITY AND ITS CORRELATIVITY WITH NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡坚; 李任远; 孙骊; 倪一鸣

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlativity between blood telomerase activity and Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) through relative quantitative analysis of telomerase activity. Methods: Thirty-eight NSCLC and 25 inpatients with benign lung disease were selected. Telomerase repeat amplification protocol was adopted. PCR products were assayed with ELISA. Results: (a) Blood telomerase activity during operation was higher than that before or after operation (P0.05). (c) Blood telomerase activity of adenocarcinoma during and after operation was higher than that before operation (P0.05). Conclusion: The qualitative assay of blood telomerase activity can be adopted as an assistant index for diagnosis of NSCLC. Postoperative blood telomerase activity of adenocarcinoma is higher than that of squamous carcinoma. It may be an evidence for the likelihood of adenocarcinoma to metastase through blood. Blood telomerase activity increases significantly during operation, suggesting that operation may cause more cancer cells entering into circulation.

  18. Determinants of resting cerebral blood flow in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Adam M; Borzage, Matthew T; Choi, Soyoung; Václavů, Lena; Tamrazi, Benita; Nederveen, Aart J; Coates, Thomas D; Wood, John C

    2016-09-01

    Stroke is common in children with sickle cell disease and results from an imbalance in oxygen supply and demand. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is increased in patients with sickle cell disease to compensate for their anemia, but adequacy of their oxygen delivery has not been systematically demonstrated. This study examined the physiological determinants of CBF in 37 patients with sickle cell disease, 38 ethnicity matched control subjects and 16 patients with anemia of non-sickle origin. Cerebral blood flow was measured using phase contrast MRI of the carotid and vertebral arteries. CBF increased inversely to oxygen content (r(2)  = 0.69, P Brain oxygen delivery, the product of CBF and oxygen content, was normal in all groups. Brain composition, specifically the relative amounts of grey and white matter, was the next strongest CBF predictor, presumably by influencing cerebral metabolic rate. Grey matter/white matter ratio and CBF declined monotonically until the age of 25 in all subjects, consistent with known maturational changes in brain composition. Further CBF reductions were observed with age in subjects older than 35 years of age, likely reflecting microvascular aging. On multivariate regression, CBF was independent of disease state, hemoglobin S, hemoglobin F, reticulocyte count and cell free hemoglobin, suggesting that it is regulated similarly in patients and control subjects. In conclusion, sickle cell disease patients had sufficient oxygen delivery at rest, but accomplish this only by marked increases in their resting CBF, potentially limiting their ability to further augment flow in response to stress. Am. J. Hematol. 91:912-917, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27263497

  19. Duration of red blood cell storage and survival of transfused patients (CME)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Eloranta, Sandra;

    2010-01-01

    Disquieting reports of increased complication and death rates after transfusions of red blood cells (RBCs) stored for more than 14 days prompted us to perform an observational retrospective cohort study of mortality in relation to storage time.......Disquieting reports of increased complication and death rates after transfusions of red blood cells (RBCs) stored for more than 14 days prompted us to perform an observational retrospective cohort study of mortality in relation to storage time....

  20. Interpretation of automated blood cell counts

    OpenAIRE

    Zühre Kaya

    2013-01-01

    Complete blood count (CBC) tests are rapid, inexpensiveand universally available, and often aid primary clinicianswith decision making about patients with severaldisorders. Thus the rapid availability of the results of CBCcould provide considerable advantage for both patientsand clinicians. Furthermore, physicians can also avoidunnecessary peripheral blood smear examination usingCBC parameters. Many hematology analyzers, which enabledus simultaneously, measure several different CBCparameters,...

  1. Geometrical Aspects During Formation of Compact Aggregates of Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso A.V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past forty years considerable progress has been achieved on the knowledge of human blood as a non-Newtonian shear-thinning suspension, whose initial state, that is at rest (stasis or at very low shear rates, has a gel-like internal structure which is destroyed as shear stress increases. The main goal of this communication is to describe the role of geometrical aspects during RBC (red blood cell aggregate formation, growth and compaction on naturally aggregate (porcine blood and non-aggregate (bovine blood samples. We consider how these aspects coupled with tension equilibrium are decisive to transform red cell linear roleaux to three-dimensional aggregates or clusters. Geometrical aspects are also crucial on the compaction of red blood cell aggregates. These densely packed aggregates could precipitate out of blood- either as dangerous deposits on arterial walls, or as clots which travel in suspension until they block some crucial capillary.

  2. Margination of white blood cells - a computational approach by a hydrodynamic phase field model

    CERN Document Server

    Marth, Wieland

    2015-01-01

    We numerically investigate margination of white blood cells and demonstrate the dependency on a number of conditions including hematocrit, the deformability of the cells and the Reynolds number. A detailed mesoscopic hydrodynamic Helfrich-type model is derived, validated and used for the simulations to provides a quantitative description of the margination of white blood cells. Previous simulation results, obtained with less detailed models, could be confirmed, e.g. the largest probability of margination of white blood cells at an intermediate range of hematocrit values and a decreasing tendency with increasing deformability. The consideration of inertia effects, which become of relevance in small vessels, also shows a dependency and leads to less pronounced margination of white blood cells with increasing Reynolds number.

  3. Historical time trends in red blood cell usage in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeven, Loan R; Koopman, Maria M W; Koffijberg, Hendrik; Roes, Kit C.B.; Janssen, Mart P

    2016-01-01

    Background: While the number of hospitalized patients in Dutch hospitals has increased since 1997, the demand for red blood cell units (RBCs) has simultaneously decreased. This implies a dramatic change in transfusion practice toward fewer blood transfusions on average per patient. Objectives: In or

  4. Effect of blood bank storage on the rheological properties of male and female donor red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Amanda; Raval, Jay S; Waters, Jonathan H; Yazer, Mark H; Kameneva, Marina V

    2014-01-01

    It was previously demonstrated that red blood cell (RBC) deformability progressively decreases during storage along with other changes in RBC mechanical properties. Recently, we reported that the magnitude of changes in RBC mechanical fragility associated with blood bank storage in a variety of additive solutions was strongly dependent on the donor gender [15]. Yet, the potential dependence of changes in the deformability and relaxation time of stored blood bank RBCs on donor gender is not known. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of donor gender and blood bank storage on RBC deformability and relaxation time through the measurement of RBC suspension viscoelasticity. Packed RBC units preserved in AS-5 solution from 12 male and 12 female donors (three from each ABO group) were obtained from the local blood center and tested at 1, 4 and 7 weeks of storage at 1-6°C. At each time point, samples were aseptically removed from RBC units and hematocrit was adjusted to 40% before assessment of cell suspension viscoelasticity. RBC suspensions from both genders demonstrated progressive increases (p blood bank storage may reduce tissue perfusion and RBC lifespan in patients receiving blood bank RBCs.

  5. [Promising technologies of packed red blood cells production and storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, A G; Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B

    2013-10-01

    The current article is dedicated to promising technologies of packed red blood cells production and storage. The following new technical approaches are presented: (1) erythrocytes storage in strict anaerobic argon-hydrogen environment, (2) lyophilization of erythrocyte suspension by its atomization in nitrogen gas, (3) lyophilization of erythrocytes by directional freezing under the influence of radio frequency radiation, (4) automated pharming of antigen free packed red blood cells from progenitor cell directly at the battlefield. PMID:24611298

  6. [Promising technologies of packed red blood cells production and storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, A G; Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B

    2013-10-01

    The current article is dedicated to promising technologies of packed red blood cells production and storage. The following new technical approaches are presented: (1) erythrocytes storage in strict anaerobic argon-hydrogen environment, (2) lyophilization of erythrocyte suspension by its atomization in nitrogen gas, (3) lyophilization of erythrocytes by directional freezing under the influence of radio frequency radiation, (4) automated pharming of antigen free packed red blood cells from progenitor cell directly at the battlefield.

  7. Interpretation of automated blood cell counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zühre Kaya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Complete blood count (CBC tests are rapid, inexpensiveand universally available, and often aid primary clinicianswith decision making about patients with severaldisorders. Thus the rapid availability of the results of CBCcould provide considerable advantage for both patientsand clinicians. Furthermore, physicians can also avoidunnecessary peripheral blood smear examination usingCBC parameters. Many hematology analyzers, which enabledus simultaneously, measure several different CBCparameters, are available for early diagnosis. Herein theimpact of both pre and post analytic variations on the interpretationof the CBC results with case reports are reviewedin the light of the latest literature.Key words: Complete blood count, interpretation

  8. Pharmacodynamic model of interleukin-21 effects on red blood cells in cynomolgus monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Rune Viig; Karlsson, M.; Ingwersen, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    of treatment. The present analysis investigates the observed pharmacodynamics effects on red blood cells following various treatment schedules of human IL-21 administrated to cynomolgus monkeys. These effects are described by a novel non-linear mixed-effects model that enabled separation of drug effects......-21 induced drop in red blood cells to be (1) caused by removal rather than suppression of production, consistent with increased reticulocyte concentration, and (2) considerably delayed compared to dosing, i.e. not related to the drop in red blood cells observed immediately post dose. It is believed...... that the structural model presented here can be used for other types of drug induced loss of red blood cells, whereas the mechanism for sampling related blood loss is relevant for investigations of anaemia in all pharmacological studies with smaller animals....

  9. STUDY OF CORD BLOOD NUCLEATED RED BLOOD CELLS/100 WBC COUNT AS A PREDICTOR OF PERINATAL ASPHYXIA AND ITS SEVERITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutami Ratna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal asphyxia is a major cause of neonatal mortality and chronic neurologic disability amongst survivors. There is no single parameter to define perinatal asphyxia. Recent studies have established a correlation between cord blood nucleated red blood cell count and severity of perinatal asphyxia. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To evaluate the utility of cord blood nucleated red blood cell/100 WBC count in early identification of perinatal asphyxia and in predicting its severity. MATERIALS AND METHOD This is a case-control study with a total number of 100 subjects, out of which 50 are asphyxiated/case group and the other 50 are non-asphyxiated/control group, which include neonates born in Gandhi Hospital in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Immediately after birth, umbilical cord blood is collected and a thin blood smear slide is prepared which is stained with Leishman stain for NRBC count. The NRBC count of the case group and the control group is compared. The results were analyzed statistically. RESULTS The mean NRBC count in case group was 38.3 and that in control group was 5.24 with significant rise in cord blood NRBC/100 WBC count in case group compared to controlled group with p value <0.001. Increase in NRBC/100 WBC count was also associated with increased severity of HIE in case group. CONCLUSION In conditions where blood gas analyzers are not easily available, cord blood NRBC count can be used as a cheaper and reliable alternative to predict perinatal asphyxia and to assess its severity.

  10. A model for red blood cells in simulations of large-scale blood flows

    CERN Document Server

    Melchionna, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) are an essential component of blood. A method to include the particulate nature of blood is introduced here with the goal of studying circulation in large-scale realistic vessels. The method uses a combination of the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to account for the plasma motion, and a modified Molecular Dynamics scheme for the cellular motion. Numerical results illustrate the quality of the model in reproducing known rheological properties of blood as much as revealing the effect of RBC structuring on the wall shear stress, with consequences on the development of cardiovascular diseases.

  11. EFFECT OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ON RED BLOOD CELL IMMUNE AND T-CELL SUBGROUP IN THE RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GaoWei; HuangYuxin; ChenHong; SunDayong; ZhangHongxin

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on immune system was observed in the rat by using micro- whole blood direct immunofluoreseence Staining assay to detect changes of the peripheral blood T lymphocyte subgroup and employing red blood cell (RBC) C3b receptor- yeast rosette test and red blood cell-IC rosette test to analyze erythroeytic immune function. Results showed that after EA of “Zusanli” (ST 36), CD4+, RBC-C3bRR and RBC-ICR in the peripheral blood of the normal rats increased significantly while CD8+ had no any considerable changes and a positive correlation between CD4+ and RBC-C3bRR was found. In immuoosuppression model rats, the values of CD4+ and RBC-C3bRR were obviously lower than those of the normal control group while CD8+ had no any striking changes; but after EA treatment, there were no evident differences between EA group and normal control group in the above-mentioned indexes. There were also no any significant differences between non-acupoint group and normal control group in those indexes. Results suggest that EA of “Zusanli” (ST 36) can raise T cell immune function and RBC adhesion function in both normal rats and immunosuppression model rats, both of which present a positive correlation.

  12. White blood cell count - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the hand. The puncture site is cleaned with antiseptic, and a tourniquet (an elastic band) or blood ... or young child: The area is cleansed with antiseptic and punctured with a sharp needle or a ...

  13. Increased blood flow prevents intramucosal acidosis in sheep endotoxemia: a controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Dubin, Arnaldo; Murias, Gastón; Maskin, Bernardo; Pozo, Mario O; Sottile, Juan P; Barán, Marcelo; Edul, Vanina S Kanoore; Canales, Héctor S; Badie, Julio C; Etcheverry, Graciela; Estenssoro, Elisa

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Increased intramucosal–arterial carbon dioxide tension (PCO2) difference (ΔPCO2) is common in experimental endotoxemia. However, its meaning remains controversial because it has been ascribed to hypoperfusion of intestinal villi or to cytopathic hypoxia. Our hypothesis was that increased blood flow could prevent the increase in ΔPCO2. Methods In 19 anesthetized and mechanically ventilated sheep, we measured cardiac output, superior mesenteric blood flow, lactate, gases, hemoglobi...

  14. Increasing sleep duration to lower beat-to-beat blood pressure – a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Haack, Monika; Serrador, Jorge; Cohen, Daniel; Simpson, Norah; Meier-Ewert, Hans; Mullington, Janet M.

    2012-01-01

    Strong evidence has accumulated over the last several years, showing that low sleep quantity and/or quality plays an important role in the elevation of blood pressure. We hypothesized that increasing sleep duration serves as an effective behavioral strategy to reduce blood pressure in pre-hypertension or type 1 hypertension.

  15. Increased blood loss in upright birthing positions originates from perineal damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, A. de; Diem, M.T. van; Scheepers, P.L.H.; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Lagro-Janssen, A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether the risk of severe blood loss is increased in semi-sitting and sitting position, and if so, to which extent blood loss from perineal damage is responsible for this finding. Design: Secondary analysis of data from a large trial. Setting: Primary care midwifery practices i

  16. Novel Approach for Ensuring Increased Validity in Home Blood Pressure Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stefan Rahr; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg; Bertelsen, Olav Wedege

    This paper proposes a novel technique to increase the validity of home blood pressure monitoring by using various sensor technologies as part of an intelligent environment platform in the home of the user. A range of recommendations exists on how to obtain a valid blood pressure...

  17. Oral antibiotics increase blood neutrophil maturation and reduce bacteremia and necrotizing enterocolitis in the immediate postnatal period of preterm pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Fuglsang, Eva; Jiang, Pingping; Birck, Malene M; Pan, Xiaoyu; Kamal, Shamrulazhar B S; Pors, Susanne E; Gammelgaard, Pernille L; Nielsen, Dennis S; Thymann, Thomas; Levy, Ofer; Frøkiær, Hanne; Sangild, Per T

    2016-01-01

    Immature immunity may predispose preterm neonates to infections and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Intravenous antibiotics are frequently given to prevent and treat sepsis, while oral antibiotics are seldom used. We hypothesized that oral antibiotics promote maturation of systemic immunity and delay gut bacterial colonization and thereby protect preterm neonates against both NEC and bacteremia in the immediate postnatal period. Preterm pigs were given formula and administered saline (CON) or broad-spectrum antibiotics orally (ORA) or systemically (SYS) for 5 d after birth. Temporal changes in blood parameters and bacterial composition in the intestine, blood and immune organs were analyzed. Newborn preterm pigs had few blood neutrophils and a high frequency of progenitor cells. Neutrophils gradually matured after preterm birth with increasing CD14 and decreasing CD172a expressions. Preterm neutrophil and monocyte TLR2 expression and TLR2-mediated blood cytokine responses were low relative to adults. ORA pigs showed enhanced blood neutrophil maturation with reduced cell size and CD172a expression. Only ORA pigs, but not SYS pigs, were protected from a high density of gut Gram-positive bacteria, high gut permeability, Gram-positive bacteremia and NEC. Neonatal oral antibiotics may benefit mucosal and systemic immunity via delayed gut colonization and enhanced blood neutrophil maturation just after preterm birth.

  18. Measuring density and compressibility of white blood cells and prostate cancer cells by microchannel acoustophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnkob, Rune; Augustsson, Per; Magnusson, Cecilia;

    2011-01-01

    to determine the density and compressibility of individual cells enables the prediction and alteration of the separation outcome for a given cell mixture. We apply the method on white blood cells (WBCs) and DU145 prostate cancer cells (DUCs) aiming to improve isolation of circulating tumor cells from blood......, an emerging tool in the monitoring and characterizing of metastatic cancer....

  19. Viable Bacteria Associated with Red Blood Cells and Plasma in Freshly Drawn Blood Donations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian; Magnussen, Karin; Enevold, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Infection remains a leading cause of post-transfusion mortality and morbidity. Bacterial contamination is, however, detected in less than 0.1% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from...... the oral cavity, and to determine the distribution of bacteria revealed in plasma and in the red blood cell (RBC)-fraction. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Blood were separated into plasma and RBC-suspensions, which were incubated anaerobically or aerobically for 7 days on trypticase soy blood agar (TSA......), self-reported medically healthy. RESULTS: Bacterial growth was observed on plates inoculated with plasma or RBCs from 62% of the blood donations. Growth was evident in 21 (35%) of 60 RBC-fractions and in 32 (53%) of 60 plasma-fractions versus 8 of 60 negative controls (p = 0.005 and p = 2.6x10...

  20. Transfusion management of patients with red blood cell antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Bujandrić Nevenka B.; Grujić Jasmina N.; Krga-Milanović Mirjana M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Red blood cell antibodies may cause a positive result of pre-transfusion blood compatibility testing (crossmatch test). It can be a problem to provide suitable blood units for patients with clinically significant antibodies to high-frequency antigens as well as for those with multiple alloantibody specificities. This study was aimed at identifying transfused patients in the population of South-Backa who had developed clinically significant red...

  1. CD28-, CD45RAnull/dim and natural killer-like CD8+ T cells are increased in peripheral blood of women with low-grade cervical lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Pita-Lopez, Maria Luisa; Ortiz-Lazareno, Pablo Cesar; Navarro-Meza, Monica; Santoyo-Telles, Felipe; Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Background In response to antigen naive CD8+, T cells differentiate into effector cells, which express Natural killer (NK) receptors, lose CD28 expression, and die by apoptosis. However, in smaller quantities, the cells are retained for subsequent exposure to the same antigen. Knowledge is limited regarding whether the percentages of CD28-, Effector memory (EMRAnull/dim), and the CD16+/CD56 + CD8+ T cells of women with low-grade cervical lesions are altered at a systemic level. Methods We enr...

  2. Increased mortality associated with HTLV-II infection in blood donors: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith James W

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HTLV-I is associated with adult T-cell leukemia, and both HTLV-I and -II are associated with HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. Several published reports suggest that HTLV-I may lead to decreased survival, but HTLV-II has not previously been associated with mortality. Results We examined deaths among 138 HTLV-I, 358 HTLV-II, and 759 uninfected controls enrolled in a prospective cohort study of U.S. blood donors followed biannually since 1992. Proportional hazards models yielded hazard ratios (HRs for the association between mortality and HTLV infection, controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, age, income, educational level, blood center, smoking, injection drug use history, alcohol intake, hepatitis C status and autologous donation. After a median follow-up of 8.6 years, there were 45 confirmed subject deaths. HTLV-I infection did not convey a statistically significant excess risk of mortality (unadjusted HR 1.9, 95%CI 0.8–4.4; adjusted HR 1.9, 95%CI 0.8–4.6. HTLV-II was associated with death in both the unadjusted model (HR 2.8, 95%CI 1.5–5.5 and in the adjusted model (HR 2.3, 95%CI 1.1–4.9. No single cause of death appeared responsible for the HTLV-II effect. Conclusions After adjusting for known and potential confounders, HTLV-II infection is associated with increased mortality among healthy blood donors. If replicated in other cohorts, this finding has implications for both HTLV pathogenesis and counseling of infected persons.

  3. Detection of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells by optical stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritz, Jakob M. A.; Tiffert, Teresa; Seear, Rachel; Lautenschläger, Franziska; Esposito, Alessandro; Lew, Virgilio L.; Guck, Jochen; Kaminski, Clemens F.

    2010-05-01

    We present the application of a microfluidic optical cell stretcher to measure the elasticity of malaria-infected red blood cells. The measurements confirm an increase in host cell rigidity during the maturation of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The device combines the selectivity and sensitivity of single-cell elasticity measurements with a throughput that is higher than conventional single-cell techniques. The method has potential to detect early stages of infection with excellent sensitivity and high speed.

  4. Increasing arterial blood pressure with norepinephrine does not improve microcirculatory blood flow: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Dubin; M.O. Pozo; C.A. Casabella; F.,Jr Pálizas; G. Murias; M.C. Moseinco; V.S. Kanoore Edul; F. Pálizas; E. Estenssoro; C. Ince

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Our goal was to assess the effects of titration of a norepinephrine infusion to increasing levels of mean arterial pressure (MAP) on sublingual microcirculation. Methods Twenty septic shock patients were prospectively studied in two teaching intensive care units. The patients were mecha

  5. Bacterial glycosidases for the production of universal red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Qiyong P; Sulzenbacher, Gerlind; Yuan, Huaiping;

    2007-01-01

    Enzymatic removal of blood group ABO antigens to develop universal red blood cells (RBCs) was a pioneering vision originally proposed more than 25 years ago. Although the feasibility of this approach was demonstrated in clinical trials for group B RBCs, a major obstacle in translating this techno...

  6. Cellular softening mediates leukocyte demargination and trafficking, thereby increasing clinical blood counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Meredith E; Myers, David R; Kumar, Amit; Turbyfield, Cory T; Byler, Rebecca; Crawford, Kaci; Mannino, Robert G; Laohapant, Alvin; Tyburski, Erika A; Sakurai, Yumiko; Rosenbluth, Michael J; Switz, Neil A; Sulchek, Todd A; Graham, Michael D; Lam, Wilbur A

    2016-02-23

    Leukocytes normally marginate toward the vascular wall in large vessels and within the microvasculature. Reversal of this process, leukocyte demargination, leads to substantial increases in the clinical white blood cell and granulocyte count and is a well-documented effect of glucocorticoid and catecholamine hormones, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that alterations in granulocyte mechanical properties are the driving force behind glucocorticoid- and catecholamine-induced demargination. First, we found that the proportions of granulocytes from healthy human subjects that traversed and demarginated from microfluidic models of capillary beds and veins, respectively, increased after the subjects ingested glucocorticoids. Also, we show that glucocorticoid and catecholamine exposure reorganizes cellular cortical actin, significantly reducing granulocyte stiffness, as measured with atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, using simple kinetic theory computational modeling, we found that this reduction in stiffness alone is sufficient to cause granulocyte demargination. Taken together, our findings reveal a biomechanical answer to an old hematologic question regarding how glucocorticoids and catecholamines cause leukocyte demargination. In addition, in a broader sense, we have discovered a temporally and energetically efficient mechanism in which the innate immune system can simply alter leukocyte stiffness to fine tune margination/demargination and therefore leukocyte trafficking in general. These observations have broad clinically relevant implications for the inflammatory process overall as well as hematopoietic stem cell mobilization and homing. PMID:26858400

  7. Leishmania major Self-Limited Infection Increases Blood Cholesterol and Promotes Atherosclerosis Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana R. Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania major infection of resistant mice causes a self-limited lesion characterized by macrophage activation and a Th1 proinflammatory response. Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease involving hypercholesterolemia and macrophage activation. In this study, we evaluated the influence of L. major infection on the development of atherosclerosis using atherosclerosis-susceptible apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE KO mice. After 6 weeks of infection, apoE KO mice exhibited reduced footpad swelling and parasitemia similar to C57BL/6 controls, confirming that both strains are resistant to infection with L. major. L. major-infected mice had increased plasma cholesterol levels and reduced triacylglycerols. With regard to atherosclerosis, noninfected mice developed only fatty streak lesions, while the infected mice presented with advanced lesions containing a necrotic core and an abundant inflammatory infiltrate. CD36 expression was increased in the aortic valve of the infected mice, indicating increased macrophage activation. In conclusion, L. major infection, although localized and self-limited in resistant apoE KO mice, has a detrimental effect on the blood lipid profile, increases the inflammatory cell migration to atherosclerotic lesions, and promotes atherogenesis. These effects are consequences of the stimulation of the immune system by L. major, which promotes the inflammatory components of atherosclerosis, which are primarily the parasite-activated macrophages.

  8. Deep diving in the blood stem cell-ome

    OpenAIRE

    Kalaitzidis, Demetrios; Scadden, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Defining the functional distinctions between cells comprising the bone marrow has yielded fundamental insights into lineage ordering and drivers of blood cell production. A novel, highly granular and multi-dimensional molecular characterization of functional subsets of hematopoietic stem- and progenitor cells recently published in Cell Stem Cell (Cabezas-Wallscheid et al, 2014) will serve as a landmark and treasure trove for unanticipated insights into basic biology and the development of fut...

  9. Direct detection of red blood cell fragments: a new flow cytometric method to evaluate hemolysis in blood pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linneweber, J; Chow, T W; Takano, T; Maeda, T; Nonaka, K; Schulte-Eistrup, S; Kawahito, S; Elert, O; Moake, J L; Nosé, Y

    2001-01-01

    Pump induced hemolysis is presently evaluated by measuring plasma free hemoglobin (fHb). However, this method has disadvantages because quantification of fHb depends on hematocrit (HCT) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels. The aim of this work was to devise a hemoglobin independent method, capable of quantifying cell trauma directly by measuring the number of red blood cell (RBC) fragments. Whole blood flow cytometry was used to quantify circulating RBC fragments derived from a roller pump (Sarns, Inc. Model 2 M 6,002) and a centrifugal pump (Gyro C1E3, Kyocera Corp.). The pumps were tested in a mock circuit for 2 hr (5 L/min flow against 100 mm Hg pressure head). Red blood cell fragments were quantified by a phycoerythrin (PE) labeled glycophorin A antibody specific for erythrocytes. Red blood cell fragments were smaller than the intact RBC population and overlapped in size with the platelet population (based on forward- and side-light scattering measurements). For the roller pump, the values for RBC fragments increased from 1,090 +/- 260/microl at 0 min to 14,880 +/- 5,900/microl after 120 min. In contrast, using the centrifugal pump, there was little increase in RBC fragments (from 730 +/- 270/microl at 0 min to 1,400 +/- 840/microl after 120 min). Flow cytometry can be used for the rapid, sensitive, hemoglobin independent evaluation of pump induced RBC trauma.

  10. Transfusion of leukocyte-depleted red blood cells is not a risk factor for nosocomial infections in critically ill children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Judith; van Heerde, Marc; Markhorst, Dick G.; Kneyber, Martin C. J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Transfusion of red blood cells is increasingly linked with adverse outcomes in critically ill children. We tested the hypothesis that leukocyte-depleted red blood cell transfusions were independently associated with increased development of bloodstream infections, ventilator-associated p

  11. Mechanisms Linking Red Blood Cell Disorders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Mozos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to review the main pathophysiological links between red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, provides a brief description of the latest studies in this area, and considers implications for clinical practice and therapy. Anemia is associated with a special risk in proatherosclerotic conditions and heart disease and became a new therapeutic target. Guidelines must be updated for the management of patients with red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, and targets for hemoglobin level should be established. Risk scores in several cardiovascular diseases should include red blood cell count and RDW. Complete blood count and hemorheological parameters represent useful, inexpensive, widely available tools for the management and prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, arrhythmias, and stroke. Hypoxia and iron accumulation cause the most important cardiovascular effects of sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Patients with congenital chronic hemolytic anemia undergoing splenectomy should be monitored, considering thromboembolic and cardiovascular risk.

  12. Safety and radiation risks in the labelling of blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk in the management of radioactive material and biological exposition to infectious agents. Protocols and normative to observe GOOD RADIOPHARMACY Practices. Main infectious agents that may be transmitted during preparation of a blood cell radiopharmaceutical. Problems of contamination

  13. Red blood cell sodium transport in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Lütken; Kiszka-Kanowitz, Marianne; Bendtsen, Flemming;

    2016-01-01

    . Increased RBC sodium efflux is especially related to ouabain-sensitive, furosemide-insensitive transport and thus most likely due to upregulated activity of the sodium-potassium pump. The study gives no evidence to an altered intracellular/extracellular sodium ratio or to a reduced fractional furosemide......Patients with advanced cirrhosis have abnormal sodium homoeostasis. The study was undertaken to quantify the sodium transport across the plasma membrane of red blood cells (RBC) in patients with cirrhosis. RBC efflux and influx of sodium were studied in vitro with tracer (22) Na(+) according......·03-0·007), especially the O-sensitive, F-insensitive efflux was increased (+ 225%, P = 0·01-0·006). Fractional F-sensitive transport was normal in cirrhosis. RBC sodium influx was largely normal in cirrhosis. In conclusion, RBC sodium content is reduced in patients with cirrhosis with a direct relation to serum sodium...

  14. Cell type-specific responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greulich, C; Diendorf, J; Gessmann, J; Simon, T; Habijan, T; Eggeler, G; Schildhauer, T A; Epple, M; Köller, M

    2011-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) are increasingly used in biomedical applications because of their remarkable antimicrobial activity. In biomedicine, Ag-NP are coated onto or embedded in wound dressings, surgical instruments and bone substitute biomaterials, such as silver-containing calcium phosphate cements. Free Ag-NP and silver ions are released from these coatings or after the degradation of a biomaterial, and may come into close contact with blood cells. Despite the widespread use of Ag-NP as an antimicrobial agent, there is a serious lack of information on the biological effects of Ag-NP on human blood cells. In this study, the uptake of Ag-NP by peripheral monocytes and lymphocytes (T-cells) was analyzed, and the influence of nanosilver on cell biological functions (proliferation, the expression of adhesion molecules, cytokine release and the generation of reactive oxygen species) was studied. After cell culture in the presence of monodispersed Ag-NP (5-30μgml(-1) silver concentration), agglomerates of nanoparticles were detected within monocytes (CD14+) but not in T-cells (CD3+) by light microscopy, flow cytometry and combined focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy. The uptake rate of nanoparticles was concentration dependent, and the silver agglomerates were typically found in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, a concentration-dependent activation (e.g. an increased expression of adhesion molecule CD54) of monocytes at Ag-NP concentrations of 10-15μgml(-1) was observed, and cytotoxicity of Ag-NP-treated monocytes was observed at Ag-NP levels of 25μgml(-1) and higher. However, no modulation of T-cell proliferation was observed in the presence of Ag-NP. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence for a cell-type-specific uptake of Ag-NP by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the resultant cellular responses after exposure.

  15. Multifactorial aspects of antibody-mediated blood cell destruction

    OpenAIRE

    Schoot, van der, B.H.; Vidarsson, G.; Kapur, R.

    2014-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focuses on diseases of antibody-mediated blood cell destruction via FcγRs on phagocytes, in particular regarding platelets in fetal or neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) and red blood cells (RBC) in hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN). Diagnostically, for HDFN laboratory tests are in place in order to predict risk for severe fetal RBC destruction and thereby initiate appropriate treatments. This test is sensitive, but has relativel...

  16. Is red blood cell rheology preserved during routine blood bank storage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, Sandra; Dijkstra-Tiekstra, Margriet J.; de Wildt-Eggen, Janny; Graaff, Reindert; Rakhorst, Gerhard; van Oeveren, Willem

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Red blood cell (RBC) units stored for more than 2 weeks at 4 degrees C are currently considered of impaired quality. This opinion has primarily been based on altered RBC rheologic properties (i.e., enhanced aggregability, reduced deformability, and elevated endothelial cell interaction),

  17. Raman spectroscopy of stored red blood cells: evaluating clinically-relevant biochemical markers in donated blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Chad G.; Buckley, Kevin; Chen, Deborah; Schulze, H. G.; Devine, Dana V.; Blades, Michael W.; Turner, Robin F. B.

    2015-07-01

    Modern transfusion medicine relies on the safe, secure, and cost-effective delivery of donated red blood cells (RBCs). Once isolated, RBCs are suspended in a defined additive solution and stored in plastic blood bags in which, over time, they undergo chemical, physiological, and morphological changes that may have a deleterious impact on some patients. Regulations limit the storage period to 42 days and the cells do not routinely undergo analytical testing before use. In this study, we use Raman spectroscopy to interrogate stored RBCs and we identify metabolic and cell-breakdown products, such as haemoglobin and membrane fragments, that build-up in the blood bags as the cells age. Our work points the way to the development of an instrument which could quickly and easily assess the biochemical nature of stored RBC units before they are transfused.

  18. Stress does not increase blood-brain barrier permeability in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszkowski, Martin; Bohacek, Johannes

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have reported that exposure to acute psychophysiological stressors can lead to an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability, but these findings remain controversial and disputed. We thoroughly examined this issue by assessing the effect of several well-established paradigms of acute stress and chronic stress on blood-brain barrier permeability in several brain areas of adult mice. Using cerebral extraction ratio for the small molecule tracer sodium fluorescein (NaF, 376 Da) as a sensitive measure of blood-brain barrier permeability, we find that neither acute swim nor restraint stress lead to increased cerebral extraction ratio. Daily 6-h restraint stress for 21 days, a model for the severe detrimental impact of chronic stress on brain function, also does not alter cerebral extraction ratio. In contrast, we find that cold forced swim and cold restraint stress both lead to a transient, pronounced decrease of cerebral extraction ratio in hippocampus and cortex, suggesting that body temperature can be an important confounding factor in studies of blood-brain barrier permeability. To additionally assess if stress could change blood-brain barrier permeability for macromolecules, we measured cerebral extraction ratio for fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (70 kDa). We find that neither acute restraint nor cold swim stress affected blood-brain barrier permeability for macromolecules, thus corroborating our findings that various stressors do not increase blood-brain barrier permeability. PMID:27146513

  19. Erythropoietin reduces storage lesions and decreases apoptosis indices in blood bank red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Andrés Penuela

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Recent evidence shows a selective destruction of the youngest circulating red blood cells (neocytolysis trigged by a drop in erythropoietin levels. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin beta on the red blood cell storage lesion and apoptosis indices under blood bank conditions. Methods: Each one of ten red blood cell units preserved in additive solution 5 was divided in two volumes of 100 mL and assigned to one of two groups: erythropoietin (addition of 665 IU of recombinant human erythropoietin and control (isotonic buffer solution was added. The pharmacokinetic parameters of erythropoietin were estimated and the following parameters were measured weekly, for six weeks: Immunoreactive erythropoietin, hemolysis, percentage of non-discocytes, adenosine triphosphate, glucose, lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, and annexin-V/esterase activity. The t-test or Wilcoxon's test was used for statistical analysis with significance being set for a p-value 6 weeks under blood bank conditions, with persistent supernatant concentrations of erythropoietin during the entire storage period. Adenosine triphosphate was higher in the Erythropoietin Group in Week 6 (4.19 ± 0.05 µmol/L vs. 3.53 ± 0.02 µmol/L; p-value = 0.009. The number of viable cells in the Erythropoietin Group was higher than in the Control Group (77% ± 3.8% vs. 71% ± 2.3%; p-value <0.05, while the number of apoptotic cells was lower (9.4% ± 0.3% vs. 22% ± 0.8%; p-value <0.05. Conclusions: Under standard blood bank conditions, an important proportion of red blood cells satisfy the criteria of apoptosis. Recombinant human erythropoietin beta seems to improve storage lesion parameters and mitigate apoptosis.

  20. Perioperative Red Blood Cell Transfusion: What We Do Not Know

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong Lei; Li-Ze Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Blood transfusion saves lives but may also increase the risk of injury.The objective of this review was to evaluate the possible adverse effects related to transfusion of red blood cell (RBC) concentrates stored for prolonged periods.Data Sources:The data used in this review were mainly from PubMed articles published in English up to February 2015.Study Selection:Clinical and basic research articles were selected according to their relevance to this topic.Results:The ex vivo changes to RBC that occur during storage are collectively called storage lesion.It is still inconclusive if transfusion of RBC with storage lesion has clinical relevance.Multiple ongoing prospective randomized controlled trials are aimed to clarify this clinical issue.It was observed that the adverse events related to stored RBC transfusion were prominent in certain patient populations,including trauma,critical care,pediatric,and cardiac surgery patients,which leads to the investigation of underlying mechanisms.It is demonstrated that free hemoglobin toxicity,decreasing of nitric oxide bioavailability,and free iron-induced increasing of inflammation may play an important role in this process.Conclusion:It is still unclear whether transfusion of older RBC has adverse effects,and if so,which factors determine such clinical effects.However,considering the magnitude of transfusion and the widespread medical significance,potential preventive strategies should be considered,especially for the susceptible recipients.

  1. Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Using Sendai Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Filipa A C; Pedersen, Roger A; Vallier, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the efficient isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from circulating blood via density gradient centrifugation and subsequent generation of integration-free human induced pluripotent stem cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells are cultured for 9 days to allow expansion of the erythroblast population. The erythroblasts are then used to derive human induced pluripotent stem cells using Sendai viral vectors, each expressing one of the four reprogramming factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc.

  2. A Framework for White Blood Cell Segmentation in Microscopic Blood Images Using Digital Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Seman Zainina; Abdul Kahar Badrul; Sadeghian Farnoosh; Ramli Abdul; Saripan M-Iqbal

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Evaluation of blood smear is a commonly clinical test these days. Most of the time, the hematologists are interested on white blood cells (WBCs) only. Digital image processing techniques can help them in their analysis and diagnosis. For example, disease like acute leukemia is detected based on the amount and condition of the WBC. The main objective of this paper is to segment the WBC to its two dominant elements: nucleus and cytoplasm. The segmentation is conducted using a proposed ...

  3. Quantification of depletion-induced adhesion of Red Blood Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, Patrick; Wagner, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBC) are known to form aggregates in the forms of rouleaux due to the presence of plasma proteins under physiological conditions. Rouleaux formation can be also induced in vitro by the addition of macromolecules to the RBC solution. Current data on the adhesion strength between red blood cells in their natural discocyte shapes mostly rely on indirect measurements like flow chamber experiments, but on the single cell level data is lacking. Here we present measurements on the dextran induced aggregation of red blood cells by use of atomic force microscopy based single cell force spectroscopy (SCFS). The effects of dextran concentration and molecular weight on the interaction energy of adhering RBCs was determined. The results are in good agreement with a model based on the depletion effect and former experimental studies.

  4. Low-dose plasmid DNA treatment increases plasma vasopressin and regulates blood pressure in experimental endotoxemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malardo Thiago

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although plasmid DNA encoding an antigen from pathogens or tumor cells has been widely studied as vaccine, the use of plasmid vector (without insert as therapeutic agent requires further investigation. Results Here, we showed that plasmid DNA (pcDNA3 at low doses inhibits the production of IL-6 and TNF-α by lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated macrophage cell line J774. These findings led us to evaluate whether plasmid DNA could act as an anti-inflammatory agent in a Wistar rat endotoxemia model. Rats injected simultaneously with 1.5 mg/kg of LPS and 10 or 20 μg of plasmid DNA had a remarkable attenuation of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP drop at 2 hours after treatment when compared with rats injected with LPS only. The beneficial effect of the plasmid DNA on MAP was associated with decreased expression of IL-6 in liver and increased concentration of plasma vasopressin (AVP, a known vasoconstrictor that has been investigated in hemorrhagic shock management. No difference was observed in relation to nitric oxide (NO production. Conclusion Our results demonstrate for the first time that plasmid DNA vector at low doses presents anti-inflammatory property and constitutes a novel approach with therapeutic potential in inflammatory diseases.

  5. Blood cell manufacture: current methods and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Nicholas E; Nielsen, Lars K

    2009-07-01

    Blood transfusion depends on availability of donor material, and concerns over supply and safety have spurred development of methods to manufacture blood from stem cells. Current methods could theoretically yield therapeutic doses of red blood cells (RBCs) and platelets. However, due to the very large number of cells required to have any impact on supply (currently 10(19) RBC/year in the US), realization of routine manufacture faces significant challenges. Current yields are orders of magnitude too low for production of meaningful quantities, and the physical scale of the problem is a challenge in itself. We discuss these challenges in relation to current methods and how it might be possible to realize limited 'blood pharming' of neutrophils in the near future. PMID:19500866

  6. Blood cell manufacture: current methods and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Nicholas E; Nielsen, Lars K

    2009-07-01

    Blood transfusion depends on availability of donor material, and concerns over supply and safety have spurred development of methods to manufacture blood from stem cells. Current methods could theoretically yield therapeutic doses of red blood cells (RBCs) and platelets. However, due to the very large number of cells required to have any impact on supply (currently 10(19) RBC/year in the US), realization of routine manufacture faces significant challenges. Current yields are orders of magnitude too low for production of meaningful quantities, and the physical scale of the problem is a challenge in itself. We discuss these challenges in relation to current methods and how it might be possible to realize limited 'blood pharming' of neutrophils in the near future.

  7. Laser-photophoretic migration and fractionation of human blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monjushiro, Hideaki; Tanahashi, Yuko; Watarai, Hitoshi

    2013-05-13

    Laser photophoretic migration behavior of human blood cells in saline solution was investigated under the irradiation of Nd:YAG laser beam (532 nm) in the absence and the presence of the flow in a fused silica capillary. Red blood cells (RBC) were migrated faster than white blood cells (WBC) and blood pellets to the direction of propagation of laser light. The observed photophoretic velocity of RBC was about 11 times faster than those of others. This was understood from the larger photophoretic efficiency of RBC than that of WBC, which was simulated based on the Mie scattering theory. Furthermore, it was found that, during the photophoretic migration, RBCs spontaneously orientated parallel to the migration direction so as to reduce the drag force. Finally, it was demonstrated that RBC and WBC were separated in a micro-channel flow system by the laser photophoresis.

  8. Computational modeling of red blood cells: A symplectic integration algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Ulf D.; Ladd, Anthony J. C.

    2010-03-01

    Red blood cells can undergo shape transformations that impact the rheological properties of blood. Computational models have to account for the deformability and red blood cells are often modeled as elastically deformable objects. We present a symplectic integration algorithm for deformable objects. The surface is represented by a set of marker points obtained by surface triangulation, along with a set of fiber vectors that describe the orientation of the material plane. The various elastic energies are formulated in terms of these variables and the equations of motion are obtained by exact differentiation of a discretized Hamiltonian. The integration algorithm preserves the Hamiltonian structure and leads to highly accurate energy conservation, hence he method is expected to be more stable than conventional finite element methods. We apply the algorithm to simulate the shape dynamics of red blood cells.

  9. Loss of deformability of malaria-infected red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S. Majid; Feng, James

    2012-11-01

    The pathogenesis of malaria is largely due to stiffening of the infected red blood cells (RBCs). Contemporary understanding ascribes the loss of RBC deformability to a 10-fold increase in membrane stiffness caused by extra cross-linking in the spectrin network. Local measurements by micropipette aspiration, however, have reported only an increase of 3-fold in the shear modulus. We believe the discrepancy stems from the rigid parasite particles inside infected cells, and have carried out numerical simulations to demonstrate this mechanism. The cell membrane is represented by a set of discrete particles connected by linearly elastic springs. The cytosol is modeled as a homogeneous Newtonian fluid, and discretized by particles as in standard smoothed particle hydrodynamics. The malaria parasite is modeled as an aggregate of particles constrained to rigid-body motion. We simulate RBC stretching tests by optical tweezers in three dimensions. The results demonstrate that the presence of a sizeable parasite greatly reduces the ability of RBCs to deform under stretching. With the solid inclusion, the observed loss of deformability can be predicted quantitatively using the local membrane elasticity measured by micropipettes.

  10. Following red blood cells in a pulmonary capillary

    CERN Document Server

    Mauroy, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    The red blood cells or erythrocytes are biconcave shaped cells and consist mostly in a membrane delimiting a cytosol with a high concentration in hemoglobin. This membrane is highly deformable and allows the cells to go through narrow passages like the capillaries which diameters can be much smaller than red blood cells one. They carry oxygen thanks to hemoglobin, a complex molecule that have very high affinity for oxygen. The capacity of erythrocytes to load and unload oxygen is thus a determinant factor in their efficacy. In this paper, we will focus on the pulmonary capillary where red blood cells capture oxygen. We propose a camera method in order to numerically study the behavior of the red blood cell along a whole capillary. Our goal is to understand how erythrocytes geometrical changes along the capillary can affect its capacity to capture oxygen. The first part of this document presents the model chosen for the red blood cells along with the numerical method used to determine and follow their shapes a...

  11. Force Balance and Membrane Shedding at the Red-Blood-Cell Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sens, Pierre; Gov, Nir

    2007-01-01

    During the aging of the red-blood cell, or under conditions of extreme echinocytosis, membrane is shed from the cell plasma membrane in the form of nanovesicles. We propose that this process is the result of the self-adaptation of the membrane surface area to the elastic stress imposed by the spectrin cytoskeleton, via the local buckling of membrane under increasing cytoskeleton stiffness. This model introduces the concept of force balance as a regulatory process at the cell membrane and quantitatively reproduces the rate of area loss in aging red-blood cells.

  12. Oral antibiotics increase blood neutrophil maturation and reduce bacteremia and necrotizing enterocolitis in the immediate postnatal period of preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Fuglsang, Eva; Jiang, Pingping;

    2016-01-01

    Immature immunity may predispose preterm neonates to infections and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Intravenous antibiotics are frequently given to prevent and treat sepsis, while oral antibiotics are seldom used. We hypothesized that oral antibiotics promote maturation of systemic immunity and...... delay gut bacterial colonization and thereby protect preterm neonates against both NEC and bacteremia in the immediate postnatal period. Preterm pigs were given formula and administered saline (CON) or broad-spectrum antibiotics orally (ORA) or systemically (SYS) for 5 d after birth. Temporal changes in...... blood parameters and bacterial composition in the intestine, blood and immune organs were analyzed. Newborn preterm pigs had few blood neutrophils and a high frequency of progenitor cells. Neutrophils gradually matured after preterm birth with increasing CD14 and decreasing CD172a expressions. Preterm...

  13. The in Vitro Assessment of Biochemical Factors in Hepatocyte like Cells Derived from Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A KHoramroodi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Umbilical cord blood (UCB is a source of Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSC and progenitor cells that can reconstitute the hematopoietic system in patients with malignant and nonmalignant disorders. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived from umbilical cord blood (UCB have been differentiated to some kind of cells, such as osteobblast, adipoblast and chondroblast in Vitro. This study examined the differentiation of Umbilical Cord Blood (UCB derived stem cells to functional hepatocytes. Materials & Methods: The present study was an experimental study which was carried out in the Payam-e-Noor University of Tehran in cooperation with Hamedan University of Medical Sciences in 2008. Umbilical cord blood (UCB was obtained from Fatemieh hospital (Hamadan, Iran. Stem cells were isolated from the cord blood by combining density gradient centrifugation with plastic adherence. When the isolated cells reached 80% confluence, they differentiated to hepatocyte like cells. The medium which was used was consists of DMEM and 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS supplemented with 20 ng/mL Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF, 10 ng/mL basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF and 20 ng/mL Oncostatin M (OSM.The medium was changed every 3 days and stored for Albumin (ALB, Alpha Fetoprotein (AFP, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP, and urea assay. Finally PAS stain was done to study Glycogen storage in the differentiated cell. Results: Measurement of biochemical factors in different days showed that concentration of albumin (ALB, alpha fetoprotein (AFP, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and Urea gradually increased. Also, PAS staining showed the storage of glycogen in these cells. Conclusion: Stem cell-derived from human umbilical cord blood (HUCB is a new source of cell types for cell transplantation therapy of hepatic diseases and under certain conditions these cells can differentiate into liver cells.

  14. RED BLOOD CELL AND WHOLE BLOOD GLUTATHIONE REDOX STATUS IN ENDURANCE-TRAINED MEN FOLLOWING A SKI MARATHON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Unt

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes in glutathione redox ratio (GSSG·GSH-1 in red blood cells (RBCs and whole blood in well-trained men following a ski marathon. 16 male subjects (27.0 ± 4.7 yrs, 1.81 ± 0.06 m, 77.6 ± 9.6 kg, VO2max 66.2 ± 5.7 ml·kg-1·min-1 were examined before the competition (pre- COMP, after the competition (post-COMP and during an 18-hour recovery period (RECOV. There was a slight decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH in blood and in RBCs in post-COMP. During RECOV, the GSH level in blood was reduced, the GSH level in RBCs was significantly elevated (a statistically significant difference as compared to the pre-COMP level. The post-COMP GSSG·GSH-1 in full blood did not increase significantly, but its increase was statistically significant during the 18-hour recovery period. During the post-COMP and RECOV, the GSSG·GSH-1 in RBCs slightly decreased in comparison with the pre-COMP. Vitamin C concentration in serum increased in post-COMP (49% vs. pre- COMP and decreased to the baseline level during RECOV. In conclusion, our data show that acute exercise slightly increases the GSSG·GSH-1 in whole blood, while GSSG·GSH-1 in RBCs significantly decreases. Thus, exercise-related changes in the non-enzymatic components of the glutathione system (GSSG and GSH in whole blood and RBCs are not identical

  15. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3:22. CTV News 322 views 3:22 Stem Cell Therapy Injections - Duration: 6:18. Caring Medical Regenerative Medicine Clinics 254,233 views 6:18 Bone Marrow/Stem Cell Transplant - Duration: 7:24. tannermom80 106,911 views ...

  16. NHE-1 sequence and expression in toad, snake and fish red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steffen Nyegaard; Wang, Tobias; Kristensen, Torsten

    Red blood cells (RBC) from reptiles appear not to express regulatory volume increase (RVI) upon shrinkage (Kristensen et al., 2008). In other vertebrates, the RVI response is primarily mediated by activation of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE-1) and we, therefore decided to investigate whether red cell...

  17. The Antioxidant Effect of Erythropoietin on Thalassemic Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Amer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of its stimulating effect on RBC production, erythropoietin (Epo is used to treat anemia, for example, in patients on dialysis or on chemotherapy. In β-thalassemia, where Epo levels are low relative to the degree of anemia, Epo treatment improves the anemia state. Since RBC and platelets of these patients are under oxidative stress, which may be involved in anemia and thromboembolic complications, we investigated Epo as an antioxidant. Using flow-cytometry technology, we found that in vitro treatment with Epo of blood cells from these patients increased their glutathione content and reduced their reactive oxygen species, membrane lipid peroxides, and external phosphatidylserine. This resulted in reduced susceptibility of RBC to undergo hemolysis and phagocytosis. Injection of Epo into heterozygous (Hbbth3/+ β-thalassemic mice reduced the oxidative markers within 3 hours. Our results suggest that, in addition to stimulating RBC and fetal hemoglobin production, Epo might alleviate symptoms of hemolytic anemias as an antioxidant.

  18. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets......, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver funtion were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended...... to increase (P = 0.07) with increasing dietary BPM content. It was concluded that up to 50% of the nitrogen could be derived from BPM without affecting metabolic function, as reflected in the measured blood parameters....

  19. The pulmonary vasculature in a neonatal porcine model with increased pulmonary blood flow and pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbøg, Elisabeth Vidstid; Steinbruchel, Daniel Andreas; Thomsen, Anne Bloch;

    2001-01-01

    . By three months of age, nearly all shunts had closed spontaneously, and haemodynamics were normal. Ligation of the left pulmonary artery resulted in a normal total pulmonary blood flow, despite only the right lung being perfused, and a 33% increase in systolic pulmonary arterial pressure...... included sham operations in 13, or no operations in 10 pigs. Follow-up was continued for three months. The interventions were compatible with survival in most pigs. The shunts resulted in an acute 85% increase in systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, and a more than twofold increase in pulmonary blood flow...

  20. Deformation of Two-Dimensional Nonuniform-Membrane Red Blood Cells Simulated by a Lattice Boltzmann Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hua-Bing; JIN Li; QIU Bing

    2008-01-01

    To study two-dimensional red blood cells deforming in a shear flow with the membrane nonuniform on the rigidity and mass, the membrane is discretized into equilength segments. The fluid inside and outside the red blood cell is simulated by the D2Q9 lattice Boltzmann model and the hydrodynamic forces exerted on the membrane from the inner and outer of the red blood cell are calculated by a stress-integration method. Through the global deviation from the curvature of uniform-membrane, we find that when the membrane is nonuniform on the rigidity, the deviation first decreases with the time increases and implies that the terminal profile of the red blood cell is static. To a red blood cell with the mass nonuniform on the membrane, the deviation becomes more large, and the mass distribution affects the profile of the two sides of the flattened red blood cell in a shear flow.

  1. A smart core-sheath nanofiber that captures and releases red blood cells from the blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Q.; Hou, J.; Zhao, C.; Xin, Z.; Jin, J.; Li, C.; Wong, S.-C.; Yin, J.

    2016-01-01

    A smart core-sheath nanofiber for non-adherent cell capture and release is demonstrated. The nanofibers are fabricated by single-spinneret electrospinning of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), polycaprolactone (PCL) and nattokinase (NK) solution blends. The self-assembly of PNIPAAm and PCL blends during the electrospinning generates the core-sheath PCL/PNIPAAm nanofibers with PNIPAAm as the sheath. The PNIPAAm-based core-sheath nanofibers are switchable between hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity with temperature change and enhance stability in the blood. When the nanofibers come in contact with blood, the NK is released from the nanofibers to resist platelet adhesion on the nanofiber surface, facilitating the direct capture and isolation of red blood cells (RBCs) from the blood above phase-transition temperature of PNIPAAm. Meanwhile, the captured RBCs are readily released from the nanofibers with temperature stimuli in an undamaged manner. The release efficiency of up to 100% is obtained while maintaining cellular integrity and function. This work presents promising nanofibers to effectively capture non-adherent cells and release for subsequent molecular analysis and diagnosis of single cells.A smart core-sheath nanofiber for non-adherent cell capture and release is demonstrated. The nanofibers are fabricated by single-spinneret electrospinning of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), polycaprolactone (PCL) and nattokinase (NK) solution blends. The self-assembly of PNIPAAm and PCL blends during the electrospinning generates the core-sheath PCL/PNIPAAm nanofibers with PNIPAAm as the sheath. The PNIPAAm-based core-sheath nanofibers are switchable between hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity with temperature change and enhance stability in the blood. When the nanofibers come in contact with blood, the NK is released from the nanofibers to resist platelet adhesion on the nanofiber surface, facilitating the direct capture and isolation of red blood cells (RBCs) from

  2. Challenges for red blood cell biomarker discovery through proteomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barasa, B.A.; Slijper, M.

    2014-01-01

    Red blood cells are rather unique body cells, since they have lost all organelles when mature, which results in lack of potential to replace proteins that have lost their function. They maintain only a few pathways for obtaining energy and reducing power for the key functions they need to fulfill. T

  3. Rapid white blood cell detection for peritonitis diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsung-Feng; Mei, Zhe; Chiu, Yu-Jui; Cho, Sung Hwan; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2013-03-01

    A point-of-care and home-care lab-on-a-chip (LoC) system that integrates a microfluidic spiral device as a concentrator with an optical-coding device as a cell enumerator is demonstrated. The LoC system enumerates white blood cells from dialysis effluent of patients receiving peritoneal dialysis. The preliminary results show that the white blood cell counts from our system agree well with the results from commercial flow cytometers. The LoC system can potentially bring significant benefits to end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients that are on peritoneal dialysis (PD).

  4. Effect of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technology in Blood Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focosi, Daniele; Pistello, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    Population aging has imposed cost-effective alternatives to blood donations. Artificial blood is still at the preliminary stages of development, and the need for viable cells seems unsurmountable. Because large numbers of viable cells must be promptly available for clinical use, stem cell technologies, expansion, and banking represent ideal tools to ensure a regular supply. Provided key donors can be identified, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology could pave the way to a new era in transfusion medicine, just as it is already doing in many other fields of medicine. The present review summarizes the current state of research on iPSC technology in the field of blood banking, highlighting hurdles, and promises.

  5. Genetic predisposition to higher blood pressure increases risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiangfeng; Huang, Jianfeng; Wang, Laiyuan; Chen, Shufeng; Yang, Xueli; Li, Jianxin; Cao, Jie; Chen, Jichun; Li, Ying; Zhao, Liancheng; Li, Hongfan; Liu, Fangcao; Huang, Chen; Shen, Chong; Shen, Jinjin; Yu, Ling; Xu, Lihua; Mu, Jianjun; Wu, Xianping; Ji, Xu; Guo, Dongshuang; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Yang, Zili; Wang, Renping; Yang, Jun; Yan, Weili; Gu, Dongfeng

    2015-10-01

    Although multiple genetic markers associated with blood pressure have been identified by genome-wide association studies, their aggregate effect on risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease is uncertain, particularly among East Asian who may have different genetic and environmental exposures from Europeans. We aimed to examine the association between genetic predisposition to higher blood pressure and risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease in 26 262 individuals in 2 Chinese population-based prospective cohorts. A genetic risk score was calculated based on 22 established variants for blood pressure in East Asian. We found the genetic risk score was significantly and independently associated with linear increases in blood pressure and risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease (P range from 4.57×10(-3) to 3.10×10(-6)). In analyses adjusted for traditional risk factors including blood pressure, individuals carrying most blood pressure-related risk alleles (top quintile of genetic score distribution) had 40% (95% confidence interval, 18-66) and 26% (6-45) increased risk for incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease, respectively, when compared with individuals in the bottom quintile. The genetic risk score also significantly improved discrimination for incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease and led to modest improvements in risk reclassification for cardiovascular disease (all the Pblood pressure is an independent risk factor for blood pressure increase and incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease and provides modest incremental information to cardiovascular disease risk prediction. The potential clinical use of this panel of blood pressure-associated polymorphisms remains to be determined.

  6. Increased mitochondrial DNA content in peripheral blood lymphocytes from HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossarizza, Andrea; Riva, Agostino; Pinti, Marcello; Ammannato, Silvia; Fedeli, Paolo; Mussini, Cristina; Esposito, Roberto; Galli, Massimo

    2003-08-01

    We have evaluated mitochondrial (mt) DNA content in CD4 and CD8 peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from HIV-infected patients taking highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) who display different types of adipose tissue alterations. A cross-sectional study was performed in a total of 23 patients with lipodystrophy (LD): nine patients with fat accumulation, six patients with fat loss, eight patients with combined form, who were compared to 11 individuals infected by HIV without LD (HIV-positive) and 10 seronegative controls (CTRL). PBLs were obtained by standard methods, that is, gradient density centrifugation on Ficoll, and CD4 or CD8 cells were positively isolated by magnetic sorting to eliminate the contamination of platelets. mtDNA content was then measured by an original assay based upon real-time PCR. mtDNA content was significantly increased in CD4 T cells from patients with LD, while no differences were present between CD4 and CD8 cells from HIV-positive and CTRL individuals. Nor were any differences found when comparing LD or HIV-positive patients treated with stavudine or zidovudine, or taking D-drugs or non D-drugs. Patients with fat accumulation had significantly higher mtDNA content compared to HIV-positive and CTRL, this phenomenon regarding both CD4 and CD8 PBLs. Considering all HIV-positive patients (including LD), mtDNA content showed a significant, positive correlation with cholesterolaemia but not with triglyceridaemia and glycaemia. Relatively high mtDNA content in LD patients, as well as the correlation between mtDNA content and cholesterol in all HIV-positive subjects, suggest the involvement of mitochondria in such a pathology. However, further studies are needed to confirm these initial observations and ascertain whether the quantification of mtDNA in PBL is a useful and reliable marker to investigate and monitor HAART-related changes in fat distribution.

  7. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are most commonly used in the treatment of cancers like leukemia and lymphoma to restore stem cells ... use of BMT and PBSCT, see http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/fa... If you are interested in ...

  8. Variability of gene expression profiles in human blood and lymphoblastoid cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Jennifer M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Readily accessible samples such as peripheral blood or cell lines are increasingly being used in large cohorts to characterise gene expression differences between a patient group and healthy controls. However, cell and RNA isolation procedures and the variety of cell types that make up whole blood can affect gene expression measurements. We therefore systematically investigated global gene expression profiles in peripheral blood from six individuals collected during two visits by comparing five of the following cell and RNA isolation methods: whole blood (PAXgene, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs, CD19 and CD20 specific B-cell subsets. Results Gene expression measurements were clearly discriminated by isolation method although the reproducibility was high for all methods (range ρ = 0.90-1.00. The PAXgene samples showed a decrease in the number of expressed genes (P -16 with higher variability (P -16 compared to the other methods. Differentially expressed probes between PAXgene and PBMCs were correlated with the number of monocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils or erythrocytes. The correlations (ρ = 0.83; ρ = 0.79 of the expression levels of detected probes between LCLs and B-cell subsets were much lower compared to the two B-cell isolation methods (ρ = 0.98. Gene ontology analysis of detected genes showed that genes involved in inflammatory responses are enriched in B-cells CD19 and CD20 whereas genes involved in alcohol metabolic process and the cell cycle were enriched in LCLs. Conclusion Gene expression profiles in blood-based samples are strongly dependent on the predominant constituent cell type(s and RNA isolation method. It is crucial to understand the differences and variability of gene expression measurements between cell and RNA isolation procedures, and their relevance to disease processes, before application in large clinical studies.

  9. Transfusion management of patients with red blood cell antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujandrić Nevenka B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Red blood cell antibodies may cause a positive result of pre-transfusion blood compatibility testing (crossmatch test. It can be a problem to provide suitable blood units for patients with clinically significant antibodies to high-frequency antigens as well as for those with multiple alloantibody specificities. This study was aimed at identifying transfused patients in the population of South-Backa who had developed clinically significant red blood cell alloantibodies. Material and methods. We analyzed the records of crossmatch results and antibody screening performed at the Blood Transfusion Institute of Vojvodina during 2012. Results. Antibodies were found in 103 patients: A 63 patients with single antibodies: 1 16 with antibodies of unknown specificity (3 autoantibodies, 13 alloantibodies; 2 39 with clinically significant antibodies (23 from Rh system (2 anti-C, 2 anti-D, 12 anti-E, 7 anti-c, 4 anti-K, 3 anti-Fya, 7 anti-Jka, 2 anti-S; 3 8 with usually not significant antibodies (6 anti-M, 1 anti-A1, 1 anti- Cw; B 40 patients developed multiple antibodies: 1 all patients had at least one clinically significant antibody from various blood group system (44 Rh, 13 Kell, 7 Kidd, 7 MNSs (S, s; 2 3 patients had usually not significant antibodies (1 Lewis, 2 Lutheran; 3 3 patients occasionally had clinically significant antibody (3 anti- Yta; 4 3 patients had antibodies of unknown specificity (2 autoantibodies, 1alloantibody. Antibodies detected in the majority of patients (65-63.1% had a specificity of Rh and/or the Kell system. Conclusions. The main goal of pre-transfusion blood compatibility testing is to detect clinically significant antibodies. The provision of antigen negative blood units for those patients is a special challenge for blood establishments. Database with a sufficient number of typed blood donors can help to resolve this problem.

  10. In-vitro red blood cell partitioning of doxycycline

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, P.V.; Badgujar, P.C.; Gatne, M. M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In-vitro red blood cell (RBC) partitioning of doxycycline was studied to determine whether doxycycline penetrates RBC and its concentration was assayed keeping in view its high lipophilicity. Materials and Methods: Standardization of doxycycline was performed in whole blood and plasma of cattle by microbiological assay using Bacillus subtillis ATCC 6633 as indicator organizm. Actual concentration of the drug was obtained by comparing zone inhibition with standard graph and the exte...

  11. Natalizumab treatment leads to an increase in circulating CXCR3-expressing B cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttilä, Tarja-Leena; Airas, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of natalizumab treatment on subgroups of circulating peripheral blood B cell populations. Methods: We studied the proportions and absolute numbers of CD19+CD20+, CD10+, and CD5+ B cell populations, and determined very late activation antigen-4 and chemokine receptor CXCR3, CCR5, and CCR6 expression on B cells in the peripheral blood of 14 natalizumab-treated patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Five blood samples per patient were obtained longitudinally before and during the first year of treatment. Blood samples were analyzed by 6-color flow cytometry. Results: Proportions of B cells and CD10+ pre–B cells were significantly increased, and very late activation antigen-4 expression on the B cell surface was significantly decreased already after 1 week of natalizumab treatment. Natalizumab-induced sustained increase in the proportion and absolute number of CXCR3-expressing B cells was statistically significant after 1 month of treatment. There were no changes in the proportions of CCR5- or CCR6-expressing B cells. Conclusions: The rapid and persistent increase in circulating CXCR3-expressing B cells in response to natalizumab treatment possibly reflects the relevance of this chemokine receptor in controlling migration of B cells into the CNS in humans in vivo. PMID:27800533

  12. Effect of Tamarindus indica L. leaves' fluid extract on human blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Arranz, J C; Garcia-Diaz, J; Perez-Rosés, R; De la Vega, J; Rodríguez-Amado, J; Morris-Quevedo, H J

    2014-01-01

    Tamarind leaves are edible; however, their saponin content could be toxic to human blood cells. In this article, the effect of tamarind leaf fluid extract (TFE) on human blood cells was evaluated by using several tests. Results revealed that TFE did not cause significant haemolysis on human red blood cells even at the lowest evaluated concentration (20 mg/mL). Blood protein denaturalisation ratio was consistently lower than in control at TFE concentrations greater than 40 mg/mL. Erythrocyte membrane damage caused by the action of oxidative H2O2 displayed a steady reduction with increasing TFE concentrations. In the reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement by using flow cytometry assay, leucocyte viability was over 95% at tested concentrations, and a high ROS inhibition was also recorded. Protective behaviour found in TFE should be attributed to its polyphenol content. Thus, tamarind leaves can be regarded as a potential source of interesting phytochemicals.

  13. The blood pressure-induced diameter response of retinal arterioles decreases with increasing diabetic maculopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz; Jeppesen, Peter; Knudsen, Søren Tang;

    2006-01-01

    were measured using the Retinal Vessel Analyzer (RVA, Imedos, Germany) before, during, and after an increase in the blood pressure induced by isometric exercise. Additionally, the retinal thickness was measured using optical coherence tomography scanning. RESULTS: The arterioles contracted during......BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to compare the diameter response of retinal arterioles and retinal thickness in patients with different stages of diabetic maculopathy during an increase in the arterial blood pressure. METHODS: Four groups each consisting of 19 individuals were studied. Group...

  14. Absence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells priming in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos B.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the proinflammatory environment occurring in dialytic patients, cytokine overproduction has been implicated in hemodialysis co-morbidity. However, there are discrepancies among the various studies that have analyzed TNF-alpha synthesis and the presence of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC priming in this clinical setting. We measured bioactive cytokine by the L929 cell bioassay, and evaluated PBMC TNF-alpha production by 32 hemodialysis patients (HP and 51 controls. No difference in TNF-alpha secretion was observed between controls and HP (859 ± 141 vs 697 ± 130 U/10(6 cells. Lipopolysaccharide (5 µg/ml did not induce any further TNF-alpha release, showing no PBMC priming. Paraformaldehyde-fixed HP PBMC were not cytotoxic to L929 cells, suggesting the absence of membrane-anchored TNF-alpha. Cycloheximide inhibited PBMC cytotoxicity in HP and controls, indicating lack of a PBMC TNF-alpha pool, and dependence on de novo cytokine synthesis. Actinomycin D reduced TNF-alpha production in HP, but had no effect on controls. Therefore, our data imply that TNF-alpha production is an intrinsic activity of normal PBMC and is not altered in HP. Moreover, TNF-alpha is a product of de novo synthesis by PBMC and is not constitutively expressed on HP cell membranes. The effect of actinomycin D suggests a putative tighter control of TNF-alpha mRNA turnover in HP. This increased dependence on TNF-alpha RNA transcription in HP may reflect an adaptive response to hemodialysis stimuli.

  15. Generation of iPS Cells from Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Using Episomal Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ruijun Jeanna; Neises, Amanda; Zhang, Xiao-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral blood is the easy-to-access, minimally invasive, and the most abundant cell source to use for cell reprogramming. The episomal vector is among the best approaches for generating integration-free induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells due to its simplicity and affordability. Here we describe the detailed protocol for the efficient generation of integration-free iPS cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. With this optimized protocol, one can readily generate hundreds of iPS cell colonies from 1 ml of peripheral blood.

  16. Counting White Blood Cells from a Blood Smear Using Fourier Ptychographic Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Jaebum; Ou, Xiaoze; Kulkarni, Rajan P.; Yang, Changhuei

    2015-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count is a valuable metric for assisting with diagnosis or prognosis of various diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, or infection. Counting WBCs can be done either manually or automatically. Automatic methods are capable of counting a large number of cells to give a statistically more accurate reading of the WBC count of a sample, but the specialized equipment tends to be expensive. Manual methods are inexpensive since they only involve a convention...

  17. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Patient-Centered Approach - Duration: 4:12. NCIcancertopics 3,087 views 4:12 The Truth About Cord ... 19 Stem cell donation: Step by step - Duration: 3:35. hemaquebec1998 1,127 views 3:35 Two ...

  18. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show ... views 4:25 Susan Solomon: The promise of research with stem cells - Duration: 14:59. TED 55, ...

  19. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... playlist. Sign in Share More Report Need to report the video? Sign in to report inappropriate content. Sign in Transcript 6,983 views ... Stem Cell Therapy Injections - Duration: 6:18. Caring Medical Regenerative Medicine Clinics 234,106 views 6:18 ...

  20. Hindlimb-unloading suppresses B cell population in the bone marrow and peripheral circulation associated with OPN expression in circulating blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezura, Yoichi; Nagata, Junji; Nagao, Masashi; Hemmi, Hiroaki; Hayata, Tadayoshi; Rittling, Susan; Denhardt, David T; Noda, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Rodent hindlimb unloading (HU) by tail-suspension is a model to investigate disuse-induced bone loss in vivo. Previously, we have shown that osteopontin (OPN, also known as Spp1) is required for unloading-induced bone loss. However, how unloading affects OPN expression in the body is not fully understood. Here, we examined OPN expression in peripheral blood of mice subjected to HU. Real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that OPN expression is increased in circulating peripheral blood cells. This HU-induced increase in OPN mRNA expression was specific in circulating peripheral blood cells, as OPN was not increased in the blood cells in bone marrow. HU-induced enhancement in OPN expression in peripheral blood cells was associated with an increase in the fraction of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells in the peripheral blood. In contrast, HU decreased the fraction size of B-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. We further examined if B-lymphogenesis is affected in the mice deficient for osteopontin subjected to HU. In bone marrow, HU decreased the population of the B-lymphocyte lineage cells significantly, whereas it did not alter the population of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells. HU also increased the cells in T-lymphocyte lineage in bone marrow. Interestingly, these changes were observed similarly both in OPN-deficient and wild-type mice. These results indicate for the first time that HU increases OPN expression in circulating cells and suppresses bone marrow B-lymphogenesis.

  1. Effect of an acute increase in central blood volume on cerebral hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogoh, Shigehiko; Hirasawa, Ai; Raven, Peter B; Rebuffat, Thomas; Denise, Pierre; Lericollais, Romain; Sugawara, Jun; Normand, Hervé

    2015-10-15

    Systemic blood distribution is an important factor involved in regulating cerebral blood flow (CBF). However, the effect of an acute change in central blood volume (CBV) on CBF regulation remains unclear. To address our question, we sought to examine the CBF and systemic hemodynamic responses to microgravity during parabolic flight. Twelve healthy subjects were seated upright and exposed to microgravity during parabolic flight. During the brief periods of microgravity, mean arterial pressure was decreased (-26 ± 1%, P pulse pressure and estimated carotid sinus pressure increased rapidly. In addition, this increase in central arterial pulse pressure was associated with an arterial baroreflex-mediated decrease in heart rate (r = -0.888, P blood velocity (MCA Vmean) remained unchanged throughout parabolic flight (P = 0.30). During microgravity the contribution of cardiac output to MCA Vmean was gradually reduced (P < 0.05), and its contribution was negatively correlated with an increase in total vascular conductance (r = -0.683, P < 0.0001). These findings suggest that the acute loading of the arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreceptors by increases in CBV during microgravity results in acute and marked systemic vasodilation. Furthermore, we conclude that this marked systemic vasodilation decreases the contribution of cardiac output to CBF. These findings suggest that the arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflex-mediated peripheral vasodilation along with dynamic cerebral autoregulation counteracts a cerebral overperfusion, which otherwise would occur during acute increases in CBV. PMID:26310936

  2. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauson Anne-Helene

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets. The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver function were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended to increase (P = 0.07 with increasing dietary BPM content. It was concluded that up to 50% of the nitrogen could be derived from BPM without affecting metabolic function, as reflected in the measured blood parameters.

  3. Ethanol suppression of peripheral blood mononuclear cell trafficking across brain endothelial cells in immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola C Hudson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lola C Hudson1, Brenda A Colby1, Rick B Meeker21Department of Molecular Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA; 2Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: Earlier studies suggested that the combination of alcohol use and immunodeficiency virus infection resulted in more severe neurologic disease than either condition individually. These deleterious interactions could be due to increased immune cell and virus trafficking or may result from interactions between ethanol and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-associated toxicity within the brain. To determine the extent to which increased trafficking played a role, we examined the effect of ethanol on the migration of different peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMCs subsets across a brain endothelial cell monolayer. We utilized combinations of feline brain endothelial cells with astrocytes, and/or microglia with either acute exposure to 0.08 g/dL ethanol, a combination of ethanol and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, or FIV alone. Adherence of PBMCs to endothelium was increased in all combinations of cells with the addition of ethanol. Despite increased PBMC adhesion with ethanol treatment, transmigration of B cells, monocytes, CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells was not increased and was actually decreased in the presence of astrocytes. Expression of three common adhesion molecules, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1, ICAM2, and vascular cell adhesion molecule, was unchanged or slightly decreased by ethanol. This indicated that although adherence is increased by ethanol it is not due to an increased expression of adhesion molecules. RANTES, MIP1α, MIP1β, and MCP-1 mRNA expression was also studied in brain endothelial cells, astrocytes and microglia by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Ethanol treatment of astrocytes resulted in modest changes of

  4. Blood cells and endothelial barrier function

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Stephen F.; Granger, D Neil

    2015-01-01

    The barrier properties of endothelial cells are critical for the maintenance of water and protein balance between the intravascular and extravascular compartments. An impairment of endothelial barrier function has been implicated in the genesis and/or progression of a variety of pathological conditions, including pulmonary edema, ischemic stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, angioedema, sepsis and cancer. The altered barrier function in these conditions is often linked to the release of solub...

  5. Detection of hepatitis B virus DNA in mononuclear blood cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Pontisso, P; Poon, M C; Tiollais, P.; Brechot, C

    1984-01-01

    The Southern transfer hybridisation technique was used to test mononuclear blood cells for hepatitis B virus DNA. Viral DNA sequences were detected in mononuclear cells of 10 out of 16 patients with hepatitis B virus infection and in none of 21 normal controls. Blood contamination was excluded by the absence of hepatitis B virus DNA in the corresponding serum samples in all cases. Free monomeric hepatitis B virus DNA was found in three patients positive for hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg) and on...

  6. Histomorphometric study on blood cells in male adult ostrich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Tadjalli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform a histomorphometric study of blood cells in male adult ostrich, blood samples were obtained from jugular vein of 10 clinically healthy male adult ostriches (2 - 3 years old. The slides were stained with the Giemsa methods and the smears were evaluated for cellular morphology, with cellular size being determined by micrometry. The findings of this study revealed that the shape of the cell, cytoplasm and nucleus of erythrocytes in male adult ostriches were similar to those in other birds such as quails, chickens, Iranian green-head ducks.

  7. Coriolis-induced cutaneous blood flow increase in the forearm and calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, B; Hofer, K

    2001-04-01

    Using venous occlusion plethysmography, Sunahara et al. reported that Coriolis-induced nausea was accompanied by an increase in forearm blood flow, suggesting a decrease in sympathetic activity to this vascular bed. No significant blood pressure and heart rate changes were observed. Vasodilation of the limbs theoretically impairs orthostatic tolerance, particularly if blood flow is shown to increase simultaneously in the lower limbs. This study examined the latter possibility. Seventeen subjects were exposed to the Coriolis cross-coupling effects induced by 20 RPM yaw rotation, and a simultaneous 45 degrees pitch forward head movement in the sagittal plane every 12 s. Forearm and calf skin blood flow were monitored in real-time using laser Doppler flowmetry (PeriFlux 4001). Our results indicated a significant (p Coriolis cross-coupling across all 15 susceptible subjects. No significant changes in blood pressure and heart rate were observed. Coriolis-induced cardiovascular changes may confound previous reports on reduced G tolerance using ground-based centrifuges that invariably evoke cross-coupling effects.

  8. Red blood cell transfusion in preterm neonates: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirico G

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaetano ChiricoNeonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Children Hospital, Spedali Civili, Brescia, ItalyAbstract: Preterm neonates, especially very low birth weight infants, remain a category of patients with high transfusion needs; about 90% of those with <1,000 g birth weight may be transfused several times during their hospital stay. However, neonatal red blood cells (RBC transfusion is not without risks. In addition to well-known adverse events, several severe side effects have been observed unique to preterm infants, such as transfusion-related acute gut injury, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increased mortality risk. It is therefore important to reduce the frequency of RBC transfusion in critically ill neonates, by delayed clamping or milking the umbilical cord, using residual cord blood for initial laboratory investigations, reducing phlebotomy losses, determining transfusion guidelines, and ensuring the most appropriate nutrition, with the optimal supplementation of iron, folic acid, and vitamins. Ideally, RBC transfusion should be tailored to the individual requirements of the single infant. However, many controversies still remain, and the decision on whether to transfuse or not is often made on an empirical basis. Recently, a few clinical trials have been performed with the aim to compare the risk/benefit ratio of restrictive versus liberal transfusion criteria. No significant differences in short-term outcomes were observed, suggesting that the restrictive criteria may reduce the need for transfusion and the related side effects. Neurodevelopmental long-term outcome seemed more favorable in the liberal group at first evaluation, especially for boys, and significantly better in the restrictive group at a later clinical investigation. Magnetic resonance imaging scans, performed at an average age of 12 years, showed that intracranial volume was substantially smaller in the liberal group compared with controls. When sex effects

  9. Influence of Red Blood Cells on Nanoparticle Targeted Delivery in Microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jifu; Thomas, Antony; Liu, Yaling

    2011-12-22

    Multifunctional nanomedicine holds considerable promise as the next generation of medicine that allows for targeted therapy with minimal toxicity. Most current studies on Nanoparticle (NP) drug delivery consider a Newtonian fluid with suspending NPs. However, blood is a complex biological fluid composed of deformable cells, proteins, platelets, and plasma. For blood flow in capillaries, arterioles and venules, the particulate nature of the blood needs to be considered in the delivery process. The existence of the cell-free-layer and NP-cell interaction will largely influence both the dispersion and binding rates, thus impact targeted delivery efficacy. In this paper, a particle-cell hybrid model is developed to model NP transport, dispersion, and binding dynamics in blood suspension. The motion and deformation of red blood cells is captured through the Immersed Finite Element Method. The motion and adhesion of individual NPs are tracked through Brownian adhesion dynamics. A mapping algorithm and an interaction potential function are introduced to consider the cell-particle collision. NP dispersion and binding rates are derived from the developed model under various rheology conditions. The influence of red blood cells, vascular flow rate, and particle size on NP distribution and delivery efficacy is characterized. A non-uniform NP distribution profile with higher particle concentration near the vessel wall is observed. Such distribution leads to over 50% higher particle binding rate compared to the case without RBC considered. The tumbling motion of RBCs in the core region of the capillary is found to enhance NP dispersion, with dispersion rate increases as shear rate increases. Results from this study contribute to the fundamental understanding and knowledge on how the particulate nature of blood influences NP delivery, which will provide mechanistic insights on the nanomedicine design for targeted drug delivery applications. PMID:22375153

  10. Increased blood pressure can reduce fatigue of thenar muscles paralyzed after spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, JE; Ribot-Ciscar, E; Zijdewind, Inge; Thomas, CK

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether increases in blood pressure, and presumably muscle perfusion pressure, improve the endurance of thenar muscles paralyzed chronically by cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Resting mean arterial pressure (MAP) was low in all eight subjects (64 +/- 2 mmHg).

  11. Acute attenuation of glycocalyx barrier properties increases coronary blood volume independently of coronary flow reserve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Brands; J.A.E. Spaan; B.M. van den Berg; H. Vink; J.W.G.E. VanTeeffelen

    2010-01-01

    Brands J, Spaan JA, Van den Berg BM, Vink H, VanTeeffelen JW. Acute attenuation of glycocalyx barrier properties increases coronary blood volume independently of coronary flow reserve. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 298: H515-H523, 2010. First published November 25, 2009; doi:10.1152/ajpheart.01306

  12. Increasing time interval and decreasing allergen dose interval improves ex vivo desensitization of human blood basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting Christensen, Sara K; Krohn, Inge Kortekaas; Thuraiaiyah, Jani;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Desensitization is a method for inducing temporary tolerance to allergen. The mechanism underlying desensitization is yet to be established. METHODS: Basophil granulocytes in whole blood from grass pollen allergic subjects were desensitized ex vivo by sequential addition of increasing...... for investigation of the mechanism of desensitization. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  13. Designer blood: creating hematopoietic lineages from embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Abby L.; Stachura, David L.; Weiss, Mitchell J.

    2006-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells exhibit the remarkable capacity to become virtually any differentiated tissue upon appropriate manipulation in culture, a property that has been beneficial for studies of hematopoiesis. Until recently, the majority of this work used murine ES cells for basic research to elucidate fundamental properties of blood-cell development and establish methods to derive specific mature lineages. Now, the advent of human ES cells sets the stage for more applied pursuits to generate transplantable cells for treating blood disorders. Current efforts are directed toward adapting in vitro hematopoietic differentiation methods developed for murine ES cells to human lines, identifying the key interspecies differences in biologic properties of ES cells, and generating ES cell-derived hematopoietic stem cells that are competent to repopulate adult hosts. The ultimate medical goal is to create patient-specific and generic ES cell lines that can be expanded in vitro, genetically altered, and differentiated into cell types that can be used to treat hematopoietic diseases. PMID:16254136

  14. The Effects of Royal Jelly on In-Vitro Cytotoxicity of K562 Cells and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SE Hosseini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Royal jelly, secreted by worker bees, has different biological activities on cells and tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of royal jelly on peripheral blood mononuclear cells and on the tumor category of K562 cell line. Methods: In the present experimental study, three subjects were selected separately with three repetitions. K562 (104 cells and PBMC (105 cells with different concentrations of royal jelly (5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml were cultured under standard conditions for 48 and 72 h separately. The fatality rate on PBMC cells and K562 cancer cells was evaluated by using MTT (Tetrazolium Dye-Reduction Assay. The number of viable cells in PBMC that were exposed for 48 hours with Royal Jelly was evaluated by trypan blue staining. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Results: The royal jelly had no cytotoxicity effect on PBMC cells but at concentration of 50 and 100 mg/mL the cytotoxicity effect were observed on k562 cells whereas, at 10 and 25 mg/ml the number of PBMC viable cells increased. Conclusion: Due to the lack of lethality of royal jelly on PBMC cells and PBMC cell viability and an increase in the fatality rate of cancer cells in the future, royal jelly can be used as a potential candidate for treatment of leukemia. Keywords: Royal jelly, K562, peripheral blood mononuclear cell

  15. Membranotropic photobiomodulation on red blood cell deformability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang-Yue; Zhao, Yan-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Liu, Song-Hao

    2007-05-01

    To assess modulation of laser on erythrocyte permeability and deformability via cell morphology changes, healthy human echinocytes with shrinking size and high plasmic viscosity due to cellular dehydration were treated with 1 mW, 2 mW, 3 mW, and 5 mW laser power exposure respectively. Image analyzing system on single intact erythrocyte was applied for measuring comprehensive cell morphological parameters (surface area, external membrane perimeter, circle index and elongation index) that were determined by the modulation of erythrocyte water permeability and deformability to detect relationship between erythrocyte water permeability alteration and deformability. Our preliminary experiment showed that exposure under light dose of 5 mW for 5 min could induce more active erythrocyte swelling and deformation. water channel aquaporin-1(AQP-1) was inhibited by the incubation of HgCl II in the presence and absence of 5 mW laser irradiation. The result suggested that osmotic water permeability is a primary factor in the procedure of erythrocyte deformability. In addition, no modulation of laser(5mW) on erythrocyte deformability had been found when the echinocytes were cultured with GDP-β-S (G protein inhibitor).

  16. Separation of cancer cells from white blood cells by pinched flow fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant; Ashley, Neil; Koprowska, Kamila;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the microfluidic size-separation technique pinched flow fractionation (PFF) is used to separate cancer cells from white blood cells (WBCs). The cells are separated at efficiencies above 90% for both cell types. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are found in the blood of cancer patients...... is challenged by the size overlap between cancer cells and the 106 times more abundant WBCs. The size overlap prevents high efficiency separation, however we demonstrate that cell deformability can be exploited in PFF devices to gain higher efficiencies than expected from the size distribution of the cells....

  17. Related Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) for Genetic Diseases of Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-11

    Stem Cell Transplantation; Bone Marrow Transplantation; Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Allogeneic Transplantation,; Genetic Diseases; Thalassemia; Pediatrics; Diamond-Blackfan Anemia; Combined Immune Deficiency; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Lymphoproliferative Disease; Metabolic Diseases

  18. Transcranial direct current stimulation transiently increases the blood-brain barrier solute permeability in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Da Wi; Khadka, Niranjan; Fan, Jie; Bikson, Marom; Fu, Bingmei M.

    2016-03-01

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive electrical stimulation technique investigated for a broad range of medical and performance indications. Whereas prior studies have focused exclusively on direct neuron polarization, our hypothesis is that tDCS directly modulates endothelial cells leading to transient changes in blood-brain-barrier (BBB) permeability (P) that are highly meaningful for neuronal activity. For this, we developed state-of-the-art imaging and animal models to quantify P to various sized solutes after tDCS treatment. tDCS was administered using a constant current stimulator to deliver a 1mA current to the right frontal cortex of rat (approximately 2 mm posterior to bregma and 2 mm right to sagittal suture) to obtain similar physiological outcome as that in the human tDCS application studies. Sodium fluorescein (MW=376), or FITC-dextrans (20K and 70K), in 1% BSA mammalian Ringer was injected into the rat (SD, 250-300g) cerebral circulation via the ipsilateral carotid artery by a syringe pump at a constant rate of ~3 ml/min. To determine P, multiphoton microscopy with 800-850 nm wavelength laser was applied to take the images from the region of interest (ROI) with proper microvessels, which are 100-200 micron below the pia mater. It shows that the relative increase in P is about 8-fold for small solute, sodium fluorescein, ~35-fold for both intermediate sized (Dex-20k) and large (Dex-70k) solutes, 10 min after 20 min tDCS pretreatment. All of the increased permeability returns to the control after 20 min post treatment. The results confirmed our hypothesis.

  19. Daily liquorice consumption for two weeks increases augmentation index and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miia H Leskinen

    Full Text Available Liquorice ingestion often elevates blood pressure, but the detailed haemodynamic alterations are unknown. We studied haemodynamic changes induced by liquorice consumption in 20 subjects versus 30 controls with average blood pressures of 120/68 and 116/64 mmHg, respectively.Haemodynamic variables were measured in supine position before and after two weeks of liquorice consumption (daily glycyrrhizin dose 290-370 mg with tonometric recording of radial blood pressure, pulse wave analysis, and whole-body impedance cardiography. Thirty age-matched healthy subjects maintaining their normal diet were studied as controls.Two weeks of liquorice ingestion elevated peripheral and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure (by 7/4 and 8/4 mmHg, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 2-11/1-8 and 3-13/1-8, respectively, P<0.05, and increased extracellular volume by 0.5 litres (P<0.05 versus controls. Also augmentation index adjusted to heart rate 75/min (from 7% to 11%, 95% CI for change 0.3-7.5, P<0.05 and aortic pulse pressure (by 4 mmHg, 95% CI 1-7, P<0.05 were elevated indicating increased wave reflection from the periphery. In contrast, peripheral (-3/-0.3 mmHg and central blood pressure (-2/-0.5 mmHg, aortic pulse pressure (-1 mmHg, and augmentation index adjusted to heart rate 75/min (from 9% to 7% decreased numerically but not statistically significantly without changes in extracellular volume in the control group. Heart rate, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, and pulse wave velocity did not differ between the groups.Two weeks of daily liquorice consumption increased extracellular volume, amplified pressure wave reflection from the periphery, and elevated central systolic and diastolic blood pressure.EU Clinical Trials Register EudraCT 2006-002065-39 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01742702.

  20. Exercise-induced increase in dog adipose tissue blood flow before and after denervation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1986-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was examined during rest and exercise in the inguinal fat pads of four female dogs using the Xe wash-out technique. The experiments were performed before and after denervation of one of the pads. No difference between the resting flows in the two pads could...... be demonstrated either before or after denervation. The flow increased about two-fold on average from rest to exercise. This response was similar before and after denervation. It is concluded that direct sympathetic innervation is not involved in the regulation of adipose tissue blood flow during exercise....

  1. DNA-AP sites generation by Etoposide in whole blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valverde Mahara

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Etoposide is currently one of the most commonly used antitumor drugs. The mechanisms of action proposed for its antitumor activity are based mainly on its interaction with topoisomerase II. Etoposide effects in transformed cells have been described previously. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of this drug in non-transformed whole blood cells, such as occurs as collateral damage induced by some chemotherapies. Methods To determine etoposide genotoxicity, we employed Comet assay in two alkaline versions. To evaluate single strand breaks and delay repair sites we use pH 12.3 conditions and pH >13 to evidence alkali labile sites. With the purpose to quantified apurinic or apyrimidine (AP sites we employed a specific restriction enzyme. Etoposide effects were determined on whole blood cells cultured in absence or presence of phytohemagglutinin (PHA treated during 2 and 24 hours of cultured. Results Alkaline (pH > 13 single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE assay experiments revealed etoposide-induced increases in DNA damage in phytohemaglutinine (PHA-stimulated blood and non-stimulated blood cells. When the assay was performed at a less alkaline pH, 12.3, we observed DNA damage in PHA-stimulated blood cells consistent with the existence of alkali labile sites (ALSs. In an effort to elucidate the molecular events underlying this result, we applied exonuclease III (Exo III in conjunction with a SCGE assay, enabling detection of DNA-AP sites along the genome. More DNA AP-sites were revealed by Exo III and ALSs were recognized by the SCGE assay only in the non-stimulated blood cells treated with etoposide. Conclusion Our results indicate that etoposide induces DNA damage specifically at DNA-AP sites in quiescent blood cells. This effect could be involved in the development of secondary malignancies associated with etoposide chemotherapy.

  2. Characterization of Microvesicles Released from Human Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Bach Nguyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Extracellular vesicles (EVs are spherical fragments of cell membrane released from various cell types under physiological as well as pathological conditions. Based on their size and origin, EVs are classified as exosome, microvesicles (MVs and apoptotic bodies. Recently, the release of MVs from human red blood cells (RBCs under different conditions has been reported. MVs are released by outward budding and fission of the plasma membrane. However, the outward budding process itself, the release of MVs and the physical properties of these MVs have not been well investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate the formation process, isolation and characterization of MVs released from RBCs under conditions of stimulating Ca2+ uptake and activation of protein kinase C. Methods: Experiments were performed based on single cell fluorescence imaging, fluorescence activated cell sorter/flow cytometer (FACS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM and dynamic light scattering (DLS. The released MVs were collected by differential centrifugation and characterized in both their size and zeta potential. Results: Treatment of RBCs with 4-bromo-A23187 (positive control, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, or phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate (PMA in the presence of 2 mM extracellular Ca2+ led to an alteration of cell volume and cell morphology. In stimulated RBCs, exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS and formation of MVs were observed by using annexin V-FITC. The shedding of MVs was also observed in the case of PMA treatment in the absence of Ca2+, especially under the transmitted bright field illumination. By using SEM, AFM and DLS the morphology and size of stimulated RBCs, MVs were characterized. The sizes of the two populations of MVs were 205.8 ± 51.4 nm and 125.6 ± 31.4 nm, respectively. Adhesion of stimulated RBCs and MVs was observed. The zeta potential of MVs was determined in the range from - 40 mV to - 10 m

  3. Endothelin-1 increases glomerular permeability and inflammation independent of blood pressure in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh, Mohamed A; Boesen, Erika I.; Pollock, Jennifer S.; Savin, Virginia J.; Pollock, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoactive peptide implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension and renal disease. The aim of the current study was to test the hypotheses that ET-1 increases albumin permeability of glomeruli isolated from normal rats and that chronic ET-1 infusion will increase glomerular permeability and inflammation independent of blood pressure. Glomerular permeability to albumin (Palb) was determined from the change in glomerular volume induced by exposing isolated glom...

  4. Concise review: programming human pluripotent stem cells into blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrook, Jennifer; Fidanza, Antonella; Forrester, Lesley M

    2016-06-01

    Blood disorders are treated with cell therapies including haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation as well as platelet and red blood cell transfusions. However the source of cells is entirely dependent on donors, procedures are susceptible to transfusion-transmitted infections and serious complications can arise in recipients due to immunological incompatibility. These problems could be alleviated if it was possible to produce haematopoietic cells in vitro from an autologous and renewable cell source. The production of haematopoietic cells in the laboratory from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may provide a route to realize this goal but it has proven challenging to generate long-term reconstituting HSCs. To date, the optimization of differentiation protocols has mostly relied on the manipulation of extrinsic signals to mimic the in vivo environment. We review studies that have taken an alternative approach to modulate intrinsic signals by enforced expression of transcription factors. Single and combinations of multiple transcription factors have been used in a variety of contexts to enhance the production of haematopoietic cells from human pluripotent stem cells. This programming approach, together with the recent advances in the production and use of synthetic transcription factors, holds great promise for the production of fully functional HSCs in the future. PMID:26996518

  5. Concise review: programming human pluripotent stem cells into blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrook, Jennifer; Fidanza, Antonella; Forrester, Lesley M

    2016-06-01

    Blood disorders are treated with cell therapies including haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation as well as platelet and red blood cell transfusions. However the source of cells is entirely dependent on donors, procedures are susceptible to transfusion-transmitted infections and serious complications can arise in recipients due to immunological incompatibility. These problems could be alleviated if it was possible to produce haematopoietic cells in vitro from an autologous and renewable cell source. The production of haematopoietic cells in the laboratory from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may provide a route to realize this goal but it has proven challenging to generate long-term reconstituting HSCs. To date, the optimization of differentiation protocols has mostly relied on the manipulation of extrinsic signals to mimic the in vivo environment. We review studies that have taken an alternative approach to modulate intrinsic signals by enforced expression of transcription factors. Single and combinations of multiple transcription factors have been used in a variety of contexts to enhance the production of haematopoietic cells from human pluripotent stem cells. This programming approach, together with the recent advances in the production and use of synthetic transcription factors, holds great promise for the production of fully functional HSCs in the future.

  6. A spectral and morphologic method for white blood cell classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Chang, Li; Zhou, Mei; Li, Qingli; Liu, Hongying; Guo, Fangmin

    2016-10-01

    The identification of white blood cells is important as it provides an assay for diagnosis of various diseases. To overcome the complexity and inaccuracy of traditional methods based on light microscopy, we proposed a spectral and morphologic method based on hyperspectral blood images. We applied mathematical morphology-based methods to extract spatial information and supervised method is employed for spectral analysis. Experimental results show that white blood cells could be segmented and classified into five types with an overall accuracy of more than 90%. Moreover, the experiments including spectral features reached higher accuracy than the spatial-only cases, with a maximum improvement of nearly 20%. By combing both spatial and spectral features, the proposed method provides higher classification accuracy than traditional methods.

  7. Mechanopathology of red blood cell diseases—Why mechanics matters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    During the onset of a disease a cell may experience alterations in both the composition and organization of its cellular and molecular structures.These alterations may eventually lead to changes in its geometrical and mechanical properties such as cell size and shape,deformability and adhesion.As such,knowing how diseased cells respond to mechanical forces can reveal ways by which they differ from healthy ones.Here,we will present biomechanistic insights into red blood cell related diseases that manifest...

  8. Aggregation of Red Blood Cells: From Rouleaux to Clot Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, C; Svetina, S

    2013-01-01

    Red blood cells are known to form aggregates in the form of rouleaux. This aggregation process is believed to be reversible, but there is still no full understanding on the binding mechanism. There are at least two competing models, based either on bridging or on depletion. We review recent experimental results on the single cell level and theoretical analyses of the depletion model and of the influence of the cell shape on the binding strength. Another important aggregation mechanism is caused by activation of platelets. This leads to clot formation which is life saving in the case of wound healing but also a major cause of death in the case of a thrombus induced stroke. We review historical and recent results on the participation of red blood cells in clot formation.

  9. Magnesium enhances exercise performance via increasing glucose availability in the blood, muscle, and brain during exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Ying Chen

    Full Text Available Glucose mobilization and utilization in the periphery and central nervous system are important during exercise and are responsible for exercise efficacy. Magnesium (Mg is involved in energy production and plays a role in exercise performance. This study aimed to explore the effects of Mg on the dynamic changes in glucose and lactate levels in the muscle, blood and brain of exercising rats using a combination of auto-blood sampling and microdialysis. Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with saline or magnesium sulfate (MgSO4, 90 mg/kg, i.p. 30 min before treadmill exercise (20 m/min for 60 min. Our results indicated that the muscle, blood, and brain glucose levels immediately increased during exercise, and then gradually decreased to near basal levels in the recovery periods of both groups. These glucose levels were significantly enhanced to approximately two-fold (P<0.05 in the Mg group. Lactate levels in the muscle, blood, and brain rapidly and significantly increased in both groups during exercise, and brain lactate levels in the Mg group further elevated (P<0.05 than those in the control group during exercise. Lactate levels significantly decreased after exercise in both groups. In conclusion, Mg enhanced glucose availability in the peripheral and central systems, and increased lactate clearance in the muscle during exercise.

  10. Altered ATP-sensitive potassium channels may underscore obesity-triggered increase in blood pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-hong FAN; Hong-yan TIAN; Ai-qun MA; Zhi HU; Jian-hua HUO; Yong-xiao CAO

    2008-01-01

    Aim:To determine whether ATP-sensitive potassium channels are altered in VSMC from arotas and mesenteric arteries of obese rat,and their association with obesity-triggered increase in blood pressure.Methods:Obesity was induced by 24 weeks of high-fat diet feeding in male Sprague-Dawley rats.Control rats were fed with standard laboratory rat chow.Blood pressure and body weight of these rats were measured every 4 weeks.At the end of 24 weeks,KATP channel-mediated relaxation responses in the aortas and mesenteric arteries,KATP channel current,and gene expression were examined,respectively.Results:Blood pres-sure and body weight were increased in rats fed with high-fat diet.KATP channel-mediated relaxation responses,currents,and KATP expression in VSMC of both aortas and mesenteric arteries were inhibited in these rats.Conclusion:Altered ATP-sensitive potassium channels in obese rats may underscore obesity-triggered increase in blood pressure.

  11. Intravaginal Administration of Sildenafil Citrate Increases Blood Flow in the Bovine Uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzięcioł Michał

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of sildenafil citrate administrated intravaginaly on the blood flow in the bovine uterus during dioestrus. Uterine blood flow was examined in six healthy adult cows. Sildenafil was administrated intravaginaly to each co w between the 6th and 8th d of the ovarian cycle, in the form of vaginal suppositories containing 100 mg of active substance at a dose of 100, 200, or 300 mg per animal. Uterine perfusion was estimated by the colour Doppler examination, and obtained results were analysed with the Pixel Flux Software (Chameleon, Germany. Moreover, cardiovascular parameters were also evaluated. Animals were examined before and five times after drug application (two times at 15 min intervals, and three times at 2 h intervals. A placebo suppository was also given to the cows. The analysis of the intensity and velocity of blood flow in the uterus proved that sildenafil administrated intravaginaly significantly increased blood flow in the uterus and the effect of increased perfusion was observed for 4 h and 30 min after administration. The effect of increased uterine perfusion was observed after low as well as high doses of sildenafil. Significant changes in the cardio-vascular parameters were not detected. There were no changes in the uterine perfusion as well as in cardiovascular parameters after placebo administration.

  12. Antihistamines block radiation-induced increased intestinal blood flow in canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Doyle, T.F.; Donlon, M.A.; Gossett-Hagerman, C.J.

    1985-06-01

    Radiation-induced systemic hypotension is accompanied by increased intestinal blood flow (IBF) and an increased hematocrit (HCT) in dogs. Histamine infusion leads to increased IBF and intestinal edema with consequent secretion of fluid into the intestinal lumen. This study was performed to determine whether these effects could be diminished by prior administration of H1 and H2 histamine blockers. Dogs were given an iv infusion of mepyramine (0.5 mg/min) and cimetidine (0.25 mg/min) for 1 hr before and for 1 hr after radiation (H1 and H2 blockers, respectively). Mean systemic arterial blood pressure (MBP), IBF, and HCT were monitored for 2 hr. Systemic plasma histamine levels were determined simultaneously. Data obtained indicated that the H1 and H2 blockers, given simultaneously, were successful in blocking the increased IBF and the increased HCT seen after 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma radiation. However, the postradiation hypotension was only somewhat affected, with the MBP falling to a level 28% below the preradiation level. Plasma histamine levels reached a sharp peak, as much as 20% above baseline, at 4 min postradiation. These findings implicate histamine in the radiation-induced increase in IBF and HCT but not for the gradual decrease in postradiation blood pressure.

  13. Antihistamines block radiation-induced increased intestinal blood flow in canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Doyle, T.F.; Donlon, M.A.; Gossett-Hagerman, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation-induced systemic hypotension is accompanied by increased intestinal blood flow (IBF) and an increased hematocrit (HCT) in dogs. Histamine infusion leads to increased IBF and intestinal edema with consequent secretion of fluid into the intestinal lumen. This study was performed to determine whether these effects could be diminished by prior administration of H/sub 1/ and H/sub 2/ histamine blockers. Dogs were given an iv infusion of mepyramine (0.5 mg/min) and cimetidine (0.25 mg/min) for 1 hr before and for 1 hr after radiation (H sub 1 and H sub 2 blockers, respectively). Mean systemic arterial blood pressure (MBP), IBF, and HCT were monitored for 2 hr. Systematic plasma histamine levels were determined simultaneously. Data obtained indicated that the H sub 1 and H sub 2 blockers, given simultaneously, were successful in blocking the increased IBF and the increased HCT seen after 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma radiation. However, the postradiation hypotension was only somewhat affected, with the MBP falling to a level 28% below the preradiation level. Plasma histamine levels reached a sharp peak, as much as 20% above baseline, at 4 min postradiation. These findings implicate histamine in the radiation-induced increase in IBF and HCT but not for the gradual decrease in postradiation blood pressure. (Author)

  14. Effects of X-irradiation on artificial blood vessel wall degradation by invasive tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artificial vessel wall cultures, constructed by growing arterial endothelial cells on preformed layers of rat smooth muscle cells, were used to evaluate the effects of X-irradiation on tumor cell-induced tissue degradation. Bovine endothelial cells had radiation sensitivities similar to those of rat smooth muscle cells. Preirradiation of smooth muscle cells, before the addition of human fibrosarcoma (HT 1080) cells, did not increase the rate of degradation and destruction by the invasive cells. However, the degradation rate was decreased if the cultures were irradiated after the addition of HT 1080 cells. The presence of bovine endothelial cells markedly inhibited the destructive abilities of fibrosarcoma cells, but preirradiation of artificial vessel walls substantially decreased their capabilities to resist HT 1080-induced lysis. These findings suggest that the abilities of blood vessels to limit extravasation may be compromised by ionizing radiation

  15. Shear stress-induced improvement of red blood cell deformability

    OpenAIRE

    Meram, Ece; Yılmaz, Bahar D.; Bas, Ceren; Atac, Nazlı; Yalçın, Ö.; Başkurt, Oguz K.; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Classically, it is known that red blood cell (RBC) deformability is determined by the geometric and material properties of these cells. Experimental evidence accumulated during the last decade has introduced the concept of active regulation of RBC deformability. This regulation is mainly related to altered associations between membrane skeletal proteins and integral proteins, with the latter serving to anchor the skeleton to the lipid matrix. It has been hypothesized that shear stress induces...

  16. Hypoxia, hormones, and red blood cell function in chick embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon, Stefanie; Baumann, Rosemarie

    2003-04-01

    The red blood cell function of avian embryos is regulated by cAMP. Adenosine A(2A) and beta-adrenergic receptor activation during hypoxic conditions cause changes in the hemoglobin oxygen affinity and CO(2) transport. Furthermore, experimental evidence suggests a general involvement of cAMP in terminal differentiation of avian erythroblasts.

  17. Red Blood Cell Spectrin Skeleton in the Spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun-Breton, Catherine; Abkarian, Manouk

    2016-02-01

    Das et al. recently reported a role for the major merozoite surface protein MSP1 in malarial parasite egress from the red blood cell (RBC). On the basis of these new data and physical considerations, we propose an updated model for the main steps of this essential process for parasite proliferation. PMID:26652974

  18. Red blood cell antibodies in pregnancy and their clinical consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordvall, Maria; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine;

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to determine clinical consequences of various specificities for the infant/fetus. The population was patients referred between 1998 and 2005 to the tertiary center because of detected red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization. Altogether 455 infants were delivered by 390 alloimmunized...

  19. Automated counting of white blood cells in synovial fluid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Jonge (Robert); R.W. Brouwer (Reinoud); M. Smit (Marij); M. de Frankrijker-Merkestijn; R.J. Dolhain; J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); A.W. van Toorenenbergen (Albert); J. Lindemans (Jan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of automated leucocyte (white blood cell; WBC) counting by comparison with manual counting. METHODS: The number of WBC was determined in heparinized synovial fluid samples by the use of (i) a standard urine cytometer (Kova) and a

  20. The effects of cryopreservation on red blood cell rheologic properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, Sandra; Lagerberg, Johan W. M.; Graaff, Reindert; Rakhorst, Gerhard; van Oeveren, Willem

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In transfusion medicine, frozen red blood cells (RBCs) are an alternative for liquid-stored RBCs. Little is known about the rheologic properties (i.e., aggregability and deformability) of thawed RBCs. In this study the rheologic properties of high-glycerol frozen RBCs and postthaw stored

  1. Red blood cell transfusion during septic shock in the ICU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Smith, S H; Carlsen, S;

    2012-01-01

    Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) remains controversial in patients with septic shock, but current practice is unknown. Our aim was to evaluate RBC transfusion practice in septic shock in the intensive care unit (ICU), and patient characteristics and outcome associated with RBC transfusion....

  2. Expansion of human cord blood hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Song; Chu, Pat; Hwang, William; Lodish, Harvey

    2010-10-01

    A recent Science paper reported a purine derivative that expands human cord blood hematopoietic stem cells in culture (Boitano et al., 2010) by antagonizing the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Major problems need to be overcome before ex vivo HSC expansion can be used clinically.

  3. The white blood cell scan in orthopedics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Propst-Proctor, S.L.; Dillingham, M.F.; McDougall, I.R.; Goodwin, D.

    1982-08-01

    A new nuclear scanning technique was found more specific for bone, joint, and soft tissue infections than any previously described scanning technique. The leukocyte scan, whereby a patient's own cells are labeled with a radioactive tagging agent (/sup 111/In oxine), can distinguish an active infectious process from other pain-inducing conditions. Ninety-seven /sup 111/In labeled autologous leukocyte scans were performed in 88 patients. The findings in 17 of 40 patients scanned for possible acute osteomyelitis, six of nine for suspected septic arthritis, and six for possible soft tissue infections, were positive. Subsequent clinical courses verified the infectious nature of these processes in all patients. Patients who had chronic osteomyelitis (14), bony metastases (four patients), heterotopic ossification (three), and degenerative arthritis (two) demonstrated negative findings. Of the seven patients scanned for acute long-bone fractures, one demonstrated positive findings. Nine scans demonstrated positive findings without determined causes. The leukocyte scan is a useful addition to the diagnostic tools of the orthopedic surgeon.

  4. Honey Bee Venom (Apis mellifera Contains Anticoagulation Factors and Increases the Blood-clotting Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Zolfagharian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Bee venom (BV is a complex mixture of proteins and contains proteins such as phospholipase and melittin, which have an effect on blood clotting and blood clots. The mechanism of action of honey bee venom (HBV, Apis mellifera on human plasma proteins and its anti-thrombotic effect were studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-coagulation effect of BV and its effects on blood coagulation and purification. Methods: Crude venom obtained from Apis mellifera was selected. The anti-coagulation factor of the crude venom from this species was purified by using gel filtration chromatography (sephadex G-50, and the molecular weights of the anti-coagulants in this venom estimated by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Blood samples were obtained from 10 rabbits, and the prothrombin time (PT and the partial thromboplastin time (PTT tests were conducted. The approximate lethal dose (LD values of BV were determined. Results: Crude BV increased the blood clotting time. For BV concentrations from 1 to 4 mg/mL, clotting was not observed even at more than 300 seconds, standard deviations (SDs = ± 0.71; however, clotting was observed in the control group 13.8 s, SDs = ± 0.52. Thus, BV can be considered as containing anti-coagulation factors. Crude BV is composed 4 protein bands with molecular weights of 3, 15, 20 and 41 kilodalton (kDa, respectively. The LD50 of the crude BV was found to be 177.8 μg/mouse. Conclusion: BV contains anti-coagulation factors. The fraction extracted from the Iranian bees contains proteins that are similar to anti-coagulation proteins, such as phospholipase A2 (PLA2 and melittin, and that can increase the blood clotting times in vitro.

  5. Amyloid β Levels in Human Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiko, Takehiro; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Satoh, Akira; Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Arai, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) is hypothesized to play a key role by oxidatively impairing the capacity of red blood cells (RBCs) to deliver oxygen to the brain. These processes are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although plasma Aβ has been investigated thoroughly, the presence and distribution of Aβ in human RBCs are still unclear. In this study, we quantitated Aβ40 and Aβ42 in human RBCs with ELISA assays, and provided evidence that significant amounts of Aβ could be detected in RBCs and that the RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. The RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. On the other hand, providing an antioxidant supplement (astaxanthin, a polar carotenoid) to humans was found to decrease RBC Aβ as well as oxidative stress marker levels. These results suggest that plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 bind to RBCs (possibly with aging), implying a pathogenic role of RBC Aβ. Moreover, the data indicate that RBC Aβ40 and Aβ42 may constitute biomarkers of AD. As a preventive strategy, therapeutic application of astaxanthin as an Aβ-lowering agent in RBCs could be considered as a possible anti-dementia agent. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN42483402 PMID:23166730

  6. Amyloid β levels in human red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro Kiko

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ is hypothesized to play a key role by oxidatively impairing the capacity of red blood cells (RBCs to deliver oxygen to the brain. These processes are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Although plasma Aβ has been investigated thoroughly, the presence and distribution of Aβ in human RBCs are still unclear. In this study, we quantitated Aβ40 and Aβ42 in human RBCs with ELISA assays, and provided evidence that significant amounts of Aβ could be detected in RBCs and that the RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. The RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. On the other hand, providing an antioxidant supplement (astaxanthin, a polar carotenoid to humans was found to decrease RBC Aβ as well as oxidative stress marker levels. These results suggest that plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 bind to RBCs (possibly with aging, implying a pathogenic role of RBC Aβ. Moreover, the data indicate that RBC Aβ40 and Aβ42 may constitute biomarkers of AD. As a preventive strategy, therapeutic application of astaxanthin as an Aβ-lowering agent in RBCs could be considered as a possible anti-dementia agent. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN42483402.

  7. Relationship of blood and milk cell counts with mastitic pathogens in Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Singh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to see the effect of mastitic pathogens on the blood and milk counts of Murrah buffaloes. Milk and blood samples were collected from 9 mastitic Murrah buffaloes. The total leucocyte Counts (TLC and Differential leucocyte counts (DLC in blood were within normal range and there was a non-significant change in blood counts irrespective of different mastitic pathogens. Normal milk quarter samples had significantly (P<0.01 less Somatic cell counts (SCC. Lymphocytes were significantly higher in normal milk samples, whereas infected samples had a significant increase (P<0.01 in milk neutrophils. S. aureus infected buffaloes had maximum milk SCC, followed by E. coli and S. agalactiae. Influx of neutrophils in the buffalo mammary gland was maximum for S. agalactiae, followed by E.cli and S. aureus. The study indicated that level of mastitis had no affect on blood counts but it influenced the milk SCC of normal quarters.

  8. Natural Antioxidants Improve Red Blood Cell “Survival” in Non-Leukoreduced Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya V Kucherenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood collected in an anticoagulant can be kept refrigerated in an unmodified state within 5 - 6 weeks. Oxidative damage is considered to be a one of the major factors contributing to the development of storage lesions. Lipid and membrane proteins oxidation results in changes in cation gradients that affect the cell survival. Aim: In the present study we used the natural antioxidants and ion channels blockers (L-carnosine, spermine, phloretin and their mixtures to prolong “survival” of red blood cells (RBCs, measured as the lack of PS exposure and cell hemolysis, in the Alsever's preservative solution upon hypothermic storage. Results: We show that the mixture of carnosine (20 mM, spermine (20 µM and phloretin (100 µM effectively blunted phosphatidylserine (PS exposure, Ca2+ accumulation and RBCs hemolysis in non-leukoreduced low (∼2% hematocrit samples after 36 days of storage as well as after 1 day of post-storage incubation of the stored cells in physiological saline solution. In addition, a slight but significant decrease in PS exposure was observed in non-leukoreduced high (∼20% hematocrit samples after 36 days of storage with the mixture of substances. Conclusion: We conclude that the use of the mixture of natural antioxidants (carnosine, spermine, and phloretin as an additive to blood preservative solution provides better RBCs storage and “survival”.

  9. Multiscale modeling of red blood cell mechanics and blood flow in malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A Fedosov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells (RBCs infected by a Plasmodium parasite in malaria may lose their membrane deformability with a relative membrane stiffening more than ten-fold in comparison with healthy RBCs leading to potential capillary occlusions. Moreover, infected RBCs are able to adhere to other healthy and parasitized cells and to the vascular endothelium resulting in a substantial disruption of normal blood circulation. In the present work, we simulate infected RBCs in malaria using a multiscale RBC model based on the dissipative particle dynamics method, coupling scales at the sub-cellular level with scales at the vessel size. Our objective is to conduct a full validation of the RBC model with a diverse set of experimental data, including temperature dependence, and to identify the limitations of this purely mechanistic model. The simulated elastic deformations of parasitized RBCs match those obtained in optical-tweezers experiments for different stages of intra-erythrocytic parasite development. The rheological properties of RBCs in malaria are compared with those obtained by optical magnetic twisting cytometry and by monitoring membrane fluctuations at room, physiological, and febrile temperatures. We also study the dynamics of infected RBCs in Poiseuille flow in comparison with healthy cells and present validated bulk viscosity predictions of malaria-infected blood for a wide range of parasitemia levels (percentage of infected RBCs with respect to the total number of cells in a unit volume.

  10. 78 FR 47714 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell... Health Service Act, as amended), the Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (ACBSCT) advises... Advancing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Hemoglobinopathies. The Council also will...

  11. 78 FR 23571 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell... amended), the Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (ACBSCT) advises the Secretary of the... Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Hemoglobinopathies. The Council will also hear presentations...

  12. Collection of peripheral progenitor cells: a comparison between Amicus and Cobe-Spectra blood cell separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, Gaspare; Del Proposto, Gianpaolo; Palombi, Francesca; Bruno, Antonio; Ballatore, Giovanna; Postorino, Massimiliano; Tendas, Andrea; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Isacchi, Giancarlo; Amadori, Sergio

    2004-04-01

    The authors compared the efficiency of two different blood cell separators (Amicus and Cobe-Spectra) in collecting peripheral blood progenitor cells for autologous or homologous transplantation. A total number of 129 procedures were performed, 36 with Spectra, 93 with Amicus. There was no difference between Spectra and Amicus efficiencies for CD34+ cell collection (46.685% vs 46.235%; p=n.s) but the platelet efficiencies were 17.31% and 12.54% respectively (p=0.04) and, if autologous and allogeneic collections were considered separately, a marked difference resulted in allogeneic platelet efficiency between 6 Spectra and 23 Amicus procedures (26.83% vs 8.68%, p=0.0004). The authors were able to demonstrate that in 70 Amicus autologous collections there was a different platelet efficiency, if peripheral count was considered: 12 procedures performed with a platelet count > 100 x 10(9)/l had a very low efficiency (6.86%), but this value increased if platelet count lowered (13.02% if between 100 and 50 x 10(9)/l, 22.63% if between 50 and 0 x 10(9)/l, 23 and 35 procedures respectively). The study is preliminary and the number of collections is little, but the overall data suggest that Spectra (AutoPBSC, V 6.0) and Amicus separators have the same efficiency for collecting CD34+ cells while Amicus procedures have a very low platelet contamination, especially with donors.

  13. Increased cerebral blood flow in MELAS shown by Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, N.J.; Tsay, D.G. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung (Taiwan); Liu, R.S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei (Taiwan); Li, J.Y.; Kong, K.W. [Division of Neurology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung (Taiwan); Kwok, C.G.; Strauss, H.W. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford University Medical Center, CA (United States)

    2000-01-01

    We report cerebral SPECT studies on two siblings with the syndrome of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT was performed 8, 19 and 30 days after a stroke-like episode in one case and 10 days after a stroke-like episode, 6 h after a partial seizure and as a follow-up study in the other. Increased blood flow was seen in both these patients with stroke-like episodes due to MELAS. The cause of the increased blood flow is uncertain, but it may be related to the decreased pH created by local increase in lactic acid. (orig.)

  14. Antitumor activities of human dendritic cells derived from peripheral and cord blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Kun Zhang; Jun Li; Hai-Bin Chen; Jin-Lun Sun; Yao-Juan Qu; Juan-Juan Lu

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To observe the biological specialization of humanperipheral blood dendritic cells (DC) and cord blood derivedDC and its effects on effector cells killing humanhepatocarcinoma cell line BEL-7402 in vitro.METHODS: The DC biological characteristics were detectedwith immunohistochemical and MTT assay. Two antitumorexperimental groups are: peripheral blood DC and cordblood DC groups. Peripheral blood DC groups used LAKcells as the effector cells and BEL-7402 as target cells, whilecord blood DC groups used CTL induced by tumor antigentwice pulsed DC as effector cells and BEL-7402 as targetcells, additional peripheral blood DC and cord blood DC areadded to observe its stimulating activities to effector cells.The effector's cytotoxicity to tumor cells were detected withneutral red colorimetric assay at two effector/target ratios of5:1 and 10: 1.RESULTS: Peripheral blood DC and cord blood DC highlyexpressed HLA-ABC, HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, CD54 and S-100protein. The stimulating activities to lymphocyteproliferation were compared between experimental groups(DC added) and control group (no DC added). In sixexperiment subgroups, the DC/lymphocyte ratio wassequentially 0.25: 100, 0.5: 100, 1: 100, 2: 100, 4: 100 and 8:100, A values(x± s) were 0.75396± 0.009, 0.84916± 0.010,0.90894± 0.012, 0.98371 ± 0.007, 1.01299 ± 0.006 and 1.20384± 0.006 in peripheral blood DC groups and 0.77650 ± 0.005,0.83008± 0.007, 0.92725 ± 0.007, 1.05990 ± 0.010, 1.15583 ±0.011, 1.22983 ± 0.011 in cord blood DC groups. A value was0.59517 ± 0.005 in control group. The stimulating activitieswere higher in experimental groups than in control group ( P< 0.01 ), which were increased when the DC concentrationwas enlarged ( P < 0.01 ). Two differently derived DCs hadthe same phenotypes and similar stimulating activities ( P >0.05). In peripheral blood DC groups, the cytotoxicity (x ±s) of the LD groups (experimental groups) and L groups(control group) was 58.16% ± 2.03% (5: 1), 46.18% ±2

  15. The in vitro effect of aspirin on increased whole blood platelet aggregation in oral contraceptive users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, L A; Bonnar, J

    1994-05-01

    The effects of triphasic oral contraceptives on whole blood platelet aggregation in 36 Italian women are reported here. Aspirin's effects on platelet aggregation were also studied. 18 women took a triphasic oral contraceptive; 10 women took Trinordiol, while 8 took Trinovum for at least 90 days. The remaining 18 women took nothing and served as controls. The study was aligned with each woman's birth control pill cycle. Blood was taken daily on days 15-21 of their cycle. Either saline solution or acetylsalicylic acid was added to the blood samples and compared. All data was statistically analyzed using unpaired student's t-test. Effects of 3 aggregating agents, ADP, PAF, and EDTA, on platelet aggregation were studied. Arachidonic acid and adrenalin bitartrate were also studied in this manner. An increase in platelet aggregation was observed in women taking oral contraceptives. No difference was found between patients taking Trinordiol and those taking Trinovum. The results of this study indicate an increase in whole blood platelet sensitivity to collagen, adrenalin, and arachidonic acid when using oral contraceptives. Aspirin, at low doses, may have a role in preventing early thrombus formation in women taking oral contraceptives. PMID:8042198

  16. Differentiation of Human Cord Blood and Stromal Derived Stem Cells into Neuron Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Pamukçu Baran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The most basic properties of stem cells are the capacities to self-renew indefinitely and to differentiate into multiple cell or tissue types. Umbilical cord blood has been utilized for human hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as an alternative source to bone marrow.The experiments show that Wharton’s jelly cells are easily attainable and can be expanded in vitro, maintained in culture, and induced to differentiate into neural cells. Almost recent studies it has been discovered that the cord blood-derived cells can differantiate not only to blood cells but also to various somatic cells like neuron or muscle cell with the signals taken from the envoirenment.Interestingly, neural cells obtained from umbilical cord blood show a relatively high spontaneous differentiation into oligodendrocytes, Embryonic stem cells proliferate indefinitely and can differentiate spontaneously into all tissue types.It has been shown that embryonic stem cells can be induced to differentiate into neurons and glia by treatment with retinoic acid or basic fibroblast growth factor. It has been studied that the diseases as Motor Neuron Disease, Parkinson, Alzheimer and degeneration of medulla spinalis and also paralysises could be treated with transplantation of cord blood-dericed stem cells.

  17. Maternal endotoxemia results in increases in blood pressure and body weight in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Yan-ling; LI Xiao-hui

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on blood pressure and body weight of offspring in rats. Methods Sixteen healthy pregnant rats were randomly divided into two groups. The rats in LPS group were injected intraperitoneally with LPS (0.79 mg·kg-1) at the 8th, 10th, 12th day of gestation. Those in the control group were only treated with NS. After delivery, all offspring were weighed and blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff method once every two weeks from the 6th to 24th week. In the 15th week, their food intakes were weighed every day. At the end of the 24th week, the rats were put to death by decapitation. Abdominal adipose tissues were taken to weigh, and serum level of leptin was detected by RIA. Results The offspring with prenatal LPS exposure showed increased systemic arterial pressure, heavier body weight, elevated food intake, increased adipose tissue weight and increased circulating leptin compared with controls. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to LPS leads to increases in blood pressure and body weight in rats.

  18. Prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide results in increases in blood pressure and body weight in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-ling WEI; Xiao-hui LI; Jian-zhi ZHOU

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to lipopolysacchadde (LPS) on blood pressure and body weight of offspring in rats. Methods: Sixteen healthy,pregnant rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. The rats in the LPS group were injected intraperitoneally with LPS (0.79 mg/kg) on the d 8, d 10, and d 12 of gestation. Those in the control group were only treated with normal saline. After delivery, all offspring were weighed and blood pressure was measured by the tail-cuff method once every 2 weeks from the 6th to the 24th week. In the 15th week,their food intake was weighed every day. At the end of the 24th week, the rats were killed by decapitation. Abdominal adipose tissues were weighed, and the serum level of leptin was detected by radioimmunoassay. Results: The offspring with prenatal LPS exposure showed increased systemic arterial pressure, heavier body weight, elevated food intake, increased adipose tissue weight, and increased circulating leptin compared with the controls. Conclusion: Prenatal exposure to LPS leads to increases in blood pressure and body weight in rats.

  19. Expert Assistant For A Clinical Hematology Blood Cell Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Carole; Navlakha, Jainendra K.

    1989-03-01

    The COULTER COUNTER Model S Plus Series instruments are automated clinical hematology blood cell analyzers which measure the count, volume and population distribution of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets, and hemoglobin from patient blood samples. In the clinical laboratory environment, instrument startup consists of a number of component and system checks to assure proper operation and calibration to insure reliable results are produced on patient samples. If a startup check fails, troubleshooting procedures are provided to assist the operator in determining the cause of the error. Troubleshooting requires expertise in instrument operation, troubleshooting procedures and evaluation of the data produced. This expert system is designed and developed to assist the startup diagnostics of COULTER COUNTER Model S Plus Series instruments. The system reads data produced by the instrument and validates it against expected values. If the values are not all correct, then the troubleshooting starts. Troubleshooting is handled for the most common subsystem problems and those which the operator has the equipment and knowledge to handle, problems that are cheapest to fix and problems that are quickest to fix. The expert system restarts the startup sequence whenever troubleshooting has been successful or recommends calling Customer Service when unsuccessful.

  20. Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure. PMID:20543527

  1. Hemoglobin Aggregation in Single Red Blood Cells of Sickle Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Izumi; Tanaka, Toyoichi; Sun, Shao-Tang; Imanishi, Yuri; Tsuyoshi Ohnishi, S.

    1983-06-01

    A laser light scattering technique was used to observe the extent of hemoglobin aggregation in solitary red blood cells of sickle cell anemia. Hemoglobin aggregation was confirmed in deoxygenated cells. The light scattering technique can also be applied to cytoplasmic studies of any biological cell.

  2. Analyses of cardiac blood cells and serum proteins with regard to cause of death in forensic autopsy cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Li; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Li, Dong-Ri; Zhao, Dong; Yoshida, Chiemi; Chen, Jian-Hua; Komatsu, Ayumi; Azuma, Yoko; Sakoda, Shigeki; Zhu, Bao-Li; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2009-04-01

    To investigate hematological and serum protein profiles of cadaveric heart blood with regard to the cause of death, serial forensic autopsy cases (n=308, >18 years of age, within 48 h postmortem) were examined. Red blood cells (Rbc), hemoglobin (Hb), platelets (Plt), white blood cells (Wbc), total protein (TP) and albumin (Alb) were examined in bilateral cardiac blood. Blood cell counts, collected after turning the bodies at autopsy, approximated to the clinical values. Postmortem changes were not significant for these markers. In non-head blunt injury cases, Rbc counts, Hb, TP and Alb levels in bilateral cardiac blood were lower in subacute deaths (survival time, 1-12 h) than in acute deaths (survival time blood were significantly higher for non-head injury than for head injury in subacute deaths. In fire fatality cases, Plt count was markedly higher with an automated hematology analyzer than by using a blood smear test, suggesting Rbc fragmentation caused by deep burns, while increases in Wbc count and decreases in Alb levels were seen for subacute deaths. For asphyxiation, Rbc count, Hb, TP and Alb levels in bilateral cardiac blood were higher than other groups, and TP and Alb levels in the right cardiac blood were higher for hanging than for strangulation. These findings suggest that analyses of blood cells and proteins are useful for investigating the cause of death.

  3. Recombinant erythropoietin increases blood pressure in experimental hypertension and uraemia without change in vascular cytosolic calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, S D; Fluck, R J; McMahon, A C; Raine, A E

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of erythropoietin-induced hypertension in dialysis patients is unclear. Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) may be altered in both hypertension and uraemia, and the effects of both uraemia and r-HuEPO on vascular smooth muscle [Ca2+]i and blood pressure (BP) in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were therefore studied. Male WKY and SHR underwent partial nephrectomy or sham operation. Three weeks later a 28-day period of treatment with either r-HuEPO 100 U/kg, s.c., 3 times/week or buffer was commenced (n = 10-12 for each subgroup). BP was measured weekly, by noninvasive Doppler tail-cuff assessment. [Ca2+]i was measured following loading with fura-2 in pooled, primary aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Serum urea and creatinine rose 3- to 4-fold after partial nephrectomy. Treatment with r-HuEPO did not change renal function further in either uraemic or control WKY or SHR. Haemoglobin increased in both non-uraemic WKY (16.2-20.3 g/dl) and SHR (16.4-20.5 g/dl) and uraemic animals (WKY 13.9-20.9; SHR 13.8-18.8 g/dl; p < 0.01 for all changes) following 4 weeks of r-HuEPO treatment. BP was unaffected by r-HuEPO in WKY but increased in nonuraemic SHR (210-250; p < 0.01) and in uraemic SHR (224-251 mm Hg; p < 0.001) at 4 weeks. VSMC [Ca2+]i was higher in SHR than WKY (121 vs. 83 nmol/l; MANOVA p < 0.05) but no effect of uraemia or r-HuEPO on [Ca2+]i was detected. In conclusion, the hypertensive effects of r-HuEPO are augmented both in a genetic model of hypertension and in uraemia. Although VSMC [Ca2+]i was elevated in SHR, the further increase in BP induced by r-HuEPO was not associated with alterations in VSMC cytosolic calcium. PMID:8773347

  4. The Effect of Pulsatile Versus Nonpulsatile Blood Flow on Viscoelasticity and Red Blood Cell Aggregation in Extracorporeal Circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Chi Bum; Kang, Yang Jun; Kim, Myoung Gon; Yang, Sung; Lim, Choon Hak; Son, Ho Sung; Kim, Ji Sung; Lee, So Young; Son, Kuk Hui; Sun, Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Background Extracorporeal circulation (ECC) can induce alterations in blood viscoelasticity and cause red blood cell (RBC) aggregation. In this study, the authors evaluated the effects of pump flow pulsatility on blood viscoelasticity and RBC aggregation. Methods Mongrel dogs were randomly assigned to two groups: a nonpulsatile pump group (n=6) or a pulsatile pump group (n=6). After ECC was started at a pump flow rate of 80 mL/kg/min, cardiac fibrillation was induced. Blood sampling was perfo...

  5. Increased risk of ALL among premature infants is not explained by increased prevalence of pre-leukemic cell clones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Madsen, Hans O.; Vestergaard, Therese Risom;

    2010-01-01

    prevalence and magnitude of preleukaemic t(12;21)-positive cells compared to previously published data from mature childrencould be demonstrated. This indirectly supports the theory that prevalence and quantity of preleukaemic t(12;21)-positive cells peaks at term or early childhood and that exogenous......The multi-hit hypothesis for paediatric leukemogenesis states that an initial genetic hit (often occurring prenataly) must be followed by one or more hit(s) before a cell become leukeamic. Studies have demonstrated the presence of pre-leukaemic t(12;21)-positive cells at levels 10(-3) to 10(-4) in...... quantity of pre-leukaemic t(12;21)-positive children born prematurely. Using a sensitive qRT-PCR assay, we screened messenger RNA from fresh umbilical cord-blood samples from 256 premature children. In none of the neonates, t(12;21)-positive cells could be demonstrated. Therefore, no increase in the...

  6. White blood cell count and risk of incident atrial fibrillation (from the Framingham Heart Study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, Michel; Sun, Jenny X.; Magnani, Jared W.; Sinner, Moritz F.; Lubitz, Steven A.; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have reported that inflammatory markers are associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). The white blood cell (WBC) count is a widely available and broadly used marker of systemic inflammation. We sought to investigate the association between an increased WBC count and incident AF and w

  7. Energized by love: thinking about romantic relationships increases positive affect and blood glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of thinking of a current romantic partner on acute blood glucose responses and positive affect over a short period of time. Participants in romantic relationships were randomly assigned to reflect on their partner, an opposite-sex friend, or their morning routine. Blood glucose levels were assessed prior to reflection, as well as at 10 and 25 min postreflection. Results revealed that individuals in the routine and friend conditions exhibited a decline in glucose over time, whereas individuals in the partner condition did not exhibit this decline (rather, a slight increase) in glucose over time. Reported positive affect following reflection was positively associated with increases in glucose, but only for individuals who reflected on their partner, suggesting this physiological response reflects eustress. These findings add to the literature on eustress in relationships and have implications for relationship processes.

  8. Hepatic encephalopathy is associated with decreased cerebral oxygen metabolism and blood flow, not increased ammonia uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Gitte; Keiding, Susanne; Munk, Ole L;

    2013-01-01

    tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). Ten patients with cirrhosis were studied during an acute episode of HE; nine were reexamined after recovery. Nine patients with cirrhosis with no history of HE served as controls. Mean CMRO(2) increased from 0.73 µmol oxygen/mL brain tissue/min during HE to 0.......91 µmol oxygen/mL brain tissue/min after recovery (paired t test; P <0.05). Mean CBF increased from 0.28 mL blood/mL brain tissue/min during HE to 0.38 mL blood/mL brain tissue/min after recovery (P <0.05). After recovery from HE, CMRO(2) and CBF were not significantly different from values in the control...

  9. Angioblast Derived from ES Cells Construct Blood Vessels and Ameliorate Diabetic Polyneuropathy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhito Himeno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although numerous reports addressing pathological involvements of diabetic polyneuropathy have been conducted, a universally effective treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy has not yet been established. Recently, regenerative medicine studies in diabetic polyneuropathy using somatic stem/progenitor cell have been reported. However, the effectiveness of these cell transplantations was restricted because of their functional and numerical impairment in diabetic objects. Here, we investigated the efficacy of treatment for diabetic polyneuropathy using angioblast-like cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. Methods and Results. Angioblast-like cells were obtained from mouse embryonic stem cells and transplantation of these cells improved several physiological impairments in diabetic polyneuropathy: hypoalgesia, delayed nerve conduction velocities, and reduced blood flow in sciatic nerve and plantar skin. Furthermore, pathologically, the capillary number to muscle fiber ratios were increased in skeletal muscles of transplanted hindlimbs, and intraepidermal nerve fiber densities were ameliorated in transplanted plantar skin. Transplanted cells maintained their viabilities and differentiated to endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells around the injection sites. Moreover, several transplanted cells constructed chimeric blood vessels with recipient cells. Conclusions. These results suggest that transplantation of angioblast like cells induced from embryonic stem cells appears to be a novel therapeutic strategy for diabetic polyneuropathy.

  10. Stem cell comparison : What can we learn clinically from unrelated cord blood transplantation as an alternative stem cell source?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milano, Filippo; Boelens, Jaap Jan

    2015-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an important therapeutic option for a variety of malignant and non-malignant disorders (NMD). The use of umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) has made HCT available to many more patients. The increased level of human leukocyte antigen dis

  11. Quantification of mast cells and blood vessels in the skin of patients with cutaneous mucinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Clarice; Nascimento, Adriana Paulino; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa; Alves, Maria de Fátima Scotelaro; Carneiro, Sueli Coelho; Porto, Luís Cristóvão de Moraes Sobrino

    2010-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested that mast cell numbers are increased in the skin of patients with cutaneous mucinosis and that these cells may have an important role in angiogenesis and production of mucin. Then, skin biopsies from 30 patients with cutaneous mucinosis (papular mucinosis, focal mucinosis, and mucinosis associated with lupus erythematosus) and from 10 healthy subjects were analyzed. Mast cells and blood vessels were immunolabeled with anti-tryptase and anti-CD34 antibodies, respectively, and then quantified stereologically. Counting was performed in papillary and reticular dermis. An increase in the number of mast cells was observed in the skin of patients with cutaneous mucinosis compared with the control group. Only minimal differences were observed in vessel stereology. There was no correlation between the increase in the number of mast cells and the number of blood vessels in the patients studied. There was no significant difference in the numbers of mast cells or blood vessels between the 3 subgroups of cutaneous mucinosis. Although many clinical forms of mucinosis have been described, neither mast cell number nor vessel distribution seems to distinguish the 3 different forms studied here.

  12. Early exercise improves cerebral blood flow through increased angiogenesis in experimental stroke rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Pengyue; Yu, Huixian; Zhou, Naiyun; Jie ZHANG; Wu, Yi; Zhang, Yuling; Bai, Yulong; Jia, Jie; Zhang, Qi; Tian, Shan; Wu, Junfa; Hu, Yongshan

    2013-01-01

    Background Early exercise after stroke promoted angiogenesis and increased microvessles density. However, whether these newly formatted vessels indeed give rise to functional vascular and improve the cerebral blood flow (CBF) in impaired brain region is still unclear. The present study aimed to determine the effect of early exercise on angiogenesis and CBF in ischemic region. Methods Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to 90 min middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO)and randomly div...

  13. Increased blood-brain transfer in a rabbit model of acute liver failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blood-to-brain transfer of [14C]alpha-aminoisobutyric acid was investigated by quantitative autoradiography in normal rabbits and rabbits with acute liver failure induced by the selective hepatotoxin galactosamine. The blood-to-brain transfer of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid was similar in control animals and animals 2 and 7 h after galactosamine injections, but was increased five- to tenfold in certain gray-matter areas of the brain in animals 11 and 18 h after galactosamine treatment. No detectable differences in white-matter uptake of [14C]alpha-aminoisobutyric acid were found between the control and treated groups. The increase in alpha-aminoisobutyric acid transfer within the gray-matter areas suggested that a general or nonspecific increase in brain capillary permeability occurred in these areas. No clinical signs of early hepatic encephalopathy were observed in the treated rabbits, except for 1 animal from the 18-h postgalactosamine group. Thus, enhanced blood-brain transfer of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid preceded the development of overt hepatic encephalopathy. The distribution of radioactivity after the intravenous administration of [14C]galactosamine showed that virtually none of the hepatotoxin localized in the brain, suggesting that the drug itself does not have a direct effect upon the blood-brain barrier or the brain. The increased uptake of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid at 11 and 18 h implies that the transfer of other solutes would also be enhanced, that central nervous system homeostasis would be compromised, and that the resulting changes in brain fluid composition could contribute to or cause hepatic encephalopathy

  14. Altered lymphatics in an ovine model of congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datar, Sanjeev A; Johnson, Eric G; Oishi, Peter E; Johengen, Michael; Tang, Eric; Aramburo, Angela; Barton, Jubilee; Kuo, Hsuan-Chang; Bennett, Stephen; Xoinis, Konstantine; Reel, Bhupinder; Kalkan, Gokhan; Sajti, Eniko; Osorio, Oscar; Raff, Gary W; Matthay, Michael A; Fineman, Jeffrey R

    2012-03-15

    Abnormalities of the lymphatic circulation are well recognized in patients with congenital heart defects. However, it is not known how the associated abnormal blood flow patterns, such as increased pulmonary blood flow (PBF), might affect pulmonary lymphatic function and structure. Using well-established ovine models of acute and chronic increases in PBF, we cannulated the efferent lymphatic duct of the caudal mediastinal node and collected and analyzed lymph effluent from the lungs of lambs with acutely increased PBF (n = 6), chronically increased PBF (n = 6), and age-matched normal lambs (n = 8). When normalized to PBF, we found that lymph flow was unchanged following acute increases in PBF but decreased following chronic increases in PBF. The lymph:plasma protein ratio decreased with both acute and chronic increases in PBF. Lymph bioavailable nitric oxide increased following acute increases in PBF but decreased following chronic increases in PBF. In addition, we found perturbations in the transit kinetics of contrast material through the pleural lymphatics of lambs with chronic increases in PBF. Finally, there were structural changes in the pulmonary lymphatic system in lambs with chronic increases in PBF: lymphatics from these lambs were larger and more dilated, and there were alterations in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C, lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1, and Angiopoietin-2, proteins known to be important for lymphatic growth, development, and remodeling. Taken together these data suggest that chronic increases in PBF lead to both functional and structural aberrations of lung lymphatics. These findings have important therapeutic implications that warrant further study.

  15. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from a Bombay individual: moving towards "universal-donor" red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifinejad, Ali; Taei, Adeleh; Totonchi, Mehdi; Vazirinasab, Hamed; Hassani, Seideh Nafiseh; Aghdami, Nasser; Shahbazi, Ebrahim; Yazdi, Reza Salman; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Baharvand, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    Bombay phenotype is one of the rare phenotypes in the ABO blood group system that fails to express ABH antigens on red blood cells. Nonsense or missense mutations in fucosyltransfrase1 (FUT1) and fucosyltransfrase2 (FUT2) genes are known to create this phenotype. This blood group is compatible with all other blood groups as a donor, as it does not express the H antigen on the red blood cells. In this study, we describe the establishment of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from the dermal fibroblasts of a Bombay blood-type individual by the ectopic expression of established transcription factors Klf4, Oct4, Sox2, and c-Myc. Sequence analyses of fibroblasts and iPSCs revealed a nonsense mutation 826C to T (276 Gln to Ter) in the FUT1 gene and a missense mutation 739G to A (247 Gly to Ser) in the FUT2 gene in the Bombay phenotype under study. The established iPSCs resemble human embryonic stem cells in morphology, passaging, surface and pluripotency markers, normal karyotype, gene expression, DNA methylation of critical pluripotency genes, and in-vitro differentiation. The directed differentiation of the iPSCs into hematopoietic lineage cells displayed increased expression of the hematopoietic lineage markers such as CD34, CD133, RUNX1, KDR, alpha-globulin, and gamma-globulin. Such specific stem cells provide an unprecedented opportunity to produce a universal blood group donor, in-vitro, thus enabling cellular replacement therapies, once the safety issue is resolved.

  16. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus in volunteer blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P E; Stevens, C E; Pindyck, J; Schrode, J; Steaffens, J W; Lee, H

    1990-01-01

    Serum samples collected in 1985 and 1986 from 18,257 donors to the Greater New York Blood Program were screened by enzyme-linked immunoassay for antibody to human T-cell lymphotropic virus (anti-HTLV). Fifteen samples (0.08%) were confirmed positive: 7 by radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA) alone, 6 by Western blot alone, and 2 by combined results from both tests. One donor, whose original test result was uninterpretable because multiple nonspecific bands were present on RIPA, clearly tested positive on subsequent specimens. Follow-up testing of individuals with this type of result may be needed to resolve their HTLV status. Anti-HTLV prevalence increased with age and was significantly more common in black or Hispanic donors and in those born in the Caribbean than in other donors. All anti-HTLV-positive donors were negative for antibody to HIV-1, and only one donor (7% of those positive) would have been excluded by any of the routine donor screening tests used at that time. PMID:2173176

  17. MicroRNA Expression in Alzheimer Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyman M. Schipper

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Various coding genes representing multiple functional categories are downregulated in blood mononuclear cells (BMC of patients with sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD. Noncoding microRNAs (miRNA regulate gene expression by degrading messages or inhibiting translation. Using BMC as a paradigm for the study of systemic alterations in AD, we investigated whether peripheral miRNA expression is altered in this condition. MicroRNA levels were assessed using the microRNA microarray (MMChip containing 462 human miRNA, and the results validated by real time PCR. Sixteen AD patients and sixteen normal elderly controls (NEC were matched for ethnicity, age, gender and education. The expression of several BMC miRNAs was found to increase in AD relative to NEC levels, and may differ between AD subjects bearing one or two APOE4 alleles. As compared to NEC, miRNAs signifi cantly upregulated in AD subjects and confi rmed by qPCR were miR-34a and 181b. Predicted target genes downregulated in Alzheimer BMC that correlated with the upregulated miRNAs were largely represented in the functional categories of Transcription/Translation and Synaptic Activity. Several miRNAs targeting the same genes were within the functional category of Injury response/Redox homeostasis. Taken together, induction of microRNA expression in BMC may contribute to the aberrant systemic decline in mRNA levels in sporadic AD.

  18. Characterization of red blood cells (RBCs) using dual Brillouin/Raman micro-spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhaokai; Bustamante-Lopez, Sandra C.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2016-04-01

    Erythrocytes, or red blood cells, transport oxygen to and carbon dioxide from the body's tissues and organs. Red blood cell mechanical properties are altered in a number of diseases such as sickle cell anaemia and malaria. Additionally, mechanically modified red blood cell ghosts are being considered as a long-term, biocompatible carrier for drug delivery and for blood analyte sensing. Brillouin spectroscopy enables viscoelastic characterization of samples at the microscale. In this report, Brillouin spectroscopy is applied to characterize the mechanical properties of red blood cells and red blood cell ghosts.

  19. White blood cells of peripheral blood with ConA-positive glycotopes in patients with chronic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Maslak

    2015-09-01

     Tumor growth progression of blood cells occurs due to changes in their genetic apparatus, which affects not only the cells morphological characteristics, but also their functional activity which to a greater extent depends on the membrane surface structures, a significant part of which is of glycoprotein nature. Complex type N-glycans are components of surface glycoproteins in the most of leukocytes. Thus, the study of changes in carbohydrate determinants of glycoproteins on the surface of leucocytes in tumorigenesis can help to reveal the mechanisms of this process. The aim of our study was to investigate the monocytes and granulocytes cytoplasmic membrane N-glycosylation in patients with chronic leukemia. The object of the study were blood cells of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n = 12 and polycythemia vera (n = 15 aged 58–66 years. Healthy hematologic volunteers (n = 15 aged 55 to 65 years were in the control group. N-glycan exposure on monocytes and granulocytes was investigated by flow cytometer Beckman Сoulter EPICS with Canavalia ensiformis lectin – Con A conjugated with fluorescent labels. The number of dead cells was monitored by means of binding them with propidium iodide. The result has been analyzed with FC Express. According to our data, levels of ConA-positive monocytes and granulocytes were 9,9 ± 1,0% and 32,7 ± 3,2%, respectively, in peripheral blood of healthy persons. The level of ConA-positive monocytes decreased to 31,0 ± 2,3% and the number of ConA-binding granulocytes increased to 66,7 ± 3,8% in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia compared with the norm. The number of ConA-positive monocytes decreased 3.3 times, and the level of granulocytes interacting with Canavalia ensiformis lectin slightly increased relative to control in polycythemia vera patients. There is significant increase in Con A-positive epitopes on granulocytes in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and polycythemia vera compared with the

  20. Increased preoperative collection of autologous blood with recombinant human erythropoietin therapy in tertiary care hospitals of Jammu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumkum Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To study whether the administration of recombinant human erythropoietin increases the amount of autologous blood that can be collected before orthopaedic surgery. Materials and Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of recombinant human erythropoietin in 68 adults scheduled for elective orthopedic procedures. The patients received either erythropoietin 600 units/kg of body weight or placebo intravenously every 5 th day prior to each phlebotomy for 21 days during which time up to 5 units of blood was collected. Patients were excluded from donation when their hematocrit values were less than 33%. All patients received iron sulphate 325mg orally 3 times daily. The mean number of units collected per patient was 4.33 ± 0.4 for erythropoietin group and 3.05± 0.71 for the placebo group. Results: The mean packed red cell volume donated by patients who received erythropoietin was 32% greater than that donated by patients who received placebo (196.3 vs. 169.4 ml, p<0.05. 68% in the placebo group and 9% of patients treated with erythropoietin were unable to donate ≥4 units. No adverse effects were attributed to erythropoietin. While participating in the study, complications developed in 2 patients one in each group necessitating their removal from the study. Conclusion: We conclude that recombinant human erythropoietin increases the ability of the patients about to undergo elective surgery to donate autologous blood units.

  1. Saving the leftovers: models for banking cord blood stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogdell, Kimberly J

    2009-01-01

    Each year there are over four million live births in the United States. Each birth produces umbilical cord blood stem cells, which are usually discarded. The author argues that rather than discarding the umbilical cord, this valuable resource of cord blood should be banked and used for research and therapeutic purposes. Umbilical cord blood could provide a solution to the critical need to find matching donors for hematopoietic transplants in patients who have no matching bone marrow donors. Creating a system of universal donation to a public bank will greatlyincrease the number of donors and therefore, the number of matches for patients. Such a system will facilitate the development and use of new technologies and transplant procedures, while providing an opportunity for treatment to individuals who would otherwise not be able to find suitable donors. PMID:20101907

  2. Saving the leftovers: models for banking cord blood stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogdell, Kimberly J

    2009-01-01

    Each year there are over four million live births in the United States. Each birth produces umbilical cord blood stem cells, which are usually discarded. The author argues that rather than discarding the umbilical cord, this valuable resource of cord blood should be banked and used for research and therapeutic purposes. Umbilical cord blood could provide a solution to the critical need to find matching donors for hematopoietic transplants in patients who have no matching bone marrow donors. Creating a system of universal donation to a public bank will greatlyincrease the number of donors and therefore, the number of matches for patients. Such a system will facilitate the development and use of new technologies and transplant procedures, while providing an opportunity for treatment to individuals who would otherwise not be able to find suitable donors.

  3. Image-based red cell counting for wild animals blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauricio, Claudio R M; Schneider, Fabio K; Dos Santos, Leonilda Correia

    2010-01-01

    An image-based red blood cell (RBC) automatic counting system is presented for wild animals blood analysis. Images with 2048×1536-pixel resolution acquired on an optical microscope using Neubauer chambers are used to evaluate RBC counting for three animal species (Leopardus pardalis, Cebus apella and Nasua nasua) and the error found using the proposed method is similar to that obtained for inter observer visual counting method, i.e., around 10%. Smaller errors (e.g., 3%) can be obtained in regions with less grid artifacts. These promising results allow the use of the proposed method either as a complete automatic counting tool in laboratories for wild animal's blood analysis or as a first counting stage in a semi-automatic counting tool. PMID:21096766

  4. Smart blood cell and microvesicle-based Trojan horse drug delivery: Merging expertise in blood transfusion and biomedical engineering in the field of nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Wen; Goubran, Hadi; Seghatchian, Jerard; Burnouf, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Therapeutic and diagnostic applications of nanomedicine are playing increasingly important roles in human health. Various types of synthetic nanoparticles, including liposomes, micelles, and other nanotherapeutic platforms and conjugates, are being engineered to encapsulate or carry drugs for treating diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disorders, neurodegeneration, and inflammations. Nanocarriers are designed to increase the half-life of drugs, decrease their toxicity and, ideally, target pathological sites. Developing smart carriers with the capacity to deliver drugs specifically to the microenvironment of diseased cells with minimum systemic toxicity is the goal. Blood cells, and potentially also the liposome-like micro- and nano-vesicles they generate, may be regarded as ideally suited to perform such specific targeting with minimum immunogenic risks. Blood cell membranes are "decorated" with complex physiological receptors capable of targeting and communicating with other cells and tissues and delivering their content to the surrounding pathological microenvironment. Blood cells, such as erythrocytes, have been developed as permeable carriers to release drugs to diseased tissues or act as biofactory allowing enzymatic degradation of a pathological substrate. Interestingly, attempts are also being made to improve the targeting capacity of synthetic nanoparticles by "decorating" their surface with blood cell membrane receptor-like biochemical structures. Research is needed to further explore the benefits that blood cell-derived microvesicles, as a Trojan horse delivery systems, can bring to the arsenal of therapeutic micro- and nanotechnologies. This short review focuses on the therapeutic roles that red blood cells and platelets can play as smart drug-delivery systems, and highlights the benefits that blood transfusion expertise can bring to this exciting and novel biomedical engineering field.

  5. Smart blood cell and microvesicle-based Trojan horse drug delivery: Merging expertise in blood transfusion and biomedical engineering in the field of nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Wen; Goubran, Hadi; Seghatchian, Jerard; Burnouf, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Therapeutic and diagnostic applications of nanomedicine are playing increasingly important roles in human health. Various types of synthetic nanoparticles, including liposomes, micelles, and other nanotherapeutic platforms and conjugates, are being engineered to encapsulate or carry drugs for treating diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disorders, neurodegeneration, and inflammations. Nanocarriers are designed to increase the half-life of drugs, decrease their toxicity and, ideally, target pathological sites. Developing smart carriers with the capacity to deliver drugs specifically to the microenvironment of diseased cells with minimum systemic toxicity is the goal. Blood cells, and potentially also the liposome-like micro- and nano-vesicles they generate, may be regarded as ideally suited to perform such specific targeting with minimum immunogenic risks. Blood cell membranes are "decorated" with complex physiological receptors capable of targeting and communicating with other cells and tissues and delivering their content to the surrounding pathological microenvironment. Blood cells, such as erythrocytes, have been developed as permeable carriers to release drugs to diseased tissues or act as biofactory allowing enzymatic degradation of a pathological substrate. Interestingly, attempts are also being made to improve the targeting capacity of synthetic nanoparticles by "decorating" their surface with blood cell membrane receptor-like biochemical structures. Research is needed to further explore the benefits that blood cell-derived microvesicles, as a Trojan horse delivery systems, can bring to the arsenal of therapeutic micro- and nanotechnologies. This short review focuses on the therapeutic roles that red blood cells and platelets can play as smart drug-delivery systems, and highlights the benefits that blood transfusion expertise can bring to this exciting and novel biomedical engineering field. PMID:27179926

  6. Comparative Study of Regulatory T Cell Function of Human CD25+CD4+ T Cells from Thymocytes, Cord Blood, and Adult Peripheral Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakae Fujimaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells suppress T cell activation and regulate multiple immune reactions in in vitro and in vivo studies. To define the regulatory function of human CD25+CD4+ T cells at various stages of maturity, we investigated in detail the functional differences of CD25+CD4+ T cells from thymocytes, cord blood (CB, and adult peripheral blood (APB. CB CD25+CD4+ T cells displayed low-FOXP3 protein expression level and had no suppressive activity. In contrast, CD25+CD4+ T cells from thymocytes or APB expressed high expression level of FOXP3 protein associated with significant suppressive activity. Although CB CD25+CD4+ T cells exhibited no suppressive activity, striking suppressive activity was observed following expansion in culture associated with increased FOXP3 expression and a shift from the CD45RA+ to the CD45RA− phenotype. These functional differences in CD25+CD4+ T cells from Thy, CB, and APB hence suggest a pathway of maturation for Treg in the peripheral immune system.

  7. Dopexamine increases internal mammary artery blood flow following coronary artery bypass grafting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, Michael J

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Vasoactive agents and inotropes influence conduit-coronary blood flow following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). It was hypothesized that dopexamine hydrochloride, a dopamine A-1 (DA-1) and beta(2) agonist would increase conduit-coronary blood flow. A prospective randomized double blind clinical trial was carried out to test this hypothesis. DA-1 receptors have previously been localized to human left ventricle. METHODS: Twenty-six American Society of Anaesthesiology class 2-3 elective coronary artery bypass graft patients who did not require inotropic support on separation from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were studied. According to a randomized allocation patients received either dopexamine (1 microg\\/kg per min) or placebo (saline) by intravenous infusion for 15 min. Immediately prior to and at 5,10 and 15 min of infusion, blood flow through the internal mammary and vein grafts (Transit time flow probes, Transonic Ltd.), heart rate, cardiac index, mean arterial pressure and pulmonary haemodynamics were noted. The data were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance. RESULTS: Low-dose dopexamine (1 microg\\/kg per min) caused a significant increase in mammary graft blood flow compared to placebo at 15 min of infusion (P=0.028, dopexamine group left internal mammary artery (LIMA) flow of 43.3+\\/-14.2 ml\\/min, placebo group LIMA flow at 26.1+\\/-16.3 ml\\/min). Dopexamine recipients demonstrated a non-significant trend to increased saphenous vein graft flow (P=0.059). Increased heart rate was the only haemodynamic change induced by dopexamine (P=0.004, dopexamine group at 85.2+\\/-9.6 beats\\/min and placebo group at 71.1+\\/-7.6 beats\\/min after 15 min of infusion). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that administration of dopexamine (1 microg\\/kg per min) was associated with a significant increase in internal mammary artery graft blood flow with mild increase in heart rate being the only haemodynamic change. Low-dose dopexamine may

  8. Pleomorphic Structures in Human Blood Are Red Blood Cell-Derived Microparticles, Not Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Adam J.; Gray, Warren D.; Schroeder, Max; Yi, Hong; Taylor, Jeannette V.; Dillard, Rebecca S.; Ke, Zunlong; Wright, Elizabeth R.; Stephens, David; Roback, John D.; Searles, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are a common, life-saving therapy for many patients, but they have also been associated with poor clinical outcomes. We identified unusual, pleomorphic structures in human RBC transfusion units by negative-stain electron microscopy that appeared identical to those previously reported to be bacteria in healthy human blood samples. The presence of viable, replicating bacteria in stored blood could explain poor outcomes in transfusion recipients and have major implications for transfusion medicine. Here, we investigated the possibility that these structures were bacteria. Results Flow cytometry, miRNA analysis, protein analysis, and additional electron microscopy studies strongly indicated that the pleomorphic structures in the supernatant of stored RBCs were RBC-derived microparticles (RMPs). Bacterial 16S rDNA PCR amplified from these samples were sequenced and was found to be highly similar to species that are known to commonly contaminate laboratory reagents. Conclusions These studies suggest that pleomorphic structures identified in human blood are RMPs and not bacteria, and they provide an example in which laboratory contaminants may can mislead investigators. PMID:27760197

  9. Pyruvate effects on red blood cells during in vitro cardiopulmonary bypass with dogs' blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, DaMing; Tan, HongJing; Cai, HuiJun; Zhou, FangQiang

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the effects of pyruvate (Pyr) on adenosine triphosphate (ATP), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and nitric oxide (NO) in red blood cells (RBCs) during the cardiopulmonary bypass procedure (CPB), blood, 500 mL, was collected from each of 10 healthy dogs (weight 12-18 kg). The blood was divided into two parts (250 mL each) and randomly assigned into the control group (Group C, n = 10) or the Pyr group (Group P, n = 10). The blood was commingled with an equal volume of 0.9% NaCl and pyruvated isotonic solution (Pyr 50 mM) in the extracorporeal circuit in the two groups, respectively. The CPB procedure was fixed at 120 min, and the transferring flow was 4 L/min. Contents of ATP in RBCs, eNOS activities, and NO productions in plasma were measured before CPB and during CPB at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min in both groups. The ATP level, eNOS activity, and NO production were not different prior to CPB between the two groups. A decline of ATP levels was shown in both groups but remained significantly higher in Group P than in Group C at the same time points during in vitro CPB (P dogs' RBCs in the ATP level, eNOS activity, and NO production, in vitro, but Pyr effectively protected RBCs in these functions during CPB. Pyr would be clinically protective for RBCs during CPB.

  10. Association between long-term air pollution and increased blood pressure and hypertension in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guang-Hui; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Xaverius, Pamela K; Trevathan, Edwin; Maalouf, Salwa; Parker, Jamaal; Yang, Laiji; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Ren, Wan-Hui; Ma, Wenjun; Wang, Jing; Zelicoff, Alan; Fu, Qiang; Simckes, Maayan

    2013-03-01

    Several studies have investigated the short-term effects of ambient air pollutants in the development of high blood pressure and hypertension. However, little information exists regarding the health effects of long-term exposure. To investigate the association between residential long-term exposure to air pollution and blood pressure and hypertension, we studied 24 845 Chinese adults in 11 districts of 3 northeastern cities from 2009 to 2010. Three-year average concentration of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM(10)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen dioxides (NO(2)), and ozone (O(3)) were calculated from monitoring stations in the 11 districts. We used generalized additive models and 2-level logistic regressions models to examine the health effects. The results showed that the odds ratio for hypertension increased by 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.16) per 19 μg/m(3) increase in PM(10), 1.11 (95% CI, 1.04-1.18) per 20 μg/m(3) increase in SO(2), and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.06-1.20) per 22 μg/m(3) increase in O(3). The estimated increases in mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 0.87 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.48-1.27) and 0.32 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.08-0.56) per 19 μg/m(3) interquartile increase in PM(10), 0.80 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.46-1.14) and 0.31 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.10-0.51) per 20 μg/m(3) interquartile increase in SO(2), and 0.73 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.35-1.11) and 0.37 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.14-0.61) per 22 μg/m(3) interquartile increase in O(3). These associations were only statistically significant in men. In conclusion, long-term exposure to PM(10), SO(2), and O(3) was associated with increased arterial blood pressure and hypertension in the study population.

  11. Red Cell Properties after Different Modes of Blood Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhro, Asya; Huisjes, Rick; Verhagen, Liesbeth P.; Mañú-Pereira, María del Mar; Llaudet-Planas, Esther; Petkova-Kirova, Polina; Wang, Jue; Eichler, Hermann; Bogdanova, Anna; van Wijk, Richard; Vives-Corrons, Joan-Lluís; Kaestner, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Transportation of blood samples is unavoidable for assessment of specific parameters in blood of patients with rare anemias, blood doping testing, or for research purposes. Despite the awareness that shipment may substantially alter multiple parameters, no study of that extent has been performed to assess these changes and optimize shipment conditions to reduce transportation-related artifacts. Here we investigate the changes in multiple parameters in blood of healthy donors over 72 h of simulated shipment conditions. Three different anticoagulants (K3EDTA, Sodium Heparin, and citrate-based CPDA) for two temperatures (4°C and room temperature) were tested to define the optimal transportation conditions. Parameters measured cover common cytology and biochemistry parameters (complete blood count, hematocrit, morphological examination), red blood cell (RBC) volume, ion content and density, membrane properties and stability (hemolysis, osmotic fragility, membrane heat stability, patch-clamp investigations, and formation of micro vesicles), Ca2+ handling, RBC metabolism, activity of numerous enzymes, and O2 transport capacity. Our findings indicate that individual sets of parameters may require different shipment settings (anticoagulants, temperature). Most of the parameters except for ion (Na+, K+, Ca2+) handling and, possibly, reticulocytes counts, tend to favor transportation at 4°C. Whereas plasma and intraerythrocytic Ca2+ cannot be accurately measured in the presence of chelators such as citrate and EDTA, the majority of Ca2+-dependent parameters are stabilized in CPDA samples. Even in blood samples from healthy donors transported using an optimized shipment protocol, the majority of parameters were stable within 24 h, a condition that may not hold for the samples of patients with rare anemias. This implies for as short as possible shipping using fast courier services to the closest expert laboratory at reach. Mobile laboratories or the travel of the patients to

  12. Red cell properties after different modes of blood transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asya Makhro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Transportation of blood samples is unavoidable for assessment of specific parameters in blood of patients with rare anemias, blood doping testing or for research purposes. Despite the awareness that shipment may substantially alter multiple parameters, no study of that extend has been performed to assess these changes and optimize shipment conditions to reduce transportation-related artifacts. Here we investigate the changes in multiple parameters in blood of healthy donors over 72 hours of simulated shipment conditions. Three different anticoagulants (K3EDTA, Sodium Heparin and citrate-based CPDA for two temperatures (4oC and room temperature were tested to define the optimal transportation conditions. Parameters measured cover common cytology and biochemistry parameters (complete blood count, hematocrit, morphological examination, red blood cell (RBC volume, ion content and density, membrane properties and stability (hemolysis, osmotic fragility, membrane heat stability, patch-clamp investigations and formation of micro vesicles, Ca2+ handling, RBC metabolism, activity of numerous enzymes and O2 transport capacity. Our findings indicate that individual sets of parameter may require different shipment settings (anticoagulants, temperature. Most of the parameters except for ion (Na+, K+, Ca2+ handling and, possibly, reticulocytes counts, tend to favor transportation at 4oC. Whereas plasma and intraerythrocytic Ca2+ cannot be accurately measured in the presence of chelators such as citrate and EDTA, majority of Ca2+-dependent parameters are stabilized in CPDA samples. Even in blood samples from healthy donors transported using optimized shipment protocol the majority of parameters were stable within 24 hours, the condition that may not hold for the samples of patients with rare anemias. This implies for the as short as possible shipping using fast courier services to the closest expert laboratory at reach. Mobile laboratories or the travel of the

  13. Increased platelet oxidative metabolism, blood oxidative stress and neopterin levels after ultra-endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucas, Ricardo Dantas; Caputo, Fabrizio; Mendes de Souza, Kristopher; Sigwalt, André Roberto; Ghisoni, Karina; Lock Silveira, Paulo Cesar; Remor, Aline Pertile; da Luz Scheffer, Débora; Guglielmo, Luiz Guilherme Antonacci; Latini, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to identify muscle damage, inflammatory response and oxidative stress blood markers in athletes undertaking the ultra-endurance MultiSport Brazil race. Eleven well-trained male athletes (34.3 ± 3.1 years, 74.0 ± 7.6 kg; 172.2 ± 5.1 cm) participated in the study and performed the race, which consisted of about 90 km of alternating off-road running, mountain biking and kayaking. Twelve hours before and up to 15 minutes after the race a 10 mL blood sample was drawn in order to measure the following parameters: lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activities, lipid peroxidation, catalase activity, protein carbonylation, respiratory chain complexes I, II and IV activities, oxygen consumption and neopterin concentrations. After the race, plasma lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activities were significantly increased. Erythrocyte TBA-RS levels and plasma protein carbonylation were markedly augmented in post-race samples. Additionally, mitochondrial complex II activity and oxygen consumption in post-race platelet-rich plasma were also increased. These altered biochemical parameters were accompanied by increased plasma neopterin levels. The ultra-endurance event provoked systemic inflammation (increased neopterin) accompanied by marked oxidative stress, likely by increasing oxidative metabolism (increased oxidative mitochondrial function). This might be advantageous during prolonged exercise, mainly for efficient substrate oxidation at the mitochondrial level, even when tissue damage is induced.

  14. Red blood cell phenotype matching for various ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badjie, Karafa S W; Tauscher, Craig D; van Buskirk, Camille M; Wong, Clare; Jenkins, Sarah M; Smith, Carin Y; Stubbs, James R

    2011-01-01

    Patients requiring chronic transfusion support are at risk of alloimmunization after red blood cell (RBC) transfusion because of a disparity between donor and recipient antigen profiles. This research explored the probability of obtaining an exact extended phenotype match between blood donors randomly selected from our institution and patients randomly selected from particular ethnic groups. Blood samples from 1,000 blood donors tested by molecular method were evaluated for the predicted phenotype distribution of Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, and MNS. A random subsample of 800 donor phenotypes was then evaluated for the probability of obtaining an exact match with respect to phenotype with a randomly selected patient from a particular ethnic group. Overall, there was a greater than 80 percent probability of finding an exact donor-recipient match for the K/k alleles in the Kell system. The probability ranged from 3 percent to 38 percent, depending on the ethnicity and disparities in phenotypic profiles, for the Rh, Kidd, Duffy, and MNS systems. A significant donor-recipient phenotype mismatch ratio exists with certain blood group antigens such that, with current routine ABO and D matching practices, recipients of certain ethnic groups are predisposed to alloimmunization. PMID:22356481

  15. Blood cell telomere length is a dynamic feature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Svenson

    Full Text Available There is a considerable heterogeneity in blood cell telomere length (TL for individuals of similar age and recent studies have revealed that TL changes by time are dependent on TL at baseline. TL is partly inherited, but results from several studies indicate that e.g. life style and/or environmental factors can affect TL during life. Collectively, these studies imply that blood cell TL might fluctuate during a life time and that the actual TL at a defined time point is the result of potential regulatory mechanism(s and environmental factors. We analyzed relative TL (RTL in subsequent blood samples taken six months apart from 50 individuals and found significant associations between RTL changes and RTL at baseline. Individual RTL changes per month were more pronounced than the changes recorded in a previously studied population analyzed after 10 years' follow up. The data argues for an oscillating TL pattern which levels out at longer follow up times. In a separate group of five blood donors, a marked telomere loss was demonstrated within a six month period for one donor where after TL was stabilized. PCR determined RTL changes were verified by Southern blotting and STELA (single telomere elongation length analysis. The STELA demonstrated that for the donor with a marked telomere loss, the heterogeneity of the telomere distribution decreased considerably, with a noteworthy loss of the largest telomeres. In summary, the collected data support the concept that individual blood cell telomere length is a dynamic feature and this will be important to recognize in future studies of human telomere biology.

  16. Effects of Phototherapy on Cytokines’ Levels and White Blood Cells in Term Neonate with Hyperbilirubinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Jahanshahifard, Sedigheh; Ahmadpour-Kacho, Mousa; Pasha, Yadollah Zahed

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Phototherapy is the most common treatment used for severe jaundice. There is increasing evidence that phototherapy can directly affect the expression and function of cell surface receptors including adhesion molecules, cytokines, and growth factor receptors. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of phototherapy use on the levels of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α as cytokine expressions from keratinocytes, and also white blood cell counts i...

  17. Intrahepatic natural killer T cell populations are increased in human hepatic steatosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Adler; Sarah Taylor; Kamalu Okebugwu; Herman Yee; Christine Fielding; George Fielding; Michael Poles

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To determine if natural killer T cell (NKT) populations are affected in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD).METHODS: Patients undergoing bariatric surgery underwent liver biopsy and blood sampling during surgery.The biopsy was assessed for steatosis and immunocyte infiltration. Intrahepatic lymphocytes (IHLs) were isolated from the remainder of the liver biopsy,and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from the blood. Expression of surface proteins on both IHLs and PBMCs were quantified using flow cytometry.RESULTS: Twenty-seven subjects participated in this study. Subjects with moderate or severe steatosis had a higher percentage of intrahepatic CD3+/CD56+ NKT cells (38.6%) than did patients with mild steatosis(24.1%, P = 0.05) or those without steatosis (21.5%, P= 0.03). Patients with moderate to severe steatosis alsohad a higher percentage of NKT cells in the blood (12.3%) as compared to patients with mild steatosis (2.5% P =0.02) and those without steatosis (5.1%, P = 0.05).CONCLUSION: NKT cells are significantly increased in the liver and blood of patients with moderate to severe steatosis and support the role of NKT cells in NAFLD.

  18. Blood and clonogenic hemopoietic cells of newts after the space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michurina, T. V.; Domaratskaya, E. I.; Nikonova, T. M.; Khrushchov, N. G.

    Ribbed newts were used for studying the effect of space flight on board of the biosatellite (Cosmos-2229) on blood and clonogenic hemopoietic cells. In blood of newts of the flight group, the relative proportion of neutrophils increased, whereas that of lymphocytes and eosinophils decreased. Space flight did not result in loss of the ability of newt blood cells to incorporate H^3-thymidine. Analysis of clonogenic hemopoietic cells was performed using the method of hemopoietic colony formation on cellulose acetate membranes implanted into the peritoneal cavity of irradiated newts. To analyze reconstitution of hemopoiesis after irradiation donor hemopoietic cells from flight or control newts were transplanted into irradiated newts whose hemopoietic organs were investigated. The newt can be considered an adequate model for studying hemopoiesis under the conditions of the space flight. Previous studies on rats subjected to 5- to 19-day space flights revealed a decrease in the number of clonogenic cells in their hemopoietic organs accompanied by specific changes in the precursor cell compartment and in blood /1,2/. Hence, it was interesting to analyze blood and hemopoietic tissue of lower vertebrates after a space flight and to compare the response to it of animals belonging to different taxonomic groups. We analyzed blood and clonogenic hemopoietic cells of ribbed newts, Pleurodeles waltl (age one year, weight 20-28 g) subjected to a 12-day space flight on board of a Cosmos-2229 biosatellite. The same animals were used in studies on limb and lens regeneration. The results were compared with those obtained with control groups of newts: (1) basic control, operated newts sacrificed on the day of biosatellite launching (BC); (2) synchronous control, operated newts kept in the laboratory under simulated space flight conditions (SC); and (3) intact newts (IC).

  19. Isolation of human monoclonal antibodies from peripheral blood B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinghe; Doria-Rose, Nicole A; Longo, Nancy S; Laub, Leo; Lin, Chien-Li; Turk, Ellen; Kang, Byong H; Migueles, Stephen A; Bailer, Robert T; Mascola, John R; Connors, Mark

    2013-10-01

    Isolation of monoclonal antibodies is an important technique for understanding the specificities and characteristics of antibodies that underlie the humoral immune response to a given antigen. Here we describe a technique for isolating monoclonal antibodies from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The protocol includes strategies for the isolation of switch-memory B cells from peripheral blood, the culture of B cells, the removal of the supernatant for screening and the lysis of B cells in preparation for immunoglobulin heavy-chain and light-chain amplification and cloning. We have observed that the addition of cytokines IL-2, IL-21 and irradiated 3T3-msCD40L feeder cells can successfully stimulate switch-memory B cells to produce high concentrations of IgG in the supernatant. The supernatant may then be screened by appropriate assays for binding or for other functions. This protocol can be completed in 2 weeks. It is adaptable to use in other species and enables the efficient isolation of antibodies with a desired functional characteristic without prior knowledge of specificity. PMID:24030440

  20. Manipulation of oxygenation and flow-induced shear stress can increase the in vitro yield of platelets from cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasky, Larry C; Sullenbarger, Brent

    2011-11-01

    A method to produce clinically useful platelets in vitro would help overcome the frequent shortages, donor deferrals, disease transmission, and alloimmunization with volunteer donor-derived platelets. Using CD34 positively selected cord blood cells, we investigated ways to increase platelet quality and yield in a three-dimensional modular perfusion bioreactor system. We found a two- to threefold increase in platelet numbers produced only when the early phases of the culture process were carried out at 5% oxygen, versus when 20% oxygen was used throughout the culture period (pplatelets increased two- to threefold (pplatelet production from proplatelets. The use of altered oxygen levels and cross flow enhanced platelet numbers and quality, and will contribute to eventual in vitro platelet production for clinical use.

  1. Efficacy of Micromobile Foot Compression Device in Increasing Lower Limb Venous Blood Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Charles

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A novel, micromobile foot compression device (MMC has been developed to reduce the risk of venous thromboembolism associated with prolonged seated immobility. Objective. To compare the efficacy of the MMC with graduated compression stockings in augmenting lower limb venous blood flow. Patients/Methods. Twenty participants were randomised to wear the MMC or a graduated compression stocking (GCS on either the left or right leg while seated. Doppler ultrasound measurements of popliteal vein blood flow and leg circumference measurements were made -30 and -10 minutes (baseline and +30 and +60 minutes following application of the interventions. The primary outcome variable was peak systolic velocity. A mixed linear model was used, with covariates including baseline measurement, randomised side, time, and a time by interaction term. Results. The mean popliteal vein peak systolic velocity at 60 minutes with the MMC was 20.1 cm/s which was significantly higher than with the GCS (difference 14.1 cm/s 95% CI 12.1–16.2, representing a 3.8-fold increase from baseline. Conclusion. The MMC resulted in a marked increase in lower limb venous blood flow which suggests that it may have efficacy in reducing the risk of venous thromboembolism associated with prolonged seated immobility, such as long distance air travel.

  2. Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: In vitro assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benarroz, M.O. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010-180 Natal, RN (Brazil); Fonseca, A.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Rocha, G.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frydman, J.N.G. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010-180 Natal, RN (Brazil); Rocha, V.C.; Pereira, M.O. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)] (and others)

    2008-02-15

    Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99 m({sup 99m}Tc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI on BC, IF-P and IF-BC. No modifications were verified on shape of red blood cells. Cinnamon extracts could alter the labelling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon.

  3. Exercise prevents leptin-induced increase in blood pressure in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhana, K; Effendi, I; Caszo, Brinnell; Satar, Nuraliza Abdul; Singh, H J

    2014-06-01

    Although leptin has been shown to increase blood pressure (BP), it is however unclear if this increase can be prevented by exercise. This study therefore investigated the effect of leptin treatment with concurrent exercise on blood pressure (BP), sodium output, and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in normotensive rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-270 g were divided into four groups consisting of a control group (n = 6), leptin-treated (n = 8), non-leptin-treated exercise group (n = 8), and a leptin-treated exercise group (n = 8). Leptin was given subcutaneously daily for 14 days (60 μg/kg/day). Animals were exercised on a treadmill for 30 min at a speed of 0.5 m/s and at 5° incline four times per week. Measurement of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and collection of urine samples for estimation of sodium and creatinine was done once a week. Serum samples were collected at the end of the experiment for determination of sodium, creatinine and ET-1. At day 14, mean SBP and serum ET-1 level in the leptin-treated group was significantly higher than that in the control group whereas mean SBP and serum ET-1 level was significantly lower in the leptin-treated exercise group than those in leptin-treated and control groups. Creatinine clearance, urinary sodium excretion, and urine output were not different between the four groups. Regular treadmill exercise prevents leptin-induced increases in SBP in rats, which might in part result from increased urinary sodium excretion and preventing the leptin-induced increases in serum ET-1 concentration. PMID:24711061

  4. Does transfusion of residual cardiopulmonary bypass circuit blood increase postoperative bleeding? A prospective randomized study in patients undergoing on pump cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duara Rajnish

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Homologous blood transfusion after open heart surgery puts a tremendous load on the blood banks. This prospective randomized study evaluates the efficacy of infusing back residual cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB circuit i.e., pump blood as a means to reduce homologous transfusion after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG and whether its use increases postoperative drainage. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven consecutive patients who underwent elective CABGs under CPB were randomized into 2 groups: (1 cases where residual pump blood was used and (2 controls where residual pump blood was not used. Patients were monitored for hourly drainage on the day of surgery and the 1 st postoperative day and the requirements of homologous blood and its products. Data were matched regarding change in Hemoglobin, Packed Cell Volume and coagulation parameters till 1st postoperative day. All cases were followed up for three years. Results: There was a marginal reduction in bleeding pattern in the early postoperative period in the cases compared to controls. The requirement of homologous blood and its products were also reduced in the cases. Conclusions: The use of CPB circuit blood is safe in the immediate postoperative period. The requirement of homologous blood transfusion can come down if strict transfusion criteria are maintained.

  5. Secretome of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Enhances Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Mildner, Michael; Hacker, Stefan; Haider, Thomas; Gschwandtner, Maria; Werba, Gregor; Barresi, Caterina; Zimmermann, Matthias; Golabi, Bahar; Tschachler, Erwin; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan

    2013-01-01

    Non-healing skin ulcers are often resistant to most common therapies. Treatment with growth factors has been demonstrated to improve closure of chronic wounds. Here we investigate whether lyophilized culture supernatant of freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is able to enhance wound healing. PBMC from healthy human individuals were prepared and cultured for 24 hours. Supernatants were collected, dialyzed and lyophilized (SECPBMC). Six mm punch biopsy wounds were set on ...

  6. Flow of red blood cells in capillary networks

    OpenAIRE

    Couto, Ana; Teixeira, Lúcia; Leble, Vladimir; Lima, R.; Ribeiro, António E.; Dias, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    In the present work we have studied the flow of red blood cells through a column packed with soda lime glass spheres with diameter of 337.5 micron (pore diameter 150 micron). The ratio between the average velocity of the RBCs and the average velocity of the carrying fluid (physiological saline) was close to 0.9. The RBCs migrated faster through the column than the carrying fluid mainly due to a hydrodynamic chromatographic effect.

  7. Effect of Irradiation on Microparticles in Red Blood Cell Concentrates

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Chi Hyun; Yun, Seung Gyu; Koh, Young Eun; Lim, Chae Seung

    2016-01-01

    Changes in microparticles (MP) from red blood cell (RBC) concentrates in the context of irradiation have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate how irradiation affects the number of MPs within transfusion components. Twenty RBC concentrates, within 14 days after donation, were exposed to gamma rays (dose rate: 25 cGy) from a cesium-137 irradiator. Flow cytometry was used to determine the numbers of MPs derived from RBC concentrates before and 24 hr after irradiation. The...

  8. Alpha thalassemia protects sickle cell anemia patients from macro-albuminuria through its effects on red blood cell rheological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarre, Yann; Romana, Marc; Lemonne, Nathalie; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Tarer, Vanessa; Mougenel, Danielle; Waltz, Xavier; Tressières, Benoît; Lalanne-Mistrih, Marie-Laure; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Connes, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    While chronic hemolysis has been suspected to be involved in the development of glomerulopathy in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA), no study focused on the implications of blood rheology. Ninety-six adults with SCA at steady state were included in the present cross-sectional study. Three categories were defined: normo-albuminuria (NORMO, n = 41), micro-albuminuria (MICRO, n = 23) and macro-albuminuria (MACRO, n = 32). Blood was sampled to measure hematological and hemorheological parameters, and genomic DNA extraction was performed to detect the presence of α-thalassemia. The prevalence of α-thalassemia was lower in the MACRO group compared with the two other groups. Anemia was more severe in the MACRO compared with the NORMO group leading the former group to exhibit decreased blood viscosity. Red blood cell deformability was lower and red blood cell aggregates strength was greater in the MACRO compared to the two other groups, and this was directly attributed to the lower frequency of α-thalassemia in the former group. Our results show the protective role of α-thalassemia against the development of sickle cell glomerulopathy, and strongly suggest that this protection is mediated through the decrease of anemia, the increase of RBC deformability and the lowering of the RBC aggregates strength.

  9. Lung function, transfusion, pulmonary capillary blood volume and sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, Alan; McGhee, Emily; Robinson, Polly; Rees, David; Height, Susan; Greenough, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Lung function abnormalities occur in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and may be associated with elevated pulmonary blood volume. To investigate that association, we determined whether blood transfusion in SCD children acutely increased pulmonary capillary blood volume (PCBV) and increased respiratory system resistance (Rrs5). Measurements of Rrs5 and spirometry were made before and after blood transfusion in 18 children, median age 14.2 (6.6-18.5) years. Diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and nitric oxide were assessed to calculate the PCBV. Post transfusion, the median Rrs5 had increased from 127.4 to 141.3% predicted (pvolume from 39.7 to 64.1 ml/m2 (pvolume in one second (p=0.0056) and vital capacity (p=0.0008) decreased. The increase in Rrs5 correlated with the increase in PCBV (r=0.50, p=0.0493). Increased pulmonary capillary blood volume may at least partially explain the lung function abnormalities in SCD children.

  10. Rilmenidine prevents blood pressure increase in rats with compromised nitric oxide production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mária GEROV(A); Jozef T(O)R(O)K; Ol'ga PECH(A)(O)OV(A); Jana MATU(S)KOV(A)

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To search tools of high blood pressure in the model of nitric oxide (NO)-defective hypertension, and the study focused on the effect of rilmenidine, agonist of imidazoline receptors, which was suggested to modulate central sympathetic outflow. METHODS: Three experimental groups, each consisting of 7 rats, were used: (Ⅰ) rats with inhibition of NO synthase (NOS) by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) 40 mg.kg-1.d-1 for 4 weeks in drinking water, (Ⅱ) rats with inhibited NOS as in group Ⅰ, plus agonist of imidazoline receptors rilmenidine 3mg.kg-1·d-1 for 4 weeks by gavage, and (Ⅲ) control rats. Systolic blood pressure was measured weekly noninvasively.At the end of experiment aortic ring isometric tension was followed, NOS expression (aorta, left ventricle), and NOS activity (left ventricle and brain) were determined. RESULTS: In the group Ⅰ systolic blood pressure increased significantly, aortic ring relaxation to acetylcholine was significantly attenuated. Rilmenidine administered simultaneously with L-NAME (group Ⅱ) prevented the increase of blood pressure which did not differ significantly from control values; aortic ring relaxation to acetylcholine did not differ from control. No change in NOS expression (aorta and left ventricle) was found in groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ. Significant decline in NOS activity (left ventricle and brain) was found in groups Ⅰ and ⅡⅡ. CONCLUSION: Rilmenidine has a remarkable role in NO-defective hypertension,possibly by inhibiting central sympathetic outflow and by affecting receptors in vascular smooth muscle also. The prime cause of hypertension in this experimental model - the compromised production of NO due to inhibition of NOS - was not affected by rilmenidine.

  11. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring-derived short-term blood pressure variability is increased in Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebellato, Andrea; Grillo, Andrea; Dassie, Francesca; Sonino, Nicoletta; Maffei, Pietro; Martini, Chiara; Paoletta, Agostino; Fabris, Bruno; Carretta, Renzo; Fallo, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    Cushing's syndrome is associated with high cardiovascular morbility and mortality. Blood pressure (BP) variability within a 24-h period is increasingly recognized as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. The aim of our study was to investigate the short-term BP variability indices in Cushing's syndrome. Twenty-five patients with Cushing's syndrome (mean age 49 ± 13 years, 4 males; 21 Cushing's disease and 4 adrenal adenoma patients) underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors. Cushing patients were divided into 8 normotensive (NOR-CUSH) and 17 hypertensive (HYP-CUSH) patients and were compared with 20 normotensive (NOR-CTR) and 20 hypertensive (HYP-CTR) age-, sex-, and BMI-matched control subjects. Short-term BP variability was derived from ABPM and calculated as the following: (1) standard deviation (SD) of 24-h, daytime, and nighttime BP; (2) 24-h weighted SD of BP; and (3) average real variability (ARV), i.e., the average of the absolute differences between consecutive BP measurements over 24 h. In comparison with controls, patients with Cushing's syndrome, either normotensive or hypertensive, had higher 24-h and daytime SD of BP, as well as higher 24-h weighted SD and ARV of BP (P = 0.03 to P CUSH or between HYP-CTR and HYP-CUSH subgroups. ABPM-derived short-term BP variability is increased in Cushing's syndrome, independent of BP elevation. It may represent an additional cardiovascular risk factor in this disease. The role of excess cortisol in BP variability has to be further clarified.

  12. What Is the Most Appropriate Source for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation? Peripheral Stem Cell/Bone Marrow/Cord Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Itır Sirinoglu Demiriz; Emre Tekgunduz; Fevzi Altuntas

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of peripheral stem cell (PSC) and cord blood (CB) as an alternative to bone marrow (BM) recently has caused important changes on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) practice. According to the CIBMTR data, there has been a significant decrease in the use of bone marrow and increase in the use of PSC and CB as the stem cell source for HSCT performed during 1997–2006 period for patients under the age of 20. On the other hand, the stem cell source in 70% of the HSCT pr...

  13. Tissue engineering of blood vessels with endothelial cells differentiated from mouse embryonic stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHEN XU; MIN XIONG SHEN; DONG ZHU MA; LI YING WANG; XI LIANG ZHA

    2003-01-01

    Endothelial cells (TEC3 cells) derived from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were used as seed cells to construct blood vessels. Tissue engineered blood vessels were made by seeding 8 × l06 smooth muscle cells (SMCs) obtained from rabbit arteries onto a sheet of nonwoven polyglycolic acid (PGA) fibers, which was used as a biodegradable polymer scaffold. After being cultured in DMEM medium for 7 days in vitro, SMCs grew well on the PGA fibers, and the cell-PGA sheet was then wrapped around a silicon tube, and implanted subcutaneously into nude mice. After 6~8 weeks, the silicon tube was replaced with another silicon tube in smaller diameter, and then the TEC3 cells (endothelial cells differentiated from mouse ES cells) were injected inside the engineered vessel tube as the test group. In the control group only culture medium was injected. Five days later, the engineered vessels were harvested for gross observation, histological and immunohistochemical analysis. The preliminary results demonstrated that the SMC-PGA construct could form a tubular structure in 6~8 weeks and PGA fibers were completely degraded. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis of the newly formed tissue revealed a typical blood vessel structure, including a lining of endothelial cells (ECs) on the lumimal surface and the presence of SMC and collagen in the wall. No EC lining was found in the tubes of control group. Therefore, the ECs differentiated from mouse ES cells can serve as seed cells for endothelium lining in tissue engineered blood vessels.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA mutations in single human blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yong-Gang; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Young, Neal S

    2015-09-01

    Determination mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from extremely small amounts of DNA extracted from tissue of limited amounts and/or degraded samples is frequently employed in medical, forensic, and anthropologic studies. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification followed by DNA cloning is a routine method, especially to examine heteroplasmy of mtDNA mutations. In this review, we compare the mtDNA mutation patterns detected by three different sequencing strategies. Cloning and sequencing methods that are based on PCR amplification of DNA extracted from either single cells or pooled cells yield a high frequency of mutations, partly due to the artifacts introduced by PCR and/or the DNA cloning process. Direct sequencing of PCR product which has been amplified from DNA in individual cells is able to detect the low levels of mtDNA mutations present within a cell. We further summarize the findings in our recent studies that utilized this single cell method to assay mtDNA mutation patterns in different human blood cells. Our data show that many somatic mutations observed in the end-stage differentiated cells are found in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitors within the CD34(+) cell compartment. Accumulation of mtDNA variations in the individual CD34+ cells is affected by both aging and family genetic background. Granulocytes harbor higher numbers of mutations compared with the other cells, such as CD34(+) cells and lymphocytes. Serial assessment of mtDNA mutations in a population of single CD34(+) cells obtained from the same donor over time suggests stability of some somatic mutations. CD34(+) cell clones from a donor marked by specific mtDNA somatic mutations can be found in the recipient after transplantation. The significance of these findings is discussed in terms of the lineage tracing of HSCs, aging effect on accumulation of mtDNA mutations and the usage of mtDNA sequence in forensic identification. PMID:26149767

  15. 77 FR 22791 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell... Health Service Act, as amended), the Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (ACBSCT) advises... Thawing and Washing, (4) Access to Transplantation, and (5) Advancing Hematopoietic Stem...

  16. Blood cell mitochondrial DNA content and premature ovarian aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bonomi

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI is a critical fertility defect characterized by an anticipated and silent impairment of the follicular reserve, but its pathogenesis is largely unexplained. The frequent maternal inheritance of POI together with a remarkable dependence of ovarian folliculogenesis upon mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics suggested the possible involvement of a generalized mitochondrial defect. Here, we verified the existence of a significant correlation between blood and ovarian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA content in a group of women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation (OH, and then aimed to verify whether mtDNA content was significantly altered in the blood cells of POI women. We recruited 101 women with an impaired ovarian reserve: 59 women with premature ovarian failure (POF and 42 poor responders (PR to OH. A Taqman copy number assay revealed a significant mtDNA depletion (P<0.001 in both POF and PR women in comparison with 43 women of similar age and intact ovarian reserve, or 53 very old women with a previous physiological menopause. No pathogenic variations in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG gene were detected in 57 POF or PR women with low blood mtDNA content. In conclusion, blood cell mtDNA depletion is a frequent finding among women with premature ovarian aging, suggesting that a still undetermined but generalized mitochondrial defect may frequently predispose to POI which could then be considered a form of anticipated aging in which the ovarian defect may represent the first manifestation. The determination of mtDNA content in blood may become an useful tool for the POI risk prediction.

  17. Frozen cord blood hematopoietic stem cells differentiate into higher numbers of functional natural killer cells in vitro than mobilized hematopoietic stem cells or freshly isolated cord blood hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luevano, Martha; Domogala, Anna; Blundell, Michael; Jackson, Nicola; Pedroza-Pacheco, Isabela; Derniame, Sophie; Escobedo-Cousin, Michelle; Querol, Sergio; Thrasher, Adrian; Madrigal, Alejandro; Saudemont, Aurore

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive natural killer (NK) cell therapy relies on the acquisition of large numbers of NK cells that are cytotoxic but not exhausted. NK cell differentiation from hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) has become an alluring option for NK cell therapy, with umbilical cord blood (UCB) and mobilized peripheral blood (PBCD34(+)) being the most accessible HSC sources as collection procedures are less invasive. In this study we compared the capacity of frozen or freshly isolated UCB hematopoietic stem cells (CBCD34(+)) and frozen PBCD34(+) to generate NK cells in vitro. By modifying a previously published protocol, we showed that frozen CBCD34(+) cultures generated higher NK cell numbers without loss of function compared to fresh CBCD34(+) cultures. NK cells generated from CBCD34(+) and PBCD34(+) expressed low levels of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors but high levels of activating receptors and of the myeloid marker CD33. However, blocking studies showed that CD33 expression did not impact on the functions of the generated cells. CBCD34(+)-NK cells exhibited increased capacity to secrete IFN-γ and kill K562 in vitro and in vivo as compared to PBCD34(+)-NK cells. Moreover, K562 killing by the generated NK cells could be further enhanced by IL-12 stimulation. Our data indicate that the use of frozen CBCD34(+) for the production of NK cells in vitro results in higher cell numbers than PBCD34(+), without jeopardizing their functionality, rendering them suitable for NK cell immunotherapy. The results presented here provide an optimal strategy to generate NK cells in vitro for immunotherapy that exhibit enhanced effector function when compared to alternate sources of HSC.

  18. Frozen cord blood hematopoietic stem cells differentiate into higher numbers of functional natural killer cells in vitro than mobilized hematopoietic stem cells or freshly isolated cord blood hematopoietic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Luevano

    Full Text Available Adoptive natural killer (NK cell therapy relies on the acquisition of large numbers of NK cells that are cytotoxic but not exhausted. NK cell differentiation from hematopoietic stem cells (HSC has become an alluring option for NK cell therapy, with umbilical cord blood (UCB and mobilized peripheral blood (PBCD34(+ being the most accessible HSC sources as collection procedures are less invasive. In this study we compared the capacity of frozen or freshly isolated UCB hematopoietic stem cells (CBCD34(+ and frozen PBCD34(+ to generate NK cells in vitro. By modifying a previously published protocol, we showed that frozen CBCD34(+ cultures generated higher NK cell numbers without loss of function compared to fresh CBCD34(+ cultures. NK cells generated from CBCD34(+ and PBCD34(+ expressed low levels of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors but high levels of activating receptors and of the myeloid marker CD33. However, blocking studies showed that CD33 expression did not impact on the functions of the generated cells. CBCD34(+-NK cells exhibited increased capacity to secrete IFN-γ and kill K562 in vitro and in vivo as compared to PBCD34(+-NK cells. Moreover, K562 killing by the generated NK cells could be further enhanced by IL-12 stimulation. Our data indicate that the use of frozen CBCD34(+ for the production of NK cells in vitro results in higher cell numbers than PBCD34(+, without jeopardizing their functionality, rendering them suitable for NK cell immunotherapy. The results presented here provide an optimal strategy to generate NK cells in vitro for immunotherapy that exhibit enhanced effector function when compared to alternate sources of HSC.

  19. High Dietary Iron and Radiation Exposure Increase Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Blood and Liver of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Theriot, Corey A.; Wu, Honglu; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure and increased iron (Fe) status independently cause oxidative damage that can result in protein, lipid, and DNA oxidation. During space flight astronauts are exposed to both increased radiation and increased Fe stores. Increased body Fe results from a decrease in red blood cell mass and the typically high Fe content of the food system. In this study we investigated the combined effects of radiation exposure (0.375 Gy of Cs-137 every other day for 16 days for a total of 3 Gy) and high dietary Fe (650 mg Fe/kg diet compared to 45 mg Fe/kg for controls) in Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8/group). Liver and serum Fe were significantly increased in the high dietary Fe groups. Likewise, radiation treatment increased serum ferritin and Fe concentrations. These data indicate that total body Fe stores increase with both radiation exposure and excess dietary Fe. Hematocrit decreased in the group exposed to radiation, providing a possible mechanism for the shift in Fe indices after radiation exposure. Markers of oxidative stress were also affected by both radiation and high dietary Fe, evidenced by increased liver glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and serum catalase as well as decreased serum GPX. We thus found preliminary indications of synergistic effects of radiation exposure and increased dietary Fe, warranting further study. This study was funded by the NASA Human Research Project.

  20. Cost-effective and Rapid Blood Analysis on a Cell-phone

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Hongying; Sencan, Ikbal; Wong, Justin; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Tseng, Derek; Nagashima, Keita; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a compact and cost-effective imaging cytometry platform installed on a cell-phone for the measurement of the density of red and white blood cells as well as hemoglobin concentration in human blood samples. Fluorescent and bright-field images of blood samples are captured using separate optical attachments to the cell-phone and are rapidly processed through a custom-developed smart application running on the phone for counting of blood cells and determining hemoglobin density. W...

  1. Acrolein-Induced Increases in Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Are Coupled with Decreased Blood Oxygen Levels During Exposure in Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. Recent studies link exposure to air pollution with reduced blood oxygen saturation suggesting that hypoxia is a potential me...

  2. Computational investigation on the photoacoustics of malaria infected red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratan K Saha

    Full Text Available A computer simulation study on the possibility of using photoacoustic (PA technique to differentiate intraerythrocytic stages of malarial parasite is reported. This parasite during its development substantially converts hemoglobin into hemozoin. This conversion is expected to alter the cellular absorption leading to changes in the PA emission of a red blood cell (RBC at certain incident optical wavelengths. The PA signals from blood samples corresponding to ring, trophozoite and schizont stages were computed and compared with that of normal blood. A Monte Carlo algorithm was implemented generating random locations of RBCs in 3D to simulate blood samples. The average PA amplitude for wide bandwidth signals decreases for 434 nm incident radiation, but increases for 700 nm as the parasite matures. The spectral power at 7.5 MHz for the blood sample at the schizont stage compared to the normal blood is nearly reduced by 6 dB and enhanced by 22 dB at those incident wavelengths, respectively. Bandlimited signals for transducers of 15 and 50 MHz center frequencies were studied and found to exhibit similar characteristics. The presence of hemozoin inside the cells was examined and an excellent estimation was made. The simulation results suggest that intraerythrocytic stages of malarial parasite may be assessed using the PA technique.

  3. Increased Blood Lactate Level Deteriorates Running Economy in World Class Endurance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Jan; Støren, Øyvind; Finstad, Arnstein; Wang, Eivind; Helgerud, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Blood lactate accumulation is associated with development of muscle fatigue and negatively correlated to endurance performance. No research has quantified the effects of lactate presence at moderate levels of lactate accumulation. The purpose of this study was to test whether 2 moderate blood lactate concentration levels affect running economy (RE) when running at the individual lactate threshold (LT). Seven male world class endurance athletes with an average V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of 80.7 ± 2.7 ml·kg·min or 5.8 ± 0.5 L·min participated in this study. After the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max test, the subjects were resting or walking and in a random order tested for RE at their LT velocity when the blood lactate level reached either 3 mmol·L or 5 mmol·L. After a new 5-minute exercising period at maximal aerobic velocity, the crossover lactate value RE testing was performed. Running economy was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) deteriorated from 0.668 ± 0.044 to 0.705 ± 0.056 ml·kg·m or 5.5% (p ≤ 0.05) for blood lactate level of 3 mmol·L compared with 5 mmol·L, respectively. Increased lactate level from 3 to 5 mmol·L is thus accompanied by deteriorated RE at LT running velocity. The deteriorated RE at moderate levels of lactate concentration emphasizes the importance of avoiding intensities above LT in the early parts of a dominantly aerobic endurance competition. It also emphasizes the importance of a high V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for aerobic endurance athletes and may partly explain the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 slow component as impaired RE.

  4. Interleukin-15 Promotes the Commitment of Cord Blood CD34+ Stem Cells into NK Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建; 夏青; 孙汭; 田志刚

    2004-01-01

    To explore the effect of rhlL-15 on CB-CD34+ stem cells committing to NK cells, CD34+ stem cells were obtained from cord blood (CB) by magnetic-assisted cell sorting (MACS) method. CD3, CD16 and CD56 molecules expressed on cell surface were detected by flow cytometer. MTF method was used to test the cytotoxicity of NK cells. The results were that stem cell factor (SCF) alone has no effect on CD34+ stem cells. IL-15 stimulated CD34+ stem cells commit to NK cells, and SCF showed strong synergistic effect with IL-15. It was concluded that IL-15 and SCF played different roles during NK cell development, llr15 promoted CD34+ stem cells differentiate to NK cell precursor and SCF improved the effectsof IL-15 on NK cell differentiation.

  5. Obesity alters the expression profile of clock genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahira, Kazunobu; Fukuda, Noboru; Aoyama, Takahiko; Tsunemi, Akiko; Matsumoto, Siroh; Nagura, Chinami; Matsumoto, Taro; Soma, Masayoshi; Shimba, Shigeki; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the variation in expression profile of clock genes and obesity using peripheral blood mononuclear (PMN) cells. Material and methods The subjects comprised 10 obese patients and 10 healthy volunteers. Blood was collected at different time-points during the day and levels of blood sugar, IRI, adiponectin and leptin were determined. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were sampled, and expression levels of brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1 (BMAL1), Period (PER)1, PER2, Cryptochrome (CRY)1, CRY2, and REV-ERBα mRNA were quantified. Results During the day, the expression levels of BMAL1, CRY1, CRY2 and PER2 genes in PMN cells of the obese group were all significantly higher compared to those in the non-obese group. In addition, expression of BMAL1, CRY1, CRY2 and PER2 genes in PMN cells increased between 12:00 and 21:00 in the obese group. In PMN cells of both groups, PER1 gene expression showed a bimodal pattern, with high expression at 9:00 and 18:00. Conclusions Differences were observed in the expression profile variation of clock genes between the obese and non-obese groups. This study reveals the differences in clock gene expression profiles between obese and non-obese subjects, with evidence for two distinct chronotypes, and suggests a contribution of these chronotypes to fat accumulation in humans. PMID:22328874

  6. Mimicking Stem Cell Niches to Increase Stem Cell Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Dellatore, Shara M.; Garcia, A. Sofia; Miller, William M.

    2008-01-01

    Niches regulate lineage-specific stem cell self-renewal vs. differentiation in vivo and are comprised of supportive cells and extracellular matrix components arranged in a 3-dimensional topography of controlled stiffness in the presence of oxygen and growth factor gradients. Mimicking stem cell niches in a defined manner will facilitate production of the large numbers of stem cells needed to realize the promise of regenerative medicine and gene therapy. Progress has been made in mimicking com...

  7. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Increases during Blood-Brain Barrier-Enhanced Permeability Caused by Phoneutria nigriventer Spider Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique C. P. Mendonça

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phoneutria nigriventer spider accidental envenomation provokes neurotoxic manifestations, which when critical, results in epileptic-like episodes. In rats, P. nigriventer venom (PNV causes blood-brain barrier breakdown (BBBb. The PNV-induced excitotoxicity results from disturbances on Na+, K+ and Ca2+ channels and glutamate handling. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, beyond its angiogenic effect, also, interferes on synaptic physiology by affecting the same ion channels and protects neurons from excitotoxicity. However, it is unknown whether VEGF expression is altered following PNV envenomation. We found that adult and neonates rats injected with PNV showed immediate neurotoxic manifestations which paralleled with endothelial occludin, β-catenin, and laminin downregulation indicative of BBBb. In neonate rats, VEGF, VEGF mRNA, and Flt-1 receptors, glutamate decarboxylase, and calbindin-D28k increased in Purkinje neurons, while, in adult rats, the BBBb paralleled with VEGF mRNA, Flk-1, and calbindin-D28k increases and Flt-1 decreases. Statistically, the variable age had a role in such differences, which might be due to age-related unequal maturation of blood-brain barrier (BBB and thus differential cross-signaling among components of the glial neurovascular unit. The concurrent increases in the VEGF/Flt-1/Flk-1 system in the cerebellar neuron cells and the BBBb following PNV exposure might imply a cytokine modulation of neuronal excitability consequent to homeostatic perturbations induced by ion channels-acting PNV neuropeptides. Whether such modulation represents neuroprotection needs further investigation.

  8. Some technetium complexes for labelling red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach to produce technetium labelled red blood cells, used routinely in diagnostic nuclear medicine, is reported. The enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase (CA), present in erythrocytes, is strongly inhibited by primary aromatic sulphonamides, which bind at the enzyme active site. Three types of ligand able to coordinate to technetium and suitable for modification to include a primary aromatic sulphonamide group were studied; bis(thiosemicarbazones), Schiff bases and some propylene amine oximes. The experimental conditions needed to label the ligands were determined. Both the thiosemicarbazone and propyleneamine oxime derivatives were labelled, but under no conditions attempted were the Schiff bases complexed by Technetium. The two major isozymes of Human Carbonic Anhydrase, HCA I and HCA II, were isolated from blood. The strength of binding of the free ligands SET, PN130 and PN135 with each of the isozymes was measured and expressed as the Dissociation Constant Kd. The rate of uptake of the technetium complexes into washed RBCs and whole blood was measured and found to be much slower in whole blood. The biodistribution of both TcPN130 and TcPN135 in rats was determined and scintigraphic images for the TcPN130 complex were recorded. Attempts to synthesise the Tc-99 analogues on the milligram scale to allow chemical characterisation of these complexes were unsuccessful. (author)

  9. Some technetium complexes for labelling red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    A new approach to produce technetium labelled red blood cells, used routinely in diagnostic nuclear medicine, is reported. The enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase (CA), present in erythrocytes, is strongly inhibited by primary aromatic sulphonamides, which bind at the enzyme active site. Three types of ligand able to coordinate to technetium and suitable for modification to include a primary aromatic sulphonamide group were studied; bis(thiosemicarbazones), Schiff bases and some propylene amine oximes. The experimental conditions needed to label the ligands were determined. Both the thiosemicarbazone and propyleneamine oxime derivatives were labelled, but under no conditions attempted were the Schiff bases complexed by Technetium. The two major isozymes of Human Carbonic Anhydrase, HCA I and HCA II, were isolated from blood. The strength of binding of the free ligands SET, PN130 and PN135 with each of the isozymes was measured and expressed as the Dissociation Constant K{sub d}. The rate of uptake of the technetium complexes into washed RBCs and whole blood was measured and found to be much slower in whole blood. The biodistribution of both TcPN130 and TcPN135 in rats was determined and scintigraphic images for the TcPN130 complex were recorded. Attempts to synthesise the Tc-99 analogues on the milligram scale to allow chemical characterisation of these complexes were unsuccessful. (author).

  10. Blood Flow through an Open-Celled Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Jason; Maitland, Duncan

    2011-11-01

    The Hazen-Dupuit-Darcy (HDD) equation is commonly used in engineering applications to model the pressure gradient of flow through a porous media. One major advantage of this equation is that it simplifies the complex geometric details of the porous media into two coefficients: the permeability, K, and form factor, C. However through this simplification, the flow details within the porous media are no longer accessible, making it difficult to study the phenomena that contribute to changes in K and C due to clotting of blood flow. To obtain a more detailed understanding of blood flow through a porous media, a direct assessment of the complex interstitial geometry and flow is required. In this study, we solve the Navier-Stokes equations for Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood flow through an open-celled foam geometry obtained from a micro-CT scan. The nominal strut size of the foam sample is of O(10e-5) m and the corresponding Reynolds number based upon this length ranges up to O(10). Fitting the pressure gradient vs. Darcy velocity data with the HDD equation demonstrates that both viscous and inertial forces play an important role in the flow through the foam at these Reynolds numbers. Recirculation zones are observed to form in the wake of the pore struts, producing regions of flow characterized by both low shear rates and long fluid residence times, factors of which have been shown in previous studies to promote blood clotting.

  11. Crocodile blood extract induces the apoptosis of lung cancer cells through PTEN activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yuqian; Ho, Wing Shing

    2016-09-01

    Current treatment strategies for lung cancer cause undesirable side‑effects. Integrated medicine with a curative approach has become a common approach to the treatment strategy. Recent studies suggest that American alligator blood is effective in reducing colorectal cancer cell viability in vitro, but the mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to study the anticancer activity of crocodile blood extracts on lung cancer cell line A549 and investigate the possible mechanisms involved. In vitro studies were utilized to investigate the effects on the cancer cells after incubation with the blood extracts. The active fraction that showed more efficacy in inhibiting cell growth was characterized in the supernatant (S2) from whole blood extracts. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that S2 contained more polar moiety from whole blood. S2 induced DNA fragmentation. Cell cycle arrest in the G1/M phase was demonstrated and mitochondrial membrane permeability was disrupted. An increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased activities of caspase-3 and caspase-7 were detected. Furthermore, release of cytochrome c, upregulation of expression of Bax, p53, p21, Bid, cleaved forms of the caspase family and PARP along with downregulation of Bcl-2, PCNA, MDM2, caspase‑8, wild types of caspase family proteins and PARP were recorded after treatment with S2 fractions. Moreover, the PI3K/AKT survival pathway was downregulated by S2 fractions in the lung cancer cell line. PMID:27431918

  12. SPECT Myocardial Blood Flow Quantitation Concludes Equivocal Myocardial Perfusion SPECT Studies to Increase Diagnostic Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung-Ching; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Ing-Jou; Ku, Chi-Tai; Chen, Yen-Kung; Hsu, Bailing

    2016-01-01

    Recently, myocardial blood flow quantitation with dynamic SPECT/CT has been reported to enhance the detection of coronary artery disease in human. This advance has created important clinical applications to coronary artery disease diagnosis and management for areas where myocardial perfusion PET tracers are not available. We present 2 clinical cases that undergone a combined test of 1-day rest/dipyridamole-stress dynamic SPECT and ECG-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT scans using an integrated imaging protocol and demonstrate that flow parameters are capable to conclude equivocal myocardial perfusion SPECT studies, therefore increasing diagnostic benefits to add value in making clinical decisions.

  13. SPECT Myocardial Blood Flow Quantitation Concludes Equivocal Myocardial Perfusion SPECT Studies to Increase Diagnostic Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung-Ching; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Ing-Jou; Ku, Chi-Tai; Chen, Yen-Kung; Hsu, Bailing

    2016-01-01

    Recently, myocardial blood flow quantitation with dynamic SPECT/CT has been reported to enhance the detection of coronary artery disease in human. This advance has created important clinical applications to coronary artery disease diagnosis and management for areas where myocardial perfusion PET tracers are not available. We present 2 clinical cases that undergone a combined test of 1-day rest/dipyridamole-stress dynamic SPECT and ECG-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT scans using an integrated imaging protocol and demonstrate that flow parameters are capable to conclude equivocal myocardial perfusion SPECT studies, therefore increasing diagnostic benefits to add value in making clinical decisions. PMID:26053731

  14. Utilization and quality of cryopreserved red blood cells in transfusion medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, S.; Noorman, F.; Badloe, J. F.; Lagerberg, J. W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreserved (frozen) red blood cells have been used in transfusion medicine since the Vietnam war. The main method to freeze the red blood cells is by usage of glycerol. Although the usage of cryopreserved red blood cells was promising due to the prolonged storage time and the limited cellular det

  15. Alloimmunization is associated with older age of transfused red blood cells in sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Payal C.; Deal, Allison M.; Pfaff, Emily R.; Qaqish, Bahjat; Hebden, Leyna M.; Park, Yara A.; Ataga, Kenneth I.

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization is a significant clinical complication of sickle cell disease (SCD). It can lead to difficulty with cross-matching for future transfusions and may sometimes trigger life-threatening delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions. We conducted a retrospective study to explore the association of clinical complications and age of RBC with alloimmunization in patients with SCD followed at a single institution from 2005 to 2012. One hundred and sixty six patients with a total of 488 RBC transfusions were evaluated. Nineteen patients (11%) developed new alloantibodies following blood transfusions during the period of review. The median age of RBC units was 20 days (interquartile range: 14–27 days). RBC antibody formation was significantly associated with the age of RBC units (P = 0.002), with a hazard ratio of 3.5 (95% CI: 1.71–7.11) for a RBC unit that was 7 days old and 9.8 (95% CI: 2.66–35.97) for a unit that was 35 days old, 28 days after the blood transfusion. No association was observed between RBC alloimmunization and acute vaso-occlusive complications. Although increased echocardiography-derived tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (TRV) was associated with the presence of RBC alloantibodies (P = 0.02), TRV was not significantly associated with alloimmunization when adjusted for patient age and number of transfused RBC units. Our study suggests that RBC antibody formation is significantly associated with older age of RBCs at the time of transfusion. Prospective studies in patients with SCD are required to confirm this finding. PMID:25963831

  16. MEASUREMENT OF REGIONAL BONE BLOOD FLOW IN THE CANINE MANDIBULAR RAMUS USING RADIOLABELLED TOAD RED BLOOD CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛驰; 王翰章

    1994-01-01

    Toad red blood cells were used to measure regional bone blood flow in the canine mandibular ramus.The blood cells were labelled with sodium pertechnetate and fixed in 10% formalin;they were 22×15 μm in size and had a specific gravity close to that of dog red blood cells.These cells had no discernible effect on systemic hemody-namics after injection,did not agglutinate,were well mixed and evenly distributed throughout the body,and were completely extracted in one circulation through the mandible.The mandibular ramus was divided into six regions,and the blood flow rates in each were found to be similar to those reported in previous studies with radiolabelled carbonized,microspheres.Furthermore,the blood flow distribution pattern of the mandibular ramus determined in this study was identical to that of our previous study using the bone-seeking radionuclide method.We suggest that radiolabelled toad red blood cells are an ideal marker for measuring regional blood flow in the canine mandible.

  17. Cytochemical and functional characterization of blood and inflammatory cells from the lizard Ameiva ameiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberio, Sanny O; Diniz, Jose A; Silva, Edilene O; de Souza, Wanderley; DaMatta, Renato A

    2005-06-01

    The fine structure and differential cell count of blood and coelomic exudate leukocytes were studied with the aim to identify granulocytes from Ameiva ameiva, a lizard distributed in the tropical regions of the Americas. Blood leukocytes were separated with a Percoll cushion and coelomic exudate cells were obtained 24 h after intracoelomic thioglycollate injection. In the blood, erythrocytes, monocytes, thrombocytes, lymphocytes, plasma cells and four types of granulocytes were identified based on their morphology and cytochemistry. Types I and III granulocytes had round intracytoplasmic granules with the same basic morphology; however, type III granulocyte had a bilobued nucleus and higher amounts of heterochromatin suggesting an advance stage of maturation. Type II granulocytes had fusiformic granules and more mitochondria. Type IV granulocytes were classified as the basophil mammalian counterpart based on their morphology and relative number. Macrophages and granulocytes type III were found in the normal coelomic cavity. However, after the thioglycollate injection the number of type III granulocyte increased. Granulocytes found in the coelomic cavity were related to type III blood granulocyte based on the morphology and cytochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase and basic proteins in their intracytoplasmic granules. Differential blood leukocyte counts showed a predominance of type III granulocyte followed by lymphocyte, type I granulocyte, type II granulocyte, monocyte and type IV granulocyte. Taken together, these results indicate that types I and III granulocytes correspond to the mammalian neutrophils/heterophils and type II to the eosinophil granulocytes. PMID:15936356

  18. Isolation of rare tumor cells from blood cells with buoyant immuno-microbubbles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixin Shi

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs are exfoliated at various stages of cancer, and could provide invaluable information for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancers. There is an urgent need for the development of cost-efficient and scalable technologies for rare CTC enrichment from blood. Here we report a novel method for isolation of rare tumor cells from excess of blood cells using gas-filled buoyant immuno-microbubbles (MBs. MBs were prepared by emulsification of perfluorocarbon gas in phospholipids and decorated with anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM antibody. EpCAM-targeted MBs efficiently (85% and rapidly (within 15 minutes bound to various epithelial tumor cells suspended in cell medium. EpCAM-targeted MBs efficiently (88% isolated frequent tumor cells that were spiked at 100,000 cells/ml into plasma-depleted blood. Anti-EpCAM MBs efficiently (>77% isolated rare mouse breast 4T1, human prostate PC-3 and pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 cells spiked into 1, 3 and 7 ml (respectively of plasma-depleted blood. Using EpCAM targeted MBs CTCs from metastatic cancer patients were isolated, suggesting that this technique could be developed into a valuable clinical tool for isolation, enumeration and analysis of rare cells.

  19. Transplantation of human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells to treat a rat model of traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junjian Zhao; Hui Xue; Naiyao Chen; Na Shen; Hui Zhao; Dali Wang; Jun Shi; Yang Wang; Xiufeng Cui; Zhenyu Yan

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells were injected into a rat model of traumatic brain injury via the tail vein. Results showed that 5-bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells aggregated around the injury site, surviving up to 4 weeks post-transplantation. In addition, transplantation-related death did not occur, and neurological functions significantly improved. Histological detection revealed attenuated pathological injury in rat brain tissues following human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cell transplantation. In addition, the number of apoptotic cells decreased. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization showed increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor, along with increased microvessel density in surrounding areas of brain injury. Results demonstrated migration of transplanted human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells into the lesioned boundary zone of rats, as well as increased angiogenesis and expression of related neurotrophic factors in the lesioned boundary zone.

  20. Protective Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Nasturtium officinale on Rat Blood Cells Exposed to Arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felor Zargari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arsenic is one of the most toxic metalloids. Anemia and leukopenia are common results of poisoning with arsenic, which may happen due to a direct hemolytic or cytotoxic effect on blood cells. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Nasturtium officinale on blood cells and antioxidant enzymes in rats exposed to sodium (metaarsenite. Methods: 32 Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups; Group I (normal healthy rats, Group II (treated with 5.5mg/kg of body weight of NaAsO2, Group III (treated with 500mg/kg of body weight of hydro-alcoholic extract of N. officinale, and Group IV (treated with group II and III supplementations. Blood samples were collected and red blood cell, white blood cell, hematocrit, hemoglobin, platelet, total protein and albumin levels and total antioxidant capacity were measured. Data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney U test. Results: WBC, RBC and Hct were decreased in the rats exposed to NaAsO2 (p<0.05. A significant increase was seen in RBC and Hct after treatment with the plant extract (p<0.05. There was no significant decrease in serum albumin and total protein in the groups exposed to NaAsO2 compared to the group I, but NaAsO2 decreased the total antioxidant capacity, significantly. Conclusion: The Nasturtium officinale extract have protective effect on arsenic-induced damage of blood cells.

  1. Proteomic biomarkers of peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from postmenopausal women undergoing an intervention with soy isoflavones

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, D; Vafeiadou, K.; Hall, W.L.; Daniel, H; Williams, C.M.; Schroot, J.H.; Wenzel, U.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The incidence of cardiovascular diseases increases after menopause, and soy consumption is suggested to inhibit disease development. Objective: The objective was to identify biomarkers of response to a dietary supplementation with an isoflavone extract in postmenopausal women by proteome analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Design: The study with healthy postmenopausal woman was performed in a placebo-controlled sequential design. Peripheral mononuclear blood cells were...

  2. Decreased PD-1 positive blood follicular helper T cells in patients with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongyun; Kim, Dae Suk; Kim, Sung Hee; Je, Jung Hwan; Kim, Hee Ju; Young Kim, Do; Kim, Soo Min; Lee, Min-Geol

    2016-10-01

    Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are recently characterized subset of helper T cells, which are initially found in the germinal centers of B cell follicles. The major role of Tfh cells is helping B cell activation and antibody production during humoral immunity. Recently, blood Tfh cells were shown to be associated with autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, bullous pemphigoid and psoriasis. There is only one study which investigated Tfh cells in psoriasis patients. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated and analyzed blood Tfh cells in Korean patients with psoriasis. A total of 28 psoriasis patients and 16 healthy controls were enrolled. The frequency and absolute number of CXCR5(+)PD-1(+) Tfh cells were decreased in patients with psoriasis compared to healthy controls. CD4(+)CXCR5(+) T cells and CXCR5(+)ICOS(+) Tfh cells did not show differences. The frequency and absolute number of CXCR5(+)PD-1(+) Tfh cells in psoriasis patients negatively correlated with erythrocyte sedimentation rate and positively correlated with disease duration. The absolute number of CXCR5(+)ICOS(+) Tfh cells also showed positive correlation with disease duration. However, the subpopulations of Tfh cells did not correlate with Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Serum interleukin-21 level was significantly increased in psoriasis patients compared to healthy controls, however, its level did not correlate with clinical and experimental parameters of psoriasis patients. These findings suggest the decreased function of Tfh cells in psoriasis, which could result in attenuated B cell immune responses in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. However, further investigations are necessary to confirm the function of Tfh cells in psoriasis vulgaris. PMID:27501809

  3. Use of cryopreserved peripheral mononuclear blood cells in biomonitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risom, Lotte; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    1999-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of storing blood samples by freezing on selected biomarkers and possible implications for biomonitoring. Comparative measurements were performed in order to investigate the use of cryopreserved vs. freshly separated peripheral mononuclear blood c...... correlation of frequencies was seen when comparing fresh with cryopreserved samples. Furthermore we recommend fresh human plasma used in UDS incubation media........ We measured the DNA repair activity as dimethylsulfate induced unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in PMBC incubated with either autologous plasma or fetal bovine serum (FBS). Comparison of the hprt mutant frequency by the T cell cloning assay was made in parallel. Finally the content of B....../T-lymphocytes and monocytes was measured in phytohemaglutinin (PHA)-stimulated cultures at different time intervals. The results showed a higher DNA repair activity in cryopreserved samples compared with fresh samples. We also found differences in mutant frequencies with higher values in fresh samples. A significant...

  4. Analysis of White Blood Cell Dynamics in Nailfold Capillaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourquard, Aurélien; Butterworth, Ian; Sánchez-Ferro, Alvaro; Giancardo, Luca; Soenksen, Luis; Cerrato, Carolina; Flores, Rafael; Castro-González, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Based on video data acquired with low-cost, portable microscopy equipment, we introduce a semi-automatic method to count visual gaps in the blood flow as a proxy for white blood cells (WBC) passing through nailfold capillaries. Following minimal user interaction and a pre-processing stage, our method consists in the spatio-temporal segmentation and analysis of capillary profiles. Besides the mere count information, it also estimates the speed associated with every WBC event. The accuracy of our algorithm is validated through the analysis of two capillaries acquired from one healthy subject. Results are compared with manual counts from four human raters and confronted with related physiological data reported in literature. PMID:26738019

  5. β-Receptor-mediated increase in cerebral blood flow during hypoglycemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors tested the hypothesis that β-adrenergic receptor stimulation is involved with the increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during hypoglycemia. Rats were surgically prepared with the use of halothane-nitrous oxide anesthesia. A plaster restraining cast was placed around the hindquarters, and anesthesia was discontinued. Hypoglycemia was produced by an intravenous injection of insulin; normoglycemic control rates were given saline. Propranolol was administered to some control and some hypoglycemic rats to block the β-adrenergic receptors. Regional CBF was measured using 4-[N-methyl-14C]iodoantipyrine. Regional CBF increased during hypoglycemia in rats that were not treated with propranolol. The increase varied from ∼60 to 200% depending on the brain region. During hypoglycemia, propranolol abolished the increase in rCBF in the hypothalamus, cerebellum, and pyramidal tract. In other regions the increase in rCBF was only 33-65% of the increase in hypoglycemic rats that were not treated with propranolol. They conclude that β-receptor stimulation plays a major role in the increase in rCBF during hypoglycemia

  6. beta. -Receptor-mediated increase in cerebral blood flow during hypoglycemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollinger, B.R.; Bryan, R.M. (Pennsylvania State Univ., Hershey (USA))

    1987-10-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that {beta}-adrenergic receptor stimulation is involved with the increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during hypoglycemia. Rats were surgically prepared with the use of halothane-nitrous oxide anesthesia. A plaster restraining cast was placed around the hindquarters, and anesthesia was discontinued. Hypoglycemia was produced by an intravenous injection of insulin; normoglycemic control rates were given saline. Propranolol was administered to some control and some hypoglycemic rats to block the {beta}-adrenergic receptors. Regional CBF was measured using 4-(N-methyl-{sup 14}C)iodoantipyrine. Regional CBF increased during hypoglycemia in rats that were not treated with propranolol. The increase varied from {approximately}60 to 200% depending on the brain region. During hypoglycemia, propranolol abolished the increase in rCBF in the hypothalamus, cerebellum, and pyramidal tract. In other regions the increase in rCBF was only 33-65% of the increase in hypoglycemic rats that were not treated with propranolol. They conclude that {beta}-receptor stimulation plays a major role in the increase in rCBF during hypoglycemia.

  7. Smooth muscle progenitor cells from peripheral blood promote the neovascularization of endothelial colony-forming cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Hyung Joon; Seo, Ha-Rim [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hyo Eun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seung-Cheol; Park, Jae Hyung; Yu, Cheol Woong; Hong, Soon Jun [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Seok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Do-Sun, E-mail: dslmd@kumc.or.kr [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • Two distinct vascular progenitor cells are induced from adult peripheral blood. • ECFCs induce vascular structures in vitro and in vivo. • SMPCs augment the in vitro and in vivo angiogenic potential of ECFCs. • Both cell types have synergistic therapeutic potential in ischemic hindlimb model. - Abstract: Proangiogenic cell therapy using autologous progenitors is a promising strategy for treating ischemic disease. Considering that neovascularization is a harmonized cellular process that involves both endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, peripheral blood-originating endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPCs), which are similar to mature endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, could be attractive cellular candidates to achieve therapeutic neovascularization. We successfully induced populations of two different vascular progenitor cells (ECFCs and SMPCs) from adult peripheral blood. Both progenitor cell types expressed endothelial-specific or smooth muscle-specific genes and markers, respectively. In a protein array focused on angiogenic cytokines, SMPCs demonstrated significantly higher expression of bFGF, EGF, TIMP2, ENA78, and TIMP1 compared to ECFCs. Conditioned medium from SMPCs and co-culture with SMPCs revealed that SMPCs promoted cell proliferation, migration, and the in vitro angiogenesis of ECFCs. Finally, co-transplantation of ECFCs and SMPCs induced robust in vivo neovascularization, as well as improved blood perfusion and tissue repair, in a mouse ischemic hindlimb model. Taken together, we have provided the first evidence of a cell therapy strategy for therapeutic neovascularization using two different types of autologous progenitors (ECFCs and SMPCs) derived from adult peripheral blood.

  8. Isolation and characterisation of peripheral blood-derived feline mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Keiichi; Yamawaki-Ogata, Aika; Kanemoto, Isamu; Usui, Akihiko; Narita, Yuji

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from feline peripheral blood (fPB-MSCs) and to characterise the cells' in vitro properties. The mononuclear cell fractions were isolated from venous blood of cats by density gradient centrifugation and cultured on plastic dishes under various culture conditions to isolate MSCs. When these cells were cultured with 5% autologous plasma (AP) and 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS), adherent spindle shaped fibroblast-like cells (fPB-MSCs) were obtained from 15/22 (68%) cats. These cells were isolated only from medium containing both AP and FBS. The morphology of these MSCs was similar to those isolated from other species and from other feline tissues. fPB-MSCs expanded steadily up to 5-6 passages, but had increased population doubling time during passaging and almost all cells stopped proliferation at passages 7-9. These cells expressed CD44 and CD90, and were mostly negative for major histocompatibility class II and CD4. The cells could be induced to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic cell lineages. These findings indicate that fPB-MSCs can be generated but appear to require specific culture conditions. PMID:27687950

  9. Balance of microtubule stiffness and cortical tension determines the size of blood cells with marginal band across species

    CERN Document Server

    Dmitrieff, Serge; Mathur, Aastha; Nédélec, François

    2016-01-01

    The fast blood stream of animals is associated with large shear stresses. Consequently, blood cells have evolved a special morphology and a specific internal architecture allowing them to maintain their integrity over several weeks. For instance, non-mammalian red blood cells, mammalian erythroblasts and platelets have a peripheral ring of microtubules, called the marginal band, that flattens the overall cell morphology by pushing on the cell cortex. In this article, we model how the shape of these cells stems from the balance between marginal band elasticity and cortical tension. We predict that the diameter of the cell scales with the total microtubule polymer, and verify the predicted law across a wide range of species. Our analysis also shows that the combination of the marginal band rigidity and cortical tension increases the ability of the cell to withstand forces without deformation. Finally, we model the marginal band coiling that occurs during the disc-to-sphere transition observed for instance at th...

  10. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum treatment on radiolabeling of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of in vivo treatment with an aqueous cinnamon extract on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc and on the morphology of red blood cells from Wistar rats. Animals were treated with cinnamon extract at different doses and for different periods of time. As controls, animals treated with 0.9% NaCl. Labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc was performed. Plasma, blood cells and insoluble fractions were isolated. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Also, blood smears were prepared to morphological analysis of red blood cells from. Data showed that in vivo cinnamon extract did not significantly (p>0.05) modify the %ATI of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells. The results suggest that in vivo aqueous cinnamon could not affect the membrane structures involved in transport of ions or the oxidation state of stannous and pertechnetate ions. (author)

  11. Collection, processing and testing of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood and haematopoietic stem cells by European Blood Alliance members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Närhi, M; Natri, O; Desbois, I;

    2013-01-01

    A questionnaire study was carried out in collaboration with the European Blood Alliance (EBA) Tissues and Cells (T&C) working group. The aim was to assess the level of involvement and commonality of processes on the procurement, testing and storage of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood (UCB...

  12. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum treatment on radiolabeling of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benarroz, Monica Oliveira; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]. E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Rocha, Gabrielle de Souza; Pereira, Marcia Oliveira [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Geller, Mauro [Centro Universitario Serra dos Orgaos, Teresopolis, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude; Presta, Giuseppe Antonio [Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Biomedico. Dept. de Fisiologia Humana

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of in vivo treatment with an aqueous cinnamon extract on the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc and on the morphology of red blood cells from Wistar rats. Animals were treated with cinnamon extract at different doses and for different periods of time. As controls, animals treated with 0.9% NaCl. Labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99}mTc was performed. Plasma, blood cells and insoluble fractions were isolated. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Also, blood smears were prepared to morphological analysis of red blood cells from. Data showed that in vivo cinnamon extract did not significantly (p>0.05) modify the %ATI of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells. The results suggest that in vivo aqueous cinnamon could not affect the membrane structures involved in transport of ions or the oxidation state of stannous and pertechnetate ions. (author)

  13. Trophic factor induction of human umbilical cord blood cells in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Kamath, Siddharth; Newcomb, Jennifer; Hudson, Jennifer; Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Bickford, Paula; Davis-Sanberg, Cyndy; Sanberg, Paul; Zigova, Tanja; Willing, Alison

    2007-06-01

    The mononuclear fraction of human umbilical cord blood (HUCBmnf) is a mixed cell population that multiple research groups have shown contains cells that can express neural proteins. In these studies, we have examined the ability of the HUCBmnf to express neural antigens after in vitro exposure to defined media supplemented with a cocktail of growth and neurotrophic factors. It is our hypothesis that by treating the HUCBmnf with these developmentally-relevant factors, we can expand the population, enhance the expression of neural antigens and increase cell survival upon transplantation. Prior to growth factor treatment in culture, expression of stem cell antigens is greater in the non-adherent HUCBmnf cells compared to the adherent cells (p treatment of the non-adherent cells with growth factors, increases BrdU incorporation, especially after 14 days in vitro (DIV). In HUCBmnf-embryonic mouse striata co-culture, a small number of growth factor treated HUCBmnf cells were able to integrate into the growing neural network and express immature (nestin and TuJ1) and mature (GFAP and MAP2) neural markers. Treated HUCBmnf cells implanted in the subventricular zone predominantly expressed GFAP although some grafted HUCBmnf cells were MAP2 positive. While short-term treatment of HUCBmnf cells with growth and neurotrophic factors enhanced proliferative capacity in vitro and survival of the cells in vivo, the treatment regimen employed was not enough to ensure long-term survival of HUCBmnf-derived neurons necessary for cell replacement therapies for neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. Trophic factor induction of human umbilical cord blood cells in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Kamath, Siddharth; Newcomb, Jennifer; Hudson, Jennifer; Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Bickford, Paula; Davis-Sanberg, Cyndy; Sanberg, Paul; Zigova, Tanja; Willing, Alison

    2007-06-01

    The mononuclear fraction of human umbilical cord blood (HUCBmnf) is a mixed cell population that multiple research groups have shown contains cells that can express neural proteins. In these studies, we have examined the ability of the HUCBmnf to express neural antigens after in vitro exposure to defined media supplemented with a cocktail of growth and neurotrophic factors. It is our hypothesis that by treating the HUCBmnf with these developmentally-relevant factors, we can expand the population, enhance the expression of neural antigens and increase cell survival upon transplantation. Prior to growth factor treatment in culture, expression of stem cell antigens is greater in the non-adherent HUCBmnf cells compared to the adherent cells (p cells with growth factors, increases BrdU incorporation, especially after 14 days in vitro (DIV). In HUCBmnf-embryonic mouse striata co-culture, a small number of growth factor treated HUCBmnf cells were able to integrate into the growing neural network and express immature (nestin and TuJ1) and mature (GFAP and MAP2) neural markers. Treated HUCBmnf cells implanted in the subventricular zone predominantly expressed GFAP although some grafted HUCBmnf cells were MAP2 positive. While short-term treatment of HUCBmnf cells with growth and neurotrophic factors enhanced proliferative capacity in vitro and survival of the cells in vivo, the treatment regimen employed was not enough to ensure long-term survival of HUCBmnf-derived neurons necessary for cell replacement therapies for neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Changes in the permeability of blood brain barrier and endothelial cell damage after cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Liu; Jiansheng Li

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of endothelial cells on the permeability of blood brain barrier (BBB) after brain injury and its effect mechanism.DATA SOURCES: We searched for the articles of permeability of BBB and endothelial cell injury after brain ischemia, which were published between January 1982 and December 2005, with the key words of "cerebral ischemia damage,blood brain barrier ( BBB),permeability,effect of endothelial cell (EC) and its variation mechanism"in English.STUDY SELECTION: The materials were primarily selected. The articles related to the changes in the permeability of BBB and the effect of endothelial cells as well as the change mechanism after cerebral ischemia damage were chosen. Repetitive studies or review articles were excluded.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 55 related articles were collected, and 35 were excluded due to repetitive or review articles, finally 20 articles were involved.DATA SYNTHESIS: The content or viewpoints of involved literatures were analyzed. Cerebral ischemia had damage for endothelial cells, such as the inflow of a lot of Ca2+, the production of nitrogen monoxide and oxygen free radical, and aggravated destruction of BBB. After acceptors of inflammatory mediators on cerebrovascular endothelial cell membrane, such as histamine, bradykinin , 5-hydroxytryptamine and so on are activated, endothelial cells shrink and the permeability of BBB increases. Its mechanism involves in the inflow of extracellular Ca2+and the release of intracellular Ca2+ in the cells. Glycocalyx molecule on the surface of endothelial cell, having structural polytropy, is the determinative factor of the permeability of BBB. VEGF, intensively increasing the vasopermeability and mainly effecting on postcapillary vein and veinlet, is the strongest known blood vessel permeation reagent. Its chronic overexpression in the brain can lead the destruction of BBB.CONCLUSION: The injury of endothelial cell participants in the pathological mechanism of BBB

  16. The responses of white blood cells to weight loss among young male judoists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardalan Shariat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was the assessment of white blood cells in response to acute and gradual weight loss among young male judoists. Material and Methods—Twenty four healthy young judoists aged 17.0±1.2 years (mean ± SD, with one year of experience in judo training, selected and they were randomly classified in two groups of acute weight loss and gradual weight loss. Blood sampling was conducted in three stages: 1 before weight loss, 2 18 hours after weight loss, and 3 after the last phase of physical exercise performance tests. Results— The average amount of white blood cells in the phase 2 for both groups didn’t increase meaningfully (Acute: P=0. 53, Gradual: P=0.48 but the increase in the phase 3 for both groups was significant (P<0.01. Conclusion— This study concludes that acute weight loss can result in changing the level of white blood cells which are determined in immunity system and related disease.

  17. Production of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Reprogramming of Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Zia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood cells are the simple, efficient and economical source for the production of induced pluripotent cells. The discovery of induced pluripotent cells was not novel; it was pedestal on the scientific principals and technologies which have been developed over last six decades. These are nuclear transfer and the cloning of Animals, Pluripotent cell lines and fusion hybrids and Transcription Factors and lineage switching. The use of human embryonic stem cells in regenerative medicines was a breakthrough but make use of these cells arise ethical issues as they are obtained from human embryos. An alternative advancement using induced pluripotent stem cells, which mimics the embryonic stem cells has the significant gain that they replaced the embryonic stem cells. The pluripotent cells can be induced from terminally differentiated somatic cells by the Induction of only four defined factors including c-Myc, klf4, Oct4 and Sox2 which are enough to alter the fate of cell.

  18. A novel thymoma-associated immunodeficiency with increased naive T cells and reduced CD247 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulos, Petros; Dopfer, Elaine P; Malkovsky, Miroslav; Esser, Philipp R; Schaefer, Hans-Eckart; Marx, Alexander; Kock, Sylvia; Rupp, Nicole; Lorenz, Myriam R; Schwarz, Klaus; Harder, Jan; Martin, Stefan F; Werner, Martin; Bogdan, Christian; Schamel, Wolfgang W A; Fisch, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The mechanisms underlying thymoma-associated immunodeficiency are largely unknown, and the significance of increased blood γδ Τ cells often remains elusive. In this study we address these questions based on an index patient with thymoma, chronic visceral leishmaniasis, myasthenia gravis, and a marked increase of rare γδ T cell subsets in the peripheral blood. This patient showed cutaneous anergy, even though he had normal numbers of peripheral blood total lymphocytes as well as CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Despite his chronic infection, analyses of immunophenotypes and spectratyping of his lymphocytes revealed an unusual accumulation of naive γδ and αβ T cells, suggesting a generalized T cell activation defect. Functional studies in vitro demonstrated substantially diminished IL-2 and IFN-γ production following TCR stimulation of his "untouched" naive CD4(+) T cells. Biochemical analysis revealed that his γδ and αβ T cells carried an altered TCR complex with reduced amounts of the ζ-chain (CD247). No mutations were found in the CD247 gene that encodes the homodimeric ζ protein. The diminished presence of CD247 and increased numbers of γδ T cells were also observed in thymocyte populations obtained from three other thymoma patients. Thus, our findings describe a novel type of a clinically relevant acquired T cell immunodeficiency in thymoma patients that is distinct from Good's syndrome. Its characteristics are an accumulation of CD247-deficient, hyporresponsive naive γδ and αβ T cells and an increased susceptibility to infections. PMID:25732729

  19. Manipulation of red blood cells with electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboonchi, Hossain; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2009-11-01

    Manipulation of bioparticles and macromolecules is the central task in many biological and biotechnological processes. The current methods for physical manipulation takes advantage of different forces such as acoustic, centrifugal, magnetic, electromagnetic, and electric forces, as well as using optical tweezers or filtration. Among all these methods, however, the electrical forces are particularly attractive because of their favorable scale up with the system size which makes them well-suited for miniaturization. Currently the electric field is used for transportation, poration, fusion, rotation, and separation of biological cells. The aim of the current research is to gain fundamental understanding of the effect of electric field on the human red blood cells (RBCs) using direct numerical simulation. A front tracking/finite difference technique is used to solve the fluid flow and electric field equations, where the fluid in the cell and the blood (plasma) is modeled as Newtonian and incompressible, and the interface separating the two is treated as an elastic membrane. The behavior of RBCs is investigated as a function of the controlling parameters of the problem such as the strength of the electric field.

  20. Lin- CD34hi CD117int/hi FcεRI+ cells in human blood constitute a rare population of mast cell progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Joakim S; Malinovschi, Andrei; Öhrvik, Helena; Sandelin, Martin; Janson, Christer; Alving, Kjell; Hallgren, Jenny

    2016-01-28

    Mast cells are rare tissue-resident immune cells that are involved in allergic reactions, and their numbers are increased in the lungs of asthmatics. Murine lung mast cells arise from committed bone marrow-derived progenitors that enter the blood circulation, migrate through the pulmonary endothelium, and mature in the tissue. In humans, mast cells can be cultured from multipotent CD34(+) progenitor cells. However, a population of distinct precursor cells that give rise to mast cells has remained undiscovered. To our knowledge, this is the first report of human lineage-negative (Lin(-)) CD34(hi) CD117(int/hi) FcεRI(+) progenitor cells, which represented only 0.0053% of the isolated blood cells in healthy individuals. These cells expressed integrin β7 and developed a mast cell-like phenotype, although with a slow cell division capacity in vitro. Isolated Lin(-) CD34(hi) CD117(int/hi) FcεRI(+) blood cells had an immature mast cell-like appearance and expressed high levels of many mast cell-related genes as compared with human blood basophils in whole-transcriptome microarray analyses. Furthermore, serglycin, tryptase, and carboxypeptidase A messenger RNA transcripts were detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Altogether, we propose that the Lin(-) CD34(hi) CD117(int/hi) FcεRI(+) blood cells are closely related to human tissue mast cells and likely constitute an immediate precursor population, which can give rise to predominantly mast cells. Furthermore, asthmatics with reduced lung function had a higher frequency of Lin(-) CD34(hi) CD117(int/hi) FcεRI(+) blood mast cell progenitors than asthmatics with normal lung function.

  1. Histological study of effects of storage duration and temperature on the rabbits blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim K. I. Ragab

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The temperature of the blood and its components during storage or processing is a very important factor affecting hemolysis. During storage, leukocytes break down and release a number of chemicals and enzymes, that have been reported to lysis RBC. With increasing duration of storage, the change of RBC shape becomes permanent. RBCs from different species behave differently during storage. So, this study aimed to investigate the histological effects of storage duration and temperature on the rabbit blood cells. Material and Methods: Blood samples from five adult male healthy rabbits were divided into (Group I stored at 4 for 12 and 48 hours, (Group at a room temperature of about 24 for 12 and 48 hours and (Group at 36 for 12 and 48 hours. Blood films made and stained by Leishman's stain immediately as a control group (A, after 12 hours (B and after 48 hours (C from each group respectively and examined for any morphological changes. Leukocytes counted totally immediately as a control group (A, after 12 hours (B and after 48 hours (C from each group respectively for detection of any histological changes. Results: no morphological changes of red blood cells, leukocytes and platelets of group was observed. The changes of mean of total leukocytic counts of group were non significant. Changes in total leukocytic counts and morphology of red blood cells, leukocytes and platelets of groups and were observed. The morphological degenerative changes of group involved red blood cells, neutrophils and platelets at 12 and 48 hours. The morphological degenerative changes of group involved red blood cells and leukocytes at 12 and 48 hours. The mean of total leukocytic counts of group was significantly decreased at 48 hours while the mean of total leukocytic counts of group was significantly decreased at 12 and 48 hours. Conclusion: blood samples from rabbits should be tested within 12 hours of collection if stored at a room temperature of about 24

  2. Measuring skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution by laser ektacytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, S Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Lugovtsov, A E [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ustinov, V D [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-31

    An algorithm is proposed for measuring the parameters of red blood cell deformability distribution based on laser diffractometry of red blood cells in shear flow (ektacytometry). The algorithm is tested on specially prepared samples of rat blood. In these experiments we succeeded in measuring the mean deformability, deformability variance and skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution with errors of 10%, 15% and 35%, respectively. (laser biophotonics)

  3. Application of information technology may increase the efficacy of Confidential Unit Exclusion (CUE) in blood donors

    OpenAIRE

    Jalalian, Mehrdad; Mahboobi, Hamidreza

    2013-01-01

    Confidential Unit Exclusion (CUE) refers to a procedure by which a blood donor designates confidentially whether his or her blood might not be safe for transfusion. It applies to situations in which an individual who is not eligible for blood donation in terms of blood safety feel pressured by others to donate his or her blood. A potential problem in the CUE system is misunderstanding of the procedure and its significance by blood donors as well as the lack of their confidence regarding the c...

  4. The number of fetal cells in maternal blood is associated to exercise and fetal gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlütter, Jacob Mørup; Kirkegaard, Ida; Christensen, Connie Britta;

    activity was obtained by a questionnaire and a structured interview. The number of fcmbs was assessed in 30 mL blood processed by a proprietary method developed in-house. Fetal cells in the blood, binding to fetal cell specific antibodies, were initially isolated by magnetic cell sorting. The fetal cells...... were then stained with a cocktail of fetal cell-specific antibodies, identified and counted. Results: Participants carrying male fetuses had higher median number of fcmbs per 30 mL blood than those carrying female fetuses (5 vs. 3, p=0.004). Exercise within 3 hours (1.5 vs. 4, p=0.02) and 24 hours (2...... vs. 4, p=0.06) decreased the number of fcmbs, whereas coitus the evening before increased the number (4 vs. 3, p=0.11). Conclusion: The number of fcmbs is affected by normal activities. This should be taken into account when planning collection of fetal cells in connection for prenatal diagnosis...

  5. Manipulation of microparticles and red blood cells using optoelectronic tweezers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Verma; R Dasgupta; N Kumar; S Ahlawat; A Uppal; P K Gupta

    2014-02-01

    We report the development of an optoelectronic tweezers set-up which works by lightinduced dielectrophoresis mechanism to manipulate microparticles. We used thermal evaporation technique for coating the organic polymer, titanium oxide phthalocyanine (TiOPc), as a photoconductive layer on ITO-coated glass slide. Compare to the conventional optical tweezers, the technique requires optical power in W range and provides a manipulation area of a few mm2. The set-up was used to manipulate the polystyrene microspheres and red blood cells (RBCs). The RBCs could be attracted or repelled by varying the frequency of the applied AC bias.

  6. THE PURE RED BLOOD CELL APLASIA IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Dzumabaeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pure red blood cell aplasia of renal transplant recipients caused by parvovirus B19 (PB19 is characterized by persistent anemia which resistant to erythropoietin therapy, lack of reticulocytes, bone marrow hypoplasia, and clinically accompanied by severe recurrent bacterial, fungal and viral infection. In case of reactivation PB19 it is necessarv, first of all, eliminate the causes activation of this virus and to cancel or reduce the dose of drugs which depressed the normal hematopoiesis germs, thus to reduce the pancytopenia associating complications in this population. 

  7. Dynamics of blood cell composition in residents of the techa riverside villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper focused on the analysis of data resulting from 50-year studies involving assessment of the hemopoiesis state in 2,739 Techa riverside residents chronically exposed to radiation in the range from low to intermediate doses. The highest bone marrow doses (mean value: 0.66 Sv) were due to intake of 90Sr in drinking water and local food products, and to external γ-exposure. The status of peripheral blood and bone marrow has been monitored since 1951. Peripheral blood cell counts performed for exposed riverside residents during the period of maximum radiation exposures (1951-1953) displayed a significant (p<0.0001) decrease in the proportion of leukocytes (neutrophils and lymphocytes) and thrombocytes. Peripheral blood erythrocyte count was maintained at the normal level, owing to the efficacy of compensatory processes in the bone marrow, including increased rates of erythrocaryocyte proliferation and maturation. The development of peripheral blood granulocytopenia resulted from delay in the differentiation of neutrophilic bone marrow granulocytes, a marked increase in the frequency of lethal abnormalities in bone marrow neutrophils, pathological mitoses, and activation of apoptosis. The time necessary for the blood cell composition to return to normal varied significantly in different blood cell series, depending on exposure dose-rate, extent of the initial hemopoiesis inhibition and individual physiological characteristics of exposed individuals. Thus, under a combined chronic exposure at equivalent doses to red bone marrow reaching 1.79 Sv, a stable reduction of neutrophil, thrombocyte and lymphocyte counts was observed. Neutrophilic granulocyte series were noted to require the longest time (12-17 years) to recover. (author)

  8. Blood Cell Palmitoleate-Palmitate Ratio Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Henriques

    Full Text Available Growing evidence supports a link between fatty acid metabolism and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Here we determined the fatty acid composition of blood lipids to identify markers of disease progression and survival. We enrolled 117 patients from two clinical centers and 48 of these were age and gender matched with healthy volunteers. We extracted total lipids from serum and blood cells, and separated fatty acid methyl esters by gas chromatography. We measured circulating biochemical parameters indicative of the metabolic status. Association between fatty acid composition and clinical readouts was studied, including ALS functional rating scale-revised (ALSFRS-R, survival, disease duration, site of onset and body mass index. Palmitoleate (16:1 and oleate (18:1 levels, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase indices (16:1/16:0 and 18:1/18:0 significantly increased in blood cells from ALS patients compared to healthy controls. Palmitoleate levels and 16:1/16:0 ratio in blood cells, but not body mass index or leptin concentrations, negatively correlated with ALSFRS-R decline over a six-month period (p<0.05. Multivariate Cox analysis, with age, body mass index, site of onset and ALSFRS-R as covariables, showed that blood cell 16:1/16:0 ratio was an independent prognostic factor for survival (hazard ratio=0.1 per unit of ratio, 95% confidence interval=0.01-0.57, p=0.009. In patients with high 16:1/16:0 ratio, survival at blood collection was extended by 10 months, as compared to patients with low ratio. The 16:1/16:0 index is an easy-to-handle parameter that predicts survival of ALS patients independently of body mass index. It therefore deserves further validation in larger cohorts for being used to assess disease outcome and effects of disease-modifying drugs.

  9. Erythropoietin withdrawal alters interactions between young red blood cells, splenic endothelial cells, and macrophages: an in vitro model of neocytolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trial, J.; Rice, L.; Alfrey, C. P.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have described the rapid destruction of young red blood cells (neocytolysis) in astronauts adapting to microgravity, in polycythemic high altitude dwellers who descend to sea level, and in patients with kidney disorders. This destruction results from a decrease in erythropoietin (EPO) production. We hypothesized that such EPO withdrawal could trigger physiological changes in cells other than red cell precursors and possibly lead to the uptake and destruction of young red cells by altering endothelial cell-macrophage interactions, most likely occurring in the spleen. METHODS: We identified EPO receptors on human splenic endothelial cells (HSEC) and investigated the responses of these cells to EPO withdrawal. RESULTS: A monolayer of HSEC, unlike human endothelial cells from aorta, glomerulus, or umbilical vein, demonstrated an increase in permeability upon EPO withdrawal that was accompanied by unique morphological changes. When HSEC were cultured with monocyte-derived macrophages (but not when either cell type was cultured alone), EPO withdrawal induced an increased ingestion of young red cells by macrophages when compared with the constant presence or absence of EPO. CONCLUSIONS: HSEC may represent a unique cell type that is able to respond to EPO withdrawal by increasing permeability and interacting with phagocytic macrophages, which leads to neocytolysis.

  10. Simple exercises that significantly increase cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygenation

    CERN Document Server

    Gersten, Alexander; Raz, Amir; Fried, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that simple exercises may significantly increase cerebral blood flow (CBF) and/or cerebral oxygenation. Eighteen subjects ranging in age from nineteen to thirty nine participated in a four-stage study during which measurements of end tidal CO_2 (EtCO2 - by capnometer) and local brain oxygenation (by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) sensor) were taken. The four stages were 1) baseline, 2) breathing exercises, 3) solving an arithmetic problem, and 4) biofeedback. During the breathing exercises there was a significant increase in EtCO2 indicating a significant increase in global CBF. The increase in global CBF was estimated on the basis of a theoretical model. During the arithmetic and biofeedback tasks there was a significant increase in the local (Fp1) oxygenation, but it varied between the different participants. The results may lead to new clinical applications of CBF and brain oxygenation monitoring and behavioral control. We foresee future more detailed investigations in the contr...

  11. Stem and progenitor cells in biostructure of blood vessel walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Korta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of vascular and hematopoietic systems during organogenesis occurs at the same time. During vasculogenesis, a small part of cells does not undergo complete differentiation but stays on this level, “anchored” in tissue structures described as stem cell niches. The presence of blood vessels within tissue stem cell niches is typical and led to identification of niches and ensures that they are functioning. The three-layer biostructure of vessel walls for artery and vein, tunica: intima, media and adventitia, for a long time was defined as a mechanical barrier between vessel light and the local tissue environment. Recent findings from vascular biology studies indicate that vessel walls are dynamic biostructures, which are equipped with stem and progenitor cells, described as vascular wall-resident stem cells/progenitor cells (VW-SC/PC. Distinct zones for vessel wall harbor heterogeneous subpopulations of VW-SC/PC, which are described as “subendothelial or vasculogenic zones”. Recent evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies show that prenatal activity of stem and progenitor cells is not only limited to organogenesis but also exists in postnatal life, where it is responsible for vessel wall homeostasis, remodeling and regeneration. It is believed that VW-SC/PC could be engaged in progression of vascular disorders and development of neointima. We would like to summarize current knowledge about mesenchymal and progenitor stem cell phenotype with special attention to distribution and biological properties of VW-SC/PC in biostructures of intima, media and adventitia niches. It is postulated that in the near future, niches for VW-SC/PC could be a good source of stem and progenitor cells, especially in the context of vessel tissue bioengineering as a new alternative to traditional revascularization therapies.

  12. A micro-scale simulation of red blood cell passage through symmetric and asymmetric bifurcated vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Tong; Xing, Zhongwen

    2016-01-01

    Blood exhibits a heterogeneous nature of hematocrit, velocity, and effective viscosity in microcapillaries. Microvascular bifurcations have a significant influence on the distribution of the blood cells and blood flow behavior. This paper presents a simulation study performed on the two-dimensionalmotions and deformation of multiple red blood cells in microvessels with diverging and converging bifurcations. Fluid dynamics and membrane mechanics were incorporated. Effects of cell shape, hematocrit, and deformability of the cell membrane on rheological behavior of the red blood cells and the hemodynamics have been investigated. It was shown that the blood entering the daughter branch with a higher flow rate tended to receive disproportionally more cells. The results also demonstrate that red blood cells in microvessels experienced lateral migration in the parent channel and blunted velocity profiles in both straight section and daughter branches, and this effect was influenced by the shape and the initial posit...

  13. Influence of red blood cell concentration on the initiation time of blood coagulation: risk of thrombus formation in pregnant females with anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagesaka, Toshiaki; Juen, Hiroyasu; Hayashi, Masatoshi

    2007-01-01

    The influence of a change in red blood cell (RBC) concentration on the initiation time of blood coagulation (Ti) in pregnant and non-pregnant females was investigated using a damped oscillation rheometer to evaluate the risk of hemorrhagic tendency or thrombus formation. The blood samples from 40 female volunteers (20 pregnants and 20 non-pregnants) were examined. After centrifuging some portion of each blood sample, an appropriate volume was taken from the RBC layer to make an artificially diluted blood, or to add it to the autologous blood, making an artificially concentrated blood. The Ti of non-pregnant females was significantly reduced with increasing the RBC concentration from 3.75+/-0.25 to (5.75+/-0.25)x10(6)/mm(3). However, the Ti of pregnant females showed almost no change in the RBC concentrations from 3.25+/-0.25 to (5.25+/-0.25)x10(6)/mm(3). These results suggest that RBC concentration plays an important role in accelerating the initial coagulation reaction of blood of non-pregnant females and that a hypercoagulant condition caused by pregnancy conceals the effect that changes in RBC concentration have in pregnant females. PMID:17325439

  14. Cardiovascular responses to lead are biphasic, while methylmercury, but not inorganic mercury, monotonically increases blood pressure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemann, Tanja M; Mirhosseini, Naghmeh; Siciliano, Steven D; Weber, Lynn P

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, such as heart attack and stroke, are the major cause of death worldwide. It is well known that a high number of environmental and physiological risk factors contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Although risk factors are additive, increased blood pressure (hypertension) is the greatest risk factor. Over the last two decades, a growing number of epidemiological studies associate environmental exposure to lead or mercury species with hypertension. However, cardiovascular effects beyond blood pressure are rarely studied and thresholds for effect are not yet clear. To explore effects of lead or mercury species on the cardiovascular system, normal male Wistar rats were exposed to a range of doses of lead, inorganic mercury or methylmercury through the drinking water for four weeks. High-resolution ultrasound was used to measure heart and vascular function (carotid artery blood flow) at baseline and at the end of the exposure, while blood pressure was measured directly in the femoral artery at the end of the 4-week exposure. After 4 weeks, blood pressure responses to lead were biphasic. Low lead levels decreased blood pressure, dilated the carotid artery and increased cardiac output. At higher lead doses, rats had increased blood pressure. In contrast, methylmercury-exposed rats had increased blood pressure at all doses despite dilated carotid arteries. Inorganic mercury did not show any significant cardiovascular effects. Based on the current study, the benchmark dose level 10% (BMDL10s) for systolic blood pressure for lead, inorganic mercury and methylmercury are 1.1, 1.3 and 1.0 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively. However, similar total mercury blood levels attributed to inorganic mercury or methylmercury produced strikingly different results with inorganic mercury having no observable effect on the cardiovascular system but methylmercury increasing systolic and pulse pressures. Therefore, adverse cardiovascular effects cannot be

  15. Traumatic ghost cell glaucoma with successful resolution of corneal blood staining following pars Plana vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Alamri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghost cell glaucoma (GCG was first described in 1976. It is a type of a secondary open angle glaucoma, which occurs following long-standing vitreous hemorrhage. The ghost cells are rigid and less pliable than fresh red blood cells; therefore, they may cause direct obstruction of the trabecular meshwork and secondary increase in the intraocular pressure (IOP. This case report presents the diagnosis and management of a rare case of traumatic GCG after vitreous hemorrhage in a phakic child. Pars plana vitrectomy was done after unsuccessful medical therapy and the diagnosis was confirmed by cytopathology. Surprisingly, spontaneous resolution of the corneal blood staining occurred. The outcome in this case was favorable with controlled IOP in the affected eye.

  16. Cytomegalovirus infection is associated with an increase in systolic blood pressure in older individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, C.; Harrison, R.; Ritchie, S.; Wardlaw, J.; Ferro, C.J.; Starr, J.M.; Deary, I.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a chronic infection that is widely distributed in the population. CMV infects a range of tissues, including endothelium, and viral replication is suppressed by the host immune system. Infection is associated with increased risk of mortality from vascular disease in older people, but the mechanisms behind this have not been determined. Aim: We investigated the association between CMV infection and cardiovascular phenotype in a cohort of healthy elderly donors. Design: CMV serostatus and cardiovascular parameters were determined in the Lothian Birth cohort, which comprises 1091 individuals aged 70 years in whom many environmental, biochemical and radiological correlates of vascular function have been determined. Methods: CMV serostatus was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay and correlated with a range of biochemical and phenotypic measures. Results: Sixty-five percent of participants were CMV seropositive, which indicates chronic infection. The mean sitting systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 149.2 mmHg in CMV seropositive individuals compared with 146.2 mmHg in CMV seronegative subjects (SD 18.7 vs. 19.7; P obesity, diabetes or high salt intake. This is the first evidence to show that a chronic infection may be an important determinant of blood pressure and could have significant implications for the future management of hypertension. PMID:27071749

  17. Could cells from menstrual blood be a new source for cell-based therapies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Man-Jing; Liu, Bin; Xia, Wei; Sun, Zhi-Yong; Lu, Kai-Hua

    2009-03-01

    Human endometrium is a highly regenerative tissue and contains a low number of cells which have high replicative ability and differentiation efficiency. This has been identified by many scientists. When the fresh growth of tissue and blood vessels is shed during each menstrual cycle, some cells with regenerative capabilities are present. Reports have also indicated that these cells possess the capacity to trans-differentiate into mesodermal, ectodermal and endodermal lineages by using standard commercially available culture reagents and methodologies. Given the ease of extraction and pluripotency of this cell population, we propose it as a novel alternative to current cells sources for cell-based therapies. PMID:19101090

  18. Blood analyte sensing using fluorescent dye-loaded red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Sarah C.; Shao, Xiaole; Cooley, Nicholas; Milanick, Mark A.; Glass, Timothy E.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2014-02-01

    Measurement of blood analytes provides crucial information about a patient's health. Some such analytes, such as glucose in the case of diabetes, require long-term or near-continuous monitoring for proper disease management. However, current monitoring techniques are far from ideal: multiple-per-day finger stick tests are inconvenient and painful for the patient; implantable sensors have short functional life spans (i.e., 3-7 days). Due to analyte transporters on red blood cell (RBC) membranes that equilibrate intracellular and extracellular analyte levels, RBCs serve as an attractive alternative for encapsulating analyte sensors. Once reintroduced to the blood stream, the functionalized RBCs may continue to live for the remainder of their life span (120 days for humans). They are biodegradable and biocompatible, thereby eliminating the immune system response common for many implanted devices. The proposed sensing system utilizes the ability of the RBCs to swell in response to a decrease in the osmolarity of the extracellular solution. Just before lysis, they develop small pores on the scale of tens of nanometers. While at low temperature, analyte-sensitive dyes in the extracellular solution diffuse into the perforated RBCs and become entrapped upon restoration of temperature and osmolarity. Since the fluorescent signal from the entrapped dye reports on changes in the analyte level of the extracellular solution via the RBC transporters, interactions between the RBCs and the dye are critical to the efficacy of this technique. In this work, we study the use of a near infrared pH sensitive dye encapsulated within RBCs and assess the ability to measure dye fluorescence in vivo.

  19. Historical time trends in red blood cell usage in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Hoeven LR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Loan R van Hoeven,1,2 Maria MW Koopman,3 Hendrik Koffijberg,4 Kit CB Roes,1 Mart P Janssen1,2 1Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, 2Transfusion Technology Assessment Department, Sanquin Research, 3Department of Transfusion Medicine, Sanquin Blood Bank, Amsterdam, 4Department of Health Technology and Services Research, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands Background: While the number of hospitalized patients in Dutch hospitals has increased since 1997, the demand for red blood cell units (RBCs has simultaneously decreased. This implies a dramatic change in transfusion practice toward fewer blood transfusions on average per patient.Objectives: In order to explain the RBC reduction, different patient groups (surgical, medical, obstetrical, and specific age groups were studied retrospectively in relation to RBC use. In addition, the use of combinations of RBCs, fresh frozen plasma, and platelets during a transfusion episode was examined for trends over time.Materials and methods: Data from the PROTON database, containing information on all transfusions in twelve Dutch hospitals in the period 1996–2005, including corresponding patient data (age, diagnosis, treatment, and hospitalizations and blood unit data (type, amount, and date were analyzed.Results: The proportion of RBCs used for surgical patients declined from 50% in 1996 to 40% in 2005, whereas medical use increased from 47% to 58% (the remaining 2%–3% went to obstetrical patients. Changes were more marked in the higher age groups. Also, a trend was observed toward the use of only one or two RBCs during a transfusion episode rather than three or more. Among surgical patients who received blood, the use of combinations of blood units, as compared to RBCs only, increased from 32% to 39%.Conclusion: The results suggest a more restrictive transfusion policy

  20. Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: In vitro assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99 m(99mTc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with 99mTc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p99mTc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon

  1. Autologous Doping with Cryopreserved Red Blood Cells - Effects on Physical Performance and Detection by Multivariate Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Christer B; Khoo, Nelson S; Granlund, Irene; Lindstedt, Emilia; Hult, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of erythropoietin (EPO) simplified blood doping in sports, but improved detection methods, for EPO has forced cheating athletes to return to blood transfusion. Autologous blood transfusion with cryopreserved red blood cells (RBCs) is the method of choice, because no valid method exists to accurately detect such event. In endurance sports, it can be estimated that elite athletes improve performance by up to 3% with blood doping, regardless of method. Valid detection methods for autologous blood doping is important to maintain credibility of athletic performances. Recreational male (N = 27) and female (N = 11) athletes served as Transfusion (N = 28) and Control (N = 10) subjects in two different transfusion settings. Hematological variables and physical performance were measured before donation of 450 or 900 mL whole blood, and until four weeks after re-infusion of the cryopreserved RBC fraction. Blood was analyzed for transferrin, iron, Hb, EVF, MCV, MCHC, reticulocytes, leucocytes and EPO. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and pattern recognition using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Orthogonal Projections of Latent Structures (OPLS) discriminant analysis (DA) investigated differences between Control and Transfusion groups over time. Significant increase in performance (15 ± 8%) and VO2max (17 ± 10%) (mean ± SD) could be measured 48 h after RBC re-infusion, and remained increased for up to four weeks in some subjects. In total, 533 blood samples were included in the study (Clean = 220, Transfused = 313). In response to blood transfusion, the largest change in hematological variables occurred 48 h after blood donation, when Control and Transfused groups could be separated with OPLS-DA (R2 = 0.76/Q2 = 0.59). RBC re-infusion resulted in the best model (R2 = 0.40/Q2 = 0.10) at the first sampling point (48 h), predicting one false positive and one false negative. Over all, a 25% and 86% false positives ratio was

  2. Autologous Doping with Cryopreserved Red Blood Cells - Effects on Physical Performance and Detection by Multivariate Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Christer B; Khoo, Nelson S; Granlund, Irene; Lindstedt, Emilia; Hult, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of erythropoietin (EPO) simplified blood doping in sports, but improved detection methods, for EPO has forced cheating athletes to return to blood transfusion. Autologous blood transfusion with cryopreserved red blood cells (RBCs) is the method of choice, because no valid method exists to accurately detect such event. In endurance sports, it can be estimated that elite athletes improve performance by up to 3% with blood doping, regardless of method. Valid detection methods for autologous blood doping is important to maintain credibility of athletic performances. Recreational male (N = 27) and female (N = 11) athletes served as Transfusion (N = 28) and Control (N = 10) subjects in two different transfusion settings. Hematological variables and physical performance were measured before donation of 450 or 900 mL whole blood, and until four weeks after re-infusion of the cryopreserved RBC fraction. Blood was analyzed for transferrin, iron, Hb, EVF, MCV, MCHC, reticulocytes, leucocytes and EPO. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and pattern recognition using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Orthogonal Projections of Latent Structures (OPLS) discriminant analysis (DA) investigated differences between Control and Transfusion groups over time. Significant increase in performance (15 ± 8%) and VO2max (17 ± 10%) (mean ± SD) could be measured 48 h after RBC re-infusion, and remained increased for up to four weeks in some subjects. In total, 533 blood samples were included in the study (Clean = 220, Transfused = 313). In response to blood transfusion, the largest change in hematological variables occurred 48 h after blood donation, when Control and Transfused groups could be separated with OPLS-DA (R2 = 0.76/Q2 = 0.59). RBC re-infusion resulted in the best model (R2 = 0.40/Q2 = 0.10) at the first sampling point (48 h), predicting one false positive and one false negative. Over all, a 25% and 86% false positives ratio was

  3. Identification of myeloid derived suppressor cells in the peripheral blood of tumor bearing dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherger Matthew

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs are a recently described population of immune cells that significantly contribute to the immunosuppression seen in cancer patients. MDSCs are one of the most important factors that limit the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy (e.g. cancer vaccines and MDSC levels are increased in cancer in multiple species. Identifying and targeting MDSCs is actively being investigated in the field of human oncology and is increasingly being investigated in veterinary oncology. The treatment of canine cancer not only benefits dogs, but is being used for translational studies evaluating and modifcying candidate therapies for use in humans. Thus, it is necessary to understand the immune alterations seen in canine cancer patients which, to date, have been relatively limited. This study investigates the use of commercially available canine antibodies to detect an immunosuppressive (CD11blow/CADO48low cell population that is increased in the peripheral blood of tumor-bearing dogs. Results Commercially available canine antibodies CD11b and CADO48A were used to evaluate white blood cells from the peripheral blood cells of forty healthy control dogs and forty untreated, tumor-bearing dogs. Tumor-bearing dogs had a statistically significant increase in CD11blow/CADO48Alow cells (7.9% as compared to the control dogs (3.6%. Additionally, sorted CD11blow/CADO48Alow generated in vitro suppressed the proliferation of canine lymphocytes. Conclusions The purpose of this study was aimed at identifying potential canine specific markers for identifying MDSCs in the peripheral blood circulation of dogs. This study demonstrates an increase in a unique CD11blow/CADO48Alow cell population in tumor-bearing dogs. This immunophenotype is consistent with described phenotypes of MDSCs in other species (i.e. mice and utilizes commercially available canine-specific antibodies. Importantly, CD11blow/CADO48Alow from a tumor environment

  4. SALMON SOFT ROE DNA ON BLOOD CELLS SECRETION OF CYTOKINES IN HEALTHY DONORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Fedjanina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Salmon soft roe DNA influence on healthy donors blood cells secretion of early hemopoietic factors (IL-3, GM-CSF, TNFα as well as biologically active substance influence on cytokine balance of Тh1 and Тh2 responses (IFNγ, IL-10 in vitro was studied. It is established, that DNA has modulatory effect on secretion of all investigated cytokines - IL-3, GM-CSF, TNFα, INFγ and IL-10 by blood cells of healthy donors, increases their initially low concentration, reduces initially high and does not have essential influence at an average level of their secretion. Under action of DNA IFNγ level (stimulation index=3,3 increases more significantly than IL-10 level (stimulation index =1,9. Thus, salmon soft roe DNA possesses immunomodulatory properties.

  5. Indomethacin abolishes cerebral blood flow increase in response to acetazolamide-induced extracellular acidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Paulson, O B; Lassen, N A

    1993-01-01

    Indomethacin is known to attenuate quite markedly the increase in CBF during hypercapnia. Hypercapnia is, in all likelihood, mediated by the acid shift at the level of the smooth muscle cells of the cerebral arterioles. We therefore investigated the effect of indomethacin on the CBF increase caused...... by acetazolamide (Az), a drug that induces brain extracellular acidosis, which triggers its effect on CBF. We compared the results to the inhibitory effect of indomethacin on the CBF increase during hypercapnia. Indomethacin but not diclofenac, another potent cyclooxygenase inhibitor, was found to block almost...

  6. Stroke increases neural stem cells and angiogenesis in the neurogenic niche of the adult mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Lan Zhang

    Full Text Available The unique cellular and vascular architecture of the adult ventricular-subventricular zone (V/SVZ neurogenic niche plays an important role in regulating neural stem cell function. However, the in vivo identification of neural stem cells and their relationship to blood vessels within this niche in response to stroke remain largely unknown. Using whole-mount preparation of the lateral ventricle wall, we examined the architecture of neural stem cells and blood vessels in the V/SVZ of adult mouse over the course of 3 months after onset of focal cerebral ischemia. Stroke substantially increased the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP positive neural stem cells that are in contact with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF via their apical processes at the center of pinwheel structures formed by ependymal cells residing in the lateral ventricle. Long basal processes of these cells extended to blood vessels beneath the ependymal layer. Moreover, stroke increased V/SVZ endothelial cell proliferation from 2% in non-ischemic mice to 12 and 15% at 7 and 14 days after stroke, respectively. Vascular volume in the V/SVZ was augmented from 3% of the total volume prior to stroke to 6% at 90 days after stroke. Stroke-increased angiogenesis was closely associated with neuroblasts that expanded to nearly encompass the entire lateral ventricular wall in the V/SVZ. These data indicate that stroke induces long-term alterations of the neural stem cell and vascular architecture of the adult V/SVZ neurogenic niche. These post-stroke structural changes may provide insight into neural stem cell mediation of stroke-induced neurogenesis through the interaction of neural stem cells with proteins in the CSF and their sub-ependymal neurovascular interaction.

  7. Age-related alteration in the composition of immunocompetent blood cells in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1328 survivors of Hiroshima were studied for alterations in the number of blood lymphocytes belonging to T-cell subpopulations, CD19 antigen-positive B cells and Leu 7 and CD16 antigen-positive lymphocytes. With increasing age, significant decreasing trends in the numbers of some lymphocytes in T-cell subpopulations and of B-cells were seen. The number of blood lymphocytes positive for CD5 antigen was significantly lower in those exposed to radiation (> 1Gy) in the older age group (more than 30 years at the time of bombing) and a similar tendency for decreases in the numbers of CD4, CD8, and CD19 antigen-positive cells was observed, but differences were not significant. The results suggest aging of the T-cell related immune system is accelerated in the irradiated people of advanced age, explained by the age-related decrease in thymic function in those subjects. The number of Leu 7 or CD19 antigen-positive cells was found to be increased significantly in the older age group compared to the younger, although there was little dose dependence. (U.K.)

  8. Glucagon-like peptide-2 increases mesenteric blood flow in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremholm, Lasse; Hornum, Mads; Henriksen, Birthe Merete;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mesenteric blood flow is believed to be influenced by digestion and absorption of ingested macronutrients. We hypothesized that the intestinotrophic hormone, GLP-2 (glucagons-like peptide 2), may be involved in the regulation of mesenteric blood flow. Changes in mesenteric blood flow...

  9. Intracellular levels of calmodulin are increased in transformed cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; HONGQINGZHANG; 等

    1992-01-01

    By using Hoechst 33342,rabbit anti calmodulin antibody,FITC-labeled goat anti rabbit IgG and SR101(sulfo rhodamine 101)simultaneously to stain individual normal and transformed cells,the microspectrophotometric analysis demonstrated that 3 markers which represented the nucleus,calmodulin and total protein respectively,could be recognized in individualj cells without interference,The phase of the cell cycle was determined by DNA content(Hoechst 33342),We found that in transformed cells(NIH3T3) tsRSV-LA90,cultured at 33℃ and transformed C3H10T1/2 Cells),the ration of calmodulin to total protein (based on the phases of cell cycle)was higher than that in normal cells (NIH3T3 tsRSV-LA90 cells,cultured at 39℃ and C3H10T1/2 cells)in every cell cycle phase,This ration increased obviously only from G1 to S phase in either normal or transformed cells.The results showed that calmodulinreally increased during the transformation,and its increase was specific.In the meantime when cells proceeded from G1 to S.the intraceollular calmodulin content also increased specifically.

  10. Detection and quantification of subtle changes in red blood cell density using a cell phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Edward J; Velasquez, Anthony; Lu, Shulin; Murphy, Ryann O; ElKhal, Abdala; Mazor, Ofer; Gorelik, Pavel; Sharda, Anish; Ghiran, Ionita C

    2016-08-16

    Magnetic levitation has emerged as a technique that offers the ability to differentiate between cells with different densities. We have developed a magnetic levitation system for this purpose that distinguishes not only different cell types but also density differences in cells of the same type. This small-scale system suspends cells in a paramagnetic medium in a capillary placed between two rare earth magnets, and cells levitate to an equilibrium position determined solely by their density. Uniform reference beads of known density are used in conjunction with the cells as a means to quantify their levitation positions. In one implementation images of the levitating cells are acquired with a microscope, but here we also introduce a cell phone-based device that integrates the magnets, capillary, and a lens into a compact and portable unit that acquires images with the phone's camera. To demonstrate the effectiveness of magnetic levitation in cell density analysis we carried out levitation experiments using red blood cells with artificially altered densities, and also levitated those from donors. We observed that we can distinguish red blood cells of an anemic donor from those that are healthy. Since a plethora of disease states are characterized by changes in cell density magnetic cell levitation promises to be an effective tool in identifying and analyzing pathologic states. Furthermore, the low cost, portability, and ease of use of the cell phone-based system may potentially lead to its deployment in low-resource environments. PMID:27431921

  11. Measurement of the nonlinear elasticity of red blood cell membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongkeun; Best, Catherine A.; Kuriabova, Tatiana; Henle, Mark L.; Feld, Michael S.; Levine, Alex J.; Popescu, Gabriel

    2011-05-01

    The membranes of human red blood cells (RBCs) are a composite of a fluid lipid bilayer and a triangular network of semiflexible filaments (spectrin). We perform cellular microrheology using the dynamic membrane fluctuations of the RBCs to extract the elastic moduli of this composite membrane. By applying known osmotic stresses, we measure the changes in the elastic constants under imposed strain and thereby determine the nonlinear elastic properties of the membrane. We find that the elastic nonlinearities of the shear modulus in tensed RBC membranes can be well understood in terms of a simple wormlike chain model. Our results show that the elasticity of the spectrin network can mostly account for the area compression modulus at physiological osmolality, suggesting that the lipid bilayer has significant excess area. As the cell swells, the elastic contribution from the now tensed lipid membrane becomes dominant.

  12. Red blood cell cluster separation from digital images for use in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Hidalgo, Manuel; Guerrero-Peña, F A; Herold-García, S; Jaume-I-Capó, Antoni; Marrero-Fernández, P D

    2015-07-01

    The study of cell morphology is an important aspect of the diagnosis of some diseases, such as sickle cell disease, because red blood cell deformation is caused by these diseases. Due to the elongated shape of the erythrocyte, ellipse adjustment and concave point detection are applied widely to images of peripheral blood samples, including during the detection of cells that are partially occluded in the clusters generated by the sample preparation process. In the present study, we propose a method for the analysis of the shape of erythrocytes in peripheral blood smear samples of sickle cell disease, which uses ellipse adjustments and a new algorithm for detecting notable points. Furthermore, we apply a set of constraints that allow the elimination of significant image preprocessing steps proposed in previous studies. We used three types of images to validate our method: artificial images, which were automatically generated in a random manner using a computer code; real images from peripheral blood smear sample images that contained normal and elongated erythrocytes; and synthetic images generated from real isolated cells. Using the proposed method, the efficiency of detecting the two types of objects in the three image types exceeded 99.00%, 98.00%, and 99.35%, respectively. These efficiency levels were superior to the results obtained with previously proposed methods using the same database, which is available at http://erythrocytesidb.uib.es/. This method can be extended to clusters of several cells and it requires no user inputs. PMID:25216490

  13. Short-term meditation increases blood flow in anterior cingulate cortex and insula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Yuan eTang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetry in frontal electrical activity has been reported to be associated with positive mood. One form of mindfulness meditation, integrative body-mind training (IBMT improves positive mood and neuroplasticity. The purpose of this study is to determine whether short-term IBMT improves mood and induces frontal asymmetry. This study showed that five-day (30-min per day IBMT significantly enhanced cerebral blood flow (CBF in subgenual/adjacent ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, medial prefrontal cortex and insula. The results showed that both IBMT and relaxation training increased left laterality of CBF, but only IBMT improved CBF in left ACC and insula, critical brain areas in self-regulation.

  14. Red cell antigen prevalence predicted by molecular testing in ethnic groups of South Texas blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Lorena I; Smith, Linda A; Jones, Scott; Beddard, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and Scianna. Donors tested to be group 0 or A were serologically tested for the Rh (C, E, c, e) antigens. Those that tested as presumably R1R1, R2R2, or Ror were then genotyped. Donors constituted three major ethnicities: black (18.3%), Hispanic (36.3%), and Caucasian (41.1%); ethnicities comprised of Asian, American Indian, multiracial, and other accounted for the remaining donors (4.3%). The most likely common Rh phenotype for each ethnicity is as follows: black -Ror (44.4%), Hispanic -R1R1 (59.0%), and Caucasian -R1R1 (38.9%). The prevalence of Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group system antigens in black and Caucasian donors is comparable with published reports for the entire U.S. The black South Texas donor population had an 8.8 percent increase in prevalence of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype as compared with these published reports; the Hispanic South Texas donor population had a prevalence of 36.1 percent of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype. Regarding the Diego blood group system, the Hispanic donor population in South Texas had a prevalence of 93.5 percent for the Di(a-b+) phenotype as compared with published reports for the entire U.S. (>99.9%). The Hispanic population had a prevalence of 7.9 percent of donors testing as M-N+S-s+ as compared with 20.2 percent and 15.6 percent for black and Caucasian donors, respectively. This study helped us determine the prevalence of each of the blood group antigens in the South Texas donor population to establish and maintain adequate rare inventory of

  15. Red cell antigen prevalence predicted by molecular testing in ethnic groups of South Texas blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Lorena I; Smith, Linda A; Jones, Scott; Beddard, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and Scianna. Donors tested to be group 0 or A were serologically tested for the Rh (C, E, c, e) antigens. Those that tested as presumably R1R1, R2R2, or Ror were then genotyped. Donors constituted three major ethnicities: black (18.3%), Hispanic (36.3%), and Caucasian (41.1%); ethnicities comprised of Asian, American Indian, multiracial, and other accounted for the remaining donors (4.3%). The most likely common Rh phenotype for each ethnicity is as follows: black -Ror (44.4%), Hispanic -R1R1 (59.0%), and Caucasian -R1R1 (38.9%). The prevalence of Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group system antigens in black and Caucasian donors is comparable with published reports for the entire U.S. The black South Texas donor population had an 8.8 percent increase in prevalence of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype as compared with these published reports; the Hispanic South Texas donor population had a prevalence of 36.1 percent of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype. Regarding the Diego blood group system, the Hispanic donor population in South Texas had a prevalence of 93.5 percent for the Di(a-b+) phenotype as compared with published reports for the entire U.S. (>99.9%). The Hispanic population had a prevalence of 7.9 percent of donors testing as M-N+S-s+ as compared with 20.2 percent and 15.6 percent for black and Caucasian donors, respectively. This study helped us determine the prevalence of each of the blood group antigens in the South Texas donor population to establish and maintain adequate rare inventory of

  16. 76 FR 19101 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell... Health Service Act, as amended), the Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (ACBSCT) advises.... L. 92-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: ] Name: Advisory Council on Blood...

  17. 75 FR 62843 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell... Act, as amended) the Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (ACBSCT) advises the.... L. 92-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Council on Blood...

  18. Membrane transport of anandamide through resealed human red blood cell membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, I.N.; Hansen, Harald S.

    2005-01-01

    of unidirectional flux from inside to outside is 0.361 ± 0.023 s. The rate constant of unidirectional flux from the membrane to BSA in the medium ([BSA]) increases with the square root of [BSA] in accordance with the theory of an unstirred layer around ghosts. Anandamide passed through the red blood cell membrane...... very rapidly, within seconds. At a molar ratio of anandamide to BSA of...

  19. Infrared Imaging of Nitric Oxide-Mediated Blood Flow in Human Sickle Cell Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gorbach, Alexander M; Hans C Ackerman; Liu, Wei-Min; Meyer, Joseph M.; Littel, Patricia L.; Seamon, Catherine; Footman, Eleni; Chi, Amy; Zorca, Suzana; Krajewski, Megan L.; Cuttica, Michael J.; Machado, Roberto F; Cannon, Richard O.; Kato, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular dysfunction is an important pathophysiologic manifestation of sickle cell disease (SCD), a condition that increases risk of pulmonary hypertension and stroke. We hypothesized that infrared (IR) imaging would detect changes in cutaneous blood flow reflective of vascular function. We performed IR imaging and conventional strain gauge plethysmography in twenty-five adults with SCD at baseline and during intra-arterial infusions of an endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine (ACh)...

  20. The DNA methylome of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingrui Li

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays an important role in biological processes in human health and disease. Recent technological advances allow unbiased whole-genome DNA methylation (methylome analysis to be carried out on human cells. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing at 24.7-fold coverage (12.3-fold per strand, we report a comprehensive (92.62% methylome and analysis of the unique sequences in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from the same Asian individual whose genome was deciphered in the YH project. PBMC constitute an important source for clinical blood tests world-wide. We found that 68.4% of CpG sites and 80% displayed allele-specific expression (ASE. These data demonstrate that ASM is a recurrent phenomenon and is highly correlated with ASE in human PBMCs. Together with recently reported similar studies, our study provides a comprehensive resource for future epigenomic research and confirms new sequencing technology as a paradigm for large-scale epigenomics studies.

  1. Conditioning causes an increase in glucose transporter-4 levels in mononuclear cells in sled dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurr, Theresia M; Reynolds, Arleigh J; Gustafson, Sally J; Duffy, Lawrence K; Dunlap, Kriya L

    2014-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of physical conditioning on the expression of the insulin sensitive glucose transporter-4 protein (GLUT4) on mononuclear cells and HOMA-IR levels in dogs and compared to results reported in human skeletal muscle and the skeletal muscle of rodent models. Blood was sampled from conditioned dogs (n = 8) and sedentary dogs (n = 8). The conditioned dogs were exercised four months prior the experiment and were following a uniform training protocol, whereas the sedentary dogs were not. GLUT4 expression in mononuclear cells and plasma insulin levels were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Blood glucose levels were determined using blood plasma. HOMA-IR was calculated using plasma insulin and blood glucose levels using the linear approximation formula. Our results indicate that the state of conditioning had a significant effect on the GLUT4 expression at the surface of mononuclear cells. HOMA-IR was also affected by conditioning in dogs. GLUT4 levels in mononuclear cells of sled dogs were inversely correlated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity. This study demonstrates that conditioning increases GLUT4 levels in mononuclear cells of sled dogs as it has been previously reported in skeletal muscle. Our results support the potential of white blood cells as a proxy tissue for studying insulin signaling and may lead to development of a minimally invasive and direct marker of insulin resistance. This may be the first report of GLUT4 in mononuclear cells in response to exercise and measured with ELISA.

  2. Lacking deoxygenation-linked interaction between cytoplasmic domain of band 3 and HbF from fetal red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Several of the red blood cell's metabolic and membrane functions display dependence on haemoglobin oxygenation. In adult human red cells, the increased glycolytic rate at low O2 tension results from binding of deoxygenated HbA at negatively charged, N-terminal, cytoplasmic domain of the...

  3. Development of a microfluidic device for cell concentration and blood cell-plasma separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, M Sneha; Kumar, B S; Chandra, T S; Sen, A K

    2015-12-01

    This work presents design, fabrication and test of a microfluidic device which employs Fahraeus-Lindqvist and Zweifach-Fung effects for cell concentration and blood cell-plasma separation. The device design comprises a straight main channel with a series of branched channels placed symmetrically on both sides of the main channel. The design implements constrictions before each junction (branching point) in order to direct cells that would have migrated closer to the wall (naturally or after liquid extraction at a junction) towards the centre of the main channel. Theoretical and numerical analysis are performed for design of the microchannel network to ensure that a minimum flow rate ratio (of 2.5:1, main channel-to-side channels) is maintained at each junction and predict flow rate at the plasma outlet. The dimensions and location of the constrictions were determined using numerical simulations. The effect of presence of constrictions before the junctions was demonstrated by comparing the performances of the device with and without constrictions. To demonstrate the performance of the device, initial experiments were performed with polystyrene microbeads (10 and 15 μm size) and droplets. Finally, the device was used for concentration of HL60 cells and separation of plasma and cells in diluted blood samples. The cell concentration and blood-plasma purification efficiency was quantified using Haemocytometer and Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorter (FACS). A seven-fold cell concentration was obtained with HL60 cells and a purification efficiency of 70 % and plasma recovery of 80 % was observed for diluted (1:20) blood sample. FACS was used to identify cell lysis and the cell viability was checked using Trypan Blue test which showed that more than 99 % cells are alive indicating the suitability of the device for practical use. The proposed device has potential to be used as a sample preparation module in lab on chip based diagnostic platforms.

  4. Proteomic Profiling of Ex Vivo Expanded CD34-Positive Haematopoetic Cells Derived from Umbilical Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiner Falkenberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ex vivo expansion of haematopoetic cells by application of specific cytokines is one approach to overcome boundaries in cord blood transplantation due to limited numbers of haematopoetic stem cells. While many protocols describe an effective increase of total cell numbers and the amount of CD34-positive cells, it still remains unclear if and how the procedure actually affects the cells’ properties. In the presented publications, CD34-positive cells were isolated from cord blood and expanded for up to 7 days in media supplemented with stem cell factor (SCF, thrombopoietin (THPO, interleukin 6 (IL-6, and fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FLT3lg. At days 3 and 7, expanded cells were harvested and analyzed by flow cytometry and quantitative proteomics. 2970 proteins were identified, whereof proteomic analysis showed 440 proteins significantly changed in abundance during ex vivo expansion. Despite the fact that haematopoetic cells still expressed CD34 on the surface after 3 days, major changes in regard to the protein profile were observed, while further expansion showed less effect on the proteome level. Enrichment analysis of biological processes clearly showed a proteomic change toward a protein biosynthesis phenotype already within the first three days of expression.

  5. The Number of Endovascular Trophoblasts in Maternal Blood Increases Overnight and after Physical Activity: An Experimental Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlütter, Jacob Mørup; Kirkegaard, Ida; Ferreira, Anne Sigaard;

    2016-01-01

    -to-day variation affect the number of isolated fetal cells, more specifically the presumed endovascular trophoblast (pEVT). Material and Methods: In each of 3 different experiments, 10 normal singleton pregnant women (gestational age 10+4-14+4 weeks) participated. The number of pEVTs was assessed in 30-36 ml blood...... using specific markers for enrichment and identification. Results: The number of pEVTs increased overnight (p = 0.001) from a median of 1.5 to 3.5 and even further to a median of 6.0 after 30 min of physical activity (p = 0.04) but was not affected by transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasound scans....... Repeated sampling showed that the interindividual variation of pEVTs was higher than the intraindividual variation (p < 0.001). However, even in pregnant women with a consistently low number of pEVTs, isolation of the pEVTs for prenatal diagnoses was possible in all cases by doing 2 separate blood...

  6. THE CORRELATION BETWEEN INCREASED APOPTOSIS AND DECREASED PERIPHERAL BLOOD WBC IN PATIENTS RECEIVING CHEMOTHERAPY FOR OVARIAN CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈娇; 姚嘉斐; 魏政立; 郝丽芸; 高娜; 鲁艳明

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the decrease of WBC is correlated with the increase of apoptosis induced by cytotoxic drugs in patients who received neoadjuvant polychemotherapy for ovarian cancer and whether the reduction of peripheral blood WBC can be predicted by the detection of apoptosis. Methods: The study included 25 patients who received neoadjuvant polychemotherapy for ovarian cancer after operation. Total 2 ml of venous blood was collected from these subjects within 24 hours before chemotherapy and at the fifth day after the beginning of chemotherapy. Peripheral blood WBC count was performed and its apoptosis was analyzed using flow cytometry (FCM) and DNA electrophoresis. Results: 68% (17/25) of the patients had a decrease in WBC after chemotherapy. The average counts of WBC were 5.19±1.36×109/L and 4.36±1.56×109/L, the distributions were 4.10~8.60×109/L and 2.00~7.90×109/L before and after chemotherapy respectively. At the same time, 64%(16/25) of the patients had an increase in apoptotic cells. The proportions of apoptosis were 4.01±2.59% and 5.66±1.36%, the distributions were 1.05~11.02% and 0.8~14.08% before and after chemotherapy respectively. Both the decrease of WBC and the increase of apoptosis were statistical significant (P<0.05). The coefficient between the decrease of WBC and the increase of apoptosis is 0.646(P<0.05). The sensitivity of the quantitative analysis of apoptosis using FCM for clinical early diagnosis of the decrease of WBC is 82%, the speciality is 75% and the accuracy is 80%. Conclusion: The increased apoptosis induced by cytotoxic drugs contributed to the chemotherapy-associated reduction of WBC at some extend, there were somewhat correlation between them. The detection of peripheral apoptosis could be of some help to assess the decrease and scientific bases for the administration of G-CSF, GM-CSF to obtain the optimal cost-effectiveness of clinical chemotherapy.

  7. Peripheral white blood cells profile of biodegradable metal implant in mice animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramitha, Devi; Noviana, Deni, E-mail: deni@ipb.ac.id; Estuningsih, Sri [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Bogor (Indonesia); Ulum, Mokhamad Fakhrul [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Bogor (Indonesia); Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Nasution, Ahmad Kafrawi [Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Faculty of Engineering, Muhammadiyah University of Riau (UMRI), Pekanbaru (Indonesia); Hermawan, Hendra [Department of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering & CHU de Québec Research Center, Laval University (ULaval) (Canada)

    2015-09-30

    Biocompatibility or safety of the medical device is considered important. It can be determined by blood profile examination. The aim of this study was to assess the biocompatibility of biodegradable metal implant through peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) profile approach. Forty eight male ddy mice were divided into four groups according to the materials implanted: iron wire (Fe), magnesium rod (Mg), stainless steel surgical wire (SS316L) and control with sham (K). Implants were inserted and attached onto the right femoral bone on latero-medial region. In this study, peripheral white blood cells and leukocyte differentiation were the parameters examined. The result showed that the WBCs value of all groups were decreased at the first day after implantation, increased at the 10th day and continued increasing at the 30th day of observation, except Mg group which has decreased. Neutrophil, as an inflammatory cells, was increased at the early weeks and decreased at the day-30 after surgery in all groups. Despite, these values during the observation were still within the normal range. As a conclus ion, biodegradable metal implants lead to an inflammatory reaction, with no adverse effect on WBC value found.

  8. Peripheral white blood cells profile of biodegradable metal implant in mice animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biocompatibility or safety of the medical device is considered important. It can be determined by blood profile examination. The aim of this study was to assess the biocompatibility of biodegradable metal implant through peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) profile approach. Forty eight male ddy mice were divided into four groups according to the materials implanted: iron wire (Fe), magnesium rod (Mg), stainless steel surgical wire (SS316L) and control with sham (K). Implants were inserted and attached onto the right femoral bone on latero-medial region. In this study, peripheral white blood cells and leukocyte differentiation were the parameters examined. The result showed that the WBCs value of all groups were decreased at the first day after implantation, increased at the 10th day and continued increasing at the 30th day of observation, except Mg group which has decreased. Neutrophil, as an inflammatory cells, was increased at the early weeks and decreased at the day-30 after surgery in all groups. Despite, these values during the observation were still within the normal range. As a conclus ion, biodegradable metal implants lead to an inflammatory reaction, with no adverse effect on WBC value found

  9. Studies on Morphology and Cytochemistry in Blood Cells of Ayu Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis

    OpenAIRE

    NAKADA, Kojin; FUJISAWA, Kuniyasu; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Furusawa, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Peripheral blood cells from ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis, were separated using a density gradient. Blood cells were then smeared using Shandon Cytospin and subjected to cytochemical staining. Blood cells were categorized based on morphological and cytochemical characteristics, and the density fractionation range and nucleus area/cell area ratio were observed. Lymphocytes are distinguished from neutrophils by their basophilic cytoplasm and Golgi-like field. The features of ch...

  10. Modulation of intercellular junctions by cyclic-ADT peptides as a method to reversibly increase blood-brain barrier permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksitorini, Marlyn D; Kiptoo, Paul K; On, Ngoc H; Thliveris, James A; Miller, Donald W; Siahaan, Teruna J

    2015-03-01

    It is challenging to deliver molecules to the brain for diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases. This is primarily because of the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which restricts the entry of many molecules into the brain. In this study, cyclic-ADT peptides (ADTC1, ADTC5, and ADTC6) have been shown to modify the BBB to enhance the delivery of marker molecules [e.g., (14) C-mannitol, gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentacetate (Gd-DTPA)] to the brain via the paracellular pathways of the BBB. The hypothesis is that these peptides modulate cadherin interactions in the adherens junctions of the vascular endothelial cells forming the BBB to increase paracellular drug permeation. In vitro studies indicated that ADTC5 had the best profile to inhibit adherens junction resealing in Madin-Darby canine kidney cell monolayers in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 = 0.3 mM) with a maximal response at 0.4 mM. Under the current experimental conditions, ADTC5 improved the delivery of (14) C-mannitol to the brain about twofold compared with the negative control in the in situ rat brain perfusion model. Furthermore, ADTC5 peptide increased in vivo delivery of Gd-DTPA to the brain of Balb/c mice when administered intravenously. In conclusion, ADTC5 has the potential to improve delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents to the brain.

  11. Cerebral blood flow in sickle cell cerebrovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttenlocher, P.R.; Moohr, J.W.; Johns, L.; Brown, F.D.

    1984-05-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been studied by the xenon-133 (/sup 133/Xe) inhalation method in 16 children with suspected sickle cell cerebrovascular disease. Abnormalities consisting of decreases in total, hemispheral, or regional CBF were found in 17 of 26 studies. Eleven studies performed immediately after stroke, transient ischemic attack, or depression of state of alertness showed abnormalities. In addition to confirming regional cerebrovascular insufficiency in children with stroke due to major cerebral artery occlusion, the method detected diffuse decrease in CBF in children with stupor, coma, and seizures who had normal angiographic findings. In contrast, six of seven studies obtained after exchange transfusion or during maintenance on hypertransfusion therapy showed normal findings. The difference between results in patients with acute neurologic disturbances and those receiving transfusion therapy was statistically significant (P less than .005). The data indicate that the /sup 133/Xe method reliably demonstrates cerebrovascular impairment in sickle cell disease. They also suggest that CBF changes in patients with sickle cell disease can be reversed by exchange transfusion and by hypertransfusion therapy. The /sup 133/Xe CBF method may be useful for following up children with sickle cell disease who are at high risk for recurrent stroke.

  12. Modeling of Red Blood Cells and Related Spleen Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhangli; Pivkin, Igor; Dao, Ming

    2011-11-01

    A key function of the spleen is to clear red blood cells (RBCs) with abnormal mechanical properties from the circulation. These abnormal mechanical properties may be due to RBC aging or RBC diseases, e.g., malaria and sickle cell anemia. Specifically, 10% of RBCs passing through the spleen are forced to squeeze into the narrow slits between the endothelial cells, and stiffer cells which get stuck are killed and digested by macrophages. To investigate this important physiological process, we employ three different approaches to study RBCs passage through these small slits, including analytical theory, Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) simulation and Multiscale Finite Element Method (MS-FEM). By applying the analytical theory, we estimate the critical limiting geometries RBCs can pass. By using the DPD method, we study the full fluid-structure interaction problem, and compute RBC deformation under different pressure gradients. By employing the MS-FEM approach, we model the lipid bilayer and the cytoskeleton as two distinct layers, and focus on the cytoskeleton deformation and the bilayer-skeleton interaction force at the molecular level. Finally the results of these three approaches are compared to each other and correlated to the experimental observations.

  13. Gcg-XTEN: an improved glucagon capable of preventing hypoglycemia without increasing baseline blood glucose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan C Geething

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: While the majority of current diabetes treatments focus on reducing blood glucose levels, hypoglycemia represents a significant risk associated with insulin treatment. Glucagon plays a major regulatory role in controlling hypoglycemia in vivo, but its short half-life and hyperglycemic effects prevent its therapeutic use for non-acute applications. The goal of this study was to identify a modified form of glucagon suitable for prophylactic treatment of hypoglycemia without increasing baseline blood glucose levels. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through application of the XTEN technology, we report the construction of a glucagon fusion protein with an extended exposure profile (Gcg-XTEN. The in vivo half-life of the construct was tuned to support nightly dosing through design and testing in cynomolgus monkeys. Efficacy of the construct was assessed in beagle dogs using an insulin challenge to induce hypoglycemia. Dose ranging of Gcg-XTEN in fasted beagle dogs demonstrated that the compound was biologically active with a pharmacodynamic profile consistent with the designed half-life. Prophylactic administration of 0.6 nmol/kg Gcg-XTEN to dogs conferred resistance to a hypoglycemic challenge at 6 hours post-dose without affecting baseline blood glucose levels. Consistent with the designed pharmacokinetic profile, hypoglycemia resistance was not observed at 12 hours post-dose. Importantly, the solubility and stability of the glucagon peptide were also significantly improved by fusion to XTEN. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data show that Gcg-XTEN is effective in preventing hypoglycemia without the associated hyperglycemia expected for unmodified glucagon. While the plasma clearance of this Gcg-XTEN has been optimized for overnight dosing, specifically for the treatment of nocturnal hypoglycemia, constructs with significantly longer exposure profiles are feasible. Such constructs may have multiple applications such as allowing for more

  14. Colloidal Properties of Nanoerythrosomes Derived from Bovine Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yuan-Chia; Wu, Hsuan-Chen; Hoang, Dao; Bentley, William E; D'Souza, Warren D; Raghavan, Srinivasa R

    2016-01-12

    Liposomes are nanoscale containers that are typically synthesized from lipids using a high-shear process such as extrusion or sonication. While liposomes are extensively used in drug delivery, they do suffer from certain problems including limited colloidal stability and short circulation times in the body. As an alternative to liposomes, we explore a class of container structures derived from erythrocytes (red blood cells). The procedure involves emptying the inner contents of these cells (specifically hemoglobin) and resuspending the empty structures in buffer, followed by sonication. The resulting structures are termed nanoerythrosomes (NERs), i.e., they are membrane-covered nanoscale containers, much like liposomes. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) are employed for the first time to study these NERs. The results reveal that the NERs are discrete spheres (∼110 nm diameter) with a unilamellar membrane of thickness ∼4.5 nm. Remarkably, the biconcave disc-like shape of erythrocytes is also exhibited by the NERs under hypertonic conditions. Moreover, unlike typical liposomes, NERs show excellent colloidal stability in both buffer as well as in serum at room temperature, and are also able to withstand freeze-thaw cycling. We have explored the potential for using NERs as colloidal vehicles for targeted delivery. Much like conventional liposomes, NER membranes can be decorated with fluorescent or other markers, solutes can be encapsulated in the cores of the NERs, and NERs can be targeted to specifically bind to mammalian cells. Our study shows that NERs are a promising and versatile class of nanostructures. NERs that are harvested from a patient's own blood and reconfigured for nanomedicine can potentially offer several benefits including biocompatibility, minimization of immune response, and extended circulation time in the body. PMID:26684218

  15. Transdifferentiation of Human Hair Follicle Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Red Blood Cells by OCT4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of red blood cells (RBCs, erythrocytes can have potentially life-threatening consequences for rare or unusual blood type patients with massive blood loss resulting from various conditions. Erythrocytes have been derived from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs, but the risk of potential tumorigenicity cannot be ignored, and a majority of these cells produced from PSCs express embryonic ε- and fetal γ-globins with little or no adult β-globin and remain nucleated. Here we report a method to generate erythrocytes from human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells (hHFMSCs by enforcing OCT4 gene expression and cytokine stimulation. Cells generated from hHFMSCs expressed mainly the adult β-globin chain with minimum level of the fetal γ-globin chain. Furthermore, these cells also underwent multiple maturation events and formed enucleated erythrocytes with a biconcave disc shape. Gene expression analyses showed that OCT4 regulated the expression of genes associated with both pluripotency and erythroid development during hHFMSC transdifferentiation toward erythroid cells. These findings show that mature erythrocytes can be generated from adult somatic cells, which may serve as an alternative source of RBCs for potential autologous transfusion.

  16. Counting White Blood Cells from a Blood Smear Using Fourier Ptychographic Microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaebum Chung

    Full Text Available White blood cell (WBC count is a valuable metric for assisting with diagnosis or prognosis of various diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, or infection. Counting WBCs can be done either manually or automatically. Automatic methods are capable of counting a large number of cells to give a statistically more accurate reading of the WBC count of a sample, but the specialized equipment tends to be expensive. Manual methods are inexpensive since they only involve a conventional light microscope setup. However, it is more laborious and error-prone because the small field-of-view (FOV of the microscope necessitates mechanical scanning of a specimen for counting an adequate number of WBCs. Here, we investigate the use of Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM to bypass these issues of the manual methods. With a 2x objective, FPM can provide a FOV of 120 mm2 with enhanced resolution comparable to that of a 20x objective, which is adequate for non-differentially counting WBCs in just one FOV. A specialist was able to count the WBCs in FPM images with 100% accuracy compared to the count as determined from conventional microscope images. An automatic counting algorithm was also developed to identify WBCs from FPM's captured images with 95% accuracy, paving the way for a cost-effective WBC counting setup with the advantages of both the automatic and manual counting methods.

  17. Modifying the red cell surface: towards an ABO-universal blood supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Martin L; Clausen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Eliminating the risk for ABO-incompatible transfusion errors and simplifying logistics by creating a universal blood inventory is a challenging idea. Goldstein and co-workers pioneered the field of enzymatic conversion of blood group A and B red blood cells (RBCs) to O (ECO). Using alpha-galactos......Eliminating the risk for ABO-incompatible transfusion errors and simplifying logistics by creating a universal blood inventory is a challenging idea. Goldstein and co-workers pioneered the field of enzymatic conversion of blood group A and B red blood cells (RBCs) to O (ECO). Using alpha...

  18. Dietary exposure to benzoxazinoids enhances bacteria-induced monokine responses by peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Dres; Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Palarasah, Yaseelan;

    2015-01-01

    with LPS. No effect was observed on T-cell cytokines or proliferation. BX levels in serum after a single meal did not modify cytokine responses. CONCLUSION: High dietary intake of BXs enhances bacteria-induced production of pro-inflammatory monokines by PBMCs, but not T-cell responses; presumably due......-out, the groups switched diets. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or tetanus toxoid (TT). PBMCs from a healthy donor received the same stimuli in presence of serum from each participant receiving BXs. The production...... of monokines, T-cell cytokines and T-helper cell proliferation were assessed. A 3-wk diet with high BX content enhanced IL-1β responses against LPS and P. gingivalis, as well as TNF-α response against P. gingivalis, after 24 h of stimulation. Moreover, IL-6 was found to be increased after 7 days of stimulation...

  19. [Allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with unrelated cord blood: report of three cases from the Chilean cord blood bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Francisco; Wietstruck, Angélica; Rojas, Nicolás; Bertin, Pablo; Pizarro, Isabel; Carmona, Amanda; Guilof, Alejandro; Rojas, Iván; Oyarzún, Enrique

    2013-08-01

    Public cord blood banks are a source of hematopoietic stem cells for patients with hematological diseases who lack a family donor and need allogeneic transplantation. In June 2007 we started a cord blood bank with units donated in three maternity wards in Santiago, Chile. We report the first three transplants done with cord blood units form this bank. Cord blood units were obtained by intrauterine collection at delivery. They were depleted of plasma and red cells and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Tests for total nucleated cells, CD34 cell content, viral serology, bacterial cultures and HLA A, B and DRB1 were done. Six hundred cord blood units were stored by March 2012. Three patients received allogeneic transplant with cord blood from our bank, two with high risk lymphoblastic leukemia and one with severe congenital anemia. They received conditioning regimens according to their disease and usual supportive care for unrelated donor transplantation until full hematopoietic and immune reconstitution was achieved. The three patients had early engraftment of neutrophils and platelets. The child corrected his anemia and the leukemia patients remain in complete remission. The post-transplant course was complicated with Epstein Barr virus, cytomegalovirus and BK virus infection. Two patients are fully functional 24 and 33 months after transplant, the third is still receiving immunosuppression.

  20. Multiple loci are associated with white blood cell phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Nalls

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available White blood cell (WBC count is a common clinical measure from complete blood count assays, and it varies widely among healthy individuals. Total WBC count and its constituent subtypes have been shown to be moderately heritable, with the heritability estimates varying across cell types. We studied 19,509 subjects from seven cohorts in a discovery analysis, and 11,823 subjects from ten cohorts for replication analyses, to determine genetic factors influencing variability within the normal hematological range for total WBC count and five WBC subtype measures. Cohort specific data was supplied by the CHARGE, HeamGen, and INGI consortia, as well as independent collaborative studies. We identified and replicated ten associations with total WBC count and five WBC subtypes at seven different genomic loci (total WBC count-6p21 in the HLA region, 17q21 near ORMDL3, and CSF3; neutrophil count-17q21; basophil count- 3p21 near RPN1 and C3orf27; lymphocyte count-6p21, 19p13 at EPS15L1; monocyte count-2q31 at ITGA4, 3q21, 8q24 an intergenic region, 9q31 near EDG2, including three previously reported associations and seven novel associations. To investigate functional relationships among variants contributing to variability in the six WBC traits, we utilized gene expression- and pathways-based analyses. We implemented gene-clustering algorithms to evaluate functional connectivity among implicated loci and showed functional relationships across cell types. Gene expression data from whole blood was utilized to show that significant biological consequences can be extracted from our genome-wide analyses, with effect estimates for significant loci from the meta-analyses being highly corellated with the proximal gene expression. In addition, collaborative efforts between the groups contributing to this study and related studies conducted by the COGENT and RIKEN groups allowed for the examination of effect homogeneity for genome-wide significant associations across