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  1. Cigarette smoking increases white blood cell aggregation in whole blood.

    OpenAIRE

    Bridges, A B; Hill, A; Belch, J J

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effect of chronic cigarette smoking on white blood cell aggregation, increased aggregation predisposes to microvascular occlusion and damage. Current smokers had significantly increased white blood cell aggregation when compared with non smokers. The presence of chronically activated white blood cells in current smokers may be relevant in the pathogenesis of ischaemic vascular disease.

  2. Net haemoglobin increase from reinfusion of refrigerated vs. frozen red blood cells after autologous blood transfusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashenden, M; Mørkeberg, Jakob Sehested

    2011-01-01

    freezing. Nevertheless, frozen storage allowed haemoglobin to fully recover before reinfusion, while the haemoglobin was 10% lower in the refrigerated group compared with baseline. After reinfusion, the haemoglobin levels were 11·5% higher than the baseline values in the group reinfused with frozen blood......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES  Two main blood storage procedures can be used for storing red blood cells: refrigeration and freezing. Nevertheless, the efficiency of these procedures measured as the increase in haemoglobin after reinfusion compared with baseline has never been examined. The main...... objective was to examine which storage procedure yielded the largest increase in circulating haemoglobin after reinfusion compared to baseline. MATERIALS AND METHODS  Equal volumes of blood from 15 men were withdrawn and stored either frozen or refrigerated as packed red blood cells. Serial measures...

  3. Biotin Uptake into Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Increases Early in the Cell Cycle, Increasing Carboxylase Activities1,2

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley, J. Steven; Mock, Donald M.; Griffin, Jacob B.; Zempleni, Janos

    2002-01-01

    Cells respond to proliferation with increased accumulation of biotin, suggesting that proliferation enhances biotin demand. Here we determined whether peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) increase biotin uptake at specific phases of the cell cycle, and whether biotin is utilized to increase biotinylation of carboxylases. Biotin uptake was quantified in human PBMC that were arrested chemically at specific phases of the cell cycle, i.e., biotin uptake increased in the G1 phase of the cycle...

  4. Storage-induced increase in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in red blood cell components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kücükakin, Bülent; Kocak, Volkan; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    Transfusion of blood components may increase the risk of complications in relation to surgery. During storage, red blood cells (RBCs) undergo structural and functional changes that may reduce function and viability after transfusion. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of buffy-coat ...

  5. Sumatriptan increases the proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected individuals and healthy blood donors in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, P; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    2000-01-01

    intracellular second messenger adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) has been shown to cause impaired proliferative capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HIV-infected individuals in vitro. Sumatriptan, a 5HT1d receptor agonist, inhibits the activity of adenylyl cyclases, the enzymes...... responsible for regulation of the intracellular levels of cAMP. In a preliminary study sumatriptan increased the proliferative responses of PBMC to a polyclonal activator in vitro in 9 of 10 HIV-seropositive individuals (p=0.007), and in 7 of 9 healthy blood donors (p=0.05). This was probably due to a...

  6. Men with Sickle Cell Anemia and Priapism Exhibit Increased Hemolytic Rate, Decreased Red Blood Cell Deformability and Increased Red Blood Cell Aggregate Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cita, Kizzy-Clara; Brureau, Laurent; Lemonne, Nathalie; Billaud, Marie; Connes, Philippe; Ferdinand, Séverine; Tressières, Benoit; Tarer, Vanessa; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Blanchet, Pascal; Elion, Jacques; Romana, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between priapism in men with sickle cell anemia (SCA) and hemorheological and hemolytical parameters. Materials and Methods Fifty-eight men with SCA (median age: 38 years) were included; 28 who had experienced priapism at least once during their life (priapism group) and 30 who never experienced this complication (control group). Twenty-two patients were treated with hydroxycarbamide, 11 in each group. All patients were at steady state at the time of inclusion. Hematological and biochemical parameters were obtained through routine procedures. The Laser-assisted Optical Rotational Cell Analyzer was used to measure red blood cell (RBC) deformability at 30 Pa (ektacytometry) and RBC aggregation properties (laser backscatter versus time). Blood viscosity was measured at a shear rate of 225 s-1 using a cone/plate viscometer. A principal component analysis was performed on 4 hemolytic markers (i.e., lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), total bilirubin (BIL) levels and reticulocyte (RET) percentage) to calculate a hemolytic index. Results Compared to the control group, patients with priapism exhibited higher ASAT (p = 0.01), LDH (p = 0.03), RET (p = 0.03) levels and hemolytic indices (p = 0.02). Higher RBC aggregates strength (p = 0.01) and lower RBC deformability (p = 0.005) were observed in patients with priapism compared to controls. After removing the hydroxycarbamide-treated patients, RBC deformability (p = 0.01) and RBC aggregate strength (p = 0.03) were still different between the two groups, and patients with priapism exhibited significantly higher hemolytic indices (p = 0.01) than controls. Conclusion Our results confirm that priapism in SCA is associated with higher hemolytic rates and show for the first time that this complication is also associated with higher RBC aggregate strength and lower RBC deformability. PMID:27145183

  7. Men with Sickle Cell Anemia and Priapism Exhibit Increased Hemolytic Rate, Decreased Red Blood Cell Deformability and Increased Red Blood Cell Aggregate Strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizzy-Clara Cita

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between priapism in men with sickle cell anemia (SCA and hemorheological and hemolytical parameters.Fifty-eight men with SCA (median age: 38 years were included; 28 who had experienced priapism at least once during their life (priapism group and 30 who never experienced this complication (control group. Twenty-two patients were treated with hydroxycarbamide, 11 in each group. All patients were at steady state at the time of inclusion. Hematological and biochemical parameters were obtained through routine procedures. The Laser-assisted Optical Rotational Cell Analyzer was used to measure red blood cell (RBC deformability at 30 Pa (ektacytometry and RBC aggregation properties (laser backscatter versus time. Blood viscosity was measured at a shear rate of 225 s-1 using a cone/plate viscometer. A principal component analysis was performed on 4 hemolytic markers (i.e., lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT, total bilirubin (BIL levels and reticulocyte (RET percentage to calculate a hemolytic index.Compared to the control group, patients with priapism exhibited higher ASAT (p = 0.01, LDH (p = 0.03, RET (p = 0.03 levels and hemolytic indices (p = 0.02. Higher RBC aggregates strength (p = 0.01 and lower RBC deformability (p = 0.005 were observed in patients with priapism compared to controls. After removing the hydroxycarbamide-treated patients, RBC deformability (p = 0.01 and RBC aggregate strength (p = 0.03 were still different between the two groups, and patients with priapism exhibited significantly higher hemolytic indices (p = 0.01 than controls.Our results confirm that priapism in SCA is associated with higher hemolytic rates and show for the first time that this complication is also associated with higher RBC aggregate strength and lower RBC deformability.

  8. Deletion of the Scl +19 enhancer increases the blood stem cell compartment without affecting the formation of mature blood lineages

    OpenAIRE

    Spensberger, Dominik; Kotsopoulou, Ekaterini; Ferreira, Rita; Broccardo, Cyril; Scott, Linda M.; Fourouclas, Nasios; Ottersbach, Katrin; Green, Anthony R.; Göttgens, Berthold

    2012-01-01

    The stem cell leukemia (Scl)/Tal1 gene is essential for normal blood and endothelial development, and is expressed in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), progenitors, erythroid, megakaryocytic, and mast cells. The Scl +19 enhancer is active in HSCs and progenitor cells, megakaryocytes, and mast cells, but not mature erythroid cells. Here we demonstrate that in vivo deletion of the Scl +19 enhancer (Scl Δ19/Δ19 ) results in viable mice with normal Scl expression in mature hematopoietic lineages. ...

  9. Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cells Increase Tumor Growth Rates and Modify Tumor Physiology: Relevance for Therapeutic Targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagan, Jonathan, E-mail: jdpagan@uams.edu; Przybyla, Beata; Jamshidi-Parsian, Azemat [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Gupta, Kalpna [Vascular Biology Center and Division of Hematology-Oncology Transplantation, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, MN 72223 (United States); Griffin, Robert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2013-02-18

    Endothelial cell precursors from human peripheral blood have been shown to home to areas of neovascularization and may assist tumor growth by increasing or fortifying blood vessel growth. In the present study, the influence of these cells on tumor growth and physiology was investigated and the role of these cells as a therapeutic target or in determining treatment sensitivity was tested. After isolation from human blood and expansion in vitro, actively growing cells with verified endothelial phenotype (Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cell, BOEC) were injected i.v. into tumor bearing mice for three consecutive days. The growth rate was significantly enhanced in relatively small RERF human lung tumors (i.e., less than 150 mm{sup 3}) grown in immunocompromised mice by an average of 1.5-fold while it had no effect when injections were given to animals bearing larger tumors. There were no signs of toxicity or unwanted systemic effects. We also observed evidence of increased perfusion, vessel number, response to 15 Gy radiation and oxygenation in RERF tumors of animals injected with BOECs compared to control tumors. In addition, FSaII murine fibrosarcoma tumors were found to grow faster upon injection of BOECs. When FSaII tumors were subjected to a partial thermal ablation treatment using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) there was consistently elevated detection of fluorescently labeled and i.v. injected endothelial precursors in the tumor when analyzed with optical imaging and/or histological preparations. Importantly, we also observed that BOECs treated with the novel anti-angiogenic peptide anginex in-vitro, show decreased proliferation and increased sensitivity to radiation. In vivo, the normal increase in FSaII tumor growth induced by injected BOECs was blunted by the addition of anginex treatment. It appears that endothelial precursors may significantly contribute to tumor vessel growth, tumor progression and/or repair of tumor damage and may improve the

  10. Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cells Increase Tumor Growth Rates and Modify Tumor Physiology: Relevance for Therapeutic Targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpna Gupta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial cell precursors from human peripheral blood have been shown to home to areas of neovascularization and may assist tumor growth by increasing or fortifying blood vessel growth. In the present study, the influence of these cells on tumor growth and physiology was investigated and the role of these cells as a therapeutic target or in determining treatment sensitivity was tested. After isolation from human blood and expansion in vitro, actively growing cells with verified endothelial phenotype (Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cell, BOEC were injected i.v. into tumor bearing mice for three consecutive days. The growth rate was significantly enhanced in relatively small RERF human lung tumors (i.e., less than 150 mm3 grown in immunocompromised mice by an average of 1.5-fold while it had no effect when injections were given to animals bearing larger tumors. There were no signs of toxicity or unwanted systemic effects. We also observed evidence of increased perfusion, vessel number, response to 15 Gy radiation and oxygenation in RERF tumors of animals injected with BOECs compared to control tumors. In addition, FSaII murine fibrosarcoma tumors were found to grow faster upon injection of BOECs. When FSaII tumors were subjected to a partial thermal ablation treatment using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU there was consistently elevated detection of fluorescently labeled and i.v. injected endothelial precursors in the tumor when analyzed with optical imaging and/or histological preparations. Importantly, we also observed that BOECs treated with the novel anti-angiogenic peptide anginex in-vitro, show decreased proliferation and increased sensitivity to radiation. In vivo, the normal increase in FSaII tumor growth induced by injected BOECs was blunted by the addition of anginex treatment. It appears that endothelial precursors may significantly contribute to tumor vessel growth, tumor progression and/or repair of tumor damage and may improve

  11. Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cells Increase Tumor Growth Rates and Modify Tumor Physiology: Relevance for Therapeutic Targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endothelial cell precursors from human peripheral blood have been shown to home to areas of neovascularization and may assist tumor growth by increasing or fortifying blood vessel growth. In the present study, the influence of these cells on tumor growth and physiology was investigated and the role of these cells as a therapeutic target or in determining treatment sensitivity was tested. After isolation from human blood and expansion in vitro, actively growing cells with verified endothelial phenotype (Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cell, BOEC) were injected i.v. into tumor bearing mice for three consecutive days. The growth rate was significantly enhanced in relatively small RERF human lung tumors (i.e., less than 150 mm3) grown in immunocompromised mice by an average of 1.5-fold while it had no effect when injections were given to animals bearing larger tumors. There were no signs of toxicity or unwanted systemic effects. We also observed evidence of increased perfusion, vessel number, response to 15 Gy radiation and oxygenation in RERF tumors of animals injected with BOECs compared to control tumors. In addition, FSaII murine fibrosarcoma tumors were found to grow faster upon injection of BOECs. When FSaII tumors were subjected to a partial thermal ablation treatment using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) there was consistently elevated detection of fluorescently labeled and i.v. injected endothelial precursors in the tumor when analyzed with optical imaging and/or histological preparations. Importantly, we also observed that BOECs treated with the novel anti-angiogenic peptide anginex in-vitro, show decreased proliferation and increased sensitivity to radiation. In vivo, the normal increase in FSaII tumor growth induced by injected BOECs was blunted by the addition of anginex treatment. It appears that endothelial precursors may significantly contribute to tumor vessel growth, tumor progression and/or repair of tumor damage and may improve the oxygenation

  12. Regular Exercise Training Increases the Number of Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Decreases Homocysteine Levels in Healthy Peripheral Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jeong Kyu; Moon, Ki Myung; Jung, Seok Yun; Kim, Ji Yong; Choi, Sung Hyun; Kim, Da Yeon; Kang, Songhwa; Chu, Chong Woo; Kwon, Sang Mo

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are known to play an important role in the repair of damaged blood vessels. We used an endothelial progenitor cell colony-forming assay (EPC-CFA) to determine whether EPC numbers could be increased in healthy individuals through regular exercise training. The number of functional EPCs obtained from human peripheral blood-derived AC133 stem cells was measured after a 28-day regular exercise training program. The number of total endothelial progenitor cell co...

  13. Increase of CXCR4 Expression on Expanded Non-enriched Cord Blood CD34+ Cells Using MSCs

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    Masoud Soleimani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A number of potential cell adhesion molecules, which mediate essential cell-to-cell or cell-to-matrix interactions, are expressed on the surface of CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs, including integrins, CD44, and CXCR4. These molecules are essential for homing process. In this study, we compared the changes of expression of CD44 and CXCR4 on the CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells expanded on MSCs in the presence of cytokines. Material and Methods: Cord blood CD34+ cells were expanded using human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and cytokines (TPO, SCF, FLt-3, IL-6, and IL-3, and then expression of CD44 and CXCR4 on CD34+ cells were evaluated by flow cytometric analysis. Results: After 2 weeks of serum free culture of CD34+ cells in the presence of cytokines, the expression of CXCR4 on CD34+ cells was decreased 3.4 fold (p<0.05. In contrast, the expression of CXCR4 on CD34+ cells expanded on hMSCs was increased (p<0.05. The expression of CD44 on expanded CD34+ cells in both methods did not differ significantly. Conclusions: Our results indicated that co-culture of cord blood stem cells on hMSCs significantly increased CXCR4 expression on cord blood CD34+ cells.

  14. Decreased memory B cells and increased CD8 memory T cells in blood of breastfed children: the generation R study.

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    Michelle A E Jansen

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding provides a protective effect against infectious diseases in infancy. Still, immunological evidence for enhanced adaptive immunity in breastfed children remains inconclusive.To determine whether breastfeeding affects B- and T-cell memory in the first years of life.We performed immunophenotypic analysis on blood samples within a population-based prospective cohort study. Participants included children at 6 months (n=258, 14 months (n=166, 25 months (n=112 and 6 years of age (n=332 with both data on breastfeeding and blood lymphocytes. Total B- and T-cell numbers and their memory subsets were determined with 6-color flow cytometry. Mothers completed questionnaires on breastfeeding when their children were aged 2, 6, and 12 months. Multiple linear regression models with adjustments for potential confounders were performed.Per month continuation of breastfeeding, a 3% (95% CI -6, -1 decrease in CD27+IgM+, a 2% (95 CI % -5, -1 decrease in CD27+IgA+ and a 2% (95% CI -4, -1 decrease in CD27-IgG+ memory B cell numbers were observed at 6 months of age. CD8 T-cell numbers at 6 months of age were 20% (95% CI 3, 37 higher in breastfed than in non-breastfed infants. This was mainly found for central memory CD8 T cells and associated with exposure to breast milk, rather than duration. The same trend was observed at 14 months, but associations disappeared at older ages.Longer breastfeeding is associated with increased CD8 T-cell memory, but not B-cell memory numbers in the first 6 months of life. This transient skewing towards T cell memory might contribute to the protective effect against infectious diseases in infancy.

  15. Increased radioresistance of offspring in rats after maternal stimulation with benzene blood cell extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzene extracts from human blood cells were inoculated intraperitoneally into female rats on days 13, 17 and 21 of pregnancy. Their offspring at 13 to 15 weeks of age were irradiated with gamma rays for 49 h, with a total dose of 15.6 Gy. The number of survivors 30 days after irradiation was significantly greater in offspring from mothers treated with extracts as compared with controls. (author). 1 tab., 8 refs

  16. Increased levels of (class switched) memory B cells in peripheral blood of current smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Corry-Anke; Hylkema, Machteld N.; Geerlings, Marie; van Geffen, Wouter; Postma, Dirkje S.; Timens, Wim; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that a specific immune response contributes to the pathogenesis of COPD. B-cell follicles are present in lung tissue and increased anti-elastin titers have been found in plasma of COPD patients. Additionally, regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been implicated in its pathoge

  17. Hypoxic Preconditioning Increases Survival and Pro-Angiogenic Capacity of Human Cord Blood Mesenchymal Stromal Cells In Vitro.

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    Andreas Matthäus Bader

    Full Text Available Hypoxic preconditioning was shown to improve the therapeutic efficacy of bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs upon transplantation in ischemic tissue. Given the interest in clinical applications of umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs, we developed a specific hypoxic preconditioning protocol and investigated its anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic effects on cord blood MSCs undergoing simulated ischemia in vitro by subjecting them to hypoxia and nutrient deprivation with or without preceding hypoxic preconditioning. Cell number, metabolic activity, surface marker expression, chromosomal stability, apoptosis (caspases-3/7 activity and necrosis were determined, and phosphorylation, mRNA expression and protein secretion of selected apoptosis and angiogenesis-regulating factors were quantified. Then, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC were subjected to simulated ischemia in co-culture with hypoxically preconditioned or naïve cord blood MSCs, and HUVEC proliferation was measured. Migration, proliferation and nitric oxide production of HUVECs were determined in presence of cord blood MSC-conditioned medium. Cord blood MSCs proved least sensitive to simulated ischemia when they were preconditioned for 24 h, while their basic behavior, immunophenotype and karyotype in culture remained unchanged. Here, "post-ischemic" cell number and metabolic activity were enhanced and caspase-3/7 activity and lactate dehydrogenase release were reduced as compared to non-preconditioned cells. Phosphorylation of AKT and BAD, mRNA expression of BCL-XL, BAG1 and VEGF, and VEGF protein secretion were higher in preconditioned cells. Hypoxically preconditioned cord blood MSCs enhanced HUVEC proliferation and migration, while nitric oxide production remained unchanged. We conclude that hypoxic preconditioning protects cord blood MSCs by activation of anti-apoptotic signaling mechanisms and enhances their angiogenic potential. Hence, hypoxic

  18. S phase entry of neural progenitor cells correlates with increased blood flow in the young subventricular zone.

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    Benjamin Lacar

    Full Text Available The postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ contains proliferating neural progenitor cells in close proximity to blood vessels. Insults and drug treatments acutely stimulate cell proliferation in the SVZ, which was assessed by labeling cells entering S phase. Although G1-to-S progression is metabolically demanding on a minute-to-hour time scale, it remains unknown whether increased SVZ cell proliferation is accompanied by a local hemodynamic response. This neurovascular coupling provides energy substrates to active neuronal assemblies. Transcardial dye perfusion revealed the presence of capillaries throughout the SVZ that constrict upon applications of the thromboxane A(2 receptor agonist U-46119 in acute brain slice preparations. We then monitored in vivo blood flow using laser Doppler flowmetry via a microprobe located either in the SVZ or a mature network. U-46119 injections into the lateral ventricle decreased blood flow in the SVZ and the striatum, which are near the ventricle. A 1-hour ventricular injection of epidermal and basic fibroblast growth factor (EGF and bFGF significantly increased the percentage of Sox2 transcription factor-positive cells in S phase 1.5 hours post-injection. This increase was accompanied by a sustained rise in blood flow in the SVZ but not in the striatum. Direct growth factor injections into the cortex did not alter local blood flow, ruling out direct effects on capillaries. These findings suggest that an acute increase in the number of G1-to-S cycling SVZ cells is accompanied by neurometabolic-vascular coupling, which may provide energy and nutrient for cell cycle progression.

  19. Telomerase activity is increased and telomere length shortened in T cells from blood of patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Kehuai; Higashi, N; Hansen, E R;

    2000-01-01

    We studied telomerase activity and telomere length in PBMC and purified CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from blood obtained from a total of 32 patients with atopic dermatitis, 16 patients with psoriasis, and 30 normal controls. The telomerase activity was significantly increased in PBMC from the patients......(+) T cell subsets from normal donors. In conclusion, the increased telomerase activity and shortened telomere length indicates that T lymphocytes in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis are chronically stimulated and have an increased cellular turnover in vivo....

  20. Increased apoptosis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) during general and epidural anaesthesia in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Galina P; Slavov, Emil; Usunov, Roustislav; Halacheva, Krasimira; Dinev, Dinco N

    2008-12-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the hypothesis that perioperative lymphocytopenia was due to apoptosis of these cells induced by either halothane or epidural anaesthesia in dogs. The relationship between apoptosis induction and plasma concentrations of the stress hormone cortisol and the cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-10 was examined as well. The study was performed on 22 healthy mongrel dogs, equal numbers from both genders, weighing 18.3 +/- 2.9 kg, and aged between 3-5 years. Dogs were divided in three groups. Eight of the animals were anaesthetized with halothane, another eight received epidural anaesthesia using lidocaine, and six served as controls. Venous blood samples were obtained immediately before (0 minute) anaesthesia, during deep anaesthesia (120 minute), and on the next day (24 hour) in order to determine the following parameters: the total lymphocyte counts, the percentage of apoptotic peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by flow cytometry, plasma concentrations of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and plasma cortisol levels by radioimmune assay. Both halothane and epidural anaesthesia in dogs induces apoptosis of PBMC with slight decrease in total lymphocyte counts. These immunomodulatory effects were transient and faded till the 24th hour. Concerning the mechanism of inducing lymphocyte apoptosis by general or epidural anaesthesia, it seemed that neither cortisol, nor the tested cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-10 were implicated in this process. Further investigations are necessary to confirm this assumption. PMID:18491210

  1. Patients with sepsis exhibit increased mitochondrial respiratory capacity in peripheral blood immune cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjövall, Fredrik; Morota, Saori; Persson, Johan Mikael;

    2013-01-01

    immune cells (PBICs) in sepsis patients during the first week after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: PBICs from 20 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock were analyzed with high-resolution respirometry 3 times after admission to the ICU (within 48 hours, days 3 to 4 and days 6 to...... 7). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), cytochrome c (Cyt c), and citrate synthase (CS) were measured as indicators of cellular mitochondrial content. RESULTS: In intact PBICs with endogenous substrates, a gradual increase in cellular respiration reached 173% of controls after 1 week (P = 0.001). In...... permeabilized cells, respiration using substrates of complex I, II, and IV were significantly increased days 1 to 2, reaching 137%, 130%, and 173% of controls, respectively. In parallel, higher levels of CS activity, mtDNA, and Cyt c content in PBICs (211%, 243%, and 331% of controls for the respective...

  2. Increased bone marrow blood flow in sickle cell anemia demonstrated by thallium-201 and Tc-99m human albumin microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lower extremity vascularity in nine patients with sickle cell anemia was studied by intra-arterial /sup 99m/Tc human albumin microspheres or intravenous thallium-201. In eight patients, the normal pattern of greater muscle than bone activity was reversed with marked tracer localization in skeletal parts usually not visualized. In four cases, there were distinct focal abnormalities in the femurs and tibias which correlated with defects on /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid marrow scans. TC-99m pyrophosphate bone scans demonstrated normal uptake in the same areas. The scintigraphic findings indicate a markedly increased relative bone marrow blood flow

  3. Storage-induced increase in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in red blood cell components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucukakin, B.; Kocak, Volkan; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    buffy-coat reduced red cells in SAG-M additive solution, by assessing biomarkers of oxidative and inflammatory stress during a storage period of 35 days. Study design and methods. Ten units of RBCs were stored for 35 days. Samples were collected from the units at storage days 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35...

  4. Combined intermittent hypoxia and surface muscle electrostimulation as a method to increase peripheral blood progenitor cell concentration

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    Azqueta Carmen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our goal was to determine whether short-term intermittent hypoxia exposure, at a level well tolerated by healthy humans and previously shown by our group to increase EPO and erythropoiesis, could mobilize hematopoietic stem cells (HSC and increase their presence in peripheral circulation. Methods Four healthy male subjects were subjected to three different protocols: one with only a hypoxic stimulus (OH, another with a hypoxic stimulus plus muscle electrostimulation (HME and the third with only muscle electrostimulation (OME. Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia exposure consisted of only three sessions of three hours at barometric pressure 540 hPa (equivalent to an altitude of 5000 m for three consecutive days, whereas muscular electrostimulation was performed in two separate periods of 25 min in each session. Blood samples were obtained from an antecubital vein on three consecutive days immediately before the experiment and 24 h, 48 h, 4 days and 7 days after the last day of hypoxic exposure. Results There was a clear increase in the number of circulating CD34+ cells after combined hypobaric hypoxia and muscular electrostimulation. This response was not observed after the isolated application of the same stimuli. Conclusion Our results open a new application field for hypobaric systems as a way to increase efficiency in peripheral HSC collection.

  5. Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Ugandan Men Is Associated with Increased Abundance and Function of HIV Target Cells in Blood, but Not the Foreskin: A Cross-sectional Study.

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    Jessica L Prodger

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni infection has been associated with an increased HIV prevalence in humans and SHIV incidence in primate models. We hypothesized that immune activation from this gastrointestinal mucosa infection would increase highly HIV-susceptible CD4 T cell subsets in the blood and the foreskin through common mucosal homing.Foreskin tissue and blood were obtained from 34 HIV- and malaria-uninfected Ugandan men who volunteered for elective circumcision, 12 of whom were definitively positive for S. mansoni eggs in stool and 12 definitively negative for both S. mansoni eggs and worm antigen. Tissue and blood T cell subsets were characterized by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC. Th17 and Th1 cells from both the blood and foreskin expressed higher levels of CCR5 and were more activated than other CD4 T cell subsets. S. mansoni-infected men had a higher frequency of systemic Th1 cells (22.9 vs. 16.5% of blood CD4 T cells, p<0.05, Th17 cells (2.3 vs. 1.5%, p<0.05, and Th22 cells (0.5 vs. 0.3%, p<0.01 than uninfected men. Additionally, Th17 cells in the blood of S. mansoni-infected men demonstrated enhanced function (28.1 vs. 16.3% producing multiple cytokines, p = 0.046. However, these immune alterations were not observed in foreskin tissue.S. mansoni infection was associated with an increased frequency of highly HIV-susceptible Th1, Th17 and Th22 cell subsets in the blood, but these T cell immune differences did not extend to the foreskin. S. mansoni induced changes in T cell immunology mediated through the common mucosal immune system are not likely to increase HIV susceptibility in the foreskin.

  6. Intercellular transfer of P-glycoprotein in human blood-brain barrier endothelial cells is increased by histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Andreas; Noack, Sandra; Buettner, Manuela; Naim, Hassan Y; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) controls the entry of compounds into the brain, thereby regulating brain homeostasis. Efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp) significantly contribute to BBB function. Multiple signaling pathways modulate the expression and activity of Pgp in response to xenobiotics and disease. A non-genetic way of intercellular transfer of Pgp occurs in cancer cells, but whether this also occurs in non-cancer cells such as endothelial cells that form the BBB is not known. A human brain endothelial cell line (hCMEC/D3) was used to study whether cell-to-cell Pgp transfer occurs during co-culturing with Pgp-EGFP expressing hCMEC/D3 cells. The Pgp-EGFP fusion protein was transferred from donor to recipient cells by cell-to-cell contact and Pgp-EGFP enriched vesicles, which were exocytosed by donor cells and endocytosed by adherent recipient cells. Flow cytometry experiments with the Pgp substrate eFLUXX-ID Gold demonstrated that the transferred Pgp is functional in the recipient cells. Exposure of the donor cells with inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs) resulted in an enhanced intercellular Pgp transfer. Non-genetic transfer of a resistance phenotype and its regulation by HDACs is a novel mechanism of altering BBB functionality. This mechanism may have important implications for understanding drug-induced alterations in Pgp expression and activity. PMID:27375084

  7. Increased expression of the 20S proteasome in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of type 2 diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the dynamic expression of the 20S proteasome in peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMCs)of type 2 diabetic patients without vascular complications.Methods PBMCs were prepared from 30 type 2 diabetic patients and 30 nondiabetic controls.The general indexes including weight,height and blood pressure were recorded.Fasting plasma glucose,fasting plasma insulin and glycosylated hemoglobin were measured.The protein level of the 20S proteasome was measured by Western blotting.The mRNA exp...

  8. Blood cell labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The labelling of blood cells in vitro for subsequent in vivo studies was one of the earliest applications of radioactive tracers in clinical medicine and laid the foundations for many important contributions to the advancement of knowledge of human blood cell pathophysiology. The characteristics required for satisfactory clinical studies, the mechanisms of cell labelling, the problems of radiation or chemical damage to the labelled cells and some examples of modern clinical applications are described and discussed. (Author)

  9. Age-related macular degeneration is associated with increased proportion of CD56(+) T cells in peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Carsten; Singh, Amardeep; Krüger Falk, Mads; Juel, Helene Bæk; Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the association between age-related changes in the T-cell compartment and prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). DESIGN: Case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 117 AMD cases and 106 controls were included prospectively. METHODS: Fresh-drawn peripheral blood...... levels of circulating aged CD56(+) CD28(-) T cells in patients with AMD. Although this supports the notion of AMD as a systemic disease, it also suggests that the adaptive immune system is implicated in its pathogenesis....

  10. Donating Peripheral Blood Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page Print this page Donating peripheral blood stem cells Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is a nonsurgical procedure to collect ... Donating bone marrow Donor experiences videos Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is one of two methods of ...

  11. GLP-2 receptor localizes to enteric neurons and endocrine cells expressing vasoactive peptides and mediates increased blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Xinfu; Karpen, Heidi E; Stephens, John;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a nutrient-responsive hormone that exerts diverse actions in the gastrointestinal tract, including enhancing epithelial cell survival and proliferation, mucosal blood flow, and nutrient uptake and suppressing gastric motility and secretion...... in the gut. METHODS: Intestinal cellular GLP-2R localization was determined with real-time, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) of laser capture microdissected subtissue and fluorescence in situ hybridization and also with double and/or triple immunostaining of...

  12. Increases in platelet and red cell counts, blood viscosity, and arterial pressure during mild surface cooling: factors in mortality from coronary and cerebral thrombosis in winter.

    OpenAIRE

    Keatinge, W R; Coleshaw, S R; Cotter, F.; Mattock, M; Murphy, M; Chelliah, R

    1984-01-01

    Six hours of mild surface cooling in moving air at 24 degrees C with little fall in core temperature (0.4 degree C) increased the packed cell volume by 7% and increased the platelet count and usually the mean platelet volume to produce a 15% increase in the fraction of plasma volume occupied by platelets. Little of these increases occurred in the first hour. Whole blood viscosity increased by 21%; plasma viscosity usually increased, and arterial pressure rose on average from 126/69 to 138/87 ...

  13. Equol increases cerebral blood flow in rats via activation of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Wang, Yan; Song, Zheng; Zhao, Li-Mei; Li, Gui-Rong; Deng, Xiu-Ling

    2016-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of equol on cerebral blood flow and the underlying molecular mechanisms. The regional cerebral blood flow in parietal lobe of rats was measured by using a laser Doppler flowmetry. Isolated cerebral basilar artery and mesenteric artery rings from rats were used for vascular reactivity measurement with a multi wire myography system. Outward K(+) current in smooth muscle cells of cerebral basilar artery, large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channel current in BK-HEK 293 cells stably expressing both human α (hSlo)- and β1-subunits, and hSlo channel current in hSlo-HEK 293 cells expressing only the α-subunit of BK channels were recorded with whole cell patch-clamp technique. The results showed that equol significantly increased regional cerebral blood flow in rats, and produced a concentration-dependent but endothelium-independent relaxation in rat cerebral basilar arteries. Both paxilline and iberiotoxin, two selective BK channel blockers, significantly inhibited equol-induced vasodilation in cerebral arteries. Outward K(+) currents in smooth muscle cells of cerebral basilar artery were increased by equol and fully reversed by washout or blockade of BK channels with iberiotoxin. Equol remarkably enhanced human BK current in BK-HEK 293 cells, but not hSlo current in hSlo-HEK 293 cells, and the increase was completely abolished by co-application of paxilline. Our findings provide the first information that equol selectively stimulates BK channel current by acting on its β1 subunit, which may in turn contribute to the equol-mediated vasodilation and cerebral blood flow increase. PMID:26995303

  14. Vaccination of calves with Mycobacteria bovis Bacilli Calmete Guerin (BCG) induced rapid increase in the proportion of peripheral blood gammadelta T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buza, Joram; Kiros, Tadele; Zerihun, Adama; Abraham, Isaac; Ameni, Gobena

    2009-08-15

    Changes in the proportion of peripheral blood T cell subsets after subcutaneous inoculation of cattle with Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) were studied. Calves were injected with approximately 8 x 10(6) BCG bacillus and blood samples collected at weekly intervals for flow-cytometric analyses to determine the proportion of CD4+, CD8+ and gammadelta T cells. In addition, whole blood samples were stimulated in vitro with M. bovis purified protein derivative (PPD) and the secreted IFN-gamma quantified by ELISA. Results showed cellular and cytokine changes which could be categorized into three phases. The first phase occurred within the first 2 weeks after vaccination involving an increase in proportion of WC1+ gammadelta T cells and a concomitant increase in the secretion of IFN-gamma. These two responses peaked at 2 weeks and waned thereafter. The second phase involved an increase in the CD4/CD8 ratio as a result of an increase in the proportion of CD4+ T cells between 4 and 6 weeks. The third phase involved a decrease in the CD4/CD8 ratio due to an increase in the proportion of CD8+ T cells between 8 and 10 weeks. Surprisingly, the IFN-gamma response was associated with changes in the gammadelta rather than the CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, suggesting that this cytokine was secreted by gammadelta-T cells. These results are consistent with the reported ability of gammadelta T cells to act rapidly and bridging the innate and classically adaptive immune responses. PMID:19178951

  15. Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). ... abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as seen in this photomicrograph.

  16. Combined intermittent hypoxia and surface muscle electrostimulation as a method to increase peripheral blood progenitor cell concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Azqueta Carmen; Martin-Henao Gregorio; Ricart Antoni; Ventura Josep-Lluis; Pagès Teresa; Javierre Casimiro; Viscor Ginés; Segura Ramon

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Our goal was to determine whether short-term intermittent hypoxia exposure, at a level well tolerated by healthy humans and previously shown by our group to increase EPO and erythropoiesis, could mobilize hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and increase their presence in peripheral circulation. Methods Four healthy male subjects were subjected to three different protocols: one with only a hypoxic stimulus (OH), another with a hypoxic stimulus plus muscle electrostimulation (HME...

  17. Self-reactive CD4+ T cells and B cells in the blood in health and autoimmune disease: increased frequency of thyroglobulin-reactive cells in Graves' disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus H; Moeller, Ane Christine; Hegedüs, Laszlo;

    2006-01-01

    with autoimmune thyroiditis. In Hashimoto's thyroiditis, B cells bound increased amounts of thyroglobulin in a complement- and autoantibody-dependent manner, and the thyroglobulin-elicited proliferation of CD4(+) T cells and B cells was complement dependent. Increased proportions of Tg-responsive CD4......(+) T cells and B cells were found in patients with Graves' disease. Notably, both patient groups and healthy controls exhibited higher proliferative responses to thyroglobulin than to a foreign recall antigen, tetanus toxoid. Our results suggest that self-tolerance can be broken by exposure of...... circulating lymphocytes to high local concentrations of self-antigen, and that complement plays a role in the maintenance of autoimmune processes, at least in Hashimoto's thyroiditis....

  18. Increased percentage of CD8 CD28– suppressor lymphocytes in peripheral blood and skin infiltrates correlates with advanced disease in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphomas

    OpenAIRE

    Donata Urbaniak-Kujda; Katarzyna Kapelko-Słowik; Dariusz Wołowiec; Jarosław Dybko; Agnieszka Hałoń; Bo��ena Jaźwiec; Joanna Maj; Alina Jankowska-Konsur; Kazimierz Kuliczkowski

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: T cells with the CD8 CD28– phenotype are CD8 lymphocytes with regulatory function. Their increased numbers were observed in infections, autoimmune and neoplastic diseases, and in elderly healthy individuals. CD8 CD28– lymphocyte levels in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) has not yet been described. The aim of the study was to determine their levels in these patients’ peripheral blood and cutaneous infiltrates and their relation to the clinical stage of disease.Mat...

  19. Upregulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 Combined with Increased Adiponectin Lowers Blood Pressure in Diabetic Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats through a Reduction in Endothelial Cell Dysfunction, Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cao

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effect of increased levels of HO-1 on hypertension exacerbated by diabetes. Diabetic spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR and WKY (control animals were treated with streptozotocin (STZ to induce diabetes and stannous chloride (SnCl2 to upregulate HO-1. Treatment with SnCl2 not only attenuated the increase of blood pressure (p<0.01, but also increased HO-1 protein content, HO activity and plasma adiponectin levels, decreased the levels of superoxide and 3-nitrotyrosine (NT, respectively. Reduction in oxidative stress resulted in the increased expression of Bcl-2 and AKT with a concomitant reduction in circulating endothelial cells (CEC in the peripheral blood (p<0.005 and an improvement of femoral reactivity (response to acetylcholine. Thus induction of HO-1 accompanied with increased plasma adiponectin levels in diabetic hypertensive rats alters the phenotype through a reduction in oxidative stress, thereby permitting endothelial cells to maintain an anti-apoptotic environment and the restoration of endothelial responses thus preventing hypertension.

  20. Topical menthol increases cutaneous blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, Daniel H; Alexander, Lacy M

    2016-09-01

    Menthol, the active ingredient in several topically applied analgesics, activates transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) receptors on sensory nerves and on the vasculature inducing a cooling sensation on the skin. Ilex paraguariensis is also a common ingredient in topical analgesics that has potential vasoactive properties and may alter the mechanisms of action of menthol. We sought to characterize the microvascular effects of topical menthol and ilex application and to determine the mechanism(s) through which these compounds may independently and combined alter cutaneous blood flow. We hypothesized that menthol would induce vasoconstriction and that ilex would not alter skin blood flow (SkBF). Three separate protocols were conducted to examine menthol and ilex-mediated changes in SkBF. In protocol 1, placebo, 4% menthol, 0.7% ilex, and combination menthol+ilex gels were applied separately to the skin and red cell flux was continuously measured utilizing laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI). In protocol 2, seven concentrations of menthol gel (0.04%, 0.4%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 7%, 8%) were applied to the skin to model the dose-response curve. In protocol 3, placebo, menthol, ilex, and menthol+ilex gels were applied to skin under local thermal control (34°C) both with and without sensory nerve blockage (topical lidocaine 4%). Post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) and local heating (42°C) protocols were conducted to determine the relative contribution of endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs)/sensory nerves and nitric oxide (NO), respectively. Red cell flux was normalized to mean arterial pressure expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC: flux·mmHg(-1)) in all protocols. Topical menthol application increased SkBF compared to placebo (3.41±0.33 vs 1.1±0.19CVC: peffect, p<0.05) with an ED50 of 1.0%. Similarly, SkBF was increased after menthol application during PORH (3.62±0.29 vs. 2.50±0.21flux·mmHg(-1); p<0.001), but not local heating

  1. Sodium-potassium pump activity in white blood cells from children with an increased risk of developing hypertension--The Odense Schoolchild Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H S; Nielsen, J R; Pedersen, K E;

    1993-01-01

    We have measured the capacity of the sodium-potassium pump, as assessed by 86rubidium uptake and the number of [3H]-ouabain binding sites on white blood cells, in children aged 9-11 years, partly cross-sectionally and partly longitudinally after a physical training programme. Children from a...... hypertensive subgroup comprising the upper 5% of the blood pressure distribution and children from a randomly selected normotensive subgroup were eligible for the study. In the cross-sectional study 40 children from the hypertensive subgroup and 40 children from the normotensive subgroup were evaluated. A...... significant increase in 86rubidium uptake was present in boys as compared to girls. After adjustment for differences in sexual maturation the observed significant difference disappeared. Important correlates of pump activity were height, plasma glucose, and physical fitness. In the training study 10 boys from...

  2. Telomerase activity is increased and telomere length shortened in T cells from blood of patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Kehuai; Higashi, H; Hansen, E R;

    2000-01-01

    subsets from both atopic dermatitis and psoriasis patients compared with normal individuals. Furthermore, the telomere length was found to be significantly shorter in CD4(+) memory T cells compared with the CD4(+) naive T cells, and both of the cell subsets from diseases were shown to be of significantly...

  3. Increased Numbers of NK Cells, NKT-Like Cells, and NK Inhibitory Receptors in Peripheral Blood of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Tang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available T cells and B cells participate in the pathogenesis of COPD. Currently, NK cells and NKT cells have gained increasing attention. In the present study, 19 COPD patients and 12 healthy nonsmokers (HNS were recruited, and their pulmonary function was assessed. The frequencies of CD3+ T, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, B, NK, and NKT-like cells were determined using flow cytometry. The frequencies of spontaneous and inducible IFN-γ+ or CD107a+ NK and NKT-like cells as well as activating or inhibitory receptors were also detected. The potential association of lymphocyte subsets with disease severity was further analyzed. Significantly decreased numbers of CD3+ and CD4+ T cells, and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio, but increased numbers of CD3−CD56+ NK and CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells were observed in COPD patients compared to HNS. The frequencies of inducible IFN-γ-secreting NK and NKT-like cells were less in COPD patients. The frequencies of CD158a and CD158b on NK cells and CD158b on NKT-like cells were greater. The frequency of CD158b+ NK cells was negatively correlated with FEV1% prediction and FEV1/FVC. Our data indicate that COPD patients have immune dysfunction, and higher frequencies of inhibitory NK cells and NKT-like cells may participate in the pathogenesis of COPD.

  4. The transcription of MGAT4A glycosyl transferase is increased in white cells of peripheral blood of Type 2 Diabetes patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Miguel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human glycosylase IV is involved in GLUT2 transporter regulation in pancreatic β cells. A KO of this gene along with a high fat diet in a mice model has been associated with the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D. The aims of this study were to measure and compare the MGAT4A mRNA levels in white blood cells (WBC from T2D subjects and healthy subjects (T2NB, and to measure the half-life of the MGAT4A mRNA. Results We studied a sample of 73 individuals, 40 T2D subjects and 33 T2NB subjects. Anthropometrical and biochemical profiles were registered. The MGAT4A mRNA levels in WBC and the transcript half-life in Jurkat T cells were determined by Real-Time PCR. A blood differential cell counting was made for each individual. Cell counting showed T2D subjects exhibited an increased number of WBC compared to T2NB subjects (P = 0.0001. Biochemical parameters such as fasting glucose (P = 0.0001, and triglycerides (P = 0.002 were statistically significant. T2D subjects had 4.2-fold more MGAT4A transcript compared to T2NB subjects (P = 0.002. The MGAT4A mRNA had a half-life of 2.04 h in Jurkat T cells. Conclusion The results of this work suggest that in T2D subjects, high levels of glucose and triglycerides are accompanied by an increase on MGAT4A mRNA levels and WBC count; condition that suggests a pro-inflammatory state due to a chronic metabolic stress.

  5. Intercellular transfer of P-glycoprotein in human blood-brain barrier endothelial cells is increased by histone deacetylase inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Noack; Sandra Noack; Manuela Buettner; Naim, Hassan Y.; Wolfgang Löscher

    2016-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) controls the entry of compounds into the brain, thereby regulating brain homeostasis. Efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp) significantly contribute to BBB function. Multiple signaling pathways modulate the expression and activity of Pgp in response to xenobiotics and disease. A non-genetic way of intercellular transfer of Pgp occurs in cancer cells, but whether this also occurs in non-cancer cells such as endothelial cells that form the BBB is not kno...

  6. Increased Proportion of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Population in Cord Blood of Neonates Born to Mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadarits, Orsolya; Zóka, András; Barna, Gábor; Al-Aissa, Zahra; Rosta, Klára; Rigó, János; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Somogyi, Anikó

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) population in the cord blood of neonates born to mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a hypothesis generating pilot study, due to that, neonatal polycythemia may be the consequence of GDM pregnancy. Forty-five pregnant women with GDM (last trimester mean HbA1C = 33.9 mmol/mol) and 42 (nondiabetic) control pregnant women were enrolled after their routine 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) between the 24th and 28th gestational week (with expected differences in their mean routine clinical characteristics: plasma glucose at OGTT: 0′ = 5.07 vs. 4.62 mM, 120′ = 8.9 vs. 5.76 mM, age = 35.07 vs. 31.66 years, prepregnancy body mass index = 27.9 vs. 23.9 kg/m2, GDM vs. control, respectively) on a voluntary basis after signing the informed consent. EDTA-treated cord blood samples were analyzed by flow cytometry and the software Kaluza1.2 using CD45 and CD34-specific fluorescent antibodies to identify the HSPC population (CD34+ cells within the CD45dim blast gate). The proportion of CD34+CD45dim HSPCs among the nucleated cells was significantly (P < 0.05, statistical power = 60.8%) higher in the cord blood samples of neonates born to mothers with GDM (median 0.38%) compared to neonates born to nondiabetic mothers (median 0.32%) and according to treatment types (P < 0.05) median: control 0.32%, GDM-diet only 0.37%, GDM-on insulin 0.45%; control versus GDM on insulin (P < 0.05). The increased proportion of circulating CD34+CD45dim cells in the cord blood may possibly be related to altered fetal stem cell mobilization in GDM pregnancy, yet these results should be interpreted only as preliminary due to the small sample sizes. PMID:26494027

  7. Increased Proportion of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Population in Cord Blood of Neonates Born to Mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadarits, Orsolya; Zóka, András; Barna, Gábor; Al-Aissa, Zahra; Rosta, Klára; Rigó, János; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Somogyi, Anikó; Firneisz, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) population in the cord blood of neonates born to mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a hypothesis generating pilot study, due to that, neonatal polycythemia may be the consequence of GDM pregnancy. Forty-five pregnant women with GDM (last trimester mean HbA1C = 33.9 mmol/mol) and 42 (nondiabetic) control pregnant women were enrolled after their routine 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) between the 24th and 28th gestational week (with expected differences in their mean routine clinical characteristics: plasma glucose at OGTT: 0' = 5.07 vs. 4.62 mM, 120' = 8.9 vs. 5.76 mM, age = 35.07 vs. 31.66 years, prepregnancy body mass index = 27.9 vs. 23.9 kg/m(2), GDM vs. control, respectively) on a voluntary basis after signing the informed consent. EDTA-treated cord blood samples were analyzed by flow cytometry and the software Kaluza1.2 using CD45 and CD34-specific fluorescent antibodies to identify the HSPC population (CD34(+) cells within the CD45(dim) blast gate). The proportion of CD34(+)CD45(dim) HSPCs among the nucleated cells was significantly (P < 0.05, statistical power = 60.8%) higher in the cord blood samples of neonates born to mothers with GDM (median 0.38%) compared to neonates born to nondiabetic mothers (median 0.32%) and according to treatment types (P < 0.05) median: control 0.32%, GDM-diet only 0.37%, GDM-on insulin 0.45%; control versus GDM on insulin (P < 0.05). The increased proportion of circulating CD34(+)CD45(dim) cells in the cord blood may possibly be related to altered fetal stem cell mobilization in GDM pregnancy, yet these results should be interpreted only as preliminary due to the small sample sizes. PMID:26494027

  8. Self-reactive CD4+ T cells and B cells in the blood in health and autoimmune disease: increased frequency of thyroglobulin-reactive cells in Graves' disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus H; Moeller, Ane Christine; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Bendtzen, Klaus; Leslie, R Graham Q

    2006-01-01

    (+) T cells and B cells were found in patients with Graves' disease. Notably, both patient groups and healthy controls exhibited higher proliferative responses to thyroglobulin than to a foreign recall antigen, tetanus toxoid. Our results suggest that self-tolerance can be broken by exposure of...

  9. Increased Responsiveness to Toll-Like Receptor 4 Stimulation in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Patients with Recent Onset Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Kowalski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cell signaling via Toll-like receptors (TLRs leads to synovial inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. We aimed to assess effects of TLR2 and TLR4 stimulation on proinflammatory cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from patients with recent-onset RA, osteoarthrosis (OA, and healthy control (HC. Methods. PBMCs were stimulated with LPS, biglycan and cytokine mix. Cytokines were analyzed in supernatants with ELISA. Expression of toll-like receptors mRNA in leukocytes was analyzed using real-time qPCR. Results. PBMCs from RA patients spontaneously produced less IL-6 and TNFα than cells from OA and HC subjects. LPS increased cytokines' production in all groups. In RA patients increase was dramatic (30 to 48-fold and 17 to 31-fold, for respective cytokines compared to moderate (2 to 8-fold in other groups. LPS induced 15-HETE generation in PBMCs from RA (mean 251% and OA patients (mean 43%, although only in OA group, the increase was significant. TLR2 and TLR4 gene expressions decreased in response to cytokine mix, while LPS enhanced TLR2 expression in HC and depressed TLR4 expression in OA patients. Conclusion. PBMCs from recent-onset RA patients are overresponsive to stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide. TLR expression is differentially regulated in healthy and arthritic subjects.

  10. Marked increase in rat red blood cell membrane protein glycosylation by one-month treatment with a cafeteria diet.

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva, Laia; Baron, Cristian; Fernández-López, José-Antonio; Remesar, Xavier; Alemany, Marià

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Glucose, an aldose, spontaneously reacts with protein amino acids yielding glycosylated proteins. The compounds may reorganize to produce advanced glycosylation products, which regulatory importance is increasingly being recognized. Protein glycosylation is produced without the direct intervention of enzymes and results in the loss of function. Glycosylated plasma albumin, and glycosylated haemoglobin are currently used as index of mean plasma glucose levels, since ...

  11. Regulatory T Cells in HIV-Infected Immunological Nonresponders Are Increased in Blood but Depleted in Lymphoid Tissue and Predict Immunological Reconstitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, Julie C; Hartling, Hans J; Ronit, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV-infected immunological nonresponders fail to immune reconstitute despite optimal treatment. We hypothesized that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in immunological reconstitution. Tregs and Treg subpopulations were measured in blood and Foxp3 cells in lymphoid tissue, and th...

  12. Increased frequency of CD4-8-T cells bearing T-cell receptor αβ chains in peripheral blood of atomic bomb survivors exposed to high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rare T-cell subpopulation, CD4-z8-αβ cells, may be differentiated through a pathway (or pathways) different from the pathway(s) of conventional CD4+ or CD8+ cells. In the present study, the frequencies of CD4-8- T cells in peripheral-blood αβ T cells in 409 atomic bomb survivors were determined to investigate late effects of radiation on the composition of human T-cell subpopulations. The frequency of CD4-8-αβ T-cell decreased significantly with the subject's age and was higher in females than males. A significant increase in the frequency was found in the survivors exposed to more than 1.5Gy, suggesting that the previous radiation exposure altered differentiation and development of T cells. 25 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Cadmium uptake by rat red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rat red blood cells were employed to study the uptake of cadmium (109Cd). Suspensions of red blood cells were exposed to Cd concentrations (both bound and free) observed following in vivo Cd administration. Cd uptake was biphasic with an initial rapid phase (0C was one-fourth of that at 370C. The metabolic inhibitors: sodium fluoride (1mM), potassium cyanide (1mM) and carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (2μM) and the Na+-K+-ATPase inhibitor, ouabain (1mM) did not reduce Cd (50μM) uptake into red blood cells. This suggests that the uptake of Cd into red blood cells was not an active process. Incubation of Cd (10μM) with an equimolar concentration of Zn did not alter uptake of Cd into red blood cells, but at 5 and 10 times higher concentrations of Zn, Cd uptake was enhanced 5-fold. Mercury at one-tenth and equimolar concentrations of Cd increased Cd uptake by red blood cells 2-fold. N-Ethylmaleimide (0.5-5mM), which irreversibly inactivates membrane sulfhydryl groups, decreased Cd uptake. The data indicate that Cd uptake into rat red blood cells occurs by passive transport and that alterations of sulfhydryls of red blood cell membrane may modulate the process. (author)

  14. Engineering a Dual-Layer Chitosan-Lactide Hydrogel To Create Endothelial Cell Aggregate-Induced Microvascular Networks In Vitro and Increase Blood Perfusion In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungwoo; Kawai, Toshiyuki; Wang, Derek; Yang, Yunzhi

    2016-08-01

    Here, we report the use of chemically cross-linked and photo-cross-linked hydrogels to engineer human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) aggregate-induced microvascular networks to increase blood perfusion in vivo. First, we studied the effect of chemically cross-linked and photo-cross-linked chitosan-lactide hydrogels on stiffness, degradation rates, and HUVEC behaviors. The photo-cross-linked hydrogel was relatively stiff (E = ∼15 kPa) and possessed more compact networks, denser surface texture, and lower enzymatic degradation rates than the relatively soft, chemically cross-linked hydrogel (E = ∼2 kPa). While both hydrogels exhibited nontoxicity, the soft chemically cross-linked hydrogels expedited the formation of cell aggregates compared to the photo-cross-linked hydrogels. Cells on the less stiff, chemically cross-linked hydrogels expressed more matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity than the stiffer, photo-cross-linked hydrogel. This difference in MMP activity resulted in a more dramatic decrease in mechanical stiffness after 3 days of incubation for the chemically cross-linked hydrogel, as compared to the photo-cross-linked one. After determining the physical and biological properties of each hydrogel, we accordingly engineered a dual-layer hydrogel construct consisting of the relatively soft, chemically cross-linked hydrogel layer for HUVEC encapsulation, and the relatively stiff, acellular, photo-cross-linked hydrogel for retention of cell-laden microvasculature above. This dual-layer hydrogel construct enabled a lasting HUVEC aggregate-induced microvascular network due to the combination of stable substrate, enriched cell adhesion molecules, and extracellular matrix proteins. We tested the dual-layer hydrogel construct in a mouse model of hind-limb ischemia, where the HUVEC aggregate-induced microvascular networks significantly enhanced blood perfusion rate to ischemic legs and decreased tissue necrosis compared with both no treatment and

  15. Activation of a P2Y4-like purinoceptor triggers an increase in cytosolic [Ca2+] in the red blood cells of the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Squamata, Teiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartorello R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of pathophysiological roles for purinoceptors are emerging, some of which have therapeutic potential. Erythrocytes are an important source of purines, which can be released under physiological and physiopathological conditions, acting on purinergic receptors associated with the same cell or with neighboring cells. Few studies have been conducted on lizards, and have been limited to ATP agonist itself. We have previously shown that the red blood cells (RBCs of the lizard Ameiva ameiva store Ca2+ in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and that the purinergic agonist ATP triggers a rapid and transient increase of [Ca2+]c by mobilization of the cation from internal stores. We also reported the ability of the second messenger IP3 to discharge the ER calcium pool of the ER. Here we characterize the purinoceptor present in the cytoplasmic membrane of the RBCs of the lizard Ameiva ameiva by the selective use of ATP analogues and pyrimidine nucleotides. The nucleotides UTP, UDP, GTP, and ATPgammaS triggered a dose-dependent response, while interestingly 2MeSATP, 2ClATP, alpha, ß-ATP, and ADP failed to do so in a 1- to 200-µm con- centration. The EC50 obtained for the compounds tested was 41.77 µM for UTP, 48.11 µM for GTP, 53.11 µM for UDP, and 30.78 µM for ATPgammaS. The present data indicate that the receptor within the RBCs of Ameiva ameiva is a P2Y4-like receptor due to its pharmacological similarity to the mammalian P2Y4 receptor.

  16. Tryptamine and dimethyltryptamine inhibit indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase and increase the tumor-reactive effect of peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourino, Melissa Cavalheiro; de Oliveira, Edson Mendes; Bellé, Luziane Potrich; Knebel, Franciele Hinterholz; Albuquerque, Renata Chaves; Dörr, Felipe Augusto; Okada, Sabrina Sayori; Migliorini, Silene; Soares, Irene Silva; Campa, Ana

    2013-07-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-induced tryptophan-degrading enzyme, producing kynurenine (KYN) that participates in the mechanism of tumor immune tolerance. Thus, IDO inhibition has been considered a strategy for anticancer therapy. The aim of this study was to identify whether the metabolites originated from the competitive routes of tryptophan metabolism, such as the serotonergic or N, N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) pathways, have inhibitory effects on recombinant human IDO (rhIDO) activity. Serotonin and melatonin had no effect; on the other hand, tryptamine (TRY) and DMT modulated the activity of rhIDO as classical non-competitive inhibitors, with Ki values of 156 and 506 μM, respectively. This inhibitory effect was also observed on constitutively expressed or IFN-γ-induced IDO in the A172 human glioma cell line. TRY and DMT increased the cytotoxic activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in co-culture assays. We conclude that the IDO inhibition by TRY and DMT contributed to a more effective tumor-reactive response by the PBMCs. PMID:23754498

  17. Activation of GLP-1 receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells reduces the autoregulatory response in afferent arterioles and increases renal blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Elisa Pouline; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Kissow, Hannelouise; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Deacon, Carolyn F; Jensen, Boye L; Holst, Jens J; Sorensen, Charlotte Mehlin

    2015-01-01

    localize renal GLP-1 receptors and describe GLP-1 mediated effects on the renal vasculature. We hypothesized that renal GLP-1 receptors are located in the renal microcirculation and activation of these affects renal autoregulation and increases renal blood flow. In vivo autoradiography using (125)I-GLP-1......, (125)I-exendin-4 (GLP-1 analog) and 125I-exendin 9-39 (GLP-1 receptor antagonist) was performed in rodents to localize specific GLP-1 receptor binding. GLP-1 mediated effects on blood pressure (BP), renal blood flow (RBF), heart rate (HR), renin secretion, urinary flow rate and Na+ and K+ excretion...

  18. White Blood Cell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... where they are needed, and then kill and digest the harmful organism or substance (see White blood ... Patel Hello Everyone! Hello to all of you readers! I know you will be seeing my biography, ...

  19. Increased apoptosis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with perennial allergic asthma/rhinitis: relation to serum markers of apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Grzegorczyk

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of our study was to examine spontaneous and stimulated apoptosis of peripheral blood MNC from allergic patients, sensitized to Der p I antigen as compared to cells from non-atopic subjects. Furthermore we aimed to investigate which populations of mononuclear cells (lymphocytes, monocytes undergo the apoptosis and to determine relations between apoptosis and serum levels of sFas/APO-1, ICE/caspase-1 or TNF-α.

  20. Increased miR-155 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of primary immune thrombocytopenia patients was correlated with serum cytokine profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Bao-Hua; Ye, Xin; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Yi; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Gu, Ming-Li; Qin, Qin; Chen, Jie; Deng, An-Mei

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the possible pathogenic role of a microRNA (miR-155) in primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). We used quantitative real-time PCR to determine the relative expression of miR-155 and SOCS1 (suppressor of cytokine signaling) mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 28 ITP patients and 28 healthy controls. Cytokine plasma levels were determined by ELISA. Possible associations between miR-155 levels and serum cytokine concentrations were assessed using Spearman or Pearson correlation analysis. Seven naive ITP patients were followed and the effects of medical treatment on miR-155 levels were assessed. Compared to healthy controls, ITP patients had increased miR-155 and decreased SOCS1 mRNA levels. ITP patients also had increased plasma IL-17A and decreased IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β1 levels. miR-155 levels were negatively correlated with platelet counts, SOCS1 mRNA levels, and the plasma levels of IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β1, but positively correlated with plasma IL-17A levels. Medical treatment for ITP decreased miR-155 levels. Thus, our results suggest that miR-155 might be involved in the pathogenesis of ITP by regulating cytokine profiles, which may be mediated by miR-155 targeting SOCS1. PMID:25413124

  1. Ciprofloxacin increases survival after ionizing irradiation combined injury: γ-H2AX formation, cytokine/chemokine, and red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Juliann G; Fukumoto, Risaku

    2014-06-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation alone (radiation injury, RI) or combined with traumatic tissue injury (radiation combined injury, CI) is a crucial life-threatening factor in nuclear and radiological accidents. It is well documented that RI and CI occur at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and system levels. However, their mechanisms remain largely unclear. It has been observed in dogs, pigs, rats, guinea pigs, and mice that radiation exposure combined with burns, wounds, or bacterial infection results in greater mortality than radiation exposure alone. In this laboratory, the authors found that B6D2F1/J female mice exposed to 9.75 Gy ⁶⁰Co-γ photon radiation followed by 15% total body surface area wounds experienced 50% higher mortality (over a 30-d observation period) compared to irradiation alone. CI enhanced DNA damages, amplified iNOS activation, induced massive release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, overexpressed MMPs and TLRs, and aggravated sepsis that led to cell death. In the present study, B6D2F1/J mice that received CI were treated with ciprofloxacin (CIP, 90 mg/kg p.o., q.d. within 2 h after CI through day 21). At day 1, CIP treatment reduced CI-induced γ-H2AX formation significantly. At day 10, CIP treatment not only reduced cytokine/chemokine concentrations significantly, including IL-6 and KC (i.e., IL-8 in humans), but also enhanced IL-3 production compared to vehicle-treated controls. CIP also elevated red blood cell counts, hemoglobin levels, and hematocrits. At day 30, CIP treatment increased 45% survival after CI (i.e., 2.3-fold increase over vehicle treatment). The results suggest that CIP may prove to be an effective therapeutic drug for CI. PMID:24776905

  2. Predicting Increased Blood Pressure Using Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Fernandes Golino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI, waist (WC and hip circumference (HC, and waist hip ratio (WHR using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42, misclassification (.19, and the higher pseudo R2 (.43. This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25, misclassification (.16, and the higher pseudo R2 (.46. This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power.

  3. Increased levels of soluble CD226 in sera accompanied by decreased membrane CD226 expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhuwei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a cellular membrane triggering receptor, CD226 is involved in the NK cell- or CTL-mediated lysis of tumor cells of different origin, including freshly isolated tumor cells and tumor cell lines. Here, we evaluated soluble CD226 (sCD226 levels in sera, and membrane CD226 (mCD226 expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from cancer patients as well as normal subjects, and demonstrated the possible function and origin of the altered sCD226, which may provide useful information for understanding the mechanisms of tumor escape and for immunodiagnosis and immunotherapy. Results Soluble CD226 levels in serum samples from cancer patients were significantly higher than those in healthy individuals (P P Conclusion These findings suggest that sCD226 might be shed from cell membranes by certain proteases, and, further, sCD226 may be used as a predictor for monitoring cancer, and more important, a possible immunotherapy target, which may be useful in clinical application.

  4. High dose ionizing irradiation induces an early and transient increase in peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cells; L`exposition aigue aux radiations ionisantes induit un recrutement transitoire des progeniteurs hematopoietiques au niveau du sang peripherique: implications therapeutiques potentielles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drouet, M.; Mathieu, J.; Grenier, N.; Vetillard, J.; Chauvelot, F.; Thierry, D.; Mestries, J.C.; Herodin, F. [Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees, La Tronche, 38 - Grenoble (France)]|[Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees - Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1997-12-31

    Nonhuman primates exposed to ionizing radiation exhibit an early and transient increase in peripheral blood committed hematopoietic progenitor cells. The management of bone marrow aplasia secondary to accidental irradiation could be based in part on the re-infusion of those circulating autologous progenitors following a period of ex vivo expansion with cytokines. (authors)

  5. Increased expression of inducible co-stimulator on CD4+ T-cells in the peripheral blood and synovial fluid of patients with failed hip arthroplasties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matharu, G. S.; Mittal, S.; Pynsent, P. B.; Buckley, C. D.; Revell, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives T-cells are considered to play an important role in the inflammatory response causing arthroplasty failure. The study objectives were to investigate the composition and distribution of CD4+ T-cell phenotypes in the peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid (SF) of patients undergoing revision surgery for failed metal-on-metal (MoM) and metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) hip arthroplasties, and in patients awaiting total hip arthroplasty. Methods In this prospective case-control study, PB and SF were obtained from 22 patients (23 hips) undergoing revision of MoM (n = 14) and MoP (n = 9) hip arthroplasties, with eight controls provided from primary hip osteoarthritis cases awaiting arthroplasty. Lymphocyte subtypes in samples were analysed using flow cytometry. Results The percentages of CD4+ T-cell subtypes in PB were not different between groups. The CD4+ T-cells in the SF of MoM hips showed a completely different distribution of phenotypes compared with that found in the PB in the same patients, including significantly decreased CD4+ T-central memory cells (p DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.52.2000574 PMID:26868893

  6. Quantitative measurement of blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We are observing and measuring the varying development reaction stages of blood cells to different saline solutions. The imaging process is based on a common path interferometer which is realized with a spatial light modulator (SLM) in the Fourier plane after the microscope objective. With the SLM we can shift the phase of the transmitted light with respect to the phase of signal wave. This principle is used for the phase contrast microscopy method where we take four pictures of the same image with different phase shifts in order to calculate the complex field of the measured cell. This microscope technique obtains quantitative data about the blood cell's surface in different development stages, amplitude and phase differences inside the cell itself. (author)

  7. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

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    Full Text Available ... Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 352 352 Loading... ... considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  8. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

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    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 361 361 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  9. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

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    Full Text Available ... Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 361 361 Loading... ... considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  10. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

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    Full Text Available ... on Jul 19, 2011 Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this ... Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and peripheral blood stem cell ...

  11. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

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    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 350 350 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  12. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 350 350 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  13. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on Jul 19, 2011 Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true ... Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation ( ...

  14. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

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    Full Text Available ... Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 351 351 Loading... ... considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  15. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 351 351 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  16. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 360 360 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  17. Increased blood carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations in inflammatory pulmonary diseases

    OpenAIRE

    H. Yasuda; Yamaya, M; Yanai, M; Ohrui, T; Sasaki, H

    2002-01-01

    Background: Exhaled carbon monoxide has been reported to increase in inflammatory pulmonary diseases and to be correlated with blood carboxyhaemoglobin (Hb-CO) concentration. A study was undertaken to determine whether arterial blood Hb-CO increases in patients with inflammatory pulmonary diseases.

  18. Increased percentage of L-selectin+ and ICAM-1+ peripheral blood CD4+/CD8+ T cells in active Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Bakunowicz-Lazarczyk

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the percentage of CD4+/CD8+ peripheral T cells expressing CD62L+ and CD54+ in patients with Graves' disease and to assess if these estimations could be helpful as markers of active ophthalmopathy. The study was carried out in 25 patients with Graves' disease (GD divided into 3 groups: 1/ 8 patients with active Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO (CAS 3-6, GO complaints pound 1 year, 2/ 9 patients with hyperthyroid GD without symptoms of ophthalmopathy (GDtox and 3/ 8 patients with euthyroid GD with no GO symptoms (GDeu. The control group consisted of 15 healthy volunteers age and sex matched to groups 1-3. The expression of lymphocyte adhesion molecules was evaluated by using three-color flow cytometry. In GO group the percentage of CD8+CD54+, CD8+CD62L+, CD4+CD54+ and CD4+CD62L+ T cells was significantly higher as compared to controls (p<0.001, p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001 respectively. The percentage of CD8+CD54+ T lymphocytes was also elevated in GO group in comparison to hyperthyroid GD patients (p< 0.05. CD4+CD62L+ and CD8+CD54+ percentages were also increased in GDtox and GDeu as compared to controls. We found a positive correlation between the TSHRab concentration and the percentage of CD8+CD62L+ T cells in all studied groups (r= 0.39, p<0.05 and between the TSHRab level and CAS (r= 0.77, p<0.05. The increased percentage of CD8+CD54+ and CD8+CD62L+ T cells in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy may be used as a marker of immune inflammation activity.

  19. Uptake of carnitine by red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campa, M.; Borum, P.

    1986-05-01

    A significant amount of blood carnitine (70% of cord blood and 40% of blood from healthy adults) is partitioned into the red blood cell compartment of whole blood. Data indicate that the plasma compartment and the red blood cell compartment of whole blood represent different metabolic pools of carnitine. There are no data to indicate that red blood cells synthesize carnitine, but our understanding of the uptake of carnitine by red blood cells is negligible. Red blood cells were obtained from healthy adults, washed twice with normal saline, and used for uptake experiments. When the cells were incubated at 37/sup 0/C in the presence of /sup 14/C-carnitine, radioactivity was found both in the soluble cytosolic and membrane fractions of the cells following lysis. The uptake was dependent upon the time of incubation, temperature of incubation, and carnitine concentration in the incubation medium. Washed red blood cell membranes incubated with /sup 14/C-carnitine showed specific binding of radioactivity. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that red blood cells have an uptake mechanism for L-carnitine.

  20. Uptake of carnitine by red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant amount of blood carnitine (70% of cord blood and 40% of blood from healthy adults) is partitioned into the red blood cell compartment of whole blood. Data indicate that the plasma compartment and the red blood cell compartment of whole blood represent different metabolic pools of carnitine. There are no data to indicate that red blood cells synthesize carnitine, but our understanding of the uptake of carnitine by red blood cells is negligible. Red blood cells were obtained from healthy adults, washed twice with normal saline, and used for uptake experiments. When the cells were incubated at 370C in the presence of 14C-carnitine, radioactivity was found both in the soluble cytosolic and membrane fractions of the cells following lysis. The uptake was dependent upon the time of incubation, temperature of incubation, and carnitine concentration in the incubation medium. Washed red blood cell membranes incubated with 14C-carnitine showed specific binding of radioactivity. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that red blood cells have an uptake mechanism for L-carnitine

  1. Changed level of peripheral blood red cell total and membrane-bound catalase in liquidators of the consequences of the Chernobyl Power Plant accident and in residents pf a zone with increased radiation background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquidators of the Chernobyl accident and men permanently living in a zone with increased radiation background were examined 7.5 years after the accident. Use of tests characterizing the status of adaptation systems and defence reactions of the organism helped detect disorders in oxidative balance, to which the production of biooxidants by activated neutrophils and attenuated activity of blood catalase essentially contribute. The prooxidant shift results in injury to cell membranes manifested by the reduction of their enzyme-binding capacity. These shifts homeostasis disorders may create prerequisites for increase of morbidity of the examined populations due to disorders in the adaptation mechanisms

  2. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  3. Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells If you’re ... and sluggish, you might have a condition called anemia. Anemia is a common blood disorder that many ...

  4. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cell donation experience at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation ( ... About Cord Blood Banking - Duration: 49:19. Children's Health 26,035 views 49:19 Scott: Donating Blood ...

  5. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cell donation experience at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation ( ... About Cord Blood Banking - Duration: 49:19. Children's Health 27,845 views 49:19 Scott: Donating Blood ...

  6. Phenotype and Functions of Memory Tfh cells in Human Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Nathalie; Bentebibel, Salah-Eddine; Ueno, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the origin and functions of human blood CXCR5+ CD4+ T cells found in human blood has changed dramatically in the past years. These cells are currently considered to represent a circulating memory compartment of T follicular helper (Tfh)-lineage cells. Recent studies have shown that blood memory Tfh cells are composed of phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets. Here we review the current understanding of human blood memory Tfh cells and the subsets within this compartment. We present a strategy to define these subsets based on cell surface profiles. Finally, we discuss how increased understanding of the biology of blood memory Tfh cells may contribute insight into the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and the mode of action of vaccines. PMID:24998903

  7. Increased Mortality in Adult Trauma Patients Transfused with Blood Components Compared with Whole Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Allison R.; Frazier, Susan K

    2014-01-01

    Hemorrhage is a preventable cause of death among trauma patients, and management often includes transfusion, either whole blood or a combination of blood components (packed red blood cells, platelets, fresh frozen plasma). We used the 2009 National Trauma Data Bank to evaluate the relationship between transfusion type and mortality in adult major trauma patients (n = 1745). Logistic regression analysis identified three independent predictors of mortality: Injury Severity Score, emergency tran...

  8. Blood Thixotropy in Patients with Sickle Cell Anaemia: Role of Haematocrit and Red Blood Cell Rheological Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Vent-Schmidt, Jens; Waltz, Xavier; Romana, Marc; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Lemonne, Nathalie; Billaud, Marie; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Connes, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    We compared the blood thixotropic/shear-thinning properties and the red blood cells’ (RBC) rheological properties between a group of patients with sickle cell anaemia (SS) and healthy individuals (AA). Blood thixotropy was determined by measuring blood viscosity with a capillary viscometer using a “loop” protocol: the shear rate started at 1 s−1 and increased progressively to 922 s−1 and then re-decreased to the initial shear rate. Measurements were performed at native haematocrit for the two...

  9. When Blood Cells Bend: Understanding Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe When Blood Cells Bend Understanding Sickle Cell Disease For people who don’t suspect they ... Cells Bend Wise Choices Links Living with Sickle Cell Disease See a sickle cell disease expert regularly. ...

  10. Increased bone marrow blood flow in polycythemia vera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lathinen, R.; Lathinen, T.; Hyoedynmaa, S.

    1983-01-01

    Bone marrow blood flow was measured in polycythemia vera, in compensatory and in relative polycythemia with a /sup 133/Xe washout method. In the treated polycythemia vera bone marrow blood flow was significantly increased compared with the age-matched controls. The fraction of blood flow entering the bone and flowing through the hematopoietic marrow was markedly increased in both the untreated and the treated polycythemia vera. Although the number of observations in compensatory and relative polycythemia was small, the results suggest that bone marrow blood flow is not markedly increased in these diseases. The results also suggest that in older patients the simple /sup 133/Xe method may support the diagnosis of polycythemia vera.

  11. Age-dependent increase in green autofluorescence of blood erythrocytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjay Khandelwal; Rajiv K Saxena

    2007-12-01

    Green auto-fluorescence (GAF) of different age groups of mouse blood erythrocytes was determined by using a double in vivo biotinylation (DIB) technique that enables delineation of circulating erythrocytes of different age groups. A significant increase in GAF was seen for erythrocytes of old age group (age in circulation > 40 days) as compared to young erythrocytes (age < 15 days). Erythrocytes are removed from blood circulation by macrophages in the reticulo-endothelial system and depletion of macrophages results in an increased proportion of aged erythrocytes in the blood. When mice were depleted of macrophages for 7 days by administration of clodronate loaded liposomes, the overall GAF of erythrocytes increased significantly and this increase could be ascribed to an increase in GAF of the oldest population of erythrocytes. Using the DIB technique, the GAF of a cohort of blood erythrocyte generated during a 5 day window was tracked in vivo. GAF of the defined cohort of erythrocytes remained low till 40 days of age in circulation and then increased steeply till the end of the life span of erythrocytes. Taken together our results provide evidence for an age dependent increase in the GAF of blood erythrocytes that is accentuated by depletion of macrophages. Kinetics of changes in GAF of circulating erythrocytes with age has also been defined.

  12. Age-dependent increase in green autofluorescence of blood erythrocytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjay Khandelwal; Rajiv K Saxena

    2007-09-01

    Green auto-fluorescence (GAF) of different age groups of mouse blood erythrocytes was determined by using a double in vivo biotinylation (DIB) technique that enables delineation of circulating erythrocytes of different age groups. A significant increase in GAF was seen for erythrocytes of old age group (age in circulation > 40 days) as compared to young erythrocytes (age < 15 days). Erythrocytes are removed from blood circulation by macrophages in the reticulo-endothelial system and depletion of macrophages results in an increased proportion of aged erythrocytes in the blood. When mice were depleted of macrophages for 7 days by administration of clodronate loaded liposomes, the overall GAF of erythrocytes increased significantly and this increase could be ascribed to an increase in GAF of the oldest population of erythrocytes. Using the DIB technique, the GAF of a cohort of blood erythrocyte generated during a 5 day window was tracked in vivo. GAF of the defined cohort of erythrocytes remained low till 40 days of age in circulation and then increased steeply till the end of the life span of erythrocytes. Taken together our results provide evidence for an age dependent increase in the GAF of blood erythrocytes that is accentuated by depletion of macrophages. Kinetics of changes in GAF of circulating erythrocytes with age has also been defined.

  13. Cost effectiveness of cord blood versus bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bart

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Thomas BartSwiss Blood Stem Cells, Bern, SwitzerlandAbstract: Umbilical cord blood (CB has become, since its first successful use more than two decades ago, an increasingly important source of blood stem cells. In this light, an overview of current usage of CB in the field of unrelated hematopoietic blood stem cell transplantation (HSCT is given. The three main sources of hematopoietic stem cells: bone marrow (BM, peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC, and cord blood (CB are compared as regards their current quantitative usage in HSCT. A cost analysis of the named three hematopoietic blood stem cell (HSC sources, taking into account various factors, is undertaken. The health economical comparison shows significant differences between CB on the one side, and BM and PBSC on the other. The consequences for the public health side and propositions for a possible health care policy, especially regarding future resource allocation towards the different choices for HSCT products, are discussed. An outlook on the possible future usage of BM, PBSC, and CB and its implications on health systems, donor registries, and CB banks is given.Keywords: health economy, cord blood, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

  14. Immune Cells in Blood Recognize Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI scientists have developed a novel strategy for identifying immune cells circulating in the blood that recognize specific proteins on tumor cells, a finding they believe may have potential implications for immune-based therapies.

  15. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) are most commonly used in the treatment of cancers like leukemia and lymphoma to restore stem cells ...

  16. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) are most commonly used in the treatment of cancers like leukemia and lymphoma to restore stem cells ...

  17. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cell donation experience at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation ( ... About Cord Blood Banking - Duration: 49:19. Children's Health 25,312 views 49:19 23. Stem Cells - ...

  18. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Duration: 3:35. hemaquebec1998 667 views 3:35 Bone Marrow/Stem Cell ... Jeff, peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donor, explains the donation process - Duration: 3:28. Be The Match 22,203 ...

  19. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cell donation experience at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation ( ... About Cord Blood Banking - Duration: 49:19. Children's Health 26,239 views 49:19 23. Stem Cells - ...

  20. Radiolabeled blood cells: radiation dosimetry and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past few years blood cells labeled with In-111 have become increasingly useful in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research. Indium-111 by the virtue of its physical characteristics and ability to bind to cell cytoplasmic components, provides an excellent cell tracer and thereby, allows investigators to monitor in vivo cell distribution by external imaging and help determine a course of regimen in treating life threatening diseases. Due to natural phenomena such as margination, blood pool, and reticuloendothelial cell activity, in the normal state, depending upon the cell type and the quality of cell preparations, 30%-50% of the administered radioactivity is immediately distributed in the liver, spleen and bone marrow. Over a period of time the radioactivity in these organs slightly increases and decays with a physical half-life of In-111. The resulting radiation dose to these organs ranges between 1-25 rads/mCi In-111 administered. The authors have developed a new In-111 labeling technique which preserves platelet ultrastructure and shown that human lymphocytes labeled with In-111 in mixed leukocytes preparations a) are only 0.003% of the total -body lymphocytes population and b) are killed. The consequence if any may be considered insignificant, particularly because 5.6% metaphases from normal men and 6.5% metaphases from normal women in the US have at least one chromosome aberration. Calculations have shown that the risk of fatal hematological malignancy, over a 30 year period, in recipients of 100 million lymphocytes labeled with 100 μCi In-111 is 1/million patients studied. This risk is less than 0.025% of the 1981 spontaneous cancer patient rate in the country. 32 references, 10 tables

  1. Supernatant of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Induces Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Possessing Mesenchymal Features

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Gang; Xu, Jun-jun; Deng, Zhi-Hong; Feng, Jie; Jin, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that some cells from peripheral blood fibroblast-like mononuclear cells have the capacity to differentiate into mesenchymal lineages. However, the insufficiency of these cells in the circulation challenges the cell isolation and subsequently limits the clinical application of these cells. In the present study, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbMNCs) were isolated from wound animals and treated with the supernatant of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (bmM...

  2. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) ... Medicine Clinics 225,676 views 6:18 Alicia's bone marrow donation - Duration: 8:33. ... Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant - Duration: 15:50. Dartmouth-Hitchcock 2,764 views ...

  3. Red blood cell in simple shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Wei; Hew, Yayu; Chen, Yeng-Long

    2013-03-01

    The dynamics of red blood cells (RBC) in blood flow is critical for oxygen transport, and it also influences inflammation (white blood cells), thrombosis (platelets), and circulatory tumor migration. The physical properties of a RBC can be captured by modeling RBC as lipid membrane linked to a cytoskeletal spectrin network that encapsulates cytoplasm rich in hemoglobin, with bi-concave equilibrium shape. Depending on the shear force, RBC elasticity, membrane viscosity, and cytoplasm viscosity, RBC can undergo tumbling, tank-treading, or oscillatory motion. We investigate the dynamic state diagram of RBC in shear and pressure-driven flow using a combined immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method with a multi-scale RBC model that accurately captures the experimentally established RBC force-deformation relation. It is found that the tumbling (TU) to tank-treading (TT) transition occurs as shear rate increases for cytoplasm/outer fluid viscosity ratio smaller than 0.67. The TU frequency is found to be half of the TT frequency, in agreement with experiment observations. Larger viscosity ratios lead to the disappearance of stable TT phase and unstable complex dynamics, including the oscillation of the symmetry axis of the bi-concave shape perpendicular to the flow direction. The dependence on RBC bending rigidity, shear modulus, the order of membrane spectrin network and fluid field in the unstable region will also be discussed.

  4. NMR water-proton spin-lattice relaxation time of human red blood cells and red blood cell suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NMR water-proton spin-lattice relaxation times were studied as probes of water structure in human red blood cells and red blood cell suspensions. Normal saline had a relaxation time of about 3000 ms while packed red blood cells had a relaxation time of about 500 ms. The relaxation time of a red blood cell suspension at 50% hematocrit was about 750 ms showing that surface charges and polar groups of the red cell membrane effectively structure extracellular water. Incubation of red cells in hypotonic saline increases relaxation time whereas hypertonic saline decreases relaxation time. Relaxation times varied independently of mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in a sample population. Studies with lysates and resealed membrane ghosts show that hemoglobin is very effective in lowering water-proton relaxation time whereas resealed membrane ghosts in the absence of hemoglobin are less effective than intact red cells. 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 table

  5. Photoplethysmographic variability: spontaneous fluctuations in the tissue blood volume and in the systolic blood volume increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzan, Meir; Babchenko, Anatoly; Turivnenko, Sergei; Khanokh, Boris

    1997-05-01

    Several parameters of the cardiovascular system such as heart rate, arterial blood pressure and blood flow fluctuate spontaneously due to the autonomic nervous system activity. In the current study, the low frequency fluctuations of the tissue blood volume and the blood volume pulse in the fingertips of healthy subjects were investigated using transmission photoplethysmography (PPG). The baseline of the PPG signal (BL) is inversely related to tissue blood volume so that the parameter BV, defined by: BV equals Const.-BL is directly related to the blood volume. The amplitude (AM) is directly related to the systolic blood volume increase. For most of the examinations BV and AM show positive correlation, which is expected since BV depends on the tissue blood volume and AM depends on the compliance of the blood vessels, both of which decrease during vasoconstriction, which is caused by higher activity of the sympathetic nervous system. The analysis of the PPG signal provides, therefore, a potential tool for study in the mechanism of the regulation of the microcirculation by the sympathetic nerves.

  6. Approaches to radiolabelling blood cells: past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of cellular blood elements in health and disease can never be overemphasized. Associated with every organic illness there is an involvement of blood cells. Using radiolabelled blood cells, researchers have made fundamental contributions in the basic knowledge of cell kinetics and physiology. Further development in cell labelling techniques, in conjunction with the advancements in nuclear imaging have made it possible to use radiolabelled blood cells as a non-invasive means of diagnosing diseases. Useful as it may be, we have become increasingly aware of the current limitations in the cell labelling technique. The object of this article is to highlight the past and present approaches to the technique, emphasize the current problems and discuss future directions that might help to fetch solutions. (Auth.)

  7. Increase in cytokine production (IL-1 beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha but not IFN-gamma, GM-CSF or LIF) by stimulated whole blood cells in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, S X; Vrindts, Y; Lopez, M; De Groote, D; Zangerle, P F; Collette, J; Franchimont, N; Geenen, V; Albert, A; Reginster, J Y

    1997-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a progressive disorder characterized by a decreased bone mass and increased susceptibility to fractures. Several investigations have suggested that one of the mechanisms through which estrogen prevents bone loss was a modulation on secretion or release of various cytokines that are known to influence bone remodeling, even if some recent data have challenged this hypothesis. However, in established osteoporosis, the possibility that enhanced cytokines activity may account for the progression of this disease remains unclear and controversial. We sought here to determine whether production of IL-1 beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, GM-CSF and LIF, after direct stimulation in whole blood, was different in healthy (n = 30) or osteoporotic postmenopausal women (n = 24) and whether lumbar bone density (1-BMD) correlated with the values of cytokine production observed in these conditions. A significant difference was observed between the osteoporotic and control subjects for IL-1 beta (p immune cells cultured in autologous whole blood suggests that in women more than 10 years past the menopause and presenting a decrease in lumbar bone density corresponding to the new WHO definition of "osteoporosis', production of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha is still increased compared to controls matched for age and ovarian function, while no differences are reported for IFN-gamma, GM-CSF or LIF production. PMID:9032749

  8. Pegylated G-CSF Inhibits Blood Cell Depletion, Increases Platelets, Blocks Splenomegaly, and Improves Survival after Whole-Body Ionizing Irradiation but Not after Irradiation Combined with Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliann G. Kiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to ionizing radiation alone (radiation injury, RI or combined with traumatic tissue injury (radiation combined injury, CI is a crucial life-threatening factor in nuclear and radiological accidents. As demonstrated in animal models, CI results in greater mortality than RI. In our laboratory, we found that B6D2F1/J female mice exposed to 60Co-γ-photon radiation followed by 15% total-body-surface-area skin burns experienced an increment of 18% higher mortality over a 30-day observation period compared to irradiation alone; that was accompanied by severe cytopenia, thrombopenia, erythropenia, and anemia. At the 30th day after injury, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets still remained very low in surviving RI and CI mice. In contrast, their RBC, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were similar to basal levels. Comparing CI and RI mice, only RI induced splenomegaly. Both RI and CI resulted in bone marrow cell depletion. It was observed that only the RI mice treated with pegylated G-CSF after RI resulted in 100% survival over the 30-day period, and pegylated G-CSF mitigated RI-induced body-weight loss and depletion of WBC and platelets. Peg-G-CSF treatment sustained RBC balance, hemoglobin levels, and hematocrits and inhibited splenomegaly after RI. The results suggest that pegylated G-CSF effectively sustained animal survival by mitigating radiation-induced cytopenia, thrombopenia, erythropenia, and anemia.

  9. Vesicle-associated microRNAs are released from blood cells on incubation of blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberle, Verena; Kakoschky, Bianca; Ibrahim, Ahmed Atef; Schmithals, Christian; Peveling-Oberhag, Jan; Zeuzem, Stefan; Kronenberger, Bernd; Waidmann, Oliver; Pleli, Thomas; Piiper, Albrecht

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) circulating extracellularly in the blood are currently intensively studied as novel disease markers. However, the preanalytical factors influencing the levels of the extracellular miRNAs are still incompletely explored. In particular, it is unknown, whether the incubation of blood samples as occurring in clinical routine can lead to a release of miRNAs from blood cells and thus alter the extracellular miRNA levels before the preparation of serum or plasma from the blood cells. Using a set of marker miRNAs and quantitative RT-PCR, we found that the levels of extracellular miRNA-1, miRNA-16, and miRNA-21 were increased in EDTA and serum collection tubes incubated for 1-3 hours at room temperature and declined thereafter; the levels of the liver-specific miRNA-122 declined monophasically. These events occurred in the absence of significant hemolysis. When the blood was supplemented with Ribonuclease A inhibitor, the levels of miRNA-1, miRNA-16, and miRNA-21 increased substantially during the initial 3 hours of incubation and those of miRNA-122 remained unchanged, indicating that the release of blood cell-derived miRNAs occurred during the initial 3 hours of incubation of the blood tubes, but not at later time points. Separation of 5-hour preincubated blood into vesicle and nonvesicle fractions revealed a selective increase in the portion of vesicle-associated miRNAs. Together, these data indicate that the release of vesicle-associated miRNAs from blood cells can occur in blood samples within the time elapsing in normal clinical practice until their processing without significant hemolysis. This becomes particularly visible on the inhibition of miRNA degradation by Ribonuclease A inhibitor. PMID:26608461

  10. IBCIS:Intelligent blood cell identification system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adnan Khashman

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of blood cells in microscope images can provide useful information concerning the health of patients.There are three major blood cell types,namely,erythrocytes (red),leukocytes (white),and platelets.Manual classification is time consuming and susceptible to error due to the different morphological features of the cells.This paper presents an intelligent system that simulates a human visual inspection and classification of the three blood cell types.The proposed system comprises two phases:The image preprocessing phase where blood cell features are extracted via global pattern averaging,and the neural network arbitration phase where training is the first and then classification is carried out.Experimental results suggest that the proposed method performs well in identifying blood cell types regardless of their irregular shapes,sizes and orientation,thus providing a fast,simple and efficient rotational and scale invariant blood cell identification system which can be used in automating laboratory reporting.

  11. Blood-Forming Stem Cell Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Blood-Forming Stem Cell Transplants On This Page What are bone marrow ... are evaluating BMT and PBSCT in clinical trials (research studies) for the treatment ... are the donor’s stem cells matched to the patient’s stem cells in allogeneic ...

  12. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cell donation experience at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation ( ... About Cord Blood Banking - Duration: 49:19. Children's Health 25,665 views 49:19 Susan Solomon: The ...

  13. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cell donation experience at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation ( ... About Cord Blood Banking - Duration: 49:19. Children's Health 25,496 views 49:19 Susan Solomon: The ...

  14. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood stem cell (PBSC) donor, explains the donation process - Duration: 3:28. Be The Match 22,464 views 3:28 Pain Control: Support for People with Cancer - Duration: 11:58. ...

  15. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe ... later? Sign in to add this video to a playlist. Sign in Share More Report Need to ...

  16. 21 CFR 864.9245 - Automated blood cell separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood cell separator. 864.9245 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9245 Automated blood cell separator. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell separator is a device that uses a centrifugal or filtration separation principle...

  17. Single-cell measurement of red blood cell oxygen affinity

    CERN Document Server

    Caprio, Di; Higgins, John M; Schonbrun, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is transported throughout the body by hemoglobin in red blood cells. While the oxygen affinity of blood is well understood and is routinely assessed in patients by pulse oximetry, variability at the single-cell level has not been previously measured. In contrast, single-cell measurements of red blood cell volume and hemoglobin concentration are taken millions of times per day by clinical hematology analyzers and are important factors in determining the health of the hematologic system. To better understand the variability and determinants of oxygen affinity on a cellular level, we have developed a system that quantifies the oxygen saturation, cell volume and hemoglobin concentration for individual red blood cells in high-throughput. We find that the variability in single-cell saturation peaks at an oxygen partial pressure of 2.5%, which corresponds to the maximum slope of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve. In addition, single-cell oxygen affinity is positively correlated with hemoglobin concentr...

  18. Induction and identification of rabbit peripheral blood derived dendritic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Yang, FuYuan; Chen, WenLi

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study a method of the induction of dendritic cells (DCs) from rabbit peripheral blood. Methods: Peripheral blood cells were removed from rabbit, filtered through nylon mesh. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from the blood cells by Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation (density of 1.077g/cm3).To obtain DCs, PBMC were cultured in RPMI1640 medium containing 10% fetal calf serum, 50U/mL penicillin and streptomycin, referred to subsequently as complete medium, at 37°C in 5% CO2 atmosphere for 4 hours. Nonadherent cells were aspirated, adherent cells were continued incubated in complete medium, supplemented with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, 50ng/ml),and interleukin 4 (IL-4, 50ng/ml) for 9 days. Fluorescein labeled antibodies(anti-CD14, anti-HLA-DR, anti-CD86) were used to sign cells cultured for 3,6,9 days respectively, Then flow cytometry was performed. Results: Ratio of anti-HLA-DR and anti-CD86 labeled cells increased with induction time extension, in contrast with anti-CD14. Conclusion: Dendritic cells can be effectively induced by the method of this experiment, cell maturation status increased with induction time extension.

  19. Increased serum erythropoietin concentration after allogeneic compared with autologous blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avall, A; Hyllner, M; Swolin, B; Bengtson, J p; Carlsson, L; Bengtsson, A

    2002-12-01

    Serum erythropoietin (sEPO) level is known to increase as hemoglobin (Hb) concentration decreases during and after preoperative autologous blood donation (PAD). The endogenous erythropoietin (EPO) production after allogeneic blood transfusion has not to our knowledge, been studied. The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is, after surgery, any change in sEPO concentration after allogeneic blood transfusion, and whether there is any difference in EPO response after autologous or allogeneic blood transfusion. Thirty-one patients approaching total hip-joint replacement surgery, were randomized to receive either allogeneic red blood cells (n = 15) or predeposited autologous whole blood transfusion (n = 16). The relationship between Hb, sEPO, and reticulocytes in the recipients were repeatedly analyzed before, during and after surgery. The Hb followed an expected pattern, with a decreased concentration after PAD in the autologous group, then in both groups after surgery. The sEPO concentration was significantly higher in the allogeneic than in the autologous group on day one and day 4-5 postoperatively. The reticulocyte level, on the contrary, was higher in the autologous patients before, one hour after, and one day after surgery. The study showed a greater increase in sEPO concentration after allogeneic blood transfusion than after autologous blood transfusion. There may be an inverse relationship between sEPO and the reticulocyte level. PMID:12509214

  20. Blood Tfh Cells Come with Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Nathalie; Ueno, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Blood CXCR5+ CD4+ T cells share phenotypic and functional similarities with T follicular helper cells. Studies by He et al. (2013) and Locci et al. (2013) in this issue of Immunity provide insight into their ontogeny and functionally distinct subsets. PMID:24138878

  1. Blood cell morphology : controversies and alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, Wim van der

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we describe controversial morphologic features in both microscopic and automated differentiation of blood cells. In addition, we have investigated alternative methods to overcome these shortcomings. Furthermore we describe the variance of microscopic counting of band cells and variant

  2. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 074 views 8:21 Bone Marrow/Stem Cell Transplant - Duration: 7:24. tannermom80 99,818 views 7: ... 253 views 6:18 Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant - Duration: 15:50. Dartmouth-Hitchcock 2,689 views ...

  3. Haemopoietic progenitor cells in human peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the investigation reported is to purify haemopoietic progenitor cells from human peripheral blood using density gradient centrifugation in order to isolate a progenitor cell fraction without immunocompetent cells. The purification technique of peripheral blood flow colony forming unit culture (CFU-c) by means of density gradient centrifugation and a combined depletion of various rosettes is described. The results of several 'in vitro' characteristics of purified CFU-c suspensions and of the plasma clot diffusion chamber culture technique are presented. Irradiation studies revealed that for both human bone marrow and peripheral blood the CFU-c were less radioresistant than clusters. Elimination of monocytes (and granulocytes) from the test suspensions induced an alteration in radiosensitivity pararmeters. The results obtained with the different techniques are described by analysing peripheral progenitor cell activity in myeloproliferative disorders. (Auth.)

  4. Deterministic Aperiodic Sickle Cell Blood Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsaves, Louis; Harris, Wesley

    2013-11-01

    In this paper sickle cell blood flow in the capillaries is modeled as a hydrodynamical system. The hydrodynamical system consists of the axisymmetric unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and a set of constitutive equations for oxygen transport. Blood cell deformation is not considered in this paper. The hydrodynamical system is reduced to a system of non-linear partial differential equations that are then transformed into a system of three autonomous non-linear ordinary differential equations and a set of algebraic equations. We examine the hydrodynamical system to discern stable/unstable, periodic/nonperiodic, reversible/irreversible properties of the system. The properties of the solutions are driven in large part by the coefficients of the governing system of equations. These coefficients depend on the physiological properties of the sickle cell blood. The chaotic nature of the onset of crisis in sickle cell patients is identified. Research Assistant.

  5. Does a perception of increased blood safety mean increased blood transfusion? An assessment of the risk compensation theory in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Kumanan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk compensation theory is a widely used concept in transport economics to analyze driver risk behaviour. This article explores the feasibility of applying the theory in blood transfusion to raise important questions regarding the increased blood safety measures and their possible effects on blood usage (e.g., the appropriateness in transfusion. Further, it presents the findings of a pilot survey of physicians in Canada. Discussion While studies have attempted to define transfusion appropriateness, this article argues that if the risk compensation theory holds true for transfusion practice, physicians may actually be transfusing more. This may increase the possibility of contracting other unknown risks, such as the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD, as well as increasing the risk of non-infectious transfusion risks, such as transfusion reactions. Summary A much larger study involving psychosocial assessment of physician decision making process to fully assess physician behaviour within the context of risk compensation theory and transfusion practice in Canada is needed to further explore this area.

  6. Passive gravitational sedimentation of peripheral blood increases the sensitivity of microscopic detection of malaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Davis; Trenden Flanigan; Eric Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine if passive gravitational sedimentation of blood samples, followed by buffy coat thin smear preparation could increase the sensitivity of malaria diagnosis when compared to conventional thin smear preparation without the additional cost of centrifuges or molecular diagnostics. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 205 patients. Each patient sample was analyzed using all three methods of sample preparation. Results: Buffy coat analysis of centrifuged blood samples greatly increased the sensitivity of malaria diagnosis when compared to standard thin smear techniques. Sensitivity between mechanically centrifuged samples and gravitationally sedimented samples showed equal improvement in sensitivity when compared to standard thin smear preparation. Conclusions: Passive gravitational sedimentation of red blood cells followed by buffy coat analysis dramatically improves the sensitivity of malaria diagnosis without the additional costs associated with centrifugation.

  7. Automated red blood cell analysis compared with routine red blood cell morphology by smear review

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Poonam Radadiya; Dr.Nandita Mehta; Dr.Hansa Goswami; Dr.R.N.Gonsai

    2015-01-01

    The RBC histogram is an integral part of automated haematology analysis and is now routinely available on all automated cell counters. This histogram and other associated complete blood count (CBC) parameters have been found abnormal in various haematological conditions and may provide major clues in the diagnosis and management of significant red cell disorders. Performing manual blood smears is important to ensure the quality of blood count results an...

  8. [Introduction and prospect of peripheral blood stem cell transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Y

    1995-12-01

    The number of hematopoietic stem cells circulating in peripheral blood increases remarkably during the recovery of marrow function after myelosuppressive chemotherapy. In peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, these stem cells are collected and cryopreserved, and then used to restore marrow function after myelodisruptive (high-dose) anticancer therapy, Marrow recovery is faster with this procedure than with autologous bone marrow transplantation. Recently, this procedure has been used after high-dose chemotherapy for chemosensitive solid tumors such as breast cancer. We used high-dose chemotherapy with etoposide and carboplatin, followed by peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, to treat 5 patients with intrathoracic malignant tumors, including small cell lung cancer Neutrophils recovered (> 500 microliters) with 9 to 11 days and platelets recovered (> 5,000 microliters) within 8 to 13 days after the transplantation. No other serious complication was seen. Current topics regarding this procedure, problems to be solved, and prospects for further development are discussed. PMID:8752478

  9. Recent developments in blood cell labeling research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of recent developments in research on blood cell labeling techniques are presented. The discussion relates to three specific areas: (1) a new in vitro method for red blood cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc; (2) a method for labeling leukocytes and platelets with /sup 99m/Tc; and (3) the use of monoclonal antibody technique for platelet labeling. The advantages and the pitfalls of these techniques are examined in the light of available mechanistic information. Problems that remain to be resolved are reviewed. An assessment is made of the progress as well as prospects in blood cell labeling methodology including that using the monoclonal antibody approach. 37 refs., 4 figs

  10. Whole Blood Cell Staining Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Clarence F.; Clift, Vaughan L.; McDonald, Kelly E.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for staining particular cell markers is disclosed. The apparatus includes a flexible tube that is reversibly pinched into compartments with one or more clamps. Each compartment of the tube contains a separate reagent and is in selective fluid communication with adjoining compartments.

  11. Hyaluronic Acid-Human Blood Hydrogels for Stem Cell Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Connie Y. Chang; Chan, Angel; Armstrong, Patrick; Luo, Hong-Chang; Higuchi, Takahiro; Strehin, Iossif; Vakrou, Styliani; Lin, Xiaoping; Brown, Sophia; O’Rourke, Brian; Abraham, Theodore P.; Wahl, Richard; Steenbergen, Charles; ELISSEEFF, JENNIFER; Abraham, M. Roselle

    2012-01-01

    Tissue engineering-based approaches have the potential to improve stem cell engraftment by increasing cell delivery to the myocardium. Our objective was to develop and characterize a naturally-derived, autologous, biodegradable hydrogel in order to improve acute stem cell retention in the myocardium. HA-blood hydrogels(HA-Bl) were synthesized by mixing in a 1:1(v/v) ratio, lysed whole blood and hyaluronic acid(HA), whose carboxyl groups were functionalized with N-hydroxysuccinimide(NHS) to yi...

  12. Blood thixotropy in patients with sickle cell anaemia: role of haematocrit and red blood cell rheological properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Vent-Schmidt

    Full Text Available We compared the blood thixotropic/shear-thinning properties and the red blood cells' (RBC rheological properties between a group of patients with sickle cell anaemia (SS and healthy individuals (AA. Blood thixotropy was determined by measuring blood viscosity with a capillary viscometer using a "loop" protocol: the shear rate started at 1 s-1 and increased progressively to 922 s-1 and then re-decreased to the initial shear rate. Measurements were performed at native haematocrit for the two groups and at 25% and 40% haematocrit for the AA and SS individuals, respectively. RBC deformability was determined by ektacytometry and RBC aggregation properties by laser backscatter versus time. AA at native haematocrit had higher blood thixotropic index than SS at native haematocrit and AA at 25% haematocrit. At 40% haematocrit, SS had higher blood thixotropic index than AA. While RBC deformability and aggregation were lower in SS than in AA, the strength of RBC aggregates was higher in the former population. Our results showed that 1 anaemia is the main modulator of blood thixtropy and 2 the low RBC deformability and high RBC aggregates strength cause higher blood thixotropy in SS patients than in AA individuals at 40% haematocrit, which could impact blood flow in certain vascular compartments.

  13. Leukemic cell kinetics in peripheral blood, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in vivo kinetics of autologous leukemic cells labeled in vitro with indium-111-oxine was studied in 10 patients with acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL), consisting of 7 patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), 2 with acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AMML) and 1 with acute monocytic leukemia (AMoL). Leukemic cell disappearance curves showed a single exponential line. The half tims of disappearance (T1/2) in AML was 18.6 +- 8.3 hours (mean +- s.d.), and was longer than that of normal neutrophils. In AMML and AMoL, T1/2 was 11.5 +- 1.4 hours, and tended to be shorter than that in AML (p < 0.1). Total blood leukemic cell pool (TBLCP) size correlated with blood leukemic cell count (LC) (Y = 1.11 + 2.01X, r = 0.95). The ratio of marginal (MLCP) to circulating leukemic cell pool (CLCP) size was 2.38 +- 0.99 in AML. There was no significant correlation between leukemic cell turnover rate (LCTR) and TBLCP size. As for organ distribution, labeled leukemic cells passed immediately through lungs, are then accumulated markedly in the spleen and liver in that order. Initial pulmonary radioactivity was observed in only one of the AMML patients. Only in AMoL, hepatic radioactivity 30 minutes after the injection surpassed splenic radioactivity. Accumulation of radioactivity in the bone marrow was observed in 6 out of 8 patients studied. Radioactivity of the leukemic cells isolated from the bone marrow in 4 patients was larger than that expected from mixing of peripheral blood leukemic cells, suggesting that a portion of blood leukemic cells returned to the bone marrow. (author)

  14. Increase of body surface temperature and blood flow by theanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suntheanine (Taiyo Kagaku Co.: Theanine) is the trade name for L-theanine which is a unique amino acid found almost solely in tea plants, responsible for the exotictaste of green tea. We investigated the effects of relate to relaxation, improves the taste of processed foods, radiation sensitization, and increase of body surface temperature in vivo study. The results of the present study confirmed, (1) Suntheanine is incorporated into the brain and induces the emission of α -waves an induced of relaxation. (2) Body surface temperature and blood flow on skin were increased after administration of Suntheanine. (3) There was effects of radiation sensitization in whole body irradiation of X-rays after Suntheanine IP injection on C3H mice. (4) Acute toxicity, subacute toxicity and mutagen testconfirm the safety Suntheanine in this study

  15. Increase of body surface temperature and blood flow by theanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Takeo; Noguchi, Kenichi; Ando, Satoshi [Suzuka, Univ. of Medical Science, Suzuka (Japan)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    Suntheanine (Taiyo Kagaku Co.: Theanine) is the trade name for L-theanine which is a unique amino acid found almost solely in tea plants, responsible for the exotictaste of green tea. We investigated the effects of relate to relaxation, improves the taste of processed foods, radiation sensitization, and increase of body surface temperature in vivo study. The results of the present study confirmed, (1) Suntheanine is incorporated into the brain and induces the emission of {alpha} -waves an induced of relaxation. (2) Body surface temperature and blood flow on skin were increased after administration of Suntheanine. (3) There was effects of radiation sensitization in whole body irradiation of X-rays after Suntheanine IP injection on C3H mice. (4) Acute toxicity, subacute toxicity and mutagen testconfirm the safety Suntheanine in this study.

  16. Decreased expression of microRNA-21 is associated with increased cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of obese type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloom, Hossein; Alizadeh, Samira; Esfahani, Ensieh Nasli; Razi, Farideh; Meshkani, Reza

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of miR-21 in inflammatory responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of type 2 diabetic (T2D) and healthy subjects. 20 healthy and 20 T2D subjects were enrolled in the study. miR-21 expression in PBMCs of the subjects was measured using real-time PCR. IL-6 and TNF-α levels in culture supernatants were quantified using ELISA. miR-21 expression was not significantly different between the diabetic and nondiabetic groups. A downregulation of miR-21 expression was observed in PBMCs of obese subjects in both diabetic and nondiabetic groups. In addition, miR-21 expression was negatively correlated with weight, waist circumference, body mass index, and triglyceride in both the diabetic and nondiabetic groups. Our results also demonstrated that the PBMCs of obese subjects significantly secreted a higher level of IL-6 and TNF-α in comparison with the PBMCs of nonobese subjects. Furthermore, a significant inverse correlation between miR-21 expression and TNF-α and IL-6 production from the PBMCs was observed. These data suggest that miR-21 expression is decreased in PBMCs of obese subjects and reduced expression appears to be associated with increased secreted cytokine level in media of PBMCs of obese subjects. PMID:27370645

  17. Red Blood Cell Docosapentaenoic Acid (DPA n-3 is Inversely Associated with Triglycerides and C-reactive Protein (CRP in Healthy Adults and Dose-Dependently Increases Following n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann C. Skulas-Ray

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the long-chain omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in lipid metabolism and inflammation has been extensively studied; however, little is known about the relationship between docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 n-3 and inflammation and triglycerides (TG. We evaluated whether n-3 DPA content of red blood cells (RBC was associated with markers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP and fasting TG prior to n-3 supplementation in two studies (Study 1: n = 115, aged 20–44 years, body mass index (BMI 20–30 kg/m2, TG = 34–176 mg/dL; Study 2: n = 28, aged 22–65 years, BMI 24–37 kg/m2, TG = 141–339 mg/dL. We also characterized the dose-response effects of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on RBC n-3 DPA after five months of supplementation with fish oil (Study 1: 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1800 mg/day EPA + DHA and eight weeks of prescription n-3 ethyl esters (Study 2: 0, 850, and 3400 mg/day EPA + DHA. In Study 1, RBC n-3 DPA was inversely correlated with CRP (R2 = 36%, p < 0.001 and with fasting TG (r = −0.30, p = 0.001. The latter finding was replicated in Study 2 (r = −0.33, p = 0.04. In both studies, n-3 supplementation significantly increased RBC n-3 DPA dose-dependently. Relative increases were greater for Study 1, with increases of 29%–61% vs. 14%–26% for Study 2. The associations between RBC n-3 DPA, CRP, and fasting TG may have important implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis and chronic inflammatory diseases and warrant further study.

  18. The homeostasis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob M A Mauritz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The asexual reproduction cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for severe malaria, occurs within red blood cells. A merozoite invades a red cell in the circulation, develops and multiplies, and after about 48 hours ruptures the host cell, releasing 15-32 merozoites ready to invade new red blood cells. During this cycle, the parasite increases the host cell permeability so much that when similar permeabilization was simulated on uninfected red cells, lysis occurred before approximately 48 h. So how could infected cells, with a growing parasite inside, prevent lysis before the parasite has completed its developmental cycle? A mathematical model of the homeostasis of infected red cells suggested that it is the wasteful consumption of host cell hemoglobin that prevents early lysis by the progressive reduction in the colloid-osmotic pressure within the host (the colloid-osmotic hypothesis. However, two critical model predictions, that infected cells would swell to near prelytic sphericity and that the hemoglobin concentration would become progressively reduced, remained controversial. In this paper, we are able for the first time to correlate model predictions with recent experimental data in the literature and explore the fine details of the homeostasis of infected red blood cells during five model-defined periods of parasite development. The conclusions suggest that infected red cells do reach proximity to lytic rupture regardless of their actual volume, thus requiring a progressive reduction in their hemoglobin concentration to prevent premature lysis.

  19. CD34+ stem cells from umbilical cord blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Pafumi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the relation between umbilical cord clamping time and two different enrichment system of CD34+ stem cells from umbilical cord blood with the proliferative ability and bone marrow reconstitution of the stem cells obtained. After an obstetrician performed the cord blood collection, the purification of stem cells was performed either with a combination of monoclonal antibodies (negative selections using the Stem Sep method, or with a positive cells selection based on their surface CD34 antigens using the Mini Macs system. An excellent recovery of haematopoietic progenitors [Burst Forming Unit Erythroids (BFUE; Colony Forming Unit Granulocytes and Macrophages (CFU-GM; and Colony Forming Unit Granulocytes, Erythroids, Monocytes and Macrophages (CFU-GME], inversely related to the increase in clamping time, was performed with the Mini Macs system (54% of colonies, with 90% purity. With Stem Sep method, haematopoietic progenitor’s recovery was 35% (with 80% purity. By applying early clamping of umbilical cord blood we obtained a greater number of CD34+ cells and their clonogenic activity was increased with enrichment. This is a useful technique considering that the number of CD34+ stem cells usually contained from a unit of placental blood is enough for the transplant to a child, but not for an adult. Thus, using these methods, we can get a larger number of CD34+ stem cells which reduces the risk of Graft versus Host Disease also in adult patients, producing survival rates similar to those obtained with transplantation of bone marrow from unrelated donors.

  20. CD34+ stem cells from umbilical cord blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfio D’Agati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the relation between umbilical cord clamping time and two different enrichment system of CD34+ stem cells from umbilical cord blood with the proliferative ability and bone marrow reconstitution of the stem cells obtained. After an obstetrician performed the cord blood collection, the purification of stem cells was performed either with a combination of monoclonal antibodies (negative selections using the Stem Sep method, or with a positive cells selection based on their surface CD34 antigens using the Mini Macs system. An excellent recovery of haematopoietic progenitors [Burst Forming Unit Erythroids (BFUE; Colony Forming Unit Granulocytes and Macrophages (CFU-GM; and Colony Forming Unit Granulocytes, Erythroids, Monocytes and Macrophages (CFU-GME], inversely related to the increase in clamping time, was performed with the Mini Macs system (54% of colonies, with 90% purity. With Stem Sep method, haematopoietic progenitor’s recovery was 35% (with 80% purity. By applying early clamping of umbilical cord blood we obtained a greater number of CD34+ cells and their clonogenic activity was increased with enrichment. This is a useful technique considering that the number of CD34+ stem cells usually contained from a unit of placental blood is enough for the transplant to a child, but not for an adult. Thus, using these methods, we can get a larger number of CD34+ stem cells which reduces the risk of Graft versus Host Disease also in adult patients, producing survival rates similar to those obtained with transplantation of bone marrow from unrelated donors.

  1. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identify human blood-group antibodies. (b) Source. Reagent Red Blood Cells shall be prepared from human... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells §...

  2. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Duration: 3:35. hemaquebec1998 667 views 3:35 Bone Marrow/Stem Cell Transplant - Duration: 7:24. tannermom80 99,818 views 7:24 Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant - Duration: 15:50. Dartmouth-Hitchcock 2,689 views 15:50 ... Working... Sign in to add this to Watch Later Add to Loading playlists...

  3. Photomodification of human immunocompetent blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, processes of photomodification of lymphoid cells in human blood, developing immediately after exposure to visible radiation and also in the late stages after irradiation, were investigated by methods of spontaneous and immune rosette formation and the blast transformation test, combined with treatment with the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol and the radioactive assessment of spontaneous and stimulated DNA synthesis by tritium-thymidine-labelled cells

  4. Red blood cell transfusion in septic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosland, Ragnhild G; Hagen, Marte U; Haase, Nicolai;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treating anaemia with red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is frequent, but controversial, in patients with septic shock. Therefore we assessed characteristics and outcome associated with RBC transfusion in this group of high risk patients. METHODS: We did a prospective cohort study at 7...

  5. Colour measurement and white blood cell recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Gelsema, E S

    1972-01-01

    As a part of a collaboration with NEMCH aimed at the automation of the differential white blood cell count, studies have been made of the different possibilities for using colour to help in the recognition process. Results are presented comparing data obtained with a microspectrophotometer and with a simulated three-colour scanner.

  6. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show ... Monks 3,700 views 4:41 Stem Cell Basics - How Blood is Made. - Duration: 10:58. Vernon ...

  7. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood stem cell (PBSC) donor, explains the donation process - Duration: 3:28. Be The Match 23,393 ... Copyright Creators Advertise Developers +YouTube Terms Privacy Policy & Safety Send feedback Try something new! Loading... Working... Sign ...

  8. Systems biology of stored blood cells: Can it help to extend the expiration date?

    OpenAIRE

    Paglia, Giuseppe; Bernhard Ø Palsson; Sigurjonsson, Olafur E.

    2012-01-01

    With increasingly stringent regulations regarding deferral and elimination of blood donors it will become increasingly important to extend the expiration date of blood components beyond the current allowed storage periods. One reason for the storage time limit for blood components is that platelets and red blood cells develop a condition called storage lesions during their storage in plastic blood containers. Systems biology provides comprehensive bio-chemical descriptions of organisms throug...

  9. Sorting white blood cells in microfabricated arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelino, Judith Andrea Rose

    Fractionating white cells in microfabricated arrays presents the potential for detecting cells with abnormal adhesive or deformation properties. A possible application is separating nucleated fetal red blood cells from maternal blood. Since fetal cells are nucleated, it is possible to extract genetic information about the fetus from them. Separating fetal cells from maternal blood would provide a low cost noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for genetic defects, which is not currently available. We present results showing that fetal cells penetrate further into our microfabricated arrays than adult cells, and that it is possible to enrich the fetal cell fraction using the arrays. We discuss modifications to the array which would result in further enrichment. Fetal cells are less adhesive and more deformable than adult white cells. To determine which properties limit penetration, we compared the penetration of granulocytes and lymphocytes in arrays with different etch depths, constriction size, constriction frequency, and with different amounts of metabolic activity. The penetration of lymphocytes and granulocytes into constrained and unconstrained arrays differed qualitatively. In constrained arrays, the cells were activated by repeated shearing, and the number of cells stuck as a function of distance fell superexponentially. In unconstrained arrays the number of cells stuck fell slower than an exponential. We attribute this result to different subpopulations of cells with different sticking parameters. We determined that penetration in unconstrained arrays was limited by metabolic processes, and that when metabolic activity was reduced penetration was limited by deformability. Fetal cells also contain a different form of hemoglobin with a higher oxygen affinity than adult hemoglobin. Deoxygenated cells are paramagnetic and are attracted to high magnetic field gradients. We describe a device which can separate cells using 10 μm magnetic wires to deflect the paramagnetic

  10. Red blood cell replacement, or nanobiotherapeutics with enhanced red blood cell functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Thomas Ming Swi

    2015-06-01

    Why is this important? Under normal circumstances, donor blood is the best replacement for blood. However, there are exceptions: During natural epidemics (e.g., HIV, Ebola, etc.) or man-made epidemics (terrorism, war, etc.), there is a risk of donor blood being contaminated, and donors being disqualified because they have contracted disease. Unlike red blood cells (RBCs), blood substitutes can be sterilized to remove infective agents. Heart attack and stroke are usually caused by obstruction of arterial blood vessels. Unlike RBCs, which are particulate, blood substitutes are in the form of a solution that can perfuse through obstructed vessels with greater ease to reach the heart and brain, as has been demonstrated in animal studies. Severe blood loss from injuries sustained during accidents, disasters, or war may require urgent blood transfusion that cannot wait for transportation to the hospital for blood group testing. Unlike RBCs, blood substitutes do not have specific blood groups, and can be administered on the spot. RBCs have to be stored under refrigeration for up to 42 days, and are thus difficult to transport and store in times of disaster and at the battlefront. Blood substitutes can be stored at room temperature for more than 1 year, compared to the RBC shelf life of 1 day, at room temperature. In cases of very severe hemorrhagic shock, there is usually a safety window of 60 min for blood replacement, beyond which there could be problems related to irreversible shock. Animal studies show that a particular type of blood substitute, with enhanced RBC enzymes, may be able to prolong the duration of the safety window. PMID:26096663

  11. Filtration parameters influencing circulating tumor cell enrichment from whole blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A W Coumans

    Full Text Available Filtration can achieve circulating tumor cell (CTC enrichment from blood. Key parameters such as flow-rate, applied pressure, and fixation, vary largely between assays and their influence is not well understood. Here, we used a filtration system, to monitor these parameters and determine their relationships. Whole blood, or its components, with and without spiked tumor cells were filtered through track-etched filters. We characterize cells passing through filter pores by their apparent viscosity; the viscosity of a fluid that would pass with the same flow. We measured a ratio of 5·10(4∶10(2∶1 for the apparent viscosities of 15 µm diameter MDA-231 cells, 10 µm white cells and 90 fl red cells passing through a 5 µm pore. Fixation increases the pressure needed to pass cells through 8 µm pores 25-fold and halves the recovery of spiked tumor cells. Filtration should be performed on unfixed samples at a pressure of ∼10 mbar for a 1 cm(2 track-etched filter with 5 µm pores. At this pressure MDA-231 cells move through the filter in 1 hour. If fixation is needed for sample preservation, a gentle fixative should be selected. The difference in apparent viscosity between CTC and blood cells is key in optimizing recovery of CTC.

  12. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  13. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated.

  14. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  15. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated

  16. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated

  17. CD163 positive subsets of blood dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maniecki, Maciej Bogdan; Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren Kragh; Møller, Bjarne Kuno

    CD163 and CD91 are scavenging receptors with highly increased expression during the differentiation of monocytes into the anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype. In addition, CD91 is expressed in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs), where the receptor is suggested to be important for...... internalization of CD91-targeted antigens to be presented on the dendritic cell surface for T-cell stimulation. Despite their overlap in functionality, the expression of CD91 and CD163 has never been compared and the expression of CD163 in the monocyte-dendritic cell lineage is not yet characterized. CD163...... expression in dendritic cells (DCs) was investigated using multicolor flow cytometry in peripheral blood from 31 healthy donors and 15 HIV-1 patients in addition to umbilical cord blood from 5 newborn infants. Total RNA was isolated from MACS purified DCs and CD163 mRNA was determined with real-time reverse...

  18. Blood cells and endothelial barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Stephen F; Granger, D Neil

    2015-01-01

    The barrier properties of endothelial cells are critical for the maintenance of water and protein balance between the intravascular and extravascular compartments. An impairment of endothelial barrier function has been implicated in the genesis and/or progression of a variety of pathological conditions, including pulmonary edema, ischemic stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, angioedema, sepsis and cancer. The altered barrier function in these conditions is often linked to the release of soluble mediators from resident cells (e.g., mast cells, macrophages) and/or recruited blood cells. The interaction of the mediators with receptors expressed on the surface of endothelial cells diminishes barrier function either by altering the expression of adhesive proteins in the inter-endothelial junctions, by altering the organization of the cytoskeleton, or both. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), proteolytic enzymes (e.g., matrix metalloproteinase, elastase), oncostatin M, and VEGF are part of a long list of mediators that have been implicated in endothelial barrier failure. In this review, we address the role of blood borne cells, including, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and platelets, in the regulation of endothelial barrier function in health and disease. Attention is also devoted to new targets for therapeutic intervention in disease states with morbidity and mortality related to endothelial barrier dysfunction. PMID:25838983

  19. Responder individuality in red blood cell alloimmunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körmöczi, Günther F; Mayr, Wolfgang R

    2014-11-01

    Many different factors influence the propensity of transfusion recipients and pregnant women to form red blood cell alloantibodies (RBCA). RBCA may cause hemolytic transfusion reactions, hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn and may be a complication in transplantation medicine. Antigenic differences between responder and foreign erythrocytes may lead to such an immune answer, in part with suspected specific HLA class II associations. Biochemical and conformational characteristics of red blood cell (RBC) antigens, their dose (number of transfusions and pregnancies, absolute number of antigens per RBC) and the mode of exposure impact on RBCA rates. In addition, individual circumstances determine the risk to form RBCA. Responder individuality in terms of age, sex, severity of underlying disease, disease- or therapy-induced immunosuppression and inflammation are discussed with respect to influencing RBC alloimmunization. For particular high-risk patients, extended phenotype matching of transfusion and recipient efficiently decreases RBCA induction and associated clinical risks. PMID:25670932

  20. Erythropoietin reduces storage lesions and decreases apoptosis indices in blood bank red blood cells

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Andrés Penuela; Fernando Palomino; Lina Andrea Gómez

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Recent evidence shows a selective destruction of the youngest circulating red blood cells (neocytolysis) trigged by a drop in erythropoietin levels. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin beta on the red blood cell storage lesion and apoptosis indices under blood bank conditions. Methods: Each one of ten red blood cell units preserved in additive solution 5 was divided in two volumes of 100 mL and assigned to one...

  1. The magnitude of blood lactate increases from high speed workouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, J F; Kucera, S; Jackson, T; Hari, P; Olson, N; McLagan, J; Taylor, S T; Shepherd, C

    2011-05-01

    To examine blood lactate concentrations from high-speed exercise resistive exercise, subjects performed workouts on an inertial kinetic exercise (Oconomowoc, WI) device. Workouts entailed two 60-s sets of elbow flexor (curling) repetitions. Pre- and post-exercise blood lactate concentrations were measured, via a fingertip blood drop, with an analyzer. From workouts the average acceleration, maximum force and total torque were derived. Blood lactate concentrations were analyzed with a 2 (gender)×2 (time) ANOVA, with repeated measures for time. Average acceleration, maximum force and total torque were analyzed with one-way (gender) ANOVAs. With an α=0.05, blood lactate concentrations had a time (prewomen) effects. Current blood lactate concentrations were commensurate with other studies that used a modest level of resistance and engaged a small muscle mass. Given the current workout protocol and muscle mass engaged, as well as parallels to other results, our study appears to offer a valid portrayal of subsequent changes in blood lactate concentrations from high-speed resistive exercise. PMID:21380973

  2. Effects of Natural Eggshell Membrane (NEM) on Cytokine Production in Cultures of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells: Increased Suppression of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Levels After In Vitro Digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Kathleen F.; Ruff, Kevin J.; Jensen, Gitte S.

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays an important role in inflammatory processes. This study examined the effects of natural eggshell membrane (NEM®) (ESM Technologies, LLC, Carthage, MO, USA) on interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and TNF-α cytokine production by 4-day peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures exposed to serial dilutions of either an aqueous extract of natural eggshell membrane (NEM-AQ) or NEM subjected to in vitro digestion (NEM-IVD). The e...

  3. Viscoelastic properties of whole blood. Influence of fast sedimenting red blood cell aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneditz, D; Rainer, F; Kenner, T

    1987-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation is known to be of deciding influence on erythrocyte sedimentation-rate (ESR) and on whole blood viscoelastic properties. The rheological behaviour of blood collected from a control-group with normal ESR is compared to the viscoelastic behaviour of blood collected from two groups with high to very high ESR, whose individuals are suffering from chronical polyarthritis and Morbus Bechterew, respectively. The rheological properties are evaluated by means of an oscillating-flow capillary-rheometer where the viscous (eta') and elastic (eta") component of the complex viscosity (eta) is measured at a constant frequency of 2 Hz. Correcting for the varying hematocrit of the different blood samples according to an exponential equation, the viscoelastic data are found to be elevated in the groups with high ESR. For the viscous properties this is only due to the increase of the plasma viscosity. A correction for the plasma viscosity, however, shows that the viscous properties at low shear- rates (2s-1) are significantly reduced, whereas elastic properties in a range of medium shear-rates (10s-1 to 50s-1) are significantly increased (P less than 0.001, t-test of Student). This result is discussed to be due to the high packing density of the RBC in fast sedimenting aggregates. High packing density reduces the effective volume of the RBC but increases the stiffness of the aggregates. PMID:3651579

  4. RBCs and Parasites Segmentation from Thin Smear Blood Cell Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal V. Panchbhai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Manually examine the blood smear for the detection of malaria parasite consumes lot of time for trend pathologists. As the computational power increases, the role of automatic visual inspection becomes more important. An automated system is therefore needed to complete as much work as possible for the identification of malaria parasites. The given scheme based on used of RGB color space, G layer processing, and segmentation of Red Blood Cells (RBC as well as cell parasites by auto-thresholding with offset value and use of morphological processing. The work compare with the manual results obtained from the pathology lab, based on total RBC count and cells parasite count. The designed system successfully detects malaria parasites and RBC cells in thin smear image.

  5. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864... enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in... kinase or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. A red blood cell enzyme assay is used to determine the enzyme...

  6. Nanoparticle encapsulation in red blood cells enables blood-pool magnetic particle imaging hours after injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new medical imaging approach that is based on the nonlinear magnetization response of super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) injected into the blood stream. To date, real-time MPI of the bolus passage of an approved MRI SPIO contrast agent injected into the tail vein of living mice has been demonstrated. However, nanoparticles are rapidly removed from the blood stream by the mononuclear phagocyte system. Therefore, imaging applications for long-term monitoring require the repeated administration of bolus injections, which complicates quantitative comparisons due to the temporal variations in concentration. Encapsulation of SPIOs into red blood cells (RBCs) has been suggested to increase the blood circulation time of nanoparticles. This work presents first evidence that SPIO-loaded RBCs can be imaged in the blood pool of mice several hours after injection using MPI. This finding is supported by magnetic particle spectroscopy performed to quantify the iron concentration in blood samples extracted from the mice 3 and 24 h after injection of SPIO-loaded RBCs. Based on these results, new MPI applications can be envisioned, such as permanent 3D real-time visualization of the vessel tree during interventional procedures, bleeding monitoring after stroke, or long-term monitoring and treatment control of cardiovascular diseases. (paper)

  7. Relaxin mediates uterine artery compliance during pregnancy and increases uterine blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodstrcil, Lenka A; Tare, Marianne; Novak, Jacqueline; Dragomir, Nicoleta; Ramirez, Rolando J; Wlodek, Mary E; Conrad, Kirk P; Parry, Laura J

    2012-10-01

    Normal pregnancy involves dramatic remodeling of the uterine vasculature, with abnormal vascular adaptations contributing to pregnancy diseases such as preeclampsia. The peptide hormone relaxin is important for the renal and systemic hemodynamic adaptations to pregnancy, and has been shown to increase arterial compliance and outward hypertrophic remodeling. Therefore, we investigated the possibility that relaxin acts on its receptor, RXFP1, to mediate uterine artery compliance in late pregnancy and increase uterine blood flow velocity in rats. RXFP1 was predominantly localized to the tunica media vascular smooth muscle cells in the uterine artery, although receptors were also detected in endothelial cells. Highest expression of Rxfp1 in the uterine artery occurred in estrus and early pregnancy. Isolated uterine arteries from late pregnant rats treated with a monoclonal antibody against circulating relaxin (MCA1) had significantly increased vessel wall stiffness compared with controls, with no reduction in wall thickness. Chronic infusion of relaxin (4 μg/h, osmotic minipump) for 5 d in nonpregnant rats significantly increased uterine artery blood flow velocity. Overall, these data demonstrate a functional role for relaxin in mediating uterine artery compliance in pregnant rats, which may be necessary to maintain adequate uterine blood flow to the uterus and placenta. PMID:22744867

  8. Automated red blood cell analysis compared with routine red blood cell morphology by smear review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Poonam Radadiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The RBC histogram is an integral part of automated haematology analysis and is now routinely available on all automated cell counters. This histogram and other associated complete blood count (CBC parameters have been found abnormal in various haematological conditions and may provide major clues in the diagnosis and management of significant red cell disorders. Performing manual blood smears is important to ensure the quality of blood count results and to make presumptive diagnosis. In this article we have taken 100 samples for comparative study between RBC histograms obtained by automated haematology analyzer with peripheral blood smear. This article discusses some morphological features of dimorphism and the ensuing characteristic changes in their RBC histograms.

  9. Mechanosensing Dynamics of Red blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiandi

    2015-11-01

    Mechanical stress-induced deformation of human red blood cells (RBCs) plays important physiopathological roles in oxygen delivery, blood rheology, transfusion, and malaria. Recent studies demonstrate that, in response to mechanical deformation, RBCs release adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP), suggesting the existence of mechanotransductive pathways in RBCs. Most importantly, the released ATP from RBCs regulates vascular tone and impaired release of ATP from RBCs has been linked to diseases such as type II diabetes and cystic fibrosis. To date, however, the mechanisms of mechanotransductive release of ATP from RBCs remain unclear. Given that RBCs experience shear stresses continuously during the circulation cycle and the released ATP plays a central role in vascular physiopathology, understanding the mechanotransductive release of ATP from RBCs will provide not only fundamental insights to the role of RBCs in vascular homeostasis but also novel therapeutic strategies for red cell dysfunction and vascular disease. This talk describes the main research in my group on integrating microfluidic-based approaches to study the mechanosensing dynamics of RBCs. Specifically, I will introduce a micro?uidic approach that can probe the dynamics of shear-induced ATP release from RBCs with millisecond resolution and provide quantitative understandings of the mechanosensitive ATP release processes in RBCs. Furthermore, I will also describe our recent findings about the roles of the Piezo1 channel, a newly discovered mechanosensitive cation channel in the mechanotransductive ATP release in RBCs. Last, possible functions of RBCs in the regulation of cerebral blood flow will be discussed.

  10. Optical analysis of red blood cell suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szołna, Alicja A.; Grzegorzewski, Bronisław

    2008-12-01

    The optical properties of suspensions of red blood cells (RBCs) were studied. Fresh human venues blood was obtained from adult healthy donors. RBCs were suspended in isotonic salt solution, and in autologous plasma. Suspensions with haematocrit 0.25 - 3% were investigated. Novel technique was proposed to determine the scattering coefficient μs for the suspensions. The intensity of He-Ne laser light transmitted through a wedge-shape container filled with a suspension was recorded. To find the dependence of the intensity on the thickness of the sample the container was moved horizontally. The dependence of μs on the haematocrit was determined for RBCs suspended in the isotonic salt solution. RBCs suspended in plasma tend to form rouleaux. For the RBCs suspended in plasma, the scattering coefficient as a function of time was obtained. It is shown that this technique can be useful in the study of rouleaux formation.

  11. Mobility Enhancement of Red Blood Cells with Biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Daiki; Oikawa, Noriko; Kurita, Rei

    2016-03-01

    Adhesion of red blood cells (RBC) to substrates are one of crucial problems for a blood clot. Here we investigate the mobility of RBC between two glass substrates in saline with polymer systems. We find that RBCs are adhered to the glass substrate with PEG, however the mobility steeply increases with fibrinogen and dextran, which are biopolymers. We also find that the mobility affects an aggregation dynamics of RBCs, which is related with diseases such as influenza, blood clot and so on. The Brownian motion helps to increase probability of contact with each other and to find a more stable condition of the aggregation. Thus the biopolymers play important roles not only for preventing the adhesion but also for the aggregation.

  12. Immunophenotyping of hematopoietic progenitor cells: Comparison between cord blood and adult mobilized blood grafts

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To study the immunophenotype of hematopoietic progenitor cells from cord blood (CB) grafts (n = 39) in comparison with adult apheresis grafts (AG, n = 229) and pre-apheresis peripheral blood (PAPB) samples (n = 908) using flow cytometry analysis.

  13. Arterial Blood, Rather Than Venous Blood, is a Better Source for Circulating Melanoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizue Terai

    2015-11-01

    Interpretation: Our data indicate that arterial blood specimens might be a better source of circulating uveal melanoma cells. Although less conveniently processed, perhaps arterial blood should be evaluated as sample source for measurement of CTCs.

  14. Human Blood-Vessel-Derived Stem Cells for Tissue Repair and Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Wen Chen; Mirko Corselli; Bruno Péault; Johnny Huard

    2012-01-01

    Multipotent stem/progenitor cells with similar developmental potentials have been independently identified from diverse human tissue/organ cultures. The increasing recognition of the vascular/perivascular origin of mesenchymal precursors suggested blood vessels being a systemic source of adult stem/progenitor cells. Our group and other laboratories recently isolated multiple stem/progenitor cell subsets from blood vessels of adult human tissues. Each of the three structural layers of blood ve...

  15. A statistical model for red blood cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korell, Julia; Coulter, Carolyn V; Duffull, Stephen B

    2011-01-01

    A statistical model for the survival time of red blood cells (RBCs) with a continuous distribution of cell lifespans is presented. The underlying distribution of RBC lifespans is derived from a probability density function with a bathtub-shaped hazard curve, and accounts for death of RBCs due to senescence (age-dependent increasing hazard rate) and random destruction (constant hazard), as well as for death due to initial or delayed failures and neocytolysis (equivalent to early red cell mortality). The model yields survival times similar to those of previously published studies of RBC survival and is easily amenable to inclusion of drug effects and haemolytic disorders. PMID:20950630

  16. In-Depth Profiling of the Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Proteome for Clinical Blood Proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Saša Končarević; Christopher Lößner; Karsten Kuhn; Thorsten Prinz; Ian Pike; Hans-Dieter Zucht

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are an easy accessible cellular part of the blood organ and, along with platelets, represent the only site of active gene expression in blood. These cells undergo immunophenotypic changes in various diseases and represent a peripheral source of monitoring gene expression and posttranslational modifications relevant to many diseases. Little is known about the source of many blood proteins and we hypothesise that release from PBMCs through active and p...

  17. Magnetophoretic separation of blood cells at the microscale

    CERN Document Server

    Furlani, E P

    2006-01-01

    We present a method and model for the direct and continuous separation of red and white blood cells in plasma. The method is implemented at the microscale using a microfluidic system that consists of an array of integrated soft-magnetic elements embedded beneath a microfluidic channel. The microsystem is passive, and is activated via application of a bias field that magnetizes the elements. Once magnetized, the elements produce a nonuniform magnetic field distribution in the microchannel, which gives rise to a force on blood cells as they pass through the microsystem. In whole blood, white blood cells behave as diamagnetic microparticles while red blood cells exhibit diamagnetic or paramagnetic behavior depending on the oxygenation of their hemoglobin. We develop a mathematical model for predicting the motion of blood cells in the microsystem that takes into account the dominant magnetic, fluidic and buoyant forces on the cells. We use the model to study red/white blood cell transport, and our analysis indica...

  18. Angiopoietin-4 increases permeability of blood vessels and promotes lymphatic dilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Cristina T; Pereira, Ethel R; Cui, Cheryl H; Nelson, Gregory M; Masuck, David J; Baish, James W; Padera, Timothy P

    2015-09-01

    The angiopoietin (Ang) ligands are potential therapeutic targets for lymphatic related diseases, which include lymphedema and cancer. Ang-1 and Ang-2 functions are established, but those of Ang-4 are poorly understood. We used intravital fluorescence microscopy to characterize Ang-4 actions on T241 murine fibrosarcoma-associated vessels in mice. The diameters of lymphatic vessels draining Ang-4- or VEGF-C (positive control)-expressing tumors increased to 123 and 135 μm, respectively, and parental, mock-transduced (negative controls) and tumors expressing Ang-1 or Ang-2 remained at baseline (∼60 μm). Ang-4 decreased human dermal lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) monolayer permeability by 27% while increasing human dermal blood endothelial cell (BEC) monolayer permeability by 200%. In vivo, Ang-4 stimulated a 4.5-fold increase in tumor-associated blood vessel permeability compared with control when measured using intravital quantitative multiphoton microscopy. Ang-4 activated receptor signaling in both LECs and BECs, evidenced by tyrosine kinase with Ig and endothelial growth factor homology domains-2 (TIE2) receptor, protein kinase B, and Erk1,2 phosphorylation detectable by immunoblotting. These data suggest that Ang-4 actions are mediated through cell-type-specific networks and that lymphatic vessel dilation occurs secondarily to increased vascular leakage. Ang-4 also promoted survival of LECs. Thus, blocking Ang-4 may prune the draining lymphatic vasculature and decrease interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) by reducing vascular permeability. PMID:25977256

  19. Blood spots as an alternative to whole blood collection and the effect of a small monetary incentive to increase participation in genetic association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ringer Danny

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collection of buccal cells from saliva for DNA extraction offers a less invasive and convenient alternative to venipuncture blood collection that may increase participation in genetic epidemiologic studies. However, dried blood spot collection, which is also a convenient method, offers a means of collecting peripheral blood samples from which analytes in addition to DNA can be obtained. Methods To determine if offering blood spot collection would increase participation in genetic epidemiologic studies, we conducted a study of collecting dried blood spot cards by mail from a sample of female cancer cases (n = 134 and controls (n = 256 who were previously selected for a breast cancer genetics study and declined to provide a venipuncture blood sample. Participants were also randomized to receive either a $2.00 bill or no incentive with the blood spot collection kits. Results The average time between the venipuncture sample refusal and recruitment for the blood spot collection was 4.4 years. Thirty-seven percent of cases and 28% of controls provided a dried blood spot card. While the incentive was not associated with participation among controls (29% for $2.00 incentive vs. 26% for no incentive, p = 0.6, it was significantly associated with participation among the breast cancer cases (48% vs. 27%, respectively, p = 0.01. There did not appear to be any bias in response since no differences between cases and controls and incentive groups were observed when examining several demographic, work history and radiation exposure variables. Conclusion This study demonstrates that collection of dried blood spot cards in addition to venipuncture blood samples may be a feasible method to increase participation in genetic case-control studies.

  20. Cell differentiation mediated by co-culture of human umbilical cord blood stem cells with murine hepatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklum, Maria; Wulf-Goldenberg, Annika; Purfürst, Bettina; Siegert, Antje; Keil, Marlen; Eckert, Klaus; Fichtner, Iduna

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, purified human cord blood stem cells were co-cultivated with murine hepatic alpha mouse liver 12 (AML12) cells to compare the effect on endodermal stem cell differentiation by either direct cell-cell interaction or by soluble factors in conditioned hepatic cell medium. With that approach, we want to mimic in vitro the situation of preclinical transplantation experiments using human cells in mice. Cord blood stem cells, cultivated with hepatic conditioned medium, showed a low endodermal differentiation but an increased connexin 32 (Cx32) and Cx43, and cytokeratin 8 (CK8) and CK19 expression was monitored by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Microarray profiling indicated that in cultivated cord blood cells, 604 genes were upregulated 2-fold, with the highest expression for epithelial CK19 and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin). On ultrastructural level, there were no major changes in the cellular morphology, except a higher presence of phago(ly)some-like structures observed. Direct co-culture of AML12 cells with cord blood cells led to less incisive differentiation with increased sex-determining region Y-box 17 (SOX17), Cx32 and Cx43, as well as epithelial CK8 and CK19 expressions. On ultrastructural level, tight cell contacts along the plasma membranes were revealed. FACS analysis in co-cultivated cells quantified dye exchange on low level, as also proved by time relapse video-imaging of labelled cells. Modulators of gap junction formation influenced dye transfer between the co-cultured cells, whereby retinoic acid increased and 3-heptanol reduced the dye transfer. The study indicated that the cell-co-cultured model of human umbilical cord blood cells and murine AML12 cells may be a suitable approach to study some aspects of endodermal/hepatic cell differentiation induction. PMID:25270685

  1. Ekstrak Air Tapak Dara Menurunkan Kadar Gula dan Meningkatkan Jumlah Sel Beta Pankreas Kelinci Hiperglikemia (THE WATER EXTRACT OF TAPAK DARA DECREASES BLOOD GLUCOSE CONCENTRATION AND INCREASES INSULIN PRODUCTION BY PANCREATIC BETA-CELLS ON HYPERGLYCEMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikayati Widyastuti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of tapak dara (Catharanthus roseus onblood glucose level and insulin profile in hyperglicemic rabbits. Fifeteen local male rabbits were used forthis study. The rabbits were randomly divided into five groups. Group 1 (K-, a control negative group;group 2 (K+, a control positive hipergliccemia; group 3 (KT1 and group 4 (KT2, were groups hiperglicemiaand treated with water extract of tapak dara doses 1 and 2 g/kg bw, respectively; and group 5 (KO, a grouphiperglicemia that treated with glibenclamide 2 mg/kg bw. The result showed water extract of tapak daradose 1 g/kgbw could not decrease the blood glucose level in hyperglycemic rabbits, while dose 2 g/kg bwcould decline blood glucose level in rabbits. This decline had no significantly difference compared withglibenclamide treatment (P> 0.05. Immunohistchemistry result indicated that water extract of tapakdara could stimulate beta cells pancreas to produce insulin.

  2. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Heerkens, Tammy; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl;

    2007-01-01

    Background: There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non......-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is low and the future isolation percentage of MSCs from cryopreserved equine cord blood is therefore expectedly low....... The hypothesis of this study was that equine MSCs could be isolated from fresh whole equine cord blood. Results: Cord blood was collected from 7 foals immediately after foaling. The mononuclear cell fraction was isolated by Ficoll density centrifugation and cultured in a DMEM low glucose based media...

  3. Biological effects of the electrostatic field: red blood cell-related alterations of oxidative processes in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunyan, Hayk A.; Sahakyan, Gohar V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine activities of pro-/antioxidant enzymes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and oxidative modification of proteins and lipids in red blood cells (RBCs) and blood plasma of rats exposed to electrostatic field (200 kV/m) during the short (1 h) and the long periods (6 day, 6 h daily). Short-term exposure was characterized by the increase of oxidatively damaged proteins in blood of rats. This was strongly expressed in RBC membranes. After long-term action, RBC content in peripheral blood was higher than in control ( P < 0.01) and the attenuation of prooxidant processes was shown.

  4. Dielectric Constant of Suspensions of Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Kenneth; Ackmann, James

    1996-03-01

    Measurements of the complex dielectric constant of suspensions of blood cells have recently been reported by Ackmann, et al.(J. J. Ackmann, et al., Ann. Biomed. Eng. 24), 58 (1996). At frequencies below 100 kHz, the real part of the dielectric constant (ɛ') goes through a maximum at a blood cell volume fraction of about 70%. Effective medium approximations do not agree well with this behavior. As a more realistic model, we are studying the grain consolidation model of Roberts and Schwartz(J. N. Roberts and L. M. Schwartz, Phys. Rev. B 31), 5990 (1985). We have used a finite element method to calculate the dielectric constant of this model for a cubic array of spheres. The simulations agree remarkably well with experiment. They suggest, however, that ɛ' may be showing oscillations rather than a simple maximum. Comparison of the simulated and experimental points suggests that this is not an artifact of the periodic array used in the model. Furthermore the simulations indicate that the maximum (or oscillations) disappears at low conductivities of the suspending fluid.

  5. Alterations in cell surface area and deformability of individual human red blood cells in stored blood

    CERN Document Server

    Park, HyunJoo; Lee, SangYun; Kim, Kyoohyun; Sohn, Yong-Hak; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    The functionality and viability of stored human red blood cells (RBCs) is an important clinical issue in transfusion. To systematically investigate changes in stored whole blood, the hematological properties of individual RBCs were quantified in blood samples stored for various periods with and without a preservation solution called CPDA-1. With 3-D quantitative phase imaging techniques, the optical measurements of the 3-D refractive index (RI) distributions and membrane fluctuations were done at the individual cell level. From the optical measurements, the morphological (volume, surface area and sphericity), biochemical (hemoglobin content and concentration), and mechanical parameters (dynamic membrane fluctuation) were simultaneously quantified to investigate the functionalities and their progressive alterations in stored RBCs. Our results show that the stored RBCs without CPDA-1 had a dramatic morphological transformation from discocytes to spherocytes within 2 weeks which was accompanied with significant ...

  6. As Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) Increases, So Does Impairment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking As Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) Increases, So Does Impairment Past Issues / Spring 2014 ... For purposes of law enforcement, blood alcohol content (BAC) is used to define intoxication and provides a ...

  7. Model animal experiments on UV-c irradiation of blood and isolated cell populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cellular and molecular basis of the therapeutically used effect of reinjected ultraviolet (UVC) irradiated blood is unknown. First approaches to that problem were made in this study by aid of model experiments. Neither the spontaneous degranulation nor the antigen-induced histamine release from rat connective tissue mast cells (in vivo) was influenced by the injection (i.v.) of UV-irradiated blood or blood lymphocytes. By comparison of the effect of UV light on blood lymphocytes (number of dead cells, strength of chemoluminescence) after irradiation of the isolated cells and the unfractionated blood, respectively, it was shown that the strong light absorption within the blood sample prevents damage or functional alterations of the blood lymphocytes. The compound 48/80 - induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells can be completely inhibited by UV irradiation (0.6 mJ/cm2) without increasing the spontaneous histamine release. (author)

  8. [Red Blood Cells Raman Spectroscopy Comparison of Type Two Diabetes Patients and Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Gui-dong; Mu, Xin; Xiao, Hong-bin; Qi, Chao; Zhang, Si-qi; Niu Wen-ying; Jiang, Guang-kun; Feng, Yue-nan; Bian, Jing-qi

    2015-10-01

    By using confocal Raman spectroscopy, Raman spectra were measured in normal rat red blood cells, normal human red blood cells, STZ induced diabetetic rats red blood cells, Alloxan induced diabetetic rats red blood cells and human type 2 diabetes red blood cells. Then principal component analysis (PCA) with support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used for data analysis, and then the distance between classes was used to judge the degree of close to two kinds of rat model with type 2 diabetes. The results found significant differences in the Raman spectra of red blood cell in diabetic and normal red blood cells. To diabetic red blood cells, the peak in the amide VI C=O deformation vibration band is obvious, and amide V N-H deformation vibration band spectral lines appear deviation. Belong to phospholipid fatty acyl C-C skeleton, the 1 130 cm(-1) spectral line is enhanced and the 1 088 cm(-1) spectral line is abated, which show diabetes red cell membrane permeability increased. Raman spectra of PCA combined with SVM can well separate 5 types of red blood cells. Classifier test results show that the classification accuracy is up to 100%. Through the class distance between the two induced method and human type 2 diabetes, it is found that STZ induced model is more close to human type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, Raman spectroscopy can be used for diagnosis of diabetes and rats STZ induced diabetes method is closer to human type 2 diabetes. PMID:26904817

  9. Red Blood Cell Membrane-Cloaked Nanoparticles For Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Cody Westcott

    Herein we describe the development of the Red Blood Cell coated nanoparticle, RBC-NP. Purified natural erythrocyte membrane is used to coat drug-loaded poly(lacticco-glycolic acid) (PLGA). Synthetic PLGA co-polymer is biocompatible and biodegradable and has already received US FDA approval for drug-delivery and diagnostics. This work looks specifically at the retention of immunosuppressive proteins on RBC-NPs, right-sidedness of natural RBC membranes interfacing with synthetic polymer nanoparticles, sustained and retarded drug release of RBC-NPs as well as further surface modification of RBC-NPs for increased targeting of model cancer cell lines.

  10. BAY 50-4798, a novel, high-affinity receptor-specific recombinant interleukin-2 analog, induces dose-dependent increases in CD25 expression and proliferation among unstimulated, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lynn; Chapman, Sherita; Ramchandani, Meena S; Lane, H Clifford; Davey, Richard T; Sereti, Irini

    2004-12-01

    Interleukin-2 administration induces CD4 T cell expansion in HIV-infected patients, however, toxicity can limit dosing. BAY 50-4798 is a recombinant IL-2 analog with >1000-fold specificity for the high-affinity IL-2 receptor. The effects of this compound on unstimulated human PBMC were evaluated. PBMC from HIV(-) and HIV(+) donors were cultured in vitro with incremental doses of BAY 50-4798 or aldesleukin. CD25 expression and proliferation were evaluated with flow cytometry. Cytokine levels were measured by ELISA in culture supernatants. BAY 50-4798 induced dose-dependent increases in CD25 expression and proliferation of T cells, NK, and B cells and showed selectivity for CD4 T cells expressing CD25. Induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines was also dose-dependent and was observed at the concentrations of BAY 50-4798 with the highest biologic activity. These data suggest that BAY 50-4798 can induce proliferation of unstimulated T cells but loss of T cell selectivity and induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines occur at concentrations exerting the highest biologic activity. PMID:15507389

  11. Red Blood Cells Estimation Using Hough Transform Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrul Humaimi Mahmood

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The number of red blood cells contributes more to clinical diagnosis with respect to blood diseases. Theaim of this research is to produce a computer vision system that can detect and estimate the number of redblood cells in the blood sample image. Morphological is a very powerful tool in image processing, and it isbeen used to segment and extract the red blood cells from the background and other cells. The algorithmused features such as shape of red blood cells for counting process, and Hough transform is introduced inthis process. The result presented here is based on images with normal blood cells. The tested data consistsof 10 samples and produced the accurate estimation rate closest to 96% from manual counting.

  12. Reduction of prion infectivity in packed red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The link between a new variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and the consumption of prion contaminated cattle meat as well as recent findings showing that vCJD can be transmitted by blood transfusion have raised public health concerns. Currently, a reliable test to identify prions in blood samples is not available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility to remove scrapie prion protein (PrPSc) and infectivity from red blood cell (RBC) suspensions by a simple washing procedure using a cell separation and washing device. The extent of prion removal was assessed by Western blot, PMCA and infectivity bioassays. Our results revealed a substantial removal of infectious prions (≥3 logs of infectivity) by all techniques used. These data suggest that a significant amount of infectivity present in RBC preparations can be removed by a simple washing procedure. This technology may lead to increased safety of blood products and reduce the risk of further propagation of prion diseases.

  13. Enhancement of red blood cell aggregation by plasma triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicha, I; Suzuki, Y; Tateishi, N; Maeda, N

    2001-01-01

    The effects of plasma triglycerides level on human red blood cells (RBCs) indices, hematological parameters, RBCs aggregation velocity and whole blood viscosity were studied at 2 hours after high-fat or low-fat meal. Proteins, triglycerides and cholesterol levels of plasma were analysed. The RBCs rouleaux formation rate was measured in 70% autologous plasma (with 30% phosphate-buffered saline, PBS) or 1 g/dl dextran T70 solution (with 4 g/dl bovine serum albumin) in PBS, using a low-shear rheoscope. The results were grouped according to triglycerides content in plasma. No significant difference in whole blood viscosity, hematological parameters, RBC indices, protein and cholesterol content was observed between high-fat and low-fat blood samples. There was a significant increase in rouleaux formation rate of samples with high triglyceride levels, when measured in 70% autologous plasma, but it was not significant in dextran T70 containing medium. In conclusion, the results obtained suggest that alteration of plasma lipid levels as well as possible changes in the cell membrane lipid composition lead to enhanced RBC aggregation. PMID:11564913

  14. Peripheral blood cell variations in cirrhotic portal hypertension patients with hypersplenism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Fu Lu; Xin-Qiu Li; Xiao-Yu Han; Xiao-Guang Gong; Shun-Wu Chang

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore peripheral blood cell variations in hepatic cirrhosis portal hypertension patients with hypersplenism. Methods: Clinical data of 322 hypersplenism patients with decreased peripheral blood cells, admitted with cirrhotic portal hypertension, was retrospectively studied over the last 17 years. Results:In 64% (206/322) of patients, more than 2 kinds of blood cell were decreased, including 89 cases of pancytopenia (43.2%), 52 cases of WBC+PLT decrease (25.2%), 29 cases of RBC + PLT decrease (14.1%), and 36 cases of WBC + RBC decrease (17.5%);in 36% (116/322) of patients, single type blood cell decrease occurred, including 31 cases of PLT decrease (26.7%), 29 cases of WBC decrease (25%) and 56 cases of RBC decrease (48.3%). Of 227 routine bone marrow examinations, bone marrow hyperplasia was observed in 118 cases (52.0%), the remainder showed no hyperplasia. For the distinct scope and extent of peripheralblood cell decreases, preoperative blood component transfusions were carried out, then treated by surgery, after whole group splenectomy, the peripheral blood cell count was significantly higher (P<0.05). Conclusions: Of portal hypertensive patients with splenomegaly and hypersplenism, 64%have simultaneous decrease in various blood cells, 36%have decrease in single type blood cells, 52%of patients have bone marrow hyperplasia. A splenectomy can significantly increase the reduction of peripheral blood cells.

  15. The effect of an acute increase in central blood volume on the response of cerebral blood flow to acute hypotension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogoh, Shigehiko; Hirasawa, Ai; Sugawara, Jun; Nakahara, Hidehiro; Ueda, Shinya; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Miyamoto, Tadayoshi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the response of cerebral blood flow to an acute change in perfusion pressure is modified by an acute increase in central blood volume. Nine young, healthy subjects voluntarily participated in this study. To measure dynamic cerebral autoregulation during normocapnic and hypercapnic (5%) conditions, the change in middle cerebral artery mean blood flow velocity was analyzed during acute hypotension caused by two methods: 1) thigh-cuff occlusion release (without change in central blood volume); and 2) during the recovery phase immediately following release of lower body negative pressure (LBNP; -50 mmHg) that initiated an acute increase in central blood volume. In the thigh-cuff occlusion release protocol, as expected, hypercapnia decreased the rate of regulation, as an index of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (0.236 ± 0.018 and 0.167 ± 0.025 s(-1), P = 0.024). Compared with the cuff-occlusion release, the acute increase in central blood volume (relative to the LBNP condition) with LBNP release attenuated dynamic cerebral autoregulation (P = 0.009). Therefore, the hypercapnia-induced attenuation of dynamic cerebral autoregulation was not observed in the LBNP release protocol (P = 0.574). These findings suggest that an acute change in systemic blood distribution modifies dynamic cerebral autoregulation during acute hypotension. PMID:26159757

  16. Nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation increases blood flow during the early stages of stress fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Ryan E; Shoghi, Kooresh I; Silva, Matthew J

    2014-02-15

    Despite the strong connection between angiogenesis and osteogenesis in skeletal repair conditions such as fracture and distraction osteogenesis, little is known about the vascular requirements for bone formation after repetitive mechanical loading. Here, established protocols of damaging (stress fracture) and nondamaging (physiological) forelimb loading in the adult rat were used to stimulate either woven or lamellar bone formation, respectively. Positron emission tomography was used to evaluate blood flow and fluoride kinetics at the site of bone formation. In the group that received damaging mechanical loading leading to woven bone formation (WBF), (15)O water (blood) flow rate was significantly increased on day 0 and remained elevated 14 days after loading, whereas (18)F fluoride uptake peaked 7 days after loading. In the group that received nondamaging mechanical loading leading to lamellar bone formation (LBF), (15)O water and (18)F fluoride flow rates in loaded limbs were not significantly different from nonloaded limbs at any time point. The early increase in blood flow rate after WBF loading was associated with local vasodilation. In addition, Nos2 expression in mast cells was increased in WBF-, but not LBF-, loaded limbs. The nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester was used to suppress NO generation, resulting in significant decreases in early blood flow rate and bone formation after WBF loading. These results demonstrate that NO-mediated vasodilation is a key feature of the normal response to stress fracture and precedes woven bone formation. Therefore, patients with impaired vascular function may heal stress fractures more slowly than expected. PMID:24356518

  17. The flow of red blood cells in stenosed microvessels and the influence of red blood cells on wall-bounded rolling motion of microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidkhah, Koohyar; Balogh, Peter; Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2015-11-01

    In the first part of this work, we consider a 3D computational study of the flow of deformable red blood cells in stenosed microvessels. We observe that the apparent viscosity of blood increases by several folds, and the rate of increase with increasing vessel diameter is also higher than that in non-stenosed vessels, implying an enhancement of the well-known Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect. The flow of the red blood cells causes time-dependent fluctuations in the blood flow rate. The RMS of the flow rate oscillations in the stenosed vessel is observed to be significantly higher than that in the non-stenosed vessel. Furthermore, several folds increase in the Eulerian velocity fluctuations and a transient flow reversal upstream the stenosed region are also observed, which would not occur in absence of the cells. In the second part, we consider the adhesive rolling motion of wall-bounded microparticles in presence of flowing red blood cells in microvessels. We observe two contradictory role of the red blood cells: On one hand, the cells facilitate the establishment of the particle-wall contact, and, thereby, initiation of adhesion. On the other hand, they augment the rolling velocity of the particles. Implications of these results on the optimal design of drug carriers are discussed.

  18. Acoustic trauma increases cochlear and hair cell uptake of gentamicin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhe Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure to intense sound or high doses of aminoglycoside antibiotics can increase hearing thresholds, induce cochlear dysfunction, disrupt hair cell morphology and promote hair cell death, leading to permanent hearing loss. When the two insults are combined, synergistic ototoxicity occurs, exacerbating cochlear vulnerability to sound exposure. The underlying mechanism of this synergism remains unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that sound exposure enhances the intra-cochlear trafficking of aminoglycosides, such as gentamicin, leading to increased hair cell uptake of aminoglycosides and subsequent ototoxicity. METHODS: Juvenile C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to moderate or intense sound levels, while fluorescently-conjugated or native gentamicin was administered concurrently or following sound exposure. Drug uptake was then examined in cochlear tissues by confocal microscopy. RESULTS: Prolonged sound exposure that induced temporary threshold shifts increased gentamicin uptake by cochlear hair cells, and increased gentamicin permeation across the strial blood-labyrinth barrier. Enhanced intra-cochlear trafficking and hair cell uptake of gentamicin also occurred when prolonged sound, and subsequent aminoglycoside exposure were temporally separated, confirming previous observations. Acute, concurrent sound exposure did not increase cochlear uptake of aminoglycosides. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged, moderate sound exposures enhanced intra-cochlear aminoglycoside trafficking into the stria vascularis and hair cells. Changes in strial and/or hair cell physiology and integrity due to acoustic overstimulation could increase hair cell uptake of gentamicin, and may represent one mechanism of synergistic ototoxicity.

  19. Blood transfusion is associated with increased resource utilisation, morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Bharathi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the impact of blood transfusion on resource utilisation, morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery at a major university hospital. The resources we examined are time to extubation, intensive care unit length of stay (ICULOS and postoperative length of stay (PLOS. We further examined the impact of number of units of packed red blood cells (PRBCs transfused during PLOS. This is a retrospective observational study and includes 1746 consecutive male and female patients undergoing primary CABG (on- and off-pump at our institution. Of these, 1067 patients received blood transfusions, while 677 did not. The data regarding the demography, blood transfusion, resource utilisation, morbidity and mortality were collected from the records of patients undergoing CABG over a period of three years. The mean time to extubation following surgery was 8.0 h for the transfused group and 4.3 h for the nontransfused group ( P ≤ 0.001. The mean ICULOS for the transfused group was 1.6 d and 1.2 d for the nontransfused group ( P < 0.001. The PLOS was 7.2 d for the transfused group and 4.3 d for no-transfused cohorts ( P ≤ 0.001. In all patients and in patients with no preoperative morbidity, partial correlation coefficients were used to examine the effects of transfusion on mortality, time to extubation, ICULOS and PLOS. Linear regression model was used to assess the effect of number of PRBC units transfused on PLOS. We noted that PLOS increased with the number of PRBCs units transfused. Transfusion is significantly correlated with the increased time to extubation, ICULOS, PLOS and mortality. The transfused patients had significantly more postoperative complications than their nontransfused counterparts ( P ≤ 0.001. The 30-day hospital mortality was 3.1% for the transfused group with no deaths in the nontransfused group ( P ≤ 0.001. We conclude that the CABG

  20. Leucocyte filtration of salvaged blood during cardiac surgery : effect on red blood cell function in concentrated blood compared with diluted blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Y. John; de Vries, Adrianus J.; Hagenaars, J. Ans M.; van Oeveren, Willem

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Leucocyte filtration of salvaged blood has been suggested to prevent patients from receiving activated leucocytes during autotransfusion in cardiac surgery. This study examines whether leucocyte filtration of salvaged blood affects the red blood cell (RBC) function and whether there is a

  1. Increased PADI4 expression in blood and tissues of patients with malignant tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PAD4/PADI4) post-translationally converts peptidylarginine to citrulline. Recent studies suggest that PADI4 represses expression of p53-regulated genes via citrullination of histones at gene promoters. Methods Expression of PADI4 was investigated in various tumors and non-tumor tissues (n = 1673) as well as in A549, SKOV3 and U937 tumor cell lines by immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, and western blot. Levels of PADI4 and citrullinated antithrombin (cAT) were investigated in the blood of patients with various tumors by ELISA (n = 1121). Results Immunohistochemistry detected significant PADI4 expression in various malignancies including breast carcinomas, lung adenocarcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, esophageal squamous cancer cells, colorectal adenocarcinomas, renal cancer cells, ovarian adenocarcinomas, endometrial carcinomas, uterine adenocarcinomas, bladder carcinomas, chondromas, as well as other metastatic carcinomas. However, PADI4 expression was not observed in benign leiomyomas of stomach, uterine myomas, endometrial hyperplasias, cervical polyps, teratomas, hydatidiform moles, trophoblastic cell hyperplasias, hyroid adenomas, hemangiomas, lymph hyperplasias, schwannomas, neurofibromas, lipomas, and cavernous hemangiomas of the liver. Additionally, PADI4 expression was not detected in non-tumor tissues including cholecystitis, cervicitis and synovitis of osteoarthritis, except in certain acutely inflamed tissues such as in gastritis and appendicitis. Quantitative PCR and western blot analysis showed higher PADI4 expression in gastric adenocarcinomas, lung adenocarcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, esophageal squamous cell cancers and breast cancers (n = 5 for each disease) than in the surrounding healthy tissues. Furthermore, western blot analysis detected PADI4 expression in cultured tumor cell lines. ELISA detected increased PADI4 and cAT levels in the blood of patients with various malignant tumors

  2. Increased PADI4 expression in blood and tissues of patients with malignant tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PAD4/PADI4 post-translationally converts peptidylarginine to citrulline. Recent studies suggest that PADI4 represses expression of p53-regulated genes via citrullination of histones at gene promoters. Methods Expression of PADI4 was investigated in various tumors and non-tumor tissues (n = 1673 as well as in A549, SKOV3 and U937 tumor cell lines by immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, and western blot. Levels of PADI4 and citrullinated antithrombin (cAT were investigated in the blood of patients with various tumors by ELISA (n = 1121. Results Immunohistochemistry detected significant PADI4 expression in various malignancies including breast carcinomas, lung adenocarcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, esophageal squamous cancer cells, colorectal adenocarcinomas, renal cancer cells, ovarian adenocarcinomas, endometrial carcinomas, uterine adenocarcinomas, bladder carcinomas, chondromas, as well as other metastatic carcinomas. However, PADI4 expression was not observed in benign leiomyomas of stomach, uterine myomas, endometrial hyperplasias, cervical polyps, teratomas, hydatidiform moles, trophoblastic cell hyperplasias, hyroid adenomas, hemangiomas, lymph hyperplasias, schwannomas, neurofibromas, lipomas, and cavernous hemangiomas of the liver. Additionally, PADI4 expression was not detected in non-tumor tissues including cholecystitis, cervicitis and synovitis of osteoarthritis, except in certain acutely inflamed tissues such as in gastritis and appendicitis. Quantitative PCR and western blot analysis showed higher PADI4 expression in gastric adenocarcinomas, lung adenocarcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, esophageal squamous cell cancers and breast cancers (n = 5 for each disease than in the surrounding healthy tissues. Furthermore, western blot analysis detected PADI4 expression in cultured tumor cell lines. ELISA detected increased PADI4 and cAT levels in the blood of patients with

  3. Increased PADI4 expression in blood and tissues of patients with malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PAD4/PADI4) post-translationally converts peptidylarginine to citrulline. Recent studies suggest that PADI4 represses expression of p53-regulated genes via citrullination of histones at gene promoters. Expression of PADI4 was investigated in various tumors and non-tumor tissues (n = 1673) as well as in A549, SKOV3 and U937 tumor cell lines by immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, and western blot. Levels of PADI4 and citrullinated antithrombin (cAT) were investigated in the blood of patients with various tumors by ELISA (n = 1121). Immunohistochemistry detected significant PADI4 expression in various malignancies including breast carcinomas, lung adenocarcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, esophageal squamous cancer cells, colorectal adenocarcinomas, renal cancer cells, ovarian adenocarcinomas, endometrial carcinomas, uterine adenocarcinomas, bladder carcinomas, chondromas, as well as other metastatic carcinomas. However, PADI4 expression was not observed in benign leiomyomas of stomach, uterine myomas, endometrial hyperplasias, cervical polyps, teratomas, hydatidiform moles, trophoblastic cell hyperplasias, hyroid adenomas, hemangiomas, lymph hyperplasias, schwannomas, neurofibromas, lipomas, and cavernous hemangiomas of the liver. Additionally, PADI4 expression was not detected in non-tumor tissues including cholecystitis, cervicitis and synovitis of osteoarthritis, except in certain acutely inflamed tissues such as in gastritis and appendicitis. Quantitative PCR and western blot analysis showed higher PADI4 expression in gastric adenocarcinomas, lung adenocarcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, esophageal squamous cell cancers and breast cancers (n = 5 for each disease) than in the surrounding healthy tissues. Furthermore, western blot analysis detected PADI4 expression in cultured tumor cell lines. ELISA detected increased PADI4 and cAT levels in the blood of patients with various malignant tumors compared to those in patients

  4. Increase of cerebral blood flow at high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A

    1992-01-01

    CBF increases with acute hypoxia despite the opposing vasoconstrictor effects of the drop in pCO2 caused by hyperventilation. Maintaining normocapnia by adding CO2 the hypoxic CBF responsiveness about doubles. As we have shown recently by this test, the hypoxic CBF response is not blunted but rat...... vasodilatation cannot explain the usual (mild) form of AMS. But it may well be involved in the pathogenesis of the rare but severe cerebral form of AMS, as prolonged increased capillary pressure in vasodilated areas could lead to vasogenic cerebral edema....

  5. Recent Stem Cell Advances: Cord Blood and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell for Cardiac Regeneration- a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhekar, Sheetal Kashinath; Shende, Vikas Suresh; Chincholkar, Anjali Baburao

    2016-05-30

    Stem cells are primitive self renewing undifferentiated cell that can be differentiated into various types of specialized cells like nerve cell, skin cells, muscle cells, intestinal tissue, and blood cells. Stem cells live in bone marrow where they divide to make new blood cells and produces peripheral stem cells in circulation. Under proper environment and in presence of signaling molecules stem cells begin to develop into specialized tissues and organs. These unique characteristics make them very promising entities for regeneration of damaged tissue. Day by day increase in incidence of heart diseases including left ventricular dysfunction, ischemic heart disease (IHD), congestive heart failure (CHF) are the major cause of morbidity and mortality. However infracted tissue cannot regenerate into healthy tissue. Heart transplantation is only the treatment for such patient. Due to limitation of availability of donor for organ transplantation, a focus is made for alternative and effective therapy to treat such condition. In this review we have discussed the new advances in stem cells such as use of cord stem cells and iPSC technology in cardiac repair. Future approach of CB cells was found to be used in tissue repair which is specifically observed for improvement of left ventricular function and myocardial infarction. Here we have also focused on how iPSC technology is used for regeneration of cardiomyocytes and intiating neovascularization in myocardial infarction and also for study of pathophysiology of various degenerative diseases and genetic disease in research field. PMID:27426082

  6. Bystander apoptosis in human cells mediated by irradiated blood plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinnikov, Volodymyr, E-mail: vlad.vinnikov@mail.ru [Grigoriev Institute for Medical Radiology of the National Academy of Medical Science of Ukraine (Ukraine); Lloyd, David; Finnon, Paul [Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards of the Health Protection Agency of the United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-01

    Following exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation, due to an accident or during radiotherapy, bystander signalling poses a potential hazard to unirradiated cells and tissues. This process can be mediated by factors circulating in blood plasma. Thus, we assessed the ability of plasma taken from in vitro irradiated human blood to produce a direct cytotoxic effect, by inducing apoptosis in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM), which mainly comprised G{sub 0}-stage lymphocytes. Plasma was collected from healthy donors' blood irradiated in vitro to 0-40 Gy acute {gamma}-rays. Reporter PBM were separated from unirradiated blood with Histopaque and held in medium with the test plasma for 24 h at 37 Degree-Sign C. Additionally, plasma from in vitro irradiated and unirradiated blood was tested against PBM collected from blood given 4 Gy. Apoptosis in reporter PBM was measured by the Annexin V test using flow cytometry. Plasma collected from unirradiated and irradiated blood did not produce any apoptotic response above the control level in unirradiated reporter PBM. Surprisingly, plasma from irradiated blood caused a dose-dependent reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter PBM. The yields of radiation-induced cell death in irradiated reporter PBM (after subtracting the respective values in unirradiated reporter PBM) were 22.2 {+-} 1.8% in plasma-free cultures, 21.6 {+-} 1.1% in cultures treated with plasma from unirradiated blood, 20.2 {+-} 1.4% in cultures with plasma from blood given 2-4 Gy and 16.7 {+-} 3.2% in cultures with plasma from blood given 6-10 Gy. These results suggested that irradiated blood plasma did not cause a radiation-induced bystander cell-killing effect. Instead, a reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter cells cultured with irradiated blood plasma has implications concerning oncogenic risk from mutated cells surviving after high dose in vivo irradiation (e.g. radiotherapy) and requires further study.

  7. A photonic crystal hydrogel suspension array for the capture of blood cells from whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Cai, Yunlang; Shang, Luoran; Wang, Huan; Cheng, Yao; Rong, Fei; Gu, Zhongze; Zhao, Yuanjin

    2016-02-01

    Diagnosing hematological disorders based on the separation and detection of cells in the patient's blood is a significant challenge. We have developed a novel barcode particle-based suspension array that can simultaneously capture and detect multiple types of blood cells. The barcode particles are polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel inverse opal microcarriers with characteristic reflection peak codes that remain stable during cell capture on their surfaces. The hydrophilic PAAm hydrogel scaffolds of the barcode particles can entrap various plasma proteins to capture different cells in the blood, with little damage to captured cells.Diagnosing hematological disorders based on the separation and detection of cells in the patient's blood is a significant challenge. We have developed a novel barcode particle-based suspension array that can simultaneously capture and detect multiple types of blood cells. The barcode particles are polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel inverse opal microcarriers with characteristic reflection peak codes that remain stable during cell capture on their surfaces. The hydrophilic PAAm hydrogel scaffolds of the barcode particles can entrap various plasma proteins to capture different cells in the blood, with little damage to captured cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06368j

  8. Stem Cell Transplant (Peripheral Blood, Bone Marrow, and Cord Blood Transplants)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are studied in cloning and other types of research. These stem cells are blood-forming stem cells. Stem cells mostly ... Preventing and managing GVHD are major priorities for research. Chronic ... 90 to 600 days after the stem cell transplant. A rash on the palms of the ...

  9. Harvesting, processing and inventory management of peripheral blood stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijovic Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available By 2003, 97% autologous transplants and 65% of allogeneic transplants in Europe used mobilised peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC. Soon after their introduction in the early 1990′s, PBSC were associated with faster haemopoietic recovery, fewer transfusions and antibiotic usage, and a shorter hospital stay. Furthermore, ease and convenience of PBSC collection made them more appealing than BM harvests. Improved survival has hitherto been demonstrated in patients with high risk AML and CML. However, the advantages of PBSC come at a price of a higher incidence of extensive chronic GVHD. In order to be present in the blood, stem cells undergo the process of "mobilisation" from their bone marrow habitat. Mobilisation, and its reciprocal process - homing - are regulated by a complex network of molecules on the surface of stem cells and stromal cells, and enzymes and cytokines released from granulocytes and osteoclasts. Knowledge of these mechanisms is beginning to be exploited for clinical purposes. In current practice, stem cell are mobilised by use of chemotherapy in conjunction with haemopoietic growth factors (HGF, or with HGF alone. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor has emerged as the single most important mobilising agent, due to its efficacy and a relative paucity of serious side effects. Over a decade of use in healthy donors has resulted in vast experience of optimal dosing and administration, and safety matters. PBSC harvesting can be performed on a variety of cell separators. Apheresis procedures are nowadays routine, but it is important to be well versed in the possible complications in order to avoid harm to the patient or donor. To ensure efficient collection, harvesting must begin when sufficient stem cells have been mobilised. A rapid, reliable, standardized blood test is essential to decide when to begin harvesting; currently, blood CD34+ cell counting by flow cytometry fulfils these criteria. Blood CD34+ cell counts strongly

  10. Bioactive compounds from crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cells induced apoptotic cell death in hela cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patathananone, Supawadee; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Daduang, Jureerut; Chung, Jing Gung; Temsiripong, Yosapong; Daduang, Sakda

    2016-08-01

    Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cell extracts (WBCex) were examined for anticancer activity in HeLa cell lines using the MTT assay. The percentage viability of HeLa cells significantly deceased after treatment with WBCex in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The IC50 dose was suggested to be approximately 225 μg/mL protein. Apoptotic cell death occurred in a time-dependent manner based on investigation by flow cytometry using annexin V-FITC and PI staining. DAPI nucleic acid staining indicated increased chromatin condensation. Caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities also increased, suggesting the induction of the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm ) of HeLa cells was lost as a result of increasing levels of Bax and reduced levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bcl-Xs, and XIAP. The decreased ΔΨm led to the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspase-9 and -3. Apoptosis-inducing factor translocated into the nuclei, and endonuclease G (Endo G) was released from the mitochondria. These results suggest that anticancer agents in WBCex can induce apoptosis in HeLa cells via both caspase-dependent and -independent pathways. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 986-997, 2016. PMID:25691005

  11. Hormones that Stimulate the Growth of Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golde, David W.; Gasson, Judith C.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the nature and action of hematopoietic proteins which regulate the production of specific sets of blood cells. Discusses the production of these hematopoietins by recombinant-DNA methods in an effort to enable physicians to treat patients by eliciting production of specific types of blood cells. (CW)

  12. Multifactorial aspects of antibody-mediated blood cell destruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kapur

    2014-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focuses on diseases of antibody-mediated blood cell destruction via FcγRs on phagocytes, in particular regarding platelets in fetal or neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) and red blood cells (RBC) in hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN). Di

  13. Blood concentrations of everolimus are markedly increased by ketoconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, J M; Beyer, D; Bizot, M N; Jiang, Q; Shenouda, M; Schmouder, R L

    2005-05-01

    The authors sought to quantify the influence of the CYP3A and P-glycoprotein inhibitor ketoconazole on the pharmacokinetics of everolimus in healthy subjects. This was a 2-period, single-sequence, crossover study in 12 healthy subjects. In period 1, subjects received the reference treatment of a single 2-mg dose of everolimus. In period 2, they received the test treatment of ketoconazole 200 mg twice daily for a total of 8 days and a single dose of everolimus coadministered on the fourth day of ketoconazole therapy. The test/reference ratio and 90% confidence interval were derived for everolimus maximum concentration and area under the curve. During ketoconazole coadministration, everolimus maximum concentration increased 3.9-fold (90% confidence interval, 3.4-4.6) from 15 +/- 4 ng/mL to 59 +/- 13 ng/mL. Everolimus area under the curve increased 15.0-fold (90% confidence interval, 13.6-16.6) from 90 +/- 23 ng*h/mL to 1324 +/- 232 ng*h/mL. Everolimus half-life was prolonged by 1.9-fold from 30 +/- 4 hours to 56 +/- 5 hours. Everolimus did not appear to alter ketoconazole predose concentrations. Given the magnitude of this drug interaction, use of ketoconazole should be avoided if possible in everolimus-treated patients. PMID:15831774

  14. Age of transfused blood is not associated with increased postoperative adverse outcome after cardiac surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKenny, M

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that storage age of transfused red blood cells (RBCs) is associated with adverse outcome after cardiac surgery, and examined association between volume of RBC transfusions and outcome after cardiac surgery.

  15. Supernatant of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Induces Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Possessing Mesenchymal Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Hu, Jun-jun Xu, Zhi-hong Deng, Jie Feng, Yan Jin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that some cells from peripheral blood fibroblast-like mononuclear cells have the capacity to differentiate into mesenchymal lineages. However, the insufficiency of these cells in the circulation challenges the cell isolation and subsequently limits the clinical application of these cells. In the present study, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbMNCs were isolated from wound animals and treated with the supernatant of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (bmMSCs. Results showed these pbMNCs were fibroblast-like, had stromal morphology, were negative for CD34 and CD45, but positive for Vimentin and Collagen I, and had the multipotency to differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts. We named these induced peripheral blood-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ipbMSCs. Skin grafts in combination with ipbMSCs and collagen I were applied for wound healing, and results revealed ipbMSC exhibited similar potency and effectiveness in the promotion of wound healing to the bmMSCs. Hereafter, we speculate that the mixture of growth factors and chemokines secreted by bmMSCs may play an important roles in the induction of the proliferation and mesenchymal differentiation of mononuclear cells. Our results are clinically relevant because it provide a new method for the acquisition of MSCs which can be used as a candidate for the wound repair.

  16. Light scattering by aggregated red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsinopoulos, Stephanos V.; Sellountos, Euripides J.; Polyzos, Demosthenes

    2002-03-01

    In low flow rates, red blood cells (RBCs) fasten together along their axis of symmetry and form a so-called rouleaux. The scattering of He-Ne laser light by a rouleau consisting of n (2 less-than-or-equal n less-than-or-equal 8) average-sized RBCs is investigated. The interaction problem is treated numerically by means of an advanced axisymmetric boundary element--fast Fourier transform methodology. The scattering problem of one RBC was solved first, and the results showed that the influence of the RBC's membrane on the scattering patterns is negligible. Thus the rouleau is modeled as an axisymmetric, homogeneous, low-contrast dielectric cylinder, on the surface of which appears, owing to aggregated RBCs, a periodic roughness along the direction of symmetry. The direction of the incident laser light is considered to be perpendicular to the scatterer's axis of symmetry. The differential scattering cross sections in both perpendicular and parallel scattering planes and for all the scattering angles are calculated and presented in detail.

  17. Novel Cell Preservation Technique to Extend Bovine In Vitro White Blood Cell Viability

    OpenAIRE

    Laurin, Emilie L.; McKenna, Shawn L. B.; Sanchez, Javier; Bach, Horacio; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan Carlos; Chaffer, Marcelo; Keefe, Greg P

    2015-01-01

    Although cell-mediated immunity based diagnostics can be integral assays for early detection of various diseases of dairy cows, processing of blood samples for these tests is time-sensitive, often within 24 hours of collection, to maintain white blood cell viability. Therefore, to improve utility and practicality of such assays, the objective of this study was to assess the use of a novel white blood cell preservation technology in whole bovine blood. Blood samples from ten healthy cows were ...

  18. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomsen Preben D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is low and the future isolation percentage of MSCs from cryopreserved equine cord blood is therefore expectedly low. The hypothesis of this study was that equine MSCs could be isolated from fresh whole equine cord blood. Results Cord blood was collected from 7 foals immediately after foaling. The mononuclear cell fraction was isolated by Ficoll density centrifugation and cultured in a DMEM low glucose based media at 38.5°C in humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO2. In 4 out of 7 samples colonies with MSC morphology were observed. Cellular morphology varied between monolayers of elongated spindle-shaped cells to layered cell clusters of cuboidal cells with shorter cytoplasmic extensions. Positive Alizarin Red and von Kossa staining as well as significant calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity confirmed osteogenesis. Histology and positive Safranin O staining of matrix glycosaminoglycans illustrated chondrogenesis. Oil Red O staining of lipid droplets confirmed adipogenesis. Conclusion We here report, for the first time, the isolation of mesenchymal-like stem cells from fresh equine cord blood and their differentiation into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. This novel isolation of equine cord blood MSCs and their preliminary in vitro differentiation positions the horse as the ideal pre-clinical animal model for proof-of-principle studies of cord blood derived MSCs.

  19. A Simulation of Blood Cells in Branching Capillaries

    CERN Document Server

    Isfahani, Amir H G; Freund, Jonathan B

    2008-01-01

    The multi-cellular hydrodynamic interactions play a critical role in the phenomenology of blood flow in the microcirculation. A fast algorithm has been developed to simulate large numbers of cells modeled as elastic thin membranes. For red blood cells, which are the dominant component in blood, the membrane has strong resistance to surface dilatation but is flexible in bending. Our numerical method solves the boundary integral equations built upon Green's functions for Stokes flow in periodic domains. This fluid dynamics video is an example of the capabilities of this model in handling complex geometries with a multitude of different cells. The capillary branch geometries have been modeled based upon observed capillary networks. The diameter of the branches varies between 10-20 mum. A constant mean pressure gradient drives the flow. For the purpose of this fluid dynamics video, the red blood cells are initiated as biconcave discs and white blood cells and platelets are initiated as spheres and ellipsoids resp...

  20. Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Gabriel; Park, Yongkeun; Best, Catherine; Dasari, Ramachandra; Feld, Michael; Kuriabova, Tatiana; Henle, Mark; Levine, Alex

    2010-03-01

    The human red blood cell (RBC) membrane, a fluid lipid bilayer tethered to an elastic 2D spectrin network, provides the principal control of the cell's morphology and mechanics. These properties, in turn, influence the ability of RBCs to transport oxygen in circulation. Current mechanical measurements of RBCs rely on external loads. Here we apply a Noncontact optical interferometric technique to quantify the thermal fluctuations of RBC membranes with 3 nm accuracy over a broad range of spatial and temporal frequencies. Combining this technique with a new mathematical model describing RBC membrane undulations, we measure the mechanical changes of RBCs as they undergo a transition from the normal discoid shape to the abnormal echinocyte and spherical shapes. These measurements indicate that, coincident with this morphological transition, there is a significant increase in the membrane's shear and bending moduli. This mechanical transition can alter cell circulation and impede oxygen delivery.

  1. BLOOD TELOMERASE ACTIVITY AND ITS CORRELATIVITY WITH NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡坚; 李任远; 孙骊; 倪一鸣

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlativity between blood telomerase activity and Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) through relative quantitative analysis of telomerase activity. Methods: Thirty-eight NSCLC and 25 inpatients with benign lung disease were selected. Telomerase repeat amplification protocol was adopted. PCR products were assayed with ELISA. Results: (a) Blood telomerase activity during operation was higher than that before or after operation (P0.05). (c) Blood telomerase activity of adenocarcinoma during and after operation was higher than that before operation (P0.05). Conclusion: The qualitative assay of blood telomerase activity can be adopted as an assistant index for diagnosis of NSCLC. Postoperative blood telomerase activity of adenocarcinoma is higher than that of squamous carcinoma. It may be an evidence for the likelihood of adenocarcinoma to metastase through blood. Blood telomerase activity increases significantly during operation, suggesting that operation may cause more cancer cells entering into circulation.

  2. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Healthy and Defective Red Blood Cell Settling in Blood Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Z; Rahnama, M; Jafari, S

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to study sedimentation of a red blood cell (RBC) in a plasma-filled tube numerically. Such behaviors are studied for a healthy and a defective cell which might be created due to human diseases, such as diabetes, sickle-cell anemia, and hereditary spherocytosis. Flow-induced deformation of RBC is obtained using finite-element method (FEM), while flow and fluid-membrane interaction are handled using lattice Boltzmann (LB) and immersed boundary methods (IBMs), respectively. The effects of RBC properties as well as its geometry and orientation on its sedimentation rate are investigated and discussed. The results show that decreasing frontal area of an RBC and/or increasing tube diameter results in a faster settling. Comparison of healthy and diabetic cells reveals that less cell deformability leads to slower settling. The simulation results show that the sicklelike and spherelike RBCs have lower settling velocity as compared with a biconcave discoid cell. PMID:26926169

  3. Red blood cell sodium transport in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Lütken; Kiszka-Kanowitz, Marianne; Bendtsen, Flemming;

    2016-01-01

    Patients with advanced cirrhosis have abnormal sodium homoeostasis. The study was undertaken to quantify the sodium transport across the plasma membrane of red blood cells (RBC) in patients with cirrhosis. RBC efflux and influx of sodium were studied in vitro with tracer (22) Na(+) according to....... Increased RBC sodium efflux is especially related to ouabain-sensitive, furosemide-insensitive transport and thus most likely due to upregulated activity of the sodium-potassium pump. The study gives no evidence to an altered intracellular/extracellular sodium ratio or to a reduced fractional furosemide...

  4. Determinants of resting cerebral blood flow in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Adam M; Borzage, Matthew T; Choi, Soyoung; Václavů, Lena; Tamrazi, Benita; Nederveen, Aart J; Coates, Thomas D; Wood, John C

    2016-09-01

    Stroke is common in children with sickle cell disease and results from an imbalance in oxygen supply and demand. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is increased in patients with sickle cell disease to compensate for their anemia, but adequacy of their oxygen delivery has not been systematically demonstrated. This study examined the physiological determinants of CBF in 37 patients with sickle cell disease, 38 ethnicity matched control subjects and 16 patients with anemia of non-sickle origin. Cerebral blood flow was measured using phase contrast MRI of the carotid and vertebral arteries. CBF increased inversely to oxygen content (r(2)  = 0.69, P Brain oxygen delivery, the product of CBF and oxygen content, was normal in all groups. Brain composition, specifically the relative amounts of grey and white matter, was the next strongest CBF predictor, presumably by influencing cerebral metabolic rate. Grey matter/white matter ratio and CBF declined monotonically until the age of 25 in all subjects, consistent with known maturational changes in brain composition. Further CBF reductions were observed with age in subjects older than 35 years of age, likely reflecting microvascular aging. On multivariate regression, CBF was independent of disease state, hemoglobin S, hemoglobin F, reticulocyte count and cell free hemoglobin, suggesting that it is regulated similarly in patients and control subjects. In conclusion, sickle cell disease patients had sufficient oxygen delivery at rest, but accomplish this only by marked increases in their resting CBF, potentially limiting their ability to further augment flow in response to stress. Am. J. Hematol. 91:912-917, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27263497

  5. Geometrical Aspects During Formation of Compact Aggregates of Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso A.V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past forty years considerable progress has been achieved on the knowledge of human blood as a non-Newtonian shear-thinning suspension, whose initial state, that is at rest (stasis or at very low shear rates, has a gel-like internal structure which is destroyed as shear stress increases. The main goal of this communication is to describe the role of geometrical aspects during RBC (red blood cell aggregate formation, growth and compaction on naturally aggregate (porcine blood and non-aggregate (bovine blood samples. We consider how these aspects coupled with tension equilibrium are decisive to transform red cell linear roleaux to three-dimensional aggregates or clusters. Geometrical aspects are also crucial on the compaction of red blood cell aggregates. These densely packed aggregates could precipitate out of blood- either as dangerous deposits on arterial walls, or as clots which travel in suspension until they block some crucial capillary.

  6. Interpretation of automated blood cell counts

    OpenAIRE

    Zühre Kaya

    2013-01-01

    Complete blood count (CBC) tests are rapid, inexpensiveand universally available, and often aid primary clinicianswith decision making about patients with severaldisorders. Thus the rapid availability of the results of CBCcould provide considerable advantage for both patientsand clinicians. Furthermore, physicians can also avoidunnecessary peripheral blood smear examination usingCBC parameters. Many hematology analyzers, which enabledus simultaneously, measure several different CBCparameters,...

  7. Margination of white blood cells - a computational approach by a hydrodynamic phase field model

    CERN Document Server

    Marth, Wieland

    2015-01-01

    We numerically investigate margination of white blood cells and demonstrate the dependency on a number of conditions including hematocrit, the deformability of the cells and the Reynolds number. A detailed mesoscopic hydrodynamic Helfrich-type model is derived, validated and used for the simulations to provides a quantitative description of the margination of white blood cells. Previous simulation results, obtained with less detailed models, could be confirmed, e.g. the largest probability of margination of white blood cells at an intermediate range of hematocrit values and a decreasing tendency with increasing deformability. The consideration of inertia effects, which become of relevance in small vessels, also shows a dependency and leads to less pronounced margination of white blood cells with increasing Reynolds number.

  8. The role of oxidized albumin in blood cell aggregation disturbance in burn disease

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Grigory Ya; Egorihina, Marpha N

    2013-01-01

    The burn disease is found to be accompanied by increasing of the level of oxidized proteins of blood serum. We studied the influence of albumin oxidation rate on aggregation of platelets and erythrocytes, disaggregation of erythrocytes. The changes of blood cells aggregation associated with oxidation rate of albumin were found. Possible mechanisms of these effects are discussed.

  9. Photoacoustic assessment of oxygen saturation: effect of red blood cell aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysi, Eno; Saha, Ratan K.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2013-03-01

    The simultaneous photoacoustic assessment of oxygen saturation and red blood cell aggregation is presented. Aggregation was induced on porcine red blood cells using Dextran-70 at multiple hematocrit levels. Samples were exposed to 750 nm and 1064 nm for each hematocrit and aggregate size in order to compute the oxygen saturation. As the size of the aggregate increased, the photoacoustic signal amplitude increased monotonically. The same trend was observed for increasing hematocrit at each aggregation level. The oxygen saturation of aggregated samples was 30% higher than non-aggregated samples at each hematocrit level. This suggests that the presence of red blood cell aggregates impairs the release of oxygen to the surrounding environment. Such a result has important implications for detecting red blood cell aggregation non-invasively and making clinical decisions based on the simulatenous assessment of oxygen saturation.

  10. Heat stress attenuates the increase in arterial blood pressure during the cold pressor test

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Jian; Shibasaki, Manabu; Low, David A.; Keller, David M.; Davis, Scott L.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms by which heat stress impairs the control of blood pressure leading to compromised orthostatic tolerance are not thoroughly understood. A possible mechanism may be an attenuated blood pressure response to a given increase in sympathetic activity. This study tested the hypothesis that whole body heating attenuates the blood pressure response to a non-baroreflex-mediated sympathoexcitatory stimulus. Ten healthy subjects were instrumented for the measurement of integrated muscle sy...

  11. Deep coverage mouse red blood cell proteome: a first comparison with the human red blood cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasini, Erica M; Kirkegaard, Morten; Salerno, Doris;

    2008-01-01

    Mice have close genetic/physiological relationships to humans, breed rapidly, and can be genetically modified, making them the most used mammal in biomedical research. Because the red blood cell (RBC) is the sole gas transporter in vertebrates, diseases of the RBC are frequently severe; much...... identified, and polypeptides migrating with anomalous apparent molecular weights were grouped into putatively ubiquitinated or partially degraded complexes. Overall there was close concordance between mouse and human proteomes, confirming the unexpected RBC complexity. Several novel findings in the human...

  12. Quantification of depletion-induced adhesion of Red Blood Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen, Patrick; Verdier, Claude; Wagner, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBC) are known to form aggregates in the forms of rouleaux due to the presence of plasma proteins under physiological conditions. Rouleaux formation can be also induced in vitro by the addition of macromolecules to the RBC solution. Current data on the adhesion strength between red blood cells in their natural discocyte shapes mostly rely on indirect measurements like flow chamber experiments, but on the single cell level data is lacking. Here we present measurements on the d...

  13. Interpretation of automated blood cell counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zühre Kaya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Complete blood count (CBC tests are rapid, inexpensiveand universally available, and often aid primary clinicianswith decision making about patients with severaldisorders. Thus the rapid availability of the results of CBCcould provide considerable advantage for both patientsand clinicians. Furthermore, physicians can also avoidunnecessary peripheral blood smear examination usingCBC parameters. Many hematology analyzers, which enabledus simultaneously, measure several different CBCparameters, are available for early diagnosis. Herein theimpact of both pre and post analytic variations on the interpretationof the CBC results with case reports are reviewedin the light of the latest literature.Key words: Complete blood count, interpretation

  14. Impact of red blood cell transfusion on global and regional measures of oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Russell S; Bennett-Guerrero, Elliott

    2012-01-01

    Anemia is common in critically ill patients. Although the goal of transfusion of red blood cells is to increase oxygen-carrying capacity, there are contradictory results about whether red blood cell transfusion to treat moderate anemia (e.g., hemoglobin 7-10 g/dL) improves tissue oxygenation or changes outcomes. Whereas increasing levels of anemia eventually lead to a level of critical oxygen delivery, increased cardiac output and oxygen extraction are homeostatic mechanisms the body uses to prevent a state of dysoxia in the setting of diminished oxygen delivery due to anemia. In order for cardiac output to increase in the face of anemia, normovolemia must be maintained. Transfusion of red blood cells increases blood viscosity, which may actually decrease cardiac output (barring a state of hypovolemia prior to transfusion). Studies have generally shown that transfusion of red blood cells fails to increase oxygen uptake unless oxygen uptake/oxygen delivery dependency exists (e.g., severe anemia or strenuous exercise). Recently, near-infrared spectroscopy, which approximates the hemoglobin saturation of venous blood, has been used to investigate whether transfusion of red blood cells increases tissue oxygenation in regional tissue beds (e.g., brain, peripheral skeletal muscle). These studies have generally shown increases in near-infrared spectroscopy derived measurements of tissue oxygenation following transfusion. Studies evaluating the effect of transfusion on the microcirculation have shown that transfusion increases the functional capillary density. This article will review fundamental aspects of oxygen delivery and extraction, and the effects of red blood cell transfusion on tissue oxygenation as well as the microcirculation. PMID:22238040

  15. EFFECT OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ON RED BLOOD CELL IMMUNE AND T-CELL SUBGROUP IN THE RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GaoWei; HuangYuxin; ChenHong; SunDayong; ZhangHongxin

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on immune system was observed in the rat by using micro- whole blood direct immunofluoreseence Staining assay to detect changes of the peripheral blood T lymphocyte subgroup and employing red blood cell (RBC) C3b receptor- yeast rosette test and red blood cell-IC rosette test to analyze erythroeytic immune function. Results showed that after EA of “Zusanli” (ST 36), CD4+, RBC-C3bRR and RBC-ICR in the peripheral blood of the normal rats increased significantly while CD8+ had no any considerable changes and a positive correlation between CD4+ and RBC-C3bRR was found. In immuoosuppression model rats, the values of CD4+ and RBC-C3bRR were obviously lower than those of the normal control group while CD8+ had no any striking changes; but after EA treatment, there were no evident differences between EA group and normal control group in the above-mentioned indexes. There were also no any significant differences between non-acupoint group and normal control group in those indexes. Results suggest that EA of “Zusanli” (ST 36) can raise T cell immune function and RBC adhesion function in both normal rats and immunosuppression model rats, both of which present a positive correlation.

  16. Increased blood flow prevents intramucosal acidosis in sheep endotoxemia: a controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Dubin, Arnaldo; Murias, Gastón; Maskin, Bernardo; Pozo, Mario O; Sottile, Juan P; Barán, Marcelo; Edul, Vanina S Kanoore; Canales, Héctor S; Badie, Julio C; Etcheverry, Graciela; Estenssoro, Elisa

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Increased intramucosal–arterial carbon dioxide tension (PCO2) difference (ΔPCO2) is common in experimental endotoxemia. However, its meaning remains controversial because it has been ascribed to hypoperfusion of intestinal villi or to cytopathic hypoxia. Our hypothesis was that increased blood flow could prevent the increase in ΔPCO2. Methods In 19 anesthetized and mechanically ventilated sheep, we measured cardiac output, superior mesenteric blood flow, lactate, gases, hemoglobi...

  17. Increasing sleep duration to lower beat-to-beat blood pressure – a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Haack, Monika; Serrador, Jorge; Cohen, Daniel; Simpson, Norah; Meier-Ewert, Hans; Mullington, Janet M.

    2012-01-01

    Strong evidence has accumulated over the last several years, showing that low sleep quantity and/or quality plays an important role in the elevation of blood pressure. We hypothesized that increasing sleep duration serves as an effective behavioral strategy to reduce blood pressure in pre-hypertension or type 1 hypertension.

  18. Quantitative analysis of optical properties of flowing blood using a photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo code: effects of red blood cells' orientation on light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Takatani, Setsuo

    2012-05-01

    Optical properties of flowing blood were analyzed using a photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo (pciMC) model with the physical properties of the flowing red blood cells (RBCs) such as cell size, shape, refractive index, distribution, and orientation as the parameters. The scattering of light by flowing blood at the He-Ne laser wavelength of 632.8 nm was significantly affected by the shear rate. The light was scattered more in the direction of flow as the flow rate increased. Therefore, the light intensity transmitted forward in the direction perpendicular to flow axis decreased. The pciMC model can duplicate the changes in the photon propagation due to moving RBCs with various orientations. The resulting RBC's orientation that best simulated the experimental results was with their long axis perpendicular to the direction of blood flow. Moreover, the scattering probability was dependent on the orientation of the RBCs. Finally, the pciMC code was used to predict the hematocrit of flowing blood with accuracy of approximately 1.0 HCT%. The photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo (pciMC) model can provide optical properties of flowing blood and will facilitate the development of the non-invasive monitoring of blood in extra corporeal circulatory systems.

  19. Quantification of Depletion-Induced Adhesion of Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, P.; Verdier, C.; Wagner, C.

    2013-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) are known to form aggregates in the form of rouleaux due to the presence of plasma proteins under physiological conditions. The formation of rouleaux can also be induced in vitro by the addition of macromolecules to the RBC suspension. Current data on the adhesion strength between red blood cells in their natural discocyte shapes mostly originate from indirect measurements such as flow chamber experiments, but data is lacking at the single cell level. Here, we present measurements on the dextran-induced aggregation of red blood cells using atomic force microscopy-based single cell force spectroscopy. The effects of dextran concentration and molecular weight on the interaction energy of adhering RBCs were determined. The results on adhesion energy are in excellent agreement with a model based on the depletion effect and previous experimental studies. Furthermore, our method allowed to determine the adhesion force, a quantity that is needed in theoretical investigations on blood flow.

  20. WHITE BLOOD CELLS IN POLISH ATHLETES OF VARIOUS SPORTS DISCIPLINES

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Orysiak; Konrad Witek; Piotr Zmijewski; Jan Gajewski

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the diversity of white blood cell (WBC) counts and their subsets (neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes) among competitive athletes of different sports disciplines. The blood samples were collected from 608 healthy, medically examined athletes (181 females and 427 males) aged 20.1 ± 5.1 years, who represented five sport disciplines: canoeing, judo, rowing, swimming and volleyball. All blood samples were taken from the antecubital vein in the morning, ...

  1. Transfusion management of patients with red blood cell antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Bujandrić Nevenka B.; Grujić Jasmina N.; Krga-Milanović Mirjana M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Red blood cell antibodies may cause a positive result of pre-transfusion blood compatibility testing (crossmatch test). It can be a problem to provide suitable blood units for patients with clinically significant antibodies to high-frequency antigens as well as for those with multiple alloantibody specificities. This study was aimed at identifying transfused patients in the population of South-Backa who had developed clinically significant red...

  2. Deoxygenation Reduces Sickle Cell Blood Flow at Arterial Oxygen Tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinran; Wood, David K; Higgins, John M

    2016-06-21

    The majority of morbidity and mortality in sickle cell disease is caused by vaso-occlusion: circulatory obstruction leading to tissue ischemia and infarction. The consequences of vaso-occlusion are seen clinically throughout the vascular tree, from the relatively high-oxygen and high-velocity cerebral arteries to the relatively low-oxygen and low-velocity postcapillary venules. Prevailing models of vaso-occlusion propose mechanisms that are relevant only to regions of low oxygen and low velocity, leaving a wide gap in our understanding of the most important pathologic process in sickle cell disease. Progress toward understanding vaso-occlusion is further challenged by the complexity of the multiple processes thought to be involved, including, but not limited to 1) deoxygenation-dependent hemoglobin polymerization leading to impaired rheology, 2) endothelial and leukocyte activation, and 3) altered cellular adhesion. Here, we chose to focus exclusively on deoxygenation-dependent rheologic processes in an effort to quantify their contribution independent of the other processes that are likely involved in vivo. We take advantage of an experimental system that, to our knowledge, uniquely enables the study of pressure-driven blood flow in physiologic-sized tubes at physiologic hematocrit under controlled oxygenation conditions, while excluding the effects of endothelium, leukocyte activation, adhesion, inflammation, and coagulation. We find that deoxygenation-dependent rheologic processes are sufficient to increase apparent viscosity significantly, slowing blood flow velocity at arterial oxygen tension even without additional contributions from inflammation, adhesion, and endothelial and leukocyte activation. We quantify the changes in apparent viscosity and define a set of functional regimes of sickle cell blood flow personalized for each patient that may be important in further dissecting mechanisms of in vivo vaso-occlusion as well as in assessing risk of patient

  3. Increased mortality associated with HTLV-II infection in blood donors: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith James W

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HTLV-I is associated with adult T-cell leukemia, and both HTLV-I and -II are associated with HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. Several published reports suggest that HTLV-I may lead to decreased survival, but HTLV-II has not previously been associated with mortality. Results We examined deaths among 138 HTLV-I, 358 HTLV-II, and 759 uninfected controls enrolled in a prospective cohort study of U.S. blood donors followed biannually since 1992. Proportional hazards models yielded hazard ratios (HRs for the association between mortality and HTLV infection, controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, age, income, educational level, blood center, smoking, injection drug use history, alcohol intake, hepatitis C status and autologous donation. After a median follow-up of 8.6 years, there were 45 confirmed subject deaths. HTLV-I infection did not convey a statistically significant excess risk of mortality (unadjusted HR 1.9, 95%CI 0.8–4.4; adjusted HR 1.9, 95%CI 0.8–4.6. HTLV-II was associated with death in both the unadjusted model (HR 2.8, 95%CI 1.5–5.5 and in the adjusted model (HR 2.3, 95%CI 1.1–4.9. No single cause of death appeared responsible for the HTLV-II effect. Conclusions After adjusting for known and potential confounders, HTLV-II infection is associated with increased mortality among healthy blood donors. If replicated in other cohorts, this finding has implications for both HTLV pathogenesis and counseling of infected persons.

  4. Detection of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells by optical stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritz, Jakob M. A.; Tiffert, Teresa; Seear, Rachel; Lautenschläger, Franziska; Esposito, Alessandro; Lew, Virgilio L.; Guck, Jochen; Kaminski, Clemens F.

    2010-05-01

    We present the application of a microfluidic optical cell stretcher to measure the elasticity of malaria-infected red blood cells. The measurements confirm an increase in host cell rigidity during the maturation of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The device combines the selectivity and sensitivity of single-cell elasticity measurements with a throughput that is higher than conventional single-cell techniques. The method has potential to detect early stages of infection with excellent sensitivity and high speed.

  5. CD28-, CD45RAnull/dim and natural killer-like CD8+ T cells are increased in peripheral blood of women with low-grade cervical lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Pita-Lopez, Maria Luisa; Ortiz-Lazareno, Pablo Cesar; Navarro-Meza, Monica; Santoyo-Telles, Felipe; Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Background In response to antigen naive CD8+, T cells differentiate into effector cells, which express Natural killer (NK) receptors, lose CD28 expression, and die by apoptosis. However, in smaller quantities, the cells are retained for subsequent exposure to the same antigen. Knowledge is limited regarding whether the percentages of CD28-, Effector memory (EMRAnull/dim), and the CD16+/CD56 + CD8+ T cells of women with low-grade cervical lesions are altered at a systemic level. Methods We enr...

  6. Transfusion of leukocyte-depleted red blood cells is not a risk factor for nosocomial infections in critically ill children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Judith; van Heerde, Marc; Markhorst, Dick G.; Kneyber, Martin C. J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Transfusion of red blood cells is increasingly linked with adverse outcomes in critically ill children. We tested the hypothesis that leukocyte-depleted red blood cell transfusions were independently associated with increased development of bloodstream infections, ventilator-associated p

  7. Deep diving in the blood stem cell-ome

    OpenAIRE

    Kalaitzidis, Demetrios; Scadden, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Defining the functional distinctions between cells comprising the bone marrow has yielded fundamental insights into lineage ordering and drivers of blood cell production. A novel, highly granular and multi-dimensional molecular characterization of functional subsets of hematopoietic stem- and progenitor cells recently published in Cell Stem Cell (Cabezas-Wallscheid et al, 2014) will serve as a landmark and treasure trove for unanticipated insights into basic biology and the development of fut...

  8. Gap junctions in hematopoietic stroma control proliferation and differentiation of blood cell precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodi Estevão

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined gap junction communication in an in vitro model of hematopoiesis, using the murine bone marrow stroma cell line S-17, and primary cultures of murine marrow-derived blood cell precursors. S-17 cells express several connexins, the major one being connexin 43. Connexin expression and formation of functional gap junctions is modulated by stroma cell density. Transfection of S-17 cells with a vector containing connexin 43 sense or anti-sense sequences increased or decreased, respectively, connexin 43 synthesis and intercellular dye coupling. Under these conditions, modulation of gap junction-mediated communication modified the growth pattern of stroma itself, as well as the ability of the stroma to sustain hematopoiesis. Increased connexin 43 expression was associated with a delay in differentiation of blood cells, resulting in increased production of hematopoietic precursors, while decreased connexin 43 expression elicited an accelerated differentiation of myeloid blood cell precursor cells. These results suggest that connexin-mediated coupling in the stroma modulates the ratio between proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic precursors. We therefore propose that increased gap junction communication in the stroma elicits an enhanced production of immature bone marrow cells through the delay in their terminal differentiation, inducing consequently an extended proliferation period of blood cell precursors.

  9. Mechanisms Linking Red Blood Cell Disorders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Mozos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to review the main pathophysiological links between red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, provides a brief description of the latest studies in this area, and considers implications for clinical practice and therapy. Anemia is associated with a special risk in proatherosclerotic conditions and heart disease and became a new therapeutic target. Guidelines must be updated for the management of patients with red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, and targets for hemoglobin level should be established. Risk scores in several cardiovascular diseases should include red blood cell count and RDW. Complete blood count and hemorheological parameters represent useful, inexpensive, widely available tools for the management and prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, arrhythmias, and stroke. Hypoxia and iron accumulation cause the most important cardiovascular effects of sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Patients with congenital chronic hemolytic anemia undergoing splenectomy should be monitored, considering thromboembolic and cardiovascular risk.

  10. Safety and radiation risks in the labelling of blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk in the management of radioactive material and biological exposition to infectious agents. Protocols and normative to observe GOOD RADIOPHARMACY Practices. Main infectious agents that may be transmitted during preparation of a blood cell radiopharmaceutical. Problems of contamination

  11. Pharmacodynamic model of interleukin-21 effects on red blood cells in cynomolgus monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Rune Viig; Karlsson, M.; Ingwersen, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    of treatment. The present analysis investigates the observed pharmacodynamics effects on red blood cells following various treatment schedules of human IL-21 administrated to cynomolgus monkeys. These effects are described by a novel non-linear mixed-effects model that enabled separation of drug effects...... and sampling effects, the latter believed to be due partly to blood loss and partly to stress induced haemolysis in connection with blood sampling. Two different studies with a total of 9 different treatment groups of cynomolgus monkeys were used for model development. In conclusion, the model describes the IL......-21 induced drop in red blood cells to be (1) caused by removal rather than suppression of production, consistent with increased reticulocyte concentration, and (2) considerably delayed compared to dosing, i.e. not related to the drop in red blood cells observed immediately post dose. It is believed...

  12. Interleukin-4 receptors on human blood mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied regulation of the expression of the interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R) on human blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) using both 125I-IL-4 binding assay and flow cytometric analysis of biotinylated IL-4 (B-IL-4) binding. PBMC express approximately 300 high-affinity IL-4R per cell (Kd = 25-100 pM). Activation of PBMC for 60-80 hr by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or concanavalin A (Con A) results in a 2- to 4.5-fold increase of IL-4R number without alteration of IL-4R affinity for IL-4. Binding of B-IL-4 showed that IL-4R expression is upregulated on virtually all PHA-stimulated PBMC, whereas it mostly concerns larger cells among Con A-activated PBMC. Reculture of PHA-blasts with 1 nM IL-4 further upregulates IL-4R expression to a level approximately 10-fold higher than observed on freshly isolated PBMC. Interestingly, IL-4 is able to reinduce high IL-4R levels on cells that have been deprived of IL-4 for 20 hr and IL-2 is almost as efficient. Finally, SDS-PAGE analysis of IL-4-binding molecules on unstimulated, PHA- and PHA/IL-4-activated PBMC revealed the same three peptides of MW 140-130, 80-75, and 70-65 kDa, as shown on human cell lines

  13. Multifactorial aspects of antibody-mediated blood cell destruction

    OpenAIRE

    Schoot, van der, B.H.; Vidarsson, G.; Kapur, R.

    2014-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focuses on diseases of antibody-mediated blood cell destruction via FcγRs on phagocytes, in particular regarding platelets in fetal or neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) and red blood cells (RBC) in hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN). Diagnostically, for HDFN laboratory tests are in place in order to predict risk for severe fetal RBC destruction and thereby initiate appropriate treatments. This test is sensitive, but has relativel...

  14. Raman spectroscopy of stored red blood cells: evaluating clinically-relevant biochemical markers in donated blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Chad G.; Buckley, Kevin; Chen, Deborah; Schulze, H. G.; Devine, Dana V.; Blades, Michael W.; Turner, Robin F. B.

    2015-07-01

    Modern transfusion medicine relies on the safe, secure, and cost-effective delivery of donated red blood cells (RBCs). Once isolated, RBCs are suspended in a defined additive solution and stored in plastic blood bags in which, over time, they undergo chemical, physiological, and morphological changes that may have a deleterious impact on some patients. Regulations limit the storage period to 42 days and the cells do not routinely undergo analytical testing before use. In this study, we use Raman spectroscopy to interrogate stored RBCs and we identify metabolic and cell-breakdown products, such as haemoglobin and membrane fragments, that build-up in the blood bags as the cells age. Our work points the way to the development of an instrument which could quickly and easily assess the biochemical nature of stored RBC units before they are transfused.

  15. Stress does not increase blood-brain barrier permeability in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszkowski, Martin; Bohacek, Johannes

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have reported that exposure to acute psychophysiological stressors can lead to an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability, but these findings remain controversial and disputed. We thoroughly examined this issue by assessing the effect of several well-established paradigms of acute stress and chronic stress on blood-brain barrier permeability in several brain areas of adult mice. Using cerebral extraction ratio for the small molecule tracer sodium fluorescein (NaF, 376 Da) as a sensitive measure of blood-brain barrier permeability, we find that neither acute swim nor restraint stress lead to increased cerebral extraction ratio. Daily 6-h restraint stress for 21 days, a model for the severe detrimental impact of chronic stress on brain function, also does not alter cerebral extraction ratio. In contrast, we find that cold forced swim and cold restraint stress both lead to a transient, pronounced decrease of cerebral extraction ratio in hippocampus and cortex, suggesting that body temperature can be an important confounding factor in studies of blood-brain barrier permeability. To additionally assess if stress could change blood-brain barrier permeability for macromolecules, we measured cerebral extraction ratio for fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (70 kDa). We find that neither acute restraint nor cold swim stress affected blood-brain barrier permeability for macromolecules, thus corroborating our findings that various stressors do not increase blood-brain barrier permeability. PMID:27146513

  16. A Discrete-Element Approach for Blood Cell Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnutt, Jennifer; Marshall, Jeffrey

    2006-11-01

    An efficient computational model for simulation of the individual dynamics of adhering blood cells is discussed. Each cell is represented as a discrete particle so that the model can extend existing discrete-element approaches for dense particulate fluid flows to account for receptor-ligand binding of particles, elliptical particle shape, and deformation of the particles due to shear forces. Capabilities of the method in simulating large numbers of particles are illustrated through simulations of the formation of red blood cell rouleaux in shear flow. The effects of several factors, such as aspect ratio of the elliptical particle, shear rate, strength of the cell adhesion force, and hematocrit are investigated. Comparison of the discrete-element results with results of a level-set approach which computes the entire flow field about a small number of cells is used to develop an improved model of the effect of nearby red blood cells on the cell drag force expression. The method is also being applied to examine the influence of red blood cells on other components of the blood, such as platelet dispersion and activation in high shear regions.

  17. Erythropoietin reduces storage lesions and decreases apoptosis indices in blood bank red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Andrés Penuela

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Recent evidence shows a selective destruction of the youngest circulating red blood cells (neocytolysis trigged by a drop in erythropoietin levels. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin beta on the red blood cell storage lesion and apoptosis indices under blood bank conditions. Methods: Each one of ten red blood cell units preserved in additive solution 5 was divided in two volumes of 100 mL and assigned to one of two groups: erythropoietin (addition of 665 IU of recombinant human erythropoietin and control (isotonic buffer solution was added. The pharmacokinetic parameters of erythropoietin were estimated and the following parameters were measured weekly, for six weeks: Immunoreactive erythropoietin, hemolysis, percentage of non-discocytes, adenosine triphosphate, glucose, lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, and annexin-V/esterase activity. The t-test or Wilcoxon's test was used for statistical analysis with significance being set for a p-value 6 weeks under blood bank conditions, with persistent supernatant concentrations of erythropoietin during the entire storage period. Adenosine triphosphate was higher in the Erythropoietin Group in Week 6 (4.19 ± 0.05 µmol/L vs. 3.53 ± 0.02 µmol/L; p-value = 0.009. The number of viable cells in the Erythropoietin Group was higher than in the Control Group (77% ± 3.8% vs. 71% ± 2.3%; p-value <0.05, while the number of apoptotic cells was lower (9.4% ± 0.3% vs. 22% ± 0.8%; p-value <0.05. Conclusions: Under standard blood bank conditions, an important proportion of red blood cells satisfy the criteria of apoptosis. Recombinant human erythropoietin beta seems to improve storage lesion parameters and mitigate apoptosis.

  18. A Framework for White Blood Cell Segmentation in Microscopic Blood Images Using Digital Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Seman Zainina; Abdul Kahar Badrul; Sadeghian Farnoosh; Ramli Abdul; Saripan M-Iqbal

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Evaluation of blood smear is a commonly clinical test these days. Most of the time, the hematologists are interested on white blood cells (WBCs) only. Digital image processing techniques can help them in their analysis and diagnosis. For example, disease like acute leukemia is detected based on the amount and condition of the WBC. The main objective of this paper is to segment the WBC to its two dominant elements: nucleus and cytoplasm. The segmentation is conducted using a proposed ...

  19. Quantification of depletion-induced adhesion of Red Blood Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, Patrick; Wagner, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBC) are known to form aggregates in the forms of rouleaux due to the presence of plasma proteins under physiological conditions. Rouleaux formation can be also induced in vitro by the addition of macromolecules to the RBC solution. Current data on the adhesion strength between red blood cells in their natural discocyte shapes mostly rely on indirect measurements like flow chamber experiments, but on the single cell level data is lacking. Here we present measurements on the dextran induced aggregation of red blood cells by use of atomic force microscopy based single cell force spectroscopy (SCFS). The effects of dextran concentration and molecular weight on the interaction energy of adhering RBCs was determined. The results are in good agreement with a model based on the depletion effect and former experimental studies.

  20. Effect of red blood cell aggregation and sedimentation on optical coherence tomography signals from blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, Monte Carlo simulation is used to obtain model optical coherence tomography (OCT) signals from a horizontally orientated blood layer at different stages of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and sedimentation processes. The parameters for aggregating and sedimenting blood cells were chosen based on the data available from the literature and our earlier experimental studies. We consider two different cases: a suspension of washed RBCs in physiological solution (where aggregation does not take place) and RBCs in blood plasma (which provides necessary conditions for aggregation). Good agreement of the simulation results with the available experimental data shows that the chosen optical parameters are reasonable. The dependence of the numbers of photons contributing to the OCT signal on the number of experienced scattering events was analysed for each simulated signal. It was shown that the maxima of these dependences correspond to the peaks in the OCT signals related to the interfaces between the layers of blood plasma and blood cells. Their positions can be calculated from the optical thicknesses of the layers, and the absorption and scattering coefficients of the media

  1. Loss of deformability of malaria-infected red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S. Majid; Feng, James

    2012-11-01

    The pathogenesis of malaria is largely due to stiffening of the infected red blood cells (RBCs). Contemporary understanding ascribes the loss of RBC deformability to a 10-fold increase in membrane stiffness caused by extra cross-linking in the spectrin network. Local measurements by micropipette aspiration, however, have reported only an increase of 3-fold in the shear modulus. We believe the discrepancy stems from the rigid parasite particles inside infected cells, and have carried out numerical simulations to demonstrate this mechanism. The cell membrane is represented by a set of discrete particles connected by linearly elastic springs. The cytosol is modeled as a homogeneous Newtonian fluid, and discretized by particles as in standard smoothed particle hydrodynamics. The malaria parasite is modeled as an aggregate of particles constrained to rigid-body motion. We simulate RBC stretching tests by optical tweezers in three dimensions. The results demonstrate that the presence of a sizeable parasite greatly reduces the ability of RBCs to deform under stretching. With the solid inclusion, the observed loss of deformability can be predicted quantitatively using the local membrane elasticity measured by micropipettes.

  2. T-cell Subsets in Peripheral Blood and Tumors of Patients Treated With Oncolytic Adenoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristian, Taipale; Ilkka, Liikanen; Juuso, Juhila; Aila, Karioja-Kallio; Minna, Oksanen; Riku, Turkki; Nina, Linder; Johan, Lundin; Ari, Ristimäki; Anna, Kanerva; Anniina, Koski; Timo, Joensuu; Markus, Vähä-Koskela; Akseli, Hemminki

    2015-01-01

    The quality of the antitumor immune response is decisive when developing new immunotherapies for cancer. Oncolytic adenoviruses cause a potent immunogenic stimulus and arming them with costimulatory molecules reshapes the immune response further. We evaluated peripheral blood T-cell subsets of 50 patients with refractory solid tumors undergoing treatment with oncolytic adenovirus. These data were compared to changes in antiviral and antitumor T cells, treatment efficacy, overall survival, and T-cell subsets in pre- and post-treatment tumor biopsies. Treatment caused a significant (P < 0.0001) shift in T-cell subsets in blood, characterized by a proportional increase of CD8+ cells, and decrease of CD4+ cells. Concomitant treatment with cyclophosphamide and temozolomide resulted in less CD4+ decrease (P = 0.041) than cyclophosphamide only. Interestingly, we saw a correlation between T-cell changes in peripheral blood and the tumor site. This correlation was positive for CD8+ and inverse for CD4+ cells. These findings give insight to the interconnections between peripheral blood and tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) populations regarding oncolytic virotherapy. In particular, our data suggest that induction of T-cell response is not sufficient for clinical response in the context of immunosuppressive tumors, and that peripheral blood T cells have a complicated and potentially misleading relationship with TILs. PMID:25655312

  3. Low-dose plasmid DNA treatment increases plasma vasopressin and regulates blood pressure in experimental endotoxemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malardo Thiago

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although plasmid DNA encoding an antigen from pathogens or tumor cells has been widely studied as vaccine, the use of plasmid vector (without insert as therapeutic agent requires further investigation. Results Here, we showed that plasmid DNA (pcDNA3 at low doses inhibits the production of IL-6 and TNF-α by lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated macrophage cell line J774. These findings led us to evaluate whether plasmid DNA could act as an anti-inflammatory agent in a Wistar rat endotoxemia model. Rats injected simultaneously with 1.5 mg/kg of LPS and 10 or 20 μg of plasmid DNA had a remarkable attenuation of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP drop at 2 hours after treatment when compared with rats injected with LPS only. The beneficial effect of the plasmid DNA on MAP was associated with decreased expression of IL-6 in liver and increased concentration of plasma vasopressin (AVP, a known vasoconstrictor that has been investigated in hemorrhagic shock management. No difference was observed in relation to nitric oxide (NO production. Conclusion Our results demonstrate for the first time that plasmid DNA vector at low doses presents anti-inflammatory property and constitutes a novel approach with therapeutic potential in inflammatory diseases.

  4. Following red blood cells in a pulmonary capillary

    CERN Document Server

    Mauroy, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    The red blood cells or erythrocytes are biconcave shaped cells and consist mostly in a membrane delimiting a cytosol with a high concentration in hemoglobin. This membrane is highly deformable and allows the cells to go through narrow passages like the capillaries which diameters can be much smaller than red blood cells one. They carry oxygen thanks to hemoglobin, a complex molecule that have very high affinity for oxygen. The capacity of erythrocytes to load and unload oxygen is thus a determinant factor in their efficacy. In this paper, we will focus on the pulmonary capillary where red blood cells capture oxygen. We propose a camera method in order to numerically study the behavior of the red blood cell along a whole capillary. Our goal is to understand how erythrocytes geometrical changes along the capillary can affect its capacity to capture oxygen. The first part of this document presents the model chosen for the red blood cells along with the numerical method used to determine and follow their shapes a...

  5. RED BLOOD CELL AND WHOLE BLOOD GLUTATHIONE REDOX STATUS IN ENDURANCE-TRAINED MEN FOLLOWING A SKI MARATHON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Unt

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes in glutathione redox ratio (GSSG·GSH-1 in red blood cells (RBCs and whole blood in well-trained men following a ski marathon. 16 male subjects (27.0 ± 4.7 yrs, 1.81 ± 0.06 m, 77.6 ± 9.6 kg, VO2max 66.2 ± 5.7 ml·kg-1·min-1 were examined before the competition (pre- COMP, after the competition (post-COMP and during an 18-hour recovery period (RECOV. There was a slight decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH in blood and in RBCs in post-COMP. During RECOV, the GSH level in blood was reduced, the GSH level in RBCs was significantly elevated (a statistically significant difference as compared to the pre-COMP level. The post-COMP GSSG·GSH-1 in full blood did not increase significantly, but its increase was statistically significant during the 18-hour recovery period. During the post-COMP and RECOV, the GSSG·GSH-1 in RBCs slightly decreased in comparison with the pre-COMP. Vitamin C concentration in serum increased in post-COMP (49% vs. pre- COMP and decreased to the baseline level during RECOV. In conclusion, our data show that acute exercise slightly increases the GSSG·GSH-1 in whole blood, while GSSG·GSH-1 in RBCs significantly decreases. Thus, exercise-related changes in the non-enzymatic components of the glutathione system (GSSG and GSH in whole blood and RBCs are not identical

  6. Force Balance and Membrane Shedding at the Red-Blood-Cell Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sens, Pierre; Gov, Nir

    2007-01-01

    During the aging of the red-blood cell, or under conditions of extreme echinocytosis, membrane is shed from the cell plasma membrane in the form of nanovesicles. We propose that this process is the result of the self-adaptation of the membrane surface area to the elastic stress imposed by the spectrin cytoskeleton, via the local buckling of membrane under increasing cytoskeleton stiffness. This model introduces the concept of force balance as a regulatory process at the cell membrane and quantitatively reproduces the rate of area loss in aging red-blood cells.

  7. IMAGING RED BLOOD CELL DYNAMICS BY QUANTITATIVE PHASE MICROSCOPY

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, Gabriel; Park, YoungKeun; Choi, Wonshik; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Michael S. Feld; Badizadegan, Kamran

    2008-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) play a crucial role in health and disease, and structural and mechanical abnormalities of these cells have been associated with important disorders such as Sickle cell disease and hereditary cytoskeletal abnormalities. Although several experimental methods exist for analysis of RBC mechanical properties, optical methods stand out as they enable collecting mechanical and dynamic data from live cells without physical contact and without the need for exogenous contrast age...

  8. Oral antibiotics increase blood neutrophil maturation and reduce bacteremia and necrotizing enterocolitis in the immediate postnatal period of preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Fuglsang, Eva; Jiang, Pingping;

    2016-01-01

    Immature immunity may predispose preterm neonates to infections and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Intravenous antibiotics are frequently given to prevent and treat sepsis, while oral antibiotics are seldom used. We hypothesized that oral antibiotics promote maturation of systemic immunity and...... delay gut bacterial colonization and thereby protect preterm neonates against both NEC and bacteremia in the immediate postnatal period. Preterm pigs were given formula and administered saline (CON) or broad-spectrum antibiotics orally (ORA) or systemically (SYS) for 5 d after birth. Temporal changes in...... blood parameters and bacterial composition in the intestine, blood and immune organs were analyzed. Newborn preterm pigs had few blood neutrophils and a high frequency of progenitor cells. Neutrophils gradually matured after preterm birth with increasing CD14 and decreasing CD172a expressions. Preterm...

  9. The in Vitro Assessment of Biochemical Factors in Hepatocyte like Cells Derived from Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A KHoramroodi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Umbilical cord blood (UCB is a source of Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSC and progenitor cells that can reconstitute the hematopoietic system in patients with malignant and nonmalignant disorders. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived from umbilical cord blood (UCB have been differentiated to some kind of cells, such as osteobblast, adipoblast and chondroblast in Vitro. This study examined the differentiation of Umbilical Cord Blood (UCB derived stem cells to functional hepatocytes. Materials & Methods: The present study was an experimental study which was carried out in the Payam-e-Noor University of Tehran in cooperation with Hamedan University of Medical Sciences in 2008. Umbilical cord blood (UCB was obtained from Fatemieh hospital (Hamadan, Iran. Stem cells were isolated from the cord blood by combining density gradient centrifugation with plastic adherence. When the isolated cells reached 80% confluence, they differentiated to hepatocyte like cells. The medium which was used was consists of DMEM and 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS supplemented with 20 ng/mL Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF, 10 ng/mL basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF and 20 ng/mL Oncostatin M (OSM.The medium was changed every 3 days and stored for Albumin (ALB, Alpha Fetoprotein (AFP, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP, and urea assay. Finally PAS stain was done to study Glycogen storage in the differentiated cell. Results: Measurement of biochemical factors in different days showed that concentration of albumin (ALB, alpha fetoprotein (AFP, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and Urea gradually increased. Also, PAS staining showed the storage of glycogen in these cells. Conclusion: Stem cell-derived from human umbilical cord blood (HUCB is a new source of cell types for cell transplantation therapy of hepatic diseases and under certain conditions these cells can differentiate into liver cells.

  10. Visualisation of blood and lymphatic vessels with increasing exposure time of the detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalchenko, V V; Kuznetsov, Yu L; Meglinski, I V

    2013-07-31

    We describe the laser speckle contrast method for simultaneous noninvasive imaging of blood and lymphatic vessels of living organisms, based on increasing detector exposure time. In contrast to standard methods of fluorescent angiography, this technique of vascular bed imaging and lymphatic and blood vessel demarcation does not employ toxic fluorescent markers. The method is particularly promising with respect to the physiology of the cardiovascular system under in vivo conditions. (laser applications in biology and medicine)

  11. Deformation of Two-Dimensional Nonuniform-Membrane Red Blood Cells Simulated by a Lattice Boltzmann Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hua-Bing; JIN Li; QIU Bing

    2008-01-01

    To study two-dimensional red blood cells deforming in a shear flow with the membrane nonuniform on the rigidity and mass, the membrane is discretized into equilength segments. The fluid inside and outside the red blood cell is simulated by the D2Q9 lattice Boltzmann model and the hydrodynamic forces exerted on the membrane from the inner and outer of the red blood cell are calculated by a stress-integration method. Through the global deviation from the curvature of uniform-membrane, we find that when the membrane is nonuniform on the rigidity, the deviation first decreases with the time increases and implies that the terminal profile of the red blood cell is static. To a red blood cell with the mass nonuniform on the membrane, the deviation becomes more large, and the mass distribution affects the profile of the two sides of the flattened red blood cell in a shear flow.

  12. Deformation of Two-Dimensional Nonuniform-Membrane Red Blood Cells Simulated by a Lattice Boltzmann Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study two-dimensional red blood cells deforming in a shear Bow with the membrane nonuniform on the rigidity and mass, the membrane is discretized into equilength segments. The fluid inside and outside the red blood cell is simulated by the D2Q9 lattice Boltzmann model and the hydrodynamic forces exerted on the membrane from the inner and outer of the red blood cell are calculated by a stress-integration method. Through the global deviation from the curvature of uniform-membrane, we find that when the membrane is nonuniform on the rigidity, the deviation first decreases with the time increases and implies that the terminal profile of the red blood cell is static. To a red blood cell with the mass nonuniform on the membrane, the deviation becomes more large, and the mass distribution affects the profile of the two sides of the flattened red blood cell in a shear flow. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  13. Technetium-99m white blood cell imaging: False-negative result in salmonella osteomyelitis associated with sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a case of sickle cell anemia associated osteomyelitis where the Tc-99m white blood cell imaging was negative, and bone imaging showed increased uptake in the region in question. The reasons for the possible false-negative image are discussed

  14. A smart core-sheath nanofiber that captures and releases red blood cells from the blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Q.; Hou, J.; Zhao, C.; Xin, Z.; Jin, J.; Li, C.; Wong, S.-C.; Yin, J.

    2016-01-01

    A smart core-sheath nanofiber for non-adherent cell capture and release is demonstrated. The nanofibers are fabricated by single-spinneret electrospinning of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), polycaprolactone (PCL) and nattokinase (NK) solution blends. The self-assembly of PNIPAAm and PCL blends during the electrospinning generates the core-sheath PCL/PNIPAAm nanofibers with PNIPAAm as the sheath. The PNIPAAm-based core-sheath nanofibers are switchable between hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity with temperature change and enhance stability in the blood. When the nanofibers come in contact with blood, the NK is released from the nanofibers to resist platelet adhesion on the nanofiber surface, facilitating the direct capture and isolation of red blood cells (RBCs) from the blood above phase-transition temperature of PNIPAAm. Meanwhile, the captured RBCs are readily released from the nanofibers with temperature stimuli in an undamaged manner. The release efficiency of up to 100% is obtained while maintaining cellular integrity and function. This work presents promising nanofibers to effectively capture non-adherent cells and release for subsequent molecular analysis and diagnosis of single cells.A smart core-sheath nanofiber for non-adherent cell capture and release is demonstrated. The nanofibers are fabricated by single-spinneret electrospinning of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), polycaprolactone (PCL) and nattokinase (NK) solution blends. The self-assembly of PNIPAAm and PCL blends during the electrospinning generates the core-sheath PCL/PNIPAAm nanofibers with PNIPAAm as the sheath. The PNIPAAm-based core-sheath nanofibers are switchable between hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity with temperature change and enhance stability in the blood. When the nanofibers come in contact with blood, the NK is released from the nanofibers to resist platelet adhesion on the nanofiber surface, facilitating the direct capture and isolation of red blood cells (RBCs) from

  15. Sex hormone drives blood stem cell reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Calvanese, Vincenzo; Lee, Lydia K.; Mikkola, Hanna K. A.

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells ensure the maintenance of tissue homeostasis throughout life by tightly regulating their self-renewal and differentiation. In a recent study published in Nature, Nakada et al, 2014 unveil an unexpected endocrine mechanism that regulates hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal.

  16. Prolonged Morphine Exposure Induces Increased Firm Adhesion in an in Vitro Model of the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strazza, Marianne; Pirrone, Vanessa; Wigdahl, Brian; Dampier, Will; Lin, Wei; Feng, Rui; Maubert, Monique E; Weksler, Babette; Romero, Ignacio A; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Nonnemacher, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been defined as a critically important protective barrier that is involved in providing essential biologic, physiologic, and immunologic separation between the central nervous system (CNS) and the periphery. Insults to the BBB can cause overall barrier damage or deregulation of the careful homeostasis maintained between the periphery and the CNS. These insults can, therefore, yield numerous phenotypes including increased overall permeability, interendothelial gap formation, alterations in cytokine and chemokine secretion, and accelerated cellular passage. The current studies expose the human brain microvascular endothelial cell line, hCMEC/D3, to prolonged morphine exposure and aim to uncover the mechanisms underlying alterations in barrier function in vitro. These studies show alterations in the mRNA and protein levels of the cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule that correlate with an increased firm adhesion of the CD3⁺ subpopulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Overall, these studies suggest that prolonged morphine exposure may result in increased cell migration into the CNS, which may accelerate pathological processes in many diseases that involve the BBB. PMID:27294916

  17. Spatial distributions of red blood cells significantly alter local haemodynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Sherwood

    Full Text Available Although bulk changes in red blood cell concentration between vessels have been well characterised, local distributions are generally overlooked. Red blood cells aggregate, deform and migrate within vessels, forming heterogeneous distributions which have considerable effect on local haemodynamics. The present study reports data on the local distribution of human red blood cells in a sequentially bifurcating microchannel, representing the branching geometry of the microvasculature. Imaging methodologies with simple extrapolations are used to infer three dimensional, time-averaged velocity and haematocrit distributions under a range of flow conditions. Strong correlation between the bluntness of the velocity and haematocrit profiles in the parent branch of the geometry is observed and red blood cell aggregation has a notable effect on the observed trends. The two branches of the first bifurcation show similar characteristics in terms of the shapes of the profiles and the extent of plasma skimming, despite the difference in geometric configuration. In the second bifurcation, considerable asymmetry between the branches in the plasma skimming relationship is observed, and elucidated by considering individual haematocrit profiles. The results of the study highlight the importance of considering local haematocrit distributions in the analysis of blood flow and could lead to more accurate computational models of blood flow in microvascular networks. The experimental approaches developed in this work provide a foundation for further examining the characteristics of microhaemodynamics.

  18. On-chip Extraction of Intracellular Molecules in White Blood Cells from Whole Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jongchan; Hyun, Ji-Chul; Yang, Sung

    2015-10-01

    The extraction of virological markers in white blood cells (WBCs) from whole blood—without reagents, electricity, or instruments—is the most important first step for diagnostic testing of infectious diseases in resource-limited settings. Here we develop an integrated microfluidic chip that continuously separates WBCs from whole blood and mechanically ruptures them to extract intracellular proteins and nucleic acids for diagnostic purposes. The integrated chip is assembled with a device that separates WBCs by using differences in blood cell size and a mechanical cell lysis chip with ultra-sharp nanoblade arrays. We demonstrate the performance of the integrated device by quantitatively analyzing the levels of extracted intracellular proteins and genomic DNAs. Our results show that compared with a conventional method, the device yields 120% higher level of total protein amount and similar levels of gDNA (90.3%). To demonstrate its clinical application to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnostics, the developed chip was used to process blood samples containing HIV-infected cells. Based on PCR results, we demonstrate that the chip can extract HIV proviral DNAs from infected cells with a population as low as 102/μl. These findings suggest that the developed device has potential application in point-of-care testing for infectious diseases in developing countries.

  19. Thiopurine methyltransferase activity in red blood cells of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Linda Benjamin; Salavaggione, Oreste E; Szumlanski, Carol L; Miller, Jackie L; Weinshilboum, Richard M; Trepanier, Lauren

    2004-01-01

    Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) is an important enzyme in the metabolism of thiopurine medications such as azathioprine. In humans, activity varies widely among individuals, primarily because of genetic polymorphisms. Low TPMT activity increases the risk of myelosuppression from azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine, whereas high TPMT activity is associated with poor drug efficacy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dogs also show a wide range of TPMT activity. Heparinized blood samples were obtained from 177 dogs associated with a veterinary teaching hospital. Red blood cell (RBC) TPMT activity was measured by means of a modification of a radiochemical method as established for use in people. TPMT activity varied across a 9-fold range (7.9-71.8 U of RBC per milliliter; median, 21.7). Variation in TPMT activity was not associated with age, sex, or neutering status. Giant Schnauzers had much lower TPMT activity (7.9-20 U of RBC per milliliter; median, 13.1; P dogs could affect thiopurine drug toxicity and efficacy in canine patients. PMID:15058773

  20. A role for activated endothelial cells in red blood cell clearance: implications for vasopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fens, Marcel H A M; van Wijk, Richard; Andringa, Grietje;

    2012-01-01

    Background Phosphatidylserine exposure by red blood cells is acknowledged as a signal that initiates phagocytic removal of the cells from the circulation. Several disorders and conditions are known to induce phosphatidylserine exposure. Removal of phosphatidylserine-exposing red blood cells gener...

  1. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are most commonly used in the treatment of cancers like leukemia and lymphoma to restore stem cells ... use of BMT and PBSCT, see http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/fa... If you are interested in ...

  2. Variability of gene expression profiles in human blood and lymphoblastoid cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Jennifer M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Readily accessible samples such as peripheral blood or cell lines are increasingly being used in large cohorts to characterise gene expression differences between a patient group and healthy controls. However, cell and RNA isolation procedures and the variety of cell types that make up whole blood can affect gene expression measurements. We therefore systematically investigated global gene expression profiles in peripheral blood from six individuals collected during two visits by comparing five of the following cell and RNA isolation methods: whole blood (PAXgene, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs, CD19 and CD20 specific B-cell subsets. Results Gene expression measurements were clearly discriminated by isolation method although the reproducibility was high for all methods (range ρ = 0.90-1.00. The PAXgene samples showed a decrease in the number of expressed genes (P -16 with higher variability (P -16 compared to the other methods. Differentially expressed probes between PAXgene and PBMCs were correlated with the number of monocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils or erythrocytes. The correlations (ρ = 0.83; ρ = 0.79 of the expression levels of detected probes between LCLs and B-cell subsets were much lower compared to the two B-cell isolation methods (ρ = 0.98. Gene ontology analysis of detected genes showed that genes involved in inflammatory responses are enriched in B-cells CD19 and CD20 whereas genes involved in alcohol metabolic process and the cell cycle were enriched in LCLs. Conclusion Gene expression profiles in blood-based samples are strongly dependent on the predominant constituent cell type(s and RNA isolation method. It is crucial to understand the differences and variability of gene expression measurements between cell and RNA isolation procedures, and their relevance to disease processes, before application in large clinical studies.

  3. Transfusion management of patients with red blood cell antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujandrić Nevenka B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Red blood cell antibodies may cause a positive result of pre-transfusion blood compatibility testing (crossmatch test. It can be a problem to provide suitable blood units for patients with clinically significant antibodies to high-frequency antigens as well as for those with multiple alloantibody specificities. This study was aimed at identifying transfused patients in the population of South-Backa who had developed clinically significant red blood cell alloantibodies. Material and methods. We analyzed the records of crossmatch results and antibody screening performed at the Blood Transfusion Institute of Vojvodina during 2012. Results. Antibodies were found in 103 patients: A 63 patients with single antibodies: 1 16 with antibodies of unknown specificity (3 autoantibodies, 13 alloantibodies; 2 39 with clinically significant antibodies (23 from Rh system (2 anti-C, 2 anti-D, 12 anti-E, 7 anti-c, 4 anti-K, 3 anti-Fya, 7 anti-Jka, 2 anti-S; 3 8 with usually not significant antibodies (6 anti-M, 1 anti-A1, 1 anti- Cw; B 40 patients developed multiple antibodies: 1 all patients had at least one clinically significant antibody from various blood group system (44 Rh, 13 Kell, 7 Kidd, 7 MNSs (S, s; 2 3 patients had usually not significant antibodies (1 Lewis, 2 Lutheran; 3 3 patients occasionally had clinically significant antibody (3 anti- Yta; 4 3 patients had antibodies of unknown specificity (2 autoantibodies, 1alloantibody. Antibodies detected in the majority of patients (65-63.1% had a specificity of Rh and/or the Kell system. Conclusions. The main goal of pre-transfusion blood compatibility testing is to detect clinically significant antibodies. The provision of antigen negative blood units for those patients is a special challenge for blood establishments. Database with a sufficient number of typed blood donors can help to resolve this problem.

  4. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets....... The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg......, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver funtion were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended...

  5. Peripheral blood derived cells and angiogenesis in cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Post, S

    2009-01-01

    Patients suffering from myocardial infarction (MI), atherosclerosis and Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia type 1 (HHT-1) all have diseased and dysfunctional blood vessels. Cardiovascular repair in these diseases occurs not only locally, but also peripheral blood (progenitor) cells and cytokines/growth factors positively contribute to repair of malfunctioning tissue. In this thesis several aspects of cardiovascular repair have been explored. First, we show that in MI patients relatively la...

  6. In-vitro red blood cell partitioning of doxycycline

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, P.V.; Badgujar, P.C.; Gatne, M. M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In-vitro red blood cell (RBC) partitioning of doxycycline was studied to determine whether doxycycline penetrates RBC and its concentration was assayed keeping in view its high lipophilicity. Materials and Methods: Standardization of doxycycline was performed in whole blood and plasma of cattle by microbiological assay using Bacillus subtillis ATCC 6633 as indicator organizm. Actual concentration of the drug was obtained by comparing zone inhibition with standard graph and the exte...

  7. Bacterial glycosidases for the production of universal red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Qiyong P; Sulzenbacher, Gerlind; Yuan, Huaiping;

    2007-01-01

    Enzymatic removal of blood group ABO antigens to develop universal red blood cells (RBCs) was a pioneering vision originally proposed more than 25 years ago. Although the feasibility of this approach was demonstrated in clinical trials for group B RBCs, a major obstacle in translating this...... alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase family reveals an unusual catalytic mechanism involving NAD+. The enzymatic conversion processes we describe hold promise for achieving the goal of producing universal RBCs, which would improve the blood supply while enhancing the safety of clinical transfusions....

  8. Physical exercise decreases the number of fetal cells in maternal blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlütter, Jacob Mørup; Kirkegaard, Ida; Christensen, Connie Britta;

    Physical exercise decreases the number of fetal cells in maternal blood J. M. Schlütter1, I. Kirkegaard1, B. Christensen2, S. Kølvraa3, N. Uldbjerg1 1. Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Aarhus N, Denmark. 2. FCMB ApS, Vejle, Denmark. 3. Department...... and 10-15 % have no cells in 30 mL, which is a challenge for the implementation of the method for prenatal diagnostic purposes. Considering the assumed fragility of circulating fetal cells we wondered if physical exercise prior to blood sampling might influence the number of fcmb. The objective...... in maternal blood. The explanation might be increased clearance of fcmb from the circulation during exercise. If analysis of fcmb is introduced as a clinical parameter pregnant women should avoid extensive physical activity 24 hours prior to blood sampling....

  9. SMIM1 underlies the Vel blood group and influences red blood cell traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvejic, Ana; Haer-Wigman, Lonneke; Stephens, Jonathan C;

    2013-01-01

    The blood group Vel was discovered 60 years ago, but the underlying gene is unknown. Individuals negative for the Vel antigen are rare and are required for the safe transfusion of patients with antibodies to Vel. To identify the responsible gene, we sequenced the exomes of five individuals negative...... and expression of the Vel antigen on SMIM1-transfected cells confirm SMIM1 as the gene underlying the Vel blood group. An expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL), the common SNP rs1175550 contributes to variable expression of the Vel antigen (P = 0.003) and influences the mean hemoglobin concentration of red...... blood cells (RBCs; P = 8.6 × 10(-15)). In vivo, zebrafish with smim1 knockdown showed a mild reduction in the number of RBCs, identifying SMIM1 as a new regulator of RBC formation. Our findings are of immediate relevance, as the homozygous presence of the deletion allows the unequivocal identification...

  10. Separation of cancer cells from white blood cells by pinched flow fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant; Ashley, Neil; Koprowska, Kamila; Mir, Kalim U.; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Bilenberg, Brian; Bodmer, Walter; Kristensen, Anders; Marie, Rodolphe

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the microfluidic size-separation technique pinched flow fractionation (PFF) is used to separate cancer cells from white blood cells (WBCs). The cells are separated at efficiencies above 90% for both cell types. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are found in the blood of cancer patients...... challenged by the size overlap between cancer cells and the 106 times more abundant WBCs. The size overlap prevents high efficiency separation, however we demonstrate that cell deformability can be exploited in PFF devices to gain higher efficiencies than expected from the size distribution of the cells....... and can form new tumors. CTCs are rare cells in blood, but they are important for the understanding of metastasis. There is therefore a high interest in developing a method for the enrichment of CTCs from blood samples, which also enables further analysis of the separated cells. The separation is...

  11. Effect of Irradiation on Microparticles in Red Blood Cell Concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chi Hyun; Yun, Seung Gyu; Koh, Young Eun; Lim, Chae Seung

    2016-07-01

    Changes in microparticles (MP) from red blood cell (RBC) concentrates in the context of irradiation have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate how irradiation affects the number of MPs within transfusion components. Twenty RBC concentrates, within 14 days after donation, were exposed to gamma rays (dose rate: 25 cGy) from a cesium-137 irradiator. Flow cytometry was used to determine the numbers of MPs derived from RBC concentrates before and 24 hr after irradiation. The mean number of MPs (±standard deviation) in RBC concentrates was 21.9×10⁹/L (±22.7×10⁹/L), and the total number of MPs ranged from 2.6×10⁹/L to 96.9×10⁹/L. The mean number of MPs increased to 22.6×10⁹/L (±31.6×10⁹/L) after irradiation. Before irradiation, the CD41-positive and CD235a-positive MPs constituted 9.5% (1.0×10⁹/L) and 2.2% (263×10⁶/L) of total MPs, respectively. After irradiation, CD41-positive MPs increased to 12.1% (1.5×10⁹/L) (P=0.014), but the CD235a-positive MPs decreased to 2.0% (214×10⁶/L) of the total MPs (P=0.369). Irradiation increases the number of CD41-positive MPs within RBC concentrates, suggesting the irradiation of RBC concentrates could be associated with thrombotic risk of circulating blood through the numerical change. PMID:27139610

  12. The blood pressure-induced diameter response of retinal arterioles decreases with increasing diabetic maculopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz; Jeppesen, Peter; Knudsen, Søren Tang;

    2006-01-01

    were measured using the Retinal Vessel Analyzer (RVA, Imedos, Germany) before, during, and after an increase in the blood pressure induced by isometric exercise. Additionally, the retinal thickness was measured using optical coherence tomography scanning. RESULTS: The arterioles contracted during......BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to compare the diameter response of retinal arterioles and retinal thickness in patients with different stages of diabetic maculopathy during an increase in the arterial blood pressure. METHODS: Four groups each consisting of 19 individuals were studied. Group A...

  13. Aggregation of Red Blood Cells: From Rouleaux to Clot Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, C.; Steffen, P.; Svetina, S

    2013-01-01

    Red blood cells are known to form aggregates in the form of rouleaux. This aggregation process is believed to be reversible, but there is still no full understanding on the binding mechanism. There are at least two competing models, based either on bridging or on depletion. We review recent experimental results on the single cell level and theoretical analyses of the depletion model and of the influence of the cell shape on the binding strength. Another important aggregation mechanism is caus...

  14. The proliferative effects of asbestos-exposed peripheral blood mononuclear cells on mesothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAKI, YUHO; NISHIMURA, YASUMITSU; TOYOOKA, SHINICHI; SOH, JUNICHI; TSUKUDA, KAZUNORI; SHIEN, KAZUHIKO; FURUKAWA, MASASHI; MURAOKA, TAKAYUKI; UENO, TSUYOSHI; TANAKA, NORIMITSU; YAMAMOTO, HIROMASA; ASANO, HIROAKI; MAEDA, MEGUMI; KUMAGAI-TAKEI, NAOKO; LEE, SUNI; MATSUZAKI, HIDENORI; OTSUKI, TAKEMI; MIYOSHI, SHINICHIRO

    2016-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is thought to arise from the direct effect of asbestos on mesothelial cells. However, MM takes a long time to develop following exposure to asbestos, which suggests that the effects of asbestos are complex. The present study examined the effects of asbestos exposure on the cell growth of MeT-5A human mesothelial cells via cytokines produced by immune cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with antibodies against cluster of differentiation (CD)3 and CD28 upon exposure to the asbestos chrysotile A (CA) or crocidolite (CR); the growth of MeT-5A cells in media supplemented with PBMC culture supernatants was subsequently examined. MeT-5A cells exhibited an increase in proliferation when grown in supernatant from the 7-day PBMC culture exposed to CA or CR. Analysis of cytokine production demonstrated increased levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-3, IL-5, IL-13 and IL-17A in supernatants. Individual administration of these cytokines, excluding G-CSF and GM-CSF, led to an increase in cell growth of MeT-5A, whereas this effect was not observed following the combined administration of these cytokines. The results indicate that cytokines secreted by immune cells upon exposure to asbestos cause an increase in the growth activity of mesothelial cells, suggesting that alterations in the production of cytokines by immune cells may contribute to tumorigenesis in individuals exposed to asbestos.

  15. Absence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells priming in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos B.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the proinflammatory environment occurring in dialytic patients, cytokine overproduction has been implicated in hemodialysis co-morbidity. However, there are discrepancies among the various studies that have analyzed TNF-alpha synthesis and the presence of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC priming in this clinical setting. We measured bioactive cytokine by the L929 cell bioassay, and evaluated PBMC TNF-alpha production by 32 hemodialysis patients (HP and 51 controls. No difference in TNF-alpha secretion was observed between controls and HP (859 ± 141 vs 697 ± 130 U/10(6 cells. Lipopolysaccharide (5 µg/ml did not induce any further TNF-alpha release, showing no PBMC priming. Paraformaldehyde-fixed HP PBMC were not cytotoxic to L929 cells, suggesting the absence of membrane-anchored TNF-alpha. Cycloheximide inhibited PBMC cytotoxicity in HP and controls, indicating lack of a PBMC TNF-alpha pool, and dependence on de novo cytokine synthesis. Actinomycin D reduced TNF-alpha production in HP, but had no effect on controls. Therefore, our data imply that TNF-alpha production is an intrinsic activity of normal PBMC and is not altered in HP. Moreover, TNF-alpha is a product of de novo synthesis by PBMC and is not constitutively expressed on HP cell membranes. The effect of actinomycin D suggests a putative tighter control of TNF-alpha mRNA turnover in HP. This increased dependence on TNF-alpha RNA transcription in HP may reflect an adaptive response to hemodialysis stimuli.

  16. Counting White Blood Cells from a Blood Smear Using Fourier Ptychographic Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Jaebum; Ou, Xiaoze; Kulkarni, Rajan P.; Yang, Changhuei

    2015-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count is a valuable metric for assisting with diagnosis or prognosis of various diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, or infection. Counting WBCs can be done either manually or automatically. Automatic methods are capable of counting a large number of cells to give a statistically more accurate reading of the WBC count of a sample, but the specialized equipment tends to be expensive. Manual methods are inexpensive since they only involve a convention...

  17. Raman spectroscopic studies of optically trapped red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman spectroscopic studies were performed on optically trapped red blood cells (RBCs) collected from healthy volunteers and patients suffering from malaria (Plasmodium vivax infection) using near infrared (785 nm) laser source. The results show significant alteration in the spectra averaged over ∼ 50 non-parasitized RBCs per sample. As compared to RBCs from healthy donors, in cells collected from malaria patients, a significant decrease in the intensity of the low spin (oxygenated-haemoglobin) marker Raman band at 1223 cm-1 (υ13 or υ42) along with a concomitant increase in the high spin (deoxygenated-haemoglobin) marker bands at 1210 cm-1 (υ5 + υ18) and 1546 cm-1 (υ11) was observed. The changes primarily suggest a reduced haemoglobin-oxygen affinity for the non-parasitized red cells in malaria patients. The possible causes include up regulation of intra-erythrocytic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and/or ineffective erythropoiesis resulted from the disease. During the above study we also observed that significant photo-damage may results to the intracellular haemoglobin (Hb) if higher laser power is used. For a laser power above ∼ 5 mW the observed increase in intensity of the Raman bands at 975 cm-1 (υ46), 1244 cm-1 (υ42) and 1366 cm-1 (υ4) with increasing exposure time suggests photo-denaturation of Hb and the concomitant decrease in intensity of the Raman band at 1544 cm-1 (υ11) suggests photo induced methaemoglobin formation. The photo damage of intracellular haemoglobin by the above processes was also observed to result in intracellular heme aggregation. (author)

  18. Depletion induced clustering of red blood cells in microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Christian; Brust, Mathias; Podgorski, Thomas; Coupier, Gwennou

    2012-11-01

    The flow properties of blood are determined by the physical properties of its main constituents, the red blood cells (RBC's). At low shear rates RBC's form aggregates, so called rouleaux. Higher shear rates can break them up and the viscosity of blood shows a shear thinning behavior. The physical origin of the rouleaux formation is not yet fully resolved and there are two competing models available. One predicts that the adhesion is induced by bridging of the plasma (macromolecular) proteins in-between two RBC's. The other is based on the depletion effect and thus predicts the absence of macromolecules in-between the cells of a rouleaux. Recent single cell force measurements by use of an AFM support strongly the depletion model. By varying the concentration of Dextran at different molecular weights we can control the adhesions strength. Measurements at low hematocrit in a microfluidic channel show that the number of size of clusters is determined by the depletion induced adhesion strength.

  19. False positive paediatric labelled white blood cell study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An eight-month-old female presented for a technetium labelled white blood cell study (LWBC) to exclude an intra-abdominal abscess. Born premature, the child had surgery to repair a perforated bowel and had repeated presentations with diarrhoea, fevers, a tender right upper quadrant and a raised leucocyte count. Multiple imaging modalities failed to demonstrate recurrent bowel perforation, ischaemia or an intra-abdominal mass. A LWBC study was performed with whole body imaging at 1 and 5 hours post re-injection of the radiolabelled blood. No abnormal uptake was visualised in the abdomen but abnormal white cell accumulation was noted in the right hind foot and the length of the right lower leg. This activity appeared to lie along the course of the right tibia. Plain X-ray demonstrated no evidence of tibial osteomyelitis. Concern that the LWBC may be falsely negative in a patient on antibiotics, a gallium scan was immediately performed to re-examine the abdomen. The whole body gallium images demonstrated normal physiological uptake in the abdomen and no evidence of infection in the right leg. The patient had no clinical features to support right leg pathology. The abnormal LWBC localisation in the right lower leg/foot was therefore falsely positive. The most likely explanation is increased activation of the autologous LWBC by 'rough' handling during difficult venesection and re-injection through small veins and needles/cannulas. The slow flow through the veins draining the foot injection site would contribute to margination in these vessel walls. This is a potential cause for false positive LWBC studies- with significant implications for patient care. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  20. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Patient-Centered Approach - Duration: 4:12. NCIcancertopics 3,087 views 4:12 The Truth About Cord ... 19 Stem cell donation: Step by step - Duration: 3:35. hemaquebec1998 1,127 views 3:35 Two ...

  1. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 13:41. BOOKparty! 1,367 views 13:41 Bone marrow transplantation, donation procedure (HD, ENG subtitles) - Duration: 8:21. Marcin Ostajewski 155,257 views 8:21 Pain Control: Support for People with Cancer - Duration: 11:58. ... Bone Marrow/Stem Cell Transplant - Duration: 7:24. tannermom80 99,818 views 7: ...

  2. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show ... 41. Annabelle Monks 3,487 views 4:41 Science Friction: Stem Cell Research - Duration: 54:44. Irishstemcell ...

  3. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show ... views 4:25 Susan Solomon: The promise of research with stem cells - Duration: 14:59. TED 55, ...

  4. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... playlist. Sign in Share More Report Need to report the video? Sign in to report inappropriate content. Sign in Transcript 6,983 views ... Stem Cell Therapy Injections - Duration: 6:18. Caring Medical Regenerative Medicine Clinics 234,106 views 6:18 ...

  5. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... views 4:25 Susan Solomon: The promise of research with stem cells - Duration: 14:59. TED 54, ... 1:04 Pain Control: Support for People with Cancer - Duration: 11:58. NCIcancertopics 1,987 views 11: ...

  6. Ageing is associated with a decline in peripheral blood CD56bright NK cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak Laxman

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural killer (NK cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes that lack CD3 and express variable levels of CD16, CD56 and CD57. In recent years NK cells have been categorised into two major groups based on the level of CD56 expression. This phenotypic classification correlates with functional activity as CD56bright NK cells are the major cytokine producing subset whereas CD56dim NK cells exhibit greater cytotoxic activity. Previous studies have revealed a reduction in total NK cell numbers in association with ageing and this study sought to determine the potential influence of ageing on the number of NK cell subsets within peripheral blood. Results The number of NK (CD56+CD3- cells within peripheral blood did not change with increasing age. The number of CD56dim NK cells also remained stable with ageing. In contrast the absolute number of CD56bright NK cells within peripheral blood declined by 48% with ageing from a mean of 15.6/μl in individuals aged 20–40 years to 8.1/μl in those aged 60+ years (p = 0.0004. Conclusion The number of CD56bright NK cells within peripheral blood declines with age. As this population plays a central role in cytokine secretion during the innate immune response this decline may contribute to impaired immune regulation in elderly individuals

  7. Red blood cell-derived microparticles: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, Maxwell; Porter, John B

    2016-07-01

    The red blood cell (RBC) is historically the original parent cell of microparticles (MPs). In this overview, we describe the discovery and the early history of red cell-derived microparticles (RMPs) and present an overview of the evolution of RMP. We report the formation, characteristics, effects of RMP and factors which may affect RMP evaluation. The review examines RMP derived from both normal and pathologic RBC. The pathologic RBC studies include sickle cell anemia (SCA), sickle cell trait (STr), thalassemia intermedia (TI), hereditary spherocytosis (HS), hereditary elliptocytosis (HE), hereditary stomatocytosis (HSt) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD). PMID:27282583

  8. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauson Anne-Helene

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets. The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver function were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended to increase (P = 0.07 with increasing dietary BPM content. It was concluded that up to 50% of the nitrogen could be derived from BPM without affecting metabolic function, as reflected in the measured blood parameters.

  9. State of the science of blood cell labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood cell labeling can be considered a science in as far as it is based on precise knowledge and can be readily reproduced. This benchmark criterion is applied to all current cell labeling modalities and their relative merits and deficiencies are discussed. Mechanisms are given where they are known as well as labeling yields, label stability, and cell functionality. The focus is on the methodology and its suitability to the clinical setting rather than on clinical applications per se. Clinical results are cited only as proof of efficacy of the various methods. The emphasis is on technetium as the cell label, although comparisons are made between technetium and indium, and all blood cells are covered. 52 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  10. Ethanol suppression of peripheral blood mononuclear cell trafficking across brain endothelial cells in immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola C Hudson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lola C Hudson1, Brenda A Colby1, Rick B Meeker21Department of Molecular Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA; 2Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: Earlier studies suggested that the combination of alcohol use and immunodeficiency virus infection resulted in more severe neurologic disease than either condition individually. These deleterious interactions could be due to increased immune cell and virus trafficking or may result from interactions between ethanol and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-associated toxicity within the brain. To determine the extent to which increased trafficking played a role, we examined the effect of ethanol on the migration of different peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMCs subsets across a brain endothelial cell monolayer. We utilized combinations of feline brain endothelial cells with astrocytes, and/or microglia with either acute exposure to 0.08 g/dL ethanol, a combination of ethanol and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, or FIV alone. Adherence of PBMCs to endothelium was increased in all combinations of cells with the addition of ethanol. Despite increased PBMC adhesion with ethanol treatment, transmigration of B cells, monocytes, CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells was not increased and was actually decreased in the presence of astrocytes. Expression of three common adhesion molecules, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1, ICAM2, and vascular cell adhesion molecule, was unchanged or slightly decreased by ethanol. This indicated that although adherence is increased by ethanol it is not due to an increased expression of adhesion molecules. RANTES, MIP1α, MIP1β, and MCP-1 mRNA expression was also studied in brain endothelial cells, astrocytes and microglia by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Ethanol treatment of astrocytes resulted in modest changes of

  11. Labelling of red blood cells with 99m pertechnetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a method for labelling red blood cells with 99mTc in vitro, using electrolytically generated stannous ions as the reducing agent for 99mTc-pertechnetate. A labelling of 95% was found. A method for the in vivo labelling of red blood cells is also reported. This involves an injection of a stanno-DTPA-complex followed 20 minutes later by a 99mTc-pertechnetate solution scintillation camera images show more background activity when the in vivo method of labelling is used

  12. The DNA methylome of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yingrui; Zhu, Jingde; Tian, Geng;

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in biological processes in human health and disease. Recent technological advances allow unbiased whole-genome DNA methylation (methylome) analysis to be carried out on human cells. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing at 24.7-fold coverage (12.3-fold per...... strand), we report a comprehensive (92.62%) methylome and analysis of the unique sequences in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the same Asian individual whose genome was deciphered in the YH project. PBMC constitute an important source for clinical blood tests world-wide. We found...

  13. Detection of hepatitis B virus DNA in mononuclear blood cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Pontisso, P; Poon, M C; Tiollais, P.; Brechot, C

    1984-01-01

    The Southern transfer hybridisation technique was used to test mononuclear blood cells for hepatitis B virus DNA. Viral DNA sequences were detected in mononuclear cells of 10 out of 16 patients with hepatitis B virus infection and in none of 21 normal controls. Blood contamination was excluded by the absence of hepatitis B virus DNA in the corresponding serum samples in all cases. Free monomeric hepatitis B virus DNA was found in three patients positive for hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg) and on...

  14. Red blood cell glutathione peroxidase activity in female nulligravid and pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Guglielmo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The alterations of the glutathione peroxidase enzyme complex system occur in physiological conditions such as aging and oxidative stress consequent to strenuous exercise. Methods Authors optimize the spectrophotometric method to measure glutathione peroxidase activity in rat red blood cell membranes. Results The optimization, when applied to age paired rats, both nulligravid and pregnant, shows that pregnancy induces, at seventeen d of pregnancy, an increase of both reactive oxygen substance concentration in red blood cells and membrane glutathione peroxidase activity. Conclusion The glutathione peroxidase increase in erythrocyte membranes is induced by systemic oxidative stress long lasting rat pregnancy.

  15. Blood cells and endothelial barrier function

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Stephen F.; Granger, D Neil

    2015-01-01

    The barrier properties of endothelial cells are critical for the maintenance of water and protein balance between the intravascular and extravascular compartments. An impairment of endothelial barrier function has been implicated in the genesis and/or progression of a variety of pathological conditions, including pulmonary edema, ischemic stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, angioedema, sepsis and cancer. The altered barrier function in these conditions is often linked to the release of solub...

  16. Nanostructured Substrates for Capturing Circulating Tumor Cells in Whole Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hsian-Rong

    2009-03-01

    Over the past decade, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has become an emerging ``biomarker'' for detecting early-stage cancer metastasis, predicting patient prognosis, as well as monitoring disease progression and therapeutic outcomes. However, isolation of CTCs has been technically challenging due to the extremely low abundance (a few to hundreds per ml) of CTCs among a high number of hematologic cells (109 per mL) in the blood. Our joint research team at UCLA has developed a new cell capture technology for quantification of CTCs in whole blood samples. Similar to most of the existing approaches, epithelial cell adhesion molecule antibody (anti-EpCAM) was grafted onto the surfaces to distinguish CTCs from the surrounding hematologic cells. The uniqueness of our technology is the use of nanostructured surfaces, which facilitates local topographical interactions between CTCs and substrates at the very first cell/substrate contacting time point. We demonstrated the ability of these nanostructured substrates to capture CTCs in whole blood samples with significantly improved efficiency and selectivity. The successful demonstration of this cell capture technology using brain, breast and prostate cancer cell lines encouraged us to test this approach in clinical setting. We have been able to bond our first validation study with a commercialized technology based on the use of immunomagnetic nanoparticles. A group of clinically well-characterized prostate cancer patients at UCLA hospital have been recruited and tested in parallel by these two technologies.

  17. Face cooling with mist water increases cerebral blood flow during exercise: Effect of changes in facial skin blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShigehikoOgoh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Facial cooling (FC increases cerebral blood flow (CBF at rest and during exercise; however, the mechanism of this response remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to test our hypothesis that FC causes facial vasoconstriction that diverts skin blood flow (SkBFface towards the middle cerebral artery (MCA Vmean at rest and to a greater extent during exercise. Nine healthy young subjects (20 ± 2 yrs. underwent 3 minutes of FC by fanning and spraying the face with a mist of cold water (~4˚C at rest and during steady-state exercise (heart rate of 120 bpm. We focused on the difference between the averaged data acquired from 1 min immediately before FC and last 1 min of FC. SkBFface, MCA Vmean and MAP were higher during exercise than at rest. As hypothesized, FC decreased SkBFface at rest (-32 ± 4 % and to a greater extent during exercise (-64 ± 10%, P=0.012. Although MCA Vmean was increased by FC (Rest, +1.4 ± 0.5 cm/s; Exercise, +1.4 ± 0.6 cm/s, the amount of the FC-evoked changes in MCA Vmean at rest and during exercise differed among subjects. In addition, changes in MCA Vmean with FC did not correlate with concomitant changes in SkBFface (r=0.095, P=0.709. MAP was also increased by FC (Rest, +6.2 ± 1.4 mmHg; Exercise, +4.2 ± 1.2 mmHg. These findings suggest that the FC induced increase in CBF during exercise could not be explained only by change in SkBFface.

  18. Influence of Red Blood Cells on Nanoparticle Targeted Delivery in Microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jifu; Thomas, Antony; Liu, Yaling

    2011-12-22

    Multifunctional nanomedicine holds considerable promise as the next generation of medicine that allows for targeted therapy with minimal toxicity. Most current studies on Nanoparticle (NP) drug delivery consider a Newtonian fluid with suspending NPs. However, blood is a complex biological fluid composed of deformable cells, proteins, platelets, and plasma. For blood flow in capillaries, arterioles and venules, the particulate nature of the blood needs to be considered in the delivery process. The existence of the cell-free-layer and NP-cell interaction will largely influence both the dispersion and binding rates, thus impact targeted delivery efficacy. In this paper, a particle-cell hybrid model is developed to model NP transport, dispersion, and binding dynamics in blood suspension. The motion and deformation of red blood cells is captured through the Immersed Finite Element Method. The motion and adhesion of individual NPs are tracked through Brownian adhesion dynamics. A mapping algorithm and an interaction potential function are introduced to consider the cell-particle collision. NP dispersion and binding rates are derived from the developed model under various rheology conditions. The influence of red blood cells, vascular flow rate, and particle size on NP distribution and delivery efficacy is characterized. A non-uniform NP distribution profile with higher particle concentration near the vessel wall is observed. Such distribution leads to over 50% higher particle binding rate compared to the case without RBC considered. The tumbling motion of RBCs in the core region of the capillary is found to enhance NP dispersion, with dispersion rate increases as shear rate increases. Results from this study contribute to the fundamental understanding and knowledge on how the particulate nature of blood influences NP delivery, which will provide mechanistic insights on the nanomedicine design for targeted drug delivery applications. PMID:22375153

  19. Red blood cell transfusion in preterm neonates: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirico G

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaetano ChiricoNeonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Children Hospital, Spedali Civili, Brescia, ItalyAbstract: Preterm neonates, especially very low birth weight infants, remain a category of patients with high transfusion needs; about 90% of those with <1,000 g birth weight may be transfused several times during their hospital stay. However, neonatal red blood cells (RBC transfusion is not without risks. In addition to well-known adverse events, several severe side effects have been observed unique to preterm infants, such as transfusion-related acute gut injury, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increased mortality risk. It is therefore important to reduce the frequency of RBC transfusion in critically ill neonates, by delayed clamping or milking the umbilical cord, using residual cord blood for initial laboratory investigations, reducing phlebotomy losses, determining transfusion guidelines, and ensuring the most appropriate nutrition, with the optimal supplementation of iron, folic acid, and vitamins. Ideally, RBC transfusion should be tailored to the individual requirements of the single infant. However, many controversies still remain, and the decision on whether to transfuse or not is often made on an empirical basis. Recently, a few clinical trials have been performed with the aim to compare the risk/benefit ratio of restrictive versus liberal transfusion criteria. No significant differences in short-term outcomes were observed, suggesting that the restrictive criteria may reduce the need for transfusion and the related side effects. Neurodevelopmental long-term outcome seemed more favorable in the liberal group at first evaluation, especially for boys, and significantly better in the restrictive group at a later clinical investigation. Magnetic resonance imaging scans, performed at an average age of 12 years, showed that intracranial volume was substantially smaller in the liberal group compared with controls. When sex effects

  20. Acute attenuation of glycocalyx barrier properties increases coronary blood volume independently of coronary flow reserve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Brands; J.A.E. Spaan; B.M. van den Berg; H. Vink; J.W.G.E. VanTeeffelen

    2010-01-01

    Brands J, Spaan JA, Van den Berg BM, Vink H, VanTeeffelen JW. Acute attenuation of glycocalyx barrier properties increases coronary blood volume independently of coronary flow reserve. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 298: H515-H523, 2010. First published November 25, 2009; doi:10.1152/ajpheart.01306

  1. Increased blood pressure can reduce fatigue of thenar muscles paralyzed after spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, JE; Ribot-Ciscar, E; Zijdewind, Inge; Thomas, CK

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether increases in blood pressure, and presumably muscle perfusion pressure, improve the endurance of thenar muscles paralyzed chronically by cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Resting mean arterial pressure (MAP) was low in all eight subjects (64 +/- 2 mmHg).

  2. Cytochemical characteristics of blood cells from Brazilian tortoises (Testudines: Testudinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, G S; Alevi, K C C; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; Bonini-Domingos, C R

    2016-01-01

    The hematology of wild and captive animals is essential for obtaining details about species and represents a simple method of diagnosing disease and determining prognosis. Few studies have described the morphology of chelonian blood cells, which are more common in sea and freshwater turtle species. Thus, in order to further our understanding and recognition of different chelonian cells types, the present study aimed to describe blood cells from the two species of Brazilian tortoises, Chelonoidis carbonarius and C. denticulatus. Cytochemical analysis of tortoise blood tissue with Panótico®, made it possible to describe all the of the chelonian cell types (with the exception of thrombocytes): erythrocytes, agranular leukocytes (monocytes and lymphocytes), and granular leukocytes (eosinophils, heterophils, basophils, and azurophils). These data are of high importance for establishing hematological profiles of Brazilian tortoises and reptiles. Therefore, based on our results and on comparative analyses with data from the literature for other reptile species, we can conclude that the blood cells described for Brazilian tortoises are found in all species of reptiles that have been analyzed thus far, and may be characterized and used as a comparative parameter between different groups to evaluate the health status of these animals. PMID:27050968

  3. Thrombin regulates the function of human blood dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrombin is the key enzyme in the coagulation cascade and activates endothelial cells, neutrophils and monocytes via protease-activated receptors (PARs). At the inflammatory site, immune cells have an opportunity to encounter thrombin. However little is known about the effect of thrombin for dendritic cells (DC), which are efficient antigen-presenting cells and play important roles in initiating and regulating immune responses. The present study revealed that thrombin has the ability to stimulate blood DC. Plasmacytoid DC (PDC) and myeloid DC (MDC) isolated from PBMC expressed PAR-1 and released MCP-1, IL-10, and IL-12 after thrombin stimulation. Unlike blood DC, monocyte-derived DC (MoDC), differentiated in vitro did not express PAR-1 and were unresponsive to thrombin. Effects of thrombin on blood DC were significantly diminished by the addition of anti-PAR-1 Ab or hirudin, serine protease inhibitor. Moreover, thrombin induced HLA-DR and CD86 expression on DC and the thrombin-treated DC induced allogenic T cell proliferation. These findings indicate that thrombin plays a role in the regulation of blood DC functions

  4. Multifactorial treatment increases endothelial progenitor cells in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, H; Jacobsen, P Karl; Lajer, Marianne;

    2010-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) augment vascular repair and neovascularisation. Patients with type 2 diabetes have reduced EPC and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is reduced by multifactorial intervention. Our aim, therefore, was to evaluate in type 2 diabetic patients...... whether the numbers of EPC derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells is influenced by a multifactorial treatment strategy....

  5. Cell washing versus immediate reinfusion of intraoperatively shed blood during abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, G W; Glover, J L; Bendick, P J; Brown, O W; Kitzmiller, J W; Lombness, P; Hanson, D

    1993-08-01

    packed red blood cells given to patients in the unwashed cell group versus 0.8 +/- 1.7 units in the washed cell group (p = 0.419). Overall complications were higher and critical care and total hospital stays were longer in the unwashed cell group but did not result from autotransfusion of unwashed blood. We conclude that the intraoperative reinfusion of unwashed shed blood is safe and effective, causing transient hematologic abnormalities that normalize in the early postoperative period, and is not associated with increased mortality, or hematologic, cardiopulmonary, or renal complications. PMID:8352424

  6. Daily liquorice consumption for two weeks increases augmentation index and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miia H Leskinen

    Full Text Available Liquorice ingestion often elevates blood pressure, but the detailed haemodynamic alterations are unknown. We studied haemodynamic changes induced by liquorice consumption in 20 subjects versus 30 controls with average blood pressures of 120/68 and 116/64 mmHg, respectively.Haemodynamic variables were measured in supine position before and after two weeks of liquorice consumption (daily glycyrrhizin dose 290-370 mg with tonometric recording of radial blood pressure, pulse wave analysis, and whole-body impedance cardiography. Thirty age-matched healthy subjects maintaining their normal diet were studied as controls.Two weeks of liquorice ingestion elevated peripheral and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure (by 7/4 and 8/4 mmHg, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 2-11/1-8 and 3-13/1-8, respectively, P<0.05, and increased extracellular volume by 0.5 litres (P<0.05 versus controls. Also augmentation index adjusted to heart rate 75/min (from 7% to 11%, 95% CI for change 0.3-7.5, P<0.05 and aortic pulse pressure (by 4 mmHg, 95% CI 1-7, P<0.05 were elevated indicating increased wave reflection from the periphery. In contrast, peripheral (-3/-0.3 mmHg and central blood pressure (-2/-0.5 mmHg, aortic pulse pressure (-1 mmHg, and augmentation index adjusted to heart rate 75/min (from 9% to 7% decreased numerically but not statistically significantly without changes in extracellular volume in the control group. Heart rate, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, and pulse wave velocity did not differ between the groups.Two weeks of daily liquorice consumption increased extracellular volume, amplified pressure wave reflection from the periphery, and elevated central systolic and diastolic blood pressure.EU Clinical Trials Register EudraCT 2006-002065-39 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01742702.

  7. Transcranial direct current stimulation transiently increases the blood-brain barrier solute permeability in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Da Wi; Khadka, Niranjan; Fan, Jie; Bikson, Marom; Fu, Bingmei M.

    2016-03-01

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive electrical stimulation technique investigated for a broad range of medical and performance indications. Whereas prior studies have focused exclusively on direct neuron polarization, our hypothesis is that tDCS directly modulates endothelial cells leading to transient changes in blood-brain-barrier (BBB) permeability (P) that are highly meaningful for neuronal activity. For this, we developed state-of-the-art imaging and animal models to quantify P to various sized solutes after tDCS treatment. tDCS was administered using a constant current stimulator to deliver a 1mA current to the right frontal cortex of rat (approximately 2 mm posterior to bregma and 2 mm right to sagittal suture) to obtain similar physiological outcome as that in the human tDCS application studies. Sodium fluorescein (MW=376), or FITC-dextrans (20K and 70K), in 1% BSA mammalian Ringer was injected into the rat (SD, 250-300g) cerebral circulation via the ipsilateral carotid artery by a syringe pump at a constant rate of ~3 ml/min. To determine P, multiphoton microscopy with 800-850 nm wavelength laser was applied to take the images from the region of interest (ROI) with proper microvessels, which are 100-200 micron below the pia mater. It shows that the relative increase in P is about 8-fold for small solute, sodium fluorescein, ~35-fold for both intermediate sized (Dex-20k) and large (Dex-70k) solutes, 10 min after 20 min tDCS pretreatment. All of the increased permeability returns to the control after 20 min post treatment. The results confirmed our hypothesis.

  8. Related Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) for Genetic Diseases of Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-11

    Stem Cell Transplantation; Bone Marrow Transplantation; Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Allogeneic Transplantation,; Genetic Diseases; Thalassemia; Pediatrics; Diamond-Blackfan Anemia; Combined Immune Deficiency; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Lymphoproliferative Disease; Metabolic Diseases

  9. Membranotropic photobiomodulation on red blood cell deformability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang-Yue; Zhao, Yan-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Liu, Song-Hao

    2007-05-01

    To assess modulation of laser on erythrocyte permeability and deformability via cell morphology changes, healthy human echinocytes with shrinking size and high plasmic viscosity due to cellular dehydration were treated with 1 mW, 2 mW, 3 mW, and 5 mW laser power exposure respectively. Image analyzing system on single intact erythrocyte was applied for measuring comprehensive cell morphological parameters (surface area, external membrane perimeter, circle index and elongation index) that were determined by the modulation of erythrocyte water permeability and deformability to detect relationship between erythrocyte water permeability alteration and deformability. Our preliminary experiment showed that exposure under light dose of 5 mW for 5 min could induce more active erythrocyte swelling and deformation. water channel aquaporin-1(AQP-1) was inhibited by the incubation of HgCl II in the presence and absence of 5 mW laser irradiation. The result suggested that osmotic water permeability is a primary factor in the procedure of erythrocyte deformability. In addition, no modulation of laser(5mW) on erythrocyte deformability had been found when the echinocytes were cultured with GDP-β-S (G protein inhibitor).

  10. Effect of low dose radiation on immune function of cord blood cells: a preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the effects of low dose radiation (LDR) on lymphocyte proliferation, CD25 expression, interleukin-2 (IL-2) level, and natural killer cell (NK cell) activity in cord blood. Methods: (1) Isolated mononuclear cells from cord blood were irradiated with different doses (62 mGy, 124 mGy, 186 mGy) of gamma-rays. The lymphocyte proliferation and NK cell activity were measured with 3H-TdR incorporation assay and 3H-TdR release assay, respectively. (2) Isolated fresh fresh mononuclear cells from cord blood were irradiated with 62 mGy gamma-rays. At different culture times (12 h, 24 h, 48 h) after irradiation, CD 25 expression was measured by flow cytometry with direct immunofluorescence and IL-2 levels in the supernatant was measured by ELISA. Results: As compared with controls, LDR could promote lymphocyte proliferation and enhance NK cell activity. The CD25 expression and the IL-2 level in cord blood were up-regulated significantly after 62 mGy gamma-ray irradiation and showed increasing amplitude with time. Conclusion: LDR may promote proliferation, maturity and activation of lymphocyte and enhance NK cell activity in cord blood, which may contribute to the enhanced graft versus leukemia (GVL) response and the decrease of the recurrence rate of tumor, as well as acceleration of the reconstruction of immune and hematopoietic functions after cord blood transplantation, using low dose γ-irradiated mononuclear cells from cord blood is of value in clinical practice

  11. Correlation of Red Blood Cell Aggregate Size with Transmitted Light Intensity Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Darren L.

    1998-11-01

    Under sufficiently low shear rates, such as those encountered in the microcirculation, human red blood cells are known to form aggregate structures (`rouleaux'). These aggregates may range in size from a simple chain containing only a few cells to complex three-dimensional structures containing tens of cells. Previous studies have attempted to characterize the aggregate size by examining the spatial distribution of transmitted light intensity resulting from transillumination of the blood flow. For experiments performed in vitro and in vivo, spectral analysis of the transmitted light intensities has shown that the presence of aggregates in the flow can linked with an increase in the spectral power at small wavenumbers. The magnitudes of the affected wavenumbers correspond to structures considerably larger than individual cells. A precise numerical correlation, however, is difficult to establish. In this work, computer simulations of aggregating blood flow are used along with statistical considerations in an attempt to better correlate the observed spectral trends with actual aggregate size.

  12. Exercise-induced increase in dog adipose tissue blood flow before and after denervation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1986-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was examined during rest and exercise in the inguinal fat pads of four female dogs using the Xe wash-out technique. The experiments were performed before and after denervation of one of the pads. No difference between the resting flows in the two pads could be...... demonstrated either before or after denervation. The flow increased about two-fold on average from rest to exercise. This response was similar before and after denervation. It is concluded that direct sympathetic innervation is not involved in the regulation of adipose tissue blood flow during exercise....

  13. Peripheral blood stem cell versus bone marrow transplantation: A perspective from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael; Savani, Bipin N; Mohty, Mohamad; Nagler, Arnon

    2016-07-01

    Over the past decade, transplantation of peripheral blood hematopoietic cells has increased and is now the predominant graft source for related or unrelated adult allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. At the same time, increasing numbers of patients are receiving reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) prior to hematopoietic stem cell infusion. In prior work using smaller patient numbers and limited data, RIC peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation was shown to be noninferior to RIC bone marrow (BM) transplantation for acute leukemia. A recent, large registry analysis from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation showed that peripheral blood grafts result in superior outcomes compared with BM after RIC regimens for acute leukemia. The T-cell-replete PBSC allografts are associated with significant graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) benefits that are important drivers of improved leukemia-free survival and overall survival. However, an increased risk of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) after peripheral blood grafts is concerning and long-term follow-up comparing peripheral versus BM grafts after RIC regimens is needed. Further assessment of the long-standing risks should be undertaken in an effort to better understand whether the risk of cGVHD among peripheral blood graft recipients translates into continued GVL effects and long-term remissions and cures or if it results in late morbidity and mortality. PMID:27106798

  14. Endothelin-1 increases glomerular permeability and inflammation independent of blood pressure in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh, Mohamed A; Boesen, Erika I.; Pollock, Jennifer S.; Savin, Virginia J.; Pollock, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoactive peptide implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension and renal disease. The aim of the current study was to test the hypotheses that ET-1 increases albumin permeability of glomeruli isolated from normal rats and that chronic ET-1 infusion will increase glomerular permeability and inflammation independent of blood pressure. Glomerular permeability to albumin (Palb) was determined from the change in glomerular volume induced by exposing isolated glom...

  15. L-Carnitine Preserves Endothelial Function in a Lamb Model of Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Shruti; Aramburo, Angela; Rafikov, Ruslan; Sun, Xutong; Kumar, Sanjiv; Oishi, Peter E.; Datar, Sanjeev A.; Raff, Gary; Xoinis, Kon; Kalkan, Gohkan; Fratz, Sohrab; Fineman, Jeffrey R.; Black, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Background In our model of congenital heart disease (CHD) with increased pulmonary blood flow (Shunt), we have recently shown a disruption in carnitine homeostasis, associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased eNOS/Hsp90 interactions that contribute to eNOS uncoupling, increased superoxide levels, and decreased bioavailable NO. Thus, we undertook this study to test the hypothesis that L-carnitine therapy would maintain mitochondrial function, and NO signaling. Methods Thirteen feta...

  16. Characterization of Microvesicles Released from Human Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Bach Nguyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Extracellular vesicles (EVs are spherical fragments of cell membrane released from various cell types under physiological as well as pathological conditions. Based on their size and origin, EVs are classified as exosome, microvesicles (MVs and apoptotic bodies. Recently, the release of MVs from human red blood cells (RBCs under different conditions has been reported. MVs are released by outward budding and fission of the plasma membrane. However, the outward budding process itself, the release of MVs and the physical properties of these MVs have not been well investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate the formation process, isolation and characterization of MVs released from RBCs under conditions of stimulating Ca2+ uptake and activation of protein kinase C. Methods: Experiments were performed based on single cell fluorescence imaging, fluorescence activated cell sorter/flow cytometer (FACS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM and dynamic light scattering (DLS. The released MVs were collected by differential centrifugation and characterized in both their size and zeta potential. Results: Treatment of RBCs with 4-bromo-A23187 (positive control, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, or phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate (PMA in the presence of 2 mM extracellular Ca2+ led to an alteration of cell volume and cell morphology. In stimulated RBCs, exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS and formation of MVs were observed by using annexin V-FITC. The shedding of MVs was also observed in the case of PMA treatment in the absence of Ca2+, especially under the transmitted bright field illumination. By using SEM, AFM and DLS the morphology and size of stimulated RBCs, MVs were characterized. The sizes of the two populations of MVs were 205.8 ± 51.4 nm and 125.6 ± 31.4 nm, respectively. Adhesion of stimulated RBCs and MVs was observed. The zeta potential of MVs was determined in the range from - 40 mV to - 10 m

  17. IL-17-producing peripheral blood CD177+ neutrophils increase in allergic asthmatic subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez-Velazquez, Carlos; Castillo, Elena Cristina; Guido-Bayardo, Leopoldo; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney

    2013-01-01

    Background A T helper cell (TH) 17-biased response has been observed in patients with allergic asthma, particularly in those with neutrophil accumulation in the lung. Therefore, we sought to test the hypothesis that neutrophils might be an important source of interleukin (IL)-17 in allergic asthma. Methods Whole peripheral blood cells from non-asthmatic control subjects (n = 17) and patients with mild asthma (n = 7), moderate but persistent asthma (n = 4), or acute asthma (n = 6) were analyze...

  18. Intravaginal Administration of Sildenafil Citrate Increases Blood Flow in the Bovine Uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzięcioł Michał

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of sildenafil citrate administrated intravaginaly on the blood flow in the bovine uterus during dioestrus. Uterine blood flow was examined in six healthy adult cows. Sildenafil was administrated intravaginaly to each co w between the 6th and 8th d of the ovarian cycle, in the form of vaginal suppositories containing 100 mg of active substance at a dose of 100, 200, or 300 mg per animal. Uterine perfusion was estimated by the colour Doppler examination, and obtained results were analysed with the Pixel Flux Software (Chameleon, Germany. Moreover, cardiovascular parameters were also evaluated. Animals were examined before and five times after drug application (two times at 15 min intervals, and three times at 2 h intervals. A placebo suppository was also given to the cows. The analysis of the intensity and velocity of blood flow in the uterus proved that sildenafil administrated intravaginaly significantly increased blood flow in the uterus and the effect of increased perfusion was observed for 4 h and 30 min after administration. The effect of increased uterine perfusion was observed after low as well as high doses of sildenafil. Significant changes in the cardio-vascular parameters were not detected. There were no changes in the uterine perfusion as well as in cardiovascular parameters after placebo administration.

  19. Macromolecular Dynamics in Red Blood Cells Investigated Using Neutron Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Stadler, Andreas Maximilian; Demmel, Franz; Artmann, Gerhard; 10.1098/rsif.2010.0306

    2011-01-01

    We present neutron scattering measurements on the dynamics of hemoglobin (Hb) in human red blood cells in vivo. Global and internal Hb dynamics were measured in the ps to ns time- and {\\AA} length-scale using quasielastic neutron backscattering spectroscopy. We observed the cross-over from global Hb short-time to long-time self-diffusion. Both short- and long-time diffusion coefficients agree quantitatively with predicted values from hydrodynamic theory of non-charged hard-sphere suspensions when a bound water fraction of around 0.23g H2O/ g Hb is taken into account. The higher amount of water in the cells facilitates internal protein fluctuations in the ps time-scale when compared to fully hydrated Hb powder. Slower internal dynamics of Hb in red blood cells in the ns time-range were found to be rather similar to results obtained with fully hydrated protein powders, solutions and E. coli cells.

  20. Aggregation of Red Blood Cells: From Rouleaux to Clot Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, C; Svetina, S

    2013-01-01

    Red blood cells are known to form aggregates in the form of rouleaux. This aggregation process is believed to be reversible, but there is still no full understanding on the binding mechanism. There are at least two competing models, based either on bridging or on depletion. We review recent experimental results on the single cell level and theoretical analyses of the depletion model and of the influence of the cell shape on the binding strength. Another important aggregation mechanism is caused by activation of platelets. This leads to clot formation which is life saving in the case of wound healing but also a major cause of death in the case of a thrombus induced stroke. We review historical and recent results on the participation of red blood cells in clot formation.

  1. Aggregation of red blood cells: From rouleaux to clot formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Christian; Steffen, Patrick; Svetina, Saša

    2013-06-01

    Red blood cells are known to form aggregates in the form of rouleaux. This aggregation process is believed to be reversible, but there is still no full understanding on the adhesion mechanism. There are at least two competing models, based either on bridging or on depletion. We review recent experimental results on the single cell level and theoretical analyses of the depletion model and of the influence of the cell shape on the adhesion strength. Another important aggregation mechanism is caused by activation of platelets. This leads to clot formation which is life-saving in the case of wound healing, but also a major cause of death in the case of a thrombus induced stroke. We review historical and recent results on the participation of red blood cells in clot formation.

  2. Concise review: programming human pluripotent stem cells into blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrook, Jennifer; Fidanza, Antonella; Forrester, Lesley M

    2016-06-01

    Blood disorders are treated with cell therapies including haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation as well as platelet and red blood cell transfusions. However the source of cells is entirely dependent on donors, procedures are susceptible to transfusion-transmitted infections and serious complications can arise in recipients due to immunological incompatibility. These problems could be alleviated if it was possible to produce haematopoietic cells in vitro from an autologous and renewable cell source. The production of haematopoietic cells in the laboratory from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may provide a route to realize this goal but it has proven challenging to generate long-term reconstituting HSCs. To date, the optimization of differentiation protocols has mostly relied on the manipulation of extrinsic signals to mimic the in vivo environment. We review studies that have taken an alternative approach to modulate intrinsic signals by enforced expression of transcription factors. Single and combinations of multiple transcription factors have been used in a variety of contexts to enhance the production of haematopoietic cells from human pluripotent stem cells. This programming approach, together with the recent advances in the production and use of synthetic transcription factors, holds great promise for the production of fully functional HSCs in the future. PMID:26996518

  3. Mechanopathology of red blood cell diseases—Why mechanics matters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    During the onset of a disease a cell may experience alterations in both the composition and organization of its cellular and molecular structures.These alterations may eventually lead to changes in its geometrical and mechanical properties such as cell size and shape,deformability and adhesion.As such,knowing how diseased cells respond to mechanical forces can reveal ways by which they differ from healthy ones.Here,we will present biomechanistic insights into red blood cell related diseases that manifest...

  4. Antihistamines block radiation-induced increased intestinal blood flow in canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Doyle, T.F.; Donlon, M.A.; Gossett-Hagerman, C.J.

    1985-06-01

    Radiation-induced systemic hypotension is accompanied by increased intestinal blood flow (IBF) and an increased hematocrit (HCT) in dogs. Histamine infusion leads to increased IBF and intestinal edema with consequent secretion of fluid into the intestinal lumen. This study was performed to determine whether these effects could be diminished by prior administration of H1 and H2 histamine blockers. Dogs were given an iv infusion of mepyramine (0.5 mg/min) and cimetidine (0.25 mg/min) for 1 hr before and for 1 hr after radiation (H1 and H2 blockers, respectively). Mean systemic arterial blood pressure (MBP), IBF, and HCT were monitored for 2 hr. Systemic plasma histamine levels were determined simultaneously. Data obtained indicated that the H1 and H2 blockers, given simultaneously, were successful in blocking the increased IBF and the increased HCT seen after 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma radiation. However, the postradiation hypotension was only somewhat affected, with the MBP falling to a level 28% below the preradiation level. Plasma histamine levels reached a sharp peak, as much as 20% above baseline, at 4 min postradiation. These findings implicate histamine in the radiation-induced increase in IBF and HCT but not for the gradual decrease in postradiation blood pressure.

  5. Antihistamines block radiation-induced increased intestinal blood flow in canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Doyle, T.F.; Donlon, M.A.; Gossett-Hagerman, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation-induced systemic hypotension is accompanied by increased intestinal blood flow (IBF) and an increased hematocrit (HCT) in dogs. Histamine infusion leads to increased IBF and intestinal edema with consequent secretion of fluid into the intestinal lumen. This study was performed to determine whether these effects could be diminished by prior administration of H/sub 1/ and H/sub 2/ histamine blockers. Dogs were given an iv infusion of mepyramine (0.5 mg/min) and cimetidine (0.25 mg/min) for 1 hr before and for 1 hr after radiation (H sub 1 and H sub 2 blockers, respectively). Mean systemic arterial blood pressure (MBP), IBF, and HCT were monitored for 2 hr. Systematic plasma histamine levels were determined simultaneously. Data obtained indicated that the H sub 1 and H sub 2 blockers, given simultaneously, were successful in blocking the increased IBF and the increased HCT seen after 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma radiation. However, the postradiation hypotension was only somewhat affected, with the MBP falling to a level 28% below the preradiation level. Plasma histamine levels reached a sharp peak, as much as 20% above baseline, at 4 min postradiation. These findings implicate histamine in the radiation-induced increase in IBF and HCT but not for the gradual decrease in postradiation blood pressure. (Author)

  6. Antihistamines block radiation-induced increased intestinal blood flow in canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced systemic hypotension is accompanied by increased intestinal blood flow (IBF) and an increased hematocrit (HCT) in dogs. Histamine infusion leads to increased IBF and intestinal edema with consequent secretion of fluid into the intestinal lumen. This study was performed to determine whether these effects could be diminished by prior administration of H1 and H2 histamine blockers. Dogs were given an iv infusion of mepyramine (0.5 mg/min) and cimetidine (0.25 mg/min) for 1 hr before and for 1 hr after radiation (H1 and H2 blockers, respectively). Mean systemic arterial blood pressure (MBP), IBF, and HCT were monitored for 2 hr. Systemic plasma histamine levels were determined simultaneously. Data obtained indicated that the H1 and H2 blockers, given simultaneously, were successful in blocking the increased IBF and the increased HCT seen after 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma radiation. However, the postradiation hypotension was only somewhat affected, with the MBP falling to a level 28% below the preradiation level. Plasma histamine levels reached a sharp peak, as much as 20% above baseline, at 4 min postradiation. These findings implicate histamine in the radiation-induced increase in IBF and HCT but not for the gradual decrease in postradiation blood pressure

  7. Effects of dietary triglycerides on rheological properties of human red blood cells (abstract).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicha, I; Suzuki, Y; Tateishi, N; Maeda, N

    2004-01-01

    Atherogenic diets rich in saturated fat and cholesterol influence the blood viscosity and red blood cell (RBC) aggregability, the parameters associated with increased risk of circulatory disorders. However, little is known about the effect of triglycerides, which are the major dietary lipid form in humans, on blood rheology. Therefore, we studied the effects of postprandial plasma triglyceride levels on human RBC indices, hematological parameters, RBCs aggregation velocity and whole blood viscosity. For this purpose, whole blood was collected 2 hours after high-fat or low-fat meal. Proteins, triglycerides and cholesterol levels of plasma were analysed, and RBCs rouleaux formation rate was measured in 70% autologous plasma using a low-shear rheoscope. There were no significant differences in hematological parameters, RBC indices, whole blood viscosity, plasma protein and cholesterol content between high-fat and low-fat blood samples. However, a significant increase in rouleaux formation rate was observed in samples with high postprandial triglyceride levels, when compared with low-triglyceride samples. Plasma triglyceride levels correlated significantly with rouleaux formation rate. In conclusion, these results suggest that diet-dependent alterations of plasma triglyceride levels as well as possible changes in the cell membrane lipid composition lead to RBC hyperaggregability. PMID:15258358

  8. Effects of X-irradiation on artificial blood vessel wall degradation by invasive tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artificial vessel wall cultures, constructed by growing arterial endothelial cells on preformed layers of rat smooth muscle cells, were used to evaluate the effects of X-irradiation on tumor cell-induced tissue degradation. Bovine endothelial cells had radiation sensitivities similar to those of rat smooth muscle cells. Preirradiation of smooth muscle cells, before the addition of human fibrosarcoma (HT 1080) cells, did not increase the rate of degradation and destruction by the invasive cells. However, the degradation rate was decreased if the cultures were irradiated after the addition of HT 1080 cells. The presence of bovine endothelial cells markedly inhibited the destructive abilities of fibrosarcoma cells, but preirradiation of artificial vessel walls substantially decreased their capabilities to resist HT 1080-induced lysis. These findings suggest that the abilities of blood vessels to limit extravasation may be compromised by ionizing radiation

  9. Reduced blood flow increases the in vivo ammonium ion concentration in the RIF-1 tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Previous studies from our laboratory have suggested that pooling of ammonium in tumor tissues may be caused by its inefficient removal due to the poor vasculature commonly found in tumors. The purpose of these experiments was to validate the relationship between tumor ammonium ion concentration and tumor blood flow, and to determine whether large concentrations of ammonium ion detected by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are either produced within the tumor or simply imported into the tumor through the blood stream. Methods and Materials: To test this hypothesis, we reduced blood flow in subcutaneously grown Radiation Induced Fibrosarcoma-1 (RIF-1) tumors, either by creating partial ischemia with a bolus injection of hydralazine or by occlusion with surgical sutures. 14N and 31P NMR spectroscopy were used to detect the presence of ammonium, and to assess the bioenergetic status of the tumors, respectively. Results: A correlation between ammonium ion concentration and (PCr(Pi)) ratio was established for untreated tumors. An increase in the in vivo tumor ammonium ion concentration was observed for every tumor that experienced a reduction in blood flow caused by either hydralazine injection or suture ligation. Changes in ammonium ion concentration paralleled changes in the bioenergetics of hydralazine-treated tumors. Conclusion: Our results support the hypothesis that a reduction in tumor blood flow is responsible for the accumulation of ammonium in tumors, and that detected ammonium originated from within the tumor

  10. Multiscale modeling of red blood cell mechanics and blood flow in malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A Fedosov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells (RBCs infected by a Plasmodium parasite in malaria may lose their membrane deformability with a relative membrane stiffening more than ten-fold in comparison with healthy RBCs leading to potential capillary occlusions. Moreover, infected RBCs are able to adhere to other healthy and parasitized cells and to the vascular endothelium resulting in a substantial disruption of normal blood circulation. In the present work, we simulate infected RBCs in malaria using a multiscale RBC model based on the dissipative particle dynamics method, coupling scales at the sub-cellular level with scales at the vessel size. Our objective is to conduct a full validation of the RBC model with a diverse set of experimental data, including temperature dependence, and to identify the limitations of this purely mechanistic model. The simulated elastic deformations of parasitized RBCs match those obtained in optical-tweezers experiments for different stages of intra-erythrocytic parasite development. The rheological properties of RBCs in malaria are compared with those obtained by optical magnetic twisting cytometry and by monitoring membrane fluctuations at room, physiological, and febrile temperatures. We also study the dynamics of infected RBCs in Poiseuille flow in comparison with healthy cells and present validated bulk viscosity predictions of malaria-infected blood for a wide range of parasitemia levels (percentage of infected RBCs with respect to the total number of cells in a unit volume.

  11. Natural Antioxidants Improve Red Blood Cell “Survival” in Non-Leukoreduced Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya V Kucherenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood collected in an anticoagulant can be kept refrigerated in an unmodified state within 5 - 6 weeks. Oxidative damage is considered to be a one of the major factors contributing to the development of storage lesions. Lipid and membrane proteins oxidation results in changes in cation gradients that affect the cell survival. Aim: In the present study we used the natural antioxidants and ion channels blockers (L-carnosine, spermine, phloretin and their mixtures to prolong “survival” of red blood cells (RBCs, measured as the lack of PS exposure and cell hemolysis, in the Alsever's preservative solution upon hypothermic storage. Results: We show that the mixture of carnosine (20 mM, spermine (20 µM and phloretin (100 µM effectively blunted phosphatidylserine (PS exposure, Ca2+ accumulation and RBCs hemolysis in non-leukoreduced low (∼2% hematocrit samples after 36 days of storage as well as after 1 day of post-storage incubation of the stored cells in physiological saline solution. In addition, a slight but significant decrease in PS exposure was observed in non-leukoreduced high (∼20% hematocrit samples after 36 days of storage with the mixture of substances. Conclusion: We conclude that the use of the mixture of natural antioxidants (carnosine, spermine, and phloretin as an additive to blood preservative solution provides better RBCs storage and “survival”.

  12. 78 FR 23571 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell... amended), the Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (ACBSCT) advises the Secretary of the... Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Hemoglobinopathies. The Council will also hear presentations...

  13. The role of red blood cells in inflammation and remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Karin

    2004-01-01

    Besides being carriers of oxygen and carbon dioxide, red blood cells (RBCs) also have a scavenger function, binding inflammatory mediators to surface receptors. Animal and experimental models have suggested a role for RBCs in inflammatory and fibrotic responses and patients with idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis, a disease characterized by lung hemorrhage, frequently develop fibrosis. Fibroblasts, the resident cell in the connective tissue, play an active role in tissue rem...

  14. Shear stress-induced improvement of red blood cell deformability

    OpenAIRE

    Meram, Ece; Yılmaz, Bahar D.; Bas, Ceren; Atac, Nazlı; Yalçın, Ö.; Başkurt, Oguz K.; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Classically, it is known that red blood cell (RBC) deformability is determined by the geometric and material properties of these cells. Experimental evidence accumulated during the last decade has introduced the concept of active regulation of RBC deformability. This regulation is mainly related to altered associations between membrane skeletal proteins and integral proteins, with the latter serving to anchor the skeleton to the lipid matrix. It has been hypothesized that shear stress induces...

  15. Sapropterin therapy increases stability of blood phenylalanine levels in patients with BH4-responsive phenylketonuria (PKU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Barbara K; Bausell, Heather; Katz, Rachel; Laduca, Holly; Sullivan, Christine

    2010-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that variability in blood phenylalanine levels is inversely correlated with IQ and is a better predictor of IQ in early and continuously treated patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) than mean blood phenylalanine levels. This suggests that stability of blood phenylalanine should be a therapeutic goal in patients with PKU. The purpose of this study was to determine if treatment with sapropterin in patients with BH4-responsive PKU would increase the stability of blood phenylalanine levels. The records of all patients treated with sapropterin in the PKU Clinic at Children's Memorial Hospital in Chicago were examined retrospectively. Patients were included in the study if they were responsive to sapropterin during a 2- to 4-week challenge (reduction of blood phenylalanine level of at least 25% after 2weeks of therapy or, in the case of patients with well-controlled blood phenylalanine at the time of testing, increased dietary phenylalanine tolerance by 4weeks of treatment). A total of 37 subjects were eligible for inclusion (16male; 21 female); the mean age was 12.6years (range, 1.5-32.0). The total number of observations (phenylalanine levels) for all subjects was 1391 with a mean of 39 per subject (range, 13-96). Linear mixed modeling was utilized to estimate variances of the blood phenylalanine before (pre) and after (post) starting sapropterin. Likelihood ratio test was performed using SAS 9.1. Means and standard deviations for phenylalanine as estimated by the model were 6.67mg/dl (4.20) and post 5.16 (3.78). The mean level post-sapropterin was significantly lower (p=.0002). The within-subject variances (mean and SD) of phenylalanine were: pre 6.897 (2.62) and post 4.799 (2.19). These two variances are significantly different with a p=.0017. We conclude that sapropterin therapy results in increased stability of blood phenylalanine levels. This effect is likely to improve cognitive outcome in BH4-responsive patients with PKU. PMID

  16. Honey Bee Venom (Apis mellifera Contains Anticoagulation Factors and Increases the Blood-clotting Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Zolfagharian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Bee venom (BV is a complex mixture of proteins and contains proteins such as phospholipase and melittin, which have an effect on blood clotting and blood clots. The mechanism of action of honey bee venom (HBV, Apis mellifera on human plasma proteins and its anti-thrombotic effect were studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-coagulation effect of BV and its effects on blood coagulation and purification. Methods: Crude venom obtained from Apis mellifera was selected. The anti-coagulation factor of the crude venom from this species was purified by using gel filtration chromatography (sephadex G-50, and the molecular weights of the anti-coagulants in this venom estimated by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Blood samples were obtained from 10 rabbits, and the prothrombin time (PT and the partial thromboplastin time (PTT tests were conducted. The approximate lethal dose (LD values of BV were determined. Results: Crude BV increased the blood clotting time. For BV concentrations from 1 to 4 mg/mL, clotting was not observed even at more than 300 seconds, standard deviations (SDs = ± 0.71; however, clotting was observed in the control group 13.8 s, SDs = ± 0.52. Thus, BV can be considered as containing anti-coagulation factors. Crude BV is composed 4 protein bands with molecular weights of 3, 15, 20 and 41 kilodalton (kDa, respectively. The LD50 of the crude BV was found to be 177.8 μg/mouse. Conclusion: BV contains anti-coagulation factors. The fraction extracted from the Iranian bees contains proteins that are similar to anti-coagulation proteins, such as phospholipase A2 (PLA2 and melittin, and that can increase the blood clotting times in vitro.

  17. Automated counting of white blood cells in synovial fluid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Jonge (Robert); R.W. Brouwer (Reinoud); M. Smit (Marij); M. de Frankrijker-Merkestijn; R.J. Dolhain; J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); A.W. van Toorenenbergen (Albert); J. Lindemans (Jan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of automated leucocyte (white blood cell; WBC) counting by comparison with manual counting. METHODS: The number of WBC was determined in heparinized synovial fluid samples by the use of (i) a standard urine cytometer (Kova) and a

  18. Red blood cell antibodies in pregnancy and their clinical consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordvall, Maria; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine;

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to determine clinical consequences of various specificities for the infant/fetus. The population was patients referred between 1998 and 2005 to the tertiary center because of detected red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization. Altogether 455 infants were delivered by 390 alloimmunized...

  19. Red Blood Cell Spectrin Skeleton in the Spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun-Breton, Catherine; Abkarian, Manouk

    2016-02-01

    Das et al. recently reported a role for the major merozoite surface protein MSP1 in malarial parasite egress from the red blood cell (RBC). On the basis of these new data and physical considerations, we propose an updated model for the main steps of this essential process for parasite proliferation. PMID:26652974

  20. Amyloid β levels in human red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro Kiko

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ is hypothesized to play a key role by oxidatively impairing the capacity of red blood cells (RBCs to deliver oxygen to the brain. These processes are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Although plasma Aβ has been investigated thoroughly, the presence and distribution of Aβ in human RBCs are still unclear. In this study, we quantitated Aβ40 and Aβ42 in human RBCs with ELISA assays, and provided evidence that significant amounts of Aβ could be detected in RBCs and that the RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. The RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. On the other hand, providing an antioxidant supplement (astaxanthin, a polar carotenoid to humans was found to decrease RBC Aβ as well as oxidative stress marker levels. These results suggest that plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 bind to RBCs (possibly with aging, implying a pathogenic role of RBC Aβ. Moreover, the data indicate that RBC Aβ40 and Aβ42 may constitute biomarkers of AD. As a preventive strategy, therapeutic application of astaxanthin as an Aβ-lowering agent in RBCs could be considered as a possible anti-dementia agent. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN42483402.

  1. Measurement of limb blood flow using technetium-labelled red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkin, A; Robinson, P.J.; Wiggins, P.A.; Leveson, S.H.; Salter, M.C.P.; Matthews, I.F.; Ware, F.M.

    1986-05-01

    A method for measuring blood flow below the knee during reactive hyperaemia induced by 3 min of arterial occlusion has been developed. Subjects are positioned with lower limbs within the field of view of a gamma camera and pneumatic cuffs are placed below the knees to isolate the blood and induce a hyperaemic response. The remaining blood pool is labelled with /sup 99/Tcsup(m)-labelled red cells. Blood flows have been derived from the initial gradients of time-activity curves and from equilibrium blood sampling. The technique has been validated using a tissue-equivalent leg phantom and peristaltic pump. The method has been applied to a small group of patients with peripheral vascular disease and to normal controls. The mean value (+-SD) of limb perfusion for normal controls was found to be 16.4 +- 3.0 ml/100 ml/min and for patients with intermittent claudication was 5.1 +- 2.6 ml/100 ml/min. Flow measurements are found to correlate with clinical findings and with symptoms. Reproducibility (established by repeated measurements) is high. The method is well tolerated even by patients suffering from rest pain.

  2. The measurement of limb blood flow using technetium-labelled red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for measuring blood flow below the knee during reactive hyperaemia induced by 3 min of arterial occlusion has been developed. Subjects are positioned with lower limbs within the field of view of a gamma camera and pneumatic cuffs are placed below the knees to isolate the blood and induce a hyperaemic response. The remaining blood pool is labelled with 99Tcsup(m)-labelled red cells. Blood flows have been derived from the initial gradients of time-activity curves and from equilibrium blood sampling. The technique has been validated using a tissue-equivalent leg phantom and peristaltic pump. The method has been applied to a small group of patients with peripheral vascular disease and to normal controls. The mean value (+-SD) of limb perfusion for normal controls was found to be 16.4+-3.0 ml/100 ml/min and for patients with intermittent claudication was 5.1+-2.6 ml/100 ml/min. Flow measurements are found to correlate with clinical findings and with symptoms. Reproducibility (established by repeated measurements) is high. The method is well tolerated even by patients suffering from rest pain. (author)

  3. The white blood cell scan in orthopedics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Propst-Proctor, S.L.; Dillingham, M.F.; McDougall, I.R.; Goodwin, D.

    1982-08-01

    A new nuclear scanning technique was found more specific for bone, joint, and soft tissue infections than any previously described scanning technique. The leukocyte scan, whereby a patient's own cells are labeled with a radioactive tagging agent (/sup 111/In oxine), can distinguish an active infectious process from other pain-inducing conditions. Ninety-seven /sup 111/In labeled autologous leukocyte scans were performed in 88 patients. The findings in 17 of 40 patients scanned for possible acute osteomyelitis, six of nine for suspected septic arthritis, and six for possible soft tissue infections, were positive. Subsequent clinical courses verified the infectious nature of these processes in all patients. Patients who had chronic osteomyelitis (14), bony metastases (four patients), heterotopic ossification (three), and degenerative arthritis (two) demonstrated negative findings. Of the seven patients scanned for acute long-bone fractures, one demonstrated positive findings. Nine scans demonstrated positive findings without determined causes. The leukocyte scan is a useful addition to the diagnostic tools of the orthopedic surgeon.

  4. The white blood cell scan in orthopedics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new nuclear scanning technique was found more specific for bone, joint, and soft tissue infections than any previously described scanning technique. The leukocyte scan, whereby a patient's own cells are labeled with a radioactive tagging agent (111In oxine), can distinguish an active infectious process from other pain-inducing conditions. Ninety-seven 111In labeled autologous leukocyte scans were performed in 88 patients. The findings in 17 of 40 patients scanned for possible acute osteomyelitis, six of nine for suspected septic arthritis, and six for possible soft tissue infections, were positive. Subsequent clinical courses verified the infectious nature of these processes in all patients. Patients who had chronic osteomyelitis (14), bony metastases (four patients), heterotopic ossification (three), and degenerative arthritis (two) demonstrated negative findings. Of the seven patients scanned for acute long-bone fractures, one demonstrated positive findings. Nine scans demonstrated positive findings without determined causes. The leukocyte scan is a useful addition to the diagnostic tools of the orthopedic surgeon

  5. The pulmonary vasculature in a neonatal porcine model with increased pulmonary blood flow and pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbøg, Elisabeth Vidstid; Steinbruchel, Daniel Andreas; Thomsen, Anne Bloch;

    2001-01-01

    models which reflect the disease process. Material and Results: We randomly allocated 45 newborn pigs, at the age of 48 hrs, to groups in which there was either construction of a 3 mm central aorto-pulmonary shunt, undertaken in 9, or ligation of the left pulmonary artery, achieved in 13. Controls...... included sham operations in 13, or no operations in 10 pigs. Follow-up was continued for three months. The interventions were compatible with survival in most pigs. The shunts resulted in an acute 85% increase in systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, and a more than twofold increase in pulmonary blood flow....... By three months of age, nearly all shunts had closed spontaneously, and haemodynamics were normal. Ligation of the left pulmonary artery resulted in a normal total pulmonary blood flow, despite only the right lung being perfused, and a 33% increase in systolic pulmonary arterial pressure. These...

  6. Radiological Diagnosis of Recirculatory Congenital Heart Disease with Increased Pulmonary Blood Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of patients with congenital diseases is increasing therefore early diagnosis of these diseases is of crucial importance. Radiological diagnostics of recirculatory congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow, i.e. atrial septal defect (ASD), ventricle septal defect (VSD), ductus arteriosus (Botalli) persistence (DAP) and atrioventricular communication (AVC) have been analysed. Recirculatory congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow (ASD, VSD, DAP)radiologically causes similar lung, lung roots and pulmonary arterial changes. After the radiomorphological and radiofunctional examination of chest organs the following symptoms of the disease were defined: all the patients had hypervolemy, enlarged structural lungs roots, enlarged pulmonary arterial arch. These radiofunctional symptoms help to differentiate congenital heart diseases case by case. (author). 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  7. Red blood cell aggregation, aggregate strength and oxygen transport potential of blood are abnormal in both homozygous sickle cell anemia and sickle-hemoglobin C disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tripette, Julien; Alexy, Tamas; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Mougenel, Daniele; Beltan, Eric; Chalabi, Tawfik; Chout, Roger; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Hue, Olivier; Meiselman, Herbert J.; Connes, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that red cell aggregation and the ratio of hematocrit to blood viscosity, an index of the oxygen transport potential of blood, might considerably modulate blood flow dynamics in the microcirculation. The findings of this study indicate that patients with sickle cell disease and those with sickle cell hemoglobin C disease have low ratios of hematocrit to blood viscosity as compared to normal controls. This may play a role in tissue hypoxia and clinical status of these ...

  8. Antitumor activities of human dendritic cells derived from peripheral and cord blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Kun Zhang; Jun Li; Hai-Bin Chen; Jin-Lun Sun; Yao-Juan Qu; Juan-Juan Lu

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To observe the biological specialization of humanperipheral blood dendritic cells (DC) and cord blood derivedDC and its effects on effector cells killing humanhepatocarcinoma cell line BEL-7402 in vitro.METHODS: The DC biological characteristics were detectedwith immunohistochemical and MTT assay. Two antitumorexperimental groups are: peripheral blood DC and cordblood DC groups. Peripheral blood DC groups used LAKcells as the effector cells and BEL-7402 as target cells, whilecord blood DC groups used CTL induced by tumor antigentwice pulsed DC as effector cells and BEL-7402 as targetcells, additional peripheral blood DC and cord blood DC areadded to observe its stimulating activities to effector cells.The effector's cytotoxicity to tumor cells were detected withneutral red colorimetric assay at two effector/target ratios of5:1 and 10: 1.RESULTS: Peripheral blood DC and cord blood DC highlyexpressed HLA-ABC, HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, CD54 and S-100protein. The stimulating activities to lymphocyteproliferation were compared between experimental groups(DC added) and control group (no DC added). In sixexperiment subgroups, the DC/lymphocyte ratio wassequentially 0.25: 100, 0.5: 100, 1: 100, 2: 100, 4: 100 and 8:100, A values(x± s) were 0.75396± 0.009, 0.84916± 0.010,0.90894± 0.012, 0.98371 ± 0.007, 1.01299 ± 0.006 and 1.20384± 0.006 in peripheral blood DC groups and 0.77650 ± 0.005,0.83008± 0.007, 0.92725 ± 0.007, 1.05990 ± 0.010, 1.15583 ±0.011, 1.22983 ± 0.011 in cord blood DC groups. A value was0.59517 ± 0.005 in control group. The stimulating activitieswere higher in experimental groups than in control group ( P< 0.01 ), which were increased when the DC concentrationwas enlarged ( P < 0.01 ). Two differently derived DCs hadthe same phenotypes and similar stimulating activities ( P >0.05). In peripheral blood DC groups, the cytotoxicity (x ±s) of the LD groups (experimental groups) and L groups(control group) was 58.16% ± 2.03% (5: 1), 46.18% ±2

  9. Increased micronuclei and bulky DNA adducts in cord blood after maternal exposures to traffic-related air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M.; Wichmann, J.; Autrup, H.;

    2009-01-01

    highest among mother-newborn pairs who lived near medium-traffic-density (> 400-2500 vehicle km/24 h; p <0.01) places. MN frequencies among newborns from women who lived at high-traffic-density homes ( > 2500 vehicle km/24 h) were significantly increased (p = 0.02). This trend remained after adjusting for......Exposure to traffic-related air pollution in urban environment is common and has been associated with adverse human health effects. In utero exposures that result in DNA damage may affect health later in life. Early effects of maternal and in utero exposures to traffic-related air pollution were...... assessed through the use of validated biomarkers in blood cells from mother-newborn pairs. A cross-sectional biomonitoring study with healthy pregnant women living in the Greater Copenhagen area, Denmark, was conducted. Bulky DNA adducts and micronuclei (MN) were measured in blood from 75 women and 69...

  10. Measuring density and compressibility of white blood cells and prostate cancer cells by microchannel acoustophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnkob, Rune; Augustsson, Per; Magnusson, Cecilia; Lilja, Hans; Laurell, Thomas; Bruus, Henrik

    determine the density and compressibility of individual cells enables the prediction and alteration of the separation outcome for a given cell mixture. We apply the method on white blood cells (WBCs) and DU145 prostate cancer cells (DUCs) aiming to improve isolation of circulating tumor cells from blood, an......We present a novel method for the determination of density and compressibility of individual particles and cells undergoing microchannel acoustophoresis in an arbitrary 2D acoustic field. Our method is a critical advancement within acoustophoretic separation of biological cells, as the ability to...... emerging tool in the monitoring and characterizing of metastatic cancer....

  11. The in vitro effect of aspirin on increased whole blood platelet aggregation in oral contraceptive users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, L A; Bonnar, J

    1994-05-01

    The effects of triphasic oral contraceptives on whole blood platelet aggregation in 36 Italian women are reported here. Aspirin's effects on platelet aggregation were also studied. 18 women took a triphasic oral contraceptive; 10 women took Trinordiol, while 8 took Trinovum for at least 90 days. The remaining 18 women took nothing and served as controls. The study was aligned with each woman's birth control pill cycle. Blood was taken daily on days 15-21 of their cycle. Either saline solution or acetylsalicylic acid was added to the blood samples and compared. All data was statistically analyzed using unpaired student's t-test. Effects of 3 aggregating agents, ADP, PAF, and EDTA, on platelet aggregation were studied. Arachidonic acid and adrenalin bitartrate were also studied in this manner. An increase in platelet aggregation was observed in women taking oral contraceptives. No difference was found between patients taking Trinordiol and those taking Trinovum. The results of this study indicate an increase in whole blood platelet sensitivity to collagen, adrenalin, and arachidonic acid when using oral contraceptives. Aspirin, at low doses, may have a role in preventing early thrombus formation in women taking oral contraceptives. PMID:8042198

  12. Identification of Progenitor Cell Survival in Peripheral Blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The myeloid progenitors can not survive properly under the usual conditions of blood banking.The aim of work is to assay the survival of myeloid progenitors during varying periods of blood storage, under the usual condition of blood banking. It is an attempt to detect whether or not ,these circulating myeloid progenitors could be stored under the blood banking condition to be used in clinical transplantation protocols to treat a wide variety of refractory diseases.Individual blood samples from forty healthy adults were examined clinically, laboratory and ultrasonography. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated using Ficoll-Paque gradients . Serial dilutions of human placental conditioned medium were made, and tested for optimal activity by In vitro cultured technique.This study estimated that the mean levels of absolute number of myeloid progenitors per c.mm. at zero time was 137.7±68.3 (Range 54-297),at day 3 was 71.0±40.2 (Range 54-297), at day 7 was 94.8±45.7 (Range 30 -232) and at day 14 was 45.5±22.7). There was statistically significant decrease in the number of colonies from zero time to day 14. There was statistically significant decrease in the number of myeloid progenitors from zero time to day 14

  13. Large-scale prospective T cell function assays in shipped, unfrozen blood samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadley, David; Cheung, Roy K; Becker, Dorothy J;

    2014-01-01

    cell immunocompetence. We have found that the vast majority of the samples were viable up to 3 days from the blood draw, yet meaningful responses were found in a proportion of those with longer travel times. Furthermore, the shipping time of uncooled samples significantly decreased both the viabilities...... of the samples and the unstimulated cell counts in the viable samples. Also, subject age was significantly associated with the number of unstimulated cells and T cell proliferation to positive activators. Finally, we observed a pattern of statistically significant increases in T cell responses to...

  14. Studies on sequestration of neuraminidase-treated red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of reduction in the surface charge of red blood cells (RBCs) on regional blood flow and RBC distribution were studied in rats anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. RBCs were treated with neuraminidase to reduce their electrophoretic mobility by 56%. Normal and neuraminidase-treated RBCs labeled with 51Cr or 111In were injected into a femoral vein while an equal volume of blood was simultaneously withdrawn from a femoral artery. More than 70% of the neuraminidase-treated RBCs injected disappeared from the circulating blood in 30 min compared with less than 2% of normal RBCs. The relative distributions of neuraminidase-treated RBCs to normal RBCs, as determined from radioactivity counting, were significantly greater than 1 in the spleen (5.65 +/- 0.97, mean +/- SD), the liver (2.84 +/- 0.21), the lung (1.48 +/- 0.31), and the kidney (1.49 +/- 0.27), indicating a preferential trapping of neuraminidase-treated RBCs in these regions. This ratio was approximately 1 in all other organs. Regional blood flows in tissues were determined with 15-micron microspheres in the control period and after the infusion of neuraminidase-treated RBCs (experimental). Experimental-to-control blood flow ratios were 0.40 +/- 0.05 in the spleen, 0.66 +/- 0.06 in the liver, 0.78 +/- 0.03 in the lung, and 0.78 +/- 0.09 in the kidneys; this ratio was approximately 1 in all other organs. An experimental-to-control blood flow ratio less than 1 indicates a reduction in blood flow; this occurred in the same organs as those with trapping of neuraminidase-treated RBCs

  15. The Effect of Pulsatile Versus Nonpulsatile Blood Flow on Viscoelasticity and Red Blood Cell Aggregation in Extracorporeal Circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Chi Bum; Kang, Yang Jun; Kim, Myoung Gon; Yang, Sung; Lim, Choon Hak; Son, Ho Sung; Kim, Ji Sung; Lee, So Young; Son, Kuk Hui; Sun, Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Background Extracorporeal circulation (ECC) can induce alterations in blood viscoelasticity and cause red blood cell (RBC) aggregation. In this study, the authors evaluated the effects of pump flow pulsatility on blood viscoelasticity and RBC aggregation. Methods Mongrel dogs were randomly assigned to two groups: a nonpulsatile pump group (n=6) or a pulsatile pump group (n=6). After ECC was started at a pump flow rate of 80 mL/kg/min, cardiac fibrillation was induced. Blood sampling was perfo...

  16. The use of a blood conservation device to reduce red blood cell transfusion requirements: a before and after study

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhopadhyay, Amartya; Yip, Hwee S; Prabhuswamy, Dimple; Chan, Yiong H; Phua, Jason; Lim, Tow K; Leong, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Anaemia and the associated need for packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions are common in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Among many causes, blood losses from repeated diagnostic tests are contributory. Methods This is a before and after study in a medical ICU of a university hospital. We used a closed blood conservation device (Venous Arterial blood Management Protection, VAMP, Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) to decrease PRBC transfusion requirements...

  17. Influence of endogenous S-adenosylmethionine on the determination of catechol O-methyltrausferase activity in red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A double isotope method for the simultaneous determination of S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) and catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity in red blood cells was developed. Healthy persons contained 7.9 +- 1.9 nmol SAM per ml red blood cells and 1.9 to 3.8 nmol per ml plasma. Epinephrine increases the SAM biosynthesis rate in red blood cells. The possible influence of endogenous SAM on previous methods to determine COMT activity in red blood cells is discussed. The statement of Briggs and Briggs (Briggs, M.H. and Briggs, M. (1973) Experientia 29, 278-281) that COMT activity in red blood cells is lower during the last 3 months of pregnancy could not be verified. (Auth.)

  18. Simulated Microgravity Increases Cutaneous Blood Flow in the Head and Leg of Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, M. Shannon; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Breit, Gregory A.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1995-01-01

    The cutaneous microcirculation vasodilates during acute 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT, simulated microgravity) relative to upright conditions, more in the lower body than in the upper body. Cutaneous microvascular blood flow was measured with laser-Doppler flowmetry at the leg (over the distal tibia) and cheek (over the zygomatic arch) of eight healthy men before, during, and after 24 h of HDT. Results were calculated as a percentage of baseline value (100% measured during pre-tilt upright sitting). Cutaneous blood flow in the cheek increased significantly to 165 +/- 37% (mean +/- SE, p less than 0.05) at 9-12 h HDT, then returned to near baseline values by 24 h HDT (114 +/- 29%, NSD), despite increased local arterial pressure. Microvascular flow in the leg remained significantly elevated above baseline througout 24 h HDT (427 +/- 85% at 3 h HDT and 215 +/- 142% at 24 h HDT, p less than 0.05). During the 6-h upright sitting recovery period, cheek and leg blood flow levels returned to near pre-tilt baseline values. Because hydrostatic effects of HDT increase local arterial pressure at the carotid sinus, baroreflex-mediated withdrawal of sympathetic tone probably contributed to increased microvascular flows at the head and leg during HDT. In the leg baroreflex effects combined with minimal stimulation of local veno-arteriolar and myogenic autoregulatory vasoconstriction to elicit relatively larger and more sustained increases in cutaneous flow during HDT. In the cheek, delayed myogenic vasoconstriction and/or hurmonal effects apparently compensated for flow elevation by 24 h of HDT. Therefore, localized vascular adaptations to gravity probably explain differences in acclimation of lower and upper body blood flow to HDT and actual microgravity.

  19. Maternal endotoxemia results in increases in blood pressure and body weight in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Yan-ling; LI Xiao-hui

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on blood pressure and body weight of offspring in rats. Methods Sixteen healthy pregnant rats were randomly divided into two groups. The rats in LPS group were injected intraperitoneally with LPS (0.79 mg·kg-1) at the 8th, 10th, 12th day of gestation. Those in the control group were only treated with NS. After delivery, all offspring were weighed and blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff method once every two weeks from the 6th to 24th week. In the 15th week, their food intakes were weighed every day. At the end of the 24th week, the rats were put to death by decapitation. Abdominal adipose tissues were taken to weigh, and serum level of leptin was detected by RIA. Results The offspring with prenatal LPS exposure showed increased systemic arterial pressure, heavier body weight, elevated food intake, increased adipose tissue weight and increased circulating leptin compared with controls. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to LPS leads to increases in blood pressure and body weight in rats.

  20. Prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide results in increases in blood pressure and body weight in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-ling WEI; Xiao-hui LI; Jian-zhi ZHOU

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to lipopolysacchadde (LPS) on blood pressure and body weight of offspring in rats. Methods: Sixteen healthy,pregnant rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. The rats in the LPS group were injected intraperitoneally with LPS (0.79 mg/kg) on the d 8, d 10, and d 12 of gestation. Those in the control group were only treated with normal saline. After delivery, all offspring were weighed and blood pressure was measured by the tail-cuff method once every 2 weeks from the 6th to the 24th week. In the 15th week,their food intake was weighed every day. At the end of the 24th week, the rats were killed by decapitation. Abdominal adipose tissues were weighed, and the serum level of leptin was detected by radioimmunoassay. Results: The offspring with prenatal LPS exposure showed increased systemic arterial pressure, heavier body weight, elevated food intake, increased adipose tissue weight, and increased circulating leptin compared with the controls. Conclusion: Prenatal exposure to LPS leads to increases in blood pressure and body weight in rats.

  1. Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (>2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure. (author)

  2. Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure. PMID:20543527

  3. Automatic analysis of microscopic images of red blood cell aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichini, Pablo A.; Larese, Mónica G.; Riquelme, Bibiana D.

    2015-06-01

    Red blood cell aggregation is one of the most important factors in blood viscosity at stasis or at very low rates of flow. The basic structure of aggregates is a linear array of cell commonly termed as rouleaux. Enhanced or abnormal aggregation is seen in clinical conditions, such as diabetes and hypertension, producing alterations in the microcirculation, some of which can be analyzed through the characterization of aggregated cells. Frequently, image processing and analysis for the characterization of RBC aggregation were done manually or semi-automatically using interactive tools. We propose a system that processes images of RBC aggregation and automatically obtains the characterization and quantification of the different types of RBC aggregates. Present technique could be interesting to perform the adaptation as a routine used in hemorheological and Clinical Biochemistry Laboratories because this automatic method is rapid, efficient and economical, and at the same time independent of the user performing the analysis (repeatability of the analysis).

  4. Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists enhance white blood cell aggregation in patients with ischaemic heart disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Bridges, A B; Pringle, T. H.; McNeill, G P; Tavendale, R; Belch, J J

    1992-01-01

    The effects of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, calcium channel blockers and long acting nitrates on white blood cell (WBC) aggregation were studied in patients with ischaemic heart disease. WBC aggregation was significantly increased by beta-adrenoceptor antagonists (P = 0.011) but was unaffected by either calcium channel blockers or long acting nitrates. Enhanced WBC aggregation promotes microvascular occlusion and damage.

  5. Recombinant erythropoietin increases blood pressure in experimental hypertension and uraemia without change in vascular cytosolic calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, S D; Fluck, R J; McMahon, A C; Raine, A E

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of erythropoietin-induced hypertension in dialysis patients is unclear. Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) may be altered in both hypertension and uraemia, and the effects of both uraemia and r-HuEPO on vascular smooth muscle [Ca2+]i and blood pressure (BP) in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were therefore studied. Male WKY and SHR underwent partial nephrectomy or sham operation. Three weeks later a 28-day period of treatment with either r-HuEPO 100 U/kg, s.c., 3 times/week or buffer was commenced (n = 10-12 for each subgroup). BP was measured weekly, by noninvasive Doppler tail-cuff assessment. [Ca2+]i was measured following loading with fura-2 in pooled, primary aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Serum urea and creatinine rose 3- to 4-fold after partial nephrectomy. Treatment with r-HuEPO did not change renal function further in either uraemic or control WKY or SHR. Haemoglobin increased in both non-uraemic WKY (16.2-20.3 g/dl) and SHR (16.4-20.5 g/dl) and uraemic animals (WKY 13.9-20.9; SHR 13.8-18.8 g/dl; p < 0.01 for all changes) following 4 weeks of r-HuEPO treatment. BP was unaffected by r-HuEPO in WKY but increased in nonuraemic SHR (210-250; p < 0.01) and in uraemic SHR (224-251 mm Hg; p < 0.001) at 4 weeks. VSMC [Ca2+]i was higher in SHR than WKY (121 vs. 83 nmol/l; MANOVA p < 0.05) but no effect of uraemia or r-HuEPO on [Ca2+]i was detected. In conclusion, the hypertensive effects of r-HuEPO are augmented both in a genetic model of hypertension and in uraemia. Although VSMC [Ca2+]i was elevated in SHR, the further increase in BP induced by r-HuEPO was not associated with alterations in VSMC cytosolic calcium. PMID:8773347

  6. Hemoglobin Aggregation in Single Red Blood Cells of Sickle Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Izumi; Tanaka, Toyoichi; Sun, Shao-Tang; Imanishi, Yuri; Tsuyoshi Ohnishi, S.

    1983-06-01

    A laser light scattering technique was used to observe the extent of hemoglobin aggregation in solitary red blood cells of sickle cell anemia. Hemoglobin aggregation was confirmed in deoxygenated cells. The light scattering technique can also be applied to cytoplasmic studies of any biological cell.

  7. IMPACT OF RED BLOOD CELL TRANSFUSION ON GLOBAL AND REGIONAL MEASURES OF OXYGENATION

    OpenAIRE

    Roberson, Russell S.; Bennett-Guerrero, Elliott

    2012-01-01

    Anemia is common in critically ill patients. While the goal of transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) is to increase oxygen carrying capacity, there are contradictory results about whether RBC transfusion to treat moderate anemia (e.g. hemoglobin 7–10 g/dL) improves tissue oxygenation or changes outcomes. While increasing levels of anemia eventually lead to a level of critical oxygen delivery (DO2), increased cardiac output and oxygen extraction are homestatic mechanisms the body uses to preve...

  8. Current state of the art of blood cell labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An update on some recent developments in the area of blood cell labeling is provided. Specific topics covered include red cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc, platelet labeling using an antiplatelet monoclonal antibody, and the labeling of leukocytes with /sup 99m/Tc. Mechanistic information, where available, is discussed. A critical evaluation of current techniques, their pitfalls as well as advantages, and the problems that remain to be resolved, is presented. The promise shown by recent results using the antibody approach for cell labeling is emphasized. An assessment of the progress made in these areas is presented. 38 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Energized by love: thinking about romantic relationships increases positive affect and blood glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of thinking of a current romantic partner on acute blood glucose responses and positive affect over a short period of time. Participants in romantic relationships were randomly assigned to reflect on their partner, an opposite-sex friend, or their morning routine. Blood glucose levels were assessed prior to reflection, as well as at 10 and 25 min postreflection. Results revealed that individuals in the routine and friend conditions exhibited a decline in glucose over time, whereas individuals in the partner condition did not exhibit this decline (rather, a slight increase) in glucose over time. Reported positive affect following reflection was positively associated with increases in glucose, but only for individuals who reflected on their partner, suggesting this physiological response reflects eustress. These findings add to the literature on eustress in relationships and have implications for relationship processes. PMID:24924647

  10. Hepatic encephalopathy is associated with decreased cerebral oxygen metabolism and blood flow, not increased ammonia uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Gitte; Keiding, Susanne; Munk, Ole L;

    2013-01-01

    tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). Ten patients with cirrhosis were studied during an acute episode of HE; nine were reexamined after recovery. Nine patients with cirrhosis with no history of HE served as controls. Mean CMRO(2) increased from 0.73 µmol oxygen/mL brain tissue/min during HE to 0.......91 µmol oxygen/mL brain tissue/min after recovery (paired t test; P <0.05). Mean CBF increased from 0.28 mL blood/mL brain tissue/min during HE to 0.38 mL blood/mL brain tissue/min after recovery (P <0.05). After recovery from HE, CMRO(2) and CBF were not significantly different from values in the control...

  11. Angioblast Derived from ES Cells Construct Blood Vessels and Ameliorate Diabetic Polyneuropathy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhito Himeno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although numerous reports addressing pathological involvements of diabetic polyneuropathy have been conducted, a universally effective treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy has not yet been established. Recently, regenerative medicine studies in diabetic polyneuropathy using somatic stem/progenitor cell have been reported. However, the effectiveness of these cell transplantations was restricted because of their functional and numerical impairment in diabetic objects. Here, we investigated the efficacy of treatment for diabetic polyneuropathy using angioblast-like cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. Methods and Results. Angioblast-like cells were obtained from mouse embryonic stem cells and transplantation of these cells improved several physiological impairments in diabetic polyneuropathy: hypoalgesia, delayed nerve conduction velocities, and reduced blood flow in sciatic nerve and plantar skin. Furthermore, pathologically, the capillary number to muscle fiber ratios were increased in skeletal muscles of transplanted hindlimbs, and intraepidermal nerve fiber densities were ameliorated in transplanted plantar skin. Transplanted cells maintained their viabilities and differentiated to endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells around the injection sites. Moreover, several transplanted cells constructed chimeric blood vessels with recipient cells. Conclusions. These results suggest that transplantation of angioblast like cells induced from embryonic stem cells appears to be a novel therapeutic strategy for diabetic polyneuropathy.

  12. Stem cell comparison : What can we learn clinically from unrelated cord blood transplantation as an alternative stem cell source?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milano, Filippo; Boelens, Jaap Jan

    2015-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an important therapeutic option for a variety of malignant and non-malignant disorders (NMD). The use of umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) has made HCT available to many more patients. The increased level of human leukocyte antigen dis

  13. White blood cells of peripheral blood with ConA-positive glycotopes in patients with chronic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Maslak

    2015-09-01

     Tumor growth progression of blood cells occurs due to changes in their genetic apparatus, which affects not only the cells morphological characteristics, but also their functional activity which to a greater extent depends on the membrane surface structures, a significant part of which is of glycoprotein nature. Complex type N-glycans are components of surface glycoproteins in the most of leukocytes. Thus, the study of changes in carbohydrate determinants of glycoproteins on the surface of leucocytes in tumorigenesis can help to reveal the mechanisms of this process. The aim of our study was to investigate the monocytes and granulocytes cytoplasmic membrane N-glycosylation in patients with chronic leukemia. The object of the study were blood cells of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n = 12 and polycythemia vera (n = 15 aged 58–66 years. Healthy hematologic volunteers (n = 15 aged 55 to 65 years were in the control group. N-glycan exposure on monocytes and granulocytes was investigated by flow cytometer Beckman Сoulter EPICS with Canavalia ensiformis lectin – Con A conjugated with fluorescent labels. The number of dead cells was monitored by means of binding them with propidium iodide. The result has been analyzed with FC Express. According to our data, levels of ConA-positive monocytes and granulocytes were 9,9 ± 1,0% and 32,7 ± 3,2%, respectively, in peripheral blood of healthy persons. The level of ConA-positive monocytes decreased to 31,0 ± 2,3% and the number of ConA-binding granulocytes increased to 66,7 ± 3,8% in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia compared with the norm. The number of ConA-positive monocytes decreased 3.3 times, and the level of granulocytes interacting with Canavalia ensiformis lectin slightly increased relative to control in polycythemia vera patients. There is significant increase in Con A-positive epitopes on granulocytes in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and polycythemia vera compared with the

  14. Increased blood-brain transfer in a rabbit model of acute liver failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blood-to-brain transfer of [14C]alpha-aminoisobutyric acid was investigated by quantitative autoradiography in normal rabbits and rabbits with acute liver failure induced by the selective hepatotoxin galactosamine. The blood-to-brain transfer of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid was similar in control animals and animals 2 and 7 h after galactosamine injections, but was increased five- to tenfold in certain gray-matter areas of the brain in animals 11 and 18 h after galactosamine treatment. No detectable differences in white-matter uptake of [14C]alpha-aminoisobutyric acid were found between the control and treated groups. The increase in alpha-aminoisobutyric acid transfer within the gray-matter areas suggested that a general or nonspecific increase in brain capillary permeability occurred in these areas. No clinical signs of early hepatic encephalopathy were observed in the treated rabbits, except for 1 animal from the 18-h postgalactosamine group. Thus, enhanced blood-brain transfer of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid preceded the development of overt hepatic encephalopathy. The distribution of radioactivity after the intravenous administration of [14C]galactosamine showed that virtually none of the hepatotoxin localized in the brain, suggesting that the drug itself does not have a direct effect upon the blood-brain barrier or the brain. The increased uptake of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid at 11 and 18 h implies that the transfer of other solutes would also be enhanced, that central nervous system homeostasis would be compromised, and that the resulting changes in brain fluid composition could contribute to or cause hepatic encephalopathy

  15. Early exercise improves cerebral blood flow through increased angiogenesis in experimental stroke rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Pengyue; Yu, Huixian; Zhou, Naiyun; Jie ZHANG; Wu, Yi; Zhang, Yuling; Bai, Yulong; Jia, Jie; Zhang, Qi; Tian, Shan; Wu, Junfa; Hu, Yongshan

    2013-01-01

    Background Early exercise after stroke promoted angiogenesis and increased microvessles density. However, whether these newly formatted vessels indeed give rise to functional vascular and improve the cerebral blood flow (CBF) in impaired brain region is still unclear. The present study aimed to determine the effect of early exercise on angiogenesis and CBF in ischemic region. Methods Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to 90 min middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO)and randomly div...

  16. Smart blood cell and microvesicle-based Trojan horse drug delivery: Merging expertise in blood transfusion and biomedical engineering in the field of nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Wen; Goubran, Hadi; Seghatchian, Jerard; Burnouf, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Therapeutic and diagnostic applications of nanomedicine are playing increasingly important roles in human health. Various types of synthetic nanoparticles, including liposomes, micelles, and other nanotherapeutic platforms and conjugates, are being engineered to encapsulate or carry drugs for treating diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disorders, neurodegeneration, and inflammations. Nanocarriers are designed to increase the half-life of drugs, decrease their toxicity and, ideally, target pathological sites. Developing smart carriers with the capacity to deliver drugs specifically to the microenvironment of diseased cells with minimum systemic toxicity is the goal. Blood cells, and potentially also the liposome-like micro- and nano-vesicles they generate, may be regarded as ideally suited to perform such specific targeting with minimum immunogenic risks. Blood cell membranes are "decorated" with complex physiological receptors capable of targeting and communicating with other cells and tissues and delivering their content to the surrounding pathological microenvironment. Blood cells, such as erythrocytes, have been developed as permeable carriers to release drugs to diseased tissues or act as biofactory allowing enzymatic degradation of a pathological substrate. Interestingly, attempts are also being made to improve the targeting capacity of synthetic nanoparticles by "decorating" their surface with blood cell membrane receptor-like biochemical structures. Research is needed to further explore the benefits that blood cell-derived microvesicles, as a Trojan horse delivery systems, can bring to the arsenal of therapeutic micro- and nanotechnologies. This short review focuses on the therapeutic roles that red blood cells and platelets can play as smart drug-delivery systems, and highlights the benefits that blood transfusion expertise can bring to this exciting and novel biomedical engineering field. PMID:27179926

  17. The effect of alpha-thalassemia on cord blood red cell indices and interaction with sickle cell gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha-thalassemia is known to be prevalent in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. There are no large scale reports regarding the effect of alpha-thalassemia on red cell indices of cord blood from Saudi Arabia. Similarly, there are reports regarding the interaction of alpha-thalassemia and the sickle-cell gene in relation to red cell indices in cord blood. To address these issues, we undertook a study on neonatal cold blood samples. In a prospective study, cord blood samples from 504 neonates from the Qatif area of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia were analyzed for complete blood counts (CBC) and cellulose acetate Hb electrophoresis. Hb S was confirmed by citrate agar Hb electrophoresis. There were 243 case samples with normal Hb electrophoresis (Hb A 27.2+- 7% and Hb F 72.6+-7.7%). Their mean Hb (g/dL), RBC (x10/L), Hct (%), MCV (pg), MCHC (g/dL), RDW-SD (fl) and RDW-CV (%) were 15.05+-1.6, 4.5+-0.5, 47.4+-5.3, 106+-8, 33.6+-2.3, 31.8+-1.7, 69.2+-9.5 and 17.9+-1.7, respectively. There were 136 cases with alpha-thalassemia trait (alphaTT), 57 cases with sickle cell trait (SCT) and 50 cases of sickle cell trait with alplha-thalassemia trait (SCT/ alphaTT). There were ten cases of Hb H disease (6 definite), including one with sickle cell disease (SCD) and two with SCT, Hb Bart's 23.9%-43.6%; four probable with Hb Bart's 10.9%-16.1% and one with SCT. The effect on red cell parameters in Hb H disease were most pronounced. In addition, there seven cases of SCD, four of whom had coexistent alpha-thalassemia trait (SCD/alphaTT). The prevalence of alpha-thalassemia in this cohort of Saudi population was 39.99%. Hb H disease appeared as common as SCD. Sickle cell gene was seen in 23.4% of neonatal samples. Apha-thalassemia gene significantly reduces MCH, MCV, RDW-SD, Hct, Hb and increase RBC count in both normal or sickle cell trait neonates. Generally, the variation of red cell parameters is directly proportional to the amount of Hb Bart's in the cord blood. Sickle cell

  18. Increased preoperative collection of autologous blood with recombinant human erythropoietin therapy in tertiary care hospitals of Jammu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumkum Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To study whether the administration of recombinant human erythropoietin increases the amount of autologous blood that can be collected before orthopaedic surgery. Materials and Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of recombinant human erythropoietin in 68 adults scheduled for elective orthopedic procedures. The patients received either erythropoietin 600 units/kg of body weight or placebo intravenously every 5 th day prior to each phlebotomy for 21 days during which time up to 5 units of blood was collected. Patients were excluded from donation when their hematocrit values were less than 33%. All patients received iron sulphate 325mg orally 3 times daily. The mean number of units collected per patient was 4.33 ± 0.4 for erythropoietin group and 3.05± 0.71 for the placebo group. Results: The mean packed red cell volume donated by patients who received erythropoietin was 32% greater than that donated by patients who received placebo (196.3 vs. 169.4 ml, p<0.05. 68% in the placebo group and 9% of patients treated with erythropoietin were unable to donate ≥4 units. No adverse effects were attributed to erythropoietin. While participating in the study, complications developed in 2 patients one in each group necessitating their removal from the study. Conclusion: We conclude that recombinant human erythropoietin increases the ability of the patients about to undergo elective surgery to donate autologous blood units.

  19. BH4 treatment in BH4-responsive PKU patients: preliminary data on blood prolactin concentrations suggest increased cerebral dopamine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Danique; Anjema, Karen; Jahja, Rianne; de Groot, Martijn J; Liemburg, Geertje B; Heiner-Fokkema, M Rebecca; van der Zee, Eddy A; Derks, Terry G J; Kema, Ido P; van Spronsen, Francjan J

    2015-01-01

    In phenylketonuria (PKU), cerebral neurotransmitter deficiencies have been suggested to contribute to brain dysfunction. Present treatment aims to reduce blood phenylalanine concentrations by a phenylalanine-restricted diet, while in some patients blood phenylalanine concentrations also respond to cofactor treatment with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). Recently, a repurposing approach of BH4 was suggested to increase cerebral neurotransmitter synthesis. To investigate whether BH4 may improve cerebral dopamine concentrations in PKU patients beyond its effect through lowering blood phenylalanine concentrations, we investigated blood prolactin concentrations-as a parameter of brain dopamine availability. We retrospectively compared blood prolactin in relation to blood phenylalanine concentrations of nine (male) BH4-responsive PKU patients, when being treated without and with BH4. Blood prolactin concentrations positively correlated to blood phenylalanine concentrations (p=0.002), being significantly lower with than without BH4 treatment (p=0.047). In addition, even in this small number of male patients, blood prolactin concentrations tended to be lower at increasing BH4 dose (p=0.054), while taking blood phenylalanine concentrations into account (p=0.002). In individual BH4-responsive patients, median blood prolactin concentrations were significantly lower while using BH4 than before using BH4 treatment (p=0.024), whereas median blood phenylalanine concentrations tended to be lower, but this did not reach statistical significance (p=0.107). Therefore, these data show that high blood phenylalanine in BH4-responsive PKU male patients seems to be associated with increased blood prolactin concentrations, suggesting reduced cerebral dopamine availability. Moreover, these data suggest that BH4 treatment in itself could decrease blood prolactin concentrations in a dose-responsive way, independent of blood phenylalanine concentrations. We conclude that these preliminary data

  20. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus in volunteer blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P E; Stevens, C E; Pindyck, J; Schrode, J; Steaffens, J W; Lee, H

    1990-01-01

    Serum samples collected in 1985 and 1986 from 18,257 donors to the Greater New York Blood Program were screened by enzyme-linked immunoassay for antibody to human T-cell lymphotropic virus (anti-HTLV). Fifteen samples (0.08%) were confirmed positive: 7 by radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA) alone, 6 by Western blot alone, and 2 by combined results from both tests. One donor, whose original test result was uninterpretable because multiple nonspecific bands were present on RIPA, clearly tested positive on subsequent specimens. Follow-up testing of individuals with this type of result may be needed to resolve their HTLV status. Anti-HTLV prevalence increased with age and was significantly more common in black or Hispanic donors and in those born in the Caribbean than in other donors. All anti-HTLV-positive donors were negative for antibody to HIV-1, and only one donor (7% of those positive) would have been excluded by any of the routine donor screening tests used at that time. PMID:2173176

  1. Delay in blood sampling for routine newborn screening is associated with increased risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker;

    2015-01-01

    ' country of origin, child admission, and parental education and income, the estimates were slightly different. Thus, blood collection at 0-4days was associated with an IRR of 1.27 (95% CI 0.94-1.71), 6-9days 1.31 (95% CI 0.94-1.84) and 10+days 3.52 (95% CI 1.50 to 8.24). DISCUSSION: After adjusting risk......BACKGROUND: The Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank, containing dried blood spot samples from all newborn in Denmark, is a unique source of data that can be utilized for analyses of genetic and environmental exposures related to schizophrenia and other mental disorders. In previous analyses, we have...... found that early and late blood sampling, compared to sampling at day 5, was associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. As delay in sampling of blood for neonatal screening cannot in itself influence the risk of schizophrenia, it must be seen as a proxy for unknown underlying causes responsible...

  2. Saving the leftovers: models for banking cord blood stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogdell, Kimberly J

    2009-01-01

    Each year there are over four million live births in the United States. Each birth produces umbilical cord blood stem cells, which are usually discarded. The author argues that rather than discarding the umbilical cord, this valuable resource of cord blood should be banked and used for research and therapeutic purposes. Umbilical cord blood could provide a solution to the critical need to find matching donors for hematopoietic transplants in patients who have no matching bone marrow donors. Creating a system of universal donation to a public bank will greatlyincrease the number of donors and therefore, the number of matches for patients. Such a system will facilitate the development and use of new technologies and transplant procedures, while providing an opportunity for treatment to individuals who would otherwise not be able to find suitable donors. PMID:20101907

  3. Image-based red cell counting for wild animals blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauricio, Claudio R M; Schneider, Fabio K; Dos Santos, Leonilda Correia

    2010-01-01

    An image-based red blood cell (RBC) automatic counting system is presented for wild animals blood analysis. Images with 2048×1536-pixel resolution acquired on an optical microscope using Neubauer chambers are used to evaluate RBC counting for three animal species (Leopardus pardalis, Cebus apella and Nasua nasua) and the error found using the proposed method is similar to that obtained for inter observer visual counting method, i.e., around 10%. Smaller errors (e.g., 3%) can be obtained in regions with less grid artifacts. These promising results allow the use of the proposed method either as a complete automatic counting tool in laboratories for wild animal's blood analysis or as a first counting stage in a semi-automatic counting tool. PMID:21096766

  4. Bacterial glycosidases for the production of universal red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiyong P; Sulzenbacher, Gerlind; Yuan, Huaiping; Bennett, Eric P; Pietz, Greg; Saunders, Kristen; Spence, Jean; Nudelman, Edward; Levery, Steven B; White, Thayer; Neveu, John M; Lane, William S; Bourne, Yves; Olsson, Martin L; Henrissat, Bernard; Clausen, Henrik

    2007-04-01

    Enzymatic removal of blood group ABO antigens to develop universal red blood cells (RBCs) was a pioneering vision originally proposed more than 25 years ago. Although the feasibility of this approach was demonstrated in clinical trials for group B RBCs, a major obstacle in translating this technology to clinical practice has been the lack of efficient glycosidase enzymes. Here we report two bacterial glycosidase gene families that provide enzymes capable of efficient removal of A and B antigens at neutral pH with low consumption of recombinant enzymes. The crystal structure of a member of the alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase family reveals an unusual catalytic mechanism involving NAD+. The enzymatic conversion processes we describe hold promise for achieving the goal of producing universal RBCs, which would improve the blood supply while enhancing the safety of clinical transfusions. PMID:17401360

  5. Increased risk of ALL among premature infants is not explained by increased prevalence of pre-leukemic cell clones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Madsen, Hans O.; Vestergaard, Therese Risom;

    2010-01-01

    prevalence and magnitude of preleukaemic t(12;21)-positive cells compared to previously published data from mature childrencould be demonstrated. This indirectly supports the theory that prevalence and quantity of preleukaemic t(12;21)-positive cells peaks at term or early childhood and that exogenous......The multi-hit hypothesis for paediatric leukemogenesis states that an initial genetic hit (often occurring prenataly) must be followed by one or more hit(s) before a cell become leukeamic. Studies have demonstrated the presence of pre-leukaemic t(12;21)-positive cells at levels 10(-3) to 10(-4) in...... quantity of pre-leukaemic t(12;21)-positive children born prematurely. Using a sensitive qRT-PCR assay, we screened messenger RNA from fresh umbilical cord-blood samples from 256 premature children. In none of the neonates, t(12;21)-positive cells could be demonstrated. Therefore, no increase in the...

  6. Dopexamine increases internal mammary artery blood flow following coronary artery bypass grafting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, Michael J

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Vasoactive agents and inotropes influence conduit-coronary blood flow following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). It was hypothesized that dopexamine hydrochloride, a dopamine A-1 (DA-1) and beta(2) agonist would increase conduit-coronary blood flow. A prospective randomized double blind clinical trial was carried out to test this hypothesis. DA-1 receptors have previously been localized to human left ventricle. METHODS: Twenty-six American Society of Anaesthesiology class 2-3 elective coronary artery bypass graft patients who did not require inotropic support on separation from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were studied. According to a randomized allocation patients received either dopexamine (1 microg\\/kg per min) or placebo (saline) by intravenous infusion for 15 min. Immediately prior to and at 5,10 and 15 min of infusion, blood flow through the internal mammary and vein grafts (Transit time flow probes, Transonic Ltd.), heart rate, cardiac index, mean arterial pressure and pulmonary haemodynamics were noted. The data were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance. RESULTS: Low-dose dopexamine (1 microg\\/kg per min) caused a significant increase in mammary graft blood flow compared to placebo at 15 min of infusion (P=0.028, dopexamine group left internal mammary artery (LIMA) flow of 43.3+\\/-14.2 ml\\/min, placebo group LIMA flow at 26.1+\\/-16.3 ml\\/min). Dopexamine recipients demonstrated a non-significant trend to increased saphenous vein graft flow (P=0.059). Increased heart rate was the only haemodynamic change induced by dopexamine (P=0.004, dopexamine group at 85.2+\\/-9.6 beats\\/min and placebo group at 71.1+\\/-7.6 beats\\/min after 15 min of infusion). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that administration of dopexamine (1 microg\\/kg per min) was associated with a significant increase in internal mammary artery graft blood flow with mild increase in heart rate being the only haemodynamic change. Low-dose dopexamine may

  7. Red Cell Properties after Different Modes of Blood Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhro, Asya; Huisjes, Rick; Verhagen, Liesbeth P.; Mañú-Pereira, María del Mar; Llaudet-Planas, Esther; Petkova-Kirova, Polina; Wang, Jue; Eichler, Hermann; Bogdanova, Anna; van Wijk, Richard; Vives-Corrons, Joan-Lluís; Kaestner, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Transportation of blood samples is unavoidable for assessment of specific parameters in blood of patients with rare anemias, blood doping testing, or for research purposes. Despite the awareness that shipment may substantially alter multiple parameters, no study of that extent has been performed to assess these changes and optimize shipment conditions to reduce transportation-related artifacts. Here we investigate the changes in multiple parameters in blood of healthy donors over 72 h of simulated shipment conditions. Three different anticoagulants (K3EDTA, Sodium Heparin, and citrate-based CPDA) for two temperatures (4°C and room temperature) were tested to define the optimal transportation conditions. Parameters measured cover common cytology and biochemistry parameters (complete blood count, hematocrit, morphological examination), red blood cell (RBC) volume, ion content and density, membrane properties and stability (hemolysis, osmotic fragility, membrane heat stability, patch-clamp investigations, and formation of micro vesicles), Ca2+ handling, RBC metabolism, activity of numerous enzymes, and O2 transport capacity. Our findings indicate that individual sets of parameters may require different shipment settings (anticoagulants, temperature). Most of the parameters except for ion (Na+, K+, Ca2+) handling and, possibly, reticulocytes counts, tend to favor transportation at 4°C. Whereas plasma and intraerythrocytic Ca2+ cannot be accurately measured in the presence of chelators such as citrate and EDTA, the majority of Ca2+-dependent parameters are stabilized in CPDA samples. Even in blood samples from healthy donors transported using an optimized shipment protocol, the majority of parameters were stable within 24 h, a condition that may not hold for the samples of patients with rare anemias. This implies for as short as possible shipping using fast courier services to the closest expert laboratory at reach. Mobile laboratories or the travel of the patients to

  8. Insoluble Fiber in Young Barley Leaf Suppresses the Increment of Postprandial Blood Glucose Level by Increasing the Digesta Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Takano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. is a well-known cereal plant. Young barley leaf is consumed as a popular green-colored drink, which is named “Aojiru” in Japan. We examined the effects of barley leaf powder (BLP and insoluble fibers derived from BLP on postprandial blood glucose in rats and healthy Japanese volunteers. BLP and insoluble fibers derived from BLP suppressed the increment of postprandial blood glucose levels in rats (, and increased the viscosity of their digesta. The insoluble fibers present in BLP might play a role in controlling blood glucose level by increasing digesta viscosity. In human, BLP suppressed the increment of postprandial blood glucose level only in those which exhibited higher blood glucose levels after meals (. BLP might suppress the increment of postprandial blood glucose level by increasing digesta viscosity in both of rats and humans who require blood glucose monitoring.

  9. Effects of Phototherapy on Cytokines’ Levels and White Blood Cells in Term Neonate with Hyperbilirubinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Jahanshahifard, Sedigheh; Ahmadpour-Kacho, Mousa; Pasha, Yadollah Zahed

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Phototherapy is the most common treatment used for severe jaundice. There is increasing evidence that phototherapy can directly affect the expression and function of cell surface receptors including adhesion molecules, cytokines, and growth factor receptors. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of phototherapy use on the levels of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α as cytokine expressions from keratinocytes, and also white blood cell counts i...

  10. Blood loss estimation in Schistosoma incognitum by the use of 51Cr labelled red cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C42 Red blood cells labelled with 51Cr were used to study the pathophysiology of S. incognitum infection. Blood volume, cell volume, faecal blood excretion and the half life of the red cells were determined. It was shown that in rabbits infected with the blood fluke, there was loss of blood, which may result in the development of anaemia in the infected animals. (author)

  11. Blood based cell biopsy for early detection of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cha-Mei; Adams, Daniel; Adams, Diane; Alpaugh, R. Katherine; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Martin, Stuart; Chumsri, Saranya; Marks, Jeffrey

    Early detection (ED) of cancer holds the promise for less aggressive treatments and better outcome. However, there are few accepted methods for ED. We report on a previously unknown blood cell found specifically in the peripheral blood of many solid tumors. They are defined as Cancer Associated Macrophage-Like cells (CAMLs) and are characterized by large size (25-300 μm) and expression of cancer markers. CAMLs were isolated on precision filters during blood filtration. We conducted prospective studies in breast cancer (BC) to ascertain CAML prevalence, specificity and sensitivity in relation to disease status at clinical presentation. We report on two related but separate studies: 1) the isolation of CAMLs from patients with known invasive BC, compared to healthy volunteers and, 2) a double blind study conducted on women undergoing core needle biopsy to evaluate suspicious breast masses. The studies show that CAMLs are found in all stages of BC and suggest that detection of CAMLs can differentiate patients with BC from those with benign breast conditions and healthy individuals. This non-invasive blood test can be potentially used for ED of BC and other malignancies after validation studies with the advantage of a minimally invasive procedure and longitudinal monitoring. This work was supported by Grants from Maryland TEDCO MTTCF, R01-CA154624 from NIH, KG100240 from Susan G. Komen Foundation, Era of Hope Scholar award from DoD (BC100675), and U01-CA084955 from NCI EDRN.

  12. Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: In vitro assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benarroz, M.O. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010-180 Natal, RN (Brazil); Fonseca, A.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Rocha, G.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frydman, J.N.G. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010-180 Natal, RN (Brazil); Rocha, V.C.; Pereira, M.O. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)] (and others)

    2008-02-15

    Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99 m({sup 99m}Tc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI on BC, IF-P and IF-BC. No modifications were verified on shape of red blood cells. Cinnamon extracts could alter the labelling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon.

  13. Does transfusion of residual cardiopulmonary bypass circuit blood increase postoperative bleeding? A prospective randomized study in patients undergoing on pump cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duara Rajnish

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Homologous blood transfusion after open heart surgery puts a tremendous load on the blood banks. This prospective randomized study evaluates the efficacy of infusing back residual cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB circuit i.e., pump blood as a means to reduce homologous transfusion after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG and whether its use increases postoperative drainage. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven consecutive patients who underwent elective CABGs under CPB were randomized into 2 groups: (1 cases where residual pump blood was used and (2 controls where residual pump blood was not used. Patients were monitored for hourly drainage on the day of surgery and the 1 st postoperative day and the requirements of homologous blood and its products. Data were matched regarding change in Hemoglobin, Packed Cell Volume and coagulation parameters till 1st postoperative day. All cases were followed up for three years. Results: There was a marginal reduction in bleeding pattern in the early postoperative period in the cases compared to controls. The requirement of homologous blood and its products were also reduced in the cases. Conclusions: The use of CPB circuit blood is safe in the immediate postoperative period. The requirement of homologous blood transfusion can come down if strict transfusion criteria are maintained.

  14. Isolation of human monoclonal antibodies from peripheral blood B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinghe; Doria-Rose, Nicole A; Longo, Nancy S; Laub, Leo; Lin, Chien-Li; Turk, Ellen; Kang, Byong H; Migueles, Stephen A; Bailer, Robert T; Mascola, John R; Connors, Mark

    2013-10-01

    Isolation of monoclonal antibodies is an important technique for understanding the specificities and characteristics of antibodies that underlie the humoral immune response to a given antigen. Here we describe a technique for isolating monoclonal antibodies from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The protocol includes strategies for the isolation of switch-memory B cells from peripheral blood, the culture of B cells, the removal of the supernatant for screening and the lysis of B cells in preparation for immunoglobulin heavy-chain and light-chain amplification and cloning. We have observed that the addition of cytokines IL-2, IL-21 and irradiated 3T3-msCD40L feeder cells can successfully stimulate switch-memory B cells to produce high concentrations of IgG in the supernatant. The supernatant may then be screened by appropriate assays for binding or for other functions. This protocol can be completed in 2 weeks. It is adaptable to use in other species and enables the efficient isolation of antibodies with a desired functional characteristic without prior knowledge of specificity. PMID:24030440

  15. Immunophenotype of hematopoietic stem cells from placental/umbilical cord blood after culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pranke

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification and enumeration of human hematopoietic stem cells remain problematic, since in vitro and in vivo stem cell assays have different outcomes. We determined if the altered expression of adhesion molecules during stem cell expansion could be a reason for the discrepancy. CD34+CD38- and CD34+CD38+ cells from umbilical cord blood were analyzed before and after culture with thrombopoietin (TPO, FLT-3 ligand (FL and kit ligand (KL; or stem cell factor in different combinations: TPO + FL + KL, TPO + FL and TPO, at concentrations of 50 ng/mL each. Cells were immunophenotyped by four-color fluorescence using antibodies against CD11c, CD31, CD49e, CD61, CD62L, CD117, and HLA-DR. Low-density cord blood contained 1.4 ± 0.9% CD34+ cells, 2.6 ± 2.1% of which were CD38-negative. CD34+ cells were isolated using immuno-magnetic beads and cultured for up to 7 days. The TPO + FL + KL combination presented the best condition for maintenance of stem cells. The total cell number increased 4.3 ± 1.8-fold, but the number of viable CD34+ cells decreased by 46 ± 25%. On the other hand, the fraction of CD34+CD38- cells became 52.0 ± 29% of all CD34+ cells. The absolute number of CD34+CD38- cells was expanded on average 15 ± 12-fold when CD34+ cells were cultured with TPO + FL + KL for 7 days. The expression of CD62L, HLA-DR and CD117 was modulated after culture, particularly with TPO + FL + KL, explaining differences between the adhesion and engraftment of primary and cultured candidate stem cells. We conclude that culture of CD34+ cells with TPO + FL + KL results in a significant increase in the number of candidate stem cells with the CD34+CD38- phenotype.

  16. Intrahepatic natural killer T cell populations are increased in human hepatic steatosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Adler; Sarah Taylor; Kamalu Okebugwu; Herman Yee; Christine Fielding; George Fielding; Michael Poles

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To determine if natural killer T cell (NKT) populations are affected in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD).METHODS: Patients undergoing bariatric surgery underwent liver biopsy and blood sampling during surgery.The biopsy was assessed for steatosis and immunocyte infiltration. Intrahepatic lymphocytes (IHLs) were isolated from the remainder of the liver biopsy,and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from the blood. Expression of surface proteins on both IHLs and PBMCs were quantified using flow cytometry.RESULTS: Twenty-seven subjects participated in this study. Subjects with moderate or severe steatosis had a higher percentage of intrahepatic CD3+/CD56+ NKT cells (38.6%) than did patients with mild steatosis(24.1%, P = 0.05) or those without steatosis (21.5%, P= 0.03). Patients with moderate to severe steatosis alsohad a higher percentage of NKT cells in the blood (12.3%) as compared to patients with mild steatosis (2.5% P =0.02) and those without steatosis (5.1%, P = 0.05).CONCLUSION: NKT cells are significantly increased in the liver and blood of patients with moderate to severe steatosis and support the role of NKT cells in NAFLD.

  17. Exercise prevents leptin-induced increase in blood pressure in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhana, K; Effendi, I; Caszo, Brinnell; Satar, Nuraliza Abdul; Singh, H J

    2014-06-01

    Although leptin has been shown to increase blood pressure (BP), it is however unclear if this increase can be prevented by exercise. This study therefore investigated the effect of leptin treatment with concurrent exercise on blood pressure (BP), sodium output, and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in normotensive rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-270 g were divided into four groups consisting of a control group (n = 6), leptin-treated (n = 8), non-leptin-treated exercise group (n = 8), and a leptin-treated exercise group (n = 8). Leptin was given subcutaneously daily for 14 days (60 μg/kg/day). Animals were exercised on a treadmill for 30 min at a speed of 0.5 m/s and at 5° incline four times per week. Measurement of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and collection of urine samples for estimation of sodium and creatinine was done once a week. Serum samples were collected at the end of the experiment for determination of sodium, creatinine and ET-1. At day 14, mean SBP and serum ET-1 level in the leptin-treated group was significantly higher than that in the control group whereas mean SBP and serum ET-1 level was significantly lower in the leptin-treated exercise group than those in leptin-treated and control groups. Creatinine clearance, urinary sodium excretion, and urine output were not different between the four groups. Regular treadmill exercise prevents leptin-induced increases in SBP in rats, which might in part result from increased urinary sodium excretion and preventing the leptin-induced increases in serum ET-1 concentration. PMID:24711061

  18. Driving environment in Iran increases blood pressure even in healthy taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Navadeh Khodadadi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Nowadays, driving is an unseparated part of our new modern lifestyle; and we are exposed to this environment all the days for several hours whether as drivers or as riders. Many reports indicated that Iran is on the top rank of automobile-related morbidity and mortality among developed and even many developing countries that can be due to dangerous driving habits in Iran. We designed this study to find out if environment of driving have clinically important effects on blood pressure (BP and how strong is the effect. We also examined if there were any predictors for the BP rises in driving time.
    • METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 31 healthy male taxi drivers were included through a multistage proportional sampling method in winter and spring 2007. They were referred to the clinic of hypertension in Shafa Hospital, Kerman. A trained nurse measured the BPs. She also did set up the Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor (ABPM on the drivers’ left arms for BP recording every 30 minutes during the day. Based on the diurnal recorded BPs, the subjects were allocated into normotensive and hypertensive (systolic BP > 135 or diastolic BP > 85mmHg groups. The difference among the clinic BPs and the driving BPs was examined by t-test in Stata version 8, followed by a multivariate analysis for exploring the main predictors for BP rises in driving time.
    • RESULTS: Both mean systolic and mean diastolic BPs were significantly increased from 116.85 (SE 2.28 and 74.44 (SE 2.22 mmHg in clinic to 138.64 (SE 2.77 and 95.70 (SE 2.55 mmHg during driving, respectively (P = 0.0001. Pulse pressure remained constant (P = 0.87. The difference between clinic's and driving time measurements was higher in hypertensive group. Those with higher systolic blood pressures in clinic had more frequent and higher BP rises in driving time (P = 0.02.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Driving

    • Secretome of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Enhances Wound Healing

      OpenAIRE

      Mildner, Michael; Hacker, Stefan; Haider, Thomas; Gschwandtner, Maria; Werba, Gregor; Barresi, Caterina; Zimmermann, Matthias; Golabi, Bahar; Tschachler, Erwin; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan

      2013-01-01

      Non-healing skin ulcers are often resistant to most common therapies. Treatment with growth factors has been demonstrated to improve closure of chronic wounds. Here we investigate whether lyophilized culture supernatant of freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is able to enhance wound healing. PBMC from healthy human individuals were prepared and cultured for 24 hours. Supernatants were collected, dialyzed and lyophilized (SECPBMC). Six mm punch biopsy wounds were set on ...

    • Dynamic Modes of Red Blood Cells in Oscillatory Shear Flow

      OpenAIRE

      Noguchi, Hiroshi

      2009-01-01

      The dynamics of red blood cells (RBCs) in oscillatory shear flow was studied using differential equations of three variables: a shape parameter, the inclination angle $\\theta$, and phase angle $\\phi$ of the membrane rotation. In steady shear flow, three types of dynamics occur depending on the shear rate and viscosity ratio. i) tank-treading (TT): $\\phi$ rotates while the shape and $\\theta$ oscillate. ii) tumbling (TB): $\\theta$ rotates while the shape and $\\phi$ oscillate. iii) intermediate ...

  1. Effect of Irradiation on Microparticles in Red Blood Cell Concentrates

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Chi Hyun; Yun, Seung Gyu; Koh, Young Eun; Lim, Chae Seung

    2016-01-01

    Changes in microparticles (MP) from red blood cell (RBC) concentrates in the context of irradiation have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate how irradiation affects the number of MPs within transfusion components. Twenty RBC concentrates, within 14 days after donation, were exposed to gamma rays (dose rate: 25 cGy) from a cesium-137 irradiator. Flow cytometry was used to determine the numbers of MPs derived from RBC concentrates before and 24 hr after irradiation. The...

  2. Flow of red blood cells in capillary networks

    OpenAIRE

    Couto, Ana; Teixeira, Lúcia; Leble, Vladimir; Lima, R.; Ribeiro, António E.; Dias, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    In the present work we have studied the flow of red blood cells through a column packed with soda lime glass spheres with diameter of 337.5 micron (pore diameter 150 micron). The ratio between the average velocity of the RBCs and the average velocity of the carrying fluid (physiological saline) was close to 0.9. The RBCs migrated faster through the column than the carrying fluid mainly due to a hydrodynamic chromatographic effect.

  3. Effects of Dextran Molecular Weight on Red Blood Cell Aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Neu, Björn; Wenby, Rosalinda; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2008-01-01

    The reversible aggregation of human red blood cells (RBC) by proteins or polymers continues to be of biologic and biophysical interest, yet the mechanistic details governing the process are still being explored. Although a depletion model with osmotic attractive forces due to polymer depletion near the RBC surface has been proposed for aggregation by the neutral polyglucose dextran, its applicability at high molecular mass has not been established. In this study, RBC aggregation was measured ...

  4. Blood transfusion in sickle cell disease leading to posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Shashi; Killinger, James; Overby, Philip

    2013-10-01

    Children with sickle cell disease have a very high risk of lifelong neurologic morbidity and mortality. Cerebrovascular accidents are a known complication in children with sickle cell disease. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a constellation of acute neurologic findings increasingly recognized in pediatric critical care population with evidence of vasogenic edema on brain imaging possibly due to cerebral vascular endothelial cell dysfunction. This report, for the first time, describes a young adult with sickle cell disease who developed posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome following blood transfusion. PMID:22899796

  5. Rilmenidine prevents blood pressure increase in rats with compromised nitric oxide production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mária GEROV(A); Jozef T(O)R(O)K; Ol'ga PECH(A)(O)OV(A); Jana MATU(S)KOV(A)

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To search tools of high blood pressure in the model of nitric oxide (NO)-defective hypertension, and the study focused on the effect of rilmenidine, agonist of imidazoline receptors, which was suggested to modulate central sympathetic outflow. METHODS: Three experimental groups, each consisting of 7 rats, were used: (Ⅰ) rats with inhibition of NO synthase (NOS) by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) 40 mg.kg-1.d-1 for 4 weeks in drinking water, (Ⅱ) rats with inhibited NOS as in group Ⅰ, plus agonist of imidazoline receptors rilmenidine 3mg.kg-1·d-1 for 4 weeks by gavage, and (Ⅲ) control rats. Systolic blood pressure was measured weekly noninvasively.At the end of experiment aortic ring isometric tension was followed, NOS expression (aorta, left ventricle), and NOS activity (left ventricle and brain) were determined. RESULTS: In the group Ⅰ systolic blood pressure increased significantly, aortic ring relaxation to acetylcholine was significantly attenuated. Rilmenidine administered simultaneously with L-NAME (group Ⅱ) prevented the increase of blood pressure which did not differ significantly from control values; aortic ring relaxation to acetylcholine did not differ from control. No change in NOS expression (aorta and left ventricle) was found in groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ. Significant decline in NOS activity (left ventricle and brain) was found in groups Ⅰ and ⅡⅡ. CONCLUSION: Rilmenidine has a remarkable role in NO-defective hypertension,possibly by inhibiting central sympathetic outflow and by affecting receptors in vascular smooth muscle also. The prime cause of hypertension in this experimental model - the compromised production of NO due to inhibition of NOS - was not affected by rilmenidine.

  6. Clinical applications of indium-111-acetylacetone-labelled blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method permitting red-cell labelling with 111In-acetylacetone was reported in 1974 for evaluating intestinal blood loss, the liver-spleen ratio and the red-cell volume. White blood cells can be tagged similarly. In white-cell labelling, simultaneous red-cell or platelet tagging is avoided. Several procedures (dextran separation and gradient centrifugations) have been combined, to develop a highly selective cell separation. In osteomyelitis it may not be as advantageous to use 67Ga-citrate, as in inflammatory soft tissue processes. The detection of inflammatory processes with labelled leukocytes could be of great importance for the scintigraphic diagnosis of osteomyelitidies. A group of 97 patients with suspected osteomyelitis have been examined using 111In-acetylacetone-labelled leukocytes (111In-AAL) immediately following positive routine skeletal scintigraphy. Images obtained 24 h post injection usually were the most satisfactory. In the followup group of 70 patients 21 true positives, 43 true negatives, 21 false negatives and 3 false positives were observed. These findings result in a specificity of 92%, sensitivity of 50% and accuracy of 70% with 111In-AAL for osteomyelitis. Preliminary investigations using 111In-acetylacetone-labelled thrombocytes (111In-AAT) were carried out to detect rejection of transplanted kidneys. The platelets were separated by means of additional special density gradient centrifugations but no dextran from 15-20 ml of autologous whole blood. Scans have been obtained 15 min, 2.5 h and 24 h post injection in an initial group of 10 patients. In acute rejection, a high transplant uptake has been detected, whereas patients without acute rejection showed no or only a minimum activity accumulation. Patients with chronic rejection have intermediate uptakes

  7. What Is the Most Appropriate Source for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation? Peripheral Stem Cell/Bone Marrow/Cord Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Itır Sirinoglu Demiriz; Emre Tekgunduz; Fevzi Altuntas

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of peripheral stem cell (PSC) and cord blood (CB) as an alternative to bone marrow (BM) recently has caused important changes on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) practice. According to the CIBMTR data, there has been a significant decrease in the use of bone marrow and increase in the use of PSC and CB as the stem cell source for HSCT performed during 1997–2006 period for patients under the age of 20. On the other hand, the stem cell source in 70% of the HSCT pr...

  8. Donor cell leukemia after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Makoto; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Terakura, Seitaro; Ozeki, Kazutaka; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Naoe, Tomoki

    2008-07-01

    A 49-year-old male developed recurrent acute myeloid leukemia 27 months after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) from an HLA-identical brother. The immunophenotype of the blastic cell population was incompatible with that of the pre-transplant blast cells; a mutation in C/EBPA gene was found in the pre-transplant blast cells that was not present in the post-transplant blast cells, and short tandem repeat analysis of marrow cells, which included 71% blasts, showed complete donor chimera. Thus, this recipient developed donor cell leukemia (DCL). The donor was healthy when DCL developed in the recipient as well as before donation of the peripheral blood stem cells. Only five cases of DCL after PBSCT have been reported in the literature. As a mechanism for the development of DCL, a vigorous proliferative demand on the donor cells, which often correlates with a higher likelihood of replication error or mutation, has been proposed. Peripheral blood stem cells might have an advantage in that they are associated with a low incidence of DCL development because PBSCT recipients receive a higher total cell dose than recipients of bone marrow or cord blood cells. PMID:18470599

  9. Blood cell mitochondrial DNA content and premature ovarian aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bonomi

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI is a critical fertility defect characterized by an anticipated and silent impairment of the follicular reserve, but its pathogenesis is largely unexplained. The frequent maternal inheritance of POI together with a remarkable dependence of ovarian folliculogenesis upon mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics suggested the possible involvement of a generalized mitochondrial defect. Here, we verified the existence of a significant correlation between blood and ovarian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA content in a group of women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation (OH, and then aimed to verify whether mtDNA content was significantly altered in the blood cells of POI women. We recruited 101 women with an impaired ovarian reserve: 59 women with premature ovarian failure (POF and 42 poor responders (PR to OH. A Taqman copy number assay revealed a significant mtDNA depletion (P<0.001 in both POF and PR women in comparison with 43 women of similar age and intact ovarian reserve, or 53 very old women with a previous physiological menopause. No pathogenic variations in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG gene were detected in 57 POF or PR women with low blood mtDNA content. In conclusion, blood cell mtDNA depletion is a frequent finding among women with premature ovarian aging, suggesting that a still undetermined but generalized mitochondrial defect may frequently predispose to POI which could then be considered a form of anticipated aging in which the ovarian defect may represent the first manifestation. The determination of mtDNA content in blood may become an useful tool for the POI risk prediction.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA mutations in single human blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yong-Gang; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Young, Neal S

    2015-09-01

    Determination mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from extremely small amounts of DNA extracted from tissue of limited amounts and/or degraded samples is frequently employed in medical, forensic, and anthropologic studies. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification followed by DNA cloning is a routine method, especially to examine heteroplasmy of mtDNA mutations. In this review, we compare the mtDNA mutation patterns detected by three different sequencing strategies. Cloning and sequencing methods that are based on PCR amplification of DNA extracted from either single cells or pooled cells yield a high frequency of mutations, partly due to the artifacts introduced by PCR and/or the DNA cloning process. Direct sequencing of PCR product which has been amplified from DNA in individual cells is able to detect the low levels of mtDNA mutations present within a cell. We further summarize the findings in our recent studies that utilized this single cell method to assay mtDNA mutation patterns in different human blood cells. Our data show that many somatic mutations observed in the end-stage differentiated cells are found in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitors within the CD34(+) cell compartment. Accumulation of mtDNA variations in the individual CD34+ cells is affected by both aging and family genetic background. Granulocytes harbor higher numbers of mutations compared with the other cells, such as CD34(+) cells and lymphocytes. Serial assessment of mtDNA mutations in a population of single CD34(+) cells obtained from the same donor over time suggests stability of some somatic mutations. CD34(+) cell clones from a donor marked by specific mtDNA somatic mutations can be found in the recipient after transplantation. The significance of these findings is discussed in terms of the lineage tracing of HSCs, aging effect on accumulation of mtDNA mutations and the usage of mtDNA sequence in forensic identification. PMID:26149767

  11. High Dietary Iron and Radiation Exposure Increase Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Blood and Liver of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Theriot, Corey A.; Wu, Honglu; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure and increased iron (Fe) status independently cause oxidative damage that can result in protein, lipid, and DNA oxidation. During space flight astronauts are exposed to both increased radiation and increased Fe stores. Increased body Fe results from a decrease in red blood cell mass and the typically high Fe content of the food system. In this study we investigated the combined effects of radiation exposure (0.375 Gy of Cs-137 every other day for 16 days for a total of 3 Gy) and high dietary Fe (650 mg Fe/kg diet compared to 45 mg Fe/kg for controls) in Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8/group). Liver and serum Fe were significantly increased in the high dietary Fe groups. Likewise, radiation treatment increased serum ferritin and Fe concentrations. These data indicate that total body Fe stores increase with both radiation exposure and excess dietary Fe. Hematocrit decreased in the group exposed to radiation, providing a possible mechanism for the shift in Fe indices after radiation exposure. Markers of oxidative stress were also affected by both radiation and high dietary Fe, evidenced by increased liver glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and serum catalase as well as decreased serum GPX. We thus found preliminary indications of synergistic effects of radiation exposure and increased dietary Fe, warranting further study. This study was funded by the NASA Human Research Project.

  12. Cost-effective and Rapid Blood Analysis on a Cell-phone

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Hongying; Sencan, Ikbal; Wong, Justin; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Tseng, Derek; Nagashima, Keita; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a compact and cost-effective imaging cytometry platform installed on a cell-phone for the measurement of the density of red and white blood cells as well as hemoglobin concentration in human blood samples. Fluorescent and bright-field images of blood samples are captured using separate optical attachments to the cell-phone and are rapidly processed through a custom-developed smart application running on the phone for counting of blood cells and determining hemoglobin density. W...

  13. Manganese superoxide dismutase level in blood cells of patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intracellular MnSOD levels were determined in peripheral blood cells obtained from two age groups of patients with breast cancer (BC): 30-45 year old patients (premenopausal, n=7, clinical stage 1 to 3) and 46-60 year old patients (peri- and postmenopausal women, n=12, clinical stage 3 or 4), at diagnosis, prior to any clinical treatment. The respective healthy women groups were used as controls. Blood cells were also irradiated in vitro with 2- and 9- Gy of gamma-ray radiation from 60Co source. The MnSOD levels were determined by the specific immunostaining and quantified by the laser densitometry. The MANOVA analysis and Tukey post-hoc test indicated significantly higher MnSOD levels in both groups of BC patients in relation to the respective controls ( F=25.166, p<0.001). The data indicated that the increased initial MnSOD levels in peripheral blood cells may be related to the presence of BC i.e. they may reflect the system response to the presence of malignant tumour. In addition to that, in vitro radiation challenge of blood cells indicate that MnSOD overexpression may be a good indicator for selection of BC patients that would express increased resistance to oxidative stress imposed by the clinical treatment. (author)

  14. Acrolein-Induced Increases in Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Are Coupled with Decreased Blood Oxygen Levels During Exposure in Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. Recent studies link exposure to air pollution with reduced blood oxygen saturation suggesting that hypoxia is a potential me...

  15. Standardized intermittent static exercise increases peritendinous blood flow in human leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Bülow, J; Kjaer, M

    1999-01-01

    Alteration in tendinous and peritendinous blood flow during and after exercise is suggested to contribute to the development of Achilles tendon injury and inflammation. In the present study a method for evaluating the influence of standardized workload on peritendinous flow is presented. The...... radioactive isotope xenon-133 was injected just ventrally to the Achilles tendon 5 cm proximal to the tendon's insertion on the calcaneous. The disappearance of 133Xe was used to determine blood flow during intermittent static exercise of the calf muscle (1.5 s exercise/1.5 s rest) for 30 min at a workload...... equivalent to individual body weight (1 BW) in six healthy volunteers around both Achilles tendons (n = 12). During intermittent static exercise, blood flow was increased from 1.8 +/- 0.3 ml 100 g tissue-1 min-1 (mean value and SEM) (rest) to 6.1 +/- 1.3 ml 100 g tissue-1 min-1 (exercise) (P <0.05). The...

  16. Generation of mesenchymal stromal cells in the presence of platelet lysate: a phenotypic and functional comparison of umbilical cord blood- and bone marrow-derived progenitors

    OpenAIRE

    Avanzini, Maria Antonietta; Bernardo, Maria Ester; Cometa, Angela Maria; Perotti, Cesare; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Novara, Francesca; Visai, Livia; Moretta, Antonia; Del Fante, Claudia; Villa, Raffaella; Ball, Lynne M.; Fibbe, Willem E; Maccario, Rita; Locatelli, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood is an attractive source of stem cells for several cell-based therapies. In this paper, it is shown that umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stroma cells, cultured in the presence of platelet lysate, have an increased proliferative potential but comparable immunomodulatory functions relative to their bone marrow-derived counterparts.

  17. Crocodile blood extract induces the apoptosis of lung cancer cells through PTEN activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yuqian; Ho, Wing Shing

    2016-09-01

    Current treatment strategies for lung cancer cause undesirable side‑effects. Integrated medicine with a curative approach has become a common approach to the treatment strategy. Recent studies suggest that American alligator blood is effective in reducing colorectal cancer cell viability in vitro, but the mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to study the anticancer activity of crocodile blood extracts on lung cancer cell line A549 and investigate the possible mechanisms involved. In vitro studies were utilized to investigate the effects on the cancer cells after incubation with the blood extracts. The active fraction that showed more efficacy in inhibiting cell growth was characterized in the supernatant (S2) from whole blood extracts. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that S2 contained more polar moiety from whole blood. S2 induced DNA fragmentation. Cell cycle arrest in the G1/M phase was demonstrated and mitochondrial membrane permeability was disrupted. An increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased activities of caspase-3 and caspase-7 were detected. Furthermore, release of cytochrome c, upregulation of expression of Bax, p53, p21, Bid, cleaved forms of the caspase family and PARP along with downregulation of Bcl-2, PCNA, MDM2, caspase‑8, wild types of caspase family proteins and PARP were recorded after treatment with S2 fractions. Moreover, the PI3K/AKT survival pathway was downregulated by S2 fractions in the lung cancer cell line. PMID:27431918

  18. Increased Blood Lactate Level Deteriorates Running Economy in World Class Endurance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Jan; Støren, Øyvind; Finstad, Arnstein; Wang, Eivind; Helgerud, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Hoff, J, Støren, Ø, Finstad, A, Wang, E, and Helgerud, J. Increased blood lactate level deteriorates running economy in world class endurance athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1373-1378, 2016-Blood lactate accumulation is associated with development of muscle fatigue and negatively correlated to endurance performance. No research has quantified the effects of lactate presence at moderate levels of lactate accumulation. The purpose of this study was to test whether 2 moderate blood lactate concentration levels affect running economy (RE) when running at the individual lactate threshold (LT). Seven male world class endurance athletes with an average V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of 80.7 ± 2.7 ml·kg·min or 5.8 ± 0.5 L·min participated in this study. After the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max test, the subjects were resting or walking and in a random order tested for RE at their LT velocity when the blood lactate level reached either 3 mmol·L or 5 mmol·L. After a new 5-minute exercising period at maximal aerobic velocity, the crossover lactate value RE testing was performed. Running economy was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) deteriorated from 0.668 ± 0.044 to 0.705 ± 0.056 ml·kg·m or 5.5% (p ≤ 0.05) for blood lactate level of 3 mmol·L compared with 5 mmol·L, respectively. Increased lactate level from 3 to 5 mmol·L is thus accompanied by deteriorated RE at LT running velocity. The deteriorated RE at moderate levels of lactate concentration emphasizes the importance of avoiding intensities above LT in the early parts of a dominantly aerobic endurance competition. It also emphasizes the importance of a high V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for aerobic endurance athletes and may partly explain the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 slow component as impaired RE. PMID:26817745

  19. Utilization and quality of cryopreserved red blood cells in transfusion medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, S.; Noorman, F.; Badloe, J. F.; Lagerberg, J. W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreserved (frozen) red blood cells have been used in transfusion medicine since the Vietnam war. The main method to freeze the red blood cells is by usage of glycerol. Although the usage of cryopreserved red blood cells was promising due to the prolonged storage time and the limited cellular det

  20. Some technetium complexes for labelling red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    A new approach to produce technetium labelled red blood cells, used routinely in diagnostic nuclear medicine, is reported. The enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase (CA), present in erythrocytes, is strongly inhibited by primary aromatic sulphonamides, which bind at the enzyme active site. Three types of ligand able to coordinate to technetium and suitable for modification to include a primary aromatic sulphonamide group were studied; bis(thiosemicarbazones), Schiff bases and some propylene amine oximes. The experimental conditions needed to label the ligands were determined. Both the thiosemicarbazone and propyleneamine oxime derivatives were labelled, but under no conditions attempted were the Schiff bases complexed by Technetium. The two major isozymes of Human Carbonic Anhydrase, HCA I and HCA II, were isolated from blood. The strength of binding of the free ligands SET, PN130 and PN135 with each of the isozymes was measured and expressed as the Dissociation Constant K{sub d}. The rate of uptake of the technetium complexes into washed RBCs and whole blood was measured and found to be much slower in whole blood. The biodistribution of both TcPN130 and TcPN135 in rats was determined and scintigraphic images for the TcPN130 complex were recorded. Attempts to synthesise the Tc-99 analogues on the milligram scale to allow chemical characterisation of these complexes were unsuccessful. (author).

  1. Some technetium complexes for labelling red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach to produce technetium labelled red blood cells, used routinely in diagnostic nuclear medicine, is reported. The enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase (CA), present in erythrocytes, is strongly inhibited by primary aromatic sulphonamides, which bind at the enzyme active site. Three types of ligand able to coordinate to technetium and suitable for modification to include a primary aromatic sulphonamide group were studied; bis(thiosemicarbazones), Schiff bases and some propylene amine oximes. The experimental conditions needed to label the ligands were determined. Both the thiosemicarbazone and propyleneamine oxime derivatives were labelled, but under no conditions attempted were the Schiff bases complexed by Technetium. The two major isozymes of Human Carbonic Anhydrase, HCA I and HCA II, were isolated from blood. The strength of binding of the free ligands SET, PN130 and PN135 with each of the isozymes was measured and expressed as the Dissociation Constant Kd. The rate of uptake of the technetium complexes into washed RBCs and whole blood was measured and found to be much slower in whole blood. The biodistribution of both TcPN130 and TcPN135 in rats was determined and scintigraphic images for the TcPN130 complex were recorded. Attempts to synthesise the Tc-99 analogues on the milligram scale to allow chemical characterisation of these complexes were unsuccessful. (author)

  2. Peripheral blood cell signatures of Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibitokou, Samad; Oesterholt, Mayke; Brutus, Laurent;

    2012-01-01

    dendritic cells (DC), more myeloid DC expressing low levels of HLA-DR, and more effector T cells (Teff) compared to uninfected women. Independent associations with an increased risk of anaemia were found for altered antigen-presenting cell frequencies at inclusion, but for an increased frequency of Teff at...... phenotypic composition and activation status of PBMC in selected sub-groups with and without PAM both at inclusion and at delivery in a total of 302 women. Both at inclusion and at delivery PAM was associated with significantly increased frequencies both of B cells overall and of activated B cells. Infection......-related profiles were otherwise quite distinct at the two different time-points. At inclusion, PAM was associated with anaemia, with an increased frequency of immature monocytes and with a decreased frequency of regulatory T cells (Treg). At delivery, infected women presented with significantly fewer plasmacytoid...

  3. SPECT Myocardial Blood Flow Quantitation Concludes Equivocal Myocardial Perfusion SPECT Studies to Increase Diagnostic Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung-Ching; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Ing-Jou; Ku, Chi-Tai; Chen, Yen-Kung; Hsu, Bailing

    2016-01-01

    Recently, myocardial blood flow quantitation with dynamic SPECT/CT has been reported to enhance the detection of coronary artery disease in human. This advance has created important clinical applications to coronary artery disease diagnosis and management for areas where myocardial perfusion PET tracers are not available. We present 2 clinical cases that undergone a combined test of 1-day rest/dipyridamole-stress dynamic SPECT and ECG-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT scans using an integrated imaging protocol and demonstrate that flow parameters are capable to conclude equivocal myocardial perfusion SPECT studies, therefore increasing diagnostic benefits to add value in making clinical decisions. PMID:26053731

  4. Interleukin-15 Promotes the Commitment of Cord Blood CD34+ Stem Cells into NK Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建; 夏青; 孙汭; 田志刚

    2004-01-01

    To explore the effect of rhlL-15 on CB-CD34+ stem cells committing to NK cells, CD34+ stem cells were obtained from cord blood (CB) by magnetic-assisted cell sorting (MACS) method. CD3, CD16 and CD56 molecules expressed on cell surface were detected by flow cytometer. MTF method was used to test the cytotoxicity of NK cells. The results were that stem cell factor (SCF) alone has no effect on CD34+ stem cells. IL-15 stimulated CD34+ stem cells commit to NK cells, and SCF showed strong synergistic effect with IL-15. It was concluded that IL-15 and SCF played different roles during NK cell development, llr15 promoted CD34+ stem cells differentiate to NK cell precursor and SCF improved the effectsof IL-15 on NK cell differentiation.

  5. Alloimmunization is associated with older age of transfused red blood cells in sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Payal C.; Deal, Allison M.; Pfaff, Emily R.; Qaqish, Bahjat; Hebden, Leyna M.; Park, Yara A.; Ataga, Kenneth I.

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization is a significant clinical complication of sickle cell disease (SCD). It can lead to difficulty with cross-matching for future transfusions and may sometimes trigger life-threatening delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions. We conducted a retrospective study to explore the association of clinical complications and age of RBC with alloimmunization in patients with SCD followed at a single institution from 2005 to 2012. One hundred and sixty six patients with a total of 488 RBC transfusions were evaluated. Nineteen patients (11%) developed new alloantibodies following blood transfusions during the period of review. The median age of RBC units was 20 days (interquartile range: 14–27 days). RBC antibody formation was significantly associated with the age of RBC units (P = 0.002), with a hazard ratio of 3.5 (95% CI: 1.71–7.11) for a RBC unit that was 7 days old and 9.8 (95% CI: 2.66–35.97) for a unit that was 35 days old, 28 days after the blood transfusion. No association was observed between RBC alloimmunization and acute vaso-occlusive complications. Although increased echocardiography-derived tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (TRV) was associated with the presence of RBC alloantibodies (P = 0.02), TRV was not significantly associated with alloimmunization when adjusted for patient age and number of transfused RBC units. Our study suggests that RBC antibody formation is significantly associated with older age of RBCs at the time of transfusion. Prospective studies in patients with SCD are required to confirm this finding. PMID:25963831

  6. Effects of exposition to polluted environments on blood cells of the fish Prochilodus lineatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Bruno Fiorelini; Da Silva Alves, Rebeca Mamede; Pitol, Dimitrius Leonardo; Senhorini, José Augusto; De Cássia Gimenes De Alcântara Rocha, Rita; Caetano, Flavio Henrique

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of contaminated water on the blood parameters of the fish Prochilodus lineatus exposed during 7 and 20 days. Blood was collected with heparinized syringes, and blood smears were prepared and stained with Leishman stain. Slides were examined and photographed using a Leica light microscope. Total white blood cell counts and differential counts of thrombocytes and leukocytes were obtained for statistical analysis. The group exposed to water samples from Lago Azul exhibited an increase in the number of leukocytes and in the total number of white blood cells, suggesting that the chemical contaminants in this environment were acting similarly to antigens in this fish species, causing the proliferation of defense cells. In the group exposed to detergent during 20 days, the number of thrombocytes decreased. These results suggest that the variations in the number of leukocytes were indicators of environmental pollution and that biodegradable detergents may, after a certain time of exposure, affect vital functions in fish, such as coagulation and prevention of infections, which directly involves thrombocytes. PMID:22065551

  7. Effects of Nanotexture on Electrical Profiling of Single Tumor Cell and Detection of Cancer from Blood in Microfluidic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Muhymin; Motasim Bellah, Mohammad; Sajid, Adeel; Raziul Hasan, Mohammad; Kim, Young-Tae; Iqbal, Samir M.

    2015-09-01

    Microfluidic channels have been implemented to detect cancer cells from blood using electrical measurement of each single cell from the sample. Every cell provided characteristic current profile based on its mechano-physical properties. Cancer cells not only showed higher translocation time and peak amplitude compared to blood cells, their pulse shape was also distinctively different. Prevalent microfluidic channels are plain but we created nanotexture on the channel walls using micro reactive ion etching (micro-RIE). The translocation behaviors of the metastatic renal cancer cells through plain and nanotextured PDMS microchannels showed clear differences. Nanotexture enhanced the cell-surface interactions and more than 50% tumor cells exhibited slower translocation through nanotextured channels compared to plain devices. On the other hand, most of the blood cells had very similar characteristics in both channels. Only 7.63% blood cells had slower translocation in nanotextured microchannels. The tumor cell detection efficiency from whole blood increased by 14% in nanotextured microchannels compared to plain channels. This interesting effect of nanotexture on translocation behavior of tumor cells is important for the early detection of cancer.

  8. Of macrophages and red blood cells; a complex love story.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RobinVan Bruggen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages tightly control the production and clearance of red blood cells (RBC. During steady state haematopoiesis, approximately 1010 red blood cells are produced per hour within erythroblastic islands in humans. In these erythroblastic islands, resident bone marrow macrophages provide erythroblasts with interactions that are essential for erythroid development. New evidence suggests that not only under homeostasis but also under stress conditions, macrophages play an important role in promoting erythropoiesis. Once RBC have matured, these cells remain in circulation for about 120 days. At the end of their life span, RBC are cleared by macrophages residing in the spleen and the liver. Current theories about the removal of senescent RBC and the essential role of macrophages will be discussed as well as the role of macrophages in facilitating the removal of damaged cellular content from the RBC. In this review we will provide an overview on the role of macrophages in the regulation of RBC production, maintenance and clearance. In addition, we will discuss the interactions between these two cell types during transfer of immune complexes and pathogens from RBC to macrophages.

  9. Proteomic biomarkers of peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from postmenopausal women undergoing an intervention with soy isoflavones

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, D; Vafeiadou, K.; Hall, W.L.; Daniel, H; Williams, C.M.; Schroot, J.H.; Wenzel, U.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The incidence of cardiovascular diseases increases after menopause, and soy consumption is suggested to inhibit disease development. Objective: The objective was to identify biomarkers of response to a dietary supplementation with an isoflavone extract in postmenopausal women by proteome analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Design: The study with healthy postmenopausal woman was performed in a placebo-controlled sequential design. Peripheral mononuclear blood cells were...

  10. Isolation of rare tumor cells from blood cells with buoyant immuno-microbubbles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixin Shi

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs are exfoliated at various stages of cancer, and could provide invaluable information for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancers. There is an urgent need for the development of cost-efficient and scalable technologies for rare CTC enrichment from blood. Here we report a novel method for isolation of rare tumor cells from excess of blood cells using gas-filled buoyant immuno-microbubbles (MBs. MBs were prepared by emulsification of perfluorocarbon gas in phospholipids and decorated with anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM antibody. EpCAM-targeted MBs efficiently (85% and rapidly (within 15 minutes bound to various epithelial tumor cells suspended in cell medium. EpCAM-targeted MBs efficiently (88% isolated frequent tumor cells that were spiked at 100,000 cells/ml into plasma-depleted blood. Anti-EpCAM MBs efficiently (>77% isolated rare mouse breast 4T1, human prostate PC-3 and pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 cells spiked into 1, 3 and 7 ml (respectively of plasma-depleted blood. Using EpCAM targeted MBs CTCs from metastatic cancer patients were isolated, suggesting that this technique could be developed into a valuable clinical tool for isolation, enumeration and analysis of rare cells.

  11. Cerebral blood flow mapping in children with sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cerebral blood flow mapping system was applied to the evaluation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in 21 patients with sickle cell cerebrovascular disease, by means of a Picker xenon computed tomographic (CT) scanner. Results indicate that (1) xenon CT is a safe and reliable procedure in children with cerebrovascular diseases; (2) CBF in the gray matter of children seems to be higher than in previously reported data obtained with use of isotopes; and (3) regional CBF can be altered significantly by changing the size of the region of interest (ROI). The term regional CBF probably has to be carefully defined in xenon CT flow mapping. Correlation with anatomy by means of CT or magnetic resonance imaging and comparison with the ROI of the contralateral side and/or adjacent sections is important

  12. β-Receptor-mediated increase in cerebral blood flow during hypoglycemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors tested the hypothesis that β-adrenergic receptor stimulation is involved with the increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during hypoglycemia. Rats were surgically prepared with the use of halothane-nitrous oxide anesthesia. A plaster restraining cast was placed around the hindquarters, and anesthesia was discontinued. Hypoglycemia was produced by an intravenous injection of insulin; normoglycemic control rates were given saline. Propranolol was administered to some control and some hypoglycemic rats to block the β-adrenergic receptors. Regional CBF was measured using 4-[N-methyl-14C]iodoantipyrine. Regional CBF increased during hypoglycemia in rats that were not treated with propranolol. The increase varied from ∼60 to 200% depending on the brain region. During hypoglycemia, propranolol abolished the increase in rCBF in the hypothalamus, cerebellum, and pyramidal tract. In other regions the increase in rCBF was only 33-65% of the increase in hypoglycemic rats that were not treated with propranolol. They conclude that β-receptor stimulation plays a major role in the increase in rCBF during hypoglycemia

  13. beta. -Receptor-mediated increase in cerebral blood flow during hypoglycemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollinger, B.R.; Bryan, R.M. (Pennsylvania State Univ., Hershey (USA))

    1987-10-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that {beta}-adrenergic receptor stimulation is involved with the increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during hypoglycemia. Rats were surgically prepared with the use of halothane-nitrous oxide anesthesia. A plaster restraining cast was placed around the hindquarters, and anesthesia was discontinued. Hypoglycemia was produced by an intravenous injection of insulin; normoglycemic control rates were given saline. Propranolol was administered to some control and some hypoglycemic rats to block the {beta}-adrenergic receptors. Regional CBF was measured using 4-(N-methyl-{sup 14}C)iodoantipyrine. Regional CBF increased during hypoglycemia in rats that were not treated with propranolol. The increase varied from {approximately}60 to 200% depending on the brain region. During hypoglycemia, propranolol abolished the increase in rCBF in the hypothalamus, cerebellum, and pyramidal tract. In other regions the increase in rCBF was only 33-65% of the increase in hypoglycemic rats that were not treated with propranolol. They conclude that {beta}-receptor stimulation plays a major role in the increase in rCBF during hypoglycemia.

  14. Effects of pegylated hamster red blood cells on microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peter C Y; Huang, Wei; Stassinopoulos, Adonis; Cheung, Anthony T W

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG) treated red blood cells (RBCs) on the microcirculation in a hamster back skin window chamber model. Donor hamster RBCs were PEGylated through an incubation with an activated PEG solution, washed, resuspended, and infused through a 10% volume top loading procedure into the carotid artery in an awake Syrian Golden hamster. Eight hamster groups were treated with activated PEG different sizes and concentrations: 0.05 mM-5 kDa PEG, 0.5 mM-5 kDa PEG, 1.1 mM-5 kDa PEG, 2.2 mM-5 kDa PEG, 22 mM-5 kDa PEG, 0.05 mM-20 kDa PEG, 0.5 mM-20 kDa PEG, and 5 mM-20 kDa PEG. Non-treated RBCs were used as control. The microvascular bed under observation was videotaped 30 min before the infusion and followed for 30 min post infusion. The diameter of individual blood vessels and blood flow velocities in selected vessels was measured. Hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration were recorded before infusion and at the end of experiment. Tissue pO(2) was also monitored. Results showed the hamsters tolerated the PEGylated RBCs without apparent ill effects. No significant changes were recorded for the hematocrit, the hemoglobin concentration, the blood vessel diameters, blood flow velocities, and the interstitial partial oxygen pressure (pO(2)) before, during, and after the injections of PEG-RBCs (P > 0.05). Unlike most hemoglobin-based oxygen carrying compounds, which can cause vasoconstriction, the PEGylated RBCs did not produce any measurable vasoactivity. Together with the absence of rouleaux formation and the fact that PEG molecules can mask the surface antigens on RBCs, PEGylation appeared promising as a circulation enhancement treatment. PMID:18649167

  15. Increased FDG bone marrow uptake after intracoronary progenitor cell therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with coronary artery disease who undergo FDG PET for therapy monitoring after intracoronary progenitor cell infusion (PCT) show an increased bone marrow uptake in some cases. Aim of the study was to evaluate the systemic bone marrow glucose metabolism in this patient group after PCT. Patients, methods: FDG bone marrow uptake (BMU), measured as standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in the thoracic spine, was retrospectively evaluated in 23 control patients who did not receive PCT and in 75 patients who received PCT 3±2.2 days before PET scanning. Five out of them were pretreated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) 5 days prior to PCT and 10±1.2 days before PET scanning. In 39 patients who received only PCT without G-CSF and underwent PET therapy monitoring 4 months later, baseline and follow up bone marrow uptake were measured. Leucocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the influence of nicotine consumption were compared with the BMU. Results: In patients (n=70) who received PCT without G-CSF, BMU media (1.3) was slightly, but significantly higher than in the controls (1.0) (p=0.02) regardless nicotine consumption. BMU did not change significantly 4 months later (1.2) (p=0.41, n.s.). After G-CSF pretreatment, patients showed a significantly higher bone marrow uptake (3.7) compared to patients only treated with PCT (1.3) (p=0.023). Leucocyte blood levels were significantly higher in patients with a BMU ≥2.5 compared to patients with a bone marrow SUVmax<2.5 (p<0.001). CRP values did not correlate with the BMU (rho -0.02, p=0.38). Conclusion: Monitoring PCT patients, a slightly increased FDG BMU may be observed which remains unchanged for several months. Unspecific bone marrow reactions after PCT may be associated with increased leucocyte blood levels and play a role in the changed systemic glucose BMU. In addition, pretreatment with G-CSF shows an intense amplitifcation of BMU. (orig.)

  16. Increased FDG bone marrow uptake after intracoronary progenitor cell therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebert, N.; Menzel, C.; Diehl, M.; Hamscho, N.; Zaplatnikov, K.; Gruenwald, F. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Frankfurt (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    Patients with coronary artery disease who undergo FDG PET for therapy monitoring after intracoronary progenitor cell infusion (PCT) show an increased bone marrow uptake in some cases. Aim of the study was to evaluate the systemic bone marrow glucose metabolism in this patient group after PCT. Patients, methods: FDG bone marrow uptake (BMU), measured as standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in the thoracic spine, was retrospectively evaluated in 23 control patients who did not receive PCT and in 75 patients who received PCT 3{+-}2.2 days before PET scanning. Five out of them were pretreated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) 5 days prior to PCT and 10{+-}1.2 days before PET scanning. In 39 patients who received only PCT without G-CSF and underwent PET therapy monitoring 4 months later, baseline and follow up bone marrow uptake were measured. Leucocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the influence of nicotine consumption were compared with the BMU. Results: In patients (n=70) who received PCT without G-CSF, BMU media (1.3) was slightly, but significantly higher than in the controls (1.0) (p=0.02) regardless nicotine consumption. BMU did not change significantly 4 months later (1.2) (p=0.41, n.s.). After G-CSF pretreatment, patients showed a significantly higher bone marrow uptake (3.7) compared to patients only treated with PCT (1.3) (p=0.023). Leucocyte blood levels were significantly higher in patients with a BMU {>=}2.5 compared to patients with a bone marrow SUVmax<2.5 (p<0.001). CRP values did not correlate with the BMU (rho -0.02, p=0.38). Conclusion: Monitoring PCT patients, a slightly increased FDG BMU may be observed which remains unchanged for several months. Unspecific bone marrow reactions after PCT may be associated with increased leucocyte blood levels and play a role in the changed systemic glucose BMU. In addition, pretreatment with G-CSF shows an intense amplitifcation of BMU. (orig.)

  17. Aggregation of mononuclear and red blood cells through an {alpha}4{beta}1-Lu/basal cell adhesion molecule interaction in sickle cell disease. : Mononuclear and sickle red blood cell interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Chaar, Vicky; Picot, Julien; Renaud, Olivier; Bartolucci, Pablo; Nzouakou, Ruben; Bachir, Dora; Galactéros, Frédéric; Colin, Yves; Le Van Kim, Caroline; El Nemer, Wassim

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abnormal interactions between red blood cells, leukocytes and endothelial cells play a critical role in the occurrence of the painful vaso-occlusive crises associated with sickle cell disease. We investigated the interaction between circulating leukocytes and red blood cells which could lead to aggregate formation, enhancing the incidence of vaso-occlusive crises. DESIGN AND METHODS: Blood samples from patients with sickle cell disease (n=25) and healthy subjects (n=5) were analyz...

  18. Smooth muscle progenitor cells from peripheral blood promote the neovascularization of endothelial colony-forming cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Two distinct vascular progenitor cells are induced from adult peripheral blood. • ECFCs induce vascular structures in vitro and in vivo. • SMPCs augment the in vitro and in vivo angiogenic potential of ECFCs. • Both cell types have synergistic therapeutic potential in ischemic hindlimb model. - Abstract: Proangiogenic cell therapy using autologous progenitors is a promising strategy for treating ischemic disease. Considering that neovascularization is a harmonized cellular process that involves both endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, peripheral blood-originating endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPCs), which are similar to mature endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, could be attractive cellular candidates to achieve therapeutic neovascularization. We successfully induced populations of two different vascular progenitor cells (ECFCs and SMPCs) from adult peripheral blood. Both progenitor cell types expressed endothelial-specific or smooth muscle-specific genes and markers, respectively. In a protein array focused on angiogenic cytokines, SMPCs demonstrated significantly higher expression of bFGF, EGF, TIMP2, ENA78, and TIMP1 compared to ECFCs. Conditioned medium from SMPCs and co-culture with SMPCs revealed that SMPCs promoted cell proliferation, migration, and the in vitro angiogenesis of ECFCs. Finally, co-transplantation of ECFCs and SMPCs induced robust in vivo neovascularization, as well as improved blood perfusion and tissue repair, in a mouse ischemic hindlimb model. Taken together, we have provided the first evidence of a cell therapy strategy for therapeutic neovascularization using two different types of autologous progenitors (ECFCs and SMPCs) derived from adult peripheral blood

  19. Smooth muscle progenitor cells from peripheral blood promote the neovascularization of endothelial colony-forming cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Hyung Joon; Seo, Ha-Rim [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hyo Eun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seung-Cheol; Park, Jae Hyung; Yu, Cheol Woong; Hong, Soon Jun [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Seok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Do-Sun, E-mail: dslmd@kumc.or.kr [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • Two distinct vascular progenitor cells are induced from adult peripheral blood. • ECFCs induce vascular structures in vitro and in vivo. • SMPCs augment the in vitro and in vivo angiogenic potential of ECFCs. • Both cell types have synergistic therapeutic potential in ischemic hindlimb model. - Abstract: Proangiogenic cell therapy using autologous progenitors is a promising strategy for treating ischemic disease. Considering that neovascularization is a harmonized cellular process that involves both endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, peripheral blood-originating endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPCs), which are similar to mature endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, could be attractive cellular candidates to achieve therapeutic neovascularization. We successfully induced populations of two different vascular progenitor cells (ECFCs and SMPCs) from adult peripheral blood. Both progenitor cell types expressed endothelial-specific or smooth muscle-specific genes and markers, respectively. In a protein array focused on angiogenic cytokines, SMPCs demonstrated significantly higher expression of bFGF, EGF, TIMP2, ENA78, and TIMP1 compared to ECFCs. Conditioned medium from SMPCs and co-culture with SMPCs revealed that SMPCs promoted cell proliferation, migration, and the in vitro angiogenesis of ECFCs. Finally, co-transplantation of ECFCs and SMPCs induced robust in vivo neovascularization, as well as improved blood perfusion and tissue repair, in a mouse ischemic hindlimb model. Taken together, we have provided the first evidence of a cell therapy strategy for therapeutic neovascularization using two different types of autologous progenitors (ECFCs and SMPCs) derived from adult peripheral blood.

  20. Theory of the sphering of red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Y C; Tong, P

    1968-02-01

    A rigorous mathematical solution of the sphering of a red blood cell is obtained under the assumptions that the red cells is a fluid-filled shell and that it can swell into a perfect sphere in an appropriate hypotonic medium. The solution is valid for finite strain of the cell membrane provided that the membrane is isotropic, elastic and incompressible. The most general nonlinear elastic stress-strain law for the membrane in a state of generalized plane stress is used. A necessary condition for a red cell to be able to sphere is that its extensional stiffness follow a specific distribution over the membrane. This distribution is strongly influenced by the surface tension in the cell membrane. A unique relation exists between the extensional stiffness, pressure differential, surface tension, and the ratio of the radius of the sphere to that of the undeformed red cell. The functional dependence of this stiffness distribution on various physical parameters is presented. A critique of some current literature on red cell mechanics is presented. PMID:5639934

  1. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum treatment on radiolabeling of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of in vivo treatment with an aqueous cinnamon extract on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc and on the morphology of red blood cells from Wistar rats. Animals were treated with cinnamon extract at different doses and for different periods of time. As controls, animals treated with 0.9% NaCl. Labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc was performed. Plasma, blood cells and insoluble fractions were isolated. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Also, blood smears were prepared to morphological analysis of red blood cells from. Data showed that in vivo cinnamon extract did not significantly (p>0.05) modify the %ATI of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells. The results suggest that in vivo aqueous cinnamon could not affect the membrane structures involved in transport of ions or the oxidation state of stannous and pertechnetate ions. (author)

  2. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum treatment on radiolabeling of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benarroz, Monica Oliveira; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]. E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Rocha, Gabrielle de Souza; Pereira, Marcia Oliveira [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Geller, Mauro [Centro Universitario Serra dos Orgaos, Teresopolis, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude; Presta, Giuseppe Antonio [Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Biomedico. Dept. de Fisiologia Humana

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of in vivo treatment with an aqueous cinnamon extract on the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc and on the morphology of red blood cells from Wistar rats. Animals were treated with cinnamon extract at different doses and for different periods of time. As controls, animals treated with 0.9% NaCl. Labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99}mTc was performed. Plasma, blood cells and insoluble fractions were isolated. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Also, blood smears were prepared to morphological analysis of red blood cells from. Data showed that in vivo cinnamon extract did not significantly (p>0.05) modify the %ATI of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells. The results suggest that in vivo aqueous cinnamon could not affect the membrane structures involved in transport of ions or the oxidation state of stannous and pertechnetate ions. (author)

  3. Collection, processing and testing of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood and haematopoietic stem cells by European Blood Alliance members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Närhi, M; Natri, O; Desbois, I;

    2013-01-01

    A questionnaire study was carried out in collaboration with the European Blood Alliance (EBA) Tissues and Cells (T&C) working group. The aim was to assess the level of involvement and commonality of processes on the procurement, testing and storage of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood (UCB) and...

  4. Mimicking Stem Cell Niches to Increase Stem Cell Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Dellatore, Shara M.; Garcia, A. Sofia; Miller, William M.

    2008-01-01

    Niches regulate lineage-specific stem cell self-renewal vs. differentiation in vivo and are comprised of supportive cells and extracellular matrix components arranged in a 3-dimensional topography of controlled stiffness in the presence of oxygen and growth factor gradients. Mimicking stem cell niches in a defined manner will facilitate production of the large numbers of stem cells needed to realize the promise of regenerative medicine and gene therapy. Progress has been made in mimicking com...

  5. Trophic factor induction of human umbilical cord blood cells in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Kamath, Siddharth; Newcomb, Jennifer; Hudson, Jennifer; Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Bickford, Paula; Davis-Sanberg, Cyndy; Sanberg, Paul; Zigova, Tanja; Willing, Alison

    2007-06-01

    The mononuclear fraction of human umbilical cord blood (HUCBmnf) is a mixed cell population that multiple research groups have shown contains cells that can express neural proteins. In these studies, we have examined the ability of the HUCBmnf to express neural antigens after in vitro exposure to defined media supplemented with a cocktail of growth and neurotrophic factors. It is our hypothesis that by treating the HUCBmnf with these developmentally-relevant factors, we can expand the population, enhance the expression of neural antigens and increase cell survival upon transplantation. Prior to growth factor treatment in culture, expression of stem cell antigens is greater in the non-adherent HUCBmnf cells compared to the adherent cells (p cells with growth factors, increases BrdU incorporation, especially after 14 days in vitro (DIV). In HUCBmnf-embryonic mouse striata co-culture, a small number of growth factor treated HUCBmnf cells were able to integrate into the growing neural network and express immature (nestin and TuJ1) and mature (GFAP and MAP2) neural markers. Treated HUCBmnf cells implanted in the subventricular zone predominantly expressed GFAP although some grafted HUCBmnf cells were MAP2 positive. While short-term treatment of HUCBmnf cells with growth and neurotrophic factors enhanced proliferative capacity in vitro and survival of the cells in vivo, the treatment regimen employed was not enough to ensure long-term survival of HUCBmnf-derived neurons necessary for cell replacement therapies for neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases small intestinal blood flow and mucosal growth in ruminating calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor-Edwards, C C; Burrin, D G; Holst, Jens Juul; McLeod, K R; Harmon, D L

    2011-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases small intestinal mass and blood flow in nonruminants but its effect in ruminants is unknown. Eight Holstein calves with an ultrasonic flow probe around the superior mesenteric artery and catheters in the carotid artery and mesenteric vein were paired by age......, GLP-2 increased villus height, crypt depth, and BrdU-labeling in small intestinal segments. These results demonstrate that GLP-2 induces similar increases in small intestinal blood flow and growth in ruminants to those observed in nonruminants. Furthermore, GLP-2 increases small intestinal blood flow...

  7. Histological study of effects of storage duration and temperature on the rabbits blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim K. I. Ragab

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The temperature of the blood and its components during storage or processing is a very important factor affecting hemolysis. During storage, leukocytes break down and release a number of chemicals and enzymes, that have been reported to lysis RBC. With increasing duration of storage, the change of RBC shape becomes permanent. RBCs from different species behave differently during storage. So, this study aimed to investigate the histological effects of storage duration and temperature on the rabbit blood cells. Material and Methods: Blood samples from five adult male healthy rabbits were divided into (Group I stored at 4 for 12 and 48 hours, (Group at a room temperature of about 24 for 12 and 48 hours and (Group at 36 for 12 and 48 hours. Blood films made and stained by Leishman's stain immediately as a control group (A, after 12 hours (B and after 48 hours (C from each group respectively and examined for any morphological changes. Leukocytes counted totally immediately as a control group (A, after 12 hours (B and after 48 hours (C from each group respectively for detection of any histological changes. Results: no morphological changes of red blood cells, leukocytes and platelets of group was observed. The changes of mean of total leukocytic counts of group were non significant. Changes in total leukocytic counts and morphology of red blood cells, leukocytes and platelets of groups and were observed. The morphological degenerative changes of group involved red blood cells, neutrophils and platelets at 12 and 48 hours. The morphological degenerative changes of group involved red blood cells and leukocytes at 12 and 48 hours. The mean of total leukocytic counts of group was significantly decreased at 48 hours while the mean of total leukocytic counts of group was significantly decreased at 12 and 48 hours. Conclusion: blood samples from rabbits should be tested within 12 hours of collection if stored at a room temperature of about 24

  8. Measuring skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution by laser ektacytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, S Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Lugovtsov, A E [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ustinov, V D [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-31

    An algorithm is proposed for measuring the parameters of red blood cell deformability distribution based on laser diffractometry of red blood cells in shear flow (ektacytometry). The algorithm is tested on specially prepared samples of rat blood. In these experiments we succeeded in measuring the mean deformability, deformability variance and skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution with errors of 10%, 15% and 35%, respectively. (laser biophotonics)

  9. Circulating blood cells function as a surveillance system for damaged tissue in Drosophila larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Babcock, Daniel T.; Brock, Amanda R.; Fish, Greg S.; Wang, Yan; Perrin, Laurent; Krasnow, Mark A.; Galko, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Insects have an open circulatory system in which the heart pumps blood (hemolymph) into the body cavity, where it directly bathes the internal organs and epidermis. The blood contains free and tissue-bound immune cells that function in the inflammatory response. Here, we use live imaging of transgenic Drosophila larvae with fluorescently labeled blood cells (hemocytes) to investigate the circulatory dynamics of larval blood cells and their response to tissue injury. We find that, under normal...

  10. Manipulation of red blood cells with electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboonchi, Hossain; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2009-11-01

    Manipulation of bioparticles and macromolecules is the central task in many biological and biotechnological processes. The current methods for physical manipulation takes advantage of different forces such as acoustic, centrifugal, magnetic, electromagnetic, and electric forces, as well as using optical tweezers or filtration. Among all these methods, however, the electrical forces are particularly attractive because of their favorable scale up with the system size which makes them well-suited for miniaturization. Currently the electric field is used for transportation, poration, fusion, rotation, and separation of biological cells. The aim of the current research is to gain fundamental understanding of the effect of electric field on the human red blood cells (RBCs) using direct numerical simulation. A front tracking/finite difference technique is used to solve the fluid flow and electric field equations, where the fluid in the cell and the blood (plasma) is modeled as Newtonian and incompressible, and the interface separating the two is treated as an elastic membrane. The behavior of RBCs is investigated as a function of the controlling parameters of the problem such as the strength of the electric field.

  11. Comparing the Gene Expression Profile of Stromal Cells from Human Cord Blood and Bone Marrow: Lack of the Typical “Bone” Signature in Cord Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Bosch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With regard to the bone-regenerative capacity, bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC can still be termed the “gold standard.” Nevertheless, neonatal stromal cells from cord blood (CB feature advantages concerning availability, immaturity, and proliferation potential. The detailed gene expression analysis and overexpression of genes expressed differentially provide insight into the inherent capacity of stromal cells. Microarray and qRT-PCR analyses revealed closely related gene expression patterns of two stromal cell populations derived from CB. In contrast to the CB-derived cell types, BMSC displayed high expression levels of BSP, OSX, BMP4, OC, and PITX2. Lentiviral overexpression of BSP but not of OSX in CB-cells increased the capacity to form a mineralized matrix. BMP4 induced the secretion of proteoglycans during chondrogenic pellet culture and extended the osteogenic but reduced the adipogenic differentiation potential. BMSC revealed the typical osteogenic gene expression signature. In contrast, the CB-derived cell types exhibited a more immature gene expression profile and no predisposition towards skeletal development. The absence of BSP and BMP4—which were defined as potential key players affecting the differentiation potential—in neonatal stromal cells should be taken into consideration when choosing a cell source for tissue regeneration approaches.

  12. Dynamics of blood cell composition in residents of the techa riverside villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper focused on the analysis of data resulting from 50-year studies involving assessment of the hemopoiesis state in 2,739 Techa riverside residents chronically exposed to radiation in the range from low to intermediate doses. The highest bone marrow doses (mean value: 0.66 Sv) were due to intake of 90Sr in drinking water and local food products, and to external γ-exposure. The status of peripheral blood and bone marrow has been monitored since 1951. Peripheral blood cell counts performed for exposed riverside residents during the period of maximum radiation exposures (1951-1953) displayed a significant (p<0.0001) decrease in the proportion of leukocytes (neutrophils and lymphocytes) and thrombocytes. Peripheral blood erythrocyte count was maintained at the normal level, owing to the efficacy of compensatory processes in the bone marrow, including increased rates of erythrocaryocyte proliferation and maturation. The development of peripheral blood granulocytopenia resulted from delay in the differentiation of neutrophilic bone marrow granulocytes, a marked increase in the frequency of lethal abnormalities in bone marrow neutrophils, pathological mitoses, and activation of apoptosis. The time necessary for the blood cell composition to return to normal varied significantly in different blood cell series, depending on exposure dose-rate, extent of the initial hemopoiesis inhibition and individual physiological characteristics of exposed individuals. Thus, under a combined chronic exposure at equivalent doses to red bone marrow reaching 1.79 Sv, a stable reduction of neutrophil, thrombocyte and lymphocyte counts was observed. Neutrophilic granulocyte series were noted to require the longest time (12-17 years) to recover. (author)

  13. Application of information technology may increase the efficacy of Confidential Unit Exclusion (CUE) in blood donors

    OpenAIRE

    Jalalian, Mehrdad; Mahboobi, Hamidreza

    2013-01-01

    Confidential Unit Exclusion (CUE) refers to a procedure by which a blood donor designates confidentially whether his or her blood might not be safe for transfusion. It applies to situations in which an individual who is not eligible for blood donation in terms of blood safety feel pressured by others to donate his or her blood. A potential problem in the CUE system is misunderstanding of the procedure and its significance by blood donors as well as the lack of their confidence regarding the c...

  14. THE PURE RED BLOOD CELL APLASIA IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Dzumabaeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pure red blood cell aplasia of renal transplant recipients caused by parvovirus B19 (PB19 is characterized by persistent anemia which resistant to erythropoietin therapy, lack of reticulocytes, bone marrow hypoplasia, and clinically accompanied by severe recurrent bacterial, fungal and viral infection. In case of reactivation PB19 it is necessarv, first of all, eliminate the causes activation of this virus and to cancel or reduce the dose of drugs which depressed the normal hematopoiesis germs, thus to reduce the pancytopenia associating complications in this population. 

  15. Manipulation of microparticles and red blood cells using optoelectronic tweezers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Verma; R Dasgupta; N Kumar; S Ahlawat; A Uppal; P K Gupta

    2014-02-01

    We report the development of an optoelectronic tweezers set-up which works by lightinduced dielectrophoresis mechanism to manipulate microparticles. We used thermal evaporation technique for coating the organic polymer, titanium oxide phthalocyanine (TiOPc), as a photoconductive layer on ITO-coated glass slide. Compare to the conventional optical tweezers, the technique requires optical power in W range and provides a manipulation area of a few mm2. The set-up was used to manipulate the polystyrene microspheres and red blood cells (RBCs). The RBCs could be attracted or repelled by varying the frequency of the applied AC bias.

  16. A micro-scale simulation of red blood cell passage through symmetric and asymmetric bifurcated vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Tong; Xing, Zhongwen

    2016-01-01

    Blood exhibits a heterogeneous nature of hematocrit, velocity, and effective viscosity in microcapillaries. Microvascular bifurcations have a significant influence on the distribution of the blood cells and blood flow behavior. This paper presents a simulation study performed on the two-dimensionalmotions and deformation of multiple red blood cells in microvessels with diverging and converging bifurcations. Fluid dynamics and membrane mechanics were incorporated. Effects of cell shape, hematocrit, and deformability of the cell membrane on rheological behavior of the red blood cells and the hemodynamics have been investigated. It was shown that the blood entering the daughter branch with a higher flow rate tended to receive disproportionally more cells. The results also demonstrate that red blood cells in microvessels experienced lateral migration in the parent channel and blunted velocity profiles in both straight section and daughter branches, and this effect was influenced by the shape and the initial posit...

  17. Simple exercises that significantly increase cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygenation

    CERN Document Server

    Gersten, Alexander; Raz, Amir; Fried, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that simple exercises may significantly increase cerebral blood flow (CBF) and/or cerebral oxygenation. Eighteen subjects ranging in age from nineteen to thirty nine participated in a four-stage study during which measurements of end tidal CO_2 (EtCO2 - by capnometer) and local brain oxygenation (by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) sensor) were taken. The four stages were 1) baseline, 2) breathing exercises, 3) solving an arithmetic problem, and 4) biofeedback. During the breathing exercises there was a significant increase in EtCO2 indicating a significant increase in global CBF. The increase in global CBF was estimated on the basis of a theoretical model. During the arithmetic and biofeedback tasks there was a significant increase in the local (Fp1) oxygenation, but it varied between the different participants. The results may lead to new clinical applications of CBF and brain oxygenation monitoring and behavioral control. We foresee future more detailed investigations in the contr...

  18. A novel thymoma-associated immunodeficiency with increased naive T cells and reduced CD247 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulos, Petros; Dopfer, Elaine P; Malkovsky, Miroslav; Esser, Philipp R; Schaefer, Hans-Eckart; Marx, Alexander; Kock, Sylvia; Rupp, Nicole; Lorenz, Myriam R; Schwarz, Klaus; Harder, Jan; Martin, Stefan F; Werner, Martin; Bogdan, Christian; Schamel, Wolfgang W A; Fisch, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The mechanisms underlying thymoma-associated immunodeficiency are largely unknown, and the significance of increased blood γδ Τ cells often remains elusive. In this study we address these questions based on an index patient with thymoma, chronic visceral leishmaniasis, myasthenia gravis, and a marked increase of rare γδ T cell subsets in the peripheral blood. This patient showed cutaneous anergy, even though he had normal numbers of peripheral blood total lymphocytes as well as CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Despite his chronic infection, analyses of immunophenotypes and spectratyping of his lymphocytes revealed an unusual accumulation of naive γδ and αβ T cells, suggesting a generalized T cell activation defect. Functional studies in vitro demonstrated substantially diminished IL-2 and IFN-γ production following TCR stimulation of his "untouched" naive CD4(+) T cells. Biochemical analysis revealed that his γδ and αβ T cells carried an altered TCR complex with reduced amounts of the ζ-chain (CD247). No mutations were found in the CD247 gene that encodes the homodimeric ζ protein. The diminished presence of CD247 and increased numbers of γδ T cells were also observed in thymocyte populations obtained from three other thymoma patients. Thus, our findings describe a novel type of a clinically relevant acquired T cell immunodeficiency in thymoma patients that is distinct from Good's syndrome. Its characteristics are an accumulation of CD247-deficient, hyporresponsive naive γδ and αβ T cells and an increased susceptibility to infections. PMID:25732729

  19. Erythropoietin withdrawal alters interactions between young red blood cells, splenic endothelial cells, and macrophages: an in vitro model of neocytolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trial, J.; Rice, L.; Alfrey, C. P.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have described the rapid destruction of young red blood cells (neocytolysis) in astronauts adapting to microgravity, in polycythemic high altitude dwellers who descend to sea level, and in patients with kidney disorders. This destruction results from a decrease in erythropoietin (EPO) production. We hypothesized that such EPO withdrawal could trigger physiological changes in cells other than red cell precursors and possibly lead to the uptake and destruction of young red cells by altering endothelial cell-macrophage interactions, most likely occurring in the spleen. METHODS: We identified EPO receptors on human splenic endothelial cells (HSEC) and investigated the responses of these cells to EPO withdrawal. RESULTS: A monolayer of HSEC, unlike human endothelial cells from aorta, glomerulus, or umbilical vein, demonstrated an increase in permeability upon EPO withdrawal that was accompanied by unique morphological changes. When HSEC were cultured with monocyte-derived macrophages (but not when either cell type was cultured alone), EPO withdrawal induced an increased ingestion of young red cells by macrophages when compared with the constant presence or absence of EPO. CONCLUSIONS: HSEC may represent a unique cell type that is able to respond to EPO withdrawal by increasing permeability and interacting with phagocytic macrophages, which leads to neocytolysis.

  20. Stem and progenitor cells in biostructure of blood vessel walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Korta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of vascular and hematopoietic systems during organogenesis occurs at the same time. During vasculogenesis, a small part of cells does not undergo complete differentiation but stays on this level, “anchored” in tissue structures described as stem cell niches. The presence of blood vessels within tissue stem cell niches is typical and led to identification of niches and ensures that they are functioning. The three-layer biostructure of vessel walls for artery and vein, tunica: intima, media and adventitia, for a long time was defined as a mechanical barrier between vessel light and the local tissue environment. Recent findings from vascular biology studies indicate that vessel walls are dynamic biostructures, which are equipped with stem and progenitor cells, described as vascular wall-resident stem cells/progenitor cells (VW-SC/PC. Distinct zones for vessel wall harbor heterogeneous subpopulations of VW-SC/PC, which are described as “subendothelial or vasculogenic zones”. Recent evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies show that prenatal activity of stem and progenitor cells is not only limited to organogenesis but also exists in postnatal life, where it is responsible for vessel wall homeostasis, remodeling and regeneration. It is believed that VW-SC/PC could be engaged in progression of vascular disorders and development of neointima. We would like to summarize current knowledge about mesenchymal and progenitor stem cell phenotype with special attention to distribution and biological properties of VW-SC/PC in biostructures of intima, media and adventitia niches. It is postulated that in the near future, niches for VW-SC/PC could be a good source of stem and progenitor cells, especially in the context of vessel tissue bioengineering as a new alternative to traditional revascularization therapies.

  1. Autologous Doping with Cryopreserved Red Blood Cells - Effects on Physical Performance and Detection by Multivariate Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Christer B; Khoo, Nelson S; Granlund, Irene; Lindstedt, Emilia; Hult, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of erythropoietin (EPO) simplified blood doping in sports, but improved detection methods, for EPO has forced cheating athletes to return to blood transfusion. Autologous blood transfusion with cryopreserved red blood cells (RBCs) is the method of choice, because no valid method exists to accurately detect such event. In endurance sports, it can be estimated that elite athletes improve performance by up to 3% with blood doping, regardless of method. Valid detection methods for autologous blood doping is important to maintain credibility of athletic performances. Recreational male (N = 27) and female (N = 11) athletes served as Transfusion (N = 28) and Control (N = 10) subjects in two different transfusion settings. Hematological variables and physical performance were measured before donation of 450 or 900 mL whole blood, and until four weeks after re-infusion of the cryopreserved RBC fraction. Blood was analyzed for transferrin, iron, Hb, EVF, MCV, MCHC, reticulocytes, leucocytes and EPO. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and pattern recognition using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Orthogonal Projections of Latent Structures (OPLS) discriminant analysis (DA) investigated differences between Control and Transfusion groups over time. Significant increase in performance (15 ± 8%) and VO2max (17 ± 10%) (mean ± SD) could be measured 48 h after RBC re-infusion, and remained increased for up to four weeks in some subjects. In total, 533 blood samples were included in the study (Clean = 220, Transfused = 313). In response to blood transfusion, the largest change in hematological variables occurred 48 h after blood donation, when Control and Transfused groups could be separated with OPLS-DA (R2 = 0.76/Q2 = 0.59). RBC re-infusion resulted in the best model (R2 = 0.40/Q2 = 0.10) at the first sampling point (48 h), predicting one false positive and one false negative. Over all, a 25% and 86% false positives ratio was

  2. Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: In vitro assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99 m(99mTc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with 99mTc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p99mTc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon

  3. Comparison of instruments for investigation of microcirculatory blood flow and red blood cell concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, Jim; McNamara, Paul; Clancy, Neil T.; Enfield, Joey G.; Leahy, Martin J.

    2009-05-01

    The use of laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) and laser speckle perfusion imaging (LSPI) is well known in the noninvasive investigation of microcirculatory blood flow. This work compares the two techniques with the recently developed tissue viability (TiVi) imaging system, which is proposed as a useful tool to quantify red blood cell concentration in microcirculation. Three systems are evaluated with common skin tests such as the use of vasodilating and vasoconstricting drugs (methlynicotinate and clobetasol, respectively) and a reactive hyperaemia maneuver (using a sphygmomanometer). The devices investigated are the laser Doppler line scanner (LDLS), the laser speckle perfusion imager (FLPI)-both from Moor Instruments (Axminster, United Kingdom)-and the TiVi imaging system (WheelsBridge AB, Linköping, Sweden). Both imaging and point scanning by the devices are used to quantify the provoked reactions. Perfusion images of vasodilatation and vasoconstriction are acquired with both LDLS and FLPI, while TiVi images are acquired with the TiVi imager. Time acquisitions of an averaged region of interest are acquired for temporal studies such as the reactive hyperaemia. In contrast to the change in perfusion over time with pressure, the TiVi imager shows a different response due its measurement of blood concentration rather than perfusion. The responses can be explained by physiological understanding. Although the three devices sample different compartments of tissue, and output essentially different variables, comparisons can be seen between the three systems. The LDLS system proves to be suited to measurement of perfusion in deeper vessels, while FLPI and TiVi showed sensitivity to more superficial nutritional supply. LDLS and FLPI are insensitive to the action of the vasoconstrictor, while TiVi shows the clear boundaries of the reaction. Assessment of the resolution, penetration depth, and acquisition rate of each instrument show complimentary features that should

  4. Blood analyte sensing using fluorescent dye-loaded red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Sarah C.; Shao, Xiaole; Cooley, Nicholas; Milanick, Mark A.; Glass, Timothy E.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2014-02-01

    Measurement of blood analytes provides crucial information about a patient's health. Some such analytes, such as glucose in the case of diabetes, require long-term or near-continuous monitoring for proper disease management. However, current monitoring techniques are far from ideal: multiple-per-day finger stick tests are inconvenient and painful for the patient; implantable sensors have short functional life spans (i.e., 3-7 days). Due to analyte transporters on red blood cell (RBC) membranes that equilibrate intracellular and extracellular analyte levels, RBCs serve as an attractive alternative for encapsulating analyte sensors. Once reintroduced to the blood stream, the functionalized RBCs may continue to live for the remainder of their life span (120 days for humans). They are biodegradable and biocompatible, thereby eliminating the immune system response common for many implanted devices. The proposed sensing system utilizes the ability of the RBCs to swell in response to a decrease in the osmolarity of the extracellular solution. Just before lysis, they develop small pores on the scale of tens of nanometers. While at low temperature, analyte-sensitive dyes in the extracellular solution diffuse into the perforated RBCs and become entrapped upon restoration of temperature and osmolarity. Since the fluorescent signal from the entrapped dye reports on changes in the analyte level of the extracellular solution via the RBC transporters, interactions between the RBCs and the dye are critical to the efficacy of this technique. In this work, we study the use of a near infrared pH sensitive dye encapsulated within RBCs and assess the ability to measure dye fluorescence in vivo.

  5. Development of human connective tissue mast cells from purified blood monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnetzki, B M; Figdor, C G; Kolde, G; Vroom, T; Aalberse, R; de Vries, J E

    1984-01-01

    Highly purified subfractions of human peripheral blood monocytes, when cultured in the presence of 30% L cell supernatant and 30% horse serum, assumed all the characteristics that define human connective tissue mast cells. After three weeks of culture, 75% of the cells developed metachromasia and granular chloroacetate esterase staining, and their intracellular histamine levels increased from 0.0 to 50.5 ng/10(6) cells. On electron microscopy, the cells developed intracytoplasmic granules with all the features typical for mature and immature mast cells. Cultured cells bound 55 pg 125I-IgE/10(6) cells, while labelling was negligible with cells prior to culture and with heat-denatured 125I-IgE. Fluorescent staining with anti-IgE increased slightly as well, while staining with monoclonal anti-monocyte and anti-HLA-Dr markers decreased. Purified lymphocytes did not assume mast cell characteristics, and lymphokines did not induce or enhance in vitro mast cell development or IgE binding. The data therefore further support the concept that connective tissue mast cells arise from the monocytoid lineage. Images Figure 1 PMID:6698581

  6. Mastication induces long-term increases in blood perfusion of the trigeminal principal nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiano, A; Manara, R; Conforti, R; Paccone, A; Secondulfo, C; Lorusso, L; Sbordone, L; Di Salle, F; Monda, M; Tedeschi, G; Esposito, F

    2015-12-17

    Understanding mechanisms for vessel tone regulation within the trigeminal nuclei is of great interest because some headache syndromes are due to dysregulation of such mechanisms. Previous experiments on animal models suggest that mastication may alter neuron metabolism and blood supply in these nuclei. To investigate this hypothesis in humans, arterial spin-labeling magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure blood perfusion within the principal trigeminal nucleus (Vp) and in the dorsolateral-midbrain (DM, including the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus) in healthy volunteers, before and immediately after a mastication exercise consisting of chewing a gum on one side of the mouth for 1 h at 1 bite/s. The side preference for masticating was evaluated with a chewing test and the volume of the masseter muscle was measured on T1-weighted MRI scans. The results demonstrated that the mastication exercise caused a perfusion increase within the Vp, but not in the DM. This change was correlated to the preference score for the side where the exercise took place. Moreover, the basal Vp perfusion was correlated to the masseter volume. These results indicate that the local vascular tone of the trigeminal nuclei can be constitutively altered by the chewing practice and by strong or sustained chewing. PMID:26477983

  7. SALMON SOFT ROE DNA ON BLOOD CELLS SECRETION OF CYTOKINES IN HEALTHY DONORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Fedjanina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Salmon soft roe DNA influence on healthy donors blood cells secretion of early hemopoietic factors (IL-3, GM-CSF, TNFα as well as biologically active substance influence on cytokine balance of Тh1 and Тh2 responses (IFNγ, IL-10 in vitro was studied. It is established, that DNA has modulatory effect on secretion of all investigated cytokines - IL-3, GM-CSF, TNFα, INFγ and IL-10 by blood cells of healthy donors, increases their initially low concentration, reduces initially high and does not have essential influence at an average level of their secretion. Under action of DNA IFNγ level (stimulation index=3,3 increases more significantly than IL-10 level (stimulation index =1,9. Thus, salmon soft roe DNA possesses immunomodulatory properties.

  8. Identification of myeloid derived suppressor cells in the peripheral blood of tumor bearing dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherger Matthew

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs are a recently described population of immune cells that significantly contribute to the immunosuppression seen in cancer patients. MDSCs are one of the most important factors that limit the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy (e.g. cancer vaccines and MDSC levels are increased in cancer in multiple species. Identifying and targeting MDSCs is actively being investigated in the field of human oncology and is increasingly being investigated in veterinary oncology. The treatment of canine cancer not only benefits dogs, but is being used for translational studies evaluating and modifcying candidate therapies for use in humans. Thus, it is necessary to understand the immune alterations seen in canine cancer patients which, to date, have been relatively limited. This study investigates the use of commercially available canine antibodies to detect an immunosuppressive (CD11blow/CADO48low cell population that is increased in the peripheral blood of tumor-bearing dogs. Results Commercially available canine antibodies CD11b and CADO48A were used to evaluate white blood cells from the peripheral blood cells of forty healthy control dogs and forty untreated, tumor-bearing dogs. Tumor-bearing dogs had a statistically significant increase in CD11blow/CADO48Alow cells (7.9% as compared to the control dogs (3.6%. Additionally, sorted CD11blow/CADO48Alow generated in vitro suppressed the proliferation of canine lymphocytes. Conclusions The purpose of this study was aimed at identifying potential canine specific markers for identifying MDSCs in the peripheral blood circulation of dogs. This study demonstrates an increase in a unique CD11blow/CADO48Alow cell population in tumor-bearing dogs. This immunophenotype is consistent with described phenotypes of MDSCs in other species (i.e. mice and utilizes commercially available canine-specific antibodies. Importantly, CD11blow/CADO48Alow from a tumor environment

  9. 'À la carte' peptide shuttles: tools to increase their passage across the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakoutikhah, Morteza; Guixer, Bernat; Arranz-Gibert, Pol; Teixidó, Meritxell; Giralt, Ernest

    2014-07-01

    Noninvasive methods for efficient drug delivery to the brain is an unmet need. Molecular access to the brain is regulated by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) established by the endothelial cells of brain vessels. Passive diffusion is one of the main mechanisms that organic compounds use to travel through these endothelial cells. This passage across the BBB is determined mainly by certain physicochemical properties of the molecule such as lipophilicity, size, and the presence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors. One emerging strategy to facilitate the passage of organic compounds across the BBB is the use of peptide shuttles.1 In using this approach the permeability in front the BBB is, clearly, determined by the combined physicochemical properties of both the cargo and the shuttle. Herein we report the synthesis of a series of variations of one of the more efficient peptide shuttles, (N-MePhe)n . These include diverse structural features such as various backbone stereochemistries or the presence of non-natural amino acids, including halogenated residues. In several cases, we assessed the BBB permeability of both the shuttles alone and linked to a few cargos. Our results show how factors such as stereochemistry or halogen content influences the passage across the BBB and, more importantly, opens the way to a strategy of peptide shuttles 'à la carte', in which a particular fine-tuned shuttle is used for each specific cargo. PMID:24665021

  10. Age-related alteration in the composition of immunocompetent blood cells in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1328 survivors of Hiroshima were studied for alterations in the number of blood lymphocytes belonging to T-cell subpopulations, CD19 antigen-positive B cells and Leu 7 and CD16 antigen-positive lymphocytes. With increasing age, significant decreasing trends in the numbers of some lymphocytes in T-cell subpopulations and of B-cells were seen. The number of blood lymphocytes positive for CD5 antigen was significantly lower in those exposed to radiation (> 1Gy) in the older age group (more than 30 years at the time of bombing) and a similar tendency for decreases in the numbers of CD4, CD8, and CD19 antigen-positive cells was observed, but differences were not significant. The results suggest aging of the T-cell related immune system is accelerated in the irradiated people of advanced age, explained by the age-related decrease in thymic function in those subjects. The number of Leu 7 or CD19 antigen-positive cells was found to be increased significantly in the older age group compared to the younger, although there was little dose dependence. (U.K.)

  11. 75 FR 62843 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell... Act, as amended) the Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (ACBSCT) advises the.... L. 92-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Council on Blood...

  12. 76 FR 3913 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell... Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (ACBSCT) Meeting to be Held by Conference Call. SUMMARY.... L. 92-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Council on Blood...

  13. Antibody-mediated red blood cell agglutination resulting in spontaneous echocardiographic contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M R; Thompson, W R; Casella, J F; Spevak, P J

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous echocardiographic contrast is well reported in states of low flow and low shear stress, and the primary blood component involved has been reported as red blood cells via rouleaux formation. This report describes the occurrence of spontaneous echocardiographic contrast from a unique mechanism of IgM-mediated red blood cell agglutination and describes the clinical sequelae. PMID:10368455

  14. Infrared Imaging of Nitric Oxide-Mediated Blood Flow in Human Sickle Cell Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gorbach, Alexander M; Hans C Ackerman; Liu, Wei-Min; Meyer, Joseph M.; Littel, Patricia L.; Seamon, Catherine; Footman, Eleni; Chi, Amy; Zorca, Suzana; Krajewski, Megan L.; Cuttica, Michael J.; Machado, Roberto F; Cannon, Richard O.; Kato, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular dysfunction is an important pathophysiologic manifestation of sickle cell disease (SCD), a condition that increases risk of pulmonary hypertension and stroke. We hypothesized that infrared (IR) imaging would detect changes in cutaneous blood flow reflective of vascular function. We performed IR imaging and conventional strain gauge plethysmography in twenty-five adults with SCD at baseline and during intra-arterial infusions of an endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine (ACh)...

  15. Synergistic Effect of Anemia and Red Blood Cells Transfusion on Inflammation and Lung Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Anping Dong; Manjula Sunkara; Manikandan Panchatcharam; Abdel Salous; Samy Selim; Morris, Andrew J.; Smyth, Susan S.

    2012-01-01

    Anemia and resultant red blood cell transfusion may be associated with adverse long-term clinical outcomes. To investigate the mechanism(s) responsible, we profiled inflammatory biomarkers and circulating levels of the bioactive lysophospholipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in control and anemic mice with or without LPS-induced systemic inflammation. Acute anemia or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge alone triggered an increase of circulating levels of the inflammatory markers IL-6 ...

  16. Relation Between Red Blood Cell Omega-3 Fatty Acid Index and Bleeding During Acute Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Salisbury, Adam C.; Harris, William S.; Amin, Amit P.; Reid, Kimberly J.; O’Keefe, James H; Spertus, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids have multiple cardiovascular benefits, but may also inhibit platelet aggregation and increase bleeding risk. If this platelet inhibition is clinically meaningful, patients with the highest omega-3 indices (red blood cell eicosapentaenoic [EPA] plus docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]), which reflect long-term omega-3 fatty acid intake, should be at the greatest bleeding risk. We studied 1,523 patients from 24 US centers who had their omega-3 index assessed at the time of AMI. The r...

  17. Measurement of the nonlinear elasticity of red blood cell membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongkeun; Best, Catherine A.; Kuriabova, Tatiana; Henle, Mark L.; Feld, Michael S.; Levine, Alex J.; Popescu, Gabriel

    2011-05-01

    The membranes of human red blood cells (RBCs) are a composite of a fluid lipid bilayer and a triangular network of semiflexible filaments (spectrin). We perform cellular microrheology using the dynamic membrane fluctuations of the RBCs to extract the elastic moduli of this composite membrane. By applying known osmotic stresses, we measure the changes in the elastic constants under imposed strain and thereby determine the nonlinear elastic properties of the membrane. We find that the elastic nonlinearities of the shear modulus in tensed RBC membranes can be well understood in terms of a simple wormlike chain model. Our results show that the elasticity of the spectrin network can mostly account for the area compression modulus at physiological osmolality, suggesting that the lipid bilayer has significant excess area. As the cell swells, the elastic contribution from the now tensed lipid membrane becomes dominant.

  18. Red blood cell cluster separation from digital images for use in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Hidalgo, Manuel; Guerrero-Peña, F A; Herold-García, S; Jaume-I-Capó, Antoni; Marrero-Fernández, P D

    2015-07-01

    The study of cell morphology is an important aspect of the diagnosis of some diseases, such as sickle cell disease, because red blood cell deformation is caused by these diseases. Due to the elongated shape of the erythrocyte, ellipse adjustment and concave point detection are applied widely to images of peripheral blood samples, including during the detection of cells that are partially occluded in the clusters generated by the sample preparation process. In the present study, we propose a method for the analysis of the shape of erythrocytes in peripheral blood smear samples of sickle cell disease, which uses ellipse adjustments and a new algorithm for detecting notable points. Furthermore, we apply a set of constraints that allow the elimination of significant image preprocessing steps proposed in previous studies. We used three types of images to validate our method: artificial images, which were automatically generated in a random manner using a computer code; real images from peripheral blood smear sample images that contained normal and elongated erythrocytes; and synthetic images generated from real isolated cells. Using the proposed method, the efficiency of detecting the two types of objects in the three image types exceeded 99.00%, 98.00%, and 99.35%, respectively. These efficiency levels were superior to the results obtained with previously proposed methods using the same database, which is available at http://erythrocytesidb.uib.es/. This method can be extended to clusters of several cells and it requires no user inputs. PMID:25216490

  19. Lacking deoxygenation-linked interaction between cytoplasmic domain of band 3 and HbF from fetal red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Several of the red blood cell's metabolic and membrane functions display dependence on haemoglobin oxygenation. In adult human red cells, the increased glycolytic rate at low O2 tension results from binding of deoxygenated HbA at negatively charged, N-terminal, cytoplasmic domain of the...

  20. Detection and quantification of subtle changes in red blood cell density using a cell phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Edward J; Velasquez, Anthony; Lu, Shulin; Murphy, Ryann O; ElKhal, Abdala; Mazor, Ofer; Gorelik, Pavel; Sharda, Anish; Ghiran, Ionita C

    2016-08-16

    Magnetic levitation has emerged as a technique that offers the ability to differentiate between cells with different densities. We have developed a magnetic levitation system for this purpose that distinguishes not only different cell types but also density differences in cells of the same type. This small-scale system suspends cells in a paramagnetic medium in a capillary placed between two rare earth magnets, and cells levitate to an equilibrium position determined solely by their density. Uniform reference beads of known density are used in conjunction with the cells as a means to quantify their levitation positions. In one implementation images of the levitating cells are acquired with a microscope, but here we also introduce a cell phone-based device that integrates the magnets, capillary, and a lens into a compact and portable unit that acquires images with the phone's camera. To demonstrate the effectiveness of magnetic levitation in cell density analysis we carried out levitation experiments using red blood cells with artificially altered densities, and also levitated those from donors. We observed that we can distinguish red blood cells of an anemic donor from those that are healthy. Since a plethora of disease states are characterized by changes in cell density magnetic cell levitation promises to be an effective tool in identifying and analyzing pathologic states. Furthermore, the low cost, portability, and ease of use of the cell phone-based system may potentially lead to its deployment in low-resource environments. PMID:27431921