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Sample records for blood cell storage

  1. [Promising technologies of packed red blood cells production and storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, A G; Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B

    2013-10-01

    The current article is dedicated to promising technologies of packed red blood cells production and storage. The following new technical approaches are presented: (1) erythrocytes storage in strict anaerobic argon-hydrogen environment, (2) lyophilization of erythrocyte suspension by its atomization in nitrogen gas, (3) lyophilization of erythrocytes by directional freezing under the influence of radio frequency radiation, (4) automated pharming of antigen free packed red blood cells from progenitor cell directly at the battlefield.

  2. Squeezing red blood cells on an optical waveguide to monitor cell deformability during blood storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Balpreet Singh; McCourt, Peter; Oteiza, Ana; Wilkinson, James S; Huser, Thomas R; Hellesø, Olav Gaute

    2015-01-07

    Red blood cells squeeze through micro-capillaries as part of blood circulation in the body. The deformability of red blood cells is thus critical for blood circulation. In this work, we report a method to optically squeeze red blood cells using the evanescent field present on top of a planar waveguide chip. The optical forces from a narrow waveguide are used to squeeze red blood cells to a size comparable to the waveguide width. Optical forces and pressure distributions on the cells are numerically computed to explain the squeezing process. The proposed technique is used to quantify the loss of blood deformability that occurs during blood storage lesion. Squeezing red blood cells using waveguides is a sensitive technique and works simultaneously on several cells, making the method suitable for monitoring stored blood.

  3. Length of Storage of Red Blood Cells and Patient Survival After Blood Transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halmin, Märit; Rostgaard, Klaus; Lee, Brian K

    2017-01-01

    Background: Possible negative effects, including increased mortality, among persons who receive stored red blood cells (RBCs) have recently garnered considerable attention. Despite many studies, including 4 randomized trials, no consensus exists. Objective: To study the association between...... received transfusions from 2003 to 2012. Measurements: Patients were followed from first blood transfusion. Relative and absolute risks for death in 30 days or 1 year in relation to length of RBC storage were assessed by using 3 independent analytic approaches. All analyses were conducted by using Cox...... proportional hazards regression. Results: Regardless of the analytic approach, no association was found between the length of RBC storage and mortality. The difference in 30-day cumulative mortality between patients receiving blood stored for 30 to 42 days and those receiving blood stored for 10 to 19 days...

  4. Erythropoietin reduces storage lesions and decreases apoptosis indices in blood bank red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penuela, Oscar Andrés; Palomino, Fernando; Gómez, Lina Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent evidence shows a selective destruction of the youngest circulating red blood cells (neocytolysis) trigged by a drop in erythropoietin levels. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin beta on the red blood cell storage lesion and apoptosis indices under blood bank conditions. Methods Each one of ten red blood cell units preserved in additive solution 5 was divided in two volumes of 100 mL and assigned to one of two groups: erythropoietin (addition of 665 IU of recombinant human erythropoietin) and control (isotonic buffer solution was added). The pharmacokinetic parameters of erythropoietin were estimated and the following parameters were measured weekly, for six weeks: Immunoreactive erythropoietin, hemolysis, percentage of non-discocytes, adenosine triphosphate, glucose, lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, and annexin-V/esterase activity. The t-test or Wilcoxon's test was used for statistical analysis with significance being set for a p-value 6 weeks under blood bank conditions, with persistent supernatant concentrations of erythropoietin during the entire storage period. Adenosine triphosphate was higher in the Erythropoietin Group in Week 6 (4.19 ± 0.05 μmol/L vs. 3.53 ± 0.02 μmol/L; p-value = 0.009). The number of viable cells in the Erythropoietin Group was higher than in the Control Group (77% ± 3.8% vs. 71% ± 2.3%; p-value <0.05), while the number of apoptotic cells was lower (9.4% ± 0.3% vs. 22% ± 0.8%; p-value <0.05). Conclusions Under standard blood bank conditions, an important proportion of red blood cells satisfy the criteria of apoptosis. Recombinant human erythropoietin beta seems to improve storage lesion parameters and mitigate apoptosis. PMID:26969770

  5. Effect of Packed Red Blood Cell Cryopreservation on Development of the Storage Lesion and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    liquid storage on development of the biochemical, metabolic, and morphologic changes collectively known as the red blood cell storage lesion is unknown...adjunct to standard blood banking techniques. The post-thaw characteristics are markedly different than fresh packed red blood cells, and the...Drug Administration currently restricts their use to 14 days after thawing. The effect of longer term liquid storage on development of the

  6. Duration of red blood cell storage and survival of transfused patients (CME)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Eloranta, Sandra;

    2010-01-01

    Disquieting reports of increased complication and death rates after transfusions of red blood cells (RBCs) stored for more than 14 days prompted us to perform an observational retrospective cohort study of mortality in relation to storage time.......Disquieting reports of increased complication and death rates after transfusions of red blood cells (RBCs) stored for more than 14 days prompted us to perform an observational retrospective cohort study of mortality in relation to storage time....

  7. Safe extension of red blood cell storage life at 4{degree}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitensky, M.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    1996-04-01

    The project sought to develop methods to extend the storage life of red blood cells. Extended storage would allow donor to self or autologous transfusion, expand and stabilize the blood supply, reduce the cost of medical care and eliminate the risk of transfusion related infections, including a spectrum of hepatitides (A, B and C) and HIV. The putative cause of red blood cell spoilage at 4 C has been identified as oxidative membrane damage resulting from deoxyhemoglobin and its denaturation products including hemichrome, hemin and Fe{sup 3+}. Trials with carbon monoxide, which is a stabilizer of hemoglobin, have produced striking improvement of red blood cell diagnostics for cells stored at 4 C. Carbonmonoxy hemoglobin is readily converted to oxyhemoglobin by light in the presence of oxygen. These findings have generated a working model and an approach to identify the best protocols for optimal red cell storage and hemoglobin regeneration.

  8. Biochemical Storage Lesions Occurring in Nonirradiated and Irradiated Red Blood Cells: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Adams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells undergo a series of biochemical fluctuations during 35–42-day storage period at 1°C to 6°C. The sodium/potassium pump is immobilised causing a decrease in intracellular potassium with an increase in cytoplasmic sodium levels, glucose levels decline, and acidosis occurs as a result of low pH levels. The frailty of stored erythrocytes triggers the formation of haemoglobin-containing microparticles and the release of cell-free haemoglobin which may add to transfusion difficulties. Lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress to band 3 structures, and other morphological and structural molecular changes also occur leading to spheroechinocytes and osmotic fragility. These changes that transpire in the red cells during the storage period are referred to as “storage lesions.” It is well documented that gamma irradiation exacerbates storage lesions and the reports of increased potassium levels leading to adverse reactions observed in neonates and infants have been of particular concern. There are, however, remarkably few systematic studies comparing the in vitro storage lesions of irradiated and nonirradiated red cell concentrates and it has been suggested that the impact of storage lesions on leucocyte reduced red blood cell concentrate (RBCC is incomplete. The review examines storage lesions in red blood cells and their adverse effects in reference to blood transfusion.

  9. Effect of blood bank storage on the rheological properties of male and female donor red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Amanda; Raval, Jay S; Waters, Jonathan H; Yazer, Mark H; Kameneva, Marina V

    2014-01-01

    It was previously demonstrated that red blood cell (RBC) deformability progressively decreases during storage along with other changes in RBC mechanical properties. Recently, we reported that the magnitude of changes in RBC mechanical fragility associated with blood bank storage in a variety of additive solutions was strongly dependent on the donor gender [15]. Yet, the potential dependence of changes in the deformability and relaxation time of stored blood bank RBCs on donor gender is not known. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of donor gender and blood bank storage on RBC deformability and relaxation time through the measurement of RBC suspension viscoelasticity. Packed RBC units preserved in AS-5 solution from 12 male and 12 female donors (three from each ABO group) were obtained from the local blood center and tested at 1, 4 and 7 weeks of storage at 1-6°C. At each time point, samples were aseptically removed from RBC units and hematocrit was adjusted to 40% before assessment of cell suspension viscoelasticity. RBC suspensions from both genders demonstrated progressive increases (p blood bank storage may reduce tissue perfusion and RBC lifespan in patients receiving blood bank RBCs.

  10. Storage-induced increase in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in red blood cell components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kücükakin, Bülent; Kocak, Volkan; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    Background. Transfusion of blood components may increase the risk of complications in relation to surgery. During storage, red blood cells (RBCs) undergo structural and functional changes that may reduce function and viability after transfusion. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality...

  11. Cell surface alterations during blood-storage characterized by artificial aggregation of washed red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, E; Lerche, D

    1985-01-01

    Aggregation measurement of washed human erythrocytes (RBC) were carried out in a NaCl-PBS solution under laminar shear conditions. Artificial aggregation of fresh and stored erythrocytes was caused by decreased pH and reduced ionic strength and characterized by collision efficiency alpha. Generally, the collision efficiency alpha of stored erythrocytes rises with the increased storage time. Such an aggregation technique might be useful to detect and quantify changes of the membrane and/or the surface structure due to aging and/or storage.

  12. Deformability of Red Blood Cells and Correlation with ATP Content during Storage as Leukocyte-Depleted Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karger, Ralf; Lukow, Christian; Kretschmer, Volker

    2012-08-01

    BACKGROUND: Storage duration of red cells has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality following transfusion. This association has been attributed to the loss of deformability of stored red cells leading to deterioration of microvascular perfusion. ATP content is considered a critical determinant of the deformability of stored red cells. METHODS: ATP content and deformability were determined after storage for up to 49 days in 40 leukocyte-depleted whole blood units. Red cell deformability was determined using a laser-assisted optical rotational cell analyzer (LORCA( (®) )) employing shear stress (SS) ranging from 0.3 to 30 Pa. Deformability was expressed as the elongation index (EI). EI was correlated with ATP content. RESULTS: ATP content decreased from 3.5 to 1.7 ?mol/g hemoglobin. EI increased from 0.03 to 0.05 at an SS of 0.3 Pa, and decreased from 0.62 to 0.59 at an SS of 30 Pa. Correlation coefficient (r) of ATP vs. EI at 0.3 Pa ranged from -0.17 to +0.15 during storage. At 30 Pa, r ranged from -0.03 to +0.45. Correlation increased with storage irrespective of SS, and increased with SS irrespective of storage. CONCLUSIONS: ATP content is not a valid surrogate marker for red cell deformability and may not reflect in vivo survival of stored red cells.

  13. Is red blood cell rheology preserved during routine blood bank storage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, Sandra; Dijkstra-Tiekstra, Margriet J.; de Wildt-Eggen, Janny; Graaff, Reindert; Rakhorst, Gerhard; van Oeveren, Willem

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Red blood cell (RBC) units stored for more than 2 weeks at 4 degrees C are currently considered of impaired quality. This opinion has primarily been based on altered RBC rheologic properties (i.e., enhanced aggregability, reduced deformability, and elevated endothelial cell interaction),

  14. The involvement of cation leaks in the storage lesion of red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna F Flatt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Stored blood components are a critical life-saving tool provided to patients by health services worldwide. Red cells may be stored for up to 42 days, allowing for efficient blood bank inventory management, but with prolonged storage comes an unwanted side-effect known as the ‘storage lesion’, which has been implicated in poorer patient outcomes. This lesion is comprised of a number of processes that are inter-dependent. Metabolic changes include a reduction in glycolysis and ATP production after the first week of storage. This leads to an accumulation of lactate and drop in pH. Longer term damage may be done by the consequent reduction in anti-oxidant enzymes, which contributes to protein and lipid oxidation via reactive oxygen species. The oxidative damage to the cytoskeleton and membrane is involved in increased vesiculation and loss of cation gradients across the membrane. The irreversible damage caused by extensive membrane loss via vesiculation alongside dehydration is likely to result in immediate splenic sequestration of these dense, spherocytic cells. Although often overlooked in the literature, the loss of the cation gradient in stored cells will be considered in more depth in this review as well as the possible effects it may have on other elements of the storage lesion. It has now become clear that blood donors can exhibit quite large variations in the properties of their red cells, including microvesicle production and the rate of cation leak. Further study of stored red blood cells from donors known to have a high or low-rate of cation leak will shed more light on the relationship between cation gradients and the manifestation of the various elements of the storage lesion.

  15. Nanodefects of membranes cause destruction of packed red blood cells during long-term storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlova, Elena, E-mail: waterlake@mail.ru [V.A. Negovsky Scientific Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Moscow (Russian Federation); I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chernysh, Aleksandr [V.A. Negovsky Scientific Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Moscow (Russian Federation); I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moroz, Victor; Sergunova, Victoria; Gudkova, Olga; Kuzovlev, Artem [V.A. Negovsky Scientific Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-01

    Packed red blood cells (PRBC) are used for blood transfusion. PRBC were stored for 30 days under 4 °C in hermetic blood bags with CPD anticoagulant-preservative solution. Hematocrit was 50–55%. The distortions of PRBC membranes nanostructure and cells morphology during storage were studied by atomic force microscopy. Basic measurements were performed at the day 2, 6, 9, 16, 23 and 30 of storage and additionally 2–3 days after it. Topological defects occurred on RBC membranes by day 9. They appeared as domains with grain-like structures (“grains”) sized up to 200 nm. These domains were appeared in almost all cells. Later these domains merged and formed large defects on cells. It was the formation of domains with the “grains” which was onset process leading eventually to destruction of PRBC. Possible mechanisms of transformation of PRBC and their membrane are related to the alterations of spectrin cytoskeleton. During this storage period potassium ions and lactat concentrations increased, pH decreased, intracellular concentration of reduced glutathione diminished in the preservative solution. Changes of PRBC morphology were detected within the entire period of PRBC storage. Discocytes predominated at the days 1 and 2. By day 30 PRBC transformed into irreversible echinocytes and spheroechinocytes. Study of defects of membranes nanostructure may form the basis of assessing the quality of the stored PRBC. This method may allow to work out the best recommendations for blood transfusion. - Highlights: • Domains with “grains” are formed on membranes surface on 9–16 days of PRBC storage. • The development of domains is the reason of irreversible changes of PRBC structure. • The origin of domains is the consequence of alterations of spectrin cytoskeleton. • Study of nanostructure may form basis of assessing the quality of the stored PRBC.

  16. Storage time of red blood cells and mortality of transfusion recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelburg, Rutger A; van de Watering, Leo M G; Briët, Ernest; van der Bom, Johanna G

    2013-01-01

    Storage of red cells and the associated storage lesion have been suggested to contribute to adverse clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether increasing storage time of red cells is associated with mortality of recipients. From all patients who received red cell transfusions between January 2005 and May 2009, in the Leiden University Medical Center, we selected those who received only-young or only-old red cells, defined as below or above the median storage time. Mortality was compared in a Cox regression model. Subsequently, similar comparisons were made between subgroups with increasing contrast between old and young red cells. Among adult patients, after correction for potential confounders, the hazard ratio of death within 1 year after receiving red cells stored for more than 17 days compared with 17 days or less was 0.98 (95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.2). With increasing contrast, the hazard ratio decreased to 0.56 (95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.97) for red cells stored for more than 24 days compared with less than 10 days. In contrast to what has previously been suggested, we find an almost 2-fold increase in mortality rate after the transfusion of fresh red cells compared with old red cells. Results dependent on analyses chosen and previous studies may not have used optimal analyses. The tendency to demand ever-fresher blood could actually be detrimental for at least some patient groups.

  17. Dragon's Blood Sap (Croton Lechleri) As Storage Medium For Avulsed Teeth: In Vitro Study Of Cell Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Christine Men; Hamanaka, Elizane Ferreira; Hoshida, Thayse Yumi; Sell, Ana Maria; Hidalgo, Mirian Marubayashi; Silveira, Catarina Soares; Poi, Wilson Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Tooth replantation success depends on the condition of cementum periodontal ligament after tooth avulsion; which is influenced by storage medium. The dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) sap has been suggested as a promising medium because it supports collagen formation and exhibits healing, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dragon's blood sap as a storage medium for avulsed teeth through evaluation of functional and metabolic cell viability. This in vitro study compared the efficacy of different storage media to maintain the viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear and periodontal ligament cells. A 10% dragon's blood sap was tested while PBS was selected as its control. Ultra pasteurized whole milk was used for comparison as a commonly used storage medium. DMEM and distilled water were the positive and negative controls, respectively. The viability was assessed through trypan blue exclusion test and colorimetric MTT assay after 1, 3, 6, 10 and 24 h of incubation. The dragon's blood sap showed promising results due to its considerable maintenance of cell viability. For trypan blue test, the dragon's blood sap was similar to milk (psap showed better results than all storage media, even better than milk (psap was as effective as milk, the gold standard for storage medium. The experimental sap preserved the membrane of all cells and the functional viability of periodontal ligament cells.

  18. Measuring cell surface area and deformability of individual human red blood cells over blood storage using quantitative phase imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoo; Lee, Sangyun; Ji, Misuk; Kim, Kyoohyun; Son, Yonghak; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, Yongkeun

    2016-10-01

    The functionality and viability of stored human red blood cells (RBCs) is an important clinical issue in transfusions. To systematically investigate changes in stored whole blood, the hematological properties of individual RBCs were quantified in blood samples stored for various periods with and without a preservation solution called citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-1 (CPDA-1). With 3-D quantitative phase imaging techniques, the optical measurements for 3-D refractive index (RI) distributions and membrane fluctuations were done at the individual cell level. From the optical measurements, the morphological (volume, surface area and sphericity), biochemical (hemoglobin content and concentration), and mechanical parameters (dynamic membrane fluctuation) were simultaneously quantified to investigate the functionalities and progressive alterations of stored RBCs. Our results show that stored RBCs without CPDA-1 had a dramatic morphological transformation from discocytes to spherocytes within two weeks which was accompanied by significant decreases in cell deformability and cell surface area, and increases in sphericity. However, the stored RBCs with CPDA-1 maintained their morphology and deformability for up to 6 weeks.

  19. Cryopreserved red blood cells for pediatric transfusion. Frozen storage of small aliquots in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeri, C R; Valeri, D A; Gray, A; Melaragno, A J; Vecchione, J J; Dennis, R C; Emerson, C P

    1981-01-01

    Human nonrejuvenated and rejuvenated red bood cells were prepared for cryopreservation and subsequent pediatric transfusion. Glycerol was added to the red blood cells in the primary polyvinyl chloride plastic collection bag to achieve a concentration of 40 per cent W/V. The red blood cells were concentrated by centrifugation, and the supernatant glycerol was discarded. Each glycerolized unit was divided into four equal aliquots in the individual 600-ml bags of a dry quadruple polyvinyl chloride plastic system, and each aliquot was frozen and stored at -80 C. After thawing, sodium chloride solutions were used to wash the aliquots in the IBM Blood Processor 2991-1 or 2991-2 or the Haemonetics Blood Processor 115, and the washed aliquots were stored in a sodium chloride-glucose-phosphate solution at 4 C for 24 hours. Freeze-thaw recovery of the red blood cells was about 97 per cent, and freeze-thaw-wash recovery was about 84 per cent. Twenty-four-hour posttransfusion survival values were about 92 per cent for both nonrejuvenated and indated-rejuvenated red blood cells. Nonrejuvenated red blood cells, those frozen within three to five days of collection without biochemical modification, had normal oxygen transport function at the time of transfusion; rejuvenated red blood cells, those biochemically treated with PIGPA Solution A after three to five days of storage at 4 C, had improved oxygen transport function at the time of transfusion.

  20. Storage and survival of red blood cells with elevated sodium levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallas, C H; Harris, A S; Wetherall, N T

    1982-01-01

    Approximately 25 percent of black blood donors have an elevated red blood cell (RBC) sodium (Nai) level compared with white donors. This elevation results in a significant increase in the mean Nai from black (9.00 +/- 2.96 mmoles/l RBC) as compared to white blood donors (7.04 +/- 1.48 mmoles/l RBC, p less than 0.001). Red blood cells from four black donors with mean Nai levels of 15 +/- 2.8 mmoles/l RBC were stored for 35 days in citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine and compared to that of four donors with normal levels of Nai. Serial measurements of red blood cell adenosine triphosphate, diphosphoglycerate, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvic kinase, lactate production rates, and intracellular cations showed no differences between the two donor groups. Furthermore, the mean 24-hour posttransfusion survival was not significantly different for the high Nai group (83.2 +/- 5.6%) as compared with the control group (82.3 +/- 6.9%). Based on this study, it is not necessary to eliminate individuals with an elevated red blood cell Nai level as blood donors.

  1. The Popularization and Application of Cold Storage Red Blood Cells or Whole Blood at -80 ℃ of the Rh(D) Negative Patients in Surgical Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余忠清; 胡丽华; 韩敏; 饶神宗; 罗成伟

    2002-01-01

    Summary: The efficiency of cold storage red blood cells (CSRBC) or whole blood at -80 ℃ used in 27 Rh(D) negative patients during surgical operation was reported. The Rh(D) negative patients re-ceived the transfusion of CSRBC or whole blood stored at -80 ℃ for 180 to 360 days. The changes in the indexes, such as blood TB, DB, K+, Na+, BUN, Cr, urine protein (URPO), UOB, Hb,HCT, serum total protein, relative to hemolytic reaction and blood volume before and after transfu sion were observed. The results showed that after transfusion of CSRBC or whole blood 27 cases were negative for urine protein and UOB, and the levels of BUN and Cr were normal (P>0. 05). Blood TB, DB, Hb, and HCT were increased, while pH, blood K+ and blood Na+ was normal with the difference being not significant before and after operation (P> 0. 05). Plasma protein was decreased,but there was no significant difference before and after operation (P>0.05). It was suggested that CSRBC or whole blood at -80 ℃ could be safely infused to the Rh (D) negative patients without side effects during the surgical operation.

  2. Polycistronic lentivirus induced pluripotent stem cells from skin biopsies after long term storage, blood outgrowth endothelial cells and cells from milk teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambrot, C; van de Pas, S; van Zijl, L; Brändl, B; Wang, J W; Schalij, M J; Hoeben, R C; Atsma, D E; Mikkers, H M; Mummery, C L; Freund, C

    2013-02-01

    The generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) requires the collection of donor tissue, but clinical circumstances in which the interests of patients have highest priority may compromise the quality and availability of cells that are eventually used for reprogramming. Here we compared (i) skin biopsies stored in standard physiological salt solution for up to two weeks (ii) blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) isolated from fresh peripheral blood and (iii) children's milk teeth lost during normal replacement for their ability to form somatic cell cultures suitable for reprogramming to hiPSCs. We derived all hiPSC lines using the same reprogramming method (a conditional (FLPe) polycistronic lentivirus) and under similar conditions (same batch of virus, fetal calf serum and feeder cells). Skin fibroblasts could be reprogrammed robustly even after long-term biopsy storage. Generation of hiPSCs from juvenile dental pulp cells gave similar high efficiencies, but that of BOECs was lower. In terms of invasiveness of biopsy sampling, biopsy storage and reprogramming efficiencies skin fibroblasts appeared best for the generation of hiPSCs, but where non-invasive procedures are required (e.g., for children and minors) dental pulp cells from milk teeth represent a valuable alternative.

  3. Red blood cell engineering in stroma and serum/plasma-free conditions and long term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Ok; Baek, Eun Jung

    2012-01-01

    In vitro generation of artificial red blood cells (RBCs) is very important to overcome insufficient and unsafe blood supply. Despite recent progresses in RBCs engineering from several stem cell sources, none of them could succeed in generation of functional RBCs in the absence of serum/plasma and feeder cells. Without the elimination of serum and plasma, human RBC engineering in a large scale is impossible, especially for the future bioreactor system. Using an appropriate combination of cost-effective and safe reagents, the present study demonstrated the terminal maturation of hematopoietic stem cells into enucleated RBCs, which were functional comparable to donated human RBCs. Surprisingly, the viability of erythroid cells was higher in our serum- and feeder-free culture condition than in the previous serum-added condition. This was possible by supplementation with vitamin C in media and hypothermic conditions. Also, our report firstly presents the storability of artificial RBCs, which possibility is essential for clinical application. In summary, our report demonstrates engineering of human applicable RBCs with a dramatically enhanced viability and shelf-life in both serum- and stroma-free conditions. This innovative culture technology could contribute to the realization of the large-scale pharming of human RBCs using bioreactor systems.

  4. Storage time of intraoperative transfused allogeneic red blood cells is not associated with new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation in cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Jiwei; Skals, Regitze Kuhr; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion has been associated with new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) following cardiac surgery. Prolonged storage time of RBC may increase the risk. The primary aim of the study was to evaluate whether the storage time of RBC is assoc......BACKGROUND: Allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion has been associated with new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) following cardiac surgery. Prolonged storage time of RBC may increase the risk. The primary aim of the study was to evaluate whether the storage time of RBC...... is associated with development of POAF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pre-, per- and postoperative data were retrieved from the Western Denmark Heart Registry and local blood banks regarding patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery, valve surgery or combined procedures in Aalborg or Aarhus University...

  5. No early effect of storage time of transfused red blood cells on fatigue and plasma cytokines in patients with anaemia from non-acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, Tommie; Dziegiel, Morten H; Kofoed, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    Background: Fatigue in anaemia is empirically reduced by blood transfusion. Long storage time of red cells may be associated with immunomodulatory effects, and blood stored for a long time may cause tissue hypoxia upon transfusion. Patients and Methods: 22 patients admitted with haemoglobin ... (nsSL). Beside increase in haemoglobin the only significant change in blood parameters after transfusion was a decrease in thrombocyte count (nsSL). No significant differences were seen in concentrations of cytokines before and after transfusion. Conclusion: Transfusion of two units of red cells...... relieved self-estimated fatigue, independent of blood storage time. Thrombocyte count decreased after transfusion, probably due to dilution by transfused blood. Aged red cells may not, or only sparsely, directly trigger the interleukin cascade....

  6. An improved red blood cell additive solution maintains 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and adenosine triphosphate levels by an enhancing effect on phosphofructokinase activity during cold storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Burger; H. Korsten; D. de Korte; E. Rombout; R. van Bruggen; A.J. Verhoeven

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current additive solutions (ASs) for red blood cells (RBCs) do not maintain constant 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels during cold storage We have previously shown that with a new AS called phosphate-adenine-glucose-guanosine-gluconate-mannitol (PAGGGM)

  7. Storage and regulated secretion of factor VIII in blood outgrowth endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Biggelaar, M.; Bouwens, E.A.M.; Kootstra, N.A.; Hebbel, R.P.; Voorberg, J.; Mertens, K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Gene therapy provides an attractive alternative for protein replacement therapy in hemophilia A patients. Recent studies have shown the potential benefit of directing factor (F)VIII gene delivery to cells that also express its natural carrier protein von Willebrand factor (VWF). In this s

  8. Storage of cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Katharine A

    2011-01-01

    The successful storage of cell lines depends upon many factors, including the condition of the cells to be frozen and the experience of the operator. Attempting to freeze down unhealthy, contaminated or poorly labelled cells can have huge implications for a research laboratory. This chapter outlines the importance of good record keeping, vigilant monitoring, aseptic technique, and high-quality reagents in the successful storage and downstream propagation of cell lines.

  9. Quantitative investigation of red blood cell three-dimensional geometric and chemical changes in the storage lesion using digital holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaferzadeh, Keyvan; Moon, Inkyu

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative phase information obtained by digital holographic microscopy (DHM) can provide new insight into the functions and morphology of single red blood cells (RBCs). Since the functionality of a RBC is related to its three-dimensional (3-D) shape, quantitative 3-D geometric changes induced by storage time can help hematologists realize its optimal functionality period. We quantitatively investigate RBC 3-D geometric changes in the storage lesion using DHM. Our experimental results show that the substantial geometric transformation of the biconcave-shaped RBCs to the spherocyte occurs due to RBC storage lesion. This transformation leads to progressive loss of cell surface area, surface-to-volume ratio, and functionality of RBCs. Furthermore, our quantitative analysis shows that there are significant correlations between chemical and morphological properties of RBCs.

  10. White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  11. Pathogen inactivation of whole blood and red cell components: an overview of concept, design, developments, criteria of acceptability and storage lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghatchian, Jerard; Putter, Jeffrey S

    2013-10-01

    Multilayer preventative strategies have been instituted to enhance transfusion safety for patients in need of critical blood components. Presently blood safety is at its highest levels, with the implementation of precautionary/preventative measures against vCJD, bacterial and viral contamination of the blood supply. The implementation of these strategies together with advances in automation and computerization led to significant improvements in standardisation for transfusion practices. These include validation, verification, adherence to GLP and GMP and other regulatory requirements. In most European countries, universal prestorage leukodepletion is routine practice. In France proactive pathogen inactivation treatments [PITs] have been implemented emphasizing patient safety. This at least conceptually reduces the risk of transfusing viable WBCs, emerging bacteria and viruses, all with potential transfusion complications. In the UK, prion removal filters for red cell products are used selectively for special groups of patients. Some research establishments are exploring the potential impact of pathogen inactivation of whole blood or red cell components, using the new generation of S-303 PIT and the prion removal filters in combination. It needs to be determined whether such a combined strategy, applied synergistically, enhances red cell transfusion safety without compromising the overall criteria of acceptability. It is necessary to critically examine the impact of a new generation of PIT technologies, which may exacerbate the red cell storage lesion and cause the development of undesirable antibodies in the recipient. The development of innovative laboratory tools is vital to study impacts of these measures on the quality of stored blood and their clinical outcome. The ultimate aim of red cell transfusion is to provide oxygen enriched red blood cells to the microcirculations and tissues. Definitive studies are needed to establish the potential unforeseen negative

  12. Detection of nuclear and membrane antigens by liquid-based cytology following long-term storage of d1 cells, karpas cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappacosta, Roberta; Aiello, Francesca B; D'Antuono, Tommaso; Procopio, Antonio D; Durum, Scott K; Conti, Pio; Rosini, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Immunofluorescence is the most frequently utilized technique to analyze protein expression. Fixed immunofluorescent cell suspensions, however, can only be stored for a week. We investigated whether liquid-based cytology could be used to detect antigens in cultured cells after a long storage period. Murine and human cells were fixed in PreservCyt solution, stored for various periods, and then used to perform an automated immunocytochemical analysis. Phosphorylation of the nuclear transcription factor Stat-5 induced by IL-7 was detected up to 4 months after IL-7 stimulation. Simultaneous nuclear positivity for the proliferation index MIB-1 and membrane positivity for the CD30 antigen were evident three months after fixation. Liquid-based cytology thus ensures long-lasting nuclear and membrane antigen immunoreactivity and permits the storage of cells from laborious experiments at room temperature for future analyses.

  13. 21 CFR 864.9700 - Blood storage refrigerator and blood storage freezer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood storage refrigerator and blood storage freezer. 864.9700 Section 864.9700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... freezing temperatures. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt from...

  14. Immunomodulating effect of blood transfusion: is storage time important?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Dybkjoer, E; Kronborg, Gitte;

    1998-01-01

    in stimulating TNF-alpha and IL-2 release in an ex vivo assay. METHODS: Supernatants of 10 units of whole blood and 10 units of SAGM blood were collected after 1, 21 and 35 days of standard blood bank storage. Heparinized blood from 20 healthy volunteers (as 'recipients'), corresponding in ABO and Rh type......OBJECTIVES: TNF-alpha and IL-2 are important cytokines in macrophage and T-lymphocyte activity against infection and dissemination of malignant cells. We studied the influence of supernatants from stored whole blood and buffy-coat-depleted SAGM (saline, adenine, glucose and mannitol) blood...... to the stored blood, were used in a culture system with LPS and PHA as stimulators of TNF-alpha and IL-2 release. The effect of added supernatants, from either stored whole blood or SAGM blood, on cytokine release was evaluated compared to saline as control. TNF-alpha concentration was analyzed by ELISA after...

  15. The study of changes of biophysical properties of red blood cells in storage in erythrocyte-containing solutions using atomic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamzin I.M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently the departments of quality control of blood centers evaluate the suitability for clinical use of erythrocyte-containing solutions indirectly by routine methods of the determination of hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit level, or hemolysis at the end of the period of storing. These methods can not directly characterize the state of membranes of preserved erythrocytes. The aim of the work is to study the changes of elasticity and surface potential of membranes of red blood cells of erythrocyte-containing solutions in storage for 35 days. Material and Methods. Two series of dry cytological preparations (smears of erythrocytes have been investigated. The first group consisted of 8 samples of erythrocyte-containing solutions prepared on the day of preservation, and the second group included 20 samples prepared after the long term storage for 35 days at t=+4°C. Blood was stored in bags of «Baxter» company (USA conserving with «CPDA-1». For atomic force microscopy five typical erythrocytes were selected and their elasticity was measured at 9 points of the membrane of each erythrocyte. Total number of measurements was 1296. Results. Average value of Young's modulus of the first group of samples was 1,81±0,02 (M±m KPa. The second group showed 3,22±0,02 KPa statistically higher (p<0,001. The increase of the surface potential of erythrocyte membranes over the storage period was found. Conclusion. A statistically significant increase of the average value of Young's modulus of erythrocytes indicated the decrease in the elasticity of the cell membrane during their storage in erythrocyte-containing solutions under standard temperature conditions and could be used as a criterion for quality assessment.

  16. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to one part of the body or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job ... is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of ...

  17. 静脉血样品放置时间对血细胞分析结果的影响%Inlfuence of storage time of venous blood samples on the results of blood cell analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭琛峰

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究静脉血放置时间的长短对血细胞分析结果的影响。方法:选择2015年8月健康体检者30人的静脉血标本,用乙二胺四乙酸二钾抗凝,在30 min内上机测定红细胞、白细胞和血小板计数,并于送检后1、2、3、5 h进行血常规检测,以30 min内测定结果为对照,比较不同时间点所测结果。结果:在5 h内,红细胞和白细胞计数无显著变化,不同时间点所测结果与对照相比差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);而血小板计数明显降低(P<0.01)。结论:红细胞和白细胞计数可在5 h内分析,而血小板计数应在30 min内分析。%Objective:To study the effect of the length of storage time of venous blood on the results of blood cell analysis.Methods: In August 2015, the venous blood samples of 30 cases of health physical examination were collected, and EDTA-2K was used to anti-coagulate venous blood samples. Within 30 minutes red blood cell count, white blood cell count and platelet count were determined with the computer, and after 1 h, 2 h, 3 h, 5 h of submission, the routine blood test was used to determine the these blood cell parameters. The measured results at different time points were compared with 30 min determination results.Results:There were no signiifcant changes in the red blood cell count and white blood cell count within 5 h, and there was no signiifcant difference between the measured results at different time points compared with the control(P>0.05). But platelet count decreased signiifcantly(P<0.01).Conclusion: red blood cell count and white blood cell count can be analyzed within 5 hours, and the platelet count should be detected in 30 minutes.

  18. Red cell hemolysis during processing and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawant R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Apart from the visual assessment, measurement of plasma hemoglobin in the supernatant from red cell units provides an objective measure of the extent of hemolysis during storage. Study Design and Methods: Packed red cells (N=50, 25 units each in triple (CPD-A1 and SAGM and quadruple (CPD-A1 and ADSOL blood bags were evaluated for plasma hemoglobin by the tetramethylbenzidiene (TMB method on day 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of collection. The hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, LDH and potassium levels were also noted. Whole blood units (N=25 were used as controls. Results: Hemolysis increased in all the stored red cell units. Plasma hemoglobin increased significantly in the first week of storage. The hemolysis, LDH and potassium levels were found to be significantly higher in the red cell units harvested from the triple blood bags. However, on day 28 of storage, free hemoglobin in all the red cell units was much below the 0.8% hemolysis. Conclusion: Hemolysis of the red cells increases due to processing and during storage and is maximum during the first week. Adequate process control and proper storage facilities should be ensured to minimize the hemolysis of red cells during processing and storage.

  19. Congener Production in Blood Samples During Preparation and Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Søren; Nielsen, Erik

    1995-01-01

    Retsmedicin, congener production, preparation, head space GC, acetone, isobutanol, storage, blood samples, n-propanol, methanol, methylethylketone......Retsmedicin, congener production, preparation, head space GC, acetone, isobutanol, storage, blood samples, n-propanol, methanol, methylethylketone...

  20. Lysophosphatidylcholines: bioactive lipids generated during storage of blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maślanka, Krystyna; Smoleńska-Sym, Gabriela; Michur, Halina; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Lachert, Elżbieta; Brojer, Ewa

    2012-02-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is suggested to be a "two hit" event, resulting from priming and activation of pulmonary neutrophils. It is known that neutrophil activation may result from infusion of lysophosphatidylcholines (LysoPCs) accumulated during storage of blood components. The aim of our study was to verify whether the LysoPCs are released into the storage medium of blood components. We measured the LysoPCs concentration in the supernatants from stored apheresis platelet concentrates (PLTs), packed non-leukoreduced red blood cell concentrates (RBCs), leukoreduced red blood cell concentrates (L-RBCs), fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and donor plasma (control). Lipids were separated on high-performance thin-layer chromatography, detected by primulin spray and quantified by photodensitometric scanning. The LysoPCs concentration in donor plasma was similar to that in FFP. During storage the LysoPCs content in PLTs increased almost two-fold as compared to the fresh isolated platelets. In RBCs and L-RBCs the LysoPC level was very low or below detection limit and did not increase throughout the storage period. According to our observations bioactive LysoPCs may be considered a neutrophil-activating factor only following PLT transfusions but not RBCs transfusions.

  1. Storage and handling of blood components – perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervig, Tor; Kaada, Silje; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2014-10-01

    The storage and handling conditions of cellular blood components and plasma are often rigorous, which is causing extensive discard of components that may be of acceptable quality as the rules for “out of optimal storage conditions” seem to be based more on tradition than scientific investigations. This short review summarizes some of the key papers indicating that it should be time for reconsideration of these rules, and some new suggestions are carefully indicated. Red cell concentrates, platelet concentrates and FFP are considered;lyophilized plasma and never-frozen liquid plasma are not included in this paper.

  2. Cell biology of fat storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paul; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2016-08-15

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes has greatly increased interest in the biology and physiology of adipose tissues. Adipose (fat) cells are specialized for the storage of energy in the form of triglycerides, but research in the last few decades has shown that fat cells also play a critical role in sensing and responding to changes in systemic energy balance. White fat cells secrete important hormone-like molecules such as leptin, adiponectin, and adipsin to influence processes such as food intake, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Brown fat, on the other hand, dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat, thereby defending against hypothermia, obesity, and diabetes. It is now appreciated that there are two distinct types of thermogenic fat cells, termed brown and beige adipocytes. In addition to these distinct properties of fat cells, adipocytes exist within adipose tissue, where they are in dynamic communication with immune cells and closely influenced by innervation and blood supply. This review is intended to serve as an introduction to adipose cell biology and to familiarize the reader with how these cell types play a role in metabolic disease and, perhaps, as targets for therapeutic development.

  3. High Red Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  4. Storing Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute worked with Goddard Space Flight Center to propose a solution to the blood-cell freezing problem. White blood cells and bone marrow are stored for future use by leukemia patients as a result of Goddard and Jet Propulsion Laboratory expertise in electronics and cryogenics. White blood cell and bone marrow bank established using freezing unit. Freezing unit monitors temperature of cells themselves. Thermocouple placed against polyethylene container relays temperature signals to an electronic system which controls small heaters located outside container. Heaters allow liquid nitrogen to circulate at constant temperature and maintain consistent freezing rate. Ability to freeze, store, and thaw white cells and bone marrow without damage is important in leukemia treatment.

  5. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen Preben D; Heerkens Tammy; Koch Thomas G; Betts Dean H

    2007-01-01

    Background: There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is lo...

  6. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease in disease-fighting cells ( ... a decrease in a certain type of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell ...

  7. Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). ... abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as seen in this photomicrograph.

  8. Red blood cell alloimmunization after blood transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Current pretransfusion policy requires the patients’ serum to be tested for the presence of irregular red blood cell antibodies. In case of an antibody, red blood cells lacking the corresponding antigen are transfused after an antiglobulin crossmatch. The aim of the studies in this thesis is primari

  9. Anticoagulant whole blood sample storage conditions on the stability of blood cell parameters%抗凝全血标本存放条件对血细胞参数稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文元; 刘芹; 王莉; 唐明君

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨抗凝全血标本存放条件对血细胞分析仪分析参数稳定性的影响.方法 用Sysmex K-4500血细胞分析仪对EDTA-K2抗凝血标本进行长时间(144 h)不同时段、不同放置温度的血细胞参数稳定性检测,用Excel 软件做统计学分析.结果 室温(18℃~25℃)条件下,白细胞(WBC)可稳定72 h,血小板计数(PLT)可稳定96 h,血红蛋白(Hb)可稳定120 h,红细胞(RBC)、红细胞平均血红蛋白含量(MCH)只能稳定24~48 h,其余参数于24 h开始与4 h内检测结果比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).低温(2℃~8℃)冷藏条件下,WBC、RBC、Hb、MCH可稳定96 h,血细胞比容(HCT)、PLT可稳定72 h,红细胞平均体积(MCV)、红细胞分布宽度(RDW)可稳定48 h,血小板分布宽度(PDW)、血小板平均体积(MPV)于24 h开始与4 h内检测结果比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01),红细胞平均血红蛋白浓度(MCHC)于96 h检测结果降低(P<0.01).偏差分析结果显示,标本室温保存,WBC、PLT、Hb于96 h内,RBC于48 h内,检测的结果差异在允许误差范围内;标本冷藏保存,WBC于96 h内、PLT于48 h内、红细胞3项参数(RBC、Hb、HCT)于120 h内检测的结果差异在允许误差范围内.结论 抗凝全血标本采集后,应及时送检,检测完毕后,建议放置2℃~8℃冰箱保存.如遇特殊原因,标本不能及时送检,也应放置冰箱保存,48 h内检测结果基本可满足除MPV、PDW外的血液常规需要.同时以备临床和患者对血液常规结果有疑惑时进行复检核对.%Objective To observe the influence of storage conditions to the stability of parameters of anticoagulated whole blood samples,when being analyzed with hematology analyzer.Methods Sysmex K-4500 hematology analyzer was used for the detection of EDTA-K2 anticoagulant samples,stored for a prolonged period (144 h),at different time and at different temperatures to analyze blood cell parameter stability. Excel software was applied to complete

  10. Immunomodulating effect of blood transfusion: is storage time important?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Dybkjoer, E; Kronborg, Gitte;

    1998-01-01

    in stimulating TNF-alpha and IL-2 release in an ex vivo assay. METHODS: Supernatants of 10 units of whole blood and 10 units of SAGM blood were collected after 1, 21 and 35 days of standard blood bank storage. Heparinized blood from 20 healthy volunteers (as 'recipients'), corresponding in ABO and Rh type...... to the stored blood, were used in a culture system with LPS and PHA as stimulators of TNF-alpha and IL-2 release. The effect of added supernatants, from either stored whole blood or SAGM blood, on cytokine release was evaluated compared to saline as control. TNF-alpha concentration was analyzed by ELISA after...

  11. Storage time of transfused blood and disease recurrence after colorectal cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perioperative blood transfusion and subsequent development of postoperative infectious complications may lead to poor prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer. It has been suggested that the development of postoperative infectious complications may be related to the storage time...... of the transfused blood. Therefore, we studied the relationship between blood storage time and the development of disease recurrence and long-term survival after colorectal cancer surgery. METHODS: Preoperative and postoperative data were prospectively recorded in 740 patients undergoing elective resection...... complications. CONCLUSION: Transfusion of buffy-coat-depleted red cells suspended in saline, adenine, glucose, and mannitol blood stored for cancer surgery....

  12. Storage time of transfused blood and disease recurrence after colorectal cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    of the transfused blood. Therefore, we studied the relationship between blood storage time and the development of disease recurrence and long-term survival after colorectal cancer surgery. METHODS: Preoperative and postoperative data were prospectively recorded in 740 patients undergoing elective resection...... complications. CONCLUSION: Transfusion of buffy-coat-depleted red cells suspended in saline, adenine, glucose, and mannitol blood stored for cancer surgery.......BACKGROUND: Perioperative blood transfusion and subsequent development of postoperative infectious complications may lead to poor prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer. It has been suggested that the development of postoperative infectious complications may be related to the storage time...

  13. The study of changes of biophysical properties of red blood cells in storage in erythrocyte-containing solutions using atomic force microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Lamzin I.M.; Khayrullin R.М.

    2014-01-01

    Currently the departments of quality control of blood centers evaluate the suitability for clinical use of erythrocyte-containing solutions indirectly by routine methods of the determination of hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit level, or hemolysis at the end of the period of storing. These methods can not directly characterize the state of membranes of preserved erythrocytes. The aim of the work is to study the changes of elasticity and surface potential of membranes of red blood cells of ...

  14. Processing and storage of blood components: strategies to improve patient safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietersz RNI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ruby NI Pietersz, Pieter F van der Meer Department of Product and Process Development, Sanquin Blood Bank, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Abstract: This review focuses on safety improvements of blood processing of various blood components and their respective storage. A solid quality system to ensure safe and effective blood components that are traceable from a donor to the patient is the foundation of a safe blood supply. To stimulate and guide this process, National Health Authorities should develop guidelines for blood transfusion, including establishment of a quality system. Blood component therapy enabled treatment of patients with blood constituents that were missing, only thus preventing reactions to unnecessarily transfused elements. Leukoreduction prevents many adverse reactions and also improves the quality of the blood components during storage. The safety of red cells and platelets is improved by replacement of plasma with preservative solutions, which results in the reduction of isoantibodies and plasma proteins. Automation of blood collection, separation of whole blood into components, and consecutive processing steps, such as preparation of platelet concentrate from multiple donations, improves the consistent composition of blood components. Physicians can better prescribe the number of transfusions and therewith reduce donor exposure and/or the risk of pathogen transmission. Pathogen reduction in cellular blood components is the latest development in improving the safety of blood transfusions for patients. Keywords: blood components, red cell concentrates, platelet concentrates, plasma, transfusion, safety 

  15. Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

  16. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ID, RBC; RBC Ab ID Formal name: Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin Test ; RBC ... I should know? How is it used? Red blood cell (RBC) antibody identification is used as a follow- ...

  17. White Blood Cell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ...

  18. Cryopreserved packed red blood cells in surgical patients: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex; Kim, Young; Hoehn, Richard; Jernigan, Peter; Pritts, Timothy

    2016-09-08

    Since the advent of anticoagulation and component storage of human blood products, allogeneic red blood cell transfusion has been one of the most common practices in modern medicine. Efforts to reduce the biochemical effects of storage, collectively known as the red blood cell storage lesion, and prolong the storage duration have led to numerous advancements in erythrocyte storage solutions. Cryopreservation and frozen storage of red blood cells in glycerol have been successfully utilised by many civilian and military institutions worldwide. Through progressive improvements in liquid storage of erythrocytes in novel storage solutions, the logistical need for cryopreserved red blood cells in the civilian setting has diminished. A growing body of current literature is focused on the clinical consequences of packed red blood cell age. Modern cryopreservation techniques show promise as a cost-effective method to ameliorate the negative effect of the red blood cell storage lesion, while meeting the technical and logistical needs of both civilian and military medicine. This review outlines the history of red blood cell cryopreservation, the clinical impact of red cell storage, and highlights the current literature on frozen blood and its impact on modern transfusion.

  19. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Heerkens, Tammy; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl

    2007-01-01

    Background: There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non......-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is low and the future isolation percentage of MSCs from cryopreserved equine cord blood is therefore expectedly low......, for the first time, the isolation of mesenchymal-like stem cells from fresh equine cord blood and their differentiation into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. This novel isolation of equine cord blood MSCs and their preliminary in vitro differentiation positions the horse as the ideal pre-clinical animal...

  20. Targeted quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of erythrocyte membranes during blood bank storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinalducci, Sara; Longo, Valentina; Ceci, Luigi R; Zolla, Lello

    2015-02-01

    One of the hallmarks of blood bank stored red blood cells (RBCs) is the irreversible transition from a discoid to a spherocyte-like morphology with membrane perturbation and cytoskeleton disorders. Therefore, identification of the storage-associated modifications in the protein-protein interactions between the cytoskeleton and the lipid bilayer may contribute to enlighten the molecular mechanisms involved in the alterations of mechanical properties of stored RBCs. Here we report the results obtained analyzing RBCs after 0, 21 and 35 days of storage under standard blood banking conditions by label free mass spectrometry (MS)-based experiments. We could quantitatively measure changes in the phosphorylation level of crucial phosphopeptides belonging to β-spectrin, ankyrin-1, α-adducin, dematin, glycophorin A and glycophorin C proteins. Data have been validated by both western blotting and pseudo-Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM). Although each phosphopeptide showed a distinctive trend, a sharp increase in the phosphorylation level during the storage duration was observed. Phosphopeptide mapping and structural modeling analysis indicated that the phosphorylated residues localize in protein functional domains fundamental for the maintenance of membrane structural integrity. Along with previous morphological evidence acquired by electron microscopy, our results seem to indicate that 21-day storage may represent a key point for the molecular processes leading to the erythrocyte deformability reduction observed during blood storage. These findings could therefore be helpful in understanding and preventing the morphology-linked mechanisms responsible for the post-transfusion survival of preserved RBCs.

  1. The red cell storage lesion(s): of dogs and men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Harvey G.

    2017-01-01

    The advent of preservative solutions permitted refrigerated storage of red blood cells. However, the convenience of having red blood cell inventories was accompanied by a disadvantage. Red cells undergo numerous physical and metabolic changes during cold storage, the “storage lesion(s)”. Whereas controlled clinical trials have not confirmed the clinical importance of such changes, ethical and operational issues have prevented careful study of the oldest stored red blood cells. Suggestions of toxicity from meta-analyses motivated us to develop pre-clinical canine models to compare the freshest vs the oldest red blood cells. Our model of canine pneumonia with red blood cell transfusion indicated that the oldest red blood cells increased mortality, that the severity of pneumonia is important, but that the dose of transfused red blood cells is not. Washing the oldest red blood cells reduces mortality by removing senescent cells and remnants, whereas washing fresher cells increases mortality by damaging the red blood cell membrane. An opposite effect was found in a model of haemorrhagic shock with reperfusion injury. Physiological studies indicate that release of iron from old cells is a primary mechanism of toxicity during infection, whereas scavenging of cell-free haemoglobin may be beneficial during reperfusion injury. Intravenous iron appears to have toxicity equivalent to old red blood cells in the pneumonia model, suggesting that intravenous iron and old red blood cells should be administered with caution to infected patients. PMID:28263166

  2. Metabolic pathways that correlate with post-transfusion circulation of stored murine red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wolski, Karen; Fu, Xiaoyoun; Dumont, Larry J; Roback, John D; Waterman, Hayley; Odem-Davis, Katherine; Howie, Heather L; Zimring, James C

    2016-05-01

    Transfusion of red blood cells is a very common inpatient procedure, with more than 1 in 70 people in the USA receiving a red blood cell transfusion annually. However, stored red blood cells are a non-uniform product, based upon donor-to-donor variation in red blood cell storage biology. While thousands of biological parameters change in red blood cells over storage, it has remained unclear which changes correlate with function of the red blood cells, as opposed to being co-incidental changes. In the current report, a murine model of red blood cell storage/transfusion is applied across 13 genetically distinct mouse strains and combined with high resolution metabolomics to identify metabolic changes that correlated with red blood cell circulation post storage. Oxidation in general, and peroxidation of lipids in particular, emerged as changes that correlated with extreme statistical significance, including generation of dicarboxylic acids and monohydroxy fatty acids. In addition, differences in anti-oxidant pathways known to regulate oxidative stress on lipid membranes were identified. Finally, metabolites were identified that differed at the time the blood was harvested, and predict how the red blood cells perform after storage, allowing the potential to screen donors at time of collection. Together, these findings map out a new landscape in understanding metabolic changes during red blood cell storage as they relate to red blood cell circulation.

  3. Rare red blood cell abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to give insight in the process of diagnosing rare red blood cell defects, to clarify the relation of a defect with cell function and to extend, in this respect, our knowledge about normal red cell function and biochemistry. It is possible to categorize different red cell ab

  4. Red blood cells, spherocytosis (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spherocytosis is a hereditary disorder of the red blood cells (RBCs), which may be associated with a mild anemia. Typically, the affected RBCs are small, spherically shaped, and lack the light centers seen ...

  5. Storage time of transfused blood and disease recurrence after colorectal cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    of buffy-coat-depleted red cells suspended in saline, adenine, glucose, and mannitol blood for 21 days was used as cut-off point. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 6.8 years (range, 5.4 years to 7.9 years), and median overall survival was 4.6 years for 288 nontransfused patients and 3.0 years for 452...... complications. CONCLUSION: Transfusion of buffy-coat-depleted red cells suspended in saline, adenine, glucose, and mannitol blood stored for ... of the transfused blood. Therefore, we studied the relationship between blood storage time and the development of disease recurrence and long-term survival after colorectal cancer surgery. METHODS: Preoperative and postoperative data were prospectively recorded in 740 patients undergoing elective resection...

  6. Hydrogen storage and integrated fuel cell assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karl J.

    2010-08-24

    Hydrogen is stored in materials that absorb and desorb hydrogen with temperature dependent rates. A housing is provided that allows for the storage of one or more types of hydrogen-storage materials in close thermal proximity to a fuel cell stack. This arrangement, which includes alternating fuel cell stack and hydrogen-storage units, allows for close thermal matching of the hydrogen storage material and the fuel cell stack. Also, the present invention allows for tailoring of the hydrogen delivery by mixing different materials in one unit. Thermal insulation alternatively allows for a highly efficient unit. Individual power modules including one fuel cell stack surrounded by a pair of hydrogen-storage units allows for distribution of power throughout a vehicle or other electric power consuming devices.

  7. The effects of non-leukoreduced red blood cell transfusions on microcirculation in mixed surgical patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayhan, B.; Yuruk, K.; Koene, S.; Sahin, A.; Ince, C.; Aypar, U.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of the storage process on oxygen-carrying properties of red blood cells and the efficacy of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions concerning tissue oxygenation remain an issue of debate in transfusion medicine. Storage time and leukocyte content probably interact since longer stor

  8. Quality of Red Blood Cells Isolated from Umbilical Cord Blood Stored at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia Zhurova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells (RBCs from cord blood contain fetal hemoglobin that is predominant in newborns and, therefore, may be more appropriate for neonatal transfusions than currently transfused adult RBCs. Post-collection, cord blood can be stored at room temperature for several days before it is processed for stem cells isolation, with little known about how these conditions affect currently discarded RBCs. The present study examined the effect of the duration cord blood spent at room temperature and other cord blood characteristics on cord RBC quality. RBCs were tested immediately after their isolation from cord blood using a broad panel of quality assays. No significant decrease in cord RBC quality was observed during the first 65 hours of storage at room temperature. The ratio of cord blood to anticoagulant was associated with RBC quality and needs to be optimized in future. This knowledge will assist in future development of cord RBC transfusion product.

  9. Utilization and quality of cryopreserved red blood cells in transfusion medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, S.; Noorman, F.; Badloe, J. F.; Lagerberg, J. W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreserved (frozen) red blood cells have been used in transfusion medicine since the Vietnam war. The main method to freeze the red blood cells is by usage of glycerol. Although the usage of cryopreserved red blood cells was promising due to the prolonged storage time and the limited cellular det

  10. [The blood-brain barrier and neurodegenerative lysosomal storage diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urayama, Akihiko

    2013-02-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy has been a very effective treatment for several lysosomal storage diseases. However, correcting central nervous system (CNS) storage has been challenging due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which hampers the entry of circulating lysosomal enzymes into the brain. In our previous studies, we discovered that luminally expressed cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) receptor is a universal transporter for lysosomal enzymes that contain M6P moieties on the enzyme molecule. This receptor-mediated transport of lysosomal enzymes showed developmental down-regulation that resulted in a failure of delivery of lysosomal enzymes across the BBB in the adult brain. Conceptually, if one can re-induce M6P receptor-mediated transport of lysosomal enzymes in adult BBB, this could provide a novel brain targeting approach for treating abnormal storage in the CNS, regardless of the age of subjects. We found that systemic adrenergic stimuli restored functional transport of β-glucuronidase across the adult BBB. The concept of manipulating BBB transport activity by endogenous characteristics has also been demonstrated by another group who showed effective treatment in a Pompe disease model animal in vivo. It is intriguing that lysosomal enzymes utilize multiple mechanisms for their transport across the BBB. This review explores pharmacological manipulations for the delivery of lysosomal enzymes into the CNS, and the mechanisms of their transport across the BBB, based on existing evidence from studies of β-glucuronidase, sulfamidase, acid α-glucosidase, and arylsulfatase A.

  11. Nickel hydrogen battery cell storage matrix test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, James R.; Dodson, Gary W.

    1993-01-01

    Test were conducted to evaluate post storage performance of nickel hydrogen cells with various design variables, the most significant being nickel precharge versus hydrogen precharge. Test procedures and results are presented in outline and graphic form.

  12. Red cell concentrates of hemochromatosis patients comply with the storage guidelines for transfusion purposes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luten, M.; Roerdinkholder-Stoelwinder, B.; Rombout-Sestrienkova, E.; Grip, W.J. de; Bos, H.J.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Therapeutic phlebotomy is the preferred treatment for iron overload associated with hemochromatosis. In the Netherlands, red blood cell concentrates (RCCs) from hemochromatosis patients are not used for transfusion purposes. In this study, their storage performance was compared with that

  13. Net haemoglobin increase from reinfusion of refrigerated vs. frozen red blood cells after autologous blood transfusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashenden, M; Mørkeberg, Jakob Sehested

    2011-01-01

    objective was to examine which storage procedure yielded the largest increase in circulating haemoglobin after reinfusion compared to baseline. MATERIALS AND METHODS  Equal volumes of blood from 15 men were withdrawn and stored either frozen or refrigerated as packed red blood cells. Serial measures...... freezing. Nevertheless, frozen storage allowed haemoglobin to fully recover before reinfusion, while the haemoglobin was 10% lower in the refrigerated group compared with baseline. After reinfusion, the haemoglobin levels were 11·5% higher than the baseline values in the group reinfused with frozen blood......, while for the refrigerated group, haemoglobin levels were only 5·2% higher than baseline. CONCLUSION  The relatively larger recovery from anaemia in the frozen group during storage more than compensated for the larger loss of haemoglobin during freezing and resulted in a larger net gain in haemoglobin...

  14. Current issues relating to the transfusion of stored red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimrin, A B; Hess, J R

    2009-02-01

    The development of blood storage systems allowed donation and transfusion to be separated in time and space. This separation has permitted the regionalization of donor services with subsequent economies of scale and improvements in the quality and availability of blood products. However, the availability of storage raises the question of how long blood products can and should be stored and how long they are safe and effective. The efficacy of red blood cells was originally measured as the increment in haematocrit and safety began with typing and the effort to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination. Appreciation of a growing list of storage lesions of red blood cells has developed with our increasing understanding of red blood cell physiology and our experience with red blood cell transfusion. However, other than frank haemolysis, rare episodes of bacterial contamination and overgrowth, the reduction of oxygen-carrying capacity associated with the failure of some transfused cells to circulate, and the toxicity of lysophospholipids released from membrane breakdown, storage-induced lesions have not had obvious correlations with safety or efficacy. The safety of red blood cell storage has also been approached in retrospective epidemiologic studies of transfused patients, but the results are frequently biased by the fact that sicker patients are transfused more often and blood banks do not issue blood products in a random order. Several large prospective studies of the safety of stored red blood cells are planned.

  15. White blood cell counting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  16. Utilization and quality of cryopreserved red blood cells in transfusion medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkelman, S; Noorman, F; Badloe, J F; Lagerberg, J W M

    2015-02-01

    Cryopreserved (frozen) red blood cells have been used in transfusion medicine since the Vietnam war. The main method to freeze the red blood cells is by usage of glycerol. Although the usage of cryopreserved red blood cells was promising due to the prolonged storage time and the limited cellular deterioration at subzero temperatures, its usage have been hampered due to the more complex and labour intensive procedure and the limited shelf life of thawed products. Since the FDA approval of a closed (de) glycerolization procedure in 2002, allowing a prolonged postthaw storage of red blood cells up to 21 days at 2-6°C, cryopreserved red blood cells have become a more utilized blood product. Currently, cryopreserved red blood cells are mainly used in military operations and to stock red blood cells with rare phenotypes. Yet, cryopreserved red blood cells could also be useful to replenish temporary blood shortages, to prolong storage time before autologous transfusion and for IgA-deficient patients. This review describes the main methods to cryopreserve red blood cells, explores the quality of this blood product and highlights clinical settings in which cryopreserved red blood cells are or could be utilized.

  17. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000675.htm Low white blood cell count and cancer To use ... high blood pressure, or seizures Continue Reading How Low is too Low? When your blood is tested, ...

  18. Red blood cells intended for transfusion : quality criteria revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogman, CF; Meryman, HT

    2006-01-01

    Great variation exists with respect to viability and function of fresh and stored red blood cells (RBCs) as well as of the contents of RBC hemoglobin (Hb) in individual units. Improved technology is available for the preparation as well as the storage of RBCs. The authors raise the question whether

  19. Vesicles generated during storage of red cells are rich in the lipid raft marker stomatin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salzer, U.; Zhu, R.; Luten, M.; Isobe, H.; Pastushenko, V.; Perkmann, T.; Hinterdorfer, P.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The release of vesicles by red blood cells (RBCs) occurs in vivo and in vitro under various conditions. Vesiculation also takes place during RBC storage and results in the accumulation of vesicles in RBC units. The membrane protein composition of the storage-associated vesicles has not b

  20. Non-invasive spectroscopy of transfusable red blood cells stored inside sealed plastic blood-bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, K; Atkins, C G; Chen, D; Schulze, H G; Devine, D V; Blades, M W; Turner, R F B

    2016-03-07

    After being separated from (donated) whole blood, red blood cells are suspended in specially formulated additive solutions and stored (at 4 °C) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) blood-bags until they are needed for transfusion. With time, the prepared red cell concentrate (RCC) is known to undergo biochemical changes that lower effectiveness of the transfusion, and thus regulations are in place that limit the storage period to 42 days. At present, RCC is not subjected to analytical testing prior to transfusion. In this study, we use Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) to probe, non-invasively, the biochemistry of RCC inside sealed blood-bags. The retrieved spectra compare well with conventional Raman spectra (of sampled aliquots) and are dominated by features associated with hemoglobin. In addition to the analytical demonstration that SORS can be used to retrieve RCC spectra from standard clinical blood-bags without breaking the sterility of the system, the data reveal interesting detail about the oxygenation-state of the stored cells themselves, namely that some blood-bags unexpectedly contain measurable amounts of deoxygenated hemoglobin after weeks of storage. The demonstration that chemical information can be obtained non-invasively using spectroscopy will enable new studies of RCC degeneration, and points the way to a Raman-based instrument for quality-control in a blood-bank or hospital setting.

  1. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  2. Blood-Forming Stem Cell Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Ask about Your Treatment Research Blood-Forming Stem Cell Transplants On This Page What are bone marrow ... Considering becoming a bone marrow or a blood stem cell donor? View this video on YouTube. Follow a ...

  3. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  4. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  5. 76 FR 5386 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction... blood components intended for transfusion, including recommendations for validation and quality control... for transfusion, including recommendations for validation and quality control monitoring of...

  6. Collection, processing and testing of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood and haematopoietic stem cells by European Blood Alliance members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Närhi, M; Natri, O; Desbois, I;

    2013-01-01

    A questionnaire study was carried out in collaboration with the European Blood Alliance (EBA) Tissues and Cells (T&C) working group. The aim was to assess the level of involvement and commonality of processes on the procurement, testing and storage of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood (UCB...

  7. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomsen Preben D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is low and the future isolation percentage of MSCs from cryopreserved equine cord blood is therefore expectedly low. The hypothesis of this study was that equine MSCs could be isolated from fresh whole equine cord blood. Results Cord blood was collected from 7 foals immediately after foaling. The mononuclear cell fraction was isolated by Ficoll density centrifugation and cultured in a DMEM low glucose based media at 38.5°C in humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO2. In 4 out of 7 samples colonies with MSC morphology were observed. Cellular morphology varied between monolayers of elongated spindle-shaped cells to layered cell clusters of cuboidal cells with shorter cytoplasmic extensions. Positive Alizarin Red and von Kossa staining as well as significant calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity confirmed osteogenesis. Histology and positive Safranin O staining of matrix glycosaminoglycans illustrated chondrogenesis. Oil Red O staining of lipid droplets confirmed adipogenesis. Conclusion We here report, for the first time, the isolation of mesenchymal-like stem cells from fresh equine cord blood and their differentiation into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. This novel isolation of equine cord blood MSCs and their preliminary in vitro differentiation positions the horse as the ideal pre-clinical animal model for proof-of-principle studies of cord blood derived MSCs.

  8. Fuel Cells and Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammells, Anthony F.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cells and major features and types of batteries used for electrical energy storage. Includes two tables presenting comparison of major battery features and summary of major material problems in the sodium-sulfur and lithium-alloy metal sulfide batteries. (JN)

  9. Phosphatidylserine exposure on stored red blood cells as a parameter for donor-dependent variation in product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinkla, S.; Peppelman, M.; Raadt, J. van der; Atsma, F.; Novotny, V.M.J.; Kraaij, M.G.J. van; Joosten, I.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure of phosphatidylserine on the outside of red blood cells contributes to recognition and removal of old and damaged cells. The fraction of phosphatidylserine-exposing red blood cells varies between donors, and increases in red blood cell concentrates during storage. The susceptibi

  10. Content changes of reactive oxygen species and malonaldehyde in suspended red blood cells without leukocyte during storage%去白细胞悬浮红细胞制剂储存过程中活性氧族及丙二醛含量变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王素玲; 何天博; 韩卫; 王切; 何路军

    2015-01-01

    去白细胞悬浮红细胞制剂储存损伤的重要原因.%Objective To investigate the changes of reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration and malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration in suspended red blood cells without leukocyte during storage.Methods From May 2013 to June 2013,6 bags of suspended red blood cells without leukocyte which were prepared at Hebei Blood Center were collected in this study by random sampling method.On day 0,day 7,day 14,day 28 and day 42 of storage,the expression of ROS in suspended red blood cells without leukocyte were observed by fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) incubation method,the ROS concentration and MDA concentration in suspended red blood cells without leukocyte were also detected.Correlation analysis between the ROS concentration,MDA concentration in suspended red blood cells without leukocyte and storage time was carried out,respectively.Correlation analysis between the MDA concentration and ROS concentration in suspended red blood cells without leukocyte after storage was carried out.Results ① With the extension of storage time,fluorescence intensity of suspended red blood cells without leukocyte incubated with fluorescent probe DCFH-DA was significantly enhanced.② On day 0,day 7,day 14,day 28 and day 42 after storage,ROS concentration in suspended red blood cells without leukocyte showed a significant increasing trend.Concentration of ROS in suspended red blood cells without leukocyte on day 42 was significantly higher than that of day 0,day 7,day 14 and day 28 (P<0.01,0.05,0.05,0.05).There was a positive correlation between the ROS concentration in suspended red blood cells without leukocyte and storage time(r=0.898,P<0.01).③ On day 0,day 7,day 14,day 28and day 42 after storage,MDA concentration in suspended red blood cells without leukocyte showed a significant increasing trend,MDA concentration in suspended red blood cells without leukocyte on day 42 was significantly higher than

  11. Processing and storage of blood components: strategies to improve patient safety

    OpenAIRE

    Pietersz RNI; van der Meer PF

    2015-01-01

    Ruby NI Pietersz, Pieter F van der Meer Department of Product and Process Development, Sanquin Blood Bank, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Abstract: This review focuses on safety improvements of blood processing of various blood components and their respective storage. A solid quality system to ensure safe and effective blood components that are traceable from a donor to the patient is the foundation of a safe blood supply. To stimulate and guide this process, National Health Authorities should d...

  12. Fuel cell energy storage for Space Station enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, J. K.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on fuel cell energy storage for space station enhancement are presented. Topics covered include: power profile; solar dynamic power system; photovoltaic battery; space station energy demands; orbiter fuel cell power plant; space station energy storage; fuel cell system modularity; energy storage system development; and survival power supply.

  13. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  14. Polymer/hemoglobin assemblies: biodegradable oxygen carriers for artificial red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Taihang; Jing, Xiabin; Huang, Yubin

    2011-07-07

    In routine clinical procedures, blood transfusion is now suffering from the defects of the blood products, like cross-matching, short storage time and virus infection. Various blood substitutes have been designed by researchers through continual efforts. With recent progress in nanotechnology, new types of artificial red blood cells with cellular structure are available. This article aims to describe some artificial red blood cells which encapsulate or conjugate hemoglobin molecules through various approaches, especially the nanoscale self-assembly technique, to mitigate the adverse effects of free hemoglobin molecules. These types of artificial red blood cell systems, which make use of biodegradable polymers as matrix materials, show advantages over the traditional types.

  15. Trapping cells in paper for white blood cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Jianhao; Wu, Hong; Ying, Jackie Y

    2015-07-15

    White blood cell count is an important indicator of each individual's health condition. An abnormal white blood cell count usually results from an infection, cancer, or other conditions that trigger systemic inflammation responses. White blood cell count also provides predictive information on the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, monitoring white blood cell count on a regular basis can potentially help individuals to take preventive measures and improve healthcare outcomes. Currently, white blood cell count is primarily conducted in centralized laboratories, and it requires specialized equipment and dedicated personnel to perform the test and interpret the results. So far there has been no rapid test that allows white blood cell count in low-resource settings. In this study, we have demonstrated a vertical flow platform that quantifies white blood cells by trapping them in the paper. White blood cells were tagged with gold nanoparticles, and flowed through the paper via a small orifice. The white blood cell count was determined by measuring the colorimetric intensity of gold nanoparticles on the surface of white blood cells that were trapped in the paper mesh. Using this platform, we were able to quantify white blood cells in 15 μL of blood, and visually differentiate the abnormal count of white blood cells from the normal count. The proposed platform enabled rapid white blood cell count in low resource settings with a small sample volume requirement. Its low-cost, instrument-free operations would be attractive for point-of-care applications.

  16. The miRNA Profile of Platelets Stored in a Blood Bank and Its Relation to Cellular Damage from Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Thaís Brilhante; Moreira-Nunes, Caroline de Fátima Aquino; Maués, Jersey Heitor da Silva; Lamarão, Letícia Martins; de Lemos, José Alexandre Rodrigues; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; Burbano, Rommel Mário Rodriguez

    2015-01-01

    Millions of blood products are transfused each year, and many lives are directly affected by transfusion. Platelet concentrate (PC) is one of the main products derived from blood. Even under good storage conditions, PC is likely to suffer cell damage. The shape of platelets changes after 5 to 7 days of storage at 22°C. Taking into consideration that some platelet proteins undergo changes in their shape and functionality during PC storage. Sixteen PC bags were collected and each PC bag tube was cut into six equal pieces to perform experiments with platelets from six different days of storage. Thus, on the first day of storage, 1/6 of the tube was used for miRNA extraction, and the remaining 5/6 was stored under the same conditions until extraction of miRNAs on each the following five days. Samples were sequenced on an Illumina Platform to demonstrate the most highly expressed miRNAs. Three miRNAs, mir127, mir191 and mir320a were validated by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) in 100 PC bags tubes. Our method suggests, the use of the miRNAs mir127 and mir320a as biomarkers to assess the "validity period" of PC bags stored in blood banks for long periods. Thus, bags can be tested on the 5th day of storage for the relative expression levels of mir127 and mir320a. Thus, we highlight candidate miRNAs as biomarkers of storage damage that can be used as tools to evaluate the quality of stored PC. The use of miRNAs as biomarkers of damage is unprecedented and will contribute to improved quality of blood products for transfusions.

  17. Quantification of Cell-Free DNA in Red Blood Cell Units in Different Whole Blood Processing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Shih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Whole blood donations in Canada are processed by either the red cell filtration (RCF or whole blood filtration (WBF methods, where leukoreduction is potentially delayed in WBF. Fresh WBF red blood cells (RBCs have been associated with increased in-hospital mortality after transfusion. Cell-free DNA (cfDNA is released by neutrophils prior to leukoreduction, degraded during RBC storage, and is associated with adverse patient outcomes. We explored cfDNA levels in RBCs prepared by RCF and WBF and different storage durations. Methods. Equal numbers of fresh (stored ≤14 days and older RBCs were sampled. cfDNA was quantified by spectrophotometry and PicoGreen. Separate regression models determined the association with processing method and storage duration and their interaction on cfDNA. Results. cfDNA in 120 RBC units (73 RCF, 47 WBF were measured. Using PicoGreen, WBF units overall had higher cfDNA than RCF units (p=0.0010; fresh WBF units had higher cfDNA than fresh RCF units (p=0.0093. Using spectrophotometry, fresh RBC units overall had higher cfDNA than older units (p=0.0031; fresh WBF RBCs had higher cfDNA than older RCF RBCs (p=0.024. Conclusion. Higher cfDNA in fresh WBF was observed compared to older RCF blood. Further study is required for association with patient outcomes.

  18. Cord blood stem cell banking and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhot, P S; Nair, V; Swarup, D; Sirohi, D; Ganguli, P

    2003-12-01

    Stem cells have the ability to divide for indefinite periods in culture and to give rise to specialized cells. Cord blood as a source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) has several advantages as it is easily available, involves non-invasive collection procedure and is better tolerated across the HLA barrier. Since the first cord blood transplant in 1988, over 2500 cord blood HSC transplants have been done world wide. Since then, the advantages of cord blood as a source of hematopietic stem cells for transplantation have become clear. Firstly, the proliferative capacity of HSC in cord blood is superior to that of cells in bone marrow or blood from adults. A 100 ml unit of cord blood contains 1/10th the number of nucleated cells and progenitor cells (CD34+ cells) present in 1000 ml of bone marrow, but because they proliferate rapidly, the stem cell in a single unit of cord blood can reconstitute the entire haematopoietic system. Secondly, the use of cord blood reduces the risk of graft vs host disease. Cord Blood Stem Cell banks have been established in Europe and United States to supply HSC for related and unrelated donors. Currently, more than 65,000 units are available and more than 2500 patients have received transplants of cord blood. Results in children have clearly shown that the number of nucleated cells in the infused cord blood influences the speed of recovery of neutrophils and platelets after myeloablative chemotherapy. The optimal dose is about 2 x 10(7) nucleated cells/kg of body weight. The present study was carried out for collection, separation, enumeration and cryopreservation of cord blood HSC and establishing a Cord Blood HSC Bank. 172 samples of cord blood HSC were collected after delivery of infant prior to expulsion of placenta. The average cord blood volume collected was 101.20 ml. Mononuclear cell count ranged from 7.36 to 25.6 x 10(7)/ml. Viability count of mononuclear cells was 98.1%. After 1 year of cryopreservation, the viability count on

  19. Immune Cells in Blood Recognize Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI scientists have developed a novel strategy for identifying immune cells circulating in the blood that recognize specific proteins on tumor cells, a finding they believe may have potential implications for immune-based therapies.

  20. Flood inundation extent in storage cell mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.; Farahi; Saeed; Reza; Khodashenas; B.; Ghahraman; K.; Esmaeeli

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of floodplain processes in general and floodplains flooding in particular are vital issues for river engineers and managers. Insufficient observations of flood inundation extent and the infrequent nature of flood inundation necessitate some sort of predictive tools. In this paper flood inundation extent has been simulated by HEC-RAS software in two storage cell and normal modes and capabilities and limitations of the two models have been determined by comparing simulated and observed flood inundation extent which occurred in the study area on Feb 4th, 2004.

  1. Flood inundation extent in storage cell mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Farahi; Saeed Reza Khodashenas; B.Ghahraman; K.Esmaeeli

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of floodplaln processes In general and floodplains flooding in particular are vital issues for river engineers and managers.Insufficient observations of flood inundation extent and the infrequent nature of flood inundation necessitate some sort of predictive tools.In this paper flood in-undation extent has been simulated by HEC-RAS software in two storage cell and normal modes and capabilities and limitations of the two models have been determined by comparing simulated and ob-served flood inundation extent which occurred in the study area on Feb 4th, 2004.

  2. Isolation of rare cancer cells from blood cells using dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmanzadeh, Alireza; Sano, Michael B; Shafiee, Hadi; Stremler, Mark A; Davalos, Rafael V

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the application of contactless dielectrophoresis (cDEP) for isolating cancer cells from blood cells. Devices with throughput of 0.2 mL/hr (equivalent to sorting 3×10(6) cells per minute) were used to trap breast cancer cells while allowing blood cells through. We have shown that this technique is able to isolate cancer cells in concentration as low as 1 cancer cell per 10(6) hematologic cells (equivalent to 1000 cancer cells in 1 mL of blood). We achieved 96% trapping of the cancer cells at 600 kHz and 300 V(RMS).

  3. Compartmentalized storage tank for electrochemical cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, Benjamin Michael (Inventor); Dalton, Luke Thomas (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A compartmentalized storage tank is disclosed. The compartmentalized storage tank includes a housing, a first fluid storage section disposed within the housing, a second fluid storage section disposed within the housing, the first and second fluid storage sections being separated by a movable divider, and a constant force spring. The constant force spring is disposed between the housing and the movable divider to exert a constant force on the movable divider to cause a pressure P1 in the first fluid storage section to be greater than a pressure P2 in the second fluid storage section, thereby defining a pressure differential.

  4. Human spleen and red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivkin, Igor; Peng, Zhangli; Karniadakis, George; Buffet, Pierre; Dao, Ming

    2016-11-01

    Spleen plays multiple roles in the human body. Among them is removal of old and altered red blood cells (RBCs), which is done by filtering cells through the endothelial slits, small micron-sized openings. There is currently no experimental technique available that allows us to observe RBC passage through the slits. It was previously noticed that people without a spleen have less deformable red blood cells, indicating that the spleen may play a role in defining the size and shape of red blood cells. We used detailed RBC model implemented within the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) simulation framework to study the filter function of the spleen. Our results demonstrate that spleen indeed plays major role in defining the size and shape of the healthy human red blood cells.

  5. Red blood cell decreases of microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    Postflight decreases in red blood cell mass (RBCM) have regularly been recorded after exposure to microgravity. These 5-25 percent decreases do not relate to the mission duration, workload, caloric intake or to the type of spacecraft used. The decrease is accompanied by normal red cell survivals, increased ferritin levels, normal radioactive iron studies, and increases in mean red blood cell volume. Comparable decreases in red blood cell mass are not found after bed rest, a commonly used simulation of the microgravity state. Inhibited bone marrow erythropoiesis has not been proven to date, although reticulocyte numbers in the peripheral circulation are decreased about 50 percent. To date, the cause of the microgravity induced decreases in RBCM is unknown. Increased splenic trapping of circulating red blood cells seem the most logical way to explain the results obtained.

  6. Harvesting, processing and inventory management of peripheral blood stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijovic Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available By 2003, 97% autologous transplants and 65% of allogeneic transplants in Europe used mobilised peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC. Soon after their introduction in the early 1990′s, PBSC were associated with faster haemopoietic recovery, fewer transfusions and antibiotic usage, and a shorter hospital stay. Furthermore, ease and convenience of PBSC collection made them more appealing than BM harvests. Improved survival has hitherto been demonstrated in patients with high risk AML and CML. However, the advantages of PBSC come at a price of a higher incidence of extensive chronic GVHD. In order to be present in the blood, stem cells undergo the process of "mobilisation" from their bone marrow habitat. Mobilisation, and its reciprocal process - homing - are regulated by a complex network of molecules on the surface of stem cells and stromal cells, and enzymes and cytokines released from granulocytes and osteoclasts. Knowledge of these mechanisms is beginning to be exploited for clinical purposes. In current practice, stem cell are mobilised by use of chemotherapy in conjunction with haemopoietic growth factors (HGF, or with HGF alone. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor has emerged as the single most important mobilising agent, due to its efficacy and a relative paucity of serious side effects. Over a decade of use in healthy donors has resulted in vast experience of optimal dosing and administration, and safety matters. PBSC harvesting can be performed on a variety of cell separators. Apheresis procedures are nowadays routine, but it is important to be well versed in the possible complications in order to avoid harm to the patient or donor. To ensure efficient collection, harvesting must begin when sufficient stem cells have been mobilised. A rapid, reliable, standardized blood test is essential to decide when to begin harvesting; currently, blood CD34+ cell counting by flow cytometry fulfils these criteria. Blood CD34+ cell counts strongly

  7. IBCIS:Intelligent blood cell identification system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adnan Khashman

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of blood cells in microscope images can provide useful information concerning the health of patients.There are three major blood cell types,namely,erythrocytes (red),leukocytes (white),and platelets.Manual classification is time consuming and susceptible to error due to the different morphological features of the cells.This paper presents an intelligent system that simulates a human visual inspection and classification of the three blood cell types.The proposed system comprises two phases:The image preprocessing phase where blood cell features are extracted via global pattern averaging,and the neural network arbitration phase where training is the first and then classification is carried out.Experimental results suggest that the proposed method performs well in identifying blood cell types regardless of their irregular shapes,sizes and orientation,thus providing a fast,simple and efficient rotational and scale invariant blood cell identification system which can be used in automating laboratory reporting.

  8. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from ... later? Sign in to add this video to a playlist. Sign in Share More Report Need to ...

  9. Separation of blood cells using hydrodynamic lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geislinger, T. M.; Eggart, B.; Braunmüller, S.; Schmid, L.; Franke, T.

    2012-04-01

    Using size and deformability as intrinsic biomarkers, we separate red blood cells (RBCs) from other blood components based on a repulsive hydrodynamic cell-wall-interaction. We exploit this purely viscous lift effect at low Reynolds numbers to induce a lateral migration of soft objects perpendicular to the streamlines of the fluid, which closely follows theoretical prediction by Olla [J. Phys. II 7, 1533, (1997)]. We study the effects of flow rate and fluid viscosity on the separation efficiency and demonstrate the separation of RBCs, blood platelets, and solid microspheres from each other. The method can be used for continuous and label-free cell classification and sorting in on-chip blood analysis.

  10. Influence of different storage times and temperatures on blood gas and acid-base balance in ovine venous blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hussein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effects of storage temperature and time on blood gas and acid-base balance of ovine venous blood. Ten clinically healthy sheep were used in this study. A total number of 30 blood samples, were divided into three different groups, and were stored in a refrigerator adjusted to +4 ºC (Group I, n = 10, at RT of about 22-25 ºC (Group II, n = 10 and in an incubator adjusted to 37 ºC (Group III, n = 10 for up to 48 h. Blood samples were analysed for blood gas and acid-base indices at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of storage. In comparison to the baseline value (0, there were significant decreases of blood pH of samples stored at RT and in the incubator after 1 h (p<0.05, the pH value of refrigerated blood samples exhibited insignificant changes during the study (p<0.05. Mean values of pCO2 showed a significant increase in Group I and Group III after 1 h then a progressive decrease after 12 h in all Groups. Mean pO2 values were significantly higher for Group I after 2 h and for Groups II and III after 1 h (p<0.05. In general, base excess decreased significantly for all the groups during the study especially in Groups II and III. In comparison with baseline values, in all groups, bicarbonate (HCO3 increased between 1 h and 6 h (p<0.05, and later decreased at the end of the study (p<0.05. In conclusion, status of acid-base indices of the samples stored at refrigerator and RT were found within normal reference range and it may be of clinical diagnostic use for up to 6 h.

  11. Single-cell measurement of red blood cell oxygen affinity

    CERN Document Server

    Caprio, Di; Higgins, John M; Schonbrun, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is transported throughout the body by hemoglobin in red blood cells. While the oxygen affinity of blood is well understood and is routinely assessed in patients by pulse oximetry, variability at the single-cell level has not been previously measured. In contrast, single-cell measurements of red blood cell volume and hemoglobin concentration are taken millions of times per day by clinical hematology analyzers and are important factors in determining the health of the hematologic system. To better understand the variability and determinants of oxygen affinity on a cellular level, we have developed a system that quantifies the oxygen saturation, cell volume and hemoglobin concentration for individual red blood cells in high-throughput. We find that the variability in single-cell saturation peaks at an oxygen partial pressure of 2.5%, which corresponds to the maximum slope of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve. In addition, single-cell oxygen affinity is positively correlated with hemoglobin concentr...

  12. The origin of blood stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Boisset

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe development of cell biology research coincides with the advance of microscopes in the 19th century. It was finally possible to directly observe the various blood cell types and to witness their proliferation and differentiation (Mazzarello, 1999). On the basis of his observations, th

  13. 21 CFR 864.9245 - Automated blood cell separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood cell separator. 864.9245 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9245 Automated blood cell separator. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell separator is a device that uses a centrifugal or filtration separation principle...

  14. 21 CFR 864.8200 - Blood cell diluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood cell diluent. 864.8200 Section 864.8200 Food... DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8200 Blood cell diluent. (a) Identification. A blood cell diluent is a device used to dilute blood for further testing, such as blood...

  15. The influence of storage time and preserving temperature on infant children′s peripheral blood cell count%放置时间及保存温度对幼儿末梢全血细胞计数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秋瑾; 王宇

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨放置时间、保存温度对2~6岁幼儿末梢全血细胞计数结果的影响,以指导体检工作流程的合理安排.方法 取40名幼儿末梢全血用乙二胺四乙酸三钾(EDTA-K3)抗凝,分组标记后保存于不同温度中.应用ABX-Micros 60全自动血液分析仪,将分装标本分别在0.5、4、8和10 h测定.结果 保存于室温和4 ℃冰箱冷藏环境下,随着放置时间的延长,白细胞(WBC)、红细胞(RBC)、平均血小板体积(MPV)、血小板分布宽度(PDW)、淋巴细胞百分率(LY)均有逐渐上升的趋势;血小板(PLT)计数、中性粒细胞百分率(GRA)均有下降的趋势.标本于室温8 h 及4 ℃冷藏10 h以后检测结果与对照组比较,大多数指标差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).10 h时室温与4 ℃冷藏放置2组数据比较,大多数指标差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 标本放置时间及保存温度对幼儿末梢全血细胞计数结果中的一些参数有明显影响,在4 h之内检测,室温与4 ℃冷藏2种环境对检测结果无明显影响;末梢血标本放置在4 ℃冷藏条件下10 h内完成检测还是可行的.%Objective To investigate the influence of storage time and preserving temperature on 2-6 years old infant children's peripheral blood cell count, and improve the process of health examination. Methods 40 cases of infant children's peripheral blood specimens were anticoagulated by ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid-K3 (EDTA-K3 ).The blood specimens were classified and stored in different temperatures after being labeled. The blood specimens were determined by ABX-Mieros 60 at 0.5, 4,8 and 10 h respectively. Results The levels of white blood cell ( WBC), red blood cell (RBC), mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), lymphocyte% (LY) were increased, and platelet (PLT) and nentrophilicgranulocyte % (GRA) were decreased with prolonging storage time in room temperature and refrigerator 4 ℃. After 8 h in room temperature and

  16. Deterministic Aperiodic Sickle Cell Blood Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsaves, Louis; Harris, Wesley

    2013-11-01

    In this paper sickle cell blood flow in the capillaries is modeled as a hydrodynamical system. The hydrodynamical system consists of the axisymmetric unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and a set of constitutive equations for oxygen transport. Blood cell deformation is not considered in this paper. The hydrodynamical system is reduced to a system of non-linear partial differential equations that are then transformed into a system of three autonomous non-linear ordinary differential equations and a set of algebraic equations. We examine the hydrodynamical system to discern stable/unstable, periodic/nonperiodic, reversible/irreversible properties of the system. The properties of the solutions are driven in large part by the coefficients of the governing system of equations. These coefficients depend on the physiological properties of the sickle cell blood. The chaotic nature of the onset of crisis in sickle cell patients is identified. Research Assistant.

  17. Effect of storage levels of nitric oxide derivatives in blood components [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/WDkFtz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Qazi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Potential deleterious effects of red blood cell (RBC transfusions, especially from blood kept at length, have been ascribed to biochemical changes during storage, including those of nitric oxide (NO metabolism. Study methods and design: In this study, NO metabolites, nitrite and nitrate, were quantified in RBCs and whole blood with time of storage. Whole blood (WB, leukoreduced (LR, and non-leukoreduced (NLR components were obtained from healthy volunteer donors and stored in polyvinyl chloride bags for 42 days. Nitrite and nitrate were measured using reductive gas-phase chemiluminescence. Results: Nitrite concentrations initially decreased rapidly from about 150nmol/L, but stabilized at about 44nmol/L in room air for up to 42 days. Nitrate concentrations remained stable during storage at about 35µmol/L. Cells from bags maintained in an argon chamber showed decreased nitrite levels compared to those maintained in room air. Inhibition of enzymes implicated in the NO cycle did not alter nitrite levels. Conclusion: As erythrocytes may contribute to the control of blood flow and oxygen delivery through reduction of nitrite to NO under hypoxic conditions, the present findings provide insight into possible effects of blood transfusion. These measurements may explain some adverse effects of RBC transfusion and suggest ways of optimizing the preservation of stored blood.

  18. Perioperative Red Blood Cell Transfusion: What We Do Not Know

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong Lei; Li-Ze Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Blood transfusion saves lives but may also increase the risk of injury.The objective of this review was to evaluate the possible adverse effects related to transfusion of red blood cell (RBC) concentrates stored for prolonged periods.Data Sources:The data used in this review were mainly from PubMed articles published in English up to February 2015.Study Selection:Clinical and basic research articles were selected according to their relevance to this topic.Results:The ex vivo changes to RBC that occur during storage are collectively called storage lesion.It is still inconclusive if transfusion of RBC with storage lesion has clinical relevance.Multiple ongoing prospective randomized controlled trials are aimed to clarify this clinical issue.It was observed that the adverse events related to stored RBC transfusion were prominent in certain patient populations,including trauma,critical care,pediatric,and cardiac surgery patients,which leads to the investigation of underlying mechanisms.It is demonstrated that free hemoglobin toxicity,decreasing of nitric oxide bioavailability,and free iron-induced increasing of inflammation may play an important role in this process.Conclusion:It is still unclear whether transfusion of older RBC has adverse effects,and if so,which factors determine such clinical effects.However,considering the magnitude of transfusion and the widespread medical significance,potential preventive strategies should be considered,especially for the susceptible recipients.

  19. l-carnitine as a Potential Additive in Blood Storage Solutions: A Study on Erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumya, R; Carl, H; Vani, R

    2016-09-01

    Erythrocytes undergo various changes during storage (storage lesion) that in turn reduces their functioning and survival. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the storage lesion and antioxidants can be used to combat this stress. This study elucidates the effects of l-carnitine (LC) on erythrocytes of stored blood. Blood was obtained from male Wistar rats and stored (4 °C) for 20 days in CPDA-1 (citrate phosphate dextrose adenine) solution. Samples were divided into-(i) controls (ii) LC 10 (l-carnitine at a concentration of 10 mM) (iii) LC 30 (l-carnitine at a concentration of 30 mM) and (iv) LC 60 (l-carnitine at a concentration of 60 mM). Every fifth day, the biomarkers (haemoglobin, hemolysis, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation products) were analysed in erythrocytes. Hemoglobin and protein sulfhydryls were insignificant during storage indicative of the maintenance of hemoglobin and sulfhydryls in all groups. Superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels increased initially and decreased towards the end of storage. The levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase were lower in experimentals than controls during storage. l-carnitine assisted the enzymes by scavenging the reactive oxygen species produced. Hemolysis increased in all groups with storage, elucidating that l-carnitine could not completely protect lipids and proteins from oxidative stress. Hence, this study opens up new avenues of using l-carnitine as a component of storage solutions with combinations of antioxidants in order to maintain efficacy of erythrocytes.

  20. Maintenance of Sensitivity of the T-SPOT.TB Assay after Overnight Storage of Blood Samples, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Elizabeth A; Maro, Isaac; Ferguson, Katherine; Adams, Lisa V; Mtei, Lillian; Matee, Mecky; von Reyn, C Fordham

    2012-01-01

    Background. T-SPOT.TB is an interferon gamma release assay for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The requirement to process within 8 hours is constraining, deters use, and leads to invalid results. Addition of T Cell Xtend reagent may allow delayed processing, but has not been extensively field tested. Design. Consecutive AFB smear positive adult tuberculosis patients were prospectively recruited in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Patients provided a medical history, 1-3 sputum samples for culture and 1 blood sample which was transported to the laboratory under temperature-controlled conditions. After overnight storage, 25 μL of T Cell Xtend reagent was added per mL of blood, and the sample was tested using T-SPOT.TB. Results. 143 patients were enrolled: 57 patients were excluded because temperature control was not maintained, 19 patients were excluded due to red blood cell contamination, and one did not provide a sputum sample for culture. Among 66 evaluable patients, overall agreement between T-SPOT.TB and culture was 95.4% (95%CI; 87.1-99.0%) with Kappa value 0.548. Sensitivity of T-SPOT.TB when using T Cell Xtend reagent was 96.8% (95%CI; 88.8-99.6%). Conclusions. When T Cell Xtend reagent is added to specimens held overnight at recommended temperatures, T-SPOT.TB is as sensitive as the standard assay in patients with tuberculosis.

  1. White blood cell deformation and firm adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmary, Alex; Eggleton, Charles

    2011-11-01

    For a white blood cell (WBC) to arrive at infection sites, it forms chemical attachments with activated endothelial cells. First, it bonds with P-selectin, which holds it to the wall, but weakly; this allows the WBC to roll under the shear flow of the blood around it. Later, the WBCs bond with the stronger intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1); it is these ICAM bonds that allow the WBCs to fully resist the flow and stop rolling, allowing them to crawl through the endothelial wall. We model this numerically. Our model uses the immersed boundary method to represent the interaction of the shear flow with the deformable cell membrane. Receptors are on the tips of microvilli-little fingers sticking off of the cell membrane. The microvilli also deform. The receptors stochastically form and break bonds with molecules on the wall. Using this method, the history of each microvillus and its bonds can be found, as well as the distribution of the adhesion traction forces and how all of these vary with the deformability of the white blood cell. At higher shear rates, the white blood cell membrane deforms more, increasing its contact area with the surface; this effect is larger for softer membranes. We investigate how the deformability of the WBC affects the ease with which it forms firm adhesion.

  2. Influence of storage conditions on the release of growth factors in platelet-rich blood derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Düregger Katharina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Thrombocytes can be concentrated in blood derivatives and used as autologous transplants e.g. for wound treatment due to the release of growth factors such as platelet derived growth factor (PDGF. Conditions for processing and storage of these platelet-rich blood derivatives influence the release of PDGF from the platelet-bound α-granules into the plasma. In this study Platelet rich plasma (PRP and Platelet concentrate (PC were produced with a fully automated centrifugation system. Storage of PRP and PC for 1 h up to 4 months at temperatures between −20°C and +37°C was applied with the aim of evaluating the influence on the amount of released PDGF. Storage at −20°C resulted in the highest release of PDGF in PRP and a time dependency was determined: prolonged storage up to 1 month in PRP and 10 days in PC increased the release of PDGF. Regardless of the storage conditions, the release of PDGF per platelet was higher in PC than in PRP.

  3. Finger stick blood collection for gene expression profiling and storage of tempus blood RNA tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinchai, Darawan; Anguiano, Esperanza; Nguyen, Phuong; Chaussabel, Damien

    2017-01-01

    With this report we aim to make available a standard operating procedure (SOP) developed for RNA stabilization of small blood volumes collected via a finger stick. The anticipation that this procedure may be improved through peer-review and/or readers public comments is another element motivating the publication of this SOP. Procuring blood samples from human subjects can, among other uses, enable assessment of the immune status of an individual subject via the profiling of RNA abundance using technologies such as real time PCR, NanoString, microarrays or RNA-sequencing. It is often desirable to minimize blood volumes and employ methods that are the least invasive and can be practically implemented outside of clinical settings. Finger stick blood samples are increasingly used for measurement of levels of pharmacological drugs and biological analytes. It is a simple and convenient procedure amenable for instance to field use or self-collection at home using a blood sample collection kit. Such methodologies should also enable the procurement of blood samples at high frequency for health or disease monitoring applications. PMID:28357036

  4. Effects of storage conditions on forensic examinations of blood samples and bloodstains stored for 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, M; Nakanishi, H; Yoneyama, K; Saito, K; Takada, A

    2016-01-01

    The effects of various storage conditions on blood identification tests, DNA degradation, and short tandem repeat (STR) typing were evaluated. Bloodstains stored at room temperature, 4 °C, -20 °C, and -80 °C for 20 years; blood samples stored at -20 °C and -80 °C for 20 years; and fresh blood samples were analyzed. Leuco-malachite-green testing, anti-human hemoglobin (Hb) testing (using immunochromatography), and tests for hemoglobin-beta (HBB) mRNA were performed as blood identification tests. DNA degradation was evaluated by quantifying the ratios of 305 and 129 base pair (bp) fragments to 41 bp fragments. STR typing was performed using an AmpFlSTR® Identifiler™ Plus PCR Amplification Kit. All samples were positive in leuco-malachite-green staining and anti-human Hb assays. HBB was not detected in blood samples stored at -20 °C or -80 °C, although this marker was detected in all bloodstains. As indicated by the ratio of 129:41 bp and 305:41 bp DNA fragments, DNA from bloodstains stored at room temperature or 4 °C were significantly degraded compared to DNA from all other samples. STR typing analyses revealed that a portion of the loci was undetected in bloodstains stored at room temperature. Therefore, to prevent DNA degradation during long-term storage, it is recommended that bloodstains and blood be stored at below -20 °C. In addition, because bloodstains are more suitable for detection of blood-specific mRNAs than blood sample, it is desirable that blood is stored as bloodstain for this method.

  5. Red blood cells in retinal vascular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Rupesh; Sherwood, Joseph; Chhablani, Jay; Ricchariya, Ashutosh; Kim, Sangho; Jones, Philip H; Balabani, Stavroula; Shima, David

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular circulation plays a vital role in regulating physiological functions, such as vascular resistance, and maintaining organ health. Pathologies such as hypertension, diabetes, or hematologic diseases affect the microcirculation posing a significant risk to human health. The retinal vasculature provides a unique window for non-invasive visualisation of the human circulation in vivo and retinal vascular image analysis has been established to predict the development of both clinical and subclinical cardiovascular, metabolic, renal and retinal disease in epidemiologic studies. Blood viscosity which was otherwise thought to play a negligible role in determining blood flow based on Poiseuille's law up to the 1970s has now been shown to play an equally if not a more important role in controlling microcirculation and quantifying blood flow. Understanding the hemodynamics/rheology of the microcirculation and its changes in diseased states remains a challenging task; this is due to the particulate nature of blood, the mechanical properties of the cells (such as deformability and aggregability) and the complex architecture of the microvasculature. In our review, we have tried to postulate a possible role of red blood cell (RBC) biomechanical properties and laid down future framework for research related to hemorrheological aspects of blood in patients with retinal vascular disorders.

  6. Enhancing uniformity and overall quality of red cell concentrate with anaerobic storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tatsuro; Blair, Abbejane; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Nemkov, Travis; Dioguardi, Michael; Silliman, Christopher C.; Dunham, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent research focused on understanding stored red blood cell (RBC) quality has demonstrated high variability in measures of RBC function and health across units. Studies have historically linked this high variability to variations in processing, storage method, and age. More recently, a large number of studies have focused on differences in donor demographics, donor iron sufficiency, and genetic predisposition of the donor to poor storage, particularly through mechanisms of accelerated oxidative damage. A study was undertaken to evaluate a potential additional source of unit to unit variation in stored RBC: the role of variable percent oxygen saturation (%SO2) levels on blood quality parameters during storage. Materials and methods %SO2 data from 492 LR-RBC/AS-3 units used for internal and external collaborative research was included in the analysis. Whole blood units were processed into red blood cells, AS-3 added, leucocyte reduced, in compliance with American Association of Blood Banks guidelines. LR-RBC/AS-3 products were subsequently analysed for %SO2 levels within 3–24 hours of phlebotomy using a co-oximeter. Separately, to evaluate the impact of pre-storage as well as increasing levels of %SO2 during storage, a pool-and-split study was performed. Four units of LR-RBC/AS-3 were split 6 ways; “as is” (control), hyperoxygenated to more than 90%, and four levels of pre-storage %SO2. The units were periodically sampled up to 42 days and analysed for %SO2, pCO2, methaemoglobin, ATP, 2,3-BPG as well as with the metabolomics workflow. Results The measured mean %SO2 in LR-RBC/AS-3 within 24 hours of collection was 45.9±17.5% with (32.7–61.0 IQR). %SO2 in all products increased to approximately 95–100% in three weeks. Measured blood quality parameters including ATP, % haemolysis, methaemoglobin, oxidised lipids, and GSH/GSSG indicated suppressed cellular metabolism and increased red cell degradation in response to higher %SO2 levels. Discussion

  7. Storage and use of Newborn Screening Blood Specimens for Research: Assessing Public Opinion in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Alexa; Petros, Michael; Charrow, Joel; Nash, Claudia; Wicklund, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Storage and use of residual dried blood spots (DBS) from newborn screening (NBS) for research purposes has been a topic of elevated interest following high profile disputes between genetic privacy advocacy groups and state NBS programs. Our objective was to assess public opinion in Illinois regarding storage and use of residual DBS for research. Five hundred twenty-six Illinois residents completed a survey assessing attitudes about research uses for DBS, storage length, and consent issues. Over 80 % of respondents expressed agreement with questions regarding research uses of DBS. Eighty-three percent of respondents were in favor of storage for at least one year with 44 % favoring indefinite storage. Respondents with higher educational attainment were more likely to support research use of DBS and less likely to desire contact for each future study (P research or to favor long-term storage (P public health program. Trust in the public health service of NBS must be protected through transparency in the policy process.

  8. The relationship between blood lead levels and morbidities among workers employed in a factory manufacturing lead-acid storage battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalahasthi, Ravi Babu; Barman, Tapu; Rajmohan, H R

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find the relationship between blood lead levels (BLLs) and morbidities among 391 male workers employed in a factory manufacturing lead-acid storage batteries. A predesigned questionnaire was used to collect information on subjective health complaints and clinical observation made during a clinical examination. In addition to monitoring of BLL, other laboratory parameters investigated included hematological and urine-δ-aminolevulinic acid levels. Logistic regression method was used to evaluate the relationship between BLL and morbidities. The BLL among workers was associated with an odd ratio of respiratory, gastrointestinal (GI), and musculoskeletal (MSD) morbidities. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin and packed cell volume variables were associated with respiratory problems. The variables of alcohol consumption and hematological parameters were associated with GI complaints. Systolic blood pressure was related to MSD in workers exposed to Pb during the manufacturing process.

  9. Evaluation of an additive solution for preservation of canine red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, K J; Owen, T J; Meyers, K M

    1994-01-01

    The effect of an additive preservative solution on canine red blood cell posttransfusion viability (PTV) and on selected canine red blood cell biochemical parameters was studied. One unit (450 mL) of blood was collected from 6 clinically normal dogs into the anticoagulant citrate phosphate dextrose, centrifuged, and the plasma removed. The red blood cells were then suspended in 100 mL of a saline, adenine, dextrose, and mannitol solution and stored at 4 degrees C. Aliquots were removed for study at 1, 10, 20, 30, 37, and 44 days. The 24-hour PTV of autologous red blood cells was determined using a sodium chromate (51Cr) label. Red blood cell concentrations of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP), and pH were also determined. Canine red blood cell PTV, pH, ATP, and 2,3-DPG concentrations decreased during storage (P Food and Drug Administration (FDA) minimum standard for human red blood cells, the PTV was substandard in 75% of the day 44 units. The FDA standard was exceeded in 83% of the day 37 units. It was concluded that 37-day-old canine red blood cells preserved with a saline, adenine, dextrose, and mannitol solution are of acceptable quality for transfusion.

  10. Colour measurement and white blood cell recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Gelsema, E S

    1972-01-01

    As a part of a collaboration with NEMCH aimed at the automation of the differential white blood cell count, studies have been made of the different possibilities for using colour to help in the recognition process. Results are presented comparing data obtained with a microspectrophotometer and with a simulated three-colour scanner.

  11. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240... § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell diluting apparatus is a fully automated or semi-automated device used to make appropriate dilutions of a blood...

  12. Inflight Assay of Red Blood Cell Deformability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Paglia, D. E.; Eckstein, E. C.; Frazer, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Studies on Soviet and American astronauts have demonstrated that red blood cell production is altered in response to low gravity (g) environment. This is associated with changes in individual red cells including increased mean cell volume and altered membrane deformability. During long orbital missions, there is a tendency for the red cell mass deficit to be at least partly corrected although the cell shape anomalies are not. Data currently available suggest that the observed decrease in red cell mass is the result of sudden suppression of erythropoieses and that the recovery trend observed during long missions reflects re-establishment of erythropoietic homeostasis at a "set point" for the red cell mass that is slightly below the normal level at 1 g.

  13. Correlation between enzyme activity and substrate storage in a cell culture model system for Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, U H; Kolter, T; Kaneski, C R; Zirzow, G C; Sandhoff, K; Brady, R O

    2004-01-01

    Gaucher disease, the most common sphingolipidosis, is caused by a decreased activity of glucosylceramide beta-glucosidase, resulting in the accumulation of glucosylceramide in macrophage-derived cells known as Gaucher cells. Much of the storage material is thought to originate from the turnover of cell membranes, such as phagocytosed red and white blood cells. In this study, an in vitro model of Gaucher disease was developed by treating the murine macrophage cell line J774 with a specific inhibitor of glucosylceramide beta-glucosidase, conduritol B-epoxide, and feeding red blood cell ghosts, in order to mimic the disease state. It was found in this model system that glucosylceramide beta-glucosidase activity could be reduced to about 11-15% of the normal control level before increased storage of glucosylceramide occurred. This in vitro system allows insight into the correlation between enzyme activity and lipid storage as predicted by the theory of residual enzyme activity that was proposed by Conzelmann and Sandhoff.

  14. [Production of mature red blood cell by using peripheral blood mononuclear cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yan-Jun; Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Ke-Ying; Shang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Wei; Wang, Li-Jun; Liu, Na; Wang, Lin; Cui, Shuang; Ni, Lei; Zhao, Bo-Tao; Wang, Dong-Mei; Gao, Song-Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Xin

    2014-10-01

    Most protocols for in vitro producing red blood cells (RBC) use the CD34(+) cells or embryonic stem cells from cord blood, bone marrow or peripheral blood as the start materials. This study was purposed to produce the mature RBC in vitro by using peripheral blood mononuclear cells as start material. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) were isolated from buffy coat after blood leukapheresis, the mature red blood cells (RBC) were prepared by a 4-step culture protocol. The results showed that after culture by inducing with the different sets of cytokines and supporting by mouse MS-5 cell line, the expansion of PBMNC reached about 1000 folds at the end of the culture. About 90% of cultured RBC were enucleated mature cells which had the comparable morphological characteristics with normal RBC. Colony-forming assays showed that this culture system could stimulate the proliferation of progenitors in PBMNC and differentiate into erythroid cells. The structure and function analysis indicated that the mean cell volume of in vitro cultured RBC was 118 ± 4 fl, which was slight larger than that of normal RBC (80-100 fl); the mean cell hemoglobin was 36 ± 1.2 pg, which was slight higher than that of normal RBC (27-31 pg); the maximal deformation index was 0.46, which approachs level of normal RBC; the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyrurvate kinase levels was consistant with young RBC. It is concluded that PBMNC are feasble, convenient and low-cost source for producing cultured RBC and this culture system is suitable to generate the RBC from PBMNC.

  15. Energy storage in ultrathin solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Overmeere, Quentin; Kerman, Kian; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2012-07-11

    The power output of hydrogen fuel cells quickly decreases to zero if the fuel supply is interrupted. We demonstrate thin film solid oxide fuel cells with nanostructured vanadium oxide anodes that generate power for significantly longer time than reference porous platinum anode thin film solid oxide fuel cells when the fuel supply is interrupted. The charge storage mechanism was investigated quantitatively with likely identified contributions from the oxidation of the vanadium oxide anode, its hydrogen storage properties, and different oxygen concentration at the electrodes. Fuel cells capable of storing charge even for short periods of time could contribute to ultraminiaturization of power sources for mobile energy.

  16. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated.

  17. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  18. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  19. Automated microscopy system for peripheral blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boev, Sergei F.; Sazonov, Vladimir V.; Kozinets, Gennady I.; Pogorelov, Valery M.; Gusev, Alexander A.; Korobova, Farida V.; Vinogradov, Alexander G.; Verdenskaya, Natalya V.; Ivanova, Irina A.

    2000-11-01

    The report describes the instrument ASPBS (Automated Screening of Peripheral Blood Cells) designed for an automated analysis of dry blood smears. The instrument is based on computer microscopy and uses dry blood smears prepared according to the standard Romanovskii-Giemza procedure. In comparison with the well-known flow cytometry systems, our instrument provides more detailed information and offers an opporunity of visualizing final results. The basic performances of the instrument are given. Software of this instrument is based on digital image processing and image recognition procedures. It is pointed out that the instrument can be used as a fairly universal tool in scientific research, public demonstrations, in medical treatment, and in medical education. The principle used as the basis of the instrument appeared adequate for creating an instrument version serviceable even during space flights where standard manual procedures and flow cytometry systems fail. The benefit of the use of the instrument in clinical laboratories is described.

  20. Heritability of glutathione and related metabolites in stored red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Erve, Thomas J; Doskey, Claire M; Wagner, Brett A; Hess, John R; Darbro, Benjamin W; Ryckman, Kelli K; Murray, Jeffrey C; Raife, Thomas J; Buettner, Garry R

    2014-11-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) collected for transfusion deteriorate during storage. This deterioration is termed the "RBC storage lesion." There is increasing concern over the safety, therapeutic efficacy, and toxicity of transfusing longer-stored units of blood. The severity of the RBC storage lesion is dependent on storage time and varies markedly between individuals. Oxidative damage is considered a significant factor in the development of the RBC storage lesion. In this study, the variability during storage and heritability of antioxidants and metabolites central to RBC integrity and function were investigated. In a classic twin study, we determined the heritability of glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), the status of the GSSG,2H(+)/2GSH couple (Ehc), and total glutathione (tGSH) in donated RBCs over 56 days of storage. Intracellular GSH and GSSG concentrations both decrease during storage (median net loss of 0.52 ± 0.63 mM (median ± SD) and 0.032 ± 0.107 mM, respectively, over 42 days). Taking into account the decline in pH, Ehc became more positive (oxidized) during storage (median net increase of 35 ± 16 mV). In our study population heritability estimates for GSH, GSSG, tGSH, and Ehc measured over 56 days of storage are 79, 60, 67, and, 75%, respectively. We conclude that susceptibility of stored RBCs to oxidative injury due to variations in the GSH redox buffer is highly variable among individual donors and strongly heritable. Identifying the genes that regulate the storage-related changes in this redox buffer could lead to the development of new methods to minimize the RBC storage lesion.

  1. A method for making a storage cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanakhasi, K.; Ivaki, T.

    1983-03-17

    The electrode unit is placed in a tank and water is poured into it until the electrodes are completely submerged. A liquid is poured in from above which is a solution of a synthetic resin of the polyvinylchloride type in a solvent insoluble in water of the tetrahydrofurane type. The solvent spreads along the surface of the water. The resin is removed, hardening and forming a porous layer on the wave shaped coagulated flakes. Then the liquid is poured off, passing through the pores of the resin layer. The water is replaced by an electrolyte. The layer of resin prevent splashing and excess evaporation of the electrolyte. A plug with a catalyst for recombining the gases formed in the storage device may be installed additionally in the storage device.

  2. Red blood cell clusters in Poiseuille flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigliotti, Giovanni; Selmi, Hassib; Misbah, Chaouqi; Elasmi, Lassaad

    2011-11-01

    We present 2D numerical simulations of sets of vesicles (closed bags of a lipid bilayer membrane) in a parabolic flow, a setup that mimics red blood cells (RBCs) in the microvasculature. Vesicles, submitted to sole hydrodynamical interactions, are found to form aggregates (clusters) of finite size. The existence of a maximal cluster size is pointed out and characterized as a function of the flow intensity and the swelling ratio of the vesicles. Moreover bigger clusters move at lower velocity, a fact that may prove of physiological interest. These results quantify previous observations of the inhomogeneous distribution of RBCs in vivo (Gaehtgens et al., Blood Cells 6 - 1980). An interpretation of the phenomenon is put forward based on the presence of boli (vortices) between vesicles. Both the results and the explanation can be transposed to the three-dimensional case.

  3. The in Vitro Assessment of Biochemical Factors in Hepatocyte like Cells Derived from Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A KHoramroodi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Umbilical cord blood (UCB is a source of Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSC and progenitor cells that can reconstitute the hematopoietic system in patients with malignant and nonmalignant disorders. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived from umbilical cord blood (UCB have been differentiated to some kind of cells, such as osteobblast, adipoblast and chondroblast in Vitro. This study examined the differentiation of Umbilical Cord Blood (UCB derived stem cells to functional hepatocytes. Materials & Methods: The present study was an experimental study which was carried out in the Payam-e-Noor University of Tehran in cooperation with Hamedan University of Medical Sciences in 2008. Umbilical cord blood (UCB was obtained from Fatemieh hospital (Hamadan, Iran. Stem cells were isolated from the cord blood by combining density gradient centrifugation with plastic adherence. When the isolated cells reached 80% confluence, they differentiated to hepatocyte like cells. The medium which was used was consists of DMEM and 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS supplemented with 20 ng/mL Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF, 10 ng/mL basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF and 20 ng/mL Oncostatin M (OSM.The medium was changed every 3 days and stored for Albumin (ALB, Alpha Fetoprotein (AFP, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP, and urea assay. Finally PAS stain was done to study Glycogen storage in the differentiated cell. Results: Measurement of biochemical factors in different days showed that concentration of albumin (ALB, alpha fetoprotein (AFP, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and Urea gradually increased. Also, PAS staining showed the storage of glycogen in these cells. Conclusion: Stem cell-derived from human umbilical cord blood (HUCB is a new source of cell types for cell transplantation therapy of hepatic diseases and under certain conditions these cells can differentiate into liver cells.

  4. Generation of red blood cells from human embryonic/induced pluripotent stem cells for blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Yasuhiro; Ma, Feng; Tsuji, Kohichiro

    2012-06-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is necessary for many patients with emergency or hematological disorders. However, to date the supply of RBCs remains labile and dependent on voluntary donations. In addition, the transmission of infectious disease via blood transfusion from unspecified donors remains a risk. Establishing a large quantity of safe RBCs would help to address this issue. Human embryonic stem (hES) cells and the recently established human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells represent potentially unlimited sources of donor-free RBCs for blood transfusion, as they can proliferate indefinitely in vitro. Extensive research has been done to efficiently generate transfusable RBCs from hES/iPS cells. Nevertheless, a number of challenges must be overcome before the clinical usage of hES/iPS cell-derived RBCs can become a reality.

  5. Changes in haematology measurements with the Sysmex XT-2000iV during storage of feline blood sampled in EDTA or EDTA plus CTAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granat, Fanny; Geffré, Anne; Bourgès-Abella, Nathalie; Braun, Jean-Pierre; Trumel, Catherine

    2013-06-01

    In veterinary medicine a complete blood cell count (CBC) cannot always be performed within 24 h as usually recommended, particularly for specimens shipped to a reference laboratory. This raises the question of the stability of the variables, especially in ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) feline blood specimens, known to be prone to in vitro platelet aggregation. Citrate, theophylline, adenosine and dipyridamole (CTAD) has been reported to limit platelet aggregation in feline blood specimens. The aim of this study was to measure the stability of the haematological variables and the platelet aggregation score in EDTA and EDTA plus CTAD (EDCT) feline blood specimens during 48 h of storage at room temperature. Forty-six feline EDTA and EDCT blood specimens were analysed with a Sysmex XT-2000iV analyser, and the platelet count and score of platelet aggregation were estimated immediately and after 24 and 48 h of storage. A significant increase in mean corpuscular volume, haematocrit, reticulocyte and eosinophil counts, and a significant decrease in mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and monocyte count were observed. Haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, and red blood cell, white blood cell, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts remained stable. Changes in reticulocyte indexes with time (low fluorescence ratio, medium fluorescence ratio, high fluorescence ratio and immature reticulocyte fraction) were not significant. Changes were generally more pronounced in EDTA than in EDCT. Platelet aggregation decreased markedly in initially highly aggregated EDTA specimens, and increased slightly in initially non- or mildly-aggregated EDTA or EDCT specimens. Platelet counts increased and decreased, or remained stable, respectively. CTAD can reduce storage-induced changes of the haematological variables in feline samples, thus improving the reliability of a CBC and limiting clinical misinterpretations.

  6. Risk of Abnormal Red Blood Cell to Get Malarial Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2008-01-01

    Malarial infection in red blood cell disorder is an interesting topic in tropical medicine. In this work, the author proposes a new idea on the physical property of red blood cell and risk for getting malarial infection. The study on scenario of red blood cell disorders is performed. Conclusively, the author found that physical property of red blood cell is an important determinant for getting malarial infection

  7. Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Storage Technology: Fundamental Research for Optimization of Hydrogen Storage and Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perret, Bob; Heske, Clemens; Nadavalath, Balakrishnan; Cornelius, Andrew; Hatchett, David; Bae, Chusung; Pang, Tao; Kim, Eunja; Hemmers, Oliver

    2011-03-28

    Design and development of improved low-cost hydrogen fuel cell catalytic materials and high-capacity hydrogenn storage media are paramount to enabling the hydrogen economy. Presently, effective and durable catalysts are mostly precious metals in pure or alloyed form and their high cost inhibits fuel cell applications. Similarly, materials that meet on-board hydrogen storage targets within total mass and volumetric constraints are yet to be found. Both hydrogen storage performance and cost-effective fuel cell designs are intimately linked to the electronic structure, morphology and cost of the chosen materials. The FCAST Project combined theoretical and experimental studies of electronic structure, chemical bonding, and hydrogen adsorption/desorption characteristics of a number of different nanomaterials and metal clusters to develop better fundamental understanding of hydrogen storage in solid state matrices. Additional experimental studies quantified the hydrogen storage properties of synthesized polyaniline(PANI)/Pd composites. Such conducting polymers are especially interesting because of their high intrinsic electron density and the ability to dope the materials with protons, anions, and metal species. Earlier work produced contradictory results: one study reported 7% to 8% hydrogen uptake while a second study reported zero hydrogen uptake. Cost and durability of fuel cell systems are crucial factors in their affordability. Limits on operating temperature, loss of catalytic reactivity and degradation of proton exchange membranes are factors that affect system durability and contribute to operational costs. More cost effective fuel cell components were sought through studies of the physical and chemical nature of catalyst performance, characterization of oxidation and reduction processes on system surfaces. Additional development effort resulted in a new hydrocarbon-based high-performance sulfonated proton exchange membrane (PEM) that can be manufactured at low

  8. Common criteria among States for storage and use of dried blood spot specimens after newborn screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological samples collected in biobanks are a resource with significant research potential. The Italian Joint Group cNB - cNBBSV (National committee of Bioethics - National committee for Biosecurity, Biotechnologies and Life Sciences published a document reporting recommendations on storage and use of dried blood spot (DBS and on the development of a National Network of Regional Newborn Screening Repositories for collection of residual DBS. Several ethical questions (about consent, possible use of genetic information, unanticipated possible usages for research purposes rise from residual newborn screening specimens collections. Moreover, legal and ethical controversies are accentuated by the conflicts between the interests of sample donors, biobank holders, researchers and the public. To overcome these difficulties the identification of a few criteria for storage and research usage of DBS is crucial.

  9. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall...

  10. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used...

  11. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7100 Red blood cell enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity...

  12. Mechanosensing Dynamics of Red blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiandi

    2015-11-01

    Mechanical stress-induced deformation of human red blood cells (RBCs) plays important physiopathological roles in oxygen delivery, blood rheology, transfusion, and malaria. Recent studies demonstrate that, in response to mechanical deformation, RBCs release adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP), suggesting the existence of mechanotransductive pathways in RBCs. Most importantly, the released ATP from RBCs regulates vascular tone and impaired release of ATP from RBCs has been linked to diseases such as type II diabetes and cystic fibrosis. To date, however, the mechanisms of mechanotransductive release of ATP from RBCs remain unclear. Given that RBCs experience shear stresses continuously during the circulation cycle and the released ATP plays a central role in vascular physiopathology, understanding the mechanotransductive release of ATP from RBCs will provide not only fundamental insights to the role of RBCs in vascular homeostasis but also novel therapeutic strategies for red cell dysfunction and vascular disease. This talk describes the main research in my group on integrating microfluidic-based approaches to study the mechanosensing dynamics of RBCs. Specifically, I will introduce a micro?uidic approach that can probe the dynamics of shear-induced ATP release from RBCs with millisecond resolution and provide quantitative understandings of the mechanosensitive ATP release processes in RBCs. Furthermore, I will also describe our recent findings about the roles of the Piezo1 channel, a newly discovered mechanosensitive cation channel in the mechanotransductive ATP release in RBCs. Last, possible functions of RBCs in the regulation of cerebral blood flow will be discussed.

  13. Performance and Storage Integrity of Dried Blood Spots for PCB, BFR and Pesticide Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Stuart; Chernyak, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) can provide accurate and valuable estimates of exposure to environmental toxicants, and the use of information derived from archived newborn DBS information has enormous potential to open up new research on the impacts of early chemical exposure on disease. Broad application of DBS for the purpose of quantitative exposure estimation requires robust and validated methods. This study investigates the suitability of DBS analyses for population studies of exposure to three chemical groups: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), and chlorinated pesticides. It examines background (matrix) contamination, recovery and extraction variability, sensitivity, and storage stability. DBS samples prepared using 50 μL of adult blood were analyzed by GC/MS, and method performance was confirmed by using certified materials and paired DBS-blood samples from six volunteers. Several of the target compounds and their degradation products have not been previously measured in DBS. All target compounds were detected in DBS samples collected from the volunteers. Sample DBS cards showed background contamination of several compounds. When stored at room temperature, target compounds, excluding PBDEs, were stable for up to one month. When refrigerated or frozen, stability was acceptable for all compounds up to one year, and multiyear storage appears acceptable at colder (e.g., −80 °C) temperatures. Multicompartment models may be used to estimate or correct for storage losses. Considering concentrations of contaminants for adults and children reported in the literature, and experimental values of detection limits and background contamination, DBS samples are suitable for quantifying exposures to many PCBs, BFRs and persistent pesticides. PMID:25058892

  14. Automated red blood cell analysis compared with routine red blood cell morphology by smear review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Poonam Radadiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The RBC histogram is an integral part of automated haematology analysis and is now routinely available on all automated cell counters. This histogram and other associated complete blood count (CBC parameters have been found abnormal in various haematological conditions and may provide major clues in the diagnosis and management of significant red cell disorders. Performing manual blood smears is important to ensure the quality of blood count results and to make presumptive diagnosis. In this article we have taken 100 samples for comparative study between RBC histograms obtained by automated haematology analyzer with peripheral blood smear. This article discusses some morphological features of dimorphism and the ensuing characteristic changes in their RBC histograms.

  15. Multiscale modeling of blood flow: from single cells to blood rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosov, Dmitry A; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Gompper, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    Mesoscale simulations of blood flow, where the red blood cells are described as deformable closed shells with a membrane characterized by bending rigidity and stretching elasticity, have made much progress in recent years to predict the flow behavior of blood cells and other components in various flows. To numerically investigate blood flow and blood-related processes in complex geometries, a highly efficient simulation technique for the plasma and solutes is essential. In this review, we focus on the behavior of single and several cells in shear and microcapillary flows, the shear-thinning behavior of blood and its relation to the blood cell structure and interactions, margination of white blood cells and platelets, and modeling hematologic diseases and disorders. Comparisons of the simulation predictions with existing experimental results are made whenever possible, and generally very satisfactory agreement is obtained.

  16. Optimization of Storage Temperature for Cultured ARPE-19 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Pasovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The establishment of future retinal pigment epithelium (RPE replacement therapy is partly dependent on the availability of tissue-engineered RPE cells, which may be enhanced by the development of suitable storage methods for RPE. This study investigates the effect of different storage temperatures on the viability, morphology, and phenotype of cultured RPE. Methods. ARPE-19 cells were cultured under standard conditions and stored in HEPES-buffered MEM at nine temperatures (4°C, 8°C, 12°C, 16°C, 20°C, 24°C, 28°C, 32°C, and 37°C for seven days. Viability and phenotype were assessed by a microplate fluorometer and epifluorescence microscopy, while morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Results. The percentage of viable cells preserved after storage was highest in the 16°C group (48.7%±9.8%; P<0.01 compared to 4°C, 8°C, and 24°C–37°C; P<0.05 compared to 12°C. Ultrastructure was best preserved at 12°C, 16°C, and 20°C. Expression of actin, ZO-1, PCNA, caspase-3, and RPE65 was maintained after storage at 16°C compared to control cells that were not stored. Conclusion. Out of nine temperatures tested between 4°C and 37°C, storage at 12°C, 16°C, and 20°C was optimal for maintenance of RPE cell viability, morphology, and phenotype. The preservation of RPE cells is critically dependent on storage temperature.

  17. Cold storage and cryopreservation of tick cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lallinger Gertrud

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tick cell lines are now available from fifteen ixodid and argasid species of medical and veterinary importance. However, some tick cell lines can be difficult to cryopreserve, and improved protocols for short- and long-term low temperature storage will greatly enhance their use as tools in tick and tick-borne pathogen research. In the present study, different protocols were evaluated for cold storage and cryopreservation of tick cell lines derived from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis. For short-term cold storage, cells were kept under refrigeration at 6°C for 15, 30 and 45 days. For cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen, use of a sucrose-phosphate-glutamate freezing buffer (SPG as cryoprotectant was compared with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO supplemented with sucrose. Cell viability was determined by the trypan blue exclusion test and cell morphology was evaluated in Giemsa-stained cytocentrifuge smears. Results Cold storage at 6°C for up to 30 days was successful in preserving R. (B. microplus, R. (B. decoloratus, I. ricinus and I. scapularis cell lines; lines from the latter three species could be easily re-cultivated after 45 days under refrigeration. While cell lines from all four tick species cryopreserved with 6% DMSO were successfully resuscitated, the R. (B. decoloratus cells did not survive freezing in SPG and of the other three species, only the R. (B. microplus cells resumed growth during the observation period. Conclusions This constitutes the first report on successful short-term refrigeration of cells derived from R. (B. decoloratus, R. (B. microplus, and I. ricinus, and use of SPG as an alternative to DMSO for cryopreservation, thus making an important contribution to more reliable and convenient tick cell culture maintenance.

  18. Hydrogen Storage Needs for Early Motive Fuel Cell Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, J.; Ainscough, C.; Simpson, L.; Caton, M.

    2012-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) objective for this project is to identify performance needs for onboard energy storage of early motive fuel cell markets by working with end users, manufacturers, and experts. The performance needs analysis is combined with a hydrogen storage technology gap analysis to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Program with information about the needs and gaps that can be used to focus research and development activities that are capable of supporting market growth.

  19. Sex and storage affect cholinesterase activity in blood plasma of Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    Freezing at -25?C had confounding effects on cholinesterase (ChE) activity in blood plasma from breeding female quail, but did not affect ChE activity in plasma from males. Plasma ChE activity of control females increased consistently during 28 days of storage while both carbamate- and cidrotophos-inhibited ChE decreased. Refrigeration of plasma at 4?C for 2 days had little effect of ChE activity. Plasma ChE activity was averaged about 34% higher in breeding males than in females. Extreme caution should be exercised in use of blood plasma for evaluation of anti ChE exposure in free-living birds.

  20. Cryopreservation does not affect the stem characteristics of multipotent cells isolated from equine peripheral blood

    OpenAIRE

    Martinello, Tiziana; Bronzini, Ilaria; Maccatrozzo, Lisa; Iacopetti, Ilaria; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Mascarello, Francesco; Patruno, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian adult stem cells show, in vitro, extensive differentiative ability and may represent a versatile tool for tissue regenerative purposes, even after long term storage. Multipotent stem cells isolated from horse blood have been shown to possess the capacity to differentiate into diverse mesenchymal lineages although their full characterization is still at an early stage. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cryopreservation on stemness characteristics of adult equine mes...

  1. Umbilical cord blood units for public storage donors screening for markers of infectious agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Smolyaninov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The screening of 3515 cord blood samples which had entered bank for public use for presence of markers of infectious agents was carried out. It was established that majority of cord blood units contain markers of cytomegalovirus and Toxoplasma (81% that is not a contraindication for storage and subsequent use of these samples. In 4.6% of cases umbilical cord blood units were subjected to disposal because of identification of viral hepatitis B and C, as well as Tr. pallidum markers, moreover, the largest share of the discarded units contained antibodies to HbscorAg – 71,3%. Inclusion of analysis on the presence of Anti-HBcor in the required laboratory screening of mothers-donors CB was proposed in order to reduce the percentage of discarded umbilical cord blood units for the public inventory.

  2. Microfluidic Device for Continuous Magnetophoretic Separation of Red Blood Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Iliescu, Ciprian; Avram, Marioara; Xu, G; Avram, Andrei

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a microfluidic device for magnetophoretic separation red blood cells from blood under contionous flow. The separation method consist of continous flow of a blood sample (diluted in PBS) through a microfluidic channel which presents on the bottom "dots" of feromagnetic layer. By appling a magnetic field perpendicular on the flowing direction, the feromagnetic "dots" generates a gradient of magnetic field which amplifies the magnetic force. As a result, the red blood cells are captured on the bottom of the microfluidic channel while the rest of the blood is collected at the outlet. Experimental results show that an average of 95 % of red blood cells are trapped in the device

  3. Degradation kinetic modelling of ascorbic acid and colour intensity in pasteurised blood orange juice during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remini, Hocine; Mertz, Christian; Belbahi, Amine; Achir, Nawel; Dornier, Manuel; Madani, Khodir

    2015-04-15

    The stability of ascorbic acid and colour intensity in pasteurised blood orange juice (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) during one month of storage was investigated at 4-37 °C. The effects of ascorbic acid fortification (at 100, 200 mg L(-1)) and deaeration, temperature/time storage on the kinetic behaviour were determined. Ascorbic acid was monitored by HPLC-DAD and colour intensity by spectrophotometric measurements. Degradation kinetics were best fitted by first-order reaction models for both ascorbic acid and colour intensity. Three models (Arrhenius, Eyring and Ball) were used to assess the temperature-dependent degradation. Following the Arrhenius model, activation energies were ranged from 51 to 135 kJ mol(-1) for ascorbic acid and from 49 to 99 kJ mol(-1) for colour intensity. The effect of storage temperature and deaeration are the most influent factors on kinetics degradation, while the fortification revealed no significant effect on ascorbic acid content and colour intensity.

  4. Path dependence of lithium ion cells aging under storage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Laisuo; Zhang, Jianbo; Huang, Jun; Ge, Hao; Li, Zhe; Xie, Fengchao; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates path dependence of lithium ion cells that are stored under static and non-static conditions. In the static storage tests, the levels of temperature and state of charge (SOC) are kept constant. The results of 12 tests from a combination of three temperatures and four SOCs show that, as expected, the cell ages faster at higher temperature and higher SOC. However, the cell aging mode, while consistent for all the evaluated temperatures, is different at 95% SOC from that at lower SOCs. In the non-static storage tests, the levels of temperature and SOC vary with time during the test process. The effect of the sequence of stress levels on cell aging is studied statistically using the statistical method of analysis of variation (ANOVA). It is found that cell capacity fade is path independent of both SOC and temperature, while cell resistance increase is path dependent on SOC and path independent of temperature. Finally, rate-based empirical aging models are adopted to fit the cell aging in the static storage tests. The aging model for capacity fade is demonstrated to be applicable to the non-static tests with errors between -3% and +3% for all the tested conditions over 180 days.

  5. Capacity recovery after storage negatively precharged nickel hydrogen cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Tests were conducted to investigate the recovery of capacity lost during open circuit storage of negatively precharged nickel hydrogen batteries. Four Eagle Picher RNH-90-3 cells were used in the tests. Recovery procedures and test results are presented in outline and graphic form.

  6. Alterations in cell surface area and deformability of individual human red blood cells in stored blood

    CERN Document Server

    Park, HyunJoo; Lee, SangYun; Kim, Kyoohyun; Sohn, Yong-Hak; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    The functionality and viability of stored human red blood cells (RBCs) is an important clinical issue in transfusion. To systematically investigate changes in stored whole blood, the hematological properties of individual RBCs were quantified in blood samples stored for various periods with and without a preservation solution called CPDA-1. With 3-D quantitative phase imaging techniques, the optical measurements of the 3-D refractive index (RI) distributions and membrane fluctuations were done at the individual cell level. From the optical measurements, the morphological (volume, surface area and sphericity), biochemical (hemoglobin content and concentration), and mechanical parameters (dynamic membrane fluctuation) were simultaneously quantified to investigate the functionalities and their progressive alterations in stored RBCs. Our results show that the stored RBCs without CPDA-1 had a dramatic morphological transformation from discocytes to spherocytes within 2 weeks which was accompanied with significant ...

  7. Sampling and storage conditions influencing the measurement of parathyroid hormone in blood samples: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanon, Elodie A; Sturgeon, Catharine M; Lamb, Edmund J

    2013-10-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is relatively unstable: optimisation of pre-analytical conditions, including specimen type, sampling time and storage conditions, is essential. We have undertaken a systematic review of these pre-analytical conditions. An electronic search of the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Centre for Research and Dissemination and Bandolier databases was undertaken. Of 5511 papers identified, 96 underwent full text review, of which 83 were finally included. At room temperature PTH was stable in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) preserved whole blood for at least 24 h and in EDTA plasma for at least 48 h after venepuncture. Losses were observed in clotted blood samples after 3 h and in serum after 2 h. At 4°C PTH was more stable in EDTA plasma (at least 72 h) than serum (at least 24 h). Central venous PTH concentrations were higher than peripheral venous concentrations. In the northern hemisphere, PTH concentrations were higher in winter than summer. PTH has a circadian rhythm characterised by a nocturnal acrophase and mid-morning nadir. Data related to frozen storage of PTH (-20°C and -80°C) were limited and contradictory. We recommend that blood samples for PTH measurement should be taken into tubes containing EDTA, ideally between 10:00 and 16:00, and plasma separated within 24 h of venepuncture. Plasma samples should be stored at 4°C and analysed within 72 h of venepuncture. Particular regard must be paid to the venepuncture site when interpreting PTH concentration. Further research is required to clarify the suitability of freezing samples prior to PTH measurement.

  8. Deep coverage mouse red blood cell proteome: a first comparison with the human red blood cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasini, Erica M; Kirkegaard, Morten; Salerno, Doris;

    2008-01-01

    Mice have close genetic/physiological relationships to humans, breed rapidly, and can be genetically modified, making them the most used mammal in biomedical research. Because the red blood cell (RBC) is the sole gas transporter in vertebrates, diseases of the RBC are frequently severe; much...

  9. Cord blood T cells mediate enhanced antitumor effects compared with adult peripheral blood T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwarkar, Prashant; Qasim, Waseem; Ricciardelli, Ida; Gilmour, Kimberly; Quezada, Sergio; Saudemont, Aurore; Amrolia, Persis; Veys, Paul

    2015-12-24

    Unrelated cord blood transplantation (CBT) without in vivo T-cell depletion is increasingly used to treat high-risk hematologic malignancies. Following T-replete CBT, naïve CB T cells undergo rapid peripheral expansion with memory-effector differentiation. Emerging data suggest that unrelated CBT, particularly in the context of HLA mismatch and a T-replete graft, may reduce leukemic relapse. To study the role of CB T cells in mediating graft-versus-tumor responses and dissect the underlying immune mechanisms for this, we compared the ability of HLA-mismatched CB and adult peripheral blood (PB) T cells to eliminate Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven human B-cell lymphoma in a xenogeneic NOD/SCID/IL2rg(null) mouse model. CB T cells mediated enhanced tumor rejection compared with equal numbers of PB T cells, leading to improved survival in the CB group (P cells that were autologous vs allogeneic to the lymphoma demonstrated that this antitumor effect was mediated by alloreactive rather than EBV-specific T cells. Analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes demonstrated that CB T cells mediated this enhanced antitumor effect by rapid infiltration of the tumor with CCR7(+)CD8(+) T cells and prompt induction of cytotoxic CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-helper (Th1) T cells in the tumor microenvironment. In contrast, in the PB group, this antilymphoma effect is impaired because of delayed tumoral infiltration of PB T cells and a relative bias toward suppressive Th2 and T-regulatory cells. Our data suggest that, despite being naturally programmed toward tolerance, reconstituting T cells after unrelated T-replete CBT may provide superior Tc1-Th1 antitumor effects against high-risk hematologic malignancies.

  10. Energy Storage: Batteries and Fuel Cells for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Baumann, Eric D.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Vision for Exploration requires safe, human-rated, energy storage technologies with high energy density, high specific energy and the ability to perform in a variety of unique environments. The Exploration Technology Development Program is currently supporting the development of battery and fuel cell systems that address these critical technology areas. Specific technology efforts that advance these systems and optimize their operation in various space environments are addressed in this overview of the Energy Storage Technology Development Project. These technologies will support a new generation of more affordable, more reliable, and more effective space systems.

  11. Public banking of umbilical cord blood or storage in a private bank: testing social and ethical policy in northeastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parco S

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sergio Parco, Fulvia Vascotto, Patrizia Visconti Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Trieste, Italy Background: In northeastern Italy, according to Italian legislation, authorized public facilities can accept the donation and preservation of cord blood stem cells (CB-SC. Attitudes and knowledge in pregnant women differs between the local and immigrant (non-European Union [EU] population. In this study we assessed the choices that pregnant women have with respect to the public and private harvesting system and the main reasons driving their decisions. We examined the ethnic origin of the families and compared tests for syphilis screening and leukocyte (WBC counts in the CB-SC bags that are required for validation of the collection. Methods: Out of a population of 3450 pregnant patients at the Institute for Maternal and Child Health of Trieste, northeast Italy, 772 women agreed to cord blood harvesting and the associated lab tests. Of these, 221 women (28.6% were from immigrant families of non-EU countries. Their ethnic affiliation was recorded, and tests were performed for syphilis screening and for nucleated red blood cell (NRBC interference with the WBC count in CB-SC bags to assess cellularity and to determine if storage was appropriate. Results: Of the 772 pregnant women, 648 (84.0% accessed the public collection system, which is free of charge, and 124 (15.0% accessed the private fee-based system. One woman from the non-EU group opted for the private fee-based system. Of the 3450 pregnant women screened for syphilis at the Institute for Maternal and Child Health, the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA and Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL tests were the main tests performed (66.0% of total cases because many gynecologists in the public harvesting system apply the Italian regulations of the 1988 Decree, while the private system requires tests on syphilis and leaves the option to the lab physicians to select the best

  12. Novel, high-yield red blood cell production methods from CD34-positive cells derived from human embryonic stem, yolk sac, fetal liver, cord blood, and peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Emmanuel; Qiu, Caihong; Bouhassira, Eric E

    2012-08-01

    The current supply of red blood cells expressing rare blood groups is not sufficient to cover all the existing transfusion needs for chronically transfused patients, such as sickle cell disease homozygous carriers, because of alloimmunization. In vitro production of cultured red blood cells is slowly emerging as a possible complement to the existing collection-based red blood cell procurement system. The yield of cultured red blood cells can theoretically be maximized by amplifying the stem, progenitor, or precursor compartment. Here, we combined methods designed to expand these three compartments to optimize the yield of cultured red blood cells and found that exposing CD34(+) cells to a short pulse of cytokines favorable for erythroid differentiation prior to stem cell expansion followed by progenitor expansion produced the highest yield of erythroid cells. This novel serum-free red blood cell production protocol was efficient on CD34(+) cells derived from human embryonic stem cells, 6-8-week yolk sacs, 16-18-week fetal livers, cord blood, and peripheral blood. The yields of cells obtained with these new protocols were larger by an order of magnitude than the yields observed previously. Globin expression analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that these expansion protocols generally yielded red blood cells that expressed a globin profile similar to that expected for the developmental age of the CD34(+) cells.

  13. Important Considerations for Methemoglobin Measurement in Fish Blood: Assay Choice and Storage Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntz, Mel Anton; Rodnick, K. J.; J. A. Lacey

    2002-05-01

    Spectrophotometric assays of methaemoglobin (metHb) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, tilapias Tilapia niloticus and Tilapia zillii and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, under baseline conditions, were low (<4%) for each species, and yet higher than human values (<1%). MetHb results for a given fish species varied significantly between assays and two assays were deemed unacceptable for particular animals. For rainbow trout, white sturgeon, and the two species of tilapia, the Dubowski method gave uncharacteristically high estimates of metHb. MetHb could not measured in tilapia blood using the Evelyn & Malloy method due to spectral interference. Only the Horecker & Brackett assay worked well for all species. Storage conditions were extremely important in the quantification of metHb in rainbow trout blood. For consistent values, samples can be stored up to 4 h on ice (0 degrees C) or at least 20 days under liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C). Auto-oxidation, however, elevates rainbow trout metHb at -20 and -80 degrees C. It should not be assumed that the blood of fishes and humans perform similarly during assays of metHb.

  14. Microwave Blood Thawing: Biochemical Analysis of Small Samples of Thawed Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    lactate + NAD+ ( Lehninger , 1977) The large increase in pyruvate observed at 6 hours post-wash was most likely due to the large lactate concentrations at...Storage of Blood. London: Academic Press. Lehninger , A.L. 1977. Biochemistry. New York: Worth Publishers, Inc. Lewis, G.P. 1965. Method using o-tolidine

  15. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maternity. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  16. Evaluation of Stem Cell-Derived Red Blood Cells as a Transfusion Product Using a Novel Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sandeep N; Gelderman, Monique P; Lewis, Emily M A; Farrel, John; Wood, Francine; Strader, Michael Brad; Alayash, Abdu I; Vostal, Jaroslav G

    2016-01-01

    Reliance on volunteer blood donors can lead to transfusion product shortages, and current liquid storage of red blood cells (RBCs) is associated with biochemical changes over time, known as 'the storage lesion'. Thus, there is a need for alternative sources of transfusable RBCs to supplement conventional blood donations. Extracorporeal production of stem cell-derived RBCs (stemRBCs) is a potential and yet untapped source of fresh, transfusable RBCs. A number of groups have attempted RBC differentiation from CD34+ cells. However, it is still unclear whether these stemRBCs could eventually be effective substitutes for traditional RBCs due to potential differences in oxygen carrying capacity, viability, deformability, and other critical parameters. We have generated ex vivo stemRBCs from primary human cord blood CD34+ cells and compared them to donor-derived RBCs based on a number of in vitro parameters. In vivo, we assessed stemRBC circulation kinetics in an animal model of transfusion and oxygen delivery in a mouse model of exercise performance. Our novel, chronically anemic, SCID mouse model can evaluate the potential of stemRBCs to deliver oxygen to tissues (muscle) under resting and exercise-induced hypoxic conditions. Based on our data, stem cell-derived RBCs have a similar biochemical profile compared to donor-derived RBCs. While certain key differences remain between donor-derived RBCs and stemRBCs, the ability of stemRBCs to deliver oxygen in a living organism provides support for further development as a transfusion product.

  17. SBR-Blood: systems biology repository for hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Jens; Heuston, Elisabeth F; Mishra, Tejaswini; Keller, Cheryl A; Hardison, Ross C; Bodine, David M

    2016-01-04

    Extensive research into hematopoiesis (the development of blood cells) over several decades has generated large sets of expression and epigenetic profiles in multiple human and mouse blood cell types. However, there is no single location to analyze how gene regulatory processes lead to different mature blood cells. We have developed a new database framework called hematopoietic Systems Biology Repository (SBR-Blood), available online at http://sbrblood.nhgri.nih.gov, which allows user-initiated analyses for cell type correlations or gene-specific behavior during differentiation using publicly available datasets for array- and sequencing-based platforms from mouse hematopoietic cells. SBR-Blood organizes information by both cell identity and by hematopoietic lineage. The validity and usability of SBR-Blood has been established through the reproduction of workflows relevant to expression data, DNA methylation, histone modifications and transcription factor occupancy profiles.

  18. The Impact of Increased Bladder Blood Flow on Storage Symptoms after Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Saito

    Full Text Available In order to investigate how holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP improves urinary storage symptoms, we assessed blood flow in the urinary bladder mucosa of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH before and after laser surgery. Seventy-four consecutive patients with BPH (median age 69 years, range; 53-88 underwent HoLEP at our institution and are included in this study. We prospectively assessed the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS, IPSS-QOL Score, the Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS, uroflowmetry, and blood flow in the urinary bladder, before and after surgery. Blood flow in the bladder mucosa was measured using the OMEGA FLOW (OMEGAWAVE, Tokyo, Japan laser Doppler flowmeter. The median volume of the enucleated adenomas was 45.0 g (range: 25.0 to 83.2. The median IPSS improved significantly from 20 (range: 6-35 to 3 (0-22 (p < 0.001; Wilcoxon signed-rank test, as did the storage symptoms score, which decreased from 13 (2-20 to 3 (1-8 (p < 0.001. Median bladder blood flow increased at the trigone from 9.57 ± 0.83 ml/sec to 17.60 ± 1.08 ml/sec. Multiple regression analysis for the improved storage symptom score eliminated all explanatory variables except increased bladder perfusion. The data suggest that HoLEP improves blood flow in the bladder mucosa, which independently leads to the improvement of storage symptoms.

  19. Oxidative modifications of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase regulate metabolic reprogramming of stored red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisz, Julie A; Wither, Matthew J; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Nemkov, Travis; Issaian, Aaron; Yoshida, Tatsuro; Dunham, Andrew J; Hill, Ryan C; Hansen, Kirk C; D'Alessandro, Angelo

    2016-09-22

    Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) plays a key regulatory function in glucose oxidation by mediating fluxes through glycolysis or the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in an oxidative stress-dependent fashion. Previous studies documented metabolic reprogramming in stored red blood cells (RBCs) and oxidation of GAPDH at functional residues upon exposure to pro-oxidants diamide and H2O2 Here we hypothesize that routine storage of erythrocyte concentrates promotes metabolic modulation of stored RBCs by targeting functional thiol residues of GAPDH. Progressive increases in PPP/glycolysis ratios were determined via metabolic flux analysis after spiking (13)C1,2,3-glucose in erythrocyte concentrates stored in Additive Solution-3 under blood bank conditions for up to 42 days. Proteomics analyses revealed a storage-dependent oxidation of GAPDH at functional Cys152, 156, 247, and His179. Activity loss by oxidation occurred with increasing storage duration and was progressively irreversible. Irreversibly oxidized GAPDH accumulated in stored erythrocyte membranes and supernatants through storage day 42. By combining state-of-the-art ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolic flux analysis with redox and switch-tag proteomics, we identify for the first time ex vivo functionally relevant reversible and irreversible (sulfinic acid; Cys to dehydroalanine) oxidations of GAPDH without exogenous supplementation of excess pro-oxidant compounds in clinically relevant blood products. Oxidative and metabolic lesions, exacerbated by storage under hyperoxic conditions, were ameliorated by hypoxic storage. Storage-dependent reversible oxidation of GAPDH represents a mechanistic adaptation in stored erythrocytes to promote PPP activation and generate reducing equivalents. Removal of irreversibly oxidized, functionally compromised GAPDH identifies enhanced vesiculation as a self-protective mechanism in ex vivo aging erythrocytes.

  20. Chitosan-based nanocoatings for hypothermic storage of living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulwan, Maria; Antosiak-Iwańska, Magdalena; Godlewska, Ewa; Granicka, Ludomira; Zapotoczny, Szczepan; Nowakowska, Maria

    2013-11-01

    The formation of ultrathin chitosan-based nanocoating on HL-60 model cells and their protective function in hypothermic storage are presented. HL-60 cells are encapsulated in ultrathin shells by adsorbing cationic and anionic chitosan derivatives in a stepwise, layer-by-layer, procedure carried out in an aqueous medium under mild conditions. The chitosan-based films are also deposited on model lipid bilayer and the interactions are studied using ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy. The cells covered with the chitosan-based films and stored at 4 °C for 24 h express viability comparable to that of the control sample incubated at 37 °C, while the unprotected cells stored under the same conditions do not show viability. It is shown that the chitosan-based shell protects HL-60 cells against damaging effect of hypothermic storage. Such nanocoatings provide protection, mechanical stability, and support the cell membrane, while ensuring penetration of small molecules such as nutrients/gases what is essential for cell viability.

  1. Backward elastic light scattering of malaria infected red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungjun; Lu, Wei

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the backward light scattering pattern of healthy and malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) parasitized red blood cells. The spectrum could clearly distinguish between predominant ring stage infected blood cells and healthy blood cells. Further, we found that infected samples mixed with different stages of P. falciparum showed different signals, suggesting that even variance in parasite stages could also be detected by the spectrum. These results together with the backward scattering technique suggest the potential of non-invasive diagnosis of malaria through light scattering of blood cells near the surface of human body, such as using eyes or skin surface.

  2. Mechanical damage of red blood cells by rotary blood pumps: selective destruction of aged red blood cells and subhemolytic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Ryuki; Sobajima, Hideo; Yokoyama, Naoyuki; Waguri, Satoshi; Ohuchi, Katsuhiro; Takatani, Setsuo

    2008-10-01

    In this study, mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) were measured to quantify RBC damage by rotary blood pumps. Six-hour hemolysis tests were conducted with a Bio-pump BPX-80, a Sarns 15200 roller pump, and a prototype mag-lev centrifugal pump (MedTech Heart) using fresh porcine blood circulated at 5 L/min against a 100 mm Hg head pressure. The temperature of the test and noncirculated control blood was maintained at 37 degrees C. The normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) of each pump was determined by measuring the plasma-free hemoglobin level. The MCV was measured with a Coulter counter, and MCHC was derived from total hemoglobin and hematocrit. MCH was derived from MCV and MCHC. A multivariance statistical analysis (ANOVA) revealed statistically significant differences (n = 15, P < 0.05) in MCV, MCHC, and MCH between the blood sheared by the rotary blood pumps and the nonsheared control blood. Normalized to the control blood, the Bio-pump BPX-80 showed an MCV of 1.04 +/- 0.03, an MCHC of 0.95 +/- 0.04, and an MCH of 0.98 +/- 0.02; the mag-lev MedTech Heart had an MCV of 1.02 +/- 0.02, an MCHC of 0.97 +/- 0.02, and an MCH of 0.99 +/- 0.01; and the roller pump exhibited an MCV of 1.03 +/- 0.03, an MCHC of 0.96 +/- 0.03, and an MCH of 0.99 +/- 0.01. Per 0.01 increase in NIH, the BPX-80 showed a normalized MCV change of +10.1% and a normalized MCHC change of -14.0%; the MedTech Heart demonstrated a +6.9% MCV and -9.5% MCHC change; and the roller pump had a +0.5% MCV and -0.6% MCHC change. Due to shear in the pump circuits, the RBC increased while the MCHC decreased. The likely mechanism is that older RBCs with smaller size and higher hemoglobin concentration were destroyed fast by the shear, leaving younger RBCs with larger size and lower hemoglobin concentration. Subhemolytic trauma caused the intracellular hemoglobin to decrease due to gradual hemoglobin leakage through the micropores formed in the thinned

  3. Infusion of hemolyzed red blood cells within peripheral blood stem cell grafts in patients with and without sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, Courtney D; Unno, Hayato; Hathaway, Vincent; Coles, Wynona A; Link, Mary E; Weitzel, R Patrick; Zhao, Xiongce; Wright, Elizabeth C; Stroncek, David F; Kato, Gregory J; Hsieh, Matthew M; Tisdale, John F

    2012-06-14

    Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) infusions are associated with complications such as elevated blood pressure and decreased creatinine clearance. Patients with sickle cell disease experience similar manifestations, and some have postulated release of plasma-free hemoglobin with subsequent nitric oxide consumption as causative. We sought to evaluate whether the infusion of PBSC grafts containing lysed red blood cells (RBCs) leads to the toxicity observed in transplant subjects. We report a prospective cohort study of 60 subjects divided into 4 groups based on whether their infusions contained dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and lysed RBCs, no DMSO and fresh RBCs, DMSO and no RBCs, or saline. Our primary end point, change in maximum blood pressure compared with baseline, was not significantly different among groups. Tricuspid regurgitant velocity and creatinine levels also did not differ significantly among groups. Our data do not support free hemoglobin as a significant contributor to toxicity associated with PBSC infusions. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00631787).

  4. Phenotype and functions of memory Tfh cells in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Nathalie; Bentebibel, Salah-Eddine; Ueno, Hideki

    2014-09-01

    Our understanding of the origin and functions of human blood CXCR5(+) CD4(+) T cells found in human blood has changed dramatically in the past years. These cells are currently considered to represent a circulating memory compartment of T follicular helper (Tfh) lineage cells. Recent studies have shown that blood memory Tfh cells are composed of phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets. Here, we review the current understanding of human blood memory Tfh cells and the subsets within this compartment. We present a strategy to define these subsets based on cell surface profiles. Finally, we discuss how increased understanding of the biology of blood memory Tfh cells may contribute insight into the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and the mode of action of vaccines.

  5. Hydrogen-Oxygen PEM Regenerative Fuel Cell Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.; Scullin, Vincent J.; Chang, Bei-Jiann; Johnson, Donald W.; Garcia, Christopher P.

    2005-01-01

    An introduction to the closed cycle hydrogen-oxygen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell (RFC), recently constructed at NASA Glenn Research Center, is presented. Illustrated with explanatory graphics and figures, this report outlines the engineering motivations for the RFC as a solar energy storage device, the system requirements, layout and hardware detail of the RFC unit at NASA Glenn, the construction history, and test experience accumulated to date with this unit.

  6. The treatment of neurodegenerative disorders using umbilical cord blood and menstrual blood-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanberg, Paul R; Eve, David J; Willing, Alison E; Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Tan, Jun; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Allickson, Julie G; Cruz, L Eduardo; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2011-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation is a potentially important means of treatment for a number of disorders. Two different stem cell populations of interest are mononuclear umbilical cord blood cells and menstrual blood-derived stem cells. These cells are relatively easy to obtain, appear to be pluripotent, and are immunologically immature. These cells, particularly umbilical cord blood cells, have been studied as either single or multiple injections in a number of animal models of neurodegenerative disorders with some degree of success, including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Sanfilippo syndrome type B. Evidence of anti-inflammatory effects and secretion of specific cytokines and growth factors that promote cell survival, rather than cell replacement, have been detected in both transplanted cells.

  7. New strategies in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: G-CSF-mobilized unprocessed whole blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Dräger

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation of mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC for rescue of bone marrow function after high-dose chemo-/radiotherapy is widely used in hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. Mobilization of stem cells to the peripheral blood can be achieved by cytokine treatment of the patients. The main advantage of autologous PBSC transplantation over bone marrow transplantation is the faster recovery of neutrophil and platelet counts. The threshold number of PBSC required for adequate rescue of bone marrow is thought to be about 2 x 106 CD34+ cells/kg, if the stem cells are collected by leukapheresis and subsequently cryopreserved. We show that this critical number could be further reduced to as few as 0.2 x 106 cells/kg. In 30 patients with multiple myeloma and 25 patients with bad risk lymphoma 1 liter of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF-mobilized unprocessed whole blood (stored at 4oC for 1-3 days was used for transplantation. Compared to a historical control group, a significant reduction in the duration of neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and the length of hospital stay was documented. Furthermore, the effect of stem cell support was reflected by a lower need for platelet and red cell transfusions and a reduced antibiotic use. Considering the data as a whole, a cost saving of about 50% was achieved. To date, this easy to perform method of transplantation is only feasible following high-dose therapies that are completed within 72 h, since longer storage of unprocessed blood is accompanied by a substantial loss of progenitor cell function. Ongoing investigations include attempts to prolong storage times for whole blood

  8. Cost effectiveness of cord blood versus bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bart

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Thomas BartSwiss Blood Stem Cells, Bern, SwitzerlandAbstract: Umbilical cord blood (CB has become, since its first successful use more than two decades ago, an increasingly important source of blood stem cells. In this light, an overview of current usage of CB in the field of unrelated hematopoietic blood stem cell transplantation (HSCT is given. The three main sources of hematopoietic stem cells: bone marrow (BM, peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC, and cord blood (CB are compared as regards their current quantitative usage in HSCT. A cost analysis of the named three hematopoietic blood stem cell (HSC sources, taking into account various factors, is undertaken. The health economical comparison shows significant differences between CB on the one side, and BM and PBSC on the other. The consequences for the public health side and propositions for a possible health care policy, especially regarding future resource allocation towards the different choices for HSCT products, are discussed. An outlook on the possible future usage of BM, PBSC, and CB and its implications on health systems, donor registries, and CB banks is given.Keywords: health economy, cord blood, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

  9. Segmentation and Analysis of Cancer Cells in Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Nelikanti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Blood cancer is an umbrella term for cancers that affect the blood, bone marrow and lymphatic system. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL is one of the kinds of blood cancer which can be affected at any age in the humans. The analysis of peripheral blood samples is an important test in the procedures for the diagnosis of leukemia. In this paper the blood sample images are used and implementing a clustering algorithm for detection of the cancer cells. This paper also implements morphological operations and feature extraction techniques using MATLAB for the analysis of cancer cells in the images.

  10. Leucocyte filtration of salvaged blood during cardiac surgery : effect on red blood cell function in concentrated blood compared with diluted blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Y. John; de Vries, Adrianus J.; Hagenaars, J. Ans M.; van Oeveren, Willem

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Leucocyte filtration of salvaged blood has been suggested to prevent patients from receiving activated leucocytes during autotransfusion in cardiac surgery. This study examines whether leucocyte filtration of salvaged blood affects the red blood cell (RBC) function and whether there is a

  11. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells from blood cells of healthy donors and patients with acquired blood disorders

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from somatic cells hold promise to develop novel patient-specific cell therapies and research models for inherited and acquired diseases. We and others previously reprogrammed human adherent cells, such as postnatal fibroblasts to iPS cells, which resemble adherent embryonic stem cells. Here we report derivation of iPS cells from postnatal human blood cells and the potential of these pluripotent cells for disease modeling. Multiple human iPS ...

  12. Neurological Complications following Blood Transfusions in Sickle Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawar, Nayaab; Kulpa, Jolanta; Bellin, Anne; Proteasa, Simona; Sundaram, Revathy

    2017-01-01

    In Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) patient blood transfusions are an important part of treatment for stroke and its prevention. However, blood transfusions can also lead to complications such as Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome (RPLS). This brief report highlights two cases of SCA who developed such neurological complications after a blood transfusion. RLPS should be considered as the cause of neurologic finding in patients with SCA and hypertension following a blood transfusion.

  13. A photonic crystal hydrogel suspension array for the capture of blood cells from whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Cai, Yunlang; Shang, Luoran; Wang, Huan; Cheng, Yao; Rong, Fei; Gu, Zhongze; Zhao, Yuanjin

    2016-02-01

    Diagnosing hematological disorders based on the separation and detection of cells in the patient's blood is a significant challenge. We have developed a novel barcode particle-based suspension array that can simultaneously capture and detect multiple types of blood cells. The barcode particles are polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel inverse opal microcarriers with characteristic reflection peak codes that remain stable during cell capture on their surfaces. The hydrophilic PAAm hydrogel scaffolds of the barcode particles can entrap various plasma proteins to capture different cells in the blood, with little damage to captured cells.Diagnosing hematological disorders based on the separation and detection of cells in the patient's blood is a significant challenge. We have developed a novel barcode particle-based suspension array that can simultaneously capture and detect multiple types of blood cells. The barcode particles are polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel inverse opal microcarriers with characteristic reflection peak codes that remain stable during cell capture on their surfaces. The hydrophilic PAAm hydrogel scaffolds of the barcode particles can entrap various plasma proteins to capture different cells in the blood, with little damage to captured cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06368j

  14. CD163 positive subsets of blood dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maniecki, Maciej Bogdan; Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2006-01-01

    expression in dendritic cells (DCs) was investigated using multicolor flow cytometry in peripheral blood from 31 healthy donors and 15 HIV-1 patients in addition to umbilical cord blood from 5 newborn infants. Total RNA was isolated from MACS purified DCs and CD163 mRNA was determined with real-time reverse...... transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The effect of glucocorticoid and phorbol ester stimulation on monocyte and dendritic cell CD163 and CD91 expression was investigated in cell culture of mononuclear cells using multicolor flow cytometry. We identified two CD163+ subsets in human blood with dendritic cell...

  15. Vehicular hydrogen storage using lightweight tanks (regenerative fuel cell systems)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitlitsky, F; Myers, B; Weisberg, A H

    1999-06-01

    Energy storage systems with extremely high specific energy (>400 Wh/kg) have been designed that use lightweight tankage to contain the gases generated by reversible (unitized) regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will leverage work for aerospace applications supported by other sponsors (including BMDO, NASA, and USAF) to develop URFC systems for transportation and utility applications. Lightweight tankage is important for primary fuel cell powered vehicles that use on-board storage of hydrogen. Lightweight pressure vessels with state-of-the-art performance factors were designed, and prototypes are being fabricated to meet the DOE 2000 goals (4000 Wh/kg, 12% hydrogen by weight, 700 Wh/liter, and $20/kWh in high volume production). These pressure vessels use technologies that are easily adopted by industrial partners. Advanced liners provide permeation barriers for gas storage and are mandrels for composite overwrap. URFCs are important to the efficient use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and enabler of renewable energy. H{sub 2}/halogen URFCs may be advantageous for stationary applications whereas H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}/air URFCs are advantageous for vehicular applications. URFC research and development is required to improve performance (efficiency), reduce catalyst loading, understand engineering operation, and integrate systems. LLNL has the experimental equipment and advanced URFC membrane electrode assemblies (some with reduced catalyst loading) for evaluating commercial hardware (not funded by DOE in FY1999).

  16. Multiple loci are associated with white blood cell phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Nalls (Michael); D. Couper (David); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); M-H. Chen (Ming-Huei); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); D. Toniolo (Daniela); N.A. Zakai (Neil); Q. Yang (Qiong Fang); A. Greinacher (Andreas); A.R. Wood (Andrew); M. Garcia (Melissa); P. Gasparini (Paolo); Y. Liu (Yongmei); T. Lumley (Thomas); A.R. Folsom (Aaron); A.P. Reiner (Alex); C. Gieger (Christian); V. Lagou (Vasiliki); J.F. Felix (Janine); H. Völzke (Henry); N.A. Gouskova (Natalia); A. Biffi (Alessandro); A. Döring (Angela); U. Völker (Uwe); S. Chong (Sean); K.L. Wiggins (Kerri); A. Rendon (Augusto); A. Dehghan (Abbas); M. Moore (Matt); K.D. Taylor (Kent); J.G. Wilson (James); G. Lettre (Guillaume); A. Hofman (Albert); J.C. Bis (Joshua); N. Pirastu (Nicola); C.S. Fox (Caroline); C. Meisinger (Christa); J.G. Sambrook (Jennifer); S. Arepalli (Sampath); M. Nauck (Matthias); H. Prokisch (Holger); J. Stephens (Jonathan); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); Y. Okada (Yukinori); A. Takahashi (Atsushi); Y. Kamatani (Yoichiro); K. Matsuda (Koichi); T. Tsunoda (Tatsuhiko); M. Kubo (Michiaki); Y. Nakamura (Yusuke); K. Yamamoto (Kazuhiko); M. Stumvoll (Michael); A. Tönjes (Anke); I. Prokopenko (Inga); T. Illig (Thomas); K.V. Patel (Kushang); S.F. Garner (Stephen); B. Kuhnel (Brigitte); M. Mangino (Massimo); B.A. Oostra (Ben); S.L. Thein; J. Coresh (Josef); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); S. Menzel (Stephan); J. Lin; G. Pistis (Giorgio); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); T.D. Spector (Timothy); A. Teumer (Alexander); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); D. Melzer (David); W.H. Ouwehand (Willem); D. Levy (Daniel); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); A. Singleton (Andrew); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); D.L. Longo (Dan); N. Soranzo (Nicole); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T.B. Harris (Tamara); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); S.K. Ganesh (Santhi)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhite blood cell (WBC) count is a common clinical measure from complete blood count assays, and it varies widely among healthy individuals. Total WBC count and its constituent subtypes have been shown to be moderately heritable, with the heritability estimates varying across cell types.

  17. Computational Biomechanics of Human Red Blood Cells in Hematological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuejin; Li, He; Chang, Hung-Yu; Lykotrafitis, George; Em Karniadakis, George

    2017-02-01

    We review recent advances in multiscale modeling of the biomechanical characteristics of red blood cells (RBCs) in hematological diseases, and their relevance to the structure and dynamics of defective RBCs. We highlight examples of successful simulations of blood disorders including malaria and other hereditary disorders, such as sickle-cell anemia, spherocytosis, and elliptocytosis.

  18. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells from blood cells of healthy donors and patients with acquired blood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhaohui; Zhan, Huichun; Mali, Prashant; Dowey, Sarah; Williams, Donna M; Jang, Yoon-Young; Dang, Chi V; Spivak, Jerry L; Moliterno, Alison R; Cheng, Linzhao

    2009-12-24

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from somatic cells hold promise to develop novel patient-specific cell therapies and research models for inherited and acquired diseases. We and others previously reprogrammed human adherent cells, such as postnatal fibroblasts to iPS cells, which resemble adherent embryonic stem cells. Here we report derivation of iPS cells from postnatal human blood cells and the potential of these pluripotent cells for disease modeling. Multiple human iPS cell lines were generated from previously frozen cord blood or adult CD34(+) cells of healthy donors, and could be redirected to hematopoietic differentiation. Multiple iPS cell lines were also generated from peripheral blood CD34(+) cells of 2 patients with myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) who acquired the JAK2-V617F somatic mutation in their blood cells. The MPD-derived iPS cells containing the mutation appeared normal in phenotypes, karyotype, and pluripotency. After directed hematopoietic differentiation, the MPD-iPS cell-derived hematopoietic progenitor (CD34(+)CD45(+)) cells showed the increased erythropoiesis and gene expression of specific genes, recapitulating features of the primary CD34(+) cells of the corresponding patient from whom the iPS cells were derived. These iPS cells provide a renewable cell source and a prospective hematopoiesis model for investigating MPD pathogenesis.

  19. A Simulation of Blood Cells in Branching Capillaries

    CERN Document Server

    Isfahani, Amir H G; Freund, Jonathan B

    2008-01-01

    The multi-cellular hydrodynamic interactions play a critical role in the phenomenology of blood flow in the microcirculation. A fast algorithm has been developed to simulate large numbers of cells modeled as elastic thin membranes. For red blood cells, which are the dominant component in blood, the membrane has strong resistance to surface dilatation but is flexible in bending. Our numerical method solves the boundary integral equations built upon Green's functions for Stokes flow in periodic domains. This fluid dynamics video is an example of the capabilities of this model in handling complex geometries with a multitude of different cells. The capillary branch geometries have been modeled based upon observed capillary networks. The diameter of the branches varies between 10-20 mum. A constant mean pressure gradient drives the flow. For the purpose of this fluid dynamics video, the red blood cells are initiated as biconcave discs and white blood cells and platelets are initiated as spheres and ellipsoids resp...

  20. Red blood cells and thrombin generation in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelihan, Matthew F; Lim, Ming Y; Key, Nigel S

    2014-05-01

    The prothrombotic nature of sickle cell disease (SCD) is evidenced by the chronically elevated levels of almost all coagulation activation biomarkers, and an increased incidence of certain thrombotic events, including venous thromboembolism. Numerous studies have attempted to define the extent and elucidate the mechanism of the observed increase in thrombin generation in SCD patients in vivo. In general, these studies were performed using thrombin generation assays in platelet poor or platelet rich plasma and showed little difference in endogenous thrombin potential between the SCD cohort and healthy matched controls. In SCD, erythrocytes and monocytes have been demonstrated to exhibit procoagulant characteristics. Thus, the absence of these cellular components in standard thrombin generation assays may fail to reflect global hypercoagulability in the whole blood of patients with SCD. We were therefore surprised to see no difference in net thrombin generation in tissue factor-initiated initiated clotting of whole blood from patients with SCD. However, we are continuing to reconcile these seemingly disparate observations by slight modifications of the whole blood model that include alternative coagulation triggers and a re-examination of the net thrombin generation when the protein/protein S system is simultaneously interrogated.

  1. Microvascular blood flow resistance: Role of red blood cell migration and dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katanov, Dinar; Gompper, Gerhard; Fedosov, Dmitry A

    2015-05-01

    Microvascular blood flow resistance has a strong impact on cardiovascular function and tissue perfusion. The flow resistance in microcirculation is governed by flow behavior of blood through a complex network of vessels, where the distribution of red blood cells across vessel cross-sections may be significantly distorted at vessel bifurcations and junctions. In this paper, the development of blood flow and its resistance starting from a dispersed configuration of red blood cells is investigated in simulations for different hematocrit levels, flow rates, vessel diameters, and aggregation interactions between red blood cells. Initially dispersed red blood cells migrate toward the vessel center leading to the formation of a cell-free layer near the wall and to a decrease of the flow resistance. The development of cell-free layer appears to be nearly universal when scaled with a characteristic shear rate of the flow. The universality allows an estimation of the length of a vessel required for full flow development, lc ≲ 25D, for vessel diameters in the range 10 μm red blood cell dispersion at vessel bifurcations and junctions on the flow resistance may be significant in vessels which are shorter or comparable to the length lc. Aggregation interactions between red blood cells generally lead to a reduction of blood flow resistance. The simulations are performed using the same viscosity for both external and internal fluids and the RBC membrane viscosity is not considered; however, we discuss how the viscosity contrast may affect the results. Finally, we develop a simple theoretical model which is able to describe the converged cell-free-layer thickness at steady-state flow with respect to flow rate. The model is based on the balance between a lift force on red blood cells due to cell-wall hydrodynamic interactions and shear-induced effective pressure due to cell-cell interactions in flow. We expect that these results can also be used to better understand the flow

  2. Red cell storage age policy for patients with sickle cell disease: A survey of transfusion service directors in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karafin, Matthew S; Singavi, Arun K; Irani, Mehraboon S; Puca, Kathleen E; Baumann Kreuziger, Lisa; Simpson, Pippa; Field, Joshua J

    2016-02-01

    In patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), the effects of the red cell storage lesion are not well defined. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of transfusion services that limit red cell units by storage age for patients with SCD. We developed a 22 question survey of transfusion service director opinions and their corresponding blood bank policies. Target subjects were systematically identified on the AABB website. Responses were recorded in SurveyMonkey and summarized using standard statistical techniques. Ninety transfusion service directors responded to the survey. Response rate was 22%. Only 23% of respondents had storage age policies in place for patients with SCD, even though 36% of respondents consider older units to be potentially harmful in this patient population. Of those with a policy, a less-than 15 day storage age requirement was most often used (75%), but practices varied, and most respondents (65%) agreed that evidence-based guidelines regarding storage age are needed for patients with SCD. Policies, practices and opinions about the risks of older units for patients with SCD vary. As patients with SCD may have unique susceptibilities to features of the red cell storage lesion, prospective studies in this population are needed to determine best practice.

  3. Viable Bacteria Associated with Red Blood Cells and Plasma in Freshly Drawn Blood Donations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian; Magnussen, Karin; Enevold, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    the oral cavity, and to determine the distribution of bacteria revealed in plasma and in the red blood cell (RBC)-fraction. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Blood were separated into plasma and RBC-suspensions, which were incubated anaerobically or aerobically for 7 days on trypticase soy blood agar (TSA......OBJECTIVES: Infection remains a leading cause of post-transfusion mortality and morbidity. Bacterial contamination is, however, detected in less than 0.1% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from......) or blue lactose plates. For identification colony PCR was performed using primers targeting 16S rDNA. SETTING: Blood donors attending Capital Region Blood Bank, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Hvidovre, Denmark, October 29th to December 10th 2013. PARTICIPANTS: 60 donors (≥50 years old...

  4. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and sickle cell trait among blood donors in Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alabdulaali Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Blood donation from glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient and sickle cell trait (SCT donors might alter the quality of the donated blood during processing, storage or in the recipient′s circulatory system. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and SCT among blood donors coming to King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH in Riyadh. It was also reviewed the benefits and risks of transfusing blood from these blood donors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1150 blood samples obtained from blood donors that presented to KKUH blood bank during the period April 2006 to May 2006. All samples were tested for Hb-S by solubility test, alkaline gel electrophoresis; and for G6PD deficiency, by fluorescent spot test. Results: Out of the 1150 donors, 23 (2% were diagnosed for SCT, 9 (0.78% for G6PD deficiency and 4 (0.35% for both conditions. Our prevalence of SCT and G6PD deficiency is higher than that of the general population of Riyadh. Conclusion: We recommend to screen all units for G6PD deficiency and sickle cell trait and to defer donations from donors with either of these conditions, unless if needed for special blood group compatibility, platelet apheresis or if these are likely to affect the blood bank inventory. If such blood is to be used, special precautions need to be undertaken to avoid complications in high-risk recipients.

  5. Red blood cells in sports: Effects of exercise and training on oxygen supply by red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heimo eMairbäurl

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During exercise the cardiovascular system has to warrant substrate supply to working muscle. The main function of red blood cells in exercise is the transport of O2 from the lungs to the tissues and the delivery of metabolically produced CO2 to the lungs for expiration. Hemoglobin also contributes to the blood’s buffering capacity, and ATP and NO release from red blood cells contributes to vasodilation and improved blood flow to working muscle. These functions require adequate amounts of red blood cells in circulation. Trained athletes, particularly in endurance sports, have a decreased hematocrit, which is sometimes called sports anemia. This is not anemia in a clinical sense because athletes have in fact an increased total mass of red blood cells and hemoglobin in circulation relative to sedentary individuals. The slight decrease in hematocrit by training is brought about by an increased plasma volume. The mechanisms that increase total red blood cell mass by training are not understood fully. Despite stimulated erythropoiesis, exercise can decrease the red blood cell mass by intravascular hemolysis mainly of senescent red blood cells, which is caused by mechanical rupture when red blood cells pass through capillaries in contracting muscles, and by compression of red cells e.g. in foot soles during running or in hand palms in weightlifters. Together, these adjustments cause a decrease in the average age of the population of circulating red blood cells in trained athletes. These younger red cells are characterized by improved oxygen release and deformability, both of which also improve tissue oxygen supply during exercise.

  6. Red blood cell vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr eAlaarg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary hemolytic anemia encompasses a heterogeneous group of anemias characterised by decreased red blood cell survival because of inherited membrane, enzyme, or hemoglobin disorders. Affected red blood cells are more fragile, less deformable, and more susceptible to shear stress and oxidative damage, and show increased vesiculation. Red blood cells, as essentially all cells, constitutively release phospholipid extracellular vesicles in vivo and in vitro in a process known as vesiculation. These extracellular vesicles comprise a heterogeneous group of vesicles of different sizes and intracellular origins. They are described in literature as exosomes if they originate from multi-vesicular bodies, or as microvesicles when formed by a one-step budding process directly from the plasma membrane. Extracellular vesicles contain a multitude of bioactive molecules that are implicated in intercellular communication and in different biological and pathophysiological processes. Mature red blood cells release in principle only microvesicles. In hereditary hemolytic anemias, the underlying molecular defect affects and determines red blood cell vesiculation, resulting in shedding microvesicles of different compositions and concentrations. Despite extensive research into red blood cell biochemistry and physiology, little is known about red cell deformability and vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemias, and the associated pathophysiological role is incompletely asessed. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding extracellular vesicles biology, with focus on red blood cell vesiculation. Also, we review recent scientific findings on the molecular defects of hereditary hemolytic anemias, and their correlation with red blood cell deformability and vesiculation. Integrating bio-analytical findings on abnormalities of red blood cells and their microvesicles will be critical for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of hereditary

  7. Red blood cell vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaarg, Amr; Schiffelers, Raymond M; van Solinge, Wouter W; van Wijk, Richard

    2013-12-13

    Hereditary hemolytic anemia encompasses a heterogeneous group of anemias characterized by decreased red blood cell survival because of inherited membrane, enzyme, or hemoglobin disorders. Affected red blood cells are more fragile, less deformable, and more susceptible to shear stress and oxidative damage, and show increased vesiculation. Red blood cells, as essentially all cells, constitutively release phospholipid extracellular vesicles in vivo and in vitro in a process known as vesiculation. These extracellular vesicles comprise a heterogeneous group of vesicles of different sizes and intracellular origins. They are described in literature as exosomes if they originate from multi-vesicular bodies, or as microvesicles when formed by a one-step budding process directly from the plasma membrane. Extracellular vesicles contain a multitude of bioactive molecules that are implicated in intercellular communication and in different biological and pathophysiological processes. Mature red blood cells release in principle only microvesicles. In hereditary hemolytic anemias, the underlying molecular defect affects and determines red blood cell vesiculation, resulting in shedding microvesicles of different compositions and concentrations. Despite extensive research into red blood cell biochemistry and physiology, little is known about red cell deformability and vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemias, and the associated pathophysiological role is incompletely assessed. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding extracellular vesicles biology, with focus on red blood cell vesiculation. Also, we review recent scientific findings on the molecular defects of hereditary hemolytic anemias, and their correlation with red blood cell deformability and vesiculation. Integrating bio-analytical findings on abnormalities of red blood cells and their microvesicles will be critical for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of hereditary hemolytic anemias.

  8. Sodium renders endothelial cells sticky for red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans eOberleithner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Negative charges in the glycocalyx of red blood cells (RBC and vascular endothelial cells (EC facilitate frictionless blood flow through blood vessels. Na+ selectively shields these charges controlling surface electronegativity. The question was addressed whether the ambient Na+ concentration controls RBC-EC interaction. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM adhesion forces between RBC and endothelial glycocalyx were quantified. A single RBC, mounted on an AFM cantilever, was brought in physical contact with the endothelial surface and then pulled off. Adhesion forces were quantified (i after enzymatic removal of negative charges in the glycocalyx, (ii under different ambient Na+ and (iii after applying the intracellular aldosterone receptor antagonist spironolactone. Removal of negative surface charges increases RBC-EC interaction forces. A stepwise increase of ambient Na+ from 133 to 140 mM does not affect them. However, beyond 140 mM Na+ adhesion forces increase sharply (10% increase of adhesion force per 1 mM increase of Na+. Spironolactone prevents this response. It is concluded that negative charges reduce adhesion between RBC and EC. Ambient Na+ concentration determines the availability of free negative charges. Na+ concentrations in the low physiological range (below 140 mM allow sufficient amounts of vacant negative charges so that adhesion of RBC to the endothelial surface is small. In contrast, Na+ in the high physiological range (beyond 140 mM saturates the remaining negative surface charges thus increasing adhesion. Aldosterone receptor blockade by spironolactone prevents Na+ induced RBC adhesion to the endothelial glycocalyx. Extrapolation of in vitro experiments to in vivo conditions leads to the hypothesis that high sodium intake is likely to increase the incidence of thrombotic events.

  9. Sodium renders endothelial cells sticky for red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberleithner, Hans; Wälte, Mike; Kusche-Vihrog, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Negative charges in the glycocalyx of red blood cells (RBC) and vascular endothelial cells (EC) facilitate frictionless blood flow through blood vessels. Na(+) selectively shields these charges controlling surface electronegativity. The question was addressed whether the ambient Na(+) concentration controls RBC-EC interaction. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) adhesion forces between RBC and endothelial glycocalyx were quantified. A single RBC, mounted on an AFM cantilever, was brought in physical contact with the endothelial surface and then pulled off. Adhesion forces were quantified (i) after enzymatic removal of negative charges in the glycocalyx, (ii) under different ambient Na(+) and (iii) after applying the intracellular aldosterone receptor antagonist spironolactone. Removal of negative surface charges increases RBC-EC interaction forces. A stepwise increase of ambient Na(+) from 133 to 140 mM does not affect them. However, beyond 140 mM Na(+) adhesion forces increase sharply (10% increase of adhesion force per 1 mM increase of Na(+)). Spironolactone prevents this response. It is concluded that negative charges reduce adhesion between RBC and EC. Ambient Na(+) concentration determines the availability of free negative charges. Na(+) concentrations in the low physiological range (below 140 mM) allow sufficient amounts of vacant negative charges so that adhesion of RBC to the endothelial surface is small. In contrast, Na(+) in the high physiological range (beyond 140 mM) saturates the remaining negative surface charges thus increasing adhesion. Aldosterone receptor blockade by spironolactone prevents Na(+) induced RBC adhesion to the endothelial glycocalyx. Extrapolation of in vitro experiments to in vivo conditions leads to the hypothesis that high sodium intake is likely to increase the incidence of thrombotic events.

  10. Nomenclature of monocytes and dendritic cells in blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Ziegler-Heitbrock (Loems); P. Ancuta (Petronela); S. Crowe (Suzanne); M. Dalod (Marc); V. Grau (Veronika); D.N. Hart (Derek); P.J. Leenen (Pieter); Y.J. Liu; G. MacPherson (Gordon); G.J. Randolph (Gwendalyn); J. Scherberich (Juergen); J. Schmitz (Juergen); K. Shortman (Ken); S. Sozzani (Silvano); H. Strobl (Herbert); M. Zembala (Marek); J.M. Austyn (Jonathan); M.B. Lutz (Manfred)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMonocytes and cells of the dendritic cell lineage circulate in blood and eventually migrate into tissue where they further mature and serve various functions, most notably in immune defense. Over recent years these cells have been characterized in detail with the use of cell surface mark

  11. Electrochemical Red Blood Cell Counting: One at a Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepunaru, Lior; Sokolov, Stanislav V; Holter, Jennifer; Young, Neil P; Compton, Richard G

    2016-08-08

    We demonstrate that the concentration of a red blood cell solution under physiological conditions can be determined by electrochemical voltammetry. The magnitude of the oxygen reduction currents produced at an edge-plane pyrolytic graphite electrode was diagnosed analytically at concentrations suitable for a point-of-care test device. The currents could be further enhanced when the solution of red blood cells was exposed to hydrogen peroxide. We show that the enhanced signal can be used to detect red blood cells at a single entity level. The method presented relies on the catalytic activity of red blood cells towards hydrogen peroxide and on surface-induced haemolysis. Each single cell activity is expressed as current spikes decaying within a few seconds back to the background current. The frequency of such current spikes is proportional to the concentration of cells in solution.

  12. 77 FR 59000 - Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of... components intended for transfusion, including recommendations for validation and quality control monitoring... intended for transfusion, including recommendations for validation and quality control monitoring of...

  13. Amyloidosis, synucleinopathy, and prion encephalopathy in a neuropathic lysosomal storage disease: the CNS-biomarker potential of peripheral blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartholomew J Naughton

    Full Text Available Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS IIIB is a devastating neuropathic lysosomal storage disease with complex pathology. This study identifies molecular signatures in peripheral blood that may be relevant to MPS IIIB pathogenesis using a mouse model. Genome-wide gene expression microarrays on pooled RNAs showed dysregulation of 2,802 transcripts in blood from MPS IIIB mice, reflecting pathological complexity of MPS IIIB, encompassing virtually all previously reported and as yet unexplored disease aspects. Importantly, many of the dysregulated genes are reported to be tissue-specific. Further analyses of multiple genes linked to major pathways of neurodegeneration demonstrated a strong brain-blood correlation in amyloidosis and synucleinopathy in MPS IIIB. We also detected prion protein (Prnp deposition in the CNS and Prnp dysregulation in the blood in MPS IIIB mice, suggesting the involvement of Prnp aggregation in neuropathology. Systemic delivery of trans-BBB-neurotropic rAAV9-hNAGLU vector mediated not only efficient restoration of functional α-N-acetylglucosaminidase and clearance of lysosomal storage pathology in the central nervous system (CNS and periphery, but also the correction of impaired neurodegenerative molecular pathways in the brain and blood. Our data suggest that molecular changes in blood may reflect pathological status in the CNS and provide a useful tool for identifying potential CNS-specific biomarkers for MPS IIIB and possibly other neurological diseases.

  14. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Yuin-Han; Agarwal, Suneet; Park, In-Hyun; Urbach, Achia; Huo, Hongguang; Heffner, Garrett C; Kim, Kitai; Miller, Justine D; Ng, Kitwa; Daley, George Q

    2009-05-28

    Human dermal fibroblasts obtained by skin biopsy can be reprogrammed directly to pluripotency by the ectopic expression of defined transcription factors. Here, we describe the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells from CD34+ mobilized human peripheral blood cells using retroviral transduction of OCT4/SOX2/KLF4/MYC. Blood-derived human induced pluripotent stem cells are indistinguishable from human embryonic stem cells with respect to morphology, expression of surface antigens, and pluripotency-associated transcription factors, DNA methylation status at pluripotent cell-specific genes, and the capacity to differentiate in vitro and in teratomas. The ability to reprogram cells from human blood will allow the generation of patient-specific stem cells for diseases in which the disease-causing somatic mutations are restricted to cells of the hematopoietic lineage.

  15. A model for red blood cells in simulations of large-scale blood flows

    CERN Document Server

    Melchionna, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) are an essential component of blood. A method to include the particulate nature of blood is introduced here with the goal of studying circulation in large-scale realistic vessels. The method uses a combination of the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to account for the plasma motion, and a modified Molecular Dynamics scheme for the cellular motion. Numerical results illustrate the quality of the model in reproducing known rheological properties of blood as much as revealing the effect of RBC structuring on the wall shear stress, with consequences on the development of cardiovascular diseases.

  16. From Lysosomal Storage Diseases to NKT Cell Activation and Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cátia S.; Ribeiro, Helena; Macedo, M. Fatima

    2017-01-01

    Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are inherited metabolic disorders characterized by the accumulation of different types of substrates in the lysosome. With a multisystemic involvement, LSDs often present a very broad clinical spectrum. In many LSDs, alterations of the immune system were described. Special emphasis was given to Natural Killer T (NKT) cells, a population of lipid-specific T cells that is activated by lipid antigens bound to CD1d (cluster of differentiation 1 d) molecules at the surface of antigen-presenting cells. These cells have important functions in cancer, infection, and autoimmunity and were altered in a variety of LSDs’ mouse models. In some cases, the observed decrease was attributed to defects in either lipid antigen availability, trafficking, processing, or loading in CD1d. Here, we review the current knowledge about NKT cells in the context of LSDs, including the alterations detected, the proposed mechanisms to explain these defects, and the relevance of these findings for disease pathology. Furthermore, the effect of enzyme replacement therapy on NKT cells is also discussed. PMID:28245613

  17. A role for activated endothelial cells in red blood cell clearance: implications for vasopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fens, Marcel H A M; van Wijk, Richard; Andringa, Grietje

    2012-01-01

    Background Phosphatidylserine exposure by red blood cells is acknowledged as a signal that initiates phagocytic removal of the cells from the circulation. Several disorders and conditions are known to induce phosphatidylserine exposure. Removal of phosphatidylserine-exposing red blood cells gener...... cells play a role in red blood cell clearance in vivo. Significant erythrophagocytosis can induce endothelial cell loss, which may contribute to vasopathological effects as seen, for instance, in sickle cell disease.......Background Phosphatidylserine exposure by red blood cells is acknowledged as a signal that initiates phagocytic removal of the cells from the circulation. Several disorders and conditions are known to induce phosphatidylserine exposure. Removal of phosphatidylserine-exposing red blood cells...... generally occurs by macrophages in the spleen and liver. Previously, however, we have shown that endothelial cells are also capable of erythrophagocytosis. Key players in the erythrophagocytosis by endothelial cells appeared to be lactadherin and αv-integrin. Phagocytosis via the phosphatidylserine...

  18. The DNA methylome of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yingrui; Zhu, Jingde; Tian, Geng

    2010-01-01

    strand), we report a comprehensive (92.62%) methylome and analysis of the unique sequences in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the same Asian individual whose genome was deciphered in the YH project. PBMC constitute an important source for clinical blood tests world-wide. We found...

  19. Color contrast of red blood cells on solid substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiziev, Adkham A.

    2013-02-01

    In present study we developed the new method of colour visualization of red blood cells without using any chemical staining. The method based on physical phenomena a white light interference on thin transparent films. It is shown that in the case of thin human blood smears colour interference contrast occurs on solid polished substrates. The best contrast shows substrates with maximal refractive index (Mo, W, Si). These materials have been selected as substrate instead of ordinary microscopic slide in reflected light microscopy. It is shown that reflection of incident white light from blood cell surface and boundary cell-substrate generate two coherent lights. The second one (object signal) after passing through red blood cell gathers additional phase and after interference interaction with reference signal (light reflected from outer cell surface) enables cell image in colour. Number of blood smears of healthy persons (control) and patients who were diagnosed with cancer are presented. It is concluded that the offered method may be used as an effective diagnostic tool to detect early stage blood cells lesion by its interference painting in white light. Offered method may be used in research laboratories, hospitals, diagnostic centres, emergency medicine and other as complementary diagnostic tool to present convenient optical and electron microscopy technique.

  20. Mechanisms Linking Red Blood Cell Disorders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Mozos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to review the main pathophysiological links between red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, provides a brief description of the latest studies in this area, and considers implications for clinical practice and therapy. Anemia is associated with a special risk in proatherosclerotic conditions and heart disease and became a new therapeutic target. Guidelines must be updated for the management of patients with red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, and targets for hemoglobin level should be established. Risk scores in several cardiovascular diseases should include red blood cell count and RDW. Complete blood count and hemorheological parameters represent useful, inexpensive, widely available tools for the management and prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, arrhythmias, and stroke. Hypoxia and iron accumulation cause the most important cardiovascular effects of sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Patients with congenital chronic hemolytic anemia undergoing splenectomy should be monitored, considering thromboembolic and cardiovascular risk.

  1. Mechanisms linking red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozos, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aims to review the main pathophysiological links between red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, provides a brief description of the latest studies in this area, and considers implications for clinical practice and therapy. Anemia is associated with a special risk in proatherosclerotic conditions and heart disease and became a new therapeutic target. Guidelines must be updated for the management of patients with red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, and targets for hemoglobin level should be established. Risk scores in several cardiovascular diseases should include red blood cell count and RDW. Complete blood count and hemorheological parameters represent useful, inexpensive, widely available tools for the management and prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, arrhythmias, and stroke. Hypoxia and iron accumulation cause the most important cardiovascular effects of sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Patients with congenital chronic hemolytic anemia undergoing splenectomy should be monitored, considering thromboembolic and cardiovascular risk.

  2. Drawings of Blood Cells Reveal People's Perception of Their Blood Disorder: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Ramondt

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD and thalassemia are rare but chronic blood disorders. Recent literature showed impaired quality of life (QOL in people with these blood disorders. Assessing one of the determinants of QOL (i.e. illness perceptions therefore, is an important next research area.We aimed to explore illness perceptions of people with a blood disorder with drawings in addition to the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief IPQ. Drawings are a novel method to assess illness perceptions and the free-range answers drawings offer can add additional insight into how people perceive their illness.We conducted a cross-sectional study including 17 participants with a blood disorder. Participants' illness perceptions were assessed by the Brief IPQ and drawings. Brief IPQ scores were compared with reference groups from the literature (i.e. people with asthma or lupus erythematosus.Participants with SCD or thalassemia perceived their blood disorder as being more chronic and reported more severe symptoms than people with either asthma or lupus erythematosus. In the drawings of these participants with a blood disorder, a greater number of blood cells drawn was negatively correlated with perceived personal control (P<0.05, indicating that a greater quantity in the drawing is associated with more negative or distressing beliefs.Participants with a blood disorder perceive their disease as fairly threatening compared with people with other chronic illnesses. Drawings can add additional insight into how people perceive their illness by offering free-range answers.

  3. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  4. Mechanisms Linking Red Blood Cell Disorders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana Mozos

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aims to review the main pathophysiological links between red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, provides a brief description of the latest studies in this area, and considers implications for clinical practice and therapy. Anemia is associated with a special risk in proatherosclerotic conditions and heart disease and became a new therapeutic target. Guidelines must be updated for the management of patients with red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular dise...

  5. Quantitative analysis of genomic DNA degradation in whole blood under various storage conditions for molecular diagnostic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permenter, Jessalyn; Ishwar, Arjun; Rounsavall, Angie; Smith, Maddie; Faske, Jennifer; Sailey, Charles J; Alfaro, Maria P

    2015-12-01

    Proper storage of whole blood is crucial for isolating nucleic acids from leukocytes and to ensure adequate performance of downstream assays in the molecular diagnostic laboratory. Short-term and long-term storage recommendations are lacking for successful isolation of genomic DNA (gDNA). Container type (EDTA or heparin), temperature (4 °C and room temperature) and time (1-130 days) were assessed as criterion for sample acceptance policies. The percentage of integrated area (%Ti) between 150 and 10,000 bp from the 2200 TapeStation electropherogram was calculated to measure gDNA degradation. Refrigerated EDTA samples yielded gDNA with low %Ti (high quality). Heparinized samples stored at room temperature yielded gDNA of worst quality. Downstream analysis demonstrated that the quality of the gDNA correlated with the quality of the data; samples with high %Ti generated significantly lower levels of high molecular weight amplicons. Recommendations from these analyses include storing blood samples intended for nucleic acid isolation in EDTA tubes at 4 °C for long term storage (>10 days). gDNA should be extracted within 3 days when blood is stored at room temperature regardless of the container. Finally, refrigerated heparinized samples should not be stored longer than 9 days if expecting high quality gDNA isolates. Laboratories should consider many factors, in addition to the results obtained herein, to update their policies for sample acceptance for gDNA extraction intended for molecular genetic testing.

  6. A fuel cell energy storage system for Space Station extravehicular activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Matthew J., Jr.; Adlhart, Otto J.; Marmolejo, Jose A.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a fuel cell energy storage system for the Space Station Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) is discussed. The ion-exchange membrane fuel cell uses hydrogen stored as a metal hydride. Several features of the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell are examined, including its construction, hydrogen storage, hydride recharge, water heat, water removal, and operational parameters.

  7. Recharging Red Blood Cell Surface by Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Kliche

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Similar as in vascular endothelium the negatively charged glycocalyx of erythrocytes selectively buffers sodium. Loss of glycocalyx (i.e. loss of negative charges leads to increased erythrocyte sodium sensitivity (ESS quantified by a recently developed salt-blood-test (SBT. The hypothesis was tested whether a regular 4-hour hemodialysis (4h-HD alters ESS. Methods: In 38 patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD ESS was measured before and after 4h-HD, together with standard laboratory and clinical parameters (electrolytes, acid-base status, urea, creatinine, hemoglobin, c-reactive protein and blood pressure. Results: Before 4h-HD, 20 patients (out of 38 were classified as “salt sensitive” by SBT. After 4h-HD, this number decreased to 11. Erythrocyte sodium buffering power remained virtually constant in patients with already low ESS before dialysis, whereas in patients with high ESS, 4h-HD improved the initially poor sodium buffering power by about 20%. No significant correlations could be detected between standard blood parameters and the respective ESS values except for plasma sodium concentration which was found increased by 3.1 mM in patients with high salt sensitivity. Conclusions: 4h-HD apparently recharges “run-down” erythrocytes and thus restores erythrocyte sodium buffering capacity. Besides the advantage of efficient sodium buffering in blood, erythrocytes with sufficient amounts of free negative charges at the erythrocyte surface will cause less (mechanical injury to the negatively charged endothelial surface due to efficient repulsive forces between blood and vessel wall. Hemodialysis improves erythrocyte surface properties and thus may prevent early vascular damage in patients suffering from ESRD.

  8. Blood flow simulation on a role for red blood cells in platelet adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kazuya; Sugiyama, Kazuyasu; Takagi, Shu

    2016-11-01

    Large-scale blood flow simulations were conducted and a role for red blood cells in platelet adhesion was discussed. The flow conditions and hematocrit values were set to the same as corresponding experiments, and the numerical results were compared with the measurements. Numerical results show the number of platelets adhered on the wall is increased with the increase in hematocrit values. The number of adhered platelets estimated from the simulation was approximately 28 (per 0.01 square millimeter per minute) for the hematocrit value of 20%. These results agree well with the experimental results qualitatively and quantitatively, which proves the validity of the present numerical model including the interaction between fluid and many elastic bodies and the modeling of platelet adhesion. Numerical simulation also reproduces the behavior of red blood cells in the blood flow and their role in platelet adhesion. Red blood cells deform to a flat shape and move towards channel center region. In contrast, platelets are pushed out and have many chances to contact with the wall. As a result, the large number of adhered platelets is observed as hematocrit values becomes high. This result indicates the presence of red blood cells plays a crucial role in platelet adhesion.

  9. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are most commonly used in the treatment of cancers like leukemia and lymphoma to restore stem cells that have been destroyed by high doses of ... EuroStemCell 312,828 views 15:53 Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis ... views 6:48 Stem cell donation from brother saves child from cancer - Duration: ...

  10. Blood cell mRNAs and microRNAs: optimized protocols for extraction and preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikmans, Michael; Rekers, Niels V; Anholts, Jacqueline D H; Heidt, Sebastiaan; Claas, Frans H J

    2013-03-14

    Assessing messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA levels in peripheral blood cells may complement conventional parameters in clinical practice. Working with small, precious samples requires optimal RNA yields and minimal RNA degradation. Several procedures for RNA extraction and complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis were compared for their efficiency. The effect on RNA quality of freeze-thawing peripheral blood cells and storage in preserving reagents was investigated. In terms of RNA yield and convenience, quality quantitative polymerase chain reaction signals per nanogram of total RNA and using NucleoSpin and mirVana columns is preferable. The SuperScript III protocol results in the highest cDNA yields. During conventional procedures of storing peripheral blood cells at -180°C and thawing them thereafter, RNA integrity is maintained. TRIzol preserves RNA in cells stored at -20°C. Detection of mRNA levels significantly decreases in degraded RNA samples, whereas microRNA molecules remain relatively stable. When standardized to reference targets, mRNA transcripts and microRNAs can be reliably quantified in moderately degraded (quality index 4-7) and severely degraded (quality index blood. The results serve as a guideline for sensitive mRNA and microRNA expression assessment in clinical material.

  11. Induction and identification of rabbit peripheral blood derived dendritic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Yang, FuYuan; Chen, WenLi

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study a method of the induction of dendritic cells (DCs) from rabbit peripheral blood. Methods: Peripheral blood cells were removed from rabbit, filtered through nylon mesh. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from the blood cells by Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation (density of 1.077g/cm3).To obtain DCs, PBMC were cultured in RPMI1640 medium containing 10% fetal calf serum, 50U/mL penicillin and streptomycin, referred to subsequently as complete medium, at 37°C in 5% CO2 atmosphere for 4 hours. Nonadherent cells were aspirated, adherent cells were continued incubated in complete medium, supplemented with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, 50ng/ml),and interleukin 4 (IL-4, 50ng/ml) for 9 days. Fluorescein labeled antibodies(anti-CD14, anti-HLA-DR, anti-CD86) were used to sign cells cultured for 3,6,9 days respectively, Then flow cytometry was performed. Results: Ratio of anti-HLA-DR and anti-CD86 labeled cells increased with induction time extension, in contrast with anti-CD14. Conclusion: Dendritic cells can be effectively induced by the method of this experiment, cell maturation status increased with induction time extension.

  12. Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Using Sendai Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Filipa A C; Pedersen, Roger A; Vallier, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the efficient isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from circulating blood via density gradient centrifugation and subsequent generation of integration-free human induced pluripotent stem cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells are cultured for 9 days to allow expansion of the erythroblast population. The erythroblasts are then used to derive human induced pluripotent stem cells using Sendai viral vectors, each expressing one of the four reprogramming factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc.

  13. On-chip Extraction of Intracellular Molecules in White Blood Cells from Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jongchan; Hyun, Ji-chul; Yang, Sung

    2015-10-14

    The extraction of virological markers in white blood cells (WBCs) from whole blood--without reagents, electricity, or instruments--is the most important first step for diagnostic testing of infectious diseases in resource-limited settings. Here we develop an integrated microfluidic chip that continuously separates WBCs from whole blood and mechanically ruptures them to extract intracellular proteins and nucleic acids for diagnostic purposes. The integrated chip is assembled with a device that separates WBCs by using differences in blood cell size and a mechanical cell lysis chip with ultra-sharp nanoblade arrays. We demonstrate the performance of the integrated device by quantitatively analyzing the levels of extracted intracellular proteins and genomic DNAs. Our results show that compared with a conventional method, the device yields 120% higher level of total protein amount and similar levels of gDNA (90.3%). To demonstrate its clinical application to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnostics, the developed chip was used to process blood samples containing HIV-infected cells. Based on PCR results, we demonstrate that the chip can extract HIV proviral DNAs from infected cells with a population as low as 10(2)/μl. These findings suggest that the developed device has potential application in point-of-care testing for infectious diseases in developing countries.

  14. Quantification of depletion-induced adhesion of Red Blood Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, Patrick; Wagner, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBC) are known to form aggregates in the forms of rouleaux due to the presence of plasma proteins under physiological conditions. Rouleaux formation can be also induced in vitro by the addition of macromolecules to the RBC solution. Current data on the adhesion strength between red blood cells in their natural discocyte shapes mostly rely on indirect measurements like flow chamber experiments, but on the single cell level data is lacking. Here we present measurements on the dextran induced aggregation of red blood cells by use of atomic force microscopy based single cell force spectroscopy (SCFS). The effects of dextran concentration and molecular weight on the interaction energy of adhering RBCs was determined. The results are in good agreement with a model based on the depletion effect and former experimental studies.

  15. Hematologic assessment in pet rats, mice, hamsters, and gerbils: blood sample collection and blood cell identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Nicole M; Moore, David M; Zimmerman, Kurt; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Hamsters, gerbils, rats, and mice are presented to veterinary clinics and hospitals for prophylactic care and treatment of clinical signs of disease. Physical examination, history, and husbandry practice information can be supplemented greatly by assessment of hematologic parameters. As a resource for veterinarians and their technicians, this article describes the methods for collection of blood, identification of blood cells, and interpretation of the hemogram in mice, rats, gerbils, and hamsters.

  16. Blood cell manufacture: current methods and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Nicholas E; Nielsen, Lars K

    2009-07-01

    Blood transfusion depends on availability of donor material, and concerns over supply and safety have spurred development of methods to manufacture blood from stem cells. Current methods could theoretically yield therapeutic doses of red blood cells (RBCs) and platelets. However, due to the very large number of cells required to have any impact on supply (currently 10(19) RBC/year in the US), realization of routine manufacture faces significant challenges. Current yields are orders of magnitude too low for production of meaningful quantities, and the physical scale of the problem is a challenge in itself. We discuss these challenges in relation to current methods and how it might be possible to realize limited 'blood pharming' of neutrophils in the near future.

  17. Laser-photophoretic migration and fractionation of human blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monjushiro, Hideaki; Tanahashi, Yuko; Watarai, Hitoshi

    2013-05-13

    Laser photophoretic migration behavior of human blood cells in saline solution was investigated under the irradiation of Nd:YAG laser beam (532 nm) in the absence and the presence of the flow in a fused silica capillary. Red blood cells (RBC) were migrated faster than white blood cells (WBC) and blood pellets to the direction of propagation of laser light. The observed photophoretic velocity of RBC was about 11 times faster than those of others. This was understood from the larger photophoretic efficiency of RBC than that of WBC, which was simulated based on the Mie scattering theory. Furthermore, it was found that, during the photophoretic migration, RBCs spontaneously orientated parallel to the migration direction so as to reduce the drag force. Finally, it was demonstrated that RBC and WBC were separated in a micro-channel flow system by the laser photophoresis.

  18. Computational modeling of red blood cells: A symplectic integration algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Ulf D.; Ladd, Anthony J. C.

    2010-03-01

    Red blood cells can undergo shape transformations that impact the rheological properties of blood. Computational models have to account for the deformability and red blood cells are often modeled as elastically deformable objects. We present a symplectic integration algorithm for deformable objects. The surface is represented by a set of marker points obtained by surface triangulation, along with a set of fiber vectors that describe the orientation of the material plane. The various elastic energies are formulated in terms of these variables and the equations of motion are obtained by exact differentiation of a discretized Hamiltonian. The integration algorithm preserves the Hamiltonian structure and leads to highly accurate energy conservation, hence he method is expected to be more stable than conventional finite element methods. We apply the algorithm to simulate the shape dynamics of red blood cells.

  19. Circulating angiogenic cells can be derived from cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Sofrenovic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cell transplantation for regenerative medicine has become an appealing therapeutic method; however, stem and progenitor cells are not always freshly available. Cryopreservation offers a way to freeze cells as they are generated, for storage and transport until required for therapy. This study was performed to assess the feasibility of cryopreserving peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs for the subsequent in vitro generation of their derived therapeutic population, circulating angiogenic cells (CACs. METHODS: PBMCs were isolated from healthy human donors. Freshly isolated cells were either analyzed immediately or cryopreserved in media containing 6% plasma serum and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide. PBMCs were thawed after being frozen for 1 (early thaw or 28 (late thaw days and analyzed, or cultured for 4 days to generate CACs. Analysis of the cells consisted of flow cytometry for viability and phenotype, as well as functional assays for their adhesion and migration potential, cytokine secretion, and in vivo angiogenic potential. RESULTS: The viability of PBMCs and CACs as well as their adhesion and migration properties did not differ greatly after cryopreservation. Phenotypic changes did occur in PBMCs and to a lesser extent in CACs after freezing; however the potent CD34(+VEGFR2(+CD133(+ population remained unaffected. The derived CACs, while exhibiting changes in inflammatory cytokine secretion, showed no changes in the secretion of important regenerative and chemotactic cytokines, nor in their ability to restore perfusion in ischemic muscle. CONCLUSION: Overall, it appears that changes do occur in cryopreserved PBMCs and their generated CACs; however, the CD34(+VEGFR2(+CD133(+ progenitor population, the secretion of pro-vasculogenic factors, and the in vivo angiogenic potential of CACs remain unaffected by cryopreservation.

  20. Shear induced diffusion in a red blood cell suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorski, Thomas; Grandchamp, Xavier; Srivastav, Aparna; Coupier, Gwennou

    2012-11-01

    In the microcirculation, blood exhibits an inhomogeneous structure which results in the well know Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect : the apparent viscosity decreases when the diameter of the capillary decreases due to the formation of a marginal cell depletion layer (known as plasma skimming). This structure is a consequence of several phenomena, which include i) the migration of cells aways from walls due to lift forces and gradients of shear and ii) shear induced diffusion due to collisions and interactions among cells. We investigated these phenomena through experiments in simple shear and microchannel flows, with dilute suspensions of vesicles and blood cells. Pairwise interactions between suspended objects result in non-linear and flow-dependent diffusion, whose properties have been measured in different experiments for vesicles and blood cells. The injection of a sheet of concentrated blood cell suspension in a microchannel with a rectangular cross-section allows, through the measurement of its widening along the channel, to measure the diffusivity of blood cells, both in the local plane of shear and in the vorticity direction.

  1. Modular Energy Storage System for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Janice [Magna International, Rochester Mills, MI (United States)

    2010-08-27

    The objective of the project is to develop technologies, specifically power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls that provide efficient and effective energy management between electrically powered devices in alternative energy vehicles plug-in electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, range extended vehicles, and hydrogen-based fuel cell vehicles. The in-depth research into the complex interactions between the lower and higher voltage systems from data obtained via modeling, bench testing and instrumented vehicle data will allow an optimum system to be developed from a performance, cost, weight and size perspective. The subsystems are designed for modularity so that they may be used with different propulsion and energy delivery systems. This approach will allow expansion into new alternative energy vehicle markets.

  2. Cord blood transplants for SCID: better B-cell engraftment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wan-Yin; Roberts, Robert Lloyd; Moore, Theodore B; Stiehm, E Richard

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation is the treatment of choice for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Despite successful T-cell engraftment in transplanted patients, B-cell function is not always achieved; up to 58% of patients require immunoglobulin therapy after receiving haploidentical transplants. We report 2 half-sibling males with X-linked γ-chain SCID treated with different sources of stem cells. Sibling 1 was transplanted with T-cell-depleted haploidentical maternal bone marrow and sibling 2 was transplanted with 7/8 human leukocyte antigen-matched unrelated umbilical cord blood. Both patients received pretransplant conditioning and posttransplant graft-versus-host-disease prophylaxis. B-cell engraftment and function was achieved in sibling 1 but not in sibling 2. This disparate result is consistent with a review of 19 other SCID children who received cord blood transplants. B-cell function, as indicated by no need for immunoglobulin therapy, was restored in 42% of patients given haploidentical transplants and in 68% of patients given matched unrelated donor transplants compared with 80% of patients given cord blood transplants. Cord blood is an alternative source of stem cells for transplantation in children with SCID and has a higher likelihood of B-cell reconstitution.

  3. [Changes in the blood coagulating properties of preserved blood and the native and lyophilized plasma of cattle during storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khubenov, Kh D

    1984-01-01

    Studied were some of the indices characterizing the blood clotting system (thrombocytes, fibrinogen, recalcified clotting time, CA-thromboplastin time, kephalin-kaolin time, thrombin time. F II, and F V) in preserved glucose-citrate blood kept at 4 degrees C, in untreated bovine plasma kept at 20 degrees C, 4 degrees C, and -20 degrees C, and in freeze-dried bovine plasma. It was concluded that bovine blood preserved with L-12 could be used as a hemostatic agent up to the 10th day after it was obtained; untreated plasma could be used up to one month after it was obtained; and freeze-dried plasma could be used up to two months after it was obtained. Following freeze-drying the coagulation properties of the plasma remained active for more than a year, and it could also be used as a hemostatic agent.

  4. The homeostasis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob M A Mauritz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The asexual reproduction cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for severe malaria, occurs within red blood cells. A merozoite invades a red cell in the circulation, develops and multiplies, and after about 48 hours ruptures the host cell, releasing 15-32 merozoites ready to invade new red blood cells. During this cycle, the parasite increases the host cell permeability so much that when similar permeabilization was simulated on uninfected red cells, lysis occurred before approximately 48 h. So how could infected cells, with a growing parasite inside, prevent lysis before the parasite has completed its developmental cycle? A mathematical model of the homeostasis of infected red cells suggested that it is the wasteful consumption of host cell hemoglobin that prevents early lysis by the progressive reduction in the colloid-osmotic pressure within the host (the colloid-osmotic hypothesis. However, two critical model predictions, that infected cells would swell to near prelytic sphericity and that the hemoglobin concentration would become progressively reduced, remained controversial. In this paper, we are able for the first time to correlate model predictions with recent experimental data in the literature and explore the fine details of the homeostasis of infected red blood cells during five model-defined periods of parasite development. The conclusions suggest that infected red cells do reach proximity to lytic rupture regardless of their actual volume, thus requiring a progressive reduction in their hemoglobin concentration to prevent premature lysis.

  5. Malaria and human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli

    2012-11-01

    Invasion by the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, brings about extensive changes in the host red cells. These include loss of the normal discoid shape, increased rigidity of the membrane, elevated permeability to a wide variety of ionic and other species and increased adhesiveness, most notably to endothelial surfaces. These effects facilitate survival of the parasite within the host cell and tend to increase the virulence of disease that includes cerebral malaria and anemia. Numerous proteins secreted by the internalized parasite and interacting with red cell membrane proteins are responsible for the changes occurring to the host cell. Anemia, a serious clinical manifestation of malaria, is due to increased destruction of both infected and uninfected red cells due to membrane alterations, as well as ineffective erythropoiesis. There is very good evidence that various red cell disorders including hemoglobinopathies and hereditary ovalocytosis decrease the virulence of disease following parasite infection. A number of mechanism(s) are likely responsible for the protective effect of various red cell abnormalities including decreased invasion, impaired intraerythrocytic development of the parasites and altered interaction between exported parasite proteins and the red cell membrane skeleton.

  6. International Society of Blood Transfusion Working Party on red cell immunogenetics and blood group terminology: Cancun report (2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storry, J R; Castilho, L; Daniels, G; Flegel, W A; Garratty, G; de Haas, M; Hyland, C; Lomas-Francis, C; Moulds, J M; Nogues, N; Olsson, M L; Poole, J; Reid, M E; Rouger, P; van der Schoot, E; Scott, M; Tani, Y; Yu, L-C; Wendel, S; Westhoff, C; Yahalom, V; Zelinski, T

    2014-07-01

    The International Society of Blood Transfusion Working Party on red cell immunogenetics and blood group terminology convened during the International congress in Cancun, July 2012. This report details the newly identified antigens in existing blood group systems and presents three new blood group systems.

  7. Challenges for red blood cell biomarker discovery through proteomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barasa, B.A.; Slijper, M.

    2014-01-01

    Red blood cells are rather unique body cells, since they have lost all organelles when mature, which results in lack of potential to replace proteins that have lost their function. They maintain only a few pathways for obtaining energy and reducing power for the key functions they need to fulfill. T

  8. Control of red blood cell mass during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, H. W.; Alfrey, C. P.; Driscoll, T. B.; Smith, S. M.; Nyquist, L. E.

    1996-01-01

    Data are reviewed from twenty-two astronauts from seven space missions in a study of red blood cell mass. The data show that decreased red cell mass in all astronauts exposed to space for more than nine days, although the actual dynamics of mass changes varies with flight duration. Possible mechanisms for these changes, including alterations in erythropoietin levels, are discussed.

  9. Spatial distributions of red blood cells significantly alter local haemodynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Sherwood

    Full Text Available Although bulk changes in red blood cell concentration between vessels have been well characterised, local distributions are generally overlooked. Red blood cells aggregate, deform and migrate within vessels, forming heterogeneous distributions which have considerable effect on local haemodynamics. The present study reports data on the local distribution of human red blood cells in a sequentially bifurcating microchannel, representing the branching geometry of the microvasculature. Imaging methodologies with simple extrapolations are used to infer three dimensional, time-averaged velocity and haematocrit distributions under a range of flow conditions. Strong correlation between the bluntness of the velocity and haematocrit profiles in the parent branch of the geometry is observed and red blood cell aggregation has a notable effect on the observed trends. The two branches of the first bifurcation show similar characteristics in terms of the shapes of the profiles and the extent of plasma skimming, despite the difference in geometric configuration. In the second bifurcation, considerable asymmetry between the branches in the plasma skimming relationship is observed, and elucidated by considering individual haematocrit profiles. The results of the study highlight the importance of considering local haematocrit distributions in the analysis of blood flow and could lead to more accurate computational models of blood flow in microvascular networks. The experimental approaches developed in this work provide a foundation for further examining the characteristics of microhaemodynamics.

  10. Rapid white blood cell detection for peritonitis diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsung-Feng; Mei, Zhe; Chiu, Yu-Jui; Cho, Sung Hwan; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2013-03-01

    A point-of-care and home-care lab-on-a-chip (LoC) system that integrates a microfluidic spiral device as a concentrator with an optical-coding device as a cell enumerator is demonstrated. The LoC system enumerates white blood cells from dialysis effluent of patients receiving peritoneal dialysis. The preliminary results show that the white blood cell counts from our system agree well with the results from commercial flow cytometers. The LoC system can potentially bring significant benefits to end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients that are on peritoneal dialysis (PD).

  11. Preservation of differentiation and clonogenic potential of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during lyophilization and ambient storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya S Buchanan

    Full Text Available Progenitor cell therapies show great promise, but their potential for clinical applications requires improved storage and transportation. Desiccated cells stored at ambient temperature would provide economic and practical advantages over approaches employing cell freezing and subzero temperature storage. The objectives of this study were to assess a method for loading the stabilizing sugar, trehalose, into hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HPC and to evaluate the effects of subsequent freeze-drying and storage at ambient temperature on differentiation and clonogenic potential. HPC were isolated from human umbilical cord blood and loaded with trehalose using an endogenous cell surface receptor, termed P2Z. Solution containing trehalose-loaded HPC was placed into vials, which were transferred to a tray freeze-dryer and removed during each step of the freeze-drying process to assess differentiation and clonogenic potential. Control groups for these experiments were freshly isolated HPC. Control cells formed 1450+/-230 CFU-GM, 430+/-140 BFU-E, and 50+/-40 CFU-GEMM per 50 microL. Compared to the values for the control cells, there was no statistical difference observed for cells removed at the end of the freezing step or at the end of primary drying. There was a gradual decrease in the number of CFU-GM and BFU-E for cells removed at different temperatures during secondary drying; however, there were no significant differences in the number of CFU-GEMM. To determine storage stability of lyophilized HPC, cells were stored for 4 weeks at 25 degrees C in the dark. Cells reconstituted immediately after lyophilization produced 580+/-90 CFU-GM ( approximately 40%, relative to unprocessed controls p<0.0001, 170+/-70 BFU-E (approximately 40%, p<0.0001, and 41+/-22 CFU-GEMM (approximately 82%, p = 0.4171, and cells reconstituted after 28 days at room temperature produced 513+/-170 CFU-GM (approximately 35%, relative to unprocessed controls, p<0

  12. Effect of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technology in Blood Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focosi, Daniele; Pistello, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    Population aging has imposed cost-effective alternatives to blood donations. Artificial blood is still at the preliminary stages of development, and the need for viable cells seems unsurmountable. Because large numbers of viable cells must be promptly available for clinical use, stem cell technologies, expansion, and banking represent ideal tools to ensure a regular supply. Provided key donors can be identified, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology could pave the way to a new era in transfusion medicine, just as it is already doing in many other fields of medicine. The present review summarizes the current state of research on iPSC technology in the field of blood banking, highlighting hurdles, and promises.

  13. Cell Registration and Flickering Detection for the Complexity Analysis of Red Blood Cell Dynamics with GSM Exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Tong-ning; ZHANG Chen; LV Bin; YANG Lei

    2015-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBC)' flickering present the dynamic properties of the cytomembrane. Its complexity could be used for aging analysis or the evaluation for the storage quality. The flickering activity is a kind of reversible perpendicular motion of the specified pixel. Therefore, the complexity analysis depends on the reliable detection of temporal variation for the gray-scale values from each pixel of the cells. In this paper, we improved our previous work on the screening of the horizontal drifted cells with a surface based on cell registration method and the effect of GSM exposure to the dynamic properties of the RBCs in terms of multi-scale sample entropy was presented in the paper.

  14. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are most commonly used in the treatment of cancers like leukemia and lymphoma to restore stem cells ... use of BMT and PBSCT, see http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/fa... If you are interested in ...

  15. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License ... - Duration: 49:19. Children's Health 33,509 views 49:19 Stem Cell Fraud: ...

  16. Sperm storage and spermatozoa interaction with epithelial cells in oviduct of Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaofan; Zhang, Linli; Le, Yuan; Waqas, Yasir; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Qian; Ullah, Shakeeb; Liu, Tengfei; Hu, Lisi; Li, Quanfu; Yang, Ping

    2015-08-01

    Spermatozoa are known to be stored within the female genital tract after mating in various species to optimize timing of reproductive events such as copulation, fertilization, and ovulation. The mechanism supporting long-term sperm storage is still unclear in turtles. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between the spermatozoa and oviduct in Chinese soft-shelled turtle by light and electron microscopy to reveal the potential cytological mechanism of long-term sperm storage. Spermatozoa were stored in isthmus, uterine, and vagina of the oviduct throughout the year, indicating long-term sperm storage in vivo. Sperm heads were always embedded among the cilia and even intercalated into the apical hollowness of the ciliated cells in the oviduct mucosal epithelium. The stored spermatozoa could also gather in the gland conduit. There was no lysosome distribution around the hollowness of the ciliated cell, suggesting that the ciliated cells of the oviduct can support the spermatozoa instead of phagocytosing them in the oviduct. Immune cells were sparse in the epithelium and lamina propria of oviduct, although few were found inside the blood vessel of mucosa, which may be an indication of immune tolerance during sperm storage in the oviduct of the soft-shelled turtle. These characteristics developed in the turtle benefited spermatozoa survival for a long time as extraneous cells in the oviduct of this species. These findings would help to improve the understanding of reproductive regularity and develop strategies of species conservation in the turtle. The Chinese soft-shelled turtle may be a potential model for uncovering the mechanism behind the sperm storage phenomenon.

  17. Separation of cancer cells from white blood cells by pinched flow fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant; Ashley, Neil; Koprowska, Kamila

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the microfluidic size-separation technique pinched flow fractionation (PFF) is used to separate cancer cells from white blood cells (WBCs). The cells are separated at efficiencies above 90% for both cell types. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are found in the blood of cancer patients...... is challenged by the size overlap between cancer cells and the 106 times more abundant WBCs. The size overlap prevents high efficiency separation, however we demonstrate that cell deformability can be exploited in PFF devices to gain higher efficiencies than expected from the size distribution of the cells....... and can form new tumors. CTCs are rare cells in blood, but they are important for the understanding of metastasis. There is therefore a high interest in developing a method for the enrichment of CTCs from blood samples, which also enables further analysis of the separated cells. The separation...

  18. In-vitro red blood cell partitioning of doxycycline

    OpenAIRE

    P.V. Deshmukh; Badgujar, P.C.; Gatne, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In-vitro red blood cell (RBC) partitioning of doxycycline was studied to determine whether doxycycline penetrates RBC and its concentration was assayed keeping in view its high lipophilicity. Materials and Methods: Standardization of doxycycline was performed in whole blood and plasma of cattle by microbiological assay using Bacillus subtillis ATCC 6633 as indicator organizm. Actual concentration of the drug was obtained by comparing zone inhibition with standard graph and the exte...

  19. Bacterial glycosidases for the production of universal red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Qiyong P; Sulzenbacher, Gerlind; Yuan, Huaiping;

    2007-01-01

    Enzymatic removal of blood group ABO antigens to develop universal red blood cells (RBCs) was a pioneering vision originally proposed more than 25 years ago. Although the feasibility of this approach was demonstrated in clinical trials for group B RBCs, a major obstacle in translating...... of the alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase family reveals an unusual catalytic mechanism involving NAD+. The enzymatic conversion processes we describe hold promise for achieving the goal of producing universal RBCs, which would improve the blood supply while enhancing the safety of clinical transfusions....

  20. Deep coverage mouse red blood cell proteome: a first comparison with the human red blood cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Erica M; Kirkegaard, Morten; Salerno, Doris; Mortensen, Peter; Mann, Matthias; Thomas, Alan W

    2008-07-01

    Mice have close genetic/physiological relationships to humans, breed rapidly, and can be genetically modified, making them the most used mammal in biomedical research. Because the red blood cell (RBC) is the sole gas transporter in vertebrates, diseases of the RBC are frequently severe; much research has therefore focused on RBC and cardiovascular disorders of mouse and humans. RBCs also host malaria parasites. Recently we presented an in-depth proteome for the human RBC. Here we present directly comparable data for the mouse RBC as membrane-only, soluble-only, and combined membrane-bound/soluble proteomes (comprising, respectively, 247, 232, and 165 proteins). All proteins were identified, validated, and categorized in terms of subcellular localization, protein family, and function, and in comparison with the human RBC, were classified as orthologs, family-related, or unique. Splice isoforms were identified, and polypeptides migrating with anomalous apparent molecular weights were grouped into putatively ubiquitinated or partially degraded complexes. Overall there was close concordance between mouse and human proteomes, confirming the unexpected RBC complexity. Several novel findings in the human proteome have been confirmed here. This comparison sheds light on several open issues in RBC biology and provides a departure point for more comprehensive understanding of RBC function.

  1. Generation of iPS Cells from Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Using Episomal Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ruijun Jeanna; Neises, Amanda; Zhang, Xiao-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral blood is the easy-to-access, minimally invasive, and the most abundant cell source to use for cell reprogramming. The episomal vector is among the best approaches for generating integration-free induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells due to its simplicity and affordability. Here we describe the detailed protocol for the efficient generation of integration-free iPS cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. With this optimized protocol, one can readily generate hundreds of iPS cell colonies from 1 ml of peripheral blood.

  2. Apheresis techniques for collection of peripheral blood progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, Rainer

    2004-12-01

    The combination of effective mobilisation protocols and efficient use of apheresis machines has caused peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) transplantation to grow rapidly. The development of apheresis technology has improved over the years. Today PBSC procedures have changed towards systems to minimise operator interaction and to reduce the collection of undesired cells such as polymorphonuclear cells and platelets using functionally closed, sterile environments for PBSC collection in keeping with Good Manufacturing Practice guidelines. Blood cell separators with continuous flow technique allow the processing of more blood than intermittent flow devices resulting in higher PBSC yields. Large volume leukapheresis with the processing of 3-4-fold donor's/patient's blood volume can increase the number of collected progenitor cells. Therefore, intermittent flow cell separators are indicated if only single vein access is available. Anticoagulant induced hypocalcaemia is an often observed side effect in long lasting PBPC harvesting and monitoring of electrolytes should be performed especially at the end of the apheresis procedure to supplement low levels of potassium, calcium or magnesium. Refinement and improvement of collection techniques continue to add to the armamentarium of current approaches for cancer and non-malignant conditions and will enable future strategies.

  3. Hyperforin changes the zinc-storage capacities of brain cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibon, Julien; Richaud, Pierre; Bouron, Alexandre

    2011-12-01

    In vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out to investigate the consequences on brain cells of a chronic treatment with hyperforin, a plant extract known to dissipate the mitochondrial membrane potential and to release Zn(2+) and Ca(2+) from these organelles. Dissociated cortical neurons were grown in a culture medium supplemented with 1 μM hyperforin. Live-cell imaging experiments with the fluorescent probes FluoZin-3 and Fluo-4 show that a 3 day-hyperforin treatment diminishes the size of the hyperforin-sensitive pools of Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) whereas it increases the size of the DTDP-sensitive pool of Zn(2+) without affecting the ionomycin-sensitive pool of Ca(2+). When assayed by quantitative PCR the levels of mRNA coding for metallothioneins (MTs) I, II and III were increased in cortical neurons after a 3 day-hyperforin treatment. This was prevented by the zinc chelator TPEN, indicating that the plant extract controls the expression of MTs in a zinc-dependent manner. Brains of adult mice who received a daily injection (i.p.) of hyperforin (4 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks had a higher sulphur content than control animals. They also exhibited an enhanced expression of the genes coding for MTs. However, the long-term treatment did not affect the brain levels of calcium and zinc. Based on these results showing that hyperforin influences the size of the internal pools of Zn(2+), the expression of MTs and the brain cellular sulphur content, it is proposed that hyperforin changes the Zn-storage capacity of brain cells and interferes with their thiol status.

  4. State of the science of blood cell labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Blood cell labeling can be considered a science in as far as it is based on precise knowledge and can be readily reproduced. This benchmark criterion is applied to all current cell labeling modalities and their relative merits and deficiencies are discussed. Mechanisms are given where they are known as well as labeling yields, label stability, and cell functionality. The focus is on the methodology and its suitability to the clinical setting rather than on clinical applications per se. Clinical results are cited only as proof of efficacy of the various methods. The emphasis is on technetium as the cell label, although comparisons are made between technetium and indium, and all blood cells are covered. 52 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Histomorphometric study on blood cells in male adult ostrich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Tadjalli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform a histomorphometric study of blood cells in male adult ostrich, blood samples were obtained from jugular vein of 10 clinically healthy male adult ostriches (2 - 3 years old. The slides were stained with the Giemsa methods and the smears were evaluated for cellular morphology, with cellular size being determined by micrometry. The findings of this study revealed that the shape of the cell, cytoplasm and nucleus of erythrocytes in male adult ostriches were similar to those in other birds such as quails, chickens, Iranian green-head ducks.

  6. Nanostructured Substrates for Capturing Circulating Tumor Cells in Whole Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hsian-Rong

    2009-03-01

    Over the past decade, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has become an emerging ``biomarker'' for detecting early-stage cancer metastasis, predicting patient prognosis, as well as monitoring disease progression and therapeutic outcomes. However, isolation of CTCs has been technically challenging due to the extremely low abundance (a few to hundreds per ml) of CTCs among a high number of hematologic cells (109 per mL) in the blood. Our joint research team at UCLA has developed a new cell capture technology for quantification of CTCs in whole blood samples. Similar to most of the existing approaches, epithelial cell adhesion molecule antibody (anti-EpCAM) was grafted onto the surfaces to distinguish CTCs from the surrounding hematologic cells. The uniqueness of our technology is the use of nanostructured surfaces, which facilitates local topographical interactions between CTCs and substrates at the very first cell/substrate contacting time point. We demonstrated the ability of these nanostructured substrates to capture CTCs in whole blood samples with significantly improved efficiency and selectivity. The successful demonstration of this cell capture technology using brain, breast and prostate cancer cell lines encouraged us to test this approach in clinical setting. We have been able to bond our first validation study with a commercialized technology based on the use of immunomagnetic nanoparticles. A group of clinically well-characterized prostate cancer patients at UCLA hospital have been recruited and tested in parallel by these two technologies.

  7. Impact of short-term liquid storage on human CD133(+) stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, Cornelia A; Mark, Peter; Klopsch, Christian; Laupheimer, Michael; Tu-Rapp, Hoang; Li, Wenzhong; Ma, Nan; Steinhoff, Gustav; David, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation is a viable strategy for regenerative medicine. However, it is inevitable to have cells undergo storage for several hours or days due to processing and transportation. Therefore, it is crucial to have rigidly controlled conditions ensuring the therapeutic benefit of isolated stem cells. In the present study, we investigated the impact of short-term storage on human CD133(+) cells. CD133(+) cells were isolated from human bone marrow and kept at standardized nonfreezing storage conditions for up to 72 h. Cell viability (apoptosis/necrosis) and expression of CD133 and CXCR4 were analyzed by flow cytometry. Metabolic activity was determined using an MTT assay; colony-forming ability, as well as endothelial-like differentiation, was further evaluated. A qRT-PCR array was employed to investigate the expression of stemness genes. CD133 and CXCR4 expressions were preserved at all time points. After 30 h, cell number and metabolic activity decreased, although no significant changes were detected in cell viability and proliferation as well as endothelial-like differentiation. Cell viability and proliferation decreased significantly only after 72 h of storage. Our results indicate that storage of isolated human CD133(+) bone marrow stem cells in liquid allows for high viability and functionality. However, storage time should be limited in order to avoid cell loss.

  8. Review: The procurement, storage and quality assurance of frozen blood and tissue biospecimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj S. Charde

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The preserved frozen biospecimens are ideal for evaluating the genome, transcriptome, and proteome. Here we present a current overview of experimental data regarding procurement, storage, and quality assurance that can informthe handling of frozen biospecimens. Degradation of frozen biospecimens can be affected by collecting methodology, premortem agonal changes and warm ischemic time during surgery.  Tissue storage at− 80 °C can preserve DNA and protein but RNA show degradation at 5 years, therefore storage at − 150 °C provides significant advantages.  Histologic quality assurance of tissue biospecimens is typically performed at the time of surgery but should also be conducted on the aliquot to be distributed because of tissue heterogeneity.Additional qualityassurance testing should be dictated by the anticipated downstream applications.

  9. [Verification of complete blood cell count (CBC) data from heparinized blood gas samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoguchi, Takafumi; Fujii, Seiji; Inuzumi, Koji; Kaminoh, Yoshiroh; Hirose, Munetaka; Masaki, Mitsuru; Koshiba, Masahiro

    2014-02-01

    Complete blood cell count (CBC) data from heparinized blood gas (H-Gas) samples were verified with primary focus on the platelet count (PLT). When a part of H-Gas sample was taken to a separation tube from the blood collection syringe and CBC of the sample in the separation tube was repeatedly measured (Procedure 1), the PLT from 5 samples relative to that obtained immediately after the separation was gradually reduced to 72.6-94.2% during serial measurements (every 5 minutes, up to 30 minutes). The change in the scattergram pattern suggested that this PLT decrease was due to the formation of platelet clumps. The white blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Ht) values did not significantly change during the repeated measurements. On the other hand, PLT was significantly improved to 96.8-99.8% when the H-Gas sample was kept in the blood collection syringe so as to minimizing the exposure to the air, and the sample for the measurement from H-Gas was taken every time to separation tube from the syringe, followed by CBC measurement without delay (Procedure 2). In addition, while there were significant variations (CV: 11.8-18.2%) in PLT reproducibility among H-Gas samples by Procedure 1, measurements utilizing the Procedure 2 resulted in much smaller variations (CV: 2.2-3.7%). Thus the CBC data obtained from H-Gas samples were equivalent to those from EDTA samples when the Procedure 2 was applied. These data suggest that H-Gas samples can be used for the accurate CBC measurement, including PLT, by applying the Procedure 2.

  10. Cytochemical characteristics of blood cells from Brazilian tortoises (Testudines: Testudinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, G S; Alevi, K C C; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; Bonini-Domingos, C R

    2016-03-18

    The hematology of wild and captive animals is essential for obtaining details about species and represents a simple method of diagnosing disease and determining prognosis. Few studies have described the morphology of chelonian blood cells, which are more common in sea and freshwater turtle species. Thus, in order to further our understanding and recognition of different chelonian cells types, the present study aimed to describe blood cells from the two species of Brazilian tortoises, Chelonoidis carbonarius and C. denticulatus. Cytochemical analysis of tortoise blood tissue with Panótico®, made it possible to describe all the of the chelonian cell types (with the exception of thrombocytes): erythrocytes, agranular leukocytes (monocytes and lymphocytes), and granular leukocytes (eosinophils, heterophils, basophils, and azurophils). These data are of high importance for establishing hematological profiles of Brazilian tortoises and reptiles. Therefore, based on our results and on comparative analyses with data from the literature for other reptile species, we can conclude that the blood cells described for Brazilian tortoises are found in all species of reptiles that have been analyzed thus far, and may be characterized and used as a comparative parameter between different groups to evaluate the health status of these animals.

  11. Membranotropic photobiomodulation on red blood cell deformability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang-Yue; Zhao, Yan-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Liu, Song-Hao

    2007-05-01

    To assess modulation of laser on erythrocyte permeability and deformability via cell morphology changes, healthy human echinocytes with shrinking size and high plasmic viscosity due to cellular dehydration were treated with 1 mW, 2 mW, 3 mW, and 5 mW laser power exposure respectively. Image analyzing system on single intact erythrocyte was applied for measuring comprehensive cell morphological parameters (surface area, external membrane perimeter, circle index and elongation index) that were determined by the modulation of erythrocyte water permeability and deformability to detect relationship between erythrocyte water permeability alteration and deformability. Our preliminary experiment showed that exposure under light dose of 5 mW for 5 min could induce more active erythrocyte swelling and deformation. water channel aquaporin-1(AQP-1) was inhibited by the incubation of HgCl II in the presence and absence of 5 mW laser irradiation. The result suggested that osmotic water permeability is a primary factor in the procedure of erythrocyte deformability. In addition, no modulation of laser(5mW) on erythrocyte deformability had been found when the echinocytes were cultured with GDP-β-S (G protein inhibitor).

  12. Related Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) for Genetic Diseases of Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-11

    Stem Cell Transplantation; Bone Marrow Transplantation; Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Allogeneic Transplantation,; Genetic Diseases; Thalassemia; Pediatrics; Diamond-Blackfan Anemia; Combined Immune Deficiency; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Lymphoproliferative Disease; Metabolic Diseases

  13. Characterization at the individual cell level and in whole blood samples of shear stress preventing red blood cells aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K; Kinnunen, M; Danilina, A V; Ustinov, V D; Shin, S; Meglinski, I; Priezzhev, A V

    2016-05-03

    The aggregation of red blood cells (RBC) is an intrinsic feature of blood that has a strong impact on its microcirculation. For a number of years it has been attracting a great attention in basic research and clinical studies. Here, we study a relationship between the RBC aggregation parameters measured at the individual cell level and in a whole blood sample. The home made optical tweezers were used to measure the aggregating and disaggregating forces for a pair of interacting RBCs, at the individual cell level, in order to evaluate the corresponding shear stresses. The RheoScan aggregometer was used for the measurements of critical shear stress (CSS) in whole blood samples. The correlation between CSS and the shear stress required to stop an RBC pair from aggregating was found. The shear stress required to disaggregate a pair of RBCs using the double channel optical tweezers appeared to be about 10 times higher than CSS. The correlation between shear stresses required to prevent RBCs from aggregation at the individual cell level and in whole blood samples was estimated and assessed quantitatively. The experimental approach developed has a high potential for advancing hemorheological studies.

  14. Magnetic nanoparticle effects on the red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creanga, D E; Nadejde, C; Curecheriu, L [' Al. I. Cuza' University, Faculty of Physics, 11A Blvd. Carol I, Iasi (Romania)], E-mail: dorinacreanga@yahoo.com; Culea, M [' Babes Bolyai' University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Oancea, S [University of Veterinary Medicine ' I. Ionescu de la Brad' , Iasi (Romania); Racuciu, M [' Lucian Blaga' University, Sibiu (Romania)

    2009-05-01

    In vitro tests on magnetite colloidal nanoparticles effects upon animal red blood cells were carried out. Magnetite cores were stabilized with citric acid in the form of biocompatible magnetic fluid administrated in different dilutions in the whole blood samples. The hemolysis extent was found increased up to 2.75 in horse blood and respectively up to 2.81 in the dog blood. The electronic transitions assigned to the heme group were found shifted with about 500 cm{sup -1} or, respectively, affected by supplementary vibronic structures. The Raman vibrations assigned to oxyhemoglobin were much diminished in intensity probably due to the bonding of OH group from citrate shell to the heme iron ion.

  15. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Healthy and Defective Red Blood Cell Settling in Blood Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Z; Rahnama, M; Jafari, S

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to study sedimentation of a red blood cell (RBC) in a plasma-filled tube numerically. Such behaviors are studied for a healthy and a defective cell which might be created due to human diseases, such as diabetes, sickle-cell anemia, and hereditary spherocytosis. Flow-induced deformation of RBC is obtained using finite-element method (FEM), while flow and fluid-membrane interaction are handled using lattice Boltzmann (LB) and immersed boundary methods (IBMs), respectively. The effects of RBC properties as well as its geometry and orientation on its sedimentation rate are investigated and discussed. The results show that decreasing frontal area of an RBC and/or increasing tube diameter results in a faster settling. Comparison of healthy and diabetic cells reveals that less cell deformability leads to slower settling. The simulation results show that the sicklelike and spherelike RBCs have lower settling velocity as compared with a biconcave discoid cell.

  16. Cord Blood as a Source of Natural Killer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohtesh S Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cord blood (CB offers several unique advantages as a graft source for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. The risk of relapse and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD after cord blood transplantation (CBT are lower than what is typically observed after other graft sources with a similar degree of human leukocyte antigen (HLA mismatch. Natural killer (NK cells have a well-defined role in both innate and adaptive immunity and as the first lymphocytes to reconstitute after HSCT and CBT, they play a significant role in protection against early relapse. In this article, we highlight the uses of CB NK cells in transplantation and adoptive immunotherapy. First, we will describe differences in the phenotype and functional characteristics of NK cells in CB as compared with peripheral blood. Then, we will review some of the obstacles we face in using resting CB NK cells for adoptive immunotherapy, and discuss methods to overcome them. We will review the current literature on killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR-ligand mismatch and outcomes after CBT. Finally, we will touch on current strategiesfor the use of CB NK cells in cellular immunotherapy.

  17. Concise review: programming human pluripotent stem cells into blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrook, Jennifer; Fidanza, Antonella; Forrester, Lesley M

    2016-06-01

    Blood disorders are treated with cell therapies including haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation as well as platelet and red blood cell transfusions. However the source of cells is entirely dependent on donors, procedures are susceptible to transfusion-transmitted infections and serious complications can arise in recipients due to immunological incompatibility. These problems could be alleviated if it was possible to produce haematopoietic cells in vitro from an autologous and renewable cell source. The production of haematopoietic cells in the laboratory from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may provide a route to realize this goal but it has proven challenging to generate long-term reconstituting HSCs. To date, the optimization of differentiation protocols has mostly relied on the manipulation of extrinsic signals to mimic the in vivo environment. We review studies that have taken an alternative approach to modulate intrinsic signals by enforced expression of transcription factors. Single and combinations of multiple transcription factors have been used in a variety of contexts to enhance the production of haematopoietic cells from human pluripotent stem cells. This programming approach, together with the recent advances in the production and use of synthetic transcription factors, holds great promise for the production of fully functional HSCs in the future.

  18. Mechanopathology of red blood cell diseases—Why mechanics matters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    During the onset of a disease a cell may experience alterations in both the composition and organization of its cellular and molecular structures.These alterations may eventually lead to changes in its geometrical and mechanical properties such as cell size and shape,deformability and adhesion.As such,knowing how diseased cells respond to mechanical forces can reveal ways by which they differ from healthy ones.Here,we will present biomechanistic insights into red blood cell related diseases that manifest...

  19. Macromolecular Dynamics in Red Blood Cells Investigated Using Neutron Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Stadler, Andreas Maximilian; Demmel, Franz; Artmann, Gerhard; 10.1098/rsif.2010.0306

    2011-01-01

    We present neutron scattering measurements on the dynamics of hemoglobin (Hb) in human red blood cells in vivo. Global and internal Hb dynamics were measured in the ps to ns time- and {\\AA} length-scale using quasielastic neutron backscattering spectroscopy. We observed the cross-over from global Hb short-time to long-time self-diffusion. Both short- and long-time diffusion coefficients agree quantitatively with predicted values from hydrodynamic theory of non-charged hard-sphere suspensions when a bound water fraction of around 0.23g H2O/ g Hb is taken into account. The higher amount of water in the cells facilitates internal protein fluctuations in the ps time-scale when compared to fully hydrated Hb powder. Slower internal dynamics of Hb in red blood cells in the ns time-range were found to be rather similar to results obtained with fully hydrated protein powders, solutions and E. coli cells.

  20. Aggregation of Red Blood Cells: From Rouleaux to Clot Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, C; Svetina, S

    2013-01-01

    Red blood cells are known to form aggregates in the form of rouleaux. This aggregation process is believed to be reversible, but there is still no full understanding on the binding mechanism. There are at least two competing models, based either on bridging or on depletion. We review recent experimental results on the single cell level and theoretical analyses of the depletion model and of the influence of the cell shape on the binding strength. Another important aggregation mechanism is caused by activation of platelets. This leads to clot formation which is life saving in the case of wound healing but also a major cause of death in the case of a thrombus induced stroke. We review historical and recent results on the participation of red blood cells in clot formation.

  1. RBCs and Parasites Segmentation from Thin Smear Blood Cell Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal V. Panchbhai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Manually examine the blood smear for the detection of malaria parasite consumes lot of time for trend pathologists. As the computational power increases, the role of automatic visual inspection becomes more important. An automated system is therefore needed to complete as much work as possible for the identification of malaria parasites. The given scheme based on used of RGB color space, G layer processing, and segmentation of Red Blood Cells (RBC as well as cell parasites by auto-thresholding with offset value and use of morphological processing. The work compare with the manual results obtained from the pathology lab, based on total RBC count and cells parasite count. The designed system successfully detects malaria parasites and RBC cells in thin smear image.

  2. Use of cryopreserved peripheral mononuclear blood cells in biomonitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risom, Lotte; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    1999-01-01

    cells (PMBC) obtained from donor blood. Measurements of DNA-repair, mutant frequency, and subcell content were included. Samples for large biomonitoring studies are usually taken from study groups within a short time period of days/weeks and storing of study material for later analysis can be necessary......This study was performed to investigate the effect of storing blood samples by freezing on selected biomarkers and possible implications for biomonitoring. Comparative measurements were performed in order to investigate the use of cryopreserved vs. freshly separated peripheral mononuclear blood....... We measured the DNA repair activity as dimethylsulfate induced unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in PMBC incubated with either autologous plasma or fetal bovine serum (FBS). Comparison of the hprt mutant frequency by the T cell cloning assay was made in parallel. Finally the content of B...

  3. A spectral and morphologic method for white blood cell classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Chang, Li; Zhou, Mei; Li, Qingli; Liu, Hongying; Guo, Fangmin

    2016-10-01

    The identification of white blood cells is important as it provides an assay for diagnosis of various diseases. To overcome the complexity and inaccuracy of traditional methods based on light microscopy, we proposed a spectral and morphologic method based on hyperspectral blood images. We applied mathematical morphology-based methods to extract spatial information and supervised method is employed for spectral analysis. Experimental results show that white blood cells could be segmented and classified into five types with an overall accuracy of more than 90%. Moreover, the experiments including spectral features reached higher accuracy than the spatial-only cases, with a maximum improvement of nearly 20%. By combing both spatial and spectral features, the proposed method provides higher classification accuracy than traditional methods.

  4. Shear stress-induced improvement of red blood cell deformability

    OpenAIRE

    Meram, Ece; Yılmaz, Bahar D.; Bas, Ceren; Atac, Nazlı; Yalçın, Ö.; Başkurt, Oguz K.; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Classically, it is known that red blood cell (RBC) deformability is determined by the geometric and material properties of these cells. Experimental evidence accumulated during the last decade has introduced the concept of active regulation of RBC deformability. This regulation is mainly related to altered associations between membrane skeletal proteins and integral proteins, with the latter serving to anchor the skeleton to the lipid matrix. It has been hypothesized that shear stress induces...

  5. Expansion of human cord blood hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Song; Chu, Pat; Hwang, William; Lodish, Harvey

    2010-10-08

    A recent Science paper reported a purine derivative that expands human cord blood hematopoietic stem cells in culture (Boitano et al., 2010) by antagonizing the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Major problems need to be overcome before ex vivo HSC expansion can be used clinically.

  6. Red blood cell transfusion during septic shock in the ICU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Smith, S H; Carlsen, S

    2012-01-01

    Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) remains controversial in patients with septic shock, but current practice is unknown. Our aim was to evaluate RBC transfusion practice in septic shock in the intensive care unit (ICU), and patient characteristics and outcome associated with RBC transfusion....

  7. Automated counting of white blood cells in synovial fluid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Jonge (Robert); R.W. Brouwer (Reinoud); M. Smit (Marij); M. de Frankrijker-Merkestijn; R.J. Dolhain; J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); A.W. van Toorenenbergen (Albert); J. Lindemans (Jan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of automated leucocyte (white blood cell; WBC) counting by comparison with manual counting. METHODS: The number of WBC was determined in heparinized synovial fluid samples by the use of (i) a standard urine cytometer (Kova) and a

  8. Hypoxia, hormones, and red blood cell function in chick embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon, Stefanie; Baumann, Rosemarie

    2003-04-01

    The red blood cell function of avian embryos is regulated by cAMP. Adenosine A(2A) and beta-adrenergic receptor activation during hypoxic conditions cause changes in the hemoglobin oxygen affinity and CO(2) transport. Furthermore, experimental evidence suggests a general involvement of cAMP in terminal differentiation of avian erythroblasts.

  9. The effects of cryopreservation on red blood cell rheologic properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, Sandra; Lagerberg, Johan W. M.; Graaff, Reindert; Rakhorst, Gerhard; van Oeveren, Willem

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In transfusion medicine, frozen red blood cells (RBCs) are an alternative for liquid-stored RBCs. Little is known about the rheologic properties (i.e., aggregability and deformability) of thawed RBCs. In this study the rheologic properties of high-glycerol frozen RBCs and postthaw stored

  10. Alterations of red blood cell metabolome in overhydrated hereditary stomatocytosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darghouth, D.; Koehl, B.; Heilier, J.F.; Madalinski, G.; Bovee, P.H.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.; Delaunay, J.; Junot, C.; Romeo, P.H.

    2011-01-01

    Overhydrated hereditary stomatocytosis, clinically characterized by hemolytic anemia, is a rare disorder of the erythrocyte membrane permeability to monovalent cations, associated with mutations in the Rh-associated glycoprotein gene. We assessed the red blood cell metabolome of 4 patients with this

  11. Red blood cell antibodies in pregnancy and their clinical consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordvall, Maria; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine;

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to determine clinical consequences of various specificities for the infant/fetus. The population was patients referred between 1998 and 2005 to the tertiary center because of detected red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization. Altogether 455 infants were delivered by 390 alloimmunized...

  12. Adjustment of Cell-Type Composition Minimizes Systematic Bias in Blood DNA Methylation Profiles Derived by DNA Collection Protocols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh Shiwa

    Full Text Available Differences in DNA collection protocols may be a potential confounder in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS using a large number of blood specimens from multiple biobanks and/or cohorts. Here we show that pre-analytical procedures involved in DNA collection can induce systematic bias in the DNA methylation profiles of blood cells that can be adjusted by cell-type composition variables. In Experiment 1, whole blood from 16 volunteers was collected to examine the effect of a 24 h storage period at 4°C on DNA methylation profiles as measured using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Our statistical analysis showed that the P-value distribution of more than 450,000 CpG sites was similar to the theoretical distribution (in quantile-quantile plot, λ = 1.03 when comparing two control replicates, which was remarkably deviated from the theoretical distribution (λ = 1.50 when comparing control and storage conditions. We then considered cell-type composition as a possible cause of the observed bias in DNA methylation profiles and found that the bias associated with the cold storage condition was largely decreased (λ adjusted = 1.14 by taking into account a cell-type composition variable. As such, we compared four respective sample collection protocols used in large-scale Japanese biobanks or cohorts as well as two control replicates. Systematic biases in DNA methylation profiles were observed between control and three of four protocols without adjustment of cell-type composition (λ = 1.12-1.45 and no remarkable biases were seen after adjusting for cell-type composition in all four protocols (λ adjusted = 1.00-1.17. These results revealed important implications for comparing DNA methylation profiles between blood specimens from different sources and may lead to discovery of disease-associated DNA methylation markers and the development of DNA methylation profile-based predictive risk models.

  13. 78 FR 47714 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell... Health Service Act, as amended), the Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (ACBSCT) advises... Advancing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Hemoglobinopathies. The Council also will...

  14. 78 FR 23571 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell... amended), the Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (ACBSCT) advises the Secretary of the... Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Hemoglobinopathies. The Council will also hear presentations...

  15. Measuring density and compressibility of white blood cells and prostate cancer cells by microchannel acoustophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnkob, Rune; Augustsson, Per; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    to determine the density and compressibility of individual cells enables the prediction and alteration of the separation outcome for a given cell mixture. We apply the method on white blood cells (WBCs) and DU145 prostate cancer cells (DUCs) aiming to improve isolation of circulating tumor cells from blood......We present a novel method for the determination of density and compressibility of individual particles and cells undergoing microchannel acoustophoresis in an arbitrary 2D acoustic field. Our method is a critical advancement within acoustophoretic separation of biological cells, as the ability......, an emerging tool in the monitoring and characterizing of metastatic cancer....

  16. Making the case for direct hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, B.D.; Thomas, C.E.; Baum, G.N.; Lomas, F.D. Jr.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Three obstacles to the introduction of direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are often states: (1) inadequate onboard hydrogen storage leading to limited vehicle range; (2) lack of an hydrogen infrastructure, and (3) cost of the entire fuel cell system. This paper will address the first point with analysis of the problem/proposed solutions for the remaining two obstacles addressed in other papers. Results of a recent study conducted by Directed Technologies Inc. will be briefly presented. The study, as part of Ford Motor Company/DOE PEM Fuel Cell Program, examines multiple pure hydrogen onboard storage systems on the basis of weight, volume, cost, and complexity. Compressed gas, liquid, carbon adsorption, and metal hydride storage are all examined with compressed hydrogen storage at 5,000 psia being judged the lowest-risk, highest benefit, near-term option. These results are combined with recent fuel cell vehicle drive cycle simulations to estimate the onboard hydrogen storage requirement for full vehicle range (380 miles on the combined Federal driving schedule). The results indicate that a PNGV-like vehicle using powertrain weights and performance realistically available by the 2004 PNGV target data can achieve approximate fuel economy equivalent to 100 mpg on gasoline (100 mpg{sub eq}) and requires storage of approximately 3.6 kg hydrogen for full vehicle storage quantity allows 5,000 psia onboard storage without altering the vehicle exterior lines or appreciably encroaching on the passenger or trunk compartments.

  17. Acetylsalicylic acid and morphology of red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Natan Grinapel Frydman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of in vitro and in vivo treatment with ASA on the morphology of the red blood cells. Blood samples or Wistar rats were treated with ASA for one hour. Blood samples or animals treated with saline were used as control group. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphology of red blood cells were evaluated under optical microscopy. Data showed that the in vitro treatment for one hour with ASA at higher dose used significantly (pEste trabalho avaliou o efeito do tratamento in vitro e in vivo com AAS na morfologia dos eritrócitos. Amostras de sangue ou ratos Wistar foram tratadas com AAS por uma hora. Amostras sangüíneas ou animais tratados com salina foram utilizados como grupos controle. Distensões de sangue foram preparadas, fixadas, coradas e a análise morfológica qualitativa e quantitativa dos eritrócitos foi realizada em microscópio óptico. Os dados mostraram que o tratamento in vitro por uma hora com AAS na maior dose utilizada modificou significativamente (p<0.05 a relação perímetro/área dos eritrócitos. Não foram obtidas alterações morfológicas com o tratamento in vivo. O uso do AAS em doses altas poderia interferir na forma dos eritrócitos.

  18. Comparative studies on storage cells in tardigrades during starvation and anhydrobiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy REUNER, Steffen HENGHERR, Franz Brümmer, Ralph O. SCHILL

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of starvation and anhydrobiosis on the number and size of the storage cells in the tardigrade species Milnesium tardigradum, Paramacrobiotus tonollii and Macrobiotus sapiens was investigated to gain more insight on the energetic side of anhydrobiosis. Storage cells are free floating cells within the body cavity of tardigrades and are presumed to store and release energy in form of glycogen, protein and fat to maintain a constant nutrient regime for the other tissues. The body size of the animals was not correlated with the size of the storage cells, however, M. tardigradum the largest species analysed also had the largest storage cells. A reduction in the size of the storage cells is apparent in all three species after seven days of starvation. A seven-day period of anhydrobiosis leads to a decrease in cell size in M. tardigradum but not in P. tonollii and M. sapiens. Although M. sapiens was raised on green algae, and M. tardigradum and P. tonollii were fed with rotifers and nematodes this difference in nourishment was not reflected in the response of the storage cells to anhydrobiosis [Current Zoology 56 (2: 259–263, 2010].

  19. Differentiation of Human Cord Blood and Stromal Derived Stem Cells into Neuron Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Pamukçu Baran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The most basic properties of stem cells are the capacities to self-renew indefinitely and to differentiate into multiple cell or tissue types. Umbilical cord blood has been utilized for human hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as an alternative source to bone marrow.The experiments show that Wharton’s jelly cells are easily attainable and can be expanded in vitro, maintained in culture, and induced to differentiate into neural cells. Almost recent studies it has been discovered that the cord blood-derived cells can differantiate not only to blood cells but also to various somatic cells like neuron or muscle cell with the signals taken from the envoirenment.Interestingly, neural cells obtained from umbilical cord blood show a relatively high spontaneous differentiation into oligodendrocytes, Embryonic stem cells proliferate indefinitely and can differentiate spontaneously into all tissue types.It has been shown that embryonic stem cells can be induced to differentiate into neurons and glia by treatment with retinoic acid or basic fibroblast growth factor. It has been studied that the diseases as Motor Neuron Disease, Parkinson, Alzheimer and degeneration of medulla spinalis and also paralysises could be treated with transplantation of cord blood-dericed stem cells.

  20. Blood cell counting and classification by nonflowing laser light scattering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Xinhui; Jiang, Dazong; Yeo, Joon Hock

    1999-11-01

    A new non-flowing laser light scattering method for counting and classifying blood cells is presented. A linear charge- coupled device with 1024 elements is used to detect the scattered light intensity distribution of the blood cells. A pinhole plate is combined with the CCD to compete the focusing of the measurement system. An isotropic sphere is used to simulate the blood cell. Mie theory is used to describe the scattering of blood cells. In order to inverse the size distribution of blood cells from their scattered light intensity distribution, Powell method combined with precision punishment method is used as a dependent model method for measurement red blood cells and blood plates. Non-negative constraint least square method combined with Powell method and precision punishment method is used as an independent model for measuring white blood cells. The size distributions of white blood cells and red blood cells, and the mean diameter of red blood cells are measured by this method. White blood cells can be divided into three classes: lymphocytes, middle-sized cells and neutrocytes according to their sizes. And the number of blood cells in unit volume can also be measured by the linear dependence of blood cells concentration on scattered light intensity.

  1. Hemoglobin Aggregation in Single Red Blood Cells of Sickle Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Izumi; Tanaka, Toyoichi; Sun, Shao-Tang; Imanishi, Yuri; Tsuyoshi Ohnishi, S.

    1983-06-01

    A laser light scattering technique was used to observe the extent of hemoglobin aggregation in solitary red blood cells of sickle cell anemia. Hemoglobin aggregation was confirmed in deoxygenated cells. The light scattering technique can also be applied to cytoplasmic studies of any biological cell.

  2. Flow of Red Blood Cells in Stenosed Microvessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidkhah, Koohyar; Balogh, Peter; Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2016-06-01

    A computational study is presented on the flow of deformable red blood cells in stenosed microvessels. It is observed that the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect is significantly enhanced due to the presence of a stenosis. The apparent viscosity of blood is observed to increase by several folds when compared to non-stenosed vessels. An asymmetric distribution of the red blood cells, caused by geometric focusing in stenosed vessels, is observed to play a major role in the enhancement. The asymmetry in cell distribution also results in an asymmetry in average velocity and wall shear stress along the length of the stenosis. The discrete motion of the cells causes large time-dependent fluctuations in flow properties. The root-mean-square of flow rate fluctuations could be an order of magnitude higher than that in non-stenosed vessels. Several folds increase in Eulerian velocity fluctuation is also observed in the vicinity of the stenosis. Surprisingly, a transient flow reversal is observed upstream a stenosis but not downstream. The asymmetry and fluctuations in flow quantities and the flow reversal would not occur in absence of the cells. It is concluded that the flow physics and its physiological consequences are significantly different in micro- versus macrovascular stenosis.

  3. Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells. Who has the right word?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Laporta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze bioethical and legal aspects related to the cryopreservation of cord blood stem cells in Argentina. To unify definitions, the concept and variety of stem cells, together with the understanding of the means to obtain and store umbilical cord blood stem cells, are provided.  Options that arise in our country, mainly analyzing the conceptual differences underlying legal body and parts by public and private biobanks, are described. Additionally, the current Argentinean legislation and circumstances arising from a resolution which INCUCAI sought to regulate private biobanks, is analyzed. This analysis leads to thoughts on the way conflicts are solved when the health and life of people are judicialized. In this particular case, the appearance of a complex new topic which gives rise to new social and healthcare scenarios, must be further understood.

  4. Structural analysis of red blood cell aggregates under shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnutt, J K W; Marshall, J S

    2010-03-01

    A set of measures of red blood cell (RBC) aggregates are developed and applied to examine the aggregate structure under plane shear and channel flows. Some of these measures are based on averages over the set of red blood cells which are in contact with each other at a given time. Other measures are developed by first fitting an ellipse to the planar projection of the aggregate, and then examining the area and aspect ratio of the fit ellipse as well as the orientations of constituent RBCs with respect to the fit ellipse axes. The aggregate structural measures are illustrated using a new mesoscale computational model for blood cell transport, collision and adhesion. The sensitivity of this model to change in adhesive surface energy density and shear rate on the aggregate structure is examined. It is found that the mesoscale model predictions exhibit reasonable agreement with experimental and theoretical data for blood flow in plane shear and channel flows. The new structural measures are used to examine the differences between predictions of two- and three-dimensional computations of the aggregate formation, showing that two-dimensional computations retain some of the important aspects of three-dimensional computations.

  5. The influence of platelets, plasma and red blood cells on functional haemostatic assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochsen, Louise; Johansson, Pär I; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Daugaard, Gedske; Ostrowski, Sisse R

    2011-04-01

    Functional whole blood haemostatic assays are used increasingly to guide transfusion therapy and monitor medical treatment and are also applied for in-vitro evaluations of the haemostatic potential of stored platelets. We investigated how the cellular and plasmatic elements, both isolated and combined, influenced the two methodologically different assays, thrombelastography (TEG) and impedance aggregometry (Multiplate). Platelet-rich plasma (200 × 10/l) or pure plasma (0 platelets), with and without added red blood cells (RBCs), hematocrit 0, 0.15 or 0.29, were produced in vitro from platelet concentrates, fresh frozen plasma and stored RBC. Pure platelets were investigated by removing plasma components from platelet concentrates by diafiltration against the platelet storage solution Intersol. Plasma was readded by diafiltration against plasma in Intersol. Haemostatic function was evaluated by TEG and Multiplate. In the TEG, increasing amounts of RBC reduced clot strength and clot kinetics (α-angle), most markedly in plasma/RBC without platelets. In contrast, RBC in a platelet concentrate matrix enhanced Multiplate aggregation in response to weak agonists (ADP and arachidonic acid). Furthermore, removing plasma from platelet concentrates eliminated the TEG response and diminished the Multiplate aggregation response, but readding plasma to the pure platelet concentrates restored the response. Each of the elements in whole blood, plasma, platelets and RBC, affected the Multiplate and TEG results differently. The results emphasize that the concentrations of all cellular and plasmatic components in whole blood should be taken into account when interpreting results obtained by TEG and multiplate.

  6. Biomechanics and biorheology of red blood cells in sickle cell anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuejin; Dao, Ming; Lykotrafitis, George; Karniadakis, George Em

    2017-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is an inherited blood disorder that causes painful crises due to vaso-occlusion of small blood vessels. The primary cause of the clinical phenotype of SCA is the intracellular polymerization of sickle hemoglobin resulting in sickling of red blood cells (RBCs) in deoxygenated conditions. In this review, we discuss the biomechanical and biorheological characteristics of sickle RBCs and sickle blood as well as their implications toward a better understanding of the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of SCA. Additionally, we highlight the adhesive heterogeneity of RBCs in SCA and their specific contribution to vaso-occlusive crisis. PMID:27876368

  7. Biomechanics and biorheology of red blood cells in sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuejin; Dao, Ming; Lykotrafitis, George; Karniadakis, George Em

    2017-01-04

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is an inherited blood disorder that causes painful crises due to vaso-occlusion of small blood vessels. The primary cause of the clinical phenotype of SCA is the intracellular polymerization of sickle hemoglobin resulting in sickling of red blood cells (RBCs) in deoxygenated conditions. In this review, we discuss the biomechanical and biorheological characteristics of sickle RBCs and sickle blood as well as their implications toward a better understanding of the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of SCA. Additionally, we highlight the adhesive heterogeneity of RBCs in SCA and their specific contribution to vaso-occlusive crisis.

  8. Erythropoietic Potential of CD34+ Hematopoietic Stem Cells from Human Cord Blood and G-CSF-Mobilized Peripheral Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglian Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cell (RBC supply for transfusion has been severely constrained by the limited availability of donor blood and the emergence of infection and contamination issues. Alternatively, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs from human organs have been increasingly considered as safe and effective blood source. Several methods have been studied to obtain mature RBCs from CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells via in vitro culture. Among them, human cord blood (CB and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized adult peripheral blood (mPB are common adult stem cells used for allogeneic transplantation. Our present study focuses on comparing CB- and mPB-derived stem cells in differentiation from CD34+ cells into mature RBCs. By using CD34+ cells from cord blood and G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood, we showed in vitro RBC generation of artificial red blood cells. Our results demonstrate that CB- and mPB-derived CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells have similar characteristics when cultured under the same conditions, but differ considerably with respect to expression levels of various genes and hemoglobin development. This study is the first to compare the characteristics of CB- and mPB-derived erythrocytes. The results support the idea that CB and mPB, despite some similarities, possess different erythropoietic potentials in in vitro culture systems.

  9. Multiscale Modeling of Red Blood Cells Squeezing through Submicron Slits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhangli; Lu, Huijie

    2016-11-01

    A multiscale model is applied to study the dynamics of healthy red blood cells (RBCs), RBCs in hereditary spherocytosis, and sickle cell disease squeezing through submicron slits. This study is motivated by the mechanical filtration of RBCs by inter-endothelial slits in the spleen. First, the model is validated by comparing the simulation results with experiments. Secondly, the deformation of the cytoskeleton in healthy RBCs is investigated. Thirdly, the mechanisms of damage in hereditary spherocytosis are investigated. Finally, the effects of cytoplasm and membrane viscosities, especially in sickle cell disease, are examined. The simulations results provided guidance for future experiments to explore the dynamics of RBCs under extreme deformation.

  10. Spontaneous Packaging and Hypothermic Storage of Mammalian Cells with a Cell-Membrane-Mimetic Polymer Hydrogel in a Microchip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Mawatari, Kazuma; Konno, Tomohiro; Kitamori, Takehiko; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2015-10-21

    Currently, continuous culture/passage and cryopreservation are two major, well-established methods to provide cultivated mammalian cells for experiments in laboratories. Due to the lack of flexibility, however, both laboratory-oriented methods are unable to meet the need for rapidly growing cell-based applications, which require cell supply in a variety of occasions outside of laboratories. Herein, we report spontaneous packaging and hypothermic storage of mammalian cells under refrigerated (4 °C) and ambient conditions (25 °C) using a cell-membrane-mimetic methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymer hydrogel incorporated within a glass microchip. Its capability for hypothermic storage of cells was comparatively evaluated over 16 days. The results reveal that the cytocompatible MPC polymer hydrogel, in combination with the microchip structure, enabled hypothermic storage of cells with quite high viability, high intracellular esterase activity, maintained cell membrane integrity, and small morphological change for more than 1 week at 4 °C and at least 4 days at 25 °C. Furthermore, the stored cells could be released from the hydrogel and exhibited the ability to adhere to a surface and achieve confluence under standard cell culture conditions. Both hypothermic storage conditions are ordinary flexible conditions which can be easily established in places outside of laboratories. Therefore, cell packaging and storage using the hydrogel incorporated within the microchip would be a promising miniature and portable solution for flexible supply and delivery of small amounts of cells from bench to bedside.

  11. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some red blood cells shaped like spheres ( hereditary spherocytosis ) Increased breakdown of RBCs Presence of RBCs with ... normal Red blood cells, elliptocytosis Red blood cells, spherocytosis Acute lymphocytic leukemia - photomicrograph Red blood cells, multiple ...

  12. [Morphometry and electrophoretic mobility of red blood cells from patients with asthma in the intravenous blood laser irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarycheva, T G; Tsybzhitova, E B; Popova, O V; Aleksandrov, O V

    2009-03-01

    The morphometry and electrophoretic mobility of red blood cells from patients with infection-dependent asthma were comparatively studied prior to and following treatment. The patients who had underwent intravenous laser irradiation of blood (ILIB) in addition to conventional therapy had better morphofunctional parameters of red blood cells, by restoring their normal forms, decreasing their transitional ones, and increasing their electrophoretic mobility to normal values. Those who received traditional drug therapy showed no considerable morphofunctional changes of erythrocytes. Thus, in asthmatic patients, the changes in the morphology and function of red blood cells may suggest their membranous structural changes for whose correction ILIB should used.

  13. The Quality Assessment of Stored Red Blood Cells Probed Using Atomic-Force Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Lamzin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At the moment the suitability of stored red blood cells (sRBC for transfusion is checked by routine methods such as haemoglobin estimation and the level of haemolysis. These methods cannot characterize directly the quality of the membranes of sRBC. The aim of this work is to assess the quality of sRBC based on such criteria as the membrane’s stiffness and the size and the form of sRBC. Materials and Methods. We have investigated 5 series of dry cytosmears of the sRBC which had been kept in blood bank in a period from 1 to 35 days. After AFM imaging, in every specimen, 5 RBC were chosen at random; the diameter, the height, and the stiffness were measured on each of them. Results. The present study shows high increase of the mean values of YM and height of RBC after 35 days of storage and decrease of the mean values of their diameter. Conclusion. Statistically significant high increase of the mean values of YM indicates the decrease of the elasticity of the cells in the course of storing of the RBC. This parameter along with the morphological characteristics can be used as criterion for assessment of applicability of the sRBC for blood transfusion.

  14. The quality assessment of stored red blood cells probed using atomic-force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamzin, I M; Khayrullin, R M

    2014-01-01

    At the moment the suitability of stored red blood cells (sRBC) for transfusion is checked by routine methods such as haemoglobin estimation and the level of haemolysis. These methods cannot characterize directly the quality of the membranes of sRBC. The aim of this work is to assess the quality of sRBC based on such criteria as the membrane's stiffness and the size and the form of sRBC. Materials and Methods. We have investigated 5 series of dry cytosmears of the sRBC which had been kept in blood bank in a period from 1 to 35 days. After AFM imaging, in every specimen, 5 RBC were chosen at random; the diameter, the height, and the stiffness were measured on each of them. Results. The present study shows high increase of the mean values of YM and height of RBC after 35 days of storage and decrease of the mean values of their diameter. Conclusion. Statistically significant high increase of the mean values of YM indicates the decrease of the elasticity of the cells in the course of storing of the RBC. This parameter along with the morphological characteristics can be used as criterion for assessment of applicability of the sRBC for blood transfusion.

  15. Cell-cell interaction in blood flow in patients with coronary heart disease (in vitro study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2007-02-01

    Blood cell-cell and cell-vessel wall interactions are one of the key patterns in blood and vascular pathophysiology. We have chosen the method of reconstruction of pulsative blood flow in vitro in the experimental set. Blood flow structure was studied by PC integrated video camera with following slide by slide analysis. Studied flow was of constant volumetric blood flow velocity (1 ml/h). Diameter of tube in use was comparable with coronary arteries diameter. Glucose solution and unfractured heparin were used as the nonspecial irritants of studied flow. Erythrocytes space structure in flow differs in all groups of patients in our study (men with stable angina pectoris (SAP), myocardial infarction (MI) and practically healthy men (PHM). Intensity of erythrocytes aggregate formation was maximal in patients with SAP, but time of their "construction/deconstruction" at glucose injection was minimal. Phenomena of primary clotting formation in patients with SAP of high function class was reconstructed under experimental conditions. Heparin injection (10 000 ED) increased linear blood flow velocity both in patients with SAP, MI and PHP but modulated the cell profile in the flow. Received data correspond with results of animal model studies and noninvasive blood flow studies in human. Results of our study reveal differences in blood flow structure in patients with coronary heart disease and PHP under irritating conditions as the possible framework of metabolic model of coronary blood flow destabilization.

  16. Characterization of red blood cells (RBCs) using dual Brillouin/Raman micro-spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhaokai; Bustamante-Lopez, Sandra C.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2016-04-01

    Erythrocytes, or red blood cells, transport oxygen to and carbon dioxide from the body's tissues and organs. Red blood cell mechanical properties are altered in a number of diseases such as sickle cell anaemia and malaria. Additionally, mechanically modified red blood cell ghosts are being considered as a long-term, biocompatible carrier for drug delivery and for blood analyte sensing. Brillouin spectroscopy enables viscoelastic characterization of samples at the microscale. In this report, Brillouin spectroscopy is applied to characterize the mechanical properties of red blood cells and red blood cell ghosts.

  17. Saving the leftovers: models for banking cord blood stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogdell, Kimberly J

    2009-01-01

    Each year there are over four million live births in the United States. Each birth produces umbilical cord blood stem cells, which are usually discarded. The author argues that rather than discarding the umbilical cord, this valuable resource of cord blood should be banked and used for research and therapeutic purposes. Umbilical cord blood could provide a solution to the critical need to find matching donors for hematopoietic transplants in patients who have no matching bone marrow donors. Creating a system of universal donation to a public bank will greatlyincrease the number of donors and therefore, the number of matches for patients. Such a system will facilitate the development and use of new technologies and transplant procedures, while providing an opportunity for treatment to individuals who would otherwise not be able to find suitable donors.

  18. Mobility Enhancement of Red Blood Cells with Biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Daiki; Oikawa, Noriko; Kurita, Rei

    2016-03-01

    Adhesion of red blood cells (RBC) to substrates are one of crucial problems for a blood clot. Here we investigate the mobility of RBC between two glass substrates in saline with polymer systems. We find that RBCs are adhered to the glass substrate with PEG, however the mobility steeply increases with fibrinogen and dextran, which are biopolymers. We also find that the mobility affects an aggregation dynamics of RBCs, which is related with diseases such as influenza, blood clot and so on. The Brownian motion helps to increase probability of contact with each other and to find a more stable condition of the aggregation. Thus the biopolymers play important roles not only for preventing the adhesion but also for the aggregation.

  19. A method to collect, store and issue multiple aliquots of packed red blood cells for neonatal transfusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R G; Villhauer, P J; Cordle, D G

    1995-01-01

    Premature neonates require multiple red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Single-donor programs have been proposed as a means to limit donor exposures, but methods must be developed to collect, store long-term and issue multiple aliquots of RBCs from a single donor. We evaluated a method by which RBCs could be collected, leukocyte depleted, repeatedly centrifuged for issuance as multiple small aliquots of high-hematocrit cells and then resuspended for continued storage throughout 42 days. The quality of RBCs handled by the method were compared to cells stored in standard fashion. Leakage of intracellular potassium, hemoglobin and lactic dehydrogenase into the extracellular fluid from RBCs processed by either method was comparable-indicating maintenance of RBC integrity. Multiple cultures, taken throughout the period of storage, were sterile to document that extensive handling did not introduce contamination. This new method appears promising as a means to provide RBCs for neonates.

  20. 2-D Model for Normal and Sickle Cell Blood Microcirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekleab, Yonatan; Harris, Wesley

    2011-11-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disorder that alters the red blood cell (RBC) structure and function such that hemoglobin (Hb) cannot effectively bind and release oxygen. Previous computational models have been designed to study the microcirculation for insight into blood disorders such as SCD. Our novel 2-D computational model represents a fast, time efficient method developed to analyze flow dynamics, O2 diffusion, and cell deformation in the microcirculation. The model uses a finite difference, Crank-Nicholson scheme to compute the flow and O2 concentration, and the level set computational method to advect the RBC membrane on a staggered grid. Several sets of initial and boundary conditions were tested. Simulation data indicate a few parameters to be significant in the perturbation of the blood flow and O2 concentration profiles. Specifically, the Hill coefficient, arterial O2 partial pressure, O2 partial pressure at 50% Hb saturation, and cell membrane stiffness are significant factors. Results were found to be consistent with those of Le Floch [2010] and Secomb [2006].

  1. Axial dispersion in flowing red blood cell suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorski, Thomas; Losserand, Sylvain; Coupier, Gwennou

    2016-11-01

    A key parameter in blood microcirculation is the transit time of red blood cells (RBCs) through an organ, which can influence the efficiency of gas exchange and oxygen availability. A large dispersion of this transit time is observed in vivo and is partly due to the axial dispersion in the flowing suspension. In the classic Taylor-Aris example of a solute flowing in a tube, the combination of molecular diffusion and parabolic velocity profile leads to enhanced axial dispersion. In suspensions of non-Brownian deformable bodies such as RBCs, axial dispersion is governed by a combination of shear induced migration and shear-induced diffusion arising from hydrodynamic interactions. We revisit this problem in the case of RBC pulses flowing in a microchannel and show that the axial dispersion of the pulse eventually saturates with a final extension that depends directly on RBC mechanical properties. The result is especially interesting in the dilute limit since the final pulse length depends only on the channel width, exponent of the migration law and dimensionless migration velocity. In continuous flow, the dispersion of transit times is the result of complex cell-cell and cell-wall interactions and is strongy influenced by the polydispersity of the blood sample. The authors acknowledge support from LabEx TEC21 and CNES.

  2. Effects of chronic kidney disease on blood cells membrane properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderjakova, Z; Lajdova, I; Horvathova, M; Morvova, M; Sikurova, L

    2012-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is progressive loss of renal function associated among others with increased intracellular calcium concentration. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of CKD on cell membrane properties such as human red blood cell Ca(2+) ATPase activity, lymphocyte plasma membrane P2X(7) receptor expression and function. This could help us in elucidating the origin of increased calcium concentration in blood cells. We found out Ca(2+) ATPase activity is decreased in early stage CKD patients resulting in altered calcium removal from cytoplasm. By means of flow cytometry we assessed that P2X(7) receptor expression on lymphocyte membrane is 1.5 fold increased for CKD patients. Moreover, we detected an increased uptake of ethidium bromide through this receptor in CKD at basal conditions. It means CKD lymphocyte membranes contain more receptors which are more permeable thus allowing increased calcium influx from extracellular milieu. Finally, we can state alterations in blood cell membranes are closely linked to CKD and may be responsible for intracellular calcium accumulation.

  3. Packed red blood cells are an abundant and proximate potential source of nitric oxide synthase inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F Zwemer

    Full Text Available We determined, for packed red blood cells (PRBC and fresh frozen plasma, the maximum content, and ability to release the endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitors asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and monomethylarginine (LNMMA.ADMA and LNMMA are near equipotent NOS inhibitors forming blood's total NOS inhibitory content. The balance between removal from, and addition to plasma determines their free concentrations. Removal from plasma is by well-characterized specific hydrolases while formation is restricted to posttranslational protein methylation. When released into plasma they can readily enter endothelial cells and inhibit NOS. Fresh rat and human whole blood contain substantial protein incorporated ADMA however; the maximum content of ADMA and LNMMA in PRBC and fresh frozen plasma has not been determined.We measured total (free and protein incorporated ADMA and LNMMA content in PRBCs and fresh frozen plasma, as well as their incubation induced release, using HPLC with fluorescence detection. We tested the hypothesis that PRBC and fresh frozen plasma contain substantial inhibitory methylarginines that can be released chemically by complete in vitro acid hydrolysis or physiologically at 37°C by enzymatic blood proteolysis.In vitro strong-acid-hydrolysis revealed a large PRBC reservoir of ADMA (54.5 ± 9.7 µM and LNMMA (58.9 ± 28.9 μM that persisted over 42-d at 6° or -80°C. In vitro 5h incubation at 37°C nearly doubled free ADMA and LNMMNA concentration from PRBCs while no change was detected in fresh frozen plasma.The compelling physiological ramifications are that regardless of storage age, 1 PRBCs can rapidly release pathologically relevant quantities of ADMA and LNMMA when incubated and 2 PRBCs have a protein-incorporated inhibitory methylarginines reservoir 100 times that of normal free inhibitory methylarginines in blood and thus could represent a clinically relevant and proximate risk for iatrogenic NOS inhibition upon

  4. Pyruvate effects on red blood cells during in vitro cardiopulmonary bypass with dogs' blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, DaMing; Tan, HongJing; Cai, HuiJun; Zhou, FangQiang

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the effects of pyruvate (Pyr) on adenosine triphosphate (ATP), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and nitric oxide (NO) in red blood cells (RBCs) during the cardiopulmonary bypass procedure (CPB), blood, 500 mL, was collected from each of 10 healthy dogs (weight 12-18 kg). The blood was divided into two parts (250 mL each) and randomly assigned into the control group (Group C, n = 10) or the Pyr group (Group P, n = 10). The blood was commingled with an equal volume of 0.9% NaCl and pyruvated isotonic solution (Pyr 50 mM) in the extracorporeal circuit in the two groups, respectively. The CPB procedure was fixed at 120 min, and the transferring flow was 4 L/min. Contents of ATP in RBCs, eNOS activities, and NO productions in plasma were measured before CPB and during CPB at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min in both groups. The ATP level, eNOS activity, and NO production were not different prior to CPB between the two groups. A decline of ATP levels was shown in both groups but remained significantly higher in Group P than in Group C at the same time points during in vitro CPB (P dogs' RBCs in the ATP level, eNOS activity, and NO production, in vitro, but Pyr effectively protected RBCs in these functions during CPB. Pyr would be clinically protective for RBCs during CPB.

  5. Pleomorphic Structures in Human Blood Are Red Blood Cell-Derived Microparticles, Not Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Adam J.; Gray, Warren D.; Schroeder, Max; Yi, Hong; Taylor, Jeannette V.; Dillard, Rebecca S.; Ke, Zunlong; Wright, Elizabeth R.; Stephens, David; Roback, John D.; Searles, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are a common, life-saving therapy for many patients, but they have also been associated with poor clinical outcomes. We identified unusual, pleomorphic structures in human RBC transfusion units by negative-stain electron microscopy that appeared identical to those previously reported to be bacteria in healthy human blood samples. The presence of viable, replicating bacteria in stored blood could explain poor outcomes in transfusion recipients and have major implications for transfusion medicine. Here, we investigated the possibility that these structures were bacteria. Results Flow cytometry, miRNA analysis, protein analysis, and additional electron microscopy studies strongly indicated that the pleomorphic structures in the supernatant of stored RBCs were RBC-derived microparticles (RMPs). Bacterial 16S rDNA PCR amplified from these samples were sequenced and was found to be highly similar to species that are known to commonly contaminate laboratory reagents. Conclusions These studies suggest that pleomorphic structures identified in human blood are RMPs and not bacteria, and they provide an example in which laboratory contaminants may can mislead investigators. PMID:27760197

  6. Red cell properties after different modes of blood transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asya Makhro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Transportation of blood samples is unavoidable for assessment of specific parameters in blood of patients with rare anemias, blood doping testing or for research purposes. Despite the awareness that shipment may substantially alter multiple parameters, no study of that extend has been performed to assess these changes and optimize shipment conditions to reduce transportation-related artifacts. Here we investigate the changes in multiple parameters in blood of healthy donors over 72 hours of simulated shipment conditions. Three different anticoagulants (K3EDTA, Sodium Heparin and citrate-based CPDA for two temperatures (4oC and room temperature were tested to define the optimal transportation conditions. Parameters measured cover common cytology and biochemistry parameters (complete blood count, hematocrit, morphological examination, red blood cell (RBC volume, ion content and density, membrane properties and stability (hemolysis, osmotic fragility, membrane heat stability, patch-clamp investigations and formation of micro vesicles, Ca2+ handling, RBC metabolism, activity of numerous enzymes and O2 transport capacity. Our findings indicate that individual sets of parameter may require different shipment settings (anticoagulants, temperature. Most of the parameters except for ion (Na+, K+, Ca2+ handling and, possibly, reticulocytes counts, tend to favor transportation at 4oC. Whereas plasma and intraerythrocytic Ca2+ cannot be accurately measured in the presence of chelators such as citrate and EDTA, majority of Ca2+-dependent parameters are stabilized in CPDA samples. Even in blood samples from healthy donors transported using optimized shipment protocol the majority of parameters were stable within 24 hours, the condition that may not hold for the samples of patients with rare anemias. This implies for the as short as possible shipping using fast courier services to the closest expert laboratory at reach. Mobile laboratories or the travel of the

  7. High temperature solid oxide regenerative fuel cell for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.

    1987-01-01

    A hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell energy storage system based on high temperature solid oxide fuel cell technology is discussed which has application to darkside energy storage for solar photovoltaics. The forward and reverse operating cycles are described, and heat flow, mass, and energy balance data are presented to characterize the system's performance and the variation of performance with changing reactant storage pressure. The present system weighs less than nickel hydrogen battery systems after 0.7 darkside operation, and it maintains a specific weight advantage over radioisotope generators for discharge periods up to 72 hours.

  8. Super-capacitors as an energy storage for fuel cell automotive hybrid electrical system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thounthong, P.; Rael, St.; Davat, B. [Institut National Polytechnique, GREEN-INPL-CNRS (UMR 7037), 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2004-07-01

    The design, implementation and testing of a purely super-capacitors energy storage system for automotive system having a fuel cell as main source are presented. The system employs a super-capacitive storage device, composed of six components (3500 F, 2.5 V, 400 A) associated in series. This device is connected to automotive 42 V DC bus by a 2-quadrant DC-DC converter. The control structure of the system is realised by means of analogical and digital control. The experimental results show that super-capacitors are suitable as energy storage device for fuel cell automotive electrical system. (authors)

  9. Blood cell telomere length is a dynamic feature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Svenson

    Full Text Available There is a considerable heterogeneity in blood cell telomere length (TL for individuals of similar age and recent studies have revealed that TL changes by time are dependent on TL at baseline. TL is partly inherited, but results from several studies indicate that e.g. life style and/or environmental factors can affect TL during life. Collectively, these studies imply that blood cell TL might fluctuate during a life time and that the actual TL at a defined time point is the result of potential regulatory mechanism(s and environmental factors. We analyzed relative TL (RTL in subsequent blood samples taken six months apart from 50 individuals and found significant associations between RTL changes and RTL at baseline. Individual RTL changes per month were more pronounced than the changes recorded in a previously studied population analyzed after 10 years' follow up. The data argues for an oscillating TL pattern which levels out at longer follow up times. In a separate group of five blood donors, a marked telomere loss was demonstrated within a six month period for one donor where after TL was stabilized. PCR determined RTL changes were verified by Southern blotting and STELA (single telomere elongation length analysis. The STELA demonstrated that for the donor with a marked telomere loss, the heterogeneity of the telomere distribution decreased considerably, with a noteworthy loss of the largest telomeres. In summary, the collected data support the concept that individual blood cell telomere length is a dynamic feature and this will be important to recognize in future studies of human telomere biology.

  10. Computer-Aided Diagnosis Of Leukemic Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, U.; Harms, H.; Haucke, M.; Aus, H. M.; ter Meulen, V.

    1982-11-01

    In a first clinical test, computer programs are being used to diagnose leukemias. The data collected include blood samples from patients suffering from acute myelomonocytic-, acute monocytic- and acute promyelocytic, myeloblastic, prolymphocytic, chronic lymphocytic leukemias and leukemic transformed immunocytoma. The proper differentiation of the leukemic cells is essential because the therapy depends on the type of leukemia. The algorithms analyse the fine chromatin texture and distribution in the nuclei as well as size and shape parameters from the cells and nuclei. Cells with similar nuclei from different leukemias can be distinguished from each other by analyzing the cell cytoplasm images. Recognition of these subtle differences in the cells require an image sampling rate of 15-30 pixel/micron. The results for the entire data set correlate directly to established hematological parameters and support the previously published initial training set .

  11. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Alexandra; Olmer, Ruth; Schwanke, Kristin; Wunderlich, Stephanie; Merkert, Sylvia; Hess, Christian; Zweigerdt, Robert; Gruh, Ina; Meyer, Johann; Wagner, Stefan; Maier, Lars S; Han, Dong Wook; Glage, Silke; Miller, Konstantin; Fischer, Philipp; Schöler, Hans R; Martin, Ulrich

    2009-10-02

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may represent an ideal cell source for future regenerative therapies. A critical issue concerning the clinical use of patient-specific iPSCs is the accumulation of mutations in somatic (stem) cells over an organism's lifetime. Acquired somatic mutations are passed onto iPSCs during reprogramming and may be associated with loss of cellular functions and cancer formation. Here we report the generation of human iPSCs from cord blood (CB) as a juvenescent cell source. CBiPSCs show characteristics typical of embryonic stem cells and can be differentiated into derivatives of all three germ layers, including functional cardiomyocytes. For future therapeutic production of autologous and allogeneic iPSC derivatives, CB could be routinely harvested for public and commercial CB banks without any donor risk. CB could readily become available for pediatric patients and, in particular, for newborns with genetic diseases or congenital malformations.

  12. Continuous-flow microfluidic blood cell sorting for unprocessed whole blood using surface-micromachined microfiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Weiqiang; Liu, Guangyu; Lu, Wei; Fu, Jianping

    2014-07-21

    White blood cells (WBCs) constitute about 0.1% of the blood cells, yet they play a critical role in innate and adaptive immune responses against pathogenic infections, allergic conditions, and malignancies and thus contain rich information about the immune status of the body. Rapid isolation of WBCs directly from whole blood is a prerequisite for any integrated immunoassay platform designed for examining WBC phenotypes and functions; however, such functionality is still challenging for blood-on-a-chip systems, as existing microfluidic cell sorting techniques are inadequate for efficiently processing unprocessed whole blood on chip with concurrent high throughput and cell purity. Herein we report a microfluidic chip for continuous-flow isolation and sorting of WBCs from whole blood with high throughput and separation efficiency. The microfluidic cell sorting chip leveraged the crossflow filtration scheme in conjunction with a surface-micromachined poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfiltration membrane (PMM) with high porosity. With a sample throughput of 1 mL h(-1), the microfluidic cell sorting chip could recover 27.4 ± 4.9% WBCs with a purity of 93.5 ± 0.5%. By virtue of its separation efficiency, ease of sample recovery, and high throughput enabled by its continuous-flow operation, the microfluidic cell sorting chip holds promise as an upstream component for blood sample preparation and analysis in integrated blood-on-a-chip systems.

  13. The use of dried blood spot samples in the diagnosis of lysosomal storage disorders--current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuser, Arnold J; Verheijen, Frans W; Bali, Deeksha; van Diggelen, Otto P; Germain, Dominique P; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Lukacs, Zoltan; Mühl, Adolf; Olivova, Petra; Piraud, Monique; Wuyts, Birgit; Zhang, Kate; Keutzer, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) methods are currently available for identification of a range of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs). These disorders are generally characterized by a deficiency of activity of a lysosomal enzyme and by a broad spectrum of phenotypes. Diagnosis of LSD patients is often delayed, which is of particular concern as therapeutic outcomes (e.g. enzyme replacement therapy) are generally more favorable in early disease stages. Experts in the field of LSDs diagnostics and screening programs convened and reviewed experiences with the use of DBS methods, and discuss the diagnostic challenges, possible applications and quality programs in this paper. Given the easy sampling and shipping and stability of samples, DBS has evident advantages over other laboratory methods and can be particularly helpful in the early identification of affected LSD patients through neonatal screening, high-risk population screening or family screening.

  14. Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: In vitro assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benarroz, M.O. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010-180 Natal, RN (Brazil); Fonseca, A.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Rocha, G.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frydman, J.N.G. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010-180 Natal, RN (Brazil); Rocha, V.C.; Pereira, M.O. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)] (and others)

    2008-02-15

    Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99 m({sup 99m}Tc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI on BC, IF-P and IF-BC. No modifications were verified on shape of red blood cells. Cinnamon extracts could alter the labelling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon.

  15. Peripheral red blood cell split chimerism as a consequence of intramedullary selective apoptosis of recipient red blood cells in a case of sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziali, Marco; Isgrò, Antonella; Sodani, Pietro; Gaziev, Javid; Fraboni, Daniela; Paciaroni, Katia; Gallucci, Cristiano; Alfieri, Cecilia; Roveda, Andrea; De Angelis, Gioia; Cardarelli, Luisa; Ribersani, Michela; Andreani, Marco; Lucarelli, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic cellular gene therapy through hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only radical cure for congenital hemoglobinopathies like thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. Persistent mixed hematopoietic chimerism (PMC) has been described in thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. Here, we describe the clinical course of a 6-year-old girl who had received bone marrow transplant for sickle cell anemia. After the transplant, the patient showed 36% donor hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, whereas in the peripheral blood there was evidence of 80% circulating donor red blood cells (RBC). The analysis of apoptosis at the Bone Marrow level suggests that Fas might contribute to the cell death of host erythroid precursors. The increase in NK cells and the regulatory T cell population observed in this patient suggests that these cells might contribute to the condition of mixed chimerism.

  16. Cesarean section imprints cord blood immune cell distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Rasmussen, Mette Annelie;

    2014-01-01

    Immune programming in early life may affect the risk of developing immune-related diseases later in life. Children born by cesarean section seem to be at higher risk of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and type-1 diabetes. We hypothesized that delivery by cesarean section may affect immune maturation...... in newborns. The objective of the study was to profile innate and adaptive immune cell subsets in cord blood of children born by cesarean section or natural birth....

  17. Design of a sedimentation hole in a microfluidic channel to remove blood cells from diluted whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Chiaki; Ohki, Yoshimichi; Ashiba, Hiroki; Fujimaki, Makoto; Awazu, Koichi; Makishima, Makoto

    2017-03-01

    With the aim of developing a sensor for rapidly detecting viruses in a drop of blood, in this study, we analyze the shape of a hole in a microfluidic channel in relation to the efficiency of sedimentation of blood cells. The efficiency of sedimentation is examined on the basis of our calculation and experimental results for two types of sedimentation hole, cylindrical and truncated conical holes, focusing on the Boycott effect, which can promote the sedimentation of blood cells from a downward-facing wall. As a result, we demonstrated that blood cells can be eliminated with an efficiency of 99% or higher by retaining a diluted blood sample of about 30 µL in the conical hole for only 2 min. Moreover, we succeeded in detecting the anti-hepatitis B surface antigen antibody in blood using a waveguide-mode sensor equipped with a microfluidic channel having the conical sedimentation hole.

  18. Cocaine induces a reversible stomatocytosis of red blood cells and increases blood viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagienard, F; Schulzki, T; Furlong, P; Reinhart, W H

    2013-01-01

    Severe side effects of cocaine consumption are vasoocclusive events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. We have hypothesized that cocaine could affect red blood cells (RBCs) and alter the rheological behaviour of blood. Heparinized blood from healthy volunteers was incubated with a final hematocrit of 45% with increasing cocaine concentrations: 0, 10, 100, 1000, and 10'000 μmol/L plasma. Time dependence of the shape change was tested in phosphate buffered saline containing cocaine. RBCs were fixed in 1% glutaraldehyde for morphological analysis. Blood viscosity was measured with a Couette Viscometer (Contraves LS 30) at 37°C and a shear rate of 69.5 s⁻¹. RBC aggregation was assessed with a Myrenne aggregometer. Cocaine induced a dose-dependent stomatocytic shape transformation of RBCs, which was more pronounced in buffer than in plasma (plasma protein binding of the drug). Stomatocytosis occurs when a drug intercalates preferentially in the inner half of the membrane lipid bilayer. It was a time-dependent process with two components, an almost instant shape change occurring within 1 s, followed by a gradual further shape change during 10 min. Stomatocytosis was reversible by resuspension of the RBCs in cocaine-free buffer. This stomatocytic shape change increased whole blood viscosity at high shear rate from 5.69±0.31 mPa.s to 6.39±0.34 mPa.s for control and 10'000 μmol/L cocaine, respectively (p<0.01). RBC aggregation was not affected by the shape change. These effects occurred at a cocaine concentration, which is several-fold above those measured in vivo. Therefore, it is unlikely that hemorheological factors are involved in vascular events after cocaine consumption.

  19. RED BLOOD CELL ABNORMALITIES IN DECOMPENSATED CHRONIC LIVER DISEASE (DCLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbazhagan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Liver plays an important role in normal erythropoiesis, especially in formation and destruction of RBC’s. Chronic liver diseases are frequently associated with hematological abnormalities. Anemia of diverge etiology occurs in about 75% patients with DCLD ( 36. This can ultimately culminate in grave complications. AIM OF THE STUDY: To detect various abnormalities in Red Blood Cells and to assess the type of anemia in DCLD. METHODS: The study was conducted in 50 patients of DCLD, in Meenakshi Medical College. A detailed History, clinical examination and also Ultrasound Abdomen, GI endoscopy to establish DCLD and complete Red Blood Cell assessment was done. RESULTS AND OBSERVATION : Among the 50 patients, 40 patients (80% had anemia and only 10 pts had normal h emoglobin above 13 gms%. About 15 patients (30% had severe Anemia of less than 6 gm%. Among the 40 patients, 25 patients had normocytic normochronic anemia, 10 patients had microcytic anemia, and 4 patients had macrocytosis and only one had dimorphic anem ia. CONCLUSION : Most common Red Blood Cell abnormality in DCLD is anemia (80% and most common anemia is normochronic normocytic anemia (62.5%, while microcytic anemia and macrocytosis were common among females and Alcoholics, respectively

  20. A method for making electrodes for an alkaline storage cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, K.; Khirosava, N.; Khokasono, K.

    1983-07-21

    A strip like porous base with nonporous edges is used to make the cadmium electrodes for a nickel cadmium storage battery. An anode active mass is applied to both sides of the base and then is electrochemically formed. Then the strip is rlled, regulating the thickness of the mass and roasting the edge at high pressure. The strip is cut into measured length electrodes.

  1. Tissue engineering of blood vessels with endothelial cells differentiated from mouse embryonic stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHEN XU; MIN XIONG SHEN; DONG ZHU MA; LI YING WANG; XI LIANG ZHA

    2003-01-01

    Endothelial cells (TEC3 cells) derived from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were used as seed cells to construct blood vessels. Tissue engineered blood vessels were made by seeding 8 × l06 smooth muscle cells (SMCs) obtained from rabbit arteries onto a sheet of nonwoven polyglycolic acid (PGA) fibers, which was used as a biodegradable polymer scaffold. After being cultured in DMEM medium for 7 days in vitro, SMCs grew well on the PGA fibers, and the cell-PGA sheet was then wrapped around a silicon tube, and implanted subcutaneously into nude mice. After 6~8 weeks, the silicon tube was replaced with another silicon tube in smaller diameter, and then the TEC3 cells (endothelial cells differentiated from mouse ES cells) were injected inside the engineered vessel tube as the test group. In the control group only culture medium was injected. Five days later, the engineered vessels were harvested for gross observation, histological and immunohistochemical analysis. The preliminary results demonstrated that the SMC-PGA construct could form a tubular structure in 6~8 weeks and PGA fibers were completely degraded. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis of the newly formed tissue revealed a typical blood vessel structure, including a lining of endothelial cells (ECs) on the lumimal surface and the presence of SMC and collagen in the wall. No EC lining was found in the tubes of control group. Therefore, the ECs differentiated from mouse ES cells can serve as seed cells for endothelium lining in tissue engineered blood vessels.

  2. Metabolic profiling of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during proliferation and differentiation into red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Hasbullah; Browne, Susan; Al-Majmaie, Rasoul; Murphy, William; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2016-01-25

    An understanding of the metabolic profile of cell proliferation and differentiation should support the optimization of culture conditions for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) proliferation, differentiation, and maturation into red blood cells. We have evaluated the key metabolic parameters during each phase of HSPC culture for red blood cell production in serum-supplemented (SS) and serum-free (SF) conditions. A simultaneous decrease in growth rate, total protein content, cell size, and the percentage of cells in the S/G2 phase of cell cycle, as well as an increase in the percentage of cells with a CD71(-)/GpA(+) surface marker profile, indicates HSPC differentiation into red blood cells. Compared with proliferating HSPCs, differentiating HSPCs showed significantly lower glucose and glutamine consumption rates, lactate and ammonia production rates, and amino acid consumption and production rates in both SS and SF conditions. Furthermore, extracellular acidification was associated with late proliferation phase, suggesting a reduced cellular metabolic rate during the transition from proliferation to differentiation. Under both SS and SF conditions, cells demonstrated a high metabolic rate with a mixed metabolism of both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in early and late proliferation, an increased dependence on OXPHOS activity during differentiation, and a shift to glycolytic metabolism only during maturation phase. These changes indicate that cell metabolism may have an important impact on the ability of HSPCs to proliferate and differentiate into red blood cells.

  3. 77 FR 22791 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell... Health Service Act, as amended), the Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (ACBSCT) advises... Thawing and Washing, (4) Access to Transplantation, and (5) Advancing Hematopoietic Stem...

  4. Detection of IL28B SNP DNA from buccal epithelial cells, small amounts of serum, and dried blood spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Halfon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Point mutations in the coding region of the interleukin 28 gene (rs12979860 have recently been identified for predicting the outcome of treatment of hepatitis C virus infection. This polymorphism detection was based on whole blood DNA extraction. Alternatively, DNA for genetic diagnosis has been derived from buccal epithelial cells (BEC, dried blood spots (DBS, and genomic DNA from serum. The aim of the study was to investigate the reliability and accuracy of alternative routes of testing for single nucleotide polymorphism allele rs12979860CC. METHODS: Blood, plasma, and sera samples from 200 patients were extracted (400 µL. Buccal smears were tested using an FTA card. To simulate postal delay, we tested the influence of storage at ambient temperature on the different sources of DNA at five time points (baseline, 48 h, 6 days, 9 days, and 12 days. RESULTS: There was 100% concordance between blood, plasma, sera, and BEC, validating the use of DNA extracted from BEC collected on cytology brushes for genetic testing. Genetic variations in HPTR1 gene were detected using smear technique in blood smear (3620 copies as well as in buccal smears (5870 copies. These results are similar to those for whole blood diluted at 1/10. A minimum of 0.04 µL, 4 µL, and 40 µL was necessary to obtain exploitable results respectively for whole blood, sera, and plasma. No significant variation between each time point was observed for the different sources of DNA. IL28B SNPs analysis at these different time points showed the same results using the four sources of DNA. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that genomic DNA extraction from buccal cells, small amounts of serum, and dried blood spots is an alternative to DNA extracted from peripheral blood cells and is helpful in retrospective and prospective studies for multiple genetic markers, specifically in hard-to-reach individuals.

  5. Blood Cell Mitochondrial DNA Content and Premature Ovarian Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Chiara; Busnelli, Marta; Rossetti, Raffaella; Bonetti, Silvia; Paffoni, Alessio; Mari, Daniela; Ragni, Guido; Persani, Luca; Arosio, M.; Beck-Peccoz, P.; Biondi, M.; Bione, S.; Bruni, V.; Brigante, C.; Cannavo`, S.; Cavallo, L.; Cisternino, M.; Colombo, I.; Corbetta, S.; Crosignani, P.G.; D'Avanzo, M.G.; Dalpra, L.; Danesino, C.; Di Battista, E.; Di Prospero, F.; Donti, E.; Einaudi, S.; Falorni, A.; Foresta, C.; Fusi, F.; Garofalo, N.; Giotti, I.; Lanzi, R.; Larizza, D.; Locatelli, N.; Loli, P.; Madaschi, S.; Maghnie, M.; Maiore, S.; Mantero, F.; Marozzi, A.; Marzotti, S.; Migone, N.; Nappi, R.; Palli, D.; Patricelli, M.G.; Pisani, C.; Prontera, P.; Petraglia, F.; Radetti, G.; Renieri, A.; Ricca, I.; Ripamonti, A.; Rossetti, R.; Russo, G.; Russo, S.; Tonacchera, M.; Toniolo, D.; Torricelli, F.; Vegetti, W.; Villa, N.; Vineis, P.; Wasniewsk, M.; Zuffardi, O.

    2012-01-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a critical fertility defect characterized by an anticipated and silent impairment of the follicular reserve, but its pathogenesis is largely unexplained. The frequent maternal inheritance of POI together with a remarkable dependence of ovarian folliculogenesis upon mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics suggested the possible involvement of a generalized mitochondrial defect. Here, we verified the existence of a significant correlation between blood and ovarian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in a group of women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation (OH), and then aimed to verify whether mtDNA content was significantly altered in the blood cells of POI women. We recruited 101 women with an impaired ovarian reserve: 59 women with premature ovarian failure (POF) and 42 poor responders (PR) to OH. A Taqman copy number assay revealed a significant mtDNA depletion (P<0.001) in both POF and PR women in comparison with 43 women of similar age and intact ovarian reserve, or 53 very old women with a previous physiological menopause. No pathogenic variations in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG) gene were detected in 57 POF or PR women with low blood mtDNA content. In conclusion, blood cell mtDNA depletion is a frequent finding among women with premature ovarian aging, suggesting that a still undetermined but generalized mitochondrial defect may frequently predispose to POI which could then be considered a form of anticipated aging in which the ovarian defect may represent the first manifestation. The determination of mtDNA content in blood may become an useful tool for the POI risk prediction. PMID:22879975

  6. Blood cell mitochondrial DNA content and premature ovarian aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bonomi

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI is a critical fertility defect characterized by an anticipated and silent impairment of the follicular reserve, but its pathogenesis is largely unexplained. The frequent maternal inheritance of POI together with a remarkable dependence of ovarian folliculogenesis upon mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics suggested the possible involvement of a generalized mitochondrial defect. Here, we verified the existence of a significant correlation between blood and ovarian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA content in a group of women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation (OH, and then aimed to verify whether mtDNA content was significantly altered in the blood cells of POI women. We recruited 101 women with an impaired ovarian reserve: 59 women with premature ovarian failure (POF and 42 poor responders (PR to OH. A Taqman copy number assay revealed a significant mtDNA depletion (P<0.001 in both POF and PR women in comparison with 43 women of similar age and intact ovarian reserve, or 53 very old women with a previous physiological menopause. No pathogenic variations in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG gene were detected in 57 POF or PR women with low blood mtDNA content. In conclusion, blood cell mtDNA depletion is a frequent finding among women with premature ovarian aging, suggesting that a still undetermined but generalized mitochondrial defect may frequently predispose to POI which could then be considered a form of anticipated aging in which the ovarian defect may represent the first manifestation. The determination of mtDNA content in blood may become an useful tool for the POI risk prediction.

  7. Ammonia concentration and bacterial evaluation of feline whole blood and packed red blood cell units stored for transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Spada

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia concentrations increase in human, canine and equine WB and PRBC units during storage. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of storage on ammonia concentration in feline WB and PRBC units stored in a veterinary blood bank and to evaluate possible correlations with bacterial contamination. Ammonia concentration was evaluated in 15 WB units and 2 PRBC units on day 1 and at the end of storage after 35 and 42 days, respectively. In an additional 5 WB units and 4 PRBC units ammonia concentrations were determined daily until the day the normal reference range was exceeded and then weekly to the end of storage. All units were evaluated for bacterial contamination. Ammonia increased markedly during storage as a linear function over time. On the 35th and 42th day of storage at 4±2°C mean±SD ammonia concentration reached 909±158 µg/dl and 1058±212 µg/dl in WB and PRBC units, respectively. Bacterial culture was negative in all units. High ammonia concentrations in stored WB and PRBC units could result in toxicity, particularly in feline recipients with liver failure, portosystemic shunts or those receiving large transfusion volumes. Clinical in vivo studies evaluating the effects on recipients should be performed.

  8. Interleukin-15 Promotes the Commitment of Cord Blood CD34+ Stem Cells into NK Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建; 夏青; 孙汭; 田志刚

    2004-01-01

    To explore the effect of rhlL-15 on CB-CD34+ stem cells committing to NK cells, CD34+ stem cells were obtained from cord blood (CB) by magnetic-assisted cell sorting (MACS) method. CD3, CD16 and CD56 molecules expressed on cell surface were detected by flow cytometer. MTF method was used to test the cytotoxicity of NK cells. The results were that stem cell factor (SCF) alone has no effect on CD34+ stem cells. IL-15 stimulated CD34+ stem cells commit to NK cells, and SCF showed strong synergistic effect with IL-15. It was concluded that IL-15 and SCF played different roles during NK cell development, llr15 promoted CD34+ stem cells differentiate to NK cell precursor and SCF improved the effectsof IL-15 on NK cell differentiation.

  9. Carboxylated nanodiamond and re-oxygenation process of gamma irradiated red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta-Elias, M. [Doctorado en Nanotecnologia, Universidad de Sonora (Mexico); Sarabia-Sainz, A.; Silva-Campa, E.; Angulo-Molina, A.; Soto-Puebla, D.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Melendrez, R.; Alvarez-Garcia, S.; Pedroza-Montero, M. [Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico); Pedroso-Santana, S. [Doctorado en Ciencias (Fisica), Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico); Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Castaneda, B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico)

    2015-11-15

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) possess exceptional physical, chemical, and biological properties, which make them suitable for potential biomedical applications. They are biocompatible and their usefulness as effective Raman/fluorescence probes for labeling as well as for drug delivery has been demonstrated. Related to their biocompatibility, the interaction between NDs and red blood cells (RBCs) is of great interest. In this work, the influence of carboxylated NDs (cNDs) in the re-oxygenation capability of both γ-irradiated and stored RBCs was studied. The standard 25 Gy γ dose recommended to prevent transfusion associated graft-versus-host disease was used. A 5-day maximum storage time was used to evaluate the ''storage lesion''. The hemoglobin (Hb) oxygenation state was assessed by Raman microspectroscopy and the morphologic changes on cells were tracked by optical imaging. Our results show that irradiated RBCs have a better re-oxygenation capability and morphological recovery when they are in presence of cNDs. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Red blood cell alloimmunization is influenced by recipient inflammatory state at time of transfusion in patients with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Ross M; Booth, Garrett S; Miles, Megan; Du, Liping; Koyama, Tatsuki; Meier, Emily Riehm; Luban, Naomi L C

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) patients are at increased risk of red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization. Recipient inflammatory state at time of transfusion has been shown to regulate alloimmunization in murine models, but evidence is lacking in SCD patients. We retrospectively studied a cohort of alloimmunized SCD patients to determine the influence of pro-inflammatory SCD-related complications at time of transfusion on alloimmunization. For each transfusion, the presence of pro-inflammatory state, degree of RBC antigen matching, unit age, storage solution and alloantibody detection date were ascertained. Transfusion-associated pro-inflammatory events were compared between transfusions resulting and not resulting in new alloantibodies. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were performed. Fifty-two patients received 3166 pre-storage leuco-reduced transfusions of which 128 resulted in alloantibodies. Transfusions during inflammatory events were associated with increased alloantibody risk on univariate and multivariate analysis; acute chest syndrome and vaso-occlusive crisis showed strongest associations with alloimmunization. Increased antigen matching demonstrated a protective effect on alloimmunization (univariate and multivariate analysis). Although an association was seen between citrate-phosphate-dextrose (adenine) stored units and alloimmunization on univariate analysis, no effect was found on multivariate analysis. Identifying recipient pro-inflammatory states at time of transfusion that promote alloimmunization can impact RBC unit selection decisions for SCD patients at risk for alloimmunization.

  11. In-vitro stem cell derived red blood cells for transfusion: are we there yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Ok

    2014-03-01

    To date, the use of red blood cells (RBCs) produced from stem cells in vitro has not proved practical for routine transfusion. However, the perpetual and widespread shortage of blood products, problems related to transfusion-transmitted infections, and new emerging pathogens elicit an increasing demand for artificial blood. Worldwide efforts to achieve the goal of RBC production through stem cell research have received vast attention; however, problems with large-scale production and cost effectiveness have yet to prove practical usefulness. Some progress has been made, though, as cord blood stem cells and embryonic stem cells have shown an ability to differentiate and proliferate, and induced pluripotent stem cells have been shown to be an unlimited source for RBC production. However, transfusion of stem cell-derived RBCs still presents a number of challenges to overcome. This paper will summarize an up to date account of research and advances in stem cell-derived RBCs, delineate our laboratory protocol in producing RBCs from cord blood, and introduce the technological developments and limitations to current RBC production practices.

  12. Blood Flow through an Open-Celled Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Jason; Maitland, Duncan

    2011-11-01

    The Hazen-Dupuit-Darcy (HDD) equation is commonly used in engineering applications to model the pressure gradient of flow through a porous media. One major advantage of this equation is that it simplifies the complex geometric details of the porous media into two coefficients: the permeability, K, and form factor, C. However through this simplification, the flow details within the porous media are no longer accessible, making it difficult to study the phenomena that contribute to changes in K and C due to clotting of blood flow. To obtain a more detailed understanding of blood flow through a porous media, a direct assessment of the complex interstitial geometry and flow is required. In this study, we solve the Navier-Stokes equations for Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood flow through an open-celled foam geometry obtained from a micro-CT scan. The nominal strut size of the foam sample is of O(10e-5) m and the corresponding Reynolds number based upon this length ranges up to O(10). Fitting the pressure gradient vs. Darcy velocity data with the HDD equation demonstrates that both viscous and inertial forces play an important role in the flow through the foam at these Reynolds numbers. Recirculation zones are observed to form in the wake of the pore struts, producing regions of flow characterized by both low shear rates and long fluid residence times, factors of which have been shown in previous studies to promote blood clotting.

  13. Some technetium complexes for labelling red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    A new approach to produce technetium labelled red blood cells, used routinely in diagnostic nuclear medicine, is reported. The enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase (CA), present in erythrocytes, is strongly inhibited by primary aromatic sulphonamides, which bind at the enzyme active site. Three types of ligand able to coordinate to technetium and suitable for modification to include a primary aromatic sulphonamide group were studied; bis(thiosemicarbazones), Schiff bases and some propylene amine oximes. The experimental conditions needed to label the ligands were determined. Both the thiosemicarbazone and propyleneamine oxime derivatives were labelled, but under no conditions attempted were the Schiff bases complexed by Technetium. The two major isozymes of Human Carbonic Anhydrase, HCA I and HCA II, were isolated from blood. The strength of binding of the free ligands SET, PN130 and PN135 with each of the isozymes was measured and expressed as the Dissociation Constant K{sub d}. The rate of uptake of the technetium complexes into washed RBCs and whole blood was measured and found to be much slower in whole blood. The biodistribution of both TcPN130 and TcPN135 in rats was determined and scintigraphic images for the TcPN130 complex were recorded. Attempts to synthesise the Tc-99 analogues on the milligram scale to allow chemical characterisation of these complexes were unsuccessful. (author).

  14. CD1c+ blood dendritic cells have Langerhans cell potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Paul; Bigley, Venetia; Gunawan, Merry; Haniffa, Muzlifah; Collin, Matthew

    2015-01-15

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are self-renewing in the steady state but repopulated by myeloid precursors after injury. Human monocytes give rise to langerin-positive cells in vitro, suggesting a potential precursor role. However, differentiation experiments with human lineage-negative cells and CD34(+) progenitors suggest that there is an alternative monocyte-independent pathway of LC differentiation. Recent data in mice also show long-term repopulation of the LC compartment with alternative myeloid precursors. Here we show that, although monocytes are able to express langerin, when cultured with soluble ligands granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7), CD1c(+) dendritic cells (DCs) become much more LC-like with high langerin, Birbeck granules, EpCAM, and E-cadherin expression under the same conditions. These data highlight a new potential precursor function of CD1c(+) DCs and demonstrate an alternative pathway of LC differentiation that may have relevance in vivo.

  15. Transplantation? Peripheral Stem Cell/Bone Marrow/Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itır Sirinoglu Demiriz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of peripheral stem cell (PSC and cord blood (CB as an alternative to bone marrow (BM recently has caused important changes on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT practice. According to the CIBMTR data, there has been a significant decrease in the use of bone marrow and increase in the use of PSC and CB as the stem cell source for HSCT performed during 1997–2006 period for patients under the age of 20. On the other hand, the stem cell source in 70% of the HSCT procedures performed for patients over the age of 20 was PSC and the second most preferred stem cell source was bone marrow. CB usage is very limited for the adult population. Primary disease, stage, age, time and urgency of transplantation, HLA match between the patient and the donor, stem cell quantity, and the experience of the transplantation center are some of the associated factors for the selection of the appropriate stem cell source. Unfortunately, there is no prospective randomized study aimed to facilitate the selection of the correct source between CB, PSC, and BM. In this paper, we would like to emphasize the data on stem cell selection in light of the current knowledge for patient populations according to their age and primary disease.

  16. Spring-network-based model of a red blood cell for simulating mesoscopic blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masanori; Bessho, Sadao; Wada, Shigeo

    2013-01-01

    We developed a mechanical model of a red blood cell (RBC) that is capable of expressing its characteristic behaviors in shear flows. The RBC was modeled as a closed shell membrane consisting of spring networks in the framework of the energy minimum concept. The fluid forces acting on RBCs were modeled from Newton's viscosity law and the conservation of momentum. In a steady shear flow, the RBC model exhibited various behaviors, depending on the shear rate; it tumbled, tank-treaded, or both. The transition from tumbling to tank-treading occurred at a shear rate of 20 s( - 1). The simulation of an RBC in steady and unsteady parallel shear flows (Couette flows) showed that the deformation parameters of the RBC were consistent with experimental results. The RBC in Poiseuille flow migrated radially towards the central axis of the flow channel. Axial migration became faster with an increase in the viscosity of the media, qualitatively consistent with experimental results. These results demonstrate that the proposed model satisfies the essential conditions for simulating RBC behavior in blood flow. Finally, a large-scale RBC flow simulation was implemented to show the capability of the proposed model for analyzing the mesoscopic nature of blood flow.

  17. Red-blood-cell alloimmunisation in relation to antigens' exposure and their immunogenicity: a cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, D.; Middelburg, R.A.; Haas, M. de; Zalpuri, S.; Vooght, K.M. De; Kerkhof, D. van de; Visser, O; Pequeriaux, N.C.V.; Hudig, F.; Schonewille, H.; Zwaginga, J.J.; Bom, J.G. Van Der

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Matching donor red blood cells based on recipient antigens prevents alloimmunisation. Knowledge about the immunogenicity of red-blood-cell antigens can help optimise risk-adapted matching strategies. We set out to assess the immunogenicity of red-blood-cell antigens. METHODS: In an incid

  18. Development and testing of a new disposable sterile device for labelling white blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Signore, A.; Glaudemans, A. W. J. M.; Malviya, G.; Lazzeri, E.; Prandini, N.; Viglietti, A. L.; De Vries, E. F. J.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.

    2012-01-01

    Aim. White blood cell (WBC) labelling requires isolation of cells from patient's blood under sterile conditions using sterile materials, buffers and disposables under good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions. Till now, this limited the use of white blood cell scintigraphy (WBC-S) only to well eq

  19. MEASUREMENT OF REGIONAL BONE BLOOD FLOW IN THE CANINE MANDIBULAR RAMUS USING RADIOLABELLED TOAD RED BLOOD CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛驰; 王翰章

    1994-01-01

    Toad red blood cells were used to measure regional bone blood flow in the canine mandibular ramus.The blood cells were labelled with sodium pertechnetate and fixed in 10% formalin;they were 22×15 μm in size and had a specific gravity close to that of dog red blood cells.These cells had no discernible effect on systemic hemody-namics after injection,did not agglutinate,were well mixed and evenly distributed throughout the body,and were completely extracted in one circulation through the mandible.The mandibular ramus was divided into six regions,and the blood flow rates in each were found to be similar to those reported in previous studies with radiolabelled carbonized,microspheres.Furthermore,the blood flow distribution pattern of the mandibular ramus determined in this study was identical to that of our previous study using the bone-seeking radionuclide method.We suggest that radiolabelled toad red blood cells are an ideal marker for measuring regional blood flow in the canine mandible.

  20. Of macrophages and red blood cells; a complex love story.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djuna Zoe de Back

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages tightly control the production and clearance of red blood cells (RBC. During steady state haematopoiesis, approximately 1010 red blood cells are produced per hour within erythroblastic islands in humans. In these erythroblastic islands, resident bone marrow macrophages provide erythroblasts with interactions that are essential for erythroid development. New evidence suggests that not only under homeostasis but also under stress conditions, macrophages play an important role in promoting erythropoiesis. Once RBC have matured, these cells remain in circulation for about 120 days. At the end of their life span, RBC are cleared by macrophages residing in the spleen and the liver. Current theories about the removal of senescent RBC and the essential role of macrophages will be discussed as well as the role of macrophages in facilitating the removal of damaged cellular content from the RBC. In this review we will provide an overview on the role of macrophages in the regulation of RBC production, maintenance and clearance. In addition, we will discuss the interactions between these two cell types during transfer of immune complexes and pathogens from RBC to macrophages.

  1. Isolation of rare tumor cells from blood cells with buoyant immuno-microbubbles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixin Shi

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs are exfoliated at various stages of cancer, and could provide invaluable information for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancers. There is an urgent need for the development of cost-efficient and scalable technologies for rare CTC enrichment from blood. Here we report a novel method for isolation of rare tumor cells from excess of blood cells using gas-filled buoyant immuno-microbubbles (MBs. MBs were prepared by emulsification of perfluorocarbon gas in phospholipids and decorated with anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM antibody. EpCAM-targeted MBs efficiently (85% and rapidly (within 15 minutes bound to various epithelial tumor cells suspended in cell medium. EpCAM-targeted MBs efficiently (88% isolated frequent tumor cells that were spiked at 100,000 cells/ml into plasma-depleted blood. Anti-EpCAM MBs efficiently (>77% isolated rare mouse breast 4T1, human prostate PC-3 and pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 cells spiked into 1, 3 and 7 ml (respectively of plasma-depleted blood. Using EpCAM targeted MBs CTCs from metastatic cancer patients were isolated, suggesting that this technique could be developed into a valuable clinical tool for isolation, enumeration and analysis of rare cells.

  2. The influence of platelets, plasma and red blood cells on functional haemostatic assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsen, Louise; Johansson, Pär I.; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri

    2011-01-01

    and combined, influenced the two methodologically different assays, thrombelastography (TEG) and impedance aggregometry (Multiplate). Platelet-rich plasma (200 × 10/l) or pure plasma (0 platelets), with and without added red blood cells (RBCs), hematocrit 0, 0.15 or 0.29, were produced in vitro from platelet...... concentrates, fresh frozen plasma and stored RBC. Pure platelets were investigated by removing plasma components from platelet concentrates by diafiltration against the platelet storage solution Intersol. Plasma was readded by diafiltration against plasma in Intersol. Haemostatic function was evaluated by TEG...... and Multiplate. In the TEG, increasing amounts of RBC reduced clot strength and clot kinetics (α-angle), most markedly in plasma/RBC without platelets. In contrast, RBC in a platelet concentrate matrix enhanced Multiplate aggregation in response to weak agonists (ADP and arachidonic acid). Furthermore, removing...

  3. Lowering of blood pressure by increasing hematocrit with non nitric oxide scavenging red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Vázquez, Beatriz Y; Cabrales, Pedro; Tsai, Amy G; Johnson, Paul C; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2008-02-01

    Isovolemic exchange transfusion of 40% of the blood volume in awake hamsters was used to replace native red blood cells (RBCs) with RBCs whose hemoglobin (Hb) was oxidized to methemoglobin (MetHb), MetRBCs. The exchange maintained constant blood volume and produced different final hematocrits (Hcts), varying from 48 to 62% Hct. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) did not change after exchange transfusion, in which 40% of the native RBCs were replaced with MetRBCs, without increasing Hct. Increasing Hct with MetRBCs lowered MAP by 12 mm Hg when Hct was increased 12% above baseline. Further increases of Hct with MetRBCs progressively returned MAP to baseline, which occurred at 62% Hct, a 30% increase in Hct from baseline. These observations show a parabolic "U" shaped distribution of MAP against the change in Hct. Cardiac index, cardiac output divided by body weight, increased between 2 and 17% above baseline for the range of Hcts tested. Peripheral vascular resistance (VR) was decreased 18% from baseline when Hct was increased 12% from baseline. VR and MAP were above baseline for increases in Hct higher than 30%. However, vascular hindrance, VR normalized by blood viscosity (which reflects the contribution of vascular geometry), was lower than baseline for all the increases in Hct tested with MetRBC, indicating prevalence of vasodilation. These suggest that acute increases in Hct with MetRBCs increase endothelium shear stress and stimulate the production of vasoactive factors (e.g., nitric oxide [NO]). When MetRBCs were compared with functional RBCs, vasodilation was augmented for MetRBCs probably due to the lower NO scavenging of MetHb. Consequently, MetRBCs increased the viscosity related hypotension range compared with functional RBCs as NO shear stress vasodilation mediated responses are greater.

  4. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  5. Smooth muscle progenitor cells from peripheral blood promote the neovascularization of endothelial colony-forming cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Hyung Joon; Seo, Ha-Rim [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hyo Eun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seung-Cheol; Park, Jae Hyung; Yu, Cheol Woong; Hong, Soon Jun [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Seok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Do-Sun, E-mail: dslmd@kumc.or.kr [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • Two distinct vascular progenitor cells are induced from adult peripheral blood. • ECFCs induce vascular structures in vitro and in vivo. • SMPCs augment the in vitro and in vivo angiogenic potential of ECFCs. • Both cell types have synergistic therapeutic potential in ischemic hindlimb model. - Abstract: Proangiogenic cell therapy using autologous progenitors is a promising strategy for treating ischemic disease. Considering that neovascularization is a harmonized cellular process that involves both endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, peripheral blood-originating endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPCs), which are similar to mature endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, could be attractive cellular candidates to achieve therapeutic neovascularization. We successfully induced populations of two different vascular progenitor cells (ECFCs and SMPCs) from adult peripheral blood. Both progenitor cell types expressed endothelial-specific or smooth muscle-specific genes and markers, respectively. In a protein array focused on angiogenic cytokines, SMPCs demonstrated significantly higher expression of bFGF, EGF, TIMP2, ENA78, and TIMP1 compared to ECFCs. Conditioned medium from SMPCs and co-culture with SMPCs revealed that SMPCs promoted cell proliferation, migration, and the in vitro angiogenesis of ECFCs. Finally, co-transplantation of ECFCs and SMPCs induced robust in vivo neovascularization, as well as improved blood perfusion and tissue repair, in a mouse ischemic hindlimb model. Taken together, we have provided the first evidence of a cell therapy strategy for therapeutic neovascularization using two different types of autologous progenitors (ECFCs and SMPCs) derived from adult peripheral blood.

  6. Simulation of red blood cell aggregation in shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, B; Bascom, P A; Cobbold, R S

    1997-01-01

    A simulation model has been developed for red blood cell (RBC) aggregation in shear flow. It is based on a description of the collision rates of RBC, the probability of particles sticking together, and the breakage of aggregates by shear forces. The influence of shear rate, hematocrit, aggregate fractal dimension, and binding strength on aggregation kinetics were investigated and compared to other theoretical and experimental results. The model was used to simulate blood flow in a long large diameter tube under steady flow conditions at low Reynolds numbers. The time and spatial distribution of the state of aggregation are shown to be in qualitative agreement with previous B-mode ultrasound studies in which a central region of low echogenicity was noted. It is suggested that the model can provide a basis for interpreting prior measurements of ultrasound echogenicity and may help relate them to the local state of aggregation.

  7. Analysis of White Blood Cell Dynamics in Nailfold Capillaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourquard, Aurélien; Butterworth, Ian; Sánchez-Ferro, Alvaro; Giancardo, Luca; Soenksen, Luis; Cerrato, Carolina; Flores, Rafael; Castro-González, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Based on video data acquired with low-cost, portable microscopy equipment, we introduce a semi-automatic method to count visual gaps in the blood flow as a proxy for white blood cells (WBC) passing through nailfold capillaries. Following minimal user interaction and a pre-processing stage, our method consists in the spatio-temporal segmentation and analysis of capillary profiles. Besides the mere count information, it also estimates the speed associated with every WBC event. The accuracy of our algorithm is validated through the analysis of two capillaries acquired from one healthy subject. Results are compared with manual counts from four human raters and confronted with related physiological data reported in literature. PMID:26738019

  8. Why and how does collective red blood cells motion occur in the blood microcirculation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigliotti, Giovanni; Selmi, Hassib; Asmi, Lassaad El; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2012-10-01

    The behaviour of red blood cells (RBCs), modelled as vesicles, in Poiseuille flow, mimicking the microvasculature, is studied with numerical simulations in two dimensions. RBCs moving in the centre of the Poiseuille flow (as in blood capillaries) are shown to attract each other and form clusters only due to hydrodynamic interactions, provided that their distance at a given time is below a certain critical value. This distance depends on physical parameters, such as the flow strength. Our simulations reveal that clusters are unstable above a threshold value in the number of forming RBCs, beyond which one or few cells escape the pack by a self-regulating mechanism that select the marginally stable size. This size selection depends on the flow strength as well as on the RBC swelling ratio. The results are interpreted via the analysis of the perturbation of the flow field induced by the vesicles and the interplay with bending and tension forces. This sheds a novel light on the process of collective motion of RBCs observed in vivo.

  9. Manipulation on human red blood cells with femtosecond optical tweezers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Zhou; Haifeng Yang; Jianke Di; Enlan Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Different types of femtosecond optical tweezers have become a powerful tool in the modern biological field. However, how to control the irregular targets, including biological cells, using femtosecond optical tweezers remains to be explored. In this study, human red blood cells (hRBCs) are manipulated with femtosecond optical tweezers, and their states under different laser powers are investigated. The results indicate that optical potential traps only can capture the edge of hRBCs under the laser power from 1.4 to 2.8 mW, while it can make hRBCs turn over with the laser power more than 2.8 roW. It is suggested that femtosecond optical tweezers could not only manipulate biological cells, but also subtly control its states by adjusting the laser power.

  10. Analysis of DC/DC Converter Efficiency for Energy Storage System Based on Bidirectional Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy sources are fluctuating depending on the availability of the energy source. For this reason, energy storage is becoming more important and bidirectional fuel cells represent an attractive technology. Fuel cells require highcurrent low-voltage dc-dc or dc-ac converters as power...

  11. Stem Cell Heterogeneity of Mononucleated Cells from Murine Peripheral Blood: Molecular Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dain Yazid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper was to determine the heterogeneity of primary isolated mononucleated cells that originated from the peripheral blood system by observing molecular markers. The isolated cells were cultured in complete medium for 4 to 7 days prior to the separation of different cell types, that is, adherent and suspension. Following a total culture time of 14 days, adherent cells activated the Cd105 gene while suspension cells activated the Sca-1 gene. Both progenitor markers, Cbfa-1 and Ostf-1, were inactivated in both suspension and adherent cells after 14-day culture compared to cells cultured 3 days in designated differentiation medium. In conclusion, molecular analyses showed that primary mononucleated cells are heterogeneous, consisting of hematopoietic stem cells (suspension and mesenchymal stem cells (adherent while both cells contained no progenitor cells.

  12. Production of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Reprogramming of Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Zia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood cells are the simple, efficient and economical source for the production of induced pluripotent cells. The discovery of induced pluripotent cells was not novel; it was pedestal on the scientific principals and technologies which have been developed over last six decades. These are nuclear transfer and the cloning of Animals, Pluripotent cell lines and fusion hybrids and Transcription Factors and lineage switching. The use of human embryonic stem cells in regenerative medicines was a breakthrough but make use of these cells arise ethical issues as they are obtained from human embryos. An alternative advancement using induced pluripotent stem cells, which mimics the embryonic stem cells has the significant gain that they replaced the embryonic stem cells. The pluripotent cells can be induced from terminally differentiated somatic cells by the Induction of only four defined factors including c-Myc, klf4, Oct4 and Sox2 which are enough to alter the fate of cell.

  13. Peripheral blood cell signatures of Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Ibitokou

    Full Text Available Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in placental intervillous spaces causes inflammation and pathology. Knowledge of the profiles of immune cells associated with the physiopathology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM is scarce. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective study, both in Benin and Tanzania, including ∼1000 pregnant women in each site with systematic follow-up at scheduled antenatal visits until delivery. We used ex vivo flow cytometry to identify peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC profiles that are associated with PAM and anaemia, determining the phenotypic composition and activation status of PBMC in selected sub-groups with and without PAM both at inclusion and at delivery in a total of 302 women. Both at inclusion and at delivery PAM was associated with significantly increased frequencies both of B cells overall and of activated B cells. Infection-related profiles were otherwise quite distinct at the two different time-points. At inclusion, PAM was associated with anaemia, with an increased frequency of immature monocytes and with a decreased frequency of regulatory T cells (Treg. At delivery, infected women presented with significantly fewer plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DC, more myeloid DC expressing low levels of HLA-DR, and more effector T cells (Teff compared to uninfected women. Independent associations with an increased risk of anaemia were found for altered antigen-presenting cell frequencies at inclusion, but for an increased frequency of Teff at delivery. Our findings emphasize the prominent role played by B cells during PAM whenever it arises during pregnancy, whilst also revealing signature changes in other circulating cell types that, we conclude, primarily reflect the relative duration of the infections. Thus, the acute, recently-acquired infections present at delivery were marked by changes in DC and Teff frequencies, contrasting with infections at inclusion, considered chronic in

  14. Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Peripheral Blood of Cardiac Catheterization Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheir Korraa1, Tawfik M.S.1, Mohamed Maher 2 and Amr Zaher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the rejuvenation capacity among cardiac catheterization technicians occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. Subjects and methods: The individual annual collective dose information was measured by thermoluminscent personal dosimeters (TLD for those technicians and found to be ranging between 2.16 and 8.44 mSv/y. Venous blood samples were obtained from 30 cardiac catheterization technicians exposed to X-ray during fluoroscopy procedures at the National Heart Institute in Embaba. The control group involved 25 persons not exposed to ionizing radiation and not working in hospitals in addition to 20 persons not exposed to ionizing radiation and working in hospitals. Blood samples were assayed for total and differential blood counts, micronucleus formation (FMN plasma stromal derived growth factor-1α (SDF-1 α and cell phenotype of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, whose surface markers were identified as the CD34, CD133 and kinase domain receptors (KDR. Results: SDF-1α (2650± 270 vs. 2170 ± 430 pg/ml and FMN (19.9 ± 5.5 vs. 2.8 ± 1.4/1000 cells were significantly higher among cardiac catheterization staff compared to those of the controls respectively. Similarly, EPCs: CD34 (53 ± 3.9 vs. 48 ± 8.5/105 mononuclear cells, CD133 (62.4 ± 4.8 vs. 54.2 ± 10.6 /105 mononuclear cells KDR (52.7 ± 10.6 vs.43.5± 8.2 /105 mononuclear cells were also significantly higher among cardiac catheterization staff compared to the values of controls respectively. Smoking seemed to have a positive effect on the FMN and SDF-1 but had a negative effect on EPCs. It was found that among cardiac catheterization staff, the numbers of circulating progenitor cells had increased and accordingly there was an increased capacity for tissue repair. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present work shows that occupational exposure to radiation, well within permissible levels, leaves a genetic mark on the

  15. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum treatment on radiolabeling of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benarroz, Monica Oliveira; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]. E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Rocha, Gabrielle de Souza; Pereira, Marcia Oliveira [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Geller, Mauro [Centro Universitario Serra dos Orgaos, Teresopolis, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude; Presta, Giuseppe Antonio [Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Biomedico. Dept. de Fisiologia Humana

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of in vivo treatment with an aqueous cinnamon extract on the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc and on the morphology of red blood cells from Wistar rats. Animals were treated with cinnamon extract at different doses and for different periods of time. As controls, animals treated with 0.9% NaCl. Labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99}mTc was performed. Plasma, blood cells and insoluble fractions were isolated. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Also, blood smears were prepared to morphological analysis of red blood cells from. Data showed that in vivo cinnamon extract did not significantly (p>0.05) modify the %ATI of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells. The results suggest that in vivo aqueous cinnamon could not affect the membrane structures involved in transport of ions or the oxidation state of stannous and pertechnetate ions. (author)

  16. Manipulation of red blood cells with electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboonchi, Hossain; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2009-11-01

    Manipulation of bioparticles and macromolecules is the central task in many biological and biotechnological processes. The current methods for physical manipulation takes advantage of different forces such as acoustic, centrifugal, magnetic, electromagnetic, and electric forces, as well as using optical tweezers or filtration. Among all these methods, however, the electrical forces are particularly attractive because of their favorable scale up with the system size which makes them well-suited for miniaturization. Currently the electric field is used for transportation, poration, fusion, rotation, and separation of biological cells. The aim of the current research is to gain fundamental understanding of the effect of electric field on the human red blood cells (RBCs) using direct numerical simulation. A front tracking/finite difference technique is used to solve the fluid flow and electric field equations, where the fluid in the cell and the blood (plasma) is modeled as Newtonian and incompressible, and the interface separating the two is treated as an elastic membrane. The behavior of RBCs is investigated as a function of the controlling parameters of the problem such as the strength of the electric field.

  17. The impact of storage time of transfused blood on postoperative infectious complications in rectal cancer surgery. Danish RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have studied the impact of storage time of transfused allogeneic blood together with other known risk factors on postoperative infectious complications after operation for rectal cancer. METHODS: Intra-abdominal abscess, anastomotic leakage, septicaemia, wound infection, and pneumo......BACKGROUND: We have studied the impact of storage time of transfused allogeneic blood together with other known risk factors on postoperative infectious complications after operation for rectal cancer. METHODS: Intra-abdominal abscess, anastomotic leakage, septicaemia, wound infection...... and storage time of saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAGM) blood, administered to each patient, were recorded retrospectively. RESULTS: The overall infection rate was 24% in 78 non-transfused and 40% in 225 transfused patients (P = 0.011). The proportion of SAGM blood stored for > or = 21 days administered...... to each transfused patient was a median of 60% in patients developing postoperative infections versus 25% (P = 0.037) in patients without infections. A multivariate analysis of significant risk variables showed weight > 75 kg (odds ratio, 2.0 versus blood stored > or = 21...

  18. Measuring skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution by laser ektacytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, S Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Lugovtsov, A E [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ustinov, V D [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-31

    An algorithm is proposed for measuring the parameters of red blood cell deformability distribution based on laser diffractometry of red blood cells in shear flow (ektacytometry). The algorithm is tested on specially prepared samples of rat blood. In these experiments we succeeded in measuring the mean deformability, deformability variance and skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution with errors of 10%, 15% and 35%, respectively. (laser biophotonics)

  19. General coarse-grained red blood cell models: I. Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    FEDOSOV, DMITRY A.; Caswell, Bruce; Karniadakis, George E.

    2009-01-01

    We present a rigorous procedure to derive coarse-grained red blood cell (RBC) models, which lead to accurate mechanical properties of realistic RBCs. Based on a semi-analytic theory linear and non-linear elastic properties of the RBC membrane can be matched with those obtained in optical tweezers stretching experiments. In addition, we develop a nearly stress-free model which avoids a number of pitfalls of existing RBC models, such as non-biconcave equilibrium shape and dependence of RBC mech...

  20. Manipulation of microparticles and red blood cells using optoelectronic tweezers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Verma; R Dasgupta; N Kumar; S Ahlawat; A Uppal; P K Gupta

    2014-02-01

    We report the development of an optoelectronic tweezers set-up which works by lightinduced dielectrophoresis mechanism to manipulate microparticles. We used thermal evaporation technique for coating the organic polymer, titanium oxide phthalocyanine (TiOPc), as a photoconductive layer on ITO-coated glass slide. Compare to the conventional optical tweezers, the technique requires optical power in W range and provides a manipulation area of a few mm2. The set-up was used to manipulate the polystyrene microspheres and red blood cells (RBCs). The RBCs could be attracted or repelled by varying the frequency of the applied AC bias.

  1. Swinging of red blood cells under shear flow

    CERN Document Server

    Abkarian, M; Viallat, A; Abkarian, Manouk; Faivre, Magalie; Viallat, Annie

    2007-01-01

    We reveal that under moderate shear stress (of the order of 0.1 Pa) red blood cells present an oscillation of their inclination (swinging) superimposed to the long-observed steady tanktreading (TT) motion. A model based on a fluid ellipsoid surrounded by a visco-elastic membrane initially unstrained (shape memory) predicts all observed features of the motion: an increase of both swinging amplitude and period (1/2 the TT period) upon decreasing the shear stress, a shear stress-triggered transition towards a narrow shear stress-range intermittent regime of successive swinging and tumbling, and a pure tumbling motion at lower shear stress-values.

  2. The nature of multiphoton fluorescence from red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saytashev, Ilyas; Murphy, Michael; Osseiran, Sam; Spence, Dana M.; Evans, Conor L.; Dantus, Marcos

    2016-03-01

    We report on the nature of multiphoton excited fluorescence observed from human erythrocytes (red blood cells RBC's) and their "ghosts" following 800nm sub-15 fs excitation. The detected optical signal is assigned as two-photon excited fluorescence from hemoglobin. Our findings are supported by wavelength-resolved fluorescence lifetime decay measurements using time-correlated single photon counting system from RBC's, their ghosts as well as in vitro samples of various fluorophores including riboflavin, NADH, NAD(P)H, hemoglobin. We find that low-energy and short-duration pulses allow two-photon imaging of RBC's, but longer more intense pulses lead to their destruction.

  3. THE PURE RED BLOOD CELL APLASIA IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Dzumabaeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pure red blood cell aplasia of renal transplant recipients caused by parvovirus B19 (PB19 is characterized by persistent anemia which resistant to erythropoietin therapy, lack of reticulocytes, bone marrow hypoplasia, and clinically accompanied by severe recurrent bacterial, fungal and viral infection. In case of reactivation PB19 it is necessarv, first of all, eliminate the causes activation of this virus and to cancel or reduce the dose of drugs which depressed the normal hematopoiesis germs, thus to reduce the pancytopenia associating complications in this population. 

  4. DETERMINANTS OF RED-BLOOD-CELL DEFORMABILITY IN RELATION TO CELL AGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOSCH, FH; WERRE, JM; ROERDINKHOLDERSTOELWINDER, B; HULS, T; WILLEKENS, FLA; WICHERS, G; HALIE, MR

    1994-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) deformability was determined with an ektacytometer in fractions separated on the basis of differences in cell volume or density. Deformability was measured with ektacytometry (rpm-scan and osmo-scan). We studied three groups of RBC fractions:l. By counterflow centrifugation we o

  5. Efficient induction of pluripotent stem cells from menstrual blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Li, Xiaoni; Zhao, Hongxi; Feng, Ruopeng; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Tai, Dapeng; An, Guangyu; Wen, Jinhua; Tan, Jichun

    2013-04-01

    The technology to reprogram human somatic cells back to pluripotency allows the production of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and holds a great promise for regenerative medicine. Choosing the most suitable cell type for induction and reducing the risk of viral transgene activation, especially oncogene activation, are important for iPSC research. To date, human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) are the most frequent cell source used for iPSC generation, but they have several limitations. An invasive skin biopsy must be performed to obtain HDFs, and HDFs must be cultured for a prolonged period before they can be used for experiments. Thus, in an effort to develop a suitable source for iPSC studies to avoid the limitations mentioned above, we have here identified stromal cells derived from menstrual blood (MenSCs) as suitable candidates. In the present study, we found that MenSCs can be reprogrammed to pluripotent status by doxycycline-inducible lentiviral transduction of OCT4, SOX2, and KLF4. Additionally, we found that MenSCs have a significantly higher reprogramming efficiency than HDFs. The combination of OCT4 and SOX2 is sufficient to reprogram MenSCs into iPSCs without the use of c-MYC or KLF4. The resulting MenSC-iPSCs showed the same characteristics as human embryonic stem cells with regard to morphology, pluripotent markers, gene expression, and the epigenetic status of pluripotent-cell-specific genes. These cells were able to differentiate into various cell types of all 3 germ layers both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, MenSCs may be a preferred candidate for generation of iPSCs.

  6. The impact of storage time of transfused blood on postoperative infectious complications in rectal cancer surgery. Danish RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have studied the impact of storage time of transfused allogeneic blood together with other known risk factors on postoperative infectious complications after operation for rectal cancer. METHODS: Intra-abdominal abscess, anastomotic leakage, septicaemia, wound infection......, and pneumonia were prospectively recorded in 303 patients undergoing elective resection for primary rectal cancer in 18 Danish hospitals. Patient risk variables and variables related to operation technique and transfusion were recorded prospectively, whereas amount given before infectious complication...... and storage time of saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAGM) blood, administered to each patient, were recorded retrospectively. RESULTS: The overall infection rate was 24% in 78 non-transfused and 40% in 225 transfused patients (P = 0.011). The proportion of SAGM blood stored for > or = 21 days administered...

  7. Photodynamic treatment of red blood cell concentrates for virus inactivation enhances red blood cell aggregation: protection with antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Hur, E; Barshtein, G; Chen, S; Yedgar, S

    1997-10-01

    Photodynamic treatment (PDT) using phthalocyanines and red light appears to be a promising procedure for decontamination of red blood cell (RBC) concentrates for transfusion. A possible complication of this treatment may be induced aggregation of RBC. The production of RBC aggregates was measured with a novel computerized cell flow properties analyzer (CFA). The PDT of RBC concentrates with sulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AIPcS4) and the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 under virucidal conditions markedly enhanced RBC aggregation and higher shear stress was required to disperse these aggregates. The clusters of cells were huge and abnormally shaped, unlike the rouleaux formed by untreated RBC. This aggregation was prevented when a mixture of antioxidants was included during PDT. Addition of the antioxidants after PDT reduced aggregation only partially. It is concluded that inclusion of antioxidants during PDT of RBC concentrates prior to transfusion may reduce or eliminate the hemodynamic risk that the virucidal treatment may present to the recipient.

  8. A micro-scale simulation of red blood cell passage through symmetric and asymmetric bifurcated vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Tong; Xing, Zhongwen

    2016-01-01

    Blood exhibits a heterogeneous nature of hematocrit, velocity, and effective viscosity in microcapillaries. Microvascular bifurcations have a significant influence on the distribution of the blood cells and blood flow behavior. This paper presents a simulation study performed on the two-dimensionalmotions and deformation of multiple red blood cells in microvessels with diverging and converging bifurcations. Fluid dynamics and membrane mechanics were incorporated. Effects of cell shape, hematocrit, and deformability of the cell membrane on rheological behavior of the red blood cells and the hemodynamics have been investigated. It was shown that the blood entering the daughter branch with a higher flow rate tended to receive disproportionally more cells. The results also demonstrate that red blood cells in microvessels experienced lateral migration in the parent channel and blunted velocity profiles in both straight section and daughter branches, and this effect was influenced by the shape and the initial posit...

  9. Biological effects of the electrostatic field: red blood cell-related alterations of oxidative processes in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunyan, Hayk A.; Sahakyan, Gohar V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine activities of pro-/antioxidant enzymes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and oxidative modification of proteins and lipids in red blood cells (RBCs) and blood plasma of rats exposed to electrostatic field (200 kV/m) during the short (1 h) and the long periods (6 day, 6 h daily). Short-term exposure was characterized by the increase of oxidatively damaged proteins in blood of rats. This was strongly expressed in RBC membranes. After long-term action, RBC content in peripheral blood was higher than in control ( P < 0.01) and the attenuation of prooxidant processes was shown.

  10. Cell differentiation mediated by co-culture of human umbilical cord blood stem cells with murine hepatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklum, Maria; Wulf-Goldenberg, Annika; Purfürst, Bettina; Siegert, Antje; Keil, Marlen; Eckert, Klaus; Fichtner, Iduna

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, purified human cord blood stem cells were co-cultivated with murine hepatic alpha mouse liver 12 (AML12) cells to compare the effect on endodermal stem cell differentiation by either direct cell-cell interaction or by soluble factors in conditioned hepatic cell medium. With that approach, we want to mimic in vitro the situation of preclinical transplantation experiments using human cells in mice. Cord blood stem cells, cultivated with hepatic conditioned medium, showed a low endodermal differentiation but an increased connexin 32 (Cx32) and Cx43, and cytokeratin 8 (CK8) and CK19 expression was monitored by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Microarray profiling indicated that in cultivated cord blood cells, 604 genes were upregulated 2-fold, with the highest expression for epithelial CK19 and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin). On ultrastructural level, there were no major changes in the cellular morphology, except a higher presence of phago(ly)some-like structures observed. Direct co-culture of AML12 cells with cord blood cells led to less incisive differentiation with increased sex-determining region Y-box 17 (SOX17), Cx32 and Cx43, as well as epithelial CK8 and CK19 expressions. On ultrastructural level, tight cell contacts along the plasma membranes were revealed. FACS analysis in co-cultivated cells quantified dye exchange on low level, as also proved by time relapse video-imaging of labelled cells. Modulators of gap junction formation influenced dye transfer between the co-cultured cells, whereby retinoic acid increased and 3-heptanol reduced the dye transfer. The study indicated that the cell-co-cultured model of human umbilical cord blood cells and murine AML12 cells may be a suitable approach to study some aspects of endodermal/hepatic cell differentiation induction.

  11. Comparison of instruments for investigation of microcirculatory blood flow and red blood cell concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, Jim; McNamara, Paul; Clancy, Neil T.; Enfield, Joey G.; Leahy, Martin J.

    2009-05-01

    The use of laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) and laser speckle perfusion imaging (LSPI) is well known in the noninvasive investigation of microcirculatory blood flow. This work compares the two techniques with the recently developed tissue viability (TiVi) imaging system, which is proposed as a useful tool to quantify red blood cell concentration in microcirculation. Three systems are evaluated with common skin tests such as the use of vasodilating and vasoconstricting drugs (methlynicotinate and clobetasol, respectively) and a reactive hyperaemia maneuver (using a sphygmomanometer). The devices investigated are the laser Doppler line scanner (LDLS), the laser speckle perfusion imager (FLPI)-both from Moor Instruments (Axminster, United Kingdom)-and the TiVi imaging system (WheelsBridge AB, Linköping, Sweden). Both imaging and point scanning by the devices are used to quantify the provoked reactions. Perfusion images of vasodilatation and vasoconstriction are acquired with both LDLS and FLPI, while TiVi images are acquired with the TiVi imager. Time acquisitions of an averaged region of interest are acquired for temporal studies such as the reactive hyperaemia. In contrast to the change in perfusion over time with pressure, the TiVi imager shows a different response due its measurement of blood concentration rather than perfusion. The responses can be explained by physiological understanding. Although the three devices sample different compartments of tissue, and output essentially different variables, comparisons can be seen between the three systems. The LDLS system proves to be suited to measurement of perfusion in deeper vessels, while FLPI and TiVi showed sensitivity to more superficial nutritional supply. LDLS and FLPI are insensitive to the action of the vasoconstrictor, while TiVi shows the clear boundaries of the reaction. Assessment of the resolution, penetration depth, and acquisition rate of each instrument show complimentary features that should

  12. Blood analyte sensing using fluorescent dye-loaded red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Sarah C.; Shao, Xiaole; Cooley, Nicholas; Milanick, Mark A.; Glass, Timothy E.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2014-02-01

    Measurement of blood analytes provides crucial information about a patient's health. Some such analytes, such as glucose in the case of diabetes, require long-term or near-continuous monitoring for proper disease management. However, current monitoring techniques are far from ideal: multiple-per-day finger stick tests are inconvenient and painful for the patient; implantable sensors have short functional life spans (i.e., 3-7 days). Due to analyte transporters on red blood cell (RBC) membranes that equilibrate intracellular and extracellular analyte levels, RBCs serve as an attractive alternative for encapsulating analyte sensors. Once reintroduced to the blood stream, the functionalized RBCs may continue to live for the remainder of their life span (120 days for humans). They are biodegradable and biocompatible, thereby eliminating the immune system response common for many implanted devices. The proposed sensing system utilizes the ability of the RBCs to swell in response to a decrease in the osmolarity of the extracellular solution. Just before lysis, they develop small pores on the scale of tens of nanometers. While at low temperature, analyte-sensitive dyes in the extracellular solution diffuse into the perforated RBCs and become entrapped upon restoration of temperature and osmolarity. Since the fluorescent signal from the entrapped dye reports on changes in the analyte level of the extracellular solution via the RBC transporters, interactions between the RBCs and the dye are critical to the efficacy of this technique. In this work, we study the use of a near infrared pH sensitive dye encapsulated within RBCs and assess the ability to measure dye fluorescence in vivo.

  13. The Storage Cell for the Tri-Experiment at COSY-JÜLICH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felden, O.; Gebel, R.; Glende, M.; Lehrach, A.; Maier, R.; Prasuhn, D.; von Rossen, P.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Eversheim, P. D.; Hinterberger, F.

    2002-04-01

    At the EDDA experiment in the cooler synchrotron COSY in Jülich an atomic beam target is used which provides the designed polarization and density distribution. To increase the target density significantly a storage cell has been developed and implemented. This will contribute to a higher accuracy for the test of Time Reversal Invariance (TRI) which will be performed at the EDDA target place. To obtain the higher luminosity the target density and the transmission of the COSY beam through the cell were determined in their dependence on the cell aperture. Low storage cell apertures increase the target density in the cell but reduce the transmission of the circulating proton beam. To find the optimal cell design the transmission of the COSY beam was measured with movable scrapers and tested with an aperture at EDDA simulating the storage cell. The target density was calculated by Monte Carlo simulations for several cell geometries. An additional gain in target density is achieved by cooling the cell. A TeflonREFID="9789812777683_0012FN001"> coating of the cell reduces depolarization of the target gas. First measurements with the EDDA detector have shown that the target density as well as the polarization are within the range of the expected values.

  14. Mid-trimester fetal blood-derived adherent cells share characteristics similar to mesenchymal stem cells but full-term umbilical cord blood does not

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MinjunYu; ZhifengXiao; LiShen; LingsongLi

    2005-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation is a promising treatment for many conditions.Although stem cells can be isolated from many tissues, blood is the ideal source of these cells due to the ease of collection. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been paid increased attention because of their powerful proliferation and pluripotent differentiating ability. But whether MSCs reside in blood (newborn umbilical cord blood and fetal or adult peripheral blood) is also debatable. The present study showed that MSC-like cells could be isolated and expanded from 16-26 weeks fetal blood but were not acquired efficiently from full-term infants' umbilical cord blood (UCB). Adherent cells separated from postnatal UCB were heterogeneous in cell morphology. Their proliferation capacity was limited and they were mainly CD45+, which indicated their haematopoietic derivation. On the contrary, MSC-like cells shared a similar phenotype to bone marrow MSCs. They were CD34- CD45- CD44+ CD71+ CD90+ CD105+. They could be induced to differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic and neural lineage cells. Single cell clones also showed similar phenotype and differentiation ability. Our results suggest that early fetal blood is rich in MSCs but term UCB is not.

  15. Recent Stem Cell Advances: Cord Blood and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell for Cardiac Regeneration- a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhekar, Sheetal Kashinath; Shende, Vikas Suresh; Chincholkar, Anjali Baburao

    2016-05-30

    Stem cells are primitive self renewing undifferentiated cell that can be differentiated into various types of specialized cells like nerve cell, skin cells, muscle cells, intestinal tissue, and blood cells. Stem cells live in bone marrow where they divide to make new blood cells and produces peripheral stem cells in circulation. Under proper environment and in presence of signaling molecules stem cells begin to develop into specialized tissues and organs. These unique characteristics make them very promising entities for regeneration of damaged tissue. Day by day increase in incidence of heart diseases including left ventricular dysfunction, ischemic heart disease (IHD), congestive heart failure (CHF) are the major cause of morbidity and mortality. However infracted tissue cannot regenerate into healthy tissue. Heart transplantation is only the treatment for such patient. Due to limitation of availability of donor for organ transplantation, a focus is made for alternative and effective therapy to treat such condition. In this review we have discussed the new advances in stem cells such as use of cord stem cells and iPSC technology in cardiac repair. Future approach of CB cells was found to be used in tissue repair which is specifically observed for improvement of left ventricular function and myocardial infarction. Here we have also focused on how iPSC technology is used for regeneration of cardiomyocytes and intiating neovascularization in myocardial infarction and also for study of pathophysiology of various degenerative diseases and genetic disease in research field.

  16. The behaviors of Microcystis aeruginosa cells and extracellular microcystins during chitosan flocculation and flocs storage processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Hai-Yan; Ma, Chun-Xia; Hu, Wen-Rong; Sun, Feng

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed to study the effects of chitosan on cell integrity and extracellular microcystins (MCs) of Microcystis aeruginosa cells during flocculation and flocs storage processes. The impacts of chitosan addition, flocculation stirring and flocs storage time were comprehensively detected to prevent or reduce cell lysis and MCs release. Response surface method (RSM) was applied to optimize the chitosan flocculation. Under chitosan concentration 7.31 mg/L and optimized mechanical conditions, 99% of M. aeruginosa cells were integrated removed. Furthermore, amounts of extracellular MCs were adsorbed by chitosan polymers in this process. With chitosan flocs protect, though cells showed some damage, extracellular MCs concentration in flocculated samples lower than background level within first 2 d. However, lots of MCs release was observed after 4d which may result from chitosan degradation and cells lysis. Therefore, chitosan flocs should be treated within 2d to prevent the adsorbed MCs releasing again.

  17. Stretching and relaxation of malaria-infected red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ting; Phan-Thien, Nhan; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2013-09-03

    The invasion of red blood cells (RBCs) by malaria parasites is a complex dynamic process, in which the infected RBCs gradually lose their deformability and their ability to recover their original shape is greatly reduced with the maturation of the parasites. In this work, we developed two types of cell model, one with an included parasite, and the other without an included parasite. The former is a representation of real malaria-infected RBCs, in which the parasite is treated as a rigid body. In the latter, where the parasite is absent, the membrane modulus and viscosity are elevated so as to produce the same features present in the parasite model. In both cases, the cell membrane is modeled as a viscoelastic triangular network connected by wormlike chains. We studied the transient behaviors of stretching deformation and shape relaxation of malaria-infected RBCs based on these two models and found that both models can generate results in agreement with those of previously published studies. With the parasite maturation, the shape deformation becomes smaller and smaller due to increasing cell rigidity, whereas the shape relaxation time becomes longer and longer due to the cell's reduced ability to recover its original shape.

  18. Red blood cell cluster separation from digital images for use in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Hidalgo, Manuel; Guerrero-Peña, F A; Herold-García, S; Jaume-I-Capó, Antoni; Marrero-Fernández, P D

    2015-07-01

    The study of cell morphology is an important aspect of the diagnosis of some diseases, such as sickle cell disease, because red blood cell deformation is caused by these diseases. Due to the elongated shape of the erythrocyte, ellipse adjustment and concave point detection are applied widely to images of peripheral blood samples, including during the detection of cells that are partially occluded in the clusters generated by the sample preparation process. In the present study, we propose a method for the analysis of the shape of erythrocytes in peripheral blood smear samples of sickle cell disease, which uses ellipse adjustments and a new algorithm for detecting notable points. Furthermore, we apply a set of constraints that allow the elimination of significant image preprocessing steps proposed in previous studies. We used three types of images to validate our method: artificial images, which were automatically generated in a random manner using a computer code; real images from peripheral blood smear sample images that contained normal and elongated erythrocytes; and synthetic images generated from real isolated cells. Using the proposed method, the efficiency of detecting the two types of objects in the three image types exceeded 99.00%, 98.00%, and 99.35%, respectively. These efficiency levels were superior to the results obtained with previously proposed methods using the same database, which is available at http://erythrocytesidb.uib.es/. This method can be extended to clusters of several cells and it requires no user inputs.

  19. Geometric localization of thermal fluctuations in red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Arthur A.; Bhaduri, Basanta; Popescu, Gabriel; Levine, Alex J.

    2017-01-01

    The thermal fluctuations of membranes and nanoscale shells affect their mechanical characteristics. Whereas these fluctuations are well understood for flat membranes, curved shells show anomalous behavior due to the geometric coupling between in-plane elasticity and out-of-plane bending. Using conventional shallow shell theory in combination with equilibrium statistical physics we theoretically demonstrate that thermalized shells containing regions of negative Gaussian curvature naturally develop anomalously large fluctuations. Moreover, the existence of special curves, “singular lines,” leads to a breakdown of linear membrane theory. As a result, these geometric curves effectively partition the cell into regions whose fluctuations are only weakly coupled. We validate these predictions using high-resolution microscopy of human red blood cells (RBCs) as a case study. Our observations show geometry-dependent localization of thermal fluctuations consistent with our theoretical modeling, demonstrating the efficacy in combining shell theory with equilibrium statistical physics for describing the thermalized morphology of cellular membranes. PMID:28242681

  20. Geometric localization of thermal fluctuations in red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Arthur A; Bhaduri, Basanta; Popescu, Gabriel; Levine, Alex J

    2017-02-27

    The thermal fluctuations of membranes and nanoscale shells affect their mechanical characteristics. Whereas these fluctuations are well understood for flat membranes, curved shells show anomalous behavior due to the geometric coupling between in-plane elasticity and out-of-plane bending. Using conventional shallow shell theory in combination with equilibrium statistical physics we theoretically demonstrate that thermalized shells containing regions of negative Gaussian curvature naturally develop anomalously large fluctuations. Moreover, the existence of special curves, "singular lines," leads to a breakdown of linear membrane theory. As a result, these geometric curves effectively partition the cell into regions whose fluctuations are only weakly coupled. We validate these predictions using high-resolution microscopy of human red blood cells (RBCs) as a case study. Our observations show geometry-dependent localization of thermal fluctuations consistent with our theoretical modeling, demonstrating the efficacy in combining shell theory with equilibrium statistical physics for describing the thermalized morphology of cellular membranes.

  1. Energy Storage via Polyvinylidene Fluoride Dielectric on the Counterelectrode of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuezhen; Zhang, Xi; Jiang, Hongrui

    2014-02-15

    To study the fundamental energy storage mechanism of photovoltaically self-charging cells (PSCs) without involving light-responsive semiconductor materials such as Si powder and ZnO nanowires, we fabricate a two-electrode PSC with the dual functions of photocurrent output and energy storage by introducing a PVDF film dielectric on the counterelectrode of a dye-sensitized solar cell. A layer of ultrathin Au film used as a quasi-electrode establishes a shared interface for the I(-)/I3(-) redox reaction and for the contact between the electrolyte and the dielectric for the energy storage, and prohibits recombination during the discharging period because of its discontinuity. PSCs with a 10-nm-thick PVDF provide a steady photocurrent output and achieve a light-to-electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 3.38%, and simultaneously offer energy storage with a charge density of 1.67 C g(-1). Using this quasi-electrode design, optimized energy storage structures may be used in PSCs for high energy storage density.

  2. The DNA methylome of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingrui Li

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays an important role in biological processes in human health and disease. Recent technological advances allow unbiased whole-genome DNA methylation (methylome analysis to be carried out on human cells. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing at 24.7-fold coverage (12.3-fold per strand, we report a comprehensive (92.62% methylome and analysis of the unique sequences in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from the same Asian individual whose genome was deciphered in the YH project. PBMC constitute an important source for clinical blood tests world-wide. We found that 68.4% of CpG sites and 80% displayed allele-specific expression (ASE. These data demonstrate that ASM is a recurrent phenomenon and is highly correlated with ASE in human PBMCs. Together with recently reported similar studies, our study provides a comprehensive resource for future epigenomic research and confirms new sequencing technology as a paradigm for large-scale epigenomics studies.

  3. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis multiprotein biomarkers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Nardo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal progressive motor neuron disease, for which there are still no diagnostic/prognostic test and therapy. Specific molecular biomarkers are urgently needed to facilitate clinical studies and speed up the development of effective treatments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis approach to identify in easily accessible clinical samples, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, a panel of protein biomarkers that are closely associated with ALS. Validations and a longitudinal study were performed by immunoassays on a selected number of proteins. The same proteins were also measured in PBMC and spinal cord of a G93A SOD1 transgenic rat model. We identified combinations of protein biomarkers that can distinguish, with high discriminatory power, ALS patients from healthy controls (98%, and from patients with neurological disorders that may resemble ALS (91%, between two levels of disease severity (90%, and a number of translational biomarkers, that link responses between human and animal model. We demonstrated that TDP-43, cyclophilin A and ERp57 associate with disease progression in a longitudinal study. Moreover, the protein profile changes detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of ALS patients are suggestive of possible intracellular pathogenic mechanisms such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, nitrative stress, disturbances in redox regulation and RNA processing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that PBMC multiprotein biomarkers could contribute to determine amyotrophic lateral sclerosis diagnosis, differential diagnosis, disease severity and progression, and may help to elucidate pathogenic mechanisms.

  4. 75 FR 62843 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell... Act, as amended) the Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (ACBSCT) advises the.... L. 92-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Council on Blood...

  5. Quantification of the fraction poorly deformable red blood cells using ektacytometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streekstra, G.J.; Dobbe, J.G.G.; Hoekstra, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a method to obtain the fraction of poorly deformable red blood cells in a blood sample from the intensity pattern in an ektacytometer. In an ektacytometer red blood cells are transformed into ellipsoids by a shear flow between two transparent cylinders. The intensity pattern, due to a la

  6. Development of a microfluidic device for cell concentration and blood cell-plasma separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, M Sneha; Kumar, B S; Chandra, T S; Sen, A K

    2015-12-01

    This work presents design, fabrication and test of a microfluidic device which employs Fahraeus-Lindqvist and Zweifach-Fung effects for cell concentration and blood cell-plasma separation. The device design comprises a straight main channel with a series of branched channels placed symmetrically on both sides of the main channel. The design implements constrictions before each junction (branching point) in order to direct cells that would have migrated closer to the wall (naturally or after liquid extraction at a junction) towards the centre of the main channel. Theoretical and numerical analysis are performed for design of the microchannel network to ensure that a minimum flow rate ratio (of 2.5:1, main channel-to-side channels) is maintained at each junction and predict flow rate at the plasma outlet. The dimensions and location of the constrictions were determined using numerical simulations. The effect of presence of constrictions before the junctions was demonstrated by comparing the performances of the device with and without constrictions. To demonstrate the performance of the device, initial experiments were performed with polystyrene microbeads (10 and 15 μm size) and droplets. Finally, the device was used for concentration of HL60 cells and separation of plasma and cells in diluted blood samples. The cell concentration and blood-plasma purification efficiency was quantified using Haemocytometer and Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorter (FACS). A seven-fold cell concentration was obtained with HL60 cells and a purification efficiency of 70 % and plasma recovery of 80 % was observed for diluted (1:20) blood sample. FACS was used to identify cell lysis and the cell viability was checked using Trypan Blue test which showed that more than 99 % cells are alive indicating the suitability of the device for practical use. The proposed device has potential to be used as a sample preparation module in lab on chip based diagnostic platforms.

  7. Intelligent Power Management of hybrid Wind/ Fuel Cell/ Energy Storage Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hajizadeh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent power management strategy for hybrid wind/ fuel cell/ energy storage power generation system. The dynamic models of wind turbine, fuel cell and energy storage have been used for simulation of hybrid power system. In order to design power flow control strategy, a fuzzy logic control has been implemented to manage the power between power sources. The optimal operation of the hybrid power system is a main goal of designing power management strategy. The hybrid power system is simulated in MATLAB/ SIMIULINK environment and different operating conditions have been considered to evaluate the response of power management strategy.

  8. Effect of collection, transport, processing and storage of blood specimens on the activity of lysosomal enzymes in plasma and leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burin M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of different conditions of collection, transport and storage on the quality of blood samples from normal individuals in terms of the activity of the enzymes ß-glucuronidase, total hexosaminidase, hexosaminidase A, arylsulfatase A and ß-galactosidase. The enzyme activities were not affected by the different materials used for collection (plastic syringes or vacuum glass tubes. In the evaluation of different heparin concentrations (10% heparin, 5% heparin, and heparinized syringe in the syringes, it was observed that higher doses resulted in an increase of at least 1-fold in the activities of ß-galactosidase, total hexosaminidase and hexosaminidase A in leukocytes, and ß-glucuronidase in plasma. When the effects of time and means of transportation were studied, samples that had been kept at room temperature showed higher deterioration with time (72 and 96 h before processing, and in this case it was impossible to isolate leukocytes from most samples. Comparison of heparin and acid citrate-dextrose (ACD as anticoagulants revealed that ß-glucuronidase and hexosaminidase activities in plasma reached levels near the lower normal limits when ACD was used. In conclusion, we observed that heparin should be used as the preferable anticoagulant when measuring these lysosomal enzyme activities, and we recommend that, when transport time is more than 24 h, samples should be shipped by air in a styrofoam box containing wet ice.

  9. Regulation of red blood cell deformability is independent of red blood cell-nitric oxide synthase under hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Marijke; Lauten, Alexander; Hoeppener, Steffen; Goebel, Bjoern; Brenig, Julian; Jung, Christian; Bloch, Wilhelm; Suhr, Frank

    2016-09-12

    The aim was to study impacts of mild to severe hypoxia on human red blood cell (RBC)-nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent NO production, protein S-nitrosylation and deformability.Ambient air oxygen concentration of 12 healthy subjects was step-wisely reduced from 20.95% to 16.21%, 12.35%, 10% and back to 20.95%. Additional in vitro experiments involved purging of blood (±sodium nitrite) with gas mixtures corresponding to in vivo intervention.Vital and hypoxia-associated parameters showed physiological adaptation to changing demands. Activation of RBC-NOS decreased with increasing hypoxia. RBC deformability, which is influenced by RBC-NOS activation, decreased under mild hypoxia, but surprisingly increased at severe hypoxia in vivo and in vitro. This was causatively induced by nitrite reduction to NO which increased S-nitrosylation of RBC α- and β-spectrins -a critical step to improve RBC deformability. The addition of sodium nitrite prevented decreases of RBC deformability under hypoxia by sustaining S-nitrosylation of spectrins suggesting compensatory mechanisms of non-RBC-NOS-produced NO.The results first time indicate a direct link between maintenance of RBC deformability under severe hypoxia by non-enzymatic NO production because RBC-NOS activation is reduced. These data improve our understanding of physiological mechanisms supporting adequate blood and, thus, oxygen supply to different tissues under severe hypoxia.

  10. Flow cytometric comparison of platelets from a whole blood and finger-prick sample: impact of 24 hours storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, Albe C; Stander, Andre; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the validity and laboratory utility of flow cytometry when analyzing platelet activation by studying CD41, CD42b, CD62P and CD63. We compare flow cytometry results from citrated whole-blood and finger-prick samples directly after collection and also after storing both a finger-prick and whole-blood sample for 24 hours. Citrated whole-blood and finger-prick samples were taken from three healthy individuals on two occasions, and a total of 60,000 cells were analyzed for each of the four phycoerythrin-labeled monoclonal antibodies. Half of each sample was analyzed immediately after sampling while the other half was kept in the fridge at 6 °C for 24 hours before analysis. No significant difference was found between the sampling methods or the period of time before analysis. Results therefore suggest that an appropriately prepared finger-prick sample can be used for platelet function analysis, and samples can be stored for 24 hours in the fridge at 6 °C before analysis.

  11. Cerebral blood flow in sickle cell cerebrovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttenlocher, P.R.; Moohr, J.W.; Johns, L.; Brown, F.D.

    1984-05-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been studied by the xenon-133 (/sup 133/Xe) inhalation method in 16 children with suspected sickle cell cerebrovascular disease. Abnormalities consisting of decreases in total, hemispheral, or regional CBF were found in 17 of 26 studies. Eleven studies performed immediately after stroke, transient ischemic attack, or depression of state of alertness showed abnormalities. In addition to confirming regional cerebrovascular insufficiency in children with stroke due to major cerebral artery occlusion, the method detected diffuse decrease in CBF in children with stupor, coma, and seizures who had normal angiographic findings. In contrast, six of seven studies obtained after exchange transfusion or during maintenance on hypertransfusion therapy showed normal findings. The difference between results in patients with acute neurologic disturbances and those receiving transfusion therapy was statistically significant (P less than .005). The data indicate that the /sup 133/Xe method reliably demonstrates cerebrovascular impairment in sickle cell disease. They also suggest that CBF changes in patients with sickle cell disease can be reversed by exchange transfusion and by hypertransfusion therapy. The /sup 133/Xe CBF method may be useful for following up children with sickle cell disease who are at high risk for recurrent stroke.

  12. Reversible energy storage on a fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerpa Unda, Jesus Enrique

    2011-02-18

    A new concept of energy storage based on hydrogen which operates reversibly near ambient conditions and without important energy losses is investigated. This concept involves the hybridization between a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and a supercapacitor. The main idea consists in the electrochemical splitting of hydrogen at a PEM fuel cell-type electrode into protons and electrons and then in the storage of these two species separately in the electrical double layer of a supercapacitor-type electrode which is made of electrically conductive large-surface area carbon materials. The investigation of this concept was performed first using a two-electrode fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device. A three-electrode hybrid cell was used to explore the application of this concept as a hydrogen buffer integrated inside a PEM fuel cell to be used in case of peak power demand. (orig.)

  13. 76 FR 19101 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    .... Bill Young Cell Transplantation Program (Program) and the National Cord Blood Inventory (NCBI) Program...; National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) Analysis of National Cord Blood Inventory (NCBI) and Non-NCBI...

  14. Red blood cells serve as intravascular carriers of myeloperoxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Matti; Gajdova, Silvie; Kolarova, Hana; Kubala, Lukas; Lau, Denise; Geisler, Anne; Ravekes, Thorben; Rudolph, Volker; Tsao, Philip S; Blankenberg, Stefan; Baldus, Stephan; Klinke, Anna

    2014-09-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a heme enzyme abundantly expressed in polymorphonuclear neutrophils. MPO is enzymatically capable of catalyzing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the consumption of nitric oxide (NO). Thus MPO has both potent microbicidal and, upon binding to the vessel wall, pro-inflammatory properties. Interestingly, MPO - a highly cationic protein - has been shown to bind to both endothelial cells and leukocyte membranes. Given the anionic surface charge of red blood cells, we investigated binding of MPO to erythrocytes. Red blood cells (RBCs) derived from patients with elevated MPO plasma levels showed significantly higher amounts of MPO by flow cytometry and ELISA than healthy controls. Heparin-induced MPO-release from patient-derived RBCs was significantly increased compared to controls. Ex vivo experiments revealed dose and time dependency for MPO-RBC binding, and immunofluorescence staining as well as confocal microscopy localized MPO-RBC interaction to the erythrocyte plasma membrane. NO-consumption by RBC-membrane fragments (erythrocyte "ghosts") increased with incrementally greater concentrations of MPO during incubation, indicating preserved catalytic MPO activity. In vivo infusion of MPO-loaded RBCs into C57BL/6J mice increased local MPO tissue concentrations in liver, spleen, lung, and heart tissue as well as within the cardiac vasculature. Further, NO-dependent relaxation of aortic rings was altered by RBC bound-MPO and systemic vascular resistance significantly increased after infusion of MPO-loaded RBCs into mice. In summary, we find that MPO binds to RBC membranes in vitro and in vivo, is transported by RBCs to remote sites in mice, and affects endothelial function as well as systemic vascular resistance. RBCs may avidly bind circulating MPO, and act as carriers of this leukocyte-derived enzyme.

  15. Transdifferentiation of Human Hair Follicle Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Red Blood Cells by OCT4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of red blood cells (RBCs, erythrocytes can have potentially life-threatening consequences for rare or unusual blood type patients with massive blood loss resulting from various conditions. Erythrocytes have been derived from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs, but the risk of potential tumorigenicity cannot be ignored, and a majority of these cells produced from PSCs express embryonic ε- and fetal γ-globins with little or no adult β-globin and remain nucleated. Here we report a method to generate erythrocytes from human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells (hHFMSCs by enforcing OCT4 gene expression and cytokine stimulation. Cells generated from hHFMSCs expressed mainly the adult β-globin chain with minimum level of the fetal γ-globin chain. Furthermore, these cells also underwent multiple maturation events and formed enucleated erythrocytes with a biconcave disc shape. Gene expression analyses showed that OCT4 regulated the expression of genes associated with both pluripotency and erythroid development during hHFMSC transdifferentiation toward erythroid cells. These findings show that mature erythrocytes can be generated from adult somatic cells, which may serve as an alternative source of RBCs for potential autologous transfusion.

  16. Effect of substrate storage conditions on the stability of "Smart" films used for mammalian cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluestein, Blake M.; Reed, Jamie A.; Canavan, Heather E.

    2017-01-01

    When poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (pNIPAM) is tethered to a surface, it can induce the spontaneous release of a sheet of mammalian cells. The release of cells is a result of the reversible phase transition the polymer undergoes at its lower critical solution temperature (LCST). Many techniques are used for the deposition of pNIPAM onto cell culture substrates. Previously, we compared two methods of deposition (plasma polymerization, and co-deposition with a sol-gel). We proved that although both were technically appropriate for obtaining thermoresponsive pNIPAM films, the surfaces that were co-deposited with a sol-gel caused some disruption in cell activity. The variation of cell behavior could be due to the delamination of pNIPAM films leaching toxic chemicals into solution. In this work, we assessed the stability of these pNIPAM films by manipulating the storage conditions and analyzing the surface chemistry using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements over the amount of time required to obtain confluent cell sheets. From XPS, we demonstrated that ppNIPAM (plasma polymerized NIPAM) films remains stable across all storage conditions while sol-gel deposition show large deviations after 48 h of storage. Cell response of the deposited films was assessed by investigating the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility. The 37 °C and high humidity storage affects sol-gel deposited films, inhibiting normal cell growth and proper thermoresponse of the film. Surface chemistry, thermoresponse and cell growth remained similar for all ppNIPAM surfaces, indicating these substrates are more appropriate for mammalian cell culture applications.

  17. High Performance Fuel Cell and Electrolyzer Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs) for Space Energy Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Thomas I.; Billings, Keith J.; Kisor, Adam; Bennett, William R.; Jakupca, Ian J.; Burke, Kenneth; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative fuel cells provide a pathway to energy storage system development that are game changers for NASA missions. The fuel cell/ electrolysis MEA performance requirements 0.92 V/ 1.44 V at 200 mA/cm2 can be met. Fuel Cell MEAs have been incorporated into advanced NFT stacks. Electrolyzer stack development in progress. Fuel Cell MEA performance is a strong function of membrane selection, membrane selection will be driven by durability requirements. Electrolyzer MEA performance is catalysts driven, catalyst selection will be driven by durability requirements. Round Trip Efficiency, based on a cell performance, is approximately 65%.

  18. What Happens to Donated Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... week. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  19. Identification of Suitable Reference Genes for Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Subset Studies in Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oturai, D B; Søndergaard, H B; Börnsen, L;

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) involves the need of a proper standard for normalizing the gene expression data. Different studies have shown the validity of reference genes to vary greatly depending on tissue, cell subsets and experimental context. This study aimed at the identification...... of suitable reference genes for qPCR studies using different peripheral blood cell subsets (whole blood (WB) cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and PBMC subsets (CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, NK cells, monocytes, B cells and dendritic cells) from healthy controls (HC), patients with relapsing...... stable combination for analyses of cell subsets between HC and RRMS patients, while the combination of UBC and YWHAZ was superior for analysis of cell subsets between HC, RRMS and RRMS-IFN-β groups. GAPDH was generally unsuitable for blood cell subset studies in multiple sclerosis. In conclusion, we...

  20. Small molecule ice recrystallization inhibitors enable freezing of human red blood cells with reduced glycerol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capicciotti, Chantelle J; Kurach, Jayme D R; Turner, Tracey R; Mancini, Ross S; Acker, Jason P; Ben, Robert N

    2015-04-08

    In North America, red blood cells (RBCs) are cryopreserved in a clinical setting using high glycerol concentrations (40% w/v) with slow cooling rates (~1°C/min) prior to storage at -80°C, while European protocols use reduced glycerol concentrations with rapid freezing rates. After thawing and prior to transfusion, glycerol must be removed to avoid intravascular hemolysis. This is a time consuming process requiring specialized equipment. Small molecule ice recrystallization inhibitors (IRIs) such as β-PMP-Glc and β-pBrPh-Glc have the ability to prevent ice recrystallization, a process that contributes to cellular injury and decreased cell viability after cryopreservation. Herein, we report that addition of 110 mM β-PMP-Glc or 30 mM β-pBrPh-Glc to a 15% glycerol solution increases post-thaw RBC integrity by 30-50% using slow cooling rates and emphasize the potential of small molecule IRIs for the preservation of cells.

  1. Multiple loci are associated with white blood cell phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Nalls

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available White blood cell (WBC count is a common clinical measure from complete blood count assays, and it varies widely among healthy individuals. Total WBC count and its constituent subtypes have been shown to be moderately heritable, with the heritability estimates varying across cell types. We studied 19,509 subjects from seven cohorts in a discovery analysis, and 11,823 subjects from ten cohorts for replication analyses, to determine genetic factors influencing variability within the normal hematological range for total WBC count and five WBC subtype measures. Cohort specific data was supplied by the CHARGE, HeamGen, and INGI consortia, as well as independent collaborative studies. We identified and replicated ten associations with total WBC count and five WBC subtypes at seven different genomic loci (total WBC count-6p21 in the HLA region, 17q21 near ORMDL3, and CSF3; neutrophil count-17q21; basophil count- 3p21 near RPN1 and C3orf27; lymphocyte count-6p21, 19p13 at EPS15L1; monocyte count-2q31 at ITGA4, 3q21, 8q24 an intergenic region, 9q31 near EDG2, including three previously reported associations and seven novel associations. To investigate functional relationships among variants contributing to variability in the six WBC traits, we utilized gene expression- and pathways-based analyses. We implemented gene-clustering algorithms to evaluate functional connectivity among implicated loci and showed functional relationships across cell types. Gene expression data from whole blood was utilized to show that significant biological consequences can be extracted from our genome-wide analyses, with effect estimates for significant loci from the meta-analyses being highly corellated with the proximal gene expression. In addition, collaborative efforts between the groups contributing to this study and related studies conducted by the COGENT and RIKEN groups allowed for the examination of effect homogeneity for genome-wide significant associations across

  2. The relationship between stroke mortality and red blood cell parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Hatamian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several factors influence on the outcome of ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was determination the relationship between stroke mortality and red blood cell parameters.This cross-sectional study was conducted from 2011 July to June 2012. For all patients with ischemic stroke in middle cerebral artery (MCA territory, the cell blood count test was performed. We recorded their mortality on the 1(st week and the 1(st month after ischemic stroke. Data analysis was performed using t-test, χ(2, Mann-Whitney U-test, logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve in SPSS for Windows 19.0.A total of 98 subjects (45.9% men and 54.1% women with the mean age of 71.0 ± 13.9 years were assessed, while 67.3% of them were anemic. The prevalence of 1(st week mortality among anemic and non-anemic patients was 40.9% and 34.4% (P = 0.534. The prevalence of mortality after 1(st week till 1(st month was 19.6% and 21.0% respectively (P = 0.636. In univariant analysis, only 1(st month mortality had a significant relationship with red blood cell (RBC count (P = 0.022. However, the result of logistic regression model showed that RBC (P = 0.012 and mean corpuscular volume (MCV (P = 0.021 remained as predictors of the 1(st week and the 1(st month mortality (P = 0.011 and P = 0.090 respectively. The best cutoff point of RBC for the prediction of the 1(st week mortality with 44.7% specificity and 69.5% sensitivity was estimated 4.07 million/μl and for the 1(st month mortality with 46.6% specificity and 72.2% sensitivity was estimated 4.16 million/μl.The RBC count and MCV are independent predictors of ischemic stroke short-term mortality.

  3. An artificial blood vessel implanted three-dimensional microsystem for modeling transvascular migration of tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Ying; Pei, Ying; Xie, Min; Jin, Zi-He; Xiao, Ya-Shi; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Li-Na; Li, Yan; Huang, Wei-Hua

    2015-02-21

    Reproducing a tumor microenvironment consisting of blood vessels and tumor cells for modeling tumor invasion in vitro is particularly challenging. Here, we report an artificial blood vessel implanted 3D microfluidic system for reproducing transvascular migration of tumor cells. The transparent, porous and elastic artificial blood vessels are obtained by constructing polysaccharide cellulose-based microtubes using a chitosan sacrificial template, and possess excellent cytocompatibility, permeability, and mechanical characteristics. The artificial blood vessels are then fully implanted into the collagen matrix to reconstruct the 3D microsystem for modeling transvascular migration of tumor cells. Well-defined simulated vascular lumens were obtained by proliferation of the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) lining the artificial blood vessels, which enables us to reproduce structures and functions of blood vessels and replicate various hemodynamic parameters. Based on this model, the adhesion and transvascular migration of tumor cells across the artificial blood vessel have been well reproduced.

  4. Modifying the red cell surface: towards an ABO-universal blood supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Martin L; Clausen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Eliminating the risk for ABO-incompatible transfusion errors and simplifying logistics by creating a universal blood inventory is a challenging idea. Goldstein and co-workers pioneered the field of enzymatic conversion of blood group A and B red blood cells (RBCs) to O (ECO). Using alpha-galactos......Eliminating the risk for ABO-incompatible transfusion errors and simplifying logistics by creating a universal blood inventory is a challenging idea. Goldstein and co-workers pioneered the field of enzymatic conversion of blood group A and B red blood cells (RBCs) to O (ECO). Using alpha...

  5. [Allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with unrelated cord blood: report of three cases from the Chilean cord blood bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Francisco; Wietstruck, Angélica; Rojas, Nicolás; Bertin, Pablo; Pizarro, Isabel; Carmona, Amanda; Guilof, Alejandro; Rojas, Iván; Oyarzún, Enrique

    2013-08-01

    Public cord blood banks are a source of hematopoietic stem cells for patients with hematological diseases who lack a family donor and need allogeneic transplantation. In June 2007 we started a cord blood bank with units donated in three maternity wards in Santiago, Chile. We report the first three transplants done with cord blood units form this bank. Cord blood units were obtained by intrauterine collection at delivery. They were depleted of plasma and red cells and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Tests for total nucleated cells, CD34 cell content, viral serology, bacterial cultures and HLA A, B and DRB1 were done. Six hundred cord blood units were stored by March 2012. Three patients received allogeneic transplant with cord blood from our bank, two with high risk lymphoblastic leukemia and one with severe congenital anemia. They received conditioning regimens according to their disease and usual supportive care for unrelated donor transplantation until full hematopoietic and immune reconstitution was achieved. The three patients had early engraftment of neutrophils and platelets. The child corrected his anemia and the leukemia patients remain in complete remission. The post-transplant course was complicated with Epstein Barr virus, cytomegalovirus and BK virus infection. Two patients are fully functional 24 and 33 months after transplant, the third is still receiving immunosuppression.

  6. Differentiation of human menstrual blood-derived endometrial mesenchymal stem cells into oocyte-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Dongmei; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Qiuwan; Chen, Yifei; Xiang, Charlie

    2016-11-01

    Human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (EnSCs) derived from menstrual blood are a unique stem cell source. Evidence suggests that EnSCs exhibit a multi-lineage potential and have attracted extensive attention in regenerative medicine. However, the potential of EnSCs to differentiate into germline cells in vitro remains unclear. In this study, EnSCs were induced to differentiate into germ cells in a differentiation medium supplemented with 20% human follicular fluid. Our results demonstrated that EnSCs derived from human menstrual blood form oocyte-like cells and express germ cell markers. The induced cell aggregates contained not only oocyte-like structures but also cells expressing follicle stimulating hormone receptor and luteotropic hormone receptor, and produced estrogen and progesterone regulated by gonodatropin, suggesting that granulosa-like and theca-like cells were also induced. We further found that granulosa cells promote the development of oocyte-like cells and activate the induction of blastocyst-like structures derived from EnSCs. In conclusion, EnSCs may potentially represent an in vitro system for the investigation of human folliculogenesis.

  7. Red Blood Cell Antigen Genotyping for Sickle Cell Disease, Thalassemia, and Other Transfusion Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Ross M; Chou, Stella T

    2016-10-01

    Since the discovery of the ABO blood group in the early 20th century, more than 300 blood group antigens have been categorized among 35 blood group systems. The molecular basis for most blood group antigens has been determined and demonstrates tremendous genetic diversity, particularly in the ABO and Rh systems. Several blood group genotyping assays have been developed, and 1 platform has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a "test of record," such that no phenotype confirmation with antisera is required. DNA-based red blood cell (RBC) phenotyping can overcome certain limitations of hemagglutination assays and is beneficial in many transfusion settings. Genotyping can be used to determine RBC antigen phenotypes in patients recently transfused or with interfering allo- or autoantibodies, to resolve discrepant serologic typing, and/or when typing antisera are not readily available. Molecular RBC antigen typing can facilitate complex antibody evaluations and guide RBC selection for patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), thalassemia, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. High-resolution RH genotyping can identify variant RHD and RHCE in patients with SCD, which have been associated with alloimmunization. In the future, broader access to cost-efficient, high-resolution RBC genotyping technology for both patient and donor populations may be transformative for the field of transfusion medicine.

  8. Effects of blood products on inflammatory response in endothelial cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Urner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transfusing blood products may induce inflammatory reactions within the vascular compartment potentially leading to a systemic inflammatory response. Experiments were designed to assess the inflammatory potential of different blood products in an endothelial cell-based in vitro model and to compare baseline levels of potentially activating substances in transfusion products. METHODS: The inflammatory response from pre-activated (endotoxin-stimulated and non-activated endothelial cells as well as neutrophil endothelial transmigration in response to packed red blood cells (PRBC, platelet concentrates (PC and fresh frozen plasma (FFP was determined. Baseline inflammatory mediator and lipid concentrations in blood products were evaluated. RESULTS: Following incubation with all blood products, an increased inflammatory mediator release from endothelial cells was observed. Platelet concentrates, and to a lesser extent also FFP, caused the most pronounced response, which was accentuated in already pre-stimulated endothelial cells. Inflammatory response of endothelial cells as well as blood product-induced migration of neutrophils through the endothelium was in good agreement with the lipid content of the according blood product. CONCLUSION: Within the group of different blood transfusion products both PC and FFP have a high inflammatory potential with regard to activation of endothelial cells. Inflammation upon blood product exposure is strongly accentuated when endothelial cells are pre-injured. High lipid contents in the respective blood products goes along with an accentuated inflammatory reaction from endothelial cells.

  9. The electrical storage systems in energy networks with fuel cells and photovoltaic systems for residential use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Y.; Aki, H. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Fuel cell systems and photovoltaic systems are expected to penetrate Japan's residential sector as a distributed energy resource. However, in order to connect photovoltaic systems to the electricity grid in Japan, the power conditioner of the photovoltaic system should have a function to restrict output. The purpose of this study was to establish a cooperative operations method for fuel cells, photovoltaic cells and electrical storage devices. In the proposed networks of this study, electricity, hydrogen and hot water were interchanged and the equipment was shared for cooperative operation. The power generated by the photovoltaic system fluctuated widely. The power flow at the connecting point of the energy networks to the electric power distribution system was bidirectional and depended on the balance of the power produced by the photovoltaic system as well as the power consumption. The use of an electrical storage system for the proposed networks ensured the stability of the power system and enabled more flexible operation of fuel cell stacks. The cooperative operational method for fuel cell systems, photovoltaic systems and electrical storage systems involved the combination of an electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) and a lithium-ion battery for residential dwellings. Simulation results showed that the use of an EDLC reduced the required capacity of electrical storage systems and the fluctuation of output power of fuel cell systems. The construction of an experimental facilities is being planned to evaluate the charge-discharge characteristics of the electric storage devices and auxiliary equipment, such as inverters. 1 ref., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  10. EFFECT OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ON RED BLOOD CELL IMMUNE AND T-CELL SUBGROUP IN THE RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高巍; 黄裕新; 陈洪; 孙大勇; 张洪新

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on immune system was observed in the rat by using micro- whole blood direct immunofluorescence Staining assay to detect changes of the peripheral blood T lymphocyte subgroup and employing red blood cell (RBC) C3b receptor- yeast rosette test and red blood cell-IC rosette test to analyze erythrocytic immune function. Resuits showed that after EA of “Zusanli” (ST 36), CD4+, RBC-C3bRR and RBC-ICR in the peripheral blood of the normal rats increased significantly while CDs+ had no any considerable changes and a positive correlation between CD~ and RBC-C3bRR was found. In immtttaosuppression model rats, the values of CD4+ and RBC-C3bRR were obviously lower than those of the normal control group while CD8+ had no any striking changes; but after EA treatment, there were no evident differences between EAgroup and normal control group in the above-mentioned indexes. There were also no any significant differences between non-acupoint group and normal control group in those indexes. Results suggest that EA of “Zusanli” (ST 36) can raise T cell immune function and RBC adhesion function in both normal rats and immunosuppression model rats, both of which present a positive correlation.

  11. EFFECT OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ON RED BLOOD CELL IMMUNE AND T-CELL SUBGROUP IN THE RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GaoWei; HuangYuxin; ChenHong; SunDayong; ZhangHongxin

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on immune system was observed in the rat by using micro- whole blood direct immunofluoreseence Staining assay to detect changes of the peripheral blood T lymphocyte subgroup and employing red blood cell (RBC) C3b receptor- yeast rosette test and red blood cell-IC rosette test to analyze erythroeytic immune function. Results showed that after EA of “Zusanli” (ST 36), CD4+, RBC-C3bRR and RBC-ICR in the peripheral blood of the normal rats increased significantly while CD8+ had no any considerable changes and a positive correlation between CD4+ and RBC-C3bRR was found. In immuoosuppression model rats, the values of CD4+ and RBC-C3bRR were obviously lower than those of the normal control group while CD8+ had no any striking changes; but after EA treatment, there were no evident differences between EA group and normal control group in the above-mentioned indexes. There were also no any significant differences between non-acupoint group and normal control group in those indexes. Results suggest that EA of “Zusanli” (ST 36) can raise T cell immune function and RBC adhesion function in both normal rats and immunosuppression model rats, both of which present a positive correlation.

  12. Fragmented red cells reference range (Sysmex XN(®) automated blood cell counter).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesesve, Jean-François; Daigney, Amandine; Henry, Sylvain; Speyer, Elodie

    2015-01-01

    Fragmented red cells (FRCs) is a new parameter automatedly determined by recent blood cell counters. Their count might be of interest because FRCs are supposed to reflect schistocytes counts measured on a stained peripheral blood smear observed under the microscope. But FRCs depend from the technical procedure used to detect them and thus reference ranges are device-dependent. The XN-9000(®) is one of the last model from Sysmex series. We aimed to establish reference range for FRCs, from 2389 controls. The mean ± SD was 0.32% ± 0.81, the median 0.02% (95% confidence interval ot the mean: 0.29-0.35%). We observed that the percentage of red blood cells with less than 17 pg of hemoglobin content (Hypo-He) was correlated to FRC increase, Hypo-He increase resulting in spurious FRCs majoration. FRCs reference range should be useful for: 1) laboratory staff in order to select which blood smears to check optically; 2) Sysmex company to set-up more optimal rules proposed with the counter (automated making of blood smear).

  13. Cobalt uptake and binding in human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Lars Ole; Brown, Anthony M; Harbak, Henrik; Kristensen, Berit I; Bennekou, Poul

    2011-04-15

    is not observed in the case of (54)Mn. Tightly bound and the major part of reversibly bound (57)Co co-migrate with hemoglobin in Sephadex column chromatography of a lysate of (57)Co-loaded cells. (57)Co also co-migrates with hemoglobin when added to a lysate of unlabeled cells or to a solution of purified hemoglobin, in both cases with a time-dependent development of tight binding. Cobalt is known to bind to the globin moiety of hemoglobin. The results imply that during long-term cobalt exposure in vivo cobalt will be taken up practically irreversibly in the red cells during their 120 days life span. Thus, for biomonitoring of cobalt exposure, it could be appropriate to measure the cobalt content in red cells to give, compared with timed or in-competition whole-blood and serum analysis, an average value for the exposure over the last couple of months.

  14. Diagnosis and epidemiology of red blood cell enzyme disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Van Wijk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The red blood cell possess an active metabolic machinery that provides the cell with energy to pump ions against electrochemical gradients, to maintain its shape, to keep hemoglobin iron in the reduced (ferrous form, and to maintain enzyme and hemoglobin sulfhydryl groups. The main source of metabolic energy comes from glucose. Glucose is metabolized through the glycolytic pathway and through the hexose monophosphate shunt. Glycolysis catabolizes glucose to pyruvate and lactate, which represent the end products of glucose metabolism in the erythrocyte. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP is phosphorylated to adenosine triphosphate (ATP, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ is reduced to NADH in glycolysis. 2,3- Bisphosphoglycerate, an important regulator of the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin, is generated during glycolysis by the Rapoport-Luebering shunt. The hexose monophosphate shunt oxidizes glucose-6-phosphate, reducing NADP+ to reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH. The red cell lacks the capacity for de novo purine synthesis but has a salvage pathway that permits synthesis of purine nucleotides from purine bases...

  15. A multiscale model for red blood cell mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Dirk

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this article is the derivation of a continuum model for mechanics of red blood cells via multiscale analysis. On the microscopic level, we consider realistic discrete models in terms of energy functionals defined on networks/lattices. Using concepts of Gamma-convergence, convergence results as well as explicit homogenisation formulae are derived. Based on a characterisation via energy functionals, appropriate macroscopic stress-strain relationships (constitutive equations) can be determined. Further, mechanical moduli of the derived macroscopic continuum model are directly related to microscopic moduli. As a test case we consider optical tweezers experiments, one of the most common experiments to study mechanical properties of cells. Our simulations of the derived continuum model are based on finite element methods and account explicitly for membrane mechanics and its coupling with bulk mechanics. Since the discretisation of the continuum model can be chosen freely, rather than it is given by the topology of the microscopic cytoskeletal network, the approach allows a significant reduction of computational efforts. Our approach is highly flexible and can be generalised to many other cell models, also including biochemical control.

  16. [Molecular basis of red blood cell adhesion to endothelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wautier, J-L; Wautier, M-P

    2011-01-01

    The extent of red blood cell adhesion is correlated with the incidence of vascular complications and the severity of the disease. Patients with sickle cell anemia (HbSS) experience vasoocclusive episodes. The adhesion of RBCs from HbSS patients is increased and related to VLA-4 exposure, which binds to vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1). Inter Cellular Adhesion Molecule (ICAM-1), CD31, CD36 and glycans are potential receptors for PfEMP1 of RBCs parasited by plasmodium falciparum. The incidence of vascular complications is very high in patients with diabetes mellitus. RBC adhesion is increased and statistically correlated with the severity of the angiopathy. Glycation of RBC membrane proteins is responsible for binding to the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Polycythemia Vera (PV) is the most frequent myeloproliferative disorder and characterized by a high occurrence of thrombosis of mesenteric and cerebral vessels. PV is due to a mutation of the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2 V617F). This mutation stimulates erythropoiesis and is the cause of Lu/BCAM (CD239) phosphorylation, which potentiated the interaction with laminin alpha 5. The couple laminin alpha 5 endothelial and phosphorylated Lu/BCAM explained the increased adhesion of RBCs from patients PV to endothelium.

  17. Absence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells priming in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos B.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the proinflammatory environment occurring in dialytic patients, cytokine overproduction has been implicated in hemodialysis co-morbidity. However, there are discrepancies among the various studies that have analyzed TNF-alpha synthesis and the presence of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC priming in this clinical setting. We measured bioactive cytokine by the L929 cell bioassay, and evaluated PBMC TNF-alpha production by 32 hemodialysis patients (HP and 51 controls. No difference in TNF-alpha secretion was observed between controls and HP (859 ± 141 vs 697 ± 130 U/10(6 cells. Lipopolysaccharide (5 µg/ml did not induce any further TNF-alpha release, showing no PBMC priming. Paraformaldehyde-fixed HP PBMC were not cytotoxic to L929 cells, suggesting the absence of membrane-anchored TNF-alpha. Cycloheximide inhibited PBMC cytotoxicity in HP and controls, indicating lack of a PBMC TNF-alpha pool, and dependence on de novo cytokine synthesis. Actinomycin D reduced TNF-alpha production in HP, but had no effect on controls. Therefore, our data imply that TNF-alpha production is an intrinsic activity of normal PBMC and is not altered in HP. Moreover, TNF-alpha is a product of de novo synthesis by PBMC and is not constitutively expressed on HP cell membranes. The effect of actinomycin D suggests a putative tighter control of TNF-alpha mRNA turnover in HP. This increased dependence on TNF-alpha RNA transcription in HP may reflect an adaptive response to hemodialysis stimuli.

  18. Sucralose sweetener in vivo effects on blood constituents radiolabeling, red blood cell morphology and radiopharmaceutical biodistribution in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, G.S.; Pereira, M.O. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010180 Natal, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil); Benarroz, M.O.; Frydman, J.N.G.; Rocha, V.C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pereira, M.J. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Fisiologia, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Fonseca, A.S., E-mail: adnfonseca@ig.com.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto Biomedico, Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas, Rua Frei Caneca, 94, Rio de Janeiro 20211040 (Brazil); Medeiros, A.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010180 Natal, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil); Bernardo-Filho, M. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Coordenadoria de Pesquisa Basica, Praca Cruz Vermelha, 23, 20230130 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Effects of sucralose sweetener on blood constituents labelled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) on red blood cell (RBC) morphology, sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid labeled with {sup 99m}Tc ({sup 99m}Tc-DTPA) biodistribution in rats were evaluated. Radiolabeling on blood constituents from Wistar rats was undertaken for determining the activity percentage (%ATI) on blood constituents. RBC morphology was also evaluated. Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} and {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA biodistribution was used to determine %ATI/g in organs. There was no alteration on RBC blood constituents and morphology %ATI. Sucralose sweetener was capable of altering %ATI/g of the radiopharmaceuticals in different organs. These findings are associated to the sucralose sweetener in specific organs.

  19. Restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategy for red blood cell transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Lars B; Petersen, Marie W; Haase, Nicolai;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the benefit and harm of restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategies to guide red blood cell transfusions. DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane central register of controlled...... trials, SilverPlatter Medline (1950 to date), SilverPlatter Embase (1980 to date), and Science Citation Index Expanded (1900 to present). Reference lists of identified trials and other systematic reviews were assessed, and authors and experts in transfusion were contacted to identify additional trials....... TRIAL SELECTION: Published and unpublished randomised clinical trials that evaluated a restrictive compared with a liberal transfusion strategy in adults or children, irrespective of language, blinding procedure, publication status, or sample size. DATA EXTRACTION: Two authors independently screened...

  20. Red blood cell sodium transport in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Lütken; Kiszka-Kanowitz, Marianne; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Patients with advanced cirrhosis have abnormal sodium homoeostasis. The study was undertaken to quantify the sodium transport across the plasma membrane of red blood cells (RBC) in patients with cirrhosis. RBC efflux and influx of sodium were studied in vitro with tracer (22) Na(+) according...... to linear kinetics in 24 patients with cirrhosis and 14 healthy controls. The sodium efflux was modified by ouabain (O), furosemide (F) and a combination of O and F (O + F). RBC sodium was significantly decreased (4·6 versus control 6·3 mmol l(-1) , Psodium (r = 0·57, P......sodium efflux was higher in patients with cirrhosis (+46%, Psodium buffers showed that the F-insensitive sodium efflux was twice as high in cirrhosis as in controls (P = 0...

  1. Stretching Behavior of Red Blood Cells at High Strain Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Jordan; Ristenpart, William

    2016-11-01

    Most work on the mechanical behavior of red blood cells (RBCs) has focused on simple shear flows. Relatively little work has examined RBC deformations in the physiologically important extensional flow that occurs at the entrance to a constriction. In particular, previous work suggests that RBCs rapidly stretch out and then retract upon entering the constriction, but to date no model predicts this behavior for the extremely high strain rates typically experienced there. In this work, we use high speed video to perform systematic measurements of the dynamic stretching behavior of RBCs as they enter a microfluidic constriction. We demonstrate that a simple viscoelastic model captures the observed stretching dynamics, up to strain rates as high as 1000 s-1. The results indicate that the effective elastic modulus of the RBC membrane at these strain rates is an order of magnitude larger than moduli measured by micropipette aspiration or other low strain rate techniques.

  2. The Antioxidant Effect of Erythropoietin on Thalassemic Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Amer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of its stimulating effect on RBC production, erythropoietin (Epo is used to treat anemia, for example, in patients on dialysis or on chemotherapy. In β-thalassemia, where Epo levels are low relative to the degree of anemia, Epo treatment improves the anemia state. Since RBC and platelets of these patients are under oxidative stress, which may be involved in anemia and thromboembolic complications, we investigated Epo as an antioxidant. Using flow-cytometry technology, we found that in vitro treatment with Epo of blood cells from these patients increased their glutathione content and reduced their reactive oxygen species, membrane lipid peroxides, and external phosphatidylserine. This resulted in reduced susceptibility of RBC to undergo hemolysis and phagocytosis. Injection of Epo into heterozygous (Hbbth3/+ β-thalassemic mice reduced the oxidative markers within 3 hours. Our results suggest that, in addition to stimulating RBC and fetal hemoglobin production, Epo might alleviate symptoms of hemolytic anemias as an antioxidant.

  3. Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia and Red Blood Cell Autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, Erin; Koepsell, Scott

    2015-11-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a rare disorder caused by autoreactive red blood cell (RBC) antibodies that destroy RBCs. Although autoimmune hemolytic anemia is rare, RBC autoantibodies are encountered frequently and can complicate transfusion workups, impede RBC alloantibody identification, delay distribution of compatible units, have variable clinical significance that ranges from benign to life-threatening, and may signal an underlying disease or disorder. In this review, we discuss the common presenting features of RBC autoantibodies, laboratory findings, ancillary studies that help the pathologist investigate the clinical significance of autoantibodies, and how to provide appropriate patient care and consultation for clinical colleagues. Pathologists must be mindful of, and knowledgeable about, this entity because it not only allows for direct clinical management but also can afford an opportunity to preemptively treat an otherwise silent malignancy or disorder.

  4. Alkaline regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for manned orbital satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. E.; Gitlow, B.; Sheibley, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that the alkaline regenerative fuel cell system represents a highly efficient, lightweight, reliable approach for providing energy storage in an orbiting satellite. In addition to its energy storage function, the system can supply hydrogen and oxygen for attitude control of the satellite and for life support. A summary is presented of the results to date obtained in connection with the NASA-sponsored fuel cell technology advancement program, giving particular attention to the requirements of the alkaline regenerative fuel cell and the low-earth mission. Attention is given to system design guidelines, weight considerations, gold-platinum cathode cell performance, matrix development, the electrolyte reservoir plate, and the cyclical load profile tests.

  5. Endothelial progenitor cell differentiation using cryopreserved, umbilical cord blood-derived mononuclear cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-ho JANG; Hugh C KIM; Sun-kyung KIM; Jeong-eun CHOI; Young-jin KIM; Hyun-woo LEE; Seok-yun KANG; Joon-seong PARK; Jin-hyuk CHOI; Ho-yeong LIM

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the endothelial differentiation potentiality of umbilical cord blood (UCB), we induced the differentiation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC)from cryopreserved UCB-derived mononuclear cells (MNC). Methods: MNC from cryopreserved UCB and peripheral blood (PB) were cultured in M199 medium with endothelial cell growth supplements for 14 d. EPC were characterized by RT-PCR,flow cytometry, and immunocytochemistry analysis. The proliferation of differen-tiated EPC was studied by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTI') assay, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentra-tion was measured using an ELISA kit. Characteristics of UCB-derived EPC were compared with those of PB-derived EPC. Results: A number of round-shaped cells were loosely attached to the bottom after 24 h culture, and numerous spindle-shaped cells began to appear from the round-shaped ones on d 7. Those cells expressed endothelial markers such as, Fit-1/VEGFR-1, ecNOS, VE-cadherin, yon Willebrand factor, and secreted VEGF. The patterns of endothelial markers of EPC from PB and UCB did not show striking differences. The results of the prolifera-tion and secretion of VEGF were also similar. Conclusion: We successfully cul-tured UCB cells stored at -196 ℃ into cells with the quality of endothelial cells.Those EPC could be used for angiogenic therapeutics by activating adjacent endothelial cells and enhancing angiogenesis.

  6. Derivation of blood-brain barrier endothelial cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, Ethan S; Azarin, Samira M; Kay, Jennifer E; Nessler, Randy A; Wilson, Hannah K; Al-Ahmad, Abraham; Palecek, Sean P; Shusta, Eric V

    2012-08-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is crucial to the health of the brain and is often compromised in neurological disease. Moreover, because of its barrier properties, this endothelial interface restricts uptake of neurotherapeutics. Thus, a renewable source of human BBB endothelium could spur brain research and pharmaceutical development. Here we show that endothelial cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) acquire BBB properties when co-differentiated with neural cells that provide relevant cues, including those involved in Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The resulting endothelial cells have many BBB attributes, including well-organized tight junctions, appropriate expression of nutrient transporters and polarized efflux transporter activity. Notably, they respond to astrocytes, acquiring substantial barrier properties as measured by transendothelial electrical resistance (1,450 ± 140 Ω cm2), and they possess molecular permeability that correlates well with in vivo rodent blood-brain transfer coefficients.

  7. Effect of polyclonal activators on cytokine production by blood cells and by malignant breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunts, T A; Karpukhina, K V; Mikhaylova, E S; Marinkin, I O; Varaksin, N A; Autenshlyus, A I; Lyakhovich, V V

    2016-01-01

    The production of cytokines by peripheral blood cells and biopsy specimens of tumors stimulated by polyclonal activators (PAs) was evaluated in 34 patients with invasive ductal breast carcinoma using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positive correlation between the stimulation index of polyclonal activators (SIPA) for IL-18 production by the tumor and the relative content of poorly differentiated cells was revealed. The latter, in turn, was positively correlated with the numbers of normal and pathologic mitoses and the degree of malignancy. Cancer cells can produce IL-18, which is involved in the process of angiogenesis, stimulates invasion and metastasis. Decrease in SIPA for the production of IL-6 and GCSF by peripheral blood cells could serve as an indicator of malignant progression in invasive ductal breast carcinoma.

  8. [Red Blood Cells Raman Spectroscopy Comparison of Type Two Diabetes Patients and Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Gui-dong; Mu, Xin; Xiao, Hong-bin; Qi, Chao; Zhang, Si-qi; Niu Wen-ying; Jiang, Guang-kun; Feng, Yue-nan; Bian, Jing-qi

    2015-10-01

    By using confocal Raman spectroscopy, Raman spectra were measured in normal rat red blood cells, normal human red blood cells, STZ induced diabetetic rats red blood cells, Alloxan induced diabetetic rats red blood cells and human type 2 diabetes red blood cells. Then principal component analysis (PCA) with support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used for data analysis, and then the distance between classes was used to judge the degree of close to two kinds of rat model with type 2 diabetes. The results found significant differences in the Raman spectra of red blood cell in diabetic and normal red blood cells. To diabetic red blood cells, the peak in the amide VI C=O deformation vibration band is obvious, and amide V N-H deformation vibration band spectral lines appear deviation. Belong to phospholipid fatty acyl C-C skeleton, the 1 130 cm(-1) spectral line is enhanced and the 1 088 cm(-1) spectral line is abated, which show diabetes red cell membrane permeability increased. Raman spectra of PCA combined with SVM can well separate 5 types of red blood cells. Classifier test results show that the classification accuracy is up to 100%. Through the class distance between the two induced method and human type 2 diabetes, it is found that STZ induced model is more close to human type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, Raman spectroscopy can be used for diagnosis of diabetes and rats STZ induced diabetes method is closer to human type 2 diabetes.

  9. Study on the induction and differentiation of megakaryocyte progenitor cell derived from umbilical cord blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To build a protocol of separation and induction of megakaryocytes derived from cord blood mononuclear cells.Methods Red blood cells were precipitated by hydroxyethyl starch(HES).Mononuclear cells were obtained by density gradient centrifugation with Ficoll.The inducing efficiencies of megakaryocytes using different cytokine cocktails and culture media were analyzed.Results The best choice for erythrocyte sedimenta-

  10. 75 FR 14175 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell... sciences; basic scientists with expertise in the biology of adult stem cells; ethicists; hematology and transfusion medicine researchers with expertise in adult blood stem cells; persons with expertise in...

  11. Red blood cell transfusion in preterm neonates: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirico G

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaetano ChiricoNeonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Children Hospital, Spedali Civili, Brescia, ItalyAbstract: Preterm neonates, especially very low birth weight infants, remain a category of patients with high transfusion needs; about 90% of those with <1,000 g birth weight may be transfused several times during their hospital stay. However, neonatal red blood cells (RBC transfusion is not without risks. In addition to well-known adverse events, several severe side effects have been observed unique to preterm infants, such as transfusion-related acute gut injury, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increased mortality risk. It is therefore important to reduce the frequency of RBC transfusion in critically ill neonates, by delayed clamping or milking the umbilical cord, using residual cord blood for initial laboratory investigations, reducing phlebotomy losses, determining transfusion guidelines, and ensuring the most appropriate nutrition, with the optimal supplementation of iron, folic acid, and vitamins. Ideally, RBC transfusion should be tailored to the individual requirements of the single infant. However, many controversies still remain, and the decision on whether to transfuse or not is often made on an empirical basis. Recently, a few clinical trials have been performed with the aim to compare the risk/benefit ratio of restrictive versus liberal transfusion criteria. No significant differences in short-term outcomes were observed, suggesting that the restrictive criteria may reduce the need for transfusion and the related side effects. Neurodevelopmental long-term outcome seemed more favorable in the liberal group at first evaluation, especially for boys, and significantly better in the restrictive group at a later clinical investigation. Magnetic resonance imaging scans, performed at an average age of 12 years, showed that intracranial volume was substantially smaller in the liberal group compared with controls. When sex effects

  12. Measurement of interaction forces between red blood cells in aggregates by optical tweezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maklygin, A Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Karmenian, A; Nikitin, Sergei Yu; Obolenskii, I S; Lugovtsov, Andrei E; Kisun Li

    2012-06-30

    We have fabricated double-beam optical tweezers and demonstrated the possibility of their use for measuring the interaction forces between red blood cells (erythrocytes). It has been established experimentally that prolonged trapping of red blood cells in a tightly focused laser beam does not cause any visible changes in their shape or size. We have measured the interaction between red blood cells in the aggregate, deformed by optical tweezers.

  13. Mycelial fungi completely remediate di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, the hazardous plasticizer in PVC blood storage bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, S; Benjamin, Sailas

    2012-10-15

    This pioneering work describes how simply, inexpensively and efficiently novel fungi utilize the alarming plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) blended in PVC blood storage bags (BB). In order to quantify total DEHP (33.5%, w/w) present in BB, it was extracted using n-hexane and confirmed by GC-MS. Three mycelial fungi, viz., Aspergillus parasiticus, Fusarium subglutinans and Penicillium funiculosum isolated in our laboratory form heavily plastics-contaminated soil - either singly or in consortium - completely consumed intact DEHP physically bound to BB by static submerged growth (28 °C) in simple basal salt medium (BSM). A two-stage cultivation strategy was adopted for the complete removal of DEHP from BB in situ. During the first growth stage, almost 70% DEHP contained in the BB was consumed in 2 weeks, accompanied by increased fungal biomass (~0.15-0.35 g/g BB; OD ~7 at 600 nm) and a sharp declining (3.3) of initial pH (7.2). Spent BSM was replaced at this stagnant growth state (low pH), thus in the second stage, remaining DEHP bound to BB utilized completely (over 99%). Furthermore, A. parasiticus and F. subglutinans also grew well on scrapes of PVC water pipes in BSM. F. subglutinans was as efficient independently as consortium in completely utilizing the DEHP bound to BB, and these fungi offer great potentials for the inexpensive and eco-friendly bioremediation of phthalates in medical and allied PVC wastes on a large scale through a batch process in alleviating the plactics waste management issue.

  14. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  15. Effect of adrenergic receptor ligands on metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake and storage in neuroblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babich, J.W. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)]|[Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Graham, W. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Fischman, A.J. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)]|[Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The effects of adrenergic receptor ligands on uptake and storage of the radiopharmaceutical [{sup 125}I]metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) were studied in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH. For uptake studies, cells were with varying concentrations of {alpha}-agonist (clonidine, methoxamine, and xylazine), {alpha}-antagonist (phentolamine, tolazoline, phenoxybenzamine, yohimbine, and prazosin), {beta}-antagonist (propranolol, atenolol), {beta}-agonist (isoprenaline and salbutamol), mixed {alpha}/{beta} antagonist (labetalol), or the neuronal blocking agent guanethidine, prior to the addition of [{sup 125}I]MIBG (0.1 {mu}M). The incubation was continued for 2 h and specific cell-associated radioactivity was measured. For the storage studies, cells were incubated with [{sup 125}I]MIBG for 2 h, followed by replacement with fresh medium with or without drug (MIBG, clonidine, or yohimbine). Cell-associated radioactivity was measured at various times over the next 20 h. Propanolol reduced [{sup 125}I]MIBG uptake by approximately 30% (P<0.01) at all concentrations tested, most likely due to nonspecific membrane changes. In conclusion, the results of this study establish that selected adrenergic ligands can significantly influence the pattern of uptake and storage of MIBG in cultured neuroblastoma cells, most likely through inhibition of uptake or through noncompetitive inhibition. The potential inplications of these findings justify further study. (orig./VHE). With 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Characterization of Microvesicles Released from Human Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Bach Nguyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Extracellular vesicles (EVs are spherical fragments of cell membrane released from various cell types under physiological as well as pathological conditions. Based on their size and origin, EVs are classified as exosome, microvesicles (MVs and apoptotic bodies. Recently, the release of MVs from human red blood cells (RBCs under different conditions has been reported. MVs are released by outward budding and fission of the plasma membrane. However, the outward budding process itself, the release of MVs and the physical properties of these MVs have not been well investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate the formation process, isolation and characterization of MVs released from RBCs under conditions of stimulating Ca2+ uptake and activation of protein kinase C. Methods: Experiments were performed based on single cell fluorescence imaging, fluorescence activated cell sorter/flow cytometer (FACS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM and dynamic light scattering (DLS. The released MVs were collected by differential centrifugation and characterized in both their size and zeta potential. Results: Treatment of RBCs with 4-bromo-A23187 (positive control, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, or phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate (PMA in the presence of 2 mM extracellular Ca2+ led to an alteration of cell volume and cell morphology. In stimulated RBCs, exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS and formation of MVs were observed by using annexin V-FITC. The shedding of MVs was also observed in the case of PMA treatment in the absence of Ca2+, especially under the transmitted bright field illumination. By using SEM, AFM and DLS the morphology and size of stimulated RBCs, MVs were characterized. The sizes of the two populations of MVs were 205.8 ± 51.4 nm and 125.6 ± 31.4 nm, respectively. Adhesion of stimulated RBCs and MVs was observed. The zeta potential of MVs was determined in the range from - 40 mV to - 10 m

  17. Ethyl Pyruvate Combats Human Leukemia Cells but Spares Normal Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Susanne; Bigl, Marina; Buchold, Martin; Thieme, Rene; Wichmann, Gunnar; Dehghani, Faramarz

    2016-01-01

    Ethyl pyruvate, a known ROS scavenger and anti-inflammatory drug was found to combat leukemia cells. Tumor cell killing was achieved by concerted action of necrosis/apoptosis induction, ATP depletion, and inhibition of glycolytic and para-glycolytic enzymes. Ethyl lactate was less harmful to leukemia cells but was found to arrest cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase. Both, ethyl pyruvate and ethyl lactate were identified as new inhibitors of GSK-3β. Despite the strong effect of ethyl pyruvate on leukemia cells, human cognate blood cells were only marginally affected. The data were compiled by immune blotting, flow cytometry, enzyme activity assay and gene array analysis. Our results inform new mechanisms of ethyl pyruvate-induced cell death, offering thereby a new treatment regime with a high therapeutic window for leukemic tumors. PMID:27579985

  18. Generation of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor protein-deficient blood cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xuan; Braunstein, Evan M; Ye, Zhaohui; Liu, Cyndi F; Chen, Guibin; Zou, Jizhong; Cheng, Linzhao; Brodsky, Robert A

    2013-11-01

    PIG-A is an X-linked gene required for the biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors; thus, PIG-A mutant cells have a deficiency or absence of all GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs). Acquired mutations in hematopoietic stem cells result in the disease paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, and hypomorphic germline PIG-A mutations lead to severe developmental abnormalities, seizures, and early death. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can differentiate into cell types derived from all three germ layers, providing a novel developmental system for modeling human diseases. Using PIG-A gene targeting and an inducible PIG-A expression system, we have established, for the first time, a conditional PIG-A knockout model in human iPSCs that allows for the production of GPI-AP-deficient blood cells. PIG-A-null iPSCs were unable to generate hematopoietic cells or any cells expressing the CD34 marker and were defective in generating mesodermal cells expressing KDR/VEGFR2 (kinase insert domain receptor) and CD56 markers. In addition, PIG-A-null iPSCs had a block in embryonic development prior to mesoderm differentiation that appears to be due to defective signaling through bone morphogenetic protein 4. However, early inducible PIG-A transgene expression allowed for the generation of GPI-AP-deficient blood cells. This conditional PIG-A knockout model should be a valuable tool for studying the importance of GPI-APs in hematopoiesis and human development.

  19. Targeted Application of Human Genetic Variation Can Improve Red Blood Cell Production from Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giani, Felix C; Fiorini, Claudia; Wakabayashi, Aoi; Ludwig, Leif S; Salem, Rany M; Jobaliya, Chintan D; Regan, Stephanie N; Ulirsch, Jacob C; Liang, Ge; Steinberg-Shemer, Orna; Guo, Michael H; Esko, Tõnu; Tong, Wei; Brugnara, Carlo; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Weiss, Mitchell J; Zon, Leonard I; Chou, Stella T; French, Deborah L; Musunuru, Kiran; Sankaran, Vijay G

    2016-01-07

    Multipotent and pluripotent stem cells are potential sources for cell and tissue replacement therapies. For example, stem cell-derived red blood cells (RBCs) are a potential alternative to donated blood, but yield and quality remain a challenge. Here, we show that application of insight from human population genetic studies can enhance RBC production from stem cells. The SH2B3 gene encodes a negative regulator of cytokine signaling and naturally occurring loss-of-function variants in this gene increase RBC counts in vivo. Targeted suppression of SH2B3 in primary human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells enhanced the maturation and overall yield of in-vitro-derived RBCs. Moreover, inactivation of SH2B3 by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in human pluripotent stem cells allowed enhanced erythroid cell expansion with preserved differentiation. Our findings therefore highlight the potential for combining human genome variation studies with genome editing approaches to improve cell and tissue production for regenerative medicine.

  20. Thermometry of red blood cell concentrate: magnetic resonance decoding warm up process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Reiter

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Temperature is a key measure in human red blood cell concentrate (RBC quality control. A precise description of transient temperature distributions in RBC units removed from steady storage exposed to ambient temperature is at present unknown. Magnetic resonance thermometry was employed to visualize and analyse RBC warm up processes, to describe time courses of RBC mean, surface and core temperatures by an analytical model, and to determine and investigate corresponding model parameters. METHODS: Warm-up processes of 47 RBC units stored at 1-6°C and exposed to 21.25°C ambient temperature were investigated by proton resonance frequency thermometry. Temperature distributions were visualized and analysed with dedicated software allowing derivation of RBC mean, surface and core temperature-time courses during warm up. Time-dependence of mean temperature was assumed to fulfil a lumped capacitive model of heat transfer. Time courses of relative surface and core temperature changes to ambient temperature were similarly assumed to follow shifted exponential decays characterized by a time constant and a relative time shift, respectively. RESULTS: The lumped capacitive model of heat transfer and shifted exponential decays described time-dependence of mean, surface and core temperatures close to perfect (mean R(2 were 0.999±0.001, 0.996±0.004 and 0.998±0.002, respectively. Mean time constants were τmean = 55.3±3.7 min, τsurface = 41.4±2.9 min and τcore = 76.8±7.1 min, mean relative time shifts were Δsurface = 0.07±0.02 and Δcore = 0.04±0.01. None of the constants correlated significantly with temperature differences between ambient and storage temperature. CONCLUSION: Lumped capacitive model of heat transfer and shifted exponential decays represent simple analytical formulas to describe transient mean, surface and core temperatures of RBC during warm up, which might be a helpful tool in RBC temperature monitoring

  1. Toroidal cell and battery. [storage battery for high amp-hour load applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, W. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A toroidal storage battery designed to handle relatively high amp-hour loads is described. The cell includes a wound core disposed within a pair of toroidal channel shaped electrodes spaced apart by nylon insulator. The shape of the case electrodes of this toroidal cell allows a first planar doughnut shaped surface and the inner cylindrical case wall to be used as a first electrode and a second planar doughnut shaped surface and the outer cylindrical case wall to be used as a second electrode. Connectors may be used to stack two or more toroidal cells together by connecting substantially the entire surface area of the first electrode of a first cell to substantially the entire surface area of the second electrode of a second cell. The central cavity of each toroidal cell may be used as a conduit for pumping a fluid through the toroidal cell to thereby cool the cell.

  2. Effect of chlorophyllin on normothermic storage of human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Won-Gyun; Lee, Eun Ju; Lee, Seung-Jong; Lee, Seung-Ae; Kim, Jin

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether chlorophyllin could serve as an effective constituent of a storage medium to enhance the human periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability. Freshly isolated PDL cells from premolars extracted from healthy people were stored at 37 degrees C for 6 h in various solutions: F-medium and Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), supplemented with chlorophyllin. From MTT viability assays, the highest cell viability was found in the PDL cells stored in HBSS supplemented with 500 nM chlorophyllin, and the chlorophyllin-treated cells showed a dose-dependent response to concentration. Additionally, the results from flow cytometry showed that 77 to 80% of the PDL cells were in the G0/G1 phases of the cell cycle, which suggested that most were in a stable stage. These result showed that HBSS, supplemented with chlorophyllin, may be a useful solution for preserving the viability of PDL cells.

  3. Peripheral blood cell variations in cirrhotic portal hypertension patients with hypersplenism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Fu Lu; Xin-Qiu Li; Xiao-Yu Han; Xiao-Guang Gong; Shun-Wu Chang

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore peripheral blood cell variations in hepatic cirrhosis portal hypertension patients with hypersplenism. Methods: Clinical data of 322 hypersplenism patients with decreased peripheral blood cells, admitted with cirrhotic portal hypertension, was retrospectively studied over the last 17 years. Results:In 64% (206/322) of patients, more than 2 kinds of blood cell were decreased, including 89 cases of pancytopenia (43.2%), 52 cases of WBC+PLT decrease (25.2%), 29 cases of RBC + PLT decrease (14.1%), and 36 cases of WBC + RBC decrease (17.5%);in 36% (116/322) of patients, single type blood cell decrease occurred, including 31 cases of PLT decrease (26.7%), 29 cases of WBC decrease (25%) and 56 cases of RBC decrease (48.3%). Of 227 routine bone marrow examinations, bone marrow hyperplasia was observed in 118 cases (52.0%), the remainder showed no hyperplasia. For the distinct scope and extent of peripheralblood cell decreases, preoperative blood component transfusions were carried out, then treated by surgery, after whole group splenectomy, the peripheral blood cell count was significantly higher (P<0.05). Conclusions: Of portal hypertensive patients with splenomegaly and hypersplenism, 64%have simultaneous decrease in various blood cells, 36%have decrease in single type blood cells, 52%of patients have bone marrow hyperplasia. A splenectomy can significantly increase the reduction of peripheral blood cells.

  4. New algorithm and system for measuring size distribution of blood cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuiping Yao(姚翠萍); Zheng Li(李政); Zhenxi Zhang(张镇西)

    2004-01-01

    In optical scattering particle sizing, a numerical transform is sought so that a particle size distribution can be determined from angular measurements of near forward scattering, which has been adopted in the measurement of blood cells. In this paper a new method of counting and classification of blood cell, laser light scattering method from stationary suspensions, is presented. The genetic algorithm combined with nonnegative least squared algorithm is employed to inverse the size distribution of blood cells. Numerical tests show that these techniques can be successfully applied to measuring size distribution of blood cell with high stability.

  5. Behaviors of Microcystis aeruginosa cells during floc storage in drinking water treatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hangzhou; Pei, Haiyan; Xiao, Hongdi; Jin, Yan; Li, Xiuqing; Hu, Wenrong; Ma, Chunxia; Sun, Jiongming; Li, Hongmin

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study to systematically investigate the different behaviors of Microcystis aeruginosa in the sludges formed by AlCl3, FeCl3, and polymeric aluminium ferric chloride (PAFC) coagulants during storage. Results show that the viability of Microcystis aeruginosa in PAFC sludge was stronger than that of cells in either AlCl3 or FeCl3 sludge after the same storage time, while the cells’ viability in the latter two systems stayed at almost the same level. In AlCl3 and FeCl3 sludges high concentrations of Al and Fe were toxic to Microcystis aeruginosa, whereas in PAFC sludge low levels of Al showed little toxic effect on Microcystis aeruginosa growth and moderate amounts of Fe were beneficial to growth. The lysis of Microcystis aeruginosa in AlCl3 sludge was more serious than that in PAFC sludge, for the same storage time. Although the cell viability in FeCl3 sludge was low (similar to AlCl3 sludge), the Microcystis aeruginosa cells remained basically intact after 10 d storage (similar to PAFC sludge). The maintenance of cellular integrity in FeCl3 sludge might be due to the large floc size and high density, which had a protective effect for Microcystis aeruginosa. PMID:27713525

  6. Role of phosphorylase in the mechanism of potato minituber storage cell changes during clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedukha, O.; Shnyukova, E.

    The differences between the cytochemical reaction intensity and activity of phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.1) and carbohydrate content in storage parenchyma cells of Solanum tuberosum L. (cv Adreta) minitubers grown for 30 days in the horizontal clinostate (2 rev/min) and in the control have been studied by electroncytochemical and biochemical methods. It is established an acceleration of minitubers formation and storage parenchyma cell differentiation at clinorotation. Electroncytochemical investigation of phosphorylase activity localization in the storage parenchyma cells of minitubers grown in control and at clinorotation showed the product of the reaction as electron-dense precipitate was marked plastids. Intensity and density of precipitate was increase in stroma of plastids and on starch grain surface during of intensive growth of starch in amyloplast (on 10- and 20-days of the minituber formation) of clinorotated minitubers in comparison with that in the control. The precipitate amount was decreased in the plastids on 30 day of growth in both variants. Using biochemical methods it is found that activity of phosphorylase and content of mono- and disaccharide and also starch content changed in minitubers formed during clinorotation and in the control. Data obtained are discussed regarding the possible mechanism of phosphorylase activity change and the role of mono- and disaccharide in acceleration of storage organ formation during clinorotation.

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF ENU-INDUCED MUTATIONS IN RED BLOOD CELL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Kildey

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Murine models with modified gene function as a result of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU mutagenesis have been used to study phenotypes resulting from genetic change. This study investigated genetic factors associated with red blood cell (RBC physiology and structural integrity that may impact on blood component storage and transfusion outcome. Forward and reverse genetic approaches were employed with pedigrees of ENU-treated mice using a homozygous recessive breeding strategy. In a “forward genetic” approach, pedigree selection was based upon identification of an altered phenotype followed by exome sequencing to identify a causative mutation. In a second strategy, a “reverse genetic” approach based on selection of pedigrees with mutations in genes of interest was utilised and, following breeding to homozygosity, phenotype assessed. Thirty-three pedigrees were screened by the forward genetic approach. One pedigree demonstrated reticulocytosis, microcytic anaemia and thrombocytosis. Exome sequencing revealed a novel single nucleotide variation (SNV in Ank1 encoding the RBC structural protein ankyrin-1 and the pedigree was designated Ank1EX34. The reticulocytosis and microcytic anaemia observed in the Ank1EX34 pedigree were similar to clinical features of hereditary spherocytosis in humans. For the reverse genetic approach three pedigrees with different point mutations in Spnb1 encoding RBC protein spectrin-1β, and one pedigree with a mutation in Epb4.1, encoding band 4.1 were selected for study. When bred to homozygosity two of the spectrin-1β pedigrees (a, b demonstrated increased RBC count, haemoglobin (Hb and haematocrit (HCT. The third Spnb1 mutation (spectrin-1β c and mutation in Epb4.1 (band 4.1 did not significantly affect the haematological phenotype, despite these two mutations having a PolyPhen score predicting the mutation may be damaging. Exome sequencing allows rapid identification of causative mutations and development of

  8. A Comprehensive Fluid Dynamic-Diffusion Model of Blood Microcirculation with Focus on Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Floch, Francois; Harris, Wesley L.

    2009-11-01

    A novel methodology has been developed to address sickle cell disease, based on highly descriptive mathematical models for blood flow in the capillaries. Our investigations focus on the coupling between oxygen delivery and red blood cell dynamics, which is crucial to understanding sickle cell crises and is unique to this blood disease. The main part of our work is an extensive study of blood dynamics through simulations of red cells deforming within the capillary vessels, and relies on the use of a large mathematical system of equations describing oxygen transfer, blood plasma dynamics and red cell membrane mechanics. This model is expected to lead to the development of new research strategies for sickle cell disease. Our simulation model could be used not only to assess current researched remedies, but also to spur innovative research initiatives, based on our study of the physical properties coupled in sickle cell disease.

  9. The number of fetal cells in maternal blood is associated to exercise and fetal gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlütter, Jacob Mørup; Kirkegaard, Ida; Christensen, Connie Britta;

    were then stained with a cocktail of fetal cell-specific antibodies, identified and counted. Results: Participants carrying male fetuses had higher median number of fcmbs per 30 mL blood than those carrying female fetuses (5 vs. 3, p=0.004). Exercise within 3 hours (1.5 vs. 4, p=0.02) and 24 hours (2......Introduction: We have established a robust method to specifically identify and isolate a placental fetal cell in maternal blood (fcmbs) at a gestational age of 12 weeks. The concentration of these cells, however, varies considerably among pregnant women (median 3 fcmbs/30 mL blood, range 0...... activity was obtained by a questionnaire and a structured interview. The number of fcmbs was assessed in 30 mL blood processed by a proprietary method developed in-house. Fetal cells in the blood, binding to fetal cell specific antibodies, were initially isolated by magnetic cell sorting. The fetal cells...

  10. P2X and P2Y receptor signaling in red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluyter, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Purinergic signaling involves the activation of cell surface P1 and P2 receptors by extracellular nucleosides and nucleotides such as adenosine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respectively. P2 receptors comprise P2X and P2Y receptors, and have well-established roles in leukocyte and platelet biology. Emerging evidence indicates important roles for these receptors in red blood cells. P2 receptor activation stimulates a number of signaling pathways in progenitor red blood cells resulting in microparticle release, reactive oxygen species formation, and apoptosis. Likewise, activation of P2 receptors in mature red blood cells stimulates signaling pathways mediating volume regulation, eicosanoid release, phosphatidylserine exposure, hemolysis, impaired ATP release, and susceptibility or resistance to infection. This review summarizes the distribution of P2 receptors in red blood cells, and outlines the functions of P2 receptor signaling in these cells and its implications in red blood cell biology.

  11. Dynamics of Red Blood Cells through submicronic splenic slits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, Emmanuele; Gambhire, Priya; Atwell, Scott; Bedu, Frederic; Ozerov, Igor; Viallat, Annie; Charrier, Anne; Badens, Catherine; Centre de reference Thalassemie, Badens Team; Physics; Engineering of Living Systems Team

    2016-11-01

    Red Blood Cells (RBCs) are periodically monitored for changes in their deformability by the spleen, and are entrapped and destroyed if unable to pass through the splenic interendothelial slits (IESs). In particular, in sickle cell disease (SCD), where hemoglobin form fibers inside the RBCs, and in hereditary spherocytosis (HS), where RBCs are more spherical and membrane-cytoskekeleton bonds are weakened, the loss of RBC deformability leads to spleen dysfunction. By combining photolithography and anisotropic wet etching techniques, we developed a new on-chip PDMS device with channels replicating the submicronic physiological dimensions of IESs to study the mechanisms of deformation of the RBCs during their passage through these biomimetic slits. For the first time, with HS RBCs, we show the disruption of the links between the RBC membrane and the underlying spectrin network. In the case of SCD RBCs we show the appearance of a tip at the front of the RBC with a longer time relaxation due to the increased cytoplasmic viscosity. This work has been carried out thanks to the support of the A*MIDEX project (n° ANR-11-IDEX-0001-02) funded by the «Investissements d'Avenir». French Government program, managed by ANR.

  12. Fish peripheral blood mononuclear cells preparation for future monitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrard, Marie-Aline; Roland, Kathleen; Kestemont, Patrick; Dieu, Marc; Raes, Martine; Silvestre, Frédéric

    2012-07-15

    Fish species possess many specific characteristics that support their use in ecotoxicology. Widely used in clinical research, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) can reasonably be exploited as relevant target cells in the assessment of environmental chemical toxicity. The current article focuses on the methods necessary to isolate, characterize, and culture fish PBMCs. These procedures were successfully applied on an endangered species, the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.), and on an economically important and worldwide exported species, the Asian catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus S.). Proteomic approaches can be useful to screen xenobiotic exposure at the protein expression level, giving the opportunity to develop early warning signals thanks to molecular signatures of toxicity. To date, a major limitation of proteomic analyses is that most protein expression profiles often reveal the same predominant and frequently differentially expressed families of proteins regardless of the experimental stressing conditions. The current study describes a methodology to get a postnuclear fraction of high quality isolated from fish PBMCs in order to perform subsequent subproteomic analyses. Applied on samples from eel, the subproteomic analysis (two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis) allowed the identification by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and searches in the full NCBInr (National Center for Biotechnology Information nonredundant) database of 66 proteins representing 36 different proteins validated through Peptide and Protein Prophet of Scaffold software.

  13. Intracellular trehalose improves the survival of human red blood cells by freeze-drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Hui; LIU Baolin; HUA Zezhao; LI Chuan; WU Zhengzheng

    2007-01-01

    Freeze-drying of human red blood cells has a potential important application for blood transfusion.The aim of this study was to investigate the effects ofintracellular trehalose on the survival of red blood cells after freeze-drying and rehydration.Fresh red blood cells were incubated in trehalose solutions of various concentrations at 37℃ for 7 h following freeze-drying.Polyvinylpyrrolidone,Trehalose,sodium citrate,and human serum albumin were used as extracellular protective agents for the freeze-drying of red blood cells.The results indicated that the intracellular trehalose concentration was increased with increasing concentration of extracellular trehalose solution,and the maximum concen tration of intracellular trehalose reached 35 mmol/L.The viability of freeze-dried red blood cells increased with the increment of intracellular trehalose concentration.

  14. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts about the blood ... to Top Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells ...

  15. Gender and chronological age affect erythrocyte membrane oxidative indices in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) blood bank storage condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erman, Hayriye; Aksu, Uğur; Belce, Ahmet; Atukeren, Pınar; Uzun, Duygu; Cebe, Tamer; Kansu, Ahmet D; Gelişgen, Remisa; Uslu, Ezel; Aydın, Seval; Çakatay, Ufuk

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that in vitro storage lesions lead to membrane dysfunction and decreased number of functional erythrocytes. As erythrocytes get older, in storage media as well as in peripheral circulation, they undergo a variety of biochemical changes. In our study, the erythrocytes with different age groups in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) storage solution were used in order to investigate the possible effect of gender factor on oxidative damage. Oxidative damage biomarkers in erythrocyte membranes such as ferric reducing antioxidant power, pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance, protein-bound advance glycation end products, and sialic acid were analyzed. Current study reveals that change in membrane redox status during blood-bank storage condition also depends on both gender depended homeostatic factors and the presence of CPDA-1. During the storage period in CPDA-1, erythrocytes from the male donors are mostly affected by free radical-mediated oxidative stress but erythrocytes obtained from females are severely affected by glyoxidative stress.

  16. Evaluation of carbon cryogels used as cathodes for non-flowing zinc-bromine storage cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayme-Perrot, David; Walter, Serge; Gabelica, Zelimir [Groupe Securite et Ecologie Chimiques (GSEC), ENSCMu, 3 rue Alfred Werner, F-68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Valange, Sabine [Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique (LACCO), ESIP, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, F-86022 Poitiers Cedex (France)

    2008-01-03

    Monolithic megaloporous carbon cryogels were examined for their potential applications as cathodic electrodes in secondary zinc-bromine cells. This work investigates the possibility of using their particular macroporous texture as microscopic bromine tanks in a zinc/bromine battery. The electrochemical behaviour of a cell based upon such a Br{sub 2} electrode was studied and discussed in terms of energy yields, energy storage capability and cycle life. Good storages (over 20 Wh kg{sup -1}) could be obtained during the first 2 h of cell charging for currents between 10 and 20 mA g{sup -1}. The energy yield remains almost constant during a fairly large number of cycles, basically for weak charges (e.g. 25 C g{sup -1}). Our findings show that the good cyclability of the cathodic electrode is a consequence of the liquid state of the active bromine phase. (author)

  17. Under-filled blood collection tubes containing K2EDTA as anticoagulant are acceptable for automated complete blood counts, white blood cell differential, and reticulocyte count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M; Robbe, V A; Jack, R M; Rutledge, J C

    2010-10-01

    Current laboratory standards from Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and manufacturer's (Becton Dickinson) data indicate that under-filling K(2)EDTA blood collection tubes can result in erroneous hematology values. To accommodate under-filled tubes and reduce collection volumes while optimizing our automation, we explored the acceptable limit of under-filled tubes for hematology values. We collected 8.0 ml of blood from 30 normal adult volunteers. Each donation was aliquoted in the following volumes: 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5 ml x 2. These samples were analyzed within 1 h of blood collection on Sysmex XE-2100 (Sysmex America Inc., Mundelein, IL, USA) for complete blood count, reticulocyte, and white blood cell differentials. Results of the under-filled tubes were compared to those of the standard volume. The Deming regression analysis show excellent correlation for all parameters between each under-filled blood collection volume compared to a standard 4 ml volume. The Bland and Altman analysis shows good agreement between both 1.0 and 2.0 ml compared to a 4.0 ml volume. The 0.5 ml compared to a 4.0 ml volume, however, shows increased variation on many parameters. In addition all three collection volumes show negative bias compared to the standard volume for platelet count, but the difference is considered insignificant with a percent difference of 5.5%, 3.2%, and 1.5% for 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ml collection volume respectively. Finally for 0.5 ml collection volume we noticed a low level of false positive flagging rate for white blood cell. Acceptable complete blood count values of under-filled powdered K(2)EDTA tubes can be obtained with as little as 1.0 ml of blood.

  18. Evaluation of Periodontal Ligament Cell Viability in Three Different Storage Media: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate the viability of periodontal ligament (PDL cells of avulsed teeth in three different storage media.Materials and Methods: Forty-five premolars extracted for orthodontic therapeutic purposes were randomly and equally divided into three groups based on storage media used [Group I: milk (control; Group II: aloe vera (experimental; Group III: egg white (experimental]. Following extractions, the teeth were placed in one of the three different storage media for 30 minutes, following which the scrapings of the PDL from these teeth were collected in Falcon tubes containing collagenase enzyme in 2.5 mL of phosphate buffered saline. The tubes were subsequently incubated for 30 minutes and centrifuged for five minutes at 800 rpm. The obtained PDL cells were stained with Trypan Blue and were observed under optical microscope. The percentage of viable cells was calculated.Results: Aloe vera showed the highest percentage of viable cells (114.3±8.0, followed by egg white (100.9±6.3 and milk (101.1±7.3.Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it appears that aloe vera maintains PDL cell viability better than egg white or milk.

  19. Increased adhesive and inflammatory properties in blood outgrowth endothelial cells from sickle cell anemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Tatiana Mary; Lanaro, Carolina; Ozelo, Margareth Castro; Garrido, Vanessa Tonin; Olalla-Saad, Sara Teresinha; Conran, Nicola; Costa, Fernando Ferreira

    2013-11-01

    The endothelium plays an important role in sickle cell anemia (SCA) pathophysiology, interacting with red cells, leukocytes and platelets during the vaso-occlusive process and undergoing activation and dysfunction as a result of intravascular hemolysis and chronic inflammation. Blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) can be isolated from adult peripheral blood and have been used in diverse studies, since they have a high proliferative capacity and a stable phenotype during in vitro culture. This study aimed to establish BOEC cultures for use as an in vitro study model for endothelial function in sickle cell anemia. Once established, BOECs from steady-state SCA individuals (SCA BOECs) were characterized for their adhesive and inflammatory properties, in comparison to BOECs from healthy control individuals (CON BOECs). Cell adhesion assays demonstrated that control individual red cells adhered significantly more to SCA BOEC than to CON BOEC. Despite these increased adhesive properties, SCA BOECs did not demonstrate significant differences in their expression of major endothelial adhesion molecules, compared to CON BOECs. SCA BOECs were also found to be pro-inflammatory, producing a significantly higher quantity of the cytokine, IL-8, than CON BOECs. From the results obtained, we suggest that BOEC may be a good model for the in vitro study of SCA. Data indicate that endothelial cells of sickle cell anemia patients may have abnormal inflammatory and adhesive properties even outside of the chronic inflammatory and vaso-occlusive environment of patients.

  20. Macromolecular depletion modulates the binding of red blood cells to activated endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Koo, Stephanie; Lin, Cheryl Shuyi; Neu, Björn

    2010-09-01

    Adhesion of red blood cells (RBCs) to endothelial cells (ECs) is usually insignificant but an enhanced adhesion has been observed in various diseases associated with vascular complications. This abnormal adhesion under pathological conditions such as sickle cell disease has been correlated with increased levels of various plasma proteins but the detailed underlying mechanism(s) remains unclear. Usually it is assumed that the proadhesive effects of plasma proteins originate from ligand interactions cross-linking receptors on adjacent cells, but explicit results detailing binding sites or receptors for some proteins (e.g., fibrinogen) on either RBC or EC surfaces that would support this model are missing. In this study, the authors tested whether there is an alternative mechanism. Their results demonstrate that dextran 2 MDa promotes the adhesion of normal RBCs to thrombin-activated ECs and that this effect becomes more pronounced with increasing thrombin concentration or with prolonged thrombin incubation time. It is concluded that depletion interaction originating from nonadsorbing macromolecules (i.e., dextran) can modulate the adhesion of red blood cells to thrombin-activated EC. This study thereby suggests macromolecular depletion as an alternative mechanism for the adhesion-promoting effects of nonadsorbing plasma proteins. These findings should not only aid in getting a better understanding of diseases associated with vascular complications but should also have many potential applications in biomedical or biotechnological areas that require the control of cell-cell or cell surface interactions.

  1. Derivation of autism spectrum disorder-specific induced pluripotent stem cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosa, Brooke A; Van Baaren, Jessica M; Dubey, Gaurav K; Lee, Joycelyn M; Cuccaro, Michael L; Vance, Jeffery M; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Dykxhoorn, Derek M

    2012-05-10

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold tremendous potential both as a biological tool to uncover the pathophysiology of disease by creating relevant cell models and as a source of stem cells for cell-based therapeutic applications. Typically, iPSCs have been derived by the transgenic overexpression of transcription factors associated with progenitor cell or stem cell function in fibroblasts derived from skin biopsies. However, the need for skin punch biopsies to derive fibroblasts for reprogramming can present a barrier to study participation among certain populations of individuals, including children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In addition, the acquisition of skin punch biopsies in non-clinic settings presents a challenge. One potential mechanism to avoid these limitations would be the use of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as the source of the cells for reprogramming. In this article we describe, for the first time, the derivation of iPSC lines from PBMCs isolated from the whole blood of autistic children, and their subsequent differentiation in GABAergic neurons.

  2. Prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 13 on fetal cells obtained from maternal blood after minor enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwijk, JC; Mesker, WE; Ouwerkerk-Van Velzen, MCM; Knepfle, CFHM; Wiesmeijer, KC; Beverstock, GC; Van Ommen, GJB; Tanke, HJ; Kanhai, HHH

    1998-01-01

    In a pilot study to establish fetal nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) detection in maternal blood, trisomy 13 was diagnosed by FISH analysis at 11 weeks' gestation. The NRBCs were detected after a single-step ficoll density gradient enrichment. In blood samples taken both before and after CVS, 52 and

  3. Washing of stored red blood cells by an autotransfusion device before transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vroege, R.; Wildevuur, W. R.; Muradin, J. A. G.; Graves, D.; van Oeveren, W.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives The use of an autotransfusion device to wash blood of the incision site is increasing. After washing, this blood is retransfused without side effects caused by activated plasma factors and cell release products. This procedure could be extended to washing of donor blood, wh

  4. The correlation between T regulatory cells and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Pınar Erçetin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Multiple myeloma (MM is characterized by malignant proliferation of plasmocytes and their precursors. T regulatory cells (Tregs have a role in immunosuppression and control of autoimmunity, and are currently an important topic in the study of immune response to tumor cells. The correlation between Tregs and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (APBSCT in MM has not been studied. The aim of this study was to compare CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Treg, CD200, and PD-1 levels in MM patients that did and did not undergo APBSCT. Materials and Methods: Peripheral blood samples were collected from 28 MM patients ranging in age from 41 to 78 years for analysis of CD4CD25+ FOXP3+ Tregs, PD-1 (CD279, and CD200. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated via density gradient centrifugation. Four-color flow cytometry was performed. Using a sequential gating strategy, Tregs were identified as CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ T-cells. Results were analyzed using the Mann Whitney U non-parametric test and a compare means test. p values 0.05. Conclusion: Treg levels were higher in the patients that underwent APBSCT. Tregs are crucial for the induction and maintenance of peripheral tolerance to self-antigens. In addition, Tregs can suppress immune responses to tumor antigens; however, APBSCT and Treg levels were not correlated with CD200 or PD-1 expression. Relationship of Tregs with prognosis needs to be determined by studies that include larger cohorts.

  5. Cell type-specific responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greulich, C; Diendorf, J; Gessmann, J; Simon, T; Habijan, T; Eggeler, G; Schildhauer, T A; Epple, M; Köller, M

    2011-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) are increasingly used in biomedical applications because of their remarkable antimicrobial activity. In biomedicine, Ag-NP are coated onto or embedded in wound dressings, surgical instruments and bone substitute biomaterials, such as silver-containing calcium phosphate cements. Free Ag-NP and silver ions are released from these coatings or after the degradation of a biomaterial, and may come into close contact with blood cells. Despite the widespread use of Ag-NP as an antimicrobial agent, there is a serious lack of information on the biological effects of Ag-NP on human blood cells. In this study, the uptake of Ag-NP by peripheral monocytes and lymphocytes (T-cells) was analyzed, and the influence of nanosilver on cell biological functions (proliferation, the expression of adhesion molecules, cytokine release and the generation of reactive oxygen species) was studied. After cell culture in the presence of monodispersed Ag-NP (5-30μgml(-1) silver concentration), agglomerates of nanoparticles were detected within monocytes (CD14+) but not in T-cells (CD3+) by light microscopy, flow cytometry and combined focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy. The uptake rate of nanoparticles was concentration dependent, and the silver agglomerates were typically found in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, a concentration-dependent activation (e.g. an increased expression of adhesion molecule CD54) of monocytes at Ag-NP concentrations of 10-15μgml(-1) was observed, and cytotoxicity of Ag-NP-treated monocytes was observed at Ag-NP levels of 25μgml(-1) and higher. However, no modulation of T-cell proliferation was observed in the presence of Ag-NP. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence for a cell-type-specific uptake of Ag-NP by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the resultant cellular responses after exposure.

  6. Vesiculation of healthy and defective red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Lykotrafitis, George

    2015-07-01

    Vesiculation of mature red blood cells (RBCs) contributes to removal of defective patches of the erythrocyte membrane. In blood disorders, which are related to defects in proteins of the RBC membrane, vesiculation of the plasma membrane is intensified. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain RBC vesiculation but the exact underlying mechanisms and what determines the sizes of the vesicles are still not completely understood. In this work, we apply a two-component coarse-grained molecular dynamics RBC membrane model to study how RBC vesiculation is controlled by the membrane spontaneous curvature and by lateral compression of the membrane. Our simulation results show that the formation of small homogeneous vesicles with a diameter less than 40 nm can be attributed to a large spontaneous curvature of membrane domains. On the other hand, compression on the membrane can cause the formation of vesicles with heterogeneous composition and with sizes comparable with the size of the cytoskeleton corral. When spontaneous curvature and lateral compression are simultaneously considered, the compression on the membrane tends to facilitate formation of vesicles originating from curved membrane domains. We also simulate vesiculation of RBCs with membrane defects connected to hereditary elliptocytosis (HE) and to hereditary spherocytosis (HS). When the vertical connectivity between the lipid bilayer and the membrane skeleton is elevated, as in normal RBCs, multiple vesicles are shed from the compressed membrane with diameters similar to the cytoskeleton corral size. In HS RBCs, where the connectivity between the lipid bilayer and the cytoskeleton is reduced, larger-size vesicles are released under the same compression ratio as in normal RBCs. Lastly, we find that vesicles released from HE RBCs can contain cytoskeletal filaments due to fragmentation of the membrane skeleton while vesicles released from the HS RBCs are depleted of cytoskeletal filaments.

  7. Red Blood Cell Susceptibility to Pneumolysin: CORRELATION WITH MEMBRANE BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokori-Brown, Monika; Petrov, Peter G; Khafaji, Mawya A; Mughal, Muhammad K; Naylor, Claire E; Shore, Angela C; Gooding, Kim M; Casanova, Francesco; Mitchell, Tim J; Titball, Richard W; Winlove, C Peter

    2016-05-06

    This study investigated the effect of the biochemical and biophysical properties of the plasma membrane as well as membrane morphology on the susceptibility of human red blood cells to the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin pneumolysin, a key virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae, using single cell studies. We show a correlation between the physical properties of the membrane (bending rigidity and surface and dipole electrostatic potentials) and the susceptibility of red blood cells to pneumolysin-induced hemolysis. We demonstrate that biochemical modifications of the membrane induced by oxidative stress, lipid scrambling, and artificial cell aging modulate the cell response to the toxin. We provide evidence that the diversity of response to pneumolysin in diabetic red blood cells correlates with levels of glycated hemoglobin and that the mechanical properties of the red blood cell plasma membrane are altered in diabetes. Finally, we show that diabetic red blood cells are more resistant to pneumolysin and the related toxin perfringolysin O relative to healthy red blood cells. Taken together, these studies indicate that the diversity of cell response to pneumolysin within a population of human red blood cells is influenced by the biophysical and biochemical status of the plasma membrane and the chemical and/or oxidative stress pre-history of the cell.

  8. Development and Validation of a Slurry Model for Chemical Hydrogen Storage in Fuel Cell Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Pires, Richard P.; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2014-07-25

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) is developing models for hydrogen storage systems for fuel cell-based light duty vehicle applications for a variety of promising materials. These transient models simulate the performance of the storage system for comparison to the DOE’s Technical Targets and a set of four drive cycles. The purpose of this research is to describe the models developed for slurry-based chemical hydrogen storage materials. The storage systems of both a representative exothermic system based on ammonia borane and endothermic system based on alane were developed and modeled in Simulink®. Once complete the reactor and radiator components of the model were validated with experimental data. The model was then run using a highway cycle, an aggressive cycle, cold-start cycle and hot drive cycle. The system design was adjusted to meet these drive cycles. A sensitivity analysis was then performed to identify the range of material properties where these DOE targets and drive cycles could be met. Materials with a heat of reaction greater than 11 kJ/mol H2 generated and a slurry hydrogen capacity of greater than 11.4% will meet the on-board efficiency and gravimetric capacity targets, respectively.

  9. Development and validation of a slurry model for chemical hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Pires, Richard P.; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) is developing models for hydrogen storage systems for fuel cell-based light duty vehicle applications for a variety of promising materials. These transient models simulate the performance of the storage system for comparison to the DOE's Technical Targets and a set of four drive cycles. PNNL developed models to simulate the performance and suitability of slurry-based chemical hydrogen storage materials. The storage systems of both a representative exothermic system based on ammonia borane and an endothermic system based on alane were developed and modeled in Simulink®. Once complete, the reactor and radiator components of the model were validated with experimental data. The system design parameters were adjusted to allow the model to successfully meet a highway cycle, an aggressive cycle, a cold-start cycle, and a hot drive cycle. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the range of material properties where these DOE targets and drive cycles could be met. Materials with a heat of reaction >11 kJ mol-1 H2 generated and a slurry hydrogen capacity of >11.4% will meet the on-board efficiency and gravimetric capacity targets, respectively.

  10. Adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells transdifferentiate in vitro and integrate into the retina in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Guan, Liping; Huang, Bing; Li, Weihua; Su, Qiao; Yu, Minbin; Xu, Xiaoping; Luo, Ting; Lin, Shaochun; Sun, Xuerong; Chen, Mengfei; Chen, Xigu

    2011-06-01

    Adult peripheral blood-derived cells are able to differentiate into a variety of cell types, including nerve cells, liver-like cells and epithelial cells. However, their differentiation into retina-like cells is controversial. In the present study, transdifferentiation potential of human adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells into retina-like cells and integration into the retina of mice were investigated. Freshly isolated adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells were divided into two groups: cells in group I were cultured in neural stem cell medium, and cells in group II were exposed to conditioned medium from rat retinal tissue culture. After 5 days, several distinct cell morphologies were observed, including standard mononuclear, neurons with one or two axons and elongated glial-like cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of neural stem cell, neuron and retina cell markers demonstrated that cells in both groups were nestin-, MAP2 (microtubule-associated protein)- and GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein)-positive. Flow cytometry results suggested a significant increase in nestin-, MAP2- and CD16-positive cells in group I and nestin-, GFAP-, MAP2-, vimentin- and rhodopsin-positive cells in group II. To determine survival, migration and integration in vivo, cell suspensions (containing group I or group II cells) were injected into the vitreous or the peritoneum. Tissue specimens were obtained and immunostained 4 weeks after transplantation. We found that cells delivered by intravitreal injection integrated into the retina. Labelled cells were not detected in the retina of mice receiving differentiated cells by intraperitoneal injection, but cells (groups I and II) were detected in the liver and spleen. Our findings revealed that human adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells could be induced to transdifferentiate into neural precursor cells and retinal progenitor cells in vitro, and the differentiated peripheral blood mononuclear cells can migrate and integrate

  11. In vitro transdifferentiation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to photoreceptor-like cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukari Komuta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Direct reprogramming is a promising, simple and low-cost approach to generate target cells from somatic cells without using induced pluripotent stem cells. Recently, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs have attracted considerable attention as a somatic cell source for reprogramming. As a cell source, PBMCs have an advantage over dermal fibroblasts with respect to the ease of collecting tissues. Based on our studies involving generation of photosensitive photoreceptor cells from human iris cells and human dermal fibroblasts by transduction of photoreceptor-related transcription factors via retrovirus vectors, we transduced these transcription factors into PBMCs via Sendai virus vectors. We found that retinal disease-related genes were efficiently detected in CRX-transduced cells, most of which are crucial to photoreceptor functions. In functional studies, a light-induced inward current was detected in some CRX-transduced cells. Moreover, by modification of the culture conditions including additional transduction of RAX1 and NEUROD1, we found a greater variety of retinal disease-related genes than that observed in CRX-transduced PBMCs. These data suggest that CRX acts as a master control gene for reprogramming PBMCs into photoreceptor-like cells and that our induced photoreceptor-like cells might contribute to individualized drug screening and disease modeling of inherited retinal degeneration.

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