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Sample records for blood cell polymorphisms

  1. Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from South America use an atypical red blood cell invasion pathway associated with invasion ligand polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Perez, Mary; Villasis, Elizabeth; Machado, Ricardo L D

    2012-01-01

    Studies of Plasmodium falciparum invasion pathways in field isolates have been limited. Red blood cell (RBC) invasion is a complex process involving two invasion protein families; Erythrocyte Binding-Like (EBL) and the Reticulocyte Binding-Like (PfRh) proteins, which are polymorphic and not fully...... characterized in field isolates. To determine the various P. falciparum invasion pathways used by parasite isolates from South America, we studied the invasion phenotypes in three regions: Colombia, Peru and Brazil. Additionally, polymorphisms in three members of the EBL (EBA-181, EBA-175 and EBL-1) and five...... pathways and the ligand polymorphisms differed substantially among the Colombian and Brazilian isolates while the Peruvian isolates represent an amalgam of those present in the Colombian and Brazilian field isolates. The NrTrCr invasion profile was associated with the presence of the PfRh2a pepC variant...

  2. Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from South America use an atypical red blood cell invasion pathway associated with invasion ligand polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Lopez-Perez

    Full Text Available Studies of Plasmodium falciparum invasion pathways in field isolates have been limited. Red blood cell (RBC invasion is a complex process involving two invasion protein families; Erythrocyte Binding-Like (EBL and the Reticulocyte Binding-Like (PfRh proteins, which are polymorphic and not fully characterized in field isolates. To determine the various P. falciparum invasion pathways used by parasite isolates from South America, we studied the invasion phenotypes in three regions: Colombia, Peru and Brazil. Additionally, polymorphisms in three members of the EBL (EBA-181, EBA-175 and EBL-1 and five members of the PfRh (PfRh1, PfRh2a, PfRh2b, PfRh4, PfRh5 families were determined. We found that most P. falciparum field isolates from Colombia and Peru invade RBCs through an atypical invasion pathway phenotypically characterized as resistant to all enzyme treatments (NrTrCr. Moreover, the invasion pathways and the ligand polymorphisms differed substantially among the Colombian and Brazilian isolates while the Peruvian isolates represent an amalgam of those present in the Colombian and Brazilian field isolates. The NrTrCr invasion profile was associated with the presence of the PfRh2a pepC variant, the PfRh5 variant 1 and EBA-181 RVNKN variant. The ebl and Pfrh expression levels in a field isolate displaying the NrTrCr profile also pointed to PfRh2a, PfRh5 and EBA-181 as being possibly the major players in this invasion pathway. Notably, our studies demonstrate the uniqueness of the Peruvian P. falciparum field isolates in terms of their invasion profiles and ligand polymorphisms, and present a unique opportunity for studying the ability of P. falciparum parasites to expand their invasion repertoire after being reintroduced to human populations. The present study is directly relevant to asexual blood stage vaccine design focused on invasion pathway proteins, suggesting that regional invasion variants and global geographical variation are likely to

  3. A Link between the p53 germ line polymorphisms and white blood cells apoptosis in lung cancer patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biroš, Erik; Kohút, A.; Biroš, I.; Kalina, I.; Bogyiová, E.; Štubňa, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 3 (2002), s. 231-235 ISSN 0169-5002 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SI/340/1/97 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : apoptosis * p53 polymorphism * lung cancer Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 2.451, year: 2002

  4. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone marrow of bones. Stem cells in the red bone marrow called hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming a cell called a proerythroblast, it will develop into a new red blood cell. The formation of a red blood ...

  5. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease ... of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell count varies from one medical ...

  6. Analysis of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on DNA traces from plasma and dried blood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catsburg, Arnold; van der Zwet, Wil C.; Morre, Servaas A.; Ouburg, Sander; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.

    2007-01-01

    Reliable analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA derived from samples containing low numbers of cells or from suboptimal sources can be difficult. A new procedure to characterize multiple SNPs in traces of DNA from plasma and old dried blood samples was developed. Six SNPs in the

  7. Microarray Beads for Identifying Blood Group Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Francesca; Karpasitou, Katerina; Poli, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a high-throughput system for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping of alleles of diverse blood group systems exploiting Luminex technology. The method uses specific oligonucleotide probes coupled to a specific array of fluorescent microspheres and is designed for typing Jk(a)/Jk(b), Fy(a)/Fy(b), S/s, K/k, Kp(a)/Kp(b), Js(a)/Js(b), Co(a)/Co(b) and Lu(a)/Lu(b) alleles. Briefly, two multiplex PCR reactions (PCR I and PCR II) according to the laboratory specific needs are set up. PCR I amplifies the alleles tested routinely, namely Jk(a)/Jk(b), Fy(a)/Fy(b), S/s, and K/k. PCR II amplifies those alleles that are typed less frequently. Biotinylated PCR products are hybridized in a single multiplex assay with the corresponding probe mixture. After incubation with R-phycoerythrin-conjugated streptavidin, the emitted fluorescence is analyzed with Luminex 100. So far, we have typed more than 2,000 subjects, 493 of whom with multiplex assay, and there have been no discrepancies with the serology results other than null and/or weak phenotypes. The cost of consumables and reagents for typing a single biallelic pair per sample is less than EUR 3.-, not including DNA extraction costs. The capability to perform multiplexed reactions makes the method markedly suitable for mass screening of red blood cell alleles. This genotyping approach represents an important tool in transfusion medicine.

  8. PECAM-1 polymorphism affects monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Reyna S; Kirton, Christopher M; Oostingh, Gertie J; Schön, Michael P; Clark, Michael R; Bradley, J Andrew; Taylor, Craig J

    2008-02-15

    Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31) plays an important role in leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and transmigration. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of PECAM-1 encoding amino acid substitutions at positions 98 leucine/valine (L/V), 536 serine/asparagine (S/N), and 643 arginine/glycine (R/G) occur in strong genetic linkage resulting in two common haplotypes (LSR and VNG). These PECAM-1 polymorphisms are associated with graft-versus-host disease after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and with cardiovascular disease, but whether they influence PECAM-1 function is unknown. We examined the effect of homozygous and heterozygous expression of the PECAM-1 LSR and VNG genotypes on the adhesive interactions of peripheral blood monocytes and activated endothelial cell monolayers under shear stress in a flow-based cell adhesion assay. There was no difference in monocyte adhesion between the two homozygous genotypes of PECAM-1 but when monocytes expressed both alleles in heterozygous form, firm adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells was markedly increased. PECAM-1 polymorphism expressed in homozygous or heterozygous form by endothelial cells did not influence monocyte adhesion. This is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration that PECAM-1 genotype can alter the level of monocyte binding to endothelial cells and a demonstration that heterozygous expression of a polymorphic protein may lead to altered function.

  9. Donating Peripheral Blood Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print this page My Cart Donating peripheral blood stem cells Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is a nonsurgical procedure to collect ... Donating bone marrow Donor experiences videos Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is one of two methods of ...

  10. Radiolabelled blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavender, J.P.

    1986-12-01

    After the introduction of gamma-emitting labels for blood-cells the use of radio-labelled blood cells is not only limited to kinetics of blood cells but it is also possible to localise inflammations, abscesses and thrombus. The most commonly applied label for red cells is Tc-99m. The most widely used technique for labelling granulocytes or platelets is In-111-oxine. In future the labelling of blood cells will be more simple and more specific due to monoclonal antibodies onto the platelet or the granulocyte cell surface. Labelled red cells have their main application in blood-pool imaging and in localisation of gastrointestinal bleeding. Besides the determination of the platelet life-span in haematologic disorders labelled platelets allow to localise thrombus and to show abnormal vasculature in the rejecting kidney. The commonest application for In-111-oxin labelled granulocytes is to show abdominal inflammations to localise inflamed bowel segments and to assess the inflammatory activity in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. Moreover brain abscesses, bone sepsis and lung sepsis can be identified.

  11. Red blood cell alloimmunization after blood transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Current pretransfusion policy requires the patients’ serum to be tested for the presence of irregular red blood cell antibodies. In case of an antibody, red blood cells lacking the corresponding antigen are transfused after an antiglobulin crossmatch. The aim of the studies in this thesis is

  12. Microarray Beads for Identifying Blood Group Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    OpenAIRE

    Drago, Francesca; Karpasitou, Katerina; Poli, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a high-throughput system for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping of alleles of diverse blood group systems exploiting Luminex technology. The method uses specific oligonucleotide probes coupled to a specific array of fluorescent microspheres and is designed for typing Jka/Jkb, Fya/Fyb, S/s, K/k, Kpa/Kpb, Jsa/Jsb, Coa/Cob and Lua/Lub alleles. Briefly, two multiplex PCR reactions (PCR I and PCR II) according to the laboratory specific needs are set up. PCR I amplif...

  13. Longer telomere length in peripheral white blood cells is associated with risk of lung cancer and the rs2736100 (CLPTM1L-TERT polymorphism in a prospective cohort study among women in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Lan

    Full Text Available A recent genome-wide association study of lung cancer among never-smoking females in Asia demonstrated that the rs2736100 polymorphism in the TERT-CLPTM1L locus on chromosome 5p15.33 was strongly and significantly associated with risk of adenocarcinoma of the lung. The telomerase gene TERT is a reverse transcriptase that is critical for telomere replication and stabilization by controlling telomere length. We previously found that longer telomere length measured in peripheral white blood cell DNA was associated with increased risk of lung cancer in a prospective cohort study of smoking males in Finland. To follow up on this finding, we carried out a nested case-control study of 215 female lung cancer cases and 215 female controls, 94% of whom were never-smokers, in the prospective Shanghai Women's Health Study cohort. There was a dose-response relationship between tertiles of telomere length and risk of lung cancer (odds ratio (OR, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0, 1.4 [0.8-2.5], and 2.2 [1.2-4.0], respectively; P trend = 0.003. Further, the association was unchanged by the length of time from blood collection to case diagnosis. In addition, the rs2736100 G allele, which we previously have shown to be associated with risk of lung cancer in this cohort, was significantly associated with longer telomere length in these same study subjects (P trend = 0.030. Our findings suggest that individuals with longer telomere length in peripheral white blood cells may have an increased risk of lung cancer, but require replication in additional prospective cohorts and populations.

  14. EVALUATION OF CYTOKINE GENE POLYMORPHISM IN B CELL LYMPHOID MALIGNANCIES

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    E. L. Nazarova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies with some solid tumors has shown that polymorphisms of certain cytokine genes may be used as predictors of clinical outcome in the patients. It seemed important to evaluate potential correlations between production of certain pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and co-receptor molecules, and promoter polymorphism of the cytokine genes involved into regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism and blood clotting in the patients with hematological malignancies. The article contains our results concerning associations between of IL-1β, -2, -4, -10, -17, TNFα, and allelic polymorphisms of their genes in 62 patients with B cell lymphoid malignancies in an ethnically homogenous group (self-identified as Russians. We have shown that the GА and AA genotypes of the G-308A polymorphism in TNFα gene are significantly associated with increased production of this cytokine, being more common in aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas, more rare in multiple myeloma and in indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

  15. Blood Protein Polymorphism of Small Cattle Bred in Armenia

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    Gayane Marmaryan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Biochemical and genetic markers have not yet been used in selection and breeding of agricultural animals in Armenia. The objective behind the experiments was to assess the small cattle bred in Armenia- the semi-coarse wool and semi-fine wool sheep, as well as goats of different genotypes characterized by different milk productivity, polymorphic blood proteins-transferrin, ceruloplasmin, aiming to use them in breeding. Another objective was to study the genetic distance between the researched breeds and crossbreeds aiming to reveal the genetic similarity. The findings of research studies come to show that goats with polymorphic transferrin locus and a big set of genotypes are characterized by higher milk productivity; therefore it is recommended that they be used in selection as a supplementary milk productivity marker. The genetic distance between the researched goats comprised 0,60 which comes to show that semi-fine wool sheep were also bred with the help of semi-coarse wool crossbreeds. The high coefficients of genetic distance of crossbreed goats compared to both the highly milk producing imported breeds and the locals are indicative of inherited high adaptability qualities of locals and high milk producing quality of pure breeds.

  16. New polymorphic variants of human blood clotting factor IX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surin, V.L.; Luk`yanenko, A.V.; Tagiev, A.F.; Smirnova, O.V. [Hematological Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Plutalov, O.V.; Berlin, Yu.A. [Shemyakin Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-04-01

    The polymorphism of Alu-repeats, which are located in the introns of the human factor IX gene (copies 1-3), was studied. To identify polymorphic variants, direct sequencing of PCR products that contained appropriate repeats was used. In each case, 20 unrelated X chromosomes were studied. A polymorphic Dra I site was found near the 3{prime}-end of Alu copy 3 within the region of the polyA tract. A PCR-based testing system with internal control of restriction hydrolysis was suggested. Testing 81 unrelated X chromosomes revealed that the frequency of the polymorphic Dra I site is 0.23. Taq I polymorphism, which was revealed in Alu copy 4 of factor IX gene in our previous work, was found to be closely linked to Dra I polymorphism. Studies in linkage between different types of polymorphisms of the factor IX gene revealed the presence of a rare polymorphism in intron a that was located within the same minisatellite region as the known polymorphic insertion 50 bp/Dde I. However, the size of the insertion in our case was 26 bp. Only one polymorphic variant was found among over 150 unrelated X chromosomes derived from humans from Moscow and its vicinity. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Common Genetic Polymorphisms Influence Blood Biomarker Measurements in COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, M. Bradley; Hawkins, Gregory A.; Yang, Jenny; Chen, Ting-huei; Quibrera, Pedro Miguel; Anderson, Wayne; Barr, R. Graham; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Beaty, Terri; Casaburi, Richard; Castaldi, Peter; Cho, Michael H.; Comellas, Alejandro; Crapo, James D.; Criner, Gerard; Demeo, Dawn; Christenson, Stephanie A.; Couper, David J.; Doerschuk, Claire M.; Freeman, Christine M.; Gouskova, Natalia A.; Han, MeiLan K.; Hanania, Nicola A.; Hansel, Nadia N.; Hersh, Craig P.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Kaner, Robert J.; Kanner, Richard E.; Kleerup, Eric C.; Lutz, Sharon; Martinez, Fernando J.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Peters, Stephen P.; Regan, Elizabeth A.; Rennard, Stephen I.; Scholand, Mary Beth; Silverman, Edwin K.; Woodruff, Prescott G.; O’Neal, Wanda K.; Bowler, Russell P.

    2016-01-01

    Implementing precision medicine for complex diseases such as chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) will require extensive use of biomarkers and an in-depth understanding of how genetic, epigenetic, and environmental variations contribute to phenotypic diversity and disease progression. A meta-analysis from two large cohorts of current and former smokers with and without COPD [SPIROMICS (N = 750); COPDGene (N = 590)] was used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with measurement of 88 blood proteins (protein quantitative trait loci; pQTLs). PQTLs consistently replicated between the two cohorts. Features of pQTLs were compared to previously reported expression QTLs (eQTLs). Inference of causal relations of pQTL genotypes, biomarker measurements, and four clinical COPD phenotypes (airflow obstruction, emphysema, exacerbation history, and chronic bronchitis) were explored using conditional independence tests. We identified 527 highly significant (p 10% of measured variation in 13 protein biomarkers, with a single SNP (rs7041; p = 10−392) explaining 71%-75% of the measured variation in vitamin D binding protein (gene = GC). Some of these pQTLs [e.g., pQTLs for VDBP, sRAGE (gene = AGER), surfactant protein D (gene = SFTPD), and TNFRSF10C] have been previously associated with COPD phenotypes. Most pQTLs were local (cis), but distant (trans) pQTL SNPs in the ABO blood group locus were the top pQTL SNPs for five proteins. The inclusion of pQTL SNPs improved the clinical predictive value for the established association of sRAGE and emphysema, and the explanation of variance (R2) for emphysema improved from 0.3 to 0.4 when the pQTL SNP was included in the model along with clinical covariates. Causal modeling provided insight into specific pQTL-disease relationships for airflow obstruction and emphysema. In conclusion, given the frequency of highly significant local pQTLs, the large amount of variance potentially explained by pQTL, and the

  18. Common Genetic Polymorphisms Influence Blood Biomarker Measurements in COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Implementing precision medicine for complex diseases such as chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD will require extensive use of biomarkers and an in-depth understanding of how genetic, epigenetic, and environmental variations contribute to phenotypic diversity and disease progression. A meta-analysis from two large cohorts of current and former smokers with and without COPD [SPIROMICS (N = 750; COPDGene (N = 590] was used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with measurement of 88 blood proteins (protein quantitative trait loci; pQTLs. PQTLs consistently replicated between the two cohorts. Features of pQTLs were compared to previously reported expression QTLs (eQTLs. Inference of causal relations of pQTL genotypes, biomarker measurements, and four clinical COPD phenotypes (airflow obstruction, emphysema, exacerbation history, and chronic bronchitis were explored using conditional independence tests. We identified 527 highly significant (p 10% of measured variation in 13 protein biomarkers, with a single SNP (rs7041; p = 10-392 explaining 71%-75% of the measured variation in vitamin D binding protein (gene = GC. Some of these pQTLs [e.g., pQTLs for VDBP, sRAGE (gene = AGER, surfactant protein D (gene = SFTPD, and TNFRSF10C] have been previously associated with COPD phenotypes. Most pQTLs were local (cis, but distant (trans pQTL SNPs in the ABO blood group locus were the top pQTL SNPs for five proteins. The inclusion of pQTL SNPs improved the clinical predictive value for the established association of sRAGE and emphysema, and the explanation of variance (R2 for emphysema improved from 0.3 to 0.4 when the pQTL SNP was included in the model along with clinical covariates. Causal modeling provided insight into specific pQTL-disease relationships for airflow obstruction and emphysema. In conclusion, given the frequency of highly significant local pQTLs, the large amount of variance potentially explained by pQTL, and the

  19. β(2) -adrenergic receptor Thr164IIe polymorphism, blood pressure and ischaemic heart disease in 66 750 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M; Dahl, Morten; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Thomsen M, Dahl M, Tybjaerg-Hansen A, Nordestgaard BG (Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen; University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark). ß(2) -adrenergic receptor Thr164IIe polymorphism, blood pressure and ischaemic heart disease in 66 750 individuals. J Intern Med 2011; doi: 10.......1111/j.1365-2796.2011.02447.x Objectives. The ß(2) -adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) is located on smooth muscle cells and is an important regulator of smooth muscle tone. The Thr164Ile polymorphism (rs1800888) in the ADRB2 gene is rare but has profound functional consequences on receptor function and could...

  20. Interstitial Cells of Blood Vessels

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    Vladimír Pucovský

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood vessels are made up of several distinct cell types. Although it was originally thought that the tunica media of blood vessels was composed of a homogeneous population of fully differentiated smooth muscle cells, more recent data suggest the existence of multiple smooth muscle cell subpopulations in the vascular wall. One of the cell types contributing to this heterogeneity is the novel, irregularly shaped, noncontractile cell with thin processes, termed interstitial cell, found in the tunica media of both veins and arteries. While the principal role of interstitial cells in veins seems to be pacemaking, the role of arterial interstitial cells is less clear. This review summarises the knowledge of the functional and structural properties of vascular interstitial cells accumulated so far, offers hypotheses on their physiological role, and proposes directions for future research.

  1. White Blood Cell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... sample? Analysis of cell surface proteins Chromosomal analysis Cultures for bacteria Determination of the original arrangement of ...

  2. Cigarette smoking increases white blood cell aggregation in whole blood.

    OpenAIRE

    Bridges, A B; Hill, A; Belch, J J

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effect of chronic cigarette smoking on white blood cell aggregation, increased aggregation predisposes to microvascular occlusion and damage. Current smokers had significantly increased white blood cell aggregation when compared with non smokers. The presence of chronically activated white blood cells in current smokers may be relevant in the pathogenesis of ischaemic vascular disease.

  3. Evaluation of red blood cell stability during immersion blood warming

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The practice of warming blood for transfusion by immersion into a waterbath has been investigated. Objective: To find the maximum waterbath temperature at which blood can be heated effectively without effecting the red blood cell functional and structural integrity. Method: Blood, three days after donation ...

  4. MODULATING EFFECT OF THE −158 GΓ (C→T XMN-1 POLYMORPHISM IN INDIAN SICKLE CELL PATIENTS

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    Sanjay Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Xmn-1 polymorphism is a known factor, which increases fetal haemoglobin production. Among the inherited disorders of blood, thalassaemia and SCD constitutes a major bulk of genetic diseases in India.  Our aim was to verify the role of the Xmn I polymorphism as a modulating factor in sickle cell patients and frequency of the polymorphism in Indian sickle cell patients. Subjects were 60 sickles homozygous and 75 sickle beta thalassemia patients. 5 ml blood   samples collected from patients. Screening of sickle patients done by HPLC. An automated cell analyzer SYSMEX (K-4500 Model used to analyze the CBC of patients.Xmn1 polymorphism analysis done by PCR-RFLP and Statistical analysis was performed on GraphPad static’s software. t test applied to compare the means amongst group. Among the sickle homozygous 27 were   heterozygous (+/- and 19 were   homozygous (+/+ while 30 were heterozygous and 24 were homozygous in sickle β-thalassemia patients. Extremely significant differences (p-value <0.001 of hematological parameters seen among patient with xmn-1 carrier and without the xmn-1 carrier. In our cases the clinical symptom less frequent and higher HbF level with Xmn-1 carriers. Presence of Xmn-1 polymorphism in sickle patients with higher HbF that improve phenotypic presentation in the sickle cell patients. We conclude that the phenotype of Indian sickle cell patients influenced by Xmn-1 polymorphism.

  5. PRDM16 Gene Polymorphism Is Associated with Obesity and Blood Lipids Profiles in Saudi Population

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    Aishah AlAmrani

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16 gene and the Phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4 gene are both an essential regulators in the thermogenesis process in the brown adipose tissues (BAT. The influence of polymorphisms in those genes on obesity and blood lipids profile is unknown particularly in the Saudi population, so the current study is aiming to explore that. Methods: A case control format was used that involved 89 obese individual and 84 non-obese (control. The PRDM16 (rs2651899 and PDE4D (rs295978 polymorphisms were genotyped using KASP™ (Competitive Allele-Specific PCR method. Results: The distributions of the AA, GG, and AG genotypes of PRDM16 (rs2651899 polymorphism were 0.19, 0.26 and 0.54, respectively. While the distribution of the mutated allele A was 0.7 in the obese group comparing to 0.34 in the non-obese group. Participants with the mutated genotypes, AA and AG, of PRDM16 (rs2651899 polymorphism were significantly more likely to be obese as compared to participants with wild type genotype (OR = 21, 95% CI = 5.4190 to 84.4231, p value < 0.0001 and OR = 44.6, 95% CI = 11.5984 to 172.0157, p value < 0.0001, respectively. The wild type GG genotype of this polymorphism was associated with higher blood cholesterol, HDL and LDL but lower blood triglyceride compared with the mutated genotypes (p = 0.003, p = 0.008, p = 0.02 and p = 0.003, respectively. In contrast, PDE4D (rs295978 polymorphism was not associated with risk of obesity and had no effects on blood lipids profile. Conclusions: We found that the PRDM16 polymorphism (rs2651899 is a risk factor for obesity and influence blood lipids profiles significantly in Saudi population. While the PDE4D (rs295978 polymorphism didn’t show significant effect on risk of obesity or blood lipids profiles.

  6. Blood-Forming Stem Cell Transplants

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    ... to Ask about Your Treatment Research Blood-Forming Stem Cell Transplants On This Page What are bone marrow ... Considering becoming a bone marrow or a blood stem cell donor? View this video on YouTube. Follow a ...

  7. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000675.htm Low white blood cell count and cancer To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. White blood cells (WBCs) fight infections from bacteria, viruses, fungi, and ...

  8. Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe January 2014 Print this issue Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells En español Send ... Disease When Blood Cells Bend Wise Choices Preventing Anemia To prevent or treat iron-deficiency anemia: Eat ...

  9. Clinical Utility of Blood Cell Histogram Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E T Arun; Bhagya, S; Majeed, Abdul

    2017-09-01

    An automated haematology analyser provides blood cell histograms by plotting the sizes of different blood cells on X-axis and their relative number on Y-axis. Histogram interpretation needs careful analysis of Red Blood Cell (RBC), White Blood Cell (WBC) and platelet distribution curves. Histogram analysis is often a neglected part of the automated haemogram which if interpreted well, has significant potential to provide diagnostically relevant information even before higher level investigations are ordered.

  10. Reduced folate carrier polymorphism determines methotrexate uptake by B cells and CD4+ T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baslund, B; Gregers, J; Nielsen, Claus Henrik

    2008-01-01

    To examine if polymorphism 80G --> A in the Reduced Folate Carrier (RFC) affects uptake of MTX in B- and CD4+ T-cells.......To examine if polymorphism 80G --> A in the Reduced Folate Carrier (RFC) affects uptake of MTX in B- and CD4+ T-cells....

  11. Uptake of carnitine by red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campa, M.; Borum, P.

    1986-01-01

    A significant amount of blood carnitine (70% of cord blood and 40% of blood from healthy adults) is partitioned into the red blood cell compartment of whole blood. Data indicate that the plasma compartment and the red blood cell compartment of whole blood represent different metabolic pools of carnitine. There are no data to indicate that red blood cells synthesize carnitine, but our understanding of the uptake of carnitine by red blood cells is negligible. Red blood cells were obtained from healthy adults, washed twice with normal saline, and used for uptake experiments. When the cells were incubated at 37 0 C in the presence of 14 C-carnitine, radioactivity was found both in the soluble cytosolic and membrane fractions of the cells following lysis. The uptake was dependent upon the time of incubation, temperature of incubation, and carnitine concentration in the incubation medium. Washed red blood cell membranes incubated with 14 C-carnitine showed specific binding of radioactivity. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that red blood cells have an uptake mechanism for L-carnitine

  12. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells remaining...

  13. Blood cell interactions and segregation in flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Lance L; Dupin, Michael M

    2008-04-01

    For more than a century, pioneering researchers have been using novel experimental and computational approaches to probe the mysteries of blood flow. Thanks to their efforts, we know that blood cells generally prefer to migrate to the axis of flow, that red and white cells segregate in flow, and that cell deformability and their tendency to reversibly aggregate contribute to the non-Newtonian nature of this unique fluid. All of these properties have beneficial physiological consequences, allowing blood to perform a variety of critical functions. Our current understanding of these unusual flow properties of blood have been made possible by the ingenuity and diligence of a number of researchers, including Harry Goldsmith, who developed novel technologies to visualize and quantify the flow of blood at the level of individual cells. Here we summarize efforts in our lab to continue this tradition and to further our understanding of how blood cells interact with each other and with the blood vessel wall.

  14. Red Blood Cell Storage Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl J. Kor

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The past two decades have witnessed increased scrutiny regarding efficacy and risk of the once unquestioned therapy of red blood cell (RBC transfusion. Simultaneously, a variety of changes have been identified within the RBC and storage media during RBC preservation that are correlated with reduced tissue oxygenation and transfusion-associated adverse effects. These alterations are collectively termed the storage lesion and include extensive biochemical, biomechanical, and immunologic changes involving cells of diverse origin. Time-dependent falls is 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, intracellular RBC adenosine triphosphate, and nitric oxide have been shown to impact RBC deformability and delivery of oxygen to the end-organ. The accumulation of biologic response modifiers such as soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES have been associated with altered recipient immune function as well. This review will address the alterations occurring within the RBC and storage media during RBC preservation and will address the potential clinical consequence thereof.

  15. Prolonged storage of packed red blood cells for blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Simancas-Racines, Daniel; Peña-González, Barbra S

    2015-07-14

    A blood transfusion is an acute intervention, used to address life- and health-threatening conditions on a short-term basis. Packed red blood cells are most often used for blood transfusion. Sometimes blood is transfused after prolonged storage but there is continuing debate as to whether transfusion of 'older' blood is as beneficial as transfusion of 'fresher' blood. To assess the clinical benefits and harms of prolonged storage of packed red blood cells, in comparison with fresh, on recipients of blood transfusion. We ran the search on 1st May 2014. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCO Host) and two other databases. We also searched clinical trials registers and screened reference lists of the retrieved publications and reviews. We updated this search in June 2015 but these results have not yet been incorporated. Randomised clinical trials including participants assessed as requiring red blood cell transfusion were eligible for inclusion. Prolonged storage was defined as red blood cells stored for ≥ 21 days in a blood bank. We did not apply limits regarding the duration of follow-up, or country where the study took place. We excluded trials where patients received a combination of short- and long-stored blood products, and also trials without a clear definition of prolonged storage. We independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction by at least two review authors. The major outcomes were death from any cause, transfusion-related acute lung injury, and adverse events. We estimated relative risk for dichotomous outcomes. We measured statistical heterogeneity using I(2). We used a random-effects model to synthesise the findings. We identified three randomised clinical trials, involving a total of 120 participants, comparing packed red blood cells with ≥ 21 days storage

  16. Lack of association between STAT4 gene polymorphism and biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino-Morales, Rogelio; Vazquez-Rodriguez, Tomas R; Morado, Inmaculada C; Castañeda, Santos; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Miranda-Filloy, Jose A; Lamas, Jose R; Martin, Javier; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the potential implication of the STAT4 gene polymorphism rs7574865 in the predisposition to or the clinical expression of giant cell arteritis (GCA). A total of 212 patients diagnosed with biopsy-proven GCA were studied. DNA from patients and controls matched by age, sex, and ethnicity was obtained from peripheral blood. Samples were genotyped for STAT4 rs7574865 polymorphism. No statistically significant differences in the allele frequencies for the STAT4 rs7574865 polymorphism were observed between patients and controls. Although we observed an increased frequency of the T/T genotype in GCA patients (6.0%) compared to healthy controls (3.9%), this difference did not achieve statistical significance (OR 1.57, 95% CI 0.72-3.41). No statistically significant differences in allele or genotype frequencies were observed when patients were stratified according to the presence of typical disease features such as polymyalgia rheumatica, severe ischemic manifestations, and visual ischemic complications in the setting of this vasculitis. Our results do not support a major role of the STAT4 rs7574865 gene polymorphism in susceptibility to or clinical manifestations of GCA.

  17. Blood lead levels, iron metabolism gene polymorphisms and homocysteine: a gene-environment interaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Lee, Mee-Ri; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2017-12-01

    Homocysteine has been causally associated with various adverse health outcomes. Evidence supporting the relationship between lead and homocysteine levels has been accumulating, but most prior studies have not focused on the interaction with genetic polymorphisms. From a community-based prospective cohort, we analysed 386 participants (aged 41-71 years) with information regarding blood lead and plasma homocysteine levels. Blood lead levels were measured between 2001 and 2003, and plasma homocysteine levels were measured in 2007. Interactions of lead levels with 42 genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five genes ( TF , HFE , CBS , BHMT and MTR ) were assessed via a 2-degree of freedom (df) joint test and a 1-df interaction test. In secondary analyses using imputation, we further assessed 58 imputed SNPs in the TF and MTHFR genes. Blood lead concentrations were positively associated with plasma homocysteine levels (p=0.0276). Six SNPs in the TF and MTR genes were screened using the 2-df joint test, and among them, three SNPs in the TF gene showed interactions with lead with respect to homocysteine levels through the 1-df interaction test (plead levels. Blood lead levels were positively associated with plasma homocysteine levels measured 4-6 years later, and three SNPs in the TF gene modified the association. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Association of the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in , , and with Blood Related Traits in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Bong Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect positional candidate genes located within the support interval (SI regions based on the results of red blood cell, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin quantitative trait locus (QTL in Sus scrofa chromosome 13, and to verify the correlation between specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs located in the exonic region of the positional candidate gene and the three genetic traits. The flanking markers of the three QTL SI regions are SW38 and S0215. Within the QTL SI regions, 44 genes were located, and runt-related transcription factor 1, dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A, and potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 15 KCNJ15–which are reported to be related to the hematological traits and clinical features of Down syndrome–were selected as positional candidate genes. The ten SNPs located in the exonic region of the three genes were detected by next generation sequencing. A total of 1,232 pigs of an F2 resource population between Landrace and Korean native pigs were genotyped. To investigate the effects of the three genes on each genotype, a mixed-effect model which is the considering family structure model was used to evaluate the associations between the SNPs and three genetic traits in the F2 intercross population. Among them, the MCV level was highly significant (nominal p = 9.8×10−9 in association with the DYRK1A-SNP1 (c.2989 G

  19. Immune Cells in Blood Recognize Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI scientists have developed a novel strategy for identifying immune cells circulating in the blood that recognize specific proteins on tumor cells, a finding they believe may have potential implications for immune-based therapies.

  20. Association of apolipoprotein e gene polymorphisms with blood lipids and their interaction with dietary factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shatwan, Israa M.; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Ellahi, Basma

    2018-01-01

    of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at LPL, seven tagging SNPs at the APOE gene, and a common APOE haplotype (two SNPs) with blood lipids, and examined the interaction of these SNPs with dietary factors. Methods: The population studied for this investigation included 660 individuals from...... the Prevention of Cancer by Intervention with Selenium (PRECISE) study who supplied baseline data. The findings of the PRECISE study were further replicated using 1238 individuals from the Caerphilly Prospective cohort (CaPS). Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ......Background: Several candidate genes have been identified in relation to lipid metabolism, and among these, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymorphisms are major sources of genetically determined variation in lipid concentrations. This study investigated the association...

  1. Detection of Egg Production of Tegal Duck by Blood Protein Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismoyowati Ismoyowati

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of transfferine, albumine, and haemoglobine loci to egg production characteristic of Tegal duck.  100 lying of Tegal ducks keeping by batteray-pen were used in this study.  Individual egg production was recorded until period of 120 days. Blood protein polymorphism analysed by electrophoresis method, and blood sample taken from each ducks.. Egg production and transfferine albumine, and haemoglobine phenotipe on electrophoresis gel were observed in this study.  Genotipe and gene frequencies and genetic variant were applied in data analysis. The result showed that (1 in the transferine locus were identified 3 aleles forming 4 genotipes (TfAA,TfAB, TfBB, and TfBC, (2 in albumine were identified 3 aleles forming 5 genotipes (AlbAA, AlbAB, AlbAC, AlbBB and AlbBC and (3 haemoglobine locus were identified 6 aleles forming 4 genotipes ((HbAA, HbAB, HbAC, HbBB, HbBC dan HbCC.  This study demostrated that B gene frequenci in transfferine, albumine and haemoglonine loci was highest than A and C gene frequency.  Tegal Duck with AA genotipe on all loci had higher egg production than BB and CC homozigote.  This research revealed that the most efective of selection method by haemoglobine protein polymorphism. (Animal Production 10(2: 122-128 (2008   Key Words: Tegal duck, egg production, selection, blood protein polymorphism

  2. Association of duffy blood group gene polymorphisms with IL8 gene in chronic periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília Ângela Sippert

    Full Text Available The antigens of the Duffy blood group system (DARC act as a receptor for the interleukin IL-8. IL-8 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis due to its chemotactic properties on neutrophils. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association of Duffy blood group gene polymorphisms with the -353T>A, -845T>C and -738T>A SNPs of the IL8 gene in chronic periodontitis. One hundred and twenty-four individuals with chronic periodontitis and 187 controls were enrolled. DNA was extracted using the salting-out method. The Duffy genotypes and IL8 gene promoter polymorphisms were investigated by PCR-RFLP. Statistical analyses were conducted using the Chi square test with Yates correction or Fisher's Exact Test, and the possibility of associations were evaluated by odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval. When analyzed separately, for the Duffy blood group system, differences in the genotype and allele frequencies were not observed between all the groups analyzed; and, in nonsmokers, the -845C allele (3.6% vs. 0.4%, -845TC genotype (7.3% vs. 0.7% and the CTA haplotype (3.6% vs. 0.4% were positively associated with chronic periodontitis. For the first time to our knowledge, the polymorphisms of erythroid DARC plus IL8 -353T>A SNPs were associated with chronic periodontitis in Brazilian individuals. In Afro-Brazilians patients, the FY*02N.01 with IL8 -353A SNP was associated with protection to chronic periodontitis.

  3. Association of duffy blood group gene polymorphisms with IL8 gene in chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippert, Emília Ângela; de Oliveira e Silva, Cléverson; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila; Sell, Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    The antigens of the Duffy blood group system (DARC) act as a receptor for the interleukin IL-8. IL-8 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis due to its chemotactic properties on neutrophils. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association of Duffy blood group gene polymorphisms with the -353T>A, -845T>C and -738T>A SNPs of the IL8 gene in chronic periodontitis. One hundred and twenty-four individuals with chronic periodontitis and 187 controls were enrolled. DNA was extracted using the salting-out method. The Duffy genotypes and IL8 gene promoter polymorphisms were investigated by PCR-RFLP. Statistical analyses were conducted using the Chi square test with Yates correction or Fisher's Exact Test, and the possibility of associations were evaluated by odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval. When analyzed separately, for the Duffy blood group system, differences in the genotype and allele frequencies were not observed between all the groups analyzed; and, in nonsmokers, the -845C allele (3.6% vs. 0.4%), -845TC genotype (7.3% vs. 0.7%) and the CTA haplotype (3.6% vs. 0.4%) were positively associated with chronic periodontitis. For the first time to our knowledge, the polymorphisms of erythroid DARC plus IL8 -353T>A SNPs were associated with chronic periodontitis in Brazilian individuals. In Afro-Brazilians patients, the FY*02N.01 with IL8 -353A SNP was associated with protection to chronic periodontitis.

  4. Single-cell measurement of red blood cell oxygen affinity

    OpenAIRE

    Caprio, Di; Stokes, Chris; Higgins, John M.; Schonbrun, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is transported throughout the body by hemoglobin in red blood cells. While the oxygen affinity of blood is well understood and is routinely assessed in patients by pulse oximetry, variability at the single-cell level has not been previously measured. In contrast, single-cell measurements of red blood cell volume and hemoglobin concentration are taken millions of times per day by clinical hematology analyzers and are important factors in determining the health of the hematologic system....

  5. Blood Cell Interactions and Segregation in Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Munn, Lance L.; Dupin, Michael M.

    2008-01-01

    For more than a century, pioneering researchers have been using novel experimental and computational approaches to probe the mysteries of blood flow. Thanks to their efforts, we know that blood cells generally prefer to migrate to the axis of flow, that red and white cells segregate in flow, and that cell deformability and their tendency to reversibly aggregate contribute to the non-Newtonian nature of this unique fluid. All of these properties have beneficial physiological consequences, allo...

  6. A polymorphism in AGT and AGTR1 gene is associated with lead-related high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Ki; Lee, Hwayoung; Kwon, Jun-Tack; Kim, Hak-Jae

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the association of polymorphisms in two renin-angiotensin system-related genes, expressed as angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1), with blood lead levels and lead-related blood pressure in lead-exposed male workers in Korea. A cross-sectional study involving 808 lead-exposed male workers in Korea was conducted using a restriction fragment length polymorphism-based strategy to differentiate the various genotypes of polymorphisms in the AGT and AGTR1 genes. The association of clinical characteristics with genotypes as modifiers was estimated after adjustment for age, smoking status, drinking status, body mass index and job duration of each subject. Genotype and allele frequencies of the M235T polymorphism in AGT were associated with lead-related high blood pressure status. Moreover, blood lead levels were associated with allele frequencies of the AGT M235T polymorphism. These results suggested that the M/M genotype and M allele of AGT are risk factors for lead-related high blood pressure. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Associations between COX-2 polymorphisms, blood cholesterol and risk of acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Segel, Stine; Dethlefsen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    the enzyme levels of COX-2, were associated with risk of ACS and if alcohol intake, smoking, and use of NSAID would modify the associations. We also wanted to investigate associations with blood lipid levels. Methods: A case–cohort study including 1031 ACS cases and a sub-cohort of 1703 persons was nested......), such that variant allele carriers with low alcohol intake had the lowest lipid levels. No statistically significant associations were observed in females. Conclusion: This study suggests that genetically determined COX-2 levels are associated with risk of ACS and blood lipid levels among males. No consistent......Background: The use of specific COX-2 inhibitors in cancer prevention has been associated with higher risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and myocardial infarction. The aim of this study was to investigate if the polymorphisms COX2 T8473C (rs5275), and COX2 A-1195G (rs689466), which modify...

  8. Enterovirus RNA in Peripheral Blood May Be Associated with the Variants of rs1990760, a Common Type 1 Diabetes Associated Polymorphism in IFIH1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinek, Ondrej; Tapia, German; Witsø, Elisabet; Kramna, Lenka; Holkova, Katerina; Rasmussen, Trond; Stene, Lars C.; Rønningen, Kjersti S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Polymorphisms in the IFIH1 (common rs1990760 and four rare rs35667974, rs35337543, rs35744605, rs35732034) have been convincingly associated with type 1 diabetes. The encoded protein (interferon-induced helicase C domain-containing protein 1) senses double-stranded RNA during replication of Picornavirales, including Enterovirus, a genus suspected in the etiology of type 1 diabetes. We therefore investigated whether the polymorphisms are associated with differences in the frequency of enterovirus RNA in blood. Research Design and Methods The study included 1001 blood samples, each from a child participating in the Norwegian ‘Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes: the MIDIA study’. The enterovirus RNA was tested using qualitative semi-nested real-time reverse transcriptase PCR on RNA extracted from frozen cell packs after removal of plasma. Stool samples previously analyzed for enterovirus RNA were available in 417 children. Results The genotypes of IFIH1 rs1990760 were associated with different frequencies of enterovirus RNA in blood (7.0%, 14.4% and 9.5% bloods were enterovirus positive among children carrying the Ala/Ala, Ala/Thr and Thr/Thr genotypes, respectively, p = 0.012). This association remained essentially unchanged after adjustment for age and calendar year. The presence of enterovirus in the concomitantly sampled stool further increased the likelihood of enterovirus RNA in blood (odds ratio 2.40, CI 95% 1.13–4.70), but did not affect the association with IFIH1 rs1990760. The rare polymorphisms (individually, or pooled) were not significantly associated with enterovirus RNA in blood. Conclusions The common IFIH1 SNP may modify the frequency of enterovirus RNA in blood of healthy children. This effect can help explain the association of IFIH1 with type 1 diabetes. PMID:23144876

  9. The clinical impact of MTHFR polymorphism on the vascular complications of sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Moreira Neto

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD is one of the most common inherited diseases in the world and the patients present notorious clinical heterogeneity. It is known that patients with SCD present activation of the blood coagulation and fibrinolytic systems, especially during vaso-occlusive crises, but also during the steady state of the disease. We determined if the presence of the factor V gene G1691A mutation (factor V Leiden, the prothrombin gene G20210A variant, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T polymorphism may be risk factors for vascular complications in individuals with SCD. We studied 53 patients with SCD (60% being women, 29 with SS (sickle cell anemia; 28 years, range: 13-52 years and 24 with SC (sickle-hemoglobin C disease; 38.5 years, range: 17-72 years hemoglobinopathy. Factor V Leiden, MTHFR C677T polymorphism, and prothrombin G20210A variant were identified by PCR followed by further digestion of the PCR product with specific endonucleases. The following vascular complications were recorded: stroke, retinopathy, acute thoracic syndrome, and X-ray-documented avascular necrosis. Only one patient was heterozygous for factor V Leiden (1.8% and there was no prothrombin G20210A variant. MTHFR 677TT polymorphism was detected in 1 patient (1.8% and the heterozygous form 677TC was observed in 18 patients (34%, 9 with SS and 9 with SC disease, a prevalence similar to that reported by others. No association was detected between the presence of the MTHFR 677T allele and other genetic modulation factors, such as alpha-thalassemia, ß-globin gene haplotype and fetal hemoglobin. The presence of the MTHFR 677T allele was associated with the occurrence of vascular complications in SCD, although this association was not significant when each complication was considered separately. In conclusion, MTHFR C677T polymorphism might be a risk factor for vascular complications in SCD.

  10. Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Harvest

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Harvest. Mobilization protocol. G-CSF 10 mcg/Kg / day for 5 days. Pheresis. Cobe Spectra; Haemonetics mcs+. Enumeration. CD34 counts; Cfu-GM assays.

  11. White Blood Cell Counts and Malaria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKenzie, F. E; Prudhomme, Wendy A; Magill, Alan J; Forney, J. R; Permpanich, Barnyen; Lucas, Carmen; Gasser, Jr., Robert A; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2005-01-01

    White blood cells (WBCs) were counted in 4697 individuals who presented to outpatient malaria clinics in Maesod, Tak Province, Thailand, and Iquitos, Peru, between 28 May and 28 August 1998 and between 17 May and 9 July 1999...

  12. Collision Based Blood Cell Distribution of the Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Yildirim

    2003-11-01

    Introduction: The goal of the study is the determination of the energy transferring process between colliding masses and the application of the results to the distribution of the cell, velocity and kinetic energy in arterial blood flow. Methods: Mathematical methods and models were used to explain the collision between two moving systems, and the distribution of linear momentum, rectilinear velocity, and kinetic energy in a collision. Results: According to decrease of mass of the second system, the velocity and momentum of constant mass of the first system are decreased, and linearly decreasing mass of the second system captures a larger amount of the kinetic energy and the rectilinear velocity of the collision system on a logarithmic scale. Discussion: The cause of concentration of blood cells at the center of blood flow an artery is not explained by Bernoulli principle alone but the kinetic energy and velocity distribution due to collision between the big mass of the arterial wall and the small mass of blood cells must be considered as well.

  13. IMPACT OF MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN GENE POLYMORPHISMS IN OMANI SICKLE CELL DISEASE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Zachariah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Our objective was to study mannose binding protein (MBP polymorphisms in exonic and promoter region and correlate associated infections and vasoocculsive (VOC episodes, since MBP plays an important role in innate immunity by activating the complement system. Methods: We studied the genetic polymorphisms in the Exon 1 (alleles A/O and promoter region (alleles Y/X; H/L, P/Q of the MBL2 gene, in sickle cell disease (SCD patients as increased incidence of infections is seen in these patients. A PCR-based, targeted genomic DNA sequencing of MBL2 was used to study 68 SCD Omani patients and 44 controls (voluntary blood donors. Results: The observed frequencies of MBL2 promoter polymorphism (-221, Y/X were 44.4% and 20.5% for the heterozygous genotype Y/X and 3.2% and 2.2% for the homozygous (X/X respectively between SCD patients and controls. MBL2 Exon1 gene mutations were 29.4% and 50% for the heterozygous genotype A/O and 5.9% and 6.8% respectively for the homozygous (O/O genotype between SCD patients and controls. The distribution of variant MBL2 polymorphisms did not show any correlation in SCD patients with or without vasoocculsive crisis (VOC attacks (p=0.162; OR-0.486; CI=0.177 -1.33, however, it was correlated with infections (p=0.0162; OR-3.55; CI 1.25-10.04. Conclusions: Although the frequency of the genotypes and haplotypes of MBL2 in SCD patients did not differ from controls, overall in the SCD patient cohort the increased representation of variant alleles was significantly correlated with infections (p<0.05. However, these variant MBL2 polymorphisms did not seem to play a significant role in the VOC episodes in this SCD cohort. Keywords: Mannose-binding lectin, polymorphism, promoter, Sickle cell disease, MBL2, MBP

  14. Radionuclide blood cell survival studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, S.A.; Miller, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    Platelet and red cell survival studies are reviewed. The use of 51 Cr and di-isopropylfluoridate labelled with tritium or 32 P is discussed for red cell survival study and 51 Cr and 111 In-oxine are considered as platelet labels. (UK)

  15. The origin of blood stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Boisset

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe development of cell biology research coincides with the advance of microscopes in the 19th century. It was finally possible to directly observe the various blood cell types and to witness their proliferation and differentiation (Mazzarello, 1999). On the basis of his observations,

  16. Evaluation of single-nucleotide polymorphisms as internal controls in prenatal diagnosis of fetal blood groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doescher, Andrea; Petershofen, Eduard K; Wagner, Franz F; Schunter, Markus; Müller, Thomas H

    2013-02-01

    Determination of fetal blood groups in maternal plasma samples critically depends on adequate amplification of fetal DNA. We evaluated the routine inclusion of 52 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as internal reference in our polymerase chain reaction (PCR) settings to obtain a positive internal control for fetal DNA. DNA from 223 plasma samples of pregnant women was screened for RHD Exons 3, 4, 5, and 7 in a multiplex PCR including 52 SNPs divided into four primer pools. Amplicons were analyzed by single-base extension and the GeneScan method in a genetic analyzer. Results of D screening were compared to standard RHD genotyping of amniotic fluid or real-time PCR of fetal DNA from maternal plasma. The vast majority of all samples (97.8%) demonstrated differences in maternal and fetal SNP patterns when tested with four primer pools. These differences were not observed in less than 2.2% of the samples most probably due to an extraction failure for adequate amounts of fetal DNA. Comparison of the fetal genotypes with independent results did not reveal a single false-negative case among samples (n = 42) with positive internal control and negative fetal RHD typing. Coamplification of 52 SNPs with RHD-specific sequences for fetal blood group determination introduces a valid positive control for the amplification of fetal DNA to avoid false-negative results. This new approach does not require a paternal blood sample. It may also be applicable to other assays for fetal genotyping in maternal blood samples. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  17. GFR and Blood Lead Levels in Gas Station Workers Based on δ-Alad Gene Polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantip Rujito

    2015-04-01

    showed that the proportion of ALAD genotype for ALAD 1-1, 1-2 and 2-2 were 94.7%, 5.3%, and 0% respectively. The mean of serum levels in homozygous 1-1 was 15.94 ppb and heterozygote 1-2 was 1.15 ppb. GFR of participants ranged from 71.11 mL/min to 185.20 mL/min with a mean of 117.34mL/min. There was no correlation between serum Pb and GFR (p = 0.19. Study also could not determine the correlation between GFR and ALAD gene Polymorphism. Discussion: Study then concluded that there was no correlation between blood lead levels in the GFR on each δ-ALAD genotypes. Keywords: Lead intoxication, GFR, δ-ALAD, gas station workers

  18. Haemopoietic progenitor cells in human peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwaan, F.E.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation reported is to purify haemopoietic progenitor cells from human peripheral blood using density gradient centrifugation in order to isolate a progenitor cell fraction without immunocompetent cells. The purification technique of peripheral blood flow colony forming unit culture (CFU-c) by means of density gradient centrifugation and a combined depletion of various rosettes is described. The results of several 'in vitro' characteristics of purified CFU-c suspensions and of the plasma clot diffusion chamber culture technique are presented. Irradiation studies revealed that for both human bone marrow and peripheral blood the CFU-c were less radioresistant than clusters. Elimination of monocytes (and granulocytes) from the test suspensions induced an alteration in radiosensitivity pararmeters. The results obtained with the different techniques are described by analysing peripheral progenitor cell activity in myeloproliferative disorders. (Auth.)

  19. E112D polymorphism in the prolylcarboxypeptidase gene is associated with blood pressure response to benazepril in Chinese hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Hong, Xiu-mei; Xing, Hou-xun; Li, Jian-ping; Huo, Yong; Xu, Xi-ping

    2009-10-20

    Marked interindividual variation exists in blood pressure response to benazepril, which is considered to have genetic basis. Our objectives were to evaluate whether the E112D polymorphism in the prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP) gene has impact on blood pressure response to benazepril. Hypertensive patients from Huoqiu County and Yuexi County of Anhui Province received daily treatment with an oral dosage of 10 mg benazepril for 15 days. Genotypes of the E112D polymorphism in the PRCP gene were determined by TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. Multivariate linear and Logistic regressions using generalized estimating equation model were performed in a total of 1092 patients to evaluate the association of PRCP genotypes and blood pressure response to benazepril. Patients carrying ED or DD genotype had a less systolic blood pressure reduction (adjusted beta = -3.7 + or - 1.1, P benazepril treatment in hypertensive patients of Anhui Province, China.

  20. Salt sensitivity of blood pressure is associated with polymorphisms in the sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Robert M; Schoeffel, Cynthia D; Gildea, John J; Jones, John E; McGrath, Helen E; Gordon, Lindsay N; Park, Min Jeong; Sobota, Rafal S; Underwood, Patricia C; Williams, Jonathan; Sun, Bei; Raby, Benjamin; Lasky-Su, Jessica; Hopkins, Paul N; Adler, Gail K; Williams, Scott M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2012-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the sodium-bicarbonate co-transporter gene (SLC4A5) are associated with hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that SNPs in SLC4A5 are associated with salt sensitivity of blood pressure in 185 whites consuming an isocaloric constant diet with a randomized order of 7 days of low Na(+) (10 mmol/d) and 7 days of high Na(+) (300 mmol/d) intake. Salt sensitivity was defined as a ≥ 7-mm Hg increase in mean arterial pressure during a randomized transition between high and low Na(+) diet. A total of 35 polymorphisms in 17 candidate genes were assayed, 25 of which were tested for association. Association analyses with salt sensitivity revealed 3 variants that associated with salt sensitivity, 2 in SLC4A5 (P<0.001) and 1 in GRK4 (P=0.020). Of these, 2 SNPs in SLC4A5 (rs7571842 and rs10177833) demonstrated highly significant results and large effects sizes, using logistic regression. These 2 SNPs had P values of 1.0 × 10(-4) and 3.1 × 10(-4) with odds ratios of 0.221 and 0.221 in unadjusted regression models, respectively, with the G allele at both sites conferring protection. These SNPs remained significant after adjusting for body mass index and age (P=8.9 × 10(-5) and 2.6 × 10(-4) and odds ratios 0.210 and 0.286, respectively). Furthermore, the association of these SNPs with salt sensitivity was replicated in a second hypertensive population. Meta-analysis demonstrated significant associations of both SNPs with salt sensitivity (rs7571842 [P=1.2 × 10(-5)]; rs1017783 [P=1.1 × 10(-4)]). In conclusion, SLC4A5 variants are strongly associated with salt sensitivity of blood pressure in 2 separate white populations.

  1. Blood cells radiolabelling achievements, challanges, and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weininger, Jolie; Trumper, Jacob

    1987-01-01

    A study in performed about the different ways of blood cells radiolabelling. The labelling of red blood cells (RBCs), compared with that of other blood cells, is facilitated by several factors such as a) RBCs are the most abundant of all cellular blood elements, b) they are relatively easy to separate and manipulate in vitro, c) in vitro they are less dependent on energy and nutricional requirements, d) they are easy to label due to the presence of a variety of cellular transport mechanism. 99m Tc was reconized and became as the ideal radioisotope for nuclear medicine imaging. After considerations about RBCs radiolabelling, it is presented a new in vitro technique based on the BNL kit, developed by Srivastava and co-workers. The Sorep optimized one-vial labelling method for 2 ml whole blood. In vivo and in vivo/in vitro labelling are presented too, the last method seems to combine the superior binding efficiency of in vitro labelling with the convenience of in vitro labelling. Lipophilic chelates of 111 In with oxine, acetylacetone, tropolone and mercaptopyridine N-oxide have been used successfully for labelling platelets and leukocytes. A very promising aproach is the labelling of cells with monoclonal antibodies and the developing optimized methods for in vitro labelling with various radionuclides such as 123 I, 125 I, 131 I, 111 I and 99m Tc. The advantages of the antibody technique over conventional cell labelling are shown. (M.E.L.) [es

  2. Association of Polymorphisms of Cytochrome P450 2D6 With Blood Hydroxychloroquine Levels in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Yeon; Vinayagamoorthy, Nadimuthu; Han, Kyungdo; Kwok, Seung Ki; Ju, Ji Hyeon; Park, Kyung Su; Jung, Seung-Hyun; Park, Sung-Won; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Park, Sung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate associations of genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms 2D6, 3A5, and 3A4 with blood concentrations of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and its metabolite, N-desethyl HCQ (DHCQ), in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE patients taking HCQ for >3 months were recruited and were genotyped for 4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP2D6*10, CYP3A5*3, and CYP3A4*18B. Blood HCQ and DHCQ concentrations ([HCQ] and [DHCQ]) were measured and their association with corresponding genotypes was investigated. A total of 194 patients were included in the analysis. CYP2D6*10 polymorphisms (rs1065852 and rs1135840) were significantly associated with the [DHCQ]:[HCQ] ratio after adjustment for age, sex, dose per weight per day, and SLE Disease Activity Index score (P = 0.03 and P < 0.01, respectively). In adjusted models, the [DHCQ]:[HCQ] ratio was highest in patients with the G/G genotype of the CYP2D6*10 (rs1065852) polymorphism and lowest in those with the A/A genotype (P = 0.03). Similarly, the [DHCQ]:[HCQ] ratio was highest in patients with the C/C genotype of the CYP2D6*10 (rs1135840) polymorphism and lowest in those with the G/G genotype (P < 0.01). The CYP2D6*10 (rs1065852) polymorphism was significantly related to the [DHCQ] (P = 0.01). However, the polymorphisms of CYP3A5*3 and CYP3A4*18B did not show any significant association with the [HCQ], [DHCQ], or [DHCQ]:[HCQ] ratio. Our study showed that the [DHCQ]:[HCQ] ratio was related to CYP2D6 polymorphisms in Korean lupus patients taking oral HCQ. CYP polymorphisms may explain why there is wide variation in blood HCQ concentrations. The role of an individual's CYP polymorphisms should be considered when prescribing oral HCQ. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  3. Recent developments in blood cell labeling research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.; Meinken, G.E.

    1988-09-07

    A number of recent developments in research on blood cell labeling techniques are presented. The discussion relates to three specific areas: (1) a new in vitro method for red blood cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc; (2) a method for labeling leukocytes and platelets with /sup 99m/Tc; and (3) the use of monoclonal antibody technique for platelet labeling. The advantages and the pitfalls of these techniques are examined in the light of available mechanistic information. Problems that remain to be resolved are reviewed. An assessment is made of the progress as well as prospects in blood cell labeling methodology including that using the monoclonal antibody approach. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Recent developments in blood cell labeling research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.; Meinken, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    A number of recent developments in research on blood cell labeling techniques are presented. The discussion relates to three specific areas: (1) a new in vitro method for red blood cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc; (2) a method for labeling leukocytes and platelets with /sup 99m/Tc; and (3) the use of monoclonal antibody technique for platelet labeling. The advantages and the pitfalls of these techniques are examined in the light of available mechanistic information. Problems that remain to be resolved are reviewed. An assessment is made of the progress as well as prospects in blood cell labeling methodology including that using the monoclonal antibody approach. 37 refs., 4 figs

  5. Analysis of IV characteristics of solar cells made of hydrogenated amorphous, polymorphous and microcrystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamadeh, H.

    2009-03-01

    The IV characteristics of pin solar cells made of amorphous, polymorphous and microcrystalline silicon were investigated. The temperature dependence was measured in the temperature range between 150 K and 395 K. This range covers the most terrestrial applications condition. Using simplex procedure, the IV parameter of the cells were deduce using line fitting. It has been shown that polymorphous silicon shows electrical properties that are close to properties of microcrystalline silicon but as it is well known, polymorphous silicon shows higher absorption similar to amorphous silicon. The polymorphous silicon solar cells showed higher efficiencies, lower shunting and higher filling factors. In the above mentioned temperature range, polymorphous silicon is the better material for the manufacturing of thin film hydrogenated silicon pin solar cells. More investigations concerning the structural properties are necessary to make stronger conclusions in regards to the stability of the material, what we hope to do in the future. (author)

  6. Detection of individual radiosensitivity by radiation–induced micronuclei in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and polymorphisms in DNA repair genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staynova, A.; Hadjidekova, V.; Popova, L.; Hristova, R. [Radiation Genetics Laboratory, National Centre of Radiobology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (Bulgaria); Savov, A. [National Genetic Laboratory, University Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-07-01

    Aim: To investigate the association of two polymorphisms – in XRCC1 gene (Arg399Gln) and in APE1 gene (Asp148Glu) and the radiation induced frequency of micronuclei in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Material and methods: Genomic DNA from 34 cancer patients and 52 controls were genotyped using PCR–RFLP technique. Micronucleus test (MNT) was performed on 15 cancer patients and 15 controls, before and after in vitro irradiation with 2Gy gamma rays. Results: The data showed that cancer patients had a significantly higher spontaneous frequency of cells with micronuclei than controls (P=0.009). No statistical difference was registered when comparing the mean frequency of cells with micronuclei after in vitro irradiation between these groups. Four subjects were selected as radiosensitive after applying cut–off of the mean frequency of radiation induced micronuclei. Three of them are carriers of the XRCC1 399Gln allele and two of them are carriers of the APE1 148Glu allele. (author)

  7. Red blood cell alloimmunization in sickle cell disease patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Alloimmunization is a recognized complication of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and causes delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions and provides problems sourcing compatible blood for future transfusions. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of RBC alloimmunization in SCD patients in ...

  8. Association of blood lead levels with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms among Chinese pregnant women in Wuhan city.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is an important stimulus of bone lead release. Elevated blood lead levels (BLLs may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes for mothers and harmful lead effects on fetuses. However, the reports about maternal BLL changes during pregnancy are conflicting to some extent. This article is to explore the variations in BLLs among pregnant women. The relationships of BLLs with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene C677T, A1298C, and G1793A polymorphisms, which are associated with bone resorption, were also studied. A total of 973 women, including 234, 249, and 248 women in their first, second, and third trimesters, respectively, and 242 non-pregnant women, were recruited at the Wuhan Women and Children Medical Health Center.BLLs were determined using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of MTHFR were identified with the TaqMan probe method.The geometric mean (geometric standard deviation of BLLs was 16.2 (1.78 μg/L for all participants. All the studied MTHFR alleles were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Multiple-linear regression analysis revealed the following results. Among the pregnant women, those that carried MTHFR 677CC (i.e. wild-genotype homozygote and 1298CC (i.e. mutant-genotype homozygote exhibited higher BLLs than those that carried 677CT/TT (standardized β = 0.074, P = 0.042 and 1298AC/AA (standardized β = 0.077, P = 0.035 when other covariates (e.g., age, no. of children, education and income, etc. were adjusted. The BLLs of pregnant women consistently decreased during the pregnancy and these levels positively correlated with BMI (standard β = 0.086-0.096, P<0.05.The 1298CC mutant-type homozygote in the MTHFR gene is a risk factor for high BLLs among low-level environmental lead-exposed Chinese pregnant women, whose BLLs consistently decreased during gestation.

  9. Sorting white blood cells in microfabricated arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelino, Judith Andrea Rose

    Fractionating white cells in microfabricated arrays presents the potential for detecting cells with abnormal adhesive or deformation properties. A possible application is separating nucleated fetal red blood cells from maternal blood. Since fetal cells are nucleated, it is possible to extract genetic information about the fetus from them. Separating fetal cells from maternal blood would provide a low cost noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for genetic defects, which is not currently available. We present results showing that fetal cells penetrate further into our microfabricated arrays than adult cells, and that it is possible to enrich the fetal cell fraction using the arrays. We discuss modifications to the array which would result in further enrichment. Fetal cells are less adhesive and more deformable than adult white cells. To determine which properties limit penetration, we compared the penetration of granulocytes and lymphocytes in arrays with different etch depths, constriction size, constriction frequency, and with different amounts of metabolic activity. The penetration of lymphocytes and granulocytes into constrained and unconstrained arrays differed qualitatively. In constrained arrays, the cells were activated by repeated shearing, and the number of cells stuck as a function of distance fell superexponentially. In unconstrained arrays the number of cells stuck fell slower than an exponential. We attribute this result to different subpopulations of cells with different sticking parameters. We determined that penetration in unconstrained arrays was limited by metabolic processes, and that when metabolic activity was reduced penetration was limited by deformability. Fetal cells also contain a different form of hemoglobin with a higher oxygen affinity than adult hemoglobin. Deoxygenated cells are paramagnetic and are attracted to high magnetic field gradients. We describe a device which can separate cells using 10 μm magnetic wires to deflect the paramagnetic

  10. The polymorphism of the Knops blood group system among five Chinese ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Han, Sha-Sha; Guo, Zhong-Hui; Yang, Ying; Zhou, Jie; Zhu, Zi-Yan

    2010-12-01

    This work aims to explain the complexity of the Knops blood group system in the Chinese population. The Knops blood group system consists of antigens encoded by CR1 gene exon 29. A total of 281 individuals from the Han, Uigur, Tu, Lisu and Dong ethnic groups were studied. The coding region of the CR1 gene of 11 Han donors was analysed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. CR1 gene exon 29 in the 39 samples was analysed through genomic DNA sequencing. According to the sequencing result, a PCR-sequence-specific primers system was designed to screen the A4646G and A4870G alleles in the Chinese population. Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were observed in the coding region of the CR1 gene in the Han population. Two SNPs (A4646G and A4870G) were detected in the CR1 gene exon 29. The 4646G allele was found only in the Uigur and Tu ethnic groups, in which the allele frequencies were 0·11 and 0·06, respectively. The frequencies of the 4870A allele in the Han, Uigur, Tu, Lisu and Dong ethnic groups were 0·82, 0·83, 0·82, 0·57 and 0·57, respectively. The CR1 gene in the Chinese people is more conservative than that in the Caucasian or African people. Different Chinese ethnic groups may have their own different CR1 gene characteristics. The existence of 4646G in the Uigur and Tu ethnic groups suggests that both may carry certain Caucasian characteristics in the CR1 gene. The frequency of 4870G in the Lisu and Dong ethnic groups implies possible incidence of evolutionary pressure similar to what the Africans had experienced. © 2010 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2010 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  11. Colour measurement and white blood cell recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Gelsema, E S

    1972-01-01

    As a part of a collaboration with NEMCH aimed at the automation of the differential white blood cell count, studies have been made of the different possibilities for using colour to help in the recognition process. Results are presented comparing data obtained with a microspectrophotometer and with a simulated three-colour scanner.

  12. Red blood cell alloimmunization among sickle cell Kuwaiti Arab patients who received red blood cell transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Reem; Al Shemmari, Salem; Al-Bashir, Abdulaziz

    2009-08-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is common in the Arabian Gulf region. Most cases require a red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, increasing the potential for RBC alloantibody development. The incidence of RBC alloimmunization among Kuwaiti Arab SCD patients is not yet known. This study retrospectively assessed the effect of using two different matching protocols on the incidence of alloimmunization among multiply transfused Kuwaiti Arab SCD patients. A total of 233 Kuwaiti Arab SCD patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 110) received RBC transfusion through standard ABO- and D-matched nonleukoreduced blood; Group 2 (n = 123) received RBCs matched for ABO, Rh, and K1 poststorage-leukoreduced blood. Multivariate analysis was performed on the factors associated with RBC alloimmunization and antibody specificity. Sixty-five percent of patients in Group 1 developed clinically significant RBC alloantibody with an increased prevalence in females; in patients in Group 2, 23.6% developed RBC alloantibodies (p = 0.01). In Group 1, 72 patients (65.5%) had alloantibodies directed against Rh and Kell systems (p = 0.01). Multivariate analysis further confirmed the results, showing that blood transfusion type and sex have significant effects on the rate of alloimmunizations. This study confirms the importance of selecting RBCs matched for Rh and Kell to reduce the risk of alloimmunizations among Kuwaiti Arab SCD patients.

  13. Evaluation of the effect of divalent metal transporter 1 gene polymorphism on blood iron, lead and cadmium levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayaaltı, Zeliha, E-mail: kayaalti@ankara.edu.tr; Akyüzlü, Dilek Kaya; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2015-02-15

    Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), a member of the proton-coupled metal ion transporter family, mediates transport of ferrous iron from the lumen of the intestine into the enterocyte and export of iron from endocytic vesicles. It has an affinity not only for iron but also for other divalent cations including manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc. DMT1 is encoded by the SLC11a2 gene that is located on chromosome 12q13 in humans and express four major mammalian isoforms (1A/+IRE, 1A/-IRE, 2/+IRE and 2/-IRE). Mutations or polymorphisms of DMT1 gene may have an impact on human health by disturbing metal trafficking. To study the possible association of DMT1 gene with the blood levels of some divalent cations such as iron, lead and cadmium, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (IVS4+44C/A) in DMT1 gene was investigated in 486 unrelated and healthy individuals in a Turkish population by method of polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP). The genotype frequencies were found as 49.8% homozygote typical (CC), 38.3% heterozygote (CA) and 11.9% homozygote atypical (AA). Metal levels were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system and the average levels of iron, lead and cadmium in the blood samples were 446.01±81.87 ppm, 35.59±17.72 ppb and 1.25±0.87 ppb, respectively. Individuals with the CC genotype had higher blood iron, lead and cadmium levels than those with AA and CA genotypes. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism in the DMT1 gene and iron and lead levels (p=0.001 and p=0.036, respectively), but no association was found with cadmium level (p=0.344). This study suggested that DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, lead and cadmium levels. - Highlights: • DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, cadmium and lead levels.

  14. Evaluation of the effect of divalent metal transporter 1 gene polymorphism on blood iron, lead and cadmium levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayaaltı, Zeliha; Akyüzlü, Dilek Kaya; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2015-01-01

    Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), a member of the proton-coupled metal ion transporter family, mediates transport of ferrous iron from the lumen of the intestine into the enterocyte and export of iron from endocytic vesicles. It has an affinity not only for iron but also for other divalent cations including manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc. DMT1 is encoded by the SLC11a2 gene that is located on chromosome 12q13 in humans and express four major mammalian isoforms (1A/+IRE, 1A/-IRE, 2/+IRE and 2/-IRE). Mutations or polymorphisms of DMT1 gene may have an impact on human health by disturbing metal trafficking. To study the possible association of DMT1 gene with the blood levels of some divalent cations such as iron, lead and cadmium, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (IVS4+44C/A) in DMT1 gene was investigated in 486 unrelated and healthy individuals in a Turkish population by method of polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP). The genotype frequencies were found as 49.8% homozygote typical (CC), 38.3% heterozygote (CA) and 11.9% homozygote atypical (AA). Metal levels were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system and the average levels of iron, lead and cadmium in the blood samples were 446.01±81.87 ppm, 35.59±17.72 ppb and 1.25±0.87 ppb, respectively. Individuals with the CC genotype had higher blood iron, lead and cadmium levels than those with AA and CA genotypes. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism in the DMT1 gene and iron and lead levels (p=0.001 and p=0.036, respectively), but no association was found with cadmium level (p=0.344). This study suggested that DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, lead and cadmium levels. - Highlights: • DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, cadmium and lead levels.

  15. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated

  16. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  17. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  18. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated.

  19. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated

  20. Comparative study on the effect of radiation on whole blood and isolate red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, N.S.

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of the dielectric properties of red blood cells requires several steps for preparation and isolation from whole blood. These steps may results in changes in the cells properties, and they are time consuming . The present study aims to compare the properties of both whole blood and isolated red blood cells and the effect of gamma radiation on these properties. Adult male rats were exposed to 1, 3.5 and 7 Gy as single dose, from Cs-137 source.The studies dielectric properties, in the frequency range 40 k Hz to 5 MHz, and light scattering studies for suspensions of whole blood and isolated red blood cells from the same groups were measured. The obtained results showed that whole blood and red blood cells suspensions followed the same trend in their response to radiation, which suggests the possibility of using whole blood suspension for the evaluation of the red blood cells properties

  1. Banking on cord blood stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael J

    2008-07-01

    Umbilical cord blood gifted to non-profit public cord blood banks is now routinely used as an alternative source of haematopoietic stem cells for allogeneic transplantation for children and adults with cancer, bone marrow failure syndromes, haemoglobinopathies and many genetic metabolic disorders. Because of the success and outcomes of public cord banking, many companies now provide private cord banking services. However, in the absence of any published transplant evidence to support autologous and non-directed family banking, commercial cord banks currently offer a superfluous service.

  2. Xmn1 Polymorphism in Sickle cell trait cohort in Siwa Oasis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dr Pacint Moez

    were obtained from parents of all recruited children, before participation, in the presence of a doctor and a .... cell patients was greatly influenced by the Xmn1 polymorphism. .... Life expectancy and risk factors for early death. N. Engl. J. Med.

  3. Whole Blood PCR Amplification with Pfu DNA Polymerase and Its Application in Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Er-Ping; Wang, Yan; He, Xiao-Hui; Guan, Jun-Jie; Wang, Jin; Qin, Zheng-Hong; Sun, Wan-Ping

    2015-11-01

    Point-of-care genetic analysis may require polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to be carried out on whole blood. However, human blood contains natural inhibitors of PCR such as hemoglobin, immunoglobulin G, lactoferrin, and proteases, as well as anticoagulant agents, including EDTA and heparin that can reduce whole blood PCR efficiency. Our purpose was to develop a highly specific, direct whole blood single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis method based on allele-specific (AS) PCR that is mediated by Pfu DNA polymerase and phosphorothioate-modified AS primers. At high Mg(2+) concentrations, Pfu DNA polymerase efficiently amplified genomic DNA in a reaction solution containing up to 14% whole blood. Among the three anticoagulants tested, Pfu DNA polymerase showed the highest activity with sodium citrate. Meanwhile, Triton X-100 and betaine inhibited Pfu DNA polymerase activity in whole blood PCR, whereas trehalose had virtually no effect. These findings provided for the development of a low-cost, simple, and fast direct whole blood genotyping method that uses Pfu DNA polymerase combined with phosphorothioate AS primers for CYP2C9*3 and VKORC1(-1639) loci. With its high DNA amplification efficiency and tolerance of various blood conditions, Pfu DNA polymerase can be used in clinical laboratories to analyze SNPs in whole blood samples.

  4. Genetic polymorphism of blood proteins in a population of shetland ponies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buis, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    Genetic variation of proteins (protein polymorphism) is widespread among many animal species. The biological significance of protein polymorphism has been the subject of many studies. This variation has a supporting function for population genetic studies as a source of genetic markers. In

  5. Effects of MTHFR and MS gene polymorphisms on baseline blood pressure and Benazepril effectiveness in Chinese hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S; Yu, Y; Venners, S A; Zhang, Y; Xing, H; Wang, X; Xu, X

    2011-03-01

    The development of essential hypertension (EH) and inter-individual differences in response to antihypertensive treatment may partly result from genetic heterogeneity. In this study, we conducted an investigation of the combined effects of 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and methionine synthase (MS) A2756G polymorphisms on baseline blood pressure (BP) and BP response to antihypertensive Benazepril treatment in 823 Chinese hypertensive patients with a fixed daily dosage of 10 mg for 15 consecutive days. When MTHFR C677T and MS A2756G polymorphisms were modelled together with adjustment for important covariates, only MTHFR C677T was associated with baseline systolic BP (SBP) (β (s.e.)=2.84 (1.10), P=0.0096) or baseline diastolic BP (DBP) (β (s.e.)=2.19 (0.65), P=0.0008). Modelled together with adjustment for important covariates, MTHFR C677T and MS A2756G polymorphisms were both independently associated with increased DBP response (baseline minus post-treatment) to Benazepril treatment (C677T: β (s.e.)=1.58 (0.76), P=0.038; A2756G: β (s.e.)=2.14 (0.89), P=0.016). Neither polymorphism was associated with SBP response to Benazepril treatment. There were no significant interactions or effect modification between MTHFR C677T and MS A2756G gene polymorphisms in models of baseline SBP, baseline DBP or DBP response to Benazepril treatment. Our results suggest that the effects of MTHFR C677T and MS A2756G gene polymorphisms may have pivotal roles in the aetiology of EH and BP response to Benazepril treatment.

  6. Single-cell measurement of red blood cell oxygen affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Caprio, Giuseppe; Stokes, Chris; Higgins, John M; Schonbrun, Ethan

    2015-08-11

    Oxygen is transported throughout the body by hemoglobin (Hb) in red blood cells (RBCs). Although the oxygen affinity of blood is well-understood and routinely assessed in patients by pulse oximetry, variability at the single-cell level has not been previously measured. In contrast, single-cell measurements of RBC volume and Hb concentration are taken millions of times per day by clinical hematology analyzers, and they are important factors in determining the health of the hematologic system. To better understand the variability and determinants of oxygen affinity on a cellular level, we have developed a system that quantifies the oxygen saturation, cell volume, and Hb concentration for individual RBCs in high throughput. We find that the variability in single-cell saturation peaks at an oxygen partial pressure of 2.9%, which corresponds to the maximum slope of the oxygen-Hb dissociation curve. In addition, single-cell oxygen affinity is positively correlated with Hb concentration but independent of osmolarity, which suggests variation in the Hb to 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2-3 DPG) ratio on a cellular level. By quantifying the functional behavior of a cellular population, our system adds a dimension to blood cell analysis and other measurements of single-cell variability.

  7. Binding Characteristics Of Ivermectin To Blood Cells | Nweke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The binding characteristics of Ivermectin were determined using scatchard plots. The percentage binding to platelet rich plasma, white blood cells and red blood cells were 90.00 + 1.00, 96-90 + 1.05 and 46.20 + 1.10 S.D respectively. It was found to bind the highest to white blood cells and the least to red blood cells.

  8. Maternal hemochromatosis gene H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism and lead levels of placental tissue, maternal and umbilical cord blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayaalti, Zeliha, E-mail: kayaalti@ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); Kaya-Akyüzlü, Dilek [Ankara University, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); Söylemez, Esma [Ankara University, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Ankara (Turkey); Middle Black Sea Passage Generation of Agricultural Research Station Director, Tokat (Turkey); Söylemezoğlu, Tülin [Ankara University, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-07-15

    Human hemochromatosis protein (HFE), a major histocompatibility complex class I-like integral membrane protein, participates in the down regulation of intestinal iron absorption by binding to transferrin receptor (TR). HFE competes with transferrin-bound iron for the TR and thus reduces uptake of iron into cells. On the other hand, a lack of HFE increases the intestinal absorption of iron similarly to iron deficiency associated with increasing in absorption and deposition of lead. During pregnancy, placenta cannot prevent transfer lead to the fetus; even low-level lead poisoning causes neurodevelopmental toxicity in children. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the maternal HFE H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism and lead levels in placental tissue, maternal blood and umbilical cord bloods. The study population comprised 93 mother–placenta pairs. Venous blood from mother was collected to investigate lead levels and HFE polymorphism that was detected by standard PCR–RFLP technique. Cord bloods and placentas were collected for lead levels which were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system. The HFE H63D genotype frequencies of mothers were found as 75.3% homozygote typical (HH), 23.6% heterozygote (HD) and 1.1% homozygote atypical (DD). Our study results showed that the placental tissue, umbilical cord and maternal blood lead levels of mothers with HD+DD genotypes were significantly higher than those with HH genotype (p<0.05). The present study indicated for the first time that mothers with H63D gene variants have higher lead levels of their newborn's placentas and umbilical cord bloods. - Highlights: • Mothers with H63D gene variants have higher lead levels of their newborn's umbilical cord blood. • Unborn child of women with HD+DD genotypes may be at increased risk of internal exposure to lead. • Maternal HFE status may have an effect on increased placenta, maternal and cord blood lead levels.

  9. Maternal hemochromatosis gene H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism and lead levels of placental tissue, maternal and umbilical cord blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayaalti, Zeliha; Kaya-Akyüzlü, Dilek; Söylemez, Esma; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2015-01-01

    Human hemochromatosis protein (HFE), a major histocompatibility complex class I-like integral membrane protein, participates in the down regulation of intestinal iron absorption by binding to transferrin receptor (TR). HFE competes with transferrin-bound iron for the TR and thus reduces uptake of iron into cells. On the other hand, a lack of HFE increases the intestinal absorption of iron similarly to iron deficiency associated with increasing in absorption and deposition of lead. During pregnancy, placenta cannot prevent transfer lead to the fetus; even low-level lead poisoning causes neurodevelopmental toxicity in children. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the maternal HFE H63D single-nucleotide polymorphism and lead levels in placental tissue, maternal blood and umbilical cord bloods. The study population comprised 93 mother–placenta pairs. Venous blood from mother was collected to investigate lead levels and HFE polymorphism that was detected by standard PCR–RFLP technique. Cord bloods and placentas were collected for lead levels which were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system. The HFE H63D genotype frequencies of mothers were found as 75.3% homozygote typical (HH), 23.6% heterozygote (HD) and 1.1% homozygote atypical (DD). Our study results showed that the placental tissue, umbilical cord and maternal blood lead levels of mothers with HD+DD genotypes were significantly higher than those with HH genotype (p<0.05). The present study indicated for the first time that mothers with H63D gene variants have higher lead levels of their newborn's placentas and umbilical cord bloods. - Highlights: • Mothers with H63D gene variants have higher lead levels of their newborn's umbilical cord blood. • Unborn child of women with HD+DD genotypes may be at increased risk of internal exposure to lead. • Maternal HFE status may have an effect on increased placenta, maternal and cord blood lead levels.

  10. Renal intercalated cells and blood pressure regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Wall

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Type B and non-A, non-B intercalated cells are found within the connecting tubule and the cortical collecting duct. Of these cell types, type B intercalated cells are known to mediate Cl⁻ absorption and HCO₃⁻ secretion largely through pendrin-dependent Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻ exchange. This exchange is stimulated by angiotensin II administration and is also stimulated in models of metabolic alkalosis, for instance after aldosterone or NaHCO₃ administration. In some rodent models, pendrin-mediated HCO₃⁻ secretion modulates acid-base balance. However, the role of pendrin in blood pressure regulation is likely of more physiological or clinical significance. Pendrin regulates blood pressure not only by mediating aldosterone-sensitive Cl⁻ absorption, but also by modulating the aldosterone response for epithelial Na⁺ channel (ENaC-mediated Na⁺ absorption. Pendrin regulates ENaC through changes in open channel of probability, channel surface density, and channels subunit total protein abundance. Thus, aldosterone stimulates ENaC activity through both direct and indirect effects, the latter occurring through its stimulation of pendrin expression and function. Therefore, pendrin contributes to the aldosterone pressor response. Pendrin may also modulate blood pressure in part through its action in the adrenal medulla, where it modulates the release of catecholamines, or through an indirect effect on vascular contractile force. This review describes how aldosterone and angiotensin II-induced signaling regulate pendrin and the contributory role of pendrin in distal nephron function and blood pressure.

  11. Radiolabeled blood cells: radiation dosimetry and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Over the past few years blood cells labeled with In-111 have become increasingly useful in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research. Indium-111 by the virtue of its physical characteristics and ability to bind to cell cytoplasmic components, provides an excellent cell tracer and thereby, allows investigators to monitor in vivo cell distribution by external imaging and help determine a course of regimen in treating life threatening diseases. Due to natural phenomena such as margination, blood pool, and reticuloendothelial cell activity, in the normal state, depending upon the cell type and the quality of cell preparations, 30%-50% of the administered radioactivity is immediately distributed in the liver, spleen and bone marrow. Over a period of time the radioactivity in these organs slightly increases and decays with a physical half-life of In-111. The resulting radiation dose to these organs ranges between 1-25 rads/mCi In-111 administered. The authors have developed a new In-111 labeling technique which preserves platelet ultrastructure and shown that human lymphocytes labeled with In-111 in mixed leukocytes preparations a) are only 0.003% of the total -body lymphocytes population and b) are killed. The consequence if any may be considered insignificant, particularly because 5.6% metaphases from normal men and 6.5% metaphases from normal women in the US have at least one chromosome aberration. Calculations have shown that the risk of fatal hematological malignancy, over a 30 year period, in recipients of 100 million lymphocytes labeled with 100 μCi In-111 is 1/million patients studied. This risk is less than 0.025% of the 1981 spontaneous cancer patient rate in the country. 32 references, 10 tables

  12. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall be...

  13. Certain Red Blood Cell Indices of Maternal and Umbilical Cord ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    Background: Umbilical cord blood analysis may give a clue to the state of health of both pregnant mothers and their neonates. However ... Keywords: Umbilical cord blood; maternal blood; haemoglobin concentration; packed cell volume; red cell indices. Received on .... The packed cell volume was measured using the.

  14. Red Blood Cell Count Automation Using Microscopic Hyperspectral Imaging Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingli; Zhou, Mei; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Yiting; Guo, Fangmin

    2015-12-01

    Red blood cell counts have been proven to be one of the most frequently performed blood tests and are valuable for early diagnosis of some diseases. This paper describes an automated red blood cell counting method based on microscopic hyperspectral imaging technology. Unlike the light microscopy-based red blood count methods, a combined spatial and spectral algorithm is proposed to identify red blood cells by integrating active contour models and automated two-dimensional k-means with spectral angle mapper algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance than spatial based algorithm because the new algorithm can jointly use the spatial and spectral information of blood cells.

  15. Thrombocytopenia responding to red blood cell transfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubarak, Ahmad A.; Awidi, Abdalla; Rasul, Kakil I.; Al-Homsi, Ussama

    2004-01-01

    Three patients with severe symptomatic iron defficiency anemia and thrombocytopenia had a significant rise in the platelet count a few days following packed red blood cell transfusion. Pretransfusion platelet count of of patient one was 17x10/L. 22x10/Lin patient two and 29x10/L in patient three. On the 6th day of post tranfusion, the platelet count rose to 166x10/Lin patient one, 830x10/L in patient two and 136x10/L in patient three. The possible mechcnism behind such an unreported observation are discussed. (author)

  16. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Heerkens, Tammy; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl

    2007-01-01

    . The hypothesis of this study was that equine MSCs could be isolated from fresh whole equine cord blood. Results: Cord blood was collected from 7 foals immediately after foaling. The mononuclear cell fraction was isolated by Ficoll density centrifugation and cultured in a DMEM low glucose based media at 38.5o......Background: There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non......-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is low and the future isolation percentage of MSCs from cryopreserved equine cord blood is therefore expectedly low...

  17. The Radiation Effect on Peripheral Blood Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae June; Kwon, Hyoung Cheol; Kim, Jung Soo; Im, Sun Kyun; Choi, Ki Chul

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate radiation effect on the hematopoietic system, we analyzed 44 patients who were treated with conventionally fractionated radiation therapy (RT) at Chonbuk National University Hospital. According to the treatment sites, we classified them into three groups: group I as head and neck, group II as thorax, and group III as pelvis. White blood cell, lymphocyte, platelet and hemoglobin were checked before and during RT The results were as follow; 1. White blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte count were declined from the first week of RT to the third week, and then slightly recovered after the third or fourth week. There was prominent decrease in lymphocyte counts than WBC. 2. Platelet counts were declined until the second week of the RT, showed slight recovery at fourth week in all groups. Hemoglobin values were slightly decreased in the first week and then recovered the level of pretreatment value, gradually. 3. Lymphocyte count were declined significantly on group III(p<0.01), WBC and platelet counts were decreased on group II but statistically not significant

  18. Autologous blood cell therapies from pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengerke, Claudia; Daley, George Q.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The discovery of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) raised promises for a universal resource for cell based therapies in regenerative medicine. Recently, fast-paced progress has been made towards the generation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) amenable for clinical applications, culminating in reprogramming of adult somatic cells to autologous PSCs that can be indefinitely expanded in vitro. However, besides the efficient generation of bona fide, clinically safe PSCs (e.g. without the use of oncoproteins and gene transfer based on viruses inserting randomly into the genome), a major challenge in the field remains how to efficiently differentiate PSCs to specific lineages and how to select for cells that will function normally upon transplantation in adults. In this review, we analyse the in vitro differentiation potential of PSCs to the hematopoietic lineage discussing blood cell types that can be currently obtained, limitations in derivation of adult-type HSCs and prospects for clinical application of PSCs-derived blood cells. PMID:19910091

  19. Association of Polymorphisms of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism with Blood Pressure and Lipid Values in Mexican Hypertensive Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Estela Ríos-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension and dyslipidemia exhibit an important clinical relationship because an increase in blood lipids yields an increase in blood pressure (BP. We analyzed the associations of seven polymorphisms of genes involved in lipid metabolism (APOA5 rs3135506, APOB rs1042031, FABP2 rs1799883, LDLR rs5925, LIPC rs1800588, LPL rs328, and MTTP rs1800591 with blood pressure and lipid values in Mexican hypertensive (HT patients. A total of 160 HT patients and 160 normotensive individuals were included. Genotyping was performed through PCR-RFLP, PCR-AIRS, and sequencing. The results showed significant associations in the HT group and HT subgroups classified as normolipemic and hyperlipemic. The alleles FABP2 p.55T, LIPC −514T, and MTTP −493T were associated with elevated systolic BP. Five alleles were associated with lipids. LPL p.474X and FABP2 p.55T were associated with decreased total cholesterol and LDL-C, respectively; APOA5 p.19W with increased HDL-C; APOA5 p.19W and FABP2 p.55T with increased triglycerides; and APOB p.4181K and LDLR c.1959T with decreased triglycerides. The APOB p.E4181K polymorphism increases the risk for HT (OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.17–2.93; P=0.001 under the dominant model. These findings indicate that polymorphisms of lipid metabolism genes modify systolic BP and lipid levels and may be important in the development of essential hypertension and dyslipidemia in Mexican HT patients.

  20. Are variations in whole blood BDNF level associated with the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism in patients with first episode depression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Bukh, Jens Otto Drachmann; Bennike, Bente

    2013-01-01

    ). Symptomatology was rated using Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) and Becks Depression Inventory (BDI 21). No differences in whole blood BDNF was seen in relation to the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and no significant correlations between whole blood BDNF and HAMD-17 or BDI 21 scores were found...

  1. Algorithm for detection of overlapped red blood cells in microscopic images of blood smears

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Rondón, Miguel Fabián; Sanabria-Rosas, Laura Melissa; Bautista-Rozo, Lola Xiomara; Mendoza-Castellanos, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    The hemogram is one of the most requested medical tests as it presents details about the three cell series in the blood: red series, white series and platelet series. To make some diagnostics, the specialist must undertake the test manually, observing the blood cells under the microscope, which implies a great physical effort. In order to facilitate this work, different digital image processing techniques to detect and classify red blood cells have been proposed. However, a common problem is ...

  2. Candidate gene analysis using imputed genotypes: cell cycle single-nucleotide polymorphisms and ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goode, Ellen L; Fridley, Brooke L; Vierkant, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Polymorphisms in genes critical to cell cycle control are outstanding candidates for association with ovarian cancer risk; numerous genes have been interrogated by multiple research groups using differing tagging single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sets. To maximize information gleaned from......, and rs3212891; CDK2 rs2069391, rs2069414, and rs17528736; and CCNE1 rs3218036. These results exemplify the utility of imputation in candidate gene studies and lend evidence to a role of cell cycle genes in ovarian cancer etiology, suggest a reduced set of SNPs to target in additional cases and controls....

  3. Red Blood Cell.pm6

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    On the other hand, very rapid transfusion of cold blood causes hypothermia which ... Ideally, blood should be heated to reach the body at normal ... Introduction: The practice of warming blood for transfusion by immersion into a waterbath has been investigated. .... One unit of whole blood was obtained from each of 11 volun-.

  4. Interaction between VEGF receptor-2 gene polymorphisms and dietary patterns on blood glucose and lipid levels in Chinese Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Roseline Wai Kuan; Shidoji, Yoshihiro; Hon, Wei Min; Masaki, Motofumi

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of lifestyle-related chronic diseases is increasing and gene-diet interaction studies are limited among the Malaysian population. This study was conducted to evaluate the association and interaction effects of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2(VEGFR2) gene polymorphisms and dietary patterns on anthropometric and biochemical risk factors of chronic diseases in 179 Chinese Malaysian adults. Genotyping of rs1870377 and rs2071559 was performed by real-time PCR using TaqMan probes. Dietary patterns were constructed from the food frequency questionnaire using factor analysis. Anthropometric measurements: body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure and biomarkers: blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and lipids were obtained. Two dietary patterns: 'Balanced diet' and 'Meat, rice and noodles diet' (MRND) were extracted. MRND was associated with higher BMI, blood pressure, blood glucose and lipids, while T alleles in both rs1870377 and rs2071559 were associated with higher blood lipids (p Malaysian adults. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Aldosterone-Synthase Gene Polymorphism is Associated with Blood Pressure Levels and Left Ventricle Mass Index

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horký, K.; Jáchymová, M.; Heller, S.; Linhart, A.; Hlubocká, Z.; Umnerová, V.; Peleška, Jan; Pavlíková, Markéta; Jindra, A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 204, 1 suppl. (2004), s. 35 ISSN 0014-2565. [World Congress of Internal Medicine /27./. 26.09.2004-01.10.2004, Granada] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00B107 Keywords : aldosterone synthase (CYP11B) * genetic polymorphism * arterial hypertension * left ventricular hypertrophy Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  6. Preoperative blood transfusions for sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estcourt, Lise J; Fortin, Patricia M; Trivella, Marialena; Hopewell, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease is one of the commonest severe monogenic disorders in the world, due to the inheritance of two abnormal haemoglobin (beta globin) genes. Sickle cell disease can cause severe pain, significant end-organ damage, pulmonary complications, and premature death. Surgical interventions are more common in people with sickle cell disease, and occur at much younger ages than in the general population. Blood transfusions are frequently used prior to surgery and several regimens are used but there is no consensus over the best method or the necessity of transfusion in specific surgical cases. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2001. Objectives To determine whether there is evidence that preoperative blood transfusion in people with sickle cell disease undergoing elective or emergency surgery reduces mortality and perioperative or sickle cell-related serious adverse events. To compare the effectiveness of different transfusion regimens (aggressive or conservative) if preoperative transfusions are indicated in people with sickle cell disease. Search methods We searched for relevant trials in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1980), and ongoing trial databases; all searches current to 23 March 2016. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register: 18 January 2016. Selection criteria All randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing preoperative blood transfusion regimens to different regimens or no transfusion in people with sickle cell disease undergoing elective or emergency surgery. There was no restriction by outcomes examined, language or publication status. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and the risk of bias and extracted data. Main results Three trials with 990 participants were eligible for inclusion in the review. There were no

  7. Effects of polymorphisms in ovine and caprine prion protein alleles on cell-free conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiden Martin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In sheep polymorphisms of the prion gene (PRNP at the codons 136, 154 and 171 strongly influence the susceptibility to scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE infections. In goats a number of other gene polymorphisms were found which are suspected to trigger similar effects. However, no strong correlation between polymorphisms and TSE susceptibility in goats has yet been obtained from epidemiological studies and only a low number of experimental challenge data are available at present. We have therefore studied the potential impact of these polymorphisms in vitro by cell-free conversion assays using mouse scrapie strain Me7. Mouse scrapie brain derived PrPSc served as seeds and eleven recombinant single mutation variants of sheep and goat PrPC as conversion targets. With this approach it was possible to assign reduced conversion efficiencies to specific polymorphisms, which are associated to low frequency in scrapie-affected goats or found only in healthy animals. Moreover, we could demonstrate a dominant-negative inhibition of prion polymorphisms associated with high susceptibility by alleles linked to low susceptibility in vitro.

  8. A DEL phenotype attributed to RHD Exon 9 sequence deletion: slipped-strand mispairing and blood group polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Genghis H; Turner, Robyn M; McGowan, Eunike C; Schoeman, Elizna M; Scott, Stacy A; O'Brien, Helen; Millard, Glenda M; Roulis, Eileen V; Allen, Amanda J; Liew, Yew-Wah; Flower, Robert L; Hyland, Catherine A

    2018-03-01

    The RhD blood group antigen is extremely polymorphic and the DEL phenotype represents one such class of polymorphisms. The DEL phenotype prevalent in East Asian populations arises from a synonymous substitution defined as RHD*1227A. However, initially, based on genomic and cDNA studies, the genetic basis for a DEL phenotype in Taiwan was attributed to a deletion of RHD Exon 9 that was never verified at the genomic level by any other independent group. Here we investigate the genetic basis for a Caucasian donor with a DEL partial D phenotype and compare the genomic findings to those initial molecular studies. The 3'-region of the RHD gene was amplified by long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for massively parallel sequencing. Primers were designed to encompass a deletion, flanking Exon 9, by standard PCR for Sanger sequencing. Targeted sequencing of exons and flanking introns was also performed. Genomic DNA exhibited a 1012-bp deletion spanning from Intron 8, across Exon 9 into Intron 9. The deletion breakpoints occurred between two 25-bp repeat motifs flanking Exon 9 such that one repeat sequence remained. Deletion mutations bordered by repeat sequences are a hallmark of slipped-strand mispairing (SSM) event. We propose this genetic mechanism generated the germline deletion in the Caucasian donor. Extensive studies show that the RHD*1227A is the most prevalent DEL allele in East Asian populations and may have confounded the initial molecular studies. Review of the literature revealed that the SSM model explains some of the extreme polymorphisms observed in the clinically significant RhD blood group antigen. © 2017 AABB.

  9. Self-Sorting of White Blood Cells in a Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Robert H.; Gabel, Christopher V.; Chan, Shirley S.; Austin, Robert H.; Brody, James P.; James, D. W. Winkelman M.

    1997-09-01

    When a drop of human blood containing red and white blood cells is forced to move via hydrodynamic forces in a lattice of channels designed to mimic the capillary channels, the white cells self-fractionate into the different types of white cells. The pattern of white cells that forms is due to a combination of stretch-activated adhesion of cells with the walls, stochastic sticking probabilities, and heteroavoidance between granulocytes and lymphocytes.

  10. Shape-Shifted Red Blood Cells: A Novel Red Blood Cell Stage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico, Verónica; Puente-Marin, Sara; Nombela, Iván; Ciordia, Sergio; Mena, María Carmen; Carracedo, Begoña; Villena, Alberto; Mercado, Luis; Coll, Julio; Ortega-Villaizan, María Del Mar

    2018-04-19

    Primitive nucleated erythroid cells in the bloodstream have long been suggested to be more similar to nucleated red cells of fish, amphibians, and birds than the red cells of fetal and adult mammals. Rainbow trout Ficoll-purified red blood cells (RBCs) cultured in vitro undergo morphological changes, especially when exposed to stress, and enter a new cell stage that we have coined shape-shifted RBCs (shRBCs). We have characterized these shRBCs using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs, Wright⁻Giemsa staining, cell marker immunostaining, and transcriptomic and proteomic evaluation. shRBCs showed reduced density of the cytoplasm, hemoglobin loss, decondensed chromatin in the nucleus, and striking expression of the B lymphocyte molecular marker IgM. In addition, shRBCs shared some features of mammalian primitive pyrenocytes (extruded nucleus surrounded by a thin rim of cytoplasm and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure on cell surface). These shRBCs were transiently observed in heat-stressed rainbow trout bloodstream for three days. Functional network analysis of combined transcriptomic and proteomic studies resulted in the identification of proteins involved in pathways related to the regulation of cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation, cellular response to stress, and immune system process. In addition, shRBCs increased interleukin 8 (IL8), interleukin 1 β (IL1β), interferon ɣ (IFNɣ), and natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF) protein production in response to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). In conclusion, shRBCs may represent a novel cell stage that participates in roles related to immune response mediation, homeostasis, and the differentiation and development of blood cells.

  11. Shape-Shifted Red Blood Cells: A Novel Red Blood Cell Stage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico, Verónica; Puente-Marin, Sara; Ciordia, Sergio; Mena, María Carmen; Carracedo, Begoña; Mercado, Luis; Coll, Julio

    2018-01-01

    Primitive nucleated erythroid cells in the bloodstream have long been suggested to be more similar to nucleated red cells of fish, amphibians, and birds than the red cells of fetal and adult mammals. Rainbow trout Ficoll-purified red blood cells (RBCs) cultured in vitro undergo morphological changes, especially when exposed to stress, and enter a new cell stage that we have coined shape-shifted RBCs (shRBCs). We have characterized these shRBCs using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs, Wright–Giemsa staining, cell marker immunostaining, and transcriptomic and proteomic evaluation. shRBCs showed reduced density of the cytoplasm, hemoglobin loss, decondensed chromatin in the nucleus, and striking expression of the B lymphocyte molecular marker IgM. In addition, shRBCs shared some features of mammalian primitive pyrenocytes (extruded nucleus surrounded by a thin rim of cytoplasm and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure on cell surface). These shRBCs were transiently observed in heat-stressed rainbow trout bloodstream for three days. Functional network analysis of combined transcriptomic and proteomic studies resulted in the identification of proteins involved in pathways related to the regulation of cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation, cellular response to stress, and immune system process. In addition, shRBCs increased interleukin 8 (IL8), interleukin 1 β (IL1β), interferon ɣ (IFNɣ), and natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF) protein production in response to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). In conclusion, shRBCs may represent a novel cell stage that participates in roles related to immune response mediation, homeostasis, and the differentiation and development of blood cells. PMID:29671811

  12. Red blood cell antigen genotype analysis for 9087 Asian, Asian American, and Native American blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Meghan; Harris, Samantha; Haile, Askale; Johnsen, Jill; Teramura, Gayle; Nelson, Karen

    2015-10-01

    There has yet to be a comprehensive analysis of blood group antigen prevalence in Asian Americans and Native Americans. There may be ethnic differences in blood group frequencies that would result in clinically important mismatches through transfusion. Blood donors who self-identified as Asian or Native American were tested using a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA array (HEA BeadChip kit, Bioarray Solutions Ltd) that predicts expression of 38 human erythrocyte antigens (HEAs) and by serology for ABO, D, C, M, N, Jk(a) , and Jk(b) . The prevalence of blood group antigens was compared to published European prevalence. Discrepancies between SNP-predicted and serology-detected antigens were tallied. A total of 9087 blood donors were tested from nine Asian and Native American heritages. The predicted prevalence of selected antigens in the RHCE, JK, FY, MNS, LU, CO, and DO blood group systems were variable between Asian populations, but overall not significantly different than Europeans. Compared to European frequencies, Kell blood group allele frequencies were significantly different in the Chinese, Native American, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, South Asian, and Southeast Asian heritage blood donors; Diego antigens Di(a) and Di(b) were different in donors of Native American and South Asian ancestries (p Asian and Native Americans donors. Several ethnic groups exhibited differences in HEA frequencies compared to Europeans. Genotype-serotype discrepancies were detected in all systems studied. © 2015 AABB.

  13. Interethnic diversity of the CD209 (rs4804803 gene promoter polymorphism in African but not American sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenelle A. Noble

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Elucidating the genomic diversity of CD209 gene promoter polymorphism could assist in clarifying disease pathophysiology as well as contribution to co-morbidities. CD209 gene promoter polymorphism has been shown to be associated with susceptibility to infection. We hypothesize that CD209 mutant variants occur at a higher frequency among Africans and in sickle cell disease. We analyzed the frequency of the CD209 gene (rs4804803 in healthy control and sickle cell disease (SCD populations and determined association with disease. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples collected from 145 SCD and 231 control Africans (from Mali, 331 SCD and 379 control African Americans and 159 Caucasians. Comparative analysis among and between groups was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. Per ethnic diversification, we found significant disparity in genotypic (23.4% versus 16.9% versus 3.2% and allelic frequencies (48.7% versus 42.1% versus 19.8% of the homozygote mutant variant of the CD209 (snp 309A/G gene promoter between Africans, African Americans and Caucasians respectively. Comparative evaluation between disease and control groups reveal a significant difference in genotypic (10.4% versus 23.4%; p = 0.002 and allelic frequencies (39.7% versus 48.7%; p = 0.02 of the homozygote mutant variant in African SCD and healthy controls respectively, an observation that is completely absent among Americans. Comparing disease groups, we found no difference in the genotypic (p = 0.19 or allelic (p = 0.72 frequencies of CD209 homozygote mutant variant between Africans and Americans with sickle cell disease. The higher frequency of CD209 homozygote mutant variants in the African control group reveals a potential impairment of the capacity to mount an immune response to infectious diseases, and possibly delineate susceptibility to or severity of infectious co-morbidities within and between groups.

  14. PAI-1 expression and its regulation by promoter 4G/5G polymorphism in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Han; Park, Hong Seok; Kim, Young-Sik

    2011-10-01

    To characterise patients with high plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression as oral PAI-1 antagonists are currently in preclinical trials, and to determine whether the PAI-1 promoter 4G/5G polymorphism regulates PAI-1 expression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC). PAI-1 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 69 CCRCC specimens. In addition, the promoter 4G/5G polymorphism was investigated by both allele-specific PCR and direct DNA sequencing. PAI-1 was overexpressed in 25/69 (36.2%) patients with CCRCC. PAI-1 staining was intense in tumour cells with a high Fuhrman nuclear grade and in spindle-shaped tumour cells. PAI-1 expression was significantly associated with older age at diagnosis (p=0.027), high nuclear grade (p5G and 31.9% (22/69) 5G/5G. The homozygous 4G/4G or 5G/5G group showed a tendency for a high nuclear grade (p=0.05) but the 4G/5G polymorphism was not related to other prognostic parameters. PAI-1 expression was poorly correlated with its promoter 4G/5G polymorphism (Spearman ρ=0.088). CCRCC with high PAI-1 expression is characterised by older age, high nuclear grade, advanced stage, distant metastasis and/or shortened disease-free survival. PAI-1 expression is not affected by the promoter 4G/5G polymorphism.

  15. Cerebral 5-HT2A receptor and serotonin transporter binding in humans are not affected by the val66met BDNF polymorphism status or blood BDNF levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders Bue; Trajkovska, Viktorija; Erritzoe, David

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have proposed an interrelation between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met polymorphism and the serotonin system. In this study, we investigated whether the BDNF val66met polymorphism or blood BDNF levels are associated with cerebral 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT(2A......)) receptor or serotonin transporter (SERT) binding in healthy subjects. No statistically significant differences in 5-HT(2A) receptor or SERT binding were found between the val/val and met carriers, nor were blood BDNF values associated with SERT binding or 5-HT(2A) receptor binding. In conclusion, val66met...... BDNF polymorphism status is not associated with changes in the serotonergic system. Moreover, BDNF levels in blood do not correlate with either 5-HT(2A) or SERT binding....

  16. Deep coverage mouse red blood cell proteome: a first comparison with the human red blood cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasini, Erica M; Kirkegaard, Morten; Salerno, Doris

    2008-01-01

    Mice have close genetic/physiological relationships to humans, breed rapidly, and can be genetically modified, making them the most used mammal in biomedical research. Because the red blood cell (RBC) is the sole gas transporter in vertebrates, diseases of the RBC are frequently severe; much...... proteome have been confirmed here. This comparison sheds light on several open issues in RBC biology and provides a departure point for more comprehensive understanding of RBC function....

  17. Identification and red blood cell automated counting from blood smear images using computer-aided system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Vasundhara; Kumar, Preetham

    2018-03-01

    Red blood cell count plays a vital role in identifying the overall health of the patient. Hospitals use the hemocytometer to count the blood cells. Conventional method of placing the smear under microscope and counting the cells manually lead to erroneous results, and medical laboratory technicians are put under stress. A computer-aided system will help to attain precise results in less amount of time. This research work proposes an image-processing technique for counting the number of red blood cells. It aims to examine and process the blood smear image, in order to support the counting of red blood cells and identify the number of normal and abnormal cells in the image automatically. K-medoids algorithm which is robust to external noise is used to extract the WBCs from the image. Granulometric analysis is used to separate the red blood cells from the white blood cells. The red blood cells obtained are counted using the labeling algorithm and circular Hough transform. The radius range for the circle-drawing algorithm is estimated by computing the distance of the pixels from the boundary which automates the entire algorithm. A comparison is done between the counts obtained using the labeling algorithm and circular Hough transform. Results of the work showed that circular Hough transform was more accurate in counting the red blood cells than the labeling algorithm as it was successful in identifying even the overlapping cells. The work also intends to compare the results of cell count done using the proposed methodology and manual approach. The work is designed to address all the drawbacks of the previous research work. The research work can be extended to extract various texture and shape features of abnormal cells identified so that diseases like anemia of inflammation and chronic disease can be detected at the earliest.

  18. Red blood cell transfusion in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsler, Stefan; Ketter, Ralf; Eichler, Hermann; Schwerdtfeger, Karsten; Steudel, Wolf-Ingo; Oertel, Joachim

    2012-07-01

    The necessity of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in neurosurgical procedures is under debate. Although detailed recommendations exist for many other surgical disciplines, there are very limited data on the probability of transfusions during neurosurgical procedures. Three-thousand and twenty-six consecutive adult patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures at Saarland University Hospital from December 2006 to June 2008 were retrospectively analyzed for administration of RBCs. The patients were grouped into 11 main diagnostic categories for analysis. The transfusion probability and cross-match to transfusion ratio (C/T ratio) were calculated. Overall, the transfusion probability for neurosurgical procedures was 1.7 % (52/3,026). The probability was 6.5 % for acute subdural hematoma (7/108), 6.2 % for spinal tumors (5/80), 4.6 % for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH, 4/98), 2.8 % for abscess (3/108), 2.4 % for traumatic brain injury (4/162), 2.3 % for cerebral ischemia (1/44), 1.9 % for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) /aneurysms (4/206), 1.4 % for brain tumors (10/718), 0.8 % for hydrocephalus (2/196), 0.4 % for degenerative diseases of the spine (5/1290), including 3.6 % (3/82) for posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and 0 % for epidural hematoma (0/15). The transfusion probabilities for clipping and coiling of SAH were 2.9 % (2/68) and 1.7 % (2/120) respectively. The probability of blood transfusion during neurosurgical procedures is well below the 10 % level which is generally defined as the limit for preoperative appropriation of RBCs. Patients with spinal tumors, acute subdural hematomas or ICH, i.e., patients undergoing large decompressive procedures of bone or soft tissue, had a higher probability of transfusion.

  19. Single nucleotide polymorphisms as susceptibility, prognostic, and therapeutic markers of nonsmall cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zienolddiny S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Shanbeh Zienolddiny, Vidar SkaugSection for Toxicology and Biological Work Environment, National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, NorwayAbstract: Lung cancer is a major public health problem throughout the world. Among the most frequent cancer types (prostate, breast, colorectal, stomach, lung, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Among the two major subtypes of small cell lung cancer and nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC, 85% of tumors belong to the NSCLC histological types. Small cell lung cancer is associated with the shortest survival time. Although tobacco smoking has been recognized as the major risk factor for lung cancer, there is a great interindividual and interethnic difference in risk of developing lung cancer given exposure to similar environmental and lifestyle factors. This may indicate that in addition to chemical and environmental factors, genetic variations in the genome may contribute to risk modification. A common type of genetic variation in the genome, known as single nucleotide polymorphism, has been found to be associated with susceptibility to lung cancer. Interestingly, many of these polymorphisms are found in the genes that regulate major pathways of carcinogen metabolism (cytochrome P450 genes, detoxification (glutathione S-transferases, adduct removal (DNA repair genes, cell growth/apoptosis (TP53/MDM2, the immune system (cytokines/chemokines, and membrane receptors (nicotinic acetylcholine and dopaminergic receptors. Some of these polymorphisms have been shown to alter the level of mRNA, and protein structure and function. In addition to being susceptibility markers, several of these polymorphisms are emerging to be important for response to chemotherapy/radiotherapy and survival of patients. Therefore, it is hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms will be valuable genetic markers in individual-based prognosis and therapy in future. Here we will review some of the most

  20. Dietary calcium intake and Renin Angiotensin System polymorphisms alter the blood pressure response to aerobic exercise: a randomized control design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsongalis Gregory J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary calcium intake and the renin angiotensin system (RAS regulate blood pressure (BP by modulating calcium homeostasis. Despite similar BP regulatory effects, the influence of dietary calcium intake alone and combined with RAS polymorphisms on the BP response following acute aerobic exercise (i.e., postexercise hypotension has not been studied. Thus, we examined the effect of dietary calcium intake and selected RAS polymorphisms on postexercise hypotension. Methods Subjects were men (n = 50, 43.8 ± 1.3 yr with high BP (145.3 ± 1.5/85.9 ± 1.1 mm Hg. They completed three experiments: non-exercise control and two cycle bouts at 40% and 60% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max. Subjects provided 3 d food records on five protocol-specific occasions. Dietary calcium intake was averaged and categorized as low (1R A/C were analyzed with molecular methods. Genotypes were reduced from three to two: ACE II/ID and ACE DD; or AT1R AA and AT1R CC/AC. Repeated measure ANCOVA tested if BP differed among experiments, dietary calcium intake level and RAS polymorphisms. Results Systolic BP (SBP decreased 6 mm Hg after 40% and 60% VO2max compared to non-exercise control for 10 h with LowCa (p 2max versus non-exercise control for 10 h among ACE II/ID (6 mm Hg and AT1R AA (8 mm Hg; and by 8 mm Hg after 40% VO2max among ACE DD and AT1R CC/CA (p 2max compared to non-exercise control for 10 h (p 2max (p ≥ 0.05. Conclusion SBP decreased after exercise compared to non-exercise control among men with low but not high dietary calcium intake. Dietary calcium intake interacted with the ACE I/D and AT1R A/C polymorphisms to further modulate postexercise hypotension. Interactions among dietary calcium intake, exercise intensity and RAS polymorphisms account for some of the variability in the BP response to exercise.

  1. Lupus-related single nucleotide polymorphisms and risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernatsky, Sasha; Velásquez García, Héctor A; Spinelli, John; Gaffney, Patrick; Smedby, Karin E; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Wang, Sophia S.; Adami, Hans-Olov; Albanes, Demetrius; Angelucci, Emanuele; Ansell, Stephen M.; Asmann, Yan W.; Becker, Nikolaus; Benavente, Yolanda; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Birmann, Brenda M.; Boeing, Heiner; Boffetta, Paolo; Bracci, Paige M.; Brennan, Paul; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R.; Cerhan, James R.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Clavel, Jacqueline; Conde, Lucia; Cotenbader, Karen H; Cox, David G; Cozen, Wendy; Crouch, Simon; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; De Sanjose, Silvia; Di Lollo, Simonetta; Diver, W. Ryan; Dogan, Ahmet; Foretova, Lenka; Ghesquières, Hervé; Giles, Graham G.; Glimelius, Bengt; Habermann, Thomas M.; Haioun, Corinne; Hartge, Patricia; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Holford, Theodore R.; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Kaaks, Rudolph; Kane, Eleanor; Kelly, Rachel S.; Klein, Robert J.; Kraft, Peter; Kricker, Anne; Lan, Qing; Lawrence, Charles; Liebow, Mark; Lightfoot, Tracy; Link, Brian K.; Maynadie, Marc; McKay, James; Melbye, Mads; Molina, Thierry Jo; Monnereau, Alain; Morton, Lindsay M.; Nieters, Alexandra; North, Kari E.; Novak, Anne J.; Offit, Kenneth; Purdue, Mark P.; Rais, Marco; Riby, Jacques; Roman, Eve; Rothman, Nathaniel; Salles, Gilles; Severi, Gianluca; Severson, Richard K.; Skibola, Christine F.; Slager, Susan L.; Smith, Alex; Smith, Martyn T.; Southey, Melissa C.; Staines, Anthony; Teras, Lauren R.; Thompson, Carrie A.; Tilly, Hervé; Tinker, Lesley F.; Tjonneland, Anne; Turner, Jenny; Vajdic, Claire M.; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Vijai, Joseph; Vineis, Paolo; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wang, Zhaoming; Weinstein, Stephanie; Witzig, Thomas E.; Zelenetz, Andrew; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zhang, Yawei; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zucca, Mariagrazia; Clarke, Ann E

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Determinants of the increased risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in SLE are unclear. Using data from a recent lymphoma genome-wide association study (GWAS), we assessed whether certain lupus-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were also associated with DLBCL.

  2. Cost effectiveness of cord blood versus bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bart

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Thomas BartSwiss Blood Stem Cells, Bern, SwitzerlandAbstract: Umbilical cord blood (CB has become, since its first successful use more than two decades ago, an increasingly important source of blood stem cells. In this light, an overview of current usage of CB in the field of unrelated hematopoietic blood stem cell transplantation (HSCT is given. The three main sources of hematopoietic stem cells: bone marrow (BM, peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC, and cord blood (CB are compared as regards their current quantitative usage in HSCT. A cost analysis of the named three hematopoietic blood stem cell (HSC sources, taking into account various factors, is undertaken. The health economical comparison shows significant differences between CB on the one side, and BM and PBSC on the other. The consequences for the public health side and propositions for a possible health care policy, especially regarding future resource allocation towards the different choices for HSCT products, are discussed. An outlook on the possible future usage of BM, PBSC, and CB and its implications on health systems, donor registries, and CB banks is given.Keywords: health economy, cord blood, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

  3. Bystander apoptosis in human cells mediated by irradiated blood plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinnikov, Volodymyr, E-mail: vlad.vinnikov@mail.ru [Grigoriev Institute for Medical Radiology of the National Academy of Medical Science of Ukraine (Ukraine); Lloyd, David; Finnon, Paul [Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards of the Health Protection Agency of the United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-01

    Following exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation, due to an accident or during radiotherapy, bystander signalling poses a potential hazard to unirradiated cells and tissues. This process can be mediated by factors circulating in blood plasma. Thus, we assessed the ability of plasma taken from in vitro irradiated human blood to produce a direct cytotoxic effect, by inducing apoptosis in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM), which mainly comprised G{sub 0}-stage lymphocytes. Plasma was collected from healthy donors' blood irradiated in vitro to 0-40 Gy acute {gamma}-rays. Reporter PBM were separated from unirradiated blood with Histopaque and held in medium with the test plasma for 24 h at 37 Degree-Sign C. Additionally, plasma from in vitro irradiated and unirradiated blood was tested against PBM collected from blood given 4 Gy. Apoptosis in reporter PBM was measured by the Annexin V test using flow cytometry. Plasma collected from unirradiated and irradiated blood did not produce any apoptotic response above the control level in unirradiated reporter PBM. Surprisingly, plasma from irradiated blood caused a dose-dependent reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter PBM. The yields of radiation-induced cell death in irradiated reporter PBM (after subtracting the respective values in unirradiated reporter PBM) were 22.2 {+-} 1.8% in plasma-free cultures, 21.6 {+-} 1.1% in cultures treated with plasma from unirradiated blood, 20.2 {+-} 1.4% in cultures with plasma from blood given 2-4 Gy and 16.7 {+-} 3.2% in cultures with plasma from blood given 6-10 Gy. These results suggested that irradiated blood plasma did not cause a radiation-induced bystander cell-killing effect. Instead, a reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter cells cultured with irradiated blood plasma has implications concerning oncogenic risk from mutated cells surviving after high dose in vivo irradiation (e.g. radiotherapy) and requires further study.

  4. Bystander apoptosis in human cells mediated by irradiated blood plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinnikov, Volodymyr; Lloyd, David; Finnon, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Following exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation, due to an accident or during radiotherapy, bystander signalling poses a potential hazard to unirradiated cells and tissues. This process can be mediated by factors circulating in blood plasma. Thus, we assessed the ability of plasma taken from in vitro irradiated human blood to produce a direct cytotoxic effect, by inducing apoptosis in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM), which mainly comprised G 0 -stage lymphocytes. Plasma was collected from healthy donors’ blood irradiated in vitro to 0–40 Gy acute γ-rays. Reporter PBM were separated from unirradiated blood with Histopaque and held in medium with the test plasma for 24 h at 37 °C. Additionally, plasma from in vitro irradiated and unirradiated blood was tested against PBM collected from blood given 4 Gy. Apoptosis in reporter PBM was measured by the Annexin V test using flow cytometry. Plasma collected from unirradiated and irradiated blood did not produce any apoptotic response above the control level in unirradiated reporter PBM. Surprisingly, plasma from irradiated blood caused a dose-dependent reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter PBM. The yields of radiation-induced cell death in irradiated reporter PBM (after subtracting the respective values in unirradiated reporter PBM) were 22.2 ± 1.8% in plasma-free cultures, 21.6 ± 1.1% in cultures treated with plasma from unirradiated blood, 20.2 ± 1.4% in cultures with plasma from blood given 2–4 Gy and 16.7 ± 3.2% in cultures with plasma from blood given 6–10 Gy. These results suggested that irradiated blood plasma did not cause a radiation-induced bystander cell-killing effect. Instead, a reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter cells cultured with irradiated blood plasma has implications concerning oncogenic risk from mutated cells surviving after high dose in vivo irradiation (e.g. radiotherapy) and requires further study.

  5. A microfluidic chip for direct and rapid trapping of white blood cells from whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingdong; Chen, Di; Yuan, Tao; Xie, Yao; Chen, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Blood analysis plays a major role in medical and science applications and white blood cells (WBCs) are an important target of analysis. We proposed an integrated microfluidic chip for direct and rapid trapping WBCs from whole blood. The microfluidic chip consists of two basic functional units: a winding channel to mix and arrays of two-layer trapping structures to trap WBCs. Red blood cells (RBCs) were eliminated through moving the winding channel and then WBCs were trapped by the arrays of trapping structures. We fabricated the PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) chip using soft lithography and determined the critical flow velocities of tartrazine and brilliant blue water mixing and whole blood and red blood cell lysis buffer mixing in the winding channel. They are 0.25 μl/min and 0.05 μl/min, respectively. The critical flow velocity of the whole blood and red blood cell lysis buffer is lower due to larger volume of the RBCs and higher kinematic viscosity of the whole blood. The time taken for complete lysis of whole blood was about 85 s under the flow velocity 0.05 μl/min. The RBCs were lysed completely by mixing and the WBCs were trapped by the trapping structures. The chip trapped about 2.0 × 103 from 3.3 × 103 WBCs. PMID:24404026

  6. Multifactorial aspects of antibody-mediated blood cell destruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapur, R.

    2014-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focuses on diseases of antibody-mediated blood cell destruction via FcγRs on phagocytes, in particular regarding platelets in fetal or neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) and red blood cells (RBC) in hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN).

  7. Magnetophoretic separation of blood cells at the microscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlani, E P

    2007-01-01

    We present a method and model for the direct and continuous separation of red and white blood cells in plasma. The method is implemented at the microscale using a microfluidic system that consists of an array of integrated soft-magnetic elements embedded adjacent to a microfluidic channel. The microsystem is passive and is activated via application of a bias field that magnetizes the elements. Once magnetized, the elements produce a nonuniform magnetic field distribution in the microchannel, which gives rise to a force on blood cells as they pass through the microsystem. In whole blood, white blood cells behave as diamagnetic microparticles while red blood cells exhibit diamagnetic or paramagnetic behaviour depending on the oxygenation of their haemoglobin. We develop a mathematical model for predicting the motion of blood cells in the microsystem that takes into account the dominant magnetic, fluidic and buoyant forces on the cells. We use the model to study red/white blood cell transport, and our analysis indicates that the microsystem is capable of rapid and efficient red/white blood cell separation

  8. Stem cells of umbilical blood cord – therapeutic use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Bielec

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For many years, the transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells has been used to treat some diseases of the hematopoietic system. For a very long time, only bone marrow was used as a source of hematopoietic stem cells for this method of treatment. However, to comply with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, an antigenically compatible donor is necessary. Transplantations from unrelated donors are associated with increased risk of a graft-versus-host reaction, transplant rejection and, consequently, increased mortality. Many years ago, it was found that umbilical cord blood as well as bone marrow and peripheral blood contains hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal cells able to differentiate into different cell types and that the umbilical cord blood can be a source of stem cells for transplantation. Following this discovery, numerous attempts were made for its potential use in the treatment of hematologic diseases, metabolic diseases as well as regenerative medicine. Umbilical cord blood stem cells exhibit intermediate characteristics between embryonic and adult stem cells. They are distinguished from the latter by telomere length, telomerase activity, and lower risk of accumulation of DNA mutations or chromosomal aberrations. The only transplantation limitation appears to be the amount of cord blood collected, which on average is sufficient for transplantation in a 40-50 kg child. Collection of cord blood is a simple, short-lasting treatment, not causing any danger for a newborn or the mother. Umbilical cord blood is obtained during labor, and then frozen and stored at cord blood banks all over the world.

  9. 21 CFR 864.8200 - Blood cell diluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood cell diluent. 864.8200 Section 864.8200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8200 Blood cell diluent. (a...

  10. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864.7100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7100 Red blood cell...

  11. Effect of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technology in Blood Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focosi, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Summary Population aging has imposed cost-effective alternatives to blood donations. Artificial blood is still at the preliminary stages of development, and the need for viable cells seems unsurmountable. Because large numbers of viable cells must be promptly available for clinical use, stem cell technologies, expansion, and banking represent ideal tools to ensure a regular supply. Provided key donors can be identified, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology could pave the way to a new era in transfusion medicine, just as it is already doing in many other fields of medicine. The present review summarizes the current state of research on iPSC technology in the field of blood banking, highlighting hurdles, and promises. Significance The aging population in Western countries is causing a progressive reduction of blood donors and a constant increase of blood recipients. Because blood is the main therapeutic option to treat acute hemorrhage, cost-effective alternatives to blood donations are being actively investigated. The enormous replication capability of induced pluripotent stem cells and their promising results in many other fields of medicine could be an apt solution to produce the large numbers of viable cells required in transfusion and usher in a new era in transfusion medicine. The present report describes the potentiality, technological hurdles, and promises of induced pluripotent stem cells to generate red blood cells by redifferentiation. PMID:26819256

  12. A photonic crystal hydrogel suspension array for the capture of blood cells from whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Cai, Yunlang; Shang, Luoran; Wang, Huan; Cheng, Yao; Rong, Fei; Gu, Zhongze; Zhao, Yuanjin

    2016-02-01

    Diagnosing hematological disorders based on the separation and detection of cells in the patient's blood is a significant challenge. We have developed a novel barcode particle-based suspension array that can simultaneously capture and detect multiple types of blood cells. The barcode particles are polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel inverse opal microcarriers with characteristic reflection peak codes that remain stable during cell capture on their surfaces. The hydrophilic PAAm hydrogel scaffolds of the barcode particles can entrap various plasma proteins to capture different cells in the blood, with little damage to captured cells.Diagnosing hematological disorders based on the separation and detection of cells in the patient's blood is a significant challenge. We have developed a novel barcode particle-based suspension array that can simultaneously capture and detect multiple types of blood cells. The barcode particles are polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel inverse opal microcarriers with characteristic reflection peak codes that remain stable during cell capture on their surfaces. The hydrophilic PAAm hydrogel scaffolds of the barcode particles can entrap various plasma proteins to capture different cells in the blood, with little damage to captured cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06368j

  13. Margination of Stiffened Red Blood Cells Regulated By Vessel Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Li, Donghai; Li, Yongjian; Wan, Jiandi; Li, Jiang; Chen, Haosheng

    2017-11-10

    Margination of stiffened red blood cells has been implicated in many vascular diseases. Here, we report the margination of stiffened RBCs in vivo, and reveal the crucial role of the vessel geometry in the margination by calculations when the blood is seen as viscoelastic fluid. The vessel-geometry-regulated margination is then confirmed by in vitro experiments in microfluidic devices, and it establishes new insights to cell sorting technology and artificial blood vessel fabrication.

  14. Levels and function of regulatory T cells in patients with polymorphic light eruption: relation to photohardening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweintzger, N; Gruber-Wackernagel, A; Reginato, E; Bambach, I; Quehenberger, F; Byrne, S N; Wolf, P

    2015-08-01

    We hypothesized that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in the immunological abnormalities seen in patients with polymorphic light eruption (PLE). To investigate the number and suppressive function of peripheral Tregs in patients with PLE compared with healthy controls. Blood sampling was done in 30 patients with PLE [seeking or not seeking 311-nm ultraviolet (UV)B photohardening] as well as 19 healthy controls at two time points: TP1, March to June (before phototherapy); and TP2, May to August (after phototherapy). We compared the number of CD4(+) CD25(high) CD127(-) FoxP3(+) Tregs by flow cytometry and their function by assessing FoxP3 mRNA levels and effector T cell/Treg suppression assays. Tregs isolated from healthy controls significantly suppressed the proliferation of effector T cells at TP1 by 68% (P = 0·0156). In contrast, Tregs from patients with PLE entirely lacked the capacity to suppress effector T-cell proliferation at that time point. The medical photohardening seen in 23 patients with PLE resulted in a significant increase in the median percentage of circulating Tregs [both as a proportion of all lymphocytes; 65 6% increase (P = 0·0049), and as a proportion of CD4(+) T cells; 32.5% increase (P = 0·0049)]. This was accompanied by an increase in the expression of FoxP3 mRNA (P = 0·0083) and relative immunosuppressive function of Tregs (P = 0·083) comparing the two time points in representative subsets of patients with healthy controls tested. Seven patients with PLE not receiving 311-nm UVB also exhibited an increase in the number of Tregs but this was not statistically significant. No significant differences in Treg numbers were observed in healthy subjects between the two time points. An impaired Treg function is likely to play a role in PLE pathogenesis. A UV-induced increase in the number of Tregs (either naturally or therapeutically) may be a compensatory mechanism by which the immune system counteracts the susceptibility to

  15. The counting of native blood cells by digital microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbin, S. O.; Doubrovski, V. A.; Zabenkov, I. V.; Tsareva, O. E.

    2017-03-01

    An algorithm for photographic images processing of blood samples in its native state was developed to determine the concentration of erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets without individual separate preparation of cells' samples. Special "photo templates" were suggested to use in order to identify red blood cells. The effect of "highlighting" of leukocytes, which was found by authors, was used to increase the accuracy of this type of cells counting. Finally to raise the resolution of platelets from leukocytes the areas of their photo images were used, but not their sizes. It is shown that the accuracy of cells counting for native blood samples may be comparable with the accuracy of similar studies for smears. At the same time the proposed native blood analysis simplifies greatly the procedure of sample preparation in comparison to smear, permits to move from the detection of blood cells ratio to the determination of their concentrations in the sample.

  16. Specific features of red blood cell morphology in hemolytic disease neonates undergoing intrauterine intravascular blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ivanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the characteristics of red blood cell morphology in infants who have undergone intrauterine intravascular blood transfusion for hemolytic disease of the fetus. The infants are shown to have a reduction in the mean volume of red blood cells and in their mean level of hemoglobin, a decrease in the fraction of fetal hemoglobin and an increase in oxygen tension at half saturation. The above morphological characteristics of red blood cells remain decreased during the neonatal period after exchange transfusion or others, as clinically indicated, which seems to suggest that the compensatory-adaptive mechanisms to regulate hematopoiesis are exhausted and a donor’s red blood cells continue to be predominant.

  17. Reduced folate carrier polymorphism determines methotrexate uptake by B cells and CD4+ T cellsTumor necrosis factor-alpha binding capacity and anti-infliximab antibodies measured by fluid-phase radioimmunoassays as predictors of clinical efficacy of infliximab in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baslund, B.; Gregers, J.; Nielsen, Claus Henrik

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if polymorphism 80G --> A in the Reduced Folate Carrier (RFC) affects uptake of MTX in B- and CD4+ T-cells. METHODS: Mononuclear cells were isolated from peripheral blood of healthy persons. Real-time PCR was used to detect the RFC80 variants. FITC-labelled MTX was added to ...

  18. Comparison of L-selectin blood level and gene polymorphism in tuberculosis patients with healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eini, Peyman; Shirvani, Maria; Hajilooi, Mehrdad; Esna-Ashari, Farzaneh

    2018-02-12

    The inflammatory response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli influences tuberculosis (TB) progression. In this study, we aimed to identify the Phe206Leu polymorphism and serum L-selectin level in TB patients, compared to healthy individuals. Ninety patients with a diagnosis of TB and 90 healthy controls were selected in this study. The serum L-selectin level was determined, using ELISA. L-selectin polymorphism was also evaluated using PCR. For data analysis, SPSS was used at a significance level of 0.05. According to the findings, the mean±SD age of the participants was 57.5 ± 18.4 and 56.5 ± 17.5 years in the TB and healthy groups, respectively. The TB group showed a significantly higher serum L-selectin level (1721.1 ± 330.9) versus the healthy controls (1624 ± 279). The L-selectin Phe allele frequencies were higher than the Leu allele frequencies in the main population, whereas the patients and controls were not significantly different. Eight (0.04%) subjects had Leu/Leu genotypes, 84 (46.6%) carried Phe/Leu genotypes, and 88 (48.8%) had Phe/Phe genotypes. Our results showed that the groups were not significantly different regarding L-selectin genotypes. TB patients had a significantly higher serum L-selectin level, compared to the controls. Based on the findings, the incidence of TB and L-selectin polymorphism in the Phe206Leu gene had no significant association. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Prevalence of IFNL3 gene polymorphism among blood donors and its relation to genomic profile of ancestry in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Silvia Renata Cornelio Parolin; Gazito, Diana; Pott-Junior, Henrique; Latini, Flavia Roche Moreira; Castelo, Adauto

    The recent development of interferon-free regimens based on direct-acting antivirals for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection has benefited many but not all patients. Some patients still experience treatment failure, possibly attributed to unknown host and viral factors, such as IFNL3 gene polymorphism. The present study assessed the prevalence of rs12979860-CC, rs12979860-CT, and rs12979860-TT genotypes of the IFNL3 gene, and its relationship with ancestry informative markers in 949 adult Brazilian healthy blood donors. Race was analyzed using ancestry informative markers as a surrogate for ancestry. IFNL3 gene was genotyped using the ABI TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyping assays. The overall frequency of rs12979860-CC genotype was 36.9%. The contribution of African ancestry was significantly higher among donors from the northeast region in relation to southeast donors, whereas the influence of European ancestry was significantly higher in southeast donors. Donors with rs12979860-CC and rs12979860-CT genotypes had similar ancestry background. The contribution of African ancestry was higher among rs12979860-TT genotype donors in comparison to both rs12979860-CC and rs12979860-CT genotypes. The prevalence of rs12979860-CC genotype is similar to that found in the US, despite the Brazilian ancestry informative markers admixture. However, in terms of ancestry, rs12979860-CT genotype was much closer to rs12979860-CC individuals than to rs12979860-TT. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. PDK2 and ABCG2 genes polymorphisms are correlated with blood glucose levels and uric acid in Tibetan gout patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Y C; Jin, T B; Sun, X D; Geng, T T; Zhang, M X; Wang, L; Feng, T; Kang, L L; Chen, C

    2016-02-11

    Previous studies have shown that the PDK2 and ABCG2 genes play important roles in many aspects of gout development in European populations. However, a detailed genotype-phenotype analysis was not performed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential association between variants in these two genes and metabolism-related quantitative phenotypes relevant to gout in a Chinese Tibetan population. In total, 316 Chinese Tibetan gout patients were recruited from rheumatology outpatient clinics and 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms in PDK2 and ABCG2 were genotyped, which were possible etiologic variants as identified in the HapMap Chinese Han Beijing population. A significant difference in blood glucose levels was detected between different genotypes of rs2728109 (P = 0.005) in the PDK2 gene. We also detected a significant difference in the mean serum uric levels between different genotypes of rs3114018 (P = 0.004) in the ABCG2 gene. All P values remained significant after Bonferroni's correction for multiple testing. Our data demonstrate potential roles for PDK2 and ABCG2 polymorphisms in the metabolic phenotypes of Tibetan gout patients, which may provide new insights into the etiology of gout. Further studies are required to confirm these findings.

  1. Fresenius AS.TEC204 blood cell separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, Mikiya

    2003-02-01

    Fresenius AS.TEC204 is a third-generation blood cell separator that incorporates the continuous centrifugal separation method and automatic control of the cell separation process. Continuous centrifugation separates cell components according to their specific gravity, and different cell components are either harvested or eliminated as needed. The interface between the red blood cell and plasma is optically detected, and the Interface Control (IFC) cooperates with different pumps, monitors and detectors to harvest required components automatically. The system is composed of three major sections; the Front Panel Unit; the Pump Unit, and the Centrifuge Unit. This unit can be used for a wide variety of clinical applications including collection of platelets, peripheral blood stem cells, bone marrow stem cells, granulocytes, mononuclear cells, and exchange of plasma or red cells, and for plasma treatment.

  2. A positive association between the human tissue kallikerin gene A2233C polymorphism and blood pressure response to benazepril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhe; Pan, Liying; Fei, Jiali; Ma, Zhangqing; Hong, Zongyuan

    2017-01-01

    It is generally believed that essential hypertension is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors, as well as their interactions. Tissue kallikrein encoded by the tissue kallikrein gene (KLK1) is a key serine proteinase of kallikrein-kinin system, which is capable of generating potent vasactive peptides, kinins, by selective cleavage of the kininogen substrate. It was reported that the A2233 → C polymorphism in KLK1 gene is associated with essential hypertension. The aim of this study was to examine whether the molecular variations of KLK1 play role in determining the therapeutic response to benazepril, an ACE inhibitor. A total of 331 hypertensive individuals were recruited and treated with benazepril for 15 days. A variant impact of KLK1 A2233C was revealed. Chi-square analysis showed that the hypertensive subjects with the mutation genotype (AC + CC) had a higher proportion in systolic blood pressure (SBP, 88.1% vs. 79.0%, χ 2 = 4.141, p = 0.042) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, 91.1% vs. 79.2%, χ 2 = 9.336, p = 0.002), respectively, to benazepril medication in good responders than in poor responders. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the hypertensive subjects with AC + CC genotype were more sensitive to the benazepril therapy in SBP (OR=1.97, 95% CI: 1.02-3.80, p = 0.044) and DBP (OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 2.69-5.16, p = 0.003), as compared with those hypertensive subjects with AA genotype. Our findings suggest that the A2233C polymorphism of KLK1 may be a marker of evaluation of hypertensive subjects' responses to angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitors benazepril.

  3. Angiotensin converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism is associated with increased adiposity and blood pressure in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemes, Vinícius A F; Neves, Ana Luísa; Guazzelli, Isabel C; Frazzatto, Eliana; Nicolau, Christiane; Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; Velho, Gilberto; Villares, Sandra M F

    2013-12-15

    The insertion/deletion polymorphism in the gene encoding the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE I/D) was associated with arterial hypertension and obesity in adults, but the data in children are scarce and yielded contrasting results. We assessed the impact of the ACE I/D on blood pressure and obesity related traits in a Brazilian cohort of obese children and adolescents. ACE I/D was genotyped in 320 obese children and adolescents (64% of girls) aged 7-16years, referred for a weight-loss program. We observed an association of the D-allele with blood pressure and with pre-hypertension/hypertension in boys (odds ratio 2.44, 95% C.I. 1.34-4.68, p=0.005 for a codominant model). The D-allele, insulin resistance and body fat mass had independent and additive effects and explained 14% of the variance of pre-hypertension/hypertension. The BMI, waist circumference, and body fat mass were significantly higher in DD/ID boys than in II boys (pblood pressure. No genotype associations were observed in girls. The D-allele of the ACE I/D polymorphism was associated with arterial hypertension and with obesity related traits in boys, but not in girls, in a cohort of obese children and adolescents. These associations were independent of each other, as well as of the effects of other confounding traits such as insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Our results are in agreement with experimental evidences suggesting that the renin-angiotensin system plays a role in the regulation of visceral adipose tissue accumulation. © 2013.

  4. Effects of helicopter transport on red blood cell components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Taiichi; Oki, Ken-ichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Tamura, Satoru; Naito, Yuki; Homma, Chihiro; Ikeda, Hisami; Sumita, Shinzou

    2012-01-01

    Background There are no reported studies on whether a helicopter flight affects the quality and shelf-life of red blood cells stored in mannitol-adenine-phosphate. Materials and methods Seven days after donation, five aliquots of red blood cells from five donors were packed into an SS-BOX-110 container which can maintain the temperature inside the container between 2 °C and 6 °C with two frozen coolants. The temperature of an included dummy blood bag was monitored. After the box had been transported in a helicopter for 4 hours, the red blood cells were stored again and their quality evaluated at day 7 (just after the flight), 14, 21 and 42 after donation. Red blood cell quality was evaluated by measuring adenosine triphosphate, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, and supernatant potassium, as well as haematocrit, intracellular pH, glucose, supernatant haemoglobin, and haemolysis rate at the various time points. Results During the experiment the recorded temperature remained between 2 and 6 °C. All data from the red blood cells that had undergone helicopter transportation were the same as those from a control group of red blood cell samples 7 (just after the flight), 14, 21, and 42 days after the donation. Only supernatant Hb and haemolysis rate 42 days after the donation were slightly increased in the helicopter-transported group of red blood cell samples. All other parameters at 42 days after donation were the same in the two groups of red blood cells. Discussion These results suggest that red blood cells stored in mannitol-adenine-phosphate are not significantly affected by helicopter transportation. The differences in haemolysis by the end of storage were small and probably not of clinical significance. PMID:22153688

  5. Effects of helicopter transport on red blood cell components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Taiichi; Oki, Ken-ichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Tamura, Satoru; Naito, Yuki; Homma, Chihiro; Ikeda, Hisami; Sumita, Shinzou

    2012-01-01

    There are no reported studies on whether a helicopter flight affects the quality and shelf-life of red blood cells stored in mannitol-adenine-phosphate. Seven days after donation, five aliquots of red blood cells from five donors were packed into an SS-BOX-110 container which can maintain the temperature inside the container between 2 °C and 6 °C with two frozen coolants. The temperature of an included dummy blood bag was monitored. After the box had been transported in a helicopter for 4 hours, the red blood cells were stored again and their quality evaluated at day 7 (just after the flight), 14, 21 and 42 after donation. Red blood cell quality was evaluated by measuring adenosine triphosphate, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, and supernatant potassium, as well as haematocrit, intracellular pH, glucose, supernatant haemoglobin, and haemolysis rate at the various time points. During the experiment the recorded temperature remained between 2 and 6 °C. All data from the red blood cells that had undergone helicopter transportation were the same as those from a control group of red blood cell samples 7 (just after the flight), 14, 21, and 42 days after the donation. Only supernatant Hb and haemolysis rate 42 days after the donation were slightly increased in the helicopter-transported group of red blood cell samples. All other parameters at 42 days after donation were the same in the two groups of red blood cells. These results suggest that red blood cells stored in mannitol-adenine-phosphate are not significantly affected by helicopter transportation. The differences in haemolysis by the end of storage were small and probably not of clinical significance.

  6. NMR water-proton spin-lattice relaxation time of human red blood cells and red blood cell suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, S.G.; Rosenthal, J.S.; Winston, A.; Stern, A.

    1988-01-01

    NMR water-proton spin-lattice relaxation times were studied as probes of water structure in human red blood cells and red blood cell suspensions. Normal saline had a relaxation time of about 3000 ms while packed red blood cells had a relaxation time of about 500 ms. The relaxation time of a red blood cell suspension at 50% hematocrit was about 750 ms showing that surface charges and polar groups of the red cell membrane effectively structure extracellular water. Incubation of red cells in hypotonic saline increases relaxation time whereas hypertonic saline decreases relaxation time. Relaxation times varied independently of mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in a sample population. Studies with lysates and resealed membrane ghosts show that hemoglobin is very effective in lowering water-proton relaxation time whereas resealed membrane ghosts in the absence of hemoglobin are less effective than intact red cells. 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 table

  7. Glycophorin C (Gerbich Antigen Blood Group) and Band 3 Polymorphisms in Two Malaria Holoendemic Regions of Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sheral S.; King, Christopher L.; Mgone, Charles S.; Kazura, James W.; Zimmerman, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    The geographic overlap between the prevalence of erythrocyte polymorphisms and malaria endemicity is thought to be an example of natural selection on human populations. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), the Gerbich-negative phenotype is caused by an exon 3 deletion in the glycophorin C gene (GYPCΔex3) while heterozygosity for a 27-base pair deletion in the SLC4A1 gene (anion exchanger 1 or erythrocyte membrane protein, band 3), SLC4A1Δ27, results in Southeast Asian ovalocytosis. Two geographically and ethnically distinct malaria endemic regions of PNG (the Wosera [East Sepik Province] and Liksul [Madang Province]) were studied to illustrate the distribution of two prominent deletion polymorphisms (GYPCΔex3 and SLC4A1Δ27) and to determine if the genetic load associated with SLC4A1Δ27 would constrain independent assortment of GYPCΔex3 heterozygous and homozygous genotypes. The frequency of the GYPCΔex3 allele was higher in the Wosera (0.463) than Liksul (0.176) (χ2; P < 0.0001). Conversely, the frequency of the SLC4A1Δ27 allele was higher in Liksul (0.0740) than the Wosera (0.0005) (χ2; P < 0.0001). No individuals were homozygous for SLC4A1Δ27. In 355 Liksul residents, independent assortment of these two deletion polymorphisms resulted in 14 SLC4A1Δ27 carriers heterozygous for GYPCΔex3 and one SLC4A1Δ27 carrier homozygous for GYPCΔex3 (Fisher’s exact test; P = 0.8040). While homozygosity for SLC4A1Δ27 appears to be nonviable, the GYPCΔex3 allele is not lethal when combined with SLC4A1Δ27. Neither mutation was associated with altered susceptibility to asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum or P. vivax infection. While these erythrocyte polymorphisms apparently have no effect on blood-stage malaria infection, their contribution to susceptibility to clinical malaria morbidity requires further study. PMID:14695625

  8. T cell cytokine gene polymorphisms in canine diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Andrea D; Catchpole, Brian; Kennedy, Lorna J; Barnes, Annette; Lee, Andy C; Jones, Chris A; Fretwell, Neale; Ollier, William E R

    2009-03-15

    Insulin-deficiency diabetes in dogs shares some similarities with human latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA). Canine diabetes is likely to have a complex pathogenesis with multiple genes contributing to overall susceptibility and/or disease progression. An association has previously been shown between canine diabetes and MHC class II genes, although other genes are also likely to contribute to the genetic risk. Potential diabetes susceptibility genes include immuno-regulatory TH1/TH2 cytokines such as IFNgamma, IL-12, IL-4 and IL-10. We screened these candidate genes for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a range of different dog breeds using dHPLC analysis and DNA sequencing. Thirty-eight of the SNPs were genotyped in crossbreed dogs and seven other breed groups (Labrador Retriever, West Highland White Terrier, Collie, Schnauzer, Cairn Terrier, Samoyed and Cavalier King Charles Spaniel), which demonstrated substantial intra-breed differences in allele frequencies. When SNPs were examined for an association with diabetes by case:control analysis significant associations were observed for IL-4 in three breeds, the Collie, Cairn Terrier and Schnauzer and for IL-10 in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel. These results suggest that canine cytokine genes regulating the TH1/TH2 immune balance might play a contributory role in determining susceptibility to diabetes in some breeds.

  9. Effects of Red Blood Cell Aggregation on the Apparent Viscosity of Blood Flow in Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Darren L.; Lowe, Mary L.

    1996-11-01

    In arterioles and venules (20-200μ diameter), the low shear rates enable red blood cells to form aggregate structures of varying sizes and morphology. The size and distribution of the aggregates affect the flow impedance within a microvascular network; this effect may be characterized by an "apparent viscosity". In this study, we measure the apparent viscosity of blood flow in 50μ glass tubes as a function of shear rate and red blood cell volume fraction (hematocrit); for a fixed tube geometry and an imposed flow rate, the viscosity is determined by measuring the pressure drop across the tube. To correlate the apparent viscosity with the size and spatial distribution of the aggregates in the flow, video images of the flow are recorded and analyzed using power spectral techniques. Pig blood and sheep blood are used as the models for aggregating and non-aggregating blood, respectively. Supported by NSF PFF Award CTS-9253633

  10. Relationship between vitamin D-binding protein polymorphisms and blood vitamin D level in Korean patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park YM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Youngmok Park,1 Young Sam Kim,1 Young Ae Kang,1 Ju Hye Shin,1 Yeon Mok Oh,2 Joon Beom Seo,3 Ji Ye Jung,1 Sang Do Lee2 On behalf of the KOLD study 1Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Severance Hospital, Institute of Chest Diseases, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 2Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Clinical Research Center for Chronic Obstructive Airway Diseases, 3Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, the blood vitamin D3 level is generally low, and genetic polymorphisms of vitamin D-binding protein encoded by the GC gene are associated with COPD development. In this study, we examined the relationship between GC polymorphisms and plasma vitamin D3 level in Korean patients with COPD. Methods: The study included 175 COPD patients from the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease Cohort. Multivariate analysis was conducted with adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI, lung function, smoking status, smoking amount, and seasonal variation in blood vitamin D level. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level lower than 20 ng/mL. Results: The mean plasma vitamin D3 level was 17.5 ng/mL. The GC1F variant (44.3% and genotype 1F-2 (27.4% were the most common. The plasma vitamin D3 level was lower in patients with the GC2 variant (estimated =-3.73 ng/mL and higher in those with genotype 1F-1S (estimated =4.08 ng/mL. The GC2 variant was a significant risk factor for vitamin D deficiency (odds ratio =2.41. Among COPD clinical parameters, vitamin D deficiency was associated with a lower ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC regardless of GC polymorphisms. FEV1/FVC was higher in patients with genotype 1F-1F (estimated =3.61% and lower in those with genotype 1F-2 (estimated =-3.31%. The

  11. Detection of IL28B SNP DNA from buccal epithelial cells, small amounts of serum, and dried blood spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Halfon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Point mutations in the coding region of the interleukin 28 gene (rs12979860 have recently been identified for predicting the outcome of treatment of hepatitis C virus infection. This polymorphism detection was based on whole blood DNA extraction. Alternatively, DNA for genetic diagnosis has been derived from buccal epithelial cells (BEC, dried blood spots (DBS, and genomic DNA from serum. The aim of the study was to investigate the reliability and accuracy of alternative routes of testing for single nucleotide polymorphism allele rs12979860CC. METHODS: Blood, plasma, and sera samples from 200 patients were extracted (400 µL. Buccal smears were tested using an FTA card. To simulate postal delay, we tested the influence of storage at ambient temperature on the different sources of DNA at five time points (baseline, 48 h, 6 days, 9 days, and 12 days. RESULTS: There was 100% concordance between blood, plasma, sera, and BEC, validating the use of DNA extracted from BEC collected on cytology brushes for genetic testing. Genetic variations in HPTR1 gene were detected using smear technique in blood smear (3620 copies as well as in buccal smears (5870 copies. These results are similar to those for whole blood diluted at 1/10. A minimum of 0.04 µL, 4 µL, and 40 µL was necessary to obtain exploitable results respectively for whole blood, sera, and plasma. No significant variation between each time point was observed for the different sources of DNA. IL28B SNPs analysis at these different time points showed the same results using the four sources of DNA. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that genomic DNA extraction from buccal cells, small amounts of serum, and dried blood spots is an alternative to DNA extracted from peripheral blood cells and is helpful in retrospective and prospective studies for multiple genetic markers, specifically in hard-to-reach individuals.

  12. Human genetic polymorphisms in the Knops blood group are not associated with a protective advantage against Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Southern Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Helle H; Kurtzhals, Jørgen A; Goka, Bamenla Q

    2013-01-01

    The complex interactions between the human host and the Plasmodium falciparum parasite and the factors influencing severity of disease are still not fully understood. Human single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs associated with Knops blood group system; carried by complement receptor 1 may...

  13. Separation of cancer cells from white blood cells by pinched flow fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant; Ashley, Neil; Koprowska, Kamila

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the microfluidic size-separation technique pinched flow fractionation (PFF) is used to separate cancer cells from white blood cells (WBCs). The cells are separated at efficiencies above 90% for both cell types. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are found in the blood of cancer patients...... and can form new tumors. CTCs are rare cells in blood, but they are important for the understanding of metastasis. There is therefore a high interest in developing a method for the enrichment of CTCs from blood samples, which also enables further analysis of the separated cells. The separation...

  14. The role of a FADS1 polymorphism in the association of fatty acid blood levels, BMI and blood pressure in young children-Analyses based on path models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Wolters

    Full Text Available The recent obesity epidemic in children also showed an increase in the prevalence of hypertension. As blood pressure (BP is associated with (long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA, genetic variation in desaturase enzymes being involved in the synthesis of LC PUFA may be associated with BP. This study aimed to investigate the direct effects (independent of mediating variables and indirect effects (mediated through intermediate variables of a common variant in the FADS1 gene, rs174546, known to affect delta-5 desaturase (D5D activity on PUFA level, body mass index (BMI and BP.A subsample of the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants baseline survey including 520 children aged 2 to <10 years from six European countries was included. The association between rs174546 (Tblood levels of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Whole blood fatty acids were measured by a validated gas chromatographic method and recorded as percentage of weight of all fatty acids detected.Minor allele carriers of the SNP rs174546 had significantly higher DGLA and lower ARA and EPA levels as well as a lower D5D index. Via ARA and BMI z-score, the polymorphism had an indirect lowering effect on systolic BP z-score for each additional T allele (standardized effect estimate -0.057, p = 0.007. For DGLA, EPA and D5D index, the indirect effects of rs174546 on systolic BP were also negative but did not reach significance. DGLA and EPA had an increasing indirect effect on

  15. Red blood cell dynamics: from cell deformation to ATP release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiandi; Forsyth, Alison M; Stone, Howard A

    2011-10-01

    The mechanisms of red blood cell (RBC) deformation under both static and dynamic, i.e., flow, conditions have been studied extensively since the mid 1960s. Deformation-induced biochemical reactions and possible signaling in RBCs, however, were proposed only fifteen years ago. Therefore, the fundamental relationship between RBC deformation and cellular signaling dynamics i.e., mechanotransduction, remains incompletely understood. Quantitative understanding of the mechanotransductive pathways in RBCs requires integrative studies of physical models of RBC deformation and cellular biochemical reactions. In this article we review the physical models of RBC deformation, spanning from continuum membrane mechanics to cellular skeleton dynamics under both static and flow conditions, and elaborate the mechanistic links involved in deformation-induced ATP release. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  16. Immune sensitization against epidermal antigens in polymorphous light eruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Amaro, R.; Baranda, L.; Salazar-Gonzalez, J.F.; Abud-Mendoza, C.; Moncada, B.

    1991-01-01

    To get further insight into the pathogenesis of polymorphous light eruption, we studied nine patients with polymorphous light eruption and six healthy persons. Two skin biopsy specimens were obtained from each person, one from previously ultraviolet light-irradiated skin and another one from unirradiated skin. An epidermal cell suspension, skin homogenate, or both were prepared from each specimen. Autologous cultures were made with peripheral blood mononuclear cells combined with irradiated or unirradiated skin homogenate and peripheral blood mononuclear cells combined with irradiated or unirradiated epidermal cell suspension. Cell proliferation was assessed by 3H-thymidine incorporation assay. The response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to unirradiated epidermal cells or unirradiated skin homogenate was similar in both patients and controls. However, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with polymorphous light eruption showed a significantly increased proliferative response to both irradiated epidermal cells and irradiated skin homogenate. Our results indicate that ultraviolet light increases the stimulatory capability of polymorphous light eruption epidermal cells in a unidirectional mixed culture with autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This suggests that an immune sensitization against autologous ultraviolet light-modified skin antigens occurs in polymorphous light eruption

  17. White blood cell count - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the hand. The puncture site is cleaned with antiseptic, and a tourniquet (an elastic band) or blood ... or young child: The area is cleansed with antiseptic and punctured with a sharp needle or a ...

  18. Natural killer cells for immunotherapy – Advantages of cell lines over blood NK cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans eKlingemann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer cells are potent cytotoxic effector cells for cancer therapy and potentially for severe viral infections. However, there are technical challenges to obtain sufficient numbers of functionally active NK cells form a patient’s blood since they represent only 10% of the lymphocytes. Especially, cancer patients are known to have dysfunctional NK cells. The alternative is to obtain cells from a healthy donor, which requires depletion of the allogeneic T-cells. Establishing cell lines from donor blood NK cells have not been successful, in contrast to blood NK cells obtained from patients with a clonal NK cell lymphoma. Those cells can be expanded in culture in the presence of IL-2. However, except for the NK-92 cell line none of the other six known cell lines has consistent and reproducibly high anti-tumor cytotoxicity, nor can they be easily genetically manipulated to recognize specific tumor antigens or to augment monoclonal antibody activity through ADCC. NK-92 is also the only cell line product that has been widely given to patients with advanced cancer with demonstrated efficiency and minimal side effects.

  19. The Effect of Shape Memory on Red Blood Cell Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiting; Shi, Lingling; Pan, Tsorng-Whay; Glowinski, Roland

    2013-11-01

    An elastic spring model is applied to study the effect of the shape memory on the motion of red blood cell in flows. In shear flow, shape memory also plays an important role to obtain all three motions: tumbling, swinging, and tank-treading. In Poiseuille flow, cell has an equilibrium shape as a slipper or parachute depending on capillary number. To ensure the tank-treading motion while in slippery shape, a modified model is proposed by introducing a shape memory coefficient which describes the degree of shape memory in cells. The effect of the coefficient on the cell motion of red blood cell will be presented.

  20. Freeze-Dried Human Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-15

    period in the liquid state. 2. The levels of glycolytic intermediates (ATP, adenosine 5’triphosphate; 2,3-DPG 2, 3- diphosphoglycerate ) in rehydrated...8217 diphosphate, ADP; adenosine 5 monophosphate, AMP; 2,3- diphosphoglycerate . 2.3-DPG and lactate: (2) measurement of cell indices (mean cell volume (MCV), mean...monophosphate: 2,3-DPG. 2.3- diphosphoglycerate : MCV. Mean Cell Volume: MCH, Mean Cell Hemoglobin: MCHC, Mean Cell Hemoglobin Concentrations. ** Lactate levels

  1. Red blood cell phenotype prevalence in blood donors who self-identify as Hispanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheppard, Chelsea A; Bolen, Nicole L; Eades, Beth

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Molecular genotyping platforms provide a quick, high-throughput method for identifying red blood cell units for patients on extended phenotype-matching protocols, such as those with sickle cell disease or thalassemia. Most of the antigen prevalence data reported are for non-Hispanic ......CONCLUSIONS: Molecular genotyping platforms provide a quick, high-throughput method for identifying red blood cell units for patients on extended phenotype-matching protocols, such as those with sickle cell disease or thalassemia. Most of the antigen prevalence data reported are for non...

  2. The use of blood protein polymorphism to estimate genetic distance among populations of Indonesian native sheep, St. Croix and Merino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Suparyanto

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The genetic distance among populations of Indonesia native sheep (Ciamis, Garut, Sumatera and Garahan, St. Croix and Merino were estimated to investigate the genetic relationship among those breeds. Blood protein polymorphism of transferin (Tf, post-transferin (PTf, albumin (Alb, post-albumin (PAlb were detected from blood plasma, while haemoglobine (Hb was detected from erythrocyte using Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE. Results of PAGE showed that Tf was controlled by 6 alleles, while Alb by 4 alleles, PTf by 3 Alleles and PAlb and Hb by 2 alleles. Value of breeding coefficient within individual subpopulations (FIS for Tf (-0,0014, Alb (-0,0046 and Hb (0,0256 were not significantly different by noel. These results show that data of gene frequency are still following Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium and inbreeding inside the sub population did not occur. The closest distance among the native breeds is the subpopulations of Ciamis and Garut due to neighboring area and similar traits of Thin Tail Sheep. The genetic distance of both population to Sumatera Thin Tail Sheep and Garahan Fat Tail are quite far. In addition to that results all Indonesian native breed were distinctly different from St. Croix and Merino.

  3. Concordance of genotype for polymorphisms in DNA isolated from peripheral blood and colorectal cancer tumor samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Huis-Tanja, Lieke; Kweekel, Dinemarie; Gelderblom, Hans; Koopman, Miriam; Punt, Kees; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; van der Straaten, Tahar

    2013-01-01

    Background & aim: Results from different pharmacogenetic association studies in colorectal cancer are often conflicting. Both peripheral blood and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue are routinely used as DNA source. This could cause bias due to somatic alterations in tumor tissue, such

  4. Molecular polymorphism of a cell surface proteoglycan: distinct structures on simple and stratified epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, R D; Bernfield, M

    1988-12-01

    Epithelial cells are organized into either a single layer (simple epithelia) or multiple layers (stratified epithelia). Maintenance of these cellular organizations requires distinct adhesive mechanisms involving many cell surface molecules. One such molecule is a cell surface proteoglycan, named syndecan, that contains both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate chains. This proteoglycan binds cells to fibrillar collagens and fibronectin and thus acts as a receptor for interstitial matrix. The proteoglycan is restricted to the basolateral surface of simple epithelial cells, but is located over the entire surface of stratified epithelial cells, even those surfaces not contacting matrix. We now show that the distinct localization in simple and stratified epithelia correlates with a distinct proteoglycan structure. The proteoglycan from simple epithelia (modal molecular size, 160 kDa) is larger than that from stratified epithelia (modal molecular size, 92 kDa), but their core proteins are identical in size and immunoreactivity. The proteoglycan from simple epithelia has more and larger heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate chains than the proteoglycan from stratified epithelia. Thus, the cell surface proteoglycan shows a tissue-specific structural polymorphism due to distinct posttranslational modifications. This polymorphism likely reflects distinct proteoglycan functions in simple and stratified epithelia, potentially meeting the different adhesive requirements of the cells in these different organizations.

  5. Impacts of CA9 gene polymorphisms on urothelial cell carcinoma susceptibility and clinicopathologic characteristics in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shian-Shiang Wang

    Full Text Available Carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9 is reportedly overexpressed in several types of carcinomas and is generally considered a marker of malignancy. The current study explored the effect of CA9 gene polymorphisms on the susceptibility of developing urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC and the clinicopathological status.A total of 442 participants, including 221 healthy people and 221 patients with UCC, were recruited for this study. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the CA9 gene were assessed by a real-time PCR with the TaqMan assay. After adjusting for other co-variants, the individuals carrying at least one A allele at CA9 rs1048638 had a 2.303-fold risk of developing UCC than did wild-type (CC carriers. Furthermore, UCC patients who carried at least one A allele at rs1048638 had a higher invasive stage risk (p< 0.05 than did patients carrying the wild-type allele. Moreover, among the UCC patients with smoker, people with at least one A allele of CA9 polymorphisms (rs1048638 had a 4.75-fold (95% CI = 1.204-18.746 increased risk of invasive cancer.The rs1048638 polymorphic genotypes of CA9 might contribute to the prediction of susceptibility to and pathological development of UCC. This is the first study to provide insight into risk factors associated with CA9 variants in carcinogenesis of UCC in Taiwan.

  6. Cytokine single-nucleotide polymorphisms and risk of non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, Cristina; Alnatsha, Ahmed; Cañadas-Garre, Marisa; Villar, Eduardo; Valdivia-Bautista, Javier; Faus-Dáder, María J; Calleja-Hernández, Miguel Á

    2017-12-01

    Lung cancer, particularly the non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) subtype, is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Several functional polymorphisms in inflammatory cytokine genes, such as IL1B, IL6, IL12A, IL13 and IL16, have been associated with the risk of NSCLC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between ILs gene polymorphisms and the risk of developing NSCLC. A retrospective case-control study was carried out, including 174 NSCLC cases and 298 controls of Spanish origin. IL1B (rs1143634), IL1B (rs12621220), IL1B (rs1143623), IL1B (rs16944), IL1B (rs1143627), IL12A (rs662959), IL13 (rs1881457), IL6 (rs1800795) and IL16 (rs7170924) gene polymorphisms were analysed by TaqMan. The genotypic logistic regression model adjusted by smoking status showed that the IL1B rs1143634-TT genotype was associated with a lower risk of NSCLC (P=0.04312; odds ratio=0.226; 95% confidence interval=0.044-0.840). No other gene polymorphisms showed an association with NSCLC in any of the models tested. In conclusion, IL1B rs1143634 was significantly associated with a higher risk of NSCLC. No influence of IL1B rs12621220, rs1143623, rs16944, rs1143627, IL12A rs662959, IL13 rs1881457 and IL16 rs7170924 on the risk of developing NSCLC was found in our study.

  7. Bacterial glycosidases for the production of universal red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Qiyong P; Sulzenbacher, Gerlind; Yuan, Huaiping

    2007-01-01

    Enzymatic removal of blood group ABO antigens to develop universal red blood cells (RBCs) was a pioneering vision originally proposed more than 25 years ago. Although the feasibility of this approach was demonstrated in clinical trials for group B RBCs, a major obstacle in translating this techno...

  8. Frequency and specificity of red blood cell alloantibodies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Blood transfusion usually results in production of alloantibody against one or more foreign red blood cell antigens which may complicate subsequent transfusions. The probability of alloimmunization depends on number and frequency of transfusion, antigen immunogenicity, recipient immune response and ...

  9. Risk of red blood cell alloimmunisation in Rwanda: Assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Screening of alloantibodies in patients is not yet done in district hospitals of Rwanda. The practice is to transfuse ABO/D compatible blood following an immediate spin crossmatch (IS-XM) or indirect antiglobulin test crossmatch (IAT-XM). Objectives: To assess the risk of red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunisation ...

  10. The insertion-deletion polymorphism of the ACE gene is associated with increased blood pressure in women at the end of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnikov, Evgeny A; Akulova, Ludmila Y; Dobrodomova, Irina S; Dvornyk, Volodymyr Y; Polonikov, Alexey V; Churnosov, Mikhail I

    2015-09-01

    Malfunctioning of the cardiovascular system during pregnancy may be responsible for adverse effects on the 'mother-fetus' system. The cardiovascular system of a pregnant woman develops adaptation to the increased load. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is known to play an important role in the adaptation. The present study was designed to investigate whether the insertion-deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene is associated with the level of arterial blood pressure in women before and during pregnancy. The level of blood pressure was measured in 591 Russian women (Central Russia) before and during (37-40 weeks term) pregnancy. The women were divided into three groups which were hypertensive, hypotensive, and normotensive according to blood pressure level. Genotyping of the ACE I/D polymorphism was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism assay. Women with genotype DD showed the highest blood pressure level both during and at the end of pregnancy (pACE gene is associated with high blood pressure level at the end of pregnancy. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Effects of folic acid deficiency and MTHFRC677T polymorphisms on cytotoxicity in human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiayu; Liang Ziqing; Zou Tianning; Wang Xu

    2009-01-01

    Apoptosis (APO) and necrosis (NEC) are two different types of cell death occurring in response to cellular stress factors. Cells with DNA damage may undergo APO or NEC. Folate is an essential micronutrient associated with DNA synthesis, repair and methylation. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) regulates intracellular folate metabolism. Folate deficiency and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms have been shown to be related to DNA damage. To verify the cytotoxic effects of folate deficiency on cells with different MTHFR C677T genotypes, 15 human peripheral lymphocyte cases with different MTHFR C677T genotypes were cultured in folic acid (FA)-deficient and -sufficient media for 9 days. Cytotoxicity was quantified using the frequencies of APO and NEC as endpoints, the nuclear division index (NDI), and the number of viable cells (NVC). These results showed that FA is an important factor in reducing cytotoxicity and increasing cell proliferation. Lymphocytes with the TT genotype proliferated easily under stress and exhibited different responses to FA deficiency than lymphocytes with the CC and CT genotypes. A TT individual may accumulate more cytotoxicity under cytotoxic stress, suggesting that the effects of FA deficiency on cytotoxicity are greater than the effects in individuals with the other MTHFR C677T variants.

  12. Safety and radiation risks in the labelling of blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Risk in the management of radioactive material and biological exposition to infectious agents. Protocols and normative to observe GOOD RADIOPHARMACY Practices. Main infectious agents that may be transmitted during preparation of a blood cell radiopharmaceutical. Problems of contamination

  13. Restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategy for red blood cell transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Lars B; Petersen, Marie W; Haase, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the benefit and harm of restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategies to guide red blood cell transfusions. DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane central register of controlled...... differences with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: 31 trials totalling 9813 randomised patients were included. The proportion of patients receiving red blood cells (relative risk 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.47 to 0.63, 8923 patients, 24 trials) and the number of red blood cell units transfused (mean...... were associated with a reduction in the number of red blood cell units transfused and number of patients being transfused, but mortality, overall morbidity, and myocardial infarction seemed to be unaltered. Restrictive transfusion strategies are safe in most clinical settings. Liberal transfusion...

  14. Retrofit designs for small bench-type blood cell counters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, C D

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes several retrofit designs to correct operational problems associated with small bench-type blood cell counters. Replacement electronic circuits as well as modifications to the vacuum systems are discussed.

  15. Novel automated blood separations validate whole cell biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas E Burger

    Full Text Available Progress in clinical trials in infectious disease, autoimmunity, and cancer is stymied by a dearth of successful whole cell biomarkers for peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs. Successful biomarkers could help to track drug effects at early time points in clinical trials to prevent costly trial failures late in development. One major obstacle is the inaccuracy of Ficoll density centrifugation, the decades-old method of separating PBLs from the abundant red blood cells (RBCs of fresh blood samples.To replace the Ficoll method, we developed and studied a novel blood-based magnetic separation method. The magnetic method strikingly surpassed Ficoll in viability, purity and yield of PBLs. To reduce labor, we developed an automated platform and compared two magnet configurations for cell separations. These more accurate and labor-saving magnet configurations allowed the lymphocytes to be tested in bioassays for rare antigen-specific T cells. The automated method succeeded at identifying 79% of patients with the rare PBLs of interest as compared with Ficoll's uniform failure. We validated improved upfront blood processing and show accurate detection of rare antigen-specific lymphocytes.Improving, automating and standardizing lymphocyte detections from whole blood may facilitate development of new cell-based biomarkers for human diseases. Improved upfront blood processes may lead to broad improvements in monitoring early trial outcome measurements in human clinical trials.

  16. Novel automated blood separations validate whole cell biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Douglas E; Wang, Limei; Ban, Liqin; Okubo, Yoshiaki; Kühtreiber, Willem M; Leichliter, Ashley K; Faustman, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    Progress in clinical trials in infectious disease, autoimmunity, and cancer is stymied by a dearth of successful whole cell biomarkers for peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Successful biomarkers could help to track drug effects at early time points in clinical trials to prevent costly trial failures late in development. One major obstacle is the inaccuracy of Ficoll density centrifugation, the decades-old method of separating PBLs from the abundant red blood cells (RBCs) of fresh blood samples. To replace the Ficoll method, we developed and studied a novel blood-based magnetic separation method. The magnetic method strikingly surpassed Ficoll in viability, purity and yield of PBLs. To reduce labor, we developed an automated platform and compared two magnet configurations for cell separations. These more accurate and labor-saving magnet configurations allowed the lymphocytes to be tested in bioassays for rare antigen-specific T cells. The automated method succeeded at identifying 79% of patients with the rare PBLs of interest as compared with Ficoll's uniform failure. We validated improved upfront blood processing and show accurate detection of rare antigen-specific lymphocytes. Improving, automating and standardizing lymphocyte detections from whole blood may facilitate development of new cell-based biomarkers for human diseases. Improved upfront blood processes may lead to broad improvements in monitoring early trial outcome measurements in human clinical trials.

  17. Detection of melanoma cells suspended in mononuclear cells and blood plasma using photoacoustic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradling, Emily M.; Viator, John A.

    2009-02-01

    Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer. Although the initial malignant cells are removed, it is impossible to determine whether or not the cancer has metastasized until a secondary tumor forms that is large enough to detect with conventional imaging. Photoacoustic detection of circulating melanoma cells in the bloodstream has shown promise for early detection of metastasis that may aid in treatment of this aggressive cancer. When blood is irradiated with energy from an Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm, photoacoustic signals are created and melanoma cells can be differentiated from the surrounding cells based on waveforms produced by an oscilloscope. Before this can be used as a diagnostic technique, however, we needed to investigate several parameters. Specifically, the current technique involves the in vitro separation of blood through centrifugation to isolate and test only the white blood cell layer. Using this method, we have detected a single cultured melanoma cell among a suspension of white blood cells. However, the process could be made simpler if the plasma layer were used for detection instead of the white blood cell layer. This layer is easier to obtain after blood separation, the optical difference between plasma and melanoma cells is more pronounced in this layer than in the white blood cell layer, and the possibility that any stray red blood cells could distort the results is eliminated. Using the photoacoustic apparatus, we detected no melanoma cells within the plasma of whole blood samples spiked with cultured melanoma cells.

  18. Polymorphisms in ACE and ACTN3 Genes and Blood Pressure Response to Acute Exercise in Elite Male Athletes from Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmic, Tijana S; Zdravkovic, Marija D; Djelic, Marina N; Gavrilovic, Tamara D; Djordjevic Saranovic, Slavica A; Plavsic, Jadranka N; Mirkovic, Sanja V; Batinic, Djordje V; Antic, Milena N; Mihailovic, Zoran R; Atanasijevic, Nikola G; Mileusnic, Milan J; Stojkovic, Oliver V

    2017-12-01

    Physiological adaptations to various types of prolonged and intensive physical activity, as seen in elite athletes from different sports, include changes in blood pressure (BP) response to acute exercise. Also, functional polymorphisms of the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) and alfa-actinin-3 (ACTN3) genes are shown to be associated with BP parameters changes, both in athletes and sedentary population. In this study, an Alu insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism in ACE gene, as well as nonsense mutation in the gene encoding ACTN3 have been scored in 107 elite Serbian athletes classified according to their sporting discipline to power/sprint (short distance runners/swimmers), endurance (rowers, footballers, middle-distance swimmers) or mixed sports (water polo, handball, volleyball players). Presence of nonfunctional allele in ACTN3 is associated with significantly increased maximal systolic BP (SBPmax, p = 0.04). Athletes with Alu insertion in ACE had significantly (p = 0.006) larger decline of systolic BP after 3 minutes of recovery (SBPR3), calculated as the percentage of maximal SBP response during exercise stress testing. Concomitant presence of non-functional variant in ACTN3 gene decreased this beneficiary effect of ACE mutation on SBPR3. Long term enrollment in power/sprint sports significantly increased resting diastolic BP (DBPrest: 74 mmHg) and SBPmax (197 mmHg) and improved SBPR3 (74.8%) compared to enrolment in endurance (72 mmHg; 178 mmHg; 81.1%) and mixed sports (69 mmHg; 185 mmHg; 80.0%). Lack of the effect of genotype by sport interaction on BP parameters suggests that the long-term effects of different disciplines on BP are not mediated by these two genes.

  19. TAS2R38 and CA6 genetic polymorphisms, frequency of bitter food intake, and blood biomarkers among elderly woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk-Stecyna, Joanna; Malinowska, Anna M; Chmurzynska, Agata

    2017-09-01

    Taste sensitivity is one of the most important biological determinants of food choice. Three SNPs of the TAS2R38 gene (rs713598, rs1726866, and rs10246939) give rise to two common haplotypes: PAV and AVI. These haplotypes, as well as an SNP within the CA6 gene (rs2274333) that encodes carbonic anhydrase VI (CA6), correlate with bitterness perception. The extent of consumption of bitter food may influence some health outcomes. The aim of this study is thus to investigate the impact of the TAS2R38 and CA6 genetic polymorphisms on the choice of bitter food, BMI, blood lipoprotein, and glucose concentrations as well as systemic inflammation in elderly women. The associations between the TAS2R38 diplotype, CA6 genotype, and the intake of bitter-tasting foods were studied in a group of 118 Polish women over 60 years of age. The intake of Brassica vegetables, grapefruit, and coffee was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Biochemical parameters were measured using the spectrophotometric method. Genotyping was performed using the high resolution melting method. We found a correlation between lipid profile, glucose and CRP levels, and frequency of bitter food intake. The AVI/AVI subjects drank coffee more frequently than did the PAV/PAV homozygotes, as did the A carriers of CA6 in comparison with the GG homozygotes. We also observed that simultaneous carriers of the PAV haplotype and A allele of TAS2R38 and CA6, respectively, choose white cabbage more frequent and had lower plasma levels of CRP and glucose than did AVI/AVI and GG homozygotes. In elderly women, the TAS2R38 and CA6 polymorphisms may affect the frequency of consumption of coffee and white cabbage, but not of other bitter-tasting foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Using Sendai Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Filipa A C; Pedersen, Roger A; Vallier, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the efficient isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from circulating blood via density gradient centrifugation and subsequent generation of integration-free human induced pluripotent stem cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells are cultured for 9 days to allow expansion of the erythroblast population. The erythroblasts are then used to derive human induced pluripotent stem cells using Sendai viral vectors, each expressing one of the four reprogramming factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc.

  1. MHC class II polymorphisms, autoreactive T-cells and autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue eTsai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes, also known as human leukocyte antigen genes (HLA in humans, are the prevailing contributors of genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases such as Type 1 Diabetes (T1D, Multiple Sclerosis (MS, and Rheumatoid arthritis (RA, among others (Todd and Wicker, 2001;MacKay et al., 2002;Hafler et al., 2007. Although the pathways through which MHC molecules afford autoimmune risk or resistance remain to be fully mapped out, it is generally accepted that they do so by shaping the central and peripheral T cell repertoires of the host towards autoimmune proclivity or resistance, respectively. Disease-predisposing MHC alleles would both spare autoreactive thymocytes from central tolerance and bias their development towards a pathogenic phenotype. Protective MHC alleles, on the other hand, would promote central deletion of autoreactive thymocytes and skew their development towards non-pathogenic phenotypes. This interpretation of the data is at odds with two other observations: that in MHC-heterozygous individuals, resistance is dominant over susceptibility; and that it is difficult to understand how deletion of one or a few clonal autoreactive T cell types would suffice to curb autoimmune responses driven by hundreds if not thousands of autoreactive T cell specificities. This review provides an update on current advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying MHC class II-associated autoimmune disease susceptibility and/or resistance and attempts to reconcile these seemingly opposing concepts.

  2. Red Blood Cell Agglutination for Blood Typing Within Passive Microfluidic Biochips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Maxime; Cubizolles, Myriam; Buhot, Arnaud

    2018-04-19

    Pre-transfusion bedside compatibility test is mandatory to check that the donor and the recipient present compatible groups before any transfusion is performed. Although blood typing devices are present on the market, they still suffer from various drawbacks, like results that are based on naked-eye observation or difficulties in blood handling and process automation. In this study, we addressed the development of a red blood cells (RBC) agglutination assay for point-of-care blood typing. An injection molded microfluidic chip that is designed to enhance capillary flow contained anti-A or anti-B dried reagents inside its microchannel. The only blood handling step in the assay protocol consisted in the deposit of a blood drop at the tip of the biochip, and imaging was then achieved. The embedded reagents were able to trigger RBC agglutination in situ, allowing for us to monitor in real time the whole process. An image processing algorithm was developed on diluted bloods to compute real-time agglutination indicator and was further validated on undiluted blood. Through this proof of concept, we achieved efficient, automated, real time, and quantitative measurement of agglutination inside a passive biochip for blood typing which could be further generalized to blood biomarker detection and quantification.

  3. SBR-Blood: systems biology repository for hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Jens; Heuston, Elisabeth F; Mishra, Tejaswini; Keller, Cheryl A; Hardison, Ross C; Bodine, David M

    2016-01-04

    Extensive research into hematopoiesis (the development of blood cells) over several decades has generated large sets of expression and epigenetic profiles in multiple human and mouse blood cell types. However, there is no single location to analyze how gene regulatory processes lead to different mature blood cells. We have developed a new database framework called hematopoietic Systems Biology Repository (SBR-Blood), available online at http://sbrblood.nhgri.nih.gov, which allows user-initiated analyses for cell type correlations or gene-specific behavior during differentiation using publicly available datasets for array- and sequencing-based platforms from mouse hematopoietic cells. SBR-Blood organizes information by both cell identity and by hematopoietic lineage. The validity and usability of SBR-Blood has been established through the reproduction of workflows relevant to expression data, DNA methylation, histone modifications and transcription factor occupancy profiles. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Induction and identification of rabbit peripheral blood derived dendritic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Yang, FuYuan; Chen, WenLi

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study a method of the induction of dendritic cells (DCs) from rabbit peripheral blood. Methods: Peripheral blood cells were removed from rabbit, filtered through nylon mesh. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from the blood cells by Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation (density of 1.077g/cm3).To obtain DCs, PBMC were cultured in RPMI1640 medium containing 10% fetal calf serum, 50U/mL penicillin and streptomycin, referred to subsequently as complete medium, at 37°C in 5% CO2 atmosphere for 4 hours. Nonadherent cells were aspirated, adherent cells were continued incubated in complete medium, supplemented with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, 50ng/ml),and interleukin 4 (IL-4, 50ng/ml) for 9 days. Fluorescein labeled antibodies(anti-CD14, anti-HLA-DR, anti-CD86) were used to sign cells cultured for 3,6,9 days respectively, Then flow cytometry was performed. Results: Ratio of anti-HLA-DR and anti-CD86 labeled cells increased with induction time extension, in contrast with anti-CD14. Conclusion: Dendritic cells can be effectively induced by the method of this experiment, cell maturation status increased with induction time extension.

  5. The effect of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 polymorphisms on blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profiles following the supplementation of kale (Brassica oleracea acephala) juice in South Korean subclinical hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Hye-Jin; Kim, Tae-Seok; Kang, Myung-Hee

    2015-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) forms a multigene family of phase II detoxification enzymes which are involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species. This study examines whether daily supplementation of kale juice can modulate blood pressure (BP), levels of lipid profiles, and blood glucose, and whether this modulation could be affected by the GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms. 84 subclinical hypertensive patients showing systolic BP over 130 mmHg or diastolic BP over 85 mmHg received 300 ml/day of kale juice for 6 weeks, and blood samples were collected on 0-week and 6-week in order to evaluate plasma lipid profiles (total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol) and blood glucose. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significantly decreased in all patients regardless of their GSTM1 or GSTT1 polymorphisms after kale juice supplementation. Blood glucose level was decreased only in the GSTM1-present genotype, and plasma lipid profiles showed no difference in both the GSTM1-null and GSTM1-present genotypes. In the case of GSTT1, on the other hand, plasma HDL-C was increased and LDL-C was decreased only in the GSTT1-present type, while blood glucose was decreased only in the GSTT1-null genotype. These findings suggest that the supplementation of kale juice affected blood pressure, lipid profiles, and blood glucose in subclinical hypertensive patients depending on their GST genetic polymorphisms, and the improvement of lipid profiles was mainly greater in the GSTT1-present genotype and the decrease of blood glucose was greater in the GSTM1-present or GSTT1-null genotypes.

  6. Association of TERT Polymorphisms with Clinical Outcome of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueying Zhao

    Full Text Available TERT is of great importance in cancer initiation and progression. Many studies have demonstrated the TERT polymorphisms as risk factors for many cancer types, including lung cancer. However, the impacts of TERT variants on cancer progression and treatment efficacy have remained controversial. This study aimed to investigate the association of TERT polymorphisms with clinical outcome of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients receiving first-line platinum-based chemotherapy, including response rate, clinical benefit, progression-free survival (PFS, overall survival (OS, and grade 3 or 4 toxicity. Seven polymorphisms of TERT were assessed, and a total of 1004 inoperable advanced NSCLC patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy were enrolled. It is exhibited that the variant heterozygote of rs4975605 showed significant association with a low rate of clinical benefit, and displayed a much stronger effect in never-smoking female subset, leading to the clinical benefit rate decreased from 82.9% (C/C genotype to 56.4% (C/A genotype; adjusted OR, 3.58; P=1.40×10(-4. It is also observed that the polymorphism rs2736109 showed significant correlation with PFS (log-rank P=0.023. In age > 58 subgroup, patients carrying the heterozygous genotype had a longer median PFS than those carrying the wild-type genotypes (P=0.002. The results from the current study, for the first time to our knowledge, provide suggestive evidence of an effect of TERT polymorphisms on disease progression variability among Chinese patients with platinum-treated advanced NSCLC.

  7. Non-invasive spectroscopy of transfusable red blood cells stored inside sealed plastic blood-bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, K; Atkins, C G; Chen, D; Schulze, H G; Devine, D V; Blades, M W; Turner, R F B

    2016-03-07

    After being separated from (donated) whole blood, red blood cells are suspended in specially formulated additive solutions and stored (at 4 °C) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) blood-bags until they are needed for transfusion. With time, the prepared red cell concentrate (RCC) is known to undergo biochemical changes that lower effectiveness of the transfusion, and thus regulations are in place that limit the storage period to 42 days. At present, RCC is not subjected to analytical testing prior to transfusion. In this study, we use Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) to probe, non-invasively, the biochemistry of RCC inside sealed blood-bags. The retrieved spectra compare well with conventional Raman spectra (of sampled aliquots) and are dominated by features associated with hemoglobin. In addition to the analytical demonstration that SORS can be used to retrieve RCC spectra from standard clinical blood-bags without breaking the sterility of the system, the data reveal interesting detail about the oxygenation-state of the stored cells themselves, namely that some blood-bags unexpectedly contain measurable amounts of deoxygenated hemoglobin after weeks of storage. The demonstration that chemical information can be obtained non-invasively using spectroscopy will enable new studies of RCC degeneration, and points the way to a Raman-based instrument for quality-control in a blood-bank or hospital setting.

  8. Quantitative assessment of limb blood flow using Tc-99m labeled red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kazuo; Shougase, Takashi; Kawamura, Naoyuki; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Nakada, Kunihiro; Sakuma, Makoto; Furudate, Masayori

    1987-01-01

    A quantitative assessment of limb blood flow using a non-diffusible radioindicator, Tc-99m labeled red blood cells, was reported. This was an application of venous occlusion plethysmography using radionuclide which was originally proposed by M. Fukuoka et al. The peripheral blood flow (mean ± s.e.) of 30 legs in a normal control group was 1.87 ± 0.08 ml/100 ml/min. In heart diseases (46 legs), it was 1.49 ± 0.13 ml/100 ml/min. The limb blood flow between a control group and heart diseases was statistically significant (p < 0.01) in the t-test. The peripheral blood flow at rest between diseased legs and normal legs in occlusive arterial disorders was also statistically significant (p < 0.01) in a paired t-test. RAVOP was done after the completion of objective studies such as radionuclide angiography or ventriculography. Technique and calculation of a blood flow were very easy and simple. RAVOP study which was originally proposed by Fukuoka et al. was reappraised to be hopeful for quantitative measurement of limb blood flow as a non-invasive technique using Tc-99m labeled red blood cells. (author)

  9. Evaluation of hepatic hemangioma by Tc-99 m red blood cell hepatic blood pool scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Myung Hee

    2005-01-01

    Hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of the liver, with a prevalence estimated as high as 7%. Tc-99m red blood cell (RBC) hepatic blood pool scan with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is extremely useful for the confirmation or exclusion of hepatic hemangiomas. The classic finding of absent or decreased perfusion and increased blood pooling ('perfusion/blood pool mismatch') is the key diagnostic element in the diagnosis of hemangiomas. The combination of early arterial flow and delayed blood pooling ('perfusion/blood pool match') is shown uncommonly. In giant hemangioma, filling with radioactivity appears first in the periphery, with progressive central fill-in on sequential RBC blood pool scan. However, the reverse filling pattern, which begins first in the center with progressive peripheral filling, is also rarely seen. Studies with false-positive blood pooling have been reported infrequently in nonhemangiomas, including hemangiosarcoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic adenoma, and metastatic carcinomas (adenocarcinma of the colon, small cell carcinoma of the lung, neruroendocrine carcinoma). False-negative results have been also reported rarely except for small hemagniomas that are below the limits of spatial resolution of gamma camera

  10. A Novel System of Polymorphic and Diverse NK Cell Receptors in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Cornelia; Neff, Jennifer; Roos, Christian; Eberle, Manfred; Aujard, Fabienne; Münch, Claudia; Schempp, Werner; Carrington, Mary; Shiina, Takashi; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Knaust, Florian; Coggill, Penny; Sehra, Harminder; Beck, Stephan; Abi-Rached, Laurent; Reinhardt, Richard; Walter, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    There are two main classes of natural killer (NK) cell receptors in mammals, the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and the structurally unrelated killer cell lectin-like receptors (KLR). While KIR represent the most diverse group of NK receptors in all primates studied to date, including humans, apes, and Old and New World monkeys, KLR represent the functional equivalent in rodents. Here, we report a first digression from this rule in lemurs, where the KLR (CD94/NKG2) rather than KIR constitute the most diverse group of NK cell receptors. We demonstrate that natural selection contributed to such diversification in lemurs and particularly targeted KLR residues interacting with the peptide presented by MHC class I ligands. We further show that lemurs lack a strict ortholog or functional equivalent of MHC-E, the ligands of non-polymorphic KLR in “higher” primates. Our data support the existence of a hitherto unknown system of polymorphic and diverse NK cell receptors in primates and of combinatorial diversity as a novel mechanism to increase NK cell receptor repertoire. PMID:19834558

  11. Genetic variability within french race and riding horse breeds from genealogical data and blood marker polymorphisms

    OpenAIRE

    Moureaux, Sophie; Verrier, Etienne; Ricard, Anne; Meriaux, J-Claude

    1996-01-01

    The genetic variability of five horse breeds raised in France was analysed: Thoroughbred, Trotteur Français, Arab, Anglo-Arab and Selle Français. Genealogical data and genotypes at seven blood group and nine protein loci were used. Paternal family sizes were found to be unbalanced, especially in Trotteur français, Selle Franqais and Thoroughbred. Average coefficients of inbreeding for offspring born from 1989 to 1992 were 1.02 (Thoroughbred), 1.86 (Trotteur Français), 3.08 (Arab), 1.17 (...

  12. CD209-336A/G promotor polymorphism and its clinical associations in sickle cell disease Egyptian Pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Rasha Abdel-Raouf; Kamal, Dina; Sayed, Riham El; Ekladious, Sherif M M; Shaheen, Gehan H; Yousry, Sherif M; Hussein, Rania Elsayed

    2018-06-01

    To detect the frequency of CD209 A>G polymorphism in sickle cell disease (SCD) Egyptian patients and to evaluate the use of CD209 A>G polymorphism as a genetic predictor of SCD clinical heterogeneity. A total of 100 Egyptian children with SCD and 100 Egyptian controls were tested for CD209 A>G polymorphism and were followed up prospectively between June 2012 and December 2014. Comparison of CD209 A>G polymorphism among cases and controls did not show statistically significant difference (p = .742). In addition, comparison of the allelic frequency did not show statistically significant difference (p = .738). Infections occurred more frequently among the heterozygous genotype (AG; 60.5%) and homozygous genotype (GG; 75%) patients than among the wild (AA) genotype (24.1%; p G polymorphism. Infections occurred more frequently among the heterozygous genotype (AG) and homozygous genotype (GG) patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Blood cell labeling with technetium-99m, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Tatsumi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Shin; Kimura, Hideo; Miura, Nobuo

    1978-01-01

    Using a labeling method with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate to red blood cells (RBC), circulating blood volume was measured in comparison with that from 51 Cr-labeled RBC method. The technique is easier than already published methods, because CIS kit for sup(99m)Tc-RBC labeling (TCK-11) became to be available recently. Two mls of ACD-anticoagulated blood were withdrawn and 0.5 ml of reducing reagent prepared just before use was added to blood, waiting 5 minutes and discarding the serum after centrifugation, then adding 100 μCi of sup(99m)Tc. After washing the labeled cells by isotonic saline, cells were re-suspended in 10 ml of saline and injected to the subject. Blood specimen was obtained 10, 30, 60 and 120 minutes after infusion and blood volume was calculated by the usual way. Circulating blood volume by sup(99m)Tc was well correlated with that by 51 Cr (=0.98, p 0.01), however, the value calculated from sup(99m)Tc were 4.8 percent higher than those by 51 Cr, which suggested the elution of sup(99m)Tc from labeled RBC. sup(99m)Tc method has the advantages that higher radioactivity can be obtained in small amount of blood, which is useful in the determination of blood volume in children or in small animals in the laboratory. The measurement of blood volume of the mouse was done by using sup(99m)Tc method. The results were 1.70 +- 0.06 ml (6.35 +- 0.18%/gm), which coincided with the values reported previously. Because of it's short half life and low radiation dosage to the patients, sup(99m)Tc method will be recommended in the field of pediatrics or in patients with polycythemia or congestive heart failure, who are requested the repeated measurement of blood volume. (auth.)

  14. The homeostasis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob M A Mauritz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The asexual reproduction cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for severe malaria, occurs within red blood cells. A merozoite invades a red cell in the circulation, develops and multiplies, and after about 48 hours ruptures the host cell, releasing 15-32 merozoites ready to invade new red blood cells. During this cycle, the parasite increases the host cell permeability so much that when similar permeabilization was simulated on uninfected red cells, lysis occurred before approximately 48 h. So how could infected cells, with a growing parasite inside, prevent lysis before the parasite has completed its developmental cycle? A mathematical model of the homeostasis of infected red cells suggested that it is the wasteful consumption of host cell hemoglobin that prevents early lysis by the progressive reduction in the colloid-osmotic pressure within the host (the colloid-osmotic hypothesis. However, two critical model predictions, that infected cells would swell to near prelytic sphericity and that the hemoglobin concentration would become progressively reduced, remained controversial. In this paper, we are able for the first time to correlate model predictions with recent experimental data in the literature and explore the fine details of the homeostasis of infected red blood cells during five model-defined periods of parasite development. The conclusions suggest that infected red cells do reach proximity to lytic rupture regardless of their actual volume, thus requiring a progressive reduction in their hemoglobin concentration to prevent premature lysis.

  15. Sup(99m) Technetium - labeled red blood cells 'in vitro'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardo Filho, M.; Souza Moura, I.N. de; Boasquevisque, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    A simple technique for the preparation of sup(99m) Tc labeled red blood cells using a comercial kit is described. To each 3ml of plain blood with anti-coagulant was added 1ml of solution of commercial kit with 6.8 μg of stannous chloride. This mixture was incubated in water bath, at 37 0 C, for 60 minutes. Then technetium-99m was added and the mixture was left for another ten minutes, in water bath, at 37 0 C. Under these conditions there was the best labeling of the red blood cells. Similar results were obtained with a solution of stannous chloride prepared freshly. The labeling is strong for 6.8 μg stannous chloride because the labeling was not removed by the several washes of the red blood cells or by the left in water bath. (Author) [pt

  16. KIT polymorphisms and mutations determine responses of neoplastic mast cells to bafetinib (INNO-406).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Barbara; Hadzijusufovic, Emir; Blatt, Katharina; Gleixner, Karoline V; Pickl, Winfried F; Thaiwong, Tuddow; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, Vilma; Willmann, Michael; Valent, Peter

    2010-09-01

    Advanced systemic mastocytosis (SM) is characterized by uncontrolled growth of neoplastic mast cells (MC) and drug resistance. The tyrosine kinase receptor KIT is often mutated and activated and thus contributes to malignant growth of MC. Therefore, KIT-targeting drugs are currently tested for their ability to block growth of malignant MC. We determined the effects of the multikinase inhibitor INNO-406 (bafetinib) on primary neoplastic MC, the canine mastocytoma cell line C2, the human MC leukemia cell line HMC-1.1 bearing the KIT mutant V560G, and HMC-1.2 cells harboring KIT V560G and KIT D816V. INNO-406 was found to inhibit proliferation in HMC-1.1 cells (IC(50): 30-40 nM), but not in HMC-1.2 cells or primary neoplastic cells in patients with KIT D816V-positive SM. In canines, growth-inhibitory effects of INNO-406 were seen in C2 cells (IC(50): 50-100 nM) exhibiting a KIT exon 11 internal tandem-duplication and in primary neoplastic MC harboring wild-type exon 11, whereas no effects were seen in MC exhibiting a polymorphism at amino acid 581 in exon 11. INNO-406 was found to block KIT phosphorylation and expression in HMC-1.1 cells and C2 cells, but not in HMC-1.2 cells, whereas Lyn-phosphorylation was blocked by INNO-406 in all types of MC. In neoplastic MC, the major target of INNO-406 appears to be KIT. Drug responses may depend on the presence and type of KIT mutation. In human MC, the KIT D816V mutant introduces resistance, and in canine mastocytomas, an exon 11 polymorphism may be indicative of resistance against INNO-406.

  17. Young endothelial cells revive aging blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Vivian Y; Termini, Christina M; Chute, John P

    2017-11-01

    The hematopoietic system declines with age, resulting in decreased hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal capacity, myeloid skewing, and immune cell depletion. Aging of the hematopoietic system is associated with an increased incidence of myeloid malignancies and a decline in adaptive immunity. Therefore, strategies to rejuvenate the hematopoietic system have important clinical implications. In this issue of the JCI, Poulos and colleagues demonstrate that infusions of bone marrow (BM) endothelial cells (ECs) from young mice promoted HSC self-renewal and restored immune cell content in aged mice. Additionally, delivery of young BM ECs along with HSCs following total body irradiation improved HSC engraftment and enhanced survival. These results suggest an important role for BM endothelial cells (ECs) in regulating hematopoietic aging and support further research to identify the rejuvenating factors elaborated by BM ECs that restore HSC function and the immune repertoire in aged mice.

  18. Net haemoglobin increase from reinfusion of refrigerated vs. frozen red blood cells after autologous blood transfusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashenden, M; Mørkeberg, Jakob Sehested

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES  Two main blood storage procedures can be used for storing red blood cells: refrigeration and freezing. Nevertheless, the efficiency of these procedures measured as the increase in haemoglobin after reinfusion compared with baseline has never been examined. The main...... objective was to examine which storage procedure yielded the largest increase in circulating haemoglobin after reinfusion compared to baseline. MATERIALS AND METHODS  Equal volumes of blood from 15 men were withdrawn and stored either frozen or refrigerated as packed red blood cells. Serial measures...... of circulating haemoglobin by carbon monoxide rebreathing provided an opportunity to monitor recovery from anaemia, as well as the net increase in circulating haemoglobin after transfusion. RESULTS  The post-thaw yield of haemoglobin in the bags was 72% after refrigerated storage compared with only 52% after...

  19. Polymorphisms in the WNK1 gene are associated with blood pressure variation and urinary potassium excretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Newhouse

    Full Text Available WNK1--a serine/threonine kinase involved in electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure (BP control--is an excellent candidate gene for essential hypertension (EH. We and others have previously reported association between WNK1 and BP variation. Using tag SNPs (tSNPs that capture 100% of common WNK1 variation in HapMap, we aimed to replicate our findings with BP and to test for association with phenotypes relating to WNK1 function in the British Genetics of Hypertension (BRIGHT study case-control resource (1700 hypertensive cases and 1700 normotensive controls. We found multiple variants to be associated with systolic blood pressure, SBP (7/28 tSNPs min-p = 0.0005, diastolic blood pressure, DBP (7/28 tSNPs min-p = 0.002 and 24 hour urinary potassium excretion (10/28 tSNPs min-p = 0.0004. Associations with SBP and urine potassium remained significant after correction for multiple testing (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01 respectively. The major allele (A of rs765250, located in intron 1, demonstrated the strongest evidence for association with SBP, effect size 3.14 mmHg (95%CI:1.23-4.9, DBP 1.9 mmHg (95%CI:0.7-3.2 and hypertension, odds ratio (OR: 1.3 [95%CI: 1.0-1.7].We genotyped this variant in six independent populations (n = 14,451 and replicated the association between rs765250 and SBP in a meta-analysis (p = 7 x 10(-3, combined with BRIGHT data-set p = 2 x 10(-4, n = 17,851. The associations of WNK1 with DBP and EH were not confirmed. Haplotype analysis revealed striking associations with hypertension and BP variation (global permutation p10 mmHg reduction and risk for hypertension (OR<0.60. Our data indicates that multiple rare and common WNK1 variants contribute to BP variation and hypertension, and provide compelling evidence to initiate further genetic and functional studies to explore the role of WNK1 in BP regulation and EH.

  20. Shape memory of human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Thomas M

    2004-05-01

    The human red cell can be deformed by external forces but returns to the biconcave resting shape after removal of the forces. If after such shape excursions the rim is always formed by the same part of the membrane, the cell is said to have a memory of its biconcave shape. If the rim can form anywhere on the membrane, the cell would have no shape memory. The shape memory was probed by an experiment called go-and-stop. Locations on the membrane were marked by spontaneously adhering latex spheres. Shape excursions were induced by shear flow. In virtually all red cells, a shape memory was found. After stop of flow and during the return of the latex spheres to the original location, the red cell shape was biconcave. The return occurred by a tank-tread motion of the membrane. The memory could not be eliminated by deforming the red cells in shear flow up to 4 h at room temperature as well as at 37 degrees C. It is suggested that 1). the characteristic time of stress relaxation is >80 min and 2). red cells in vivo also have a shape memory.

  1. HLA Class-II Associated HIV Polymorphisms Predict Escape from CD4+ T Cell Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Erdmann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy, antibody and CD8+ T cell-mediated responses targeting human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 exert selection pressure on the virus necessitating escape; however, the ability of CD4+ T cells to exert selective pressure remains unclear. Using a computational approach on HIV gag/pol/nef sequences and HLA-II allelic data, we identified 29 HLA-II associated HIV sequence polymorphisms or adaptations (HLA-AP in an African cohort of chronically HIV-infected individuals. Epitopes encompassing the predicted adaptation (AE or its non-adapted (NAE version were evaluated for immunogenicity. Using a CD8-depleted IFN-γ ELISpot assay, we determined that the magnitude of CD4+ T cell responses to the predicted epitopes in controllers was higher compared to non-controllers (p<0.0001. However, regardless of the group, the magnitude of responses to AE was lower as compared to NAE (p<0.0001. CD4+ T cell responses in patients with acute HIV infection (AHI demonstrated poor immunogenicity towards AE as compared to NAE encoded by their transmitted founder virus. Longitudinal data in AHI off antiretroviral therapy demonstrated sequence changes that were biologically confirmed to represent CD4+ escape mutations. These data demonstrate an innovative application of HLA-associated polymorphisms to identify biologically relevant CD4+ epitopes and suggests CD4+ T cells are active participants in driving HIV evolution.

  2. Shape Memory of Human Red Blood Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    The human red cell can be deformed by external forces but returns to the biconcave resting shape after removal of the forces. If after such shape excursions the rim is always formed by the same part of the membrane, the cell is said to have a memory of its biconcave shape. If the rim can form anywhere on the membrane, the cell would have no shape memory. The shape memory was probed by an experiment called go-and-stop. Locations on the membrane were marked by spontaneously adhering latex spher...

  3. Blood thixotropy in patients with sickle cell anaemia: role of haematocrit and red blood cell rheological properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Vent-Schmidt

    Full Text Available We compared the blood thixotropic/shear-thinning properties and the red blood cells' (RBC rheological properties between a group of patients with sickle cell anaemia (SS and healthy individuals (AA. Blood thixotropy was determined by measuring blood viscosity with a capillary viscometer using a "loop" protocol: the shear rate started at 1 s-1 and increased progressively to 922 s-1 and then re-decreased to the initial shear rate. Measurements were performed at native haematocrit for the two groups and at 25% and 40% haematocrit for the AA and SS individuals, respectively. RBC deformability was determined by ektacytometry and RBC aggregation properties by laser backscatter versus time. AA at native haematocrit had higher blood thixotropic index than SS at native haematocrit and AA at 25% haematocrit. At 40% haematocrit, SS had higher blood thixotropic index than AA. While RBC deformability and aggregation were lower in SS than in AA, the strength of RBC aggregates was higher in the former population. Our results showed that 1 anaemia is the main modulator of blood thixtropy and 2 the low RBC deformability and high RBC aggregates strength cause higher blood thixotropy in SS patients than in AA individuals at 40% haematocrit, which could impact blood flow in certain vascular compartments.

  4. Genetic polymorphism of blood groups and erythrocytes enzymes in population groups of the Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremovska, Lj; Schmidt, H D; Scheil, H G; Gjorgjevic, D; Nikoloska Dadic, E

    2007-12-01

    This study presents the results of an examination of 3 blood-group systems (ABO, Rhesus, and P1) and erythrocyte enzymes (ADA, AK, ALADH, PGD, SAHH, PGM1, PGM3, GPT, GOT, ACP, UMPK, ESD and GLO) in populations that reside in R. Macedonia. Four population samples from the Republic of Macedonia (129 Macedonians from Skopje, 98 Albanians from Skopje, 95 Aromanians from Krusevo, 102 Aromanians from Stip) were included in the study. A comparison of the obtained results with data from literature on other Balkan populations has been made. The results of the comparison of the studied alleles indicate relatively small genetic distances among the studied populations. The obtained dendrograms indicate a larger homogeneity in the large Balkan populations, and a manifest trend of separating the Aromanian population of the Stip region. A larger separation is characteristic in the Greek population of Thrace.

  5. Blood groups polymorphism (ABO, Ss, Rhesus and Duffy) in the Arabic population of Beni Mellal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ossmani, H.; El Amri, H.; Bouchrif, B.; Glouib, K.; Zaoui, D.; Chafik, A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study deals with anthropogenetic profile of the Arab speaking population of the Beni Mellal region which separates areas inhabited by Mid-Atlas Berbers from those inhabited by Soth-Morroccan Arabs. The study of blood groups ABO, Rhesus, Ss,and Duffy was conducted on 131 individuals. The result shows that this population has the highest frequencies of the FyO allele (0.860) and s allele (0.524) in comparison to all Arab and Berber populations of North Africa and the Middle East. However genetic distances estimated on the basis of these four markers reveal that the population of Beni Mellal and another in the Beni Hlal region are in the same sub-cluster with populations from the Middle East. This may be attributed to the Oriental Arab ( M achrek ) origin of these two Moroccan Arab populations. (author)

  6. HIV-1 isolation from infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dispinseri, Stefania; Saba, Elisa; Vicenzi, Elisa; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) isolation from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) allows retrieval of replication-competent viral variants. In order to impose the smallest possible selective pressure on the viral isolates, isolation must be carried out in primary cultures of cells and

  7. Consequences of dysregulated complement regulators on red blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thielen, Astrid J. F.; Zeerleder, Sacha; Wouters, Diana

    2018-01-01

    The complement system represents the first line of defense that is involved in the clearance of pathogens, dying cells and immune complexes via opsonization, induction of an inflammatory response and the formation of a lytic pore. Red blood cells (RBCs) are very important for the delivery of oxygen

  8. Effects of Septrin Administration on Blood Cells Parameters in Humans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that the packed cell volume (PCV), total white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophils and platelets were significantly decreased (p<0.05), especially after 7-10 days of septrin administration, compared to the control values. On the other hand, the reticulocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils and prothrombin time ...

  9. Leukemic Cells "Gas Up" Leaky Bone Marrow Blood Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Tomer; Rafii, Shahin

    2017-09-11

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Passaro et al. demonstrate how leukemia through aberrant induction of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production trigger marrow vessel leakiness, instigating pro-leukemic function. Disrupted tumor blood vessels promote exhaustion of non-malignant stem and progenitor cells and may facilitate leukemia relapse following chemotherapeutic treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Determinants of resting cerebral blood flow in sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, Adam M.; Borzage, Matthew T.; Choi, Soyoung; Václavů, Lena; Tamrazi, Benita; Nederveen, Aart J.; Coates, Thomas D.; Wood, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is common in children with sickle cell disease and results from an imbalance in oxygen supply and demand. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is increased in patients with sickle cell disease to compensate for their anemia, but adequacy of their oxygen delivery has not been systematically demonstrated.

  11. Effects of rs769217 and rs1001179 polymorphisms of catalase gene on blood catalase, carbohydrate and lipid biomarkers in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góth, László; Nagy, Teréz; Kósa, Zsuzsanna; Fejes, Zsolt; Bhattoa, Harjit Pal; Paragh, György; Káplár, Miklós

    2012-10-01

    Oxidative stress and deficiency of the enzyme catalase, which is the primary scavenger of the oxidant H(2)O(2), may contribute to diabetes. The current study examined two polymorphisms in the catalase gene, -262C>nT in the promoter and 111C>T in exon 9, and their effects on blood catalase activity as well as on concentrations of blood glucose, haemoglobin A1c, triglyceride, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, ApoA-I and ApoB. Subjects were type-1 and type-2 diabetics. We evaluated PCR-single strand conformational polymorphism for 111C>T and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism for - 262C>T. TT genotype frequency of 111C>T polymorphism was increased in type-1 diabetes. Type-2 diabetics with the CC or CT genotypes had decreased catalase and increased glucose, hemoglobinA1c and ApoB. Type-2 diabetics who have TT genotype in -262C>T may have elevated risk for diabetes complications; these patients had the lowest mean catalase and HDL, as well as the highest glucose, haemoglobin A1c, cholesterol and ApoB.

  12. Rapid white blood cell detection for peritonitis diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsung-Feng; Mei, Zhe; Chiu, Yu-Jui; Cho, Sung Hwan; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2013-03-01

    A point-of-care and home-care lab-on-a-chip (LoC) system that integrates a microfluidic spiral device as a concentrator with an optical-coding device as a cell enumerator is demonstrated. The LoC system enumerates white blood cells from dialysis effluent of patients receiving peritoneal dialysis. The preliminary results show that the white blood cell counts from our system agree well with the results from commercial flow cytometers. The LoC system can potentially bring significant benefits to end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients that are on peritoneal dialysis (PD).

  13. Effect of red blood cell aggregation and sedimentation on optical coherence tomography signals from blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillin, M Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Tuchin, V V; Wang, R K; Myllylae, R

    2005-01-01

    In this work, Monte Carlo simulation is used to obtain model optical coherence tomography (OCT) signals from a horizontally orientated blood layer at different stages of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and sedimentation processes. The parameters for aggregating and sedimenting blood cells were chosen based on the data available from the literature and our earlier experimental studies. We consider two different cases: a suspension of washed RBCs in physiological solution (where aggregation does not take place) and RBCs in blood plasma (which provides necessary conditions for aggregation). Good agreement of the simulation results with the available experimental data shows that the chosen optical parameters are reasonable. The dependence of the numbers of photons contributing to the OCT signal on the number of experienced scattering events was analysed for each simulated signal. It was shown that the maxima of these dependences correspond to the peaks in the OCT signals related to the interfaces between the layers of blood plasma and blood cells. Their positions can be calculated from the optical thicknesses of the layers, and the absorption and scattering coefficients of the media

  14. Evaluation of two different protocols for peripheral blood stem cell collection with the Fresenius AS 104 blood cell separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichella, G; Lai, M; Pierelli, L; Vittori, M; Serafini, R; Ciarli, M; Foddai, M L; Salerno, G; Sica, S; Scambia, G; Leone, G; Bizzi, B

    1997-01-01

    Reconstitution of hematopoiesis by means of peripheral blood stem cells is a valid alternative to autologous bone marrow transplantation. The aim of this investigation was to increase the efficiency of collection of circulating blood progenitor cells and to obtain a purer product for transplant. We carried out leukapheresis procedures with the Fresenius AS 104 blood cell separator, using two different protocols, the previously used PBSC-LYM and a new mononuclear cell collection program. Both programs were highly effective in collecting mononuclear cells (MNC) and CD34+ cells. Some differences were found, especially regarding MNC yield and efficiencies. There are remarkable differences in the efficiency of collection of CD34+ cells (62.38% with the new program as opposed to 31.69% with the older one). Linear regression analysis showed a negative correlation between blood volume processed and MNC efficiency only for the PBSC-LYM program. Differences were also observed in the degree of inverse correlation existing in both programs between patients' white blood cell precount and MNC collection efficiency. The inverse correlation was stronger for the PBSC-LYM program. Seven patients with solid tumors and hematologic malignancies received high dose chemotherapy and were subsequently transplanted with peripheral blood stem cells collected using the new protocol. All patients obtained a complete and stable engraftment with the reinfusion product collected with one or two leukapheresis procedures. High efficiencies and yields were observed in the new protocol for MNC and CD34+ cells. These were able to effect rapid and complete bone marrow recovery after myeloablative chemotherapy.

  15. Red blood cell image enhancement techniques for cells with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quality or challenging conditions of the images such as poor illumination of blood smear and most importantly overlapping RBC. The algorithm comprises of two RBC segmentation that can be selected based on the image quality, circle mask technique and grayscale blood smear image processing. Detail explanations ...

  16. IL-10 polymorphism and cell-mediated immune response to Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, H.; Tiitinen, A; Halttunen, M.

    2006-01-01

    background. To study a relationship between interleukin-10 (IL-10) promoter -1082 polymorphism and cell-mediated immune response during C trachomatis infection in vitro, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine (IL-10, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5) secretion were analysed in subjects with different...... IL-10 genotypes. Enhanced IL-10 secretion and reduced antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative and IFN-gamma responses were found in subjects with IL-10 -1082 GG genotype when compared to those with -1082 AA genotype. CD14+ monocytes were main source of IL-10 indicating that these cells...... are important regulators of the antigen-specific cell-mediated responses during active C trachomatis infection. We conclude that impaired cell-mediated response to C trachomatis is associated with IL-10 genotype in subjects with high IL-10 producing capacity. A comparison of immune markers between subjects...

  17. Optical and hydrodynamic stretching of single cells from blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Henrik; Rungling, Tony B.; Khalil Al-Hamdani, Mustafa Zyad

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical properties, like deformability or elasticity, of cells can in some cases be indicative of the health of the organism they originate from. In this work, we explore the potential of deformability and other mechanical parameters of individual red blood cells (RBCs) from humans as a marker...... but does so far not allow for subsequent investigations of single "interesting" cells. The paper is a progress report with preliminary results based on the different strategies, we have pursued....

  18. A smart core-sheath nanofiber that captures and releases red blood cells from the blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Q.; Hou, J.; Zhao, C.; Xin, Z.; Jin, J.; Li, C.; Wong, S.-C.; Yin, J.

    2016-01-01

    A smart core-sheath nanofiber for non-adherent cell capture and release is demonstrated. The nanofibers are fabricated by single-spinneret electrospinning of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), polycaprolactone (PCL) and nattokinase (NK) solution blends. The self-assembly of PNIPAAm and PCL blends during the electrospinning generates the core-sheath PCL/PNIPAAm nanofibers with PNIPAAm as the sheath. The PNIPAAm-based core-sheath nanofibers are switchable between hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity with temperature change and enhance stability in the blood. When the nanofibers come in contact with blood, the NK is released from the nanofibers to resist platelet adhesion on the nanofiber surface, facilitating the direct capture and isolation of red blood cells (RBCs) from the blood above phase-transition temperature of PNIPAAm. Meanwhile, the captured RBCs are readily released from the nanofibers with temperature stimuli in an undamaged manner. The release efficiency of up to 100% is obtained while maintaining cellular integrity and function. This work presents promising nanofibers to effectively capture non-adherent cells and release for subsequent molecular analysis and diagnosis of single cells.A smart core-sheath nanofiber for non-adherent cell capture and release is demonstrated. The nanofibers are fabricated by single-spinneret electrospinning of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), polycaprolactone (PCL) and nattokinase (NK) solution blends. The self-assembly of PNIPAAm and PCL blends during the electrospinning generates the core-sheath PCL/PNIPAAm nanofibers with PNIPAAm as the sheath. The PNIPAAm-based core-sheath nanofibers are switchable between hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity with temperature change and enhance stability in the blood. When the nanofibers come in contact with blood, the NK is released from the nanofibers to resist platelet adhesion on the nanofiber surface, facilitating the direct capture and isolation of red blood cells (RBCs) from

  19. The effect of the colostral cells on gene expression of cytokines in cord blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdý, Jiří; Novotná, Olga; Kocourková, Ingrid; Prokešová, Ludmila

    2017-11-01

    Beneficial effect of maternal milk is acknowledged, but there is still question whether maternal milk from allergic mother is as good as from healthy one. In our study, we have assayed the effect of cells from colostrum of healthy and allergic mothers on gene expression of cytokines in cord blood cells of newborns of healthy and allergic mothers. Cytokines typical for Th1 (IL-2, IFN-gamma), Th2 (IL-4, IL-13), Tregs (IL-10, TGF-beta), and IL-8 were followed. We were not able to detect significant influence of colostral cells on gene expression of cytokines in cord blood after 2-day coculture using Transwell system. There was no difference in gene expression of cytokines in nonstimulated cord blood cells of newborns of healthy and allergic mothers, but generally increased gene expression of cytokines except IL-10 and TGF-beta after polyclonal stimulation was detected in cord blood cells of children of allergic mothers. There was no difference in IL-10 expression in stimulated cord blood cells of children of healthy and allergic mothers. Gene expression of TGF-beta was even decreased in stimulated cord blood cells of children of allergic mothers in comparison to healthy ones. We have not observed difference in the capacity of colostral cells of healthy and allergic mothers to influence gene expression of cytokines in cord blood cells, but we have described difference in the reactivity of cord blood cells between children of allergic and healthy mothers.

  20. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a reduced production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  1. A high incidence of polymorphic CYP2C19 variants in archival blood samples from Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Huai-Ling

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is considerable inter-ethnic variability in the incidence of CYP2C19 genetic poor metabolisers (var/var. About 3 per cent of Caucasians are CYP2C19 var/var. By contrast, an extremely high incidence (70 per cent is observed in the Melanesian island of Vanuatu. The colonisation of the Pacific Islands is believed to have involved migration through Papua New Guinea (PNG, and hence a high incidence may also be expected in this population. The reported incidence in PNG was only 36 per cent, however. PNG is a country of extensive ethnic diversity, and the incidence of the CYP2C19 var/var in other regional populations of PNG is currently not established. In this study, restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction analysis of archival blood serum samples was used to determine the prevalence of the CYP2C19*2 and *3 variant alleles in three different ethnic and geographically isolated populations of PNG. In the largest population studied (Iruna, the frequency of both variant CYP2C19 alleles was high (0.37 and 0.34, respectively. Specifically, the frequency of the CYP2C19*3 allele was significantly higher than in the PNG (East Sepik population reported previously (0.34 vs 0.16; p 0.0001. In the Iruna population, 48.9 per cent of the samples were homozygous variants for CYP2C19*2 or *3, which although higher was not statistically different from the East Sepik population (36 per cent. The results of this study indicated that other regional populations of PNG also have a relatively high incidence of the CYP2C19 genetic polymorphism compared with Caucasian populations. The high incidence reported in Vanuatu, however, may be due to genetic drift rather than a PNG founder population, as the Vanuatu population is dominated by the CYP2C19*2 allele, with a lower contribution from the *3 allelic variant.

  2. Measuring osmosis and hemolysis of red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhead, Lauren K; MacMillan, Frances M

    2017-06-01

    Since the discovery of the composition and structure of the mammalian cell membrane, biologists have had a clearer understanding of how substances enter and exit the cell's interior. The selectively permeable nature of the cell membrane allows the movement of some solutes and prevents the movement of others. This has important consequences for cell volume and the integrity of the cell and, as a result, is of utmost clinical importance, for example in the administration of isotonic intravenous infusions. The concepts of osmolarity and tonicity are often confused by students as impermeant isosmotic solutes such as NaCl are also isotonic; however, isosmotic solutes such as urea are actually hypotonic due to the permeant nature of the membrane. By placing red blood cells in solutions of differing osmolarities and tonicities, this experiment demonstrates the effects of osmosis and the resultant changes in cell volume. Using hemoglobin standard solutions, where known concentrations of hemoglobin are produced, the proportion of hemolysis and the effect of this on resultant hematocrit can be estimated. No change in cell volume occurs in isotonic NaCl, and, by placing blood cells in hypotonic NaCl, incomplete hemolysis occurs. By changing the bathing solution to either distilled water or isosmotic urea, complete hemolysis occurs due to their hypotonic effects. With the use of animal blood in this practical, students gain useful experience in handling tissue fluids and calculating dilutions and can appreciate the science behind clinical scenarios. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Effects of aerobic exercise on the blood pressure, oxidative stress and eNOS gene polymorphism in pre-hypertensive older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Anderson Saranz; Park, Joon-Young; Fenty-Stewart, Nicola; Silveira, Leonardo Reis; Kokubun, Eduardo; Brown, Michael D

    2010-11-01

    The polymorphisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) are associated with reduced eNOS activity. Aerobic exercise training (AEX) may influence resting nitric oxide (NO) production, oxidative stress and blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of AEX on the relationship among blood pressure, eNOS gene polymorphism and oxidative stress in pre-hypertensive older people. 118 pre-hypertensive subjects (59 ± 6 years) had blood samples collected after a 12 h overnight fast for assessing plasma NO metabolites (NOx) assays, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (T-BARS) and superoxide dismutase activity (ecSOD). eNOS polymorphism (T-786C and G-894T) was done by standard PCR methods. All people were divided according to the genotype results (G1: TT/GG, G2: TT/GT + TT, G3: TC + CC/GG, G4: TC + CC/GT + TT). All parameters were measured before and after 6 months of AEX (70% of VO(2 max)). At baseline, no difference was found in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, ecSOD and T-BARS activity. Plasma NOx levels were significantly different between G1 (19 ± 1 μM) and G4 (14.2 ± 0.6 μM) and between G2 (20.1 ± 1.7 μM) and G4 (14.2 ± 0.6 μM). Therefore, reduced NOx concentration in G4 group occurred only when the polymorphisms were associated, suggesting that these results are more related to genetic factors than NO-scavenging effect. After AEX, the G4 increased NOx values (17.2 ± 1.2 μM) and decreased blood pressure. G1, G3 and G4 decreased T-BARS levels. These results suggest the AEX can modulate the NOx concentration, eNOS activity and the relationship among eNOS gene polymorphism, oxidative stress and blood pressure especially in C (T-786C) and T (G-894T) allele carriers.

  4. In vivo red blood cell compatibility testing using indium-113m tropolone-labeled red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, G.J.; Gravelle, D.; Dietz, G.; Driedger, A.A.; King, M.; Cradduck, T.D.

    1988-01-01

    In vivo radionuclide crossmatch is a method for identifying compatible blood for transfusion when allo- or autoantibodies preclude the use of conventional crossmatching techniques. A technique for labeling small volumes of donor red blood cells with [/sup 113m/In]tropolone is reported. The use of /sup 113m/In minimizes the accumulation of background radioactivity and the radiation dose especially so when multiple crossmatches are performed. Labeling red cells with [/sup 113m/In]tropolone is faster and easier to perform than with other radionuclides. Consistently high labeling efficiencies are obtained and minimal /sup 113m/In activity elutes from the labeled red blood cells. A case study involving 22 crossmatches is presented to demonstrate the technique. The radiation dose equivalent from /sup 113m/In is significantly less than with other radionuclides that may be used to label red cells

  5. Viable bacteria associated with red blood cells and plasma in freshly drawn blood donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Christian; Magnussen, Karin; Enevold, Christian; Nilsson, Martin; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Holmstrup, Palle; Nielsen, Claus Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Infection remains a leading cause of post-transfusion mortality and morbidity. Bacterial contamination is, however, detected in less than 0.1% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from the oral cavity, and to determine the distribution of bacteria revealed in plasma and in the red blood cell (RBC)-fraction. Cross-sectional study. Blood were separated into plasma and RBC-suspensions, which were incubated anaerobically or aerobically for 7 days on trypticase soy blood agar (TSA) or blue lactose plates. For identification colony PCR was performed using primers targeting 16S rDNA. Blood donors attending Capital Region Blood Bank, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Hvidovre, Denmark, October 29th to December 10th 2013. 60 donors (≥50 years old), self-reported medically healthy. Bacterial growth was observed on plates inoculated with plasma or RBCs from 62% of the blood donations. Growth was evident in 21 (35%) of 60 RBC-fractions and in 32 (53%) of 60 plasma-fractions versus 8 of 60 negative controls (p = 0.005 and p = 2.6x10-6, respectively). Propionibacterium acnes was found in 23% of the donations, and Staphylococcus epidermidis in 38%. The majority of bacteria identified in the present study were either facultative anaerobic (59.5%) or anaerobic (27.8%) species, which are not likely to be detected during current routine screening. Viable bacteria are present in blood from donors self-reported as medically healthy, indicating that conventional test systems employed by blood banks insufficiently detect bacteria in plasma. Further investigation is needed to determine whether routine testing for anaerobic bacteria and testing of RBC-fractions for adherent bacteria should be recommended.

  6. White blood cell subtypes and risk of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Weiwei; Niu, Yixin; Li, Xiaoyong; Qin, Li; Su, Qing

    2017-01-01

    It is reported that total white blood cell is associated with risk of diabetes mellitus. The present study is to investigate the relationship of white blood cell subsets with incidence of type 2 diabetes at baseline and 3year follow-up. We chose individuals without diabetes history as our study population; 8991 individuals were included at baseline. All of the participants underwent a 75-g OGTT at baseline. White blood cell count including all the subsets were measured along with all the other laboratory indices. The participants who were not diagnosed with type 2 diabetes according to the WHO 1999 diagnostic criteria underwent another 75-g OGTT at 3year follow-up. The total WBC count, neutrophil count, and lymphocyte count were significantly increased in subjects newly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus compared to non-DM subjects at baseline (all ptype 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamic Changes in Fetal Microchimerism in Maternal Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, CD4+ and CD8+ Cells in Normal Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.; Gammill, Hilary S.; Lucas, Joëlle; Aydelotte, Tessa M.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Lambert, Nathalie C.; Nelson, J. Lee

    2010-01-01

    Objective Cell trafficking during pregnancy results in persistence of small populations of fetal cells in the mother, known as fetal microchimerism (FMc). Changes in cell-free fetal DNA during gestation have been well-described, however, less is known about dynamic changes in fetal immune cells in maternal blood. We investigated FMc in maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) longitudinally across gestation. Study Design Thirty-five women with normal pregnancies were studied. FMc was identified in PBMC, CD4+ and CD8+ subsets employing quantitative PCR assays targeting fetal-specific genetic polymorphisms. FMc quantities were reported as fetal genome equivalents (gEq) per 1,000,000 gEq mother’s cells. Poisson regression modeled the rate of FMc detection. Main Outcome Measure FMc in PBMC Results The probability of detecting one fetal cell equivalent increased 6.2-fold each trimester [Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) 95% CI: 1.73, 21.91; p=0.005]. Although FMC in PBMC was not detected for the majority of time points, 7 of 35 women had detectable FMc during pregnancy at one or more time points, with the majority of positive samples being from the third trimester. There was a suggestion of greater HLA-sharing in families where women had FMc in PBMC. FMc was detected in 9% of CD4+ (2/23) and 18% of CD8+ (3/25) subsets. Conclusions FMc in PBMC increased as gestation progressed and was found within CD4+ and CD8+ subsets in some women in the latter half of gestation. A number of factors could influence cellular FMc levels including subclinical fetal-maternal interface changes and events related to parturition. Whether FMc during pregnancy predicts persistent FMc and/or correlates with fetal-maternal HLA-relationships also merits further study. PMID:20569981

  8. CD163 positive subsets of blood dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maniecki, Maciej Bogdan; Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2006-01-01

    CD163 and CD91 are scavenging receptors with highly increased expression during the differentiation of monocytes into the anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype. In addition, CD91 is expressed in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs), where the receptor is suggested to be important...... for internalization of CD91-targeted antigens to be presented on the dendritic cell surface for T-cell stimulation. Despite their overlap in functionality, the expression of CD91 and CD163 has never been compared and the expression of CD163 in the monocyte-dendritic cell lineage is not yet characterized. CD163...... expression in dendritic cells (DCs) was investigated using multicolor flow cytometry in peripheral blood from 31 healthy donors and 15 HIV-1 patients in addition to umbilical cord blood from 5 newborn infants. Total RNA was isolated from MACS purified DCs and CD163 mRNA was determined with real-time reverse...

  9. State of the science of blood cell labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Blood cell labeling can be considered a science in as far as it is based on precise knowledge and can be readily reproduced. This benchmark criterion is applied to all current cell labeling modalities and their relative merits and deficiencies are discussed. Mechanisms are given where they are known as well as labeling yields, label stability, and cell functionality. The focus is on the methodology and its suitability to the clinical setting rather than on clinical applications per se. Clinical results are cited only as proof of efficacy of the various methods. The emphasis is on technetium as the cell label, although comparisons are made between technetium and indium, and all blood cells are covered. 52 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  10. Investigation of T-cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule-3 (TIM-3) polymorphisms in essential thrombocythaemia (ET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fuyan; Wang, Guanghai; Li, Yuantang; Tian, Wenjun; Dong, Zhenfang; Cheng, Shiqing; Liu, Yiqing; Qu, Teng; Wang, Xiaoying; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Bingchang; Ju, Ying

    2017-07-01

    T-cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule-3 (TIM-3) is preferentially expressed on terminally differentiated Th1 cells and inhibits their IFN-γ production. It has been reported that chronic inflammation may be an important driving force for myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Therefore, we hypothesized that as an important inflammation regulator, TIM-3 may be involved in essential thrombocythaemia (ET). The goal of this study was to investigate whether the -1516G > T, -574G > T and +4259T > G single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the TIM-3 gene contribute to the genetic susceptibility of individuals to ET. Genotyping of the TIM-3 -1516G > T, -574G > T and + 4259T > G SNPs was performed in 175 patients with ET and in 151 controls via a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. We also investigated the relationships between the genotypes of each SNP and the risk factors of ET such as routine blood indexes, age and JAK2 V617F mutation. The genotype and allele frequencies of the -1516G > T SNP (p = 0.016 and 0.019, respectively), the -574G > T SNP (p = 0.035 and 0.038, respectively) and the +4259T > G SNP (p = 0.036 and 0.038, respectively) of the ET patients and the controls were significantly different. A haplotype analysis found that the GGT and TGT haplotypes had significantly different distributions between ET and controls (p = 0.041 and 0.041, respectively). However, no significant differences were detected between the genotypes of all SNPs and routine blood indexes, age and JAK2V617F mutation. The -1516G > T, -574G > T and +4259T > G SNPs within TIM-3 gene might play an important role as a genetic risk factor in the pathogenesis of ET.

  11. SMIM1 underlies the Vel blood group and influences red blood cell traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvejic, Ana; Haer-Wigman, Lonneke; Stephens, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    The blood group Vel was discovered 60 years ago, but the underlying gene is unknown. Individuals negative for the Vel antigen are rare and are required for the safe transfusion of patients with antibodies to Vel. To identify the responsible gene, we sequenced the exomes of five individuals negative...... and expression of the Vel antigen on SMIM1-transfected cells confirm SMIM1 as the gene underlying the Vel blood group. An expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL), the common SNP rs1175550 contributes to variable expression of the Vel antigen (P = 0.003) and influences the mean hemoglobin concentration of red...... blood cells (RBCs; P = 8.6 × 10(-15)). In vivo, zebrafish with smim1 knockdown showed a mild reduction in the number of RBCs, identifying SMIM1 as a new regulator of RBC formation. Our findings are of immediate relevance, as the homozygous presence of the deletion allows the unequivocal identification...

  12. Histomorphometric study on blood cells in male adult ostrich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Tadjalli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform a histomorphometric study of blood cells in male adult ostrich, blood samples were obtained from jugular vein of 10 clinically healthy male adult ostriches (2 - 3 years old. The slides were stained with the Giemsa methods and the smears were evaluated for cellular morphology, with cellular size being determined by micrometry. The findings of this study revealed that the shape of the cell, cytoplasm and nucleus of erythrocytes in male adult ostriches were similar to those in other birds such as quails, chickens, Iranian green-head ducks.

  13. Labelling of red blood cells with 99m pertechnetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyth, A.; Raam, C.F.

    1979-07-01

    This paper describes a method for labelling red blood cells with 99mTc in vitro, using electrolytically generated stannous ions as the reducing agent for 99mTc-pertechnetate. A labelling of 95% was found. A method for the in vivo labelling of red blood cells is also reported. This involves an injection of a stanno-DTPA-complex followed 20 minutes later by a 99mTc-pertechnetate solution scintillation camera images show more background activity when the in vivo method of labelling is used

  14. Blood cell labeling with technetium-99m. II. Measurement of circulating blood volume by sup(99m)Tc-labeled red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, T; Yoshida, H; Matsuda, S; Kimura, H; Miura, N [Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1978-02-01

    Using a labeling method with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate to red blood cells (RBC), circulating blood volume was measured in comparison with that from /sup 51/Cr-labeled RBC method. The technique is easier than already published methods, because CIS kit for sup(99m)Tc-RBC labeling (TCK-11) became to be available recently. Two mls of ACD-anticoagulated blood were withdrawn and 0.5 ml of reducing reagent prepared just before use was added to blood, waiting 5 minutes and discarding the serum after centrifugation, then adding 100 ..mu..Ci of sup(99m)Tc. After washing the labeled cells by isotonic saline, cells were re-suspended in 10 ml of saline and injected to the subject. Blood specimen was obtained 10, 30, 60 and 120 minutes after infusion and blood volume was calculated by the usual way. Circulating blood volume by sup(99m)Tc was well correlated with that by /sup 51/Cr (=0.98, p 0.01), however, the value calculated from sup(99m)Tc were 4.8 percent higher than those by /sup 51/Cr, which suggested the elution of sup(99m)Tc from labeled RBC. sup(99m)Tc method has the advantages that higher radioactivity can be obtained in small amount of blood, which is useful in the determination of blood volume in children or in small animals in the laboratory. The measurement of blood volume of the mouse was done by using sup(99m)Tc method. The results were 1.70 +- 0.06 ml (6.35 +- 0.18%/gm), which coincided with the values reported previously. Because of it's short half life and low radiation dosage to the patients, sup(99m)Tc method will be recommended in the field of pediatrics or in patients with polycythemia or congestive heart failure, who are requested the repeated measurement of blood volume.

  15. Cdx2 Polymorphism Affects the Activities of Vitamin D Receptor in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines and Human Breast Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Benedetto, Anna; Korita, Etleva; Goeman, Frauke; Sacconi, Andrea; Biagioni, Francesca; Blandino, Giovanni; Strano, Sabrina; Muti, Paola; Mottolese, Marcella; Falvo, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D plays a role in cancer development and acts through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). It regulates the action of hormone responsive genes and is involved in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and apoptosis. VDR is a critical component of the vitamin D pathway and different common single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism can play an important role in breast cancer, modulating the activity of VDR. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between the Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and the activities of VDR in human breast cancer cell lines and carcinomas breast patients. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and antiproliferative effects of vitamin D treatment were investigated in a panel of estrogen receptor-positive (MCF7 and T-47D) and estrogen receptor-negative (MDA-MB-231, SUM 159PT, SK-BR-3, BT549, MDA-MB-468, HCC1143, BT20 and HCC1954) human breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the potential relationship among Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and a number of biomarkers used in clinical management of breast cancer was assessed in an ad hoc set of breast cancer cases. Vitamin D treatment efficacy was found to be strongly dependent on the Cdx2 VDR status in ER-negative breast cancer cell lines tested. In our series of breast cancer cases, the results indicated that patients with variant homozygote AA were associated with bio-pathological characteristics typical of more aggressive tumours, such as ER negative, HER2 positive and G3. Our results may suggest a potential effect of Cdx2 VDR polymorphism on the efficacy of vitamin D treatment in aggressive breast cancer cells (estrogen receptor negative). These results suggest that Cdx2 polymorphism may be a potential biomarker for vitamin D treatment in breast cancer, independently of the VDR receptor expression. PMID:25849303

  16. Cdx2 polymorphism affects the activities of vitamin D receptor in human breast cancer cell lines and human breast carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Pulito

    Full Text Available Vitamin D plays a role in cancer development and acts through the vitamin D receptor (VDR. It regulates the action of hormone responsive genes and is involved in cell cycle regulation, differentiation and apoptosis. VDR is a critical component of the vitamin D pathway and different common single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism can play an important role in breast cancer, modulating the activity of VDR. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between the Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and the activities of VDR in human breast cancer cell lines and carcinomas breast patients. Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and antiproliferative effects of vitamin D treatment were investigated in a panel of estrogen receptor-positive (MCF7 and T-47D and estrogen receptor-negative (MDA-MB-231, SUM 159PT, SK-BR-3, BT549, MDA-MB-468, HCC1143, BT20 and HCC1954 human breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the potential relationship among Cdx2 VDR polymorphism and a number of biomarkers used in clinical management of breast cancer was assessed in an ad hoc set of breast cancer cases. Vitamin D treatment efficacy was found to be strongly dependent on the Cdx2 VDR status in ER-negative breast cancer cell lines tested. In our series of breast cancer cases, the results indicated that patients with variant homozygote AA were associated with bio-pathological characteristics typical of more aggressive tumours, such as ER negative, HER2 positive and G3. Our results may suggest a potential effect of Cdx2 VDR polymorphism on the efficacy of vitamin D treatment in aggressive breast cancer cells (estrogen receptor negative. These results suggest that Cdx2 polymorphism may be a potential biomarker for vitamin D treatment in breast cancer, independently of the VDR receptor expression.

  17. Polymorphous silicon thin films produced in dusty plasmas: application to solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere; Chaabane, N; Kharchenko, A V; Tchakarov, S

    2004-01-01

    We summarize our current understanding of the optimization of PIN solar cells produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition from silane-hydrogen mixtures. To increase the deposition rate, the discharge is operated under plasma conditions close to powder formation, where silicon nanocrystals contribute to the deposition of so-called polymorphous silicon thin films. We show that the increase in deposition rate can be achieved via an accurate control of the plasma parameters. However, this also results in a highly defective interface in the solar cells due to the bombardment of the P-layer by positively charged nanocrystals during the deposition of the I-layer. We show that decreasing the ion energy by increasing the total pressure or by using silane-helium mixtures allows us to increase both the deposition rate and the solar cells efficiency, as required for cost effective thin film photovoltaics

  18. Structural Changes in the Surface of Red Blood Cell Membranes during Long-Term Donor Blood Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study changes in the surface of red blood cell membranes of donor blood at the macro- and ultrastructural level during its storage for 30 days and to evaluate the functional state of the red blood cell membrane during the whole storage period. Material and methods. The investigation was conducted on human whole blood and packed red blood cells placed in the specialized packs containing the preservative CPDA-1, by using calibrated electroporation and atomic force microscopy and measuring plasma pH. Conclusion. The long-term, up to 30-day, storage of whole blood and packed red blood cells at 4°C was attended by lower plasma pH and increased hemolysis rate constant during calibrated electroporation and by the development of oxidative processes. The hemolysis rate constant was also higher in the packed red blood cells than that in the whole blood. On days 5—6, the membrane structure showed defects that developed, as the blood was stored, and caused irreversible cell membrane damage by day 30. Key words: donor blood, red blood cell membranes, atomic force microscopy.

  19. Daily variation in radiosensitivity of circulating blood cells and bone marrow cell density in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabatabai, R.N.

    1984-01-01

    Mice on a 12/12 light/dark cycle were bled during a twenty-four hour period each week for eight weeks to establish daily values of circulating blood cells. No significant daily variation was found in total red blood cells, hematocrit, or percentage of reticulocytes. A significant (P < 0.001) daily variation was found in total white blood cells, with the minimum occurring at 8 PM and the maximum occurring during the daylight hours from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. Mice were then exposed to 0 R, 20 R, 50 R, or 100 R of x-radiation to determine what dose significantly reduces the total white cell count in circulating blood. It was found that 100 R significantly (P < .05) reduces the total white cell count over a four week period post-exposure. To determine if circulating blood cells and bone marrow cells show a diurnal radiosensitivity, mice were exposed to 100 R or 200 R of x-radiation at noon or midnight. Hematocrits, reticulocyte and white blood cell counts, daily white blood cell rhythm, and bone marrow cell density indicate that these mice were more radiosensitive at night

  20. A Polymorphism within the Internal Fusion Loop of the Ebola Virus Glycoprotein Modulates Host Cell Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Markus; Crone, Lisa; Dietzel, Erik; Paijo, Jennifer; González-Hernández, Mariana; Nehlmeier, Inga; Kalinke, Ulrich; Becker, Stephan; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    The large scale of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa in 2013-2016 raised the question whether the host cell interactions of the responsible Ebola virus (EBOV) strain differed from those of other ebolaviruses. We previously reported that the glycoprotein (GP) of the virus circulating in West Africa in 2014 (EBOV2014) exhibited reduced ability to mediate entry into two nonhuman primate (NHP)-derived cell lines relative to the GP of EBOV1976. Here, we investigated the molecular determinants underlying the differential entry efficiency. We found that EBOV2014-GP-driven entry into diverse NHP-derived cell lines, as well as human monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells, was reduced compared to EBOV1976-GP, although entry into most human- and all bat-derived cell lines tested was comparable. Moreover, EBOV2014 replication in NHP but not human cells was diminished relative to EBOV1976, suggesting that reduced cell entry translated into reduced viral spread. Mutagenic analysis of EBOV2014-GP and EBOV1976-GP revealed that an amino acid polymorphism in the receptor-binding domain, A82V, modulated entry efficiency in a cell line-independent manner and did not account for the reduced EBOV2014-GP-driven entry into NHP cells. In contrast, polymorphism T544I, located in the internal fusion loop in the GP2 subunit, was found to be responsible for the entry phenotype. These results suggest that position 544 is an important determinant of EBOV infectivity for both NHP and certain human target cells. IMPORTANCE The Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa in 2013 entailed more than 10,000 deaths. The scale of the outbreak and its dramatic impact on human health raised the question whether the responsible virus was particularly adept at infecting human cells. Our study shows that an amino acid exchange, A82V, that was acquired during the epidemic and that was not observed in previously circulating viruses, increases viral entry into diverse target cells

  1. Direct detection of the AR-E211 G > A gene polymorphism from blood and tissue samples without DNA isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reptova, Silvie; Trtkova, Katerina Smesny; Kolar, Zdenek

    2014-04-01

    The pathogenesis of prostate cancer (CaP) involves alterations in a gene structure of the androgen receptor (AR). The single nucleotide polymorphism AR-E211 G > A localized in exon 1 of the AR gene (G1733A) was detected using direct polymerase chain reaction and restriction digestion (PCR-RFLP) method on blood and tissue samples without prior DNA isolation. We used blood samples of patients with a diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or CaP. From monitored group of CaP patients were selected specimen in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks with morphology of BPH and CaP. The main objective of our study was to develop a method based the direct PCR-RFLP analysis from blood and tissue without prior DNA isolation for faster genotyping analysis of a large number of samples. We found no statistically significant differences in allelic % of the AR-E211 G > A polymorphism between BPH and CaP patients (p ≤ 0.8462). Genotyping of the AR-E211 G > A variant in blood was not identical with tumor tissue genotyping analysis. Significant agreement between blood and tissue AR-E211 G > A polymorphism only in non-tumor tissue focus was confirmed. Although we analyzed a limited number of the tissue samples, we suppose that a presence of the minor allele A may be associated with cancer transformation-induced changes of the modified AR gene.

  2. Automated typing of red blood cell and platelet antigens: a whole-genome sequencing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, William J; Westhoff, Connie M; Gleadall, Nicholas S; Aguad, Maria; Smeland-Wagman, Robin; Vege, Sunitha; Simmons, Daimon P; Mah, Helen H; Lebo, Matthew S; Walter, Klaudia; Soranzo, Nicole; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Danesh, John; Roberts, David J; Watkins, Nick A; Ouwehand, Willem H; Butterworth, Adam S; Kaufman, Richard M; Rehm, Heidi L; Silberstein, Leslie E; Green, Robert C

    2018-06-01

    There are more than 300 known red blood cell (RBC) antigens and 33 platelet antigens that differ between individuals. Sensitisation to antigens is a serious complication that can occur in prenatal medicine and after blood transfusion, particularly for patients who require multiple transfusions. Although pre-transfusion compatibility testing largely relies on serological methods, reagents are not available for many antigens. Methods based on single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays have been used, but typing for ABO and Rh-the most important blood groups-cannot be done with SNP typing alone. We aimed to develop a novel method based on whole-genome sequencing to identify RBC and platelet antigens. This whole-genome sequencing study is a subanalysis of data from patients in the whole-genome sequencing arm of the MedSeq Project randomised controlled trial (NCT01736566) with no measured patient outcomes. We created a database of molecular changes in RBC and platelet antigens and developed an automated antigen-typing algorithm based on whole-genome sequencing (bloodTyper). This algorithm was iteratively improved to address cis-trans haplotype ambiguities and homologous gene alignments. Whole-genome sequencing data from 110 MedSeq participants (30 × depth) were used to initially validate bloodTyper through comparison with conventional serology and SNP methods for typing of 38 RBC antigens in 12 blood-group systems and 22 human platelet antigens. bloodTyper was further validated with whole-genome sequencing data from 200 INTERVAL trial participants (15 × depth) with serological comparisons. We iteratively improved bloodTyper by comparing its typing results with conventional serological and SNP typing in three rounds of testing. The initial whole-genome sequencing typing algorithm was 99·5% concordant across the first 20 MedSeq genomes. Addressing discordances led to development of an improved algorithm that was 99·8% concordant for the remaining 90 Med

  3. Partitioning of red blood cell aggregates in bifurcating microscale flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliviotis, E.; Sherwood, J. M.; Balabani, S.

    2017-03-01

    Microvascular flows are often considered to be free of red blood cell aggregates, however, recent studies have demonstrated that aggregates are present throughout the microvasculature, affecting cell distribution and blood perfusion. This work reports on the spatial distribution of red blood cell aggregates in a T-shaped bifurcation on the scale of a large microvessel. Non-aggregating and aggregating human red blood cell suspensions were studied for a range of flow splits in the daughter branches of the bifurcation. Aggregate sizes were determined using image processing. The mean aggregate size was marginally increased in the daughter branches for a range of flow rates, mainly due to the lower shear conditions and the close cell and aggregate proximity therein. A counterintuitive decrease in the mean aggregate size was apparent in the lower flow rate branches. This was attributed to the existence of regions depleted by aggregates of certain sizes in the parent branch, and to the change in the exact flow split location in the T-junction with flow ratio. The findings of the present investigation may have significant implications for microvascular flows and may help explain why the effects of physiological RBC aggregation are not deleterious in terms of in vivo vascular resistance.

  4. Prognostic significance of interleukin-7 receptor-α gene polymorphisms in allogeneic stem-cell transplantation: a confirmatory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shamim, Zaiba; Ryder, Lars P; Christensen, Ib J

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a hematopoietic cytokine essential for T-cell development in the thymus and for the maintenance of peripheral T cells. A previous study of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the exons of IL-7 receptor a-chain (IL-7Ra) in a Danish cohort of patients undergoing a...

  5. Genetic variation and epigenetic modification of the prodynorphin gene in peripheral blood cells in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addario, Claudio; Shchetynsky, Klementy; Pucci, Mariangela; Cifani, Carlo; Gunnar, Agneta; Vukojević, Vladana; Padyukov, Leonid; Terenius, Lars

    2017-06-02

    Dynorphins are critically involved in the development, maintenance and relapse of alcoholism. Alcohol-induced changes in the prodynorphin gene expression may be influenced by both gene polymorphisms and epigenetic modifications. The present study of human alcoholics aims to evaluate DNA methylation patterns in the prodynorphin gene (PDYN) promoter and to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with alcohol dependence and with altered DNA methylation. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood cells of alcoholics and healthy controls, and DNA methylation was studied in the PDYN promoter by bisulfite pyrosequencing. In alcoholics, DNA methylation increased in three of the seven CpG sites investigated, as well as in the average of the seven CpG sites. Data stratification showed lower increase in DNA methylation levels in individuals reporting craving and with higher levels of alcohol consumption. Association with alcoholism was observed for rs2235751 and the presence of the minor allele G was associated with reduced DNA methylation at PDYN promoter in females and younger subjects. Genetic and epigenetic factors within PDYN are related to risk for alcoholism, providing further evidence of its involvement on ethanol effects. These results might be of relevance for developing new biomarkers to predict disease trajectories and therapeutic outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Indium-111 oxine labelling of white blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavender, J.P.; Silvester, D.J.; Goldman, J.; Hammersmith Hospital, London

    1978-01-01

    Following work done by Professor John McAfee and Mathew Thakur at the MRS Cyclotron Unit a method is available for labelling cells with indium-111 which results in a stable intracellular marker. The method uses indium-111-8 hydroxyquinoline (111In oxine) which is a lipoid soluble complex which goes across the cell membrane and results in the deposition of indium into various subcellular structures. It has been applied to various preparations of white cells, platelets and also malignant cells. Autologous granulocytes have been used to identify inflammatory lesions in 35 patients. By similar means autologous lymphocytes can also be labelled and reinfused. Lymphocytes have been shown in animals to circulate from the blood via the lymphatic system and then returning to the blood once more. The same phenomenon can be seen in man using indium labelled lymphocytes. Lymph nodes become visible at between 12 and 18 hours and recirculation of labelled cells can be shown on the blood activity curves. Certain problems arise concerning cell behaviour after labelling which appear due to irradiation of cells rather than chemical toxicity. (author)

  7. Association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease grades with the plasma cell antigen-1 (PC-1 gene polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim H. Borai

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a complicated disease linked with dietary habitats, obesity, and a range of comorbidities correlated with insulin resistance.Although environmental parameters are essential in deciding risk of the disease, proofs from previous reports sustain the hypothesis that genetics are responsible for NAFLD developmentand progression. Plasma cell antigen-1 (PC-1 and its gene polymorphism are associated with NAFLD progression. Consequently, the object of this study was to detect the usefulness of PC-1 K121Q gene polymorphism in NAFLD progression. Subjects and methods: A total of 87 NAFLD patients were included in the study and subdivided ultrasonographically into 31 patients with grade 1 (mild NAFLD, 26 patients with grade 2 (moderate NAFLD and 30 patients with grade 3 (severe NAFLD, in addition to 47 normal controls. The detection of PC-1 K121Q gene polymorphism was accomplished by using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-PCR. Results: Lipid profile parameters were associated with the incidence of NAFLD. AlthoughPC-1 gene polymorphism didnot significantly change in parallel with NAFLD grades, PC-1 at the genetic and protein level was significantly associated with triacylglycerollevels in NAFLD patients. Conclusion: Lipid profile indices are risk factors for the incidence of NAFLD. Triacylglycerol (TAG level is the hall-mark in the NAFLD pathogenesis and in the predisposition of PC-1 gene polymorphism. Keywords: NAFLD, Triacylglycerol (TAG, Plasma cell antigen-1 (PC-1

  8. Laser-photophoretic migration and fractionation of human blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monjushiro, Hideaki; Tanahashi, Yuko; Watarai, Hitoshi, E-mail: watarai@chem.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2013-05-13

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •RBCs were migrated faster than WBCs and blood pellets by laser photophoresis. •Photophoretic efficiency of RBC and WBC was simulated by the Mie scattering theory. •Spontaneous orientation of RBC parallel to the migration direction was elucidated. •Laser photophoretic separation of RBC and WBC was possible in a tip flow system. -- Abstract: Laser photophoretic migration behavior of human blood cells in saline solution was investigated under the irradiation of Nd:YAG laser beam (532 nm) in the absence and the presence of the flow in a fused silica capillary. Red blood cells (RBC) were migrated faster than white blood cells (WBC) and blood pellets to the direction of propagation of laser light. The observed photophoretic velocity of RBC was about 11 times faster than those of others. This was understood from the larger photophoretic efficiency of RBC than that of WBC, which was simulated based on the Mie scattering theory. Furthermore, it was found that, during the photophoretic migration, RBCs spontaneously orientated parallel to the migration direction so as to reduce the drag force. Finally, it was demonstrated that RBC and WBC were separated in a micro-channel flow system by the laser photophoresis.

  9. Laser-photophoretic migration and fractionation of human blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monjushiro, Hideaki; Tanahashi, Yuko; Watarai, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •RBCs were migrated faster than WBCs and blood pellets by laser photophoresis. •Photophoretic efficiency of RBC and WBC was simulated by the Mie scattering theory. •Spontaneous orientation of RBC parallel to the migration direction was elucidated. •Laser photophoretic separation of RBC and WBC was possible in a tip flow system. -- Abstract: Laser photophoretic migration behavior of human blood cells in saline solution was investigated under the irradiation of Nd:YAG laser beam (532 nm) in the absence and the presence of the flow in a fused silica capillary. Red blood cells (RBC) were migrated faster than white blood cells (WBC) and blood pellets to the direction of propagation of laser light. The observed photophoretic velocity of RBC was about 11 times faster than those of others. This was understood from the larger photophoretic efficiency of RBC than that of WBC, which was simulated based on the Mie scattering theory. Furthermore, it was found that, during the photophoretic migration, RBCs spontaneously orientated parallel to the migration direction so as to reduce the drag force. Finally, it was demonstrated that RBC and WBC were separated in a micro-channel flow system by the laser photophoresis

  10. Determination of blood cell subtype concentrations from frozen whole blood samples using TruCount beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenskiöld, Cecilia; Mellgren, Karin; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Bemark, Mats

    2016-06-24

    In many studies it would be advantageous if blood samples could be collected and analyzed using flow cytometry at a later stage. Ideally, sample collection should involve little hands-on time, allow for long-term storage, and minimally influence the samples. Here we establish a flow cytometry antibody panel that can be used to determine granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocyte subset concentrations in fresh and frozen whole blood using TruCount technology. The panel can be used on fresh whole-blood samples as well as whole-blood samples that have been frozen after mixing with 10% DMSO. Concentrations in frozen and fresh sample is highly correlated both when frozen within 4 h and the day after collection (r ≥ 0.98), and the estimated concentration in frozen samples was between 91 and 94% of that in fresh samples for all cell types. Using this method whole-blood samples can be frozen using a simple preparation method, and stored long-term before accurate determination of cell concentration. This allows for standardized analysis of the samples at a reference laboratory in multi-center studies. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  11. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Generation from Blood Cells Using Sendai Virus and Centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Yeri Alice; Nam, Yoojun; Ju, Ji Hyeon

    2016-12-21

    The recent development of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) proved that mature somatic cells can return to an undifferentiated, pluripotent state. Now, reprogramming is done with various types of adult somatic cells: keratinocytes, urine cells, fibroblasts, etc. Early experiments were usually done with dermal fibroblasts. However, this required an invasive surgical procedure to obtain fibroblasts from the patients. Therefore, suspension cells, such as blood and urine cells, were considered ideal for reprogramming because of the convenience of obtaining the primary cells. Here, we report an efficient protocol for iPSC generation from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). By plating the transduced PBMCs serially to a new, matrix-coated plate using centrifugation, this protocol can easily provide iPSC colonies. This method is also applicable to umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs). This study presents a simple and efficient protocol for the reprogramming of PBMCs and CBMCs.

  12. Rates of Blood Formation and of Blood-Cell Depletion and Recovery after Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patt, H. M. [University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1967-07-15

    During the past decade or so, the study of radiation effects on cell renewal systems has moved more and more from the realm of description to that of analysis. There are several reasons for this development and paramount among these has been the introduction of techniques for study of the life history of organized cell populations, and the radiation survival kinetics of their components . In this paper I wish first to examine some basic parameters of normal haematopoiesis that are pertinent to understanding' radiation effects, and then to consider the radiosensitivity of blood cells as individual entities and as components of organized systems.

  13. Nanoparticle encapsulation in red blood cells enables blood-pool magnetic particle imaging hours after injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmer, J; Gleich, B; Borgert, J; Antonelli, A; Sfara, C; Magnani, M; Tiemann, B; Weizenecker, J

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new medical imaging approach that is based on the nonlinear magnetization response of super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) injected into the blood stream. To date, real-time MPI of the bolus passage of an approved MRI SPIO contrast agent injected into the tail vein of living mice has been demonstrated. However, nanoparticles are rapidly removed from the blood stream by the mononuclear phagocyte system. Therefore, imaging applications for long-term monitoring require the repeated administration of bolus injections, which complicates quantitative comparisons due to the temporal variations in concentration. Encapsulation of SPIOs into red blood cells (RBCs) has been suggested to increase the blood circulation time of nanoparticles. This work presents first evidence that SPIO-loaded RBCs can be imaged in the blood pool of mice several hours after injection using MPI. This finding is supported by magnetic particle spectroscopy performed to quantify the iron concentration in blood samples extracted from the mice 3 and 24 h after injection of SPIO-loaded RBCs. Based on these results, new MPI applications can be envisioned, such as permanent 3D real-time visualization of the vessel tree during interventional procedures, bleeding monitoring after stroke, or long-term monitoring and treatment control of cardiovascular diseases. (paper)

  14. White blood cell counting analysis of blood smear images using various segmentation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safuan, Syadia Nabilah Mohd; Tomari, Razali; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Othman, Nurmiza

    2017-09-01

    In white blood cell (WBC) diagnosis, the most crucial measurement parameter is the WBC counting. Such information is widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of cancer therapy and to diagnose several hidden infection within human body. The current practice of manual WBC counting is laborious and a very subjective assessment which leads to the invention of computer aided system (CAS) with rigorous image processing solution. In the CAS counting work, segmentation is the crucial step to ensure the accuracy of the counted cell. The optimal segmentation strategy that can work under various blood smeared image acquisition conditions is remain a great challenge. In this paper, a comparison between different segmentation methods based on color space analysis to get the best counting outcome is elaborated. Initially, color space correction is applied to the original blood smeared image to standardize the image color intensity level. Next, white blood cell segmentation is performed by using combination of several color analysis subtraction which are RGB, CMYK and HSV, and Otsu thresholding. Noises and unwanted regions that present after the segmentation process is eliminated by applying a combination of morphological and Connected Component Labelling (CCL) filter. Eventually, Circle Hough Transform (CHT) method is applied to the segmented image to estimate the number of WBC including the one under the clump region. From the experiment, it is found that G-S yields the best performance.

  15. Alterations of red blood cell metabolome in overhydrated hereditary stomatocytosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darghouth, D.; Koehl, B.; Heilier, J.F.; Madalinski, G.; Bovee, P.H.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.; Delaunay, J.; Junot, C.; Romeo, P.H.

    2011-01-01

    Overhydrated hereditary stomatocytosis, clinically characterized by hemolytic anemia, is a rare disorder of the erythrocyte membrane permeability to monovalent cations, associated with mutations in the Rh-associated glycoprotein gene. We assessed the red blood cell metabolome of 4 patients with this

  16. effects of septrin administration on blood cells parameters in humans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    honey

    2014-03-31

    Mar 31, 2014 ... RESEARCH PAPER. EFFECTS OF SEPTRIN ADMINISTRATION ON BLOOD CELLS PARAMETERS IN. HUMANS. *1Onyebuagu P.C., 2Kiridi K. and 1Pughikumo D.T.. 1Department of Human Physiology, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa, Nigeria. 2Department of Radiology, Niger. Delta University, Bayelsa ...

  17. Sorting of White Blood Cells in a Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Robert; Chan, Shirley; Gabel, Chris; Austin, Robert

    1997-03-01

    White blood cells represent a heterogenous population of differentially sticky and deformable objects. We examine here experiemnts where the hydrodynamic flow of such a population in a lattice of obstacles results in the fractionation of the objects, and will present modeling of the observed fractionation of the objects.

  18. Cord Blood Stem Cell Procurement in Minority Donors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ratanatharathorn, Voravit

    2008-01-01

    ... of building minority CBU inventory. This final annual report is to give the report of the transplantation outcomes of African/American CBU recipients compared with other racial groups. This analysis is limited to those patients who have received an allogeneic cord blood stem cell transplantation at Karmanos Cancer Center.

  19. The effects of cryopreservation on red blood cell rheologic properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, Sandra; Lagerberg, Johan W. M.; Graaff, Reindert; Rakhorst, Gerhard; van Oeveren, Willem

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In transfusion medicine, frozen red blood cells (RBCs) are an alternative for liquid-stored RBCs. Little is known about the rheologic properties (i.e., aggregability and deformability) of thawed RBCs. In this study the rheologic properties of high-glycerol frozen RBCs and postthaw stored

  20. Characteristic point algorithm in laser ektacytometry of red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, S. Yu.; Ustinov, V. D.

    2018-01-01

    We consider the problem of measuring red blood cell deformability by laser diffractometry in shear flow (ektacytometry). A new equation is derived that relates the parameters of the diffraction pattern to the width of the erythrocyte deformability distribution. The numerical simulation method shows that this equation provides a higher accuracy of measurements in comparison with the analogous equation obtained by us earlier.

  1. Red blood cell antibodies in pregnancy and their clinical consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordvall, Maria; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to determine clinical consequences of various specificities for the infant/fetus. The population was patients referred between 1998 and 2005 to the tertiary center because of detected red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization. Altogether 455 infants were delivered by 390 alloimmuniz...

  2. Red blood cell transfusion during septic shock in the ICU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Smith, S H; Carlsen, S

    2012-01-01

    Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) remains controversial in patients with septic shock, but current practice is unknown. Our aim was to evaluate RBC transfusion practice in septic shock in the intensive care unit (ICU), and patient characteristics and outcome associated with RBC transfusion....

  3. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section 864.6160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual...

  4. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section 864.5240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices...

  5. Red blood cells intended for transfusion : quality criteria revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogman, CF; Meryman, HT

    Great variation exists with respect to viability and function of fresh and stored red blood cells (RBCs) as well as of the contents of RBC hemoglobin (Hb) in individual units. Improved technology is available for the preparation as well as the storage of RBCs. The authors raise the question whether

  6. Assessment of Red Blood Cell Parameters and Peripheral Smear at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cold agglutination disease (CAD) is characterized by an auto‑antibody which is able to agglutinate red blood cells (RBCs) at temperatures lower than that of the body, and subsequently to activate the complement system responsible for lysis of RBCs. Patients show hemolytic anemia of varying degrees of severity, which ...

  7. Of macrophages and red blood cells; a complex love story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Back, Djuna Z.; Kostova, Elena B.; van Kraaij, Marian; van den Berg, Timo K.; van Bruggen, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages tightly control the production and clearance of red blood cells (RBC). During steady state hematopoiesis, approximately 10(10) RBC are produced per hour within erythroblastic islands in humans. In these erythroblastic islands, resident bone marrow macrophages provide erythroblasts with

  8. The in-vitro study of human blood leukemic cells by pulsed NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulkarnaen, M.; Munawir; Wibowo, Tono; Suyitno, Gogot

    1983-01-01

    The diagram of leukemic cells in human blood has been studied by using the NMR longitudinal relaxation technique. The observation was treated in whole blood, serum and blood cell. Every result was compared with previous observation and show that the values of the proton longitudinal relaxation in the leukemic whole blood almost twice or more that of normal blood, while in the serum and the blood cell, the values are nearly the same. (author)

  9. Photoacoustic measurements of red blood cell oxygen saturation in blood bags in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ruben N.; Bagga, Karan; Douplik, Alexandre; Acker, Jason P.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2017-03-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a critical component of the health care services. RBCs are stored in blood bags in hypothermic temperatures for a maximum of 6 weeks post donation. During this in vitro storage period, RBCs have been documented to undergo changes in structure and function due to mechanical and biochemical stress. Currently, there are no assessment methods that monitor the quality of RBCs within blood bags stored for transfusion. Conventional assessment methods require the extraction of samples, consequently voiding the sterility of the blood bags and potentially rendering them unfit for transfusions. It is hypothesized that photoacoustic (PA) technology can provide a rapid and non-invasive indication of RBC quality. In this study, a novel PA setup was developed for the acquisition of oxygen saturation (SO2) of two blood bags in situ. These measurements were taken throughout the lifespan of the blood bags (42 days) and compared against the clinical gold standard method of the blood gas analyzer (BGA). SO2 values of the blood bags increased monotonically throughout the storage period. A strong correlation between PA SO2 and BGA SO2 was found, however, PA values were on average 3.5% lower. Both techniques found the bags to increase by an SO2 of approximately 20%, and measured very similar rates of SO2 change. Future work will be focused on determining the cause of discrepancy between SO2 values acquired from PA versus BGA, as well as establishing links between the measured SO2 increase and other changes in RBC in situ.

  10. Effect of warming and flow rate conditions of blood warmers on red blood cell integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, T G; Pruneau, D; Dorval, J; Thibault, L; Fisette, J-F; Bédard, S K; Jacques, A; Beauregard, P

    2016-11-01

    Fluid warmers are routinely used to reduce the risk of hypothermia and cardiac complications associated with the infusion of cold blood products. However, warming blood products could generate haemolysis. This study was undertaken to compare the impact of temperature of blood warmers on the per cent haemolysis of packed red blood cells (RBCs) heated at different flow rates as well as non-flow conditions. Infusion warmers used were calibrated at 41·5°C ± 0·5°C and 37·5°C ± 0·5°C. Cold RBC units stored at 4°C in AS-3 (n = 30), aged 30-39 days old, were divided into half units before being allocated under two different scenarios (i.e. infusion pump or syringe). Blood warmers were effective to warm cold RBCs to 37·5°C or 41·5°C when used in conjunction with an infusion pump at flow rate up to 600 ml/h. However, when the warmed blood was held in a syringe for various periods of time, such as may occur in neonatal transfusions, the final temperature was below the expected requirements with measurement as low as 33·1°C. Increasing the flow with an infusion pump increased haemolysis in RBCs from 0·2% to up to 2·1% at a flow rate of 600 ml/h regardless of the warming device used (P < 0·05). No relevant increase of haemolysis was observed using a syringe. The use of a blood warmer adjusted to 41·5°C is probably the best choice for reducing the risk of hypothermia for the patient without generating haemolysis. However, we should be cautious with the use of an infusion pump for RBC transfusion, particularly at high flow rates. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  11. Cellular function reinstitution of offspring red blood cells cloned from the sickle cell disease patient blood post CRISPR genome editing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Wen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickle cell disease (SCD is a disorder of red blood cells (RBCs expressing abnormal hemoglobin-S (HbS due to genetic inheritance of homologous HbS gene. However, people with the sickle cell trait (SCT carry a single allele of HbS and do not usually suffer from SCD symptoms, thus providing a rationale to treat SCD. Methods To validate gene therapy potential, hematopoietic stem cells were isolated from the SCD patient blood and treated with CRISPR/Cas9 approach. To precisely dissect genome-editing effects, erythroid progenitor cells were cloned from single colonies of CRISPR-treated cells and then expanded for simultaneous gene, protein, and cellular function studies. Results Genotyping and sequencing analysis revealed that the genome-edited erythroid progenitor colonies were converted to SCT genotype from SCD genotype. HPLC protein assays confirmed reinstallation of normal hemoglobin at a similar level with HbS in the cloned genome-edited erythroid progenitor cells. For cell function evaluation, in vitro RBC differentiation of the cloned erythroid progenitor cells was induced. As expected, cell sickling assays indicated function reinstitution of the genome-edited offspring SCD RBCs, which became more resistant to sickling under hypoxia condition. Conclusions This study is an exploration of genome editing of SCD HSPCs.

  12. Substrate and p-layer effects on polymorphous silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolmasov S.N.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of textured transparent conducting oxide (TCO substrate and p-layer on the performance of single-junction hydrogenated polymorphous silicon (pm-Si:H solar cells has been addressed. Comparative studies were performed using p-i-n devices with identical i/n-layers and back reflectors fabricated on textured Asahi U-type fluorine-doped SnO2, low-pressure chemical vapor deposited (LPCVD boron-doped ZnO and sputtered/etched aluminum-doped ZnO substrates. The p-layers were hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbon and microcrystalline silicon oxide. As expected, the type of TCO and p-layer both have a great influence on the initial conversion efficiency of the solar cells. However they have no effect on the defect density of the pm-Si:H absorber layer.

  13. A polymorphism in the splice donor site of ZNF419 results in the novel renal cell carcinoma-associated minor histocompatibility antigen ZAPHIR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Broen

    Full Text Available Nonmyeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT can induce remission in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC, but this graft-versus-tumor (GVT effect is often accompanied by graft-versus-host disease (GVHD. Here, we evaluated minor histocompatibility antigen (MiHA-specific T cell responses in two patients with metastatic RCC who were treated with reduced-intensity conditioning SCT followed by donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI. One patient had stable disease and emergence of SMCY.A2-specific CD8+ T cells was observed after DLI with the potential of targeting SMCY-expressing RCC tumor cells. The second patient experienced partial regression of lung metastases from whom we isolated a MiHA-specific CTL clone with the capability of targeting RCC cell lines. Whole genome association scanning revealed that this CTL recognizes a novel HLA-B7-restricted MiHA, designated ZAPHIR, resulting from a polymorphism in the splice donor site of the ZNF419 gene. Tetramer analysis showed that emergence of ZAPHIR-specific CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood occurred in the absence of GVHD. Furthermore, the expression of ZAPHIR in solid tumor cell lines indicates the involvement of ZAPHIR-specific CD8+ T cell responses in selective GVT immunity. These findings illustrate that the ZNF419-encoded MiHA ZAPHIR is an attractive target for specific immunotherapy after allogeneic SCT.

  14. Red blood cell-deformability measurement: review of techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musielak, M

    2009-01-01

    Cell-deformability characterization involves general measurement of highly complex relationships between cell biology and physical forces to which the cell is subjected. The review takes account of the modern technical solutions simulating the action of the force applied to the red blood cell in macro- and microcirculation. Diffraction ektacytometers and rheoscopes measure the mean deformability value for the total red blood cell population investigated and the deformation distribution index of individual cells, respectively. Deformation assays of a whole single cell are possible by means of optical tweezers. The single cell-measuring setups for micropipette aspiration and atomic force microscopy allow conducting a selective investigation of deformation parameters (e.g., cytoplasm viscosity, viscoelastic membrane properties). The distinction between instrument sensitivity to various RBC-rheological features as well as the influence of temperature on measurement are discussed. The reports quoted confront fascinating possibilities of the techniques with their medical applications since the RBC-deformability has the key position in the etiology of a wide range of conditions.

  15. Hematology, cytochemistry and ultrastructure of blood cells in fishing cat (Felis viverrina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihirunkit, Kreangsak; Salakij, Chaleow; Apibal, Suntaree; Narkkong, Nual Anong

    2007-06-01

    Hematological, cytochemical and ultrastructural features of blood cells in fishing cat (Felis viverrina) were evaluated using complete blood cell counts with routine and cytochemical blood stains, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. No statistically significant difference was found in different genders of this animal. Unique features of blood cells in this animal were identified in hematological, cytochemical and ultrastructural studies. This study contributes to broaden hematological resources in wildlife animals and provides a guideline for identification of blood cells in the fishing cat.

  16. Blood on the tracks: hematopoietic stem cell-endothelial cell interactions in homing and engraftment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlin, Julie R; Sporrij, Audrey; Zon, Leonard I

    2017-08-01

    Cells of the hematopoietic system undergo rapid turnover. Each day, humans require the production of about one hundred billion new blood cells for proper function. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are rare cells that reside in specialized niches and are required throughout life to produce specific progenitor cells that will replenish all blood lineages. There is, however, an incomplete understanding of the molecular and physical properties that regulate HSC migration, homing, engraftment, and maintenance in the niche. Endothelial cells (ECs) are intimately associated with HSCs throughout the life of the stem cell, from the specialized endothelial cells that give rise to HSCs, to the perivascular niche endothelial cells that regulate HSC homeostasis. Recent studies have dissected the unique molecular and physical properties of the endothelial cells in the HSC vascular niche and their role in HSC biology, which may be manipulated to enhance hematopoietic stem cell transplantation therapies.

  17. Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells. Who has the right word?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Laporta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze bioethical and legal aspects related to the cryopreservation of cord blood stem cells in Argentina. To unify definitions, the concept and variety of stem cells, together with the understanding of the means to obtain and store umbilical cord blood stem cells, are provided.  Options that arise in our country, mainly analyzing the conceptual differences underlying legal body and parts by public and private biobanks, are described. Additionally, the current Argentinean legislation and circumstances arising from a resolution which INCUCAI sought to regulate private biobanks, is analyzed. This analysis leads to thoughts on the way conflicts are solved when the health and life of people are judicialized. In this particular case, the appearance of a complex new topic which gives rise to new social and healthcare scenarios, must be further understood.

  18. Automatic analysis of microscopic images of red blood cell aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichini, Pablo A.; Larese, Mónica G.; Riquelme, Bibiana D.

    2015-06-01

    Red blood cell aggregation is one of the most important factors in blood viscosity at stasis or at very low rates of flow. The basic structure of aggregates is a linear array of cell commonly termed as rouleaux. Enhanced or abnormal aggregation is seen in clinical conditions, such as diabetes and hypertension, producing alterations in the microcirculation, some of which can be analyzed through the characterization of aggregated cells. Frequently, image processing and analysis for the characterization of RBC aggregation were done manually or semi-automatically using interactive tools. We propose a system that processes images of RBC aggregation and automatically obtains the characterization and quantification of the different types of RBC aggregates. Present technique could be interesting to perform the adaptation as a routine used in hemorheological and Clinical Biochemistry Laboratories because this automatic method is rapid, efficient and economical, and at the same time independent of the user performing the analysis (repeatability of the analysis).

  19. Uridine diphosphate glucuronide transferase 1A1FNx0128 gene polymorphism and the toxicity of irinotecan in recurrent and refractory small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim was to investigate the association between uridine diphosphate glucuronide transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1 gene promoter region polymorphism and irinotecan-related adverse effects and efficacy on recurrent and refractory small cell lung cancer (SCLC. Materials and Methods: A total of 31 patients with recurrent and refractory SCLC were enrolled in this study from June 2012 to August 2013 and received at least two cycles of single-agent irinotecan chemotherapy. The efficacy and adverse effects of irinotecan were evaluated. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and direct sequencing method was employed to test UGT1A1FNx0128 polymorphism, thus analyzing the correlation between UGT1A1FNx0128 polymorphism and irinotecan-related side-effects and efficacy. Results: A total of 25 cases (80.6% were UGT1A1FNx0128 wild-type (TA 6 /(TA 6 ; 6 cases (19.4% were heterozygous mutant (TA 6 /(TA 7 , no homozygous mutant genotype (TA 7 /(TA 7 was found. The incidences of grade 3/4 neutropenia, diarrhea and thrombocytopenia were 35.5%, 25.8% and 22.6% in all the patients, respectively. The incidence of 3/4 adverse effects in patients with genotype (TA 6 /(TA 6 and heterozygous (TA 6 /(TA 7 had no statistical difference (P > 0.05 for all. The overall response rate (ORR was 32.3%. Median progression free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS were 4 months and 7.5 months in all patients, respectively. There was no statistical difference in ORR, PFS and OS between genotype (TA 6 /(TA 6 patients and heterozygous (TA 6 /(TA 7 patients. Conclusion: Irinotecan showed efficacy in patients with recurrent and refractory SCLC; UGT1A1 FNx01 28 polymorphism failed to predict the incidence of serious adverse effects and efficacy of irinotecan.

  20. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) gene polymorphisms are associated with essential hypertension risk and blood pressure levels in Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Peng; Peng, Yan; Li, Li; Chu, Wei; Wang, Xukai

    2018-01-16

    In this case-control study, 246 EH patients and 157 healthy controls were selected from Chinese Han population to explore the associations between the fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) gene polymorphisms and essential hypertension (EH).The SequenomMassarray system was used for the genotyping of three FGF23 gene Tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms, namely rs7955866, rs13312756, and rs3812822. The primers were designed by Assay Designer 3.1 software, and then the samples were added to a 384-well plate for the polymerase chain reaction amplification, shrimp alkaline phosphatase reaction, and desalting after extension. The distributions of the alleles, genotypes, and haplotypes were compared between the two groups. Confounding factors (sex, age, BMI, smoking, and drinking) were adjusted in the non-logistic regression, and the results showed that rs7955866 and rs3812822 polymorphisms were independently associated with the risk of developing EH (P control group showed that carrying rs7955866 A allele (P = 0.031) and rs3812822 C allele (P = 0.025) was associated with the increase of systolic blood pressure (SBP). The insulin (INS) level in the peripheral blood was significantly different between the case and control groups (P = 0.014). After confounding factors were excluded, the results showed that the serum INS level was also an independent risk factor of developing EH (P = 0.044; OR = 1.604, 95%CI: 1.014-2.539). In summary, our results suggest that FGF23 gene polymorphisms are associated with the risk of developing EH in Chinese Han population.

  1. ASSOCIATION OF BIRTH ASPHYXIA WITH CORD BLOOD NUCLEATED RED BLOOD CELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima Shankar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Asphyxia can lead to severe hypoxic ischaemic organ damage in new-borns which may cause postnatal manifestation of hypoxicischaemic encephalopathy. Studies have found that the Apgar score failed to predict specific neurologic outcomes of the infants. Increased cord blood nucleated red blood cell in term neonates is an indicator of chronic intrauterine hypoxia. We set out to assess the role of nucleated RBC as a non-invasive, easy, cheap and at the same time early biochemical means of asphyxia diagnosis in our clinical setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS All inborn babies with Apgar scores <7 at 1 and 5 minutes of life were reviewed. Relevant information from mother case sheet were obtained. Cord blood samples was drawn and sent for blood gas analysis and number of NRBCs/100 white blood cells (WBC was determined using Leishman stain. RESULTS Our study proves the relevance of increase nucleated RBC in terms of early detection of birth asphyxia. Most common cause of birth asphyxia found was meconium aspiration. No co-relation was found with chorioamnionitis or maternal obstetrical history. CONCLUSION Many specific biomarkers are being investigated now a day for early detection of birth asphyxia. Umbilical cord pH is costly and may be underestimated in birth asphyxia. In our study, the elevated cord blood nRBC count was shown to be a good predictor of perinatal asphyxia. Since, it is cost-effective and does not require any special expertise or any high-tech facilities, it may be a useful, reliable, inexpensive and easily available marker to evaluate perinatal asphyxia. Hence, increase nucleated RBC has an important role in diagnosing and predicting the outcome of perinatal asphyxia.

  2. Current state of the art of blood cell labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.; Meinken, G.E.; Gil, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    An update on some recent developments in the area of blood cell labeling is provided. Specific topics covered include red cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc, platelet labeling using an antiplatelet monoclonal antibody, and the labeling of leukocytes with /sup 99m/Tc. Mechanistic information, where available, is discussed. A critical evaluation of current techniques, their pitfalls as well as advantages, and the problems that remain to be resolved, is presented. The promise shown by recent results using the antibody approach for cell labeling is emphasized. An assessment of the progress made in these areas is presented. 38 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  3. A preliminary perusal of ACE I/D polymorphism with adiposity traits and blood pressure among the AO NAGAS: Does gender-dependent gene expression matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imkongtenla Pongen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the association of gender-dependent expression of angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphism (I/D with adiposity markers and blood pressure among AoNagas.57AoNagas[Males (n =26; Females (n = 31; Mean Age: 30.56±7.5 and 31.9 ±8.3 1]residing in Delhi were included in this cross sectionalstudy. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were taken using standardized techniques. Adiposity indices viz., BMI, WHR and WHtR were computed. Body fat percentage was assessed by bioelectricimpedance technique using Tanita Body composition analyzer (T-6360. Venous blood samples were withdrawn for DNA extraction and genotyping of ACE gene (I/D polymorphism was established by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. In female participants with DD homozygote, risk of both general and central obesity as depicted by BMI, body fat percentage, WC, WHR and WHtR were higher than ID heterozygote. Risk of hypertension was found to be greater among males with DD homozygote rather than females with DD homozygote. In males, obesity was not found to be associated with hypertension in either DD or ID genotypic variants of ACE. Whereas, in females obesity was significantly and positively correlated with hypertension in both DD and ID genotype. DD homozygous form of ACE is linked with both obesity and blood pressure in females and only with blood pressure in males. This genotype-by-gender interaction gives us a facet in understanding the complex genetic basis of adiposity and blood pressure phenotypes.

  4. Cholesterol metabolism in blood cells of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoselova, E.G.; Kulagina, T.P.; Potekhina, N.I.

    1985-01-01

    Cholesterol metabolism in blood erythrocytes and lymphocytes of irradiated rats has been investigated. It has been found that at all terms and doses of irradiation, a suppression of the synthesis of erythrocyte cholesterol is observed. The increase of cholesterol quantiy in erythrocytes upon total gamma irradiation in the 10 Gr dose possibly is the result of growth of cholesterol transfer from plasma into erythrocyte cells. The study of the cholesterol synthesis in suspension of lymphocytes elminated from peripheral blood of control and irradiated rats has shown that at irradiation doses of 4 and 10 Gr in an hour acivation of cholesterol synthesis in vitro takes places

  5. The measurement of limb blood flow using technetium-labelled red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, A; Robinson, P.J.; Wiggins, P.A.; Leveson, S.H.; Salter, M.C.P.; Matthews, I.F.; Ware, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    A method for measuring blood flow below the knee during reactive hyperaemia induced by 3 min of arterial occlusion has been developed. Subjects are positioned with lower limbs within the field of view of a gamma camera and pneumatic cuffs are placed below the knees to isolate the blood and induce a hyperaemic response. The remaining blood pool is labelled with 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled red cells. Blood flows have been derived from the initial gradients of time-activity curves and from equilibrium blood sampling. The technique has been validated using a tissue-equivalent leg phantom and peristaltic pump. The method has been applied to a small group of patients with peripheral vascular disease and to normal controls. The mean value (+-SD) of limb perfusion for normal controls was found to be 16.4+-3.0 ml/100 ml/min and for patients with intermittent claudication was 5.1+-2.6 ml/100 ml/min. Flow measurements are found to correlate with clinical findings and with symptoms. Reproducibility (established by repeated measurements) is high. The method is well tolerated even by patients suffering from rest pain. (author)

  6. Measurement of limb blood flow using technetium-labelled red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkin, A; Robinson, P.J.; Wiggins, P.A.; Leveson, S.H.; Salter, M.C.P.; Matthews, I.F.; Ware, F.M.

    1986-05-01

    A method for measuring blood flow below the knee during reactive hyperaemia induced by 3 min of arterial occlusion has been developed. Subjects are positioned with lower limbs within the field of view of a gamma camera and pneumatic cuffs are placed below the knees to isolate the blood and induce a hyperaemic response. The remaining blood pool is labelled with /sup 99/Tcsup(m)-labelled red cells. Blood flows have been derived from the initial gradients of time-activity curves and from equilibrium blood sampling. The technique has been validated using a tissue-equivalent leg phantom and peristaltic pump. The method has been applied to a small group of patients with peripheral vascular disease and to normal controls. The mean value (+-SD) of limb perfusion for normal controls was found to be 16.4 +- 3.0 ml/100 ml/min and for patients with intermittent claudication was 5.1 +- 2.6 ml/100 ml/min. Flow measurements are found to correlate with clinical findings and with symptoms. Reproducibility (established by repeated measurements) is high. The method is well tolerated even by patients suffering from rest pain.

  7. Studies on sequestration of neuraminidase-treated red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simchon, S.; Jan, K.M.; Chien, S.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of reduction in the surface charge of red blood cells (RBCs) on regional blood flow and RBC distribution were studied in rats anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. RBCs were treated with neuraminidase to reduce their electrophoretic mobility by 56%. Normal and neuraminidase-treated RBCs labeled with 51Cr or 111In were injected into a femoral vein while an equal volume of blood was simultaneously withdrawn from a femoral artery. More than 70% of the neuraminidase-treated RBCs injected disappeared from the circulating blood in 30 min compared with less than 2% of normal RBCs. The relative distributions of neuraminidase-treated RBCs to normal RBCs, as determined from radioactivity counting, were significantly greater than 1 in the spleen (5.65 +/- 0.97, mean +/- SD), the liver (2.84 +/- 0.21), the lung (1.48 +/- 0.31), and the kidney (1.49 +/- 0.27), indicating a preferential trapping of neuraminidase-treated RBCs in these regions. This ratio was approximately 1 in all other organs. Regional blood flows in tissues were determined with 15-micron microspheres in the control period and after the infusion of neuraminidase-treated RBCs (experimental). Experimental-to-control blood flow ratios were 0.40 +/- 0.05 in the spleen, 0.66 +/- 0.06 in the liver, 0.78 +/- 0.03 in the lung, and 0.78 +/- 0.09 in the kidneys; this ratio was approximately 1 in all other organs. An experimental-to-control blood flow ratio less than 1 indicates a reduction in blood flow; this occurred in the same organs as those with trapping of neuraminidase-treated RBCs

  8. A cell transportation solution that preserves live circulating tumor cells in patient blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Steingrimur; Adams, Daniel L; Ershler, William B; Le, Huyen; Ho, David H

    2016-05-06

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are typically collected into CellSave fixative tubes, which kills the cells, but preserves their morphology. Currently, the clinical utility of CTCs is mostly limited to their enumeration. More detailed investigation of CTC biology can be performed on live cells, but obtaining live CTCs is technically challenging, requiring blood collection into biocompatible solutions and rapid isolation which limits transportation options. To overcome the instability of CTCs, we formulated a sugar based cell transportation solution (SBTS) that stabilizes cell viability at ambient temperature. In this study we examined the long term viability of human cancer cell lines, primary cells and CTCs in human blood samples in the SBTS for transportation purposes. Four cell lines, 5 primary human cells and purified human PBMCs were tested to determine the viability of cells stored in the transportation solution at ambient temperature for up to 7 days. We then demonstrated viability of MCF-7 cells spiked into normal blood with SBTS and stored for up to 7 days. A pilot study was then run on blood samples from 3 patients with metastatic malignancies stored with or without SBTS for 6 days. CTCs were then purified by Ficoll separation/microfilter isolation and identified using CTC markers. Cell viability was assessed using trypan blue or CellTracker™ live cell stain. Our results suggest that primary/immortalized cell lines stored in SBTS remain ~90% viable for > 72 h. Further, MCF-7 cells spiked into whole blood remain viable when stored with SBTS for up to 7 days. Finally, live CTCs were isolated from cancer patient blood samples kept in SBTS at ambient temperature for 6 days. No CTCs were isolated from blood samples stored without SBTS. In this proof of principle pilot study we show that viability of cell lines is preserved for days using SBTS. Further, this solution can be used to store patient derived blood samples for eventual isolation of viable CTCs after

  9. A cell transportation solution that preserves live circulating tumor cells in patient blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefansson, Steingrimur; Adams, Daniel L.; Ershler, William B.; Le, Huyen; Ho, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are typically collected into CellSave fixative tubes, which kills the cells, but preserves their morphology. Currently, the clinical utility of CTCs is mostly limited to their enumeration. More detailed investigation of CTC biology can be performed on live cells, but obtaining live CTCs is technically challenging, requiring blood collection into biocompatible solutions and rapid isolation which limits transportation options. To overcome the instability of CTCs, we formulated a sugar based cell transportation solution (SBTS) that stabilizes cell viability at ambient temperature. In this study we examined the long term viability of human cancer cell lines, primary cells and CTCs in human blood samples in the SBTS for transportation purposes. Four cell lines, 5 primary human cells and purified human PBMCs were tested to determine the viability of cells stored in the transportation solution at ambient temperature for up to 7 days. We then demonstrated viability of MCF-7 cells spiked into normal blood with SBTS and stored for up to 7 days. A pilot study was then run on blood samples from 3 patients with metastatic malignancies stored with or without SBTS for 6 days. CTCs were then purified by Ficoll separation/microfilter isolation and identified using CTC markers. Cell viability was assessed using trypan blue or CellTracker™ live cell stain. Our results suggest that primary/immortalized cell lines stored in SBTS remain ~90 % viable for > 72 h. Further, MCF-7 cells spiked into whole blood remain viable when stored with SBTS for up to 7 days. Finally, live CTCs were isolated from cancer patient blood samples kept in SBTS at ambient temperature for 6 days. No CTCs were isolated from blood samples stored without SBTS. In this proof of principle pilot study we show that viability of cell lines is preserved for days using SBTS. Further, this solution can be used to store patient derived blood samples for eventual isolation of viable CTCs

  10. Studies on ADCC (antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity) using sheep red blood cells as target cells, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yukinobu; Takaya, Masatoshi; Arimori, Shigeru

    1979-01-01

    A non-specific cytotoxic mediator from effector cells (human peripheral blood leukocytes) was investigated in the ADCC (antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity) system using antibody-coated sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as target cells. 51 Cr-labelled homologous (sheep) or heterologous (human) red blood cells were used as adjacent cells. Either crude lymphocyte fraction, phagocyte depleted fraction or granulocyte rich fraction separated from human peripheral leukocytes showed moderate cytotoxic effect on homologous adjacent cells, however no cytotoxic activity on heterologous adjacent cells was demonstrated in any leukocyte fraction. This suggests that the cytotoxic effects on homologous adjacent cells were resulted from the translocation of antibody molecules to adjacent cells from antibody-coated target cells. We concluded that the cytotoxic mechanism in this ADCC system was not mediated by non-specific soluble factors released from either human peripheral lymphocytes, monocytes or granulocytes. (author)

  11. Three-dimensional atomic mapping of hydrogenated polymorphous silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wanghua, E-mail: wanghua.chen@polytechnique.edu; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere [LPICM, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Université Paris-Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Pareige, Philippe [GPM, CNRS, Université et INSA de Rouen, Normandie Université, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France)

    2016-06-20

    Hydrogenated polymorphous silicon (pm-Si:H) is a nanostructured material consisting of silicon nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous silicon matrix. Its use as the intrinsic layer in thin film p-i-n solar cells has led to good cell properties in terms of stability and efficiency. Here, we have been able to assess directly the concentration and distribution of nanocrystals and impurities (dopants) in p-i-n solar cells, by using femtosecond laser-assisted atom probe tomography (APT). An effective sample preparation method for APT characterization is developed. Based on the difference in atomic density between hydrogenated amorphous and crystalline silicon, we are able to distinguish the nanocrystals from the amorphous matrix by using APT. Moreover, thanks to the three-dimensional reconstruction, we demonstrate that Si nanocrystals are homogeneously distributed in the entire intrinsic layer of the solar cell. The influence of the process pressure on the incorporation of nanocrystals and their distribution is also investigated. Thanks to APT we could determine crystalline fractions as low as 4.2% in the pm-Si:H films, which is very difficult to determine by standard techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Moreover, we also demonstrate a sharp p/i interface in our solar cells.

  12. Polymorphisms within novel risk loci for type 2 diabetes determine beta-cell function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Staiger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes arises when insulin resistance-induced compensatory insulin secretion exhausts. Insulin resistance and/or beta-cell dysfunction result from the interaction of environmental factors (high-caloric diet and reduced physical activity with a predisposing polygenic background. Very recently, genetic variations within four novel genetic loci (SLC30A8, HHEX, EXT2, and LOC387761 were reported to be more frequent in subjects with type 2 diabetes than in healthy controls. However, associations of these variations with insulin resistance and/or beta-cell dysfunction were not assessed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By genotyping of 921 metabolically characterized German subjects for the reported candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, we show that the major alleles of the SLC30A8 SNP rs13266634 and the HHEX SNP rs7923837 associate with reduced insulin secretion stimulated by orally or intravenously administered glucose, but not with insulin resistance. In contrast, the other reported type 2 diabetes candidate SNPs within the EXT2 and LOC387761 loci did not associate with insulin resistance or beta-cell dysfunction, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The HHEX and SLC30A8 genes encode for proteins that were shown to be required for organogenesis of the ventral pancreas and for insulin maturation/storage, respectively. Therefore, the major alleles of type 2 diabetes candidate SNPs within these genetic loci represent crucial alleles for beta-cell dysfunction and, thus, might confer increased susceptibility of beta-cells towards adverse environmental factors.

  13. Kinetics of heat damage autologous red blood cells. Mechanism of clearance from blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, A.M.; Ryan, P.F.J.; Klonizakis, I.; Elkon, K.B.; Lewis, S.M.; Hughes, G.R.V.; Lavender, J.P. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK))

    1982-01-01

    The kinetics of radiolabelled heat damage red cell (HDRBC) distribution have been studied in humans using a gamma camera, and compared with the kinetics of other blood cells. Liver uptake of /sup 111/In labelled HDRBC was completed within about 10 min of injection; splenic uptake was biphasic with a half time of about 5 min over the first 20 min in following injection, and a later half time much longer than this. Activity initially present in the lung fields cleared within 24 h. The rate constant of liver uptake of sup(99m)Tc labelled HDRBC and of /sup 111/In labelled platelets were very similar; the rate constants of splenic uptake of these 2 particles were also very similar up to about 20 min following injection when the splenic platelet levels became constant and the HDRBC level continued to slowly rise. Splenic uptake and blood clearance of red cells coated with IgG (IgG-RBC), in contrast to HDRBC, were monoexponential. It was concluded that: (1) the blood clearance of HDRBC was due to pooling within, and to irreversible extraction by, the spleen; (2) liver uptake of HDRBC, which was irreversible, was completed within 10 min of injection; (3) IgG-RBC clearance was due to irreversible extraction by the spleen; (4) HDRBC uptake in the lung was unrelated to reticuloendothelial function, and represented prolonged transit through the lung microvasculature.

  14. 76 FR 11491 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Request for Nominations for Voting Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... transplantation, Program priorities, research priorities, and the scope and design of the Stem Cell Therapeutic... Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Request for Nominations for Voting Members AGENCY: Health... on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. The Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation was...

  15. Hairy-cell leukemia: a rare blood disorder in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephine, F P; Nissapatorn, V

    2006-01-01

    We report a 68-year-old Indian man who was referred to the Hematology Unit for investigation for thrombocytopenia, an incidental finding during a pre-operative screening for prostatectomy. Physical examination was unremarkable. There was no splenomegaly, hepatomegaly or lymphadenopathy. Complete blood counts showed normal hemoglobin and total white cell count with moderate thrombocytopenia. Hairy-cell leukemia was diagnosed based on peripheral blood film, bone-marrow aspirate and trephine biopsy findings, supported by immunophenotyping results by flow cytometry. The purpose of this report is to create awareness of this uncommon presentation and to emphasize that a single-lineage cytopenia or absence of splenomegaly does not exclude the diagnosis of hairy-cell leukemia. Careful attention to morphological detail is important for early diagnosis, especially when low percentages of "hairy" cells are present in the peripheral blood and bone marrow. Early diagnosis is important to ensure that patients obtain maximum benefit from the newer therapeutic agents that have greatly improved the prognosis in this rare disorder.

  16. Peripheral Red Blood Cell Split Chimerism as a Consequence of Intramedullary Selective Apoptosis of Recipient Red Blood Cells in a Case of Sickle Cell Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Marziali

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Allogeneic cellular gene therapy through hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only radical cure for congenital hemoglobinopathies like thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. Persistent mixed hematopoietic chimerism (PMC has been described in thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. Here, we describe the clinical course of a 6-year-old girl who had received bone marrow transplant for sickle cell anemia. After the transplant, the patient showed 36% donor hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, whereas in the peripheral blood there was evidence of 80%  circulating donor red blood cells (RBC. The analysis of apoptosis at the Bone Marrow  level suggests that Fas might contribute to the cell death of host erythroid precursors. The increase in NK cells and the regulatory T cell population observed in this patient suggests that these cells might contribute to the condition of mixed chimerism.

  17. HIV-1 isolation from infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispinseri, Stefania; Saba, Elisa; Vicenzi, Elisa; Kootstra, Neeltje A; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) isolation from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) allows retrieval of replication-competent viral variants. In order to impose the smallest possible selective pressure on the viral isolates, isolation must be carried out in primary cultures of cells and not in tumor derived cell lines. The procedure involves culture of PBMCs from an infected patient with phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated PBMC from seronegative donors, which provide susceptible target cells for HIV replication. HIV can be isolated from the bulk population of PBMCs or after cloning of the cells to obtain viral biological clones. Viral production is determined with p24 antigen (Ag) detection assays or with reverse transcriptase (RT) activity assay. Once isolated, HIV-1 can be propagated by infecting PHA-stimulated PBMCs from healthy donors. Aliquots from culture with a high production of virus are stored for later use.

  18. Characterization of glucocerebrosidase in peripheral blood cells and cultured blastoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, J. M.; Heikoop, J.; van Weely, S.; Donker-Koopman, W. E.; Barranger, J. A.; Tager, J. M.; Schram, A. W.

    1988-01-01

    We have characterized glucocerebrosidase in various cell types of peripheral blood of control subjects and in cultured human blastoid cells. The intracellular level of glucocerebrosidase in cultured blastoid cells (10-30 nmol substrate hydrolyzed/h.mg protein) resembles closely values observed for

  19. Novel Cell Preservation Technique to Extend Bovine In Vitro White Blood Cell Viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie L Laurin

    Full Text Available Although cell-mediated immunity based diagnostics can be integral assays for early detection of various diseases of dairy cows, processing of blood samples for these tests is time-sensitive, often within 24 hours of collection, to maintain white blood cell viability. Therefore, to improve utility and practicality of such assays, the objective of this study was to assess the use of a novel white blood cell preservation technology in whole bovine blood. Blood samples from ten healthy cows were each divided into an unpreserved control sample and a test sample preserved with commercially-available cell transport medium. Samples were maintained at room temperature and stimulated with the mitogens pokeweed and concanavalinA, as well as with interleukin-12 p40. Stimulation was completed on days 1, 5, and 8 post-sampling. Viability of white blood cells was assessed through interferon gamma production determined with a commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, mononuclear cell viability was assessed with propidium iodide flow cytometry. Greater interferon gamma production was observed on days 5 and 8 post-collection in preserved samples, with both pokeweed and concanavalinA stimulating positive interferon gamma production on day 5 post-collection. A greater proportion of the amount of interferon gamma produced on day 1 continued to be produced on days 5 and 8 post-collection with concanavalinA stimulation (with or without interleukin 12 as compared to pokeweed stimulation. Additionally, viable mononuclear cells were still present at eight days post-collection, with a higher mean proportion detected at days 5 and 8 in all stimulated preserved samples. This practical and simple method to extend in vitro white blood cell viability could benefit the efficient utilization of cell-based blood tests in ruminants.

  20. Concise review: stem cell-based approaches to red blood cell production for transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Siddharth; Huang, Xiaosong; Cheng, Linzhao

    2014-03-01

    Blood transfusion is a common procedure in modern medicine, and it is practiced throughout the world; however, many countries report a less than sufficient blood supply. Even in developed countries where the supply is currently adequate, projected demographics predict an insufficient supply as early as 2050. The blood supply is also strained during occasional widespread disasters and crises. Transfusion of blood components such as red blood cells (RBCs), platelets, or neutrophils is increasingly used from the same blood unit for multiple purposes and to reduce alloimmune responses. Even for RBCs and platelets lacking nuclei and many antigenic cell-surface molecules, alloimmunity could occur, especially in patients with chronic transfusion requirements. Once alloimmunization occurs, such patients require RBCs from donors with a different blood group antigen combination, making it a challenge to find donors after every successive episode of alloimmunization. Alternative blood substitutes such as synthetic oxygen carriers have so far proven unsuccessful. In this review, we focus on current research and technologies that permit RBC production ex vivo from hematopoietic stem cells, pluripotent stem cells, and immortalized erythroid precursors.

  1. Harvesting, processing and inventory management of peripheral blood stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijovic Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available By 2003, 97% autologous transplants and 65% of allogeneic transplants in Europe used mobilised peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC. Soon after their introduction in the early 1990′s, PBSC were associated with faster haemopoietic recovery, fewer transfusions and antibiotic usage, and a shorter hospital stay. Furthermore, ease and convenience of PBSC collection made them more appealing than BM harvests. Improved survival has hitherto been demonstrated in patients with high risk AML and CML. However, the advantages of PBSC come at a price of a higher incidence of extensive chronic GVHD. In order to be present in the blood, stem cells undergo the process of "mobilisation" from their bone marrow habitat. Mobilisation, and its reciprocal process - homing - are regulated by a complex network of molecules on the surface of stem cells and stromal cells, and enzymes and cytokines released from granulocytes and osteoclasts. Knowledge of these mechanisms is beginning to be exploited for clinical purposes. In current practice, stem cell are mobilised by use of chemotherapy in conjunction with haemopoietic growth factors (HGF, or with HGF alone. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor has emerged as the single most important mobilising agent, due to its efficacy and a relative paucity of serious side effects. Over a decade of use in healthy donors has resulted in vast experience of optimal dosing and administration, and safety matters. PBSC harvesting can be performed on a variety of cell separators. Apheresis procedures are nowadays routine, but it is important to be well versed in the possible complications in order to avoid harm to the patient or donor. To ensure efficient collection, harvesting must begin when sufficient stem cells have been mobilised. A rapid, reliable, standardized blood test is essential to decide when to begin harvesting; currently, blood CD34+ cell counting by flow cytometry fulfils these criteria. Blood CD34+ cell counts strongly

  2. Aging: a portrait from gene expression profile in blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabria, Elisa; Mazza, Emilia Maria Cristina; Dyar, Kenneth Allen; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Bruseghini, Paolo; Morandi, Carlo; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Gelati, Matteo; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Bicciato, Silvio; Schiaffino, Stefano; Schena, Federico; Capelli, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    The availability of reliable biomarkers of aging is important not only to monitor the effect of interventions and predict the timing of pathologies associated with aging but also to understand the mechanisms and devise appropriate countermeasures. Blood cells provide an easily available tissue and gene expression profiles from whole blood samples appear to mirror disease states and some aspects of the aging process itself. We report here a microarray analysis of whole blood samples from two cohorts of healthy adult and elderly subjects, aged 43±3 and 68±4 years, respectively, to monitor gene expression changes in the initial phase of the senescence process. A number of significant changes were found in the elderly compared to the adult group, including decreased levels of transcripts coding for components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which correlate with a parallel decline in the maximum rate of oxygen consumption (VO2max), as monitored in the same subjects. In addition, blood cells show age-related changes in the expression of several markers of immunosenescence, inflammation and oxidative stress. These findings support the notion that the immune system has a major role in tissue homeostasis and repair, which appears to be impaired since early stages of the aging process.

  3. Reduction of prion infectivity in packed red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Rodrigo; Buytaert-Hoefen, Kimberley A.; Gonzalez-Romero, Dennisse; Castilla, Joaquin; Hansen, Eric T.; Hlavinka, Dennis; Goodrich, Raymond P.; Soto, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    The link between a new variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and the consumption of prion contaminated cattle meat as well as recent findings showing that vCJD can be transmitted by blood transfusion have raised public health concerns. Currently, a reliable test to identify prions in blood samples is not available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility to remove scrapie prion protein (PrP Sc ) and infectivity from red blood cell (RBC) suspensions by a simple washing procedure using a cell separation and washing device. The extent of prion removal was assessed by Western blot, PMCA and infectivity bioassays. Our results revealed a substantial removal of infectious prions (≥3 logs of infectivity) by all techniques used. These data suggest that a significant amount of infectivity present in RBC preparations can be removed by a simple washing procedure. This technology may lead to increased safety of blood products and reduce the risk of further propagation of prion diseases.

  4. Blood cell labeling with technetium-99m, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Tatsumi; Akizuki, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Tetsugoro; Yui, Tokuo; Miura, Nobuo

    1978-01-01

    Spleen scintigraphy was performed by the use of sup(99m)Tc-labeled red blood cells which were prepared with a kit (TCK-11 produced by CIS) and were damaged by heating for 15 min at 49.0 +- 0.5 0 C or damaged chemically by treating with bromomerculi hydroxy propane (BMHP) 1.5 mg/2 ml of blood. The images obtained by scanner and scintillation camera were both favorable, and the author decided that this method is applicable to clinical spleen scintigraphy. The spleen scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-labeled red blood cells has many merits such as it gives a less exposure dose to patients under the examination so that it makes capable of repeated examinations, it uses a less volume of blood for labeling, and the procedure is not so complicated compared with the usual methods of 51 Cr-heating or 203 Hg- (or 197 Hg-) MHP. Therefore, this method is preferable to the other usual methods. (Ueda, J.)

  5. Red cell properties after different modes of blood transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asya Makhro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Transportation of blood samples is unavoidable for assessment of specific parameters in blood of patients with rare anemias, blood doping testing or for research purposes. Despite the awareness that shipment may substantially alter multiple parameters, no study of that extend has been performed to assess these changes and optimize shipment conditions to reduce transportation-related artifacts. Here we investigate the changes in multiple parameters in blood of healthy donors over 72 hours of simulated shipment conditions. Three different anticoagulants (K3EDTA, Sodium Heparin and citrate-based CPDA for two temperatures (4oC and room temperature were tested to define the optimal transportation conditions. Parameters measured cover common cytology and biochemistry parameters (complete blood count, hematocrit, morphological examination, red blood cell (RBC volume, ion content and density, membrane properties and stability (hemolysis, osmotic fragility, membrane heat stability, patch-clamp investigations and formation of micro vesicles, Ca2+ handling, RBC metabolism, activity of numerous enzymes and O2 transport capacity. Our findings indicate that individual sets of parameter may require different shipment settings (anticoagulants, temperature. Most of the parameters except for ion (Na+, K+, Ca2+ handling and, possibly, reticulocytes counts, tend to favor transportation at 4oC. Whereas plasma and intraerythrocytic Ca2+ cannot be accurately measured in the presence of chelators such as citrate and EDTA, majority of Ca2+-dependent parameters are stabilized in CPDA samples. Even in blood samples from healthy donors transported using optimized shipment protocol the majority of parameters were stable within 24 hours, the condition that may not hold for the samples of patients with rare anemias. This implies for the as short as possible shipping using fast courier services to the closest expert laboratory at reach. Mobile laboratories or the travel of the

  6. Effects of ethanol on red blood cell rheological behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabai, M; Detterich, J A; Wenby, R B; Toth, K; Meiselman, H J

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of red wine is associated with a decreased risk of several cardiovascular diseases (e.g., coronary artery disease, stroke), but unfortunately literature reports regarding ethanol's effects on hemorheological parameters are not concordant. In the present study, red blood cell (RBC) deformability was tested via laser ektacytometry (LORCA, 0.3-30 Pa) using two approaches: 1) addition of ethanol to whole blood at 0.25%-2% followed by incubation and testing in ethanol-free LORCA medium; 2) addition of ethanol to the LORCA medium at 0.25%-6% then testing untreated native RBC in these media. The effects of ethanol on deformability for oxidatively stressed RBC were investigated as were changes of RBC aggregation (Myrenne Aggregometer) for cells in autologous plasma or 3% 70 kDa dextran. Significant dose-related increases of RBC deformability were observed at 0.25% (p health benefits of moderate wine consumption require further investigation.

  7. The DNA methylome of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yingrui; Zhu, Jingde; Tian, Geng

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in biological processes in human health and disease. Recent technological advances allow unbiased whole-genome DNA methylation (methylome) analysis to be carried out on human cells. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing at 24.7-fold coverage (12.3-fold per...... strand), we report a comprehensive (92.62%) methylome and analysis of the unique sequences in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the same Asian individual whose genome was deciphered in the YH project. PBMC constitute an important source for clinical blood tests world-wide. We found...... research and confirms new sequencing technology as a paradigm for large-scale epigenomics studies....

  8. Exploring the relationship of peripheral total bilirubin, red blood cell, and hemoglobin with blood pressure during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Tian; Yang, Song; Yang, Ya-Ming; Zhao, Hai-Long; Chen, Yan-Chun; Zhao, Xiang-Hai; Wen, Jin-Bo; Tian, Yuan-Rui; Yan, Wei-Li; Shen, Chong

    2017-11-04

    Total bilirubin is beneficial for protecting cardiovascular diseases in adults. The authors aimed to investigate the association of total bilirubin, red blood cell, and hemoglobin levels with the prevalence of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. A total of 3776 students (aged from 6 to 16 years old) were examined using cluster sampling. Pre-high blood pressure and high blood pressure were respectively defined as the point of 90th and 95th percentiles based on the Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were standardized into z-scores. Peripheral total bilirubin, red blood cell and hemoglobin levels were significantly correlated with age, and also varied with gender. Peripheral total bilirubin was negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure in 6- and 9-year-old boys, whilst positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure in the 12-year-old boys and 13- to 15-year-old girls (p0.05). Total bilirubin could be weakly correlated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as correlations varied with age and gender in children and adolescents; in turn, the increased levels of red blood cell and hemoglobin are proposed to be positively associated with the prevalence of high blood pressure. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Light induced electrical and macroscopic changes in hydrogenated polymorphous silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roca i Cabarrocas P.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on light-induced electrical and macroscopic changes in hydrogenated polymorphous silicon (pm-Si:H PIN solar cells. To explain the particular light-soaking behavior of such cells – namely an increase of the open circuit voltage (Voc and a rapid drop of the short circuit current density (Jsc – we correlate these effects to changes in hydrogen incorporation and structural properties in the layers of the cells. Numerous techniques such as current-voltage characteristics, infrared spectroscopy, hydrogen exodiffusion, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry are used to study the light-induced changes from microscopic to macroscopic scales (up to tens of microns. Such comprehensive use of complementary techniques lead us to suggest that light-soaking produces the diffusion of molecular hydrogen, hydrogen accumulation at p-layer/substrate interface and localized delamination of the interface. Based on these results we propose that light-induced degradation of PIN solar cells has to be addressed from not only as a material issue, but also a device point of view. In particular we bring experimental evidence that localized delamination at the interface between the p-layer and SnO2 substrate by light-induced hydrogen motion causes the rapid drop of Jsc.

  10. Effect of paricalcitol and GcMAF on angiogenesis and human peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, Stefania; Morucci, Gabriele; Punzi, Tiziana; Gulisano, Massimo; Ruggiero, Marco; Amato, Marcello; Aterini, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    In addition to its role in calcium homeostasis and bone mineralization, vitamin D is involved in immune defence, cardiovascular function, inflammation and angiogenesis, and these pleiotropic effects are of interested in the treatment of chronic kidney disease. Here we investigated the effects of paricalcitol, a nonhypercalcemic vitamin D analogue, on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and signaling, and on angiogenesis. These effects were compared with those of a known inhibitor of angiogenesis pertaining to the vitamin D axis, the vitamin D-binding protein-derived Gc-macrophage activating factor (GcMAF). Since the effects of vitamin D receptor agonists are associated with polymorphisms of the gene coding for the receptor, we measured the effects of both compounds on mononuclear cells harvested from subjects harboring different BsmI polymorphisms. Paricalcitol inhibited mononuclear cell viability with the bb genotype showing the highest effect. GcMAF, on the contrary, stimulated cell proliferation, with the bb genotype showing the highest stimulatory effect. Both compounds stimulated 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate formation in mononuclear cells with the highest effect on the bb genotype. Paricalcitol and GcMAF inhibited the angiogenesis induced by proinflammatory prostaglandin E1. Polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor gene, known to be associated with the highest responses to vitamin D receptor agonists, are also associated with the highest responses to GcMAF. These results highlight the role of the vitamin D axis in chronic kidney disease, an axis which includes vitamin D, its receptor and vitamin D-binding protein-derived GcMAF.

  11. Association between polymorphisms in pre-miRNA genes and risk of oral squamous cell cancer in a Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjiao Zhang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs play important roles in the development of human cancers. This case-control study is to evaluate the roles of the polymorphisms in pre-miRNAs on risk of oral cancer in a Chinese population.The genotypes of three polymorphisms were determined in 340 patients with oral squamous cell cancer and 340 healthy controls who were frequency matched for age and sex. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs were calculated to assess the association. All analyses were performed using the SPSS software. 3.154( 0.001.For miR-499 rs3746444, individuals carrying homozygous CC genotype had increased risks of oral cancer compared with the homozygous wild TT genotype (adjusted OR was 3.154, 95%CI was 1.555-6.397, P value was 0.001. The C allele of miR-499 rs3746444 was associated with a higher risk of oral cancer with significant odds ratio of 1.453. In the stratified analyses by sex, the associations between miR-499 rs3746444 and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphisms with the susceptibility of oral squamous cell cancer were significant in males. However, with 1/4 as many subjects there were no significant associations between the three polymorphisms and oral cancer risks in females. The joint effects of miRNA polymorphisms and smoking on the risk of OSCC were analyzed and the results suggested that the association between microRNA genetic variants and OSCC risk was modified by smoking.These findings suggest that miR-499 rs3746444 and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphisms may contribute to genetic susceptibility to oral squamous cell cancer.

  12. Clinical applications of indium-111-acetylacetone-labelled blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgi, P.; Sinn, H.; Wellman, H.; Clorius, J.H.; Becker, W.

    1981-01-01

    A method permitting red-cell labelling with 111 In-acetylacetone was reported in 1974 for evaluating intestinal blood loss, the liver-spleen ratio and the red-cell volume. White blood cells can be tagged similarly. In white-cell labelling, simultaneous red-cell or platelet tagging is avoided. Several procedures (dextran separation and gradient centrifugations) have been combined, to develop a highly selective cell separation. In osteomyelitis it may not be as advantageous to use 67 Ga-citrate, as in inflammatory soft tissue processes. The detection of inflammatory processes with labelled leukocytes could be of great importance for the scintigraphic diagnosis of osteomyelitidies. A group of 97 patients with suspected osteomyelitis have been examined using 111 In-acetylacetone-labelled leukocytes ( 111 In-AAL) immediately following positive routine skeletal scintigraphy. Images obtained 24 h post injection usually were the most satisfactory. In the followup group of 70 patients 21 true positives, 43 true negatives, 21 false negatives and 3 false positives were observed. These findings result in a specificity of 92%, sensitivity of 50% and accuracy of 70% with 111 In-AAL for osteomyelitis. Preliminary investigations using 111 In-acetylacetone-labelled thrombocytes ( 111 In-AAT) were carried out to detect rejection of transplanted kidneys. The platelets were separated by means of additional special density gradient centrifugations but no dextran from 15-20 ml of autologous whole blood. Scans have been obtained 15 min, 2.5 h and 24 h post injection in an initial group of 10 patients. In acute rejection, a high transplant uptake has been detected, whereas patients without acute rejection showed no or only a minimum activity accumulation. Patients with chronic rejection have intermediate uptakes

  13. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Multiprotein Biomarkers in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nardo, Giovanni; Pozzi, Silvia; Pignataro, Mauro; Lauranzano, Eliana; Spano, Giorgia; Garbelli, Silvia; Mantovani, Stefania; Marinou, Kalliopi; Papetti, Laura; Monteforte, Marta; Torri, Valter; Paris, Luca; Bazzoni, Gianfranco; Lunetta, Christian; Corbo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal progressive motor neuron disease, for which there are still no diagnostic/prognostic test and therapy. Specific molecular biomarkers are urgently needed to facilitate clinical studies and speed up the development of effective treatments. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis approach to identify in easily accessible clinical samples, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), a panel...

  14. THE PURE RED BLOOD CELL APLASIA IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT

    OpenAIRE

    B. T. Dzumabaeva; L. S. Birjukova; L. B. Kaplanskaya; D. P. Maksimov

    2011-01-01

    The pure red blood cell aplasia of renal transplant recipients caused by parvovirus B19 (PB19) is characterized by persistent anemia which resistant to erythropoietin therapy, lack of reticulocytes, bone marrow hypoplasia, and clinically accompanied by severe recurrent bacterial, fungal and viral infection. In case of reactivation PB19 it is necessarv, first of all, eliminate the causes activation of this virus and to cancel or reduce the dose of drugs which depressed the normal hematopoiesis...

  15. When Blood Cells Bend: Understanding Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk of having a child with sickle cell anemia and are planning to have children, ask your health care professional about genetic counseling. ... to manage pain. Make sure babies and young children get needed antibiotics and routine vaccinations to ... Nicholas NIH Office of Communications and ...

  16. Blood banking-induced alteration of red blood cell oxygen release ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaojin; Xiong, Yanlian; Wang, Ruofeng; Tang, Fuzhou; Wang, Xiang

    2016-05-01

    Current blood banking procedures may not fully preserve red blood cell (RBC) function during storage, contributing to the decrease of RBC oxygen release ability. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of routine cold storage on RBC oxygen release ability. RBC units were collected from healthy donors and each unit was split into two parts (whole blood and suspended RBC) to exclude possible donor variability. Oxygen dissociation measurements were performed on blood units stored at 4 °C during a 5-week period. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels and fluorescent micrographs of erythrocyte band 3 were also analysed. P50 and oxygen release capacity decreased rapidly during the first 3 weeks, and then did not change significantly. In contrast, the kinetic properties (PO2-t curve and T*50) of oxygen release changed slowly during the first 3 weeks of storage, but then decreased significantly in the last 2 weeks. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate decreased quickly during the first 3 weeks of storage to almost undetectable levels. Band 3 aggregated significantly during the last 2 weeks of storage. RBC oxygen release ability appears to be sensitive to routine cold storage. The thermodynamic characteristics of RBC oxygen release ability changed mainly in the first 3 weeks of storage, due to the decrease of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, whereas the kinetic characteristics of RBC oxygen release ability decreased significantly at the end of storage, probably affected by alterations of band 3.

  17. Pleomorphic Structures in Human Blood Are Red Blood Cell-Derived Microparticles, Not Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Adam J; Gray, Warren D; Schroeder, Max; Yi, Hong; Taylor, Jeannette V; Dillard, Rebecca S; Ke, Zunlong; Wright, Elizabeth R; Stephens, David; Roback, John D; Searles, Charles D

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are a common, life-saving therapy for many patients, but they have also been associated with poor clinical outcomes. We identified unusual, pleomorphic structures in human RBC transfusion units by negative-stain electron microscopy that appeared identical to those previously reported to be bacteria in healthy human blood samples. The presence of viable, replicating bacteria in stored blood could explain poor outcomes in transfusion recipients and have major implications for transfusion medicine. Here, we investigated the possibility that these structures were bacteria. Flow cytometry, miRNA analysis, protein analysis, and additional electron microscopy studies strongly indicated that the pleomorphic structures in the supernatant of stored RBCs were RBC-derived microparticles (RMPs). Bacterial 16S rDNA PCR amplified from these samples were sequenced and was found to be highly similar to species that are known to commonly contaminate laboratory reagents. These studies suggest that pleomorphic structures identified in human blood are RMPs and not bacteria, and they provide an example in which laboratory contaminants may can mislead investigators.

  18. Red Blood Cell Membrane-Cloaked Nanoparticles For Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Cody Westcott

    Herein we describe the development of the Red Blood Cell coated nanoparticle, RBC-NP. Purified natural erythrocyte membrane is used to coat drug-loaded poly(lacticco-glycolic acid) (PLGA). Synthetic PLGA co-polymer is biocompatible and biodegradable and has already received US FDA approval for drug-delivery and diagnostics. This work looks specifically at the retention of immunosuppressive proteins on RBC-NPs, right-sidedness of natural RBC membranes interfacing with synthetic polymer nanoparticles, sustained and retarded drug release of RBC-NPs as well as further surface modification of RBC-NPs for increased targeting of model cancer cell lines.

  19. Emergency transfusion of patients with unknown blood type with blood group O Rhesus D positive red blood cell concentrates: a prospective, single-centre, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleng, Kathleen; Jenichen, Gregor; Denker, Kathrin; Selleng, Sixten; Müllejans, Bernd; Greinacher, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    Emergency patients with unknown blood type usually receive O Rhesus D negative (RhD-) red blood cell concentrates until their blood group is determined to prevent RhD+ related adverse transfusion reactions. As 85% of individuals are RhD+, this consumption of O RhD- red blood cell concentrates contributes to shortages of O RhD- red blood cell concentrates, sometimes forcing transfusion of known RhD- patients with RhD+ red blood cell concentrates. Here we report the outcome of this transfusion policy transfusing all emergency patients with unknown blood type with O RhD+ red blood cell concentrates. In this prospective single-centre observational study done between Jan 1, 2001, and Dec 31, 2015, we assessed all consecutive RhD- patients at the University Medicine Greifswald who received RhD+ red blood cell concentrates (emergency patients with unknown blood type; and RhD- patients receiving RhD+ red blood cell concentrates during RhD- red blood cell concentrate shortages). No patients were excluded. The primary endpoint was anti-D allo-immunisation at 2 months follow-up or later. Patients were followed up and tested for immunisation against red blood cell antigens using the direct antiglobulin test and an antibody screen every 3-5 days for 4 weeks or until death, or hospital discharge. Surviving patients were screened for development of anti-D antibodies for up to 12 months (at the predefined timepoints 2, 3, 6, and 12 months) after RhD+ red blood cell transfusion. 437 emergency patients, of whom 85 (20%) were RhD-, received 2836 RhD+ red blood cell concentrates. The overall risk of inducing anti-D antibodies (in all 437 recipients) was 17 (4%, 95% CI 2·44-6·14) of 437 (assuming all patients lost to follow-up developed anti-D allo-immunisation). During this period, 110 known RhD- patients received RhD+ red blood cell concentrates during RhD- red blood cell concentrate shortages. Of these, 29 (26%; 95% CI 19·0-35·3) developed anti-D allo-immunisation (assuming all

  20. Red Blood Cell Antibody Screen: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/labtests/redbloodcellantibodyscreen.html Red Blood Cell Antibody Screen To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an RBC Antibody Screen? An RBC (red blood cell) antibody screen ...

  1. Blood cell mitochondrial DNA content and premature ovarian aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bonomi

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI is a critical fertility defect characterized by an anticipated and silent impairment of the follicular reserve, but its pathogenesis is largely unexplained. The frequent maternal inheritance of POI together with a remarkable dependence of ovarian folliculogenesis upon mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics suggested the possible involvement of a generalized mitochondrial defect. Here, we verified the existence of a significant correlation between blood and ovarian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA content in a group of women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation (OH, and then aimed to verify whether mtDNA content was significantly altered in the blood cells of POI women. We recruited 101 women with an impaired ovarian reserve: 59 women with premature ovarian failure (POF and 42 poor responders (PR to OH. A Taqman copy number assay revealed a significant mtDNA depletion (P<0.001 in both POF and PR women in comparison with 43 women of similar age and intact ovarian reserve, or 53 very old women with a previous physiological menopause. No pathogenic variations in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG gene were detected in 57 POF or PR women with low blood mtDNA content. In conclusion, blood cell mtDNA depletion is a frequent finding among women with premature ovarian aging, suggesting that a still undetermined but generalized mitochondrial defect may frequently predispose to POI which could then be considered a form of anticipated aging in which the ovarian defect may represent the first manifestation. The determination of mtDNA content in blood may become an useful tool for the POI risk prediction.

  2. Resting blood lactate in individuals with sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petto, Jefferson; de Jesus, Jaqueline Brito; Vasques, Leila Monique Reis; Pinheiro, Renata Leão Silva; Oliveira, Aila Mascarenhas; Spinola, Kelly Aparecida Borges; Silva, Wellington dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Background The most common hereditary hemoglobin disorder, affecting 20 million individuals worldwide, is sickle cell disease. The vascular obstruction resulting from the sickling of cells in this disease can produce local hypoxemia, pain crises and infarction in several tissues, including the bones, spleen, kidneys and lungs. Objective To determine red blood group genes in a Brazilian populations. Methods The present study is characterized as a case control study, with the aim of identifying the baseline blood lactate concentration in individuals with hemoglobin SS and SC diseases. One-way ANOVA with the Tukey post-test was used to analyze the results and a p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Calculations were made using the INSTAT statistical program. The graphs were generated using the ORING program. The study sample was composed of 31 men and women residing in the city of Santo Antônio de Jesus, Bahia, Brazil. The individuals were divided into two groups: Group GC of 16 subjects who did not present with any type of structural hemoglobinopathy; and Group GE composed of 15 individuals with ages between 2 and 35 years old, who had the SS and SC genotypes. Sample analyses were performed with 3 mL of blood during fasting. Results The baseline blood lactate concentration of the SS and SC individuals was higher than that of the control group (p<0.001) with means of 4.86 ± 0.95; 3.30 ± 0.33; 1.31 ± 0.08 IU/L for SS, SC and controls, respectively. This corroborates the initial research hypothesis. Conclusion The baseline blood lactate of SS and SC individuals is 3 to 4 times higher than that of healthy subjects, probably due to the fact that these patients have a metabolic deviation to the anaerobic pathway. PMID:23284239

  3. The 14 bp Del/Ins HLA-G Polymorphism Is Related with High Blood Pressure in Acute Coronary Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Ilian Janet; Valle, Yeminia; Rivas, Fernando; Figuera-Villanueva, Luis Eduardo; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Flores-Salinas, Hector Enrique; Gutiérrez-Amavizca, Bianca Ethel; Dávalos-Rodríguez, Nory Omayra; Padilla-Gutiérrez, Jorge Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Immunologic and inflammatory processes are involved in the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is a negative regulator of the immune response. This study evaluates the 14 bp Del/Ins HLA-G polymorphism in ACS and DM2. Three hundred and seventy individuals from Western Mexico were recruited and categorized into three groups: ACS (86), DM2 without coronary complications (70), and healthy subjects (214). Genotyping of the 14 bp Del/Ins HLA-G polymorphism was performed by PCR and Native-PAGE. The most common risk factors were hypertension and overweight in ACS and DM2, respectively. The genetic distribution of the 14 bp Del/Ins HLA-G polymorphism showed no significant differences between groups (P ≥ 0.23). Nonetheless, the Ins/Ins genotype was associated with high blood pressure (HBP) in the DM2 group (ORc = 1.65, P = 0.02). The genetic recessive model showed similar findings (ORc = 3.03, P = 0.04). No association was found in ACS, with a P of 0.05; nevertheless, the prevalence of Ins/Ins carriers was quite similar to that found in the DM2-HBP group. The 14 bp Del/Ins HLA-G polymorphism was not a susceptibility factor for ACS or DM2; however, the Ins/Ins genotype might have contributed to the development of HBP in the studied groups. PMID:24689061

  4. Transplantation? Peripheral Stem Cell/Bone Marrow/Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itır Sirinoglu Demiriz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of peripheral stem cell (PSC and cord blood (CB as an alternative to bone marrow (BM recently has caused important changes on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT practice. According to the CIBMTR data, there has been a significant decrease in the use of bone marrow and increase in the use of PSC and CB as the stem cell source for HSCT performed during 1997–2006 period for patients under the age of 20. On the other hand, the stem cell source in 70% of the HSCT procedures performed for patients over the age of 20 was PSC and the second most preferred stem cell source was bone marrow. CB usage is very limited for the adult population. Primary disease, stage, age, time and urgency of transplantation, HLA match between the patient and the donor, stem cell quantity, and the experience of the transplantation center are some of the associated factors for the selection of the appropriate stem cell source. Unfortunately, there is no prospective randomized study aimed to facilitate the selection of the correct source between CB, PSC, and BM. In this paper, we would like to emphasize the data on stem cell selection in light of the current knowledge for patient populations according to their age and primary disease.

  5. Length of Storage of Red Blood Cells and Patient Survival After Blood Transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halmin, Märit; Rostgaard, Klaus; Lee, Brian K

    2017-01-01

    received transfusions from 2003 to 2012. Measurements: Patients were followed from first blood transfusion. Relative and absolute risks for death in 30 days or 1 year in relation to length of RBC storage were assessed by using 3 independent analytic approaches. All analyses were conducted by using Cox......Background: Possible negative effects, including increased mortality, among persons who receive stored red blood cells (RBCs) have recently garnered considerable attention. Despite many studies, including 4 randomized trials, no consensus exists. Objective: To study the association between...... the length of RBC storage and mortality in a large population-based cohort of patients who received transfusions, allowing detection of small yet clinically significant effects. Design: Binational cohort study. Setting: All transfusion recipients in Sweden and Denmark. Patients: 854 862 adult patients who...

  6. Antigenotoxic Effect of Curcumin and Carvacrol against Parathion Induced DNA Damage in Cultured Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes and Its Relation to GSTM1 and GSTT1 Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of organophosphorus pesticides has been extensively increased and these compounds signify a major class of agricultural pesticides today. We studied antigenotoxic potential of curcumin and carvacrol against the parathion induced DNA damage in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes using sister chromatid exchanges as a biomarker of genotoxicity. Heparinised fresh blood from healthy individuals was treated with 2.5 μg/mL concentration of parathion in presence of curcumin and carvacrol in order to observe the antigenotoxic potential of both curcumin and carvacrol. Significant reduction (P0.05 of GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphism on genotoxicity of parathion and antigenotoxic potential of curcumin and carvacrol.

  7. The potential effect of metallothionein 2A - 5 A/G single nucleotide polymorphism on blood cadmium, lead, zinc and copper levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayaalti, Zeliha; Aliyev, Vugar; Soeylemezoglu, Tuelin

    2011-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight, cysteine-rich, metal-binding proteins. Because of their rich thiol groups, MTs bind to the biologically essential metals and perform these metals' homeostatic regulations; absorb the heavy metals and assist with their transportation and extraction. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the metallothionein 2A (MT2A) core promoter region - 5 A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu levels in the blood samples. MT2A polymorphism was determined by the standard polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique using the 616 blood samples and the genotype frequencies were found as 86.6% homozygote typical (AA), 12.8% heterozygote (AG) and 0.6% homozygote atypical (GG). Metal levels were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrophotometer system and the average levels of Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu in the blood samples were 1.69 ± 1.57 ppb, 30.62 ± 14.13 ppb, 0.98 ± 0.49 ppm and 1.04 ± 0.45 ppm, respectively. As a result; highly statistically significant associations were detected between the - 5 A/G core promoter region SNP in the MT2A gene and Cd, Pb and Zn levels (p = 0.004, p = 0.012 and p = 0.002, respectively), but no association was found with Cu level (p = 0.595). Individuals with the GG genotype had statistically lower Zn level and higher Cd and Pb levels in the blood samples than individuals with AA and AG genotypes. This study suggests that having the GG genotype individuals may be more sensitive for the metal toxicity and they should be more careful about protecting their health against the toxic effects of the heavy metals. - Highlights: → MT2A -5A/G SNP has strong effect on the Cd, Pb and Zn levels in the blood. → MT2A GG individuals should be more careful for their health against metal toxicity. → This SNP might be considered as a biomarker for risk of disease related to metals.

  8. Are RGS2 Gene Polymorphisms Associated With High Blood Pressure in an Ethnicity- and Gender-Specific Manner?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahntow, Ines N.; Mairuhu, Gideon; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Baas, Frank; Alewijnse, Astrid E.; Koopmans, Richard P.; Michel, Martin C.

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundPolymorphisms in the Regulator of G-protein Signaling 2 (RGS2) gene have been reported to be associated with hypertension (HT) in Japanese women and black Americans of either gender but not in white Americans or Japanese men. We have tested whether these proposed ethnicity- and

  9. Volume-dependent K+ transport in rabbit red blood cells comparison with oxygenated human SS cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rohil, N.; Jennings, M.L.

    1989-07-01

    In this study the volume-dependent or N-ethylmaleimide (NEM)-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive K+ influx and efflux were measured with the tracer 86Rb+ in rabbit red blood cells. The purpose of the work was to examine the rabbit as a potential model for cell volume regulation in human SS red blood cells and also to investigate the relationship between the NEM-reactive sulfhydryl group(s) and the signal by which cell swelling activates the transport. Ouabain-resistant K+ efflux and influx increase nearly threefold in cells swollen hypotonically by 15%. Pretreatment with 2 mM NEM stimulates efflux 5-fold and influx 10-fold (each measured in an isotonic medium). The ouabain-resistant K+ efflux was dependent on the major anion in the medium. The anion dependence of K+ efflux in swollen or NEM-stimulated cells was as follows: Br- greater than Cl- much greater than NO3- = acetate. The magnitudes of both the swelling- and the NEM-stimulated fluxes are much higher in young cells (density separated but excluding reticulocytes) than in older cells. Swelling- or NEM-stimulated K+ efflux in rabbit red blood cells was inhibited 50% by 1 mM furosemide, and the inhibitory potency of furosemide was enhanced by extracellular K+, as is known to be true for human AA and low-K+ sheep red blood cells. The swelling-stimulated flux in both rabbit and human SS cells has a pH optimum at approximately 7.4. We conclude that rabbit red blood cells are a good model for swelling-stimulated K+ transport in human SS cells.

  10. Stem Cell Heterogeneity of Mononucleated Cells from Murine Peripheral Blood: Molecular Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dain Yazid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper was to determine the heterogeneity of primary isolated mononucleated cells that originated from the peripheral blood system by observing molecular markers. The isolated cells were cultured in complete medium for 4 to 7 days prior to the separation of different cell types, that is, adherent and suspension. Following a total culture time of 14 days, adherent cells activated the Cd105 gene while suspension cells activated the Sca-1 gene. Both progenitor markers, Cbfa-1 and Ostf-1, were inactivated in both suspension and adherent cells after 14-day culture compared to cells cultured 3 days in designated differentiation medium. In conclusion, molecular analyses showed that primary mononucleated cells are heterogeneous, consisting of hematopoietic stem cells (suspension and mesenchymal stem cells (adherent while both cells contained no progenitor cells.

  11. Association and interaction between dietary pattern and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2) gene polymorphisms on blood lipids in Chinese Malaysian and Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Roseline Wai Kuan; Shidoji, Yoshihiro; Hon, Wei Min; Masaki, Motofumi

    2012-01-01

    Dietary pattern and genetic predisposition of each population have different impacts on lifestyle-related chronic diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the association and interaction between dietary patterns and VEGFR2 or KDR gene polymorphisms on physical and biochemical risk factors of cardiovascular disease in two Asian populations (179 Chinese Malaysian and 136 Japanese adults). Dietary patterns were constructed from food frequency questionnaire using factor analysis. Genotyping of rs1870377 and rs2071559 was performed by real-time PCR using TaqMan probes. Physical measurements: body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressures and biochemical parameters: glycated hemoglobin A1c and blood lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio) were measured. Two dietary patterns were extracted for: Japanese ('Japanese diet' and 'Western diet') and Chinese Malaysians ('Balanced diet'; and 'Meat, rice and noodles diet'). In Japanese, 'Western Diet' and rs2071559 were associated with LDL-C and HDL-C, respectively. In Chinese Malaysians, 'Meat, rice and noodles diet' was asso-ciated with triglycerides, HDL-C and total cholesterol/HDL ratio while rs1870377 and rs2071559 were associated with total cholesterol and/or LDL-C. The interaction between 'Western Diet' and rs2071559 in Japanese and 'Meat, rice and noodles diet' and rs1870377 in Malaysians had significant effects on blood lipids after adjusting for confounders. The association and interaction of dietary patterns and VEGFR2 gene polymorphisms on blood lipids differ between Chinese Malaysian and Japanese subjects by either decreasing or increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  12. Cell Phone Information Seeking Explains Blood Pressure in African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lenette M; Veinot, Tiffany C; Pressler, Susan J

    2018-05-01

    Although cell phone use and Internet access via cell phone is not marked by racial disparities, little is known about how cell phone use relates to blood pressure and health information seeking behaviors. The purposes of this study were to (a) describe Internet activities, cell phone use, and information seeking; (b) determine differences in blood pressure and information seeking between cell phone information seekers and nonseekers; and (c) examine cell phone information seeking as a predictor of blood pressure in African American women. Participants ( N = 147) completed a survey and had their blood pressure measured. Independent-sample t tests showed a significant difference in systolic blood pressure in cell phone information seekers and nonseekers. Linear regression revealed cell phone information seeking as an independent predictor of systolic blood pressure, despite confounders. It is possible that cell phone information seekers were using health information to make decisions about self-management of blood pressure.

  13. Bioactive compounds from crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cells induced apoptotic cell death in hela cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patathananone, Supawadee; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Daduang, Jureerut; Chung, Jing Gung; Temsiripong, Yosapong; Daduang, Sakda

    2016-08-01

    Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cell extracts (WBCex) were examined for anticancer activity in HeLa cell lines using the MTT assay. The percentage viability of HeLa cells significantly deceased after treatment with WBCex in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The IC50 dose was suggested to be approximately 225 μg/mL protein. Apoptotic cell death occurred in a time-dependent manner based on investigation by flow cytometry using annexin V-FITC and PI staining. DAPI nucleic acid staining indicated increased chromatin condensation. Caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities also increased, suggesting the induction of the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm ) of HeLa cells was lost as a result of increasing levels of Bax and reduced levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bcl-Xs, and XIAP. The decreased ΔΨm led to the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspase-9 and -3. Apoptosis-inducing factor translocated into the nuclei, and endonuclease G (Endo G) was released from the mitochondria. These results suggest that anticancer agents in WBCex can induce apoptosis in HeLa cells via both caspase-dependent and -independent pathways. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 986-997, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. New polymorphisms of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene and their associations with myocardial infarction and blood pressure: the ECTIM study. Etude Cas-Témoin de l'Infarctus du Myocarde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, O; Georges, J L; Ricard, S; Arveiler, D; Ruidavets, J B; Luc, G; Evans, A; Cambien, F; Tiret, L

    1998-10-01

    In an earlier report, we suggested that a polymorphism located in the 3' untranslated region of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene (AT1R+1166 A/C) might interact with the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism to increase the risk of myocardial infarction. Since the AT1R+1166 A/C polymorphism does not appear to be functional, we postulated that it might be in linkage disequilibrium with an unidentified functional variant which would affect the regulation of the gene in response to angiotensin II. The present study was conducted to identify new polymorphisms of the AT1R gene that might be responsible for this interaction. The first four exons, which are untranslated, and 2.2 kb in the 5' flanking region of the AT1R gene were explored by polymerase chain reaction/single-strand conformation polymorphism. Seven polymorphisms were detected in the 5' region at positions -1424, -810, -713, -521, -214, -213 and -153 upstream from the start of transcription. The genotypes of the -810, -713, -214, -213 and -153 polymorphisms were completely concordant. One substitution was detected at the 55th nucleotide of exon 4. These polymorphisms, together with the +1166 A/C polymorphism and a previously described T/C substitution at the 573th nucleotide of exon 5, were genotyped in the Etude Cas-Témoin de l'Infarctus du Myocarde (ECTIM) study, a multicentre study comparing 651 patients who had survived a myocardial infarction and 728 controls from Belfast (United Kingdom) and Lille, Strasbourg and Toulouse (France). The newly identified polymorphisms were not in linkage disequilibrium with the +1166 A/C polymorphism and therefore could not explain the interaction observed with ACE I/D. None of the polymorphisms was associated with blood pressure levels in control subjects. In the four populations, the A allele of the -810 polymorphism was associated with a lower risk of myocardial infarction (population-adjusted odds ratio of 0.80, confidence

  15. Blood transfusion in children with sickle cell disease undergoing tonsillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Carlyn M; Gnagi, Sharon H; Teufel, Ronald J; Nguyen, Shaun A; White, David R

    2017-12-01

    Tonsillectomy is the second most common surgery in children with sickle cell disease. These children are at an increased risk of perioperative complications due to vaso-occlusive events. Although controversial, preoperative blood transfusions are sometimes given in an effort to prevent such complications. The purpose of this study is to analyze trends in the use of blood transfusion for management of children with sickle cell disease (SCD) undergoing tonsillectomy in a national database. Patients in the 1997-2012 KID with a primary procedure matching the ICD-9 procedure code for tonsillectomy (28.2-28.3) and diagnosis code for SCD (282.60-282.69) were examined. Patients were split into groups by blood transfusion status and compared across variables including complication rate, length of stay (LOS), and hospital charges. Statistical analysis included chi-square test for trend, Mann-Whitney U test, and independent t-test. 1133 patients with SCD underwent tonsillectomy. There was a strong positive correlation between increasing chronologic year and the proportion of patients receiving blood transfusions, 47 (30.1%) in 1997 to 78 (42.5%) in 2012 (r = 0.94, p = 0.005). During this period, there was no significant change in the rate of complications (r = -0.1, p = 0.87). Overall, patients receiving blood transfusion had a longer mean LOS (3.1 ± 2.4 days vs. 2.5 ± 2.2 days, p blood transfusion. The rate of complications in the transfusion group, 18 of 352(5.1%), was not significantly different (p = 0.48) from the group without transfusion, 40 of 626 (6.4%). From 1997 to 2012, there was a significant increase in the proportion of patients with SCD receiving perioperative blood transfusions for tonsillectomy. While the frequency of transfusion rose, those who received a transfusion had similar complication rates with increased charges and length of hospital stays compared to those who did not receive a transfusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  16. Utilization and quality of cryopreserved red blood cells in transfusion medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, S.; Noorman, F.; Badloe, J. F.; Lagerberg, J. W. M.

    Cryopreserved (frozen) red blood cells have been used in transfusion medicine since the Vietnam war. The main method to freeze the red blood cells is by usage of glycerol. Although the usage of cryopreserved red blood cells was promising due to the prolonged storage time and the limited cellular

  17. Development and testing of a new disposable sterile device for labelling white blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Signore, A.; Glaudemans, A. W. J. M.; Malviya, G.; Lazzeri, E.; Prandini, N.; Viglietti, A. L.; De Vries, E. F. J.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.

    Aim. White blood cell (WBC) labelling requires isolation of cells from patient's blood under sterile conditions using sterile materials, buffers and disposables under good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions. Till now, this limited the use of white blood cell scintigraphy (WBC-S) only to well

  18. Of macrophages and red blood cells; a complex love story.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djuna Zoe de Back

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages tightly control the production and clearance of red blood cells (RBC. During steady state haematopoiesis, approximately 1010 red blood cells are produced per hour within erythroblastic islands in humans. In these erythroblastic islands, resident bone marrow macrophages provide erythroblasts with interactions that are essential for erythroid development. New evidence suggests that not only under homeostasis but also under stress conditions, macrophages play an important role in promoting erythropoiesis. Once RBC have matured, these cells remain in circulation for about 120 days. At the end of their life span, RBC are cleared by macrophages residing in the spleen and the liver. Current theories about the removal of senescent RBC and the essential role of macrophages will be discussed as well as the role of macrophages in facilitating the removal of damaged cellular content from the RBC. In this review we will provide an overview on the role of macrophages in the regulation of RBC production, maintenance and clearance. In addition, we will discuss the interactions between these two cell types during transfer of immune complexes and pathogens from RBC to macrophages.

  19. Red blood cell transfusion for people undergoing hip fracture surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunskill, Susan J; Millette, Sarah L; Shokoohi, Ali; Pulford, E C; Doree, Carolyn; Murphy, Michael F; Stanworth, Simon

    2015-04-21

    The incidence of hip fracture is increasing and it is more common with increasing age. Surgery is used for almost all hip fractures. Blood loss occurs as a consequence of both the fracture and the surgery and thus red blood cell transfusion is frequently used. However, red blood cell transfusion is not without risks. Therefore, it is important to identify the evidence for the effective and safe use of red blood cell transfusion in people with hip fracture. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of red blood cell transfusion in people undergoing surgery for hip fracture. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (31 October 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, 2014, Issue 10), MEDLINE (January 1946 to 20 November 2014), EMBASE (January 1974 to 20 November 2014), CINAHL (January 1982 to 20 November 2014), British Nursing Index Database (January 1992 to 20 November 2014), the Systematic Review Initiative's Transfusion Evidence Library, PubMed for e-publications, various other databases and ongoing trial registers. Randomised controlled trials comparing red blood cell transfusion versus no transfusion or an alternative to transfusion, different transfusion protocols or different transfusion thresholds in people undergoing surgery for hip fracture. Three review authors independently assessed each study's risk of bias and extracted data using a study-specific form. We pooled data where there was homogeneity in the trial comparisons and the timing of outcome measurement. We used GRADE criteria to assess the quality (low, moderate or high) of the evidence for each outcome. We included six trials (2722 participants): all compared two thresholds for red blood cell transfusion: a 'liberal' strategy to maintain a haemoglobin concentration of usually 10 g/dL versus a more 'restrictive' strategy based on symptoms of anaemia or a lower haemoglobin concentration, usually 8 g/dL. The exact

  20. Zeroing in on red blood cell unit expiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyalil, Fathima; Irwin, Greg; Ross, Bryony; Manolis, Michael; Enjeti, Anoop K

    2017-12-01

    Expiry of red blood cell (RBC) units is a significant contributor to wastage of precious voluntary donations. Effective strategies aimed at optimal resource utilization are required to minimize wastage. This retrospective study analyzed the strategic measures implemented to reduce expiry of RBC units in an Australian tertiary regional hospital. The measures, which included inventory rearrangement, effective stock rotation, and the number of emergency courier services required during a 24-month period, were evaluated. There was no wastage of RBC units due to expiry over the 12 months after policy changes. Before these changes, approximately half of RBC wastage (261/511) was due to expiry. The total number of transfusions remained constant in this period and there was no increase in the use of emergency couriers. Policy changes implemented were decreasing the RBC inventory level by one-third and effective stock rotation and using a computerized system to link the transfusion services across the area. Effective stock rotation resulted in a reduction in older blood (>28 days) received in the main laboratory rotated from peripheral hospitals, down from 6%-41% to 0%-2.5%. Age-related expiry of blood products is preventable and can be significantly reduced by improving practices in the pathology service. This study provides proof of principle for "zero tolerance for RBC unit expiry" across a large networked blood banking service. © 2017 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  1. Fetal red blood cell parameters in thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnpean, Rossarin; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan; Ratanasiri, Thawalwong

    2013-01-01

    With the lack of fetal blood specimens in routine practice, little is known about red blood cell (RBC) parameters of fetuses with various thalassemia syndromes. This study aimed to describe these in various forms of thalassemia. The study was performed on 93 fetal blood specimens obtained from pregnant women by cordocentesis during 18-24 weeks of gestation. RBC parameters were recorded on automated analyzer. Hemoglobin (Hb) and DNA analyses were performed for definite genotyping. No significant difference in RBC parameters was observed between non-thalassemic fetuses and those with β-thalassemia trait, Hb E trait, homozygous Hb E and β-thalassemia/Hb E disease. However, in those with α(0)-thalassemia trait and double heterozygous α(0)-thalassemia/Hb E, slight reduction in mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was noted. Fetuses with the Hb H disease showed significant reductions in Hb, MCV and mean corpuscular Hb (MCH). Marked reductions in Hb, hematocrit, MCH and mean cell Hb concentration and increased RBC distribution width with numerous nucleated RBC were clearly observed in Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis. Simple analysis of fetal RBC parameters is useful for making presumptive prenatal diagnosis of α-thalassemia syndromes including Hb H disease and Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis which can then be confirmed by Hb and DNA analyses. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. CISH promoter polymorphism effects on T cell cytokine receptor signaling and type 1 diabetes susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfarth, Julia; Ahlert, Heinz; Rosenbauer, Joachim; Baechle, Christina; Roden, Michael; Holl, Reinhard W; Mayatepek, Ertan; Meissner, Thomas; Jacobsen, Marc

    2018-02-06

    Impaired regulatory T cell immunity plays a central role in the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling is essential for regulatory T cells (T REG ), and cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CIS) regulates IL-2R signaling as a feedback inhibitor. Previous studies identified association of CISH promoter region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with susceptibility to infectious diseases. Here we analyzed allele frequencies of three CISH SNPs (i.e., rs809451, rs414171, rs2239751) in a study of T1D patients (n = 260, onset age  10 years). Minor allele frequencies were compared to a control cohort of the 1000 Genomes Project. Assigned haplotypes were determined for effects on T1D manifestation and severity. Finally, the CISH haplotype influence on cytokine signaling and function was explored in T cells from healthy donors. We detected similar minor allele frequencies between T1D patients and the control cohort. T1D onset age, residual serum C-peptide level, and insulin requirement were comparable between different haplotypes. Only minor differences between the haplotypes were found for in vitro cytokine (i.e., IL-2, IL-7)-induced CIS mRNA expression. STAT5 phosphorylation was induced by IL-2 or IL-7, but no differences were found between the haplotypes. T REG purified from healthy donors with the two most common haplotypes showed similar capacity to inhibit heterologous effector T cells. This study provides no evidence for an association of CISH promoter SNPs with susceptibility to T1D or severity of disease. In contrast to previous studies, no influence of different haplotypes on CIS mRNA expression or T cell-mediated functions was found.

  3. A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the Bax Gene Promoter Affects Transcription and Influences Retinal Ganglion Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila J Semaan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Pro-apoptotic Bax is essential for RGC (retinal ganglion cell death. Gene dosage experiments in mice, yielding a single wild-type Bax allele, indicated that genetic background was able to influence the cell death phenotype. DBA/2J Bax+/− mice exhibited complete resistance to nerve damage after 2 weeks (similar to Bax −/− mice, but 129B6 Bax+/− mice exhibited significant cell loss (similar to wild-type mice. The different cell death phenotype was associated with the level of Bax expression, where 129B6 neurons had twice the level of endogenous Bax mRNA and protein as DBA/2J neurons. Sequence analysis of the Bax promoters between these strains revealed a single nucleotide polymorphism (T129B6 to CDBA/2J at position −515. A 1.5- to 2.5-fold increase in transcriptional activity was observed from the 129B6 promoter in transient transfection assays in a variety of cell types, including RGC5 cells derived from rat RGCs. Since this polymorphism occurred in a p53 half-site, we investigated the requirement of p53 for the differential transcriptional activity. Differential transcriptional activity from either 129B6 or DBA/2J Bax promoters were unaffected in p53−/− cells, and addition of exogenous p53 had no further effect on this difference, thus a role for p53 was excluded. Competitive electrophoretic mobility-shift assays identified two DNA-protein complexes that interacted with the polymorphic region. Those forming Complex 1 bound with higher affinity to the 129B6 polymorphic site, suggesting that these proteins probably comprised a transcriptional activator complex. These studies implicated quantitative expression of the Bax gene as playing a possible role in neuronal susceptibility to damaging stimuli.

  4. Mechanical properties of stored red blood cells using optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Adriana; Alexandre de Thomaz, Andre; de Ysasa Pozzo, Liliana; de Lourdes Barjas-Castro, Maria; Brandao, Marcelo M.; Saad, Sara T. O.; Barbosa, Luiz Carlos; Cesar, Carlos Lenz

    2005-08-01

    We have developed a method for measuring the red blood cell (RBC) membrane overall elasticity μ by measuring the deformation of the cells when dragged at a constant velocity through a plasma fluid by an optical tweezers. The deformability of erythrocytes is a critical determinant of blood flow in the microcirculation. We tested our method and hydrodynamic models, which included the presence of two walls, by measuring the RBC deformation as a function of drag velocity and of the distance to the walls. The capability and sensitivity of this method can be evaluated by its application to a variety of studies, such as, the measurement of RBC elasticity of sickle cell anemia patients comparing homozygous (HbSS), including patients taking hydroxyrea (HU) and heterozygous (HbAS) with normal donors and the RBC elasticity measurement of gamma irradiated stored blood for transfusion to immunosupressed patients as a function of time and dose. These studies show that the technique has the sensitivity to discriminate heterozygous and homozygous sickle cell anemia patients from normal donors and even follow the course of HU treatment of Homozygous patients. The gamma irradiation studies show that there is no significant change in RBC elasticity over time for up to 14 days of storage, regardless of whether the unit was irradiated or not, but there was a huge change in the measured elasticity for the RBC units stored for more than 21 days after irradiation. These finds are important for the assessment of stored irradiated RBC viability for transfusion purposes because the present protocol consider 28 storage days after irradiation as the limit for the RBC usage.

  5. Generation of erythroid cells from polyploid giant cancer cells: re-thinking about tumor blood supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhigang; Yao, Hong; Fei, Fei; Li, Yuwei; Qu, Jie; Li, Chunyuan; Zhang, Shiwu

    2018-04-01

    During development and tumor progression, cells need a sufficient blood supply to maintain development and rapid growth. It is reported that there are three patterns of blood supply for tumor growth: endothelium-dependent vessels, mosaic vessels, and vasculogenic mimicry (VM). VM was first reported in highly aggressive uveal melanomas, with tumor cells mimicking the presence and function of endothelial cells forming the walls of VM vessels. The walls of mosaic vessels are randomly lined with both endothelial cells and tumor cells. We previously proposed a three-stage process, beginning with VM, progressing to mosaic vessels, and eventually leading to endothelium-dependent vessels. However, many phenomena unique to VM channel formation remain to be elucidated, such as the origin of erythrocytes before VM vessels connect with endothelium-dependent vessels. In adults, erythroid cells are generally believed to be generated from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. In contrast, embryonic tissue obtains oxygen through formation of blood islands, which are largely composed of embryonic hemoglobin with a higher affinity with oxygen, in the absence of mature erythrocytes. Recent data from our laboratory suggest that embryonic blood-forming mechanisms also exist in cancer tissue, particularly when these tissues are under environmental stress such as hypoxia. We review the evidence from induced pluripotent stem cells in vitro and in vivo to support this previously underappreciated cell functionality in normal and cancer cells, including the ability to generate erythroid cells. We will also summarize the current understanding of tumor angiogenesis, VM, and our recent work on polyploid giant cancer cells, with emphasis on their ability to generate erythroid cells and their association with tumor growth under hypoxia. An alternative embryonic pathway to obtain oxygen in cancer cells exists, particularly when they are under hypoxic conditions.

  6. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphic variation in the human chromosome 19q13.3 with drug responses in the NCI60 cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, K.K.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Nexo, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    the correlations between the responses of the NCI60 cells to different anticancer drugs and their respective alleles of five DNA polymorphisms located in a cancer-related chromosomal area. One polymorphism, located in the 5' noncoding region of the gene ASE-1, alias CD3EAP, proved to be associated with drug...

  7. DETERMINANTS OF RED-BLOOD-CELL DEFORMABILITY IN RELATION TO CELL AGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOSCH, FH; WERRE, JM; ROERDINKHOLDERSTOELWINDER, B; HULS, T; WILLEKENS, FLA; WICHERS, G; HALIE, MR

    Red blood cell (RBC) deformability was determined with an ektacytometer in fractions separated on the basis of differences in cell volume or density. Deformability was measured with ektacytometry (rpm-scan and osmo-scan). We studied three groups of RBC fractions:l. By counterflow centrifugation we

  8. Cerebral blood flow mapping in children with sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numaguchi, Y.; Humbert, J.R.; Robinson, A.E.; Lindstrom, W.W.; Gruenauer, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    A cerebral blood flow mapping system was applied to the evaluation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in 21 patients with sickle cell cerebrovascular disease, by means of a Picker xenon computed tomographic (CT) scanner. Results indicate that (1) xenon CT is a safe and reliable procedure in children with cerebrovascular diseases; (2) CBF in the gray matter of children seems to be higher than in previously reported data obtained with use of isotopes; and (3) regional CBF can be altered significantly by changing the size of the region of interest (ROI). The term regional CBF probably has to be carefully defined in xenon CT flow mapping. Correlation with anatomy by means of CT or magnetic resonance imaging and comparison with the ROI of the contralateral side and/or adjacent sections is important

  9. Assessing genetic polymorphisms using DNA extracted from cells present in saliva samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemoda Zsofia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Technical advances following the Human Genome Project revealed that high-quality and -quantity DNA may be obtained from whole saliva samples. However, usability of previously collected samples and the effects of environmental conditions on the samples during collection have not been assessed in detail. In five studies we document the effects of sample volume, handling and storage conditions, type of collection device, and oral sampling location, on quantity, quality, and genetic assessment of DNA extracted from cells present in saliva. Methods Saliva samples were collected from ten adults in each study. Saliva volumes from .10-1.0 ml, different saliva collection devices, sampling locations in the mouth, room temperature storage, and multiple freeze-thaw cycles were tested. One representative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the catechol-0-methyltransferase gene (COMT rs4680 and one representative variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR: serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region were selected for genetic analyses. Results The smallest tested whole saliva volume of .10 ml yielded, on average, 1.43 ± .77 μg DNA and gave accurate genotype calls in both genetic analyses. The usage of collection devices reduced the amount of DNA extracted from the saliva filtrates compared to the whole saliva sample, as 54-92% of the DNA was retained on the device. An "adhered cell" extraction enabled recovery of this DNA and provided good quality and quantity DNA. The DNA from both the saliva filtrates and the adhered cell recovery provided accurate genotype calls. The effects of storage at room temperature (up to 5 days, repeated freeze-thaw cycles (up to 6 cycles, and oral sampling location on DNA extraction and on genetic analysis from saliva were negligible. Conclusions Whole saliva samples with volumes of at least .10 ml were sufficient to extract good quality and quantity DNA. Using

  10. Resting blood lactate in individuals with sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Petto

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The most common hereditary hemoglobin disorder, affecting 20 million individuals worldwide, is sickle cell disease. The vascular obstruction resulting from the sickling of cells in this disease can produce local hypoxemia, pain crises and infarction in several tissues, including the bones, spleen, kidneys and lungs. METHODS: The present study is characterized as a case control study, with the aim of identifying the baseline blood lactate concentration in individuals with hemoglobin SS and SC diseases. One-way ANOVA with the Tukey post-test was used to analyze the results and a p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Calculations were made using the INSTAT statistical program. The graphs were generated using the ORING program. The study sample was composed of 31 men and women residing in the city of Santo Antônio de Jesus, Bahia, Brazil. The individuals were divided into two groups: Group GC of 16 subjects who did not present with any type of structural hemoglobinopathy; and Group GE composed of 15 individuals with ages between 2 and 35 years old, who had the SS and SC genotypes. Sample analyses were performed with 3 mL of blood during fasting. RESULTS: The baseline blood lactate concentration of the SS and SC individuals was higher than that of the control group (p<0.001 with means of 4.86 ± 0.95; 3.30 ± 0.33; 1.31 ± 0.08 IU/L for SS, SC and controls, respectively. This corroborates the initial research hypothesis. CONCLUSION: The baseline blood lactate of SS and SC individuals is 3 to 4 times higher than that of healthy subjects, probably due to the fact that these patients have a metabolic deviation to the anaerobic pathway.

  11. Correlation between base-excision repair gene polymorphisms and levels of in-vitro BPDE-induced DNA adducts in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongping Yu

    Full Text Available In vitro benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE-induced DNA adducts in cultured peripheral lymphocytes have been shown to be a phenotypic biomarker of individual's DNA repair phenotype that is associated with cancer risk. In this study, we explored associations between genotypes of base-excision repair genes (PARP1 Val762Ala, APEX1 Asp148Glu, and XRCC1 Arg399Gln and in vitro BPDE-induced DNA adducts in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes in 706 cancer-free non-Hispanic white subjects. We found that levels of BPDE-induced DNA adducts were significantly higher in ever smokers than in never smokers and that individuals with the Glu variant genotypes (i.e., Asp/Glu and Glu/Glu exhibited lower levels of BPDE-induced DNA adducts than did individuals with the common Asp/Asp homozygous genotype (median RAL levels: 32.0 for Asp/Asp, 27.0 for Asp/Glu, and 17.0 for Glu/Glu, respectively; P(trend = 0.030. Further stratified analysis showed that compared with individuals with the common APEX1-148 homozygous Asp/Asp genotype, individuals with the APEX1-148Asp/Glu genotype or the Glu/Glu genotype had a lower risk of having higher-level adducts (adjusted OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.36-0.98 and adjusted OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.26-0.86, respectively; P(trend = 0.012 among smokers. Such an effect was not observed in non-smokers. However, there was no significant interaction between the APEX1 Asp148Glu polymorphism and smoking exposure in this study population (P = 0.512. Additional genotype-phenotype analysis found that the APEX1-148Glu allele had significantly increased expression of APEX1 mRNA in 270 Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines, which is likely associated with more active repair activity. Our findings suggest that the functional APEX1-148Glu allele is associated with reduced risk of having high levels of BPDE-induced DNA adducts mediated with high levels of mRNA expression.

  12. Detection and quantification of subtle changes in red blood cell density using a cell phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Edward J; Velasquez, Anthony; Lu, Shulin; Murphy, Ryann O; ElKhal, Abdala; Mazor, Ofer; Gorelik, Pavel; Sharda, Anish; Ghiran, Ionita C

    2016-08-16

    Magnetic levitation has emerged as a technique that offers the ability to differentiate between cells with different densities. We have developed a magnetic levitation system for this purpose that distinguishes not only different cell types but also density differences in cells of the same type. This small-scale system suspends cells in a paramagnetic medium in a capillary placed between two rare earth magnets, and cells levitate to an equilibrium position determined solely by their density. Uniform reference beads of known density are used in conjunction with the cells as a means to quantify their levitation positions. In one implementation images of the levitating cells are acquired with a microscope, but here we also introduce a cell phone-based device that integrates the magnets, capillary, and a lens into a compact and portable unit that acquires images with the phone's camera. To demonstrate the effectiveness of magnetic levitation in cell density analysis we carried out levitation experiments using red blood cells with artificially altered densities, and also levitated those from donors. We observed that we can distinguish red blood cells of an anemic donor from those that are healthy. Since a plethora of disease states are characterized by changes in cell density magnetic cell levitation promises to be an effective tool in identifying and analyzing pathologic states. Furthermore, the low cost, portability, and ease of use of the cell phone-based system may potentially lead to its deployment in low-resource environments.

  13. Extracorporeal irradiation of dog blood: the effects of a radiostrontium irradiator on blood stem cells (CFU-C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szemere, P.; Fliedner, T.M.; Nothdurft, W.; Breitig, D.

    1982-07-01

    The radiation sensitivity of dog blood stem cells was measured in vitro and in an extracorporeal circulation passing through a radiation field. It was established that the calculated D/sub 0/ was as low as 0.45 Gy. Investigating the cell killing rate in our equipment (Buchler type /sup 90/Sr device for extracorporeal irradiation), we found an overkill situation; the dose delivered was in excess of that which would be required for the total eradication of all stem cells in the peripheral blood passing through the radiation field. Various other types of devices used for extracorporeal irradiation of blood are also reviewed.

  14. The Effect of Disinfection on Viability and Function of Baboon Red Blood Cells and Platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-11

    blood cells was evaluated by their ability to transport oxygen as assessed by measurement of 2,3 diphosphoglycerate (DPG)14 and red blood cell p50,15...Blood collected from the bleeding time site (referred to as "shed blood") had a significantly reduced thromboxane A2 level . The ability of the...preserved or treated platelets to increase the shed blood thromboxane A2 level and reduce the 8; extended bleeding time is the measure of their

  15. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Red Blood Cells and Platelet Concentrates: From Bench to Bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focosi, Daniele; Amabile, Giovanni

    2017-12-27

    Red blood cells and platelets are anucleate blood components indispensable for oxygen delivery and hemostasis, respectively. Derivation of these blood elements from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has the potential to develop blood donor-independent and genetic manipulation-prone products to complement or replace current transfusion banking, also minimizing the risk of alloimmunization. While the production of erythrocytes from iPS cells has challenges to overcome, such as differentiation into adult-type phenotype that functions properly after transfusion, platelet products are qualitatively and quantitatively approaching a clinically-applicable level owing to advances in expandable megakaryocyte (MK) lines, platelet-producing bioreactors, and novel reagents. Guidelines that assure the quality of iPS cells-derived blood products for clinical application represent a novel challenge for regulatory agencies. Considering the minimal risk of tumorigenicity and the expected significant demand of such products, ex vivo production of iPS-derived blood components can pave the way for iPS translation into the clinic.

  16. Manipulation of red blood cells with electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboonchi, Hossain; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2009-11-01

    Manipulation of bioparticles and macromolecules is the central task in many biological and biotechnological processes. The current methods for physical manipulation takes advantage of different forces such as acoustic, centrifugal, magnetic, electromagnetic, and electric forces, as well as using optical tweezers or filtration. Among all these methods, however, the electrical forces are particularly attractive because of their favorable scale up with the system size which makes them well-suited for miniaturization. Currently the electric field is used for transportation, poration, fusion, rotation, and separation of biological cells. The aim of the current research is to gain fundamental understanding of the effect of electric field on the human red blood cells (RBCs) using direct numerical simulation. A front tracking/finite difference technique is used to solve the fluid flow and electric field equations, where the fluid in the cell and the blood (plasma) is modeled as Newtonian and incompressible, and the interface separating the two is treated as an elastic membrane. The behavior of RBCs is investigated as a function of the controlling parameters of the problem such as the strength of the electric field.

  17. An indicator cell assay for blood-based diagnostics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A Danziger

    Full Text Available We have established proof of principle for the Indicator Cell Assay Platform™ (iCAP™, a broadly applicable tool for blood-based diagnostics that uses specifically-selected, standardized cells as biosensors, relying on their innate ability to integrate and respond to diverse signals present in patients' blood. To develop an assay, indicator cells are exposed in vitro to serum from case or control subjects and their global differential response patterns are used to train reliable, disease classifiers based on a small number of features. In a feasibility study, the iCAP detected pre-symptomatic disease in a murine model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS with 94% accuracy (p-Value = 3.81E-6 and correctly identified samples from a murine Huntington's disease model as non-carriers of ALS. Beyond the mouse model, in a preliminary human disease study, the iCAP detected early stage Alzheimer's disease with 72% cross-validated accuracy (p-Value = 3.10E-3. For both assays, iCAP features were enriched for disease-related genes, supporting the assay's relevance for disease research.

  18. [Stem and progenitor cells in biostructure of blood vessel walls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korta, Krzysztof; Kupczyk, Piotr; Skóra, Jan; Pupka, Artur; Zejler, Paweł; Hołysz, Marcin; Gajda, Mariusz; Nowakowska, Beata; Barć, Piotr; Dorobisz, Andrzej T; Dawiskiba, Tomasz; Szyber, Piotr; Bar, Julia

    2013-09-18

    Development of vascular and hematopoietic systems during organogenesis occurs at the same time. During vasculogenesis, a small part of cells does not undergo complete differentiation but stays on this level, "anchored" in tissue structures described as stem cell niches. The presence of blood vessels within tissue stem cell niches is typical and led to identification of niches and ensures that they are functioning. The three-layer biostructure of vessel walls for artery and vein, tunica: intima, media and adventitia, for a long time was defined as a mechanical barrier between vessel light and the local tissue environment. Recent findings from vascular biology studies indicate that vessel walls are dynamic biostructures, which are equipped with stem and progenitor cells, described as vascular wall-resident stem cells/progenitor cells (VW-SC/PC). Distinct zones for vessel wall harbor heterogeneous subpopulations of VW-SC/PC, which are described as "subendothelial or vasculogenic zones". Recent evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies show that prenatal activity of stem and progenitor cells is not only limited to organogenesis but also exists in postnatal life, where it is responsible for vessel wall homeostasis, remodeling and regeneration. It is believed that VW-SC/PC could be engaged in progression of vascular disorders and development of neointima. We would like to summarize current knowledge about mesenchymal and progenitor stem cell phenotype with special attention to distribution and biological properties of VW-SC/PC in biostructures of intima, media and adventitia niches. It is postulated that in the near future, niches for VW-SC/PC could be a good source of stem and progenitor cells, especially in the context of vessel tissue bioengineering as a new alternative to traditional revascularization therapies.

  19. Stem and progenitor cells in biostructure of blood vessel walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Korta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of vascular and hematopoietic systems during organogenesis occurs at the same time. During vasculogenesis, a small part of cells does not undergo complete differentiation but stays on this level, “anchored” in tissue structures described as stem cell niches. The presence of blood vessels within tissue stem cell niches is typical and led to identification of niches and ensures that they are functioning. The three-layer biostructure of vessel walls for artery and vein, tunica: intima, media and adventitia, for a long time was defined as a mechanical barrier between vessel light and the local tissue environment. Recent findings from vascular biology studies indicate that vessel walls are dynamic biostructures, which are equipped with stem and progenitor cells, described as vascular wall-resident stem cells/progenitor cells (VW-SC/PC. Distinct zones for vessel wall harbor heterogeneous subpopulations of VW-SC/PC, which are described as “subendothelial or vasculogenic zones”. Recent evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies show that prenatal activity of stem and progenitor cells is not only limited to organogenesis but also exists in postnatal life, where it is responsible for vessel wall homeostasis, remodeling and regeneration. It is believed that VW-SC/PC could be engaged in progression of vascular disorders and development of neointima. We would like to summarize current knowledge about mesenchymal and progenitor stem cell phenotype with special attention to distribution and biological properties of VW-SC/PC in biostructures of intima, media and adventitia niches. It is postulated that in the near future, niches for VW-SC/PC could be a good source of stem and progenitor cells, especially in the context of vessel tissue bioengineering as a new alternative to traditional revascularization therapies.

  20. The rheologic properties of red blood cells processed by 2 different types of cell savers, and its effects on microcirculatory blood flow and tissue oxygenation in vivo.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, Thomas; de Lange, S.; Martinez, A.; Hagenaars, Johanna A. M.; Ben Ayad, N.; de Vries, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cell savers (CS) reduce the percentage of patients who need blood products during cardiac surgery. While some CS use discontinuous blood processing with a spinning bowl, others use continuous blood processing based on the elutriation principle. Both may influence aggregation and

  1. Red blood cell-derived microparticles isolated from blood units initiate and propagate thrombin generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Olivier; Delobel, Julien; Prudent, Michel; Lion, Niels; Kohl, Kid; Tucker, Erik I; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Angelillo-Scherrer, Anne

    2013-08-01

    Red blood cell-derived microparticles (RMPs) are small phospholipid vesicles shed from RBCs in blood units, where they accumulate during storage. Because microparticles are bioactive, it could be suggested that RMPs are mediators of posttransfusion complications or, on the contrary, constitute a potential hemostatic agent. This study was performed to establish the impact on coagulation of RMPs isolated from blood units. Using calibrated automated thrombography, we investigated whether RMPs affect thrombin generation (TG) in plasma. We found that RMPs were not only able to increase TG in plasma in the presence of a low exogenous tissue factor (TF) concentration, but also to initiate TG in plasma in absence of exogenous TF. TG induced by RMPs in the absence of exogenous TF was neither affected by the presence of blocking anti-TF nor by the absence of Factor (F)VII. It was significantly reduced in plasma deficient in FVIII or F IX and abolished in FII-, FV-, FX-, or FXI-deficient plasma. TG was also totally abolished when anti-XI 01A6 was added in the sample. Finally, neither Western blotting, flow cytometry, nor immunogold labeling allowed the detection of traces of TF antigen. In addition, RMPs did not comprise polyphosphate, an important modulator of coagulation. Taken together, our data show that RMPs have FXI-dependent procoagulant properties and are able to initiate and propagate TG. The anionic surface of RMPs might be the site of FXI-mediated TG amplification and intrinsic tenase and prothrombinase complex assembly. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  2. Red Blood Cell Transfusions in Greece: Results of a Survey of Red Blood Cell Use in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Valsami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Greece is ranked as the second highest consumer of blood components in Europe. For an effective transfusion system and in order to reduce variability of transfusion practice by implementing evidence-based transfusion guidelines it is necessary to study and monitor blood management strategies. Our study was conducted in order to evaluate the use of red blood cell units (RBC-U in nationwide scale mapping parameters that contribute to their proper management in Greece. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted by the Working Committee of Transfusion Medicine&Apheresis of the Hellenic Society of Hematology from January to December 2013. The collected data included the number, ABO/D blood group, patients’ department, and storage age of RBC-U transfused. Results: The number of RBC-U evaluated was 103,702 (17.77% out of 583,457 RBC-U transfused in Greece in 2013. RBC-U transfused by hospital department (mean percentage was as follows: Surgery 29.34%, Internal Medicine 29.48%, Oncology/Hematology 14.65%, Thalassemia 8.87%, Intensive Care Unit 6.55%, Nephrology 1.78%, Obstetrics/Gynecology 1.46%, Neonatal&Pediatric 0.31%, Private Hospitals 8.57%. RBC-U distribution according to ABO/D blood group was: A: 39.02%, B: 12.41%, AB: 5.16%, O: 43.41%, D+: 87.99%, D-: 12.01%. The majority of RBC-U (62.46% was transfused in the first 15 days of storage, 25.24% at 16 to 28 days, and 12.28% at 29-42 days. Conclusion: Despite a high intercenter variability in RBC transfusions, surgical and internal medicine patients were the most common groups of patients transfused with an increasing rate for internal medicine patients. The majority of RBC-U were transfused within the first 15 days of storage, which is possibly the consequence of blood supply insufficiency leading to the direct use of fresh blood. Benchmarking transfusion activity may help to decrease the inappropriate use of blood products, reduce the cost of care, and optimize the use of the

  3. Blood, blood compounds and cell cultures irradiation in clinical radiotherapy equipment: studies on ideal volume and dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Marco Antonio R.; Pereira, Adelino Jose; Novaes, Paulo Eduardo R.S.

    1995-01-01

    The authors present the technic and equipment used by the Physical Radiologic Service of Radiation Therapy Department of A.C. Camargo Hospital to irradiate blood and blood compounds. The practical routine is illustrated. The results from others Institutions are presented, discussing about the homogeneity of dose of 2000 to 3500 c Gy to all target volume, sufficient to neutralize cells responsible by graft-versus-host disease from blood transfusions. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  4. THE PURE RED BLOOD CELL APLASIA IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Dzumabaeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pure red blood cell aplasia of renal transplant recipients caused by parvovirus B19 (PB19 is characterized by persistent anemia which resistant to erythropoietin therapy, lack of reticulocytes, bone marrow hypoplasia, and clinically accompanied by severe recurrent bacterial, fungal and viral infection. In case of reactivation PB19 it is necessarv, first of all, eliminate the causes activation of this virus and to cancel or reduce the dose of drugs which depressed the normal hematopoiesis germs, thus to reduce the pancytopenia associating complications in this population. 

  5. Effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge regarding menstrual blood stem cells banking among nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Neelam Hans; Sandeep Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Background: Menstrual blood banking enables women to store their menstrual blood under required conditions and preserve it for future. Stem cells present in the menstrual blood have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body. The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge regarding menstrual blood stem cells banking among nursing students studying in selected nursing college of Amritsar, Punjab. M...

  6. Hematology, cytochemistry and ultrastructure of blood cells in fishing cat (Felis viverrina)

    OpenAIRE

    Prihirunkit, Kreangsak; Salakij, Chaleow; Apibal, Suntaree; Narkkong, Nual-Anong

    2007-01-01

    Hematological, cytochemical and ultrastructural features of blood cells in fishing cat (Felis viverrina) were evaluated using complete blood cell counts with routine and cytochemical blood stains, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. No statistically significant difference was found in different genders of this animal. Unique features of blood cells in this animal were identified in hematological, cytochemical and ultrastructural studies. This study contributes to broaden hemato...

  7. High-Quality and -Quantity DNA Extraction from Frozen Archival Blood Clots for Genotyping of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bank, Steffen; Nexø, Bjørn Andersen; Andersen, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    the efficiency of commercial purification kits for extracting DNA from long-term frozen clotted blood. Methods: Serum tubes with clotted blood were stored at −20°C for 1 to 2.5 years before DNA extraction. DNA was extracted from 10 blood clot samples using PureGene (Qiagen) with and without glycogen, the QIAamp...... with a median of 0.65 μg (range 0.5–2.6 μg) pr 300 μL total blood. Conclusion: The yield obtained by the different commercial kits varied considerably. Our work demonstrates that high-quality and -quantity DNA can be extracted with the Maxwell 16 Blood purification kit (Promega) from cryopreserved blood clots...

  8. Steady state peripheral blood provides cells with functional and metabolic characteristics of real hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdieu, Antonin; Avalon, Maryse; Lapostolle, Véronique; Ismail, Sadek; Mombled, Margaux; Debeissat, Christelle; Guérinet, Marianne; Duchez, Pascale; Chevaleyre, Jean; Vlaski-Lafarge, Marija; Villacreces, Arnaud; Praloran, Vincent; Ivanovic, Zoran; Brunet de la Grange, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are located in the bone marrow, also circulate in cord and peripheral blood. Despite high availability, HSCs from steady state peripheral blood (SSPB) are little known and not used for research or cell therapy. We thus aimed to characterize and select HSCs from SSPB by a direct approach with a view to delineating their main functional and metabolic properties and the mechanisms responsible for their maintenance. We chose to work on Side Population (SP) cells which are highly enriched in HSCs in mouse, human bone marrow, and cord blood. However, no SP cells from SSBP have as yet been characterized. Here we showed that SP cells from SSPB exhibited a higher proliferative capacity and generated more clonogenic progenitors than non-SP cells in vitro. Furthermore, xenotransplantation studies on immunodeficient mice demonstrated that SP cells are up to 45 times more enriched in cells with engraftment capacity than non-SP cells. From a cell regulation point of view, we showed that SP activity depended on O 2 concentrations close to those found in HSC niches, an effect which is dependent on both hypoxia-induced factors HIF-1α and HIF-2α. Moreover SP cells displayed a reduced mitochondrial mass and, in particular, a lower mitochondrial activity compared to non-SP cells, while they exhibited a similar level of glucose incorporation. These results provided evidence that SP cells from SSPB displayed properties of very primitive cells and HSC, thus rendering them an interesting model for research and cell therapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. 3D morphometry of red blood cells by digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmolo, Pasquale; Miccio, Lisa; Merola, Francesco; Gennari, Oriella; Netti, Paolo Antonio; Ferraro, Pietro

    2014-12-01

    Three dimensional (3D) morphometric analysis of flowing and not-adherent cells is an important aspect for diagnostic purposes. However, diagnostics tools need to be quantitative, label-free and, as much as possible, accurate. Recently, a simple holographic approach, based on shape from silhouette algorithm, has been demonstrated for accurate calculation of cells biovolume and displaying their 3D shapes. Such approach has been adopted in combination with holographic optical tweezers and successfully applied to cells with convex shape. Nevertheless, unfortunately, the method fails in case of specimen with concave surfaces. Here, we propose an effective approach to achieve correct 3D shape measurement that can be extended in case of cells having concave surfaces, thus overcoming the limit of the previous technique. We prove the new procedure for healthy red blood cells (RBCs) (i.e., discocytes) having a concave surface in their central region. Comparative analysis of experimental results with a theoretical 3D geometrical model of RBC is discussed in order to evaluate accuracy of the proposed approach. Finally, we show that the method can be also useful to classify, in terms of morphology, different varieties of RBCs. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  10. Anisotropic light scattering of individual sickle red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngchan; Higgins, John M; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Suresh, Subra; Park, YongKeun

    2012-04-01

    We present the anisotropic light scattering of individual red blood cells (RBCs) from a patient with sickle cell disease (SCD). To measure light scattering spectra along two independent axes of elongated-shaped sickle RBCs with arbitrary orientation, we introduce the anisotropic Fourier transform light scattering (aFTLS) technique and measured both the static and dynamic anisotropic light scattering. We observed strong anisotropy in light scattering patterns of elongated-shaped sickle RBCs along its major axes using static aFTLS. Dynamic aFTLS analysis reveals the significantly altered biophysical properties in individual sickle RBCs. These results provide evidence that effective viscosity and elasticity of sickle RBCs are significantly different from those of the healthy RBCs.

  11. Lack of association of apolipoprotein E (Apo E) polymorphism with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Family Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lana Y H; Petrone, Andrew B; Pankow, James S; Arnett, Donna K; North, Kari E; Ellison, R Curtis; Hunt, Steven C; Rosenzweig, James L; Djoussé, Luc

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), characterized by abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidaemia, elevated blood pressure and insulin resistance, is a major public health concern in the United States. The effects of apolipoprotein E (Apo E) polymorphism on MetS are not well established. We conducted a cross-sectional study consisting of 1551 participants from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Family Heart Study to assess the relation of Apo E polymorphism with the prevalence of MetS. MetS was defined according to the American Heart Association-National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute-International Diabetes Federation-World Health Organization harmonized criteria. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for prevalent MetS and the Bonferroni correction to account for multiple testing in the secondary analysis. Our study population had a mean age (standard deviation) of 56.5 (11.0) years, and 49.7% had MetS. There was no association between the Apo E genotypes and the MetS. The multivariable adjusted ORs (95% confidence interval) were 1.00 (reference), 1.26 (0.31-5.21), 0.89 (0.62-1.29), 1.13 (0.61-2.10), 1.13 (0.88-1.47) and 1.87 (0.91-3.85) for the Ɛ3/Ɛ3, Ɛ2/Ɛ2, Ɛ2/Ɛ3, Ɛ2/Ɛ4, Ɛ3/Ɛ4 and Ɛ4/Ɛ4 genotypes, respectively. In a secondary analysis, Ɛ2/Ɛ3 genotype was associated with 41% lower prevalence odds of low high-density lipoprotein [multivariable adjusted ORs (95% confidence interval) = 0.59 (0.36-0.95)] compared with Ɛ3/Ɛ3 genotype. Our findings do not support an association between Apo E polymorphism and MetS in a multicentre population-based study of predominantly White US men and women. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Collection, processing and testing of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood and haematopoietic stem cells by European Blood Alliance members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Närhi, M; Natri, O; Desbois, I

    2013-01-01

    A questionnaire study was carried out in collaboration with the European Blood Alliance (EBA) Tissues and Cells (T&C) working group. The aim was to assess the level of involvement and commonality of processes on the procurement, testing and storage of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood (UCB......) and haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in order to identify different practices and to explore whether recommendations can be made for harmonization....

  13. The DNA methylome of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingrui Li

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays an important role in biological processes in human health and disease. Recent technological advances allow unbiased whole-genome DNA methylation (methylome analysis to be carried out on human cells. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing at 24.7-fold coverage (12.3-fold per strand, we report a comprehensive (92.62% methylome and analysis of the unique sequences in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from the same Asian individual whose genome was deciphered in the YH project. PBMC constitute an important source for clinical blood tests world-wide. We found that 68.4% of CpG sites and 80% displayed allele-specific expression (ASE. These data demonstrate that ASM is a recurrent phenomenon and is highly correlated with ASE in human PBMCs. Together with recently reported similar studies, our study provides a comprehensive resource for future epigenomic research and confirms new sequencing technology as a paradigm for large-scale epigenomics studies.

  14. Vitamin E nanoemulsion activity on stored red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C A L; Azevedo Filho, C A; Pereira, G; Silva, D C N; Castro, M C A B; Almeida, A F; Lucena, S C A; Santos, B S; Barjas-Castro, M L; Fontes, A

    2017-06-01

    Stored red blood cells (RBCs) undergo numerous changes that have been termed RBC storage lesion, which can be related to oxidative damage. Vitamin E is an important antioxidant, acting on cell lipids. Thus, this study aimed to investigate vitamin E activity on stored RBCs. We prepared a vitamin E nanoemulsion that was added to RBC units and stored at 4 °C. Controls, without vitamin E, were kept under the same conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored for up to 35 days of storage. RBC elasticity was also evaluated using an optical tweezer system. Vitamin E-treated samples presented a significant decrease in ROS production. Additionally, the elastic constant for vitamin E-treated RBCs did not differ from the control. Vitamin E decreased the amount of ROS in stored RBCs. Because vitamin E acts on lipid oxidation, results suggest that protein oxidation should also be considered a key factor for erythrocyte elastic properties. Thus, further studies combining vitamin E with protein antioxidants deserve attention, aiming to better preserve overall stored RBC properties. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  15. Utilization of red blood cell transfusion in an obstetric setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, A A; McMorland, G H; Wadsworth, L D

    1988-11-01

    The transfusion experience for a 1-year period (September 1985 to August 1986) at a tertiary referral obstetric hospital was reviewed retrospectively. During the review period 7731 mothers were delivered and 6003 patients (83%) underwent type-and-screen procedures. A total of 1057 units of red blood cells were crossmatched, and 362 of these 1057 units were transfused to 100 parturient women so that the overall crossmatch/transfusion ratio was 2.9:1. Five percent of transfused patients received 1 unit; 52% of patients received 2 units, 19% received 3 units and 24% received greater than or equal to 4 units of packed red blood cells. Major indications for transfusion were uterine atony, 27%; retained placenta, 17%; trauma, 17%, placenta previa, 7%; and abruptio placentae, 5%. In 12% of patients transfusions were done because of anemia. This study shows the value of audit and confirms that the type-and-screen procedure is an effective way of reducing the crossmatch/transfusion ratio without compromising patient care, even in high-risk patients.

  16. Attenuation of Red Blood Cell Storage Lesions with Vitamin C

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    Kimberly Sanford

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stored red blood cells (RBCs undergo oxidative stress that induces deleterious metabolic, structural, biochemical, and molecular changes collectively referred to as “storage lesions”. We hypothesized that vitamin C (VitC, reduced or oxidized would reduce red cell storage lesions, thus prolonging their storage duration. Whole-blood-derived, leuko-reduced, SAGM (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol-preserved RBC concentrates were equally divided into four pediatric storage bags and the following additions made: (1 saline (saline; (2 0.3 mmol/L reduced VitC (Lo VitC; (3 3 mmol/L reduced VitC (Hi VitC; or (4 0.3 mmol/L oxidized VitC (dehydroascorbic acid, DHA as final concentrations. Biochemical and rheological parameters were serially assessed at baseline (prior to supplementation and Days 7, 21, 42, and 56 for RBC VitC concentration, pH, osmotic fragility by mechanical fragility index, and percent hemolysis, LDH release, glutathione depletion, RBC membrane integrity by scanning electron microscopy, and Western blot for β-spectrin. VitC exposure (reduced and oxidized significantly increased RBC antioxidant status with varying dynamics and produced trends in reduction in osmotic fragility and increases in membrane integrity. Conclusion: VitC partially protects RBC from oxidative changes during storage. Combining VitC with other antioxidants has the potential to improve long-term storage of RBC.

  17. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis multiprotein biomarkers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

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    Giovanni Nardo

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal progressive motor neuron disease, for which there are still no diagnostic/prognostic test and therapy. Specific molecular biomarkers are urgently needed to facilitate clinical studies and speed up the development of effective treatments.We used a two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis approach to identify in easily accessible clinical samples, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, a panel of protein biomarkers that are closely associated with ALS. Validations and a longitudinal study were performed by immunoassays on a selected number of proteins. The same proteins were also measured in PBMC and spinal cord of a G93A SOD1 transgenic rat model. We identified combinations of protein biomarkers that can distinguish, with high discriminatory power, ALS patients from healthy controls (98%, and from patients with neurological disorders that may resemble ALS (91%, between two levels of disease severity (90%, and a number of translational biomarkers, that link responses between human and animal model. We demonstrated that TDP-43, cyclophilin A and ERp57 associate with disease progression in a longitudinal study. Moreover, the protein profile changes detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of ALS patients are suggestive of possible intracellular pathogenic mechanisms such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, nitrative stress, disturbances in redox regulation and RNA processing.Our results indicate that PBMC multiprotein biomarkers could contribute to determine amyotrophic lateral sclerosis diagnosis, differential diagnosis, disease severity and progression, and may help to elucidate pathogenic mechanisms.

  18. Survival of red blood cells after transfusion: processes and consequences

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    Giel eBosman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The currently available data suggest that efforts towards improving the quality of red blood cell (RBC blood bank products should concentrate on: (1 preventing the removal of a considerable fraction of the transfused RBCs that takes place within the first hours after transfusion; (2 minimizing the interaction of the transfused RBCs with the patient's immune system. These issues are important in reducing the number and extent of the damaging side effects of transfusions, such as generation of alloantibodies and autoantibodies and iron accumulation, especially in transfusion-dependent patients. Thus, it becomes important for blood bank research not only to assess the classical RBC parameters for quality control during storage, but even more so to identify the parameters that predict RBC survival, function and behaviour in the patient after transfusion. These parameters are likely to result from elucidation of the mechanisms that underly physiological RBC aging in vivo, and that lead to the generation of senescent cell antigens and the accumulation of damaged molecules in vesicles. Also, study of RBC pathology-related mechanisms, such as encountered in various hemoglobinopathies and membranopathies, may help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying a storage-associated increase in susceptibility to physiological stress conditions. Recent data indicate that a combination of new approaches in vitro to mimick RBC behaviour in vivo, the growing knowledge of the signaling networks that regulate RBC structure and function, and the rapidly expanding set of proteomic and metabolomic data, will be instrumental to identify the storage-associated processes that control RBC survival after transfusion.

  19. Transdifferentiation of Human Hair Follicle Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Red Blood Cells by OCT4

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    Zhijing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of red blood cells (RBCs, erythrocytes can have potentially life-threatening consequences for rare or unusual blood type patients with massive blood loss resulting from various conditions. Erythrocytes have been derived from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs, but the risk of potential tumorigenicity cannot be ignored, and a majority of these cells produced from PSCs express embryonic ε- and fetal γ-globins with little or no adult β-globin and remain nucleated. Here we report a method to generate erythrocytes from human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells (hHFMSCs by enforcing OCT4 gene expression and cytokine stimulation. Cells generated from hHFMSCs expressed mainly the adult β-globin chain with minimum level of the fetal γ-globin chain. Furthermore, these cells also underwent multiple maturation events and formed enucleated erythrocytes with a biconcave disc shape. Gene expression analyses showed that OCT4 regulated the expression of genes associated with both pluripotency and erythroid development during hHFMSC transdifferentiation toward erythroid cells. These findings show that mature erythrocytes can be generated from adult somatic cells, which may serve as an alternative source of RBCs for potential autologous transfusion.

  20. Polymorphisms of three genes (ACE, AGT and CYP11B2) in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are not associated with blood pressure salt sensitivity: A systematic meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiahong; Zhao, Min; Miao, Song; Xi, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that polymorphisms of three key genes (ACE, AGT and CYP11B2) in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) play important roles in the development of blood pressure (BP) salt sensitivity, but they have revealed inconsistent results. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to clarify the association. PubMed and Embase databases were searched for eligible published articles. Fixed- or random-effect models were used to pool odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals based on whether there was significant heterogeneity between studies. In total, seven studies [237 salt-sensitive (SS) cases and 251 salt-resistant (SR) controls] for ACE gene I/D polymorphism, three studies (130 SS cases and 221 SR controls) for AGT gene M235T polymorphism and three studies (113 SS cases and 218 SR controls) for CYP11B2 gene C344T polymorphism were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that there was no significant association between polymorphisms of these three polymorphisms in the RAAS and BP salt sensitivity under three genetic models (all p > 0.05). The meta-analysis suggested that three polymorphisms (ACE gene I/D, AGT gene M235T, CYP11B2 gene C344T) in the RAAS have no significant effect on BP salt sensitivity.

  1. The Impact of Drug Metabolism Gene Polymorphisms on Therapeutic Response and Survival in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pál, Ildikó; Illés, Árpád; Gergely, Lajos; Pál, Tibor; Radnay, Zita; Szekanecz, Zoltán; Zilahi, Erika; Váróczy, László

    2018-04-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) accounts for 30% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) and 80% of agressive lymphomas. Besides the traditional International Prognostic Index (IPI), some other factors may also influence the prognosis of DLBCL patients. To study how the genetic polymorphisms in the metabolic pathway influence the event-free and overall survivals and therapeutic responses in DLBCL. The study was comprised of 51 patients (32 men, 19 women). The average age was 53.1 years. DLBCL was diagnosed between 2011 and 2016 and the average follow-up time was 3.78 years. These patients received 1-8 cycles (an average of 6.2 cycles) of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristin, prednisolon (R-CHOP) immunochemotherapy. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1, GSTP1, NAT1, and NAT2 genes. Our results showed that the polymorphisms of CYP2E1, GSTP1, and NAT1 genes did not influence the prognosis of DLBCL patients significantly. In terms of the NAT2 gene, GG homozygous patients showed slightly better therapeutic response and survival results compared to those bearing an A allele; however, the differences were not statistically significant. Our results could not confirm that genetic polymorphism in metabolic pathways has any predictive role in DLBCL.

  2. A Neural-Network-Based Approach to White Blood Cell Classification

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    Mu-Chun Su

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new white blood cell classification system for the recognition of five types of white blood cells. We propose a new segmentation algorithm for the segmentation of white blood cells from smear images. The core idea of the proposed segmentation algorithm is to find a discriminating region of white blood cells on the HSI color space. Pixels with color lying in the discriminating region described by an ellipsoidal region will be regarded as the nucleus and granule of cytoplasm of a white blood cell. Then, through a further morphological process, we can segment a white blood cell from a smear image. Three kinds of features (i.e., geometrical features, color features, and LDP-based texture features are extracted from the segmented cell. These features are fed into three different kinds of neural networks to recognize the types of the white blood cells. To test the effectiveness of the proposed white blood cell classification system, a total of 450 white blood cells images were used. The highest overall correct recognition rate could reach 99.11% correct. Simulation results showed that the proposed white blood cell classification system was very competitive to some existing systems.

  3. From Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms to Constant Immunosuppression: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Autoimmune Diseases

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    Raghavan Chinnadurai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The regenerative abilities and the immunosuppressive properties of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs make them potentially the ideal cellular product of choice for treatment of autoimmune and other immune mediated disorders. Although the usefulness of MSCs for therapeutic applications is in early phases, their potential clinical use remains of great interest. Current clinical evidence of use of MSCs from both autologous and allogeneic sources to treat autoimmune disorders confers conflicting clinical benefit outcomes. These varied results may possibly be due to MSC use across wide range of autoimmune disorders with clinical heterogeneity or due to variability of the cellular product. In the light of recent genome wide association studies (GWAS, linking predisposition of autoimmune diseases to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the susceptible genetic loci, the clinical relevance of MSCs possessing SNPs in the critical effector molecules of immunosuppression is largely undiscussed. It is of further interest in the allogeneic setting, where SNPs in the target pathway of MSC's intervention may also modulate clinical outcome. In the present review, we have discussed the known critical SNPs predisposing to disease susceptibility in various autoimmune diseases and their significance in the immunomodulatory properties of MSCs.

  4. Interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 gene polymorphisms are associated with manifestations of sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicari, Perla; Adegoke, Samuel A; Mazzotti, Diego Robles; Cançado, Rodolfo Delfini; Nogutti, Maria Aparecida Eiko; Figueiredo, Maria Stella

    2015-03-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA), a disorder characterized by both acute and chronic inflammation, exhibits substantial phenotypic variability. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and IL-6 are important in acute and chronic diseases, and their single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been considered as predictors of prognosis in several inflammatory conditions. This study aims at exploring possible association of IL-1β and IL-6 SNPs as potential genetic modifiers and or predictors of SCA clinical and laboratory phenotypes. This cross-sectional study involved 107 SCA patients and 110 age, sex and ethnicity-matched healthy individuals. The SNPs were identified by PCR-RFLP for IL-1β (-511C>T and +3954C>T) and IL-6 (-597G>A and -174G>C) genes. Associations between these SNPs and the clinical and laboratory profiles of patients with SCA were then determined. Allelic and genotypic frequencies of IL-1β and IL-6 SNPs between patients with SCA and controls were similar and followed HWE. IL-1β +3954C>T SNP was associated with increased risk of osteonecrosis, elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and lower absolute reticulocyte count, while IL-6 -597G>A was associated with higher likelihood of retinopathy and leg ulcer. These data indicate that IL-1β and IL-6 gene SNPs are associated with SCA complications among Brazilian patients and may act as genetic predictors of SCA clinical heterogeneity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cerebral blood flow in sickle cell cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttenlocher, P.R.; Moohr, J.W.; Johns, L.; Brown, F.D.

    1984-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been studied by the xenon-133 ( 133 Xe) inhalation method in 16 children with suspected sickle cell cerebrovascular disease. Abnormalities consisting of decreases in total, hemispheral, or regional CBF were found in 17 of 26 studies. Eleven studies performed immediately after stroke, transient ischemic attack, or depression of state of alertness showed abnormalities. In addition to confirming regional cerebrovascular insufficiency in children with stroke due to major cerebral artery occlusion, the method detected diffuse decrease in CBF in children with stupor, coma, and seizures who had normal angiographic findings. In contrast, six of seven studies obtained after exchange transfusion or during maintenance on hypertransfusion therapy showed normal findings. The difference between results in patients with acute neurologic disturbances and those receiving transfusion therapy was statistically significant (P less than .005). The data indicate that the 133 Xe method reliably demonstrates cerebrovascular impairment in sickle cell disease. They also suggest that CBF changes in patients with sickle cell disease can be reversed by exchange transfusion and by hypertransfusion therapy. The 133 Xe CBF method may be useful for following up children with sickle cell disease who are at high risk for recurrent stroke

  6. Hemoglobin redox reactions and red blood cell aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkind, Joseph M; Nagababu, Enika

    2013-06-10

    The physiological mechanism(s) for recognition and removal of red blood cells (RBCs) from circulation after 120 days of its lifespan is not fully understood. Many of the processes thought to be associated with the removal of RBCs involve oxidative stress. We have focused on hemoglobin (Hb) redox reactions, which is the major source of RBC oxidative stress. The importance of Hb redox reactions have been shown to originate in large parts from the continuous slow autoxidation of Hb producing superoxide and its dramatic increase under hypoxic conditions. In addition, oxidative stress has been shown to be associated with redox reactions that originate from Hb reactions with nitrite and nitric oxide (NO) and the resultant formation of highly toxic peroxynitrite when NO reacts with superoxide released during Hb autoxidation. The interaction of Hb, particularly under hypoxic conditions with band 3 of the RBC membrane is critical for the generating the RBC membrane changes that trigger the removal of cells from circulation. These changes include exposure of antigenic sites, increased calcium leakage into the RBC, and the resultant leakage of potassium out of the RBC causing cell shrinkage and impaired deformability. The need to understand the oxidative damage to specific membrane proteins that result from redox reactions occurring when Hb is bound to the membrane. Proteomic studies that can pinpoint the specific proteins damaged under different conditions will help elucidate the cellular aging processes that result in cells being removed from circulation.

  7. Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: In vitro assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benarroz, M.O.; Fonseca, A.S.; Rocha, G.S.; Frydman, J.N.G.; Rocha, V.C.; Pereira, M.O.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99 m( 99m Tc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with 99m Tc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p 99m Tc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon

  8. Clinical evaluation of a 51Cr-labeled red blood cell survival test for in vivo blood compatibility testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda, A.A.; Dharkar, D.D.; Wahner, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Modified red blood cell survival studies with use of 51Cr were performed in three groups of subjects. Group 1 consisted of normal subjects who were given labeled autologous blood, group 2 were subjects in need of blood transfusions and given labeled ABO and Rh crossmatch-compatible blood, and group 3 were patients in need of blood transfusion but in whom problems arose in finding compatible blood. The results of the studies suggest that for patients with blood compatibility problems, normal red blood cell survival values at 1 hour do not exclude the possibility of severe hemolysis 24 hours later. Thus, if a 1-hour test result is normal, the procedure should be extended routinely to 24 hours. Moreover, the test can be used to evaluate the clinical importance of antibodies. We showed that anti-Yka and anti-Lan were clinically significant, but high-titer, low-avidity antibodies, anti-Kna, anti-I, and anti-HI were clinically insignificant in the cases studied. This finding emphasizes the importance of an in vivo test for the final compatibility evaluation in complicated blood replacement problems

  9. Cutaneous infiltration of plasmacytoid dendritic cells and T regulatory cells in skin lesions of polymorphic light eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, M T; Arisi, M; Lonardi, S; Lorenzi, L; Ungari, M; Serana, F; Fusano, M; Moggio, E; Calzavara-Pinton, P G; Venturini, M

    2018-02-11

    Polymorphic light eruption (PLE) is the most common autoimmune photodermatosis. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) are important mediators of innate antimicrobial immunity involved in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory skin diseases. In addition to PDCs, regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in controlling inflammation and adaptive immunity in skin by their immunosuppressive capacity. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of PDCs and Tregs in photoexposed skin from PLE compared to healthy skin. Patients with PLE diagnosis and healthy controls were recruited and underwent a photoprovocative test. A 4-mm punch biopsy was taken from the site of positive photoprovocation test reaction, and immunohistochemistry for BDCA2 as marker for PDCs, CD4 and FOXP3 as markers for Tregs was performed. Double immunostain for FOXP3 and CD4 was performed as well. Absolute counts for CD4, BDCA2 and FOXP3 were performed in at least 5 High Power Fields (HPF). Percentage of CD4-, BDCA2- and CD4FOXP3-positive cells over the total inflammatory infiltrate was assessed for each case. We enrolled 23 patients and controls. BDCA2+ cells were present in 91.3% of PLE skin samples and 100% of healthy volunteer. Both in PLE patients and healthy controls, PDCs distribution was mainly dermic (P PLE patients (P PLE patients and healthy controls, Tregs distribution was mainly dermic (P PLE patients compared to controls (P PLE, and dermal distribution of PDCs in PLE skin biopsies seems to confirm a possible overlap with cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE). © 2018 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  10. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66Met Polymorphism Affects the Relationship Between an Anxiety-Related Personality Trait and Resting Regional Cerebral Blood Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shau-Ming; Eisenberg, Daniel P; Nabel, Katherine G; Kohn, Philip D; Kippenhan, J Shane; Dickinson, Dwight; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Berman, Karen F

    2017-03-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important modulator of constitutive stress responses mediated by limbic frontotemporal circuits, and its gene contains a functional polymorphism (Val66Met) that may influence trait stress sensitivity. Reports of an association of this polymorphism with anxiety-related personality traits have been controversial and without clear neurophysiological support. We, therefore, determined the relationship between resting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and a well-validated measure of anxiety-related personality, the TPQ Harm Avoidance (HA) scale, as a function of BDNF Val66Met genotype. Sixty-four healthy participants of European ancestry underwent resting H215O positron emission tomography scans. For each genotype group separately, we first determined the relationship between participants' HA scores and their resting rCBF values in each voxel across the entire brain, and then directly compared these HA-rCBF relationships between Val66Met genotype groups. HA-rCBF relationships differed between Val homozygotes and Met carriers in several regions relevant to stress regulation: subgenual cingulate, orbital frontal cortex, and the hippocampal/parahippocampal region. In each of these areas, the relationship was positive in Val homozygotes and negative in Met carriers. These data demonstrate a coupling between trait anxiety and basal resting blood flow in frontolimbic neurocircuitry that may be determined in part by genetically mediated BDNF signaling. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Patient Blood Management in Europe: surveys on top indications for red blood cell use and Patient Blood Management organization and activities in seven European university hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruun, M T; Pendry, K; Georgsen, J; Manzini, P; Lorenzi, M; Wikman, A; Borg-Aquilina, D; van Pampus, E; van Kraaij, M; Fischer, D; Meybohm, P; Zacharowski, K; Geisen, C; Seifried, E; Liumbruno, G M; Folléa, G; Grant-Casey, J; Babra, P; Murphy, M F

    2016-11-01

    Patient Blood Management (PBM) in Europe is a working group of the European Blood Alliance with the initial objective to identify the starting position of the participating hospitals regarding PBM for benchmarking purposes, and to derive good practices in PBM from the experience and expertise in the participating teams with the further aim of implementing and strengthening these practices in the participating hospitals. We conducted two surveys in seven university hospitals in Europe: Survey on top indications for red blood cell use regarding usage of red blood cells during 1 week and Survey on PBM organization and activities. A total of 3320 units of red blood cells were transfused in 1 week at the seven hospitals. Overall, 61% of red cell units were transfused to medical patients and 36% to surgical patients, although there was much variation between hospitals. The organization and activities of PBM in the seven hospitals were variable, but there was a common focus on optimizing the treatment of bleeding patients, monitoring the use of blood components and treatment of preoperative anaemia. Although the seven hospitals provide a similar range of clinical services, there was variation in transfusion rates between them. Further, there was variable implementation of PBM activities and monitoring of transfusion practice. These findings provide a baseline to develop joint action plans to further implement and strengthen PBM across a number of hospitals in Europe. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  12. The Fc Receptor Polymorphisms and Expression of Neutrophil Activation Markers in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease from Western India

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    Harshada K. Kangne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Sickle cell disease has variable clinical manifestations. Activation of neutrophils plays an important role in the initiation and propagation of vaso occlusive crises which can be analysed by determining the expression of neutrophil antigens such as CD16, CD32, and CD62L. The common FcγR polymorphisms (FcγRIIA and FcγRIIIB are considered to influence clinical presentation. This study focuses on distribution of FcγR polymorphisms and their association with neutrophil activity among the patients from western India. Methods. In this paper 127 sickle cell anemia patients and 58 patients with sickle-β-thalassemia (median age 12±8.58 years with variable clinical phenotypes along with 175 normals were investigated. FcγRs polymorphisms were analysed by RFLP and AS-PCR. Activation of neutrophils was measured by flow cytometry. Results. The genotypic frequency of the H/R genotype of FcγRIIA and the NA1/NA1 genotype of FcγRIIIB was significantly decreased in patients compared to normals (P-0.0074, P-0.0471, resp.. We found a significant difference in the expression of CD32 and CD62L among the patients as against normals. A significantly higher expression of CD32 was seen in the milder patients with the H/H genotype (P-0.0231, whereas the expression of CD16 was higher in severe patients with the NA2/NA2 genotype (P-0.0312. Conclusion. The two FcγR polymorphisms had significant association with variable phenotypes of sickle cell disease. The expression of CD62L decreased in our patients indicating activation of neutrophils.

  13. Detection of tumor-associated cells in cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples for retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Peixuan; Stanton, Melissa L; Castle, Erik P; Joseph, Richard W; Adams, Daniel L; Li, Shuhong; Amstutz, Platte; Tang, Cha-Mei; Ho, Thai H

    2016-07-02

    Cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are commonly collected in biobanks. However, little data exist regarding the preservation of tumor-associated cells in cryopreserved collections. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using the CellSieve™ microfiltration assay for the isolation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating cancer-associated macrophage-like cells (CAMLs) from cryopreserved PBMC samples. Blood samples spiked with breast (MCF-7), prostate (PC-3), and renal (786-O) cancer cell lines were used to establish analytical accuracy, efficiency, and reproducibility after cryopreservation. The spiked samples were processed through Ficoll separation, and cryopreservation was followed by thawing and microfiltration. MCF-7 cells were successfully retrieved with recovery efficiencies of 90.5 % without cryopreservation and 87.8 and 89.0 %, respectively, on day 7 and day 66 following cryopreservation. The corresponding recovery efficiencies of PC-3 cells were 83.3 % without cryopreservation and 85.3 and 84.7 %, respectively, after cryopreservation. Recovery efficiencies of 786-O cells were 92.7 % without cryopreservation, and 82.7 and 81.3 %, respectively, after cryopreservation. The recovered cells retained the morphologic characteristics and immunohistochemical markers that had been observed before freezing. The protocols were further validated by quantitation of CAMLs in blood samples from two patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The recovery rates of CTCs and CAMLs from cryopreserved samples were not statistically significant different (P > 0.05) from matched fresh samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report that CAMLs could be cryopreserved and analyzed after thawing with microfiltration technology. The application of microfiltration technology to cryopreserved samples will enable much greater retrospective study of cancer patients in relation to long-term outcomes.

  14. The polymorphism and haplotypes of XRCC1 and survival of non-small-cell lung cancer after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang Min; Hong, Yun-Chul; Park, Heon Joo; Lee, Jong-Eun; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Jong Hoon; Lee, Sang-Wook; Park, So-Yeon; Lee, Jung Shin; Choi, Eun Kyung

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The X-ray repair cross-complementing Group 1 (XRCC1) protein is involved mainly in the base excision repair of the DNA repair process. This study examined the association of 3 polymorphisms (codon 194, 280, and 399) of XRCC1 and lung cancer in terms of whether or not these polymorphisms have an effect on the survival of lung cancer patients who have received radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and April 2004, 229 lung cancer patients with non-small-cell lung cancer in Stages I-III were enrolled. Genotyping was performed by single base primer extension assay using the SNP-IT Kit with genomic DNA samples from all patients. The haplotype of the XRCC1 polymorphisms was estimated by PHASE version 2.1. Results: The patients consisted of 191 (83.4%) males and 38 (16.6%) females with a median age of 62 (range, 26-88 years). Sixty percent of the patients were included in Stage I-IIIa. The median progression-free and overall survival was 13 months and 16 months, respectively. The XRCC1 codon 194, histology, and stage were shown to be significant predictors of the progression-free survival. The 6 haplotypes among the XRCC1 polymorphisms (194, 280, and 399) were estimated by PHASE v.2.1. The patients with haplotype pairs other than the homozygous TGG haplotype pairs survived significantly longer (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Polymorphisms of XRCC1 have an effect on the survival of lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy, and this effect seems to be more significant after the haplotype pairs are considered

  15. Multiple loci are associated with white blood cell phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Nalls

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available White blood cell (WBC count is a common clinical measure from complete blood count assays, and it varies widely among healthy individuals. Total WBC count and its constituent subtypes have been shown to be moderately heritable, with the heritability estimates varying across cell types. We studied 19,509 subjects from seven cohorts in a discovery analysis, and 11,823 subjects from ten cohorts for replication analyses, to determine genetic factors influencing variability within the normal hematological range for total WBC count and five WBC subtype measures. Cohort specific data was supplied by the CHARGE, HeamGen, and INGI consortia, as well as independent collaborative studies. We identified and replicated ten associations with total WBC count and five WBC subtypes at seven different genomic loci (total WBC count-6p21 in the HLA region, 17q21 near ORMDL3, and CSF3; neutrophil count-17q21; basophil count- 3p21 near RPN1 and C3orf27; lymphocyte count-6p21, 19p13 at EPS15L1; monocyte count-2q31 at ITGA4, 3q21, 8q24 an intergenic region, 9q31 near EDG2, including three previously reported associations and seven novel associations. To investigate functional relationships among variants contributing to variability in the six WBC traits, we utilized gene expression- and pathways-based analyses. We implemented gene-clustering algorithms to evaluate functional connectivity among implicated loci and showed functional relationships across cell types. Gene expression data from whole blood was utilized to show that significant biological consequences can be extracted from our genome-wide analyses, with effect estimates for significant loci from the meta-analyses being highly corellated with the proximal gene expression. In addition, collaborative efforts between the groups contributing to this study and related studies conducted by the COGENT and RIKEN groups allowed for the examination of effect homogeneity for genome-wide significant associations across

  16. Human genetic polymorphisms in the Knops blood group are not associated with a protective advantage against Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Southern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Helle H; Kurtzhals, Jørgen A; Goka, Bamenla Q; Rodriques, Onike P; Nkrumah, Francis N; Theander, Thor G; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Alifrangis, Michael

    2013-11-07

    The complex interactions between the human host and the Plasmodium falciparum parasite and the factors influencing severity of disease are still not fully understood. Human single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs associated with Knops blood group system; carried by complement receptor 1 may be associated with the pathology of P. falciparum malaria, and susceptibility to disease. The objective of this study was to determine the genotype and haplotype frequencies of the SNPs defining the Knops blood group antigens; Kna/b, McCoya/b, Swain-Langley1/2 and KCAM+/- in Ghanaian patients with malaria and determine possible associations between these polymorphisms and the severity of the disease. Study participants were patients (n = 267) admitted to the emergency room at the Department of Child Health, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana during the malaria season from June to August in 1995, 1996 and 1997, classified as uncomplicated malaria (n = 89), severe anaemia (n = 57) and cerebral malaria (n = 121) and controls who did not have a detectable Plasmodium infection or were symptomless carriers of the parasite (n = 275). The frequencies were determined using a post-PCR ligation detection reaction-fluorescent microsphere assay, developed to detect the SNPs defining the antigens. Chi-square/Fisher's exact test and logistic regression models were used to analyse the data. As expected, high frequencies of the alleles Kna, McCb, Sl2 and KCAM- were found in the Ghanaian population. Apart from small significant differences between the groups at the Sl locus, no significant allelic or genotypic differences were found between the controls and the disease groups or between the disease groups. The polymorphisms define eight different haplotypes H1(2.4%), H2(9.4%), H3(59.8%), H4(0%), H5(25.2%), H6(0.33%), H7(2.8%) and H8(0%). Investigating these haplotypes, no significant differences between any of the groups were found. The results confirm earlier findings of high frequencies of

  17. The morphological classification of normal and abnormal red blood cell using Self Organizing Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, R. F.; Wulandari, F. S.; Faza, S.; Muchtar, M. A.; Siregar, I.

    2018-02-01

    Blood is an essential component of living creatures in the vascular space. For possible disease identification, it can be tested through a blood test, one of which can be seen from the form of red blood cells. The normal and abnormal morphology of the red blood cells of a patient is very helpful to doctors in detecting a disease. With the advancement of digital image processing technology can be used to identify normal and abnormal blood cells of a patient. This research used self-organizing map method to classify the normal and abnormal form of red blood cells in the digital image. The use of self-organizing map neural network method can be implemented to classify the normal and abnormal form of red blood cells in the input image with 93,78% accuracy testing.

  18. Interleukin 17A and interleukin 17F polymorphisms are associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma susceptibility in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Zhang, Chao; Chen, Zhaoquan; Bai, Lilu; Nie, Min; Zhou, Bin; Xu, Huanxi

    2015-02-01

    Several studies have investigated the association of the interleukin (IL) 17A and IL-17F polymorphisms and cancer of various organs. However, the role of the IL-17A and IL-17F polymorphisms in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains unclear. Thus we sought to clarify the association of the rs2275913, rs763780, and rs2397084 polymorphisms with OSCC in a Chinese population. A TaqMan single-nucleotide polymorphism Genotyping Assay (ABI, Foster, CA) was used to measure the distributions of the IL-17A (rs2275913) and IL-17F (rs763780, rs2397084) polymorphisms in 121 OSCC patients and 103 healthy controls. The association of those polymorphisms and clinical OSCC patient characteristic also was evaluated. Individuals carrying the rs2275913 A allele and AA genotype had an increased risk of OSCC (odds ratio [OR], 1.463; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.807 to 2.652; and OR, 2.713; 95% CI, 1.250 to 5.889, respectively). The frequency of the rs2397084 T allele was significantly associated with a higher risk of OSCC than the G allele (OR, 1.501; 95% CI, 1.026 to 2.196). No difference in rs763780 frequencies was observed. The rs2275913 AA and rs2397084 TT genotypes also were associated with late clinical stages and poor tumor differentiation. In addition, stratification analysis indicated that the rs2275913 AA genotype increased OSCC risk among smoking and drinking populations (OR, 4.000; 95% CI, 1.404 to 11.394; and OR, 3.500; 95% CI, 1.018 to 12.030, respectively). In a smoking population, an rs9382084 T-allele carrier has a greater potential risk of OSCC than the overall population (OR, 2.200; 95% CI, 1.009 to 4.797). The results of this study suggest a significant association of rs2275913 and rs2397084 but not rs763780 with OSCC risk, and this was related to tumor stage and differentiation. In addition, the IL-17A and IL-17F polymorphisms can interact with smoking and drinking to enhance the risk of OSCC developing. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and

  19. VALUE CHANGE DIAMETERRED BLOOD CELLS ATHLETES IN THE PHYSICAL LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiya Yurevna Rubtsova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: to study the nature of distribution of erythrocytes on diameter in the circulating blood of skiers-racers during achievement of a threshold of anaerobic threshold (AТ. Materials and methods: Professional Skiers racers (young men and men, girls and women at the age of 17–37 years (n = 33 are еxamined in the conditions of physical activity on the stationary bicycle. The research is conducted according to the protocol approved by local committee on bioethics in case of Institute of Physiology of Komi Scientific Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Samples of blood were taken from an elbow vein on an empty stomach, then from finger capillaries to, - on a threshold of anaerobic exchange, after execution of loading “to the full” and in 5 min restoration. On the stained blood smears measured diameter of 50 erythrocytes. Results processed statistically with use of an application program package of Windows (Basic, 2011. Results: At stage AT at 36% of athletes defined increase in average diameter of erythrocytes from 7,46 ± 0,06 to 7,68 ± 0,08 µm (р<0,05, without changes at 12% (7,45 ± 0,04 – 7,43 ± 0,05 µm and reduction of the size of cells at 52% from 7,51± 0,04 to 7,35 ± 0,05 µm (р<0,05. In the conditions of a maximum load (men have 337,1 ± 12,4 W and women have 246,7 ± 10,8 W and during the 5-minute recovery diameter of erythrocytes returned to the original value. Conclusion: Thus, the individual nature of change of average diameter of erythrocytes at athletes is shown during achievement of ANSPs and probably corresponds to selective elimination preferentially macro- or microcytes.

  20. Trends in US minority red blood cell unit donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazer, Mark H; Delaney, Meghan; Germain, Marc; Karafin, Matthew S; Sayers, Merlyn; Vassallo, Ralph; Ziman, Alyssa; Shaz, Beth

    2017-05-01

    To provide the appropriately diverse blood supply necessary to support alloimmunized and chronically transfused patients, minority donation recruitment programs have been implemented. This study investigated temporal changes in minority red blood cell (RBC) donation patterns in the United States. Data on donor race and ethnicity from 2006 through 2015, including the number of unique donors, collections, RBCs successfully donated, and average annual number of RBC donations per donor (donor fraction), were collected from eight US blood collectors. Minority donors were stratified into the following groups: Asian, black or African American, Hispanic or Latino, Native Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, white, multiracial/other, and no answer/not sure. Over the 10-year period, white donors annually constituted the majority of unique donors (range, 70.7%-73.9%), had the greatest proportion of collections (range, 76.1%-79.8%), and donated the greatest proportion of RBC units (range, 76.3%-80.2%). These donors also had the highest annual donor fraction (range, 1.82-1.91 units per donor). Black or African American donors annually constituted between 4.9 and 5.2% of all donors during the study period and donated between 4.0 and 4.3% of all RBC units. Linear regression analysis revealed decreasing numbers of donors, collections, and donated RBC units from white donors over time. Although the US population has diversified, and minority recruitment programs have been implemented, white donors constitute the majority of RBC donors and donations. Focused and effective efforts are needed to increase the proportion of minority donors. © 2017 AABB.

  1. Diagnosis and epidemiology of red blood cell enzyme disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Van Wijk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The red blood cell possess an active metabolic machinery that provides the cell with energy to pump ions against electrochemical gradients, to maintain its shape, to keep hemoglobin iron in the reduced (ferrous form, and to maintain enzyme and hemoglobin sulfhydryl groups. The main source of metabolic energy comes from glucose. Glucose is metabolized through the glycolytic pathway and through the hexose monophosphate shunt. Glycolysis catabolizes glucose to pyruvate and lactate, which represent the end products of glucose metabolism in the erythrocyte. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP is phosphorylated to adenosine triphosphate (ATP, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ is reduced to NADH in glycolysis. 2,3- Bisphosphoglycerate, an important regulator of the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin, is generated during glycolysis by the Rapoport-Luebering shunt. The hexose monophosphate shunt oxidizes glucose-6-phosphate, reducing NADP+ to reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH. The red cell lacks the capacity for de novo purine synthesis but has a salvage pathway that permits synthesis of purine nucleotides from purine bases...

  2. Of macrophages and red blood cells; a complex love story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Back, Djuna Z; Kostova, Elena B; van Kraaij, Marian; van den Berg, Timo K; van Bruggen, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages tightly control the production and clearance of red blood cells (RBC). During steady state hematopoiesis, approximately 10(10) RBC are produced per hour within erythroblastic islands in humans. In these erythroblastic islands, resident bone marrow macrophages provide erythroblasts with interactions that are essential for erythroid development. New evidence suggests that not only under homeostasis but also under stress conditions, macrophages play an important role in promoting erythropoiesis. Once RBC have matured, these cells remain in circulation for about 120 days. At the end of their life span, RBC are cleared by macrophages residing in the spleen and the liver. Current theories about the removal of senescent RBC and the essential role of macrophages will be discussed as well as the role of macrophages in facilitating the removal of damaged cellular content from the RBC. In this review we will provide an overview on the role of macrophages in the regulation of RBC production, maintenance and clearance. In addition, we will discuss the interactions between these two cell types during transfer of immune complexes and pathogens from RBC to macrophages.

  3. Effects of blood products on inflammatory response in endothelial cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Urner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transfusing blood products may induce inflammatory reactions within the vascular compartment potentially leading to a systemic inflammatory response. Experiments were designed to assess the inflammatory potential of different blood products in an endothelial cell-based in vitro model and to compare baseline levels of potentially activating substances in transfusion products. METHODS: The inflammatory response from pre-activated (endotoxin-stimulated and non-activated endothelial cells as well as neutrophil endothelial transmigration in response to packed red blood cells (PRBC, platelet concentrates (PC and fresh frozen plasma (FFP was determined. Baseline inflammatory mediator and lipid concentrations in blood products were evaluated. RESULTS: Following incubation with all blood products, an increased inflammatory mediator release from endothelial cells was observed. Platelet concentrates, and to a lesser extent also FFP, caused the most pronounced response, which was accentuated in already pre-stimulated endothelial cells. Inflammatory response of endothelial cells as well as blood product-induced migration of neutrophils through the endothelium was in good agreement with the lipid content of the according blood product. CONCLUSION: Within the group of different blood transfusion products both PC and FFP have a high inflammatory potential with regard to activation of endothelial cells. Inflammation upon blood product exposure is strongly accentuated when endothelial cells are pre-injured. High lipid contents in the respective blood products goes along with an accentuated inflammatory reaction from endothelial cells.

  4. Neonatal nucleated red blood cells in G6PD deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruchimovich, Mark; Shapira, Boris; Mimouni, Francis B; Dollberg, Shaul

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this study is to study the absolute number of nucleated red blood cells (RBC) at birth, an index of active fetal erythropoiesis, in infants with G6PD deficiency and in controls. We tested the hypothesis that hematocrit and hemoglobin would be lower, and absolute nucleated RBC counts higher, in the G6PD deficient and that these changes would be more prominent in infants exposed passively to fava bean through maternal diet. Thirty-two term infants with G6PD deficiency were compared with 30 term controls. Complete blood counts with manual differential counts were obtained within 12 hours of life. Absolute nucleated RBC and corrected leukocyte counts were computed from the Coulter results and the differential count. G6PD deficient patients did not differ from controls in terms of gestational age, birth weight, or Apgar scores or in any of the hematologic parameters studied, whether or not the mother reported fava beans consumption in the days prior to delivery. Although intrauterine hemolysis is possible in G6PD deficient fetuses exposed passively to fava beans, our study supports that such events must be very rare.

  5. Red blood cell sodium transport in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Lütken; Kiszka-Kanowitz, Marianne; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Patients with advanced cirrhosis have abnormal sodium homoeostasis. The study was undertaken to quantify the sodium transport across the plasma membrane of red blood cells (RBC) in patients with cirrhosis. RBC efflux and influx of sodium were studied in vitro with tracer (22) Na(+) according...... to linear kinetics in 24 patients with cirrhosis and 14 healthy controls. The sodium efflux was modified by ouabain (O), furosemide (F) and a combination of O and F (O + F). RBC sodium was significantly decreased (4·6 versus control 6·3 mmol l(-1) , Psodium (r = 0·57, P......sodium efflux was higher in patients with cirrhosis (+46%, Psodium buffers showed that the F-insensitive sodium efflux was twice as high in cirrhosis as in controls (P = 0...

  6. Duration of red blood cell storage and inflammatory marker generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sut, Caroline; Tariket, Sofiane; Chou, Ming Li; Garraud, Olivier; Laradi, Sandrine; Hamzeh-Cognasse, Hind; Seghatchian, Jerard; Burnouf, Thierry; Cognasse, Fabrice

    2017-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a life-saving treatment for several pathologies. RBCs for transfusion are stored refrigerated in a preservative solution, which extends their shelf-life for up to 42 days. During storage, the RBCs endure abundant physicochemical changes, named RBC storage lesions, which affect the overall quality standard, the functional integrity and in vivo survival of the transfused RBCs. Some of the changes occurring in the early stages of the storage period (for approximately two weeks) are reversible but become irreversible later on as the storage is extended. In this review, we aim to decipher the duration of RBC storage and inflammatory marker generation. This phenomenon is included as one of the causes of transfusion-related immunomodulation (TRIM), an emerging concept developed to potentially elucidate numerous clinical observations that suggest that RBC transfusion is associated with increased inflammatory events or effects with clinical consequence. PMID:28263172

  7. Mechanisms of Xenon Effect on Skin and Red Blood Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponomarev, Alexander; Rodin, V.; Gurevich, Leonid

    2017-01-01

    The usage of Xenon (Xe) is known in anesthesia and biobanking areas. It is considered preservation effect of Xe is associated either with clathrate formation - solid gaseous structures or dissolution of Xe molecules in liquid phase without physical state modification (so-called hyperbarium) [1......]. This study is addressed to establish differences between hyberbarium or clathrate Xe actions as well as its applications on various bioobjects with anaerobic - red blood cells (RBCs) and aerobic (skin fragments) metabolism. Xe clathrates and hyperbarium storage were simulated under 277 K and 620-725 k...... to control (15.68 ± 1.11, CI95%). Skin fragments were harvested from rat tails and divided on hyberbarium, clathrate and dimetylsulfoxide cryopreserved as control group and stored for 7 days. Assessment was performed by point-score method including epidermal-dermal integrity various assays and engraftment...

  8. Restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategy for red blood cell transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Lars B; Petersen, Marie W; Haase, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the benefit and harm of restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategies to guide red blood cell transfusions. DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane central register of controlled...... trials, SilverPlatter Medline (1950 to date), SilverPlatter Embase (1980 to date), and Science Citation Index Expanded (1900 to present). Reference lists of identified trials and other systematic reviews were assessed, and authors and experts in transfusion were contacted to identify additional trials....... TRIAL SELECTION: Published and unpublished randomised clinical trials that evaluated a restrictive compared with a liberal transfusion strategy in adults or children, irrespective of language, blinding procedure, publication status, or sample size. DATA EXTRACTION: Two authors independently screened...

  9. Stretching of red blood cells at high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, J. E.; Ristenpart, W. D.

    2017-10-01

    Most work on the mechanical behavior of red blood cells (RBCs) in flow has focused on simple shear flows. Relatively little work has examined RBC deformations in the physiologically important extensional flow that occurs at the entrance to a constriction. In particular, previous work suggests that RBCs rapidly stretch out and then retract upon entering the constriction, but to date no model predicts this behavior for the extremely high strain rates typically experienced there. In this Rapid Communication, we use high speed video to perform systematic measurements of the dynamic stretching behavior of RBCs as they enter a microfluidic constriction. We demonstrate that both the Kelvin-Voigt and Skalak viscoelastic models capture the observed stretching dynamics, up to strain rates as high as 2000 s-1. The results indicate that the effective elastic modulus of the RBC membrane at these strain rates is an order of magnitude larger than moduli measured by micropipette aspiration or other low strain rate techniques.

  10. Polymorphism in the interleukin-7 receptor-alpha and outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with matched unrelated donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shamim, Z; Spellman, S; Haagenson, M

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is essential for T cell development in the thymus and maintenance of peripheral T cells. The α-chain of the IL-7R is polymorphic with the existence of SNPs that give rise to non-synonymous amino acid substitutions. We previously found an association between donor genotypes...... significance of IL-7Rα SNP genotypes in 590-recipient/donor pairs that received HLA-matched unrelated donor HCT for haematological malignancies. Consistent with the primary studies, the rs1494555GG and rs1494558TT genotypes of the donor were associated with aGvHD and chronic GvHD in the univariate analysis...

  11. 78 FR 54257 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Request for Nominations for Voting Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ...; Program priorities; research priorities; and the scope and design of the Stem Cell Therapeutic Outcomes... Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Request for Nominations for Voting Members AGENCY: Health... on the Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (ACBSCT). The ACBSCT was established...

  12. Red blood cell and platelet genotyping: from current practice to future high-throughput donor typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, M.; van der Schoot, C. E.; Beiboer, S. H. W.; Feskens, M.; Cheroutre, G.; Maaskant-van Wijkb, P. A.

    2006-01-01

    The molecular basis of almost all red cell and platelet blood group antigens is known. This enables the prediction of red cell or platelet phenotypes based upon the genotypes. In many laboratories, blood group genotyping assays are routinely used in cases where patient red cells cannot be used for

  13. ENDOGENOUS PYROGEN RELEASE FROM RABBIT BLOOD CELLS INCUBATED IN VITRO WITH PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATKINS, E; CRONIN, M; ISACSON, P

    1964-12-11

    Rabbit blood cells incubated in vitro with purified parainfluenza-5 virus (DA strain) released a rapidly acting pyrogen. Spleen and lymph node cells were inactive. The pyrogen resembled in behavior a pyrogen extracted from granulocytic exudates. Similar cells in the blood are believed to be activated by virus in vivo to produce the circulating endogenous pyrogen that mediates virus-induced fever.

  14. False positive paediatric labelled white blood cell study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beveridge, N.; Bennett, E.; Thomas, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: An eight-month-old female presented for a technetium labelled white blood cell study (LWBC) to exclude an intra-abdominal abscess. Born premature, the child had surgery to repair a perforated bowel and had repeated presentations with diarrhoea, fevers, a tender right upper quadrant and a raised leucocyte count. Multiple imaging modalities failed to demonstrate recurrent bowel perforation, ischaemia or an intra-abdominal mass. A LWBC study was performed with whole body imaging at 1 and 5 hours post re-injection of the radiolabelled blood. No abnormal uptake was visualised in the abdomen but abnormal white cell accumulation was noted in the right hind foot and the length of the right lower leg. This activity appeared to lie along the course of the right tibia. Plain X-ray demonstrated no evidence of tibial osteomyelitis. Concern that the LWBC may be falsely negative in a patient on antibiotics, a gallium scan was immediately performed to re-examine the abdomen. The whole body gallium images demonstrated normal physiological uptake in the abdomen and no evidence of infection in the right leg. The patient had no clinical features to support right leg pathology. The abnormal LWBC localisation in the right lower leg/foot was therefore falsely positive. The most likely explanation is increased activation of the autologous LWBC by 'rough' handling during difficult venesection and re-injection through small veins and needles/cannulas. The slow flow through the veins draining the foot injection site would contribute to margination in these vessel walls. This is a potential cause for false positive LWBC studies- with significant implications for patient care. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  15. Cost-effective and rapid blood analysis on a cell-phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Sencan, Ikbal; Wong, Justin; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Tseng, Derek; Nagashima, Keita; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-04-07

    We demonstrate a compact and cost-effective imaging cytometry platform installed on a cell-phone for the measurement of the density of red and white blood cells as well as hemoglobin concentration in human blood samples. Fluorescent and bright-field images of blood samples are captured using separate optical attachments to the cell-phone and are rapidly processed through a custom-developed smart application running on the phone for counting of blood cells and determining hemoglobin density. We evaluated the performance of this cell-phone based blood analysis platform using anonymous human blood samples and achieved comparable results to a standard bench-top hematology analyser. Test results can either be stored on the cell-phone memory or be transmitted to a central server, providing remote diagnosis opportunities even in field settings.

  16. [Allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with unrelated cord blood: report of three cases from the Chilean cord blood bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Francisco; Wietstruck, Angélica; Rojas, Nicolás; Bertin, Pablo; Pizarro, Isabel; Carmona, Amanda; Guilof, Alejandro; Rojas, Iván; Oyarzún, Enrique

    2013-08-01

    Public cord blood banks are a source of hematopoietic stem cells for patients with hematological diseases who lack a family donor and need allogeneic transplantation. In June 2007 we started a cord blood bank with units donated in three maternity wards in Santiago, Chile. We report the first three transplants done with cord blood units form this bank. Cord blood units were obtained by intrauterine collection at delivery. They were depleted of plasma and red cells and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Tests for total nucleated cells, CD34 cell content, viral serology, bacterial cultures and HLA A, B and DRB1 were done. Six hundred cord blood units were stored by March 2012. Three patients received allogeneic transplant with cord blood from our bank, two with high risk lymphoblastic leukemia and one with severe congenital anemia. They received conditioning regimens according to their disease and usual supportive care for unrelated donor transplantation until full hematopoietic and immune reconstitution was achieved. The three patients had early engraftment of neutrophils and platelets. The child corrected his anemia and the leukemia patients remain in complete remission. The post-transplant course was complicated with Epstein Barr virus, cytomegalovirus and BK virus infection. Two patients are fully functional 24 and 33 months after transplant, the third is still receiving immunosuppression.

  17. [Red Blood Cells Raman Spectroscopy Comparison of Type Two Diabetes Patients and Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Gui-dong; Mu, Xin; Xiao, Hong-bin; Qi, Chao; Zhang, Si-qi; Niu Wen-ying; Jiang, Guang-kun; Feng, Yue-nan; Bian, Jing-qi

    2015-10-01

    By using confocal Raman spectroscopy, Raman spectra were measured in normal rat red blood cells, normal human red blood cells, STZ induced diabetetic rats red blood cells, Alloxan induced diabetetic rats red blood cells and human type 2 diabetes red blood cells. Then principal component analysis (PCA) with support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used for data analysis, and then the distance between classes was used to judge the degree of close to two kinds of rat model with type 2 diabetes. The results found significant differences in the Raman spectra of red blood cell in diabetic and normal red blood cells. To diabetic red blood cells, the peak in the amide VI C=O deformation vibration band is obvious, and amide V N-H deformation vibration band spectral lines appear deviation. Belong to phospholipid fatty acyl C-C skeleton, the 1 130 cm(-1) spectral line is enhanced and the 1 088 cm(-1) spectral line is abated, which show diabetes red cell membrane permeability increased. Raman spectra of PCA combined with SVM can well separate 5 types of red blood cells. Classifier test results show that the classification accuracy is up to 100%. Through the class distance between the two induced method and human type 2 diabetes, it is found that STZ induced model is more close to human type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, Raman spectroscopy can be used for diagnosis of diabetes and rats STZ induced diabetes method is closer to human type 2 diabetes.

  18. On the shape memory of red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordasco, Daniel; Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2017-04-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) undergo remarkably large deformations when subjected to external forces but return to their biconcave discoid resting shape as the forces are withdrawn. In many experiments, such as when RBCs are subjected to a shear flow and undergo the tank-treading motion, the membrane elements are also displaced from their original (resting) locations along the cell surface with respect to the cell axis, in addition to the cell being deformed. A shape memory is said to exist if after the flow is stopped the RBC regains its biconcave shape and the membrane elements also return to their original locations. The shape memory of RBCs was demonstrated by Fischer ["Shape memory of human red blood cells," Biophys. J. 86, 3304-3313 (2004)] using shear flow go-and-stop experiments. Optical tweezer and micropipette based stretch-relaxation experiments do not reveal the complete shape memory because while the RBC may be deformed, the membrane elements are not significantly displaced from their original locations with respect to the cell axis. Here we present the first three-dimensional computational study predicting the complete shape memory of RBCs using shear flow go-and-stop simulations. The influence of different parameters, namely, membrane shear elasticity and bending rigidity, membrane viscosity, cytoplasmic and suspending fluid viscosity, as well as different stress-free states of the RBC is studied. For all cases, the RBCs always exhibit shape memory. The complete recovery of the RBC in shear flow go-and-stop simulations occurs over a time that is orders of magnitude longer than that for optical tweezer and micropipette based relaxations. The response is also observed to be more complex and composed of widely disparate time scales as opposed to only one time scale that characterizes the optical tweezer and micropipette based relaxations. We observe that the recovery occurs in three phases: a rapid compression of the RBC immediately after the flow is stopped

  19. Characterization of Microvesicles Released from Human Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Bach Nguyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Extracellular vesicles (EVs are spherical fragments of cell membrane released from various cell types under physiological as well as pathological conditions. Based on their size and origin, EVs are classified as exosome, microvesicles (MVs and apoptotic bodies. Recently, the release of MVs from human red blood cells (RBCs under different conditions has been reported. MVs are released by outward budding and fission of the plasma membrane. However, the outward budding process itself, the release of MVs and the physical properties of these MVs have not been well investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate the formation process, isolation and characterization of MVs released from RBCs under conditions of stimulating Ca2+ uptake and activation of protein kinase C. Methods: Experiments were performed based on single cell fluorescence imaging, fluorescence activated cell sorter/flow cytometer (FACS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM and dynamic light scattering (DLS. The released MVs were collected by differential centrifugation and characterized in both their size and zeta potential. Results: Treatment of RBCs with 4-bromo-A23187 (positive control, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, or phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate (PMA in the presence of 2 mM extracellular Ca2+ led to an alteration of cell volume and cell morphology. In stimulated RBCs, exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS and formation of MVs were observed by using annexin V-FITC. The shedding of MVs was also observed in the case of PMA treatment in the absence of Ca2+, especially under the transmitted bright field illumination. By using SEM, AFM and DLS the morphology and size of stimulated RBCs, MVs were characterized. The sizes of the two populations of MVs were 205.8 ± 51.4 nm and 125.6 ± 31.4 nm, respectively. Adhesion of stimulated RBCs and MVs was observed. The zeta potential of MVs was determined in the range from - 40 mV to - 10 m

  20. Red blood cell transfusion in preterm neonates: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirico G

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaetano ChiricoNeonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Children Hospital, Spedali Civili, Brescia, ItalyAbstract: Preterm neonates, especially very low birth weight infants, remain a category of patients with high transfusion needs; about 90% of those with <1,000 g birth weight may be transfused several times during their hospital stay. However, neonatal red blood cells (RBC transfusion is not without risks. In addition to well-known adverse events, several severe side effects have been observed unique to preterm infants, such as transfusion-related acute gut injury, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increased mortality risk. It is therefore important to reduce the frequency of RBC transfusion in critically ill neonates, by delayed clamping or milking the umbilical cord, using residual cord blood for initial laboratory investigations, reducing phlebotomy losses, determining transfusion guidelines, and ensuring the most appropriate nutrition, with the optimal supplementation of iron, folic acid, and vitamins. Ideally, RBC transfusion should be tailored to the individual requirements of the single infant. However, many controversies still remain, and the decision on whether to transfuse or not is often made on an empirical basis. Recently, a few clinical trials have been performed with the aim to compare the risk/benefit ratio of restrictive versus liberal transfusion criteria. No significant differences in short-term outcomes were observed, suggesting that the restrictive criteria may reduce the need for transfusion and the related side effects. Neurodevelopmental long-term outcome seemed more favorable in the liberal group at first evaluation, especially for boys, and significantly better in the restrictive group at a later clinical investigation. Magnetic resonance imaging scans, performed at an average age of 12 years, showed that intracranial volume was substantially smaller in the liberal group compared with controls. When sex effects

  1. Effects of chronic morphine and morphine withdrawal on gene expression in rat peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Desjardins , Stephane; Belkai , Emilie; Crete , Dominique; Cordonnier , Laurie; Scherrmann , Jean-Michel; Noble , Florence; Marie-Claire , Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Chronic morphine treatment alters gene expression in brain structures. There are increasing evidences showing a correlation, in gene expression modulation, between blood cells and brain in psychological troubles. To test whether gene expression regulation in blood cells could be found in drug addiction, we investigated gene expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMC) cells of saline and morphine-treated rats. In rats chronically treated with morphine, th...

  2. Mimicking the Interfacial Dynamics of Flowing White Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santore, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The rolling of particles on surfaces, facilitated by hydrodynamic forces combined with localized surface interactions of the appropriate strengths, spatial arrangements, and ranges, is a technologically useful means of transporting and manipulating particles. One's intuition for the rolling of a marble or a car tire cannot be extrapolated down to microparticle length scales because the microparticle interactions are dominated by electrostatic, van der Waals, and hydrogen bonding interactions rather than a friction that depends on an imposed normal force. Indeed, our microparticle rolling systems are inspired by the rolling of white blood cells on the inner walls of venules as part of the innate immune response: Selectin molecules engage with their counterparts on the opposing surfaces to slow cell motion relative to that for freely flowing cells. In the resulting rolling signature, ligand-receptor binding and crack closing on the front of the cell are balanced with molecular dis-bonding and crack opening at the rear. The contact region is relatively static, allowing other interactions (for instance signaling) to occur for a finite duration. Thus, achieving particle rolling in synthetic systems is important because it facilitates particle-surface interactions in a continuous nonfouling fashion where the contact surface is continually renewed. In developing a synthetic model for this system, we employ polymers to modify flowing particles and /or planar collectors, producing heterogeneous interfaces which can support rolling or produce other motion signatures such as skipping, arrest, or free flow. We identify, in the synthetic system, combinations of variables that produce rolling and demonstrate how the distinction between rolling and arrest is not a simple matter of the adhesion strength between the particles and the collector. Rolling is a cooperative process and the coordination of binding in one location with dis-bonding in another requires appropriate length

  3. T regulatory cells and related immunoregulatory factors in polymorphic light eruption following ultraviolet A1 challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambichler, T; Terras, S; Kampilafkos, P; Kreuter, A; Skrygan, M

    2013-12-01

    Polymorphic light eruption (PLE) is considered to be an autoimmune-mediated skin condition in which the normal ultraviolet (UV)-induced local immunosuppression appears to be absent, leading to recognition of photoinduced autoantigens and subsequent inflammation. To investigate T regulatory cells (Tregs) and related immunoregulatory factors in PLE lesions and controls. Skin biopsies were performed in 13 patients with UVA1-challenged PLE, 12 female patients with chronic discoid lupus erythematosus (CDLE) and 11 healthy controls who had exposure to UVA1. Immunohistochemistry and four-colour immunofluorescence studies were performed. Patients with CDLE and UVA1-exposed controls showed significantly decreased epidermal immunoreactivity for CD1a compared with patients with PLE (P = 0·0001). Four-colour immunofluorescence revealed a median percentage of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Tregs of 7·6% (range 3·7-13·6%) in PLE, a median of 11·7% (range 9·5-13·9%) in CDLE and a median of 3·4% (range 0-6·8%) in controls. Compared with UVA1-exposed controls, PLE and CDLE lesions showed significantly decreased transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 immunoreactivity in the epidermis (P = 0·0003). In PLE lesions, we observed significantly decreased interleukin (IL)-10 expression compared with CDLE (P = 0·022). In the dermis, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) expression was increased in UVA1-exposed controls compared with PLE and CDLE (P = 0·018). Similar to CDLE lesions, UVA1-challenged PLE lesions display an altered immunoregulatory network, as indicated by decreased epidermal or dermal expression of TGF-β1, IL-10 and RANKL, and a relatively low number of Tregs, particularly when compared with other inflammatory skin conditions reported in the literature. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. Radionuclide assay of membrane Na+, K+-ATPase activity of peserved red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trusov, V.V.; Zelenin, A.A.; Marizin, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    The radionuclide tests were used to investigate the influence of varying blood preservatives on erythrocylic membrane Na + , K + -ATPase activity in samples of whole blood and packed red blood cells from normal donors prepared by standard methods. The tests were performed before and after seven days of preservation under standard conditions. It was found that blood preservations lowered membrane Na + , K + -ATPase activity: its minimum reduction was recorded with citroglucopnosphate, while glugicir induced a significant drop in Na + , K + -ATPase activity of preserved red blood cells regardless of the type of the blood transfusion solution. The assay of membrane Na + , K + -ATPase activity of preserved red blood cells with the use of 86 Rb could be recommended as an evaluation test for preserved blood and its components

  5. Blood shortage situation: An audit of red blood cells order and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work is to audit blood utilization by different specialties in the hospital using the Cross-match ratio as a guide to achieving effective transfusion practices. This was a prospective study. The blood bank of University Teaching Hospital in Benin City, Nigeria was used for the study. We analysed all blood ...

  6. In vitro transdifferentiation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to photoreceptor-like cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukari Komuta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Direct reprogramming is a promising, simple and low-cost approach to generate target cells from somatic cells without using induced pluripotent stem cells. Recently, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs have attracted considerable attention as a somatic cell source for reprogramming. As a cell source, PBMCs have an advantage over dermal fibroblasts with respect to the ease of collecting tissues. Based on our studies involving generation of photosensitive photoreceptor cells from human iris cells and human dermal fibroblasts by transduction of photoreceptor-related transcription factors via retrovirus vectors, we transduced these transcription factors into PBMCs via Sendai virus vectors. We found that retinal disease-related genes were efficiently detected in CRX-transduced cells, most of which are crucial to photoreceptor functions. In functional studies, a light-induced inward current was detected in some CRX-transduced cells. Moreover, by modification of the culture conditions including additional transduction of RAX1 and NEUROD1, we found a greater variety of retinal disease-related genes than that observed in CRX-transduced PBMCs. These data suggest that CRX acts as a master control gene for reprogramming PBMCs into photoreceptor-like cells and that our induced photoreceptor-like cells might contribute to individualized drug screening and disease modeling of inherited retinal degeneration.

  7. Cross-stream distribution of red blood cells in sickle-cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Lam, Wilbur; Graham, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Experiments revealed that in blood flow, red blood cells (RBCs) tend to migrate away from the vessel walls, leaving a cell-free layer near the walls, while leukocytes and platelets tend to marginate towards the vessel walls. This segregation behavior of different cellular components in blood flow can be driven by their differences in stiffness and shape. An alteration of this segregation behavior may explain endothelial dysfunction and pain crisis associated with sickle-cell disease (SCD). It is hypothesized that the sickle RBCs, which are considerably stiffer than the healthy RBCs, may marginate towards the vessel walls and exert repeated damage to the endothelial cells. Direct simulations are performed to study the flowing suspensions of deformable biconcave discoids and stiff sickles representing healthy and sickle cells, respectively. It is observed that the sickles exhibit a strong margination towards the walls. The biconcave discoids in flowing suspensions undergo a so-called tank-treading motion, while the sickles behave as rigid bodies and undergo a tumbling motion. The margination behavior and tumbling motion of the sickles may help substantiate the aforementioned hypothesis of the mechanism for the SCD complications and shed some light on the design of novel therapies.

  8. The effects of red blood cell preparation method on in vitro markers of red blood cell aging and inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwanski, Katherine; Garraud, Olivier; Cognasse, Fabrice; Hamzeh-Cognasse, Hind; Payrat, Jean-Marc; Min, Kyungyoon

    2013-12-01

    Studies are currently under way examining whether the age of stored red blood cells (RBCs) affects clinical outcome in transfusion recipients. The effects of storage duration on the RBC storage lesion are well documented, while fewer studies are available regarding the effect of RBC production method. In this study, we compared in vitro RBC quality variables and markers of inflammatory response in apheresis and whole blood (WB)-derived RBCs, specifically those prepared after an overnight room temperature hold (RTH) of WB. SAGM RBCs, prepared from WB after overnight RTH (n = 10), were compared to SAGM RBCs prepared using an apheresis device (Alyx, n = 10). As a control, SAGM RBCs were also prepared within 2 hours of WB collection (2-hr WB, n = 10). All RBCs were stored at 4°C for 42 days with weekly assay of in vitro variables, cytokines and/or chemokines, and neutrophil activation after incubation with RBC supernatant. RTH WB RBCs exhibited decreased levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate acid (2.3 μmol/g hemoglobin [Hb] ± 2.1 vs. 13.7 ± 1.3 μmol/g Hb) and morphology (160 ± 10 vs. 192 ± 5) on Day 1 and increased hemolysis (0.45 ± 0.21% vs. 0.31 ± 0.09%) and microparticles (6.1 ± 2.8/10(3) RBCs vs. 3.9 ± 1.1/10(3) RBCs) on Day 42 compared to apheresis RBCs. Gro-α and ENA-78 cytokine levels were significantly higher in RTH WB than Alyx RBCs during storage. CD11b expression was highest in neutrophils exposed to supernatant from RTH WB RBCs (p < 0.05). RBC preparation method has a meaningful effect on the RBC storage lesion, which should be taken into account in addition to length of storage. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  9. Model animal experiments on UV-c irradiation of blood and isolated cell populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repke, H.; Scherf, H.P.; Wiesner, S.

    1984-01-01

    The cellular and molecular basis of the therapeutically used effect of reinjected ultraviolet (UVC) irradiated blood is unknown. First approaches to that problem were made in this study by aid of model experiments. Neither the spontaneous degranulation nor the antigen-induced histamine release from rat connective tissue mast cells (in vivo) was influenced by the injection (i.v.) of UV-irradiated blood or blood lymphocytes. By comparison of the effect of UV light on blood lymphocytes (number of dead cells, strength of chemoluminescence) after irradiation of the isolated cells and the unfractionated blood, respectively, it was shown that the strong light absorption within the blood sample prevents damage or functional alterations of the blood lymphocytes. The compound 48/80 - induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells can be completely inhibited by UV irradiation (0.6 mJ/cm 2 ) without increasing the spontaneous histamine release. (author)

  10. Sucralose sweetener in vivo effects on blood constituents radiolabeling, red blood cell morphology and radiopharmaceutical biodistribution in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, G.S.; Pereira, M.O.; Benarroz, M.O.; Frydman, J.N.G.; Rocha, V.C.; Pereira, M.J.; Fonseca, A.S.; Medeiros, A.C.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of sucralose sweetener on blood constituents labelled with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) on red blood cell (RBC) morphology, sodium pertechnetate (Na 99m TcO 4 ) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid labeled with 99m Tc ( 99m Tc-DTPA) biodistribution in rats were evaluated. Radiolabeling on blood constituents from Wistar rats was undertaken for determining the activity percentage (%ATI) on blood constituents. RBC morphology was also evaluated. Na 99m TcO 4 and 99m Tc-DTPA biodistribution was used to determine %ATI/g in organs. There was no alteration on RBC blood constituents and morphology %ATI. Sucralose sweetener was capable of altering %ATI/g of the radiopharmaceuticals in different organs. These findings are associated to the sucralose sweetener in specific organs.

  11. Sucralose sweetener in vivo effects on blood constituents radiolabeling, red blood cell morphology and radiopharmaceutical biodistribution in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, G.S.; Pereira, M.O. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010180 Natal, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil); Benarroz, M.O.; Frydman, J.N.G.; Rocha, V.C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pereira, M.J. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Fisiologia, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Fonseca, A.S., E-mail: adnfonseca@ig.com.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto Biomedico, Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas, Rua Frei Caneca, 94, Rio de Janeiro 20211040 (Brazil); Medeiros, A.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010180 Natal, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil); Bernardo-Filho, M. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Coordenadoria de Pesquisa Basica, Praca Cruz Vermelha, 23, 20230130 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Effects of sucralose sweetener on blood constituents labelled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) on red blood cell (RBC) morphology, sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid labeled with {sup 99m}Tc ({sup 99m}Tc-DTPA) biodistribution in rats were evaluated. Radiolabeling on blood constituents from Wistar rats was undertaken for determining the activity percentage (%ATI) on blood constituents. RBC morphology was also evaluated. Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} and {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA biodistribution was used to determine %ATI/g in organs. There was no alteration on RBC blood constituents and morphology %ATI. Sucralose sweetener was capable of altering %ATI/g of the radiopharmaceuticals in different organs. These findings are associated to the sucralose sweetener in specific organs.

  12. Thermal analysis of cryoprotective solutions for red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, T

    1998-05-01

    A differential scanning calorimeter was used to study the thermal behavior of glycerol-water solutions (binary system) and the more complex glycerol-based cryoprotective solutions that are used clinically in order to examine the cryoprotective role of glycerol in preserving frozen red blood cells. The melting and glass transition temperatures for the clinically used cryoprotective solutions were as expected, based on the nonequilibriumphase diagram for cryoprotective solutions incorporating isotonic phosphate-buffered saline. Two zones were identified in which solidification occurred without the formation of ice crystals: a glassy state that is crystallographically amorphous was found for glycerol concentrations between 40 and 55% in the binary system and between 45 and 60% in the complex system; a glassy state in the complete absence of ice was found at glycerol concentrations greater than 55% for the binary system or 60% for the complex system. In clinical practice, cryoprotectants are used at initial concentrations lower than those at which these two glassy states occur but there is an increase in the effective glycerol concentration inside and outside the cells as ice forms during the freezing process.

  13. Does Erythropoietin Regulate TRPC Channels in Red Blood Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Danielczok

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cation channels play an essential role in red blood cells (RBCs ion homeostasis. One set of ion channels are the transient receptor potential channels of canonical type (TRPC channels. The abundance of these channels in primary erythroblasts, erythroid cell lines and RBCs was associated with an increase in intracellular Ca2+ upon stimulation with Erythropoietin (Epo. In contrast two independent studies on Epo-treated patients revealed diminished basal Ca2+ concentration or reduced phosphatidylserine exposure to the outer membrane leaflet. Methods: To resolve the seemingly conflicting reports we challenged mature human and mouse RBCs of several genotypes with Epo and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and recorded the intracellular Ca2+ content. Next Generation Sequencing was utilised to approach a molecular analysis of reticulocytes. Results/Conclusions: Our results allow concluding that Epo and PGE2 regulation of the Ca2+ homeostasis is distinctly different between murine and human RBCs and that changes in intracellular Ca2+ upon Epo treatment is a primary rather than a compensatory effect. In human RBCs, Epo itself has no effect on Ca2+ fluxes but inhibits the PGE2-induced Ca2+ entry. In murine mature RBCs functional evidence indicates TRPC4/C5 mediated Ca2+ entry activated by Epo whereas PGE2 leads to a TRPC independent Ca2+ entry.

  14. Different cell moieties and white blood cell (WBC) integrity in In-111 labeled WBC preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, G.B.; Feiglin, D.H.I.; McMahon, J.T.; Go, R.T.; O'Donnell, J.K.; MacIntyre, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Indium-111 labeled white blood cells (WBC) have become very popular in detecting inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this paper is to determine the distribution of different types of cells in WBC preparation for In-111 oxine labeling, and also to assess the histological integrity of WBC's after labeling with In-111 oxine. Forty to fifty cc of blood was collected from each patient and WBC's were separated by sedimentation and centrifugation. After labeling with In-111 oxine, an aliquot of the WBC sample was used for cell counting and a second aliquot was used for electron microscopic (EM) examination. The different cell moieties were counted, and the mean and standard deviation of twelve determinations calculated. Cells were prepared by the standard technique for electron microscopic examination and images of the cells were obtained at different magnifications (X8,000-25,000). The EM images revealed that although minimal cytoplasmic vacuolization occurred in the WBC's due to the labeling process, the overall histological integrity of the cells remained intact. The relative labeling efficiency of WBC's is greater than those of RBC's and platelets (J Nuc) Med 25:p98, 1984) and, therefore, even a comparatively low population of WBC's gives optimal imaging due to their increased tracer uptake

  15. The effect of increased centrifugation temperature on the quality of red-blood-cell concentrates of automated whole blood processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinigel, C; Rummler, S; Barz, D

    2013-10-01

    There are manual and automated methods to separate whole blood (WB) available. The Atreus whole blood processing system is an automated method, which combines centrifugation and expression of components into a single device. A major difference to conventional methods is that centrifugation temperature is not controlled at 22°C. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of increased centrifugation temperatures on the quality of red-blood-cell concentrates (RCC) after active cooling of WB prior to processing. A total of 28 WB were processed: 16 at centrifugation temperatures of up to 28°C (1st protocol) and 12 at 34°C (2nd protocol). RCC quality parameters were tested weekly for 42 days. Red-blood-cell concentrates (RCC) quality complied with the European and German guidelines. Haemolysis was not significantly different throughout storage. Significant statistical differences were detected between both protocols in potassium concentration at the end of storage and in ATP levels at the day of processing. Centrifugation temperatures of up to 34°C are well tolerated by the red blood cells with minimal interference with the RCC quality parameters. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  16. Raman spectroscopic studies of optically trapped red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, R.; Gupta, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Raman spectroscopic studies were performed on optically trapped red blood cells (RBCs) collected from healthy volunteers and patients suffering from malaria (Plasmodium vivax infection) using near infrared (785 nm) laser source. The results show significant alteration in the spectra averaged over ∼ 50 non-parasitized RBCs per sample. As compared to RBCs from healthy donors, in cells collected from malaria patients, a significant decrease in the intensity of the low spin (oxygenated-haemoglobin) marker Raman band at 1223 cm -1 (υ 13 or υ 42 ) along with a concomitant increase in the high spin (deoxygenated-haemoglobin) marker bands at 1210 cm -1 (υ 5 + υ 18 ) and 1546 cm -1 (υ 11 ) was observed. The changes primarily suggest a reduced haemoglobin-oxygen affinity for the non-parasitized red cells in malaria patients. The possible causes include up regulation of intra-erythrocytic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and/or ineffective erythropoiesis resulted from the disease. During the above study we also observed that significant photo-damage may results to the intracellular haemoglobin (Hb) if higher laser power is used. For a laser power above ∼ 5 mW the observed increase in intensity of the Raman bands at 975 cm -1 (υ 46 ), 1244 cm -1 (υ 42 ) and 1366 cm -1 (υ 4 ) with increasing exposure time suggests photo-denaturation of Hb and the concomitant decrease in intensity of the Raman band at 1544 cm -1 (υ 11 ) suggests photo induced methaemoglobin formation. The photo damage of intracellular haemoglobin by the above processes was also observed to result in intracellular heme aggregation. (author)

  17. Relative deformability of red blood cells in sickle cell trait and sickle cell anemia by trapping and dragging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Rance; Cooper, James; Welker, Gabriel; Aguilar, Elaura; Flanagan, Brooke; Pennycuff, Chelsey; Scott, David; Farone, Anthony; Farone, Mary; Erenso, Daniel; Mushi, Robert; del Pilar Aguinaga, Maria

    2013-06-01

    Genetic mutation of the β-globin gene or inheritance of this mutated gene changes the chemical composition of the oxygen-carrying hemoglobin molecule that could lead to either the heterozygote genotype, resulting in sickle cell trait (SCT), or the homozygote genotype, resulting in sickle cell anemia (SCA). These mutations could affect the reversible elastic deformations of the red blood cells (RBCs) which are vital for biological functions. We have investigated this effect by studying the differences in the deformability of RBCs from blood samples of an individual with SCT and an untreated patient with SCA along with hemoglobin quantitation of each blood sample. Infrared 1064 nm laser trap force along with drag shear force are used to induce deformation in the RBCs. Ultra2-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) is used for the hemoglobin quantitation.

  18. The Red Blood Cell Membrane of Preterm Infants in the Early Neonatal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Perepelitsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the nanostructure of red blood cell membranes and erythrocyte index in preterm neonatal infants.Subjects and methods. The trial enrolled 47 neonatal infants, including 33 preterm infants who were included in a study group and 14 fullterm infants who formed a comparative group. The gestational age of the preterm infants was 33.3±1.9 weeks and the birth weight was 2065.4±304.8 g. Red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and erythrocyte indices were estimat ed and the red blood cells were examined using an atomicforce microscope.Results. At birth, the preterm infants showed macrocytosis, intrauterine poikylocytosis, and the impaired nanostructure of red blood cell membranes. Intrauterine hypoxia affects the red blood cell membrane nanostructures: a phospholipid bilayer and a spectrin matrix, without damaging the membrane protein component. The detected changes are reversible and directed to maintaining the functional ability of red blood cells in a critical situation. At birth, gestational age, a baby's weight, hemoglobin, and blood cholesterol and standard bicarbonate levels influence the parameters of a red blood cell component. The early neonatal period was characterized by an active process on the red blood cell membranes and a change of morphological forms, suggesting the continuing postnatal rearrangement of erythropoiesis and a preterm infant's adaptation to new environmental conditions.

  19. Cell salvage as part of a blood conservation strategy in anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, A; Klein, A A

    2010-10-01

    The use of intraoperative cell salvage and autologous blood transfusion has become an important method of blood conservation. The main aim of autologous transfusion is to reduce the need for allogeneic blood transfusion and its associated complications. Allogeneic blood transfusion has been associated with increased risk of tumour recurrence, postoperative infection, acute lung injury, perioperative myocardial infarction, postoperative low-output cardiac failure, and increased mortality. We have reviewed the current evidence for cell salvage in modern surgical practice and examined the controversial issues, such as the use of cell salvage in obstetrics, and in patients with malignancy, or intra-abdominal or systemic sepsis. Cell salvage has been demonstrated to be safe and effective at reducing allogeneic blood transfusion requirements in adult elective surgery, with stronger evidence in cardiac and orthopaedic surgery. Prolonged use of cell salvage with large-volume autotransfusion may be associated with dilution of clotting factors and thrombocytopenia, and regular laboratory or near-patient monitoring is required, along with appropriate blood product use. Cell salvage should be considered in all cases where significant blood loss (>1000 ml) is expected or possible, where patients refuse allogeneic blood products or they are anaemic. The use of cell salvage in combination with a leucocyte depletion filter appears to be safe in obstetrics and cases of malignancy; however, further trials are required before definitive guidance may be provided. The only absolute contraindication to the use of cell salvage and autologous blood transfusion is patient refusal.

  20. Extending the Refrigerated Storage of Red Blood Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bitensky, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Oxygen removal increases shelf-life and quality of refrigerated blood. The shelf life of our blood has been prolonged to a minimum of 12 weeks with survival equal to or greater than that of conventional 6 week storage...

  1. Red Blood Cell Mechanical Fragility Test for Clinical Research Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Luke A; Olia, Salim E; Kameneva, Marina V

    2017-07-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) susceptibility to mechanically induced hemolysis, or RBC mechanical fragility (MF), is an important parameter in the characterization of erythrocyte membrane health. The rocker bead test (RBT) and associated calculated mechanical fragility index (MFI) is a simple method for the assessment of RBC MF. Requiring a minimum of 15.5 mL of blood and necessitating adjustment of hematocrit (Ht) to a "standard" value (40%), the current RBT is not suitable for use in most studies involving human subjects. To address these limitations, we propose a 6.5 mL reduced volume RBT and corresponding modified MFI (MMFI) that does not require prior Ht adjustment. This new method was assessed for i) correlation to the existing text, ii) to quantify the effect of Ht on MFI, and iii) validation by reexamining the protective effect of plasma proteins on RBC MF. The reduced volume RBT strongly correlated (r = 0.941) with the established large volume RBT at matched Hts, and an equation was developed to calculate MMFI: a numerical estimation (R 2  = 0.923) of MFI if performed with the reduced volume RBT at "standard" (40%) Ht. An inversely proportional relationship was found between plasma protein concentration and RBC MF using the MMFI-reduced volume method, supporting previous literature findings. The new reduced volume RBT and modified MFI will allow for the measurement of RBC MF in clinical and preclinical studies involving humans or small animals. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Advanced feeder-free generation of induced pluripotent stem cells directly from blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trokovic, Ras; Weltner, Jere; Nishimura, Ken; Ohtaka, Manami; Nakanishi, Mahito; Salomaa, Veikko; Jalanko, Anu; Otonkoski, Timo; Kyttälä, Aija

    2014-12-01

    Generation of validated human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for biobanking is essential for exploring the full potential of iPSCs in disease modeling and drug discovery. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are attractive targets for reprogramming, because blood is collected by a routine clinical procedure and is a commonly stored material in biobanks. Generation of iPSCs from blood cells has previously been reported using integrative retroviruses, episomal Sendai viruses, and DNA plasmids. However, most of the published protocols require expansion and/or activation of a specific cell population from PBMCs. We have recently collected a PBMC cohort from the Finnish population containing more than 2,000 subjects. Here we report efficient generation of iPSCs directly from PBMCs in feeder-free conditions in approximately 2 weeks. The produced iPSC clones are pluripotent and transgene-free. Together, these properties make this novel method a powerful tool for large-scale reprogramming of PBMCs and for iPSC biobanking. ©AlphaMed Press.

  3. Lack of evidence from studies of soluble protein fragments that Knops blood group polymorphisms in complement receptor-type 1 are driven by malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patience B Tetteh-Quarcoo

    Full Text Available Complement receptor-type 1 (CR1, CD35 is the immune-adherence receptor, a complement regulator, and an erythroid receptor for Plasmodium falciparum during merozoite invasion and subsequent rosette formation involving parasitized and non-infected erythrocytes. The non-uniform geographical distribution of Knops blood group CR1 alleles Sl1/2 and McC(a/b may result from selective pressures exerted by differential exposure to infectious hazards. Here, four variant short recombinant versions of CR1 were produced and analyzed, focusing on complement control protein modules (CCPs 15-25 of its ectodomain. These eleven modules encompass a region (CCPs 15-17 key to rosetting, opsonin recognition and complement regulation, as well as the Knops blood group polymorphisms in CCPs 24-25. All four CR1 15-25 variants were monomeric and had similar axial ratios. Modules 21 and 22, despite their double-length inter-modular linker, did not lie side-by-side so as to stabilize a bent-back architecture that would facilitate cooperation between key functional modules and Knops blood group antigens. Indeed, the four CR1 15-25 variants had virtually indistinguishable affinities for immobilized complement fragments C3b (K(D = 0.8-1.1 µM and C4b (K(D = 5.0-5.3 µM. They were all equally good co-factors for factor I-catalysed cleavage of C3b and C4b, and they bound equally within a narrow affinity range, to immobilized C1q. No differences between the variants were observed in assays for inhibition of erythrocyte invasion by P. falciparum or for rosette disruption. Neither differences in complement-regulatory functionality, nor interactions with P. falciparum proteins tested here, appear to have driven the non-uniform geographic distribution of these alleles.

  4. Survival of the fittest?--survival of stored red blood cells after transfusion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luten, M.; Roerdinkholder-Stoelwinder, B.; Bost, H.J.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    During the last 90 years many developments have taken place in the world of blood transfusion. Several anticoagulants and storage solutions have been developed. Also the blood processing has undergone many changes. At the moment, in The Netherlands, red blood cell (RBC) concentrates (prepared from a

  5. Quantification of BCR-ABL transcripts in peripheral blood cells and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using peripheral blood plasma samples as surrogates for blood cell sampling for quantification of breakpoint cluster region-Abelson oncogene (BCR-ABL) transcript levels to monitor treatment responses in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. Methods: Peripheral blood samples ...

  6. Androgenic alopecia is associated with less dietary soy, lower [corrected] blood vanadium and rs1160312 1 polymorphism in Taiwanese communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Huang Lai

    Full Text Available Although the genetic basis of androgenic alopecia has been clearly established, little is known about its non-genetic causes, such as environmental and lifestyle factors.This study investigated blood and urine heavy metals concentrations, environmental exposure factors, personal behaviors, dietary intakes and the genotypes of related susceptibility genes in patients with androgenic alopecia (AGA.Age, AGA level, residence area, work hours, sleep patterns, cigarette usage, alcohol consumption, betel nut usage, hair treatments, eating habits, body heavy metals concentrations and rs1998076, rs913063, rs1160312 and rs201571 SNP genotype data were collected from 354 men. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine whether any of the factors displayed odds ratios (ORs indicating association with moderate to severe AGA (≥ IV. Subsequently, Hosmer-Lemeshow, Nagelkerke R(2 and accuracy tests were conducted to help establish an optimal model.Moderate to severe AGA was associated with the AA genotype of rs1160312 (22.50, 95% CI 3.99-126.83, blood vanadium concentration (0.02, 95% CI 0.01-0.04, and regular consumption of soy bean drinks (0.23, 95% CI 0.06-0.85, after adjustment for age. The results were corroborated by the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (P = 0.73, Nagelkerke R(2 (0.59, accuracy test (0.816 and area under the curve (AUC; 0.90, 0.847-0.951 analysis.Blood vanadium and frequent soy bean drink consumption may provide protect effects against AGA. Accordingly, blood vanadium concentrations, the AA genotype of rs1160312 and frequent consumption of soy bean drinks are associated with AGA.

  7. Androgenic alopecia is associated with less dietary soy, lower [corrected] blood vanadium and rs1160312 1 polymorphism in Taiwanese communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching-Huang; Chu, Nain-Feng; Chang, Chi-Wen; Wang, Shu-Li; Yang, Hsin-Chou; Chu, Chi-Ming; Chang, Chu-Ting; Lin, Ming-Huang; Chien, Wu-Chien; Su, Sui-Lung; Chou, Yu-Ching; Chen, Kang-Hua; Wang, Wei-Ming; Liou, Saou-Hsing

    2013-01-01

    Although the genetic basis of androgenic alopecia has been clearly established, little is known about its non-genetic causes, such as environmental and lifestyle factors. This study investigated blood and urine heavy metals concentrations, environmental exposure factors, personal behaviors, dietary intakes and the genotypes of related susceptibility genes in patients with androgenic alopecia (AGA). Age, AGA level, residence area, work hours, sleep patterns, cigarette usage, alcohol consumption, betel nut usage, hair treatments, eating habits, body heavy metals concentrations and rs1998076, rs913063, rs1160312 and rs201571 SNP genotype data were collected from 354 men. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine whether any of the factors displayed odds ratios (ORs) indicating association with moderate to severe AGA (≥ IV). Subsequently, Hosmer-Lemeshow, Nagelkerke R(2) and accuracy tests were conducted to help establish an optimal model. Moderate to severe AGA was associated with the AA genotype of rs1160312 (22.50, 95% CI 3.99-126.83), blood vanadium concentration (0.02, 95% CI 0.01-0.04), and regular consumption of soy bean drinks (0.23, 95% CI 0.06-0.85), after adjustment for age. The results were corroborated by the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (P = 0.73), Nagelkerke R(2) (0.59), accuracy test (0.816) and area under the curve (AUC; 0.90, 0.847-0.951) analysis. Blood vanadium and frequent soy bean drink consumption may provide protect effects against AGA. Accordingly, blood vanadium concentrations, the AA genotype of rs1160312 and frequent consumption of soy bean drinks are associated with AGA.

  8. Cell Line Controls for the Genotyping of a Spectrum of Human Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Clinical Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbacher, Christine; Paar, Christian; Freystetter, Andrea; Berg, Joerg

    2018-05-01

    Genotyping for clinically important single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is performed by many clinical routine laboratories. To support testing, quality controls and reference materials are needed. Those may be derived from residual patient samples, left over samples of external quality assurance schemes, plasmid DNA or DNA from cell lines. DNAs from cell lines are commutable and available in large amounts. DNA from 38 cell lines were examined for suitability as controls in 11 SNP assays that are frequently used in a clinical routine laboratory: FV (1691G>A), FII (20210G>A), PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism, MTHFR (677C>T, 1298A>C), HFE (H63D, S65C, C282Y), APOE (E2, E3, E4), LPH (-13910C>T), UGT1A1 (*28, *36, *37), TPMT (*2, *3A, *3B, *3C), VKORC1 (-1639G>A, 1173C>T), CYP2C9 (*2, *3, *5). Genotyping was performed by real-time PCR with melting curve analysis and confirmed by bi-directional sequencing. We find an almost complete spectrum of genotypic constellations within these 38 cell lines. About 12 cell lines appear sufficient as genotypic controls for the 11 SNP assays by covering almost all of the genotypes. However, hetero- and homozygous genotypes for FII and the alleles TPMT*2, UGT1A1*37 and CYP2C9*5 were not detected in any of the cell lines. DNA from most of the examined cell lines appear suitable as quality controls for these SNP assays in the laboratory routine, as to the implementation of those assays or to prepare samples for quality assurance schemes. Our study may serve as a pilot to further characterize these cell lines to arrive at the status of reference materials.

  9. Blood grouping based on PCR methods and agarose gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Ana Maria; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila

    2015-01-01

    The study of erythrocyte antigens continues to be an intense field of research, particularly after the development of molecular testing methods. More than 300 specificities have been described by the International Society for Blood Transfusion as belonging to 33 blood group systems. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a central tool for red blood cells (RBC) genotyping. PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis are low cost, easy, and versatile in vitro methods for amplifying defined target DNA (RBC polymorphic region). Multiplex-PCR, AS-PCR (Specific Allele Polymerase Chain Reaction), and RFLP-PCR (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism-Polymerase Chain Reaction) techniques are usually to identify RBC polymorphisms. Furthermore, it is an easy methodology to implement. This chapter describes the PCR methodology and agarose gel electrophoresis to identify the polymorphisms of the Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and MNS blood group systems.

  10. Assessment of single nucleotide polymorphisms in screening 52 DNA repair and cell cycle control genes in Fanconi anemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi anemia (FA is a rare genetically heterogeneous disorder associated with bone marrow failure, birth defects and cancer susceptibility. Apart from the disease- causing mutations in FANC genes, the identification of specific DNA variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, in other candidate genes may lead to a better clinical description of this condition enabling individualized treatment with improvement of the prognosis. In this study, we have assessed 95 SNPs located in 52 key genes involved in base excision repair (BER, nucleotide excision repair (NER, mismatch repair (MMR, double strand break (DSB repair and cell cycle control using a DNA repair chip (Asper Biotech, Estonia which includes most of the common variants for the candidate genes. The SNP genotyping was performed in five FA-D2 patients and in one FA-A patient. The polymorphisms studied were synonymous (n=10, nonsynonymous (missense (n=52 and in non-coding regions of the genome (introns and 5 ‘and 3’ untranslated regions (UTR (n=33. Polymorphisms found at the homozygous state are selected for further analysis. Our results have shown a significant inter-individual variability among patients in the type and the frequency of SNPs and also elucidate the need for further studies of polymorphisms located in ATM, APEX APE 1, XRCC1, ERCC2, MSH3, PARP4, NBS1, BARD1, CDKN1B, TP53 and TP53BP1 which may be of great importance for better clinical description of FA. In addition, the present report recommends the use of SNPs as predictive and prognostic genetic markers to individualize therapy of FA patients. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173046

  11. Viable Bacteria Associated with Red Blood Cells and Plasma in Freshly Drawn Blood Donations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian; Magnussen, Karin; Enevold, Christian

    2015-01-01

    ) or blue lactose plates. For identification colony PCR was performed using primers targeting 16S rDNA. SETTING: Blood donors attending Capital Region Blood Bank, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Hvidovre, Denmark, October 29th to December 10th 2013. PARTICIPANTS: 60 donors (≥50 years old....... CONCLUSIONS: Viable bacteria are present in blood from donors self-reported as medically healthy, indicating that conventional test systems employed by blood banks insufficiently detect bacteria in plasma. Further investigation is needed to determine whether routine testing for anaerobic bacteria and testing......OBJECTIVES: Infection remains a leading cause of post-transfusion mortality and morbidity. Bacterial contamination is, however, detected in less than 0.1% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from...

  12. effect of thermal stress of short duration on the red blood cell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ivanc

    2013-05-01

    May 1, 2013 ... of red blood cell count (RBC), haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume ... The temperature at which stress begins to occur ..... of Barton (2002) that PCV is a measure of the cellular ..... Tufts B (eds) Fish respiration.

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. Mechanical and electrical properties of red blood cells using optical tweezers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes, A; Castro, M L Barjas; Brandão, M M; Fernandes, H P; Huruta, R R; Costa, F F; Saad, S T O; Thomaz, A A; Pozzo, L Y; Barbosa, L C; Cesar, C L

    2011-01-01

    Optical tweezers are a very sensitive tool, based on photon momentum transfer, for individual, cell by cell, manipulation and measurements, which can be applied to obtain important properties of erythrocytes for clinical and research purposes. Mechanical and electrical properties of erythrocytes are critical parameters for stored cells in transfusion centers, immunohematological tests performed in transfusional routines and in blood diseases. In this work, we showed methods, based on optical tweezers, to study red blood cells and applied them to measure apparent overall elasticity, apparent membrane viscosity, zeta potential, thickness of the double layer of electrical charges and adhesion in red blood cells

  1. IL-33 polymorphisms are associated with increased risk of hay fever and reduced regulatory T cells in a birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Paul C; Casaca, Vera I; Illi, Sabina; Schieck, Maximilian; Michel, Sven; Böck, Andreas; Roduit, Caroline; Frei, Remo; Lluis, Anna; Genuneit, Jon; Pfefferle, Petra; Roponen, Marjut; Weber, Juliane; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Riedler, Josef; Lauener, Roger; Vuitton, Dominique Angèle; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Pekkanen, Juha; von Mutius, Erika; Kabesch, Michael; Schaub, Bianca

    2016-11-01

    IL-33 polymorphisms influence the susceptibility to asthma. IL-33 indirectly induces Th2-immune responses via dendritic cell activation, being important for development of atopic diseases. Furthermore, IL-33 upregulates regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are critical for healthy immune homeostasis. This study investigates associations between IL-33 polymorphisms during the development of childhood atopic diseases and underlying mechanisms including immune regulation of Tregs. Genotyping of IL-33-polymorphisms (rs928413, rs1342326) was performed by MALDI-TOF-MS in 880 of 1133 PASTURE/EFRAIM children. In 4.5-year-old German PASTURE/EFRAIM children (n = 99), CD4 + CD25 high FOXP3 + Tregs were assessed by flow cytometry following 24-h incubation of PBMCs with PMA/ionomycin, LPS or without stimuli (U). SOCS3, IL1RL1, TLR4 mRNA expression and sST2 protein levels ex vivo were measured in PASTURE/EFRAIM children by real-time PCR or ELISA, respectively. Health outcomes (hay fever, asthma) were assessed by questionnaires at the age of 6 years. rs928413 and rs1342326 were positively associated with hay fever (OR = 1.77, 95%CI = 1.02-3.08; OR = 1.79, 95%CI = 1.04-3.11) and CD4 + CD25 high FOXP3 + Tregs (%) decreased in minor allele homozygotes/heterozygotes compared to major allele homozygotes (p(U) = 0.004; p(LPS) = 0.005; p(U) = 0.001; p(LPS) = 0.012). SOCS3 mRNA expression increased in minor allele homozygotes and heterozygotes compared with major allele homozygotes for both IL-33-polymorphisms (p(rs928413) = 0.032, p(rs1342326) = 0.019) and negatively correlated to Tregs. IL-33-polymorphisms rs928413 and rs1342326 may account for an increased risk of hay fever with the age of 6 years. Lower Tregs and increased SOCS3 in combined heterozygotes and minor allele homozygotes may be relevant for hay fever development, pointing towards dysbalanced immune regulation and insufficient control of allergic inflammation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. High-speed video capillaroscopy method for imaging and evaluation of moving red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurov, Igor; Volkov, Mikhail; Margaryants, Nikita; Pimenov, Aleksei; Potemkin, Andrey

    2018-05-01

    The video capillaroscopy system with high image recording rate to resolve moving red blood cells with velocity up to 5 mm/s into a capillary is considered. Proposed procedures of the recorded video sequence processing allow evaluating spatial capillary area, capillary diameter and central line with high accuracy and reliability independently on properties of individual capillary. Two-dimensional inter frame procedure is applied to find lateral shift of neighbor images in the blood flow area with moving red blood cells and to measure directly the blood flow velocity along a capillary central line. The developed method opens new opportunities for biomedical diagnostics, particularly, due to long-time continuous monitoring of red blood cells velocity into capillary. Spatio-temporal representation of capillary blood flow is considered. Experimental results of direct measurement of blood flow velocity into separate capillary as well as capillary net are presented and discussed.

  3. Postoperative infection and natural killer cell function following blood transfusion in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L S; Andersen, A J; Christiansen, P M

    1992-01-01

    The frequency of infection in 197 patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery and having either no blood transfusion, transfusion with whole blood, or filtered blood free from leucocytes and platelets was investigated in a prospective randomized trial. Natural killer cell function was measured...... before operation and 3, 7 and 30 days after surgery in 60 consecutive patients. Of the patients 104 required blood transfusion; 48 received filtered blood and 56 underwent whole blood transfusion. Postoperative infections developed in 13 patients transfused with whole blood (23 per cent, 95 per cent...... confidence interval 13-32 per cent), in one patient transfused with blood free from leucocytes and platelets (2 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval 0.05-11 per cent) and in two non-transfused patients (2 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval 0.3-8 per cent) (P less than 0.01). Natural killer cell...

  4. The study of the structures of the white blood cells using pattern recognition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arquisa, M.

    1976-03-01

    It is aimed that through machine recognition, a significant quantitative description of the white blood cells be obtained. This technique will give the characterization of the normal and abnormal white blood cells which may eventually lead to exact and efficient blood examinations and to the possibility of using white blood cells as an effective biological monitor in the assessment of radiation damage and other pathological disorders. Described are the preparation of blood stains and staining procedure with Giemsa and Wright stains, photomicrography of white blood cells with the use of Kodak Dektol Developer and Kodak Acid-Bath Fixer. The film rolls were then scanned. The scanner is used to scan photographic transparencies of white blood cells. This instrument gathers information and converts cell features such as size, shape, ash and granulation into a series of parameters whose values are descriptive of the minute but essential structural characteristics of the cells. From July 1 -December 31, 1975, a total of 51 blood smears were collected and stained. From these blood samples, a total of 103 neutrophils, 30 lymphocytes and 12 monocytes were added to the film library

  5. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smear URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003665.htm Blood smear To use the sharing features on this ... view of cellular parasites Malaria, photomicrograph of cellular parasites Red blood cells, sickle cells Red blood cells, sickle and ...

  6. Quantitative analysis of optical properties of flowing blood using a photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo code: effects of red blood cells' orientation on light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Takatani, Setsuo

    2012-05-01

    Optical properties of flowing blood were analyzed using a photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo (pciMC) model with the physical properties of the flowing red blood cells (RBCs) such as cell size, shape, refractive index, distribution, and orientation as the parameters. The scattering of light by flowing blood at the He-Ne laser wavelength of 632.8 nm was significantly affected by the shear rate. The light was scattered more in the direction of flow as the flow rate increased. Therefore, the light intensity transmitted forward in the direction perpendicular to flow axis decreased. The pciMC model can duplicate the changes in the photon propagation due to moving RBCs with various orientations. The resulting RBC's orientation that best simulated the experimental results was with their long axis perpendicular to the direction of blood flow. Moreover, the scattering probability was dependent on the orientation of the RBCs. Finally, the pciMC code was used to predict the hematocrit of flowing blood with accuracy of approximately 1.0 HCT%. The photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo (pciMC) model can provide optical properties of flowing blood and will facilitate the development of the non-invasive monitoring of blood in extra corporeal circulatory systems.

  7. Association between polymorphisms in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor gene and disseminated testicular germ cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brokken, Leon J S; Lundberg-Giwercman, Yvonne; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    incidence of TGCC in some countries. Additionally, there is a strong genetic component that affects susceptibility. However, genetic polymorphisms that have been identified so far only partially explain the risk of TGCC. Many of the persistent environmental pollutants act through the aryl hydrocarbon...

  8. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstom, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume

  9. Genomic expression and single-nucleotide polymorphism profiling discriminates chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Min-Han; Furge, Kyle A; Kort, Eric; Giraud, Sophie; Ferlicot, Sophie; Vielh, Philippe; Amsellem-Ouazana, Delphine; Debré, Bernard; Flam, Thierry; Thiounn, Nicolas; Zerbib, Marc; Wong, Chin Fong; Benoît, Gérard; Droupy, Stéphane; Molinié, Vincent; Vieillefond, Annick; Tan, Puay Hoon; Richard, Stéphane; Teh, Bin Tean; Tan, Hwei Ling; Yang, Ximing J; Ditlev, Jonathon; Matsuda, Daisuke; Khoo, Sok Kean; Sugimura, Jun; Fujioka, Tomoaki

    2010-01-01

    Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) and renal oncocytoma are two distinct but closely related entities with strong morphologic and genetic similarities. While chRCC is a malignant tumor, oncocytoma is usually regarded as a benign entity. The overlapping characteristics are best explained by a common cellular origin, and the biologic differences between chRCC and oncocytoma are therefore of considerable interest in terms of carcinogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. Previous studies have been relatively limited in terms of examining the differences between oncocytoma and chromophobe RCC. Gene expression profiling using the Affymetrix HGU133Plus2 platform was applied on chRCC (n = 15) and oncocytoma specimens (n = 15). Supervised analysis was applied to identify a discriminatory gene signature, as well as differentially expressed genes. High throughput single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping was performed on independent samples (n = 14) using Affymetrix GeneChip Mapping 100 K arrays to assess correlation between expression and gene copy number. Immunohistochemical validation was performed in an independent set of tumors. A novel 14 probe-set signature was developed to classify the tumors internally with 93% accuracy, and this was successfully validated on an external data-set with 94% accuracy. Pathway analysis highlighted clinically relevant dysregulated pathways of c-erbB2 and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in chRCC, but no significant differences in p-AKT or extracellular HER2 expression was identified on immunohistochemistry. Loss of chromosome 1p, reflected in both cytogenetic and expression analysis, is common to both entities, implying this may be an early event in histogenesis. Multiple regional areas of cytogenetic alterations and corresponding expression biases differentiating the two entities were identified. Parafibromin, aquaporin 6, and synaptogyrin 3 were novel immunohistochemical markers effectively discriminating

  10. Genomic expression and single-nucleotide polymorphism profiling discriminates chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiounn Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC and renal oncocytoma are two distinct but closely related entities with strong morphologic and genetic similarities. While chRCC is a malignant tumor, oncocytoma is usually regarded as a benign entity. The overlapping characteristics are best explained by a common cellular origin, and the biologic differences between chRCC and oncocytoma are therefore of considerable interest in terms of carcinogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. Previous studies have been relatively limited in terms of examining the differences between oncocytoma and chromophobe RCC. Methods Gene expression profiling using the Affymetrix HGU133Plus2 platform was applied on chRCC (n = 15 and oncocytoma specimens (n = 15. Supervised analysis was applied to identify a discriminatory gene signature, as well as differentially expressed genes. High throughput single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping was performed on independent samples (n = 14 using Affymetrix GeneChip Mapping 100 K arrays to assess correlation between expression and gene copy number. Immunohistochemical validation was performed in an independent set of tumors. Results A novel 14 probe-set signature was developed to classify the tumors internally with 93% accuracy, and this was successfully validated on an external data-set with 94% accuracy. Pathway analysis highlighted clinically relevant dysregulated pathways of c-erbB2 and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling in chRCC, but no significant differences in p-AKT or extracellular HER2 expression was identified on immunohistochemistry. Loss of chromosome 1p, reflected in both cytogenetic and expression analysis, is common to both entities, implying this may be an early event in histogenesis. Multiple regional areas of cytogenetic alterations and corresponding expression biases differentiating the two entities were identified. Parafibromin, aquaporin 6, and synaptogyrin 3 were novel

  11. Influence of red blood cell-derived microparticles upon vasoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Ahmed S; Doctor, Allan

    2017-10-01

    Here we review recent data and the evolving understanding of the role of red blood cell-derived microparticles (RMPs) in normal physiology and in disease progression. Microparticles (MPs) are small membrane vesicles derived from various parent cell types. MPs are produced in response to a variety of stimuli through several cytoskeletal and membrane phospholipid changes. MPs have been investigated as potential biomarkers for multiple disease processes and are thought to have biological effects, most notably in: promotion of coagulation, production and handling of reactive oxygen species, immune modulation, angiogenesis, and in apoptosis. Specifically, RMPs are produced normally during RBC maturation and their production is accelerated during processing and storage for transfusion. Several factors during RBC storage are known to trigger RMP production, including: increased intracellular calcium, increased potassium leakage, and energy failure with ATP depletion. Of note, RMP composition differs from that of intact RBCs, and the nature and composition of RMP components are affected by both storage duration and the character of storage solutions. Recognised RMP bioactivities include: promotion of coagulation, immune modulation, and promotion of endothelial adhesion, as well as influence upon vasoregulation via nitric oxide (NO) scavenging. Of particular relevance, RMPs are more avid NO scavengers than intact RBCs and this feature has been proposed as a mechanism for the impaired oxygen delivery homeostasis that has been observed following transfusion. Preliminary human studies demonstrate that circulating RMP abundance increases with RBC transfusion and is associated with altered plasma vasoactivity and abnormal vasoregulation. In summary, RMPs are submicron particles released from stored RBCs, with demonstrated vasoactive properties that appear to disturb oxygen delivery homeostasis. The clinical impact of RMPs in transfusion recipients is an area of continued

  12. Storage characteristics of multiple-donor pooled red blood cells compared to single-donor red blood cell units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Aabhas; Chowdhury, Raquibul; Hillyer, Christopher D; Mitchell, W Beau; Shaz, Beth H

    2016-12-01

    Each unit of blood donated is processed and stored individually resulting in variability in the amount of red blood cells (RBCs) collected, RBC properties, and the 24-hour posttransfusion RBC survivability. As a result, each unit differs in its ability to deliver oxygen and potentially its effects on the recipient. The goal of this study was to investigate the storage of pooled RBCs from multiple donors in comparison to control standard RBC units. Two units of irradiated, leukoreduced RBCs of same ABO, D, E, C, and K antigen phenotype were collected from each of five donors using apheresis. One unit from each donor was pooled in a 2-L bag and remaining units were used as controls. After being pooled, RBCs were separated in five bags and stored at 4°C along with the controls. Quality indexes were measured on Days 2, 14, and 28 for all the units. Adenosine triphosphate assays for both pooled and controls showed a slight decrease from Day 2 to Day 28 (pooled/control from 5.22/5.24 to 4.35/4.33 µmol/g hemoglobin [Hb]). 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate was successfully rejuvenated for all RBC units on Day 28 (pooled 11.46 µmol/g Hb; control 11.86 µmol/g Hb). The results showed a nonsignificant difference between pooled and control units, with a general trend of lower standard deviation for pooled units when compared to controls. Pooled units have reduced unit-to-unit variability. Future exploration of their immunogenicity is required before using pooled units for transfusion. © 2016 AABB.

  13. Impaired T-lymphocyte colony formation by cord blood mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrod, H.G.; Valenski, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    When compared to adult mononuclear cells, cord blood mononuclear cells demonstrated significantly decreased T-lymphocyte colony formation (1351 +/- 643 vs 592 +/- 862, P less than 0.01). This diminished colony-forming activity did not appear to be associated with impaired responsiveness to the stimulant phytohemagglutinin or with excessive suppressor-cell activity. Irradiation reduced the colony-forming capacity of cord blood mononuclear cells more than it did that of adult mononuclear cells. Depletion of adherent cells reduced cord blood mononuclear-cell colony-forming capacity by 40%, while similar treatment reduced adult colony formation by 10%. Lymphocyte proliferation in liquid culture of cord and adult cells was minimally affected by these procedures. The colony-forming capacity of cord blood could be enhanced by the addition of irradiated adult cells (284 +/- 72 vs 752 +/- 78, P less than 0.01). This enhancement was demonstrated to be due to a soluble factor produced by a population of irradiated adult cells depleted of the OKT8+ subpopulation of lymphocytes. These results indicate that the progenitor cells of T-lymphocyte colonies in cord blood have distinct biologic characteristics when compared to colony progenitors present in adult blood. This assay may prove to be useful in our efforts to understand the differentiation of T-cell function in man

  14. Preoperative factors associated with red blood cell transfusion in hip fracture patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Medom; Jørgensen, Henrik Løvendahl; Norgaard, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a frequently used treatment in patients admitted with a fractured hip, but the use remains an area of much debate. The aim of this study was to determine preoperative factors associated with the risk of receiving a red blood cell transfusion in hip fracture...

  15. Optically-driven red blood cell rotor in linearly polarized laser tweezers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have constructed a dual trap optical tweezers set-up around an inverted microscope where both the traps can be independently controlled and manipulated in all the three dimensions. Here we report our observations on rotation of red blood cells (RBCs) in a linearly polarized optical trap. Red blood cells deform and ...

  16. 78 FR 47714 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell...

  17. 78 FR 23571 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell...

  18. 75 FR 14175 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell...

  19. 77 FR 22791 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell...

  20. 76 FR 62814 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Public Law 92-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell...